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Title: Manual of the Trees of North America (Exclusive of Mexico) 2nd ed.
Author: Sargent, Charles Sprague
Language: English
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                PRINCIPAL TREE REGIONS OF NORTH AMERICA

[Illustration: PRINCIPAL TREE REGIONS OF NORTH AMERICA]



    A North Eastern
    B North Western
    AB North Eastern & North Western
    C South Eastern
    D Tropical Florida
    E Texas-Mexican Boundary
    F Rocky Mountains
    G Oregon & California
    H New Mexico & Arizona Mexican Boundary



                  MANUAL OF THE TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
                         (EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO)


                                   BY
                        CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT
        _Director of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University_
                 _Author of The Silva of North America_

  _WITH SEVEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-THREE ILLUSTRATIONS FROM DRAWINGS BY_
                          CHARLES EDWARD FAXON
                                 _AND_
                              MARY W. GILL

                            _Second Edition_

[Illustration: The Riverside Press]

                          BOSTON AND NEW YORK
                        HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
                    _The Riverside Press Cambridge_
                                  1922

          COPYRIGHT, 1905 AND 1927, BY CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT
                          ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
                PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

                                   TO
                                M. R. S.
                THE WISE AND KIND FRIEND OF THIRTY YEARS
                         THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED
                      WITH GRATITUDE AND AFFECTION



                     PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION


The studies of the trees of North America (exclusive of Mexico) which
have been carried on by the agents and correspondents of the Arboretum
in the sixteen years since the publication of the _Manual of the Trees
of North America_ have increased the knowledge of the subject and made
necessary a new edition of this _Manual_. The explorations of these
sixteen years have added eighty-nine species of trees and many recently
distinguished varieties of formerly imperfectly understood species to
the silva of the United States, and made available much additional
information in regard to the geographical distribution of American
trees. Further studies have made the reduction of seven species of the
first edition to varieties of other species seem desirable; and two
species, _Amelanchier obovalis_ and _Cercocarpus parvifolius_, which
were formerly considered trees, but are more properly shrubs, are
omitted. The genus Anamomis is now united with Eugenia; and the Arizona
_Pinus strobiformis_ Sarg. (not Engelm.) is now referred to _Pinus
flexilis_ James.

Representatives of four Families and sixteen Genera which did not appear
in the first edition are described in the new edition in which will be
found an account of seven hundred and seventeen species of trees in one
hundred and eighty-five genera, illustrated by seven hundred and
eighty-three figures, or one hundred and forty-one figures in addition
to those which appeared in the first edition.

An International Congress of Botanists which assembled in Vienna in
1905, and again in Brussels in 1910, adopted rules of nomenclature which
the world, with a few American exceptions, has now generally adopted.
The names used in this new _Manual_ are based on the rules of this
International Congress. These are the names used by the largest number
of the students of plants, and it is unfortunate that the confusion in
the names of American trees must continue as long as the Department of
Agriculture, including the Forest Service of the United States, uses
another and now generally unrecognized system.

The new illustrations in this edition are partly from drawings made by
Charles Edward Faxon, who died before his work was finished; it was
continued by the skillful pencil of Mary W. Gill, of Washington, to whom
I am grateful for her intelligent coöperation.

It is impossible to name here all the men and women who have in the last
sixteen years contributed to this account of American trees, and I will
now only mention Mr. T. G. Harbison and Mr. E. J. Palmer, who as agents
of the Arboretum have studied for years the trees of the Southeastern
States and of the Missouri-Texas region, Professor R. S. Cocks, of
Tulane University, who has explored carefully and critically the forests
of Louisiana, and Miss Alice Eastwood, head of the Botanical Department
of the California Academy of Sciences, who has made special journeys in
Alaska and New Mexico in the interest of this _Manual_. Mr. Alfred
Rehder, Curator of the Herbarium of the Arboretum, has added to the
knowledge of our trees in several Southern journeys; and to him I am
specially indebted for assistance and advice in the preparation of the
keys to the different groups of plants found in this volume.

This new edition of the _Manual_ contains the results of forty-four
years of my continuous study of the trees of North America carried on in
every part of the United States and in many foreign countries. If these
studies in any way serve to increase the knowledge and the love of trees
I shall feel that these years have not been misspent.

                                                          C. S. Sargent.
Arnold Arboretum
   September, 1921



                                PREFACE


In this volume I have tried to bring into convenient form for the use of
students the information concerning the trees of North America which has
been gathered at the Arnold Arboretum during the last thirty years and
has been largely elaborated in my _Silva of North America_.

The indigenous trees of no other region of equal extent are, perhaps, so
well known as those that grow naturally in North America. There is,
however, still much to be learned about them. In the southern states,
one of the most remarkable extratropical regions in the world in the
richness of its arborescent flora, several species are still imperfectly
known, while it is not improbable that a few may have escaped entirely
the notice of botanists; and in the northern states are several forms of
Cratægus which, in the absence of sufficient information, it has been
found impracticable to include in this volume. Little is known as yet of
the silvicultural value and requirements of North American trees, or of
the diseases that affect them; and one of the objects of this volume is
to stimulate further investigation of their characters and needs.

The arrangement of families and genera adopted in this volume is that of
Engler & Prantl’s _Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien_, in which the
procession is from a simpler to a more complex structure. The
nomenclature is that of _The Silva of North America_. Descriptions of a
few species of Cratægus are now first published, and investigations made
since the publication of the last volume of _The Silva of North
America_, in December, 1902, have necessitated the introduction of a few
additional trees described by other authors, and occasional changes of
names.

An analytical key to the families, based on the arrangement and
character of the leaves, will lead the reader first to the family to
which any tree belongs; a conspectus of the genera, embodying the
important and easily discovered contrasting characters of each genus and
following the description of each family represented by more than one
genus, will lead him to the genus he is trying to determine; and a
similar conspectus of the species, following the description of the
genus, will finally bring him to the species for which he is looking.
Further to facilitate the determination, one or more letters, attached
to the name of the species in the conspectus following the description
of the genus, indicate in which of the eight regions into which the
country is divided according to the prevailing character of the
arborescent vegetation that species grows (see map forming frontispiece
of the volume). For example, the northeastern part of the country,
including the high Appalachian Mountains in the southern states which
have chiefly a northern flora, is represented by (A), and a person
wishing to learn the name of a Pine-tree or of an Oak in that region
need occupy himself only with those species which in the conspectus of
the genus Quercus or Pinus are followed by the letter (A), while a
person wishing to determine an Oak or a Pine-tree in Oregon or
California may pass over all species which are not followed by (G), the
letter which represents the Pacific coast region south of the state of
Washington.

The sign of degrees (°) is used in this work to represent feet, and the
sign of minutes (′) inches.

The illustrations which accompany each species and important variety are
one half the size of nature, except in the case of a few of the large
Pine cones, the flowers of some of the Magnolias, and the leaves and
flower-clusters of the Palms. These are represented as less than half
the size of nature in order to make the illustrations of uniform size.
These illustrations are from drawings by Mr. Faxon, in which he has
shown his usual skill and experience as a botanical draftsman in
bringing out the most important characters of each species, and in them
will be found the chief value of this Manual. For aid in its preparation
I am indebted to him and to my other associates, Mr. Alfred Rehder and
Mr. George R. Shaw, who have helped me in compiling the most difficult
of the keys.

                                                          C. S. Sargent.
Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Mass.
   January, 1905.



                           TABLE OF CONTENTS


  Map of North America (exclusive of Mexico) showing the eight
          regions into which the country is divided according to the
          prevailing character of the trees                _Frontispiece_
  Synopsis of the Families of Plants described in this work            xi
  Analytical Key to the Genera of Plants described in this work,
          based chiefly on the character of their leaves              xvi
  Manual of Trees                                                       1
      Gymnospermæ                                                       1
      Angiospermæ                                                      96
      Monocotyledons                                                   96
      Dicotyledons                                                    118
      Apetalæ                                                         118
      Petalatæ                                                        342
      Polypetalæ                                                      342
      Gamopetalæ                                                      790
  Glossary of Technical Terms                                         893
  Index                                                               899



                                SYNOPSIS
            OF THE FAMILIES OF PLANTS DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOK


                         Class I. GYMNOSPERMÆ.

Resinous trees; stems formed of bark, wood, or pith, and increasing in
diameter by the annual addition of a layer of wood inside the bark;
flowers unisexual; stamens numerous; ovules and seeds 2 or many, borne
on the face of a scale, not inclosed in an ovary; embryo with 2 or more
cotyledons; leaves straight-veined, without stipules.

  I. Pinaceæ (p. 1). Flowers usually monœcious; ovules 2 or several;
          fruit a woody cone (_in Juniperus berry-like_); cotyledons 2
          or many; leaves needle-shaped, linear or scale-like,
          persistent (_deciduous in Larix and Taxodium_).
  II. Taxaceæ (p. 90). Flowers diœcious, axillary, solitary; ovules 1;
          fruit surrounded by or inclosed in the enlarged fleshy
          aril-like disk of the flower; cotyledons 2; leaves linear,
          alternate, persistent.

                         Class II. ANGIOSPERMÆ.

Carpels or pistils consisting of a closed cavity containing the ovules
and becoming the fruit.

                      Division I. MONOCOTYLEDONS.

Stems with woody fibres distributed irregularly through them, but
without pith or annual layers of growth; parts of the flower in 3’s;
ovary superior, 3-celled; embryo with a single cotyledon; leaves
parallel-veined, persistent, without stipules.

  III. Palmæ (p. 96). Ovule solitary; fruit baccate or drupaceous, 1 or
          rarely 2 or 3-seeded; leaves alternate, pinnate, flabellate or
          orbicular, persistent.
  IV. Liliaceæ (p. 110). Ovules numerous in each cell; fruit 3-celled,
          capsular or baccate; leaves linear-lanceolate.

                       Division II. DICOTYLEDONS.

Stems formed of bark, wood, or pith, and increasing by the addition of
an annual layer of wood inside the bark; parts of the flower mostly in
4’s or 5’s; embryo with a pair of opposite cotyledons; leaves
netted-veined.

Subdivision 1. Apetalæ. Flowers without a corolla and sometimes without
a calyx.

Section 1. Flowers in unisexual aments (_female flowers of Juglans and
Quercus solitary or in spikes_); ovary inferior (_superior in
Leitneriaceæ_) when a calyx is present.

  V. Salicaceæ (p. 119). Flowers diœcious, without a calyx. Fruit a
          2—4-valved capsule. Leaves simple, alternate, with stipules,
          deciduous.
  VI. Myricaceæ (p. 163). Flowers monœcious or diœcious; fruit a dry
          drupe, covered with waxy exudations; leaves simple, alternate,
          resinous-punctate, persistent.
  VII. Leitneriaceæ (p. 167). Flowers diœcious, the staminate without a
          calyx; ovary superior; fruit a compressed oblong drupe; leaves
          alternate, simple, without stipules, deciduous.
  VIII. Juglandaceæ (p. 168). Flowers monœcious; fruit a nut inclosed in
          an indehiscent (Juglans) or 4-valved (Carya) fleshy or woody
          shell; leaves alternate, unequally pinnate without stipules,
          deciduous.
  IX. Betulaceæ (p. 200). Flowers monœcious; fruit a nut at the base of
          an open leaf-like involucre (Carpinus), in a sack-like
          involucre (Ostrya), in the axil of a scale of an ament
          (Betula), or of a woody strobile (Alnus); leaves alternate,
          simple, with stipules, deciduous.
  X. Fagaceæ (p. 227). Flowers monœcious; fruit a nut more or less
          inclosed in a woody often spiny involucre; leaves alternate,
          simple, with stipules, deciduous (_in some species of Quercus
          and in Castanopsis and Lithocarpus persistent_).

Section 2. Flowers unisexual (_perfect in Ulmus_); calyx regular, the
stamens as many as its lobes and opposite them; ovary superior,
1-celled; seed 1.

  XI. Ulmaceæ (p. 308). Fruit a compressed winged samara (Ulmus), a
          drupe (Celtis and Trema), or nut-like (Planera), leaves
          simple, alternate, with stipules, deciduous (_persistent in
          Trema_).
  XII. Moraceæ (p. 328). Flowers in ament-like spikes or heads; fruit
          drupaceous, inclosed in the thickened calyx and united into a
          compound fruit, oblong and succulent (Morus), large, dry and
          globose (Toxylon), or immersed in the fleshy receptacle of the
          flower (Ficus); leaves simple, alternate, with stipules,
          deciduous (_persistent in Ficus_).

Section 3. Flowers usually perfect; ovary superior or partly inferior,
1—4-celled; leaves simple, persistent in the North American species.

  XIII. Olacaceæ (p. 336). Calyx and corolla 4—6-lobed; ovary
          1—4-celled; fruit a drupe more or less inclosed in the
          enlarged disk of the flower; leaves alternate or fascicled,
          without stipules.
  XIV. Polygonaceæ (p. 338). Calyx 5-lobed; ovary 1-celled; fruit a
          nutlet inclosed in the thickened calyx; leaves alternate,
          their stipules sheathing the stems.
  XV. Nyctaginaceæ (p. 340). Calyx 5-lobed; ovary 1-celled; fruit a
          nutlet inclosed in the thickened calyx; leaves alternate or
          opposite, without stipules.

Subdivision 2. Petalatæ. Flowers with both calyx and corolla (_without a
corolla in Lauraceæ, in Liquidambar in Hamamelidaceæ, in Cercocarpus in
Rosaceæ, in Euphorbiaceæ, in some species of Acer, in Reynosia,
Condalia, and Krugiodendron in Rhamnaceæ, in Fremontia in Sterculiaceæ,
in Chytraculia in Myrtaceæ, in Conocarpus in Combretaceæ and in some
species of Fraxinus in Oleaceæ_).

Section 1. Polypetalæ. Corolla of separate petals.

A. Ovary superior (_partly inferior in Hamamelidaceæ; inferior in Malus,
Sorbus, Heteromeles, Cratægus, and Amelanchier in Rosaceæ_).

  XVI. Magnoliaceæ (p. 342). Flowers perfect; sepals and petals in 3 or
          4 rows of 3 each; fruit cone-like, composed of numerous
          cohering carpels; leaves simple, alternate, their stipules
          inclosing the leaf-buds, deciduous or rarely persistent.
  XVII. Anonaceæ (p. 353). Flowers perfect; sepals 3; petals 6 in 2
          series; fruit a pulpy berry developed from 1 or from the union
          of several carpels; leaves simple, alternate, without
          stipules, deciduous or persistent.
  XVIII. Lauraceæ (p. 356). Flowers perfect or unisexual; corolla 0;
          fruit a 1-seeded drupe or berry; leaves simple, alternate,
          punctate, without stipules, persistent (_deciduous in
          Sassafras_).
  XIX. Capparidaceæ (p. 365). Flowers perfect; sepals and petals 4;
          fruit baccate, elongated, dehiscent; leaves alternate, simple,
          without stipules, persistent.
  XX. Hamamelidaceæ (p. 366). Flowers perfect or unisexual; sepals and
          petals 5 (_corolla 0 in Liquidambar_); ovary partly inferior;
          fruit a 2-celled woody capsule opening at the summit; leaves
          simple, alternate, with stipules, deciduous.
  XXI. Platanaceæ (p. 371). Flowers monœcious, in dense unisexual
          capitate heads; fruit an akene; leaves simple, alternate, with
          stipules, deciduous.
  XXII. Rosaceæ (p. 376). Flowers perfect; sepals and petals 5 (_petals
          0 in Cercocarpus_); ovary inferior in Malus, Sorbus,
          Heteromeles, Cratægus, and Amelanchier; fruit a drupe (Prunus
          and Chrysobalanus), a capsule (Vauquelinia and Lyonothamnus),
          an akene (Cowania and Cercocarpus), or a pome (Malus, Sorbus,
          Heteromeles, Cratægus, and Amelanchier); leaves simple or
          pinnately compound, alternate (_opposite in Lyonothamnus_),
          with stipules, deciduous or persistent.
  XXIII. Leguminosæ (p. 585). Flowers perfect, regular or irregular;
          fruit a legume; leaves compound, or simple (Dalea), alternate,
          with stipules, deciduous or persistent.
  XXIV. Zygophyllaceæ (p. 630). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lobed; petals
          5; fruit capsular, becoming fleshy; leaves opposite, pinnate,
          with stipules, persistent.
  XXV. Malpigiaceæ (p. 631). Flowers usually perfect rarely dimorphous;
          calyx 5-lobed; petals 5, unguiculate; fruit a drupe or samara;
          leaves opposite, simple, entire, persistent; often with
          stipules.
  XXVI. Rutaceæ (p. 633). Flowers unisexual or perfect; fruit a capsule
          (Xanthoxylum), a samara (Ptelea), of indehiscent winged
          1-seeded carpels (Helietta), or a drupe (Amyris); leaves
          alternate or opposite, compound, glandular-punctate, without
          stipules, persistent or rarely deciduous (_0 in Canotia_).
  XXVII. Simaroubaceæ (p. 641). Flowers diœcious, calyx 5-lobed; petals
          5; fruit drupaceous (Simarouba), baccate (Picramnia), a samara
          (Alvaradoa); leaves alternate, equally pinnate, without
          stipules, persistent.
  XXVIII. Burseraceæ (p. 645). Flowers perfect; calyx 4 or 5-parted;
          petals 5; fruit a drupe; leaves alternate, compound, without
          stipules, deciduous.
  XXIX. Meliaceæ (p. 648). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lobed; petals 5;
          fruit a 5-celled dehiscent capsule; leaves alternate, equally
          pinnate, without stipules, persistent.
  XXX. Euphorbiaceæ (p. 649). Flowers perfect; calyx 4—6-parted
          (Drypetes), 3-lobed (Hippomane), or 0 (Gymnanthes); petals 0;
          fruit a drupe (Drypetes and Hippomane), or a 3-lobed capsule
          (Gymnanthes).
  XXXI. Anacardiaceæ (p. 655). Flowers usually unisexual, diœcious or
          polygamo-diœcious (_Pistacia without a calyx, and without a
          corolla in the North American species_); fruit a dry drupe;
          leaves simple or compound, alternate, without stipules,
          deciduous (_persistent in Pistacia and in one species of
          Rhus_).
  XXXII. Cyrillaceæ (p. 665). Flowers perfect; calyx 5—8-lobed; petals
          5—8; fruit an indehiscent capsule; leaves alternate, without
          stipules, persistent (_more or less deciduous in Cyrilla_).
  XXXIII. Aquifoliaceæ (p. 668). Flowers polygamo-diœcious; calyx 4 or
          5-lobed; petals 5; fruit a drupe, with 4—8 1-seeded nutlets;
          leaves alternate, simple, with stipules, persistent or
          deciduous.
  XXXIV. Celastraceæ (p. 674). Flowers perfect, polygamous or diœcious;
          calyx 4 or 5-lobed; petals 4 or 5; fruit a drupe, or a capsule
          (Evonymus); leaves simple, opposite or alternate, with or
          without stipules, persistent (_deciduous in Evonymus_).
  XXXV. Aceraceæ (p. 681). Flowers diœcious or monœciously polygamous;
          calyx usually 5-parted; petals usually 5, or 0; fruit of 2
          long-winged samara joined at the base; leaves opposite, simple
          or rarely pinnate, without or rarely with stipules, deciduous.
  XXXVI. Hippocastanaceæ (p. 702). Flowers perfect, irregular; calyx
          5-lobed; petals 4 or 5, unequal; fruit a 3-celled 3-valved
          capsule; leaves opposite, digitately compound, long-petiolate,
          without stipules, deciduous.
  XXXVII. Sapindaceæ (p. 711). Flowers polygamous; calyx 4 or 5-lobed;
          corolla of 4 or 5 petals; fruit a berry (Sapindus and
          Exothea), a drupe (Hypelate), or a 3-valved capsule
          (Ungnadia); leaves alternate, compound, without stipules,
          persistent, or deciduous (Ungnadia).
  XXXVIII. Rhamnaceæ (p. 718). Flowers usually perfect; calyx 4 or
          5-lobed; petals 4 or 5 (_0 in Reynosia, Condalia, and
          Krugiodendron_); fruit drupaceous; leaves simple, alternate
          (_mostly opposite in Reynosia and Krugiodendron_), with
          stipules, persistent (_deciduous in some species of Rhamnus_).
  XXXIX. Tiliaceæ (p. 732). Flowers perfect; sepals and petals 5; fruit
          a nut-like berry; leaves simple, alternate, mostly oblique at
          base, with stipules, deciduous.
  XL. Sterculiaceæ (p. 749). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lobed; petals 0;
          fruit a 4 or 5-valved dehiscent capsule; leaves simple,
          alternate, with stipules, persistent.
  XLI. Theaceæ (p. 750). Flowers perfect; sepals and petals 5; fruit a
          5-celled woody dehiscent capsule, loculicidally dehiscent;
          leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, persistent or
          deciduous.
  XLII. Canellaceæ (p. 753). Flowers perfect; sepals 3; petals 5;
          filaments united into a tube; fruit a berry; leaves simple,
          alternate, without stipules, persistent.
  XLIII. Kœberliniaceæ (p. 754). Flowers perfect; sepals and petals 4,
          minute; leaves bract-like, alternate, without stipules,
          caducous.
  XLIV. Caricaceæ (p. 755). Flowers unisexual or perfect; calyx 5-lobed;
          petals 5; fruit baccate; leaves palmately lobed or digitate,
          alternate, without stipules, persistent.

B. Ovary inferior (_partly inferior in Rhizophora_).

  XLV. Cactaceæ (p. 757). Flowers perfect; petals and sepals numerous;
          fruit a berry; leaves usually wanting.
  XLVI. Rhizophoraceæ (p. 763). Flowers perfect; calyx 4-parted; petals
          4; ovary partly inferior; fruit a 1-celled 1-seeded berry
          perforated at apex by the germinating embryo; leaves simple,
          opposite, entire, with stipules, persistent.
  XLVII. Combretaceæ (p. 764). Flowers perfect or polygamous; calyx
          5-lobed; petals 5 (_0 in Conocarpus_); fruit drupaceous;
          leaves simple, alternate or opposite, without stipules,
          persistent.
  XLVIII. Myrtaceæ (p. 768). Flowers perfect; calyx usually 4-lobed, or
          reduced to a single body forming a deciduous lid to the flower
          (Chytraculia); petals usually 4 (_0 in Chytraculia_); fruit a
          berry; leaves simple, opposite, pellucid-punctate, without
          stipules, persistent.
  XLIX. Melastomaceæ (p. 776). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 4 or
          5-lobed; stamens as many or twice as many as the lobes of the
          corolla; fruit capsular or baccate, inclosed in the tube of
          the calyx; leaves opposite, rarely verticillate, 3—9-nerved,
          without stipules.
  L. Araliaceæ (p. 777). Flowers perfect or polygamous; sepals and
          petals usually 5; fruit a drupe; leaves twice pinnate,
          alternate, with stipules, deciduous.
  LI. Nyssaceæ (p. 779). Flowers diœcious, polygamous, diœcious or
          perfect; calyx 5-toothed or lobed; petals 5 or more, imbricate
          in the bud, or 0; stamens as many or twice as many as the
          petals; fruit drupaceous (Nyssa), usually 1-celled and
          1-seeded; leaves alternate, deciduous, without stipules.
  LII. Cornaceæ (p. 784). Flowers perfect or polygamo-diœcious; calyx 4
          or 5-toothed; petals 4 or 5; fruit a fleshy drupe; leaves
          simple, opposite (_alternate in one species of Cornus_),
          without stipules, deciduous.

Section 2. Gamopetalæ. Corolla of united petals (_divided in Elliottia
in Ericaceæ, 0 in some species of Fraxinus in Oleaceæ_).

A. Ovary superior (_inferior in Vaccinium in Ericaceæ, partly inferior
in Symplocaceæ and Styracaceæ_).

  LIII. Ericaceæ (p. 790). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 5-lobed
          (_in Elliottia corolla of 4 petals_); (_ovary inferior in
          Vaccinium_); fruit capsular, drupaceous or baccate; leaves
          simple, alternate, without stipules, persistent (_deciduous in
          Elliottia and Oxydendrum_).
  LIV. Theophrastaceæ (p. 804). Flowers perfect, with staminodia; sepals
          and petals 5; stamens 5; fruit a berry; leaves simple,
          opposite or alternate, entire, without stipules.
  LV. Myrsinaceæ (p. 805). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 5-lobed;
          stamens 5; fruit a drupe; leaves simple, alternate, entire,
          without stipules, persistent.
  LVI. Sapotaceæ (p. 808). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lobed; corolla
          5-lobed (_6-lobed in Mimusops_), often with as many or twice
          as many internal appendages borne on its throat; fruit a
          berry; leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, persistent
          (_deciduous in some species of Bumelia_).
  LVII. Ebenaceæ (p. 820). Flowers perfect, diœcious, or polygamous;
          calyx and corolla 4-lobed; fruit a 1 or several-seeded berry;
          leaves simple, alternate, entire, without stipules, deciduous.
  LVIII. Styraceæ (p. 824). Flowers perfect; calyx 4 or 5-toothed;
          corolla 4 or 5-lobed or divided nearly to the base, or rarely
          6 or 7-lobed; ovary superior or partly superior; fruit a
          drupe; leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, deciduous;
          pubescence mostly scurfy or stellate.
  LIX. Symplocaceæ (p. 830). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 5-lobed;
          ovary inferior or partly inferior; fruit a drupe; leaves
          simple, alternate, without stipules, deciduous; pubescence
          simple.
  LX. Oleaceæ (p. 832). Flowers perfect or polygamo-diœcious; calyx
          4-lobed (_0 in some species of Fraxinus_); corolla 2—6-parted
          (_0 in some species of Fraxinus_); fruit a winged samara
          (Fraxinus) or a fleshy drupe (Forestiera, Chionanthus and
          Osmanthus); leaves pinnate (Fraxinus) or simple, opposite,
          without stipules, deciduous (_persistent in Osmanthus_).
  LXI. Borraginaceæ (p. 858). Flowers perfect or polygamous; calyx and
          corolla 5-lobed; fruit a drupe; leaves simple, alternate,
          scabrous-pubescent, without stipules, persistent or tardily
          deciduous.
  LXII. Verbenaceæ (p. 864). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lobed; corolla 4
          or 5-lobed; fruit a drupe or a 1-seeded capsule; leaves
          simple, opposite, without stipules, persistent.
  LXIII. Solanaceæ (p. 867). Flowers perfect; calyx campanulate, usually
          5-lobed; corolla usually 5-lobed; fruit baccate, surrounded at
          base by the enlarged calyx; leaves alternate, rarely opposite,
          without stipules.
  LXIV. Bignoniaceæ (p. 868). Flowers perfect; calyx bilabiate; corolla
          bilabiate, 5-lobed; fruit a woody capsule (Catalpa and
          Chilopsis) or a berry (Enallagma); leaves simple, opposite
          (_sometimes alternate in Chilopsis_), without stipules,
          deciduous (_persistent in Enallagma_).

B. Ovary inferior (_partly superior in Sambucus in Caprifoliaceæ_).

  LXV. Rubiaceæ (p. 875). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 4 or
          5-lobed; fruit a capsule (Exostema and Pinckneya), a drupe
          (Guettarda), or nut-like (Cephalanthus); leaves simple
          opposite, or in verticils of 3 (Cephalanthus), with stipules,
          persistent (_deciduous in Pinckneya and Cephalanthus_).
  LXVI. Caprifoliaceæ (p. 882). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla
          5-lobed; fruit a drupe; leaves unequally pinnate (Sambucus) or
          simple (Viburnum), opposite, without stipules, deciduous in
          North American species.



                             ANALYTICAL KEY
  TO THE GENERA OF PLANTS INCLUDED IN THIS BOOK, BASED CHIEFLY ON THE
                        CHARACTER OF THE LEAVES


  I. Leaves parallel-veined, alternate, persistent, clustered at the end
        of the stem or branches. Monocotyledons.
  Stem simple; leaves stalked.
    Leaves fan-shaped.
      Leaf stalks unarmed.
        Rachis short; leaves usually silvery white below.
          Leaves 2°—4° in diameter (_green below in No. 2_), their
                segments undivided at apex.
                                                        Thrinax (p. 96).
          Leaves 18′—24′ in diameter, their segments divided at apex.
                                                  Coccothrinax (p. 100).
        Rachis elongated; leaves green below, their segments divided at
              apex.
                                                         Sabal (p. 101).
      Leaf stalks armed with marginal teeth or spines.
        Leaf stalks furnished irregularly with broad thin large and
              small, straight or hooked spines confluent into a thin
              bright orange-colored cartilaginous margin; leaves longer
              than wide, divided nearly to the middle into segments
              parted at apex and separating on the margins into thin
              fibres.
                                                  Washingtonia (p. 104).
        Leaf stalks furnished with stout or slender flattened teeth;
              leaves suborbicular, divided to the middle or nearly to
              the base into segments parted at apex; segments of the
              blade not separating on the margin into thin fibres.
                                                   Acœlorraphe (p. 105).
    Leaves pinnate.
      Leaves 10°—12° in length, their pinnæ 2½°—3° long and often 1½°
            wide, deep green.
                                                     Roystonea (p. 107).
      Leaves 5°—6° long, their pinnæ 18′ long and 1′ wide, dark
            yellow-green above, pale and glaucous below.
                                                  Pseudophœnix (p. 109).
  Stem simple or branched; leaves sessile, lanceolate, long- and usually
        sharp-pointed at apex.
                                                         Yucca (p. 110).

  II. Leaves 1-nerved, needle-shaped, linear or scale-like, persistent
        (deciduous in Larix and Taxodium). Gymnospermæ.


                         1. Leaves Persistent.

  _a_ Leaves fascicled, needle-shaped, in 1—5-leafed clusters enclosed
        at base in a membranaceous sheath.
                                                           Pinus (p. 2).
  _aa_ Leaves scattered, usually linear.
    _b_ Leaves linear, often obtuse or emarginate.
      Base of the leaves persistent on the branches.
        Leaves sessile, 4-sided, or flattened and stomatiferous above.
                                                          Picea (p. 34).
        Leaves stalked, flattened and stomatiferous below, or angular,
              often appearing 2-ranked.
                                                          Tsuga (p. 42).
      Base of the leaves not persistent on the branches; leaves often
            appearing 2-ranked.
        Leaves stalked, flattened, stomatiferous below; winter-buds
              pointed, not resinous.
                                                    Pseudotsuga (p. 47).
        Leaves sessile, flattened and often grooved on the upper side,
              or quadrangular, rarely stomatiferous above, on upper
              fertile branches often crowded; winter-buds obtuse,
              resinous (_except in No. 9_).
                                                          Abies (p. 50).
    _bb_ Leaves linear-lanceolate, rigid, acuminate, spirally disposed,
          appearing 2-ranked by a twist in the petiole.
      Leaves abruptly contracted at base, long-pointed, with pale bands
            of stomata on the lower surface on each side of the
            midveins; fruit drupe-like.
                                                        Torreya (p. 91).
      Leaves gradually narrowed at base, short-pointed, paler, and
            without distinct bands of stomata on the lower surface;
            fruit berry-like.
                                                          Taxus (p. 93).
    _bbb_ Leaves ovate-lanceolate and scale-like, spreading in 2 ranks
          or linear on the same tree, acute, compressed, keeled on the
          back and closely appressed or spreading at apex.
                                                        Sequoia (p. 61).
  _aaa_ Leaves opposite or whorled, usually scale-like.

    Internodes distinctly longer than broad; branchlets flattened, of
          nearly equal color on both sides; leaves eglandular.
                                                     Libocedrus (p. 65).
    Internodes about as long as broad, often pale below, usually
          glandular.
      Branchlets flattened.
        Branchlets in one plane, much flattened, 1/12′—⅙′ broad.
                                                          Thuya (p. 67).
        Branchlets slightly flattened, 1/24′—1/16′ broad.
                                                   Chamæcyparis (p. 75).
      Branchlets terete or 4-angled.
        Branchlets more or less in one plane; fruit a cone.
                                                      Cupressus (p. 69).
        Branchlets not in one plane; fruit a berry (_leaves
              needle-shaped, in whorls of 3 in No. 1_).
                                                      Juniperus (p. 78).


                          2. Leaves Deciduous.

  Leaves in many-leafed clusters on short lateral spurs.
                                                          Larix (p. 31).
  Leaves spreading in 2 ranks.
                                                       Taxodium (p. 63).

  III. Leaves netted-veined, rarely scale-like or wanting. Dicotyledons.


                  A. LEAVES OPPOSITE. (B, see p. xix).


                  1. Leaves Simple. (2, see p. xviii).


                           Leaves persistent.

  _a_ Leaves with stipules.
    _b_ Leaves entire or occasionally slightly crenate or serrate.
      _c_ Leaves emarginate at apex, very short-stalked, 1½′—2′ long.
        Leaves obovate, gradually narrowed into the petiole.
                                                       Gyminda (p. 678).
        Leaves oval to oblong, rounded or broad-cuneate (_rarely
              alternate_).
          Branchlets densely velutinous.
                                                 Krugiodendron (p. 721).
          Branchlets slightly puberulous at first, soon glabrous.
                                                      Reynosia (p. 720).
      _cc_ Leaves not emarginate at apex.
        Leaves obtuse, rarely acutish or abruptly short-pointed.
          Leaves elliptic, 3½′—5′ long.
                                                    Rhizophora (p. 763).
          Leaves obovate, usually rounded at apex, ¾′—2′ long.
                                                     Byrsonima (p. 632).
        Leaves acute to acuminate.
          Leaves oblong-ovate to lanceolate; branchlets glabrous.
                                                      Exostema (p. 877).
          Leaves broad-elliptic to oblong-elliptic; branchlets villose.
                                                     Guettarda (p. 879).
    _bb_ Leaves serrate (_often pinnate_).
                                                  Lyonothamnus (p. 378).
  _aa_ Leaves without stipules.
    Petioles biglandular; leaves obtuse or emarginate, 1½′—2½′ long.
                                                  Laguncularia (p. 767).
    Petioles without glands.
      Leaves furnished below with small dark glands, slightly aromatic;
            petioles short.
        Leaves oblong to oblong-ovate and acuminate or elliptic and
              bluntly short-pointed.
                                                 Calyptranthes (p. 769).
        Leaves ovate, obovate or elliptic.
                                                       Eugenia (p. 770).
      Leaves without glands.
        Leaves green and glabrous below.
          Leaves obtuse or emarginate at apex (_rarely alternate_),
                1′—1½′ long.
                                                      Torrubia (p. 341).
          Leaves acute, acuminate, or sometimes rounded or emarginate,
                3′—5′ long.
            Leaves distinctly veined.
                                                  Citharexylon (p. 864).
            Leaves obscurely veined.
                                                     Osmanthus (p. 856).
        Leaves hoary tomentulose or scurfy below.
          Leaves strongly 3-nerved, acuminate, densely scurfy below.
                                                    Tetrazygia (p. 776).
          Leaves penniveined, rounded or acute at apex, hoary
                tomentulose below.
                                                     Avicennia (p. 865).


                          ** Leaves deciduous.
  _a_ Leaves without lobes.
    _b_ Leaves serrate.
      Winter-buds with several opposite outer scales.
        Leaves puberulous below, closely and finely serrate; axillary
              buds solitary.
                                                      Evonymus (p. 675).
        Leaves glabrous below, remotely crenate-serrulate; axillary buds
              several, superposed.
                                                    Forestiera (p. 853).
      Winter-buds enclosed in 2 large opposite scales.
                                                      Viburnum (p. 886).
    _bb_ Leaves entire.
      _c_ Leaves without stipules.
        Leaves suborbicular or elliptic to oblong.
          Leaves rounded or acutish at apex, 1′—2′ long, occasionally
                3-foliolate, glabrous; branchlets quadrangular.
                                              Fraxinus anomala (p. 837).
          Leaves acuminate or acute at apex, 3′—4′ long.
            Leaf-scars connected by a transverse line, with 3
                  bundle-traces; branchlets slender,
                  appressed-pubescent.
                                                        Cornus (p. 785).
            Leaf-scars not connected, with 1 bundle-trace; branchlets
                  stout, villose, puberulous or glabrous.
                                                   Chionanthus (p. 855).
        Leaves broad-ovate, cordate, acuminate, 5′—12′ long, on long
              petioles.
                                                       Catalpa (p. 870).
        Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, short-stalked or sessile
              (_sometimes alternate_).
                                                     Chilopsis (p. 869).
      _cc_ Leaves with persistent stipules, entire.
        Leaves oval or ovate; winter-buds resinous, the terminal up to
              ½′ in length.
                                                     Pinckneya (p. 876).
        Leaves ovate to lanceolate; winter-buds minute.
                                                  Cephalanthus (p. 878).
  _aa_ Leaves palmately lobed.
                                                          Acer (p. 681).


                          2. Leaves Compound.

  _a_ Leaves persistent, with stipules.
    Leaves equally pinnate; leaflets entire.
                                                      Guaiacum (p. 630).
    Leaves unequally pinnately parted into 3—8 linear-lanceolate
          segments (_sometimes entire_).
                                                  Lyonothamnus (p. 378).
    Leaves trifoliate.
      Leaflets stalked.
                                                        Amyris (p. 640).
      Leaflets sessile.
                                                      Helietta (p. 637).
  _aa_ Leaves deciduous.
    Leaves unequally pinnate or trifoliate.
      Leaflets crenate-serrate or entire, the veins arching within the
            margins; stipules wanting; winter-buds with several opposite
            scales.
                                                      Fraxinus (p. 833).
      Leaflets sharply or incisely serrate, the primary veins extending
            to the teeth.
        Leaflets 3—7, incisely serrate; stipules present; winter-buds
              with 1 pair of obtuse outer scales.
                                                  Acer Negundo (p. 699).
        Leaflets 5—9, sharply serrate; stipules present; winter-buds
              with many opposite acute scales; pith thick.
                                                      Sambucus (p. 882).
    Leaves digitate, with 5—7, sharply serrate leaflets; terminal buds
          large.
                                                       Æsculus (p. 702).


                          B. LEAVES ALTERNATE.


                  1. Leaves Simple. (2, see p. xxiv).


                 * Leaves persistent. (** see p. xxii).

  _a_ Leaves deeply 3—5-lobed, ⅓′—½′ long, with linear lobes, hoary
        tomentose below.
                                                       Cowania (p. 549).
  _aa_ Leaves palmately lobed.
    Leaves stellate-pubescent, about 1½′ in diameter, with stipules.
                                                     Fremontia (p. 749).
    Leaves glabrous, 1°—2° in diameter, without stipules.
                                                        Carica (p. 755).
  _aaa_ Leaves not lobed or pinnately lobed.
    _b_ Branches spinescent.
      Leaves clustered at the end of the branches, at least 2′—3′ long.
                                                        Bucida (p. 765).
      Leaves fascicled on lateral branchlets, obtuse or emarginate, pale
            and glabrous beneath.
                                          Bumelia angustifolia (p. 816).
      Leaves scattered.
        Leaves generally obovate, mucronate, not more than ½′—1′ long,
              glabrous and green or brownish tomentulose beneath.
                                                      Condalia (p. 719).
        Leaves elliptic-ovate to oblong, obtuse or emarginate, glabrous,
              1—2 cm. long.
                                                       Ximenia (p. 337).
    _bb_ Branches not spinescent.
      _c_ Leaves serrate, or lobed (_in some species of Quercus_).
            (_cc_, see p. xxii).
        _d_ Juice watery. (_dd_, see p. xxii).
          _e_ Stipules present. (_ee_, see p. xxii).
            _f_ Primary veins extending straight to the teeth.
              Leaves and branchlets glabrous or pubescent to tomentose
                    with fascicled hairs.
                Leaves fulvous-tomentose beneath, repand-dentate, 3′—5′
                      long.
                                                   Lithocarpus (p. 236).
                Leaves glabrous or grayish to whitish tomentose beneath,
                      entire, lobed or dentate.
                                             Quercus sp. 21—34 (p. 268).
              Leaves and branchlets coated with simpled silky or woolly
                    hairs at least while young, not more than 2½′ long.
                                                   Cercocarpus (p. 550).
            _ff_ Primary veins arching and united within the margin.
              Leaves 3-nerved from the base.
                                                     Ceanothus (p. 726).
              Leaves not 3-nerved.
                Leaves acute.
                  Leaves sinuately dentate, with few spiny teeth
                        (_rarely entire_), glabrous.
                                                    Ilex opaca (p. 669).
                  Leaves serrate.
                    Leaves tomentose below; branchlets tomentose.
                      Leaves narrow-lanceolate, glabrous and smooth
                            above.
                                                   Vauquelinia (p. 377).
                      Leaves ovate, cordate, scabrate above.
                                                         Trema (p. 327).
                    Leaves glabrous below.
                                                   Heteromeles (p. 392).
                  Leaves entire, very rarely toothed.
                    Leaves elliptic, glabrous.
                                            Prunus caroliniana (p. 579).
                    Leaves oblanceolate, pubescent beneath when young.
                                                  Ilex Cassine (p. 670).
                Leaves obtuse, sometimes mucronate.
                  Leaves spinose-serrate, glabrous.
                    Leaves broad-ovate to suborbicular or elliptic;
                          branchlets dark red-brown, spinescent.
                                                Rhamnus crocea (p. 723).
                    Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate; branchlets yellow
                          or orange-colored, not spinescent.
                                             Prunus ilicifolia (p. 581).
                  Leaves crenate (_often entire_), oval to oblong.
                                                Ilex vomitoria (p. 671).
          _ee_ Stipules wanting.
            Leaves resinous-dotted, aromatic, 1½′—4′ long.
                                                        Myrica (p. 163).
            Leaves not resinous-dotted, crenately serrate, 4′—6′ long.
              Leaves dark green, glabrous below.
                                           Gordonia Lasianthus (p. 751).
              Leaves yellowish green, pubescent below, sometimes nearly
                    entire.
                                                     Symplocos (p. 831).
        _dd_ Juice milky.
          Petioles 2½′—4′ long; leaves broad-ovate.
                                                     Hippomane (p. 652).
          Petioles about ¼′ long; leaves elliptic to oblong-lanceolate.
                                                    Gymnanthes (p. 654).
      _cc_ Leaves entire (_rarely sparingly toothed on vigorous
            branchlets_).
        _d_ Stipules present.
          _e_ Stipules connate, at least at first.
            Stipules persistent, forming a sheath surrounding the branch
                  above the node; leaves obtuse.
                                                    Coccolobis (p. 338).
            Stipules deciduous, enveloping the unfolded leaf.
              Leaves ferrugineous-tomentose beneath.
                                          Magnolia grandiflora (p. 345).
              Leaves glabrous beneath, with milky juice.
                                                         Ficus (p. 333).
          _ee_ Stipules free.
            _f_ Juice milky; leaves oval to oblong, 3′—5′ long.
                                                      Drypetes (p. 650).
            _ff_ Juice watery.
              _g_ Leaves obtuse or emarginate at apex.
                Leaves with ferrugineous scales beneath, their petioles
                      slender.
                                                      Capparis (p. 365).
                Leaves without ferrugineous scales.
                  Leaves soft-pubescent on both sides.
                                            Colubrina cubensis (p. 730).
                  Leaves glabrous at least at maturity.
                    Leaves rarely 2′—3′ long, standing on the branch at
                          acute angles.
                                                 Chrysobalanus (p. 583).
                    Leaves rarely more than 1′ long, spreading
                          (sometimes 3-nerved).
                                            Ceanothus spinosos (p. 728).
              _gg_ Leaves acute or acutish.

                Petioles with 2 glands.
                                                    Conocarpus (p. 766).
                Petioles without glands.
                  Leaves and branchlets more or less pubescent, at least
                        while young.
                    Leaves fascicled except on vigorous branchlets.
                                                   Cercocarpus (p. 550).
                    Leaves not fascicled.
                      Winter-buds minute, with few pointed scales.
                        Leaves rounded or nearly rounded at base.
                                            Colubrina sp. 1, 3 (p. 729).
                        Leaves broad-cuneate at base.
                                                  Ilex Cassine (p. 670).
                      Winter-buds conspicuous, with numerous scales.
                        Leaves usually lanceolate, entire, covered below
                              with yellow scales.
                                                   Castanopsis (p. 234).
                        Leaves oblong or oblong-obovate, repand-dentate,
                              fibrous tomentose below.
                                                   Lithocarpus (p. 236).
                  Leaves and branchlets glabrous.
                    Leaf-scar with 1 bundle-trace.
                                                 Ilex Krugiana (p. 672).
                    Leaf-scar with 3 bundle-traces. Cherry Laurels.
                                              Prunus sp. 19—22 (p. 579).
        _dd_ Stipules wanting.
          _e_ Leaves aromatic when bruised.
            Leaves resinous-dotted.
                                                        Myrica (p. 163).
            Leaves not resinous-dotted.
              Leaves obtuse, obovate, glabrous.
                                                       Canella (p. 753).
              Leaves acute.
                Leaves mostly rounded at the narrowed base, ovate to
                      oblong, acute, glabrous.
                                                         Anona (p. 354).
                Leaves more or less cuneate at base, elliptic to
                      lanceolate, usually acuminate.
                  Leaves abruptly long-acuminate, glabrous, the margin
                        undulate; branchlets red-brown.
                                                     Misanteca (p. 364).
                  Leaves gradually acuminate or nearly acute.
                    Leaves strongly reticulate beneath.
                      Branchlets glabrous, light grayish brown; leaves
                            glabrous, light green beneath.
                                                        Ocotea (p. 359).
                      Branchlets pubescent while young, greenish or
                            yellowish; leaves pale beneath, pubescent
                            while young.
                                                  Umbellularia (p. 360).
                    Leaves not or slightly reticulate, glaucous,
                          glabrous or pubescent beneath.
                                                        Persea (p. 356).

          _ee_ Leaves not aromatic.
            _f_ Leaves acute or acutish.
              Leaves obovate, gradually narrowed into short petioles.
                Leaves 2′—2½′ long.
                                                    Schæfferia (p. 679).
                Leaves at least 6′—8′ long.
                                                     Enallagma (p. 873).
              Leaves elliptic to oblong or ovate.
                Leaves rough or pubescent above, pubescent below,
                      subcordate to cuneate at base.
                  Leaves stellate-pubescent.
                                                       Solanum (p. 867).
                  Leaves scabrous above.
                    Petiole ⅛′—¼′ long; leaves oval or oblong, 1¼′—4′
                          long.
                                                       Ehretia (p. 862).
                    Petiole 1′—1½′ long; leaves ovate to oblong-ovate,
                          3′—7′ long.
                                                        Cordia (p. 858).
                Leaves smooth above.
                  Winter-buds scaly.
                    Leaves covered below with ferrugineous or pale
                          scales, 1′—3′ long.
                                                        Lyonia (p. 797).
                    Leaves glabrous or nearly so below.
                      Leaves ovate-lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate,
                            4′—12′ long, usually clustered at end of
                            branchlet, veinlets below obscure.
                                                  Rhododendron (p. 792).
                      Leaves elliptic or oval to oblong or lanceolate.
                        Leaves light yellowish green below and without
                              distinctly visible veins or veinlets,
                              entire, 3′—4′ long.
                                                        Kalmia (p. 794).
                        Leaves pale below and more or less distinctly
                              reticulate, occasionally serrate or
                              denticulate, 1′—5′ long; bark of branches
                              red.
                                                       Arbutus (p. 799).
                  Winter-buds naked.
                    Leaves pubescent below when unfolding.
                      Mature leaves nearly glabrous below.
                        Leaves oblong-lanceolate to narrow-obovate.
                                                      Dipholis (p. 810).
                        Leaves oval.
                                                   Sideroxylum (p. 809).
                      Mature leaves covered below with brilliant
                            copper-colored pubescence.
                    Leaves glabrous below.
                                                 Chrysophyllum (p. 817).
                      Leaves marked by minute black dots, ovate to
                            oblong-lanceolate.
                                                       Ardisia (p. 806).
                      Leaves lepidote, oblong-obovate.
                                                       Rapanea (p. 807).
            _ff_ Leaves obtuse or emarginate at apex.
              _g_ Leaves rounded or cordate at base, emarginate, their
                    petioles slender.
                Leaves reniform to broad-ovate, cordate; juice watery.
                                                        Cercis (p. 603).
                Leaves elliptic to oblong, rounded at base; juice milky
                      or viscid.
                  Leaves emarginate; petioles slender,
                        rufous-tomentulose.
                                                      Mimusops (p. 819).
                  Leaves obtuse at apex; petioles stout,
                        grayish-tomentulose or glabrous.
                                             Rhus integrifolia (p. 664).
              _gg_ Leaves cuneate at base.

                Petioles slender, ½′ long.
                                                      Beureria (p. 861).
                Petioles short and stout.
                  Leaves coriaceous, with thick revolute margins
                        (_sometimes opposite_).
                                                     Jacquinia (p. 804).
                  Leaves subcoriaceous, slightly revolute.
                    Leaves reticulate-veined beneath.
                      Leaves oval to obovate or oblong-oval, more or
                            less pubescent while young.
                                                     Vaccinium (p. 802).
                      Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, glabrous.
                                                       Cyrilla (p. 666).
                    Leaves obscurely veined beneath, glabrous.
                      Leaves oblong-lanceolate, narrowed toward the
                            emarginate apex, decurrent nearly to base of
                            petiole.
                                                     Cliftonia (p. 667).
                      Leaves rounded at apex, distinctly petioled.
                                                      Maytenus (p. 676).


                          ** Leaves deciduous.


                † Leaves conspicuous. (††, see p. xxiv.)

  _a_ Leaves entire, sometimes 3 or 4-lobed. (_aa_, see p. xxiii).
    _b_ Stipules present.
      Juice milky.
                                                       Maclura (p. 331).
      Juice watery.
        Stipules connate, enveloping the young leaves, their scars
              encircling the branchlet.
          Leaves acute or acuminate, entire; winter-buds pointed, nearly
                terete.
                                                      Magnolia (p. 342).
          Leaves truncate, sinuately 4-lobed; winter-buds obtuse,
                compressed.
                                                  Liriodendron (p. 351).
        Stipules distinct.
          Branches spinescent; leaves glandular, caducous (_crenately
                serrate on vigorous shoots_).
                                                         Dalea (p. 621).
          Branches not spinescent; leaves without glands.
            Winter-buds with a single pair of connate scales.
                                                         Salix (p. 138).
            Winter-buds with several pairs of imbricate scales.
              Branchlets without a terminal bud; leaves 3-nerved.
                                                        Celtis (p. 318).
              Branchlets with a terminal bud, leaves penniveined.
                                             Quercus sp. 17—20 (p. 262).
    _bb_ Stipules wanting.
      _c_ Branchlets bright green and lustrous for the first 2 or 3
            years; leaves sometimes 3-lobed, aromatic.
                                                     Sassafras (p. 362).
      _cc_ Branchlets brown or gray.
        _d_ Leaves acute or acuminate.
          Leaves 10′—12′ long, obovate-oblong, acuminate, glabrous,
                emitting a disagreeable odor.
                                                       Asimina (p. 353).
          Leaves smaller.
            Petioles very slender, 1′—2′ long; leaves elliptic,
                  acuminate.
                                           Cornus alternifolia (p. 789).
            Petioles short.
              Branchlets with a terminal bud.
                Leaf-scars about as long as broad; branchlets without
                      lenticels, light reddish brown.
                                                     Elliottia (p. 791).
                Leaf-scars crescent-shaped, broader than long, with 3
                      distinct bundle-traces.
                  Leaves pubescent on both sides, rugulose above;
                        petioles 1′—2′ long, like the young branchlet
                        densely pubescent.
                                                     Leitneria (p. 167).
                  Leaves glabrous and smooth above, glabrous or
                        pubescent below; petioles and branchlets usually
                        glabrous or nearly so at maturity.
                                                         Nyssa (p. 779).
              Branchlets without a terminal bud.
                Pubescence consisting of simple hairs or wanting.
                  Leaves 4′—6′ long, pubescent beneath while young;
                        branchlet light brown or gray.
                                          Diospyros virginiana (p. 821).
                  Leaves 1½′—3′ long, glabrous; branches light yellowish
                        gray.
                                                      Schœpfia (p. 336).
                Pubescence stellate; leaves obovate or elliptic, 2½′—5′
                      long, pubescent below.
                                                        Styrax (p. 829).
        _dd_ Leaves obtuse or acute.
          Branchlets not spinescent.
            Leaves glabrous at maturity, their petioles slender.
                                                       Cotinus (p. 657).
            Leaves pubescent below at maturity; their petioles short and
                  thick.
                                              Diospyros texana (p. 823).
          Branchlets spinescent; leaves often fascicled on lateral
                branchlets.
                                                       Bumelia (p. 812).
  _aa_ Leaves serrate or pinnately lobed.
    _b_ Stipules present. (_bb_, see p. xxvi.)
      _c_ Winter-buds naked.
        Leaves oblique at base, the upper side rounded or subcordate,
              obovate, coarsely toothed.
                                                     Hamamelis (p. 368).
        Leaves equal at base, cuneate, finely serrate or crenate.
                                         Rhamnus sp. 2, 3 (p. 724, 725).
      _cc_ Winter-buds with a single pair of connate scales.
        Primary veins arching and uniting within the margins; leaves
              simply serrate or crenate, sometimes entire.
                                                         Salix (p. 138).
        Primary veins extending to the teeth, leaves doubly serrate,
              often slightly lobed.
                                                         Alnus (p. 220).
      _ccc_ Winter-buds with several pairs of imbricate scales.
        _d_ Terminal buds wanting; branchlets prolonged by an upper
              axillary bud.
          Juice milky; leaves usually ovate, often lobed.
                                                         Morus (p. 328).
          Juice watery; leaves not lobed.
            Leaves distinctly oblique at base.
              Leaves with numerous prominent lateral veins.
                Leaves generally broad-ovate, simply serrate,
                      stellate-pubescent at least while young, rarely
                      glabrous.
                                                         Tilia (p. 732).
                Leaves never broad-ovate, usually doubly serrate, more
                      or less pubescent with simple hairs, at least
                      while young.
                  Winter-buds ovoid, usually acute, ⅓ to nearly as long
                        as petioles; leaves 1′—7′ long, doubly serrate.
                                                         Ulmus (p. 309).
                  Winter-buds subglobose, minute; leaves 2′—2½′ long,
                        crenate-serrate.
                                                       Planera (p. 316).
              Leaves 3 or 4-nerved from the base.
                                                        Celtis (p. 318).
            Leaves slightly or not at all oblique at base.
              Leaves 3-nerved from the base, glandular-crenate or
                    glandular-serrate.
                                                     Ceanothus (p. 726).
              Leaves not or obscurely 3-nerved at base, usually doubly
                    serrate.
                Leaves blue-green; petioles ¼′—½′ long; bark smooth,
                      gray-brown.
                                                      Carpinus (p. 201).
                Leaves yellow-green.
                  Bark rough, furrowed; petioles ⅛′—¼′ long; leaves not
                        resinous-glandular.
                                                        Ostrya (p. 202).
                  Bark flaky or cherry-tree like; petioles ¼′—1′ long;
                        leaves often resinous-glandular while young.
                                                        Betula (p. 205).
        _dd_ Terminal buds present.
          Primary veins arching and uniting within the margin
                (_extending to the margin in the lobed leaves of
                Malus_).
            Winter-buds resinous; leaves crenate, usually truncate at
                  base; petioles slender.
                                                       Populus (p. 119).
            Winter-buds not resinous.
              Leaf-scars with 3 bundle-traces.
                Leaves involute in bud, often lobed on vigorous shoots;
                      winter-buds obtuse, short, pubescent.
                                                         Malus (p. 379).
                Leaves conduplicate (_or in some species of Prunus
                      convolute_), never lobed; winter-buds acute.
                  Winter-buds elongated; branches never spinescent.
                                                   Amelanchier (p. 393).
                  Winter-buds not elongated, ovoid; branches sometimes
                        spinescent.
                                                        Prunus (p. 555).
              Leaf-scars with 1 bundle-trace; leaves simply serrate.
                                                  Ilex sp. 5—6 (p. 673).

          Primary veins extending to the teeth or to the lobes.
            Leaves lobed.
                                  Quercus sp. 1—16, 35—50 (p. 241, 283).
            Leaves serrate-toothed.
              Winter-buds with numerous scales.
                Leaves lustrous beneath, remotely serrate or
                      denticulate; winter-buds elongated, acuminate.
                                                         Fagus (p. 228).
                Leaves pale beneath, coarsely dentate or serrate;
                      winter-buds acute. Chestnut Oaks.
                                             Quercus sp. 51—54 (p. 303).
              Winter-buds with 2 pairs of scales.
                                                      Castanea (p. 230).
            Leaves doubly or simply serrate, or lobed, with serrate
                  lobes; branches often furnished with spines.
              Leaves involute in the bud; branchlets often ending in
                    blunt spines.
                                                         Malus (p. 379).
              Leaves conduplicate in the bud; branches usually armed
                    with sharp-pointed single or branched axillary
                    spines.
                                                      Cratægus (p. 397).
    _bb_ Stipules wanting.
      _c_ Leaves not lobed.
        Leaves subcoriaceous, oblong, sometimes nearly entire, glabrous.
                                                     Symplocos (p. 831).
        Leaves thin.
          Leaves oblong-obovate, acute, pubescent beneath.
                                            Gordonia alatamaha (p. 752).
          Leaves oblong or lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous or puberulous
                while young, turning scarlet in the autumn.
                                                    Oxydendrum (p. 796).
          Leaves ovate to elliptic, stellate-pubescent or glabrous,
                turning yellow in the autumn.
                                                       Halesia (p. 824).
      _cc_ Leaves palmately lobed.
        Stipules large, foliaceous, united; branchlets without a
              terminal bud.
                                                      Platanus (p. 371).
        Stipules small, free, caducous; branchlets with a terminal bud.
                                                   Liquidambar (p. 367).


     †† Leaves inconspicuous or wanting; branches spiny or prickly.

    Branches or stems succulent, armed with numerous prickles.
      Branches and stems columnar, ribbed, continuous; leaves 0.
                                                        Cereus (p. 757).
      Branches jointed, tuberculate; leaves scale-like.
                                                       Opuntia (p. 759).
    Branches rigid, spinescent.
      Leaves minute, narrow-obovate.
        Branchlets bright green.
                                                    Kœberlinia (p. 754).
        Branchlets red-brown.
                                                         Dalea (p. 621).
      Leaves scale-like, caducous.
                                                       Canotia (p. 677).


                          2. Leaves compound.


                * Leaves 3-foliolate, without stipules.

  Leaves persistent; leaflets obovate, entire, sessile.
                                                      Hypelate (p. 716).
  Leaves deciduous.
    Leaflets deltoid to hastate, entire, rounded at apex; branches
          prickly.
                                                     Erythrina (p. 627).
    Leaflets ovate to oblong, acuminate, strongly scented and bitter;
          branches unarmed.
                                                        Ptelea (p. 639).


               ** Leaves twice pinnate; stipules present.

  _a_ Leaves unequally twice pinnate, 2°—4° long, deciduous; leaflets
        serrate, 2′—3′ in length; branches and stem armed with scattered
        prickles.
                                                        Aralia (p. 778).
  _aa_ Leaves equally twice pinnate, usually smaller; branches unarmed
        or armed with stipular or axillary spines (in _Parkinsonia_
        often apparently simply pinnate).
    _b_ Leaflets crenate; leaves simply or twice-pinnate on the same
          plant, deciduous, usually armed with simple or branched
          axillary spines.
                                                     Gleditsia (p. 607).
    _bb_ Leaflets entire.
      Leaflets 2—2½′ long; leaves deciduous; branchlets stout, unarmed.
                                                   Gymnocladus (p. 605).
      Leaflets smaller; leaves usually persistent; branchlets slender.
        Branches armed with prickles or spines.
          Leaves with 2 or rarely 4 pinnæ.
            Branches armed with axillary spines or spiny rachises.
              Pinnæ with 4—8 leaflets; branches with short axillary
                    spines.
                                                     Cercidium (p. 613).
              Pinnæ with 8—60 leaflets; branches armed with spiny
                    rachises or rigid branchlets terminating in stout
                    spines.
                                                   Parkinsonia (p. 611).
            Branches armed with stipular prickles; leaves persistent.
              Pinnæ with many oblong to linear leaflets.
                                                      Prosopis (p. 599).
              Pinnæ with 1 pair of orbicular to broad-oblong leaflets.
                                     Pithecolobium unguis-cati (p. 586).
          Leaves with 6, or more, rarely 4, pinnæ.
            Prickles usually spreading, often recurved.
                                                        Acacia (p. 591).
            Prickles usually more or less ascending, straight.
                                                 Pithecolobium (p. 586).
        Branches unarmed.
          Branchlets and petioles glabrous; leaves with 2—5 pair of
                pinnæ, each with 40—80 leaflets.
                                                      Lysiloma (p. 589).
          Branchlets and petioles pubescent while young; leaves with
                5—17 pair of many-foliolate pinnæ, or pinnæ 2—4 and each
                with 8—16 leaflets.
                                                       Leucæna (p. 596).


                       *** Leaves simply pinnate.

  _a_ Leaves equally pinnate.
    Stipules wanting.
      Leaflets 2—4, generally oblong-obovate.
                                                       Exothea (p. 714).
      Leaflets 6—12.
        Leaflets obtuse, usually oblong-obovate.
          Leaflets 8—12, 2′—3′ long, pale below; leaves occasionally
                opposite.
                                                     Simarouba (p. 642).
          Leaflets 6—8, 1′—1½′ long, green below.
                                         Xanthoxylum coriaceum (p. 637).
        Leaflets 6—8, acuminate.
                                                     Swietenia (p. 648).
    Stipules present.
      Branches armed with infra-stipular spines in pairs; leaflets
            10—15, usually oblong-obovate, ½′—¾′ long, persistent.
                                                        Olneya (p. 626).
      Branches unarmed; leaflets 20—46, ovals ½′—⅔′ long.
                                                  Eysenhardtia (p. 620).
  _aa_ Leaves unequally pinnate.
    _b_ Stipules present.
      Leaflets sharply serrate; leaves deciduous; winter-buds resinous.
                                                        Sorbus (p. 390).
      Leaflets entire or crenately serrate.
        Leaves deciduous.
          Leaflets 7—11, 3′—4½′ long; branches unarmed.
            Leaflets usually alternate, thin and glabrous at maturity.
                                                    Cladrastis (p. 618).
            Leaflets opposite, coriaceous, pubescent beneath at least
                  along the veins.
                                                 Ichthyomethia (p. 628).
          Leaflets 9—21, 1—2 cm. long.
            Branches usually with stipular prickles, sometimes viscid.
                                                       Robinia (p. 622).
            Branches unarmed, not viscid; leaflets 13—19, elliptic.
                                               Sophora affinis (p. 617).
        Leaves persistent.
          Leaflets 7—9, oblong-elliptic, 1′—2½′ long; branches unarmed.
                                          Sophora secundiflora (p. 616).
          Leaflets 10—15; branches prickly.
                                                        Olneya (p. 626).
    _bb_ Stipules wanting.
      _d_ Leaves persistent.
        Leaflets long-stalked (_sometimes nearly sessile in Xanthoxylum
              flavum_).
          Leaflets oblong-ovate, cuneate at base.
            Leaflets acuminate, glabrous.
                                                     Picramnia (p. 643).
            Leaflets obtuse, tomentose when unfolding.
                                            Xanthoxylum flavum (p. 636).
          Leaflets broad-ovate, usually rounded or subcordate at base.
                                                      Metopium (p. 658).
        Leaflets sessile or nearly so.
          Petiole and rachis winged.
            Leaflets crenate, obovate, about ½′ long; branches prickly.
                                            Xanthoxylum Fagara (p. 634).
            Leaflets entire.
              Leaflets oblong, usually acute, 3′—4′ long.
                                            Sapindus saponaria (p. 712).
              Leaflets spathulate, rounded at apex, not more than ¾′
                    long.
                                                      Pistacia (p. 656).
          Petiole and rachis not winged.
            Leaflets 7—19, acuminate, 2′—5′ long.
                                           Sapindus marginatus (p. 713).
            Leaflets 21—41, obtuse, ½′—¾′ long.
                                                     Alvaradoa (p. 644).
      _dd_ Leaves deciduous.
        Leaflets long-stalked, 3—7, entire, acute.
                                                       Bursera (p. 645).
        Leaflets sessile or nearly so.
          Branches prickly; leaflets crenate.
                                    Xanthoxylum clava-Herculis (p. 635).
          Branches unarmed.
            Juice milky or viscid; leaflets serrate or entire; rachis
                  sometimes winged.
                                              Rhus species 1—3 (p. 660).
            Juice watery.
              Rachis without wings.
                Leaflets entire, acuminate, 7—9.
                                           Sapindus Drummondii (p. 714).
                Leaflets serrate or crenate.
                  Winter-buds large; leaflets 5—23, aromatic.
                    Winter-buds naked.
                                                       Juglans (p. 169).
                    Winter-buds covered with scales.
                                                         Carya (p. 176).
                  Winter-buds minute, globose, scaly; leaflets 5—7,
                        ovate, not aromatic.
                                                      Ungnadia (p. 717).
              Rachis winged; leaflets 10—20, entire, rounded at apex,
                    not more than ¼′ long.
                                           Bursera microphylla (p. 647).



                         TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
                         (Exclusive of Mexico)



                         Class 1. GYMNOSPERMÆ.


Ovules and seeds borne on the face of a scale, not inclosed in an ovary;
resinous trees, with stems increasing in diameter by the annual addition
of a layer of wood inside the bark.



                              I. PINACEÆ.


Trees, with narrow or scale-like generally persistent clustered or
alternate leaves and usually scaly buds. Flowers appearing in early
spring, mostly surrounded at the base by an involucre of the more or
less enlarged scales of the buds, unisexual, monœcious (_diœcious in
Juniperus_), the male consisting of numerous 2-celled anthers, the
female of scales bearing on their inner face 2 or several ovules, and
becoming at maturity a woody cone or rarely a berry. Seeds with or
without wings; seed-coat of 2 layers; embryo axile in copious albumen;
cotyledons 2 or several. Of the twenty-nine genera scattered over the
surface of the globe, but most abundant in northern temperate regions,
thirteen occur in North America.


                CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA.

  Scales of the female flowers numerous; spirally arranged in the axils
        of persistent bracts; ovules 2, inverted; seeds borne directly
        on the scales, attached at the base in shallow depressions on
        the inner side of the scales, falling from them at maturity and
        usually carrying away a scarious terminal wing; leaves fascicled
        or scattered (_deciduous in Larix_). Abietineæ.
    Fruit maturing in two or rarely in three seasons; leaves fascicled,
          needle-shaped in axillary 1—5-leaved clusters, inclosed at the
          base in a membranaceous sheath; cone-scales thick and woody,
          much longer than their bracts.
                                                               1. Pinus.
    Fruit maturing in one season.
      Leaves in many-leaved clusters on short spur-like branchlets,
            deciduous; cone-scales thin, usually shorter than their
            bracts.
                                                               2. Larix.
      Leaves scattered, linear.
        Cones pendulous, the scales persistent on the axis.
          Branchlets roughened by the persistent leaf-bases; leaves
                deciduous in drying; bracts shorter than the
                cone-scales.
            Leaves sessile, 4-sided, or flattened and stomatiferous
                  above.
                                                               3. Picea.
            Leaves stalked, flattened and stomatiferous below, or
                  angular.
                                                               4. Tsuga.
          Branchlets not roughened by leaf-bases; leaves stalked,
                flattened; not deciduous in drying; bracts of the cone
                2-lobed, aristate, longer than the scales.
                                                         5. Pseudotsuga.
        Cones erect, their scales deciduous from the axis, longer or
              shorter than the bracts; leaves sessile, flat or 4-sided.
                                                               6. Abies.
  Scales of the female flowers without bracts; ovules and seeds borne on
        the face of minute scales adnate to the base of the
        flower-scales, enlarging and forming the scales of the cone.
        Seeds with a narrow marginal wing (_wingless in Juniperas_).
    Scales of the female flowers numerous, spirally arranged, forming a
          woody cone; ovules erect, 2 or many under each scale; leaves
          linear, alternate, often of 2 forms (_deciduous in Taxodium_).
          Taxodiæ.
      Ovules and seeds numerous under each scale.
                                                             7. Sequoia.
      Ovules and seeds 2 under each scale; leaves mostly spreading in 2
            ranks.
                                                            8. Taxodium.
    Scales of the female flower few, decussate, forming a small cone, or
          rarely a berry; ovules 2 or many under each scale; leaves
          decussate or in 3 ranks, often of 2 forms, usually scale-like,
          mostly adnate to the branch, the earliest free and subulate.
          Cupressineæ.
      Fruit a cone; leaves scale-like.
        Cones oblong, their scales oblong, imbricated or valvate; seeds
              2 under each scale, maturing the first year.
          Scales of the cone 6, the middle ones only fertile; seeds
                unequally 2-winged.
                                                          9. Libocedrus.
          Scales of the cone 8—12; seeds equally 2-winged.
                                                              10. Thuja.
        Cones subglobose, the scales peltate, maturing in one or two
              years; seeds few or many under each scale.
          Fruit maturing in two seasons; seeds many under each scale;
                branchlets terete or 4-winged.
                                                          11. Cupressus.
          Fruit maturing in one season; seeds 2 under each scale;
                branchlets flattened.
                                                       12. Chamæcyparis.
      Fruit a berry formed by the coalition of the scales of the flower;
            ovules in pairs or solitary; flowers diœcious; leaves
            decussate or in 3’s, subulate or scale-like, often of 2
            forms.
                                                          13. Juniperus.



                         1. PINUS Duham. Pine.


Trees or rarely shrubs, with deeply furrowed and sometimes laminate or
with thin and scaly bark, hard or often soft heartwood often
conspicuously marked by dark bands of summer cells impregnated with
resin, pale nearly white sapwood, and large branch-buds formed during
summer and composed of minute buds in the axils of bud-scales, becoming
the bracts of the spring shoot. Leaves needle-shaped, clustered, the
clusters borne on deciduous spurs in the axils of scale-like primary
leaves, inclosed in the bud by numerous scales lengthening and forming a
more or less persistent sheath at the base of each cluster. Male flowers
clustered at the base of leafy growing shoots of the year, each flower
surrounded at the base by an involucre of 3—6 scale-like bracts,
composed of numerous sessile anthers, imbricated in many ranks and
surmounted by crest-like nearly orbicular connectives; the female
subterminal or lateral, their scales in the axils of non-accrescent
bracts. Fruit a woody cone maturing at the end of the second or rarely
of the third season, composed of the hardened and woody scales of the
flower more or less thickened on the exposed surface (the _apophysis_),
with the ends of the growth of the previous year appearing as terminal
or dorsal brown protuberances or scars (the _umbo_). Seeds usually
obovoid, shorter or longer than their wings or rarely wingless; outer
seed-coat crustaceous or thick, hard, and bony, the inner membranaceous;
cotyledons 3—18, usually much shorter than the inferior radicle.

Pinus is widely distributed through the northern hemisphere from the
Arctic Circle to the West Indies, the mountains of Central America, the
Canary Islands, northern Africa, the Philippine Islands, and Sumatra.
About sixty-six species are recognized. Of exotic species the so-called
Scotch Pine, _Pinus sylvestris_ L., of Europe and Asia, the Swiss Stone
Pine, _Pinus cembra_ L., and the Austrian Pine and other forms of _Pinus
nigra_ Arnold, from central and southern Europe, are often planted in
the northeastern states, and _Pinus Pinaster_ Ait., of the coast region
of western France and the Mediterranean Basin is successfully cultivated
in central and southern California. _Pinus_ is the classical name of the
Pine-tree.

The North American species can be conveniently grouped in two sections,
Soft Pines and Pitch Pines.


                              SOFT PINES.

Wood soft, close-grained, light-colored, the sapwood thin and nearly
white; sheaths of the leaf-clusters deciduous; leaves with one
fibro-vascular bundle.

  Leaves in 5-leaved clusters.
    Cones long-stalked, elongated, cylindric bright green at maturity,
          becoming light yellow brown, their scales thin, with terminal
          unarmed umbos; seeds shorter than their wings. White Pines.
      Leaves without conspicuous white lines on the back.
        Leaves slender, flexible; cones 4′—8′ long.
                                                      1. P. Strobus (A).
        Leaves stout, more rigid; cones 5′—11′ long.
                                                 2. P. monticola (B, G).
      Leaves with conspicuous white lines on the back; cones 12′—18′
            long.
                                                  3. P. Lambertiana (G).
    Cones short-stalked, green or purple at maturity, their scales
          thick.
      Cones cylindric or subglobose, their scales with terminal umbos;
            leaves 2′ long or less. Stone Pines.
        Cones 3′—10′ long, their scales opening at maturity; seeds with
              wings.
                                                  4. P. flexilis (F, H).
        Cones ½′—3′ long, their scales remaining closed at maturity;
              seeds wingless.
                                             5. P. albicaulis (B, F, G).
      Cones ovoid-oblong, their scales with dorsal umbos armed with
            slender prickles; seeds shorter than their wings; leaves in
            crowded clusters, incurved, less than 2′ long. Foxtail
            Pines.
        Cones armed with minute incurved prickles.
                                                  6. P. Balfouriana (G).
        Cones armed with long slender prickles.
                                                  7. P. aristata (F, G).
  Leaves in 1—4-leaved clusters; cones globose, green at maturity,
        becoming light brown, their scales few, concave, much thickened,
        only the middle scales seed-bearing; seeds large and edible,
        their wings rudimentary; leaves 2′ or less, often incurved. Nut
        Pines.
                                          8. P. cembroides (C, F, G, H).


                    1. Pinus Strobus L. White Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

Leaves soft bluish green, whitened on the ventral side by 3—5 bands of
stomata, 3′—5′ long, mostly turning yellow and falling in September in
their second season, or persistent until the following June. Flowers:
male yellow; female bright pink, with purple scale margins. Fruit fully
grown in July of the second season, 4′—8′ long, opening and discharging
its seeds in September; seeds narrowed at the ends, ¼′ long, red-brown
mottled with black, about one fourth as long as their wings.

A tree, while young with slender horizontal or slightly ascending
branches in regular whorls usually of 5 branches; at maturity often
100°, occasionally 220° high, with a tall straight stem 3°—4° or rarely
6° in diameter, when crowded in the forest with short branches forming a
narrow head, or rising above its forest companions with long lateral
branches sweeping upward in graceful curves, the upper branches
ascending and forming a broad open irregular head, and slender
branchlets coated at first with rusty tomentum, soon glabrous, and
orange-brown in their first winter. Bark on young stems and branches
thin, smooth, green tinged with red, lustrous during the summer,
becoming 1′—2′ thick on old trunks and deeply divided by shallow
fissures into broad connected ridges covered with small closely
appressed purplish scales. Wood light, not strong, straight-grained,
easily worked, light brown often slightly tinged with red; largely
manufactured into lumber, shingles, and laths, used in construction, for
cabinet-making, the interior finish of buildings, wooden ware, matches,
and the masts of vessels.

Distribution. Newfoundland to Manitoba, southward through the northern
states to Pennsylvania, northern and eastern (Belmont County) Ohio,
northern Indiana, valley of the Rocky River near Oregon, Ogle County,
Illinois, and central and southeastern Iowa, and along the Appalachian
Mountains to eastern Kentucky and Tennessee and northern Georgia;
forming nearly pure forests on sandy drift soils, or more often in small
groves scattered in forests of deciduous-leaved trees on fertile
well-drained soil, also on the banks of streams, or on river flats, or
rarely in swamps.

Largely planted as an ornament of parks and gardens in the eastern
states, and in many European countries, where it grows with vigor and
rapidity; occasionally used in forest planting in the United States.


                 2. Pinus monticola D. Don. White Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

Leaves blue-green, glaucous, whitened by 2—6 rows of ventral and often
by dorsal stomata, mostly persistent 3 or 4 years. Flowers: male yellow;
female pale purple. Fruit 5′—11′ long, shedding its seeds late in the
summer or in early autumn; seeds narrowed at the ends, ⅓′ long, pale
red-brown mottled with black, about one third as long as their wings.

A tree, often 100° or occasionally 150° high, with a trunk frequently
4°—5° or rarely 7°—8° in diameter, slender spreading slightly pendulous
branches clothing young stems to the ground and in old age forming a
narrow open often unsymmetrical pyramidal head, and stout tough
branchlets clothed at first with rusty pubescence, dark orange-brown and
puberulous in their first and dark red-purple and glabrous in their
second season. Bark of young stems and branches thin, smooth, light
gray, becoming on old trees ¾′—1½′ thick and divided into small nearly
square plates by deep longitudinal and cross fissures, and covered by
small closely appressed purple scales. Wood light, soft, not strong,
close, straight-grained, light brown or red; sometimes manufactured into
lumber, used in construction and the interior finish of buildings.

Distribution. Scattered through mountain forests from the basin of the
Columbia River in British Columbia to Vancouver Island; on the mountains
of northern Washington to the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains of
northern Montana; on the coast ranges of Washington and Oregon; and on
the Cascade and Sierra Nevada ranges southward to the Kern River valley,
California; most abundant and of its greatest value in northern Idaho on
the bottom-lands of streams tributary to Lake Pend Oreille; reaching the
sea-level on the southern shores of the Straits of Fuca and elevations
of 10,000° on the California Sierras.

Often planted as an ornamental tree in Europe, and occasionally in the
eastern United States where it grows more vigorously than any other
Pine-tree of western America.


                3. Pinus Lambertiana Dougl. Sugar Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

Leaves stout, rigid, 3½′—4′ long, marked on the two faces by 2—6 rows of
stomata; deciduous during their second and third years. Flowers: male
light yellow; female pale green. Fruit fully grown in August and opening
in October, 11′—18′ or rarely 21′ long; seeds ½′—⅝′ long, dark
chestnut-brown or nearly black, and half the length of their firm dark
brown obtuse wings broadest below the middle and ½′ wide.

A tree, in early life with remote regular whorls of slender branches
often clothing the stem to the ground and forming an open narrow
pyramid; at maturity 200°-220° high, with a trunk 6°—8° or occasionally
12° in diameter, a flat-topped crown frequently 60° or 70° across of
comparatively slender branches sweeping outward and downward in graceful
curves, and stout branchlets coated at first with pale or rufous
pubescence, dark orange-brown during their first winter, becoming dark
purple-brown. Bark on young stems and branches thin, smooth, dark green,
becoming on old trunks 2′—3′ thick and deeply and irregularly divided
into long thick plate-like ridges covered with large loose rich
purple-brown or cinnamon-red scales. Wood light, soft, straight-grained,
light red-brown; largely manufactured into lumber and used for the
interior finish of buildings, woodwork, and shingles. A sweet sugar-like
substance exudes from wounds made in the heartwood.

Distribution. Mountain slopes and the sides of ravines and cañons;
western Oregon from the valley of the north branch of the Santiam River
southward on the Cascade and coast ranges; California along the northern
and coast ranges to Sonoma County; along the western slopes of the
Sierra Nevada, where it grows to its greatest size at elevations between
3000° and 7000°; reappearing on the Santa Lucia Mountains of the coast
ranges; and on the high mountains in the southwestern part of the state
from Santa Barbara County southward usually at elevations of 5000°—7000°
above the sea; and on the San Pedro Mártir Mountains in Lower
California.

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in western Europe and in the
eastern states, the Sugar Pine has grown slowly in cultivation and shows
little promise of attaining the large size and great beauty which
distinguish it in its native forests.


          4. Pinus flexilis James. Rocky Mountain White Pine.

                _Pinus strobiformis_ Sarg., not Engelm.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

Leaves stout, rigid, dark green, marked on all sides by 1—4 rows of
stomata, 1½′—3′ long, deciduous in their fifth and sixth years. Flowers:
male reddish; female clustered, bright red-purple. Fruit subcylindric,
horizontal or slightly declining, green or rarely purple at maturity,
3′—10′ long, with narrow and more or less reflexed scales opening at
maturity; seeds compressed, ⅓′—½′ long, dark red-brown mottled with
black, with a thick shell produced into a narrow margin, their wings
about 1/12′ wide, generally persistent on the scale after the seed
falls.

A tree, usually 40°—50°, occasionally 80° high, with a short trunk 2°—5°
in diameter, stout long-persistent branches ultimately forming a low
wide round-topped head, and stout branchlets orange-green and covered at
first with soft fine pubescence, usually soon glabrous and darker
colored; at high elevations often a low spreading shrub. Bark of young
stems and branches thin, smooth, light gray or silvery white, becoming
on old trunks 1′—2′ thick, dark brown or nearly black, and divided by
deep fissures into broad ridges broken into nearly square plates covered
by small closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, pale
clear yellow, turning red with exposure; occasionally manufactured into
lumber.

Distribution. Eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to
western Texas and westward on mountain ranges at elevations of 5000° to
12,000° to Montana, and southern California, reaching the western slopes
of the Sierra Nevada at the head of King’s River near the summit of San
Gorgonio Mountain and in Snow Cañon, San Bernardino Range; usually
scattered singly or in small groves; forming open forests on the eastern
foothills of the Rocky Mountains of Montana and on the ranges of central
Nevada; attaining its largest size on those of northern New Mexico and
Arizona.


                5. Pinus albicaulis Engelm. White Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

Leaves stout, rigid, slightly incurved, dark green, marked by 1—3 rows
of dorsal stomata, clustered at the ends of the branches, 1½′—2½′ long,
persistent for from five to eight years. Flowers opening in July,
scarlet. Fruit ripening in August, oval or subglobose, horizontal,
sessile, dark purple, 1½′—3′ long, with scales thickened, acute, often
armed with stout pointed umbos, remaining closed at maturity; seeds
wingless, acute, subcylindric or flattened on one side, ⅓′—½′ long, ⅓′
thick, with a thick dark chestnut-brown hard shell.

A tree, usually 20°—30° or rarely 60° high, generally with a short trunk
2°—4° in diameter, stout very flexible branches, finally often standing
nearly erect and forming an open very irregular broad head, and stout
dark red-brown or orange-colored branchlets puberulous for two years or
sometimes glabrous; at high elevations often a low shrub, with
wide-spreading nearly prostrate stems. Bark thin, except near the base
of old trunks and broken by narrow fissures into thin narrow brown or
creamy white plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained,
brittle, light brown. The large sweet seeds are gathered and eaten by
Indians.

Distribution. Alpine slopes and exposed ridges between 5000° and 12,000°
elevation, forming the timber-line on many mountain ranges from latitude
53° north in the Rocky Mountains and British Columbia, southward to the
Wind River and Salt River Ranges, Wyoming, the mountains of eastern
Washington and Oregon, the Cascade Range, the mountains of northern
California and the Sierra Nevada to Mt. Whitney.


                6. Pinus Balfouriana Balf. Foxtail Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

Leaves stout, rigid, dark green and lustrous on the back, pale and
marked on the ventral faces by numerous rows of stomata, 1′—1½′ long,
persistent for ten or twelve years. Flowers: male dark orange-red;
female dark purple. Fruit 3½′—5′ long, with scales armed with minute
incurved prickles, dark purple, turning after opening dark red or
mahogany color; seeds full and rounded at the apex, compressed at the
base, pale, conspicuously mottled with dark purple, ⅓′ long, their wings
narrowed and oblique at the apex, about 1′ long and ¼′ wide.

A tree, usually 30°—40° or rarely 90° high, with a trunk generally 1°—2°
or rarely 5° in diameter, short stout branches forming an open irregular
pyramidal picturesque head, and long rigid more or less spreading
puberulous, soon glabrous, dark orange-brown ultimately dark gray-brown
or nearly black branchlets, clothed only at the extremities with the
long dense brush-like masses of foliage. Bark thin, smooth, and milky
white on the stems and branches of young trees, becoming on old trees
sometimes ¾′ thick, dark red-brown, deeply divided into broad flat
ridges. broken into nearly square plates separating on the surface into
small closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft and brittle, pale
reddish brown.

Distribution. California, on rocky slopes and ridges, forming scattered
groves on Scott Mountain, Siskiyou County, at elevations of 5000°—6000°;
on the mountains at the head of the Sacramento River; on Mt. Yolo Bally
in the northern Coast Range, and on the southern Sierra Nevada up to
elevations of 11,500°, growing here to its largest size and forming an
extensive open forest on the Whitney Plateau east of the cañon of Kern
River, and at the highest elevations often a low shrub, with
wide-spreading prostrate stems.


         7. Pinus aristata Engelm. Foxtail Pine. Hickory Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

Leaves stout or slender, dark green, lustrous on the back, marked by
numerous rows of stomata on the ventral faces, 1′—1½′ long, often
deciduous at the end of ten or twelve years or persistent four or five
years longer. Flowers male dark orange-red; female dark purple. Fruit
3′—3½′ long, with scales armed with slender incurved brittle prickles
nearly ¼′ long, dark purple-brown on the exposed parts, the remainder
dull red, opening and scattering their seeds about the 1st of October;
seeds nearly oval, compressed, light brown mottled with black, ¼′ long,
their wings broadest at the middle, about ⅓′ long and ¼′ wide.

A bushy tree, occasionally 40°—50° high, with a short trunk 2°—3° in
diameter, short stout branches in regular whorls while young, in old age
growing very irregularly, the upper erect and much longer than the
usually pendulous lower branches, and stout light orange-colored,
glabrous, or at first puberulous, ultimately dark gray-brown or nearly
black branchlets clothed at the ends with long compact brush-like tufts
of foliage. Bark thin, smooth, milky white on the stems and branches of
young trees, becoming on old trees ½′—¾′ thick, red-brown, and
irregularly divided into flat connected ridges separating on the surface
into small closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, light
red; occasionally used for the timbers of mines and for fuel.

Distribution. Rocky or gravelly slopes at the upper limit of tree growth
and rarely below 8,000° above the sea from the outer range of the Rocky
Mountains of Colorado to those of southern Utah, central and southern
Nevada, southeastern California, and the San Francisco peaks of northern
Arizona.


               8. Pinus cembroides Zucc. Nut Pine. Piñon.

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

Leaves in 2 or 3-leaved clusters, slender, much incurved, dark green,
sometimes marked by rows of stomata on the 3 faces, 1′—2′ long,
deciduous irregularly during their third and fourth years. Flowers: male
in short crowded clusters, yellow; female dark red. Fruit subglobose,
1′—2′ broad; seeds subcylindric or obscurely triangular, more or less
compressed at the pointed apex, full and rounded at base, nearly black
on the lower side and dark chestnut-brown on the upper, ½′—¾′ long, the
margin of their outer coat adnate to the cone-scale.

A bushy tree, with a short trunk rarely more than a foot in diameter and
a broad round-topped head, usually 15°—20° high, stout spreading
branches, and slender dark orange-colored branchlets covered at first
with matted pale deciduous hairs, dark brown and sometimes nearly black
at the end of five or six years; in sheltered cañons on the mountains of
Arizona and in Lower California occasionally 50° or 60° tall. Bark about
½′ thick, irregularly divided by remote shallow fissures and separated
on the surface into numerous large thin light red-brown scales. Wood
light, soft, close-grained, pale clear yellow. The large oily seeds are
an important article of food in northern Mexico, and are sold in large
quantities in Mexican towns.

Distribution. Mountain ranges of central and southern Arizona, usually
only above elevations of 6500°, often covering their upper slopes with
open forests; in an isolated station on the Edwards Plateau on uplands
and in cañons at the headwaters of the Frio and Nueces Rivers, Edwards
and Kerr Counties, Texas; on the Sierra de Laguna, Lower California, and
on many of the mountain ranges of northern Mexico; passing into the
following varieties differing only in the number of the leaves in the
leaf-clusters, and in their thickness.


         Pinus cembroides var. Parryana Voss. Nut Pine. Piñon.

                       _Pinus quadrifolia_ Sudw.

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

Leaves in 1—5 usually 4-leaved clusters, stout, incurved, pale glaucous
green, marked on the three surfaces by numerous rows of stomata, 1¼′—1½′
long, irregularly deciduous, mostly falling in their third year.

A tree, 30°—40° high, with a short trunk occasionally 18′ in diameter,
and thick spreading branches forming a compact regularpyramidal or in
old age a low round-topped irregular head, and stout branchlets coated
at first with soft pubescence, and light orange-brown. Bark ½′—¾′ thick,
dark brown tinged with red, and divided by shallow fissures into broad
flat connected ridges covered by thick closely appressed plate-like
scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, pale brown or yellow. The seeds
form an important article of food for the Indians of Lower California.

Distribution. Arid mesas and low mountain slopes of Lower California
southward to the foothills of the San Pedro Mártir Mountains, extending
northward across the boundary of California to the desert slopes of the
Santa Rosa Mountains, Riverside County, where it is common at elevations
of 5000° above the sea-level.


          Pinus cembroides var. edulis Voss. Nut Pine. Piñon.

                         _Pinus edulis_ Engelm.

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

Leaves in 2 or rarely in 3-leaved clusters, stout, semiterete or
triangular, rigid, incurved, dark-green, marked by numerous rows of
stomata, ¾′—1½′ long, deciduous during the third or not until the fourth
or fifth year, dropping irregularly and sometimes persistent for eight
or nine years.

A tree often 40°—50° high with a tall trunk occasionally 2° in diameter
and short erect branches forming a narrow head, or frequently with a
short divided trunk and a low round-topped head of spreading branches,
and thick branchlets orange color during their first and second years,
finally becoming light gray or dark brown sometimes tinged with red.
Bark ½′—¾′ thick and irregularly divided into connected ridges covered
by small closely appressed light brown scales tinged with red or orange
color. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, pale brown; largely
employed for fuel and fencing, and as charcoal used in smelting; in
western Texas occasionally sawed into lumber. The seeds form an
important article of food among Indians and Mexicans, and are sold in
the markets of Colorado and New Mexico.

Distribution. Eastern foothills of the outer ranges of the Rocky
Mountains, from northern Colorado (Owl Cañon, Larimer County); to the
extreme western part of Oklahoma (near Kenton, Cimarron County, _G. W.
Stevens_) and to western Texas, westward to eastern Utah, southwestern
Wyoming, and to northern and central Arizona; over the mountains of
northern Mexico, and on the San Pedro Mártir Mountains, Lower
California; often forming extensive open forests at the eastern base of
the Rocky Mountains, on the Colorado plateau, and on many mountain
ranges of northern and central Arizona up to elevations of 7000° above
the sea.


        Pinus cembroides var. monophylla Voss. Nut Pine. Piñon.

                        _Pinus monophylla_ Torr.

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

Leaves in 1 or 2-leaved clusters, rigid, incurved, pale glaucous green,
marked by 18—20 rows of stomata, usually about 1½′ long, sometimes
deciduous during their fourth and fifth seasons, but frequently
persistent until their twelfth year.

A tree usually 15°—20°, occasionally 40°—50° high, with a short trunk
rarely more than a foot in diameter and often divided near the ground
into several spreading stems, short thick branches forming while the
tree is young a broad rather compact pyramid, and in old age often
pendulous and forming a low round-topped often picturesque head, and
stout light orange-colored ultimately dark brown branchlets. Bark about
¾′ thick and divided by deep irregular fissures into narrow connected
flat ridges broken on the surface into thin closely appressed light or
dark brown scales tinged with red or orange color. Wood light, soft,
weak, and brittle; largely used for fuel, and charcoal used in smelting.
The seeds supply an important article of food to the Indians of Nevada
and California.

Distribution. Dry gravelly slopes and mesas from the western base of the
Wasatch Mountains of Utah, westward over the mountain ranges of Nevada
to the eastern slopes of the southern Sierra Nevada, and to their
western slope at the headwaters of the Tuolumne, Kings and Kern Rivers,
and southward to northern Arizona and to the mountains of southern
California where it is common on the San Bernardino and San Jacinto
Mountains between altitudes of 3500° and 7000°, and on the Sierra del
Pinal, Lower California; often forming extensive open forests at
elevations between 5000° and 7000°.


                              PITCH PINES.

Wood usually heavy, coarse-grained, generally dark-colored, with pale
often thick sapwood; cones green at maturity (_sometimes purple in_ 10
_and_ 21) becoming various shades of brown; cone-scales more or less
thickened, mostly armed; seeds shorter than their wings (_except in_ 17
_and_ 28); leaves with 2 fibro-vascular bundles.

  Sheaths of the leaf-clusters deciduous; cones ½′—2′ long, maturing in
        the third year, leaves in 3-leaved clusters, slender, 2½′—4′
        long.
                                                   9. P. leiophylla (H).
  Sheaths of the leaf-clusters persistent.
    Leaves in 3-leaved clusters (3 and 5-leaved in 10, 3—2 leaved in
          12).
      Cones subterminal, usually deciduous above the basal scales
            persistent on the branch.
        Buds brown; leaves in 2—5-leaved clusters.
                                          10. P. ponderosa (B, F, G, H).
        Buds white.
                                                   11. P. palustris (C).
      Cones lateral.
        Cones symmetrical, their outer scales not excessively developed.
          Leaves in 2 and 3-leaved clusters, 8′—12′ long; cones
                short-stalked.
                                                     12. P. caribæa (C).
          Leaves in 3-leaved clusters; cones sessile.
            Cones oblong-conic, prickles stout; leaves 6′—9′ long.
                                                    13. P. taeda (A, C).
            Cones ovoid, prickles slender; leaves 3′—5′ long.
                                                   14. P. rigida (A, C).
        Cones unsymmetrical by the excessive development of the scales
              on the outer side.
          Cones 5′—6′ long, their scales not prolonged into stout,
                straight or curved spines.
            Prickles of the cone-scales minute.
                                                     15. P. radiata (G).
            Prickles of the cone-scales stout.
                                                   16. P. attenuata (G).
          Cones 6′—14′ long, their scales prolonged into stout, straight
                or curved spines; leaves long and stout.
          Cones oblong-ovoid; seeds longer than their wings.
                                                   17. P. Sabiniana (G).
          Cones oblong-conic; seeds shorter than their wings.
                                                    18. P. Coulteri (G).
    Leaves in 2-leaved clusters (2 and 3-leaved in 23).
      Cones subterminal.
        Cones symmetrical, 2′—2½′ long, their scales unarmed; leaves
              5′—6′ long.
                                                    19. P. resinosa (A).
        Cones unsymmetrical by the greater development of the scales on
              the outer side, armed with slender prickles; leaves 1′—4′
              long.
                                              20. P. contorta (B, F, G).
      Cones lateral.
        Cones about 2′ long.
          Cone-scales very unevenly developed and mostly unarmed; cones
                incurved; leaves less than 2′ long.
                                                   21. P. Banksiana (A).
          Cone-scales evenly developed, armed with weak or deciduous
                prickles; leaves up to 4′ in length.
            Bark of the branches and upper trunk smooth.
                                                      22. P. glabra (C).
            Bark of the branches and upper trunk roughened.
                                                 23. P. echinata (A, C).
        Cones about 3′ long, armed with persistent spines.
          Cone-scales armed with slender or stout prickles.
            Cone-scales evenly developed, their prickles slender,
                  acuminate, from a broad base; leaves 3′ long or less.
              Cones opening at maturity.
                                               24. P. virginiana (A, C).
              Cones often remaining closed for many years.
                                                      25. P. clausa (C).
            Cone-scales unevenly developed and armed with stout
                  prickles; cones 2′—3½′ long, remaining closed; leaves
                  4′—6′ long.
                                                        26. P. muricata.
          Cone-scales armed with very stout hooked spines; cones 2½′—3′
                long; opening in the autumn or remaining closed for two
                or three years; leaves 2′ long or less.
                                                         27. P. pungens.
    Leaves in 5-leaved clusters; cones 4′—6′ long, unsymmetrical, their
          scales thick; seeds longer than their wings; leaves stout,
          9′—13′ long.
                                                   28. P. Torreyana (G).


          9. Pinus leiophylla Schlecht. and Cham. Yellow Pine.

                      _Pinus chihuahuana_, Engelm.

[Illustration: Fig. 12]

Leaves slender, pale glaucous green, marked by 6—8 rows of conspicuous
stomata on each of the 3 sides, 2½′—4′ long, irregularly deciduous from
their fourth season, their sheaths deciduous. Flowers: male yellow;
female yellow-green. Fruit ovoid, horizontal or slightly declining,
long-stalked, 1½′—2′ long, becoming light chestnut-brown and lustrous,
maturing at the end of the third season, with scales only slightly
thickened, their ultimately pale umbos armed with recurved deciduous
prickles; seeds oval, rounded above and pointed below, about ⅛′ long,
with a thin dark brown shell, their wings ⅓′ long and broadest near the
middle.

A tree, rarely more than 40°—50° high, with a tall trunk sometimes 2° in
diameter, stout slightly ascending branches forming a narrow open
pyramidal or round-topped head of thin pale foliage, and slender bright
orange-brown branchlets, soon becoming dull red-brown. Bark of old
trunks ¾′—1½′ thick, dark reddish brown or sometimes nearly black, and
deeply divided into broad flat ridges covered with thin closely
appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong but durable, light orange
color, with thick much lighter colored sapwood. Often forming coppice by
the growth of shoots from the stump of cut trees.

Distribution. Mountain ranges of southern New Mexico and Arizona,
usually at elevations between 6000° and 7000°; not common; more abundant
on the Sierra Madre of northern Mexico and on several of the short
ranges of Chihuahua and Sonora, and of a larger size in Mexico than in
the United States.


           10. Pinus ponderosa Laws. Yellow Pine. Bull Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 13]

Leaves tufted at the ends of naked branches, in 2 or in 2 and 3-leaved
clusters, stout, dark yellow-green, marked by numerous rows of stomata
on the 3 faces, 5′—11′ long, mostly deciduous during their third season.
Flowers: male yellow; female clustered or in pairs, dark red. Fruit
ellipsoidal, horizontal or slightly declining, nearly sessile or
short-stalked, 3′—6′ long, often clustered, bright green or purple when
fully grown, becoming light reddish brown, with narrow scales much
thickened at the apex and armed with slender prickles, mostly falling
soon after opening and discharging their seeds, generally leaving the
lower scales attached to the peduncle; seeds ovoid, acute, compressed at
the apex, full and rounded below, ¼′ long, with a thin dark purple often
mottled shell, their wings usually broadest below the middle, gradually
narrowed at the oblique apex, 1′—1¼′ long, about 1′ wide.

A tree, sometimes 150°—230° high, with a massive stem 5°—8° in diameter,
short thick many-forked often pendulous branches generally turned upward
at the ends and forming a regular spire-like head, or in arid regions a
broader often round-topped head surmounting a short trunk, and stout
orange-colored branchlets frequently becoming nearly black at the end of
two or three years. Bark for 80—100 years broken into rounded ridges
covered with small closely appressed scales, dark brown, nearly black or
light cinnamon-red, on older trees becoming 2′—4′ thick and deeply and
irregularly divided into plates sometimes 4°—5° long and 12′—18′ wide,
and separating into thick bright cinnamon-red scales. Wood hard, strong,
comparatively fine-grained, light red, with nearly white sapwood
sometimes composed of more than 200 layers of annual growth; largely
manufactured into lumber used for all sorts of construction, for
railway-ties, fencing, and fuel.

Distribution. Mountain slopes, dry valleys, and high mesas from
northwestern Nebraska and western Texas to the shores of the Pacific
Ocean, and from southern British Columbia to Lower California and
northern Mexico; extremely variable in different parts of the country in
size, in the length and thickness of the leaves, size of the cones, and
in the color of the bark. The form of the Rocky Mountains (var.
_scopulorum_, Engelm.), ranging from Nebraska to Texas, and over the
mountain ranges of Wyoming, eastern Montana and Colorado, and to
northern New Mexico and Arizona, where it forms on the Colorado plateau
with the species the most extensive Pine forests of the continent, has
nearly black furrowed bark, rigid leaves in clusters of 2 or 3 and 3′—6′
long, and smaller cones, with thin scales armed with slender prickles
hooked backward. More distinct is


                  Pinus ponderosa var. Jeffreyi Vasey.

[Illustration: Fig. 14]

This tree forms great forests about the sources of the Pitt River in
northern California, along the eastern slopes of the central and
southern Sierra Nevada, growing often on the most exposed and driest
ridges, and in southern California on the San Bernardino and San Jacinto
ranges up to elevations of 7000° above the sea, on the Cuyamaca
Mountains, and in Lower California on the Sierra del Pinal and the San
Pedro Mártir Mountains.

A tree, 100° to nearly 200° high, with a tall massive trunk 4°—6° in
diameter, covered with bright cinnamon-red bark deeply divided into
large irregular plates, stiffer and more elastic leaves 4′—9′ long and
persistent on the glaucous stouter branchlets for six to nine years,
yellow-green staminate flowers, short-stalked usually purple cones
5′—15′ long, their scales armed with stouter or slender prickles usually
hooked backward, and seeds often nearly ½′ long with larger wings.

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in eastern Europe, especially
the variety _Jeffreyi_, which is occasionally successfully cultivated in
the eastern states.


           Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica Shaw. Yellow Pine.

                       _Pinus arizonica_ Engelm.

[Illustration: Fig. 15]

Leaves tufted at the ends of the branches, in 3—5-leaved clusters,
stout, rigid, dark green, stomatiferous on their 3 faces, 5′—7′ long,
deciduous during their third season. Fruit ovoid, horizontal, 2′—2½′
long, becoming light red-brown, with thin scales much thickened at the
apex and armed with slender recurved spines; seeds full and rounded
below, slightly compressed towards the apex, ⅛′ long, with a thick
shell, their wings broadest above the middle, about ⅓′ long and ¼′ wide.

A tree, 80°—100° high, with a tall straight massive trunk 3°—4° in
diameter, thick spreading branches forming a regular open round-topped
or narrow pyramidal head, and stout branchlets orange-brown and pruinose
when they first appear, becoming dark gray-brown. Bark on young trunks
dark brown or almost black and deeply furrowed, becoming on old trees
1½′—2′ thick and divided into large unequally shaped plates separating
on the surface into thin closely appressed light cinnamon-red scales.
Wood light, soft, not strong, rather brittle, light red or often yellow,
with thick lighter yellow or white sapwood; in Arizona occasionally
manufactured into coarse lumber.

Distribution. High cool slopes on the sides of cañons of the mountain
ranges of southern Arizona at elevations between 6000° and 8000°,
sometimes forming nearly pure forests; more abundant and of its largest
size on the mountains of Sonora and Chihuahua.


       11. Pinus palustris Mill. Long-leaved Pine. Southern Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 16]

Leaves in crowded clusters, forming dense tufts at the ends of the
branches, slender, flexible, pendulous, dark green, 8′—18′ long,
deciduous at the end of their second year. Flowers in very early spring
before the appearance of the new leaves, male in short dense clusters,
dark rose-purple; female just below the apex of the lengthening shoot in
pairs or in clusters of 3 or 4, dark purple. Fruit cylindric-ovoid,
slightly curved, nearly sessile, horizontal or pendant, 6′—10′ long,
with thin flat scales rounded at apex and armed with small reflexed
prickles, becoming dull brown; in falling leaving a few of the basal
scales attached to the stem; seeds almost triangular, full and rounded
on the sides, prominently ridged, about ½′ long, with a thin pale shell
marked with dark blotches on the upper side, and wings widest near the
middle, gradually narrowed to a very oblique apex, about 1¾′ long and
7/16′ wide.

A tree, 100°—120° high, with a tall straight slightly tapering trunk
usually 2°—2½° or occasionally 3° in diameter, stout slightly branched
gnarled and twisted limbs covered with thin dark scaly bark and forming
an open elongated and usually very irregular head one third to one half
the length of the tree, thick orange-brown branchlets, and acute
winter-buds covered by elongated silvery white lustrous scales divided
into long spreading filaments forming a cobweb-like network over the
bud. Bark of the trunk 1/16′—½′ thick, light orange-brown, separating on
the surface into large closely appressed papery scales. Wood heavy,
exceedingly hard, strong, tough, coarse-grained, durable, light red to
orange color, with very thin nearly white sapwood; largely used as
“southern pine” or “Georgia pine” for masts and spars, bridges,
viaducts, railway-ties, fencing, flooring, the interior finish of
buildings, the construction of railway-cars, and for fuel and charcoal.
A large part of the naval stores of the world is produced from this
tree, which is exceedingly rich in resinous secretions.

Distribution. Generally confined to a belt of late tertiary sands and
gravels stretching along the coast of the Atlantic and Gulf states and
rarely more than 125 miles wide, from southeastern Virginia to the
shores of Indian River and the valley of the Caloosahatchee River,
Florida, and along the Gulf coast to the uplands east of the Mississippi
River, extending northward in Alabama to the southern foothills of the
Appalachian Mountains and to central and western Mississippi (Hinds and
Adams Counties); west of the Mississippi River to the valley of the
Trinity River, Texas, and through eastern Texas and western Louisiana
nearly to the northern borders of this state.


           12. Pinus caribæa Morelet. Slash Pine. Swamp Pine.

                       _Pinus heterophylla_ Sudw.

[Illustration: Fig. 17]

Leaves stout, in crowded 2 and 3-leaved clusters, dark green and
lustrous, marked by numerous bands of stomata on each face, 8′—12′ long,
deciduous at the end of their second season. Flowers in January and
February before the appearance of the new leaves, male in short crowded
clusters, dark purple; female lateral on long peduncles, pink. Fruit
ovoid or ovoid-conic, reflexed during its first year, pendant, 2′—6′
long, with thin flexible flat scales armed with minute incurved or
recurved prickles, becoming dark rich lustrous brown; seeds almost
triangular, full and rounded on the sides, 1⅙′—1¼′ long, with a thin
brittle dark gray shell mottled with black, and dark brown wings ¾′—1′
long, ¼′ wide, their thickened bases encircling the seeds and often
covering a large part of their lower surface.

A tree, often 100° high, with a tall tapering trunk 2½°—3° in diameter,
heavy horizontal branches forming a handsome round-topped head, and
stout orange-colored ultimately dark branchlets. Bark ¾′—½′ thick, and
separating freely on the surface into large thin scales. Wood heavy,
exceedingly hard, very strong, durable, coarse-grained, rich dark orange
color, with thick nearly white sapwood; manufactured into lumber and
used for construction and railway-ties. Naval stores are largely
produced from this tree.

Distribution. Coast region of South Carolina southward over the coast
plain to the keys of southern Florida and along the Gulf coast to
eastern Louisiana (Saint Tammany, Washington, southern Tangipahoa and
eastern Livingston Parishes); common on the Bahamas, on the Isle of
Pines, and on the lowlands of Honduras and eastern Guatemala; in the
coast region of the southern states gradually replacing the Long-leaved
Pine, _Pinus palustris_, Mill.


            13. Pinus tæda L. Loblolly Pine. Old Field Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 18]

Leaves slender, stiff, slightly twisted, pale green and somewhat
glaucous, 6′—9′ long, marked by 10—12 rows of large stomata on each
face, deciduous during their third year. Flowers opening from the middle
of March to the first of May; male crowded in short spikes, yellow;
female lateral below the apex of the growing shoot, solitary or
clustered, short-stalked, yellow. Fruit oblong-conic to ovoid-cylindric,
nearly sessile, 2′—6′ long, becoming light reddish brown, with thin
scales rounded at the apex and armed with short stout straight or
reflexed prickles, opening irregularly and discharging their seeds
during the autumn and winter, and usually persistent on the branches for
another year; seeds rhomboidal, full and rounded, ¼′ long, with a thin
dark brown rough shell blotched with black, and produced into broad thin
lateral margins, encircled to the base by the narrow border of their
thin pale brown lustrous wing broadest above the middle, 1′ long, about
¼′ wide.

A tree, generally 80°—100° high, with a tall straight trunk usually
about 2° but occasionally 5° in diameter, short thick much divided
branches, the lower spreading, the upper ascending and forming a compact
round-topped head, and comparatively slender glabrous branchlets brown
tinged with yellow during their first season and gradually growing
darker in their second year. Bark of the trunk ¾′—1½′ thick, bright
red-brown, and irregularly divided by shallow fissures into broad flat
ridges covered with large thin closely appressed scales. Wood weak,
brittle, coarse-grained, not durable, light brown, with orange-colored
or often nearly white sapwood, often composing nearly half the trunk;
largely manufactured into lumber, used for construction and the interior
finish of buildings.

Distribution. Cape May, New Jersey, through southern Delaware and
eastern Maryland and southward to the shores of Indian River and Tampa
Bay, Florida, westward to middle North Carolina and through South
Carolina and Georgia and the eastern Gulf states to the Mississippi
River, extending into southern Tennessee and northeastern Mississippi;
west of the Mississippi River from southern Arkansas and the
southwestern part of Oklahoma through western Louisiana to the shores of
the Gulf of Mexico, and through eastern Texas to the valley of the
Colorado River; on the Atlantic coast often springing up on lands
exhausted by agriculture; west of the Mississippi River one of the most
important timber-trees, frequently growing in nearly pure forests on
rolling uplands.


                   14. Pinus rigida Mill. Pitch Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 19]

Leaves stout, rigid, dark yellow-green, marked on the 3 faces by many
rows of stomata, 3′—5′ long, standing stiffly and at right angles with
the branch, deciduous during their second year. Flowers: male in short
crowded spikes, yellow or rarely purple; female often clustered and
raised on short stout stems, light green more or less tinged with rose
color. Fruit ovoid, acute at apex, nearly sessile, often clustered,
1′—3½′ long, becoming light brown, with thin flat scales armed with
recurved rigid prickles, often remaining on the branches for ten or
twelve years; seeds nearly triangular, full and rounded on the sides, ¼′
long, with a thin dark brown mottled roughened shell and wings broadest
below the middle, gradually narrowed to the very oblique apex, ¾′ long,
⅓′ wide.

A tree, 50°—60° or rarely 100° high, with a short trunk occasionally 3°
in diameter, thick contorted often pendulous branches covered with thick
much roughened bark, forming a round-topped thick head, often irregular
and picturesque, and stout bright green branchlets becoming dull orange
color during their first winter and dark gray-brown at the end of four
or five years; often fruitful when only a few feet high. Bark of young
stems thin and broken into plate-like dark red-brown scales, becoming on
old trunks ¾′—1½′ thick, deeply and irregularly fissured, and divided
into broad flat connected ridges separating on the surface into thick
dark red-brown scales often tinged with purple. Wood light, soft, not
strong, brittle, coarse-grained, very durable, light brown or red, with
thick yellow or often white sapwood; largely used for fuel and in the
manufacture of charcoal; occasionally sawed into lumber.

Distribution. Sandy plains and dry gravelly uplands, or less frequently
in cold deep swamps; island of Mt. Desert, Maine, to the northern shores
of Lake Ontario, and southward to southern Delaware and southern Ohio
(Scioto County) and along the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia
and to their western foothills in West Virginia, Kentucky, and
Tennessee; very abundant in the coast region south of Massachusetts;
sometimes forming pure forests in New Jersey and Pennsylvania.


        Pinus rigida var. serotina Loud. Pond Pine. Marsh Pine.

                        _Pinus serotina_ Michx.

[Illustration: Fig. 20]

Leaves in clusters of 3 or occasionally of 4, slender, flexuose, dark
yellow-green, 6′—8′ long, marked by numerous rows of stomata on the 3
faces, deciduous during their third and fourth years. Flowers: male in
crowded spikes, dark orange color; female clustered or in pairs on stout
stems. Fruit subglobose to ovoid, full and rounded or pointed at apex,
subsessile or short-stalked, horizontal or slightly declining, 2′—2½′
long, with thin nearly flat scales armed with slender incurved mostly
deciduous prickles, becoming light yellow-brown at maturity, often
remaining closed for one or two years and after opening long-persistent
on the branches; seeds nearly triangular, often ridged below, full and
rounded at the sides, ⅛′ long, with a thin nearly black roughened shell
produced into a wide border, the wings broadest at the middle, gradually
narrowed at the ends, ¾′ long, ¼′ wide.

A tree, usually 40°—50° or occasionally 70°—80° high, with a short trunk
sometimes 3° but generally not more than 2° in diameter, stout often
contorted branches more or less pendulous at the extremities, forming an
open round-topped head, and slender branchlets dark green when they
first appear, becoming dark orange color during their first winter and
dark brown or often nearly black at the end of four or five years. Bark
of the trunk ½′—¾′ thick, dark red-brown and irregularly divided by
narrow shallow fissures into small plates separating on the surface into
thin closely appressed scales. Wood very resinous, heavy, soft, brittle,
coarse-grained, dark orange color, with thick pale yellow sapwood;
occasionally manufactured into lumber.

Distribution. Low wet flats or sandy or peaty swamps; near Cape May, New
Jersey, and southeastern Virginia southward near the coast to northern
Florida and central Alabama.


                15. Pinus radiata D. Don. Monterey Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 21]

Leaves in 3, rarely in 2-leaved clusters, slender, bright rich green,
4′—6′ long, mostly deciduous during their third season. Flowers: male in
dense spikes, yellow; female clustered, dark purple. Fruit ovoid,
pointed at apex, very oblique at base, short-stalked, reflexed, 3′—7′
long, becoming deep chestnut-brown and lustrous, with scales much
thickened and mammillate toward the base on the outer side of the cone,
thinner on the inner side and at its apex, and armed with minute
thickened incurved or straight prickles, long-persistent and often
remaining closed on the branches for many years; seeds ellipsoidal,
compressed, ¼′ long, with a thin brittle rough nearly black shell, their
wings light brown, longitudinally striped, broadest above the middle,
gradually narrowed and oblique at apex, 1′ long, ¼′ wide.

A tree, usually 40°—60° rarely 100°—115° high, with a tall trunk usually
1°—2° but occasionally 4½° in diameter, spreading branches forming a
regular narrow open round-topped head, and slender branchlets light or
dark orange color, at first often covered with a glaucous bloom,
ultimately dark red-brown. Bark of the trunk 1½′—2′ thick, dark
red-brown, and deeply divided into broad flat ridges broken on the
surface into thick appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, not
strong, brittle, close-grained; occasionally used as fuel.

Distribution. In a narrow belt a few miles wide on the California coast
from Pescadero to the shores of San Simeon Bay; in San Luis Obispo
County near the village of Cambria; on the islands of Santa Rosa and
Santa Cruz of the Santa Barbara group; and on Guadaloupe Island off the
coast of Lower California; most abundant and of its largest size on
Point Pinos south of the Bay of Monterey, California.

Largely planted for the decoration of parks in western and southern
Europe, occasionally planted in the southeastern states and in Mexico,
Australia, New Zealand, and other regions with temperate climates, and
more generally in the coast region of the Pacific states from Vancouver
Island southward than any other Pine-tree.


               16. Pinus attenuata Lemm. Knob-cone Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 22]

Leaves slender, firm and rigid, pale yellow or bluish green, marked by
numerous rows of stomata on their 3 faces, 3′—7′, usually 4′—5′ long.
Flowers: male orange-brown; female fascicled, often with several
fascicles on the shoot of the year. Fruit elongated, conic, pointed,
very oblique at base by the greater development of the scales on the
outer side, whorled, short-stalked, strongly reflexed and incurved,
3′—6′ long, becoming light yellow-brown, with thin flat scales rounded
at apex, those on the outer side being enlarged into prominent
transversely flattened knobs armed with thick flattened incurved spines,
those on the inner side of the cone slightly thickened and armed with
minute recurved prickles, persistent on the stems and branches for
thirty or forty years, sometimes becoming completely imbedded in the
bark of old trunks, and usually not opening until the death of the tree;
seeds ellipsoidal, compressed, acute at apex, ¼′ long, with a thin
oblique shell, their wings broadest at the middle, gradually narrowed to
the ends, 1¼′ long, ⅓′ wide.

A tree, usually about 20° high, with a trunk a foot in diameter, and
often fruitful when only 4° or 5° tall; occasionally growing to the
height of 80°—100°, with a trunk 2½° thick, and frequently divided above
the middle into two ascending stems, slender branches arrangedin regular
whorls while the tree is young, and in old age forming a narrow
round-topped straggling head of sparse thin foliage, and slender dark
orange-brown branchlets growing darker during their second season. Bark
of young stems and branches thin, smooth, pale brown, becoming at the
base of old trunks ¼′—½′ thick and dark brown often tinged with purple,
slightly and irregularly divided by shallow fissures and broken into
large loose scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle,
coarse-grained, light brown, with thick sapwood sometimes slightly
tinged with red.

Distribution. Dry mountain slopes from the valley of the Mackenzie River
in Oregon over the mountains of southwestern Oregon, where it is most
abundant and grows to its largest size, often forming pure forests over
large areas, southward along the western slopes of the Cascade
Mountains; in California on the northern cross ranges, the coast ranges
from Trinity to Sonoma Counties, the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada
to Mariposa County, and over the southern coast ranges from Santa Cruz
to the dry arid southern slopes of the San Bernardino Mountains, where
it forms a belt between City and East Twin Creeks at an altitude of
3500° above the sea.


           17. Pinus Sabiniana Dougl. Digger Pine. Bull Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 23]

Leaves stout, flexible, pendant, pale blue-green, marked on each face
with numerous rows of pale stomata, 8′—12′ long, deciduous usually in
their third and fourth years. Flowers: male yellow; female on stout
peduncles, dark purple. Fruit oblong-ovoid, full and rounded at base,
pointed, becoming light reddish brown, 6′—10′ long, long-stalked,
pendulous, the scales narrowed into a stout incurved sharp hook,
strongly reflexed toward the base of the cone and armed with spur-like
incurved spines; seeds full and rounded below, somewhat compressed
toward the apex, ¾′ long, ⅓′ wide, dark brown or nearly black, with a
thick hard shell, encircled by their wings much thickened on the inner
rim, obliquely rounded at the broad apex and about ½ length of nuts.

A tree, usually 40°—50° but occasionally 80° high, with a trunk 3°—4° in
diameter, divided generally 15°—20° above the ground into 3 or 4 thick
secondary stems, clothed with short crooked branches pendant below and
ascending toward the summit of the tree, and forming an open
round-topped head remarkable for the sparseness of its foliage, and
stout pale glaucous branchlets, becoming dark brown or nearly black
during their second season. Bark of the trunk 1½′—2′ thick, dark brown
slightly tinged with red or nearly black and deeply and irregularly
divided into thick connected ridges covered with small closely appressed
scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, brittle, light
brown or red with thick nearly white sapwood. Abietine, a nearly
colorless aromatic liquid with the odor of oil of oranges, is obtained
by distilling the resinous juices. The large sweet slightly resinous
seeds formed an important article of food for the Indians of California.

Distribution. Scattered singly or in small groups over the dry foothills
of western California, ranging from 500° up to 4000° above the sea-level
and from the southern slopes of the northern cross ranges to the
Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra de la Liebre; most abundant and
attaining its largest size on the eastern foothills of the Sierra Nevada
near the centre of the state at elevations of about 2000°; here often
the most conspicuous feature of the vegetation.


                 18. Pinus Coulteri D. Don. Pitch Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 24]

Leaves tufted at the ends of the branches, stout, rigid, dark
blue-green, marked by numerous bands of stomata on the 3 faces, 6′—12′
long, deciduous during their third and fourth seasons. Flowers: male
yellow; female dark reddish brown. Fruit oblong-conic, short-stalked and
pendant, 10′—14′ long, becoming light yellow-brown, with thick broad
scales terminating in a broad, flat, incurved, hooked claw ½′—1½′ long,
gradually opening in the autumn and often persistent on the branches for
several years; seeds ellipsoidal, compressed, ½′ long, ¼′—⅓′ wide, dark
chestnut-brown, with a thick shell, inclosed by their wings, broadest
above the middle, oblique at apex, nearly 1′ longer than the seed, about
⅝′ wide.

A tree, 40°—90° high, with a trunk 1°—2½° in diameter, thick branches
covered with dark scaly bark, long and mostly pendulous below, short and
ascending above, and forming a loose unsymmetrical often picturesque
head, and very stout branchlets dark orange-brown at first, becoming
sometimes nearly black at the end of three or four years. Bark of the
trunk 1½′—2′ thick, dark brown or nearly black and deeply divided into
broad rounded connected ridges covered with thin closely appressed
scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, light
red, with thick nearly white sapwood; occasionally used for fuel. The
seeds were formerly gathered in large quantities and eaten by the
Indians of southern California.

Distribution. Scattered singly or in small groves through coniferous
forests on the dry slopes and ridges of the coast ranges of California
at elevations of 3000°—6000° above the sea, from Mount Diablo and the
Santa Lucia Mountains to the San Bernardino and Cuyamaca Mountains; and
on the Sierra del Pinal, Lower California; most abundant on the San
Bernardino and San Jacinto ranges at elevations of about 5000°.


             19. Pinus resinosa Ait. Red Pine. Norway Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 25]

Leaves slender, soft and flexible, dark green and lustrous, 5′—6′ long,
obscurely marked on the ventral faces by bands of minute stomata,
deciduous during their fourth and fifth seasons. Flowers: male in dense
spikes, dark purple; female terminal, short-stalked, scarlet. Fruit
ovoid-conic, subsessile, 2′—2¼′ long, with thin slightly concave scales,
unarmed, becoming light chestnut-brown and lustrous at maturity;
shedding their seeds early in the autumn and mostly persistent on the
branches until the following summer; seeds oval, compressed, ⅛′ long,
with a thin dark chestnut-brown more or less mottled shell and wings
broadest below the middle, oblique at apex, ¾′ long, ¼′—⅓′ broad.

A tree, usually 70°—80° or occasionally 120° high, with a tall straight
trunk 2°—3° or rarely 5° in diameter, thick spreading more or less
pendulous branches clothing the young stems to the ground and forming a
broad irregular pyramid, and in old age an open round-topped picturesque
head, and stout branchlets at first orange color, finally becoming light
reddish brown. Bark of the trunk ¾′—1¼′ thick and slightly divided by
shallow fissures into broad flat ridges covered by thin loose light
red-brown scales. Wood light, hard, very close-grained, pale red, with
thin yellow often nearly white sapwood; largely used in the construction
of bridges and buildings, for piles, masts, and spars. The bark is
occasionally used for tanning leather.

Distribution. Light sandy loam or dry rocky ridges, usually forming
groves rarely more than a few hundred acres in extent and scattered
through forests of other Pines and deciduous-leaved trees; occasionally
on sandy flats forming pure forests; Nova Scotia to Lake St. John,
westward through Quebec and central Ontario to the valley of the
Winnipeg River, and southward to eastern Massachusetts, the mountains of
northern Pennsylvania, and to central and southwestern (Port Huron)
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, most abundant, and growing to its
largest size in the northern parts of these states; rare and local in
eastern Massachusetts and southward.

Often planted for the decoration of parks, and the most desirable as an
ornamental tree of the Pitch Pines which flourish in the northern
states.


                  20. Pinus contorta Loud. Scrub Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 26]

Leaves dark green, slender, 1′—1½′ long, marked by 6—10 rows of stomata
on each face, mostly persistent 4—6 years. Flowers orange-red: male in
short crowded spikes; female clustered or in pairs on stout stalks.
Fruit ovoid to subcylindric, usually very oblique at base, horizontal or
declining, often clustered, ¾′—2′ long, with thin slightly concave
scales armed with long slender more or less recurved often deciduous
prickles, and toward the base of the cone especially on the upper side
developed into thick mammillate knobs, becoming light yellow-brown and
lustrous, sometimes opening and losing their seeds as soon as ripe, or
remaining closed on the branches and preserving the vitality of their
seeds for many years; seeds oblique at apex, acute below, about ⅙′ long,
with a thin brittle dark red-brown shell mottled with black and wings
widest above the base, gradually tapering toward the oblique apex, ½′
long.

A tree, sometimes fertile when only a few inches high, usually 15°—20°
or occasionally 30° tall, with a short trunk rarely more than 18′ in
diameter, comparatively thick branches forming a round-topped compact
and symmetrical or an open picturesque head, and stout branchlets light
orange color when they first appear, finally becoming dark red-brown or
occasionally almost black. Bark of the trunk ¾′—1′ thick, deeply and
irregularly divided by vertical and cross fissures into small oblong
plates covered with closely appressed dark red-brown scales tinged with
purple or orange color. Wood light, hard, strong although brittle,
coarse-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick nearly white
sapwood; occasionally used for fuel.

Distribution. Coast of Alaska, usually in sphagnum-covered bogs
southward in the immediate neighborhood of the coast to the valley of
the Albion River, Mendocino County, California; south of the northern
boundary of the United States generally inhabiting sand dunes and
barrens or occasionally near the shores of Puget Sound the margins of
tide pools and deep wet swamps; spreading inland and ascending the coast
ranges and western slopes of the Cascade Mountains, where it is not
common and where it gradually changes its habit and appearance, the
thick deeply furrowed bark of the coast form being found only near the
ground, while the bark higher on the stems is thin, light-colored, and
inclined to separate into scales, and the leaves are often longer and
broader. This is


        Pinus contorta var. latifolia S. Wats. Lodge-pole Pine.

               _Pinus contorta_ var. _Murrayana_ Engelm.

[Illustration: Fig. 27]

Leaves yellow-green, usually about 2′ long, although varying from 1′—3′
in length and from 1/16′ to nearly ⅛′ in width. Fruit occasionally
opening as soon as ripe but usually remaining closed and preserving the
vitality of the seeds sometimes for twenty years.

A tree, usually 70°—80° but often 150° high, with a trunk generally
2°—3° but occasionally 5°—6° in diameter, slender much-forked branches
frequently persistent nearly to the base of the stem, light
orange-colored during their early years, somewhat pendulous below,
ascending near the top of the tree, and forming a narrow pyramidal
spire-topped head. Bark of the trunk rarely more than ¼′ thick, close
and firm, light orange-brown and covered by small thin loosely appressed
scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, close, straight-grained and easily
worked, not durable, light yellow or nearly white, with thin lighter
colored sapwood; occasionally manufactured into lumber; also used for
railway-ties, mine-timbers, and for fuel.

Distribution. Common on the Yukon hills in the valley of the Yukon
River; on the interior plateau of northern British Columbia and eastward
to the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains, covering with dense
forests great areas in the basin of the Columbia River; forming forests
on both slopes of the Rocky Mountains of Montana; on the Yellowstone
plateau at elevations of 7000°-8000°; common on the mountains of
Wyoming, and extending southward to southern Colorado; the most abundant
coniferous tree of the northern Rocky Mountain region; common on the
ranges of eastern Washington and Oregon, on the mountains of northern
California, and southward along the Sierra Nevada, where it attains its
greatest size and beauty in alpine forests at elevations between 8000°
and 9500°; in southern California the principal tree at elevations
between 7000° and 10,000° on the high peaks of the San Bernardino and
San Jacinto Mountains; on the upper slopes of the San Pedro Mártir
Mountains, Lower California.


            21. Pinus Banksiana Lamb. Gray Pine. Jack Pine.

                  _Pinus divaricata_ Du Mont de Cours.

[Illustration: Fig. 28]

Leaves in remote clusters, stout, flat or slightly concave on the inner
face, at first light yellow-green, soon becoming dark green, ¾′—1¼′
long, gradually and irregularly deciduous in their second or third year.
Flowers: male in short crowded clusters, yellow; female clustered, dark
purple, often with 2 clusters produced on the same shoot. Fruit
oblong-conic, acute, oblique at base, sessile, usually erect and
strongly incurved, 1½′—2′ long, dull purple or green when fully grown,
becoming light yellow and lustrous, with thin stiff scales often
irregularly developed, and armed with minute incurved often deciduous
prickles; seeds nearly triangular, full and rounded on the sides, 1/12′
long, with an almost black roughened shell and wings broadest at the
middle, full and rounded at apex, ⅓′ long, ⅛′ wide.

A tree, frequently 70° high, with a straight trunk sometimes free of
branches for 20°—30° and rarely exceeding 2° in diameter, long spreading
branches forming an open symmetrical head, and slender tough flexible
pale yellow-green branchlets turning dark purple during their first
winter and darker the following year; often not more than 20°—30° tall,
with a stem 10′—12′ in diameter; generally fruiting when only a few
years old; sometimes shrubby with several low slender stems. Bark of the
trunk thin, dark brown slightly tinged with red, very irregularly
divided into narrow rounded connected ridges separating on the surface
into small thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong,
close-grained, clear pale brown or rarely orange color, with thick
nearly white sapwood; used for fuel and occasionally for railway-ties
and posts; occasionally manufactured into lumber.

Distribution. From Nova Scotia to the valley of the Athabasca River and
down the Mackenzie to about latitude 65° north, ranging southward to the
coast of Maine, northern New Hampshire and Vermont, the Island of
Nantucket (Wauwinet, _J. W. Harshburger_), northern New York, the shores
of Saginaw Bay, Michigan, the southern shores of Lake Michigan in
Illinois, the valley of the Wisconsin River, Wisconsin, and central and
southeastern Minnesota (with isolated groves in Root River valley, near
Rushford, Fillmore County); abundant in central Michigan, covering
tracts of barren lands; common and of large size in the region north of
Lake Superior; most abundant and of its greatest size west of Lake
Winnipeg and north of the Saskatchewan, here often spreading over great
areas of sandy sterile soil.


            22. Pinus glabra Walt. Spruce Pine. Cedar Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 29]

Leaves soft, slender, dark green, 1½′—3′ long, marked by numerous rows
of stomata, deciduous at the end of their second and in the spring of
their third year. Flowers: male in short crowded clusters, yellow;
female raised on slender slightly ascending peduncles. Fruit single or
in clusters of 2 or 3, reflexed on short stout stalks, subglobose to
oblong-ovoid, ½′—2′ long, becoming reddish brown and rather lustrous,
with thin slightly concave scales armed with minute straight or incurved
usually deciduous prickles; seeds nearly triangular, full and rounded on
the sides, ⅛′ long, with a thin dark gray shell mottled with black and
wings broadest below the middle, ⅝′ long, ¼′ wide.

A tree, usually 80°—100° or occasionally 120° high, with a trunk 2°—2½°
or rarely 3½° in diameter, comparatively small horizontal branches, and
slender flexible branchlets at first light red more or less tinged with
purple, ultimately dark reddish brown. Bark of young trees and upper
trunks smooth pale gray becoming on old stems ½′—¾′ thick, slightly and
irregularly divided by shallow fissures into flat connected ridges. Wood
light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, light brown, with thick
nearly white sapwood; occasionally used for fuel and rarely manufactured
into lumber.

Distribution. Valley of the lower Santee River, South Carolina to middle
and northwestern Florida; banks of the Alabama River, Dallas County,
Alabama; eastern and southwestern Mississippi, and sandy banks of
streams in northeastern Louisiana; usually growing singly or in small
groves; attaining its largest size and often occupying areas of
considerable extent in northwestern Florida.


        23. Pinus echinata Mill. Yellow Pine. Short-leaved Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 30]

Leaves in clusters of 2 and of 3, slender, flexible, dark blue-green,
3′—5′ long, beginning to fall at the end of their second season and
dropping irregularly until their fifth year. Flowers: male in short
crowded clusters, pale purple; female in clusters of 2 or 3 on stout
ascending stems, pale rose color. Fruit ovoid to oblong-conic,
subsessile and nearly horizontal or short-stalked and pendant, generally
clustered, 1½′—2½′ long, becoming dull brown, with thin scales nearly
flat below and rounded at the apex, armed with short straight or
somewhat recurved frequently deciduous prickles; seeds nearly
triangular, full and rounded on the sides, about 3/16′ long, with a thin
pale brown hard shell conspicuously mottled with black, their wings
broadest near the middle, ½′ long, ⅛′ wide.

A tree, usually 80°—100° occasionally 120° high, with a tall slightly
tapering trunk 3°—4° in diameter, a short pyramidal truncate head of
comparatively slender branches, and stout brittle pale green or
violet-colored branchlets covered at first with a glaucous bloom,
becoming dark red-brown tinged with purple before the end of the first
season, their bark beginning in the third year to separate into large
scales. Bark of the trunk ¾′—1′ thick and broken into large irregularly
shaped plates covered with small closely appressed light cinnamon-red
scales. Wood very variable in quality, and in the thickness of the
nearly white sapwood, heavy, hard, strong and usually coarse-grained,
orange-colored or yellow-brown; largely manufactured into lumber.

Distribution. Long Island (near Northport), and Staten Island, New York,
and southern Pennsylvania to northern Florida, and westward through the
Gulf states to eastern Texas, through Arkansas to southwestern Oklahoma
(near Page, Leflore County, _G. W. Stevens_) and to southern Missouri
and southwestern Illinois and to eastern Tennessee and western West
Virginia; most abundant and of its largest size west of the Mississippi
River.


          24. Pinus virginiana Mill. Jersey Pine. Scrub Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 31]

Leaves in remote clusters, stout, gray-green, 1½′—3′ long, marked by
many rows of minute stomata, gradually and irregularly deciduous during
their third and fourth years. Flowers: male in crowded clusters,
orange-brown; female on opposite spreading peduncles near the middle of
the shoots of the year, generally a little below and alternate with 1 or
2 lateral branchlets, pale green, 2′—3′ long, the scale-tips tinged with
rose color. Fruit ovoid-conic, often reflexed, dark red-brown and
lustrous, with thin nearly flat scales, and stout or slender persistent
prickles, opening in the autumn and slowly shedding their seeds, turning
dark reddish brown and remaining on the branches for three or four
years; seeds nearly oval, full and rounded, ¼′ long, with a thin pale
brown rough shell, their wings broadest at the middle, ⅓′ long, about ⅛′
wide.

A tree, usually 30°—40° high, with a short trunk rarely more than 18′ in
diameter, long horizontal or pendulous branches in remote whorls forming
a broad open often flat-topped pyramid, and slender tough flexible
branchlets at first pale green or green tinged with purple and covered
with a glaucous bloom, becoming purple and later light gray-brown;
toward the western limits of its range a tree frequently 100° tall, with
a trunk 2½°—3° in diameter. Bark of the trunk ¼′—½′ thick, broken by
shallow fissures into flat plate-like scales separating on the surface
into thin closely appressed dark brown scales tinged with red. Wood
light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, durable in contact
with the soil, light orange color, with thick nearly white sapwood;
often used for fuel and occasionally manufactured into lumber.

Distribution. Middle and southern New Jersey; Plymouth, Luzerne County,
and central, southern and western Pennsylvania to Columbia County,
Georgia, Dallas County, Alabama (near Selma, _T. G. Harbison_), and to
the hills of northeastern Mississippi (Bear Creek near its junction with
the Tennessee River, _E. N. Lowe_), through eastern and middle Tennessee
to western Kentucky and to southeastern and southern (Scioto County)
Ohio, and southern Indiana; usually small in the Atlantic states and
only on light sandy soil, spreading rapidly over exhausted fields; of
its largest size west of the Alleghany Mountains on the low hills of
southern Indiana.


             25. Pinus clausa Sarg. Sand Pine. Spruce Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 32]

Leaves slender, flexible, dark green, 2′—3½′ long, marked by 10—20 rows
of stomata, deciduous during their third and fourth years. Flowers: male
in short crowded spikes, dark orange color; female lateral on stout
peduncles. Fruit elongated ovoid-conic, often oblique at base, usually
clustered and reflexed, 2′—3½′ long, nearly sessile or short-stalked,
with convex scales armed with short stout straight or recurved prickles,
becoming dark yellow-brown in autumn; some of the cones opening at once,
others remaining closed for three or four years before liberating their
seeds, ultimately turning to an ashy gray color; others still unopened
becoming enveloped in the growing tissues of the stem and branches and
finally entirely covered by them; seeds nearly triangular, compressed,
¼′ long, with a black slightly roughened shell, their wings widest near
or below the middle, ¾′ long, about ¼′ wide.

A tree, usually 15°—20° high, with a stem rarely a foot in diameter,
generally clothed to the ground with wide-spreading branches forming a
bushy flat-topped head, and slender tough flexible branchlets, pale
yellow-green when they first appear, becoming light orange-brown and
ultimately ashy gray; occasionally growing to the height of 70°—80° with
a trunk 2° in diameter. Bark on the lower part of the trunk ⅓′—½′ thick,
deeply divided by narrow fissures into irregularly shaped generally
oblong plates separating on the surface into thin closely appressed
bright red-brown scales; on the upper part of the trunk and on the
branches thin, smooth, ashy gray. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle,
light orange color or yellow, with thick nearly white sapwood;
occasionally used for the masts of small vessels.

Distribution. Coast of the Gulf of Mexico from southern Alabama to Peace
Creek, western Florida; eastern Florida from the neighborhood of St.
Augustine to New River, Dade County, covering sandy wind-swept plains
near the coast; growing to its largest size and most abundant in the
interior of the peninsula (Lake and Orange Counties).


             26. Pinus muricata D. Don. Prickle-cone Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 33]

Leaves in crowded clusters, thick, rigid, dark yellow-green, 4′—6′ long,
beginning to fall in their second year. Flowers: male in elongated
spikes, orange-colored; female short-stalked, whorled, 2 whorls often
being produced on the shoot of the year. Fruit ovoid, oblique at base,
sessile, in clusters of 3—5 or sometimes of 7, 2′—3½′ but usually about
3′ long, becoming light chestnut-brown and lustrous, with scales much
thickened on the outside of the cone, those toward its base produced
into stout incurved knobs sometimes armed with stout flattened spur-like
often incurved spines, and on the inside of the cone slightly flattened
and armed with stout or slender straight prickles; often remaining
closed for several years and usually persistent on the stem and branches
during the entire life of the tree without becoming imbedded in the
wood; seeds nearly triangular, ¼′ long, with a thin nearly black
roughened shell, their wings broadest above the middle, oblique at apex,
nearly 1′ long, ⅛′ wide.

A tree, usually 40°—50° but occasionally 90° high, with a trunk 2°—3° in
diameter, thick spreading branches covered with dark scaly bark, in
youth forming a regular pyramid, and at maturity a handsome compact
round-topped head of dense tufted foliage, and stout branchlets dark
orange-green at first, turning orange-brown more or less tinged with
purple. Bark of the lower part of the trunk often 4′—6′ thick and deeply
divided into long narrow rounded ridges roughened by closely appressed
dark purplish brown scales. Wood light, very strong, hard, rather
coarse-grained, light brown, with thick nearly white sapwood;
occasionally manufactured into lumber.

Distribution. California coast region from Mendocino County southward,
usually in widely separated localities to Point Reyes Peninsula, north
of the Bay of San Francisco, and from Monterey to Coon Creek, San Luis
Obispo County; in Lower California on Cedros Island and on the west
coast between Ensenada and San Quentin; of its largest size and the
common Pine-tree on the coast of Mendocino County.


       27. Pinus pungens Lamb. Table Mountain Pine. Hickory Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 34]

Leaves in crowded clusters, rigid, usually twisted, dark blue-green,
1¼′—2½′ long, deciduous during their second and third years. Flowers:
male in elongated loose spikes, yellow; female clustered, long-stalked.
Fruit ovoid-conic, oblique at base by the greater development of the
scales on the outer than on the inner side, sessile, reflexed, in
clusters usually of 3 or 4, or rarely of 7 or 8, 2′—3½′ long, becoming
light brown and lustrous, with thin tough scales armed with stout hooked
curved spines produced from much thickened mammillate knobs, opening as
soon as ripe and gradually shedding their seeds, or often remaining
closed for two or three years longer, and frequently persistent on the
branches for eighteen or twenty years; seeds almost triangular, full and
rounded on the sides, nearly ¼′ long, with a thin conspicuously
roughened light brown shell, their wings widest below the middle,
gradually narrowed to the ends, 1′ long, ¼′ wide.

A tree, when crowded in the forest occasionally 60° high, with a trunk
2°—3° in diameter, and a few short branches near the summit forming a
narrow round-topped head; in open ground usually 20°—30° tall, and often
fertile when only a few feet high, with a short thick trunk frequently
clothed to the ground, and long horizontal branches, the lower pendulous
toward the extremities, the upper sweeping in graceful upward curves and
forming a flat-topped often irregular head, and stout branchlets, light
orange color when they first appear, soon growing darker and ultimately
dark brown. Bark on the lower part of the trunk ¾′—1′ thick and broken
into irregularly shaped plates separating on the surface into thin loose
dark brown scales tinged with red, higher on the stem, and on the
branches dark brown and broken into thin loose scales. Wood light, soft,
not strong, brittle, very coarse-grained, pale brown, with thick nearly
white sapwood; somewhat used for fuel, and in Pennsylvania manufactured
into charcoal.

Distribution. Dry gravelly slopes and ridges of the Appalachian
Mountains from southern Pennsylvania to North Carolina, eastern
Tennessee and northern Georgia, sometimes ascending to elevations of
3000°, with isolated outlying stations in eastern Pennsylvania, western
New Jersey, Maryland, the District of Columbia and Virginia; often
forming toward the southern limits of its range pure forests of
considerable extent.


                 28. Pinus Torreyana Carr. Torrey Pine.

[Illustration: Fig. 35]

Leaves forming great tufts at the ends of the branches, stout, dark
green, conspicuously marked on the 3 faces by numerous rows of stomata,
8′—13′ long. Flowers from January to March; male yellow, in short dense
heads; female subterminal on long stout peduncles. Fruit broad-ovoid,
spreading or reflexed on long stalks, 4′—6′ in length, becoming deep
chestnut-brown, with thick scales armed with minute spines; mostly
deciduous in their fourth year and in falling leaving a few of the
barren scales on the stalk attached to the branch; seeds oval, more or
less angled, ¾′—1′ long, dull brown and mottled on the lower side, light
yellow-brown on the upper side, with a thick hard shell, nearly
surrounded by their dark brown wings often nearly ½′ long.

A tree, usually 30°—40° high, with a short trunk about 1° in diameter,
or occasionally 50°—60° tall, with a long straight slightly tapering
stem 2½° in diameter, stout spreading and often ascending branches, and
very stout branchlets bright green in their first season, becoming light
purple and covered with a metallic bloom the following year, ultimately
nearly black. Bark ¾′—1′ thick, deeply and irregularly divided into
broad flat ridges covered by large thin closely appressed light
red-brown scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, light
yellow, with thick yellow or nearly white sapwood; occasionally used for
fuel. The large edible seeds are gathered in large quantities and are
eaten raw or roasted.

Distribution. Only in a narrow belt a few miles long on the coast near
the mouth of the Soledad River just north of San Diego and on the island
of Santa Rosa, California; the least widely distributed Pine-tree of the
United States.

Now planted in the parks of San Diego, California, and in New Zealand,
growing rapidly in cultivation, and promising to attain a much larger
size than on its native cliffs.



                         2. LARIX Adans. Larch.


Tall pyramidal trees, with thick sometimes furrowed scaly bark, heavy
heartwood, thin pale sapwood, slender remote horizontal often pendulous
branches, elongated leading branchlets, short thick spur-like lateral
branchlets, and small subglobose buds, their inner scales accrescent and
marking the lateral branchlets with prominent ring-like scars. Leaves
awl-shaped, triangular and rounded above, or rarely 4-angled, spirally
disposed and remote on leading shoots, on lateral branchlets in crowded
fascicles, each leaf in the axil of a deciduous bud-scale, deciduous.
Flowers solitary, terminal, the staminate globose, oval or oblong,
sessile or stalked, on leafless branches, yellow, composed of numerous
spirally arranged anthers with connectives produced above them into
short points, the pistillate appearing with the leaves, short-oblong to
oblong, composed of few or many green nearly orbicular stalked scales in
the axes of much longer mucronate usually scarlet bracts. Fruit a woody
ovoid-oblong conic or subglobose short-stalked cone composed of slightly
thickened suborbicular or oblong-obovate concave scales, shorter or
longer than their bracts, gradually decreasing from the centre to the
ends of the cone, the small scales usually sterile. Seeds nearly
triangular, rounded on the sides, shorter than their wings; the outer
seed-coat crustaceous, light brown, the inner membranaceous, pale
chestnut-brown and lustrous; cotyledons usually 6, much shorter than the
inferior radicle.

Larix is widely distributed over the northern and mountainous region of
the northern hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to the mountains of West
Virginia and Oregon in the New World, and to central Europe, the
Himalayas, Siberia, Korea, western China, and Japan in the Old World.
Ten species are recognized. Of the exotic species the European _Larix
decidua_, Mill., has been much planted for timber and ornament in the
northeastern states, where the Japanese _Larix Kœmpferi_, Sarg., also
flourishes.

_Larix_ is the classical name of the Larch-tree.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Cones small, subglobose; their scales few, longer than the bracts,
        leaves triangular.
                                               1. L. laricina (A, B, F).
  Cones elongated; their scales numerous, shorter than the bracts.
    Young branchlets pubescent, soon becoming glabrous; leaves
          triangular.
                                              2. L. occidentalis (B, G).
    Young branchlets tomentose; leaves 4-angled.
                                                   3. L. Lyallii (B, F).


              1. Larix laricina K. Koch. Tamarack. Larch.

                        _Larix americana_ Michx.

[Illustration: Fig. 36]

Leaves linear, triangular, rounded above, prominently keeled on the
lower surface, ¾′—1¼′ long, bright green, conspicuously stomatiferous
when they first appear; turning yellow and falling in September or
October. Flowers: male subglobose and sessile; female oblong, with
light-colored bracts produced into elongated green tips, and nearly
orbicular rose-red scales. Fruit on stout incurved stems, subglobose,
rather obtuse, ½′—¾′ long, composed of about 20 scales slightly erose on
their nearly entire margins, rather longer than broad and twice as long
as their bracts, bright chestnut-brown at maturity; usually falling
during their second year; seeds ⅛′ long, about one third as long as
their light chestnut-brown wings broadest near the middle and obliquely
rounded at apex.

A tree, 50°—60° high, with a trunk 18′—20′ in diameter, small horizontal
branches forming during the early life of the tree a narrow regular
pyramidal head always characteristic of this tree when crowded in the
forest, or with abundant space sweeping out in graceful curves, often
becoming contorted and pendulous and forming a broad open frequently
picturesque head, and slender leading branchlets often covered at first
with a glaucous bloom, becoming light orange-brown during their first
winter and conspicuous from the small globose dark red lustrous buds.
Bark ½′—¾′ thick, separating into thin closely appressed rather bright
reddish brown scales. Wood heavy, hard, very strong, rather
coarse-grained, very durable, light brown; largely used for the upper
knees of small vessels, fence-posts, telegraph-poles, and railway-ties.

Distribution. At the north often on well-drained uplands, southward in
cold deep swamps which it often clothes with forests of closely crowded
trees, from Labrador to the Arctic Circle, ranging west of the Rocky
Mountains to latitude 65° 35′ north, and southward through Canada and
the northern states to northern and eastern Pennsylvania, Garrett
County, Maryland (Oakland to Thayerville), and Preston County, West
Virginia (Cranesville Swamp), northern Indiana and Illinois, and
northeastern Minnesota; along the eastern foothills of the Rocky
Mountains to about latitude 53° and between the Yukon River and Cook
Inlet, Alaska (_Larix alaskensis_ Wight.); very abundant in the interior
of Labrador, where it is the largest tree; common along the margins of
the barren lands stretching beyond the sub-Arctic forest to the shores
of the Arctic Sea; attaining its largest size north of Lake Winnipeg on
low benches which it occasionally covers with open forests; on the
eastern slopes of the northern Rocky Mountains usually at elevation from
600°—1700° above the sea; rare and local toward the southern limits of
its range.

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the northeastern states,
growing rapidly and attaining in cultivation a large size and
picturesque habit.


                 2. Larix occidentalis Nutt. Tamarack.

[Illustration: Fig. 37]

Leaves triangular, rounded on the back, conspicuously keeled below,
rigid, sharp-pointed, 1′—1¾′ long, about 1/32′ wide, light pale green,
turning pale yellow early in the autumn. Flowers: male short-oblong;
female oblong, nearly sessile, with orbicular scales and bracts produced
into elongated tips. Fruit oblong, short-stalked, 1′—1½′ long, with
numerous thin stiff scales nearly entire and sometimes a little reflexed
on their margins, much shorter than their bracts, more or less thickly
coated on the lower surface below the middle with hoary tomentum, and
standing after the escape of the seeds at right angles to the axis of
the cone, or often becoming reflexed; seeds nearly ¼′ long, with a pale
brown shell, one half to two thirds as long as the thin fragile pale
wings broadest near the middle and obliquely rounded at apex.

A tree, sometimes 180° high, with a tall tapering naked trunk 6°—8° in
diameter, or on dry soil and exposed mountain slopes usually not more
than 100° tall, with a short narrow pyramidal head of small branches
clothed with scanty foliage, or occasionally with a larger crown of
elongated drooping branches, stout branchlets covered when they first
appear with soft pale pubescence, usually soon glabrous, bright
orange-brown in their first year, ultimately becoming dark gray-brown,
and dark chestnut-brown winter-buds about ⅛′ in diameter. Bark of young
stems thin, dark-colored and scaly, becoming near the base of old trunks
5′ or 6′ thick and broken into irregularly shaped oblong plates often 2°
long and covered with thin closely appressed light cinnamon-red scales.
Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard and strong, close-grained, very
durable in contact with the soil, bright light red, with thin nearly
white sapwood; largely used for railway-ties and fence-posts, and
manufactured into lumber used in cabinet-making and the interior finish
of buildings.

Distribution. Moist bottom-lands and on high benches and dry mountain
sides generally at elevations between 2000° and 7000° above sea-level,
usually singly or in small groves, through the basin of the upper
Columbia River from southern British Columbia to the western slopes of
the continental divide of northern Montana, and to the eastern slopes of
the Cascade Mountains of Washington and northern Oregon; most abundant
and of its largest size on the bottom-lands of streams flowing into Flat
Head Lake in northern Montana, and in northern Idaho.

Occasionally planted in the eastern states and in Europe, but in
cultivation showing little promise of attaining a large size or becoming
a valuable ornamental or timber-tree.


                    3. Larix Lyallii Parl. Tamarack.

[Illustration: Fig. 38]

Leaves 4-angled, rigid, short-pointed, pale blue-green, 1′—1½′ long.
Flowers: male short-oblong; female ovoid-oblong, with dark red or
occasionally pale yellow-green scales and dark purple bracts abruptly
contracted into elongated slender tips. Fruit ovoid, rather acute,
1½′—2′ long, subsessile or raised on a slender stalk coated with hoary
tomentum, with dark reddish purple or rarely green erose scales, fringed
and covered on their lower surface with matted hairs at maturity
spreading nearly at right angles and finally much reflexed, much shorter
than their dark purple very conspicuous long-tipped bracts; seeds full
and rounded on the sides, ⅛′ long and about half as long as their light
red lustrous wings broadest near the base with nearly parallel sides.

A tree, usually 25°—50° high, with a trunk generally 18′—20′ but rarely
3°—4° in diameter, and remote elongated exceedingly tough persistent
branches sometimes pendulous, developing very irregularly and often
abruptly ascending at the extremities, stout branchlets coated with
hoary tomentum usually persistent until after their second winter,
ultimately becoming nearly black, and prominent winter-buds with
conspicuous long white matted hairs fringing the margins of their scales
and often almost entirely covering the bud. Bark of young trees and of
the branches thin, rather lustrous, smooth, and pale gray tinged with
yellow, becoming loose and scaly on larger stems and on the large
branches of old trees, and on fully grown trunks ½′—¾′ thick and
slightly divided by shallow fissures into irregularly shaped plates
covered by thin dark-red brown loosely attached scales. Wood heavy,
hard, coarse-grained, light reddish brown.

Distribution. Near the timber-line on mountain slopes at elevations of
4000°—8000°, from southern Alberta on the eastern slope of the Rocky
Mountains and from the interior of southern British Columbia, southward
along the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains of northern Washington
to Mt. Stewart at the head of the north fork of the Yakima River, and
along the continental divide to the middle fork of Sun River, Montana,
forming here a forest of considerable size at elevations of 7000°—8000°,
and on the Bitter Root Mountains to the headwaters of the south fork of
the Clearwater River, Idaho.



                        3. PICEA Dietr. Spruce.


Pyramidal trees, with tall tapering trunks often stoutly buttressed at
the base, thin scaly bark, soft pale wood containing numerous
resin-canals, slender whorled twice or thrice ramified branches, their
ultimate divisions stout, glabrous or pubescent, and leaf-buds usually
in 3’s, the 2 lateral in the axils of upper leaves. Leaves linear,
spirally disposed, extending out from the branch on all sides or
occasionally appearing 2-ranked by the twisting of those on its lower
side, mostly pointing to the end of the branch, entire, articulate on
prominent persistent rhomboid ultimately woody bases, keeled above and
below, 4-sided and stomatiferous on the 4 sides, or flattened and
stomatiferous on the upper and occasionally on the lower side,
persistent from seven to ten years, deciduous in drying. Flowers
terminal or in the axils of upper leaves, the male usually long-stalked,
composed of numerous spirally arranged anthers with connectives produced
into broad nearly circular toothed crests, the female oblong, oval or
cylindric, with rounded or pointed scales, each in the axis of an
accrescent bract shorter than the scale at maturity. Fruit an ovoid or
oblong, cylindric pendant cone, crowded on the upper branches or in some
species scattered over the upper half of the tree. Seeds ovoid or
oblong, usually acute at base, much shorter than their wings; outer
seed-coat crustaceous, light or dark brown, the inner membranaceous,
pale chestnut-brown; cotyledons 4—15.

Picea is widely distributed through the colder and temperate regions of
the northern hemisphere, some species forming great forests on plains
and high mountain slopes. Thirty-seven species are now recognized,
ranging from the Arctic Circle to the slopes of the southern Appalachian
Mountains and to those of northern New Mexico and Arizona in the New
World, and to central and southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, the
Himalayas, western China, Formosa and Japan. Of exotic species the
so-called Norway Spruce, _Picea Abies_ Karst., one of the most valuable
timber-trees of Europe, has been largely planted for ornament and
shelter in the eastern states, where the Caucasian _Picea orientalis_
Carr., and some of the Japanese species also flourish.

_Picea_ was probably the classical name of the Spruce-tree.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Leaves 4-sided, with stomata on the 4 sides.
    Cone-scales rounded at apex.
      Cone-scales stiff and rigid at maturity; branchlets pubescent.
        Cones ovoid on strongly incurved stalks, persistent for many
              years, their scales erose or dentate; leaves blue-green.
                                                1. P. mariana (A, B, F).
        Cones ovoid-oblong, early deciduous, their scales entire or
              denticulate; leaves dark yellow-green.
                                                        2. P. rubra (A).
      Cone-scales soft and flexible at maturity; branchlets glabrous;
            cones oblong-cylindric, slender, their scales entire; leaves
            blue-green.
                                                 3. P. glauca (A, B, F).
    Cone-scales truncate or acute at apex, oblong or rhombic; leaves
          blue-green.
      Cones oblong-cylindric or ellipsoidal; branchlets pubescent;
            leaves soft and flexible.
                                            4. P. Engelmannii (F, B, G).
      Cones oblong-cylindric; branchlets glabrous; leaves rigid,
            spinescent.
                                                      5. P. pungens (F).
  Leaves flattened, usually with stomata only on the upper surface;
        cone-scales rounded.
    Cone-scales ovate, entire; branchlets pubescent; cones ellipsoidal,
          leaves obtuse.
                                                   6. P. Breweriana (G).
    Cone-scales elliptic, denticulate above the middle; branchlets
          glabrous; cones oblong-cylindric, leaves acute or acuminate,
          with stomata occasionally on the lower surface.
                                                7. P. sitchensis (B, G).


                1. Picea mariana B. S. P. Black Spruce.

[Illustration: Fig. 39]

Leaves slightly incurved above the middle, abruptly contracted at apex
into short callous tips, pale blue-green and glaucous at maturity, ¼′—¾′
long, hoary on the upper surface from the broad bands of stomata, and
lustrous and slightly stomatiferous on the lower surface. Flowers: male
subglobose, with dark red anthers; female oblong-cylindric, with obovate
purple scales rounded above, and oblong purple glaucous bracts rounded
and denticulate at apex. Fruit ovoid, pointed, gradually narrowed at the
base into short strongly incurved stalks, ½′—1½′ long, with rigid
puberulous scales rounded or rarely somewhat pointed at apex and more or
less erose on the notched pale margins, turning as they ripen dull
gray-brown and becoming as the scales gradually open and slowly
discharge their seeds almost globose; sometimes remaining on the
branches for twenty or thirty years, the oldest close to the base of the
branches near the trunk; seeds oblong, narrowed to the acute base, about
⅛′ long, very dark brown, with delicate pale brown wings broadest above
the middle, very oblique at the apex, about ½′ long, ⅛′ wide.

A tree, usually 20°—30° and occasionally 100° high, with a trunk 6′—12′
and rarely 3° in diameter, and comparatively short branches generally
pendulous with upward curves, forming an open irregular crown, light
green branchlets coated with pale pubescence, soon beginning to grow
darker, and during their first winter light cinnamon-brown and covered
with short rusty pubescence, their thin brown bark gradually becoming
glabrous and beginning to break into small thin scales during their
second year; at the extreme north sometimes cone-bearing when only 2°—3°
high. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, light reddish brown, puberulous, about
⅛′ long. Bark ¼′—½′ thick and broken on the surface into thin rather
closely appressed gray-brown scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, pale
yellow-white, with thin sapwood; probably rarely used outside of
Manitoba and Saskatchewan, except in the manufacture of paper pulp.
Spruce-gum, the resinous exudations of the Spruce-trees of northeastern
America, is gathered in considerable quantities principally in northern
New England and Canada, and is used as a masticatory. Spruce-beer is
made by boiling the branches of the Black and Red Spruces.

Distribution. At the north on well-drained bottom-lands and the slopes
of barren stony hills, and southward in sphagnum-covered bogs, swamps,
and on their borders, from Labrador to the valley of the Mackenzie River
in about latitude 65° north, and, crossing the Rocky Mountains, through
the interior of Alaska to the valley of White River; southward through
Newfoundland, the maritime provinces, eastern Canada and the
northeastern United States to central Pennsylvania, and along the
Alleghany Mountains to northern Virginia; and from the eastern foothills
of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, through northern Saskatchewan and
northern Manitoba, and south to northeastern and northern Minnesota, and
central Wisconsin and Michigan; very abundant at the far north and the
largest coniferous tree of Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba, covering
here large areas and growing to its largest size; common in Newfoundland
and all the provinces of eastern Canada except southern Ontario; in the
United States less abundant, of small size, and usually only in cold
sphagnum swamps (var. _brevifolia_ Rehd.)

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree, the Black Spruce is
short-lived in cultivation and one of the least desirable of all
Spruce-trees for the decoration of parks and gardens.


                    2. Picea rubra Link. Red Spruce.

                          _Picea rubens_ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 40]

Leaves more or less incurved above the middle, acute or rounded and
furnished at the apex with short callous points, dark green often
slightly tinged with yellow, very lustrous, marked on the upper surface
by 4 rows and on the lower less conspicuously by 2 rows of stomata on
each side of the prominent midrib, ½′—⅝′ long, nearly 1/16′ wide.
Flowers: male oval, almost sessile, bright red; female oblong-cylindric,
with thin rounded scales reflexed and slightly erose on their margins,
and obovate bracts rounded and laciniate above. Fruit on very short
straight or incurved stalks, ovoid-oblong, gradually narrowed from near
the middle to the acute apex, 1¼′—2′ long, with rigid puberulous scales
entire or slightly toothed at the apex; bright green or green somewhat
tinged with purple when fully grown, becoming light reddish brown and
lustrous at maturity, beginning to fall as soon as the scales open in
the autumn or early winter, and generally disappearing from the branches
the following summer; seeds dark brown, about ⅛′ long, with short broad
wings full and rounded above the middle.

A tree, usually 70°—80° and occasionally 100° high, with a trunk 2°—3°
in diameter, branches long-persistent on the stem and clothing it to the
ground, forming a narrow rather conical head, or soon disappearing below
from trees crowded in the forest, stout pubescent light green
branchlets, becoming bright reddish brown or orange-brown during their
first winter, glabrous the following year, and covered in their third or
fourth year with scaly bark. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, ¼′—⅓′ long, with
light reddish brown scales. Bark ¼′—½′ thick, and broken into thin
closely appressed irregularly shaped red-brown scales. Wood light, soft,
close-grained, not strong, pale slightly tinged with red, with paler
sapwood usually about 2′ thick; largely manufactured into lumber in the
northeastern states, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, and used for the
flooring and construction of houses, for the sounding-boards of musical
instruments, and in the manufacture of paper-pulp.

Distribution. Well-drained uplands and mountain slopes, often forming a
large part of extensive forests, from Prince Edward Island and the
valley of the St. Lawrence southward to the coast of Massachusetts,
along the interior hilly part of New England, New York, and northern
Pennsylvania and on the slopes of the Alleghany Mountains at elevations
above 2500 feet from West Virginia to North Carolina and Tennessee.

Occasionally planted in the eastern states and in Europe as an
ornamental tree, but growing in cultivation more slowly than any other
Spruce-tree.


                  3. Picea glauca Voss. White Spruce.

                      _Picea canadensis_ B. S. P.

[Illustration: Fig. 41]

Leaves crowded on the upper side of the branches by the twisting of
those on the lower side, incurved, acute or acuminate with rigid callous
tips, pale blue and hoary when they first appear, becoming dark
blue-green or pale blue, marked on each of the 4 sides by 3 or 4 rows of
stomata, ⅓′—¾′ long. Flowers: male pale red, soon appearing yellow from
the thick covering of pollen; female oblong-cylindric, with round nearly
entire pale red or yellow-green scales, broader than long, and nearly
orbicular denticulate bracts. Fruit nearly sessile or borne on short
thin straight stems, oblong-cylindric, slender, slightly narrowed to the
ends, rather obtuse at apex, usually about 2′ long, pale green sometimes
tinged with red when fully grown, becoming at maturity pale brown and
lustrous, with nearly orbicular scales, rounded, truncate, and slightly
emarginate, or rarely narrowed at apex, and very thin, flexible and
elastic at maturity, usually deciduous in the autumn or during the
following winter; seeds about ⅛′ long, pale brown, with narrow wings
gradually widened from the base to above the middle and very oblique at
the apex.

A tree, with disagreeable smelling foliage, rarely more than 60°—70°
tall, with a trunk not more than 2° in diameter, long comparatively
thick branches densely clothed with stout rigid laterals sweeping out in
graceful upward curves, and forming a broad-based rather open pyramid
often obtuse at the apex, stout glabrous branchlets orange-brown during
their first autumn and winter, gradually growing darker grayish brown.
Winter-buds broadly ovoid, obtuse, covered by light chestnut-brown
scales with thin often reflexed ciliate margins. Bark ¼′—½′ thick,
separating irregularly into thin plate-like light gray scales more or
less tinged with brown. Wood light, soft, not strong, straight-grained
light yellow, with hardly distinguishable sapwood; manufactured into
lumber in the eastern provinces of Canada and in Alaska, and used in
construction, for the interior finish of buildings, and for paper-pulp.

Distribution. Banks and borders of streams and lakes, ocean cliffs, and
in the north the rocky slopes of low hills, from Labrador along the
northern frontier of the forest nearly to the shores of the Arctic Sea,
reaching Behring Strait in 66° 44′ north latitude, and southward down
the Atlantic coast to southern Maine, northern New Hampshire, Vermont,
and New York, shores of Saginaw Bay, Michigan, northern Wisconsin and
Minnesota, and through the interior of Alaska.

The variety (var. _albertiana_ Sarg.) of the Gaspé Peninsula and the
valleys of the Black Hills of South Dakota and of the Rocky Mountains of
northern Wyoming, Montana, Alberta and northward, is a tree with a
narrow pyramidal head, sometimes 150° high, with a trunk 3° to 4° in
diameter, and shorter and rather broader cones than those of the typical
White Spruce of the east, although not shorter or as short as the cones
of that tree in the extreme north.

Often planted in Canada, northern New England, and northern Europe as an
ornamental tree; in southern New England and southward suffering from
heat and dryness.


      4. Picea Engelmannii Engelm. White Spruce. Engelmann Spruce.

[Illustration: Fig. 42]

Leaves soft and flexible, with acute callous tips, slender, nearly
straight or slightly incurved on vigorous sterile branches, stouter,
shorter, and more incurved on fertile branches, 1′—1⅛′ long, marked on
each face by 3—5 rows of stomata, covered at first with a glaucous
bloom, soon becoming dark blue-green or pale steel-blue. Flowers: male
dark purple; female bright scarlet, with pointed or rounded and more or
less divided scales, and oblong bracts rounded or acute or acuminate and
denticulate at apex or obovate-oblong and abruptly acuminate. Fruit
oblong-cylindric to ellipsoidal, gradually narrowed to the ends, usually
about 2′ long, sessile or very short-stalked, produced in great numbers
on the upper branches, horizontal and ultimately pendulous, light green
somewhat tinged with scarlet when fully grown, becoming light
chestnut-brown and lustrous, with thin flexible slightly concave scales,
generally erose-dentate or rarely almost entire on the margins, usually
broadest at the middle, wedge-shaped below, and gradually contracted
above into a truncate or acute apex, or occasionally obovate and rounded
above; mostly deciduous in the autumn or early in their first winter
soon after the escape of the seeds; seeds obtuse at the base, nearly
black, about ⅛′ long and much shorter than their broad very oblique
wings.

A tree, with disagreeable smelling foliage sometimes 120° high, with a
trunk 3° in diameter, spreading branches produced in regular whorls and
forming a narrow compact pyramidal head, gracefully hanging short
lateral branches, and comparatively slender branchlets pubescent for
three or four years, light or dark orange-brown or gray tinged with
brown during their first winter, their bark beginning to separate into
small flaky scales in their fourth or fifth year; at its highest
altitudes low and stunted with elongated branches pressed close to the
ground. Winter-buds conic or slightly obtuse, with pale chestnut-brown
scales scarious and often free and slightly reflexed on the margins.
Bark ¼′—½′ thick, light cinnamon-red, and broken into large thin loose
scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, pale yellow tinged
with red, with thick hardly distinguishable sapwood; largely
manufactured into lumber used in the construction of buildings; also
employed for fuel and charcoal. The bark is sometimes employed in
tanning leather.

Distribution. High mountain slopes, often forming great forests from the
mountains of Alberta, British Columbia and Alaska, southward over the
interior mountain systems of the continent to southern New Mexico (the
Sacramento Mountains) and northern Arizona, from elevations of 5000° at
the north up to 11,500° and occasionally to 12,000° at the south, and
westward through Montana and Idaho to the eastern slopes of the Cascade
Mountains of Washington and Oregon; attaining its greatest size and
beauty north of the northern boundary of the United States.

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the New England states and
northern Europe, where it grows vigorously and promises to attain a
large size; usually injured in western Europe by spring frosts.


         5. Picea pungens Englm. Blue Spruce. Colorado Spruce.

                         _Picea Parryana_ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 43]

Leaves strongly incurved, especially those on the upper side of the
branches, stout, rigid, acuminate and tipped with long callous sharp
points, 1′—1⅛′ long on sterile branches, often not more than half as
long on the fertile branches of old trees, marked on each side by 4—7
rows of stomata, dull bluish green on some individuals and light or dark
steel-blue or silvery white on others, the blue colors gradually
changing to dull blue-green at the end of three or four years. Flowers:
male yellow tinged with red; female with broad oblong or slightly
obovate pale green scales truncate or slightly emarginate at the
denticulate apex, and acute bracts. Fruit produced on the upper third of
the tree, sessile or short-stalked, oblong-cylindric, slightly narrowed
at the ends, usually about 3′ long, green more or less tinged with red
when fully grown at midsummer, becoming pale chestnut-brown and
lustrous, with flat tough rhombic scales flexuose on the margins, and
acute, rounded or truncate at the elongated erose apex; seeds ⅛′ long or
about half the length of their wings, gradually widening to above the
middle and full and rounded at apex.

A tree, usually 80°—100° or occasionally 150° high, with a trunk rarely
3° in diameter and occasionally divided into 3 or 4 stout secondary
stems, rigid horizontal branches disposed on young trees in remote
whorls and decreasing regularly in length from below upward, the short
stout stiff branchlets pointing forward and making flat-topped masses of
foliage; branches on old trees short and remote, with stout lateral
branches forming a thin ragged pyramidal crown; branchlets stout, rigid,
glabrous, pale glaucous green, becoming bright orange-brown during the
first winter and ultimately light grayish brown. Winter-buds stout,
obtuse or rarely acute, ¼′—½′ long, with thin pale chestnut-brown scales
usually reflexed on the margins. Bark of young trees gray or gray tinged
with cinnamon-red and broken into small oblong plate-like scales,
becoming on the lower part of old trunks ¾′—1½′ thick and deeply divided
into broad rounded ridges covered with small closely appressed pale gray
or occasionally bright cinnamon-red scales. Wood light, soft,
close-grained, weak, pale brown or often nearly white, with hardly
distinguishable sapwood.

Distribution. Banks of streams or on the first benches above them singly
or in small groves at elevations between 6500° and 11,000° above the
sea; Colorado and eastern Utah northward to the northern end of the
Medicine Bow Mountains and on the Laramie Range in southern and on the
Shoshone and Teton Mountains in northwestern Wyoming, and southward into
northern New Mexico (Sierra Bianca, alt. 8000°—11,000°, Sacramento
Mountains, Pecos River National Forest).

Often planted as an ornamental tree in the eastern and northern states
and in western and northern Europe, especially individuals with blue
foliage; very beautiful in early life but in cultivation soon becoming
unsightly from the loss of the lower branches.


              6. Picea Breweriana S. Wats. Weeping Spruce.

[Illustration: Fig. 44]

Leaves abruptly narrowed and obtuse at apex, straight or slightly
incurved, rounded and obscurely ridged and dark green and lustrous on
the lower surface, flattened and conspicuously marked on the upper
surface by 4 or 5 rows of stomata on each side of the prominent midrib,
¾′—1⅛′ long, 1/16′—1/10′ wide. Flowers: male dark purple; female
oblong-cylindric, with obovate scales rounded above and reflexed on the
entire margins, and oblong bracts laciniately divided at their rounded
or acute apex. Fruit ellipsoidal, gradually narrowed from the middle to
the ends, acute at apex, rather oblique at base, suspended on straight
slender stalks, deep rich purple or green more or less tinged with
purple when fully grown, becoming light orange-brown, 2′—4′ long, with
thin broadly ovate flat scales longer than broad, rounded at apex,
opening late in the autumn after the escape of the seeds, often becoming
strongly reflexed and very flexible; usually remaining on the branches
until their second winter; seeds acute at base, full and rounded on the
sides, ⅛′ long, dark brown, and about one quarter the length of their
wings broadest toward the full and rounded apex.

A tree, usually 80°—100° high, with a trunk 2°—3° in diameter above the
swelling of its enlarged and gradually tapering base, and furnished to
the ground with crowded branches, those at the top of the tree short and
slightly ascending, with comparatively short pendulous lateral branches,
those lower on the tree horizontal or pendulous and clothed with slender
flexible whip-like laterals often 7°—8° long and not more than ¼′ thick
and furnished with numerous long thin lateral branchlets, their ultimate
divisions slender, coated with fine pubescence persistent until their
third season, bright red-brown during their first winter, gradually
growing dark gray-brown. Winter-buds conic, light chestnut-brown, ¼′
long and ⅛′ thick. Bark ½′—¾′ thick, broken into long thin closely
appressed scales dull red-brown on the surface. Wood heavy, soft,
close-grained, light brown or nearly white, with thick hardly
distinguishable sapwood.

Distribution. Dry mountain ridges and peaks near the timber-line on both
slopes of the Siskiyou Mountains on the boundary between California and
Oregon, forming small groves at elevations of about 7000° above the sea;
on a high peak west of Marble Mountain in Siskiyou County, California;
on the coast ranges of southwestern Oregon at elevations of 4000°—5000°.


        7. Picea sitchensis Carr. Tideland Spruce. Sitka Spruce.

[Illustration: Fig. 45]

Leaves standing out from all sides of the branches and often nearly at
right angles to them, frequently bringing their white upper surface to
view by a twist at their base, straight or slightly incurved, acute or
acuminate with long callous tips, slightly rounded, green, lustrous, and
occasionally marked on the lower surface with 2 or 3 rows of small
conspicuous stomata on each side of the prominent midrib, flattened,
obscurely ridged and almost covered with broad silvery white bands of
numerous rows of stomata on the upper surface, ½′—1⅛′ long and
1/16′—1/12′ wide, mostly persistent 9—11 years. Flowers: male at the
ends of the pendant lateral branchlets, dark red; female on rigid
terminal shoots of the branches of the upper half of the tree, with
nearly orbicular denticulate scales, often slightly truncate above and
completely hidden by their elongated acuminate bracts. Fruit
oblong-cylindric, short-stalked, yellow-green often tinged with dark red
when fully grown, becoming lustrous and pale yellow or reddish brown,
2½′—4′ long, with thin stiff elliptic scales rounded toward the apex,
denticulate above the middle, and nearly twice as long as their
lanceolate denticulate bracts; deciduous mostly during their first
autumn and winter; seeds full and rounded, acute at the base, pale
reddish brown, about ⅛′ long, with narrow oblong slightly oblique wings
⅓′—½′ in length.

A tree, usually about 100° high, with a conspicuously tapering trunk
often 3°—4° in diameter above its strongly buttressed and much-enlarged
base, occasionally 200° tall, with a trunk 15°—16° in diameter,
horizontal branches forming an open loose pyramid and on older trees
clothed with slender pendant lateral branches frequently 2°—3° long, and
stout rigid glabrous branchlets pale green at first, becoming dark or
light orange-brown during their first autumn and winter and finally dark
gray-brown; at the extreme northwestern limits of its range occasionally
reduced to a low shrub. Winter-buds ovoid, acute or conical, ¼′—½′ long,
with pale chestnut-brown acute scales, often tipped with short points
and more or less reflexed above the middle. Bark ¼′—½′ thick and broken
on the surface into large thin loosely attached dark red-brown or on
young trees sometimes bright cinnamon-red scales. Wood light, soft, not
strong, straight-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick nearly
white sapwood; largely manufactured into lumber used in the interior
finish of buildings, for fencing, boat-building, aeroplanes, cooperage,
wooden-ware, and packing-cases.

Distribution. Moist sandy, often swampy soil, or less frequently at the
far north on wet rocky slopes, from the eastern end of Kadiak Island,
southward through the coast region of Alaska, British Columbia,
Washington, and Oregon to Mendocino County, California; in Washington,
occasionally ranging inland to the upper valley of the Nesqually River.

Often planted in western and central Europe and occasionally in the
middle Atlantic states as an ornamental tree.



                        4. TSUGA Carr. Hemlock.


Tall pyramidal trees, with deeply furrowed astringent bark bright
cinnamon-red except on the surface, soft pale wood, nodding leading
shoots, slender scattered horizontal often pendulous branches, the
secondary branches three or four times irregularly pinnately ramified,
with slender round glabrous or pubescent ultimate divisions, the whole
forming graceful pendant masses of foliage, and minute winter-buds.
Leaves flat or angular, obtuse and often emarginate or acute at apex,
spirally disposed, usually appearing almost 2-ranked by the twisting of
their petioles, those on the upper side of the branch then much shorter
than the others, abruptly narrowed into short petioles jointed on
ultimately woody persistent bases, with stomata on the lower surface; on
one species not 2-ranked, and of nearly equal length, with stomata on
both surfaces. Flowers solitary, the male in the axils of leaves of the
previous year, globose, composed of numerous subglobose anthers, with
connectives produced into short gland-like tips, the female terminal,
erect, with nearly circular scales slightly longer or shorter than their
membranaceous bracts. Fruit an ovoid-oblong, oval, or oblong-cylindric
obtuse usually pendulous nearly sessile green or rarely purple cone
becoming light or dark reddish brown, with concave suborbicular or
ovate-oblong scales thin and entire on the margins, much longer than
their minute bracts, persistent on the axis of the cone after the escape
of the seeds. Seeds furnished with resin-vesicles, ovoid-oblong,
compressed, nearly surrounded by their much longer obovate-oblong wings;
outer seed-coat crustaceous, light brown, the inner membranaceous, pale
chestnut-brown, and lustrous; cotyledons 3—6, much shorter than the
inferior radicle.

Tsuga is confined to temperate North America, Japan, central and
southwestern China, Formosa, and the Himalayas; nine species have been
distinguished.

_Tsuga_ is the Japanese name of the Hemlock-tree.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Leaves flat, obtuse or emarginate at apex, with stomata only on the
        lower surface; cones ovoid, oblong or oblong-ovoid.
    Cones stalked.
      Cone-scales broad-obovate, about as wide as long, their bracts
            broad and truncate.
                                                   1. T. canadensis (A).
      Cone-scales narrow-oval, much longer than wide, their bracts
            obtusely pointed.
                                                  2. T. caroliniana (A).
    Cones sessile; cone-scales oval, often abruptly contracted near the
          middle, their bracts gradually narrowed to an obtuse point.
                                           3. T. heterophylla (B, F, G).
  Leaves convex or keeled above, bluntly pointed, with stomata on both
        surfaces; cones oblong-cylindric, their scales oblong-obovate,
        longer than broad, much longer than their acuminate
        short-pointed bracts.
                                            4. T. Mertensiana (B, F, G).


                   1. Tsuga canadensis Carr. Hemlock.

[Illustration: Fig. 46]

Leaves, rounded and rarely emarginate at apex, dark yellow-green,
lustrous and obscurely grooved especially toward the base on the upper
surface, marked on the lower surface by 5 or 6 rows of stomata on each
side of the low broad midrib, ⅓′—⅔′ long, about 1/16′ wide, deciduous in
their third season from dark orange-colored persistent bases. Flowers:
male light yellow; female pale green, with broad bracts coarsely
laciniate on the margins and shorter than their scales. Fruit on slender
puberulous stalks often ¼′ long, ovoid, acute, ½′—¾′ long, with
broad-obovate scales almost as wide as long, and broad truncate bracts
slightly laciniate on the margins, opening and gradually losing their
seeds during the winter and mostly persistent on the branches until the
following spring; seeds 1/16′ long, usually with 2 or 3 large
oil-vesicles, nearly half as long as their wings broad at the base and
gradually tapering to the rounded apex.

A tree, usually 60°—70°, and occasionally 100° high, with a trunk 2°—4°
in diameter, gradually and conspicuously tapering toward the apex, long
slender horizontal or pendulous branches, persistent until overshadowed
by other trees, and forming a broad-based rather obtuse pyramid, and
slender light yellow-brown pubescent branchlets, growing darker during
their first winter and glabrous and dark red-brown tinged with purple in
their third season. Winter-buds obtuse, light chestnut-brown, slightly
puberulous, about 1/16′ long. Bark ½′—¾′ thick, deeply divided into
narrow rounded ridges covered with thick closely appressed scales
varying from cinnamon-red to gray more or less tinged with purple. Wood
light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, difficult to work,
liable to wind-shake and splinter, not durable when exposed to the air,
light brown tinged with red, with thin somewhat darker sapwood; largely
manufactured into coarse lumber employed for the outside finish of
buildings. The astringent inner bark affords the largest part of the
material used in the northeastern states and Canada in tanning leather.
From the young branches oil of hemlock is distilled.

Distribution. Scattered through upland forests and often covering the
northern slopes of rocky ridges and the steep rocky banks of narrow
river-gorges from Nova Scotia to eastern Minnesota (Carleton County),
and southward through the northern states to Newcastle County, Delaware,
cliffs of Tuckahoe Creek, Queen Anne’s County, Maryland, southern
Michigan, southern Indiana (bank of Back Creek near Leesville, Laurence
County), southwestern Wisconsin, and along the Appalachian Mountains to
northern Georgia, and in northern Alabama; most abundant and frequently
an important element of the forest in New England, northern New York,
and western Pennsylvania; attaining its largest size near streams on the
slopes of the high mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee.

Largely cultivated with numerous seminal varieties as an ornamental tree
in the northern states, and in western and central Europe.


                 2. Tsuga caroliniana Engelm. Hemlock.

[Illustration: Fig. 47]

Leaves retuse or often emarginate at apex, dark green, lustrous and
conspicuously grooved on the upper surface, marked on the lower surface
by a band of 7 or 8 rows of stomata on each side of the midrib, ⅓′—¾′
long, about 1/12′ wide, deciduous from the orange-red bases during their
fifth year. Flowers: male tinged with purple; female purple, with
broadly ovate bracts, scarious and erose on the margins and about as
long as their scales. Fruit on short stout stalks, oblong, 1′—1½′ long,
with narrow-oval scales gradually narrowed and rounded at apex, rather
abruptly contracted at base into distinct stipes, thin, concave,
puberulous on the outer surface, twice as long as their broad pale
bracts, spreading nearly at right angles to the axis of the cone at
maturity, their bracts rather longer than wide, wedge-shaped, pale,
nearly truncate or slightly pointed at the broad apex; seeds ⅙′ long,
with numerous small oil-vesicles on the lower side, and one quarter as
long as the pale lustrous wings broad or narrow at the base and narrowed
to the rounded apex.

A tree, usually 40°—50°, or occasionally 70° high, with a trunk rarely
exceeding 2° in diameter, short stout often pendulous branches forming a
handsome compact pyramidal head, and slender light orange-brown
pubescent branchlets, usually becoming glabrous and dull brown more or
less tinged with orange during their third year. Winter-buds obtuse,
dark chestnut-brown, pubescent, nearly ⅛′ long. Bark of the trunk ¾′—1¼′
thick, red-brown, and deeply divided into broad flat connected ridges
covered with thin closely appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, soft,
not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, pale brown tinged with red, with
thin nearly white sapwood.

Distribution. Rocky banks of streams usually at elevations between 2500°
and 3000° on the Blue Ridge from southwestern Virginia to northern
Georgia, generally singly or in small scattered groves of a few
individuals.

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the northern states, and
in western Europe.


                  3. Tsuga heterophylla Sarg. Hemlock.

[Illustration: Fig. 48]

Leaves rounded at apex, conspicuously grooved, dark green and very
lustrous on the upper surface, marked below by broad white bands of 7—9
rows of stomata, abruptly contracted at the base into slender petioles,
¼′—¾′ long and 1/16′—1/12′ wide, mostly persistent 4—7 years. Flowers:
male yellow; female purple and puberulous, with broad bracts gradually
narrowed to an obtuse point and shorter than their broadly ovate
slightly scarious scales. Fruit oblong-ovoid, acute, sessile, ¾′—1′
long, with slightly puberulous oval scales, often abruptly narrowed near
the middle, and dark purple puberulous bracts rounded and abruptly
contracted at apex; seeds ⅛′ long, furnished with occasional
oil-vesicles, one third to one half as long as their narrow wings.

A tree, frequently 200° high, with a tall trunk 6°—10° in diameter, and
short slender usually pendulous branches forming a narrow pyramidal
head, and slender pale yellow-brown branchlets ultimately becoming dark
reddish brown, coated at first with long pale hairs, and pubescent or
puberulous for five or six years. Winter-buds ovoid, bright
chestnut-brown, about 1/16′ long. Bark on young trunks thin, dark
orange-brown, and separated by shallow fissures into narrow flat plates
broken into delicate scales, becoming on fully grown trees 1′—1½′ thick
and deeply divided into broad flat connected ridges covered with closely
appressed brown scales more or less tinged with cinnamon-red. Wood
light, hard and tough, pale brown tinged with yellow, with thin nearly
white sapwood; stronger and more durable than the wood of the other
American hemlocks; now largely manufactured into lumber used principally
in the construction of buildings. The bark is used in large quantities
in tanning leather; from the inner bark the Indians of Alaska obtain one
of their principal articles of vegetable food.

Distribution. Southeastern Alaska, southward near the coast to southern
Mendocino County, California, extending eastward over the mountains of
southern British Columbia, northern Washington, Idaho and Montana, to
the western slopes of the continental divide, and through Oregon to the
western slopes of the Cascade Mountains, sometimes ascending in the
interior to elevations of 6000° above the sea; most abundant and of its
largest size on the coast of Washington and Oregon; often forming a
large part of the forests of the northwest coast.

Frequently planted as an ornamental tree in temperate Europe.


      4. Tsuga Mertensiana Sarg. Mountain Hemlock. Black Hemlock.

[Illustration: Fig. 49]

Leaves standing out from all sides of the branch, remote on leading
shoots and crowded on short lateral branchlets, rounded and occasionally
obscurely grooved or on young plants sometimes conspicuously grooved on
the upper surface, rounded and slightly ribbed on the lower surface,
bluntly pointed, often more or less curved, stomatiferous above and
below, with about 8 rows of stomata on each surface, light bluish green
or on some individuals pale blue, ½′—1′ long, about 1/16′ wide, abruptly
narrowed into nearly straight or slightly twisted petioles articulate on
bases as long or rather longer than the petioles; irregularly deciduous
during their third and fourth years. Flowers: male borne on slender
pubescent drooping stems, violet-purple; female erect, with delicate
lustrous dark purple or yellow-green bracts gradually narrowed above
into slender often slightly reflexed tips and much longer than their
scales. Fruit sessile, oblong-cylindric, narrowed toward the blunt apex
and somewhat toward the base, erect until more than half grown,
pendulous or rarely erect at maturity, ⅝′—3′ long, with thin delicate
oblong-obovate scales gradually contracted from above the middle to the
wedge-shaped base, rounded at the slightly thickened more or less erose
margins, puberulous on the outer surface, usually bright bluish purple
or occasionally pale yellow-green, four or five times as long as their
short-pointed dark purple or brown bracts; seeds light brown, ⅛′ long,
often marked on the surface next their scales with 1 or 2 large
resin-vesicles, with wings nearly ½′ long, broadest above the middle,
gradually narrowed below, slightly or not at all oblique at the rounded
apex.

A tree, usually 70°—100° but occasionally 150° high, with a slightly
tapering trunk 4°—5° in diameter, gracefully pendant slender branches
furnished with drooping frond-like lateral branches, their ultimate
divisions erect and forming an open pyramid surmounted by the long
drooping leading shoot, and thin flexible or sometimes stout rigid
branchlets light reddish brown and covered for two or three years with
short pale dense pubescence, becoming grayish brown and very scaly.
Winter-buds acute, about ⅛′ long, the scales of the outer ranks
furnished on the back with conspicuous midribs produced into slender
deciduous awl-like tips. Bark 1′—1½′ thick, deeply divided into
connected rounded ridges broken into thin closely appressed dark
cinnamon scales shaded with blue or purple. Wood light, soft, not
strong, close-grained, pale brown or red, with thin nearly white
sapwood; occasionally manufactured into lumber.

Distribution. Exposed ridges and slopes at high altitudes along the
upper border of the forest from southeastern Alaska, southward over the
mountain ranges of British Columbia to the Olympic Mountains of
Washington, and eastward to the western slopes of the Selkirk Mountains
in the interior of southern British Columbia, and along the Bitter Root
Mountains to the headwaters of the Clearwater River, Idaho; along the
Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon, on the mountain ranges of
northern California, and along the high Sierra Nevada to the cañon of
the south fork of King’s River, California; in Alaska occasionally
descending to the sea-level, and toward the southern limits of its range
often ascending to elevations of 10,000°.

Often planted as an ornamental tree in western and central Europe, and
rarely in the eastern United States.



                          5. PSEUDOTSUGA Carr.


Pyramidal trees, with thick deeply furrowed bark, hard strong wood, with
spirally marked wood-cells, slender usually horizontal irregularly
whorled branches clothed with slender spreading lateral branches forming
broad flat-topped masses of foliage, ovoid acute leaf-buds, the lateral
buds in the axils of upper leaves, their inner scales accrescent and
marking the branchlets with ring-like scars. Leaves petiolate, linear,
flat, rounded and obtuse or acuminate at apex, straight or incurved,
grooved on the upper side, marked on the lower side by numerous rows of
stomata on each side of the prominent midrib, spreading nearly at right
angles with the branch. Flowers solitary, the male axillary, scattered
along the branches, oblong-cylindric, with numerous globose anthers,
their connectives terminating in short spurs, the female terminal or in
the axils of upper leaves, composed of spirally arranged ovate rounded
scales much shorter than their acutely 2-lobed bracts, with midribs
produced into elongated slender tips. Fruit an ovoid-oblong acute
pendulous cone maturing in one season, with rounded concave rigid scales
persistent on the axis of the cone after the escape of the seeds, and
becoming dark red-brown, much shorter than the 2-lobed bracts with
midribs ending in rigid woody linear awns, those at the base of the cone
without scales and becoming linear-lanceolate by the gradual suppression
of their lobes. Seeds nearly triangular, full, rounded and dark-colored
on the upper side and pale on the lower side, shorter than their oblong
wings infolding the upper side of the seeds in a dark covering; outer
seed-coat thick and crustaceous, the inner thin and membranaceous;
cotyledons 6—12, much shorter than the inferior radicle.

Pseudotsuga is confined to western North America, southern Japan,
southwestern China and Formosa. Four species are recognized.

_Pseudotsuga_, a barbarous combination of a Greek with a Japanese word,
indicates the relation of these trees with the Hemlocks.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Leaves usually rounded and obtuse at apex, dark yellow-green or rarely
        blue-green; cones 2′—4½′ long, their bracts much exserted.
                                        1. P. taxifolia (B, E, F, G, H).
  Leaves acuminate at apex, bluish gray; cones 4′—6½′ long, their bracts
        slightly exserted.
                                                   2. P. macrocarpa (G).


        1. Pseudotsuga taxifolia Britt. Douglas Spruce. Red Fir.

                     _Pseudotsuga mucronata Sudw._

[Illustration: Fig. 50]

Leaves straight or rarely slightly incurved, rounded and obtuse at apex,
or acute on leading shoots, ¾′—1¼′ long, 1/16′—1/12′ wide, dark
yellow-green or rarely light or dark bluish green, occasionally
persistent until their sixteenth year. Flowers: male orange-red; female
with slender elongated bracts deeply tinged with red. Fruit pendant on
long stout stems, 4′—6½′ long, with thin slightly concave scales rounded
and occasionally somewhat elongated at apex, usually rather longer than
broad, when fully grown at midsummer slightly puberulous, dark
blue-green below, purplish toward the apex, bright red on the closely
appressed margins, and pale green bracts becoming slightly reflexed
above the middle, ⅕′—¼′ wide, often extending ½′ beyond the scales;
seeds light reddish brown and lustrous above, pale and marked below with
large irregular white spots, ¼′ long, nearly ⅛′ wide, almost as long as
their dark brown wings broadest just below the middle, oblique above and
rounded at the apex.

A tree, often 200° high, with a trunk 3°—4° in diameter, frequently
taller, with a trunk 10°—12° in diameter, but in the dry interior of the
continent rarely more than 80°—100° high, with a trunk hardly exceeding
2°—3° in diameter, slender crowded branches densely clothed with long
pendulous lateral branches, forming while the tree is young an open
pyramid, soon deciduous from trees crowded in the forest, often leaving
the trunk naked for two thirds of its length and surmounted by a
comparatively small narrow head sometimes becoming flap-topped by the
lengthening of the upper branches, and slender branchlets pubescent for
three or four years, pale orange color and lustrous during their first
season, becoming bright reddish brown and ultimately dark gray-brown.
Winter-buds ovoid, acute, the terminal bud often ¼′ long and nearly
twice as large as the lateral buds. Bark on young trees smooth, thin,
rather lustrous, dark gray-brown, usually becoming on old trunks 10′—12′
thick, and divided into oblong plates broken into great broad rounded
and irregularly connected ridges separating on the surface into small
thick closely appressed dark red-brown scales. Wood light, red or
yellow, with nearly white sapwood; very variable in density, quality,
and in the thickness of the sapwood; largely manufactured into lumber in
British Columbia, western Washington and Oregon, and used for all kinds
of construction, fuel, railway-ties, and piles; known commercially as
“Oregon pine.” The bark is sometimes used in tanning leather.

Distribution. From about latitude 55° north in the Rocky Mountains and
from the head of the Skeena River in the coast range, southward through
all the Rocky Mountain system to the mountains of western Texas,
southern New Mexico and Arizona, and of northern Mexico, and from the
Big Horn and Laramie Ranges in Wyoming and from eastern base of the
Rocky Mountains of Colorado to the Pacific coast, but absent from the
arid mountains in the great basin between the Wahsatch and the Sierra
Nevada ranges and from the mountains of southern California; most
abundant and of its largest size near the sea-level in the coast region
of southern British Columbia and of Washington and Oregon, and on the
western foothills of the Cascade Mountains; ascending on the California
Sierras to elevations of 5500°, and on the mountains of Colorado to
between 6000° and 11,000°, above the sea.

Often planted for timber and ornament in temperate Europe, and for
ornament in the eastern and northern states, where only the form from
the interior of the continent flourishes. (_P. glauca Mayr._)


                2. Pseudotsuga macrocarpa Mayr. Hemlock.

[Illustration: Fig. 51]

Leaves acute or acuminate, terminating in slender rigid callous tips,
apparently 2-ranked by the conspicuous twist of their petioles, incurved
above the middle, ¾′—1¼′ long, about 1/16′ wide, dark bluish gray.
Flowers: male pale yellow, inclosed for half their length in conspicuous
involucres of the lustrous bud-scales; female with pale green bracts
tinged with red. Fruit produced on the upper branches and occasionally
on those down to the middle of the tree, short-stalked, with scales near
the middle of the cone 1½′—2′ across, stiff, thick, concave, rather
broader than long, rounded above, abruptly wedge-shaped at the base,
puberulous on the outer surface, often nearly as long as their
comparatively short and narrow bracts with broad midribs produced into
short flattened flexible tips; seeds full and rounded on both sides,
rugose, dark chestnut-brown or nearly black and lustrous above, pale
reddish brown below, ½′ long, ⅜′ wide, with a thick brittle outer coat,
and wings broadest near the middle, about ½′ long, nearly ¼′ wide, and
rounded at the apex.

A tree, usually 40°—50° and rarely 90° high, with a trunk 3°—4° in
diameter, remote elongated branches pendulous below, furnished with
short stout pendant or often erect laterals forming an open broad-based
symmetrical pyramidal head, slender branchlets dark reddish brown and
pubescent during their first year, becoming glabrous and dark or light
orange-brown and ultimately gray-brown. Winter buds ovoid, acute,
usually not more than ⅛′ long, often nearly as broad as long. Bark 3′—6′
thick, dark reddish brown, deeply divided into broad rounded ridges
covered with thick closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong,
close-grained, not durable; occasionally manufactured into lumber;
largely used for fuel.

Distribution. Steep rocky mountain slopes in southern California at
elevations of 3000°—5000° above the sea, often forming open groves of
considerable extent, from the Santa Inez Mountains in Santa Barbara
County to the Cuyamaca Mountains.



                          6. ABIES Link. Fir.


Tall pyramidal trees, with bark containing numerous resin-vesicles,
smooth, pale, and thin on young trees, often thick and deeply furrowed
in old age, pale and usually brittle wood, slender horizontal
wide-spreading branches in regular remote 4 or 5-branched whorls,
clothed with twice or thrice forked lateral branches forming flat-topped
masses of foliage gradually narrowed from the base to the apex of the
branch, the ultimate divisions stout, glabrous or pubescent, and small
subglobose or ovoid winter branch-buds usually thickly covered with
resin, or in one species large and acute, with thin loosely imbricated
scales. Leaves linear, sessile, on young plants and on lower sterile
branches flattened and mostly grooved on the upper side, or in one
species 4-sided, rounded and usually emarginate at apex, appearing
2-ranked by a twist near their base or occasionally spreading from all
sides of the branch, only rarely stomatiferous above, on upper fertile
branches and leading shoots usually crowded, more or less erect, often
incurved or falcate, thick, convex on the upper side, or quadrangular in
some species and then obtuse, or acute at apex and frequently
stomatiferous on all sides; persistent usually for eight or ten years,
in falling leaving small circular scars. Flowers axillary, from buds
formed the previous season on branchlets of the year, surrounded at the
base by conspicuous involucres of enlarged bud-scales, the male very
abundant on the lower side of branches above the middle of the tree,
oval or oblong-cylindric with yellow or scarlet anthers surmounted by
short knob-like projections, the female usually on the upper side only
of the topmost branches, or in some species scattered also over the
upper half of the tree, erect, globose, ovoid or oblong, their scales
imbricated in many series, obovate, rounded above, cuneate below, much
shorter than their acute or dilated mucronate bracts. Fruit an erect
ovoid or oblong-cylindric cone, its scales closely imbricated, thin,
incurved at the broad apex and generally narrowed below into long
stipes, decreasing in size and sterile toward the ends of the cone,
falling at maturity with their bracts and seeds from the stout tapering
axis of the cone long-persistent on the branch. Seeds furnished with
large conspicuous resin-vesicles, ovoid or oblong, acute at base,
covered on the upper side and infolded below on the lower side by the
base of their thin wing abruptly enlarged at the oblique apex; seed-coat
thin, of 2 layers, the outer thick, coriaceous, the inner membranaceous;
cotyledons 4—10, much shorter than the inferior radicle.

Abies is widely distributed in the New World from Labrador and the
valley of the Athabasca River to the mountains of North Carolina, and
from Alaska through the Pacific and Rocky Mountain regions to the
highlands of Guatemala, and in the Old World from Siberia and the
mountains of central Europe to southern Japan, central China, Formosa,
the Himalayas, Asia Minor, and the highlands of northern Africa.
Thirty-three species are now recognized. Several exotic species are
cultivated in the northern and eastern states; of these the best known
and most successful as ornamental trees are _Abies Nordmanniana_, Spach,
of the Caucasus, _Abies cilicica_ Carr., of Asia Minor, _Abies
cephalonica_ Loud., a native of Cephalonia, _Abies Veitchii_ Lindl., and
_Abies homolepis_ S. & Z., of Japan, and _Abies pinsapo_, Boiss., of the
Spanish Sierra Nevada.

_Abies_ is the classical name of the Fir-tree.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Winter-buds subglobose, with closely imbricated scales.
    Leaves flat and grooved above, with stomata on the lower surface (in
          Nos. 3 and 5, also on the upper surface), rounded and often
          notched, or on fertile branches frequently acute at apex.
      Leaves on sterile branches spreading, not crowded.
        Cones purple.
          Leaves dark green and lustrous above, pale below.
            Bracts of the cone-scales much longer than their scales,
                  reflexed.
                                                      1. A. Fraseri (A).
            Bracts of the cone-scales shorter or rarely slightly longer
                  than their scales.
                                                     2. A. balsamea (A).
          Leaves pale blue-green, stomatose above.
                                             3. A. lasiocarpa (B, F, G).
        Cones green (green, yellow, and purple in No. 5).
          Leaves dark green and lustrous above, pale below.
                                                   4. A. grandis (B, G).
          Leaves pale blue or glaucous, often stomatose above on the
                upper surface.
                                               5. A. concolor (F, G, H).
      Leaves on sterile branches pointing forward, densely crowded, dark
            green and lustrous above, pale below.
                                                  6. A. amabilis (B, G).
    Leaves often 4-sided, with stomata on all surfaces, blue-green,
          usually glaucous, bluntly pointed or acute, incurved and
          crowded on fertile branches; cones purple.
      Leaves of sterile branches flattened and distinctly grooved above;
            bracts of the cone-scales rounded and fimbriate above,
            long-pointed, incurved, light green, much longer than and
            covering their scales.
                                                      7. A. nobilis (G).
      Leaves of sterile branches 4-sided; bracts of the cone-scales
            acute or acuminate or rounded above, with slender tips
            shorter or longer than their scales.
                                                    8. A. magnifica (G).
  Winter-buds acuminate, with loosely imbricated scales; bracts of the
        cone-scales produced into elongated ridged flat tips many times
        longer than the obtusely pointed scales; leaves acuminate, dark
        yellow-green above, white below, similar on sterile and fertile
        branches.
                                                      9. A. venusta (G).


             1. Abies Fraseri Poir. Balsam Fir. She Balsam.

[Illustration: Fig. 52]

Leaves obtusely short-pointed or occasionally slightly emarginate at
apex, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, marked on the lower
surface by wide bands of 8—12 rows of stomata, ½′ to nearly 1′ long,
about 1/16′ wide. Flowers: male yellow tinged with red; female with
scales rounded above, much broader than long and shorter than their
oblong pale yellow-green bracts rounded at the broad apex terminating in
a slender elongated tip. Fruit oblong-ovoid or nearly oval, rounded at
the somewhat narrowed apex, dark purple, puberulous, about 2½′ long,
with scales twice as wide as long, at maturity nearly half covered by
their pale yellow-green reflexed bracts; seeds ⅛′ long, with dark
lustrous wings much expanded and very oblique at apex.

A tree, usually 30°—40° and rarely 70° high, with a trunk occasionally
2½° in diameter, and rather rigid branches forming an open symmetrical
pyramid and often disappearing early from the lower part of the trunk,
and stout branchlets pubescent for three or four years, pale
yellow-brown during their first season, becoming dark reddish brown
often tinged with purple, and obtuse orange-brown winter-buds. Bark
¼′—½′ thick, covered with thin closely appressed bright cinnamon-red
scales, generally becoming gray on old trees. Wood light, soft, not
strong, coarse-grained, pale brown, with nearly white sapwood;
occasionally manufactured into lumber.

Distribution: Appalachian Mountains; Cheat Mountain, near Cheat Bridge,
Randolph County, West Virginia, and from southwestern Virginia to
western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee, often forming forests of
considerable extent at elevations between 4000° and 6000° above the
sea-level.

Occasionally planted in the parks and gardens of the northern states and
of Europe, but short-lived in cultivation and of little value as an
ornamental tree.


                  2. Abies balsamea Mill. Balsam Fir.

[Illustration: Fig. 53]

Leaves dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, silvery white on
the lower surface, with bands of 4—8 rows of stomata, ½′ long on
cone-bearing branches to 1¼′ long on the sterile branches of young
trees, straight, acute or acuminate, with short or elongated rigid
callous tips, spreading at nearly right angles to the branch on young
trees and sterile branches, on the upper branches of older trees often
broadest above the middle, rounded or obtusely short-pointed at apex,
occasionally emarginate on branches at the top of the tree. Flowers:
male yellow, more or less deeply tinged with reddish purple; female with
nearly orbicular purple scales much shorter than their oblong-obovate
serrulate pale yellow-green bracts emarginate with a broad apex abruptly
contracted into a long slender recurved tip. Fruit oblong-cylindric,
gradually narrowed to the rounded apex, puberulous, dark rich purple,
2′—4′ long, with scales usually longer than broad, generally almost
twice as long; rarely not as long as their bracts, (var. _phanerolepis_
Fern.); seeds about ¼′ long and rather shorter than their light brown
wings.

A tree, 50°—60° high, with a trunk usually 12′—18′; or rarely 30′ in
diameter, spreading branches forming a handsome symmetrical
slender-pyramid, the lower branches soon dying from trees crowded in the
forest, and slender branchlets pale yellow-green and coated with fine
pubescence at first, becoming light gray tinged with red, and often when
four or five years old with purple. Winter-buds nearly globose, ⅛′—¼′ in
diameter, with lustrous dark orange-green scales. Bark on old trees
often ½′ thick, rich brown, much broken on the surface into small plates
covered with scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained,
perishable, pale brown streaked with yellow, with thick lighter colored
sapwood; occasionally made into lumber principally used for
packing-cases. From the bark of this tree oil of fir used in the arts
and in medicine is obtained.

Distribution. From the interior of the Labrador peninsula westward to
the shores of Lesser Slave Lake, southward through Newfoundland, the
maritime provinces of Canada, Quebec and Ontario, northern New England,
northern New York, northern Michigan to the shores of Saginaw Bay, and
northern Minnesota and northeastern Iowa, and along the Appalachian
Mountains from western Massachusetts and the Catskills of New York to
the high mountains of southwestern Virginia; common and often forming a
considerable part of the forest on low swampy ground; on well-drained
hillsides sometimes singly in forests of spruce or forming small almost
impenetrable thickets; in northern Wisconsin and vicinity occurs a form
with longer and more crowded leaves and larger cones (var. _macrocarpa_
Kent); near the timber-line on the mountains of New England and New York
reduced to a low almost prostrate shrub.

Sometimes planted in the northern states in the neighborhood of
farmhouses, but usually short-lived and of little value as an ornamental
tree in cultivation; formerly but now rarely cultivated in European
plantations; a dwarf form (var. _hudsonica_ Englm.) growing only a few
inches high and spreading into broad nests is often cultivated.


                 3. Abies lasiocarpa Nutt. Balsam Fir.

[Illustration: Fig. 54]

Leaves marked on the upper surface but generally only above the middle
with 4 or 5 rows of stomata on each side of the conspicuous midrib and
on the lower surface by 2 broad bands each of 7 or 8 rows, crowded,
nearly erect by the twist at their base, on lower branches 1′—1¾′ long,
about 1/12′ wide, and rounded and occasionally emarginate at apex, on
upper branches somewhat thickened, usually acute, generally not more
than ½′ long, on leading shoots flattened, closely appressed, with long
slender rigid points. Flowers: male dark indigo-blue, turning violet
when nearly ready to open; female with dark violet-purple obovate scales
much shorter than their strongly reflexed bracts contracted into slender
tips. Fruit oblong-cylindric, rounded, truncate or depressed at the
narrowed apex, dark purple, puberulous, 2½′—4′ long, with scales
gradually narrowed from the broad rounded or nearly truncate apex to the
base, usually longer than broad, about three times as long as their
oblong-obovate red-brown bracts laciniately cut on the margins, rounded,
emarginate and abruptly contracted at the apex into long slender tips;
seeds ¼′ long, with dark lustrous wings covering nearly the entire
surface of the scales.

A tree, usually 80°—100°, occasionally 175°, or southward rarely more
than 50° high, with a trunk 2°—5° in diameter, short crowded tough
branches, usually slightly pendulous near the base of the tree,
generally clothing the trunks of the oldest trees nearly to their base
and forming dense spire-like slender heads, and comparatively stout
branchlets coated for three or four years with fine rufous pubescence,
or rarely glabrous before the end of their first season, pale
orange-brown, ultimately gray or silvery white. Winter-buds subglobose,
⅛′—¼′ thick, covered with light orange-brown scales. Bark becoming on
old trees ¾′—1½′ thick, divided by shallow fissures and roughened by
thick closely appressed cinnamon-red scales; on the San Francisco
Mountains, Arizona, thicker and spongy (var. _arizonica_ Lem.). Wood
light, soft, not strong, pale brown or nearly white, with light-colored
sapwood; little used except for fuel.

Distribution. High mountain slopes and summits from about latitude 61°
in Alaska, southward along the coast ranges to the Olympic Mountains of
Washington, over all the high mountain ranges of British Columbia and
Alberta, and southward along the Cascade Mountains of Washington and
Oregon to the neighborhood of Crater Lake, over the mountain ranges of
eastern Washington and Oregon, and of Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah
to the San Francisco peaks of northern Arizona, and on the Sandia and
Mogollon Mountains of New Mexico.

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the northern United States
and in northern Europe, but of little value in cultivation.


                   4. Abies grandis Lindl. White Fir.

[Illustration: Fig. 55]

Leaves thin and flexible, deeply grooved very dark green and lustrous on
upper surface, silvery white on lower surface, with two broad bands of
7—10 rows of stomata, on sterile branches remote, rounded and
conspicuously emarginate at apex, 1½′—2¼′ long, usually about ⅛′ wide,
spreading in two ranks nearly at right angles to the branch, on
cone-bearing branches more crowded, usually 1′—1½′ long, less spreading
or nearly erect, blunt-pointed or often notched at apex, on vigorous
young trees ½′—¾′ long, acute or acuminate, usually persistent 4—10
years. Flowers: male pale yellow sometimes tinged with purple; female
light yellow-green, with semiorbicular scales and short-oblong bracts
emarginate and denticulate at the broad obcordate apex furnished with a
short strongly reflexed tip. Fruit cylindric, slightly narrowed to the
rounded and sometimes retuse apex, puberulous, bright green, 2′—4′ long,
with scales usually about two thirds as long as wide, gradually or
abruptly narrowed from their broad apex and three or four times as long
as their short pale green bracts; seeds ⅜′ in length, light brown, with
pale lustrous wings ½′—⅝′ long and nearly as broad as their abruptly
widened rounded apex.

A tree, in the neighborhood of the coast 250°—300° high, with a slightly
tapering trunk often 4° in diameter, long somewhat pendulous branches
sweeping out in graceful curves, and comparatively slender pale
yellow-green puberulous branchlets becoming light reddish brown or
orange-brown and glabrous in their second season; on the mountains of
the interior rarely more than 100° tall, with a trunk usually about 2°
in diameter, often smaller and much stunted at high elevations.
Winter-buds subglobose, ⅛′—¼′ thick. Bark becoming sometimes 2′ thick at
the base of old trees and gray-brown or reddish brown and divided by
shallow fissures into low flat ridges broken into oblong plates
roughened by thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft,
coarse-grained, not strong nor durable, light brown, with thin lighter
colored sapwood; occasionally manufactured into lumber in western
Washington and Oregon and used for the interior finish of buildings,
packing-cases, and wooden-ware.

Distribution. Northern part of Vancouver Island southward in the
neighborhood of the coast to northern Sonoma County, California, and
along the mountains of northern Washington and Idaho to the western
slopes of the continental divide in northern Montana, and to the
mountains of eastern Oregon; near the coast scattered on moist ground
through forests of other conifers; common in Washington and northern
Oregon from the sea up to elevations of 4000°; in the interior on moist
slopes in the neighborhood of streams from 2500° up to 7000° above the
sea; in California rarely ranging more than ten miles inland or
ascending to altitudes of more than 1500° above the sea.

Occasionally planted in the parks and gardens of temperate Europe, where
it grows rapidly and promises to attain a large size; rarely planted in
the United States.


              5. Abies concolor Lindl. & Gord. White Fir.

[Illustration: Fig. 56]

Leaves crowded, spreading in 2 ranks and more or less erect from the
strong twist at their base, pale blue or glaucous, becoming dull green
at the end of two or three years, with 2 broad bands of stomata on the
lower, and more or less stomatiferous on the upper surface, on lower
branches flat, straight, rounded, acute or acuminate at apex, 2′—3′
long, about 1/16′ wide, on fertile branches and on old trees frequently
thick, keeled above, usually falcate, acute or rarely notched at apex,
¾′—1½′ long, often ⅛′ wide. Flowers: male dark red or rose color; female
with broad rounded scales, and oblong strongly reflexed obcordate bracts
laciniate above the middle and abruptly contracted at apex into short
points. Fruit oblong, slightly narrowed from near the middle to the
ends, rounded or obtuse at apex, 3′—5′ long, puberulous, grayish green,
dark purple or bright canary-yellow, with scales much broader than long,
gradually and regularly narrowed from the rounded apex, rather more than
twice as long as their emarginate or nearly truncate bracts broad at the
apex and terminating in short slender tips; seeds ⅓′—½′ long, acute at
base, dark dull brown, with lustrous rose-colored wings widest near the
middle and nearly truncate at apex.

A tree, on the California sierras 200°—250° high, with a trunk often 6°
in diameter or in the interior of the continent rarely more than 125°
tall, with a trunk seldom exceeding 3° in diameter, a narrow spire-like
crown of short stout branches clothed with long lateral branches
pointing forward and forming great frond-like masses of foliage, and
glabrous lustrous comparatively stout branchlets dark orange color
during their first season, becoming light grayish green or pale reddish
brown, and ultimately gray or grayish brown. Winter-buds subglobose,
⅛′—¼′ thick. Bark becoming on old trunks sometimes 5′—6′ thick near the
ground and deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken on the
surface into irregularly shaped plate-like scales. Wood very light,
soft, coarse-grained and not strong nor durable, pale brown or sometimes
nearly whiter occasionally manufactured into lumber, in northern
California used for packing-cases and butter-tubs.

Distribution. Rocky Mountains of southern Colorado, westward to the
mountain ranges of California, extending northward into northern Oregon,
and southward over the mountains of New Mexico and Arizona into northern
Mexico and Lower California (Mt. San Pedro Mártir Mountains); the only
Fir-tree in the arid regions of the Great Basin, of southern New Mexico
and Arizona, and of the mountain forests of southern California.

Often planted as an ornamental tree in Europe (the California form
usually as _A. Lowiana_ Murr.) and in the eastern states where it grows
more vigorously than other Fir-trees.


                  6. Abies amabilis Forbes. White Fir.

[Illustration: Fig. 57]

Leaves deeply grooved, very dark green and lustrous on the upper
surface, silvery white on the lower, with broad bands of 6 or 8 rows of
stomata between the prominent midribs and incurved margins, on sterile
branches obtuse and rounded, or notched or occasionally acute at apex,
¾′—1¼′ long, 1/16′—1/12′ wide, often broadest above the middle, erect by
a twist at their base, very crowded, those on the upper side of the
branch much shorter than those on the lower and usually parallel with
and closely appressed against it, on fertile branches acute or acuminate
with callous tips, occasionally stomatiferous on the upper surface near
the apex, ½′—¾′ long; on vigorous leading shoots acute, with long rigid
points, closely appressed or recurved near the middle, about ¾′ long and
nearly ⅛′ wide. Flowers: male red; female with broad rounded scales and
rhombic dark purple lustrous bracts erose above the middle and gradually
contracted into broad points. Fruit oblong, slightly narrowed to the
rounded and often retuse apex, deep rich purple, puberulous, 3½′—6′
long, with scales 1′—1⅛′ wide, nearly as long as broad, gradually
narrowed from the rounded apex and rather more than twice as long as
their reddish rhombic or oblong-obovate bracts terminating in long
slender tips; seeds light yellow-brown, ½′ long, with oblique pale brown
lustrous wings about ¾′ long.

A tree, often 250° tall, or at high altitudes and in the north usually
not more than 70°—80° tall, with a trunk 4°—6° in diameter, in thick
forests often naked for 150°, but in open situations densely clothed to
the ground with comparatively short branches sweeping down in graceful
curves, and stout branchlets clothed for four or five years with soft
fine pubescence, light orange-brown in their first season, becoming dark
purple and ultimately reddish brown. Winter-buds nearly globose, ⅛′—¼′
thick, with closely imbricated lustrous purple scales. Bark on trees up
to 150 years old thin, smooth, pale or silvery white, becoming near the
ground on old trees 1½′—2½′ thick, and irregularly divided into
comparatively small plates covered with small closely appressed reddish
brown or reddish gray scales. Wood light, hard, not strong,
close-grained, pale brown, with nearly white sapwood; in Washington
occasionally manufactured into lumber used in the interior finish of
buildings.

Distribution. High mountain slopes and benches from southeastern Alaska
(Boca de Quadra Inlet and Sandfly Bay), to Vancouver Island and
southward along the coast ranges to Saddle Mountain near Astoria,
Oregon, and on the Cascade Mountains to the slopes of Old Bailey
Mountain, Oregon, ranging from the sea level at the north to elevations
of from 3000°—6000° southward; attaining its largest size on the Olympic
Mountains of Washington, where it is the most common Fir-tree.

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in the eastern states and
in western Europe, but without developing the beauty which distinguishes
this species in its native forests.


                    7. Abies nobilis Lindl. Red Fir.

[Illustration: Fig. 58]

Leaves marked on the upper surface with a deep sharply defined groove,
rounded and obscurely ribbed on the lower surface, stomatiferous above
and below, dark or light blue-green, often very glaucous during their
first season, crowded in several rows, those on the lower side of the
branch two-ranked by the twisting of their bases, the others crowded,
strongly incurved, with the points erect or pointing away from the end
of the branch, on young plants and on the lower sterile branches of old
trees flat, rounded, usually slightly notched at apex, 1′—1½′ long,
about 1/16′ wide, on fertile branches much thickened and almost equally
4-sided, acuminate, with long rigid callous tips, ½′—¾′ long, on leading
shoots flat, gradually narrowed from the base, acuminate, with long
rigid points, about 1′ long. Flowers: male reddish purple; female often
scattered over the upper part of the tree, with broad rounded scales
much shorter than their nearly orbicular bracts erose on the margins and
contracted above into slender elongated strongly reflexed tips. Fruit
oblong-cylindric, slightly narrowed but full and rounded at apex, 4′—5′
long, purple or olive-brown, pubescent, with scales about one third
wider than long, gradually narrowed from the rounded apex to the base,
or full at the sides, rounded and denticulate above the middle and
sharply contracted and wedge-shaped below, nearly or entirely covered by
their strongly reflexed pale green spatulate bracts full and rounded
above, fimbriate on the margins, with broad midribs produced into short
broad flattened points; seeds ½′ long, pale reddish brown, about as long
as their wings, gradually narrowed from below to the nearly truncate
slightly rounded apex.

A tree, in old age with a comparatively broad somewhat rounded head,
usually 150°—200° and occasionally 250° high, with a trunk 6°—8° in
diameter, short rigid branches, short stout remote lateral branches
standing out at right angles, and slender reddish brown branchlets
puberulous for four or five years and generally pointing forward.
Winter-buds ovoid-oblong, red-brown, about ⅛′ long. Bark becoming on old
trunks 1′—2′ thick, bright red-brown, and deeply divided into broad flat
ridges irregularly broken by cross fissures and covered with thick
closely appressed scales. Wood light, hard, strong, rather
close-grained, pale brown streaked with red, with darker colored
sapwood; occasionally manufactured into lumber and used under the name
of larch for the interior finish of buildings and for packing-cases.

Distribution. Slopes of Mt. Baker in northern Washington and southward
to the valley of the Mackenzie River, Oregon, and the Siskiyou
Mountains, California, at elevations of from 2000°—5000° above the sea;
most abundant and often forming extensive forests on the Cascade
Mountains of Washington; less abundant and of smaller size on the
eastern and northern slopes of these mountains. In Oregon sometimes
called Larch.

Often planted in western and central Europe as an ornamental tree, and
in the eastern states hardy in sheltered positions as far north as
Massachusetts.


                  8. Abies magnifica A. Murr. Red Fir.

[Illustration: Fig. 59]

Leaves almost equally 4-sided, ribbed above and below, with 6—8 rows of
stomata on each of the 4 sides, pale and very glaucous during their
first season, later becoming blue-green, persistent usually for about
ten years; on young plants and lower branches oblanceolate, somewhat
flattened, rounded, bluntly pointed, ¾′—1½′ long, 1/16′ wide, those on
the lower side of the branch spreading in 2 nearly horizontal ranks by
the twist at their base, on upper, especially on fertile branches, much
thickened, with more prominent midribs, acute, with short callous tips,
⅓′ long on the upper side of the branch to 1¼′ long on the lower side,
crowded, erect, strongly incurved, completely hiding the upper side of
the branch, on leading shoots ¾′ long, erect and acuminate, with long
rigid points pressed against the stem. Flowers: male dark reddish
purple; female with rounded scales much shorter than their oblong pale
green bracts terminating in elongated slender tips more or less tinged
with red. Fruit oblong-cylindric, slightly narrowed to the rounded,
truncate, or retuse apex, dark purplish brown, puberulous, from 6′—9′
long, with scales often 1½′ wide and about two thirds as wide as long,
gradually narrowed to the cordate base, somewhat longer or often two
thirds as long as their spatulate acute or acuminate bracts slightly
serrulate above the middle and often sharply contracted and then
enlarged toward the base; seeds dark reddish brown, ¾′ long, about as
wide as their lustrous rose-colored obovate cuneate wings nearly
truncate and often ¾′ wide at apex.

A tree, in old age occasionally somewhat round-topped, frequently 200°
high, with a trunk 8°—10° in diameter and often naked for half the
height of the tree, comparatively short small branches, the upper
somewhat ascending, the lower pendulous, and stout light yellow-green
branchlets pointing forward, slightly puberulous during their first
season, becoming light red-brown and lustrous and ultimately gray or
silvery white. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, ¼′⅓′ long, their bright
chestnut-brown scales with prominent midribs produced into short tips.
Bark becoming 4′—6′ thick near the ground, deeply divided into broad
rounded ridges broken by cross fissures and covered by dark red-brown
scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, comparatively durable, light
red-brown, with thick somewhat darker sapwood; largely used for fuel,
and in California occasionally manufactured into coarse lumber employed
in the construction of cheap buildings and for packing-cases.

Distribution. Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon, southward over the
mountain ranges of northern California (summits of the Trinity and
Salmon Mountains and on the inner north coast ranges), and along the
western slope of the Sierra Nevada to the divide between White and Kern
Rivers; common in southern Oregon at elevations between 5000° and 7000°
above the sea, forming sometimes nearly pure forests; very abundant on
the Sierra Nevada, and the principal tree in the forest belt at
elevations between 6000° and 9000°; ascending towards the southern
extremity of its range to over 10,000°. Small stunted trees from the
neighborhood of Meadow Lake, Sierra County, California, with yellowish
cones have been described as var. _xancocarpa_ Lemm.

Often planted as an ornamental tree in western and central Europe, and
sometimes hardy in the United States as far north as eastern
Massachusetts.

A distinct form is


             Abies magnifica var. shastensis Lemm. Red Fir.

[Illustration: Fig. 60]

On the mountains of southern Oregon and at high elevations on those of
northern California, and on the southern Sierra Nevada, occurs this form
distinguished only by the longer rounded or obtusely pointed (not acute)
bright yellow bracts which sometimes cover nearly half their scales.


                 9. Abies venusta K. Koch. Silver Fir.

                       _Abies bracteata_ D. Don.

[Illustration: Fig. 61]

Leaves thin, flat, rigid, linear or linear-lanceolate, gradually or
abruptly narrowed toward the base, often falcate, especially on fertile
branches, acuminate, with long slender callous tips, dark yellow-green,
lustrous and slightly rounded on the upper surface marked below the
middle with an obscure groove, silvery white or on old leaves pale on
the lower surface, with bands of 8—10 rows of stomata between the broad
midrib and the thickened strongly revolute margins, 2-ranked from the
conspicuous twist near their base and spreading at nearly right angles
to the branch, or pointing forward on upper fertile branches, 1½′—2¼′
long, on leading shoots standing out at almost right angles, rounded on
the upper surface, more or less incurved above the middle, 1½′—1¾′ long,
about ⅛′ wide. Flowers: male produced in great numbers near the base of
the branchlets on branches from the middle of the tree upward, pale
yellow; female near the ends of the branchlets of the upper branches
only, with oblong scales rounded above and nearly as long as their
cuneate obcordate yellow-green bracts ending in slender elongated awns.
Fruit on stout peduncles sometimes ½′ long, oval or subcylindric, full
and rounded at apex, glabrous, pale purple-brown, 3′—4′ long, with thin
scales strongly incurved above, obtusely short-pointed at apex,
obscurely denticulate on the thin margins, about one third longer than
their oblong-obovate obcordate pale yellow-brown bracts terminating in
flat rigid tips 1′—1¾′ long, above the middle of the cone pointing
toward its apex and often closely appressed to its sides, below the
middle spreading toward its base and frequently much recurved, firmly
attached to the cone-scales and deciduous with them from the thick
conical sharp-pointed axis of the cone; seeds dark red-brown, about ⅜′
long, and nearly as long as their oblong-obovate pale reddish brown
lustrous wings rounded at the apex.

A tree, 100°—150° high, with a trunk sometimes 3° in diameter,
comparatively short slender usually pendulous branches furnished with
long sinuous rather remote lateral branches sparsely clothed with
foliage, forming a broad-based pyramid abruptly narrowed 15°—20° from
the top of the tree into a thin spire-like head, and stout glabrous
light reddish brown branchlets covered at first with a glaucous bloom.
Winter-buds ovoid, acute, ¾′—1′ long, ¼′—⅓′ thick, with very thin,
loosely imbricated, pale chestnut-brown, acute, boat-shaped scales. Bark
becoming near the base of the tree ½′—¾′ thick, light reddish brown,
slightly and irregularly fissured and broken into thick closely
appressed scales. Wood heavy, not hard, coarse-grained, light brown
tinged with yellow, with paler sapwood.

Distribution. In the moist bottoms of cañons and on dry rocky summits,
usually at elevations of about 3000° above the sea on both slopes of the
outer western ridge of the Santa Lucia Mountains, Monterey County,
California.

Occasionally and successfully grown as an ornamental tree in the milder
parts of Great Britain and in northern Italy; not hardy in the eastern
United States.



                            7. SEQUOIA Endl.


Resinous aromatic trees, with tall massive lobed trunks, thick bark of 2
layers, the outer composed of fibrous scales, the inner thin, close and
firm, soft, durable, straight-grained red heartwood, thin nearly white
sapwood, short stout horizontal branches, terete lateral branchlets
deciduous in the autumn, and scaly or naked buds. Leaves
ovate-lanceolate or linear and spreading in 2 ranks especially on young
trees and branches, or linear, acute, compressed, keeled on the back and
closely appressed or spreading at apex, the two forms appearing
sometimes on the same branch or on different branches of the same tree.
Flowers minute, solitary, monœcious, appearing in early spring from buds
formed the previous autumn, the male terminal in the axils of upper
leaves, oblong or ovoid, surrounded by an involucre of numerous
imbricated ovate, acute, and apiculate bracts, with numerous spirally
disposed filaments dilated into ovoid acute subpeltate denticulate
connectives bearing on their inner face 2—5 pendulous globose 2-valved
anther-cells; the female terminal, ovoid or oblong, composed of numerous
spirally imbricated ovate scales abruptly keeled on the back, the keels
produced into short or elongated points closely adnate to the short
ovule-bearing scales rounded above and bearing below their upper margin
in 2 rows 5—7 ovules at first erect, becoming reversed. Fruit an ovoid
or short-oblong pendulous cone maturing during the first or second
season, persistent after the escape of the seeds, its scales formed by
the enlargement of the united flower and ovuliferous scales, becoming
woody, bearing large deciduous resin-glands, gradually enlarged upward
and widening at the apex into a narrow thickened oblong disk
transversely depressed through the middle and sometimes tipped with a
small point. Seeds 5—7 under each scale, oblong-ovoid, compressed;
seed-coat membranaceous, produced into broad thin lateral wings;
cotyledons 4—6, longer than the inferior radicle.

Sequoia, widely scattered with several species over the northern
hemisphere during the cretaceous and tertiary epochs, is now confined to
the coast of Oregon and California and the mountains of California,
where two species exist.

The name of the genus is formed from Sequoiah, the inventor of the
Cherokee alphabet.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Leaves mostly spreading in 2 ranks; cones maturing in one season; buds
        scaly.
                                                 1. S. sempervirens (G).
  Leaves slightly spreading or appressed; cones maturing in their second
        season; buds naked.
                                                     2. S. gigantea (G).


                 1. Sequoia sempervirens Endl. Redwood.

[Illustration: Fig. 62]

Leaves of secondary branches and of lower branches of young trees
lanceolate, more or less falcate, acute or acuminate and usually tipped
with slender rigid points, slightly thickened on the revolute margins,
decurrent at the base, spreading in 2 ranks by a half-turn at their
base, ¼′—½′ long, about ⅛′ wide, obscurely keeled and marked above by 2
narrow bands of stomata, glaucous and stomatiferous below on each side
of their conspicuous midrib, on leading shoots disposed in many ranks,
more or less spreading or appressed, ovate or ovate-oblong, incurved at
the rounded apiculate apex, thickened, rounded, and stomatiferous on the
lower surface, concave, prominently keeled and covered with stomata on
the upper surface, usually about ¼′ long; dying and turning reddish
brown at least two years before falling. Flowers opening in December or
January; male oblong, obtuse; female with about 20 broadly ovate acute
scales tipped with elongated and incurved or short points. Fruit
ripening in October, oblong, ¾′—1′ long, ½′ broad, its scales gradually
enlarged from slender stipes abruptly dilated above into disks
penetrated by deep narrow grooves, and usually without tips; seeds about
1/16′ long, light brown, with wings as broad as their body.

A tree, from 200°—340° high, with a slightly tapering and irregularly
lobed trunk usually free of branches for 75°—100°, usually 10°—15°,
rarely 28° in diameter at the much buttressed base, slender branches,
clothed with branchlets spreading in 2 ranks and forming while the tree
is young an open narrow pyramid, on old trees becoming stout and
horizontal, and forming a narrow rather compact and very irregular head
remarkably small in proportion to the height and size of the trunk, and
slender leading branchlets covered at the end of three or four years
after the leaves fall with cinnamon-brown scaly bark; when cut producing
from the stump numerous vigorous long-lived shoots. Buds with numerous
loosely imbricated ovate acute scales persistent on the base of the
branchlet. Bark 6′—12′ thick, divided into rounded ridges and separated
on the surface into long narrow dark brown fibrous scales often broken
transversely and in falling disclosing the bright cinnamon-red inner
bark. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, easily split and
worked, very durable in contact with the soil, clear light red; largely
manufactured into lumber and used for shingles, fence-posts,
railway-ties, wine-butts, and in buildings.

Distribution. Valley of the Chetco River, Oregon, 8 miles north of the
California state line, southward near the coast to Monterey County,
California; rarely found more than twenty or thirty miles from the
coast, or beyond the influence of the ocean fogs, or over 3000° above
the sea-level; often forming in northern California pure forests
occupying the sides of ravines and the banks of streams; southward
growing usually in small groves scattered among other trees; most
abundant and of its largest size north of Cape Mendocino.

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in the temperate countries of
Europe, and occasionally in the southeastern United States.


                  2. Sequoia gigantea Decne. Big Tree.

                      _Sequoia Wellingtonia_ Seem.

[Illustration: Fig. 63]

Leaves ovate and acuminate, or lanceolate, rounded and thickened on the
lower surface, concave on the upper surface, marked by bands of stomata
on both sides of the obscure midrib, rigid, sharp-pointed, decurrent
below, spreading or closely appressed above the middle, ⅛′—¼′ or on
leading shoots ½′ long. Flowers opening in late winter and early spring;
male in great profusion over the whole tree, oblong-ovoid, with ovate
acute or acuminate connectives; female with 25—40 pale yellow scales
slightly keeled on the back and gradually narrowed into long slender
points. Fruit maturing in the second year, ovoid-oblong, 2′—3½′ long,
1½′—2¼′ wide, dark reddish brown, the scales gradually thickened upward
from the base to the slightly dilated apex, ¾′—1¼′ long, and ¼′—½′ wide,
deeply pitted in the middle, often furnished with an elongated reflexed
tip and on the upper side near the base with two or three large
deciduous resin-glands; seeds linear-lanceolate, compressed, ⅛′—¼′ long,
light brown, surrounded by laterally united wings broader than the body
of the seed, apiculate at the apex, often very unequal.

A tree, at maturity usually about 275° high, with a trunk 20° in
diameter near the ground, occasionally becoming 320° tall, with a trunk
35° in diameter, much enlarged and buttressed at base, fluted with broad
low rounded ridges, in old age naked often for 150° with short thick
horizontal branches, slender leading branchlets becoming after the
disappearance of the leaves reddish brown more or less tinged with
purple and covered with thin close or slightly scaly bark and naked
buds. Bark 1°—2° thick, divided into rounded lobes 4°—5° wide,
corresponding to the lobes of the trunk, separating into loose light
cinnamon-red fibrous scales, the outer scales slightly tinged with
purple. Wood very light, soft, not strong, brittle and coarse-grained,
turning dark on exposure; manufactured into lumber and used for fencing,
in construction, and for shingles.

Distribution. Western slopes of the Sierra Nevada of California, in an
interrupted belt at elevations of 5000°—8400° above the level of the
sea, from the middle fork of the American River to the head of Deer
Creek just south of latitude 36°; north of King’s River in isolated
groves, southward forming forests of considerable extent, and best
developed on the north fork of the Tule River.

Universally cultivated as an ornamental tree in all the countries of
western and southern Europe; and occasionally in the middle eastern
United States.



                    8. TAXODIUM Rich. Bald Cypress.


Resinous trees, with furrowed scaly bark, light brown durable heartwood,
thin white sapwood, erect ultimately spreading branches, deciduous
usually 2-ranked lateral branchlets, scaly globose buds, and stout
horizontal roots often producing erect woody projections (_knees_).
Leaves spirally disposed, pale and marked with stomata below on both
sides of the obscure midrib, dark green above, linear-lanceolate,
spreading in 2 ranks, or scale-like and appressed on lateral branchlets,
the two forms appearing on the same or on different branches of the same
tree or on separate trees, deciduous. Flowers unisexual, from buds
formed the previous year; male in the axils of scale-like bracts in long
terminal drooping panicles, with 6—8 stamens opposite in 2 ranks, their
filaments abruptly enlarged into broadly ovate peltate yellow
connectives bearing on their inner face in 2 rows 4—9 2-valved pendulous
anther-cells; female scattered near the ends of the branches of the
previous year, subglobose, composed of numerous ovate spirally arranged
long-pointed scales, adnate below to the thickened fleshy ovuliferous
scales bearing at their base 2 erect bottle-shaped ovules. Fruit a
globose or obovoid short-stalked woody cone maturing the first year and
persistent after the escape of the seeds, formed from the enlargement
and union of the flower and ovule-bearing scales abruptly dilated from
slender stipes into irregularly 4-sided disks often mucronate at
maturity, bearing on the inner face, especially on the stipes, large
dark glands filled with blood-red fragrant liquid resin. Seeds in pairs
under each scale, attached laterally to the stipes, erect, unequally
3-angled; seed-coat light brown and lustrous, thick, coriaceous or
corky, produced into 3 thick unequal lateral wings and below into a
slender elongated point; cotyledons 4—9, shorter than the superior
radicle.

Taxodium, widely distributed through North America and Europe in Miocene
and Pliocene times, is now confined to the southern United States and
Mexico. Two species are distinguished.

The generic name, from τάξος and εῖδος, indicates a resemblance of the
leaves to those of the Yew-tree.


      1. Taxodium distichum Rich. Bald Cypress. Deciduous Cypress.

[Illustration: Fig. 64]

Leaves on distichously spreading branchlets, apiculate, ½′—¾′ long,
about 1/12′ wide, light bright yellow-green or occasionally silvery
white below; or on the form with pendulous compressed branchlets
long-pointed, keeled and stomatiferous below, concave above more or less
spreading at the free apex, about ½′ long; in the autumn turning with
the branchlets dull orange-brown before falling. Flowers: panicles of
staminate flowers 4′—5′ long, 1½′—2′ wide, with slender red-brown stems,
obovoid flower-buds nearly ⅛′ long, pale silvery-gray during winter and
purple when the flowers expand in the spring. Fruit usually produced in
pairs at the end of the branch or irregularly scattered along it for
several inches, nearly globose or obovoid, rugose, about 1′ in diameter,
the scales generally destitute of tips; seeds with wings nearly ¼′ long,
⅛′ wide.

A tree, with a tall lobed gradually tapering trunk, rarely 12° and
generally 4°—5° in diameter above the abruptly enlarged strongly
buttressed usually hollow base, occasionally 150° tall, in youth
pyramidal, with slender branches often becoming elongated and slightly
pendulous, in old age spreading out into a broad low rounded crown often
100° across, and slender branchlets light green when they first appear,
light red-brown and rather lustrous during their first winter, becoming
darker the following year, the lateral branchlets deciduous, 3′—4′ long,
spreading at right angles to the branch, or in the form with acicular
leaves pendulous or erect and often 6′ long. Bark 1′—2′ thick, light
cinnamon-red and divided by shallow fissures into broad flat ridges
separating on the surface into long thin closely appressed fibrous
scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, easily worked, light or dark
brown, sometimes nearly black; largely used for construction,
railway-ties, posts, fences, and in cooperage.

Distribution. River swamps usually submerged during several months of
the year, low wet banks of streams, and the wet depressions of
Pine-barrens from southern New Jersey and southern Delaware southward
generally near the coast to the Everglade Keys, southern Florida, and
through the Gulf-coast region to the valley of Devil River, Texas,
through Louisiana to southern Oklahoma, through southern and western
Arkansas to southeastern Missouri, and through western and northern
Mississippi to Tishomingo County, and in western Tennessee and Kentucky
to southern Illinois and southwestern Indiana; most common and of its
largest size in the south Atlantic and Gulf states, often covering with
nearly pure forests great river swamps. From the coast of North Carolina
to southern Florida, southern Alabama and eastern and western Louisiana
the form with acicular leaves (_Taxodium distichum_ var. _imbricarium_,
Sarg.) is not rare as a small tree in Pine-barren ponds and swamps.

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in the northern United States,
and in the countries of temperate Europe, especially the var.
_imbricarium_ (as _Glyptostrobus sinensis_ Hort. not Endl.).



                          9. LIBOCEDRUS Endl.


Tall resinous aromatic trees, with scaly bark, spreading branches,
flattened branchlets disposed in one horizontal plane and forming an
open 2-ranked spray and often ultimately deciduous, straight-grained
durable fragrant wood, and naked buds. Leaves scale-like, in 4 ranks, on
leading shoots nearly equally decussate, closely compressed or
spreading, dying and becoming woody before falling, on lateral flattened
branchlets much compressed, conspicuously keeled, and nearly covering
those of the other ranks; on seedling plants linear-lanceolate and
spreading. Flowers monœcious, solitary, terminal, the two sexes on
different branchlets; male oblong, with 12—16 decussate filaments
dilated into broad connectives usually bearing 4 subglobose
anther-cells; female oblong, subtended at base by several pairs of
leaf-like scales slightly enlarged and persistent under the fruit,
composed of 6 acuminate short-pointed scales, those of the upper and
middle ranks much larger than those of the lower rank, ovate or oblong,
fertile and bearing at the base of a minute accrescent ovuliferous scale
2 erect ovules. Fruit an oblong cone maturing in one season, with
subcoriaceous scales marked at the apex by the free thickened
mucronulate border of the enlarged flower-scales, those of the lowest
pair ovate, thin, reflexed, much shorter than the oblong thicker scales
of the second pair widely spreading at maturity; those of the third pair
confluent into an erect partition. Seeds in pairs, erect on the base of
the scale; seed-coat membranaceous, of 2 layers, produced into thin
unequal lateral wings, one narrow, the other broad, oblique, nearly as
long as the scale; cotyledons 2, about as long as the superior radicle.

Libocedrus is confined to western North America, western South America,
where it is distributed from Chile to Patagonia, New Zealand, New
Caledonia, New Guinea, Formosa, and southwestern China. Eight species
are distinguished.

_Libocedrus_, from λιβάς and _Cedrus_, relates to the resinous character
of these trees.


              1. Libocedrus decurrens Torr. Incense Cedar.

[Illustration: Fig. 65]

Leaves oblong-obovate, decurrent and closely adnate on the branchlets
except at the callous apex, ⅛′ long on the ultimate lateral branchlets
to nearly ½′ long on leading shoots, those of the lateral ranks
gradually narrowed and acuminate at apex, keeled and glandular on the
back, and nearly covering the flattened obscurely glandular-pitted and
abruptly pointed leaves of the inner ranks. Flowers appearing in January
on the ends of short lateral branchlets of the previous year; male
tingeing the tree with gold during the winter and early spring, ovate,
nearly ¼′ long, with nearly orbicular or broadly ovate connectives,
rounded, acute or acuminate at the apex and slightly erose on the
margins; female subtended by 2—6 pairs of leaf-like scales, with ovate
acute light yellow-green slightly spreading scales. Fruit ripening and
discharging its seeds in the autumn, oblong, ¾′—1′ long, pendulous,
light red-brown; seeds oblong-lanceolate, ⅓′—½′ long, semiterete and
marked below by a conspicuous pale basal hilum; inner layer of the
seed-coat penetrated by elongated resin-chambers, filled with red liquid
balsamic resin.

A tree, usually 80°—100° or rarely 150° high, with a tall straight
slightly and irregularly lobed trunk tapering from a broad base, 3° or
4° or occasionally 6° or 7° in diameter, slender branches erect at the
top of the tree, below sweeping downward in bold curves, forming a
narrow open feathery crown becoming in old age irregular in outline by
the greater development of a few ultimately upright branches forming
secondary stems, and stout branchlets somewhat flattened and light
yellow-green at first, turning light red-brown during the summer and
ultimately brown more or less tinged with purple, the lateral branchlets
much flattened, 4′—6′ long, and usually deciduous at the end of the
second or third season. Bark ½′—1′ thick, bright cinnamon-red, and
broken into irregular ridges covered with closely appressed plate-like
scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained very durable in contact with the
soil, light reddish brown, with thin nearly white sapwood; often injured
by dry rot but largely used for fencing, laths and shingles, the
interior finish of buildings, for furniture, and in the construction of
flumes.

Distribution. Singly or in small groves from the southeastern slope of
Mt. Hood, Oregon, and southward along the Cascade Mountains; on the high
mountains of northern California, on the western slopes of the Sierra
Nevada, and in Alpine County on their eastern slope, on the Washoe
Mountains, western Nevada, in the California coast ranges from the Santa
Lucia Mountains, Monterey County to the high mountains in the southern
part of the state; on the Sierra del Pinal and the San Pedro Mártir
Mountains, Lower California; most abundant and of its largest size on
the Sierra Nevada, of central California at elevations of 5000°—7000°
above the sea.

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in western and central Europe,
where it grows rapidly and promises to attain a large size; hardy and
occasionally planted in the New England and middle Atlantic states.



                        10. THUJA L. Arbor-vitæ.


Resinous aromatic trees, with thin scaly bark, soft durable
straight-grained heartwood, thin nearly white sapwood, slender spreading
or erect branches, pyramidal heads, flattened lateral pendulous
branchlets disposed in one horizontal plane, forming a flat frond-like
spray and often finally deciduous, and naked buds. Leaves decussate,
scale-like, acute, stomatiferous on the back, on leading shoots
appressed or spreading, rounded or slightly keeled on the back, narrowed
into long slender points, on lateral branchlets much compressed in the
lateral ranks, prominently keeled and nearly covering those of the other
ranks; on seedling plants linear-lanceolate, acuminate, spreading or
reflexed. Flowers minute, monœcious, from buds formed the previous
autumn, terminal, solitary, the two sexes usually on different
branchlets; male ovoid, with 4—6 decussate filaments, enlarged into
suborbicular peltate connectives bearing on their inner face 2—4
subglobose anther-cells; female oblong, with 8—12 oblong acute scales
opposite in pairs, the ovuliferous scales at their base bearing usually
2 erect bottle-shaped ovules. Fruit an ovoid-oblong erect pale
cinnamon-brown cone maturing in one season, its scales thin (thick in
one species), leathery, oblong, acute, marked near the apex by the
thickened free border of the enlarged flower-scales, those of the 2 or 3
middle ranks largest and fertile. Seeds usually 2, erect on the base of
the scale, ovoid, acute, compressed, light chestnut-brown; seed-coat
membranaceous, produced except in one species into broad lateral wings
distinct at the apex; cotyledons 2, longer than the superior radicle.

Thuja is confined to northeastern and northwestern America, to Japan,
Korea and northern China. Five species are recognized. Of the exotic
species the Chinese _Thuja orientalis_, L., with many varieties produced
by cultivation, is frequently planted in the United States, especially
in the south and west, for the decoration of gardens, and is
distinguished from the other species by the thick umbonate scales of the
cone, only the 4 lower scales being fertile, and by the thick rounded
dark red-purple seeds without wings.

_Thuja_ is the classical name of some coniferous tree.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Fruit with usually 4 fertile scales.
                                                 1. T. occidentalis (A).
  Fruit with usually 6 fertile scales.
                                                2. T. plicata (B, F, G).


           1. Thuja occidentalis L. White Cedar. Arbor-vitæ.

[Illustration: Fig. 66]

Leaves on leading shoots often nearly ¼′ long, long-pointed and usually
conspicuously glandular, on lateral branchlets much flattened, rounded
and apiculate at apex, without glands or obscurely glandular-pitted,
about ⅛′ long. Flowers opening in April and May, liver color. Fruit
ripening and discharging its seeds in the early autumn, ⅓′—½′ long;
seeds ⅛′ long, the thin wings as wide as the body.

A tree, 50°—60° high, with a short often lobed and buttressed trunk,
occasionally 6° although usually not more than 2°—3° in diameter, often
divided into 2 or 3 stout secondary stems, short horizontal branches
soon turning upward and forming a narrow compact pyramidal head, light
yellow-green branchlets paler on the lower surface than on the upper,
changing with the death of the leaves during their second season to
light cinnamon-red, growing darker the following year, gradually
becoming terete and abruptly enlarged at the base and finally covered
with smooth lustrous dark orange-brown bark, and marked by conspicuous
scars left by the falling of the short pendulous lateral branchlets.
Bark ¼′—⅓′ thick, light red-brown often tinged with orange color and
broken by shallow fissures into narrow flat connected ridges separating
into elongated more or less persistent scales. Wood light, soft,
brittle, very coarse-grained, durable, fragrant, pale yellow-brown;
largely used in Canada and the northern states for fence-posts, rails,
railway-ties, and shingles. Fluid extracts and tinctures made from the
young branchlets are sometimes used in medicine.

Distribution. Frequently forming nearly impenetrable forests on swampy
ground or often occupying the rocky banks of streams, from Nova Scotia
and New Brunswick, northwestward to the mouth of the Saskatchewan, and
southward through eastern Canada to southern New Hampshire, central
Massachusetts, New York, central Ohio, northern Indiana and Illinois,
and Minnesota; occasionally on the high mountains of Virginia, West
Virginia, and northeastern Tennessee, and on the mountains of western
Burke County, North Carolina, at an altitude of 3000 feet; very common
at the north, less abundant and of smaller size southward.

Often cultivated, with many, often dwarf, forms produced in nurseries,
as an ornamental tree and for hedges; and in Europe from the middle of
the sixteenth century.


            2. Thuja plicata D. Don. Red Cedar. Canoe Cedar.

[Illustration: Fig. 67]

Leaves on leading shoots ovate, long-pointed, often conspicuously
glandular on the back, frequently ¼′ long, on lateral branchlets ovate,
apiculate, without glands or obscurely glandular-pitted, usually not
more than ⅛′ long, mostly persistent 2—5 years. Flowers about 1/12′
long, dark brown. Fruit ripening early in the autumn, clustered near the
ends of the branches, much reflexed, ½′ long, with thin leathery scales,
conspicuously marked near the apex by the free border of the
flower-scale furnished with short stout erect or recurved dark mucros;
seeds often 3 under each fertile scale, rather shorter than their
usually slightly unequal wings about ¼′ long.

A tree, frequently 200° high, with a broad gradually tapering buttressed
base sometimes 15° in diameter at the ground and in old age often
separating toward the summit into 2 or 3 erect divisions, short
horizontal branches, usually pendulous at the ends, forming a dense
narrow pyramidal head, and slender much compressed branchlets often
slightly zigzag, light bright yellow-green during their first year, then
cinnamon-brown, and after the falling of the leaves, lustrous and dark
reddish brown often tinged with purple, the lateral branchlets 5′—6′
long, light green and lustrous on the upper surface, somewhat paler on
the lower surface, turning yellow and falling generally at the end of
their second season. Bark bright cinnamon-red, ½′—¾′ thick, irregularly
divided by narrow shallow fissures into broad ridges rounded on the back
and broken on the surface into long narrow rather loose plate-like
scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, easily
split, dull brown tinged with red; largely used in Washington and Oregon
for the interior finish of buildings, doors, sashes, fences, shingles,
and in cabinet-making and cooperage. From this tree the Indians of the
northwest coast split the planks used in the construction of their
lodges, carved the totems which decorate their villages, and hollowed
out their great war canoes, and from the fibres of the inner bark made
ropes, blankets, and thatch for their cabins.

Distribution. Singly and in small groves on low moist bottom-lands or
near the banks of mountain streams, from the sea-level to elevations of
6000° in the interior, from Baranoff Island, Alaska, southward along the
coast ranges of British Columbia, western Washington, and Oregon, where
it is the most abundant and grows to its largest size, and through the
California-coast region to Mendocino County, ranging eastward along many
of the interior ranges of British Columbia, northern Washington, Idaho,
and Montana to the western slope of the continental divide.

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in the parks and gardens of
western and central Europe where it has grown rapidly and vigorously,
and occasionally in the middle and north Atlantic states.



                       11. CUPRESSUS L. Cypress.


Resinous trees, with bark often separating into long shred-like scales,
fragrant durable usually light brown heartwood, pale yellow sapwood,
stout erect branches often becoming horizontal in old age, slender
4-angled branchlets, and naked buds. Leaves scale-like, ovate, acute,
acuminate, or bluntly pointed at apex, with slender spreading or
appressed tips, thickened, rounded, and often glandular on the back,
opposite in pairs, becoming brown and woody before falling; on vigorous
leading shoots and young plants needle-shaped or linear-lanceolate and
spreading. Flowers minute, monœcious, terminal, yellow, the two sexes on
separate branchlets; the male oblong, of numerous decussate stamens,
with short filaments enlarged into broadly ovate connectives bearing 2—6
globose pendulous anther-cells; female oblong or subglobose, composed of
6—10 thick decussate scales bearing in several rows at the base of the
ovuliferous scale numerous erect bottle-shaped ovules. Fruit an erect
nearly globose cone maturing in the second year, composed of the much
thickened ovule-bearing scales of the flower, abruptly dilated, clavate
and flattened at the apex, bearing the remnants of the flower-scales
developed into a short central more or less thickened mucro or boss;
long-persistent on the branch after the escape of the seeds. Seeds
numerous, in several rows, erect, thick, and acutely angled or
compressed, with thin lateral wings; seed-coat of 2 layers, the outer
thin and membranaceous, the inner thicker and crustaceous; cotyledons 3
or 4, longer than the superior radicle.

Cupressus with ten or twelve species is confined to Pacific North
America and Mexico in the New World and to southeastern Europe,
southwestern Asia, the Himalayas, and China in the Old World. Of the
exotic species _Cupressus sempervirens_ L., of southeastern Europe and
southwestern Asia, and especially its pyramidal variety, are often
planted for ornament in the south Atlantic and Pacific states.

_Cupressus_ is the classical name of the Cypress-tree.


                CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES

  Leaves dark green.
    Leaves eglandular or obscurely glandular on the back.
      Leaves obtusely pointed; cones puberulous, 1′—1½′ in diameter;
            seeds light chestnut-brown.
                                                   1. C. macrocarpa (G).
      Leaves acutely pointed; cones ½′—⅔′ in diameter; seeds dark brown
            or black.
                                                    2. C. Goveniana (G).
    Leaves glandular-pitted on the back, acute.
      Cones ⅔′—1′ in diameter; seeds brown, often glaucous.
                                                    3. C. Sargentii (G).
      Cones ½′—1′ in diameter, often covered with a glaucous bloom;
            seeds dark chestnut-brown.
                                                   4. C. Macnabiana (G).
  Leaves pale bluish green.
    Leaves obtusely pointed, with small gland-pits; bark of the trunk
          smooth, lustrous, mahogany brown; branches bright red.
                                               5. C. guadaloupensis (G).
    Leaves acute, eglandular or occasionally obscurely glandular (in
          var. _glabra_ conspicuously glandular); bark of the trunk dark
          brown, separating into long narrow persistent fibres;
          branchlets gray.
                                                    6. C. arizonica (H).


            1. Cupressus macrocarpa Gord. Monterey Cypress.

[Illustration: Fig. 68]

Leaves dark green, bluntly pointed, eglandular, and ¼′—½′ long;
deciduous at the end of three or four years. Flowers opening late in
February or early in March, yellow. Fruit clustered on short stout stems
subglobose, slightly puberulous, 1′—1½′ in diameter, composed of 4 or 6
pairs of scales, with broadly ovoid thickened or occasionally on the
upper scales subconical bosses, the scales of the upper and lower pairs
being smaller than the others and sterile; seeds about 20 under each
fertile scale, angled, light chestnut-brown, about 1/16′ long.

A tree, often 60°—70° high, with a short trunk 2°—3° or exceptionally
5°—6° in diameter, slender erect branches forming a narrow or broad
bushy pyramidal head, becoming stout and spreading in old age into a
broad flat-topped crown, and stout branchlets covered when the leaves
fall at the end of three or four years with thin light or dark reddish
brown bark separating into small papery scales. Bark ¾′—1′ thick and
irregularly divided into broad flat connected ridges separating freely
into narrow elongated thick persistent scales, dark red-brown on young
stems and upper branches, becoming at last almost white on old and
exposed trunks. Wood heavy, hard and strong, very durable,
close-grained.

Distribution. Coast of California south of the Bay of Monterey,
occupying an area about two miles long and two hundred yards wide from
Cypress Point to the shores of Carmel Bay, with a small grove on Point
Lobos, the southern boundary of the bay.

Universally cultivated in the Pacific states from Vancouver Island to
Lower California, and often used in hedges and for wind-breaks;
occasionally planted in the southeastern states; much planted in western
and southern Europe, temperate South America, and in Australia and New
Zealand.


                      2. Cupressus Goveniana Gord.

                        _Cupressus pygmæa_ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 69]

Leaves acutely pointed, dark green. Flowers: male obscurely 4-angled,
with broadly ovate peltate connectives: female with 6—10 ovate pointed
scales. Fruit usually sessile, subglobose ¼′—⅞′ in diameter, its scales
terminating in small bosses; seeds compressed, black, or dark brown,
papillose, about ⅛′ long.

A tree rarely 75° high, with a tall trunk up to 2°10′ in diameter, often
not more than 25° high, more often a shrub with numerous stems 1°—15°
tall, ascending branches, and comparatively stout bright reddish brown
branchlets, becoming purple and ultimately dark reddish brown; often
beginning to produce fertile cones when only 1° or 2° tall. Bark bright
reddish brown, about ¼′ thick, and divided by shallow fissures into flat
ridges separating on the surface into long thread-like scales. Wood
soft, very coarse-grained, pale reddish brown.

Distribution. California: pine barrens on the western slope of Point
Pinos Ridge two miles west of Monterey, and on alkaline soil in a narrow
belt beginning about three quarters of a mile from the shore of
Mendocino County and extending inland for three or four miles from Ten
Mile Run on the north to the Navarro River on the south; arborescent and
also of its smallest size only in this northern station.


            3. Cupressus Sargentii Jeps. Sargent’s Cypress.

_Cupressus Goveniana_ Engelm., not Gord. (_Silva N. Am._ x. 107 t. 527)

[Illustration: Fig. 70]

Leaves obscurely glandular or without glands, dark green, pungently
aromatic, 1/16′—⅛′ long, turning bright red-brown in drying and falling
at the end of three or four years; on young plants ⅛′—¼′ long. Flowers:
male with thin slightly erose connectives: female of 6 or 8 acute
slightly spreading scales. Fruit often in crowded clusters,
short-stalked, subglobose, ½′—1′ in diameter, reddish brown or purple,
lustrous, puberulous, its 6 or 8 scales with broadly ovoid generally
rounded and flattened and rarely short-obconic bosses; seeds brown,
lustrous, often glaucous, with an acute margin, ⅙′ long, about 20 under
each fertile scale.

A tree, shrub, or small bushy tree rarely more than 15° or 16° high,
with a short trunk 2° in diameter, slender erect or spreading branches
forming a handsome open head, and thin branchlets covered with close
smooth bark, at first orange-colored, becoming bright reddish brown, and
ultimately purple or dark brown. Bark ¼′—½′ thick, dark grayish brown,
irregularly divided into narrow ridges covered with thin persistent
oblong scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, light brown, with thick
nearly white sapwood.

Distribution. California: dry mountain slopes usually between altitudes
of 1300° and 2300° in few widely isolated stations, Red Mountain,
Mendocino County, to Mt. Tamalpais, Marin County; Cedar Mountain,
Alameda County; Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Cruz County; Santa Lucia
Mountains, Monterey County; often covering great areas on the hills of
Marin County with dense thickets only a few feet high.

Occasionally cultivated as _C. Goveniana_ in western and southern Europe
as an ornamental tree.


               4. Cupressus Macnabiana A. Murr. Cypress.

                        _Cupressus Bakeri_ Jeps.
                     _Cupressus nevadensis_ Abrams.

[Illustration: Fig. 71]

Leaves acute or rounded at apex, rounded and conspicuously glandular on
the back, deep green, often slightly glaucous, usually not more than
1/16′ long. Flowers in March and April, male nearly cylindric, obtuse,
with broadly ovate rounded connectives: female subglobose, with broadly
ovate scales short-pointed and rounded at apex. Fruit oblong, subsessile
or raised on a slender stalk, ½′—1′ long, dark reddish brown more or
less covered with a glaucous bloom, slightly puberulous, especially
along the margins of the 6 or rarely 8 scales, their prominent bosses
thin and recurved on the lower scales, and much thickened, conical, and
more or less incurved on the upper scales; seeds dark chestnut-brown,
usually rather less than 1/16′ long, with narrow wings.

A tree in Oregon occasionally 80° high with a tall trunk sometimes 3½°
in diameter, southward rarely more than 30° high, with a short trunk
12′—15′ in diameter, slender branches covered with close smooth compact
bark, bright purple after the falling of the leaves, soon becoming dark
brown; more often a shrub with numerous stems 6°—12° tall forming a
broad open irregular head. Bark thin, dark reddish brown, broken into
brown flat ridges, and separating on the surface into elongated thin
slightly attached long-persistent scales. Wood light, soft, very
close-grained.

Distribution. Rare and local, usually in small groves; dry ridges of
Mount Steve and adjacent mountains up to altitudes of 5300°, Josephine
County, southwestern Oregon; California; on lava beds, southeastern
Siskiyou and southwestern Mono Counties (_C. Bakeri_); dry hills and low
slopes, Mt. Ætna, in central Napa County; through Lake County to Red
Mountain on the east side of Ukiah Valley, Mendocino County; in Trinity
County between Shasta and Whiskeytown; and on the Sierra Nevada (Red
Hill, Piute Mountains near Bodfish) Kern County, at an altitude of 5000°
(_C. nevadensis_).

Occasionally cultivated in western and southern Europe as an ornamental
tree.


          5. Cupressus guadaloupensis S. Wats. Tecate Cypress.

[Illustration: Fig. 72]

Leaves acute, rounded and minutely glandular-pitted or eglandular on the
back, light blue-green, about 1/16′ long. Fruit on stout stems ¼′—⅓′ in
length, subglobose to short-oblong, ¾′—1¼′ in diameter, puberulous
especially along the margins of the six or eight scales, with prominent
flattened or conic acute often incurved bosses; seeds about 70 under
each scale, short-oblong, nearly square, light chestnut-brown up to ¼′
in length, with a narrow wing.

A tree in California sometimes 20°—25° in height, with a short slender
or on exposed mountain slopes a trunk occasionally 2° or 3° in diameter,
few short spreading or ascending branches forming an open head, and
light red-brown lustrous branchlets becoming purplish. Bark smooth,
lustrous, without resin or fibres, mahogany brown, the thin scales in
falling leaving pale marks.

Distribution. San Diego County, California, rare and local; valley of
the San Luis Rey River between Valley Centre and Pala; at altitudes
between 1100° and 4000° in the gulches and on the summit of Mt. Tecate
on the border between the United States and Lower California; on a
mountain below Descanso and Pine Valley; in Cedar Cañon between El-nido
and Dulzura; in Lower California on San Pedro Mártir Mountain and
Guadaloupe Island. The insular form is a larger tree often with larger
gland-pits on the leaves, and now often cultivated in California,
western Europe, and in other countries with temperate climates.


                6. Cupressus arizonica Greene. Cypress.

[Illustration: Fig. 73]

Leaves obtusely pointed, rounded, eglandular or rarely glandular-pitted
on the back, pale green, 1/16′ long, dying and turning red-brown in
their second season, generally falling four years later. Flowers: male
oblong, obtuse, their 6 or 8 stamens with broadly ovate acute yellow
connectives slightly erose on the margins: female not seen. Fruit on
stout pedicels ¼′—½′ in length, subglobose, rather longer than broad,
wrinkled, dark red-brown and covered with a glaucous bloom, the six or
eight scales with stout flattened incurved prominent bosses; seeds
oblong to nearly triangular, dark red-brown, 1/16′—⅛′ long with a thin
narrow wing.

A conical tree 40°—70° high with a trunk 2°—4° in diameter, and stout
spreading branches covered with bark separating into thin plates,
leaving a smooth red surface, and branchlets dark gray after the leaves
fall. Bark on young trunks separating into large irregular curling thin
scales, on old trees becoming dark red-brown and fibrous.

Distribution. Mountains above Clifton, Greenlee County, eastern Arizona;
on the San Francisco Mountains, Socorro County, and San Luis Mountains,
Grant County, western New Mexico; and in Chihuahua. Passing into


                 Cupressus arizonica var. bonita Lemm.

                        _Cupressus glabra_ Sudw.

[Illustration: Fig. 74]

Differing from the type in the prominent oblong or circular glandular
depressions on the backs of the leaves.

A tree 30°—70° high, with a trunk 18′—24′ or rarely 5° in diameter,
erect branches forming a rather compact conical head. Bark of the trunk
and large branches thin, smooth, dark reddish brown, separating into
small curled scale-like plates, becoming on old trees dark gray and
fibrous. Wood heavy, hard, pale straw color with lighter-colored
sapwood, durable in contact with the ground, somewhat used for
fence-posts, corral-piles, mine-timbers and in log cabins.

Distribution. Gravelly slopes and moist gulches often in groups of
considerable size at altitudes between 4000° and 7000°, Arizona; near
Camp Verde, Tonto Basin; Natural Bridge, Payson, etc.; on the Chiracahua
Mountains (_J. W. Toumey_, July, 1894); on the Santa Rita and Santa
Catalina Mountains, and in Oak Creek Cañon twenty miles south of
Flagstaff (_P. Lowell_, June, 1911).

Now often cultivated in western Europe as _C. arizonica_.



                           12. CHAMÆCYPARIS.


Tall resinous pyramidal trees, with thin scaly or deeply furrowed bark,
nodding leading shoots, spreading branches, flattened, often deciduous
or ultimately terete branchlets 2-ranked in one horizontal plane, pale
fragrant durable heartwood, thin nearly white sapwood, and naked buds.
Leaves scale-like, ovate, acuminate, with slender spreading or appressed
tips, opposite in pairs, becoming brown and woody before falling, on
vigorous sterile branches and young plants needle-shaped or
linear-lanceolate and spreading. Flowers minute, monœcious, terminal,
the two sexes on separate branchlets; the male oblong, of numerous
decussate stamens, with short filaments enlarged into ovate connectives
decreasing in size from below upward and bearing usually 2 pendulous
globose anther-cells; the female subglobose, composed of usually 6
decussate peltate scales bearing at the base of the ovuliferous scales
2—5 erect bottle-shaped ovules. Fruit an erect globose cone maturing at
the end of the first season, surrounded at the base by the sterile lower
scales of the flowers, and formed by the enlargement of the
ovule-bearing scales, abruptly dilated, club-shaped and flattened at the
apex, bearing the remnants of the flower-scales as short prominent
points or knobs; persistent on the branches after the escape of the
seeds. Seeds 1—5, erect on the slender stalk-like base of the scale,
subcylindric and slightly compressed; seed-coat of 2 layers, the outer
thin and membranaceous, the inner thicker and crustaceous, produced into
broad lateral wings; cotyledons 2, longer than the superior radicle.

Chamæcyparis is confined to the Atlantic and Pacific coast regions of
North America, and to Japan and Formosa. Six species are distinguished.
Of exotic species the Japanese Retinosporas, _Chamæcyparis obtusa_
Endl., and _Chamæcyparis pisifera_ Endl., with their numerous abnormal
forms are familiar garden plants in all temperate regions.

_Chamæcyparis_ is from χαµαί, on the ground, and κυπάρισσος, cypress.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Bark thin, divided into flat ridges;
    Branchlets slender, often compressed; leaves dull blue-green,
          usually conspicuously glandular.
                                                  1. C. thyoides (A, C).
    Branchlets stout, slightly flattened or terete; leaves dark
          blue-green, usually without glands.
                                              2. C. nootkatensis (B, G).
  Bark thick, divided into broad rounded ridges; branchlets slender,
        compressed; leaves bright green, conspicuously glandular.
                                                   3. C. Lawsoniana (G).


             1. Chamæcyparis thyoides B. S. P. White Cedar.

                        _Cupressus thyoides_ L.

[Illustration: Fig. 75]

Leaves closely appressed, or spreading at the apex especially on
vigorous leading shoots, keeled and glandular or conspicuously
glandular-punctate on the back, dark dull blue-green or pale below, at
the north becoming russet-brown during the winter, 1/16′—⅛′ long, dying
during the second season and then persistent for many years. Flowers:
male composed of 5 or 6 pairs of stamens, with ovate connectives rounded
at apex, dark brown below the middle, nearly black toward the apex:
female subglobose, with ovate acute spreading pale liver-colored scales
and black ovules. Fruit ¼′ in diameter, sessile on a short leafy branch,
light green, covered with a glaucous bloom when fully grown, later
bluish purple and very glaucous, finally becoming dark red-brown, its
scales terminating in ovate acute, often reflexed bosses; seeds 1 or 2
under each fertile scale, ovoid, acute, full and rounded at the base,
slightly compressed, gray-brown, about ⅛′ long, with wings as broad as
the body of the seed and dark red-brown.

A tree, 70°—80° high, with a tall trunk usually about 2 and occasionally
3°—4° in diameter, or northward much smaller, slender horizontal
branches forming a narrow spire-like head, and 2-ranked compressed
branchlets disposed in an open fan-shaped more or less deciduous spray,
the persistent branchlets gradually becoming terete, light green tinged
with red, light reddish brown during their first winter, and then dark
brown, their thin close bark separating slightly at the end of three or
four years into small papery scales. Bark ¾′—1′ thick, light reddish
brown, and divided irregularly into narrow flat connected ridges often
spirally twisted round the stem, separating on the surface into
elongated loose or closely appressed plate-like scales. Wood light,
soft, not strong, close-grained, slightly fragrant, light brown tinged
with red; largely used in boat-building and cooperage, for wooden ware,
shingles, the interior finish of houses, fence-posts, and railway-ties.

Distribution. Cold swamps usually immersed during several months of the
year, often forming dense pure forests; near Concord, New Hampshire,
southern Maine, southward only near the coast to northern Florida, and
westward to southwestern Mississippi; most abundant south of
Massachusetts Bay; comparatively rare east of Boston and west of Mobile
Bay.

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the eastern states and in
the countries of temperate Europe.


   2. Chamæcyparis nootkatensis Sudw. Yellow Cypress. Sitka Cypress.

                     _Cupressus nootkatensis_ Lamb.

[Illustration: Fig. 76]

Leaves rounded, eglandular or glandular-pitted on the back, dark
blue-green, closely appressed, about ⅛′ long, on vigorous leading
branchlets somewhat spreading and often ¼′ long, with more elongated and
sharper points, beginning to die at the end of their second year and
usually falling during the third season. Flowers: male on lateral
branchlets of the previous year, composed of 4 or 5 pairs of stamens,
with ovate rounded slightly erose light yellow connectives: female
clustered near the ends of upper branchlets, dark liver color, the
fertile scales each bearing 2—4 ovules. Fruit ripening in September and
October. nearly ½′ in diameter, dark red-brown, with usually 4 or 6
scales tipped with prominent erect pointed bosses and frequently covered
with conspicuous resin-glands; seeds 2—4 under each scale, ovoid, acute,
slightly flattened, about ¼′ long, dark red-brown, with thin light
red-brown wings often nearly twice as wide as the body of the seed.

A tree, frequently 120° high, with a tall trunk 5°—6° in diameter,
horizontal branches forming a narrow pyramidal head, stout distichous
somewhat flattened or terete light yellow branchlets often tinged with
red at first, dark or often bright red-brown during their third season,
ultimately paler and covered with close thin smooth bark. Bark ½′—¾′
thick, light gray tinged with brown, irregularly fissured, and separated
on the surface into large thin loose scales. Wood hard, rather brittle,
very close-grained, exceedingly durable, bright clear yellow, with very
thin nearly white sapwood; fragrant with an agreeable resinous odor;
used in boat and shipbuilding, the interior finish of houses, and the
manufacture of furniture.

Distribution. Islands of Prince William Sound, Alaska, and southward
over the coast mountains of Alaska and British Columbia, and along the
Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon to the northeastern slopes of
Mt. Jefferson, extending eastward to the headwaters of the Yakima River
on the eastern slope of the range; on Whiskey Peak of the Siskiyou
Mountains in the southeastern corner of Josephine County, Oregon and
about two miles from the California line; most abundant and of its
largest size near the coast of Alaska and northern British Columbia,
ranging from the sea-level up to altitudes of 3000°; at high elevations
on the Cascade Mountains sometimes a low shrub.

Occasionally cultivated, with its several abnormal forms, as an
ornamental tree in the middle Atlantic states and in California, and
commonly in the countries of western and central Europe.


  3. Chamæcyparis Lawsoniana Parl. Port Orford Cedar. Lawson Cypress.

                    _Cupressus Lawsoniana_ A. Murr.

[Illustration: Fig. 77]

Leaves bright green or pale below, conspicuously glandular on the back,
usually not more than 1/16′ long on lateral branchlets, on leading
shoots often spreading at the apex, ⅛′ to nearly ¼′ long, usually dying,
turning bright red-brown and falling during their third year. Flowers:
male with bright red connectives bearing usually 2 pollen-sacs: female
with dark ovate acute spreading scales, each bearing 2—4 ovules. Fruit
clustered on the upper lateral branchlets and produced in great
profusion, ripening in September and October, about ⅓′ in diameter,
green and glaucous when full grown, red-brown and often covered with a
bloom at maturity, its scales with thin broadly ovate acute reflexed
bosses; seeds 2—4 under each fertile scale, ovoid, acute, slightly
compressed, ⅛′ long, light chestnut-brown, with broad thin wings.

A tree, often 200° high, with a tall trunk frequently 12° in diameter
above its abruptly enlarged base, a spire-like head of small horizontal
or pendulous branches clothed with remote flat spray frequently 6′—8′
long. Bark often 10′ thick at the base of old trees and 3′—4′ thick on
smaller stems, dark reddish brown, with 2 distinct layers, the inner
⅛′—¼′ thick, darker, more compact, and firmer than the outer, divided
into great broad-based rounded ridges separated on the surface into
small thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, hard, strong, very
close-grained, abounding in fragrant resin, durable, easily worked,
light yellow, or almost white, with hardly distinguishable sapwood;
largely manufactured into lumber used for the interior finish and
flooring of buildings, railway-ties, fence-posts, and boat and
shipbuilding, and on the Pacific coast almost exclusively for matches.
The resin is a powerful diuretic.

Distribution. Usually scattered in small groves from the shores of Coos
Bay, southwestern Oregon, south to the mouth of the Klamath River,
California, ranging inland usually for about thirty miles; near Waldorf,
in Josephine County, Oregon, on the slopes of the Siskiyou Mountains,
and on the southern flanks of Mt. Shasta, California; most abundant
north of Rogue River on the Oregon coast and attaining its largest size
on the western slopes of the Coast Range foothills, forming between
Point Gregory and the mouth of the Coquille River a nearly continuous
forest belt twenty miles long.

Often cultivated with the innumerable forms originated in nurseries, in
the middle Atlantic states and California, in all the temperate
countries of Europe, and in New Zealand.



                       13. JUNIPERUS L. Juniper.


Pungent aromatic trees or shrubs, with usually thin shreddy bark, soft
close-grained durable wood, slender branches, and scaly or naked buds.
Leaves sessile, in whorls of 3, persistent for many years, convex on the
lower side, concave and stomatiferous above, linear-subulate,
sharp-pointed, without glands (_Oxycedrus_); or scale-like, ovate,
opposite in pairs or ternate, closely imbricated, appressed and adnate
to the branch, glandular or eglandular on the back, becoming brown and
woody on the branch, but on young plants and vigorous shoots often free
and awl-shaped (_Sabina_). Flowers minute, diœcious, axillary or
terminal on short axillary branches from buds formed the previous autumn
on branches of the year; the male solitary, oblong-ovoid, with numerous
stamens decussate or in 3’s, their filaments enlarged into ovate or
peltate yellow scale-like connectives bearing near the base 2—6 globose
pollen-sacs; the female ovoid, surrounded at the base by many minute
scale-like bracts persistent and unchanged under the fruit, composed of
2—6 opposite or ternate pointed scales alternate with or bearing on
their inner face at the base on a minute ovuliferous scale 1 or 2
ovules. Fruit a berry-like succulent fleshy blue, blue-black, or red
strobile formed by the coalition of the flower-scales, inclosed in a
membranaceous skin covered with a glaucous bloom, ripening during the
first, second, or rarely during the third season, smooth or marked by
the ends of the flower-scales, or by the pointed tips of the ovules,
closed, or open at the top and exposing the apex of the seeds. Seeds
1—12, ovoid, acute or obtuse, terete or variously angled, often
longitudinally grooved by depressions caused by the pressure of
resin-cells in the flesh of the fruit, smooth or roughened and
tuberculate, chestnut-brown, marked below by the large conspicuous
usually 2-lobed hilum; seed-coat of 2 layers, the outer thick and bony,
the inner thin, membranaceous or crustaceous; cotyledons 2, or 4—6,
about as long as the superior radicle.

Juniperus is widely scattered over the northern hemisphere from the
Arctic Circle to the highlands of Mexico, Lower California, and the West
Indies in the New World, and to the Azores and Canary Islands, northern
Africa, Abyssinia, the mountains of east tropical Africa, Sikkim,
central China, Formosa, Japan and the Bonin Islands in the Old World.
About thirty-five species are now distinguished. Of the exotic species
cultivated in the United States the most common are European forms of
_Juniperus communis_ L. with fastigiate branches, and dwarf forms of the
European _Juniperus Sabina_ L., and of _Juniperus chinensis_ L.

_Juniperus_ is the classical name of the Juniper.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Flowers axillary; stamens decussate; ovules 3, alternate with the
        scales of the flower, their tips persistent on the fruit; seeds
        usually 3; leaves ternate, linear-lanceolate, prickle-pointed,
        jointed at the base, eglandular, dark yellow-green, channeled,
        stomatose, and glaucous above; fruit maturing in the third year,
        subglobose, bright blue, covered with a glaucous bloom; buds
        scaly (_Oxycedrus_).
                                                         1. J. communis.
  Flowers terminal on short axillary branchlets; stamens decussate or in
        3’s; ovules in the axils of small fleshy scales often enlarged
        and conspicuous on the fruit; seeds 1—12; leaves ternate or
        opposite, mostly scale-like, crowded, generally closely
        appressed, free and awl-shaped on vigorous shoots and young
        plants; buds naked (_Sabina_).
    Fruit red or reddish brown.
      Bark of the trunk separating into long thin persistent scales;
            fruit maturing in one season.
        Leaves closely appressed to the branchlet, obtusely pointed.
          Leaves conspicuously glandular-pitted, ternate or opposite;
                fruit red, subglobose, ¼′ in diameter.
                                                 2. J. Pinchotii (C, H).
          Leaves eglandular or slightly glandular; fruit reddish brown.
            Leaves ternate, rarely opposite; fruit short-oblong, ¼′—½′
                  in diameter.
                                                  3. J. californica (G).
            Leaves opposite, rarely ternate; fruit subglobose, ⅛′—¼′, in
                  one form ¾′ in diameter.
                                                 4. J. utahensis (F, G).
        Leaves not closely appressed, spreading at the apex,
              long-pointed, glandular or eglandular; fruit subglobose,
              ⅓′—½′ in diameter.
                                                     5. J. flaccida (L).
      Bark of the trunk divided into thick nearly square plates; leaves
            eglandular or occasionally glandular-pitted; fruit
            subglobose to short-oblong, ½′ in diameter, ripening at the
            end of its second season.
                                                   6. J. pachyphlæa (H).
    Fruit blue or blue-black, with resinous juicy flesh, subglobose to
          short-oblong, 1/12′—⅓′ in diameter; seeds, 1—4; cotyledons 2.
      Leaves denticulately fringed, opposite or ternate; fruit maturing
            in one season.
        Branchlets about 1/12′ in diameter; leaves acute, conspicuously
              glandular; fruit short-oblong, ¼′—⅓′ in diameter; seeds 2
              or 3.
                                              7. J. occidentalis (B, G).
        Branchlets not more than 1/24′ in diameter; leaves usually
              ternate; fruit short-oblong.
          Seeds 1 or rarely 2, pale chestnut-brown, obtuse, prominently
                ridged; leaves acute or acuminate, usually glandular.
                                                   8. J. monosperma (F).
          Seeds 1 or 2, dark chestnut-brown, acute, obscurely ridged;
                leaves obtusely pointed, often eglandular.
                                                     9. J. mexicana (C).
      Leaves naked on the margins, mostly opposite, glandular or
            eglandular; fruit subglobose.
        Fruit ripening at the end of the first season.
          Fruit ¼′—⅓′ in diameter; seeds 1 or 2, rarely 3 or 4; leaves
                acute or acuminate; branches spreading or erect.
                                               10. J. virginiana (A, C).
          Fruit 1/12′—⅙′ in diameter; seeds 1 or 2; leaves acute;
                branches usually pendulous.
                                                    11. J. lucayana (C).
        Fruit ripening at the end of the second season, ¼′—⅓′ in
              diameter; seeds 1 or 2; leaves acute or acuminate.
                                               12. J. scopulorum (B, F).


                   1. Juniperus communis L. Juniper.

[Illustration: Fig. 78]

Leaves spreading nearly at right angles to the branchlets, ⅓′—½′ long,
about 1/32′ wide, turning during winter a deep rich bronze color on the
lower surface, persistent for many years. Flowers: male composed of 5 or
6 whorls each of 3 stamens, with broadly ovate acute and short-pointed
connectives, bearing at the very base 3 or 4 globose anther-cells;
female surrounded by 5 or 6 whorls of ternate leaf-like scales, composed
of 3 slightly spreading ovules abruptly enlarged and open at the apex,
with 3 minute obtuse fleshy scales below and alternate with them. Fruit
maturing in the third season, subglobose or short-oblong, about ¼′ in
diameter, with soft mealy resinous sweet flesh and 1—3 seeds; often
persistent on the branches one or two years after ripening; seeds ovoid,
acute, irregularly angled or flattened, deeply penetrated by numerous
prominent thin-walled resin-glands, about ⅛′ long, the outer coat thick
and bony, the inner membranaceous.

In America only occasionally tree-like and 10°—20° tall, with a short
eccentric irregularly lobed trunk rarely a foot in diameter, erect
branches forming an irregular open head, slender branchlets, smooth,
lustrous, and conspicuously 3-angled between the short nodes during
their first and second years, light yellow tinged with red, gradually
growing darker, their dark red-brown bark separating in the third season
into small thin scales, and ovoid acute buds about ⅛′ long and loosely
covered with scale-like leaves; more often a shrub, with many short
slender stems prostrate at the base and turning upward and forming a
broad mass sometimes 20° across and 3° or 4° high (var. _depressa_
Pursh.); at high elevations and in the extreme north prostrate, with
long decumbent stems and shorter and more crowded leaves (var. _montana_
Ait.) passing into the var. _Jackii_ Rehdr. with long trailing branches
and broader incurved leaves. Bark about 1/16′ thick, dark reddish brown,
separating irregularly into many loose papery persistent scales. Wood
hard, close-grained, very durable in contact with the soil, light brown,
with pale sapwood. In northern Europe the sweet aromatic fruit of this
tree is used in large quantities to impart its peculiar flavor to gin;
occasionally employed in medicine.

Distribution. Occasionally arborescent in New England, eastern
Pennsylvania, and on the high mountains of North Carolina; the var.
_depressa_, common in poor rocky soil, Newfoundland to southern New
England, and to the shores of the Great Lakes and northwestward; the
var. _montana_ from the coast of Greenland to northern New England, on
the high Appalachian Mountains, North Carolina, and to northern
Nebraska, along the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to western Texas, and
on the Pacific coast from Alaska, southward along mountain ranges to the
high Sierras of central California, extending eastward to the mountains
of eastern Washington and Oregon, and on the high peaks of northern
Arizona up to altitudes of 10,000°—11,500° (_P. Lowell_); the var.
_Jackii_ on the coast mountains from northern California to Vancouver
Island; in the Old World widely distributed in many forms through all
the northern hemisphere from arctic Asia and Europe to Japan, the
Himalayas and the mountains of the Mediterranean Basin.

Often planted, especially in several of its pyramidal and dwarf forms,
in the eastern United States and in the countries of western, central,
and northern Europe.


                      2. Juniperus Pinchotii Sudw.

[Illustration: Fig. 79]

Leaves ternate, obtusely pointed, rounded and glandular-pitted on the
back, 1/16′ long, dark yellow-green, turning light red-brown before
falling; on vigorous shoots and seedling plants linear-lanceolate, thin,
acuminate, eglandular, ¼′—⅓′ in length. Fruit ripening in one season,
subglobose, bright red, ¼′ in diameter, with a thin skin and thick dry
mealy resinous flesh and 1 seed; seed ovoid, bluntly pointed, deeply
grooved, irregularly marked by the usually two-lobed hilum, ⅙′—¼′ long
and 2 cotyledons.

A tree rarely 20 feet high, with a trunk 1 foot in diameter, stout
wide-spreading branches forming an open irregular head and thick
branchlets covered with dark gray-brown scaly bark, their ultimate
divisions about 1/12′ in diameter; more often a shrub with several stems
1° to 12° tall. Bark thin, light brown, separating into long narrow
persistent scales.

Distribution. Dry rocky slopes and the rocky sides of cañons, Panhandle
of western Texas (Armstrong, Potter and Hartley Counties), and in
Hardaman, Garza, Tom Green, Kemble, Valverde and Menard Counties; on
Comanche Peak near Granbury, Hood County, Texas; in central and on the
mountains of southern Arizona.


3. Juniperus californica Carr. Desert White Cedar. Sweet-berried Cedar.

[Illustration: Fig. 80]

Leaves usually in 3’s, closely appressed, thickened, slightly keeled and
conspicuously glandular-pitted on the back, pointed at apex,
cartilaginously fringed on the margins, light yellow-green, about ⅛′
long, dying and turning brown on the branch at the end of two or three
years; on vigorous shoots linear-lanceolate, rigid, sharp-pointed, ¼′—½′
long, whitish on the upper surface. Flowers from January to March; male
of 18—20 stamens, disposed in 3’s, with rhomboidal short-pointed
connectives; scales of the female flower usually 6, ovate, acute,
spreading, obliterated or minute on the fruit. Fruit short-oblong or
ovoid, ½′—¾′ long, reddish brown, with a membranaceous loose skin
covered with a thick glaucous bloom, thick fibrous dry sweet flesh, and
1 or 2 seeds; seeds ovoid, obtusely pointed, irregularly lobed and
angled, and 4—6 cotyledons.

A conical tree, occasionally 40° high, with a straight, large-lobed
unsymmetrical trunk 1°—2° in diameter; more often shrubby, with many
stout irregular usually contorted stems forming a broad open head. Bark
thin and divided into long loose plate-like scales ashy gray on the
outer surface and persistent for many years. Wood soft, close-grained,
durable in contact with the soil, light brown slightly tinged with red,
with thin nearly white sapwood; used for fencing and fuel. The fruit is
eaten by Indians fresh or ground into flour.

Distribution. Dry mountain slopes and hills at altitudes between 400°
and 4000°, from Moraga Pass and Mt. Diabolo, Contra Costa County,
California, southward on the coast ranges, spreading inland to their
union with the Sierra Nevada, and northward at low altitudes along the
western slopes of the Sierras to Kern and Mariposa Counties; on the
desert slopes of the Tehachapi Mountains, the northern foothills of the
San Bernardino Mountains, on the western slopes of the San Jacinto and
Cayamaca Ranges, and southward in Lower California to Agua Dulce;
arborescent and probably of its largest size on the Mohave Desert.


                 4. Juniperus utahensis Lemm. Juniper.

[Illustration: Fig. 81]

Leaves opposite or in 3’s, rounded, usually glandular, acute or often
acuminate, light yellow-green, rather less than ⅛′ long, persistent for
many years. Flowers: male with 18—24 opposite or ternate stamens, their
connectives rhomboidal; scales of the female flower acute, spreading,
often in pairs. Fruit ripening during the autumn of the second season,
subglobose or short-oblong, marked by the more or less prominent tips of
the flower-scales, reddish brown, with a thick firm skin covered with a
glaucous bloom and closely investing the thin dry sweet flesh, ¼′—⅓′
long, with 1 or rarely 2 seeds; seeds ovoid, acute, obtusely angled,
marked to the middle by the hilum, with a hard bony shell, and 4—6
cotyledons.

A bushy tree, rarely exceeding 20° in height, with a short usually
eccentric trunk sometimes 2° in diameter, generally divided near the
ground by irregular deep fissures into broad rounded ridges, many erect
contorted branches forming a broad open head, slender light yellow-green
branchlets covered after the falling of the leaves with thin light
red-brown scaly bark; more often with numerous stems spreading from the
ground and frequently not more than 8°—10° high. Bark about ¼′ thick,
ashy gray or sometimes nearly white, and broken into long thin
persistent scales. Wood light brown, slightly fragrant, with thick
nearly white sapwood; largely used locally for fuel and fencing. The
fruit is eaten by Indians fresh, or ground and baked into cakes.

Distribution. Southwestern Wyoming (_J. Knightii_ A. Nels.),
southwestern Idaho (Pocatello, Bannock County), western Colorado,
eastern Utah, and western New Mexico to northern Arizona and
southeastern California at altitudes from 5000° to 8000°; the most
abundant and generally distributed tree of the Great Basin, forming in
the valleys open forests of stunted trees and shrubs, and on arid slopes
more numerous and of larger size in dense nearly pure forests.

A variety (var. _megalancocarpa_ Sarg.) occurs in eastern New Mexico and
northern Arizona, with fruit sometimes ¾′ in diameter. A tree often 40°
high with a single erect stem sometimes 3° in diameter.


                5. Juniperus flaccida Schlecht. Juniper.

[Illustration: Fig. 82]

Leaves opposite, acuminate and long-pointed, spreading at the apex,
glandular or eglandular on the back, light yellow-green, about ⅛′ long,
turning cinnamon-red and dying on the branch; on vigorous young shoots
ovate-lanceolate, sometimes ½′ long, with elongated rigid callous tips.
Flowers: male slender, composed of 16—20 stamens, with ovate pointed
connectives prominently keeled on the back; female with acute or
acuminate spreading scales. Fruit subglobose, dull red-brown, more or
less covered with a glaucous bloom, ⅓′—½′ in diameter, with a close firm
skin and thick resinous flesh; seeds 4—12, pointed at apex, slightly
ridged, often abortive and distorted, ⅛′—¼′ long, with 2 cotyledons.

A tree, occasionally 30° high, with gracefully spreading branches and
long slender drooping branchlets, covered after the leaves fall with
thin bright cinnamon-brown bark separating into thin loose papery
scales; often a shrub. Bark about ½′ thick, reddish brown, separating
into long narrow loosely attached scales.

Distribution. In the United States only on the slopes of the Chisos
Mountains, in Brewster County, southern Texas; common in northeastern
Mexico, growing at elevations of 6000°—8000° on the hills east of the
Mexican table-lands.

Occasionally cultivated in the gardens of southern France and of
Algeria.


     6. Juniperus pachyphlæa Torr. Juniper. Checkered-bark Juniper.

[Illustration: Fig. 83]

Leaves appressed, acute and apiculate at apex, thickened, obscurely
keeled and glandular on the back, bluish green, rather less than ⅛′
long; on vigorous shoots and young branchlets linear-lanceolate, tipped
with slender elongated points, and pale blue-green like the young
branchlets. Flowers opening in February and March: the male stout, ⅛′
long, with 10 or 12 stamens, their connectives broadly ovate, obscurely
keeled on the back, short-pointed: scales of the female flower, ovate,
acuminate, and spreading. Fruit ripening in the autumn of its second
season, subglobose to short-oblong, irregularly tuberculate, ⅓′—½′ in
diameter, usually marked with the short tips of the flower-scales,
occasionally opening and discharging the seeds at the apex, dark
red-brown, more or less covered with a glaucous bloom, especially during
the first season and then occasionally bluish in color, with a thin skin
closely investing the thick dry mealy flesh, and usually 4 seeds; seeds
acute or obtusely pointed, conspicuously ridged and gibbous on the back,
with a thick shell and 2 cotyledons.

A tree, often 50°—60° high, with a short trunk 3°—5° in diameter, long
stout spreading branches forming a broad-based pyramidal or ultimately a
compact round-topped head, and slender branchlets covered after the
disappearance of the leaves with thin light red-brown usually smooth
close bark occasionally broken into large thin scales. Bark ¾′—4′ thick,
on young stems reddish brown becoming on old trunks whitish, deeply
fissured and divided into nearly square plates 1′—2′ long, and
separating on the surface into small thin closely appressed scales. Wood
light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, clear light red often
streaked with yellow, with thin nearly white sapwood; often producing
vigorous shoots from the base of the trunk or from the stumps of felled
trees.

Distribution. Dry arid mountain slopes usually at elevations of
4000°—6000° above the sea, from the Eagle and Limpio mountains in
southwestern Texas, westward along the desert ranges of New Mexico and
Arizona, extending northward to the lower slopes of many of the high
mountains of northern Arizona, and southward into Mexico.


                7. Juniperus occidentalis Hook. Juniper.

[Illustration: Fig. 84]

Leaves opposite or ternate, closely appressed, acute or acuminate,
rounded and conspicuously glandular on the back, denticulately fringed,
gray-green, about ⅛′ long. Flowers: male stout, obtuse, with 12—18
stamens, their connectives broadly ovoid, rounded, acute or apiculate
and scarious or slightly ciliate on the margins: scales of the female
flower ovate, acute, spreading, mostly obliterated from the fruit. Fruit
subglobose or short-oblong, ¼′—⅓′ in diameter, with a thick firm
blue-black skin coated with a glaucous bloom, thin dry flesh filled with
large resin-glands, and 2 or 3 seeds; seeds ovoid, acute, rounded and
deeply grooved or pitted on the back, flattened on the inner surface,
about ⅛′ long, with a thick bony shell, a thin brown inner seed-coat,
and 2 cotyledons.

A tree, occasionally 60° high, with a tall straight trunk 2°—3° in
diameter, more often not more than 20° in height, with a short trunk
sometimes 10° in diameter, enormous branches, spreading at nearly right
angles and forming a broad low head, and stout branchlets covered after
the leaves fall with thin bright red-brown bark broken into loose papery
scales; frequently when growing on dry rocky slopes and toward the
northern limits of its range a shrub, with many short erect or
semiprostrate stems. Bark about ½′ thick, bright cinnamon-red, divided
by broad shallow fissures into wide flat irregularly connected ridges
separating on the surface into thin lustrous scales. Wood light, soft,
very close-grained, exceedingly durable, light red or brown, with thick
nearly white sapwood; used for fencing and fuel. The fruit is gathered
and eaten by the California Indians.

Distribution. Mountain slopes and high prairies of western Idaho and of
eastern Washington to the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains;
eastern and southern Oregon up to altitudes of 4500°; along the summits
and upper slopes of the Sierra Nevada of California, and southward to
the San Bernardino Mountains, here abundant in Bear and Holcomb valleys;
attaining its greatest trunk diameter on the wind-swept peaks of the
California sierras, usually at altitudes between 6000° and 10,000° above
the sea.


                 8. Juniperus monosperma Sarg. Juniper.

[Illustration: Fig. 85]

Leaves opposite or ternate, often slightly spreading at apex, acute or
occasionally acuminate, much thickened and rounded on the back, usually
glandular, denticulately fringed, gray-green, rather less than ⅛′ long,
turning bright red-brown before falling; on vigorous shoots and young
plants ovate, acute, tipped with long rigid points, thin, conspicuously
glandular on the back, often ½′ long. Flowers: male with 8—10 stamens,
their broadly ovate, rounded or pointed connectives slightly erose on
the margins: female with spreading pointed scales. Fruit subglobose or
short-oblong, ⅛′—¼′ long, dark blue or perhaps occasionally light
chestnut-brown with a thick firm skin covered with a thin glaucous
bloom, thin flesh, and 1 or rarely 2 seeds; seeds often protruding from
the top of the fruit, ovoid, often 4-angled, somewhat obtuse at apex,
with a small hilum, and 2 cotyledons.

A tree, occasionally 40°—50° high, with a stout much-lobed and
buttressed trunk sometimes 3° in diameter, short stout branches forming
an open very irregular head, and slender branchlets covered after the
falling of the leaves with light red-brown bark spreading freely into
thin loose scales; more often a much branched shrub sometimes only a few
feet high. Bark ashy gray, divided into irregularly connected ridges,
separating into long narrow persistent shreddy scales. Wood heavy,
slightly fragrant, light reddish brown, with nearly white sapwood and
eccentric layers of annual growth; largely used for fencing and fuel.
The fruit is ground into flour and baked by the Indians, who use the
thin strips of fibrous bark in making saddles, breechcloths, and
sleeping-mats.

Distribution. Along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains from the
valley of the Platte River, Wyoming (near Alcova, Natrona County) and
the divide between the Platte and Arkansas rivers in Colorado; western
Oklahoma (near Kenton, Cimarron County, common) and western Texas; on
the Colorado plateau, northern Arizona; over the mountain ranges of
southwestern Wyoming, Nevada, southern New Mexico and Arizona, and
southward into northern Mexico; often covering, with the Nut Pine, in
southern Colorado and Utah, and in northern and central New Mexico and
Arizona, great areas of rolling hills 6000°—7000° above the sea-level;
reaching its largest size in northern Arizona.


            9. Juniperus mexicana Spreng. Cedar. Rock Cedar.

                      _Juniperus sabinoides_ Nees.

[Illustration: Fig. 86]

Leaves usually opposite or ternate, thickened and keeled on the back,
obtuse or acute at apex, mostly without glands, denticulately fringed,
rather more than 1/16′ long, dark blue-green, on vigorous young shoots
and seedling plants lanceolate, long-pointed, rigid, ¼′—½′ long.
Flowers: male with 12—18 stamens, their connectives ovoid, obtuse, or
slightly cuspidate: scales of the female flower ovate, acute, and
spreading, very conspicuous when the fruit is half grown, becoming
obliterated at its maturity. Fruit short-oblong to subglobose, ¼′—½′ in
diameter, dark blue, with a thin skin covered with a glaucous bloom,
sweet resinous flesh, and 1 or 2 seeds; seeds ovoid, acute, slightly
ridged, rarely tuberculate, dark chestnut-brown, with a small hilum, a
thin outer seed-coat, a membranaceous dark brown inner coat, and 2
cotyledons.

A tree, occasionally 100° but generally not more than 20°—30° high, with
a short or elongated slightly lobed trunk seldom exceeding a foot in
diameter, small spreading branches forming a wide round-topped open and
irregular or a narrow pyramidal head, slender sharply 4-angled
branchlets becoming terete after the falling of the leaves, light
reddish brown or ashy gray, with smooth or slightly scaly bark; often a
shrub, with numerous spreading stems. Bark on old trees ¼′—½′ thick,
brown tinged with red, and divided into long narrow slightly attached
scales persistent for many years and clothing the trunk with a loose
thatch-like covering. Wood light, hard, not strong, slightly fragrant,
brown streaked with red; largely used for fencing, fuel,
telegraph-poles, and railway-ties.

Distribution. From Brazos County over the low limestone hills of western
and southern Texas, and southward into Mexico; forming great thickets
and growing to its largest size on the San Bernardo River; much smaller
farther westward, and usually shrubby at the limits of vegetation on the
high mountains of central Mexico.


             10. Juniperus virginiana L. Red Cedar. Savin.

[Illustration: Fig. 87]

Leaves usually opposite, acute or acuminate or occasionally obtuse,
rounded and glandular or eglandular on the back, about 1/16′ long, dark
blue-green or glaucous (var. _glauca_ Carr.), at the north turning
russet or yellow-brown during the winter, beginning in their third
season to grow hard and woody, and remaining two or three years longer
on the branches, on young plants and vigorous branchlets
linear-lanceolate, long-pointed, light yellow-green, without glands,
½′—¾′ long. Flowers: diœcious or very rarely monœcious: male with 10 or
12 stamens, their connectives rounded and entire, with 4 or occasionally
5 or 6 pollen-sacs; scales of the female flower violet color, acute and
spreading, becoming obliterated from the fruit. Fruit subglobose, ¼′—⅓′
in diameter, pale green when fully grown, dark blue and covered with a
glaucous bloom at maturity, with a firm skin, thin sweetish resinous
flesh, and 1 or 2 or rarely 3 or 4 seeds; seeds acute and occasionally
apiculate at apex, ⅙′—⅛′ long, with a comparatively small 2-lobed hilum,
and 2 cotyledons.

A tree, occasionally 100° high, with a trunk 3°—4° in diameter, often
lobed and eccentric, and frequently buttressed toward the base,
generally not more than 40°—50° tall, with short slender branches
horizontal on the lower part of the tree, erect above, forming a narrow
compact pyramidal head, in old age usually becoming broad and
round-topped or irregular, and slender branchlets terete after the
disappearance of the leaves and covered with close dark brown bark
tinged with red or gray; on exposed cliffs on the coast of Maine,
sometimes only a few inches high with long branches forming broad dense
mats. Bark ⅛′—¼′ thick, light brown tinged with red, and separated into
long narrow scales fringed on the margins, and persistent for many
years. Wood light, close-grained, brittle, not strong, dull red, with
thin nearly white sapwood, very fragrant, easily worked; largely used
for posts, the sills of buildings, the interior finish of houses, the
lining of closets and chests for the preservation of woolens against the
attacks of moths, and largely for pails and other small articles of
wooden ware. A decoction of the fruit and leaves is used in medicine,
and oil of red cedar distilled from the leaves and wood as a perfume.

Distribution. Dry gravelly slopes and rocky ridges, often immediately on
the seacoast, from southern Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to the coast
of Georgia, the interior of southern Alabama and Mississippi, and
westward to the valley of the lower Ottawa River, southern Michigan,
eastern North and South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas, and eastern Texas,
not ascending the mountains of New England and New York nor the high
southern Alleghanies; in middle Kentucky and Tennessee, and northern
Alabama and Mississippi, covering great areas of low rolling limestone
hills with nearly pure forests of small bushy trees.

Often cultivated, in several forms, in the northern and eastern states
as an ornamental tree and occasionally in the gardens of western and
central Europe.


                11. Juniperus lucayana Britt. Red Cedar.

                 _Juniperus barbadensis_ Sarg., not L.

[Illustration: Fig. 88]

Leaves usually opposite, narrow, acute, or gradually narrowed above the
middle and acuminate, marked on the back by conspicuous oblong glands.
Flowers opening in early March: male elongated, ⅛′ to nearly ¼′ long,
with 10 or 12 stamens, their connectives rounded, entire, and bearing
usually 3 pollen-sacs: female with scales gradually narrowed above the
middle, acute at apex, and obliterated from the ripe fruit. Fruit
subglobose to short-oblong, dark blue, covered when ripe with a glaucous
bloom, about 1/24′ in diameter, with a thin skin, sweet resinous flesh,
and 1 or 2 seeds; seeds acute, prominently ridged.

A tree, sometimes 50° high, with a trunk occasionally 2° in diameter,
small branches erect when the tree is crowded in the forest, spreading
when it has grown in open ground and forming a broad flat-topped head
often 30° or 40° in diameter, long thin secondary branches erect at the
top of the tree and pendulous below, and pendulous branchlets about
1/24′ in diameter, becoming light red-brown or ashy gray at the end of
four or five years after the disappearance of the leaves. Bark thin,
light red-brown, separating into long thin scales. Wood light, close,
straight-grained, fragrant, dull red; formerly exclusively used in the
manufacture of the best lead pencils.

Distribution. Inundated river swamps from southern Georgia, southward to
the shores of the Indian River, Florida, and on the west coast of
Florida from the northern shores of Charlotte Harbor to the valley of
the Apalachicola River, often forming great thickets under the shade of
larger trees; along streams and creeks in low woods near Houston, Harris
County, and Milano, Milano County, Texas (_E. J. Palmer_); common in the
Bahamas, San Domingo, eastern Cuba, and on the mountains of Jamaica and
Antigua.

Often planted for the decoration of squares and cemeteries in the cities
and towns in the neighborhood of the coast from Florida to western
Louisiana, and now often naturalized beyond the limits of its natural
range on the Gulf coast; occasionally cultivated in the temperate
countries of Europe, and in cultivation the most beautiful of the
Junipers.


               12. Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. Red Cedar.

[Illustration: Fig. 89]

Leaves usually opposite, closely appressed, acute or acuminate,
generally marked on the back by obscure elongated glands, dark green, or
often pale and very glaucous. Flowers: male with about 6 stamens, their
connectives rounded and entire, bearing 4 or 5 anther-sacs: scales of
the female flower spreading, acute or acuminate, and obliterated from
the mature fruit. Fruit ripening at the end of the second season, nearly
globose, ¼′—⅓′ in diameter, bright blue, with a thin skin covered with a
glaucous bloom, sweet resinous flesh, and 1 or usually 2 seeds; seeds
acute, prominently grooved and angled, about 3/16′ long, with a thick
bony outer coat and a small 2-lobed hilum.

A tree, 30°—40° high, with a short stout trunk sometimes 3° in diameter,
often divided near the ground into a number of stout spreading stems,
thick spreading and ascending branches covered with scaly bark, forming
an irregular round-topped head, and slender 4-angled branchlets becoming
at the end of three or four years terete and clothed with smooth pale
bark separating later into thin scales. Bark dark reddish brown or gray
tinged with red, divided-by shallow fissures into narrow flat connected
ridges broken on the surface into persistent shredded scales.

Distribution. Scattered often singly over dry rocky ridges, usually at
altitudes of 5000° or 6000° but occasionally ascending in Colorado to
9000° above the sea, from the eastern foothill region of the Rocky
Mountains from Alberta to the Black Hills of South Dakota, the valley of
the Niobrara River, Sheridan County, northwestern Nebraska (_J. M.
Bates_) and to western Texas and eastern and northern New Mexico, and
westward to eastern Oregon, Nevada, and northern Arizona; descending to
the sea-level in Washington on the shores of the northern part of Puget
Sound and on the islands and mainland about the Gulf of Georgia, British
Columbia.



                              II. TAXACEÆ.


Slightly resinous trees and shrubs, producing when cut vigorous stump
shoots, with fissured or scaly bark, light-colored durable close-grained
wood, slender branchlets, linear-lanceolate entire rigid acuminate
spirally disposed leaves, usually appearing 2-ranked by a twist in their
short compressed petioles and persistent for many years, and small ovoid
acute buds. Flowers opening in early spring from buds formed the
previous autumn, diœcious or monœcious, axillary and solitary,
surrounded by the persistent decussate scales of the buds, the male
composed of numerous filaments united into a column, each filament
surmounted by several more or less united pendant pollen-cells; the
female of a single erect ovule, becoming at maturity a seed with a hard
bony shell, raised upon or more or less surrounded by the enlarged and
fleshy aril-like disk of the flower; embryo axile, in fleshy ruminate or
uniform albumen; cotyledons 2, shorter than the superior radicle. Of the
ten genera widely distributed over the two hemispheres, two occur in
North America.


                CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA.

  Filaments dilated into 4 pollen-sacs united into a half ring; seeds
        drupe-like, green or purple, ripening at the end of the second
        season; albumen ruminate.
                                                             1. Torreya.
  Filaments dilated into a globose head of 4—8 connate pollen-sacs;
        seeds berry-like, scarlet, ripening at the end of the first
        season; albumen uniform.
                                                               2. Taxus.



                            1. TORREYA ARN.


                             _Tumion_ Raf.

Glabrous fœtid or pungent aromatic trees, with fissured bark and
verticillate or opposite spreading or drooping branches. Leaves thin,
long-pointed, abruptly contracted at base, dark green, lustrous and
slightly rounded above, thickened and revolute on the margins, with pale
bands of stomata on each side of the midvein on the lower surface.
Flowers diœcious; the male crowded in the axils of adjacent leaves, on
shoots of the previous year, oval or oblong, composed of 6 or 8 close
whorls each of 4 stamens, subverticillately arranged on a slender axis;
filaments stout and expanded above into 4 globose yellow pollen-sacs
united into a half ring, their connectives produced above the cells; the
female on shoots of the year less numerous and scattered, sessile, the
ovule surrounded by and finally inclosed in an ovoid urn-shaped fleshy
sac, and becoming at the end of the second season an oblong-ovate
yellow-brown seed, rounded and apiculate at apex, acute and marked at
base by the large dark hilum; seed-coat thick and woody, its inner layer
folded into the thick white albumen, surrounded and finally inclosed in
the thick green or purple enlarged disk of the flower composed of thin
flat easily separable fibers, splitting longitudinally when ripe into
two parts and separating from the basal scales persistent on the short
stout stalk of the seed.

Torreya is now confined to Florida and Georgia, western California,
Japan, the island of Quelpart, and central and northern China. Four
species are recognized. Of the exotic species the Japanese _Torreya
nucifera_ S. & Z. is occasionally cultivated in the eastern states.

The genus is named in honor of Dr. John Torrey, the distinguished
American botanist.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Leaves slightly rounded on the back, pale below; leaves, branches, and
        wood fœtid; branchlets gray or yellowish green.
                                                    1. T. taxifolia (C).
  Leaves nearly flat, green below; leaves, branches and wood
        pungent-aromatic; branchlets reddish brown.
                                                  2. T. californica (G).


           1. Torreya taxifolia Arn. Stinking Cedar. Torreya.

                      _Tumion taxifolium_ Greene.

[Illustration: Fig. 90]

Leaves slightly falcate, 1½′ long, about ⅛′ wide, somewhat rounded, dark
green and lustrous above, paler and marked below with broad bands of
stomata. Flowers appearing in March and April; male with pale yellow
anthers; female broadly ovoid, with a dark purple fleshy covering to the
ovule, ⅛′ long, and inclosed at the base by broad thin rounded scales.
Seed fully grown at midsummer, slightly obovoid, dark purple, 1′—1¼′
long, ¾′ thick, with a thin leathery covering, a light red-brown
seed-coat furnished on the inner surface with 2 opposite longitudinal
thin ridges extending from the base toward the apex, and conspicuously
ruminate albumen.

A tree, occasionally 40° high, with a short trunk 1°—2° in diameter,
whorls of spreading slightly pendulous branches forming a rather open
pyramidal head tapering from a broad base. Bark ½′ thick, brown faintly
tinged with orange color, and irregularly divided by broad shallow
fissures into wide low ridges slightly rounded on the back and covered
with thin closely appressed scales. Wood hard, strong, clear bright
yellow, with thin lighter colored sapwood; largely used for fence-posts.

Distribution. On bluffs along the eastern bank of the Apalachicola
River, Florida, from River Junction to the neighborhood of Bristol,
Liberty County, and in the southwestern corner of Decatur County,
Georgia (_R. M. Harper_). Rare and local.

Now often planted in the public grounds and gardens of Tallahassee,
Florida.


            2. Torreya californica Torr. California Nutmeg.

                     _Tumion californicum_ Greene.

[Illustration: Fig. 91]

Leaves slightly falcate, nearly flat, dark green and lustrous on the
upper, somewhat paler and marked below with a narrow band of stomata,
tipped with slender callous points, 1′—3½′ long, 1/16′—⅛′ wide. Flowers
appearing in March and April; male with broadly ovate acute scales;
female nearly ¼′ long, with oblong-ovate rounded scales. Seed ovoid or
oblong-ovoid, 1′—1½′ long, light green more or less streaked with
purple.

A tree, 50°—70° but occasionally 100° high, with a trunk 1°—2° or rarely
4° in diameter, and whorls of spreading slender slightly pendulous
branches forming a handsome pyramidal and in old age a round-topped
head. Bark ⅓′—½′ thick, gray-brown tinged with orange color, deeply and
irregularly divided by broad fissures into narrow ridges covered with
elongated loosely appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, soft,
close-grained, clear light yellow, with thin nearly white sapwood;
occasionally used for fence-posts.

Distribution. Borders of mountain streams, California, nowhere common
but widely distributed from Mendocino County to the Santa Cruz Mountains
in the coast region and along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada
from Eldorado to Tulare Counties at altitudes of 3000°—5000° above the
sea; most abundant and of its largest size on the northern coast ranges.

Rarely cultivated as an ornamental tree in California and western
Europe.



                            2. TAXUS L. Yew.


Trees or shrubs, with brown or dark purple scaly bark, and spreading
usually horizontal branches. Leaves flat, often falcate, gradually
narrowed at the base, dark green, smooth and keeled on the upper
surface, paler, papillate, and stomatiferous on the lower surface, their
margins slightly thickened and revolute. Flowers diœcious or monœcious:
the male composed of a slender stipe bearing at the apex a globular head
of 4—8 pale yellow stamens consisting of 4—6 conic pendant pollen-sacs
peltately connate from the end of a short filament; the female sessile
in the axils of the upper scale-like bracts of a short axillary branch,
the ovule erect, sessile on a ring-like disk, ripening in the autumn
into an ovoid-oblong seed gradually narrowed and short-pointed at apex,
marked at base by the much-depressed hilum, about ⅓′ long, entirely or
nearly surrounded by but free from the now thickened succulent
translucent sweet scarlet aril-like disk of the flower open at apex;
seed-coat thick, of two layers, the outer thin and membranaceous or
fleshy, the inner much thicker and somewhat woody; albumen uniform.

Taxus with six or seven species, which can be distinguished only by
their leaf characters and habit, is widely distributed through the
northern hemisphere, and is found in eastern North America where two
species occur, in Pacific North America, Mexico, Europe, northern
Africa, western and southern Asia, China, and Japan. Of the exotic
species the European, African, and Asiatic _Taxus baccata_ L., and its
numerous varieties, is often cultivated in the United States, especially
in the more temperate parts of the country, and is replaced with
advantage by the hardier _Taxus cuspidata_ S. & Z., of eastern Asia in
the northern states, where the native shrubby _Taxus canadensis_ Marsh,
with _monœcious_ flowers is sometimes cultivated.

_Taxus_, from τάξος, is the classical name of the Yew-tree.


         CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES.

  Leaves usually short, yellow-green.
                                                   1. T. brevifolia (G).
  Leaves elongated, usually falcate, dark green.
                                                    2. T. floridana (C).


                     1. Taxus brevifolia Nutt. Yew.

[Illustration: Fig. 92]

Leaves ½′—1′ long, about 1/16′ wide, dark yellow-green above, rather
paler below, with stout midribs, and slender yellow petioles 1/12′ long,
persistent for 5—12 years. Flowers and fruit as in the genus.

A tree, usually 40°—50° but occasionally 70°—80° high, with a tall
straight trunk 1°—2° or rarely 4½° in diameter, frequently
unsymmetrical, with one diameter much exceeding the other, and
irregularly lobed, with broad rounded lobes, and long slender horizontal
or slightly pendulous branches forming a broad open conical head. Bark
about ¼′ thick and covered with small thin dark red-purple scales. Wood
heavy, hard, strong, bright red, with thin light yellow sapwood; used
for fence-posts and by the Indians of the northwest coast for paddles,
spear-handles, bows, and other small articles.

Distribution. Banks of mountain streams, deep gorges, and damp ravines,
growing usually under large coniferous trees; nowhere abundant, but
widely distributed usually in single individuals or in small clumps from
the extreme southern part of Alaska, southward along the coast ranges of
British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon, where it attains its greatest
size; along the coast ranges of California as far south as the Bay of
Monterey, and along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada to Tulare
County at altitudes between 5000° and 8000° above the sea-level, ranging
eastward in British Columbia to the Selkirk Mountains, and over the
mountains of Washington and Oregon to the western slopes of the
continental divide in northern Montana; in the interior much smaller
than near the coast and often shrubby in habit.

Occasionally cultivated in the gardens of western Europe.


                     2. Taxus floridana Chapm. Yew.

[Illustration: Fig. 93]

Leaves usually conspicuously falcate, ¾′ to nearly 1′ long, 1/16′—1/12′
wide, dark green above, pale below, with obscure midribs and slender
petioles about 1/16′ in length. Flowers appearing in March. Fruit
ripening in October.

A bushy tree, rarely 25° high, with a short trunk occasionally 1° in
diameter, and numerous stout spreading branches; more often shrubby in
habit and 12°—15° tall. Bark ⅛′ thick, dark purple-brown, smooth,
compact, occasionally separating into large thin irregular plate-like
scales. Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, dark brown tinged with
red, with thin nearly white sapwood.

Distribution. River bluffs and ravines on the eastern bank of the
Apalachicola River, in Gadsden County, Florida, from Aspalaga to the
neighborhood of Bristol.



                         Class 2. ANGIOSPERMÆ.


Carpels or pistils consisting of a closed cavity containing the ovules
and becoming the fruit.



                      Division 1. Monocotyledons.


Stems with woody fibres distributed irregularly through them, but
without pith or annual layers of growth. Parts of the flower in 3’s;
ovary superior; embryo with a single cotyledon. Leaves parallel-veined,
alternate, long-persistent, without stipules.



                              III. PALMÆ.


Trees, growing by a single terminal bud, with stems covered with a thick
rind, usually marked below by the ring-like scars of fallen leaf-stalks,
and clothed above by their long-persistent sheaths; occasionally
stemless. Leaves clustered at the top of the stem, plaited in the bud,
fan-shaped or pinnate, their rachis sometimes reduced to a narrow
border, long-stalked, with petioles dilated into clasping sheaths of
tough fibres (_vaginas_); on fan-shaped leaves, furnished at the apex on
the upper side with a thickened concave body (_ligule_). Flowers minute,
perfect or unisexual, in the axils of small thin mostly deciduous
bracts, in large compound clusters (_spadix_) surrounded by boat-shaped
bracts (_spathes_); sepals and petals free or more or less united;
stamens usually 6; anthers 2-celled, introrse, opening longitudinally;
ovary 3-celled, with a single ovule in each cell; styles 1—3. Fruit a
drupe or berry; embryo cylindric in a cavity of the hard albumen near
the circumference of the seed. Of the 130 genera now usually recognized
and chiefly inhabitants of the tropics, seven have arborescent
representatives in the United States.


          CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA.

  Leaves fan-shaped.
    Leaf-stalks unarmed.
      Calyx and corolla united into a short 6-lobed perianth.
        Fruit white, drupaceous; albumen even.
                                                             1. Thrinax.
        Fruit black, baccate; albumen channeled.
                                                        2. Coccothrinax.
      Calyx and corolla distinct; fruit baccate.
                                                               3. Sabal.
    Leaf-stalks armed with marginal spines.
      Filaments slender, free; fruit baccate.
                                                        4. Washingtonia.
      Filaments triangular, united into a cup adnate to the base of the
            corolla; fruit drupaceous.
                                                         5. Acœlorraphe.
  Leaves pinnate.
    Flower-clusters produced on the stem below the leaves; fruit
          violet-blue.
                                                           6. Roystonea.
    Flower-clusters produced from among the leaves; fruit bright
          orange-scarlet.
                                                        7. Pseudophœnix.



                             1. THRINAX Sw.


Small unarmed trees, with stems covered with pale gray rind. Leaves
orbicular, or truncate at the base, thick and firm, usually silvery
white on the lower surface, divided to below the middle into narrow
acuminate parted segments with thickened margins and midribs; rachis a
narrow border, with thin usually undulate margins; ligule thick,
concave, pointed, lined while young with hoary tomentum; petioles
compressed, rounded above and below, thin and smooth on the margins,
with large clasping bright mahogany-red sheaths of slender matted fibres
covered with thick hoary tomentum. Spadix interfoliar, stalked, its
primary branches short, alternate, flattened, incurved, with numerous
slender rounded flower-bearing branchlets; spathes numerous, tubular,
coriaceous, cleft and more or less tomentose at the apex. Flowers
opening in May and June, and occasionally irregularly in the autumn,
solitary, perfect; perianth 6-lobed; stamens inserted on the base of the
perianth, with subulate filaments thickened and only slightly united at
the base, or nearly triangular and united into a cup adnate to the
perianth, and oblong anthers; ovary 1-celled, gradually narrowed into a
stout columnar style crowned by a large funnel-formed flat or oblique
stigma; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit a globose drupe with juicy bitter
ivory-white flesh easily separable from the thin-shelled tawny brown
nut. Seed free, erect, slightly flattened at the ends, with an oblong
pale conspicuous subbasilar hilum, a short-branched raphe, a thin coat,
and uniform albumen more or less deeply penetrated by a broad basal
cavity; embryo lateral.

Thrinax is confined to the tropics of the New World and is distributed
from southern Florida through the West Indies to the shores of Central
America. Seven or eight species are now generally recognized.

The wood of the Florida species is light and soft, with numerous small
fibro-vascular bundles, the exterior of the stem being much harder than
the spongy interior. The stems are used for the piles of small wharves
and turtle-crawls, and the leaves for thatch, and in making hats,
baskets, and small ropes.

_Thrinax_, from θρῖναξ, is in allusion to the shape of the leaves.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Flowers on elongated pedicels; perianth obscurely lobed; stamens much
        exserted, their filaments subulate, barely united at base;
        stigma oblique; cavity of the seed extending to the apex.
    Perianth obscurely lobed; style abruptly enlarged into a large
          oblique stigma; leaves silvery white on the lower surface.
                                                    1. T. floridana (D).
    Perianth deeply lobed; style narrowed gradually into a small oblique
          stigma; leaves green on both surfaces.
                                                 2. T. Wendlandiana (D).
  Flowers on short pedicels; lobes of the perianth ovate, acuminate;
        filaments nearly triangular, united below into a cup; stigma
        flat; cavity of the seed extending only to the middle.
    Seeds pale chestnut-brown; spadix about 6° long; leaves 3°—4° in
          diameter.
                                                     3. T. keyensis (D).
    Seeds dark chestnut-brown; spadix less than 3° long; leaves not over
          2° in diameter.
                                                   4. T. microcarpa (D).


                   1. Thrinax floridana Sarg. Thatch.

[Illustration: Fig. 94]

Leaves 2½°—3° in diameter, rather longer than broad, yellow-green and
lustrous on the upper surface, silvery white on the lower surface, with
a long-pointed, bright orange-colored ligule ¾′ long and broad; petioles
4°—4½° long, pale yellow-green or orange color toward the apex, coated
at first with hoary deciduous tomentum, much thickened and tomentose
toward the base. Flowers: spadix 3°—3½° long, the primary branches 6′—8′
long and ivory-white, flower-bearing branches 1½′—2′ in length; flowers
on slender pedicels nearly ⅛′ long, ivory-white, very fragrant, with an
obscurely-lobed perianth, much exserted stamens barely united at the
base, and a large stigma. Fruit ⅜′ in diameter, somewhat depressed at
the ends; seed from ⅛′ to nearly ¼′ in diameter, dark chestnut-brown.

A tree, with a slightly tapering stem 20°—30° high and 4′—6′ in
diameter, clothed to the middle and occasionally almost to the ground
with the sheaths of dead leaf-stalks.

Distribution. Florida, dry coral ridges and sandy shores of keys from
Long Key to Torch Key, and on the mainland from Cape Romano to Cape
Sable.


                 2. Thrinax Wendlandiana Becc. Thatch.

[Illustration: Fig. 95]

Leaves 2½°—3° in diameter, orbicular, pale yellow-green, lustrous above,
with a thick concave ligule, acuminate or rarely rounded at apex;
petioles 2°—4° long, much thickened and tomentose toward the base.
Flowers: spadix stalked, 2°—4° long, its primary branches short,
flattened, incurved, with numerous terete flower-bearing branchlets;
flowers on slender pedicels 1/10′—⅛′ long, with a deeply lobed perianth,
the lobes nearly triangular, acuminate, and a small stigma. Fruit ¼′—⅜′
in diameter, globose; seed from ⅛′—¼′ in diameter, dark chestnut-brown.

A tree, in Florida, with a smooth pale trunk 20°—25° high and 3′—4′ in
diameter.

Distribution. Florida: Dade County, Madeira Hummock, Pumpkin Key,
Flamingo, and northwest of Cape Sable; also in Cuba and on Mugueres
Island, Gulf of Honduras.


                   3. Thrinax keyensis Sarg. Thatch.

[Illustration: Fig. 96]

Leaves rather longer than broad, 3°—4° long, the lowest segments
parallel with the petiole or spreading from it nearly at right angles,
light yellow-green and lustrous on the upper surface, with bright
orange-colored margins, below coated while young with deciduous hoary
tomentum and pale blue-green and more or less covered with silvery white
pubescence at maturity, with a thick pointed ligule 1′ long and wide,
lined at first with hoary tomentum; petioles flattened above, obscurely
ridged on the lower surface, tomentose while young, pale blue-green,
3°—4° long. Flowers: spadix usually about 6° long, spreading and
gracefully incurved, with spathes more or less coated with hoary
tomentum, large compressed primary branches, and short bright
orange-colored flower-bearing branches; flowers on short thick disk-like
pedicels, about ⅛′ long, white, slightly fragrant, with a tubular
perianth, the lobes broadly ovate and acute, stamens with nearly
triangular filaments united at the base, and a flat stigma. Fruit 1/16′
to nearly ¼′ in diameter; seed brown, 3/16′ in diameter.

A tree, with a stem often 25° high and 10′—14′ in diameter, raised on a
base of thick matted roots 2°—3° high and 18′—20′ in diameter, and a
broad head of leaves, the upper erect, the lower pendulous and closely
pressed against the stem.

Distribution. Dry, sandy soil close to the beach on the north side of
the largest of the Marquesas Keys, and on Crab Key, a small island to
the westward of Torch Key, one of the Bahia Honda group, Florida; on the
Bahamas.


    4. Thrinax microcarpa Sarg. Silvertop Palmetto. Brittle Thatch.

[Illustration: Fig. 97]

Leaves 2°—3° across, pale green above, silvery white below, more or less
thickly coated while young with hoary tomentum, especially on the lower
surface, divided near the base almost to the rachis, with an orbicular
thick concave ligule lined with a thick coat of white tomentum; petioles
thin and flexuose. Flowers: spadix elongated, with short, compressed
erect branches slightly spreading below, numerous slender pendulous
flower-bearing branches, and long acute spathes deeply parted at the
apex, coriaceous and coated above the middle with thick hoary tomentum;
flowers on short thick disk-like pedicels, with a cupular perianth, the
lobes broadly ovate and acute, stamens with thin nearly triangular
exserted filaments slightly united at base and oblong anthers becoming
reversed and extrorse at maturity, and a deep orange-colored ovary
narrowed above into a short thick style dilated into a large
funnel-formed stigma. Fruit globose, ⅛′ in diameter; seed subglobose,
bright to dark chestnut-brown, depressed.

A tree, rarely more than 30° high, with a trunk 8′—10′ in diameter.

Distribution. Dry coral soil, on the shores of Sugar Loaf Sound, and on
No Name and Bahia Honda keys, Florida; in Cuba.



                         2. COCCOTHRINAX Sarg.


Small unarmed trees, with simple or clustered stems or rarely stemless.
Leaves orbicular, or truncate at base, pale or silvery white on the
lower surface, divided into narrow obliquely folded segments acuminate
and divided at apex; rachis narrow; ligules thin, free, erect, concave,
pointed at the apex; petioles compressed, slightly rounded and ridged
above and below, thin and smooth on the margins, gradually enlarged
below into elongated sheaths of coarse fibres forming an open network
covered while young by thick hoary tomentum. Spadix interfoliar,
paniculate, shorter than the leaf-stalks, its primary branches furnished
with numerous short slender pendulous flower-bearing secondary branches;
spathes numerous, papery, cleft at the apex. Flowers solitary, perfect,
jointed on elongated slender pedicels; perianth cup-shaped, obscurely
lobed; stamens 9, inserted on the base of the perianth, with subulate
filaments enlarged and barely united at the base, and oblong anthers;
ovary 1-celled, narrowed into a slender style crowned by a funnel-formed
oblique stigma; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit a subglobose berry raised on
the thickened torus of the flower, with thick juicy black flesh. Seed
free, erect, depressed-globose, with a thick hard vertically grooved
shell deeply infolded in the bony albumen; hilum subbasilar, minute;
raphe hidden in the folds of the seed-coat; embryo lateral.

Coccothrinax is confined to the tropics of the New World. Two species,
of which one is stemless, inhabit southern Florida, and at least two
other species are scattered over several of the West Indian islands.

_Coccothrinax_, from κόκκος and _Thrinax_, is in allusion to the
berry-like fruit.


             1. Coccothrinax jucunda Sarg. Brittle Thatch.

[Illustration: Fig. 98]

Leaves nearly orbicular, the lower segments usually parallel with the
petiole, thin and brittle, 18′—24′ in diameter, divided below the middle
of the leaf or toward its base nearly to the ligule, with much-thickened
bright orange-colored midribs and margins, pale yellow-green and
lustrous on the upper surface, bright silvery white and coated at first
on the lower surface with hoary deciduous pubescence, with a thin
undulate obtusely short-pointed dark orange-colored rachis, and a thin
concave crescent-shaped often oblique slightly undulate short-pointed
and light or dark orange-colored ligule ¾′ wide, ⅓′ deep; petioles
slender, pale yellow-green, 2½°—3° long. Flowers: spadix 18′—24′ long,
with flattened stalks, slender much-flattened primary branches 8′—10′
long, light orange-colored slender terete flower-bearing branches 1½′—3′
long, and pale reddish brown spathes coated toward the ends with pale
pubescence; flowers opening in June and irregularly also in the autumn
on ridged spreading pedicels ⅛′ long, with an orange-colored ovary
surmounted by an elongated style dilated into a rose-colored stigma.
Fruit ripening at the end of six months, from ½′—¾′ in diameter, bright
green at first when fully grown, becoming deep violet color, with
succulent very juicy flesh, ultimately black and lustrous; seed light
tawny brown.

A tree, with a stem slightly enlarged from the ground upward, 15°—25°
high, 4′—6′ thick, covered with pale blue rind, and surmounted by a
broad head of leaves at first erect, then spreading and ultimately
pendulous. Wood used for the piles of small wharves and turtle-crawls.
The soft tough young leaves are made into hats and baskets.

Distribution. Dry coral ridges and sandy flats from the shores of Bay
Biscayne along many of the southern keys to the Marquesas group (var.
_marquesensis_ Becc.) Florida; and on the Bahamas (var. _macrosperma_
Becc.).



                       3. SABAL Adans. Palmetto.


Unarmed trees, with stout columnar stems covered with red-brown rind.
Leaves flabellate, tough and coriaceous, divided into many narrow
long-pointed parted segments plicately folded at base, often separating
on the margins into narrow threads; rachis extending nearly to the
middle of the leaves, rounded and broadly winged toward the base on the
lower side, thin and acute on the upper side; ligule adnate to the
rachis, acute, concave, with thin incurved entire margins; petioles
rounded and concave on the lower side, conspicuously ridged on the upper
side, acute and entire on the margins, with elongated chestnut-brown
shining sheaths of stout fibres. Spadix interfoliar, stalked,
decompound, with a flattened stem, short branches, slender densely
flowered ultimate branches, and numerous acuminate spathes, the outer
persistent and becoming broad and woody. Flowers solitary, perfect;
calyx tabular, unequally lobed, the lobes slightly imbricated in the
bud; corolla deeply lobed, with narrow ovate-oblong concave acute lobes
valvate at the apex in the bud; stamens 6, those opposite the corolla
lobes rather longer than the others, with subulate filaments united
below into a shallow cup adnate to the tube of the corolla, and ovoid
anthers, their cells free and spreading at the base; ovary of 3 carpels,
3-lobed, 3-celled, gradually narrowed into an elongated 3-lobed style
truncate and stigmatic at the apex; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit a small
black 1 or 2 or 3-lobed short-stemmed berry with thin sweet dry flesh.
Seed depressed-globose, marked on the side by the prominent micropyle,
with a shallow pit near the minute basal hilum, a thin seed-coat, and a
ventral raphe; embryo minute, dorsal, in horny uniform albumen
penetrated by a hard shallow basal cavity filled by the thickening of
the seed-coat.

Sabal belongs to the New World, and is distributed from the Bermuda
Islands and the South Atlantic and Gulf states of North America through
the West Indies to Venezuela and Mexico.

Of the eight species now recognized four inhabit the United States; of
these two are small stemless plants.

The generic name is of uncertain origin.


         CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES.

  Spadix short; fruit subglobose, 1-celled; seed-coat light chestnut
        color.
                                                     1. S. Palmetto (C).
  Spadix elongated; fruit often 2 or 3-lobed, with 2 or 3 seeds;
        seed-coat dark chestnut-brown.
                                                       2. S. texana (E).


       1. Sabal Palmetto R. & S. Cabbage Tree. Cabbage Palmetto.

[Illustration: Fig. 99]

Leaves 5°—6° long and 7°—8° broad, dark green and lustrous, deeply
divided into narrow parted recurved segments, with ligules 4′ long and
more or less unsymmetrical at apex; petioles 6°—7° long and 1½′ wide at
apex. Flowers: spadix 2°—2½° long, with slender incurved branches,
slender ultimate divisions, and thin secondary spathes flushed with red
at apex and conspicuously marked by pale slender longitudinal veins;
flowers in the axils of minute deciduous bracts much shorter than the
perianth, opening in June. Fruit ripening late in the autumn, subglobose
or slightly obovoid, gradually narrowed at base, 1-seeded, about ⅓′ in
diameter; seed light bright chestnut-colored, ¼′ broad.

A tree, often 40°—50° and occasionally 80°—90° high, with a tall clear
trunk often 2° in diameter, sometimes branched by the destruction of the
terminal bud, divided by shallow irregular interrupted fissures into
broad ridges, with a short pointed knob-like underground stem surrounded
by a dense mass of contorted roots often 4° or 5° in diameter and 5° or
6° deep, from which tough light orange-colored roots often nearly ½′ in
diameter penetrate the soil for a distance of 15° or 20°, and a broad
crown of leaves at first upright, then spreading nearly at right angles
with the stem, and finally pendulous. Wood light, soft, pale brown, or
occasionally nearly black, with numerous hard fibro-vascular bundles,
the outer rim about 2′ thick and much lighter and softer than the
interior. In the southern states the trunks are used for wharf-piles,
and polished cross sections of the stem sometimes serve for the tops of
small tables; the wood is largely manufactured into canes. From the
sheaths of young leaves the bristles of scrubbing-brushes are made. The
large succulent leaf-buds are cooked and eaten as a vegetable, and
coarse hats, mats, and baskets are made from the leaves. Pieces of the
spongy bark of the stem are used as a substitute for scrubbing-brushes.

Distribution. Sandy soil in the immediate neighborhood of the coast from
the neighborhood of Cape Hatteras and Smith Island at the mouth of Cape
Fear River, North Carolina, southward near the coast to northern
Florida; in Florida extending across the peninsula and south to Upper
Metacomb Key, and along the west coast to Saint Andrews Bay; most
abundant and of its largest size on the west coast of the Florida
peninsula.

Often planted as a street tree in the cities of the southern states.


                    2. Sabal texana Becc. Palmetto.

                  _Sabal mexicana_ S. Wats., not Mart.

[Illustration: Fig. 100]

Leaves dark yellow-green and lustrous, 5°—6° long, often 7° wide,
divided nearly to the middle into narrow divided segments, with
thickened pale margins separating into long thin fibres, with ligules
about 6′ long; petioles 7°—8° long, 1½′ wide at the apex. Flowers:
spadix 7°—8° long, with stout ultimate divisions; flowers in Texas
appearing in March or April in the axils of persistent bracts half as
long as the perianth. Fruit ripening early in the summer, globose, often
2 or 3-lobed; seeds nearly ½′ broad and ¼′ wide, dark chestnut-brown,
with a broad shallow basal cavity, and a conspicuous orange-colored
hilum.

A tree, with a trunk 30°—50° high, often 2½° in diameter, and a broad
head of erect ultimately pendulous leaves. Wood light, soft, pale brown
tinged with red, with thick light-colored rather inconspicuous
fibro-vascular bundles, the outer rim 1′ thick, soft, and light colored.
On the Gulf coast the trunks are used for wharf-piles, and on the lower
Rio Grande the leaves for the thatch of houses.

Distribution. Rich soil of the bottom-lands on the Bernado River,
Cameron County, and near the mouth of the Rio Grande, Texas, and
southward in Mexico in the neighborhood of the coast.

Frequently planted as a street tree in the towns in the lower Rio Grande
valley.



                       4. WASHINGTONIA H. Wendl.


Trees, with stout columnar stems and broad crowns of erect and spreading
finally pendulous leaves. Leaves flabellate, divided nearly to the
middle into many narrow deeply parted recurved segments separating on
the margins into numerous slender pale fibres; rachis short, slightly
rounded on the back, gradually narrowed from a broad base, with concave
margins furnished below with narrow erect wings, and slender and acute
above; ligule elongated, oblong, thin and laciniate on the margins;
petioles elongated, broad and thin, flattened or slightly concave on the
upper side, rounded on the lower, armed irregularly with broad thin
large and small straight or hooked spines confluent into a thin bright
orange-colored cartilaginous margin, gradually enlarged at base into
thick broad concave bright chestnut-brown sheaths composed of a network
of thin strong fibres. Spadix interfoliar, stalked, elongated,
paniculate, with pendulous flower-bearing ultimate divisions and
numerous long spathes. Flowers perfect, jointed on thick disk-like
pedicels; calyx tubular, scarious, thickened at base, gradually enlarged
and slightly lobed at apex, the lobes imbricated in the bud; corolla
funnel-formed, with a fleshy tube inclosed in the calyx and about half
as long as the lanceolate lobes thickened and glandular on the inner
surface at the base, imbricated in the bud; stamens inserted on the tube
of the corolla, with free filaments thickened near the middle and
linear-oblong anthers; ovary 3-lobed, 3-celled, with slender elongated
flexuose styles stigmatic at apex; ovules lateral, erect. Fruit a small
ellipsoidal short-stalked black berry with thin dry flesh. Seed free,
erect, oblong-ovoid, concave above, with a flat base depressed in the
centre, a minute sublateral hilum, a broad conspicuous rachis, a minute
lateral micropyle, and a thin pale chestnut-brown inner coat closely
investing the simple horny albumen; embryo minute, lateral, with the
radicle turned toward the base of the fruit.

Three species of Washingtonia are known: one inhabits the interior dry
region of southern California and the adjacent parts of Lower
California, and the others the mountain cañons of western Sonora and
southern Lower California.

The genus is named for George Washington.


     1. Washingtonia filamentosa O. Kuntze. Desert Palm. Fan Palm.

[Illustration: Fig. 101]

Leaves 5°—6° long and 4°—5° wide, light green, slightly tomentose on the
folds; petioles 4°—6° long and about 2′ broad at apex, with sheaths
16′—18′ long and 12′—14′ wide, and ligules 4′ long and cut irregularly
into long narrow lobes. Flowers: spadix 10°—12° long, 3 or 4 being
produced each year from the axils of upper leaves, the outer spathe
inclosing the bud, narrow, elongated, and glabrous, those of the
secondary branches coriaceous, yellow tinged with brown, and laciniate
at apex; flowers slightly fragrant, opening late in May or early in
June. Fruit produced in great profusion, ripening in September, ⅓′ long;
seed ¼′ long, ⅛′ thick.

A tree, occasionally 75° high, with a trunk sometimes 50°—60° tall and
2°—3° in diameter, covered with a thick light red-brown scaly rind and
clothed with a thick thatch of dead pendant leaves descending in a
regular cone from the broad crown of living leaves sometimes nearly to
the ground. Wood light and soft, with numerous conspicuous dark
orange-colored fibro-vascular bundles. The fruit is gathered and used as
food by the Indians.

Distribution. Often forming extensive groves or small isolated clumps in
wet usually alkali soil in depressions along the northern and
northwestern margins of the Colorado Desert in southern California,
sometimes extending for several miles up the cañons of the San
Bernardino and San Jacinto mountains; and in Lower California.

Now largely cultivated in southern California, New Orleans, southern
Europe, and other temperate regions.



                        5. ACŒLORRAPHE H. Wendl.


Trees, with tall slender often clustered stems clothed for many years
with the sheathing bases of the petioles of fallen leaves. Leaves
suborbicular, divided into numerous two-parted segments plicately folded
at the base; rachis short, acute; ligule thin, concave, furnished with a
broad membranaceous dark red-brown deciduous border; petioles slender,
flat or slightly concave on the upper side, rounded and ridged on the
lower side, with a broad high rounded ridge, thickened and cartilaginous
on the margins, more or less furnished with stout or slender flattened
teeth; vagina thin and firm, bright mahogany red, lustrous, closely
infolding the stem, its fibres thin and tough. Spadix paniculate,
interpetiolar, its rachis slender, compressed, ultimate branches,
numerous, slender, elongated, gracefully drooping, hoary-tomentose, the
primary branches flattened, the secondary terete in the axils of ovate
acute chestnut-brown bracts; spathes flattened, thick and firm, deeply
two-cleft and furnished at apex with a red-brown membranaceous border,
inclosing the rachis of the panicle, each primary branch with its spathe
and the node of the rachis below it inclosed in a separate spathe, the
whole surrounded by the larger spathe of the node next below. Flowers
perfect, minute, sessile on the ultimate branches of the spadix, in the
axils of ovate acute chestnut-brown caducous bracts, solitary toward the
end of the branches and in two- or three-flowered clusters near their
base; calyx truncate at base, divided into three broadly ovate sepals
dentate on the margins, valvate in æstivation, enlarged and persistent
under the fruit; corolla three-parted nearly to the base, its divisions
valvate in æstivation, oblong-ovate, thick, concave and thickened at
apex, deciduous; stamens six, included; filaments nearly triangular,
united below into a cup adnate to the short tube of the corolla; anthers
short-oblong, attached on the back below the middle, introrse,
two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally; ovary obovoid, of three
carpels, each with two deep depressions on their outer face, united into
a slender style; stigma minute, terminal, persistent on the fruit; ovule
solitary, erect from the bottom of the cell, anatropous. Fruit
drupaceous, subglobose, one-seeded, black and lustrous; exocarp thin and
fleshy; endocarp thin, crustaceous; seed erect, free, subglobose, light
chestnut-brown; testa thin and hard; hilum small, suborbicular; raphe
ventral, oblong, elongated, black, slightly prominent, without
ramifications; embryo lateral; albumen homogeneous.

Two species of Acœlorraphe have been distinguished; they inhabit
southern Florida, and one species occurs also in Cuba and on the Bahama
Islands.

The generic name, from ἀ priv., Κοῖλος and ῥαφη, refers to the character
of the seed.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Petioles furnished with stout marginal teeth throughout their entire
        length; leaves green on both surfaces, their primary divisions
        extending to the middle, secondary divisions only from 3½′—9′
        long; stems forming large thickets.
                                                     1. A. Wrightii (D).
  Petioles furnished with thinner teeth, usually unarmed toward the
        apex; leaves green or glaucescent on the lower surface, their
        primary divisions extending nearly to the base, secondary
        divisions often 10′ long or more; stems often prostrate.
                                                  2. A. arborescens (D).


                     1. Acœlorraphe Wrightii Becc.

[Illustration: Fig. 102]

Leaves 30′—36′ in diameter, thin, light green, divided only to the
middle, the divisions of the primary lobes 3½′—9′ long; petioles thin,
gradually tapering from the base, 40′—60′ in length, armed throughout
with stout straight or incurved teeth. Flowers: spadix 4°—6° long;
flowers ⅛′—⅙′ long, with a light chestnut-brown calyx and a pale
yellow-green corolla. Fruit ¼′ in diameter.

A tree with numerous stems, in Florida sometimes 10 metres high, forming
great thickets.

Distribution. Dade County, Florida, from the rear of Madeira Hummock to
Cape Sable, in swamps of fresh or brackish water at some distance from
the coast; also in Cuba and on the Bahamas.


                    2. Acœlorraphe arborescens Becc.

                      _Serenoa arborescens_ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 103]

Leaves about 2° in diameter, light yellow-green on the upper surface,
blue-green or glaucescent on the lower surface, divided nearly to the
base into numerous lobes slightly thickened at the pale yellow midribs
and margins; petioles 18′—24′ long, armed, except toward the apex, with
stout flattened curved orange-colored teeth. Flowers: spadix 3°—4° long,
with a slender much-flattened stalk, panicled lower branches 18′—20′ in
length, and 6—8 thick firm pale green conspicuously ribbed spathes
dilated at apex into a narrow border; flowers with a light
chestnut-brown calyx and a pale yellow-green corolla. Fruit globose, ⅓′
in diameter; seed somewhat flattened below, with a pale vertical mark on
the lower side, and a hilum joined to the micropyle by a pale band.

A tree, from 30°—40° high, with 1 or several clustered erect inclining
or occasionally semiprostrate stems 3′—4′ in diameter, covered almost to
the ground by the closely clasping bases of the leaf-stalks and below
with a thick pale rind.

Distribution. Low undrained soil covered for many months of every year
in water from 1′—18′ deep, occasionally occupying almost exclusively
areas of several acres in extent or more often scattered among
Cypress-trees or Royal Palms, in the swamps and along the hummocks
adjacent to the Chokoloskee River and its tributaries and at the head of
East River, Whitewater Bay, in southwestern Florida.



                     6. ROYSTONEA Cook. Royal Palm.


Unarmed trees, with massive stems enlarged near the middle, and
terminating in long slender bright green cylinders formed by the densely
imbricated sheaths of the leaf-stalks. Leaves equally pinnate, with
linear-lanceolate long-pointed unequally cleft plicately-folded pinnæ
inserted obliquely on the upper side of the rachis, folded together at
the base, with thin midribs and margins; rachis convex on the back,
broad toward the base of the leaf and acute toward its apex; petioles
semicylindric, gradually enlarged into thick elongated green sheaths.
Spadix large, decompound, produced near the base of the green part of
the stem, with long pendulous branches and 2 spathes, the outer
semicylindric and as long as the spadix, the inner splitting ventrally
and inclosing the branches of the spadix. Flowers monœcious, in a loose
spiral, toward the base of the branch in 3-flowered clusters, with a
central staminate and smaller lateral pistillate flowers, higher on the
branch the staminate in 2-flowered clusters; calyx of the staminate
flower of minute broadly ovate obtuse scarious sepals imbricated in the
bud, much shorter than the corolla; petals nearly equal, valvate in the
bud, ovate or obovate, acute, slightly united at the base, coriaceous;
stamens 6, 9, or 12, with subulate filaments united below and adnate to
the base of the corolla, and large ovate-sagittate anthers, the cells
free below; ovary rudimentary, subglobose or 3-lobed; pistillate flowers
much smaller, ovoid-conic; sepals obtuse; corolla erect, divided to the
middle into acute erect lobes incurved at apex; staminodia 6,
scale-like, united into a cup adnate to the corolla; ovary subglobose,
obscurely 2 or 3-lobed, 2 or 3-celled, gibbous, the cells crowned with a
3-lobed stigma becoming subbasilar on the fruit; ovule ascending. Fruit
a short-stalked drupe with thin crustaceous flesh. Seed oblong-reniform,
marked by the conspicuous fibrous reticulate branches of the raphe
radiating from the narrow basal hilum, and covered with a thin
crustaceous coat; embryo minute, cylindric, lateral, in uniform albumen.

Roystonea is confined to the tropics of the New World, where two or
three species occur.

The genus as here limited was named for General Roy Stone of the United
States army.


                  1. Roystonea regia Cook. Royal Palm.

                       _Oreodoxa regia_ H. B. K.

[Illustration: Fig. 104]

Leaves 10°—12° long, closely pinnate, the pinnæ, 2½°—3° long, 1½′ wide
near the base of the leaf, and gradually decreasing in size toward its
apex, deep green with slender conspicuous veins, and covered below with
minute pale glandular dots; petioles almost terete, concave near the
base, with thin edges separating irregularly into pale fibres, and
enlarged into bright green cylindrical clasping bases 8° or 9° long and
more or less covered with dark chaffy scales. Flowers: spadix about 2°
long, with a nearly terete stem and slightly ridged primary and
secondary branches compressed above, abruptly enlarged at the base, and
simple slender flexuose long-pointed flower-bearing branchlets 3′—6′
long, pendant and closely pressed against the secondary branches;
flowers opening in Florida in January and February, the staminate nearly
¼′ long and rather more than twice as long as the pistillate. Fruit
oblong-obovoid, full and rounded at apex, narrowed at base, violet-blue,
about ½′ long, with a thin outer coat and a light red-brown inner coat,
loose and fibrous on the outer surface, and closely investing the thin
light brown seed.

A tree, 80°—100° high, with a trunk rising from an abruptly enlarged
base, gradually tapering from the middle to the ends and often 2° in
diameter, covered with light gray rind tinged with orange color, marked
with dark blotches and irregularly broken into minute plates, the green
upper portion 8°—10° long, and a broad head of gracefully drooping
leaves. Wood of the interior of the stem spongy, pale brown, much
lighter than the hard exterior rim, containing numerous dark conspicuous
fibro-vascular bundles. The outer portion of the stem is made into
canes, and the trunks are sometimes used for wharf-piles and in
construction.

Distribution. Florida, hummocks on Rogue River twenty miles east of
Caximbas Bay, on some of the Everglades Keys, Long’s Key, and formerly
on the shores of Bay Biscayne near the mouth of Little River; common in
the West Indies and Central America.

Largely cultivated as an ornamental tree in tropical countries, and
often planted to form avenues, for which its tall pale columnar stems
and noble heads of graceful foliage make it valuable.



                       7. PSEUDOPHŒNIX H. Wendl.


A tree, with a slender stem abruptly enlarged at the base or tapering
from the middle to the ends, covered with thin pale blue or nearly white
rind, and conspicuously marked by the dark scars of fallen leaf-stalks.
Leaves erect, abruptly pinnate, with crowded linear-lanceolate acuminate
leaflets increasing in length and width from the ends to the middle of
the leaf, thick and firm in texture, dark yellow-green above, pale and
glaucous below; rachis convex on the lower side, concave on the upper
side near the base of the leaf, with thin margins, becoming toward the
apex of the leaf flat and narrowed below and acute above, marked on the
sides at the base with dark gland-like excrescences; petioles short,
concave above, with thin entire margins separating into slender fibres,
gradually enlarged into broad thick sheaths of short brittle fibres.
Spadix interfoliar, compound, pendulous, stalked, much shorter than the
leaves, with spreading primary branches, stout and much flattened toward
the base, slender and rounded above the middle, furnished at the base
with a thickened ear-like body, slender secondary branches, short thin
rigid densely flowered ultimate divisions, and compressed light green
double spathes erose on their thin dark brown margins. Flowers on
slender pedicels articulate by an expanded base, widely scattered on the
ultimate branches of the spadix, staminate and bisexual in the same
inflorescence; calyx reduced to the saucer-like rim of the thickened
receptacle, undulate on the margin, the rounded angles alternating with
the petals; petals 3, valvate in the bud, oblong, rounded at apex, thick
conspicuously longitudinally veined, persistent; stamens 6, with short
flattened nearly triangular filaments slightly united at the base into a
narrow fleshy disk, and triangular cordate anthers attached at the base
in a cavity on their outer face, 2-celled, the cells opening by lateral
slits; styles of the perfect flower 3-lobed at the apex with obtuse
appressed lobes, that of the sterile flower as long or longer than that
of the perfect flower, more slender and tapering into a narrow 3-pointed
apex. Fruit a stalked globose 2 or 3-lobed orange-scarlet thin-fleshed
drupe marked by the lateral style and surrounded below by the withered
remnants of the flower; pedicel abruptly enlarged at base, articulate
from a persistent cushion-like body furnished in the centre with a
minute point penetrating a cavity in the base of the pedicel. Seed
subglobose, free, erect, with a basal hilum and a thin light red-brown
coat marked by the pale conspicuous ascending 2 or 3-branched raphe;
embryo minute, basal, in uniform horny albumen.

Pseudophœnix with a single species inhabits the keys of southern
Florida, and the Bahamas.

The generic name is in allusion to a fancied resemblance to _Phœnix_, a
genus of Palms.


                     1. Pseudophœnix vinifera Becc.

[Illustration: Fig. 105]

Leaves 5°—6° long, with pinnæ often 18′ long and 1′ wide near the middle
of the leaf, becoming at its extremities not more than half as long and
wide; petioles 6′—8′ in length. Flowers: spadix 3° long and 2½° wide.
Fruit ripening in May and June, ½′—¾′ in diameter on a peduncle ¼′ long;
seed ¼′ in diameter.

Distribution. Florida, east end of Elliot’s Key, and east end of Key
Largo near the southern shore, here forming a grove of 200 or 300
plants; more common on the Bahamas.

Occasionally cultivated in the gardens of southern Florida.



                             IV. LILIACEÆ.



                                 YUCCÆ.


Leaves, alternate, linear-lanceolate. Flowers in terminal panicles;
sepals and petals nearly similar, subequal, withering-persistent; ovary
with more or less deeply introduced dorsal partitions; ovules numerous,
2-ranked in each cell; embryo subulate, obliquely placed across the
seed; cotyledon arched in germination.

Yuccæ as here limited consists of two American genera, Hesperaloe, with
two species, low plants of Texas and Mexico, and Yucca.



                              1. YUCCA L.


Trees with simple or branched stems prolonged by axillary naked buds,
dark thick corky bark, light fibrous wood in concentric layers, and
large stout horizontal roots; or often stemless. Leaves involute in the
bud, at first erect, usually becoming reflexed, abruptly narrowed above
the broad thickened clasping base, usually widest near the middle,
concave on the upper surface, involute toward the horny usually
sharp-pointed apex, convex and often slightly keeled toward the base on
the lower surface, the margins serrulate or filamentose, light or dull
green. Flowers fertilized by insects and opening for a single night, on
slender pedicels in 2 or 3-flowered clusters or singly at the base of
the large compound panicle furnished with conspicuous leathery white or
slightly colored bracts, those at the base of the pedicels thin and
scarious; perianth cup-shaped, with thick ovate-lanceolate creamy white
segments more or less united at base, usually furnished with small tufts
of white hairs at the apex, those of the outer rank narrower, shorter,
and more colored than the more delicate petal-like segments of the inner
rank; stamens 6, in 2 series, free, shorter than the ovary (_as long in_
1), white, with club-shaped fleshy filaments, obtuse and slightly
3-lobed at the apex, and cordate emarginate anthers attached on the
back, the cells opening longitudinally, curling backward and expelling
the large globose powdery pollen-grains; ovary oblong, 6-sided, sessile
or stalked, with nectar-glands within the partitions, dull greenish
white, 3-celled, gradually narrowed into a short or elongated 3-lobed
ivory-white style forming a triangular stigmatic tube. Fruit oblong or
oval, more or less distinctly 6-angled, 6-celled, usually beaked at the
apex, baccate and indehiscent or capsular and 3-valved, the valves
finally separating at the apex; pericarp of 2 coats, the outer at
maturity thick, succulent and juicy, thin, dry and leathery, or thin and
woody. Seeds compressed, triangular, obovoid, or obliquely ovoid or
orbicular, thick, with a narrow 2-edged rim, or thin, with a wide or
narrow brittle margin; seed-coat thin, black, slightly rugose or smooth;
embryo in plain or rarely ruminate hard farinaceous oily albumen;
cotyledon much longer than the short radicle turned toward the small
oblong white hilum.

Yucca is confined to the New World and is distributed from Bermuda and
the eastern Antilles, through the south Atlantic and Gulf states to
Oklahoma and Arkansas, and through New Mexico and northward along the
eastern base of the Rocky Mountains to South Dakota, westward to middle
California, and southward through Arizona, Mexico, and Lower California
to Central America. About thirty species with many varieties and
probable hybrids are recognized. Of the species which inhabit the
territory of the United States nine assume the habit and attain the size
of small trees. The root-stalks of Yucca are used as a substitute for
soap, and ropes, baskets, and mats are made from the tough fibres of the
leaves. Many of the species are cultivated, especially in countries of
scanty rainfall, for their great clusters of beautiful flowers, or in
hedges to protect gardens from cattle.

The generic name is from the Carib name of the root of the Cassava.


      CONSPECTUS OF THE ARBORESCENT SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES.

  Flower-clusters usually sessile, or short-stalked.
    Fruit pendulous, with thick succulent flesh; seeds thick; albumen
          ruminate.
      Segments of the perianth slightly united at the base.
        Panicle glabrous or puberulous.
          Ovary stipitate; leaves sharply toothed on their horny
                margins, smooth, dark green, slightly concave.
                                                    1. Y. aloifolia (C).
          Ovary sessile.
            Leaves concave, blue-green, rough on the lower surface.
                                                   2. Y. Treculeana (E).
            Leaves concave above the middle, light yellow-green, smooth.
              Style elongated.
                                                3. Y. macrocarpa (E, H).
              Style short.
                                                4. Y. mohavensis (G, H).
        Panicle coated with hoary tomentum; leaves concave, smooth,
              light yellow-green.
                                                     5. Y. Schottii (H).
      Segments of the perianth united below into a narrow tube; leaves
            flat, smooth, dark green.
                                                    6. Y. Faxoniana (E).
    Fruit erect or spreading, the flesh becoming thin and dry at
          maturity; seeds thin; albumen entire.
      Leaves rigid, concave above the middle, blue-green, sharply
            serrate.
                                                7. Y. brevifolia (F, G).
      Leaves thin, flat or concave toward the apex, nearly entire, rough
            on the lower surface, dull or glaucous green.
                                                     8. Y. gloriosa (C).
  Flower-clusters long-stalked; fruit capsular, erect, finally splitting
        between the carpels and through their backs at the apex; seeds
        thin; albumen entire; leaves thin, flat, filamentose on the
        margins, smooth, pale yellow-green.
                                                     9. Y. elata (E, H).


                 1. Yucca aloifolia L. Spanish Bayonet.

[Illustration: Fig. 106]

Leaves 18′—32′ long, 1¼′—2½′ wide, erect, rigid, conspicuously narrowed
above the light green base, widest above the middle, slightly concave on
the upper surface, smooth, dark rich green, with a stiff dark red-brown
tip, and horny finely and irregularly serrate margins; long-persistent.
Flowers from June until August on stout pedicels, in nearly sessile
glabrous or slightly pubescent panicles 18′—24′ long; perianth 1′—1½′ in
length and 3′ or 4′ across when fully expanded, the segments ovate,
thick and tumid toward the base, those of the outer rank rounded and
often marked with purple at apex, the inner acuminate and short-pointed;
stamens as long or sometimes a little longer than the light green ovary
raised on a short stout stipe. Fruit ripening from August to October,
elongated, ellipsoidal, hexagonal, 3′—4′ long, 1¼′—1½′ thick, light
green when fully grown, and in ripening turning dark purple, the outer
and inner coats forming a thick succulent mass of bitter-sweet juicy
flesh, finally becoming black and drying on its stalk; seeds ¼′—⅓′ wide,
about 1/16′ thick, with a thin narrow ring-like border to the rim.

A tree, occasionally 25° high, usually much smaller, with an erect or
more or less inclining simple or branched trunk slightly swollen at
base, and rarely more than 6′ in diameter; sometimes with numerous
clustered stems. Bark near the base of the trunk thick, rough, dark
brown, marked above by scars left by falling leaves.

Distribution. Sand dunes of the coast from North Carolina to eastern
Louisiana; west of the Apalachicola River attaining its largest size and
sometimes ranging inland through Pine-forests for thirty or forty miles;
and in Yucatan (var. yucatana Trel.).

A common garden plant in all countries with a temperate climate, and
long naturalized in the southern states far beyond the limits of its
natural range, in some of the West Indian islands and on the Gulf coast
of Mexico. Forms with leaves variously striped with white, yellow, and
red or with recurving leaves are frequent in cultivation.


       2. Yucca Treculeana Carr. Spanish Bayonet. Spanish Dagger.

[Illustration: Fig. 107]

Leaves 2½°—4° long, 2′—3¼′ wide, slightly or not at all contracted above
the dark red lustrous base, concave, stiff, rigid, dark blue-green,
rough on the lower surface, nearly smooth on the upper, with a short
stout dark red-brown tip, and dark brown margins roughened by minute
deciduous teeth and ultimately separating into slender dark fibres;
persistent for many years, the dead leaves hanging closely appressed
against the trunk below the terminal crown of closely imbricated living
leaves. Flowers in March and April on slender pedicels, in dense
many-flowered glabrous or puberulous panicles 2°—4° long and raised on
short stout stalks; perianth 1′—2′ long, 2′—4′ in diameter when fully
expanded, with narrow elongated ovate-lanceolate to ovate segments, ¼′
wide, acute, thin and delicate, furnished at apex with a conspicuous
tuft of short pale hairs; filaments slightly papillose, about as long as
the prismatic ovary gradually narrowed above and crowned by the deeply
divided stigmatic lobes. Fruit ripening in the summer, 3′—4′ long, about
1′ thick, dark reddish brown or ultimately black, with thin succulent
sweetish flesh; seeds about ⅛′ wide, nearly 1/16′ thick, with a narrow
border to the rim.

A tree, occasionally 25°—30° high, with a trunk sometimes 2° in diameter
and numerous stout wide-spreading branches; usually smaller and often
forming broad low thickets 4°—5° tall. Bark on old trunks ¼′—½′ thick,
dark red-brown and broken into thin oblong plates covered by small
irregular closely appressed scales. Wood light brown, fibrous, spongy,
heavy, difficult to cut and work.

Distribution. Shores of Matagorda Bay, southward through western Texas
into Nuovo Leon, and through the valley of the Rio Grande to the eastern
base of the mountains of western Texas; forming open stunted forests on
the coast dunes at the mouth of the Rio Grande; farther from the coast
often spreading into great impenetrable thickets.

Cultivated as an ornamental plant in the gardens of central and western
Texas and in other southern States, and occasionally in those of
southern Europe.


              3. Yucca macrocarpa Coville. Spanish Dagger.

[Illustration: Fig. 108]

Leaves 1½°—2° long, 1′—2′ wide, gradually narrowed from the dark red
lustrous base to above the middle, rigid, concave, yellow-green, rough
on the lower surface and frequently also on the upper surface, with a
stout elongated dark tip, and thickened margins separated into stout
gray filaments. Flowers in March and April in densely flowered sessile
or short-stalked glabrous or occasionally pubescent panicles; perianth
usually about 2′ long, with acuminate segments, those of the outer and
inner rows nearly of the same size; stamens shorter than the elongated
style. Fruit 3′—4′ long, about 1½′ thick, abruptly contracted at apex
into a stout point, nearly black when fully ripe, with sweet succulent
flesh; seeds about ⅓′ wide, ⅛′ thick, with a narrow border to the rim.

A tree, rarely exceeding 15° in height, with a usually simple stem 6′—8′
in diameter, and often clothed to the ground with living leaves. Bark
dark brown and scaly.

Distribution. Arid plains from western Texas to eastern Arizona and
southward in Chihuahua.


               4. Yucca mohavensis Sarg. Spanish Dagger.

[Illustration: Fig. 109]

Leaves 18′—20′ long, about 1½′ wide, abruptly contracted above the dark
red lustrous base, gradually narrowed upward to above the middle, thin
and concave except toward the slightly thickened base of the blade, dark
green, smooth on both surfaces, with a stout rigid sharp-pointed tip,
and entire bright red-brown margins soon separating into numerous pale
filaments. Flowers from March to May on slender erect ultimately
drooping pedicels 1′—1½′ long, in densely flowered sessile or
short-stemmed panicles 12′—18′ in length; perianth 1′—2′ long, the
segments united at the base into a short tube, thickened and hood-shaped
at the apex, those of the outer rank often deeply flushed with purple,
but little longer than the less prominently ribbed usually wider and
thinner segments of the inner rank; stamens with more or less pilose
filaments nearly as long as the short style. Fruit ripening in August
and September, 3′—4′ long, about 1½′ thick, usually much constricted
near the middle, abruptly contracted at apex into a short stout point,
dark dull brown or nearly black, with flesh often nearly ½′ thick; seeds
⅓′ wide, rather less than ⅛′ thick, with a narrow border to the rim.

A tree, rarely exceeding 15° in height, with a trunk usually simple or
occasionally furnished with short spreading branches, and 6′—8′ in
diameter, usually surrounded by a cluster of shorter more or less
spreading stems and often clothed to the ground with living leaves. Bark
dark brown and scaly. Wood soft, spongy, light brown.

Distribution. Southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona across the Mohave
Desert to the California coast, extending northward to the neighborhood
of Monterey, California, and southward into northern Lower California;
common and attaining its largest size on the Mohave Desert, and
sometimes ascending arid mountain slopes to altitudes of 4000° above the
sea.


               5. Yucca Schottii Engelm. Spanish Dagger.

[Illustration: Fig. 110]

Leaves 2½°—3° long, about 1½′ wide, gradually narrowed upward from the
comparatively thin lustrous red base to above the middle, flat except
toward the apex, smooth, light yellow-green, with a long rigid sharp
light red tip, and thick entire red-brown margins finally separating
into short thin brittle threads. Flowers from July to September in erect
stalked tomentose panicles; perianth 1′—1¾′ long, the broad oval or
oblong-obovate thin segments pubescent on the outer surface toward the
base and furnished at the apex with conspicuous clusters of white
tomentum; stamens about two thirds as long as the ovary, with filaments
pilose at the base, and only slightly enlarged at the apex. Fruit
ripening in October and November, obscurely angled, 3½′—4′ long, about
1¼′ thick, often narrowed above the middle, with a stout thick point,
and thin succulent flesh; seeds ¼′ wide, about ⅛′ thick, with a thin
conspicuous marginal rim.

A tree, in Arizona rarely 18°—20° high, with a trunk often crooked or
slightly inclining and simple or furnished with 2 or 3 short erect
branches, covered below with dark brown scaly bark, roughened for many
years by persistent scars of fallen leaves, and clothed above by the
pendant dead leaves of many seasons.

Distribution. Dry slopes of the mountain ranges of Arizona near the
Mexican boundary usually at altitudes between 5000° and 6000°, and
southward into Sonora.


                6. Yucca Faxoniana Sarg. Spanish Dagger.

[Illustration: Fig. 111]

Leaves 2½°—4° long, 2½′—3′ wide, abruptly contracted above the
conspicuously thickened lustrous base, widest above the middle, flat on
the upper surface, thickened and rounded on the lower surface toward the
base, rigid, smooth and clear dark green, with a short stout dark tip,
and brown entire margins breaking into numerous stout gray or brown
fibres short and spreading near the apex of the leaf, longer, more
remote, and forming a thick cobweb-like mass at their base. Flowers
appearing in April on thin drooping pedicels, in dense many-flowered
glabrous panicles 3°—4° long, with elongated pendulous branches;
perianth 2½′ long, the segments thin, concave, widest above the middle,
narrowed at the ends, united at base into a short tube, those of the
outer rank being about half as wide as those of the inner rank and two
thirds as long; stamens much shorter than the ovary, with slender
filaments pilose above the middle and abruptly dilated at apex; ovary
conspicuously ridged, light yellow marked with large pale raised
lenticels, and gradually narrowed into an elongated slender style. Fruit
ripening in early summer, slightly or not at all angled, abruptly
contracted at apex into a long or short hooked beak, 3′—4′ long, 1′—1½′
thick, light orange-colored and lustrous when first ripe, becoming
nearly black, with thick succulent bitter-sweet flesh; seeds ¼′ long,
about ⅛′ thick, with a narrow nearly obsolete margin to the rim.

A tree, often 40° high, with a trunk sometimes 2° in diameter above the
broad abruptly enlarged base, unbranched or divided into several short
branches, and covered above by a thick thatch of the pendant dead leaves
of many seasons; frequently smaller and until ten or twelve years old
clothed from the ground with erect living leaves. Bark near the base of
old trees dark reddish brown, ⅓′—½′ thick, broken on the surface into
small thin loose scales.

Distribution. Common on the high desert plateau of southwestern Texas.


                7. Yucca brevifolia Engelm. Joshua Tree.

                       _Yucca arborescens_ Trel.

[Illustration: Fig. 112]

Leaves 5′—8′ or on young plants rarely 10′—12′ long, ¼′—½′ wide, rigid,
crowded in dense clusters, lanceolate, gradually tapering from the
bright red-brown lustrous base, bluish green and glaucous, smooth or
slightly roughened, concave above the middle, with a sharp dark brown
tip, and thin yellow margins armed with sharp minute teeth; persistent
for many years. Flowers appearing from March until the beginning of May,
the creamy white closely imbricated bracts of the nearly sessile
pubescent panicle forming before its appearance a conspicuous cone-like
bud 8′ or 10′ long; perianth globose to oblong, 1′—2′ long, greenish
white, waxy, dull or lustrous, its segments slightly united at the base,
keeled on the back, thin below the middle, gradually thickened upward
into the concave incurved rounded tip, those of the outer rank rather
broader, thicker, and more prominently keeled than those of the inner
rank, glabrous or pubescent; stamens about half as long as the ovary,
with filaments villose-papillate from the base; ovary conic, 3-lobed
above the middle, bright green, with narrow slightly developed septal
nectar-glands, and a sessile nearly equally 6-lobed stigma. Fruit
ripening in May or June, spreading or more or less pendant at maturity,
oblong-ovoid, acute, slightly 3-angled, 2′—4′ long, 1½′—2′ thick, light
red or yellow-brown, the outer coat becoming dry and spongy at maturity;
seeds nearly ½′ long, rather less than 1/16′ thick, with a broad
well-developed margin to the rim, and a large conspicuous hilum.

A tree, 30°—40° high, with a trunk 2°—3° in diameter, rising abruptly
from a broad thick basal disk, thick tough roots descending deeply into
the soil, and stout branches spreading into a broad, often symmetrical
head formed by the continued forking of the branches at the base of the
terminal flower-clusters; the stem until 8°—10° high simple and clothed
to the ground with leaves erect until after the appearance of the first
flowers, then spreading at right angles and finally becoming reflexed.
Bark 1′—1½′ thick, deeply divided into oblong plates frequently 2° long.
Wood light, soft, spongy, difficult to work, light brown or nearly
white; sometimes cut into thin layers and used as wrapping material or
manufactured into boxes and other small articles. The seeds are gathered
and eaten by Indians.

Distribution. Southwestern Utah to the western and northern rim of the
Mohave Desert in California; most abundant and of its largest size on
the foothills on the desert slope of the Tehachapi Mountains,
California.


                  8. Yucca gloriosa L. Spanish Dagger.

[Illustration: Fig. 113]

Leaves 2°—2½° long, gradually narrowed above the broad base and then
gradually broadened to above the middle, thin, flat or slightly concave
toward the apex, frequently longitudinally folded, dull often glaucous
green, roughened on the under surface especially above the middle, with
a stout dark red tip, and pale margins serrulate toward the base of the
leaf, with minute early deciduous teeth, or occasionally separating into
thin fibres. Flowers in October, in pubescent or glabrate panicles,
2°—4° long, on stout stalks sometimes 3°—4° in length, their large
creamy white bracts forming before the panicle emerges a conspicuous
egg-shaped bud 4′—6′ long; perianth when fully expanded 3½′—4′ across,
its segments thin, ovate, acute, or lance-ovate, often tinged with green
or purple, slightly united at the base, pubescent at apex; stamens about
as long as the ovary, with hispid or slightly papillose filaments and
deeply emarginate anthers; ovary slightly lobed, 6-sided, light green,
gradually narrowed into the elongated spreading stigmatic lobes. Fruit
very rarely produced, prominently 6-ridged, pendulous, 3′ long, 1′ in
diameter, cuspidate, raised on a short stout stipe, with a thin leathery
almost black outer coat; seeds ¼′ wide and about 1/36′ thick, with a
smooth coat and a narrow marginal rim.

A tree, with a trunk occasionally 6°—8° high and 4′—6′ in diameter,
simple or rarely furnished with a few short branches and usually clothed
to the base with pendant dead leaves; in cultivation often becoming much
larger, with a stout trunk covered with smooth light gray bark, and
erect or in one form (var. _recurvifolia_ Engelm.) pendulous leaves.

Distribution. Sand dunes and the borders of beaches of the seacoast from
North Carolina to northern Florida.

Often cultivated with many forms in the gardens and pleasure-grounds of
all temperate countries.


                 9. Yucca elata Engelm. Spanish Dagger.

                        1. _Yucca radiosa_ Trel.

[Illustration: Fig. 114]

Leaves 20′—30′ long, ¼′—½′ wide, rigid, gradually narrowed from the thin
base, tapering toward the apex, or sometimes somewhat broadest at the
middle, thin, flat on the upper surface, slightly thickened and rounded
on the lower surface toward the base, smooth, pale yellow-green, with a
slender stiff red-brown tip, and thickened entire pale margins soon
splitting into long slender filaments. Flowers in May and June on
slender spreading more or less recurved pedicels, in glabrous
much-branched panicles 4°—6° long, raised on stout naked stem 3°—7° in
length; perianth ovoid and acute in the bud, when fully expanded 3½′—4′
across, its segments united at the base into a short slender distinct
tube, ovate or slightly obovate, those of the outer rank usually acute,
not more than half as broad as those of the inner rank; stamens as long
or a little longer than the ovary, with slender nearly terete filaments;
ovary sessile, almost terete, pale green, abruptly contracted into the
stout elongated style. Fruit an erect oblong capsule rounded and obtuse
at the ends, tipped by a short stout mucro, conspicuously 3-ribbed, with
rounded ridges on the back of the carpels, 1½′—2′ long, 1′—1½′ wide,
with a thin firm light brown ligneous outer coat closely adherent to the
lustrous light yellow inner coat, in ripening splitting from the top to
the bottom between the carpels, and through their backs at the apex;
seeds ⅓′ wide and about 1/32′ thick, with a smooth coat and a thin
brittle wide margin to the rim.

A tree, with a rough much-branched underground stem penetrating deep
into the soil and a trunk often 15°—20° high and 7′—8′ in diameter,
covered above with a thick thatch of the pendant dead leaves of many
years, simple, or branched at the top with a few short stout branches
densely covered with leaves at first erect, then spreading nearly at
right angles, and finally pendulous. Bark dark brown, irregularly
fissured, broken into thin plates, about ¼′ thick. Wood light, soft,
spongy, pale brown or yellow.

Distribution. High desert plateaus from southwestern Texas to southern
Arizona; southward into northern Mexico; most abundant and of its
largest size on the eastern slope of the continental divide in southern
New Mexico and along the northern rim of the Tucson Desert in Arizona.



                       Division II. Dicotyledons.


Stems formed of bark, wood, or pith, and increasing by the addition of
an annual layer of wood inside the bark. Parts of the flower mostly in
4’s and 5’s; embryo with a pair of opposite cotyledons. Leaves
netted-veined.

_Subdivision 1._ Apetalæ. Flowers without a corolla and sometimes
without a calyx (with a corolla in _Olacaceæ_).

Section 1. Flowers in unisexual aments (_female flowers of Juglans and
Quercus solitary or in spikes_); ovary inferior (_superior in
Leitneriaceæ_) when calyx is present.



                             V. SALICACEÆ.


Trees or shrubs, with watery juice, alternate simple stalked deciduous
leaves with stipules, soft light usually pale wood, astringent bark,
scaly buds, and often stoloniferous roots. Flowers appearing in early
spring usually before the leaves, solitary in the axils of the scales of
unisexual aments from buds in the axils of leaves of the previous year,
the male and female on different plants; perianth 0; stamens 1, 2 or
many, their anthers introrse, 2-celled, the cells opening
longitudinally; styles usually short or none; stigmas 2—4, often
2-lobed. Fruit a 1-celled 2—4-valved capsule, with 2—4 placentas bearing
below their middle numerous ascending anatropous seeds without albumen
and surrounded by tufts of long white silky hairs attached to the short
stalks of the seeds and deciduous with them; embryo straight, filling
the cavity of the seed; cotyledons flattened, much longer than the short
radicle turned toward the minute hilum.

The two genera of this family are widely scattered but most abundant in
the northern hemisphere, with many species, and are often conspicuous
features of vegetation.


                       CONSPECTUS OF THE GENERA.

  Scales of the aments laciniate; flowers surrounded by a cup-shaped
        often oblique disk; stamens numerous; buds with numerous scales.
                                                             1. Populus.
  Scales of the aments entire; disk a minute gland-like body; stamens 1,
        2 or many; buds with a single scale.
                                                               2. Salix.



                         1. POPULUS L. Poplar.


Large fast-growing trees, with pale furrowed bark, terete or angled
branchlets, resinous winter-buds covered by several thin scales, those
of the first pair small and opposite, the others imbricated, increasing
in size from below upward, accrescent and marking the base of the
branchlet with persistent ring-like scars, and thick roots. Leaves
involute in the bud, usually ovate or ovate-lanceolate, entire, dentate
with usually glandular teeth, or lobed, penniveined, turning yellow in
the autumn; petioles long, often laterally compressed, sometimes
furnished at the apex on the upper side with 2 nectariferous glands,
leaving in falling oblong often obcordate, elliptic, arcuate, or
shield-shaped leaf-scars displaying the ends of 3 nearly equidistant
fibro-vascular bundles; stipules caducous, those of the first leaves
resembling the bud-scales, smaller higher on the branch, and
linear-lanceolate and scarious on the last leaves. Flowers in pendulous
stalked aments, the pistillate lengthening and rarely becoming erect
before maturity; scales obovate, gradually narrowed into slender stipes,
dilated and lobed, palmately cleft or fimbriate at apex, membranaceous,
glabrous or villose, more crowded on the staminate than on the
pistillate ament, usually caducous; disk of the flower broadly
cup-shaped, often oblique, entire, dentate or irregularly lobed, fleshy
or membranaceous, stipitate, usually persistent under the fruit; stamens
4—12 or 12—60 or more, inserted on the disk, their filaments free,
short, light yellow; anthers ovoid or oblong, purple or red; ovary
sessile in the bottom of the disk, oblong-conical subglobose or
ovoid-oblong, cylindric or slightly lobed, with 2 or 3 or rarely 4
placentas; styles usually short; stigmas as many as the placentas,
divided into filiform lobes or broad, dilated, 2-parted or lobed. Fruit
ripening before the full growth of the leaves, greenish, reddish brown,
or buff color, oblong-conic, subglobose or ovoid-oblong, separating at
maturity into 2—4 recurved valves. Seeds broadly obovoid or ovoid,
rounded or acute at the apex, light chestnut-brown; cotyledons elliptic.

Populus in the extreme north often forms great forests, and is common on
the alluvial bottom-lands of streams and on high mountain slopes,
ranging from the Arctic Circle to northern Mexico and Lower California
and from the Atlantic to the Pacific in the New World, and to northern
Africa, the southern slopes of the Himalayas, central China, and Japan
in the Old World. Of the thirty-four species now generally recognized
fifteen are found in North America. The wood of many of the American
species is employed in large quantities for paper-making, and several
species furnish wood used in construction and in the manufacture of
small articles of wooden ware. The bark contains tannic acid and is used
in tanning leather and occasionally as a tonic, and the fragrant balsam
contained in the buds of some species is occasionally used in medicine.
The rapidity of their growth, their hardiness and the ease with which
they can be propagated by cuttings, make many of the species useful as
ornamental trees or in wind-breaks, although planted trees often suffer
severely from the attacks of insects boring into the trunks and
branches. Of the exotic species, the Abele, or White Poplar, _Populus
alba_ L., of Europe and western Asia, and its fastigiate form, and the
so-called Lombardy Poplar, a tree of pyramidal habit and a form of the
European and Asiatic _Populus nigra_ L., and one of its hybrids, have
been largely planted in the United States.

_Populus_, of obscure derivation, is the classical name of the Poplar.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Stigmas 2, 2-lobed, their lobes filiform; leaf stalks elongated,
        laterally compressed; buds slightly resinous.
    Leaves finely serrate; winter-buds glabrous.
                                         1. P. tremuloides (A, B, F, G).
    Leaves coarsely serrate; winter-buds tomentose or pubescent.
                                                    2. P. grandidentata.
  Stigmas 2—4, 2-lobed and dilated, their lobes variously divided; buds
        resinous.
    Leaf-stalks round.
      Leaves tomentose below early in the season, broadly ovate, acute
            or rounded at apex.
                                              3. P. heterophylla (A, C).
      Leaves glabrous or pilose below.
        Leaves dark green above, pale, rarely pilose below.
          Ovary and capsule glabrous.
                                            4. P. tacamahacca (A, B, F).
          Ovary and capsule tomentose or pubescent.
                                               5. P. trichocarpa (B, F).
        Leaves light green on both surfaces, glabrous.
          Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate.
                                                 6. P. angustifolia (F).
          Leaves rhombic-lanceolate to ovate.
                                                    7. P. acuminata (F).
    Leaf-stalks laterally compressed.
      Leaves without glands at apex of the petiole, coarsely serrate,
            thick.
        Pedicels shorter than the fruit.
          Disk cup-shaped.
            Branchlets stout; capsule ⅓′—½′ long.
                                                 8. P. Fremontii (G, H).
            Branchlets slender; capsule not more than ¼′ long.
                                                 9. P. arizonica (F, H).
          Disk minute.
            Branchlets glabrous; leaves broad-ovate to deltoid,
                  long-pointed and acuminate at apex.
                                                      10. P. texana (C).
            Branchlets pubescent; leaves broad-ovate, abruptly
                  short-pointed or acute at apex.
                                              11. P. McDougallii (G, H).
        Pedicels 2 or 3 times longer than the fruit; leaves broadly
              deltoid, abruptly short-pointed.
                                               12. P. Wislizenii (E, F).
      Leaves furnished with glands at apex of the petiole.
        Branchlets stout; leaves thick.
          Winter-buds puberulous; leaves coarsely serrate; branchlets
                light yellow.
                                                   13. P. Sargentii (F).
          Winter-buds glabrous; leaves less coarsely serrate; branchlets
                gray or reddish brown.
                                              14. P. balsamifera (A, C).
        Branchlets slender; leaves thin, ovate, cuneate or rounded at
              base, finely serrate.
                                                     15. P. Palmeri (E).


           1. Populus tremuloides Michx. Aspen. Quaking Asp.

[Illustration: Fig. 115]

Leaves ovate to broad-ovate or rarely reniform (var. _reniformis_
Tidestrom) abruptly short-pointed or acuminate at apex rounded or rarely
cuneate at the wide base, closely crenately serrate with glandular
teeth, thin, green and lustrous above, dull green or rarely pale below,
up to 4½′ long and broad with a prominent midrib, slender primary veins
and conspicuous reticulate veinlets; petioles slender, compressed
laterally, 1½′—3′ long. Flowers: aments 1½′—2½′ long, the pistillate
becoming 4′ in length at maturity; scales deeply divided into 3—5 linear
acute lobes fringed with long soft gray hairs; disk oblique, the
staminate entire, the pistillate slightly crenate; stamens 6—12; ovary
conic, with a short thick style and erect stigmas thickened and
club-shaped below and divided into linear diverging lobes. Fruit
maturing in May and June, oblong-conic, light green, thin-walled, nearly
¼′ long; seeds obovoid, light brown, about 1/32′ in length.

A tree, 20°—40° high, with a trunk 18′—20′ in diameter, slender remote
and often contorted branches somewhat pendulous toward the ends, forming
a narrow symmetrical round-topped head, and slender branchlets covered
with scattered oblong orange-colored lenticels, bright red-brown and
very lustrous during their first season, gradually turning light gray
tinged with red, ultimately dark gray, and much roughened for two or
three years by the elevated leaf-scars. Winter-buds slightly resinous,
conic, acute, often incurved, about ¼′ long, narrower than the more
obtuse flower-buds, with 6 or 7 lustrous glabrous red-brown scales
scarious on the margins. Bark thin, pale yellow-brown or orange-green,
often roughened by horizontal bands of circular wart-like excrescences,
frequently marked below the branches by large rows of lunate dark scars.
Wood light brown, with nearly white sapwood of 25—30 layers of annual
growth.

Distribution. Southern Labrador to the southern shores of Hudson’s Bay
and northwesterly to the mouth of the Mackenzie River, through the
northern states to the mountains of Pennsylvania, northern Ohio, Indiana
and Illinois, eastern and central Iowa and northeastern Missouri; common
and generally distributed usually on moist sandy soil and gravelly
hillsides; most valuable in the power of its seeds to germinate quickly
in soil made infertile by fire and of its seedlings to grow rapidly in
exposed situations; westward passing into the var. _aurea_ Daniels, with
thicker rhombic to semiorbicular or broad-ovate generally smaller
leaves, usually pale on the lower surface, rounded or acute and minutely
short-pointed at apex, rounded or cuneate at base, often entire with
slightly thickened margins, or occasionally coarsely crenately serrate,
with inconspicuous reticulate veinlets, turning bright golden yellow in
the autumn before falling.

A tree occasionally 100° high with a trunk up to 3° in diameter, with
pale often white bark, becoming near the base of old stems 2′ thick,
nearly black, and deeply divided into broad flat ridges broken on the
surface into small appressed plate-like scales.

Distribution. Valley of the Yukon River to Saskatchewan, and southward
through the mountain ranges of the Rocky Mountain region to southern New
Mexico, the San Francisco Mountains of Arizona, and westward to the
valley of the Skeena River, British Columbia, western Washington and
Oregon, the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada and the high mountains
of southern California, and eastward to North and South Dakota and
western Nebraska; on the mountains of Chihuahua, and on the Sierra de
Laguna, Lower California.


              Populus tremuloides var. vancouveriana Sarg.

                     _Populus vancouveriana Trel._

[Illustration: Fig. 116]

Leaves broadly ovate to semiorbicular, abruptly short-pointed or rounded
at apex, rounded or slightly cordate at the broad base, coarsely
crenately serrate and sometimes obscurely crispate on the margins, when
they unfold covered below and on the petioles with a thick coat of long
matted pale hairs, and slightly villose, glabrous or nearly glabrous
above, soon glabrous, and at maturity thick dark green, lustrous and
scabrate on the upper surface, paler on the lower surface, 3′—4½′ long
and broad, with a prominent midrib and primary veins; petioles slender,
compressed, becoming glabrous, 2′—3′ in length. Flowers: staminate
aments slightly villose; pedicels pubescent; disk of the flower
puberulous toward the base; flowers as in the species; pistillate aments
2′—2¼′ long, becoming 3′—3½′ in length at maturity; the rachis, pedicels
and slightly lobed disk of the flower densely villose-pubescent; ovary
conic, pubescent, with a short style and stigma divided into narrow
divergent lobes. Fruit on pedicel not more than 1/24′ in length,
oblong-conic, pubescent or glabrous, ¼′ long.

A tree 30°—36° high, with a trunk 12′—16′ in diameter, stout spreading
branches forming a round-topped head, stout, reddish brown pubescent or
puberulous branchlets often becoming glabrous during their first summer.
Winter-buds acute, tomentose, pubescent or glabrous.

Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia and shores of Puget Sound;
Tualitin, Washington County, and valley of the Willamette River at
Corvallis, Benton County, Oregon.


                2. Populus grandidentata Michex. Poplar.

[Illustration: Fig. 117]

Leaves semiorbicular to broad-ovate, short-pointed at apex, rounded,
abruptly cuneate or rarely truncate at the broad entire base, coarsely
repand-dentate above with few stout incurved teeth, covered like the
petioles early in the season with white tomentum, soon glabrous, thin
and firm in texture, dark green above, paler on the lower surface, 2′—3′
long, 2′—2½′ wide, with a prominent yellow midrib, conspicuously forked
veins, and reticulate veinlets; petioles slender, laterally compressed,
1½′—2½′ long. Flowers: aments pubescent, 1½′—2½′ long, the pistillate
becoming 4′—5′ long at maturity; scales pale and scarious below, divided
above into 5 or 6 small irregular acute lobes covered with soft pale
hairs; disk shallow, oblique, the staminate entire, the pistillate
slightly crenate; stamens 6—12, with short slender filaments and light
red anthers; ovary oblong-conic, bright green, puberulous, with a short
style, and spreading stigmas divided nearly to the base into elongated
filiform lobes. Fruit ripening before the leaves are fully grown, often
more or less curved above the middle, light green and puberulous,
thin-walled, 2-valved, about ⅛′ long; pedicel slender, pubescent, about
1/12′ in length; seeds minute dark brown.

A tree, often 60°—70° high, with a trunk occasionally 2° in diameter,
slender rather rigid branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and
stout branchlets marked by scattered oblong orange-colored lenticels,
coated when they first appear with thick hoary deciduous tomentum,
becoming during their first year dark red-brown or dark orange-colored,
glabrous, lustrous, or covered with a delicate gray pubescence, and in
their second year dark gray sometimes slightly tinged with green and
much roughened by the elevated 3-lobed leaf-scars; generally smaller,
and usually not more than 30°—40° tall. Winter-buds terete, broadly
ovoid, acute, with light bright chestnut-brown scales, pubescent during
the winter especially on their thin scarious margins, about ⅛′ long and
not more than half the size of the flower-buds. Bark thin, smooth, light
gray tinged with green, becoming near the base of old trunks ¾′—1′
thick, dark brown tinged with red, irregularly fissured and divided into
broad flat ridges roughened on the surface by small thick closely
appressed scales. Wood light brown, with thin nearly white sapwood of
20—30 layers of annual growth.

Distribution. Rich moist sandy soil near the borders of swamps and
streams; Nova Scotia, through New Brunswick, southern Quebec and Ontario
to northern Minnesota, southward through the northern states to
Pennsylvania, northern Ohio, and eastern (Muscatine County) and central
Iowa, and westward to central Kentucky and Tennessee; passing into the
var. _meridionalis_ Tidestrom with broad-ovate acuminate leaves with
more numerous teeth, often 4′—5′ long and 3′ wide; the common form in
Maryland, northern Delaware, the piedmont region of Virginia and North
Carolina, southern Ohio, and southern Indiana and Illinois; rare
northward to northern New England.


     3. Populus heterophylla L. Swamp Cottonwood. Black Cottonwood.

[Illustration: Fig. 118]

Leaves broadly ovate, gradually narrowed and acute, short-pointed or
rounded at apex, slightly cordate or truncate or rounded at the wide
base, usually furnished with a narrow deep sinus, finely or coarsely
crenately serrate with incurved glandular teeth, covered as they unfold
with thick hoary deciduous tomentum, becoming thin and firm in texture,
dark deep green above, pale and glabrous below, with a stout yellow
midrib, forked veins and conspicuous reticulate veinlets, 4′—7′ long,
3′—6′ wide; petioles slender terete tomentose or nearly glabrous 2½′—3½′
in length. Flowers: staminate aments broad, densely flowered, 1′ long,
erect when the flowers first open, becoming pendulous and 2′—2½′ long;
scales narrowly oblong-obovate, brown, scarious and glabrous below,
divided into numerous elongated filiform light red-brown lobes; disk
oblique, slightly concave; stamens 12—20, with slender filaments about
as long as the large dark red anthers; pistillate aments slender,
pendulous, few-flowered, 1′—2′ long, becoming erect and 4′—6′ long
before maturing, their scales concave and infolding the flowers,
linear-obovate, brown and scarious, laterally lobed, fimbriate above the
middle, caducous; disk thin, irregularly divided in numerous triangular
acute teeth, long-stalked; ovary ovoid, terete or obtusely 3-angled,
with a short stout elongated style and 2 or 3 much-thickened dilated 2
or 3-lobed stigmas. Fruit on elongated pedicels, ripening when the
leaves are about one third grown, ovoid, acute, dark red-brown, rather
thick-walled, 2 or 3-valved, about ½′ long; seeds obovoid, minute, dark
red-brown.

A tree, 80°—90° high, with a tall trunk 2°—3° in diameter, short rather
slender branches forming a comparatively narrow round-topped head, and
stout branchlets, marked by small elongated pale lenticels, coated at
first with hoary caducous tomentum, becoming dark brown and rather
lustrous or ashy gray, or rarely pale orange color and glabrous or
slightly puberulous, or covered with a glaucous bloom in their first
winter, growing darker in their second year and much roughened by the
large thickened leaf-scars; usually much smaller and at the north rarely
more than 40° tall. Winter-buds slightly resinous, broadly ovoid, acute,
with bright red-brown scales, about ¼′ long and about one half the size
of the flower-buds. Bark on young trunks divided by shallow fissures
into broad flat ridges separating on the surface into thick plate-like
scales, becoming on old trunks ¾′—1′ thick, light brown tinged with red,
and broken into long narrow plates attached only at the middle and
sometimes persistent for many years. Wood dull brown, with thin lighter
brown sapwood of 12—15 layers of annual growth; now often manufactured
into lumber in the valley of the Mississippi River and in the Gulf
states, and as black poplar used in the interior finish of buildings.

Distribution. Southington, Connecticut, and Northport, Long Island,
southward near the coast to southern Georgia, and the valley of the
lower Apalachicola River, Florida, through the Gulf states to western
Louisiana, and through Arkansas to southeastern Missouri, western
Kentucky and Tennessee, southern Illinois and Indiana, and in central
and northern Ohio (Williams, Ottawa and Lake Counties); in the north
Atlantic states in low wet swamps, rare and local; more common south and
west on the borders of river swamps; very abundant and of its largest
size in the valley of the lower Ohio and in southeastern Missouri,
eastern Arkansas, and western Mississippi.


            4. Populus tacamahacca Mill. Balsam. Tacamahac.

                  _Populus balsamifera_ Du Roi, not L.

[Illustration: Fig. 119]

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, gradually narrowed and acuminate at apex,
cordate or rounded at base, or narrow-elliptic and acute or acuminate at
the ends, finely crenately serrate, with slightly thickened revolute
margins, coated when they unfold with the gummy secretions of the bud,
glabrous, or puberulous on the under side of the midrib, becoming thin
and firm in texture, deep dark green and lustrous above, pale green or
glaucous and more or less rusty and conspicuously reticulate-venulose
below, 3′—5′ long, 1½′—3′ wide, with thin veins running obliquely almost
to the margins; petioles slender, terete, 1½′ long, glabrous or rarely
puberulous. Flowers: aments long-stalked, the pistillate becoming 4′—5′
long before the fruit ripens, glabrous or pubescent; scales broadly
obovate, light brown and scarious, often irregularly 3-parted at apex,
cut into short thread-like brown lobes; disk of the staminate flower
oblique, short-stalked; stamens 20—30, with short filaments and large
light red anthers; disk of the pistillate flower cup-shaped; ovary
ovoid, slightly 2-lobed, with two nearly sessile large oblique dilated
crenulate stigmas. Fruit ovoid-oblong, acute and often curved at apex,
2-valved, light brown, about ¼′—⅓′ long, nearly sessile or
short-stalked, ½′—⅛′ in length; seeds oblong-obovoid, pointed at apex,
narrowed and truncate at base, light brown, about 1/12′ long.

A tree, often 100° high, with a tall trunk 6°—7° in diameter, stout
erect branches usually more or less contorted near the end, forming a
comparatively narrow open head, and glabrous or occasionally pubescent
branchlets marked by oblong bright orange-colored lenticels, much
roughened by the thickened leaf-scars, at first red-brown and glabrous
or pubescent, becoming bright and lustrous in their first winter, dark
orange-colored in their second year, and finally gray tinged with
yellow-green; usually much smaller toward the southern limits of its
range. Winter-buds saturated with a yellow balsamic sticky exudation,
ovoid, terete, long-pointed; terminal 1′ long, ⅓′ broad; axillary about
¾′ long, 1/16′ broad, with 5 oblong pointed concave closely imbricated
thick chestnut-brown lustrous scales. Bark light brown tinged with red,
smooth or roughened by dark excrescences, becoming on old trunks ¾′—1′
thick, gray tinged with red, and divided into broad rounded ridges
covered by small closely appressed scales. Wood light brown, with thick
nearly white sapwood.

Distribution. Low often inundated river-bottom lands and swamp borders;
Labrador to latitude 65° north in the valley of the Mackenzie River, and
to the Alaskan coast, south to northern New England and New York,
central Michigan, Minnesota (except in southern and southwestern
counties), Turtle Mountains, Rolette County, North Dakota, the Black
Hills of South Dakota, northwestern Nebraska (basin of Hat Creek), and
in Colorado; the characteristic tree on the streams of the prairie
region of British America, attaining its greatest size on the islands
and banks of the Peace, Athabasca, and other tributaries of the
Mackenzie; common in all the region near the northern boundary of the
United States from Maine to the western limits of the Atlantic forests;
the largest of the sub-Arctic American trees, and in the far north the
most conspicuous feature of vegetation; passing into the variety
_Michauxii_ Farwell, with more cordate leaves, slightly pilose on the
under side of the midrib and veins; common from Aroostook County, Maine,
to the Province of Quebec, Newfoundland, and the shores of Hudson Bay.

Often planted at the north for shelter or ornament.

_Populus candicans_ Ait., the Balm of Gilead of which only the
pistillate tree is known, has often been considered a variety of the
North American Balsam Poplar. This tree has been long cultivated in the
northeastern part of the country and has sometimes escaped from
cultivation and formed groves of considerable extent, as on the banks of
Cullasagee Creek on the western slope of the Blue Ridge in Macon County,
North Carolina. The fact that only one sex is known suggests hybrid
origin but of obscure and possibly partly of foreign origin.


   5. Populus trichocarpa Hook. Black Cottonwood. Balsam Cottonwood.

[Illustration: Fig. 120]

Leaves broad-ovate, acute or acuminate at apex, rounded or abruptly
cuneate at base, finely crenately serrate, glabrous, dark green above,
pale and rusty or silvery white and conspicuously reticulate-venulose
below, 3′—4′ long, 2′—2½′ wide; petioles slender, pubescent, puberulous,
pilose or rarely glabrous, 1½′—2′ in length. Flowers: aments stalked,
villose-pubescent, the staminate densely flowered, 1½′—2′ long, ⅓′
thick, the pistillate loosely flowered, 2½′—3′ long, becoming 4′—5′ long
before the fruit ripens; scales dilated at the apex, irregularly cut
into numerous filiform lobes, glabrous or slightly puberulous on the
outer surface; disk of the staminate flower broad, slightly oblique;
stamens 40—60, with slender elongated filaments longer than the large
light purple anthers; disk of the pistillate flower deep cup-shaped,
with irregularly crenate or nearly entire revolute margins; ovary
subglobose, coated with thick hoary tomentum, with 3 nearly sessile
broadly dilated deeply lobed stigmas. Fruit subglobose, nearly sessile,
pubescent, thick-walled, 3-valved; seeds obovoid, apiculate at the
gradually narrowed apex, light brown, puberulous toward the ends, 1/12′
long.

A tree, 30°—100° high, with a trunk 1°—3° in diameter, erect branches
forming an open head, and slender branchlets terete or slightly angled
while young, marked by many orange-colored lenticels, glabrous or when
they first appear coated with deciduous rufous or pale pubescence,
reddish brown during their first year, gradually becoming dark gray, and
roughened by the greatly enlarged and thickened elevated leaf-scars.
Winter-buds resinous, fragrant, ovoid, long-pointed, frequently curved
above the middle, ¾′ long and ¼′ thick, with 6 or 7 light orange-brown
slightly puberulous scales scarious on the margins. Bark ½′—2½′ thick,
ashy gray, deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken on the
surface into thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, dull brown,
with thin nearly white sapwood.

Distribution. In California in small groves with widely scattered
individuals on the coast ranges, the western slope of the Sierra Nevada
up to elevations of 6000°—8000°, and on the southern mountains to Mt.
Palomar in San Diego County; on the California islands, and on the
western slopes of the San Pedro Mártir Mountains, Lower California.

On the high Sierra Nevada and in northern California passing into the
var. _hastata_ A. Henry, differing in its thicker leaves, usually longer
in proportion to their width, often long-acuminate, rounded or cordate
at base, frequently 5′ or 6′ long and 3′ or 4′ wide, with glabrous
petioles and larger sometimes nearly glabrous capsules on glabrous or
pubescent aments, sometimes 10′—12′ in length, and in its glabrous young
branchlets.

A tree sometimes 200° high, with a trunk 7°—8° in diameter, and the
largest deciduous-leaved tree of northwestern North America. The wood is
largely used in Oregon and Washington for the staves of sugar barrels
and in the manufacture of wooden ware.

Distribution. In open groves on rich bottom lands of streams from
Siskiyou County, California, to southern Alaska; eastward in the United
States through Oregon and Washington to western and southern Idaho; and
to the mountains of western Nevada; in British Columbia to the valley of
the Columbia River; on the banks of the east fork of the Kaweah River,
Tulare County, California, at 10,000° above the sea.


        6. Populus angustifolia James. Narrow-leaved Cottonwood.

                 _Populus fortissima_ A. Nels & Macbr.

[Illustration: Fig. 121]

Leaves lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, elliptic or rarely obovate,
narrowed to the tapering acute or rounded apex, gradually narrowed and
cuneate or rounded at base, finely or on vigorous shoots coarsely
serrate, thin and firm, bright yellow-green above, glabrous or rarely
puberulous and paler below, 2′—3′ long, ½′—1′ wide, or on vigorous
shoots occasionally 6′—7′ long, and 1½′ wide, with a stout yellow midrib
and numerous slender-oblique primary veins arcuate and often united near
the slightly thickened revolute margins; petioles slender, somewhat
flattened on the upper side, and in falling leaving small nearly oval
obcordate scars. Flowers: aments densely flowered, glabrous,
short-stalked, ½′—2½′ long, the pistillate becoming 2½′—4′ long before
the fruit ripens; scales broadly obovate, glabrous, thin, scarious,
light brown, deeply and irregularly cut into numerous dark red-brown
filiform lobes; disk of the staminate flower cup-shaped, slightly
oblique, short-stalked; stamens 12—20, with short filaments and large
light red anthers; disk of the pistillate flower shallow, cup-shaped,
slightly and irregularly lobed, short-stalked; ovary ovoid, more or less
2-lobed, with a short or elongated style and 2 oblique dilated
irregularly lobed stigmas. Fruit broadly ovoid, often rather abruptly
contracted above the middle, short-pointed, thin-walled, 2-valved;
pedicels often ⅓′ long; seeds ovoid or obovoid, rather obtuse, light
brown, nearly ⅛′ long.

A tree, 50°—60° high, with a trunk rarely more than 18′ in diameter,
slender erect branches forming a narrow and usually pyramidal head, and
slender glabrous or rarely puberulous branchlets marked by pale
lenticels, at first light yellow-green, becoming bright or dark orange
color in their first season, pale yellow in their second winter, and
ultimately ashy gray. Winter-buds very resinous, ovoid, long-pointed,
covered by usually 5 thin concave chestnut-brown scales; terminal ¼′—½′
long and nearly twice as large as the axillary buds. Bark ¾′—1′ thick,
light yellow-green, divided near the base of old trees by shallow
fissures into broad flat ridges, smooth and much thinner above. Wood
light brown, with thin nearly white sapwood of 10—30 layers of annual
growth.

Distribution. Banks of streams usually at altitudes of 5000°—10,000°
above the sea; southern Alberta to the Black Hills of South Dakota and
northwestern Nebraska (basin of Hat Creek) westward through Wyoming,
Montana and Idaho to Yakima County, Washington, and southward to central
Nevada, southwestern New Mexico (Silver City, Grant County) and northern
Arizona; the common Cottonwood of northern Colorado, Utah, Wyoming,
southern Montana, and eastern Idaho; on the mountains of Chihuahua.


                 7. Populus acuminata Rydb. Cottonwood.

[Illustration: Fig. 122]

Leaves rhombic-lanceolate to ovate, abruptly acuminate, gradually or
abruptly narrowed and cuneate or concave-cuneate, or rarely broad and
rounded at the mostly entire base, coarsely crenately serrate except
near the apex, dark green and lustrous above, dull green below, 2′—4′
long, ¾′—2′ wide, with a slender yellow midrib, thin remote primary
veins and obscure reticulate veinlets; petioles slender, nearly terete,
1′—3′ long. Flowers: aments slender, short-stalked, 2′—3′ long, the
pistillate becoming 4′ or 5′ long before the fruit ripens; scales
scarious, light brown, glabrous, dilated and irregularly divided into
filiform lobes; disk of the staminate flower wide, oblique, and
membranaceous; stamens numerous, with short filaments and dark red
anthers; disk of the pistillate flower deep cup-shaped; ovary
broad-ovoid, gradually narrowed above, with large laciniately lobed
nearly sessile stigmas. Fruit pedicellate, oblong-ovoid, acute,
thin-walled, slightly pitted, about ⅓′ long, 3 or rarely 2-valved; seeds
oblong-obovoid, rounded at the apex, light brown, about 1/12′ in length.

A tree, usually about 40° high, with a trunk 12′—18′ in diameter, stout
spreading and ascending branches forming a compact round-topped head,
and slender terete or slightly 4-angled pale yellow-brown branchlets
roughened for two or three years by the elevated oval horizontal
leaf-scars. Winter-buds acuminate, resinous, about ⅓′ long, with 6 or 7
light chestnut-brown lustrous scales. Bark on young stems and large
branches smooth, nearly white, becoming on old trunks pale gray-brown,
about ½′ thick, deeply divided into broad flat ridges.

Distribution. Banks of streams in the arid eastern foothill region of
the Rocky Mountains; Assiniboia to the Black Hills of South Dakota,
northwestern Nebraska, eastern Wyoming, southern Colorado, and
southwestern New Mexico (Fort Bayard, Grant County); in Colorado
crossing the Continental Divide to southeastern Utah; passing into the
var. _Rehderi_ Sarg. differing in the larger leaves on longer petioles,
and in the pubescent branchlets and winter-buds. Borders of streams
southeastern New Mexico.

Sometimes planted as a shade-tree in the streets of cities in the Rocky
Mountain region.

× _Populus Andrewsii_ Sarg. intermediate in its character between _P.
acuminata_ and _P. Sargentii_ and believed to be a natural hybrid of
these species has been found growing naturally near Boulder and
Walsenburg, Colorado, and as a street tree in Montrose, Colorado.


               8. Populus Fremontii S. Wats. Cottonwood.

[Illustration: Fig. 123]

Leaves deltoid or reniform, generally contracted into broad short entire
points, or rarely rounded or emarginate at apex, truncate, slightly
cordate or abruptly cuneate at the entire base, coarsely and irregularly
serrate, with few or many incurved gland-tipped teeth, coated like the
petioles when they unfold with short spreading caducous pubescence, at
maturity thick and firm, glabrous bright green and lustrous, 2′—2½′
long, 2½′—3′ wide, with a thin yellow midrib and 4 or 5 pairs of slender
veins; petioles flattened, yellow, 1½′—3′ long. Flowers: staminate
aments densely flowered, 1½′—2′ long, nearly ½′ thick, with slender
glabrous stems, the pistillate sparsely flowered, with stout glabrous or
puberulous stems, becoming before the fruit ripens 4′ or 5′ long; scales
light brown, thin and scarious, dilated and irregularly cut at apex into
filiform lobes; disk of the staminate flower broad, oblique, slightly
thickened on the entire revolute margin; stamens 60 or more, with large
dark red anthers; disk of the pistillate flower cup-shaped; ovary ovoid
or ovoid-oblong, with 3 or rarely 4 broad irregularly crenately lobed
stigmas. Fruit ovoid, acute or obtuse, slightly pitted, thick-walled, 3
or rarely 4-valved, ⅓′—½′ long; pedicel stout, from 1/20′—⅙′ long; seeds
ovoid, acute, light brown, nearly ⅛′ in length.

A tree, occasionally 100° high, with a short trunk 5°—6° in diameter,
stout spreading branches pendulous at the ends and forming a broad
rather open graceful head, and slender terete branchlets light green and
glabrous, becoming light yellow before winter, dark or light gray more
or less tinged with yellow in their second year, and only slightly
roughened by the small 3-lobed leaf-scars. Winter-buds ovoid, acute,
with light green lustrous scales, the terminal usually about ⅓′ long and
usually two or three times as large as the lateral buds. Bark on young
stems light gray-brown, thin, smooth or slightly fissured, becoming on
old trees 1½′—2′ thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red, and deeply
and irregularly divided into broad connected rounded ridges covered with
small closely appressed scales. Wood light brown, with thin nearly white
sapwood.

Distribution. Banks of streams; valley of the upper Sacramento River
southward through western California to the San Pedro Mártir Mountains,
Lower California; most abundant in the San Joaquin Valley, and ascending
the western slopes of the southern Sierra Nevada to altitudes of 3000°.

Often planted in southern California as a shade-tree, and for the fuel
produced quickly and abundantly from pollarded trees.

[Illustration: Fig. 124]

In San Bernardino and San Diego Counties, California, generally replaced
by the var. _pubescens_ Sarg., differing in its pubescent branchlets and
ranging eastward to southwestern Nevada and southern Utah. In southern
Arizona and near Silver City, Grant County, New Mexico, represented by
the var. _Thornberii_ Sarg., differing from the typical _P. Fremontii_
in the more numerous serratures of the leaves, in the ellipsoidal not
ovoid capsules with smaller disk and shorter pedicels, and by the var.
_Toumeyi_ Sarg., differing from the type in the shallow cordate base of
the leaves, gradually narrowed and cuneate to the insertion of the
petiole, and in the larger disk of the fruit (Fig. 124). The var.
_macrodisca_ Sarg. with a broad disc nearly inclosing the ellipsoidal
fruit is known only in the neighborhood of Silver City.

× _Populus Parryi_ Sarg., a probable hybrid of _P. Fremontii_ and _P.
trichocarpa_, with characters intermediate between those of its supposed
parents, grows naturally along Cottonwood Creek on the west side of
Owens Lake, Inyo County, and in the neighborhood of Fort Tejon, Kern
County, and as a street tree is not rare in San Bernardino, California.


                 9. Populus arizonica Sarg. Cottonwood.

                  _Populus mexicana_ Sarg., not Wesm.

[Illustration: Fig. 125]

Leaves deltoid or reniform, gradually or abruptly long-pointed at the
acuminate entire apex, truncate or broad-cuneate at the wide base,
finely serrate with numerous teeth, as they unfold dark red covered
below with pale pubescence, pubescent above, ciliate on the margins,
thin, glandular with bright red caducous glands, soon becoming glabrous,
at maturity subcoriaceous, bright yellow-green, very lustrous, 1½′—2′
long and broad, with a slender yellow midrib and obscure primary veins;
petioles laterally compressed, sparingly villose when they first appear,
soon glabrous, 1½′—2′ long; leaves on vigorous leading shoots often
rounded at apex, cuneate at base, and often 2′ long and 3′ wide, with
petioles often 3′ in length. Flowers: staminate aments dense, cylindric,
1—1½′ long, the pistillate slender, many-flowered, 1½′—2′ long, becoming
3′—4′ long before the fruit ripens; disk of the staminate flower
broad-oblong; stamens numerous; disk of the pistillate flower deep
cup-shaped, nearly entire; ovary ovoid, rounded at apex, slightly 3 or
4-angled, short-stalked, nearly inclosed in the cup-shaped membranaceous
disk. Fruit on short stout pedicels, round-ovoid, buff color, slightly 3
or 4-lobed, deeply pitted, thin-walled, about ¼′ long.

A tree, 50°—70° high, with a trunk occasionally 3° in diameter,
gracefully spreading and ascending branches forming a broad open head of
wide-spreading branches, and slender often pendulous branchlets, pale
green and glabrous or puberulous when they first appear, soon becoming
glabrous, and light yellow during their first season. Winter-buds
narrow, acute, light orange-brown, puberulous toward the base of the
outer scales, the terminal about ¼′ long, and two or three times as
large as the much-compressed oblong lateral buds. Bark pale gray or
rarely white, and deeply divided into broad flat ridges.

Distribution. Banks of mountain streams; southwestern California (Mill
Creek, above Forest Home, San Bernardino Mountains) and southern and
central Arizona; widely distributed through northern Mexico (_var.
Jonesii_ Sarg.); well distinguished from the other Cottonwoods of the
United States by its small fruit.

Often planted as a street tree in the towns of southern Arizona.


                        10. Populus texana Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 126]

Leaves thin, glabrous, broadly ovate, gradually narrowed, long-pointed
and acuminate at apex, truncate at base, coarsely crenately serrate
below the middle, entire above, 3′—3¼′ long and 2¼′—2½′ wide; petioles
slender, compressed, 1½′—2½′ in length. Flowers not seen. Fruit: aments
slender, glabrous, 2½′—3′ long; fruit oblong-ovoid, acute, deeply
pitted, glabrous, thin-walled, 3-valved, ⅓′ in length; disk slightly
lobed; pedicel slender, 1/16′—⅛′ in length; seeds ovoid, acuminate,
1/16′ long.

A tree up to 60° high, with a trunk sometimes 3° in diameter, stout more
or less pendulous branches and stout glabrous pale yellow-brown
branchlets. Winter-buds acuminate, glabrous.

In cañons and along the streams of northwestern Texas, where it appears
to be the only Cottonwood.


                     11. Populus McDougallii Rose.

[Illustration: Fig. 127]

Leaves broadly ovate, abruptly short-pointed or acute at apex, broadly
or acutely cuneate or truncate, or on vigorous shoots rarely slightly
cordate at base, finely or often coarsely crenately serrate, bluish
green, thin, pubescent on the under sides of the midrib and primary
veins early in the season, otherwise glabrous, 1½′—3′ long and broad,
with slender midribs and veins; petioles slender, slightly compressed,
pubescent early in the season, becoming glabrous, 1½′—2′ in length.
Flowers not seen. Fruit: aments glabrous, short-stalked, 2′—2½′ long;
fruit ovoid and acute at apex to ellipsoidal and acute or acuminate at
ends, glabrous, slightly pitted, thin-walled, 3-valved, 5/12′—½′ long;
disk not more than ⅛′ in diameter; pedicels glabrous, ⅛′—⅕′ in length;
seeds oblong-ovoid, acuminate, ⅛′ long.

A tree rarely 90°—110° high, usually much smaller, with erect branches
and slender branchlets pubescent or puberulous when they first appear,
sometimes becoming glabrous during their first season, and sometimes
pubescent during two years.

Distribution. Banks of streams and springs, San Bernardino County,
California (Cottonwood Springs, Meca, etc.), and eastward to the bottoms
of the Colorado River from Clark County, Nevada, to Yuma, Arizona, and
probably the only Cottonwood in this arid region.

Often planted as a street tree in the towns of southwestern California
and of adjacent Nevada and Arizona.


                12. Populus Wislizenii Sarg. Cottonwood.

[Illustration: Fig. 128]

Leaves broadly deltoid, abruptly short- or long-pointed at apex,
truncate or sometimes cordate at the broad entire base, coarsely and
irregularly crenately serrate except toward the entire apex, coriaceous,
glabrous, yellow-green and lustrous, 2′—2½′ long, usually about 3′ wide,
with a slender yellow midrib, thin remote primary veins and conspicuous
reticulate veinlets; petioles slender, glabrous, 1½′—2′ long; on
vigorous shoots often 3½′—4′ long and wide with petioles 3½′—4′ in
length. Flowers: aments 2′—4′ long, the pistillate becoming 4′—5′ long
before the fruit ripens; scales scarious, light red, divided at the apex
into elongated filiform lobes; disk of the staminate flower broad and
oblique; stamens numerous, with large oblong anthers and short
filaments; disk of the pistillate flower cup-shaped, irregularly
dentate, inclosing to the middle the long stalked ovary full and rounded
at apex, with 3 broad crenulate lobed stigmas raised on the short
branches of the style. Fruit oblong-ovoid, thick-walled, acute, 3 or
4-valved, slightly ridged, buff color, ¼′ long; pedicels slender, ½′—¾′
in length and placed rather remotely on the slender glabrous rachis of
the ament.

A large tree, with wide-spreading branches, and stout light
orange-colored glabrous branchlets. Winter-buds acute lustrous,
puberulous. Bark pale gray-brown, deeply divided into broad flat ridges.
Wood used as fuel, for fence-posts and the rafters of Mexican houses.

Distribution. Western Texas through New Mexico to the valley of Grand
River, western Colorado (Grand Junction, Mesa County); common in the
valley of the Rio Grande in western Texas and New Mexico, and the
adjacent parts of Mexico.

Often planted as a shade tree in New Mexico.


                      13. Populus Sargentii Dode.

             _Populus deltoides_ var. _occidentalis_ Rydb.

[Illustration: Fig. 129]

Leaves ovate, usually longer than broad, abruptly narrowed into a long
slender entire acuminate point or rarely rounded at apex, truncate or
slightly cordate at base, and coarsely crenately serrate, as they unfold
slightly villose above and tomentose on the margins, soon glabrous,
light green and very lustrous, 3′—3½′ long, 3½′—4′ wide, with a thin
midrib, slender primary veins and reticulate veinlets occasionally
furnished on the upper side at the insertion of the petiole with one or
two small glands; petioles slender, compressed laterally, 2½′—3½′ long.
Flowers: aments short-stalked, glabrous, the staminate 2′—2½′ in length,
the pistillate becoming 4′—8′ long before the fruit ripens; scales
fimbriately divided at apex, scarious, light brown; disk of the
staminate flower broad, oblique, slightly thickened on the margins;
stamens 20 or more, with short filaments and yellow anthers; disk of the
pistillate flower cup-shaped, slightly lobed on the margin; ovary
subglobose, with 3 or 4 sessile dilated or laciniately lobed stigmas.
Fruit oblong-ovoid, gradually or abruptly narrowed to the blunt apex,
thin-walled, about ⅖′ long and three or four times longer than the
pedicel; seeds oblong-obovoid, rounded at apex, about 1/16′ in length.

A tree 60°—90° tall with a trunk often 6° or 7° in diameter, erect and
spreading branches forming a broad open head, and stout glabrous light
yellow often angular branchlets conspicuously roughened by the elevated
scars of fallen leaf-stalks. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, with light
orange-brown puberulous scales. Bark pale, thick, divided by deep
fissures into broad rounded ridges broken into closely appressed scales.

Distribution. The common Cottonwood along the streams in the eastern
foothill region of the Rocky Mountains from Saskatchewan to New Mexico,
and ranging east to the Dakotas, western Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and
Texas.

Often planted as a shade and street tree in the Rocky Mountain states;
hardy in Massachusetts.


                 14. Populus balsamifera L. Cottonwood.

                      _Populus angulata_ Michx. f.

[Illustration: Fig. 130]

Leaves ovate, longer than broad, abruptly acuminate and often
long-pointed at apex, subcordate or rarely truncate at the wide base,
finely crenately serrate with glandular teeth, furnished on the upper
surface at the insertion of the petiole with two glands, thick,
glabrous, green and lustrous on the upper surface, paler below, 5′—7′
long and 4′—5′ wide, with stout midribs and conspicuous primary veins
sometimes sparingly pilose below early in the season; petioles much
compressed laterally, often more or less tinged with red, 3′—4′ in
length. Flowers: aments glabrous, short-stalked, the staminate densely
flowered, 1½′—2′ long, ½′—¾′ in diameter, the pistillate slender,
sparsely flowered, 3′—3½′ in length; scales scarious, light brown,
glabrous, dilated and irregularly divided at apex into filiform lobes;
disk of the staminate flower broad, oblique, slightly thickened and
revolute on the margins; stamens 60 or more, with short filaments and
large dark red anthers; disk of the pistillate flower broad, slightly
crenate, inclosing about ⅓′ of the ovoid obtusely pointed ovary, with 3
or 4 sessile dilated laciniately lobed stigmas. Fruit on aments 8′—12′
in length, ellipsoidal, pointed, thin-walled, 3 or 4-valved, ⅓′ long,
the disk little enlarged; pedicels ⅙′—¼′ in length; seeds
oblong-obovoid, rounded at apex, light brown, about 1/12′ long.

A large tree with massive spreading branches and stout yellow-brown
often angular branchlets. Winter-buds resinous, acute, ½′ long with
light chestnut brown lustrous scales.

Distribution. Shores of Lake Champlain (Shelburne Point, Chittenden
County), Vermont; western New York; Island of the Delaware River above
Easton, Northampton County, Pennsylvania; Baltimore County, and Bare
Hills, Maryland; northern banks of the Potomac River opposite Plummer’s
Island near Washington, D.C.; Artisia, Lowndes County, and Starkville,
Oktibbeha County, Mississippi; rare and local.


         Populus balsamifera var. virginiana Sarg. Cottonwood.

              _Populus deltoidea_ Marsh. at least in part.
               _Populus nigra β virginiana_ Castiglioni.

[Illustration: Fig. 131]

Leaves deltoid to ovate-deltoid, acuminate with entire points, truncate,
slightly cordate or occasionally abruptly cuneate at the entire base,
crenately serrate above, with incurved glandular teeth, fragrant with a
balsamic odor, glabrous, thick and firm, light bright green and
lustrous, paler on the lower than on the upper surface, 3′—5′ long and
broad, with a stout yellow midrib often tinged with red toward the base,
raised and rounded on the upper side, and conspicuous primary veins;
petioles slender, pilose at first, soon glabrous, compressed laterally,
yellow often more or less tinged with red, 2½′—3½′ long. Flowers and
Fruit: as on the type.

A tree, sometimes 100° high, with a trunk occasionally 7°—8° in
diameter, divided often 20°—30° above the ground into several massive
limbs spreading gradually and becoming pendulous toward the ends, and
forming a graceful rather open head frequently 100° across, or on young
trees nearly erect above and spreading below almost at right angles with
the stem, and forming a symmetrical pyramidal head, and stout branchlets
marked with long pale lenticels, terete, or, especially on vigorous
trees, becoming angled in their second year, with thin more or less
prominent wings extending downward from the two sides and from the base
of the large 3-lobed leaf-scars. Winter-buds very resinous, ovoid,
acute, the lateral much flattened, ½′ long, with 6 or 7 light
chestnut-brown lustrous scales. Bark thin, smooth, light yellow tinged
with green on young stems and branches, becoming on old trunks 1½′—2′
thick, ashy gray, and deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken
into closely appressed scales. Wood dark brown, with thick nearly white
sapwood, warping badly in drying and difficult to season.

Distribution. Banks of streams, often forming extensive open groves, and
toward the western limits of its range occasionally in upland ravines
and on bluffs; Province of Quebec and the shores of Lake Champlain,
through western New England, western New York, Pennsylvania west of the
Allegheny Mountains, and westward to southern Minnesota, North and South
Dakota, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas, and
southward through the Atlantic states from Delaware to western Florida,
and through the Gulf states to western Texas (Brown County). In the
south Atlantic states and the valley of the Lower Ohio River and
southward sometimes replaced by a variety with leaves covered above when
they unfold with soft white hairs and below with close pubescence more
or less persistent during the season especially on the midribs and veins
(var. _pilosa_ Sarg.).

Often planted for shelter and ornament on the treeless plains and
prairies between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, and as
an ornamental tree in the eastern United States and largely in western
and northern Europe.

× _Populus canadensis_ Moench, believed to be a hybrid between the
northern glabrous form of _P. balsamifera_ and the European _P. nigra_
L., with several varieties, is cultivated in Europe and occasionally in
the United States. The best known of these varieties, × _P. canadensis_
var. _Eugenie_ Schelle, the Carolina Poplar of American nurseries,
believed to be a hybrid of the northern Cottonwood with the Lombardy
Poplar, has been planted in the United States in immense numbers.

× _Populus Jackii_ Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of the northern
Cottonwood with _P. tacamahacca_, with characters intermediate between
those of its supposed parents, grows spontaneously near the mouth of the
Chateaugay River and at Beauharnois, Province of Quebec, and at South
Haven, Michigan, and is now occasionally cultivated.


                       15. Populus Palmeri Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 132]

Leaves thin, ovate, gradually or abruptly contracted at apex into a
narrow acuminate entire point, cuneate or rounded at the broad base,
finely serrate with incurved teeth, ciliate on the margins when they
unfold, otherwise glabrous, 2½′—5′ long and 1½′—2¼′ wide; petioles
slender, glabrous, 1½′—2½′ in length. Flowers not seen. Fruit: aments
glabrous, 12—15 cm. long; fruit ovoid, obtuse, slightly pitted,
puberulous, thin-walled, 4-valved, ¼′—⅓′ long, the disk deeply lobed;
pedicel slender, ¼′—⅓′ in length.

A tree 60° tall, with a straight trunk 3° in diameter, erect smooth pale
branches forming an open pyramidal head, the lower branches smaller,
horizontal or pendulous, and slender glabrous branchlets light reddish
brown early in the season, becoming pale grayish brown in their second
year. Bark pale, 3′—4′ thick, deeply divided by wide fissures into
narrow ridges.

Distribution. In moist fertile soil near springs, at the base of high
chalky bluffs of Nueces Cañon of the upper Nueces River, Uvalde County,
growing with _Salix nigra_ var. _Lindheimeri_, _Carya pecan_, _Morus
rubra_ and _Ulmus crassifolia_, and at Strawn, Palo Pinto County, Texas.



                          2. SALIX L. Willow.


Trees or shrubs, with watery juice, scaly bark, soft wood, slender
terete tough branchlets often easily separated at the joints, and
winter-buds covered by a single scale of 2 coats, the inner
membranaceous, stipular, rarely separable from the outer, inclosing at
its base 2 minute opposite lateral buds alternate with 2 small
scale-like caducous leaves coated with long pale or rufous hairs. Leaves
variously folded in the bud, alternate, simple, lanceolate, obovate,
rotund or linear, penniveined; petioles sometimes glandular at the apex,
and more or less covering the bud, in falling leaving U-shaped or
arcuate elevated leaf-scars displaying the ends of 3 small equidistant
fibro-vascular bundles; stipules oblique, serrate, small and deciduous,
or foliaceous and often persistent, generally large and conspicuous on
vigorous young branches, leaving in falling minute persistent scars.
Flowers in sessile or stalked aments, terminal and axillary on leafy
branchlets; scales of the ament lanceolate, concave, rotund or obovate,
entire or glandular-dentate, of uniform color or dark-colored toward the
apex, more or less hairy, deciduous or persistent; disk of the flower
nectariferous, composed of an anterior and posterior or of a single
posterior gland-like body; stamens 3—12 or 1 or 2, inserted on the base
of the scale, with slender filaments free or rarely united and usually
light yellow, glabrous, or hairy toward the base, and small ovoid or
oblong anthers generally rose-colored before anthesis, becoming orange
or purple; ovary sessile or stipitate, conic, obtuse to
subulate-rostrate, glandular at the base, glabrous, tomentose or
villose, with an abbreviated style divided into 2 short recurved retuse
or 2-parted stigmas; ovules 4—8 on each of the 2 placentas. Fruit an
acuminate 1-celled capsule separating at maturity into 2 recurved
valves. Seeds minute, narrowed at the ends, dark chestnut-brown or
nearly black; cotyledons oblong.

Salix inhabits the banks of streams and low moist ground, the alpine
summits of mountains, and the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of the
northern hemisphere, ranging south in the New World, with a few species,
through the West Indies and Central America to Brazil, and the Andes of
Chile, and in the Old World to Madagascar, southern Africa, the
Himalayas, Burmah, the Malay peninsula, Java, and Sumatra. Of the 160 or
170 species which are now recognized about seventy are found in North
America. Of these twenty-four attain the size and habit of trees, the
others being small and sometimes prostrate shrubs. Of exotic species,
_Salix alba_ L., and _Salix fragilis_ L., important European
timber-trees, are now generally naturalized in the northeastern states.
The flexible tough branches of several species are used in making
baskets; the bark is rich in tannic acid and is used in tanning leather
and yields salicin, a bitter principle valuable as a tonic. Many of the
species are cultivated as ornamental trees.

_Salix_ is the classical name of the Willow-tree.


          CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES

  Scales of the flowers deciduous, pale straw color.
    Stamens 3 or more.
      Leaves green on both surfaces; petioles without glands at the base
            of the leaves; branchlets easily separable.
        Branchlets reddish or grayish purple; leaves mostly
              narrow-lanceolate; capsule glabrous.
                                                  1. S. nigra (A, C, E).
        Branchlets yellowish-gray; leaves lanceolate to
              elliptic-lanceolate; capsule often more or less pubescent.
                                             2. S. Gooddingii (F, G, H).
      Leaves (at least when fully grown) pale or glaucous below.
        Petioles without glands.
          Branchlets easily separable.
            Leaves narrow-lanceolate to lanceolate; petioles less than
                  ½′ long.
                                                   3. S. Harbisonii (C).
            Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, caudate; petioles
                  ½′—¾′ long.
                                              4. S. amygdaloides (A, B).
          Branchlets not easily separable.
            Capsules short-stalked (pedicels hardly more than 1/24′
                  long), ovoid-conic, up to ⅕′ in length; leaves more or
                  less narrow-lanceolate, petioles glabrous or nearly
                  so.
                                                 5. S. Bonplandiana (H).
            Capsules long-stalked (pedicels 1/12′—⅙′ long), more or less
                  acuminate.
              Petioles puberulous; leaves lanceolate to
                    ovate-lanceolate; stipules without glands on their
                    inner surface; capsules hardly more than ¼′ long.
                                                  6. S. lævigata (G, F).
              Petioles hairy-tomentose; leaves lanceolate; stipules
                    glandular on their inner surface; capsules ¼′—¾′
                    long.
                                                  7. S. longipes (C, D).
        Petioles glandular; leaves lanceolate to broadly ovate, caudate;
              branchlets easily separable.
          Leaves distinctly pale or glaucous below, lanceolate to
                ovate-lanceolate.
                                                 8. S. lasiandra (B, G).
          Leaves pale green below, ovate to elliptic-lanceolate,
                abruptly caudate-acuminate.
                                                       9. S. lucida (A).
    Stamens 2.
      Stigmas linear, 4 or 5 times longer than broad.
        Leaves linear, hardly more than ⅓′ long; anthers very small,
              globose; aments small, in fruit hardly up to ⅘′ in length.
                                                   10. S. taxifolia (H).
        Leaves linear-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate; up to 2′ in
              length; anthers ellipsoid; aments longer.
                                             11. S. sessilifolia (B, G).
      Stigmas short, hardly 2 or 3 times longer than broad.
        Mature leaves covered below with appressed white silky hairs,
              those of flowering branchlets entire or barely
              denticulate.
                                                12. S. exigua (B, F, G).
        Mature leaves glabrous below, those of flowering branchlets more
              or less distinctly denticulate.
                                               13. S. longifolia (A, F).
  Scales of the flowers persistent, dark brown or fuscous, at least
        toward the apex (in _S. Bebbiana_ more or less straw-colored or
        tawny).
    Stamens 2.
      Ovaries glabrous.
        Leaves more or less denticulate or serrate; styles short.
          Base of leaf cuneate or rounded.
            Leaves acute, oblanceolate to narrowly lanceolate; filaments
                  mostly united below.
                                                  14. S. lasiolepis (G).
            Leaves mostly acuminate; filaments free.
              Branchlets glabrous, lustrous; leaves oblanceolate to
                    narrowly obovate, up to 2′ in length; pedicels ⅛′—⅙′
                    long; stipules small.
                                             15. S. Mackenzieana (A, G).
              Branchlets pubescent; leaves narrowly lanceolate to
                    ovate-lanceolate, 4′—6′ long; pedicels 1.5—2.5 mm.
                    long.
                                               16. S. missouriensis (A).
          Base of leaf mostly more or less cordate; leaves glabrous;
                filaments free; pedicels long.
                                                   17. S. pyrifolia (A).
        Leaves entire, oval to broad-obovate; branchlets
              villose-pubescent during their first season.
                                                      18. S. amplifolia.
      Ovaries pubescent (glabrous often in No. 23).
        Leaves covered with a soft dense felt-like tomentum,
              oblong-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate.
                                                   19. S. alaxensis (B).
        Leaves glabrous or more or less villose-pubescent below.
          Bracts of the flowers pale or tawny, often reddish at the tip;
                pedicels up to ⅕′ in length; leaves elliptic-lanceolate
                to obovate, reticulate beneath in age, pubescent or
                glabrate.
                                                        20. S. Bebbiana.
          Bracts of the flowers brown or fuscous.
            Stipules more or less distinctly developed; pedicels several
                  times longer than the short styles.
              Leaves elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-elliptic; mostly
                    glabrous in age.
                                              21. S. discolor (A, B, F).
              Leaves oblanceolate to cuneate-obovate, covered beneath
                    with short hairs or at maturity with a gray
                    villose-pubescence.
                                              22. S. Scouleriana (A, B).
            Stipules usually wanting; pedicels hardly longer than the
                  distinct styles; leaves broad-elliptic to
                  obovate-oblong, more or less grayish villose beneath.
                                               23. S. Hookeriana (B, G).
    Stamens usually 1; leaves obovate-oblong, densely covered below with
          lustrous silvery white silky tomentum.
                                               24. S. sitchensis (B, G).


                  1. Salix nigra Marsh. Black Willow.

[Illustration: Fig. 133]

Leaves lanceolate, long-acuminate, often falcate, gradually cuneate or
rounded at base, finely serrate, thin bright light green, rather
lustrous, with obscure reticulate veins, glabrous or often pubescent on
the under side of the midribs and veins and on the short slender
petioles, 3′—6′ long, ⅛′—¾′ wide; at the north turning light yellow
before falling in the autumn; stipules semicordate, acuminate,
foliaceous, persistent, or ovoid, minute, and deciduous. Flowers: aments
terminal on leafy pubescent branches, narrowly cylindric, 1′—3′ long;
scales yellow, elliptic to obovate, rounded at apex and coated on the
inner surface with pale hairs; stamens 3—5, with filaments hairy toward
the base; ovary ovoid, short-stalked, glabrous, gradually narrowed above
the middle to the apex, with nearly sessile slightly divided stigmatic
lobes. Fruit ovoid-conic, short-stalked, glabrous, about ⅛′ long, light
reddish brown.

A tree, usually 30°—40° high, with usually several clustered stout
stems, thick spreading upright branches forming a broad somewhat
irregular open head, and reddish brown or gray-brown branchlets
pubescent when they first appear, soon glabrous, and easily separated at
the joints. Winter-buds acute, about ⅛′ long. Bark 1′—1¼′ thick, dark
brown or nearly black and deeply divided into broad flat connected
ridges separating freely into thick plate-like scales and becoming
shaggy on old trunks. Wood light, soft, weak, light reddish brown, with
thin nearly white sapwood; now sawed into lumber in the valley of the
lower Mississippi River and largely used for packing cases, cellar and
barn floors, in furniture, and in the manufacture of toys and other
purposes where strength is not important as it does not warp, check or
splinter.

Distribution. Low moist alluvial banks of streams and lakes; southern
New Brunswick through southern Quebec and Ontario to the region north of
Lake Superior, southward to northern and western North Carolina, through
the Piedmont region of South Carolina and Georgia to eastern and central
Alabama, and westward to southeastern North Dakota, eastern South
Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, the valley of Wichita River, Oklahoma, and
central and western Texas to Valverde County.

In southern Arkansas, in Louisiana and in eastern Texas _Salix nigra_ is
often replaced by var. _altissima_ Sarg., differing from the type in the
more pubescent young branchlets, leaves and petioles, in the more acute
base of the leaves and longer petioles, and in its later flowering. A
tree sometimes 120 feet high and the tallest of American Willows.


                   Salix nigra var. Lindheimeri Schn.

                  _Salix Wrightii_ Sarg., not Anders.

[Illustration: Fig. 134]

Leaves lanceolate, often slightly falcate, long-pointed and acuminate at
apex, cuneate at base, finely glandular-serrate, glabrous, light green
on the upper surface, paler below, 4′—5′ long, ⅓′—½′ wide; petioles
pubescent early in the season, becoming glabrous, ½′—¾′ in length.
Flowers: aments slender, densely villose, 2′—3′ long; scales ovate,
acute or rarely rounded at apex, covered with matted white hairs, more
abundant on the inner surface; stamens 4 or 5; filaments villose below
the middle; ovary ovoid, gradually narrowed to the apex, the 2-lobed
stigmas nearly sessile. Fruit ovoid-conic; pedicels about ¼′ long.

A tree, 50°—70° high with a trunk often 3° in diameter, large erect
spreading branches forming an open irregular head, and slender
branchlets light green and slightly pubescent when they first appear,
becoming light orange or yellow-brown and lustrous. Bark thick, pale
yellow-brown, deeply furrowed, the surface sometimes separating into
long plate-like scales.

Distribution. River banks, central and western Texas from Grayson and
Dallas Counties and the lower valley of the Brazos River to the valleys
of the San Antonio and upper Guadalupe Rivers; in Coahuila, Nuevo Leon
and Tamaulipas.


                       2. Salix Gooddingii Ball.

                        _Salix vallicola_ Britt.

[Illustration: Fig. 135]

Leaves lanceolate to narrow elliptic-lanceolate, acute or acuminate,
acutely cuneate at base, finely glandular-serrate, often slightly
falcate, silky pubescent when they unfold especially below, glabrous and
dull green at maturity, 1½′—3′ long, ¼′—½′ wide, or on vigorous shoots
5′ or 6′ long and ¾′ wide; petioles pubescent, usually becoming
glabrous, ⅙′—¼′ in length; stipules orbicular-cordate, coarsely
glandular-serrate, pubescent. Flowers: aments pubescent terminal on
leafy pubescent branchlets, narrow-cylindric, 1′—2′ long; scales
linear-oblanceolate, acute, yellow, hoary tomentose; stamens 3—5;
filaments villose toward the base; ovary ovoid-conic, gradually narrowed
to the acuminate apex, pubescent or glabrous; style distinct, 2-lobed.
Fruit ovoid, acute, light reddish brown, glabrous or pubescent, ¼′ long;
pedicels glabrous or rarely pubescent, 1/16′—⅛′ in length.

A tree, 25°—50° high, with slender light orange-colored or grayish
glabrous or pubescent easily separable branchlets. Bark rough, thick,
deeply furrowed, sometimes nearly black.

Distribution. River banks; Reed Creek, Shasta County, and Red Bluff,
Tehama County, California, southward in the interior valleys and on the
western foothills of the Sierra Nevada to the mountain valleys in the
southern part of the state, and to northern Lower California; eastward
through central and southern Arizona; in southeastern Nevada; through
southern New Mexico to western Texas (El Paso, El Paso County, and Fort
Davis, Jeff Davis County); and southward into northern Mexico.


                       3. Salix Harbisonii Schn.

[Illustration: Fig. 136]

Leaves linear-lanceolate, narrow-elliptic or rarely obovate-lanceolate,
acute or short-acuminate, obtusely or acutely cuneate at the base, and
finely glandular dentate; when the flowers open more or less pubescent
especially below or glabrous, and at maturity green on the upper
surface, pale on the lower surface, glabrous, 4′ or 5′ long, ¾′ broad;
petioles villose early in the season, becoming glabrous, ¼′ in length,
minutely glandular at apex; stipules wanting or minute, semicordate,
acute, pubescent on vigorous leading branches and sometimes ¼′ long.
Flowers: aments terminal on leafy branchlets, 2½′—3′ in length, their
rachis villose-pubescent; scales ovate or ovate-oblong, obtuse or acute;
stamens usually 5—7, rarely 3—9; filaments densely villose; ovary ovoid,
long-acuminate, glabrous, long-stalked; style short, distinct, 2-lobed.
Fruit acuminate and long-pointed, acute at base, ¼′ long and about as
long as its pedicel.

A tree, 30°—50° high, with a trunk 10′ or 12′ in diameter, with often
pendulous branches, and slender branchlets more or less densely
pubescent or tomentose or nearly glabrous when they first appear,
becoming glabrous and dark reddish purple in their second season, and
easily separable at the joints; often only a large shrub. Bark thick,
deeply furrowed, dark red-brown, separating on the surface into small
appressed scales.

Distribution. River banks and the borders of swamps; Dismal Swamp,
Norfolk County, Virginia; near Goldsboro, Wayne County, North Carolina;
common in the coast region of South Carolina and Georgia, extending up
the Savannah River at least as far as Augusta, Richmond County, and
through southern Georgia to the valley of the Flint River; swamps near
Jacksonville, Duval County, and in the neighborhood of Apalachicola,
Florida.


       4. Salix amygdaloides Anders. Peach Willow. Almond Willow.

[Illustration: Fig. 137]

Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, frequently falcate, gradually or
abruptly narrowed into a long slender point, cuneate or gradually
rounded and often unequal at base, finely serrate, slightly puberulous
when they unfold, becoming at maturity thin and firm in texture, light
green and lustrous above, pale and glaucous below, 2½′—4′ long, ¾′—1¼′
wide, with a stout yellow or orange-colored midrib, prominent veins and
reticulate veinlets; petioles slender, nearly terete ½′—¾′ in length;
stipules reniform, serrate, often ½′ broad on vigorous shoots, usually
caducous. Flowers: aments on leafy branchlets, elongated, cylindric,
slender, arcuate, stalked, pubescent or tomentose, 2′—3′ long; scales
yellow, sparingly villose on the outer, densely villose on the inner
face, the staminate broadly ovate, rounded at the apex, the pistillate
oblong-obovate, narrower, caducous; stamens 5—9, with free filaments
slightly hairy at the base; ovary oblong-conic, long-stalked, glabrous,
with a short style and emarginate stigmas. Fruit globose-conic, light
reddish yellow, about ¼′ in length.

A tree, sometimes 60°—70° high, with a single straight or slightly
inclining trunk rarely more than 2° in diameter, straight ascending
branches, and slender glabrous or rarely pilose (f. _pilosiuscula_
Schn.) branchlets marked with scattered pale lenticels, dark orange
color or red-brown and lustrous, becoming in their first winter light
orange-brown. Winter-buds broadly ovoid, gibbous, dark chestnut-brown,
very lustrous above the middle, light orange-brown below, ⅛′ long. Bark
½′—¾′ thick, brown somewhat tinged with red, and divided by irregular
fissures into flat connected ridges separating on the surface into thick
plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, light brown, with
thick nearly white sapwood.

Distribution. Banks of streams; Province of Quebec from the neighborhood
of Montreal to Winnipeg, and along the fiftieth degree of north latitude
to southeastern British Columbia, and to central New York, along the
southern shores of Lake Erie, and through northern Ohio to northern
Indiana, southwestern Illinois, northern and central Missouri, and to
Kansas, northwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas; in Colorado, Utah
and Nevada to central Oregon and southeastern Washington.


                 Salix amygdaloides var. Wrightii Schn.

                        _Salix Wrightii_ Anders.

[Illustration: Fig. 138]

Leaves lanceolate, gradually acuminate and long-pointed at apex, cuneate
at base, finely serrate, occasionally slightly falcate, glabrous,
yellow-green on the upper surface, pale on the lower surface, 1½′—2′
long, ¼′—⅓′ wide, and on vigorous summer shoots sometimes 4′ or 5′ long
and ½′ wide; petioles slender, glabrous, ¼′—⅓′ in length. Flowers and
Fruit as in the species.

A small or large tree best distinguished from _S. amygdaloides_ by the
distinctly yellow or yellowish brown glabrous branchlets.

Distribution. Barstow, Ward County, common along the Rio Grande near El
Paso and at Belon, El Paso County, and on Amarillo Creek, Potter County,
western Texas; through southern New Mexico to the Sacramento Mountains,
Otero County.


                5. Salix Bonplandiana var. Toumeyi Schn.

                        _Salix Toumeyi._ Britt.

[Illustration: Fig. 139]

Leaves 4′—6′ long, ½′—¾′ wide, linear-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate,
acuminate with a long slender point at apex, gradually narrowed and
often unequal at the cuneate base, obscurely serrate with glandular
teeth, or entire with revolute margins, thick and firm,
reticulate-venulose, yellow-green and lustrous above, silvery white
below, with a broad yellow midrib; falling irregularly during the
winter; petioles stout, grooved, reddish; stipules ovate, rounded,
slightly undulate, thin and scarious, ⅛′—¼′ broad, often persistent
during the summer. Flowers: aments on leafy branchlets, cylindric,
erect, slender, short-stalked, the staminate 1′—1½′ long and somewhat
longer than the pistillate; scales broadly obovate, rounded at the apex,
light yellow, villose on the outer surface and glabrous or slightly
hairy above the middle on the inner surface; stamens usually 3, with
free filaments slightly hairy at the base; ovary slender, oblong-conic,
short-stalked, glabrous, with nearly sessile much-thickened club-shaped
stigmas, sometimes nearly encircled below by the large broad ventral
gland. Fruit ovoid-conic, rounded at base, light reddish yellow.

A tree, rarely more than 30° high, with a trunk 12′—15′ in diameter,
slender erect and spreading branches often pendulous at the ends,
forming a broad round-topped head, and slender glabrous branchlets
marked with occasional pale lenticels, light yellow, becoming light or
dark red-brown and lustrous, and paler orange-brown in their second
year. Winter-buds narrowly ovoid, long-pointed, more or less falcate,
bright red-brown, lustrous, ¼′ long. Bark ½′—¾′ thick, dark brown or
nearly black, and deeply divided by narrow fissures into broad flat
ridges separating on the surface into closely appressed scales.

Distribution. Banks of streams in the cañons of the mountains of central
and southern Arizona (Sicamore Cañon near Flagstaff and Sabino Cañon,
Santa Catalina Mountains); and southwestern New Mexico (cañon, Saint
Louis Mountains, Grant County); in Chihuahua, Sonora and Lower
California.

The typical _S. Bonplandiana_ H. B. K. with broader and more coarsely
serrate leaves, and flower-aments appearing from July to January from
the axils of mature leaves is widely distributed in Mexico and ranges to
Guatemala.


                  6. Salix lævigata Bebb. Red Willow.

[Illustration: Fig. 140]

Leaves obovate, narrowed and rounded or acute and mucronate at apex,
cuneate at base, with slightly revolute obscurely serrate margins, on
sterile branches lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate,
when they unfold light blue-green and coated on the lower surface with
long pale or tawny deciduous hairs, at maturity glabrous, dark
blue-green and lustrous above, paler and glaucous below, 3′—7′ long,
¾′—1½′ wide, with a broad flat yellow midrib; petioles broad, grooved,
puberulous, rarely ½′ long; stipules ovate, acute, finely serrate,
usually small and caducous. Flowers: aments cylindric, slender, lax,
elongated, 2′—4′ long, on leafy branchlets; scales peltate, dentate at
apex, covered with long pale hairs, the staminate obovate, rounded, the
pistillate narrower and more or less truncate; stamens usually 5 or 6,
with free filaments hairy at the base; ovary conic, acute, rounded
below, short-stalked, glabrous, with broad spreading emarginate
stigmatic lobes. Fruit elongated, conic, long-stalked, nearly ¼′ in
length.

A tree, 40°—50° high, with a straight trunk 2° in diameter, slender
spreading branches, and slender light or dark orange-colored or bright
red-brown glabrous, or in one form tomentose or villose (f. _araquipa_
Jeps.) branchlets; often much smaller, with an average height of
20°—30°. Winter-buds ovoid, somewhat obtuse, pale chestnut-brown, ⅛′—¼′
long. Bark ¾′—1′ thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red and deeply
divided into irregular connected flat ridges broken on the surface into
thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, light brown tinged
with red, with thick nearly white sapwood.

Distribution. Banks of streams; western California from the Oregon
boundary to the southern borders of the state, ascending to altitudes of
4500° on the western slopes of the southern Sierra Nevada, and eastward
to Mohave and Yavapai Counties, Arizona, southeastern Nevada and
southwestern Utah.


                       7. Salix longipes Shuttl.

                        _Salix amphibia_ Small.

[Illustration: Fig. 141]

Leaves lanceolate, acuminate or on fertile branches occasionally rounded
at the apex, rounded or cuneate at the base, finely serrate,
hoary-tomentose early in the season, becoming glabrous above, and pale
and glabrous or pubescent below, 2′—4′ long, ½′—¾′ wide; petioles
hoary-tomentose, ¼′—½′ long; stipules minute, ovate, acute,
hoary-tomentose, caducous, on vigorous shoots foliaceous, reniform,
serrate above the middle, often ¾′ in diameter. Flowers: aments terminal
on leafy tomentose or glabrous branchlets, narrow-cylindric, 3′ or 4′
long; scales ovate, rounded at the apex, yellow, densely
villose-pubescent; stamens 3—7, usually 5 or 6, the filaments hairy
toward the base; ovary ovoid-conic, acute, cuneate at the base with a
short 2-lobed style, and pedicels up to ¼′ in length. Fruit ovoid, often
rather abruptly contracted above the middle, ¼′ in length.

A tree, 20°—30°, high with a trunk occasionally 12′—18′ in diameter,
spreading branches, and glabrous or pubescent red-brown or gray-brown
branchlets; or more often a shrub. Bark dark, sometimes nearly black,
deeply divided into broad ridges covered by small closely appressed
scales.

Distribution. Borders of swamps and streams; coast of North Carolina
southward to the Everglade Keys of Florida, ranging westward in Florida
to the valley of the Saint Marks River, Wakulla County; in Cuba.

A variety with narrower summer leaves and longer petioles is var.
_venulosa_ Schn.

Distribution. Newbern, Craven County, North Carolina, southward near the
coast to northern and western Florida, ranging inland in Georgia to the
banks of the Savannah River near Augusta, Richmond County, and to
Traders Hill, Charlton County; in the neighborhood of New Orleans,
Louisiana (_Drummond_); in southwestern Oklahoma and in western Texas
(Blanco, Kendall, Kerr, Bandera and Uvalde Counties).

A variety with obtuse stipules, usually glabrous branchlets and
lanceolate or narrow elliptic-lanceolate leaves is distinguished as var.
_Wardii_ Schn.

A shrub or small tree.

Distribution. Banks of the Potomac River, District of Columbia, and
Alleghany County, Maryland to Natural, Rockbridge, Fairfax and Elizabeth
Counties, Virginia; northern Kentucky; northern Tennessee; northeastern
Mississippi (near Iuka, Tishamingo County); St. Clair and Madison
Counties, Illinois; more abundant in Missouri from Pike County southward
to southwestern Kansas, western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma.


                8. Salix lasiandra Benth. Yellow Willow.

[Illustration: Fig. 142]

Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate and long-pointed at
apex, cuneate or rounded at base, often slightly falcate, finely
serrate, glabrous, dark green and lustrous above, pale or glaucous
below, 1½′—3′ long, about ½′ wide, on vigorous summer shoots often 6′ or
7′ long and 1½′ wide; petioles slender, glabrous, glandular at apex, ¼′
in length, or on summer shoots stout and 1′—1½′ long; stipules reniform,
caducous. Flowers: aments terminal on leafy puberulous branchlets,
narrow-cylindric, 2½′—3′ in length; scales pale pubescent, those of the
staminate ament lanceolate-acuminate to obovate and rounded at apex and
entire, those of the pistillate ament obovate and usually dentate near
the apex; stamens 5—9; filaments hairy below the middle; ovary rather
abruptly narrowed above the middle and acuminate, long-stalked; style
short with slightly emarginate lobes. Fruit light red-brown, ¼′ long;
pedicels about 1/16′ in length.

Distribution. Valley of the Yukon River near Dawson, Yukon, Vancouver
Island, and southward near the coast of Washington and Oregon, and on
the western slope of the Sierra Nevada and on the coast ranges to
southern California, ranging from the sea-level to altitudes of 8500° on
the southern Sierra Nevada; in New Mexico (Glenwood, Soccoro County, and
Santa Fé, Santa Fé County); in Colorado (Buena Vista, Chaffee County,
_Alice Eastwood_). Passing into var. _caudata_ Sudw., distinguished by
its caudate-acuminate leaves green on both surfaces, and by its bright
yellow or orange-yellow branchlets, and ranging from northeastern Oregon
and eastern Washington through Idaho, and from northern Wyoming to
southern Colorado, Utah and Nevada.

A variety (var. _lancifolia_ Bebb), differing from the typical _S.
lasiandra_ in the gray or rusty villose pubescence covering the
branchlets during their first and sometimes their second season and the
lower surface of the young leaves, is distributed from Dawson in the
valley of the Yukon River southward to the valley of the upper Nesqually
River, Washington, to the valley of the Willamette River (Salem,
Oregon), to Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County, and to the San Bernardino
Mountains, California.


                 9. Salix lucida Muehl. Shining Willow.

[Illustration: Fig. 143]

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, or narrow lanceolate (f. _angustifolia_
Anders.), acuminate and long-pointed at apex, cuneate or rounded at
base, finely serrate, 3′—5′ long, 1′—1½′ wide, covered when they unfold
with scattered pale caducous hairs, at maturity coriaceous, smooth and
lustrous, dark green above, paler below, with a broad yellow midrib, and
slender primary veins arcuate and united near the margins; petioles
stout, yellow, puberulous, glandular at the apex, with several dark or
yellow conspicuous glands, ¼′—½′ long; stipules nearly semicircular,
glandular-serrate, membranaceous, ⅛′—¼′ wide, often persistent during
the summer. Flowers: aments erect, tomentose, on stout puberulous
peduncles terminal on short leafy branchlets, the staminate
oblong-cylindric, densely flowered, about 1½′ in length, the pistillate
slender, elongated, 1½′—2′ long, often persistent until late in the
season; scales oblong or obovate, rounded, entire, erose or dentate at
apex, light yellow, nearly glabrous or coated on the outer surface with
pale hairs, often ciliate on the margins; stamens usually 5, with
elongated free filaments slightly hairy at base; ovary narrowly
cylindric, long-stalked, elongated, glabrous, with nearly sessile
emarginate stigmas. Fruit: cylindric, lustrous, about ⅓′ long.

A tree, occasionally 25° high, with a short trunk 6′—8′ in diameter,
erect branches forming a broad round-topped symmetrical head, and stout
glabrous branchlets dark orange color and lustrous in their first
season, becoming darker and more or less tinged with red the following
year; usually smaller and shrubby in habit. Winter-buds narrowly ovoid,
acute, light orange-brown, lustrous, about ¼′ long. Bark thin, smooth,
dark brown slightly tinged with red.

Distribution. Banks of streams and swamps; Newfoundland to the shores of
Hudson’s Bay and northwestward to the valley of the Mackenzie River and
the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, southward to southern
Pennsylvania, northeastern Iowa, the Turtle Mountains, North Dakota, and
eastern Nebraska; very abundant at the north, rare southward; a variety
from extreme northeastern New England and adjacent New Brunswick and
Quebec (var. _intonsa_ Fernald) is distinguished by its often linear
leaves rufous pubescent during the season on the under side of the veins
and by its pubescent branchlets; a shrub or tree up to 25°.


                      10. Salix taxifolia H. B. K.

[Illustration: Fig. 144]

Leaves linear-lanceolate, narrowed at the ends, acute, slightly falcate,
mucronate at the apex, entire or rarely obscurely dentate above the
middle, coated as they unfold with long soft white hairs, at maturity
pale gray-green, slightly puberulous, ⅓′—1⅓′ long, 1/12′—⅛′ wide, with a
slender midrib, thin arcuate veins, and thickened slightly revolute
margins; petioles stout, puberulous, rarely 1/12′ long; stipules ovate,
acute, scarious, minute, caducous. Flowers: aments densely flowered,
oblong-cylindric or subglobose, ¼′—½′ long, terminal, or terminal and
axillary on the staminate plant, on short leafy branchlets; scales
oblong or obovate, rounded or acute and sometimes apiculate at apex,
coated on the outer surface with hoary tomentum and pubescent or
glabrous on the inner; stamens 2, with free filaments hairy below the
middle; ovary ovoid-conic, short-stalked or subsessile, villose, with
nearly sessile deeply emarginate stigmas. Fruit cylindric, long-pointed,
bright red-brown, more or less villose, short-stalked, about ¼′ long.

A tree, often 40°—50° high, with a trunk 18′ in diameter, erect and
drooping branches forming a broad open head, and slender branchlets
covered during their first season with hoary tomentum, becoming light
reddish or purplish brown and much roughened by the elevated persistent
leaf-scars. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, dark chestnut-brown, puberulous,
about 1/16′ long and nearly as broad as long. Bark of the trunk ¾′—1′
thick, light gray-brown, and divided by deep fissures into broad flat
ridges covered by minute closely appressed scales.

Distribution. Near El Paso, Texas; southwestern New Mexico, and along
mountain streams in southern Arizona; southward through Mexico to
Guatemala, and on the Sierra de la Victoria, Lower California.


                      11. Salix sessilifolia Nutt.

[Illustration: Fig. 145]

Leaves linear-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, acute or acuminate at
apex, cuneate at base, entire or furnished above the middle with a few
remote apiculate glandular teeth, bluish green and thickly covered with
silky white hairs most abundant on the lower side of the midrib, 1′—2′
long, ½′—¾′ wide, or on vigorous summer shoots often 4′ long and 1¼′
wide; petioles densely villose-pubescent, 1/16′—⅛′ in length; stipules
ovate to lanceolate, acute, entire or denticulate. Flowers: aments
appearing after the leaves, terminal on leafy branchlets, densely
hoary-tomentose, 1½′—2½′ long; scales broadly elliptic, acute or rounded
at apex, cuneate at base, densely villose-tomentose; stamens 2;
filaments villose below the middle; ovary sessile, villose, the stigmas
sessile, deeply 2-lobed. Fruit ovoid-acuminate, densely villose,
pubescent.

A shrub or small tree occasionally 20° high, with short hairy tomentose
branchlets.

Distribution. River banks, southwestern British Columbia; Whitcomb
County, Washington, and on the Umpqua and Willamette Rivers, western
Oregon. Southward passing into

Var. _Hindsiana_ Anders., a large shrub with numerous stems often 20°
high, differing in its more linear or narrow lanceolate usually entire
leaves on longer petioles, smaller aments and pubescent, not tomentose,
branchlets; and distributed from the valleys of central California to
southwestern Oregon. A shrubby form of _S. sessilifolia_ (var.
_leucodendroides_ Schn.) with longer and broader leaves is common on the
banks of streams in southern California.


                         12. Salix exigua Nutt.

[Illustration: Fig. 146]

Leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, acuminate at the ends, often slightly
falcate, minutely glandular-serrate above the middle, bluish green and
glabrous above, covered below with appressed silky white hairs, 1½′—3′
long, ⅛′—¼′ wide, or on summer shoots sometimes 4½′ long and 1½′ wide;
petioles glabrous, 1/16′ long or less; stipules minute or wanting.
Flowers: aments terminal and solitary or terminal and axillary, on leafy
glabrous branchlets, 1′—2′ in length; scales hoary pubescent, lanceolate
and acute on staminate aments, often wider, obovate and rounded at the
apex on pistillate aments; stamens, 2, filaments hairy below the middle;
ovary sessile, villose, the stigmatic lobes sessile. Fruit ovoid,
acuminate, glabrous.

A shrub with stems 10° or 12° tall, or rarely a tree 25° high, with a
trunk 5′ or 6′ in diameter, thin spreading branches forming a
round-topped head, and slender glabrous red-brown branchlets. Bark of
the trunk thin, longitudinally fissured, grayish brown.

Distribution. Southern Alberta and valley of the Fraser River (Clinton),
British Columbia, southward through western Washington and Oregon to San
Diego County, California, and southeastern Nevada, and eastward to
southern Idaho, central Nevada and western Wyoming (Yellowstone National
Park).

Apparently only truly a tree on the banks of the Palouse and other
streams of eastern Washington.

Several shrubby forms of _S. exigua_ found in Nevada, Arizona, Colorado,
western Nebraska and in Lower California are distinguished.


              13. Salix longifolia Muehl. Sand Bar Willow.

                  _Salix fluviatalis_ Sarg., not Nutt.

[Illustration: Fig. 147]

Leaves linear-lanceolate, often somewhat falcate, gradually narrowed at
the ends, long-pointed, dentate with small remote spreading callous
glandular teeth, 2′—6′ long, ⅛′—⅓′ wide, when they unfold coated below
with soft lustrous silky hairs, at maturity thin, glabrous, light
yellow-green, darker on the upper than on the lower surface, with a
yellow midrib, slender arcuate primary veins, and slender reticulate
veinlets; petioles grooved, ⅛′—¼′ long; stipules ovate-lanceolate,
foliaceous, about ¼′ long, deciduous. Flowers: aments cylindric on leafy
branchlets, pubescent, the staminate about 1′ long, ⅓′ broad, terminal
and axillary, the pistillate elongated, 2′ or 3′ long, about ¼′ broad;
scales obovate-oblong, entire, erose or dentate above the middle, light
yellow-green, densely villose on the outer surface, slightly hairy on
the inner; stamens 2, with free filaments slightly hairy at the base;
ovary oblong-cylindric, acute, short-stalked, glabrous or pubescent,
with large sessile deeply lobed stigmas. Fruit light brown, glabrous or
villose, about ¼′ long.

A tree, usually about 20° high, with a trunk only a few inches in
diameter, spreading by stoloniferous roots into broad thickets, short
slender erect branches, and slender glabrous light or dark
orange-colored or purplish red branchlets, growing darker after their
first season; occasionally 60°—70° high, with a trunk 2° in diameter;
often a shrub not more than 5°—6° tall. Winter-buds narrowly ovoid,
acute, chestnut-brown, about ⅛′ long. Bark ⅛′—¼′ thick, smooth, dark
brown slightly tinged with red and covered with small closely appressed
irregularly shaped scales. Wood light, soft, light brown tinged with
red, with thin light brown sapwood.

Distribution. River banks, sand bars and alluvial flats; shores of Lake
St. John, Quebec to Manitoba, and southward through western New England
to northeastern Virginia, southern Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, western
Kentucky, south Tennessee, to the mouth of the Mississippi River, and
westward to southwestern South Dakota, southwestern Wyoming,
northeastern Colorado, western Kansas and Oklahoma, and northern Texas.

From central and northwestern Texas to northeastern Mexico and southern
New Mexico represented by var. _angustissima_ Anders., differing in the
absence of a dorsal gland in the male flowers and in the silky
pubescence of the young ovary.

In the northern Rocky Mountains region replaced by var. _pedunculata_
Anders., differing from the type in its narrower linear leaves, glabrous
ovaries and longer pedicels of the fruit, and ranging from western South
Dakota and northwestern Wyoming, through eastern Montana, Saskatchewan,
and Alberta, to the valley of the Yukon River in the neighborhood of
Dawson.

A shrubby form with leaves densely covered with silky pubescence (var.
_Wheeleri_ Schn.) is distributed from New Brunswick to North Dakota,
Nebraska and Beckham County, Oklahoma.


               14. Salix lasiolepis Benth. Arroyo Willow.

[Illustration: Fig. 148]

Leaves oblanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, often inequilateral and
occasionally falcate, acute or acuminate or rarely rounded at apex,
gradually or abruptly cuneate or rounded at base, entire or remotely
serrate, pilose above and coated below with thick hoary tomentum when
they unfold, at maturity thick and subcoriaceous, conspicuously
reticulate-venulose, dark green and glabrous above, pale or glaucous and
pubescent or puberulous below, 3′—6′ long, ½′—1′ wide, with a broad
yellow midrib and slender arcuate veins forked and united within the
slightly thickened and revolute margins; petioles slender, ⅛′—½′ long;
stipules ovate, acute, coated with hoary tomentum, minute and caducous,
or sometimes foliaceous, semilunar, acute or acuminate, entire or
denticulate, dark green above, pale below, persistent. Flowers: aments
erect, cylindric, slightly flexuose, densely flowered, nearly sessile on
short tomentose branchlets, 1½′ long, the staminate ½′ thick, and nearly
twice as thick as the pistillate; scales oblong-obovate, rounded or
acute at the apex, dark-colored, clothed with long crisp white hairs,
persistent under the fruit; stamens 2, with elongated glabrous filaments
more or less united below the middle; ovary narrow, cylindric acute and
long-pointed, dark green, glabrous, with a short style and broad nearly
sessile stigmas. Fruit oblong-cylindric, light reddish brown, about ¼′
long.

A tree, 20°—35° high, with a trunk 3′—7′ in diameter, slender erect
branches forming a loose open head, and stout branchlets coated at first
with hoary tomentum, bright yellow or dark reddish brown and puberulous
or pubescent during their first year, becoming darker and glabrous in
their second season; or often at the north and at high altitudes a low
shrub. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, compressed, contracted laterally into
thin wing-like margins, light brownish yellow, glabrous or puberulous.
Bark on young stems and on the branches thin, smooth, light gray-brown,
becoming on old trunks dark, about ⅓′ thick, roughened by small
lenticels and broken into broad flat irregularly connected ridges. Wood
light, soft, close-grained, light brown, with thick nearly white
sapwood; in southern California often used as fuel.

Distribution. Banks of streams in low moist ground; valley of the
Klamath River, California, southward along the foothills of the Sierra
Nevada, the central valley, and on the Coast Ranges to southern
California; on Santa Catalina Island and on the mountains of southern
Arizona; on the Sierra de Laguna, Lower California; occasionally
ascending to altitudes of 4000° above the sea.


                      15. Salix Mackenzieana Barr.

[Illustration: Fig. 149]

Leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, or elliptic, long-pointed at apex,
cuneate or rounded at base, finely crenately serrate, reddish and pilose
with caducous pale hairs when they unfold, at maturity thin and firm in
texture, light green above, pale below, 1½′—2′ long, about ½′—¾′ wide,
on summer shoots, often 4′ long and 1½′ wide, with a slender yellow
midrib, arcuate veins, and obscure reticulate veinlets; petioles thin,
yellow, about ⅓′ long; stipules reniform, conspicuously veined, about
1/16′ broad. Flowers: aments densely flowered, glabrous, erect, often
more or less curved, about 1½′ long, terminal on short leafy branchlets;
scales oblanceolate, acute, dark-colored; stamens 2, with elongated free
glabrous filaments; ovary cylindric, long-stalked, elongated, gradually
narrowed into a short style, with spreading emarginate stigmas. Fruit
ovoid, acuminate, light brown, about ⅛′ long; pedicels about ⅙′ in
length.

A small tree, with a slender trunk, upright branches forming a narrow
shapely head, and slender branchlets marked with scattered lenticels,
glabrous or slightly puberulous and often tinged with red when they
first appear, soon becoming yellow and lustrous, growing lighter colored
in their second year. Winter-buds ovoid, rounded on the back, compressed
and acute at the apex, bright orange color, about ⅛′ long.

Distribution. Borders of streams and swamps; shores of Great Slave Lake
southward through the region at the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains
to Saskatchewan, northern Idaho, and northwestern Wyoming, and to
western Nevada (Lake County; _M. S. Bebb_), and on the high Sierra
Nevada in Calaveras and Mariposa Counties, California (_W. L. Jepson_).


                     16. Salix missouriensis Bebb.

[Illustration: Fig. 150]

Leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate, acuminate and long-pointed at apex,
gradually narrowed from above the middle to the cuneate or rounded base,
finely glandular-serrate, coated with pale hairs on the lower surface
and pilose on the upper surface when they unfold, soon becoming nearly
glabrous, at maturity thin and firm, dark green above, pale and often
silvery white below, 4′—6′ long, 1′—1½′ wide, with slender veins often
united near the margins and connected by coarse reticulate veinlets;
petioles stout, pubescent or tomentose, ½′—¾′ long; stipules foliaceous,
semicordate, pointed or rarely reniform and obtuse, serrate with
incurved teeth, dark green and glabrous on the upper side, coated on the
lower with hoary tomentum, reticulate-venulose, often ½′ long, deciduous
or persistent during the season. Flowers: aments oblong-cylindric,
densely flowered, appearing early in February on short leafy branchlets,
the staminate 1½′ long and nearly ½′ wide and rather longer than the
more slender pistillate aments becoming at maturity lax and 3′—4′ long;
scales oblong-obovate, light green, and covered on the outer surface
with long straight white hairs; stamens 2, with elongated free glabrous
filaments; ovary cylindric, short-stalked, beaked, glabrous, with a
short style and spreading entire or slightly emarginate stigmas. Fruit
narrow, long-pointed, light reddish brown, ⅓′ in length; pedicels about
half the length of the scales.

A tree, 40°—50° high, with a tall straight trunk 10′—12′ or rarely 18′
in diameter, rather slender upright slightly spreading branches forming
a narrow open symmetrical head, and slender branchlets marked by small
scattered orange-colored lenticels, light green and coated during their
first year with thick pale pubescence, becoming reddish brown and
glabrous or puberulous in their second winter. Winter-buds ovoid, round,
or flattened, acute at the apex, reddish brown, hoary-tomentose, nearly
1′ long. Bark thin, smooth, light gray, slightly tinged with red, and
covered with minute closely appressed plate-like scales. Wood dark
red-brown, with thin pale sapwood; durable, used for fence-posts.

Distribution. Deep sandy alluvial bottom-lands of the Missouri River in
southwestern Nebraska to western Missouri; through northeastern Kansas
and eastern Oklahoma to Cache Creek, Comanche County (_G. W. Stevens_);
and from the neighborhood of St. Louis to southeastern and western Iowa.


                      17. Salix pyrifolia Anders.

                       _Salix balsamifera_ Barr.

[Illustration: Fig. 151]

Leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, acute at apex, broad and rounded and
usually subcordate at base, finely glandular serrulate, balsamic
particularly while young, when they unfold thin, pellucid, red and
coated below with long slender caducous hairs, at maturity thin and
firm, dark green above, pale and glaucous below, 2′—4′ long, 1′—1½′
wide, with a yellow midrib and conspicuous reticulate veinlets; petioles
reddish or yellow, ⅓′—½′ long; stipules often wanting or on vigorous
shoots foliaceous, broadly ovate and acute. Flowers: aments cylindric,
1′—1½′ long, on short leafy branchlets, the staminate 1′—1¼′ long and ¾′
in diameter and shorter and broader than the pistillate ament; scales
obovate, rose-colored, coated with long white hairs; stamens 2, with
free filaments and reddish ultimately yellow anthers; ovary
narrow-ovoid, long-stalked, gradually contracted above the middle, with
a short style and emarginate stigmas. Fruit ovoid-conic, ¼′ long, dark
orange color; pedicels ⅙′ in length.

Usually a shrub, often making clumps of crowded slender erect stems
generally destitute of branches except near the top, rarely arborescent,
with a height of 25°, a trunk 12′—14′ in diameter, erect branches, and
comparatively stout reddish brown branchlets becoming olive-green in
their second year and marked with narrow slightly raised leaf-scars.
Winter-buds acute, much-compressed, bright scarlet, very lustrous, about
¼′ long. Bark thin, smooth, dull gray.

Distribution. Cold wet bogs; Newfoundland and the coast of Labrador to
the valley of the Saskatchewan and the Mackenzie, and British Columbia,
and to northern Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Michigan, and
northeastern South Dakota; reported to become arborescent only near Fort
Kent on the St. John River, Aroostook, Maine.


                       18. Salix amplifolia Cov.

[Illustration: Fig. 152]

Leaves oval to broadly obovate, rounded or broadly pointed at apex,
gradually or abruptly narrowed at the cuneate base, dentate-serrulate or
entire, densely villose when they unfold, with long matted white hairs,
at maturity nearly glabrous, pale yellow-green above, slightly glaucous
below, 2′—2½′ long, 1′—1½′ wide, with a midrib broad and hoary-tomentose
toward the base of the leaf and thin and glabrous above the middle;
petioles slender, tomentose. Flowers: aments appearing about the middle
of June, stout, pedunculate, tomentose, on leafy branchlets, the
staminate 1½′—2′ long and shorter than the pistillate; scales
oblanceolate or lanceolate, dark brown or nearly black, covered with
long pale hairs; stamens 2, with slender elongated glabrous filaments;
ovary ovoid-lanceolate, short-stalked, glabrous or slightly pubescent,
gradually narrowed into the elongated slender style crowned with a
2-lobed slender stigma. Fruit ovoid-lanceolate, glabrous, short-stalked,
¼′ long.

A tree, occasionally 25° high, with a trunk a foot in diameter, and
stout branchlets conspicuously roughened by the large elevated U-shaped
leaf-scars, and marked by occasional pale lenticels, coated at first
with thick villose pubescence, becoming during their second and third
years dark dull reddish purple.

Distribution. Sand dunes on the shores of Yakutat Bay and Disenchantment
Bay, Alaska.


               19. Salix alaxensis Cov. Feltleaf Willow.

[Illustration: Fig. 153]

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate to obovate, acute, acuminate or occasionally
rounded at apex, gradually narrowed into a short thick petiole, coated
above as they unfold with thin pale deciduous tomentum and covered below
with a thick mass of snowy white lustrous hairs persistent on the mature
leaves, entire, often somewhat wrinkled, dull yellow-green above, 2′—4′
long, 1′—1½′ wide, with a broad yellow midrib; stipules
linear-lanceolate to filiform, entire, ½′—¾′ long, usually persistent
until midsummer. Flowers: aments appearing in June when the leaves are
nearly fully grown, stout, erect, tomentose, stalked, on leafy
branchlets, the staminate 1′—1½′ long, much shorter than the pistillate;
scales oblong-ovate, rounded at apex, dark-colored, and coated with long
silvery white soft hairs; stamens 2, with slender elongated filaments;
ovary acuminate, short-stalked, covered with soft pale hairs, gradually
narrowed into the elongated slender style, with 2-lobed stigmas. Fruit
nearly sessile, ovoid, acuminate covered with close dense pale tomentum,
¼′ long.

A tree, sometimes 30° high, with a trunk 4′—6′ in diameter, and stout
branchlets thickly coated at first with matted white hairs, becoming in
their second year glabrous, dark purple, lustrous, marked by large
elevated pale scattered lenticels and much roughened by large U-shaped
leaf-scars; often shrubby, and in the most exposed situations frequently
only a foot or two high, with semiprostrate stems.

Distribution. Coast of Alaska from the Alexander Archipelago to Cape
Lisbourne, and eastward to the valley of the Mackenzie River and to the
shores of Coronation Gulf; the only arborescent Willow in the coast
region west and north of Kadiak Island; attaining its largest size from
the Shumagin Islands eastward.


                        20. Salix Bebbiana Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 154]

Leaves oblong-obovate to oblong-elliptic or lanceolate, acuminate and
short-pointed or acute at apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate or
rounded at base, remotely and irregularly serrate usually only above the
middle, or rarely entire, when they unfold pale gray-green, glabrous or
villose, and often tinged with red on the upper surface and coated on
the lower with pale tomentum or pubescence, at maturity thick and firm,
dull green and glabrous or puberulous above, blue or silvery white and
covered with pale rufous pubescence below, especially along the midrib,
veins, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets, 1′—3′ long, ½′—1′ wide;
petioles slender, often pubescent, reddish, ¼′—½′ long; stipules
foliaceous, semicordate, glandular-dentate, sometimes nearly ½′ long on
vigorous shoots, deciduous. Flowers: aments terminal on short leafy
branchlets; scales ovate or oblong, rounded at apex, broader on the
staminate than on the pistillate plant, yellow below, rose color at
apex, villose with long pale silky hairs, persistent under the fruit;
staminate aments cylindric, obovoid, narrowed at base, densely flowered,
¾′—1′ long, ½′—1′ thick; pistillate aments oblong-cylindric, loosely
flowered, 1′—1¼′ long, ½′ thick; stamens 2, with free glabrous
filaments; ovary cylindric, villose; with long silky white hairs,
gradually narrowed at apex, with broad sessile entire or emarginate
spreading yellow stigmas; pedicel villose, about ¼′ in length, and about
as long as the scale. Fruit elongated-cylindric, gradually narrowed into
a long thin beak, and raised on a slender stalk sometimes ½′ long.

A bushy tree, occasionally 25° high, with a short trunk 6′—8′ in
diameter, stout ascending branches forming a broad round head, and
slender branchlets coated at first with hoary deciduous tomentum,
varying during their first winter from reddish purple to dark
orange-brown, marked by scattered raised lenticels and roughened by
conspicuous elevated leaf-scars, growing lighter-colored and reddish
brown in their second year; usually much smaller and often shrubby in
habit. Bark thin, reddish or olive-green or gray tinged with red, and
slightly divided by shallow fissures into appressed plate-like scales.
Winter-buds oblong, gradually narrowed and rounded at apex, full and
rounded on the back, bright light chestnut-brown, nearly ¼′ long.

Distribution. Borders of streams, swamps, and lakes, hillsides, open
woods and forest margins, usually in moist rich soil; valley of the St.
Lawrence River to the shores of Hudson’s Bay, the valley of the
Mackenzie River within the Arctic Circle, Cook Inlet, Alaska, and the
coast ranges of British Columbia, forming in the region west of Hudson’s
Bay almost impenetrable thickets, with twisted and often inclining
stems; common in all the northern states, ranging southward to
Pennsylvania and westward to Minnesota and through the Rocky Mountain
region from western Idaho and northern Montana to northern North Dakota,
eastern South Dakota, northeastern and central Iowa, and western
Nebraska, and southward through Colorado to northern Arizona; ascending
as a low shrub in Colorado to an altitude of 10,000°.


               21. Salix discolor Muehl. Glaucous Willow.

[Illustration: Fig. 155]

Leaves lanceolate to elliptic, gradually narrowed at the ends, remotely
crenulate-serrate, as they unfold thin, light green often tinged with
red, pubescent above and coated with a pale tomentum below, at maturity
thick and firm, glabrous, conspicuously reticulate-venulose, bright
green above, glaucous or silvery white below, 3′—5′ long, ¾′—1½′ wide,
with a broad yellow midrib and slender arcuate primary veins; petioles
slender, ½′—1′ long; stipules foliaceous, semilunar, acute,
glandular-dentate, about ¼′ long, deciduous. Flowers: aments appearing
late in winter or in very early spring, erect, terminal on short
scale-bearing branchlets coated with thick white tomentum,
oblong-cylindric, about 1′ long and ⅔′ thick, the staminate soft and
silky before the flowers open and densely flowered; scales
oblong-obovate, dark reddish brown toward the apex, covered on the back
with long silky silvery white hairs; stamens 2, with elongated glabrous
filaments; ovary oblong-cylindric, narrowed above the middle, villose,
with a short distinct style and broad spreading entire stigmas; pedicel
glabrous, about twice the length of the scale. Fruit cylindric, more or
less contracted above the middle, long-pointed, light brown, coated with
pale pubescence.

A tree, rarely more than 25° high, with a trunk about 1° in diameter,
stout ascending branches forming an open round-topped head, and stout
branchlets marked by occasional orange-colored lenticels, dark reddish
purple and coated at first with pale deciduous pubescence; more often
shrubby, with numerous tall straggling stems. Winter-buds semiterete,
flattened and acute at the apex, about ⅜′ long, dark reddish purple and
lustrous. Bark ¼′ thick, light brown tinged with red, and divided by
shallow fissures into thin plate-like oblong scales. Wood light, soft,
close-grained, brown streaked with red, with lighter brown sapwood.

Distribution. Moist meadows and the banks of streams and lakes; Nova
Scotia to Manitoba, and southward to Delaware, southern Indiana and
Illinois, eastern and southwestern Iowa, the Black Hills of South
Dakota, and northeastern Missouri; common.

A form of _Salix discolor_ with more densely flowered and more silvery
pubescent aments is described as var. _eriocephala_ Schn. and a form
with loosely flowered aments with less tomentose fruits with longer
styles and with narrower leaves as var. _prinoides_ Schn.


               22. Salix Scouleriana Barr. Black Willow.

                        _Salix Nuttallii_ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 156]

Leaves oblong-obovate to elliptic, acute or abruptly acuminate with a
short or long-pointed apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate at the often
unsymmetrical base, entire or remotely and irregularly crenately
serrate, thin and firm, dark yellow-green and lustrous above, pale or
glaucous and glabrous or pilose below, 1¼′—4′ long, ½′—1½′ wide, with a
broad yellow pubescent midrib and slender veins forked and arcuate
within the slightly thickened and revolute margins and connected by
conspicuous reticulate veinlets; petioles slender, puberulous, ¼′—½′ in
length; stipules foliaceous, semilunar, glandular-serrate, ⅛′—¼′ long,
caducous. Flowers: aments appearing before the leaves, oblong-cylindric,
erect, nearly sessile on short tomentose scale-bearing branchlets, the
staminate about 1′ long and rather more than ½′ thick, the pistillate
1½′ long, about 5/12′ thick; scales oblong, narrowed at the ends,
dark-colored, covered with long white hairs, persistent under the fruit;
stamens 2, with free glabrous filaments; ovary cylindric, short-stalked,
with a distinct style and broad emarginate stigmas; pedicels less than
half the length of the scale, villose. Fruit oblong-ovoid, acuminate,
light reddish brown, pale pubescent, about ⅓′ long.

A tree, occasionally 30° high, with a short trunk rarely exceeding 1° in
diameter, slender pendulous branches forming a rather compact
round-topped shapely head, and stout branchlets marked by scattered
yellow lenticels, coated when they first appear with pale early
deciduous pubescence, becoming bright yellow or dark orange color, and
in their second year dark red-brown and much roughened by the
conspicuous leaf-scars; or more often a shrub. Winter-buds ovoid, acute,
nearly terete or slightly flattened, with narrow lateral wing-like
margins, light or dark orange color, glabrous or pilose at the base,
about ¼′ long. Bark thin, dark brown slightly tinged with red, and
divided into broad flat ridges. Wood light, soft, close-grained, light
brown tinged with red, with thick nearly white sapwood.

Distribution. Cook’s Inlet, coast of Alaska, and valley of the Yukon
River near Dawson southward through western British Columbia to northern
California, ranging eastward through Washington and northwestern Oregon
to northern Idaho and Montana.

From central California to San Bernardino County represented by the
variety _crassijulis_ Andr. (S. _brachystachys_ Benth.) with shorter and
broader obovate leaves rounded at apex, pubescent and tomentose
branchlets and larger pubescent winter-buds. A tree sometimes 70° high
with a trunk often 2½° in diameter.

On the high Sierra Nevada eastward to the eastern ranges of the Rocky
Mountains of Colorado and to northern New Mexico, northern Wyoming and
the Black Hills of South Dakota represented by the var. _flavescens_
Schn. A shrub or rarely a small tree with obovate rounded yellowish
leaves and branchlets.


                       23. Salix Hookeriana Barr.

[Illustration: Fig. 157]

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, acute or abruptly acuminate, or rarely
rounded and frequently apiculate at apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate
or rounded at base, coarsely crenately serrate, especially those on
vigorous shoots, or entire, when they unfold villose with pale hairs, or
tomentose above and clothed below with silvery white tomentum, at
maturity thin and firm, bright yellow-green and lustrous, nearly
glabrous or tomentose on the upper surface, pale and glaucous and
tomentose or pubescent on the lower surface, especially along the midrib
and slender arcuate primary veins and conspicuous reticulate veinlets,
2′—6′ long, 1′—1½′ wide; petioles stout, tomentose, ¼′—⅓′ long. Flowers:
aments oblong-cylindric, erect, rather lax, often more or less curved,
about 1½′ long, on short tomentose scale-bearing branchlets, the
staminate ⅔′ thick and rather thicker than the pistillate; scales
oblong-obovate, yellow, coated with long pale hairs, the staminate
rounded above and rather shorter than the more acute scales of the
pistillate ament persistent under the fruit; stamens 2, with free
elongated glabrous filaments; ovary conic, glabrous, stalked, with a
slender stalk about one third as long as the scale, gradually narrowed
above, with a slender elongated bright red style and broad spreading
entire stigmas. Fruit oblong-cylindric, narrowed above, about ¼′ long.

A tree, occasionally 30° high, with a trunk about 1° in diameter, and
stout branchlets marked by large scattered orange-colored lenticels,
covered during their first season with hoary tomentum and rather bright
or dark red-brown and pubescent in their second summer; more often
shrubby, with numerous stems 4′—8′ thick and 15°—20° high; frequently a
low bush, with straggling almost prostrate stems. Winter-buds ovoid,
acute, nearly terete, dark red, coated with pale pubescence, about ¼′
long. Bark nearly ⅛′ thick, light red-brown, slightly fissured and
divided into closely appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, soft,
close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thin nearly white
sapwood.

Distribution. Borders of salt marshes and ponds and sandy coast dunes;
Vancouver Island southward along the shores of Puget Sound and the
Pacific Ocean to southern Oregon.


                      24. Salix sitchensis Sanson.

[Illustration: Fig. 158]

Leaves oblong-obovate to oblanceolate, entire or minutely glandular
dentate, acute or acuminate, or rounded and short-pointed, or rounded at
apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, when they unfold pubescent
or tomentose on the upper surface, and coated on the lower with lustrous
white silky pubescence or tomentum persistent during the season or
sometimes deciduous from the leaves of vigorous young shoots, at
maturity thin and firm, dark green, lustrous and glabrous above, with
the exception of the pubescent midrib, 2′—5′ long, ¾′—1½′ wide, with
conspicuous slender veins arcuate and united within the margins and
prominent reticulate veinlets; petioles stout, pubescent, rarely ½′
long; stipules rarely produced, foliaceous, semilunar, acute or rounded
at apex, glandular-dentate, coated below with hoary tomentum, often ½′
long, caducous. Flowers: aments cylindric, densely flowered, erect on
short tomentose leafy branchlets, the staminate 1½′—2′ long and ½′
thick, the pistillate 2½′—3′ long, and ¼′ thick; scales yellow or tawny,
the staminate oblong-obovate, rounded at the apex, covered with long
white hairs, much longer than the more acute pubescent scales of the
pistillate ament; stamen 1, with an elongated glabrous filament, or very
rarely 2, with filaments united below the middle or nearly to the apex;
ovary short-stalked, ovoid, conic, acute, pubescent and gradually
narrowed into the elongated style, with entire or slightly emarginate
short stigmas. Fruit ovoid, narrowed above, light red-brown, pubescent
about ¼′ long.

A much-branched tree, occasionally 25°—30° high, with a short contorted
often inclining trunk sometimes 1° in diameter, and slender brittle
branchlets coated at first with hoary tomentum, pubescent and tomentose
and dark red-brown or orange color during their first winter, becoming
darker, pubescent or glabrous, and sometimes covered with a glaucous
bloom in their second season; more often shrubby and 6°—15° tall.
Winter-buds acute, nearly terete, light red-brown, pubescent or
puberulous, about ¼′ long. Bark about ⅛′ thick and broken into irregular
closely appressed dark brown scales tinged with red. Wood light, soft,
close-grained, pale red, with thick nearly white sapwood.

Distribution. Banks of streams and in low moist ground; Cook Inlet and
Kadiak Island, Alaska, southward in the neighborhood of the coast to
Santa Barbara, California; on the Marble Creek of the Kaweah River at
6900° altitude (f. _Ralphiana_ Jeps.)



                             VI. MYRICACEÆ.


Aromatic resinous trees and shrubs, with watery juice, terete branches,
and small scaly buds. Leaves alternate, revolute in the bud, serrate,
resinous-punctate, persistent in our species, in falling leaving
elevated semiorbicular leaf-scars showing the ends of three nearly
equidistant fibro-vascular bundles. Flowers unisexual, diœcious or
monœcious, usually subtended by minute bractlets, in the axils of the
deciduous scales of unisexual or androgynous simple oblong aments from
buds in the axils of the leaves of the year, opening in early spring,
the staminate below the pistillate in androgynous aments; staminate,
perianth 0; stamens 4 or many, inserted on the thickened base of the
scales of the ament; filaments slender, united at the base into a short
stipe; anthers ovoid, erect, 2-celled, introrse, opening longitudinally;
ovary rudimentary or 0; pistillate flowers single or in pairs; ovary
sessile, 1-celled; styles short, divided into 2 elongated filiform
stigmas stigmatic on the inner face; ovule solitary, erect from the base
of the cell, orthotropous, the micropyle superior. Fruit a globose or
ovoid dry drupe usually covered with waxy exudations; nut hard,
thick-walled. Seed erect, with a thin coat, without albumen; embryo
straight; cotyledons plano-convex, fleshy; radicle short, superior,
turned away from the minute basal hilum.

The family consists of the genus _Myrica_ L., of about thirty or forty
species of small trees and shrubs, widely distributed through the
temperate and warmer parts of both hemispheres. Of the seven North
American species three are trees. Wax is obtained from the exudations of
the fruit of several species. The bark is astringent, and sometimes used
in medicine, in tanning, and as an aniline dye. _Myrica_ rubra Sieb and
Zacc., of southern Japan and China, is cultivated for its succulent
aromatic red fruit.

The generic name is probably from the ancient name of some shrub,
possibly the Tamarisk.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Flowers diœcious.
    Leaves oblanceolate, usually acute or rarely rounded at apex, mostly
          coarsely serrate above the middle, yellow-green, coated below
          with conspicuous orange-colored glands.
                                                  1. M. cerifera (A, C).
    Leaves usually broadly oblong-obovate, rounded or rarely acute at
          apex, entire, dark green and lustrous.
                                                      2. M. inodora (C).
  Flowers monœcious; leaves oblanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, sharply
        serrate, dark green and lustrous.
                                                  3. M. californica (G).


                   1. Myrica cerifera L. Wax Myrtle.

[Illustration: Fig. 159]

Leaves oblanceolate or rarely oblong-lanceolate, acute or rarely
gradually narrowed and rounded at apex, cuneate at base, decurrent on
short stout petioles, coarsely serrate above the middle or entire,
yellow-green, covered above by minute dark glands and below by bright
orange-colored glands, 1½′—4′ long and ¼′—½′ wide, with a slender pale
midrib often puberulous below, and few obscure arcuate veins, fragrant
with a balsamic resinous odor; gradually deciduous at the end of their
first year. Flowers in small oblong aments, with ovate acute ciliate
scales, those of the staminate plant ½′—¾′ long, about twice as long as
those of the pistillate plant; stamens few, with oblong slightly
obcordate anthers at first tinged with red, becoming yellow; ovary
gradually narrowed into 2 slender spreading stigmas longer than its
scale. Fruit in short spikes, ripening in September and October and
persistent on the branches during the winter, irregularly deciduous in
the spring and early summer, globose, about ⅛′ in diameter, slightly
papillose, light green, coated with thick pale blue wax; seed pale,
minute.

A tree, occasionally 40° high, with a tall trunk 8′—10′ in diameter,
slender upright or slightly spreading branches forming a narrow
round-topped head, and slender branchlets marked by small pale
lenticels, coated at first with loose rufous tomentum and caducous
orange-colored glands, bright red-brown or dark brown tinged with gray,
usually lustrous and nearly glabrous during their first winter, finally
becoming dark brown; generally smaller, frequently shrubby. Winter-buds
oblong, acute, 1/16′—⅛′ long, with numerous ovate acute imbricated
scales, the inner scales becoming nearly ½′ long, and often persistent
until the young branch has completed its growth. Bark of the trunk ¼′
thick, compact, smooth, light gray. Wood light, soft and brittle, dark
brown, with thin lighter-colored sapwood.

Distribution. In the neighborhood of the coast; Cape May, New Jersey,
southern Delaware and Maryland to the keys of southern Florida, and
through the Gulf states to the shores of Aranzas Pass, San Patricio
County, Texas, ranging inland to the neighborhood of Natchez, Jackson
County, Mississippi, the valley of the Red River (Natchitoches,
Louisiana and Fulton, Arkansas), and to Cherokee County, Texas, and
northward to the valley of the Washita River, Arkansas; on the Bermuda
and Bahama Islands and on several of the Antilles; most abundant and of
its largest size on the south Atlantic and Gulf coasts in sandy swamps
and pond holes; the most common woody plant and forming great thickets
on the Everglades east of Lake Okeechobee, Florida; in the sandy soil of
Pine-barrens and on dry arid hills of the interior, often only a few
inches in height, var. _pumila_ Michx.


                2. Myrica inodora W. Bartr. Wax Myrtle.

[Illustration: Fig. 160]

Leaves broadly oblong-obovate or rarely ovate, rounded or sometimes
pointed and occasionally apiculate at apex, narrowed at base, decurrent
on short stout petioles, entire or rarely obscurely toothed toward the
apex, thick and coriaceous, glandular-punctate, dark green and very
lustrous above, bright green below, 2′—4′ long, ¾′—1½′ wide, with a
broad conspicuously glandular midrib slightly pubescent on the lower
side, and few remote slender obscure primary veins forked and arcuate
near the much-thickened and revolute margins; gradually deciduous from
May until midsummer. Flowers in aments ¾′—1′ long, with ovate acute
glandular scales; stamens numerous, with oblong slightly emarginate
yellow anthers; pistillate flowers usually in pairs, with an ovate
glabrous ovary and slender bright red styles. Fruit produced sparingly
in elongated spikes, oblong, ⅓′—½′ long, papillose, black, and covered
with a thin coat of white wax; seed oblong-oval, acute at apex, rounded
at base, ⅛′ long, bright orange-brown, with a pale yellow hilum.

Usually a shrub, with numerous slender stems, occasionally arborescent
and 18°—20° high, with a straight trunk 6°—8° tall and 2′—3′ in
diameter, and stout branchlets roughened by small scattered lenticels,
coated at first with dense pale tomentum, soon becoming bright
red-brown, scurfy, and glabrous or pubescent. Winter-buds ovoid, acute,
nearly ⅛′ long, with numerous loosely imbricated lanceolate acute
red-brown scurfy-pubescent scales. Bark thin, smooth, nearly white.

Distribution. Deep swamps, Round Lake, Jackson County, and
Appalachicola, and Saint Andrews Bay, Florida; near Mobile and Stockton,
Alabama; near Poplarville, Pearl County, Mississippi, and Bogalusa,
Washington Parish, Louisiana.


                3. Myrica californica Cham. Wax Myrtle.

[Illustration: Fig. 161]

Leaves oblanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acute at apex, remotely
serrate except at the gradually narrowed base with small incurved teeth,
decurrent on a short stout petiole, thin and firm, dark green and
lustrous above, yellow-green, glabrous or puberulous and marked by
minute black glandular dots below, 2′—4′ long, ½′—¾′ wide, with a narrow
yellow midrib and numerous obscure primary veins arcuate near the
thickened and revolute margins, slightly fragrant, gradually deciduous
after the end of their first year. Flowers subtended by conspicuous
bractlets, those of the two sexes on the same plant; staminate in oblong
simple aments often 1′ long, pistillate in shorter aments in the axils
of upper leaves, androgynous aments occurring between the two with
staminate flowers at their base and pistillate flowers above, or with
staminate flowers also mixed with the pistillate at their apex; scales
of the aments ovate, acute, coated with pale tomentum; stamens numerous,
with oblong slightly emarginate dark red-purple anthers soon becoming
yellow; ovary ovoid, with bright red exserted styles. Fruit in short
crowded spikes ripening in the early autumn and usually falling during
the winter, globose, papillose, dark purple, covered with a thin coat of
grayish white wax; seed pale reddish brown, minute.

A tree, occasionally 40° high, with a trunk 14′—15′ in diameter, short
slender branches forming a narrow compact round-topped head, and stout
branchlets coated at first with loose tomentum, dark green or light or
dark red-brown, glabrous or pubescent during their first season,
becoming in their second year much roughened by the elevated leaf-scars,
darker and ultimately ashy gray; usually smaller at the north and toward
the northern and southern limits of its range reduced to a low shrub
often only 3°—4° tall. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, about ⅓′ thick, with
loosely imbricated ovate acute dark red-brown tomentose scales nearly ½′
long when fully grown and long-persistent on the branch. Bark smooth,
compact, 1/16′—⅛′ thick, dark gray or light brown on the surface and
dark red-brown internally. Wood heavy, very hard and strong, brittle,
close-grained, light rose color, with thick lighter colored sapwood.

Distribution. Ocean sand-dunes and moist hillsides in the vicinity of
the coast from the shores of Puget Sound to the neighborhood of Santa
Monica, Los Angeles County, California; of its largest size on the
shores of the Bay of San Francisco.

Occasionally used in California as a garden plant.



                           VII. LEITNERIACEÆ.


A tree or shrub, with pale slightly fissured bark, scaly buds, stout
terete pithy branchlets marked by pale conspicuous nearly circular
lenticels and by elevated crescent-shaped angled or obscurely 3-lobed
leaf-scars, very light soft wood, and thick fleshy stoloniferous yellow
roots. Leaves involute in the bud, lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate,
acuminate or acute and short-pointed at apex, gradually narrowed at
base, entire, with slightly revolute undulate margins, penniveined with
remote primary veins arcuate and united near the margins, and
conspicuous reticulate veinlets, petiolate, at first coated on the lower
surface and on the petioles with thick pale tomentum and puberulous on
the upper surface, thick and firm at maturity, bright green and lustrous
above, pale and villose-pubescent below, deciduous. Flowers in unisexual
aments, with ovate acute concave tomentose scales, the male and female
on different plants, opening in early spring from buds formed the
previous autumn and covered with acute chestnut-brown hairy scales; the
staminate clustered near the end of the branches, their scales bearing
on the thickened stipe a ring of 3—12 stamens, with slender incurved
filaments and oblong light yellow introrse 2-celled anthers opening
longitudinally; perianth 0; pistillate aments scattered, shorter and
more slender than the staminate, their scales bearing in their axils a
short-stalked pistil surrounded by a rudimentary perianth of small
gland-fringed scales, the 2 larger lateral, the others next the axis of
the inflorescence; ovary superior, pubescent, 1-celled, with an
elongated flattened style inserted obliquely, curving inward above the
middle in anthesis, grooved and stigmatic on the inner face; ovule
solitary, attached laterally, ascending, semianatropous; micropyle
directed upward. Fruit an oblong compressed dry drupe thick and rounded
on the ventral, narrowed on the dorsal edge, rounded at base, thin and
pointed at apex, chestnut-brown, rugose, with a thick dry exocarp
closely investing the thin-walled light brown crustaceous rugose nutlet.
Seed flattened, rounded at the ends, light brown, marked on the thick
edge with the oblong nearly black hilum; embryo erect, surrounded by
thin fleshy albumen; cotyledons oblong, flattened; radicle superior,
conical, short, and fleshy.

The family consists of a single genus, _Leitneria_ Chapm., with one
species of the southern United States, named for a German naturalist
killed in Florida during the Seminole War.


                1. Leitneria floridana Chapm. Cork Wood.

[Illustration: Fig. 162]

Leaves 4′—6′ long, 1½′—2½′ wide, with petioles 1′—2′ in length. Flowers
opening at the end of February or early in March; staminate aments
1′—1¼′ long, ¼′ thick, and twice as long as the pistillate. Fruit
solitary or in clusters of 2—4, ripening when the leaves are about half
grown, ¾′ long, ¼′ wide.

A shrub or small tree, occasionally 20° high, with a slender straight
trunk 4′—5′ in diameter above the swollen gradually tapering base,
spreading branches forming a loose open head, and branchlets at first
light reddish brown and thickly coated with gradually deciduous hairs,
becoming in their first winter glabrous or puberulous, especially toward
the ends, and dark red-brown. Winter-buds: terminal broad, conic, ⅛′
long, covered by 10 or 12 oblong nearly triangular closely imbricated
scales coated with pale tomentum and long-persistent at the base of the
branch; lateral scattered, ovoid, flattened. Bark about 1/16′ thick,
dark gray faintly tinged with brown, divided by shallow fissures into
narrow rounded ridges. Wood soft, exceedingly light, close-grained, the
layers of annual growth hardly distinguishable, pale yellow, without
trace of heartwood; occasionally used for the floats of fishing-nets.

Distribution. Borders of swamps of the lower Altamaha River, Georgia
(_C. L. Boynton_); muddy saline shores on the coast of the Gulf of
Mexico near Apalachicola, Florida; swampy prairies, Velasco (_E. J.
Palmer_), and swamps of the Brazos River near Columbia, Brazoria County,
Texas; Varner, Lincoln County (_B. F. Bush_), and Moark, Clay County
(_E. J. Palmer_) Arkansas; and in Butler and Dunklin Counties,
southeastern Missouri, here sometimes occupying muddy sloughs of
considerable extent to the exclusion of other woody plants.



                           VIII. JUGLANDACEÆ.


Aromatic trees, with watery juice, terete branchlets, scaly buds, the
lateral buds often superposed, 2—4 together, and alternate unequally
pinnate deciduous leaves with elongated grooved petioles and without
stipules, the leaflets increasing in size from the lowest upward,
penniveined, sessile, short-stalked or the terminal usually
long-stalked. Flowers monœcious, opening after the unfolding of the
leaves, the staminate in lateral aments and composed of a 3—6-lobed
calyx in the axil of and adnate to an ovate acute bract, and numerous
stamens inserted on the inner and lower face of the calyx in 2 or
several rows, with short distinct filaments and oblong anthers opening
longitudinally; the pistillate in a spike terminal on a branch of the
year and composed of a 1—3-celled ovary subtended by an involucre free
toward the apex and formed by the union of an anterior bract and 2
lateral bractlets, a 1 or 4-lobed calyx inserted on the ovary, a short
style with 2 plumose stigmas stigmatic on the inner face, and a solitary
erect orthotropous ovule. Fruit drupaceous, the exocarp (husk)
indehiscent or 4-valved, inclosing a thick- or thin-shelled nut divided
by partitions extending inward from the shell, and like the shell more
or less penetrated by internal longitudinal cavities often filled with
dry powder. Seed solitary, 2-lobed from the apex nearly to the middle,
light brown, its coat thin, of 2 layers, without albumen; cotyledons
fleshy and oily, sinuose or corrugated, 2-lobed; radicle short,
superior, filling the apex of the nut. Of the six genera of the Walnut
family two occur in North America.


                CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA.

  Aments of staminate flowers simple; husk of the fruit indehiscent; nut
        sculptured; pith in plates.
                                                             1. Juglans.
  Aments of staminate flowers branched; husk of the fruit 4-valved; nut
        not sculptured; pith solid.
                                                               2. Carya.



                         1. JUGLANS L. Walnut.


Trees, with furrowed scaly bark, durable dark-colored wood, stout
branchlets, laminate pith, terminal buds with 2 pairs of opposite more
or less open scales often obscurely pinnate at apex, those of the inner
pair more or less leaf-like, and obtuse slightly flattened axillary buds
formed before midsummer and covered with 4 ovate rounded scales, closed
or open during winter. Leaves with numerous leaflets, and terete
petioles leaving in falling large conspicuous elevated obcordate 3-lobed
leaf-scars displaying 3 equidistant U-shaped clusters of dark
fibro-vascular bundle-scars; leaflets conduplicate in the bud, ovate,
acute or acuminate, mostly unequal at base, with veins arcuate and
united near the margins. Aments of the staminate flowers many-flowered,
elongated, solitary or in pairs from lower axillary buds of upper nodes,
appearing from between persistent bud-scales in the autumn and remaining
during the winter as short cones covered by the closely imbricated
bracts of the flowers; calyx 3—6-lobed, its bract free only at the apex;
stamens 8—40, in 2 or several ranks, their anthers surmounted by a
conspicuous dilated truncate or lobed connective; pistillate flowers in
few-flowered spikes, their involucre villose, free only at the apex and
variously cut into a laciniate border (_corolla?_) shorter than the
erect calyx-lobes; ovary rarely of 3 carpels; stigmas club-shaped,
elongated, fimbriately plumose. Fruit ovoid, globose or pyriform, round
or obscurely 4-angled, with a fleshy indehiscent glabrate or hirsute
husk; nut ovoid or globose, more or less flattened, hard, thick-walled,
longitudinally and irregularly rugose, the valves alternate with the
cotyledons, and more or less ribbed along the dorsal sutures and in some
species also on the marginal sutures. Seed more or less compressed,
gradually narrowed or broad and deeply lobed at base, with conspicuous
dark veins radiating from the apex and from the minute basal hilum.

Juglans is confined to temperate North America, the West Indies, South
America from Venezuela to Peru, western and northern China, Korea,
Manchuria, Japan, and Formosa. Eleven species are known. Of exotic
species _Juglans regia_ L., an inhabitant probably originally of China,
is cultivated in the middle Atlantic and southern states and largely in
California for its edible nuts, which are an important article of
commerce. The wood of several species is valued for the interior finish
of houses and for furniture.

_Juglans_, from Jupiter and glands, is the classical name of the
Walnut-tree.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Fruit racemose; nut 4-ribbed at the sutures with smaller intermediate
        ribs, 2-celled at the base; heartwood light brown; leaflets
        11—17, oblong-lanceolate.
                                                   1. J. cinerea (A, C).
  Fruit usually solitary or in pairs; nut without sutural ribs, 4-celled
        at the base; heartwood dark brown.
    Nuts prominently and irregularly ridged with often interrupted
          ridges; leaflets 15—23, ovate-lanceolate.
                                                     2. J. nigra (A, C).
    Nuts more or less deeply longitudinally grooved.
      Nuts up to 1½′ in diameter; leaflets 9—13, rarely 19,
            oblong-lanceolate to ovate, acuminate, coarsely serrate.
                                                     3. J. major (F, H).
      Nuts not more than ¾′ in diameter.
        Leaflets 17—23, narrow-lanceolate, long-pointed.
                                                    4. J. rupestris (C).
        Leaflets 11—15 or rarely 19, oblong-lanceolate, acute or
              acuminate, the lower often rounded at the apex.
                                                  5. J. californica (G).
    Nuts obscurely or not at all grooved, up to 2′ in diameter; leaflets
          15—19, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, long-pointed.
                                                      6. J. Hindsii (G).


                    1. Juglans cinerea L. Butternut.

[Illustration: Fig. 163]

Leaves 15′—30′ long, with stout pubescent petioles, and 11—17
oblong-lanceolate acute or acuminate leaflets 2′—3′ long, 1½′—2′ wide,
finely serrate except at the unequal rounded base, glandular and sticky
as they unfold, at maturity thin, yellow-green and rugose above, pale
and soft-pubescent below; turning yellow or brown and falling early in
the autumn. Flowers: staminate in thick aments 3′—5′ long; calyx usually
6-lobed, light yellow-green, puberulous on the outer surface, ¼′ long,
its bract rusty-pubescent, acute at apex; stamens 8—12, with nearly
sessile dark brown anthers and slightly lobed connectives; pistillate in
6—8-flowered spikes, constricted above the middle, about ⅓′ long, its
bract and bractlets coated with sticky white or pink glandular hairs and
rather shorter than the linear-lanceolate calyx-lobes; stigmas bright
red, ½′ long. Fruit in 3—5 fruited drooping clusters, obscurely 2 or
rarely 4-ridged, ovoid-oblong, coated with rusty clammy matted hairs,
1½′—2½′ long with a thick husk; nut ovoid, abruptly contracted and
acuminate at apex, with 4 prominent and 4 narrow less conspicuous ribs,
light brown, deeply sculptured between the ribs into thin broad
irregular longitudinal plates, 2-celled at the base and 1-celled above
the middle; seed sweet, very oily, soon becoming rancid.

A tree, occasionally 100° high, with a tall straight trunk 2°—3° in
diameter, and sometimes free of branches for half its height; more
frequently divided 20° or 30° above the ground into many stout limbs
spreading horizontally and forming a broad low symmetrical round-topped
head, and dark orange-brown or bright green rather lustrous branchlets
coated at first with rufous pubescence, covered more or less thickly
with pale lenticels, gradually becoming puberulous, brown tinged with
red or orange in their second year and marked by light gray leaf-scars
with large black fibro-vascular bundle-scars and elevated bands of pale
tomentum separating them from the lowest axillary bud. Winter-buds:
terminal ½′—⅔′ long, ¼′ wide, flattened and obliquely truncate at apex,
their outer scales coated with short pale pubescence; axillary buds
ovoid, flattened, rounded at apex, ⅛′ long, covered with rusty brown or
pale pubescence. Bark of young stems and of the branches smooth and
light gray, becoming on old trees ¾′—1′ thick, light brown, deeply
divided into broad ridges separating on the surface into small appressed
plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, light
brown, turning darker with exposure, with thin light-colored sapwood
composed of 5 or 6 layers of annual growth; largely employed in the
interior finish of houses, and for furniture. The inner bark possesses
mild cathartic properties. Sugar is made from the sap, and the green
husks of the fruit are used to dye cloth yellow or orange color.

Distribution. Rich moist soil near the banks of streams and on low rocky
hills, southern New Brunswick to the valley of the St. Lawrence River in
Ontario, the northern peninsular of Michigan, southern Minnesota,
eastern South Dakota, eastern Iowa, southeastern Nebraska, and southward
to central Kansas, northern Arkansas, Delaware, eastern Virginia, and on
the Appalachian Mountains and their foothills to northern Georgia; in
northern Alabama, southern Illinois and western Tennessee; most abundant
northward.

Occasionally cultivated.

× _Juglans quadrangulata_ A. Rehd., a natural hybrid of _J. cinerea_ and
the so-called English Walnut (_J. regia_) is not uncommon in eastern
Massachusetts, and a hybrid of _J. cinerea_ with the Japanese _J.
Sieboldiana_ Maxm. has appeared in the United States.


                   2. Juglans nigra L. Black Walnut.

[Illustration: Fig. 164]

Leaves 1°—2° long, with pubescent petioles, and 15—23 ovate-lanceolate
leaflets 3′—3½′ long, 1′—1¼′ wide, long-pointed, sharply serrate except
at the more or less rounded often unequal base, thin, bright
yellow-green, lustrous and glabrous above, soft-pubescent below,
especially along the slender midrib and primary veins; turning bright
clear yellow in the autumn before falling. Flowers: staminate in stout
puberulous aments 3′—5′ long, calyx rotund, 6-lobed, with nearly
orbicular lobes concave and pubescent on the outer surface, its bract ¼′
long, nearly triangular, coated with rusty brown or pale tomentum;
stamens 20—30, arranged in many series, with nearly sessile purple and
truncate connectives; pistillate in 2—5 flowered spikes, ovoid,
gradually narrowed at the apex, ¼′ long, their bract and bractlets
coated below with pale glandular hairs and green and puberulous above,
sometimes irregularly cut into a laciniate border, or reduced to an
obscure ring just below the apex of the ovary; calyx-lobes ovate, acute,
light green, puberulous on the outer, glabrous or pilose on the inner
surface; stigmas yellow-green tinged on the margins with red, ½′—¾′
long. Fruit solitary or in pairs, globose, oblong and pointed at apex,
or slightly pyriform, light yellow-green, roughened by clusters of short
pale articulate hairs, 1½′—2′ in diameter, with a thick husk; nut oval
or oblong, slightly flattened, 1⅛′—1½′ in diameter, dark brown tinged
with red, deeply divided on the outer surface into thin or thick often
interrupted irregular ridges, 4-celled at base and slightly 2-celled at
the apex; seed sweet, soon becoming rancid.

A tree, frequently 100° and occasionally 150° high, with a straight
trunk often clear of branches for 50°—60° and 4°—6° in diameter, thick
limbs spreading gradually and forming a comparatively narrow shapely
round-topped head of mostly upright rigid branches, and stout branchlets
covered at first with pale or rusty matted hairs, dull orange-brown and
pilose or puberulous during their first winter, marked by raised
conspicuous orange-colored lenticels and elevated pale leaf-scars,
gradually growing darker and ultimately light brown. Winter-buds:
terminal ovoid, slightly flattened, obliquely rounded at apex, coated
with pale silky tomentum, ⅓′ long, with usually 4 obscurely pinnate
scales; axillary ⅛′ long, tomentose, their outer scales opening at the
apex during the winter. Bark of young stems and branches light brown and
covered with thin scales, becoming on old trees 2′—3′ thick, dark brown
slightly tinged with red, and deeply divided into broad rounded ridges
broken on the surface into thick appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard,
strong, rather coarse-grained, very durable, rich dark brown, with thin
lighter colored sapwood of 10—20 layers of annual growth; largely used
in cabinet-making, the interior finish of houses, gun-stocks,
air-planes, and in boat and shipbuilding.

Distribution. Rich bottom-lands and fertile hillsides, western
Massachusetts to southern Ontario, southern Michigan, southeastern
Minnesota, central and northern Nebraska, central Kansas, eastern
Oklahoma, and southward to western Florida, central Alabama and
Mississippi, and the valley of the San Antonio River, Texas; most
abundant in the region west of the Alleghany Mountains, and of its
largest size on the western slopes of the high mountains of North
Carolina and Tennessee, and on the fertile river bottom-lands of
southern Illinois and Indiana, southwestern Arkansas, and Oklahoma;
largely destroyed for its valuable timber, and now rare.

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in the eastern United
States, and in western and central Europe. × _Juglans intermedia_ Carr.,
a natural hybrid, of _J. nigra_ with the so-called English Walnut (_J.
regia_) has appeared in the United States and Europe, and on the banks
of the James River in Virginia has grown to a larger size than any other
recorded Walnut-tree. In California a hybrid, known as “Royal,” between
_J. nigra_ and _J. Hindsii_ has been artificially produced.


                     3. Juglans major Hell. Nogal.

                 _Juglans rupestris_ var. _major_ Torr.
            _Juglans rupestris_ Sarg., in part, not Engelm.

[Illustration: Fig. 165]

Leaves 8′—12′ long, with slender pubescent petioles and rachis, and 9—13
rarely 19 oblong-lanceolate to ovate acuminate often slightly falcate
coarsely serrate leaflets cuneate or rounded at base, coated when they
first appear with scurfy pubescence, soon becoming glabrous, or at
maturity slightly pubescent on the midrib below, 3′—4′, or those of the
lower pairs 1½′—2′ long, and 1′—1½′ wide, thin, yellow-green, with a
thin conspicuous yellow midrib and primary veins. Flowers: staminate in
slender puberulous or pubescent aments 8′—10′ long; calyx nearly
orbicular, long-stalked, pale yellow-green, 5 or 6-lobed, the lobes
ovate, acute, hoary pubescent on the outer surface, their bract acute,
coated with thick pale tomentum; stamens 30—40, with nearly sessile
yellow anthers, and slightly divided connectives; pistillate not seen.
Fruit subglobose to slightly ovoid or oblong, abruptly contracted at
apex into a short point (_J. elæopyren_ Dode), densely tomentose when
half grown, 1′—1½′ in diameter, with a thin husk covered with close
rufous pubescence; nut dark brown or black, slightly compressed, usually
rather broader than high, or ovoid, rounded or bluntly acute at apex,
rounded and sometimes depressed at base, longitudinally grooved with
broad deep grooves, thick shelled; seed small and sweet.

A tree sometimes 50° high, with a straight trunk occasionally 3°—4° in
diameter, or divided at the ground into several large stems, stout
branches forming a narrow head, and slender branchlets thickly coated
when they first appear with rufous pubescence, becoming red-brown,
pubescent or puberulous and marked by many small pale lenticels at the
end of their first season and ashy gray the following year.

Distribution. Banks of streams in the cañons of central and southern New
Mexico and Arizona, and on Oak Creek near Flagstaff, Arizona on the
Colorado plateau (_P. Lowell_).


                  4. Juglans rupestris Engelm. Walnut.

[Illustration: Fig. 166]

Leaves 9′—12′ long, with slender pubescent or puberulous petioles and
rachis, and 13—23 narrow lanceolate long-pointed usually falcate finely
serrate leaflets entire or nearly entire on their incurved margins,
cuneate or rounded at base, thin, light green, glabrous or pubescent on
the midrib below, 2′—3′ long and ⅓′—⅔′ wide. Flowers: staminate in
slender aments, 3′—4′ long, pubescent when they first appear, becoming
glabrous; calyx short-stalked, nearly orbicular, light yellow-green,
puberulous on the outer surface, 3—5-lobed with rounded lobes, their
bracts ovate-lanceolate, coated with hoary tomentum; stamens about 20,
with nearly sessile yellow anthers and slightly lobed connectives;
pistillate flowers oblong, narrowed at the ends, thickly coated with
rufous pubescence; bract and bractlets irregularly divided into a
laciniate border rather shorter than the ovate acute calyx-lobes;
stigmas green tinged with red, ⅓′ long. Fruit globose or subglobose,
tipped with the persistent remnants of the calyx, pubescent or
puberulous with rusty hairs, ½′—¾′ in diameter, with a thin husk; nut
subglobose to slightly ovoid, sometimes obscurely 4-ridged from the apex
nearly to the middle (_J. subrupestris_ Dode), deeply grooved with
longitudinal simple or forked grooves, 4-celled at base, 2-celled at
apex, thick shelled; seed small and sweet.

A shrubby round-headed tree occasionally 20°—30° high, with a short
generally leaning trunk 18′—30′ in diameter, usually branching from near
the ground, and slender branchlets coated with pale scurfy pubescence
often persistent for two or three years, orange-red and marked by pale
lenticels in their first winter and ultimately ashy gray; often a shrub
with clustered stems only a few feet high. Winter-buds: terminal, ¼′—½′
long, compressed, narrowed and often oblique at apex, covered with pale
tomentum; axillary ⅛′ long, compressed, coated with pale pubescence.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, rich dark brown with thick white sapwood.
The beauty of the veneers obtained from the stumps of the large trees is
fast causing their destruction.

Distribution. Limestone banks of the streams of southern, central and
western Texas from the Rio Grande to the mountains in the western part
of the state; western Oklahoma (Kiowa, Greer, Beckham, Rogel, Mills and
Ellis Counties); southeastern New Mexico.

Occasionally cultivated in the eastern United States and in Europe, and
hardy as far north as eastern Massachusetts; interesting as producing
the smallest nuts of any of the known Walnut-trees.


                    5. Juglans californica S. Wats.

[Illustration: Fig. 167]

Leaves 6′—9′ long, with glandular pubescent petioles and rachis, and
11—15, rarely 19, oblong-lanceolate acute or acuminate glabrous finely
serrate leaflets cuneate or rounded at base, 1′—2½′ long and ⅓′—¾′ wide,
the lower often rounded at apex. Flowers: staminate in slender glabrous
or puberulous aments 2′—3′ long; calyx puberulous on the outer surface
with acute or rarely rounded lobes, its bract, puberulous; stamens
30—40, with yellow anthers and short connectives bifid at apex; the
pistillate subglobose, puberulous; stigmas yellow, ½′ long. Fruit
globose, ⅓′—¾′ in diameter, with a thin dark-colored puberulous husk;
nut nearly globose, deeply grooved with longitudinal grooves, thick
shelled, 4-celled at base, imperfectly 2-celled at apex; seed small and
sweet.

A shrubby round-headed tree or shrub generally 12°—20°, rarely 40°—50°
high, usually branching from the ground or with a short trunk 1° or
rarely 2°—3° in diameter, and slender branchlets coated with scurfy
rufous pubescence when they first appear, glabrous, reddish brown and
marked by pale lenticels at the end of their first season and gray the
following year. Winter-buds coated with rufous tomentum.

Distribution. Banks of streams and bottom-lands in the southern
California coast region from Santa Barbara and the Ojai valley to San
Fernando and the Sierra Santa Monica, and along the foothills of the
Sierra Madre to the San Bernardino Mountains and southward to the Sierra
Santa Anna.

A curious seminal variety (var. _quercina_ Babcock) with compound leaves
composed of 3 oval leaflets, the terminal long-stalked and 2 or 3 times
larger than the lateral leaflets, is occasionally cultivated in
California.


                        6. Juglans Hindsii Rehd.

                _Juglans californica_ S. Wats., in part.
               _Juglans californica_ var. _Hindsii_ Jep.

[Illustration: Fig. 168]

Leaves 9′—12′ long, with slender villose pubescent petioles and rachis,
and 15—19, usually 19, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate long-pointed often
slightly falcate leaflets, serrate with remote teeth except toward the
usually rounded cuneate or rarely cordate base, thin, puberulous above
while young, becoming bright green, lustrous and glabrous on the upper
surface, below furnished with conspicuous tufts of pale hairs, and
villose-pubescent along the midrib and primary veins, 2½′—4′ long and
¾′—1′ wide. Flowers: staminate in slender glabrous or sparingly villose
aments 3′—5′ long; calyx elongated, coated like its bract with scurfy
pubescence, divided into 5 or 6 acute lobes; stamens 30—40, with short
connectives bifid at apex; ovary of the pistillate flower oblong-ovoid,
thickly covered with villose pubescence, ⅛′ long, the border of the thin
bract and bractlets much shorter than the calyx-lobes; stigma yellow.
Fruit globose, 1¼′—2′ in diameter, with a thin dark-colored husk covered
with short soft pubescence; nut nearly globose, somewhat flattened at
the ends, faintly grooved with remote longitudinal depressions, thick
shelled; seed small and sweet.

A tree usually 30°—40°, occasionally 75° high, with a tall trunk 1°—2°
in diameter, stout pendulous branches forming a narrow round-topped
head, and comparatively slender branchlets thickly coated when they
first appear with villose pubescence, reddish brown and puberulous, and
marked by pale lenticels and small elevated obscurely 3-lobed leaf scars
during their first winter, becoming darker and nearly glabrous in their
second year. Winter-buds coated with hoary tomentum; terminal acute,
compressed, more or less enlarged at apex, ¼′—⅓′ long; axillary usually
solitary, nearly globose, about 1/16′ in diameter. Bark gray-brown,
smoothish, longitudinally fissured into narrow plates. Wood heavy, hard,
rather coarse-grained, dark brown often mottled, with thick pale sapwood
of from 8 to 10 layers of annual growth.

Distribution. Coast region of central California; banks of the lower
Sacramento River; along streams near the western base of Mt. Diablo, and
on eastern slope of the Napa Range near Atlas Peak east of Napa Valley;
near Loyalton in the Sierra Valley.

Often cultivated in California as a shade tree and as stock on which to
graft varieties of _Juglans regia_ L., and rarely in the eastern states
and in Europe. In California, a hybrid known as “Paradox” between _J.
Hindsii_ and _J. regia_ has been artificially produced.



                        2. CARYA NUTT. Hickory.


                            _Hicoria_ Rafn.

Trees, with smooth gray bark becoming on old trunks rough or scaly,
strong hard tough brown heartwood, pale sapwood and tough terete
flexible branchlets, solid pith, buds covered with few valvate or with
numerous imbricated scales, the axillary buds much smaller than the
terminal. Leaves often glandular-dotted, their petioles sometimes
persistent on the branches during the winter, and in falling leaving
large elevated oblong or semiorbicular more or less 3-lobed emarginate
leaf-scars displaying small marginal clusters and central radiating
lines of dark fibro-vascular bundle-scars; leaflets involute in the bud,
ovate or obovate, usually acuminate, thick and firm, serrate, mostly
unequal at base, with veins forked and running to the margins; turning
clear bright yellow in the autumn. Aments of the staminate flowers
ternate, slender, solitary or fascicled in the axils of leaves of the
previous or rarely of the current year, or at the base of branches of
the year from the inner scales of the terminal bud, the lateral branches
in the axils of lanceolate acute persistent bracts; calyx usually 2
rarely 3-lobed, its bract free nearly to the base and usually much
longer than the ovate rounded or acuminate calyx-lobes; stamens 3—10, in
2 or 3 series, their anthers ovate-oblong, emarginate or divided at
apex, yellow or red, pilose or hirsute, as long or longer than their
slender connectives; pistillate flowers sessile, in 2—10-flowered
spikes, with a perianth-like involucre, slightly 4-ridged, unequally
4-lobed at apex, villose and covered on the outer surface with yellow
scales more or less persistent on the fruit, the bract much longer than
the bractlets and the single calyx-lobe; stigmas short,
papillose-stigmatic. Fruit ovoid, globose or pyriform, with a thin or
thick husk becoming hard and woody at maturity, 4-valved, the sutures
alternate with those of the nut, sometimes more or less broadly winged,
splitting to the base or to the middle; nut oblong, obovoid or
subglobose, acute, acuminate, or rounded at apex, tipped by the hardened
remnants of the style, narrowed and usually rounded at base, cylindric,
or compressed contrary to the valves, the shell thin and brittle or
thick, hard, and bony, smooth or variously rugose or ridged on the outer
surface, 4-celled at base, 2-celled at apex. Seed compressed, variously
grooved on the back of the flat or concave lobes, sweet or bitter.

_Carya_ is confined to the temperate region of eastern North America
from the valley of the St. Lawrence River to the highlands of Mexico,
and to southern China where one species occurs. Of the seventeen
species, fifteen inhabit the territory of the United States.

The generic name is from Καρύα, an ancient name of the Walnut.


            CONSPECTUS OF THE SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES.

  Bud-scales valvate, the inner strap-shaped and only occasionally
        slightly accrescent; fruit more or less broadly winged at the
        sutures; the thin partitions of the nut containing cavities
        filled with dark astringent powder (absent in 3 and 5).
    Shell of the nut thin and brittle; leaflets more or less falcate.
      Aments of staminate flowers nearly sessile, usually on branches of
            the previous year; lobes of the seed entire or slightly
            notched at apex.
        Leaflets 9—17; nut ovoid-oblong, cylindric; seed sweet.
                                                     1. C. pecan (A, C).
        Leaflets 7—13; nut oblong, compressed; seed bitter.
                                                       2. C. texana (C).
      Aments of staminate flowers pedunculate, on branches of the year
            or of the previous year; lobes of the bitter seed deeply
            2-lobed.
        Leaflets 7—9; nut cylindric or slightly compressed.
                                               3. C. cordiformis (A, C).
        Leaflets 7—13; nut compressed, usually conspicuously wrinkled.
                                                     4. C. aquatica (C).
    Shell of the ellipsoidal cylindric nut thick and hard; lobes of the
          sweet seed deeply 2-lobed; leaflets 7—9, occasionally 5,
          rarely slightly falcate; aments of staminate flowers
          long-pedunculate at the base of branches of the year.
                                              5. C. myristicæformis (C).
  Bud-scales imbricated, the inner becoming much enlarged and often
        highly colored; aments of staminate flowers on peduncles from
        the base of branches of the year, rarely from the axils of
        leaves; fruit usually without wings; partitions of the nut thick
        without cavities filled with astringent powder; seed sweet, its
        lobes deeply 2-lobed.
    Branchlets usually stout (slender in 7); involucre ¼′—½′ in
          thickness, opening freely to the base.
      Bark on old trunks separating into long, broad, loosely attached
            plates; nuts pale.
        Branchlets light red-brown; shell of the nut thin.
          Leaflets 5 or rarely 7, obovate to ovate, acute or acuminate;
                nut much compressed, often long-pointed at apex;
                branchlets glabrous or pubescent.
                                                     6. C. ovata (A, C).
          Leaflets 5, lanceolate, acuminate; nut little compressed,
                acute at apex; branchlets slender, glabrous.
                                     7. C. carolinæ-septentrionalis (C).
        Branchlets pale orange color, pubescent; leaflets usually 7—9;
              shell of the nut thick.
                                                 8. C. laciniosa (A, C).
      Bark not scaly, on old trunks dark, deeply ridged; leaflets 7—9,
            often subcoriaceous, pubescent below; nut reddish brown,
            often long-pointed, thick shelled; branchlets pubescent.
                                                      9. C. alba (A, C).
    Branchlets slender; leaves 5—7-foliolate; involucre of the fruit
          tardily dehiscent to the middle, indehiscent or opening freely
          to the base; shell of the nut thick, bark close, (sometimes
          scaly in 13).
      Branchlets and leaves not covered when they first appear with
            rusty brown pubescence.
        Involucre of the fruit 3—5.5 mm. in thickness, opening freely to
              the base, leaves usually 7-foliolate; winter-buds
              pubescent.
          Leaflets hoary tomentose below in early spring, slightly
                pubescent at maturity; petioles and rachis glabrous;
                fruit broad-obovoid; branchlets glabrous.
                                                  10. C. leiodermis (C).
          Leaflets covered in early spring with silvery scales, pale and
                pubescent below during the season; petioles and rachis
                more or less thickly covered with fascicled hairs; fruit
                ellipsoidal to obovoid or globose; branchlets glabrous
                or slightly pubescent.
                                                  11. C. pallida (A, C).
        Involucre of the fruit 1—3 mm. in thickness; winter-buds
              glabrous or puberulous.
          Leaves 5, rarely 7-foliolate, glabrous or rarely slightly
                pubescent; fruit obovoid, often narrowed below into a
                stipitate base, the involucre indehiscent or tardily
                dehiscent.
                                                   12. C. glabra (A, C).
          Leaves generally 7-foliolate, glabrous or rarely pubescent;
                fruit ellipsoidal, subglobose or obovoid, the involucre
                opening freely to the base; bark often more or less
                scaly.
                                                   13. C. ovalis (A, C).
      Branchlets and leaves densely covered when they first appear with
            rusty brown pubescence; leaflets usually 5—7; winter-buds
            rusty pubescent.
        Fruit obovoid; the involucre 2—3 mm. in thickness; peduncles of
              the aments of staminate flowers often from the axils of
              leaves; branchlets soon becoming glabrous.
                                                   14. C. floridana (C).
        Fruit subglobose to broadly obovoid, ellipsoidal or pyriform,
              the involucre on the different varieties 2—13 mm. in
              thickness; branchlets pubescent through their first
              season.
                                                 15. C. Buckleyi (A, C).


                   1. Carya pecan Asch. & Gr. Pecan.

[Illustration: Fig. 169]

Leaves 12′—20′ long, with slender glabrous or pubescent petioles, and
9—17 lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate more or less falcate long-pointed
coarsely often doubly serrate leaflets rounded or cuneate at the unequal
base; sessile, except the terminal leaflet, or short-stalked, dark
yellow-green and glabrous or pilose above, and pale and glabrous or
pubescent below, 4′—8′ long, 1′—3′ wide, with a narrow yellow midrib and
conspicuous veins. Flowers: staminate in slender puberulous clustered
aments 3′—5′ long, from buds formed in the axils of leaves of the
previous year or occasionally on shoots of the year, sessile or
short-stalked, light yellow-green and hirsute on the outer surface, with
broadly ovate acute lobes rather shorter than the oblong or obovate
bract; stamens 5′ or 6′; anthers yellow, slightly villose; pistillate in
few or many flowered spikes, oblong, narrowed at the ends, slightly
4-angled and coated with yellow scurfy pubescence. Fruit in clusters of
3—11, pointed at apex, rounded at the narrowed base, 4-winged and
angled, 1′—2½′ long, ½′—1′ broad, dark brown and more or less thickly
covered with yellow scales, with a thin, brittle husk splitting at
maturity nearly to the base and often persistent on the branch during
the winter after the discharge of the nut; nut ovoid to ellipsoidal,
nearly cylindric or slightly 4-angled toward the pointed apex, rounded
and usually apiculate at base, bright reddish brown, with irregular
black markings with a thin shell and papery partitions; seed sweet,
red-brown, its nearly flat lobes grooved from near the base to the apex
by 2 deep longitudinal grooves.

A tree, 100°—180° high, with a tall massive trunk occasionally 6° or 7°
in diameter above its enlarged and buttressed base, stout slightly
spreading branches forming in the forest a narrow symmetrical and
inversely pyramidal head, or with abundant room a broad round-topped
crown, and branchlets at first slightly tinged with red and coated with
loose pale tomentum, becoming glabrous or puberulous in their first
winter, and marked by numerous oblong orange-colored lenticels and by
large oblong concave leaf-scars with a broad thin membranaceous border
surrounding the lower axillary bud. Winter-buds acute, compressed,
covered with clusters of bright yellow articulate hairs and pale
tomentum; terminal ½′ long; axillary ovoid, often stalked, especially
the large upper bud. Bark 1′—1½′ thick, light brown tinged with red, and
deeply and irregularly divided into narrow forked ridges broken on the
surface into thick appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, not strong,
brittle, coarse-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thin light
brown sapwood; less valuable than that of most Hickories, and used
chiefly for fuel, and occasionally in the manufacture of wagons and
agricultural implements. The nuts, which vary in size and shape and in
the thickness of their shells and in the quality of the kernels, are an
important article of commerce.

Distribution. Low rich ground in the neighborhood of streams; in the
valley of the Mississippi River, Iowa (Clinton and Muscatine Counties),
southern Illinois, southwestern Indiana (Sullivan and Spencer Counties),
western Kentucky and Tennessee, western Mississippi and Louisiana,
extreme western and southwestern Missouri (Jackson County southward,
common only on the Marias de Cygne River), eastern Kansas to Kickapoo
Island in the Missouri River near Fort Leavenworth, Oklahoma to the
valley of the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River (near Alva, Woods County)
and to creek valleys near Cache, Comanche County (_G. W. Stevens_),
through Arkansas; and in Texas to the valley of the Devil’s River and to
that of Warder’s Creek, Hardiman County; reappearing on the mountains of
Mexico; most abundant and of its largest size in southern Arkansas and
eastern Texas.

Largely cultivated in the Southern States, in many selected varieties,
for its valuable nuts.


                  2. Carya texana Schn. Bitter Pecan.

[Illustration: Fig. 170]

Leaves 10′—12′ long, with slender petioles, and 7—13 lanceolate
acuminate finely serrate leaflets, hoary-tomentose when they unfold, and
more or less villose in the autumn, thin and firm, dark yellow-green and
nearly glabrous above, pale yellow-green and puberulous below, 3′—5′
long, about 1½′ wide, the terminal leaflet gradually narrowed to the
acute base and short-stalked, the lateral often falcate, unsymmetrical
at the base, subsessile or short-stalked. Flowers: staminate in villose
aments 2′—3′ long, light yellow-green and villose on the outer surface,
with oblong-ovate rounded lobes; pistillate in few fruited spikes,
oblong, slightly 4-angled, villose. Fruit oblong or oblong-obovoid,
apiculate at apex, slightly 4-winged at base, dark brown, more or less
covered with yellow scales, 1½′—2′ long, with a thin husk; nut
oblong-ovoid or oblong-obovoid, compressed, acute at the ends,
short-pointed at apex, apiculate at base, obscurely 4-angled, bright
red-brown, rough and pitted, with a thin brittle shell, thin papery
walls, and a low basal ventral partition; seed very bitter, bright
red-brown, flattened, its lobes rounded and slightly divided at apex,
longitudinally grooved and deeply penetrated on the outer face by the
prominent reticulated folds of the inner surface of the shell of the
nut.

A tree, sometimes 100° high on the bottoms of the Brazos River, with a
tall straight trunk 3° in diameter, and ascending branches, or on the
borders of prairies in low wet woods usually 15°—25° tall, with a short
trunk 8′—10′ in diameter, small spreading branches forming a narrow
round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at first with thick
hoary tomentum sometimes persistent until the autumn, bright red-brown
and marked by occasional large pale lenticels during their first winter
and by the large concave obcordate leaf-scars nearly surrounding the
lowest axillary bud, becoming darker in their second season and dark or
light gray-brown in their third year. Winter-buds covered with light
yellow articulate hairs; the terminal oblong, acute, or acuminate,
somewhat compressed, about ¼′ long, and rather longer than the upper
lateral bud. Bark ½′—¾′ thick, light reddish brown, and roughened by
closely appressed variously shaped plate-like scales. Wood
close-grained, tough and strong, light red-brown, with pale brown
sapwood.

Distribution. Bottom-lands and low wet woods; valley of the lower Brazos
River, Texas; near Lake Charles, Calcasieu Parish, and Laurel Hill, West
Feliciana Parish, Louisiana; near Natchez, Adams County, Mississippi;
valley of the Arkansas River (Arkansas Post, Arkansas County, and Van
Buren, Crawford County), Arkansas.


            3. Carya cordiformis K. Koch. Pignut. Bitternut.

[Illustration: Fig. 171]

Leaves 6′—10′ long, with slender pubescent or hirsute petioles, and 7—9
lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate or obovate long-pointed sessile leaflets
coarsely serrate except at the equally or unequally cuneate or
subcordate base, thin and firm, dark yellow-green and glabrous above,
lighter and pubescent below, especially along the midrib, 4′—6′ long,
¾′—1¼′ wide, or occasionally 2′—4′ wide (var. _latifolia_ Sarg.).
Flowers: staminate in slightly pubescent aments, 3′—4′ long, coated with
rufous hairs like its ovate acute bract; stamens 4, with yellow anthers
deeply emarginate and villose at apex; pistillate in 1 or 2-flowered
spikes, slightly 4-angled, covered with yellow scurfy tomentum. Fruit
cylindric or slightly compressed, ¾′—1½′ long, obovoid to subglobose, or
oblong and acute at apex (var. _elongata_ Ashe), 4-winged from the apex
to about the middle, with a thin puberulous husk, more or less thickly
coated with small yellow scales; nut ovoid or oblong, often broader than
long, compressed and marked at base with dark lines along the sutures
and alternate with them, depressed or obcordate, and abruptly contracted
into a long or short point at apex, gray tinged with red or light
reddish brown, with a thin brittle shell; seed bright reddish brown,
very bitter, much compressed, deeply rugose, with irregular cross-folds.

A tree, often 100° high, with a tall straight trunk 2°—3° in diameter,
stout spreading branches forming a broad handsome head, and slender
branchlets marked by oblong pale lenticels, bright green and covered
more or less thickly with rusty hairs when they first appear, reddish
brown and glabrous or puberulous during their first summer, reddish
brown and lustrous during the winter and ultimately light gray, with
small elevated obscurely 3-lobed obcordate leaf-scars. Winter-buds
compressed, scurfy pubescent, bright yellow; terminal ⅓′—¾′ long,
oblique at apex, with 2 pairs of scales; lateral 2-angled, often
stalked, ⅛′—¼′ long, with ovate pointed slightly accrescent scales
keeled on the back. Bark ⅓′—¾′ thick, light brown tinged with red, and
broken into thin plate-like scales separating on the surface into small
thin flakes. Wood heavy, very hard, strong, tough, close-grained, dark
brown, with thick light brown or often nearly white sapwood; largely
used for hoops and ox-yokes, and for fuel.

Distribution. Low wet woods near the borders of streams and swamps or on
high rolling uplands often remote from streams, southern Maine to Quebec
and Ontario, the northern shores of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan,
northern Minnesota, southeastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, eastern
Oklahoma, and southward to northwestern Florida, Dallas County, Alabama,
and eastern Texas; generally distributed, but not very abundant in all
the central states east and west of the Appalachian Mountains; ranging
farther north than the other species, and growing to its largest size on
the bottom-lands of the lower Ohio basin; the common Hickory of Iowa,
Nebraska, and Kansas.

A natural hybrid, × _C. Brownii_ Sarg. of _C. cordiformis_ with _C.
pecan_, with characters intermediate between those of its supposed
parents, occurs on bottom-land of the Arkansas River near Van Buren,
Crawford County, Arkansas. Probably of the same parentage is the
so-called Galloway Nut found in Hamilton County, Ohio. Another hybrid, ×
_C. Brownii_ var. _varians_ Sarg., probably of the same parentage also,
occurs near Van Buren. × _C. Laneyi_ Sarg., a natural hybrid evidently
of _C. cordiformis_ with _C. ovata_, has been found in Rochester, New
York, and trees considered varieties of the same hybrid, var.
_chateaugayensis_ Sarg., occur near the mouth of the Chateaugay River,
Province of Quebec, and at Summertown, Ontario.


                 4. Carya aquatica Nutt. Water Hickory.

[Illustration: Fig. 172]

Leaves 9′—15′ long, with slender dark red puberulous or tomentose
petioles, and 7—13 ovate-lanceolate long-pointed falcate leaflets
symmetrical and rounded or cuneate and unsymmetrical and oblique at
base, finely or coarsely serrate, sessile or stalked, 3′—5′ long, ½′—1½′
wide, covered with yellow glandular dots, thin, dark green above, brown
and lustrous or tomentose on the lower surface, especially on the
slender midrib and primary veins, the terminal leaflet more or less
decurrent by its wedge-shaped base on a slender stalk or rarely nearly
sessile. Flowers: staminate in solitary or fascicled hirsute aments
2½′—3′ long, covered like their bract with yellow glandular pubescence;
stamens 6, with yellow puberulous anthers; pistillate in several
flowered spikes, oblong, slightly flattened, 4-angled,
glandular-pubescent. Fruit often in 3 or 4-fruited clusters, much
compressed, usually broadest above the middle, rounded at the slightly
narrowed base, rounded or abruptly narrowed at apex, conspicuously
4-winged, dark brown or nearly black, covered more or less thickly with
bright yellow-scales, 1½′ long, 1′—1¼′ wide, with a thin brittle husk
splitting tardily and usually only to the middle; nut flattened,
slightly obovoid, nearly as broad as long, rounded and abruptly
short-pointed at apex, rounded at the narrow base, 4-angled and ridged,
dark reddish brown, and longitudinally and very irregularly wrinkled,
with a thin shell; seed oblong, compressed, dark brown, irregularly and
usually longitudinally furrowed, very bitter.

A tree, occasionally 80°—100° high, with a trunk rarely exceeding 2° in
diameter, slender upright branches forming a narrow head, and slender
dark reddish brown or ashy gray lustrous branchlets marked by numerous
pale lenticels, at first slightly glandular and coated with loose pale
tomentum, glabrous or puberulous during the summer, and marked during
the winter by small nearly oval or obscurely 3-lobed slightly elevated
leaf-scars, growing dark red-brown and ultimately gray. Winter-buds
slightly flattened, acute, dark reddish brown, covered with caducous
yellow scales; terminal ⅛′—¼′ long, often villose; axillary much
smaller, frequently nearly sessile, often solitary. Bark ½′—⅔′ thick,
separating freely into long loose plate-like light brown scales tinged
with red. Wood heavy, strong, close-grained, rather brittle, dark brown,
with thick light-colored or often nearly white sapwood; occasionally
used for fencing and fuel.

Distribution. River swamps often inundated during a considerable part of
the year from southeastern Virginia southward through the coast regions
to the shores of Indian River and the valley of the Suwanee River,
Florida, through the maritime portions of the Gulf states to the valley
of the Brazos River, Texas, and northward through western Louisiana to
southeastern Missouri, and to northeastern Louisiana, western
Mississippi, and the valley of the lower Wabash River, Illinois; passing
into the var. _australis_ Sarg. with narrower leaflets, smaller
ellipsoidal fruit, pale red-brown nuts without longitudinal wrinkles,
and with close not scaly bark of the trunk. A large tree in dry sandy
soil; high banks of the St. John’s River, near San Mateo, Putnam County,
near Jupiter, Palm Beach County, banks of the Caloosahatchie River at
Alma, Lee County, and Old Town, Lafayette County, Florida; near
Marshall, Harrison County, Texas.


             5. Carya myristicæformis Nutt. Nutmeg Hickory.

[Illustration: Fig. 173]

Leaves 7′—14′ long, with slender terete scurfy-pubescent petioles, and
7—9, occasionally 5, ovate-lanceolate to broadly obovate acute leaflets
usually equally or sometimes unequally cuneate or rounded at the narrow
base, coarsely serrate, short-stalked or nearly sessile, thin and firm,
dark green above, more or less pubescent or nearly glabrous and silvery
white and very lustrous below, 4′—5′ long, 1′—1½′ wide, with a pale
scurfy pubescent midrib; changing late in the season to bright
golden-bronze color and then very conspicuous. Flowers: staminate in
aments 3′—4′ long and coated like the ovate-oblong acute bract and calyx
of the flower with dark brown scurfy pubescence; stamens 6, with yellow
anthers; pistillate oblong, narrowed at the ends, slightly 4-angled,
covered with thick brown scurfy pubescence. Fruit usually solitary,
ellipsoidal or slightly obovoid, 4-ridged to the base, with broad thick
ridges, 1½′ long, coated with yellow-brown scurfy pubescence, the husk
not more than 1/32′ thick, splitting nearly to the base; nut ellipsoidal
or sometimes slightly obovoid, 1′ long, ¾′ broad, rounded and apiculate
at the ends, smooth, dark reddish brown, and marked by longitudinal
broken bands of small gray spots covering the entire surface at the ends
with a thick hard and bony shell, a thick partition, and a low thin
dorsal division; seed sweet, small, dark brown; the lobes deeply 2-lobed
at apex.

A tree, 80°—100° high, with a tall straight trunk often 2° in diameter,
stout slightly spreading branches forming a comparatively narrow rather
open head, and slender branchlets coated with lustrous golden or brown
scales often persistent until the second year, light brown or ashy gray
during their first winter, ultimately dark reddish brown, and marked by
small scattered pale lenticels and small oval emarginate elevated
leaf-scars. Winter-buds covered with thick brown scurvy pubescence;
terminal ⅛′—¼′ long, ovoid, rather obtuse; axillary much smaller, acute,
slightly flattened, sessile or short-stalked, often solitary. Bark ½′—¾′
thick, dark brown tinged with red, and broken irregularly into small
thin appressed scales. Wood hard, very strong, tough, close-grained,
light brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood of 80—90 layers of
annual growth.

Distribution. Banks of rivers and swamps in rich moist soil or rarely on
higher ground; eastern South Carolina, central Alabama, eastern, and
northwestern (bluffs of the Yazoo River at Yazoo City) Mississippi,
southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, southeastern Oklahoma to Clear
Boggy Creek, western Choctaw County, and in Beaumont County, Texas; on
the mountains of northeastern Mexico; rare and local; abundant only in
southern Arkansas.


      6. Carya ovata K. Koch. Shellbark Hickory. Shagbark Hickory.

[Illustration: Fig. 174]

Leaves 8′—14′ long, with stout glabrous or pubescent petioles, and 5 or
rarely 7 ovate to ovate-lanceolate or obovate leaflets, acuminate or
rarely rounded at apex, more or less thickly ciliate on the margins,
finely serrate except toward the usually cuneate base, dark yellow-green
and glabrous above, paler, glabrous and lustrous or puberulous below,
the terminal leaflet decurrent on a slender stalk, 5′—7′ long, 2′—3′
wide, rather larger than the sessile or short-stalked upper leaflets,
and two or three times as large as those of the lowest pair. Flowers:
staminate opening after the leaves have grown nearly to their full size,
in slender light green glandular-hirsute aments 4′—5′ long,
glandular-hirsute, their elongated ovate-lanceolate acute bract two or
three times as long as the ovate concave rounded or acute calyx-lobes;
stamens 4, with yellow or red anthers hirsute above the middle;
pistillate in 2—5-flowered spikes, ⅓′ long, clothed with rusty tomentum.
Fruit solitary or in pairs, subglobose, rather longer than broad or
slightly obovoid, depressed at apex, dark reddish brown or nearly black
at maturity, roughened by small pale lenticels, glabrous or pilose,
1′—2½′ long, the husk, ⅛′—½′ thick, splitting freely to the base; nut
oblong, nearly twice as long as broad, or obovoid and broader than long,
compressed, prominently or obscurely 4-ridged and angled, acute and
gradually or abruptly narrowed or rounded or nearly truncate at apex,
gradually narrowed and rounded at base, pale or nearly white, with a
usually thin shell; seed light brown, lustrous, sweet, with an aromatic
flavor.

A tree, 70°—90° and occasionally 120° high, with a tall straight trunk
3°—4° in diameter, in the forest often free of branches for 50°—60°
above the ground and then divided into a few small limbs forming a
narrow head, or with more space sometimes dividing near the ground or at
half the height of the tree into stout slightly spreading limbs, forming
a narrow inversely conic round-topped head of more or less pendulous
branches, and stout branchlets marked with oblong pale lenticels,
covered at first with caducous brown scurf and coated with pale
glandular pubescence, soon bright reddish brown, and lustrous, glabrous
or pubescent, growing dark gray in their second year and ultimately
light gray, and marked by pale and slightly elevated ovate semiorbicular
or obscurely 3-lobed leaf-scars. Winter-buds: terminal broadly ovoid,
rather obtuse, ½′—¾′ long, ⅓′—½′ broad, the 3 or 4 outer scales nearly
triangular, acute, dark brown, pubescent and hirsute on the outer
surface, the exterior scales often abruptly narrowed into long rigid
points and deciduous before the unfolding of the leaves, the inner
scales lustrous, covered with resinous glands, yellow-green often tinged
with red, oblong-obovate, pointed, becoming 2½′—3′ long and ½′ broad,
usually persistent until after the fall of the staminate aments;
axillary buds coated at first with thick white tomentum, becoming ⅓′—½′
long when fully grown. Bark light gray, ¾′—1′ thick, separating in thick
plates often a foot or more long and 6′—8′ wide, and more or less
closely attached to the trunk by the middle, giving it the shaggy
appearance to which this tree owes its common name. Wood heavy, very
hard and strong, tough, close-grained, flexible, light brown, with thin
nearly white sapwood; largely used in the manufacture of agricultural
implements, carriages, wagons, and for axe-handles, baskets, and fuel.
The nut is the common Hickory nut of commerce.

Distribution. Low hills and the neighborhood of streams and swamps in
rich deep moderately moist soil; southern Maine to the valley of the St.
Lawrence River near Montreal, along the northern shores of Lakes Erie
and Ontario to central Michigan, central Wisconsin, southeastern
Minnesota, eastern Iowa and southeastern Nebraska, and southward to
western Florida, northern Alabama and Mississippi, and to eastern
Kansas, eastern Oklahoma, and eastern Texas; ranging further north than
other Hickories with the exception of _C. cordiformis_; and in the
Carolinas ascending to 3000° above the sea in valleys on the western
slope of the Blue Ridge. Variable in the size and shape of the nut and
in the character and amount of pubescence on the leaves and branchlets.
These varieties are distinguished: var. _Nuttallii_ Sarg., with nuts
rounded, obcordate or rarely pointed at apex, rounded or abruptly
pointed at base, much compressed, and only about ⅗′ long and ⅖′—½′
broad; not rare and widely distributed northward. Var. _complanata_
Sarg., with oblong-obovoid fruit and broadly obovoid much compressed
slightly angled nuts cuneate at base and rounded, truncate or slightly
obcordate at apex; a single tree on the Drushel Farm near Mt. Hope,
Holmes County, Ohio. Var. _ellipsoidalis_ Sarg., with ellipsoidal much
compressed nuts abruptly long-pointed at apex, and slender reddish
branchlets; near Hannibal, Marion County, and Oakwood, Rolles County,
northeastern Missouri, and Indian River, Lewis County, and near
Rochester, Munroe County, New York. Var. _pubescens_ Sarg., differing in
the dense pubescence of pale fascicled hairs on the young branchlets,
and on the petioles, rachis and under surface of the leaflets; bottoms
of the Savannah River, Calhoun Falls, Abbeville County, South Carolina,
bottom of Little River, Walker County, Georgia, Chattanooga Creek,
Hamilton County, Tennessee, Valley Head, DeKalb County, Alabama, and
Columbus, Lowndes County, Starkville, Oktibbeha County, and Brookville,
Noxubee County, Mississippi. More distinct is


                  Carya ovata var. fraxinifolia Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 175]

Leaves 7′—9′ long, with slender glabrous or puberulous petioles and 5
lanceolate to slightly oblanceolate acuminate finely serrate leaflets
glabrous except on the under side of the midrib, the terminal leaflet
4′—7′ long and 1′—1½′ wide, the lateral sessile, unsymmetrical at base,
those of the upper pair often larger than the terminal leaflet, those of
the lower pair 2′—2½′ long and 1′—1¼′ wide. Flowers as in the species.
Fruit obovoid, usually rounded at apex, compressed, about 1¼′ long, the
husk splitting freely to the base, ⅙′—⅕′ in thickness; nut much
compressed, rounded at the ends, prominently angled.

A large tree with bark separating in long loose plates, and slender
reddish glabrous or puberulous branchlets.

Distribution. Near Rochester, Munroe County, New York; common; near
Kingston, Ontario, and westward through Ohio and Indiana; at Keosauqua,
Van Buren County, Iowa, and near Myers, Osage County, Oklahoma.


       7. Carya carolinæ-septentrionalis Schn. Shagbark Hickory.

[Illustration: Fig. 176]

Leaves 4′—8′ long, with slender glabrous petioles, and usually 5 but
occasionally 3 lanceolate long-pointed leaflets gradually narrowed at
the acuminate symmetrical or unsymmetrical base, coarsely serrate,
ciliate with long white hairs as the leaves unfold, thin, dark green
above, pale yellow-green and lustrous below, the upper leaflets 3′—4′
long, 1′—1½′ wide, and about twice as large as those of the lower pair,
turning dull brown or yellow-brown some time before falling. Flowers:
staminate in slightly villose aments, glandular-hirsute on the outer
surface, with linear elongated acuminate villose bracts; stamens 4;
anthers puberulous; pistillate usually in 2-flowered spikes, oblong and
covered with clustered golden hairs, their bract linear and ciliate on
the margins. Fruit broader than high, or short-oblong, slightly
depressed at apex, ¾′—1½′ wide, dark red-brown, roughened by small pale
lenticels, the husk ⅛′—⅜′ thick, splitting freely almost to the base;
nut ovoid, compressed, prominently 4-angled, acute at ends, nearly white
or pale brown, with a thin shell; seed light brown, sweet.

A tree, on moist bottom-lands sometimes 80° tall, with a trunk 2°—3° in
diameter, and short small branches forming a narrow oblong head, or on
dry hillsides usually not more than 20°—30° tall, with a trunk generally
not exceeding a foot in diameter, and slender red-brown branchlets
marked by numerous small pale lenticels and by the small low truncate or
slightly obcordate leaf-scars, becoming ultimately dull gray-brown.
Winter-buds: terminal ovoid, gradually narrowed to the obtuse apex,
about ¼′ long, with glabrous bright red-brown and lustrous acute and
apiculate strongly keeled spreading outer scales, the inner scales
becoming when fully grown bright yellow, long-pointed, and sometimes 2′
long; axillary buds oblong, obtuse, not more than 1/16′ long. Bark light
gray, ¼′—¾′ thick, separating freely into thick plates often a foot or
more long, 3′ or 4′ wide, and long-persistent, giving to the trunk the
shaggy appearance of the northern Shagbark Hickory. Wood hard, strong,
very tough, light reddish brown, with thin nearly white sapwood.

Distribution. Dry limestone hills, river-bottoms and low flat often
inundated woods, frequently in clay soil; central North Carolina to
northern Georgia, and through western North Carolina to eastern
Tennessee, eastern Mississippi, and in Cullman and Dallas Counties,
Alabama.


           8. Carya laciniosa Schn. Big Shellbark. King Nut.

[Illustration: Fig. 177]

Leaves 15′—22′ long, with stout glabrous or pubescent petioles often
persistent on the branches during the winter, and 5—9, usually 7, ovate
to oblong-lanceolate or broadly obovate leaflets, the upper 5′—9′ long
and 3′—5′ wide and generally two or three times as large as those of the
lowest pair, usually equilateral and acuminate at apex, equally or
unequally cuneate or rounded at the often oblique base, finely serrate,
sessile or short-stalked, dark green and lustrous above, pale
yellow-green or bronzy brown and covered with soft pubescence below.
Flowers: staminate in aments 5′—8′ long, glabrous or covered with rufous
scurfy tomentum, with linear-lanceolate acute bracts two or three times
as long as the broad rounded calyx-lobes; anthers hirsute, yellow, more
or less deeply emarginate; pistillate in 2—5-flowered spikes,
oblong-ovoid, about twice as long as broad, slightly angled, clothed
with pale tomentum, their linear bracts acute much longer than the
nearly triangular bractlets and calyx-lobe. Fruit solitary or in pairs,
ellipsoidal, ovoid or subglobose, depressed at apex, roughened with
minute orange-colored lenticels, downy or glabrous, light orange-colored
or dark chestnut-brown at maturity, 1¾′—2½′ long and 1¼′—2′ broad, with
a hard woody husk pale and marked on the inside with dark delicate
veins, and ¼′—⅓′ thick; nut ellipsoidal or slightly obovoid, longer than
broad or sometimes broader than long, flattened and rounded at the ends,
or gradually narrowed and rounded at base and occasionally acuminate at
apex, more or less compressed, prominently 4-ridged and angled or often
6-ridged, furnished at base with a stout long point, light yellow to
reddish brown, 1¼′—2½′ long and 1½′—1¾′ wide, with a hard bony shell
sometimes ¼′ thick; seed light chestnut-brown, very sweet.

A tree, occasionally 120° high, with a straight slender trunk often free
of branches for more than half its height and rarely exceeding 3° in
diameter, comparatively small spreading branches forming a narrow oblong
head, and stout dark or light orange-colored branchlets at first pilose
or covered with pale or rufous pubescence or tomentum, roughened by
scattered elevated long pale lenticels, orange-brown and glabrous or
puberulous during their first winter, and marked by oblong 3-lobed
emarginate leaf-scars. Winter-buds: terminal ovoid, rather obtuse,
sometimes 1′ long and ⅔′ wide, and three or four times as large as the
axillary buds, usually covered by 11 or 12 scales, the outer dark brown,
puberulous, generally keeled, with a long point at apex, the inner
scales obovate, pointed or rounded at apex, light green tinged with red,
or bright red or yellow, covered with silky pubescence on the outer
face, slightly resinous, becoming 2′—3′ long and 1′ wide. Bark 1′—2′
thick, light gray, separating into broad thick plates frequently 3°—4°
long, sometimes remaining for many years hanging on the trunk. Wood
heavy, very hard, strong and tough, close-grained, very flexible, dark
brown, with comparatively thin nearly white sapwood. The large nuts are
often sold in the markets of western cities and commercially are not
often distinguished from those of the Shellbark Hickory.

Distribution. Rich bottom-lands usually inundated during several weeks
of every year; central and western New York and southeastern Ontario,
and westward through southern Ohio, southern Michigan, Indiana and
Illinois to southeastern Iowa and southeastern Nebraska, through
Missouri and Arkansas to southeastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma,
and southward through eastern Pennsylvania to western West Virginia; in
southeastern Tennessee; banks of the Alabama River, Dallas County,
Alabama, and in West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana.

× _Carya Nussbaumerii_ Sarg. with leaves like those of _C. laciniosa_,
slender branchlets, and large fruit of the shape of that of the Pecan
but without sutural wings and white or nearly white nuts, believed to be
a hybrid of these species, has been found near Fayetteville, St. Clair
County, Illinois, at Mt. Vernon, Posey County, Indiana, near Burlington,
Des Moines County, Iowa, and from the neighborhood of Rockville, Bates
County, Missouri.

Trees intermediate in character between _C. laciniosa_ and _C. ovata_
growing on the bottoms of the Genessee River at Golah, Munroe County,
New York, and believed to be hybrids of these species, are × _C.
Dunbarii_ Sarg.


                    9. Carya alba K. Koch. Hickory.

[Illustration: Fig. 178]

Leaves glandular, resinous, fragrant, 8′—12′ long, with petioles covered
like the rachis and the under surface of the leaflets with fascicled
hairs, and 5 or 7 oblong-lanceolate to obovate-lanceolate leaflets
gradually or abruptly acuminate, mostly equilateral, equally or
unequally rounded or cuneate at base, minutely or coarsely serrate,
sessile or short-stalked, dark yellow-green and rather lustrous above,
lustrous, paler or light orange-colored or brown on the lower surface,
the upper leaflets 5′—8′ long and 3′—5′ wide, and two or three times as
large as those of the lowest pair. Flowers: staminate in aments 4′—5′
long, with slender light green stems coated with fascicled hairs, pale
yellow-green, scurfy-pubescent, with elongated ovate-lanceolate bracts
ending in tufts of long pale hairs, and three or four times as long as
the calyx-lobes; stamens 4, with oblong bright red hirsute anthers;
pistillate in crowded 2—5-flowered spikes, slightly contracted above the
middle, coated with pale tomentum, the bract ovate, acute, sometimes ¼′
long, about twice as long as the broadly ovate nearly triangular
bractlets and calyx-lobes; stigmas dark red. Fruit ellipsoidal or
obovoid, gradually narrowed at the ends, acute at apex, abruptly
contracted toward the base, rarely obovoid with a stipe-like base (var.
_ficoides_ Sarg.), or ovoid with a long acuminate apex (var. _ovoidea_
Sarg.), pilose or nearly glabrous, dark red-brown, 1½′—2′ long, with a
husk about ⅛′ thick splitting to the middle or nearly to the base; nut
nearly globose, ellipsoidal, obovoid-oblong or ovoid, narrowed at ends,
rounded at base, acute, and sometimes attenuated and long-pointed at
apex, much or only slightly compressed, obscurely or prominently
4-ridged, light reddish brown, becoming darker and sometimes red with
age, with a very thick hard shell and partitions; in drying often
cracking transversely; seed small, sweet, dark brown, and lustrous.

A tree, rarely 100° high, usually much smaller, with a tall trunk
occasionally 3° in diameter, comparatively small spreading branches
forming a narrow or often a broad round-topped head of upright rigid or
of gracefully pendulous branches, and stout branchlets clothed at first
with pale fascicled hairs, rather bright brown, nearly glabrous or more
or less pubescent, and marked by conspicuous pale lenticels during their
first season, becoming light or dark gray, with pale emarginate
leaf-scars almost equally lobed, or elongated with the lowest lobe two
or three times as long as the others. Winter-buds: terminal broadly
ovoid, acute or obtuse, ½′—¾′ long, two or three times as large as the
axillary buds, the three or four outer bud-scales ovate, acute, often
keeled and apiculate, thick and firm, dark reddish brown and pilose,
usually deciduous late in the autumn, the inner scales ovate, rounded or
acute and short-pointed at apex, light green covered with soft silky
pubescence on the outer, and often bright red and pilose on the inner
surface, becoming 1′—1½′ long and ½′ broad. Bark ½′—¾′ thick, close,
slightly ridged by shallow irregular interrupted fissures and covered by
dark gray closely appressed scales. Wood very heavy, hard, tough,
strong, close-grained, flexible, rich dark brown, with thick nearly
white sapwood; used for the same purposes as that of the Shellbark
Hickory.

Distribution. Eastern Massachusetts southward to Lake County, Florida,
and eastern Texas, and through Ohio, southwestern Ontario, southern
Michigan, Illinois and Indiana to southeastern Iowa, and through
Missouri to eastern Oklahoma; comparatively rare at the north, growing
on dry slopes and ridges and less commonly on alluvial bottom-lands;
absent from eastern Canada, northern and western New England, and New
York except in the neighborhood of the coast; the most abundant and
generally distributed Hickory-tree of the southern states, growing to
its largest size in the basin of the lower Ohio River and in Missouri
and Arkansas; commonly in southern Arkansas and eastern Texas, and
occasionally in other southern states represented by var. _subcoriacea_
Sarg., differing in its larger, thicker, more pubescent leaflets, more
prominently angled fruit with a thicker husk, larger nuts, and in its
longer winter-buds often ⅘′ long and ¾′ in diameter.

× _Carya Schneckii_ Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of _C. alba_ and _C.
pecan_, has been found at Lawrenceville, Lawrence County, Illinois, and
near Muscatine, Muscatine County, Iowa.


                       10. Carya leiodermis Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 179]

Leaves 12′—14′ long, with slender petioles and rachis slightly or
densely pubescent with fascicled hairs, becoming glabrous or nearly
glabrous, and 7 or rarely 5 thin finely serrate leaflets, long-pointed
at apex, and gradually narrowed, cuneate and unsymmetrical at base, at
first hoary tomentose below and pubescent above, becoming dark green and
lustrous on the upper surface and pale and slightly pubescent on the
lower surface, especially on the stout midrib, the terminal
oblong-obovate with a stalk ⅕′—⅗′ in length, or nearly sessile, of the
same shape and often smaller than the nearly sessile upper leaflets,
4′—5′ long and 2′—2½′ wide, and much larger than the lanceolate lower
leaflets. Flowers: staminate opening after the leaves have grown nearly
to their full size, in slender puberulous aments 4′—4½′ long; bract of
the flower ovate, lanceolate, ciliate on the margins with long white
hairs mixed with stipitate glands, a third longer than the ciliate
calyx-lobes; stamens 4, anthers red, covered with long rigid white
hairs; pistillate in short spikes, their involucre and bracts densely
clothed with white hairs. Fruit broadly obovoid, smooth, glabrous or
puberulous, covered with scattered white scales, 1½′—1¾′ long, about 1¼′
in diameter, the husk ⅕′ to nearly ¼′ thick, opening freely to the base
usually only by two sutures; nut ellipsoidal or slightly obovoid, little
compressed, rounded at the ends, tinged with red, with a shell ⅙′—⅕′
thick; seed small and sweet.

A tree 60°—75° tall with a trunk occasionally 3° in diameter, stout
often pendulous branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and slender
reddish brown lustrous branchlets puberulous or pubescent when they
first appear, becoming glabrous or nearly glabrous by the end of their
first season. Winter-buds: terminal acute, about ½′ long, the outer
scales pubescent, the inner covered with appressed pale hairs and
ciliate on the margins; axillary buds ovoid and rounded at apex or
subglobose. Bark close, pale, only slightly ridged.

Distribution. Low wet woods; Louisiana to southern Arkansas, and in
northwestern Mississippi (bluffs, Yazoo County); most abundant in
western Louisiana from the neighborhood of the coast to the valley of
Red River, and in Tangipahoa Parish east of the Mississippi River.

Passing into var. _callicoma_ Sarg., differing in the thinner husk of
the fruit and in the bright red color of the unfolding leaves.

Distribution. Low wet woods; valley of the Calcasieu River (near Lake
Charles), western Louisiana to that of the Neches River (near Beaumont),
Texas; in western and southern Mississippi (Warren, Adams, Hinds,
Lafayette, Copiah, Lowndes and Oktibbeha Counties).


                        11. Carya pallida Ashe.

[Illustration: Fig. 180]

Leaves 7′—15′ long, with slender petioles and rachis covered, like the
under side of the midrib, with prominent persistent clusters of
fascicled hairs mixed with silvery scales, and usually 7, rarely 9,
lanceolate or oblanceolate leaflets, the terminal rarely obovate, finely
serrate, resinous, fragrant, acuminate and long-pointed at apex, cuneate
or rounded and often unsymmetrical at base, covered in spring with small
silvery peltate scales, and at maturity light green and lustrous above,
pale and pubescent or puberulous below, the terminal short-stalked or
nearly sessile, 4′—6′ long and 1′—2′ wide, and as large or slightly
larger than the upper lateral leaflets, those of the lower pairs usually
not more than 2′ long and ½′ wide. Flowers: staminate in aments covered
with fascicled hairs and silvery scales, 2½′—5′ long, puberulous and
glandular on the outer surface, with linear acuminate bracts; stamens 4,
anthers hirsute; pistillate usually solitary, oblong, covered with
yellow scales, their bract ovate-lanceolate, ciliate on the margin.
Fruit pubescent and covered with yellow scales, ellipsoidal to obovoid,
broad-obovoid, subglobose to depressed-globose, and from ½′—1½′ in
length, with a husk from ⅛′—⅙′ in thickness, splitting tardily to the
base by 2 or 3 of the sutures, or occasionally remaining unopened until
midwinter; nut white, rounded at the ends, or obcordate or obtusely
pointed at apex, compressed, more or less prominently ridged nearly to
the base, with a shell ⅛′—1/12′ thick; seed small and sweet.

A tree occasionally 90°—110° high, with a tall trunk 2½°—3° in diameter,
usually not more than 30°—40° tall, with a trunk 12′—18′ in diameter,
stout branches, the upper erect, the lower often pendulous, and slender
red-brown glabrous or pubescent branchlets. Winter-buds acute or obtuse,
reddish brown, puberulous and covered with silvery scales, the terminal
¼′ long with 6—9 scales and rather larger than the lateral buds usually
covered with fewer scales. Bark of large trees grown in good soil pale
and slightly ridged, that of trees on dry ridges, rough, deeply
furrowed, dark gray and southward often nearly black. Wood brown with
nearly white sapwood; probably little used except as fuel.

Distribution. Sandy soil in the neighborhood of Cape May, New Jersey, in
southern Delaware, and in the southern part of the Maryland peninsula;
common in rich soil in Gloucester and James City Counties, Virginia,
growing here to its largest size, and southward from southeast Virginia
through the Piedmont region of North and South Carolina, ascending to
altitudes of 2200° in the mountain valleys of these states; common in
northern and central Georgia and southeastern Tennessee, occasionally
reaching the Georgia coast and the southwestern part of that state; in
western Florida, through northern and central Alabama to Dallas County,
and through southern Mississippi to northeastern Louisiana (near
Kentwood, Tangipahoa Parish); in Mississippi extending northward to the
valley of the Yazoo River in Yazoo County; in northern Tennessee
(Lexington, Henderson County); in Alabama the common Hickory on the dry
gravelly and poor soils of the upland table-lands and ridges of the
central part of the state.


                    12. Carya glabra Sweet. Pignut.

                         _Carya porcina_ Nutt.

[Illustration: Fig. 181]

Leaves 8′—12′ long, with slender glabrous petioles and rachis, and 5 or
rarely 7 lanceolate or oblanceolate finely serrate leaflets acuminate at
the ends, yellow-green and glabrous above, glabrous, or pubescent on the
midrib below, the terminal leaflet sometimes obovate, 4′—4½′ long and 5′
or 6′ wide, and raised on a glabrous or sparingly pubescent stalk, ¼′—½′
in length, the lateral leaflets sessile, those of the upper pair about
the size of the terminal leaflet, and two or three times larger than
those of the lower pair. Flowers: staminate in short-stalked pubescent
aments 2′—2½′ long, yellow-green, the bract villose, much longer than
the calyx-lobes; stamens 4, anthers yellow, villose toward the apex;
pistillate in few-flowered spikes, oblong, coated with hoary tomentum
like the lanceolate acuminate bract. Fruit obovoid, compressed, rounded
at apex, gradually narrowed below and often abruptly contracted into a
stipe-like base, about 1′ long and ¾′ wide, with a husk from 1/12′—⅛′ in
thickness, opening late by one or two sutures or often remaining closed;
nut obovoid, compressed, without ridges, rounded or slightly obcordate
at apex, gradually narrowed and rounded below, with a hard thick shell;
seed small and sweet.

A tree 60°—90° high, with a trunk 2°—2½° in diameter, with small
spreading often drooping branches forming a tall narrow head, and
slender glabrous reddish branchlets marked by pale lenticels.
Winter-buds ovoid, acute, light brown, glabrous, ⅓′—½′ long and ⅕′—¼′ in
diameter, the inner scales covered with close pubescence. Bark close,
ridged, light gray. Wood heavy, hard, strong and tough, flexible, light
or dark brown, with thick lighter-colored sapwood; used for the handles
of tools and in the manufacture of wagons and agricultural implements,
and largely for fuel.

Distribution. Hillsides and dry ridges; southwestern Vermont to western
New York, southeastern Ontario, southern Indiana and southwestern
Illinois, and southward to Delaware, the District of Columbia and
eastern Virginia, and along the Appalachian Mountains to North Carolina;
in northern, central and eastern Georgia, northern Alabama and eastern
Mississippi.

The name “Pignut” usually applied to this tree and to the forms of _C.
ovalis_ Sarg., especially in the north, properly belongs to _C.
cordiformis_ Schn.

Passing into


                   Carya glabra var. megacarpa Sarg.

                        _Carya megacarpa_ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 182]

Leaves 12′—14′ long, with slender glabrous petioles and 5—7 lanceolate
to oblanceolate leaflets long-pointed and acuminate at apex, gradually
narrowed and unsymmetrical at base, finely serrate, glabrous or very
rarely pubescent, often furnished below with small clusters of axillary
hairs, the three upper 8′—10′ long and 1½′—2½′ wide and about twice as
large as those of the lowest pair. Flowers: staminate in slightly
villose aments 2½′—3′ in length, villose, their bract long-pointed,
acuminate, villose, twice longer than the calyx-lobes, stamens 4—6,
anthers yellow, villose above the middle; pistillate in short-stalked
spikes, their involucre only slightly angled, covered with pale yellow
hairs, the bract acuminate, twice longer than the bractlets and
calyx-lobes. Fruit oblong-obovoid with a stipe-like base to
short-obovate and rounded or abruptly cuneate at base, rarely depressed
at apex, slightly flattened, often covered with bright yellow scales,
1′—2′ long, 1′—1½′ in diameter, with a husk ⅛′—⅕′ in thickness, opening
tardily to the middle usually by one or by two sutures, or often
remaining closed; nut broadest toward the rounded apex or oblong and
occasionally acute at apex, gradually narrowed and acute at base, often
compressed, slightly or rarely prominently angled (f. _angulata_ Sarg.),
with a shell ⅛′—⅙′ in thickness; seed small and sweet.

A tree 50°—70° high, with a trunk up to 2° in diameter, stout spreading
and drooping branches, and stout or rarely slender glabrous branchlets,
reddish brown at the end of their first season, becoming dark
gray-brown. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, glabrous, up to ½′ in length, the
inner scales puberulous. Bark close, only slightly ridged, light or dark
gray.

Distribution. Rochester, Munroe County, New York, through southern Ohio
and Indiana to southern Illinois (Tunnel Hill, Johnson County); coast of
New Jersey; District of Columbia and southward to the shores of Indian
River and the valley of the Callusahatchie River, Florida, and through
southern Alabama to western Louisiana; one of the commonest Hickories in
the coast region of the south Atlantic and east Gulf states,
occasionally ranging inland to central and northern Georgia and western
Mississippi.


                         13. Carya ovalis Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 183]

Leaves 6′—10′ long, with slender petioles often scurfy-pubescent early
in the season, soon glabrous, and 7 or rarely 5 lanceolate to
oblanceolate, or occasionally obovate finely serrate leaflets,
long-pointed and acuminate or rarely rounded at apex, cuneate and
unsymmetrical at base, early in the season often scurfy-pubescent and
furnished below with small axillary tufts of pale hairs, soon glabrous,
the upper 6′ or 7′ long and 1½′—2′ wide, and raised on a stalk ¼′—½′ in
length, the lateral sessile, those of the upper pairs as large or
slightly smaller than the terminal leaflet. Flowers: staminate in
puberulous aments 6′—7′ long, pubescent, their bracts twice longer than
the ovate acute calyx-lobes; stamens 4, anthers yellow, thickly covered
with pale hairs; pistillate in 1 or 2-flowered spikes, obovoid, more or
less thickly covered with yellow scales. Fruit ellipsoidal, acute or
rounded at apex, rounded at base, puberulous, 1′—1¼′ long, about ¾′ in
diameter, with a husk 1/12′—1/10′ in thickness, splitting freely to the
base; nut pale, oblong, slightly flattened, rounded at base, acute or
acuminate and 4-angled at apex, the ridges extending for one-third or
rarely for one-half of its length, with a shell rarely more than ⅕′ in
thickness; seed small and sweet.

A tree sometimes 100° high, with a tall trunk occasionally 3° in
diameter, small spreading branches forming a narrow often pyramidal
head, and slender lustrous red-brown branchlets marked by pale
lenticels, often slightly pubescent when they first appear, soon
glabrous. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse, acute or acuminate; the terminal
often ½′ long and twice as large as the lateral, the outer scales
red-brown, lustrous and glabrous, the inner covered with close pale
tomentum. Bark slightly ridged, pale gray, usually separating freely
into small plate-like scales, or occasionally close. Wood heavy, hard
and tough, flexible, light or dark brown, with thick lighter-colored
sapwood; used for the handles of tools, in the manufacture of wagons and
agricultural implements, and largely for fuel.

Distribution. Hillsides and rich woods; western New York, eastern
Pennsylvania and the District of Columbia to southern Illinois and
central Iowa (Ames, Story County), and southward to the mountains of
North Carolina and Tennessee, and to central Georgia and Alabama;
usually rare and local; most abundant and generally distributed in
Indiana. With its varieties usually but incorrectly called “Pignut.”

The following varieties differing in the shape of their fruit are
distinguished:


                   Carya ovalis var. obcordata Sarg.

                  _Carya microcarpa_ Darling. in part.
                  _Hicoria microcarpa_ Britt. in part.

[Illustration: Fig. 184]

Fruit subglobose to short-oblong or slightly obovoid, 1′—1¼′ in
diameter, with a husk 1/12′—⅛′ in thickness, splitting freely to the
base or nearly to the base by often narrow-winged sutures; nut much
compressed, slightly angled and often broadest above the middle, rounded
and usually more or less obcordate at apex, narrowed and rounded at
base.

Distribution. Southern New England to southern Wisconsin, southwestern
Missouri, western North Carolina, central and eastern Georgia, eastern
Mississippi and central Alabama; the common and most widely distributed
northern variety of _Carya ovalis_; common in the mountain districts of
central Alabama; varying to the f. _vestita_ Sarg. with stouter
branchlets covered during their first year with rusty tomentum and more
or less pubescent in their second and third seasons, leaflets slightly
pubescent below, and with more compressed nuts and puberulous
winter-buds. A single tree near Davis Pond, Knox County, Indiana.


                    Carya ovalis var. odorata Sarg.

                  _Carya microcarpa_ Darling. in part.
                  _Hicoria microcarpa_ Britt. in part.
             _Hicoria glabra_ var. _odorata_ Sarg. in part.

[Illustration: Fig. 185]

Fruit subglobose or slightly longer than broad, much flattened, ½′—⅗′ in
diameter, with a husk not more than 1/24′ in thickness, splitting freely
to the base by sutures sometimes furnished with narrow wings; nut
compressed, rounded at apex, rounded or acute at base, slightly or not
at all ridged, pale or nearly white, with a shell 1/12′ or less in
thickness.

Distribution. Southern New England, eastern Pennsylvania and the
District of Columbia to western New York, and southeastern Ontario, and
through Ohio and Indiana to southern Illinois; near Atlanta, Georgia,
and Starkville, Oktibbaha County, Mississippi; less variable in the size
and shape of the fruit than the other varieties of _C. ovalis._


                    Carya ovalis var. obovalis Sarg.

                    _Hicoria glabra_ Sarg. in part.

[Illustration: Fig. 186]

Fruit more or less obovoid, about 1′ long and ⅘′ in diameter, with a
husk 1/12′—⅛′ thick, splitting freely to the base.

Distribution. Southern New England to Missouri and northern Arkansas; on
the mountains of North Carolina, on the coast of Georgia and in north
central Alabama. The common “Pignut” in the middle western states,
varying to f. _acuta_ Sarg. with nuts pointed at the ends and closer
bark; only near Rochester, Munroe County, New York.

Other forms of _C. ovalis_ are var. _hirsuta_ Sarg. (_Hicoria glabra
hirsuta_ Ashe) with obovoid compressed fruit narrowed into a stipitate
base, with a husk 1/12′—⅛′ in thickness, scaly bark, pubescent
winter-buds, leaves with pubescent petioles and leaflets pubescent on
the lower surface; a common tree on the mountains of North Carolina up
to altitudes of 2000° above the sea; and var. _borealis_ Sarg. (_Hicoria
borealis_ Ashe) with pubescent branchlets and winter-buds, leaves
pubescent early in the season, ellipsoidal or ovoid flattened fruit with
a husk ⅛′—⅕′ in thickness, an ovoid nut ridged to the base, and scaly
bark; only in southeastern Michigan.


                       14. Carya floridana Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 187]

Leaves 6′—8′ long, with slender petioles rusty pubescent when they first
appear, soon glabrous, with 5 or rarely 7 lanceolate to oblanceolate
leaflets long-pointed and acuminate at apex, unsymmetrical and rounded
or cuneate at base, serrate with remote cartilaginous teeth, sessile or
the terminal leaflet short-stalked, covered when they unfold with rufous
pubescence, soon glabrous, at maturity thin, conspicuously
reticulate-venulose, yellow-green above, often brownish below, the upper
three 3½′—4′ long, 1′—2′ wide, and about twice larger than those of the
lowest pair. Flowers: staminate in long-stalked scurfy pubescent aments
1′—1½′ in length, produced at the base of branchlets of the year from
the axils of bud-scales, and often of leaves, scurfy pubescent, their
bract ovate, acuminate, a third longer than the calyx-lobes; stamens 4
or 5, anthers yellow, slightly villose near the apex; pistillate in 1 or
2-flowered spikes, obovoid, thickly covered, like their bracts, with
yellow scales. Fruit obovoid, gradually narrowed, rounded and sometimes
slightly depressed at apex, narrowed below into a short stipe-like base,
occasionally slightly winged at the sutures, often roughened by
prominent reticulate ridges, puberulous and covered with small yellow
scales, ⅘′—1½′ long, ¾′—1′ in diameter with a husk 1/12′—⅛′ thick,
splitting freely to the base by 2 or 3 sutures; nut pale or reddish,
subglobose, not more than ⅗′ in diameter, or ovoid or rarely oblong,
acute at base, narrowed and rounded at apex, slightly compressed, with a
shell 1/12′—⅛′ in thickness.

A tree 50°—70° high with a trunk up to 20′ in diameter, slender
spreading branches forming a broad head, and slender branchlets at first
coated with rufous pubescence, soon puberulous or glabrous, bright
red-brown and marked by pale lenticels during their first winter; or in
dry sand often a shrub producing abundant fruit on stems 3° or 4° high.
Winter-buds ovoid, acute or obtuse, the outer scales covered with thick
rusty pubescence and more or less thickly with yellow or rarely silvery
scales, the inner coated with pale pubescence; the terminal ⅕′—⅓′ in
length and twice as large as the axillary buds. Bark slightly ridged,
close dark gray-brown. Wood dark brown, with pale sapwood; probably used
only for fuel.

Distribution. Dry sandy ridges and low hills, Florida; east coast,
Volusia County to Jupiter Island, Palm Beach County; in the interior of
the peninsula as a shrub, from Orange to De Soto Counties, and on the
shores of Pensacola Bay.


                       15. Carya Buckleyi Durand.

                  _Carya texana_ Buckl., not Le Conte.

[Illustration: Fig. 188]

Leaves 8′—12′ long, with slender petioles rusty pubescent and sparingly
villose early in the season, and 5—7, usually 7, lanceolate to
oblanceolate acuminate bluntly serrate sessile leaflets, the terminal
occasionally broadly obovate and abruptly pointed, and sometimes raised
on a winged stalk ¼—½′ in length, when they unfold thickly covered with
rusty pubescence mixed with small white scales and villose on the lower
side of the midrib and veins, and at maturity dark green, lustrous,
glabrous or puberulous along the midrib above, paler, glabrous or
sparingly villose and furnished with small tufts of axillary hairs
below, the upper three leaflets 4′—6′ long and 2′—2¼′ wide, and twice
the size of those of the lowest pair. Flowers: staminate in rusty
pubescent aments 2′—3′ long, their bract slender, long acuminate, 3 or 4
times longer than the acuminate calyx-lobes; stamens 4 or 5, anthers
yellow, slightly villose toward the apex; pistillate in 1 or 2-flowered
short-stalked spikes, slightly angled, thickly coated with rufous hairs
like the bract and bractlets. Fruit subglobose, puberulous, 1¼′—1¾′ in
diameter, with a husk 1/12′—⅛′ thick, splitting freely to the base by
slightly winged sutures; nut slightly compressed, rounded at base,
abruptly narrowed and acute at apex, 4-angled above the middle or nearly
to the base, dark reddish brown, conspicuously reticulate-venulose with
pale veins, with a shell about ⅛′ thick; in drying often cracking
longitudinally between the angles; seed small and sweet.

A tree, usually 30°—45° or rarely 60° high, with a trunk 12′—24′ in
diameter, large spreading often drooping more or less contorted branches
forming a narrow head, and slender light red-brown branchlets marked by
pale lenticels, more or less densely rusty pubescent during their first
season and dark gray-brown and glabrous or nearly glabrous the following
year. Winter-buds ovoid, covered with rusty pubescence mixed with
silvery scales, furnished at apex with long pale hairs; the terminal bud
abruptly contracted and long-pointed at apex, ⅖′—½′ in length and ¼′—⅓′
in diameter, and 2 or 3 times larger than the flattened acute lateral
buds. Bark thick, deeply furrowed, rough, dark often nearly black. Wood
hard, brittle, little used except for fuel.

Distribution. Dry sandy uplands with Post and Black Jack Oaks; northern
and eastern Texas (Grayson, Cherokee, San Augustine and Atascosa
Counties), and in central Oklahoma (dry sand hills, Muskogee County).


                  Carya Buckleyi var. arkansana Sarg.

                        _Carya arkansana_ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 189]

Differing from _Carya Buckleyi_ in the shape of the fruit and sometimes
in the bark of the trunk. Fruit obovoid, rounded at apex, rounded or
gradually narrowed or abruptly contracted into a more or less developed
stipe at base, or ellipsoidal, or ovoid and rounded at the ends, ⅘′—1½′
in length and in diameter, with a husk 1/12′—⅙′ thick, splitting to the
middle or nearly to the base by slightly winged sutures; nut oblong to
slightly obovoid, rounded at the ends, compressed, slightly 4-angled
occasionally to the middle, pale brown, with a shell ⅙′—⅕′ in thickness;
seed small and sweet.

A tree from 60°—75° high, with a trunk 2° in diameter; southward usually
much smaller. Bark on some trees dark gray, irregularly fissured,
separating into thin scales, and on others close, nearly black and
deeply divided into rough ridges.

Distribution. Dry hillsides, rocky ridges, or southward on sandy upland;
southwestern Indiana (Knox County), southern Illinois, northeastern
Missouri and southward through Missouri and Arkansas to eastern
Oklahoma, western Louisiana and northern and eastern Texas to the valley
of the Atascosa River, Atascosa County; the common Hickory of the Ozark
Mountain region, Arkansas, and here abundant on dry rocky ridges at
altitudes of 1200°—1800°; in Texas the common Hickory from the coast to
the base of the Edwards Plateau; trees with the smallest fruit
northward; those with the largest fruit with thickest husks in
Louisiana, and in southern Arkansas (f. _pachylemma_ Sarg.), a tree with
slender nearly glabrous branchlets, deeply fissured pale gray bark,
rusty pubescent winter-buds and fruit 2½′ long and 2′ in diameter, with
a husk ½′ in thickness.


                   Carya Buckleyi var. villosa Sarg.

                 _Hicoria glabra_ var. _villosa_ Sarg.
                        _Hicoria villosa_ Ashe.
                         _Carya villosa_ Schn.
                 _Carya glabra_ var. _villosa_ Robins.

[Illustration: Fig. 190]

Leaves 6′—10′ long, with slender petioles and rachis pubescent with
fascicled hairs early in the season, generally becoming glabrous, and
5—7, usually 7, lanceolate to oblanceolate finely serrate leaflets
long-pointed and acuminate at apex, cuneate or rounded and often
unsymmetrical at base, sessile or the terminal leaflet sometimes
short-stalked, dark green and glabrous above, pale and pubescent below,
the lower side of the midrib often covered with fascicled hairs, the
upper leaflets 3′—4′ long and 1′—1½′ wide, and twice as long as those of
the lowest pair. Flowers: staminate in aments pubescent with fascicled
hairs, 4′—8′ long, pubescent, their bract acuminate, not much longer
than the rounded calyx-lobes; pistillate in 1 or 2-flowered spikes,
rusty pubescent, slightly angled. Fruit obovoid to ellipsoidal, rounded
at apex, cuneate and often abruptly narrowed into a stipitate base,
rusty pubescent and covered with scattered yellow scales, about 1′ long
and ¾′ in diameter, with a husk 1/12′ in thickness, splitting tardily to
the base by 1 or 2 sutures or indehiscent; nut ovoid, rounded at base,
pointed at apex, only slightly angled, faintly tinged with red, with a
shell rarely more than 1/12′ in thickness; seed small and sweet.

A tree 30°—40° high, with a trunk 12′—18′ in diameter, stout often
contorted branches and slender branchlets covered at first with rusty
pubescence mixed with fascicled hairs and pubescent or glabrous during
their first winter. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, covered with rusty
pubescence mixed with yellow scales, often furnished near the apex with
tufts of white hairs, the terminal ¼′ long and about twice as large as
the compressed axillary buds.

Distribution. Dry rocky hills, Allenton, Saint Louis County, Missouri.
Distinct from other forms of _Carya Buckleyi_ in the often indehiscent
fruit and more numerous and longer fascicled hairs, and possibly better
considered a species.



                             IX. BETULACEÆ.


Trees, with sweet watery juice, without terminal buds, their slender
terete branchlets marked by numerous pale lenticels and lengthening by
one of the upper axillary buds formed in early summer, and alternate
simple penniveined usually doubly serrate deciduous stalked leaves,
obliquely plicately folded along the primary veins, their petioles in
falling leaving small semioval slightly oblique scars showing three
equidistant fibro-vascular bundle-scars; stipules inclosing the leaf in
the bud, fugacious. Flowers vernal, appearing with or before the
unfolding of the leaves, or rarely autumnal, monœcious, the staminate
1—3 together in the axils of the scales of an elongated pendulous
lateral ament and composed of a 2—4-parted membranaceous calyx and 2—20
stamens inserted on a receptacle, with distinct filaments and 2-celled
erect extrorse anthers opening longitudinally, or without a calyx, the
pistillate in short lateral or capitate aments, with or without a calyx,
a 2-celled ovary, narrowed into a short style divided into two elongated
branches longer than the scales of the ament and stigmatic on the inner
face or at the apex, and a single anatropous pendulous ovule in each
cell of the ovary. Fruit a small mostly 1-celled 1-seeded nut, the outer
layer of the shell light brown, thin and membranaceous, the inner thick,
hard, and bony. Seed solitary by abortion, filling the cavity of the
nut, suspended, without albumen, its coat membranaceous, light
chestnut-brown; cotyledons thick and fleshy, much longer than the short
superior radicle turned toward the minute hilum.

Of the six genera, all confined to the northern hemisphere, five are
found in North America; of these only Corylus is shrubby.


          CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA.

  Scales of the pistillate ament deciduous; nut wingless, more or less
        inclosed in an involucre formed by the enlargement of the bract
        and bractlets of the flower; staminate flowers solitary in the
        axils of the scales of the ament; calyx 0; pistillate flowers
        with a calyx.
    Staminate aments covered during the winter: involucre of the fruit
          flat, 3-cleft, foliaceous.
                                                            1. Carpinus.
    Staminate aments naked during the winter: involucre of the fruit
          bladder-like, closed.
                                                              2. Ostrya.
  Scales of the pistillate ament persistent and forming a woody
        strobile; nut without an involucre, more or less broadly winged;
        staminate flowers 3—6 together in the axils of the scales of the
        ament; calyx present; pistillate flowers without a calyx.
    Pistillate aments solitary, their scales 3-lobed, becoming thin,
          brown, and woody, deciduous; stamens 2; filaments 2-branched,
          each division bearing a half-anther; winter-buds covered by
          imbricated scales.
                                                              3. Betula.
    Pistillate aments racemose, their scales erose or 5-toothed,
          becoming thick, woody, and dark-colored, persistent; stamens
          1—3 or 4; filaments simple; wings of the nut often reduced to
          a narrow border; winter-buds without scales.
                                                               4. Alnus.



                        1. CARPINUS L. Hornbeam.


Trees, with smooth close bark, hard strong close-grained wood, elongated
conic buds covered by numerous imbricated scales, the inner lengthening
after the opening of the buds. Leaves open and concave in the bud,
ovate, acute, often cordate; stipules strap-shaped to oblong-obovate.
Flowers: staminate in aments emerging in very early spring from buds
produced the previous season near the ends of short lateral branchlets
of the year and inclosed during the winter, composed of 3—20 stamens
crowded on a pilose receptacle adnate to the base of a nearly sessile
ovate acute coriaceous scale longer than the stamens; filaments short,
slender, 2-branched, each branch bearing a 1-celled oblong yellow
half-anther hairy at the apex; pistillate in lax semi-erect aments
terminal on leafy branches of the year, in pairs at the base of an ovate
acute leafy deciduous scale, each flower subtended by a small acute
bract with two minute bractlets at its base; calyx adnate to the ovary
and dentate on the free narrow border. Nut ovoid, acute, compressed,
conspicuously longitudinally ribbed, bearing at the apex the remnants of
the calyx, marked on the broad base by a large pale scar and separating
at maturity in the autumn from the leaf-like 3-lobed conspicuously
serrate green involucre formed by the enlargement of the bract and
bractlets of the flower and inclosing only the base of the nut, fully
grown at mid-summer and loosely imbricated into a long-stalked open
cluster. (_Eucarpinus._)

Carpinus is confined to the northern hemisphere, and is distributed from
the Province of Quebec through the eastern United States to the
highlands of Central America in the New World, and from Sweden to
southern Europe, Asia Minor, the temperate Himalayas, Korea, southern
China, Japan and Formosa in the Old World. Fifteen or sixteen species
are recognized. Of the exotic species, the European and west Asian
_Carpinus Betulus_ L. is frequently planted as an ornamental tree in the
northeastern United States, where some of the species of eastern Asia
promise to become valuable.

_Carpinus_ is the classical name of the Hornbeam.


          1. Carpinus caroliniana Walt. Hornbeam. Blue Beech.

[Illustration: Fig. 191]

Leaves often somewhat falcate, long-pointed, sharply doubly serrate with
stout spreading glandular teeth, except at the rounded or wedge-shaped
often unequal base, pale bronze-green, and covered with long white hairs
when they unfold, at maturity thin and firm, pale dull blue-green above,
light yellow-green and glabrous or puberulous below, with small tufts of
white hairs in the axils of the veins, 2′—4′ long, 1′—1¾′ wide, with a
slender yellow midrib, numerous slender veins deeply impressed and
conspicuous above, and prominent cross veinlets; turning deep scarlet
and orange color late in the autumn; petioles slender, terete, hairy,
about ⅓′ long, bright red while young; stipules ovate-lanceolate, acute,
pubescent, hairy on the margins, bright red below, light yellow-green at
the apex, ⅓′ long. Flowers: staminate aments 1½′ long when fully grown,
with broadly ovate acute boat-shaped scales green below the middle,
bright red above; pistillate aments ½′—¾′ long, with ovate acute hairy
green scales; styles scarlet. Fruit: nut ⅓′ long, its involucre
short-stalked, with one of the lateral lobes often wanting, coarsely
serrate, but usually on one margin only of the middle lobe, 1′—1½′ long,
nearly 1′ wide, crowded on slender terete pubescent red-brown stems
5′—6′ in length.

A bushy tree, rarely 40° high, with a short fluted trunk occasionally 2°
in diameter, long slightly zigzag slender tough spreading branches
pendulous toward the ends, and furnished with numerous short thin
lateral branches growing at acute angles, and branchlets at first pale
green coated with long white silky hairs, orange-brown and sometimes
slightly pilose during the summer, becoming dark red and lustrous during
their first winter and ultimately dull gray tinged with red. Winter-buds
ovoid, acute, about ⅛′ long, with ovate acute chestnut-brown scales
white and scarious on the margins. Bark light gray-brown, sometimes
marked with broad dark brown horizontal bands, 1/16′—⅛′ thick. Wood
light brown, with thick nearly white sapwood; sometimes used for levers,
the handles of tools, and other small articles.

Distribution. Borders of streams and swamps, generally in deep rich
moist soil; Nova Scotia and southern and western Quebec to the northern
shores of Georgian Bay, southward to the shores of Indian River and
those of Tampa Bay, Florida, and westward to central Minnesota, eastern
Iowa (Sharpy County), eastern Nebraska (reported), eastern Kansas,
eastern Oklahoma, and eastern Texas; reappearing on the mountains of
southern Mexico and Central America; common in the eastern and central
states; most abundant and of its largest size on the western slopes of
the southern Alleghany Mountains and in southern Arkansas and eastern
Texas.



                     2. OSTRYA Scop. Hop Hornbeam.


Trees, with scaly bark, heavy hard strong close-grained wood, and acute
elongated winter-buds formed in early summer and covered by numerous
imbricated scales, the inner lengthening after the opening of the bud.
Leaves open and concave in the bud; petioles slender, nearly terete,
hairy; stipules strap-shaped to oblong-obovate. Flowers: staminate in
long clustered sessile or short-stalked aments developed in early summer
from lateral buds near the ends of short lateral branchlets of the year
and coated while young with hoary tomentum, naked and conspicuous during
the winter, and composed of 3—14 stamens crowded on a pilose receptacle
adnate to the base of an ovate concave scale rounded and abruptly
short-pointed at the apex, ciliate on the margins, longer than the
stamens; filaments short, 2-branched, each branch bearing a 1-celled
half-anther hairy at the apex; pistillate in erect lax aments terminal
on short leafy branches of the year, in pairs at the base of an
elongated ovate acute leaf-like ciliate scale persistent until
midsummer, each flower inclosed in a hairy sack-like involucre formed by
the union of a bract and 2 bractlets; calyx adnate to the ovary,
denticulate on the free narrow border. Nut ovoid, acute, flattened,
obscurely longitudinally ribbed, crowned with the remnants of the calyx,
marked at the narrow base by a small circular pale scar, inclosed in the
much enlarged pale membranaceous conspicuously longitudinally veined
reticulate-venulose involucres of the flower, short, pointed and hairy
at the apex, hirsute at the base, with sharp rigid stinging hairs,
imbricated into a short strobile fully grown at midsummer, and suspended
on a slender hairy stem.

Ostrya is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere from Nova Scotia
to Texas, northern Arizona, and to the highlands of southern Mexico and
Guatemala in the New World, and through southern Europe and southwestern
Asia, and in northern Japan and on the Island of Quelpart in the Old
World. Of the four species now recognized two are North American.

_Ostrya_ is the classical name of the Hop Hornbeam.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate or acute at apex.
                                                1. O. virginiana (A, C).
  Leaves elliptic or obovate, acute or rounded at apex.
                                                   2. O. Knowltonii (F).


         1. Ostrya virginiana K. Koch. Hop Hornbeam. Ironwood.

[Illustration: Fig. 192]

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, gradually narrowed into a long slender point
or acute at apex, narrowed and rounded, cordate, or wedge-shaped at the
often unequal base, sharply serrate, with slender incurved callous teeth
terminating at first in tufts of caducous hairs, when they unfold light
bronze-green, glabrous above and coated below on the midrib and primary
veins with long pale hairs, at maturity thin and extremely tough, dark
dull yellow-green above, light yellow-green and furnished with
conspicuous tufts of pale hairs in the axils of the veins below, 3′—5′
long, 1½′—2′ wide, with a slender midrib impressed and puberulous above,
light yellow and pubescent below, and numerous slender veins forked near
the margins; turning clear yellow before falling in the autumn; petioles
hairy about ¼′ long; stipules rounded and often short-pointed at apex,
ciliate on the margins with long pale hairs, hairy on the back, about ½′
long and ⅛′ wide. Flowers: staminate aments about ½′ long during their
first season, with light red-brown rather loosely imbricated scales
narrowed into a long slender point, becoming when the flowers open 2′
long, with broadly obovate scales rounded and abruptly contracted at
apex into a short point, ciliate on the margins, green tinged with red
above the middle, light brown toward the base; pistillate aments
slender, about ¼′ long, on thin hairy stems, their scales lanceolate,
acute, light green, often flushed with red above the middle, hirsute at
the apex, decreasing in size from the lowest. Fruit: nuts ⅓′ long, about
⅛′ wide, rather abruptly narrowed below the apex, their involucres in
clusters 1½′—2′ long and ⅔′—1′ wide, on slender hairy stems about 1′ in
length.

A tree, occasionally 50°—60° high, with a short trunk 2° in diameter,
usually not more than 20°—30° tall, with a trunk 18′—20′ thick, long
slender branches drooping at the ends and forming a round-topped or open
head frequently 50° across, and slender, very tough branchlets, light
green, coated with pale appressed hairs when they first appear, becoming
light orange color and very lustrous by midsummer, glabrous, dark
red-brown and lustrous during their first winter, and then growing
gradually darker brown and losing their lustre; or covered like the
petioles and peduncles with short erect glandular hairs (var.
_glandulosa_ Sarg.). Winter-buds ovoid, light chestnut-brown, slightly
puberulous, ¼′ long. Bark about ¼′ thick, broken into thick narrow
oblong closely appressed plate-like light brown scales slightly tinged
with red on the surface. Wood strong, hard, tough, durable, light brown
tinged with red or often nearly white, with thick pale sapwood of 40—50
layers of annual growth; used for fence-posts, handles of tools,
mallets, and other small articles.

Distribution. Dry gravelly slopes and ridges often in the shade of oaks
and other large trees; Island of Cape Breton and the shores of the Bay
of Chaleur, through the valley of the St. Lawrence River, and along the
northern shores of Lake Huron to western Ontario, Manitoba, Minnesota,
eastern North Dakota, the foothills of the Black Hills of South Dakota,
eastern, northern and northwestern Nebraska, eastern Kansas and
Oklahoma, and southward to northern Florida and eastern Texas; most
abundant and of its largest size in southern Arkansas and in Texas. From
Quebec and Ontario to western New England, western New York, Ohio and in
Central Michigan, the glandular form prevails: the two forms occur in
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Indiana, northern Illinois, southwestern
Missouri, Oklahoma, and southward on the high Appalachian Mountains.


                  2. Ostrya Knowltonii Cov. Ironwood.

[Illustration: Fig. 193]

Leaves elliptic to obovate, acute or round at apex, gradually narrowed
and often unequal at the rounded cuneate rarely cordate base, sharply
serrate with small triangular callous teeth, covered with loose pale
tomentum when they unfold, at maturity dark yellow-green and pilose
above, pale and soft-pubescent below, 1′—2′ long, 1′—1½′ wide, with a
slender yellow midrib slightly raised on the upper side, and slender
primary veins connected by obscure reticulate veinlets; turning dull
yellow in the autumn before falling; petioles ⅛′—¼′ long; stipules pale
yellow-green, often tinged with red toward the apex, ½′ long, about ½′
wide. Flowers: staminate aments on stout stalks covered with rufous
tomentum and sometimes ½′ long, rarely sessile, about ½′ long during
their first season, with dark brown puberulous scales gradually
contracted into a long slender subulate point, becoming when the flowers
open 1′—1¼′ long, with broadly ovate concave scales abruptly narrowed
into a nearly triangular point, yellow-green near the base, bright red
above the middle; pistillate aments about ¼′ long, with ovate-lanceolate
light yellow-green puberulous scales ciliate on the margins. Fruit: nuts
¼′ long, gradually narrowed at the apex, their involucres 1′ long,
nearly glabrous at the apex, sometimes slightly stained with red toward
the base, in clusters 1′—1½′ long and about ¾′ broad, on stems ½′ in
length.

A tree 20°—30° high, with a trunk 12′—18′ in diameter, usually divided
1° or 2° above the ground into 3 or 4 stout upright stems 4′—5′ thick,
slender pendulous often much contorted branches forming a narrow
round-topped symmetrical head, and slender branchlets dark green and
coated with hoary tomentum when they first appear, dark red-brown and
pubescent during their first summer, becoming light cinnamon-brown,
glabrous, and lustrous in the winter, and ultimately ashy gray.
Winter-buds ovoid, dark brownish red, about ⅛′ long. Bark internally
bright orange color, ⅛′ thick, separating into loose hanging plate-like
scales light gray slightly tinged with red, and 1′—2′ long and wide.
Wood light reddish brown, with thin sapwood.

Distribution. On the southern slope of the cañon of the Colorado River
in Coconino County, Arizona, at altitudes of 6000°—7000° above the sea
(Hance trail, seventy miles north of Flagstaff); in the cañon of Oak
Creek, south of Flagstaff (_P. Lowell_); and on Grand River, Utah (Moab,
Grant County, _M. E. Jones_).



                          3. BETULA L. Birch.


Trees, with smooth resinous bark marked by long longitudinal lenticels,
often separating freely into thin papery plates, becoming thick, deeply
furrowed, and scaly at the base of old trunks, short slender branches
more or less erect and forming on young trees a narrow symmetrical
pyramidal head, becoming horizontal and often pendulous on older trees,
tough branchlets, short stout spur-like 2-leaved lateral branchlets much
roughened by the crowded leaf-scars of many years, and elongated
winter-buds covered by numerous ovate acute scales, and fully grown and
bright green at midsummer. Leaves open and convex in the bud, often
incisely lobed; stipules ovate and acute or oblong-obovate, scarious.
Flowers in 3-flowered cymes, the lateral flowers of the cyme subtended
by bractlets adnate to the base of the scale of the ament; staminate
aments long, pendulous, solitary or clustered, appearing in summer or
autumn in the axils of the last leaves of a branchlet or near the ends
of short lateral branchlets, erect and naked during the winter, their
scales in the spring broadly ovate, rounded, short-stalked, yellow or
orange-color below the middle and dark chestnut-brown and lustrous above
it; staminate flowers composed of a membranaceous 4-lobed calyx often
2-lobed by suppression, the anterior lobe obovate, rounded at apex, as
long as the stamens, much longer than the minute posterior lobe, and of
2 stamens inserted on the base of the calyx, with short 2-branched
filaments, each branch bearing an erect half-anther; pistillate aments
oblong or cylindric, terminal on the short spur-like lateral branchlets,
their scales closely imbricated, oblong-ovate, 3-lobed, light yellow,
often tinged with red above the middle, accrescent, becoming brown and
woody at maturity, and forming sessile or stalked erect or pendulous
short or elongated strobiles usually ripening in the autumn, deciduous
with the nuts from the slender rachis; calyx of the pistillate flower 0;
ovary sessile, compressed, with styles stigmatic at apex. Nut minute,
oval or obovoid, compressed, bearing at the apex the persistent stigmas,
marked at the base by a small pale scar, the outer coat of the shell
produced into a marginal wing interrupted at the apex.

Betula is widely distributed from the Arctic circle to Texas in the New
World, and to southern Europe, the Himalayas, China, and Japan in the
Old World, some species forming great forests at the north, or covering
high mountain slopes. Of the twenty-eight or thirty species now
recognized twelve are found in North America; of these nine are trees.
Of exotic species the European and Asiatic _Betula pendula_ Roth. in a
number of forms is a common ornamental tree in the northern states,
where several of the Birch-trees of eastern Asia also flourish. Many of
the species produce wood valued by the cabinet-maker, or used in the
manufacture of spools, shoe-lasts, and other small articles. The thin
layers of the bark are impervious to water and are used to cover
buildings, and for shoes, canoes, and boxes. The sweet sap provides an
agreeable beverage.

_Betula_ is the classical name of the Birch-tree.


         CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES.

  Strobiles oblong-ovoid, nearly sessile, erect, the lateral lobes of
        their scales broad and slightly divergent; wing not broader than
        the nut; leaves with 9—11 pairs of veins; bark of young branches
        aromatic.
    Leaves heart-shaped or rounded at base; scales of the strobiles
          glabrous; bark dark brown, not separating into thin layers.
                                                     1. B. lenta (A, C).
    Leaves cuneate or slightly heart-shaped at base; scales of the
          strobiles pubescent; bark yellow, or silvery white, rarely
          dull yellowish brown; separating into thin layers.
                                                        2. B. lutea (A).
  Strobiles oblong or cylindric, erect, spreading or pendant, on slender
        peduncles; wing broader than the nut; leaves with 5—9 pairs of
        veins.
    Strobiles oblong, erect, ripening in May or June, their scales
          pubescent, deeply lobed, the lateral lobes erect; leaves
          rhombic-ovate, glaucescent and more or less silky-pubescent
          beneath; bark light reddish-brown, separating freely into thin
          persistent scales.
                                                     3. B. nigra (A, C).
    Strobiles cylindric, pendant or spreading.
      Scales of the strobiles pubescent, with recurved lateral lobes,
            the middle lobe triangular, nearly as broad as long; leaves
            long-pointed; petioles slender, elongated.
        Leaves triangular to rhombic, bright green and lustrous; bark
              chalky white, not separable into thin layers.
                                                  4. B. populifolia (A).
        Leaves ovate, cuneate to truncate or rounded at base, dull
              blue-green; bark white tinged with pink, lustrous, not
              easily separable into thin layers.
                                                      5. B. cœrulea (A).
      Scales of the strobiles with ascending or spreading lateral lobes,
            the middle lobe usually acuminate, longer than broad; leaves
            acute or acuminate.
        Bark separating freely into thin layers; scales of the strobiles
              glabrous.
          Bark creamy white, or in some forms orange-brown; leaves
                ovate.
                                          6. B. papyrifera (A, B, C, F).
          Bark dull reddish brown or nearly white; leaves rhombic to
                deltoid-ovate.
                                                  7. B. alaskana (A, B).
        Bark not separable into thin layers, dark brown; scales of the
              strobiles glabrous or puberulous; branchlets glandular.
          Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, truncate or rounded at the
                broad base.
                                             8. B. fontinalis (B, F, G).
          Leaves broad-ovate to elliptic, acute, rounded or abruptly
                short-pointed, cuneate at base.
                                                    9. B. Eastwoodæ (F).


             1. Betula lenta L. Cherry Birch. Black Birch.

[Illustration: Fig. 194]

Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, acute or acuminate, gradually narrowed and
often unequal at the cordate or rounded base, sharply serrate with
slender incurved teeth, or very rarely laciniately lobed (f. _laciniata_
Rehdr.), when they unfold light green, coated on the lower surface with
long white silky hairs, and slightly hairy on the upper surface, at
maturity thin and membranaceous, dark dull green above, light
yellow-green below, with small tufts of white hairs in the axils of the
veins, 2½′—6′ long, 1½′—3′ wide, with a yellow midrib and primary veins
prominent and hairy on the lower surface, and obscure reticulate cross
veinlets; turning bright clear yellow late in the autumn; petioles
stout, hairy, deeply grooved on the upper side, ¾′—1′ long; stipules
ovate, acute, light green or nearly white, scarious and ciliate above
the middle. Flowers: staminate aments during the winter about ¾′ long,
nearly ¼′ thick, with ovate acute apiculate scales bright red-brown
above the middle and light brown below it, becoming 3′—4′ long;
pistillate aments ½′—¾′ long, about ⅛′ thick, with ovate pale green
scales rounded at the apex; styles light pink. Fruit: strobiles
oblong-ovoid, sessile, erect, glabrous, 1′—1½′ long, about ½′ thick; nut
obovoid, pointed at base, rounded at apex, about as broad as its wing.

A tree, with aromatic bark and leaves, 70°—80° high, with a trunk 2°—5°
in diameter, slender branches spreading almost at right angles, becoming
pendulous toward the ends and gradually forming a narrow round-topped
open graceful head, and branchlets light green, slightly viscid and
pilose when they first appear, soon turning dark orange-brown, lustrous
during the summer, bright red-brown in their first winter, becoming
darker and finally dark dull brown slightly tinged with red. Winter-buds
ovoid, acute, about ¼′ long, with ovate acute light chestnut-brown
loosely imbricated scales, those of the inner ranks becoming ½′—¾′ long.
Bark on young stems and branches close, smooth, lustrous, dark brown
tinged with red, and marked by elongated horizontal pale lenticels,
becoming on old trunks ½′—¾′ thick, dull, deeply furrowed and broken
into large thick irregular plates covered with closely appressed scales.
Wood heavy, very strong and hard, close-grained, dark brown tinged with
red, with thin light brown or yellow sapwood of 70—80 layers of annual
growth; largely used for floors, in the manufacture of furniture and for
fuel, and occasionally in ship and boat-building. Sweet birch-oil
distilled from the wood and bark is used for medicinal purposes and for
flavoring as a substitute for oil of wintergreen, and beer is obtained
by fermenting the sugary sap.

Distribution. Rich uplands from southern Maine to northwestern Vermont,
and eastern Ohio and southward to northern Delaware and along the
Appalachian Mountains up to altitudes of 4000° to northern Georgia; in
Alabama, and in eastern Kentucky and Tennessee; a common forest tree at
the north, and of its largest size on the western slopes of the southern
Alleghany Mountains.

× _Betula Jackii_ Schn., a natural hybrid of _B. lenta_ with _B. pumila_
Michx., has appeared in the Arnold Arboretum.


            2. Betula lutea Michx. Yellow Birch. Gray Birch.

[Illustration: Fig. 195]

Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, acuminate or acute at apex, gradually
narrowed to the rounded cuneate or rarely heart-shaped usually oblique
base, sharply doubly serrate, when they unfold bronze-green or red, and
pilose with long pale hairs above and on the under side of the midrib
and veins, at maturity dull dark green above, yellow-green below, 3′—4½′
long, 1½′—2′ wide, with a stout midrib and primary veins covered below
near the base of the leaf with short pale or rufous hairs; turning clear
bright yellow in the autumn; petioles slender, pale yellow, hairy, ¾′—1′
long; stipules ovate, acute, light green tinged with pink above the
middle, about ½′ long. Flowers: staminate aments during the winter ¾′—1′
long, about ⅛′ thick, with ovate rounded scales light chestnut-brown and
lustrous above the middle, ciliate on the margins, becoming 3′—3½′ long
and ⅓′ thick; pistillate aments about ⅔′ long, with acute scales, pale
green below, light red and tipped with clusters of long white hair at
apex, and pilose on the back. Fruit: strobiles erect, sessile,
short-stalked, pubescent, 1′—1½′ long, about ¾′ thick; nut ellipsoidal
to obovoid, about ⅛′ long, rather broader than its wing.

A tree, with slightly aromatic bark and leaves, occasionally 100° high,
with a trunk 3°—4° in diameter, spreading and more or less pendulous
branches forming a broad round-topped head, and branchlets at first
green and covered with long pale hairs, light orange-brown and pilose
during their first summer, becoming glabrous and light brown slightly
tinged with orange, and ultimately dull and darker. Winter-buds about ¼′
long, somewhat viscid and covered with loose pale hairs during the
summer, becoming light chestnut-brown, acute, and slightly puberulous in
winter. Bark of young stems and of the branches bright silvery gray or
light orange color, very lustrous, separating into thin loose persistent
scales more or less rolled on the margins, becoming on old trees ½′
thick, reddish brown, and divided by narrow irregular fissures into
large thin plates covered with minute closely appressed scales, or
sometimes dull yellowish brown (_B. alleghaniensis_ Britt.). Wood heavy,
very strong, hard, close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thin
nearly white sapwood; largely used for floors, in the manufacture of
furniture, button and tassel moulds, boxes, the hubs of wheels, and for
fuel.

Distribution. Moist uplands, and southward often in swamps; one of the
largest deciduous-leaved trees of northeastern America; Newfoundland and
along the northern shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the valley of
Rainy River, and southward to Long Island (Cold Spring Harbor) and
western New York, Pennsylvania, northern Delaware, southeastern Ohio,
northern Indiana, southwestern Wisconsin, northern, northeastern and
central Iowa, and from the mountains of Virginia and West Virginia to
the highest peaks of North Carolina and Tennessee at altitudes between
3000° and 5000°; very abundant and of its largest size in the eastern
provinces of Canada and in northern New York and New England; small and
rare in southern New England and southward.

× _Betula Purpusii_ Schn. believed to be a natural hybrid of _B. lutea_
with _B. pumila_ var. _glandulifera_ Regel has been found in Michigan
and in Tamarack Swamps in Hennepin, Pine and Anoka Counties, Minnesota.


               3. Betula nigra L. Red Birch. River Birch.

[Illustration: Fig. 196]

Leaves rhombic-ovate, acute, abruptly or gradually narrowed and cuneate
at base, doubly serrate, and on vigorous young branches often more or
less laciniately cut into acute doubly serrate lobes, when they unfold
light yellow-green and pilose above and coated below, especially on the
midrib and petioles, with thick white tomentum, at maturity thin and
tough, 1½′—3′ long, 1′—2′ wide, deep green and lustrous above,
glabrescent, pubescent or ultimately glabrous below, except on the stout
midrib and remote primary veins; turning dull yellow in the autumn;
petioles slender, slightly flattened, tomentose, about ½′ long; stipules
ovate, rounded or acute at apex, pale green, covered below with white
hairs. Flowers: staminate aments clustered, during the winter about ⅞
long and 1/16′ thick, with ovate rounded dull chestnut-brown lustrous
scales, becoming 2′—3′ long and ⅛′ thick; pistillate aments about ⅓′
long, with bright green ovate scales pubescent on the back, rounded or
acute at apex, and ciliate with long white hairs. Fruit ripening in May
and June; strobiles cylindric, pubescent, 1′—1½′ long, ½′ thick, erect
on stout tomentose peduncles ½′ long; nut ovoid to ellipsoidal, ⅛′ in
length, pubescent or puberulous at apex, about as broad as its thin
puberulous wing, ciliate on the margin.

A tree, 80°—90° high, with a trunk often divided 15°—20° above the
ground into 2 or 3 slightly diverging limbs, and sometimes 5° in
diameter, slender branches forming in old age a narrow irregular
picturesque crown, and branchlets coated at first with thick pale or
slightly rufous tomentum gradually disappearing before winter, becoming
dark red and lustrous, dull red-brown in their second year, and then
gradually growing slightly darker until the bark separates into the thin
flakes of the older branches; or often sending up from the ground a
clump of several small spreading stems forming a low bushy tree.
Winter-buds ovoid, acute, about ¼′ long, covered in summer with thick
pale tomentum, glabrous or slightly puberulous, lustrous and bright
chestnut-brown in winter, the inner scales strap-shaped, light brown
tinged with red, and coated with pale hairs. Bark on young stems and
large branches thin, lustrous, light reddish brown or silvery gray,
marked by narrow slightly darker longitudinal lenticels, separating
freely into large thin papery scales persistent for several years, and
turning back and showing the light pink-brown tints of the freshly
exposed inner layers, becoming at the base of old trunks from ¾′—1′
thick, dark red-brown, deeply furrowed and broken on the surface into
thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, rather hard, strong,
close-grained, light brown, with pale sapwood of 40—50 layers of annual
growth; used in the manufacture of furniture, wooden ware, wooden shoes,
and in turnery.

Distribution. Banks of streams, ponds, and swamps, in deep rich soil
often inundated for several weeks at a time; near Manchester, Hillsboro
County, New Hampshire, northeastern Massachusetts, Long Island, New
York, southward to northern Florida through the region east of the
Alleghany Mountains except in the immediate neighborhood of the coast,
through the Gulf states to the valley of the Navasota River, Brazos
County, Texas, and through Arkansas, eastern Oklahoma, southeastern
Kansas, and Missouri to Tennessee and Kentucky, southern and eastern
Iowa, southern Minnesota, the valley of the Eau Claire River, Eau Claire
County, Wisconsin, southern Illinois, the valley of the Kankakee River,
Indiana, and southern Ohio; the only semiaquatic species and the only
species ripening its seeds in the spring or early summer; attaining its
largest size in the damp semitropical lowlands of Florida, Louisiana,
and Texas; the only Birch-tree of such warm regions.

Often cultivated in the northeastern states as an ornamental tree,
growing rapidly in cultivation.


         4. Betula populifolia Marsh. Gray Birch. White Birch.

[Illustration: Fig. 197]

Leaves nearly triangular to rhombic, long-pointed, coarsely doubly
serrate with stout spreading glandular teeth except at the broad
truncate or slightly cordate or cuneate base, thin and firm, dark green
and lustrous and somewhat roughened on the upper surface early in the
season by small pale glands in the axils of the conspicuous reticulate
veinlets, 2½′—3′ long, 1½′—2½′ wide, with a stout yellow midrib covered
with minute glands, and raised and rounded on the upper side, and
obscure yellow primary veins; turning pale yellow in the autumn;
petioles slender, terete, covered with black glands, often stained with
red on the upper side, ¾′—1′ long; stipules broadly ovate, acute,
membranaceous, light green slightly tinged with red. Flowers: staminate
aments usually solitary or rarely in pairs, 1¼′—1½′ long, about ⅛′ thick
during the winter, becoming 2½′—4′ long, with ovate acute apiculate
scales; pistillate aments slender, as long as their glandular peduncles
about ½′ in length, with ovate acute pale green glandular scales. Fruit:
strobiles cylindric, pubescent, obtuse at apex, about ¾′ long and ⅓′
thick, pendant or spreading on slender stems; nut ellipsoidal to
obovoid, acute or rounded at base, a little narrower than its obovate
wing.

A short-lived tree, 20°—30° or exceptionally 40° high, with a trunk
rarely 18′ in diameter, short slender often pendulous more or less
contorted branches usually clothing the stem to the ground and forming a
narrow pyramidal head, and branchlets roughened by small raised
lenticels, resinous-glandular when they first appear, gradually growing
darker, bright yellow and lustrous before autumn like the young stems,
bright reddish brown during their first winter, and ultimately white
near the trunk; often growing in clusters of spreading stems springing
from the stumps of old trees. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, pale
chestnut-brown, glabrous, about ¼′ long. Bark about ⅓′ thick, dull
chalky white on the outer surface, bright orange on the inner, close and
firm, with dark triangular markings at the insertion of the branches,
becoming at the base of old trees thicker, nearly black, and irregularly
broken by shallow fissures. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained,
not durable, light brown, with thick nearly white sapwood; used in the
manufacture of spools, shoe-pegs and wood pulp, for the hoops of
barrels, and largely for fuel.

Distribution. Dry gravelly barren soil or on the margins of swamps and
ponds; Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the valley
of the lower St. Lawrence River southward to northeastern, central and
on South Mountain, Franklin County, Pennsylvania, and northern Delaware,
and westward through northern New England and New York, ascending
sometimes to altitudes of 1800°, to the southern shores of Lake Ontario,
and at the foot of Lake Michigan, Indiana; rare and local in the
interior, very abundant in the coast region of New England and the
middle states; springing up in great numbers on abandoned farm-lands or
on lands stripped by fire of their original forest covering; most
valuable in its ability to grow rapidly in sterile soil and to afford
protection to the seedlings of more valuable and less rapid-growing
trees.

A form with deeply divided leaves (var. _laciniata_ Loud.) and one with
purple leaves (var. _purpurea_ E & B) are occasionally cultivated.

A shrub believed to be a natural hybrid of _B. populifolia_ with _B.
pumila_ Michx. has been found near Mt. Mansfield, Vermont.


                 5. Betula cœrulea Blanch. Blue Birch.

[Illustration: Fig. 198]

Leaves ovate, long-pointed, broadly or narrowly concave-cuneate at the
entire often unequal base, sharply mostly doubly serrate above with
straight or incurved glandular often apiculate teeth, covered above when
they unfold with pale deciduous glands, at maturity dull bluish green
above, pale yellow-green below, and sparingly villose along the under
side of the slender yellow midrib and primary veins, 2′—2½′ long, 1′—1½′
wide; petioles slender, ¾′—1¼′ long, yellow more or less deeply tinged
with red. Flowers: staminate aments usually in pairs, or singly or in
3’s, 1¼′—2′ long, about 3/16′ thick, with ovate rounded short-pointed
scales; pistillate aments slender, about ⅓′ long, with acuminate pale
green much reflexed scales. Fruit: strobiles cylindric, pubescent,
slightly narrowed at the obtuse apex, about 1′ long and ¼′ thick,
pendant on slender peduncles ¼′—½′ in length; nut ellipsoidal, much
narrower than its broad wing.

A tree, rarely more than 30° high, with a trunk 8′—10′ in diameter,
small ascending finally spreading branches, and slender branchlets
marked by numerous small raised pale lenticels, purplish and sparingly
villose when they first appear, soon glabrous, becoming bright
red-brown; often forming clumps of several stems. Bark thin, white
tinged with rose, lustrous, not readily separable into layers, the inner
bark light orange color.

Distribution. Moist slopes, Stratton and Windham, Windham County,
Vermont, at altitudes of about 1800° (_W. H. Blanchard_), Haystack
Mountain, Aroostook County, Maine (_M. L. Fernald_); the American
representative of the European _Betula pendula_ Roth., and probably
widely distributed over the hills of northern New England and eastern
Canada. Perhaps with its variety best considered a natural hybrid
between _B. papyrifera_ and _B. populifolia_.

Apparently passing into a form with larger leaves often rounded and
truncate at the broad base, 3′—3½′ long and 2′ wide, stouter staminate
aments, and strobiles frequently 1½′ long and ½′ thick (var.
_Blanchardii_ Sarg. fig. 198 A). This under favorable conditions is a
tree 60°—70° high, with a trunk 18′ in diameter; common with _Betula
cœrulea_ at Windham and Stratton, Vermont (_W. H. Blanchard_), and on a
hill near the coast in Washington County, Maine (_M. L. Fernald_).


         6. Betula papyrifera Marsh. Canoe Birch. Paper Birch.

[Illustration: Fig. 199]

Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate with a short broad point, coarsely
usually doubly and often very irregularly serrate except at the rounded
abruptly cuneate or gradually narrowed base, bright green,
glandular-resinous, pubescent and clothed below on the midrib and
primary veins and on the petioles with long white hairs when they
unfold, at maturity thick and firm, dull dark green and glandless or
rarely glandular on the upper surface, light yellow-green and glabrous
or puberulous, with small tufts of pale hairs in the axils of the
primary veins and covered with many black glands on the lower surface,
2′—3′ long, 1½′—2′ wide, with a slender yellow midrib marked, like the
remote primary veins, with minute black glands, turning light clear
yellow in the autumn; petioles stout, yellow, glandular, glabrous or
pubescent, ½′—¾′ long; stipules ovate, acute, ciliate on the margins
with pale hairs, light green. Flowers: staminate aments clustered during
the winter, ¾′—1¼′ long, about ⅛′ thick, with ovate, acute scales light
brown below the middle, dark red-brown above it, becoming 3½′—4′ long,
and about ⅓′ thick; pistillate aments 1′—1¼′ long, about 1/16′ thick,
with light green lanceolate scales long-pointed and acute or rounded at
apex; styles bright red. Fruit: strobiles cylindric, glabrous, about 1½′
long and ⅓′ thick, hanging on slender stalks, their scales very rarely
entire (var. _elobata_ Sarg.); nut ellipsoidal, about 1/16′ long, much
narrower than its thin wing.

A tree, usually 60°—70° tall, with a trunk 2°—3° in diameter, becoming
in old age, or when crowded by other trees, branchless below and
supporting a narrow open head of short pendulous branches, and
branchlets at first light green, slightly viscid, marked by scattered
orange-colored oblong lenticels and covered with long pale hairs, dark
orange color and glabrous or pubescent during the summer, becoming dull
red in their first winter, gradually growing dark orange-brown, lustrous
for four or five years and ultimately covered with the white papery bark
of older branches. Winter-buds obovoid, acute, about ¼′ long, pubescent
below the middle and coated with resinous gum at midsummer, dark
chestnut-brown, glabrous and slightly resinous during the winter, their
inner scales becoming strap-shaped, rounded at apex, about ½′ long and
⅛′ wide. Bark on young trunks and large limbs thin, creamy white or
rarely bronze color or orange-brown and lustrous on the outer surface,
bright orange color on the inner, marked by long narrow slightly darker
colored raised lenticels, separating into thin papery layers, pale
orange color when first exposed to the light, becoming on old trunks for
a few feet above the ground sometimes ½′ thick, dull brown or nearly
black, sharply and irregularly furrowed and broken on the surface into
thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, strong, hard, tough, very
close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick nearly white
sapwood; largely used for spools, shoe-lasts, pegs, and in turnery, the
manufacture of wood-pulp, and for fuel. The tough resinous durable bark
impervious to water is used by all the northern Indians to cover their
canoes and for baskets, bags, drinking-cups, and other small articles,
and often to cover their wigwams in winter.

Distribution. Rich wooded slopes and the borders of streams, lakes, and
swamps scattered through forests of other trees; Labrador to the
southern shores of Hudson’s Bay, and southward to Long Island, New York,
northern Pennsylvania, central Michigan, northern Wisconsin,
northern-central Iowa, eastern Nebraska, North and South Dakota and
Wyoming; common in the maritime provinces of Canada and North of the
Great Lakes, and in northern New England and New York; small and
comparatively rare in the coast region of southern New England and
southward; on the highest mountains of New England and northward the
var. _minor_ S. Wats and Cov. is common as a small shrub.

Often planted in the northeastern states as an ornamental tree.

× _Betula Sandbergii_ Britt. and its f. _maxima_ Rosend. generally
believed to be natural hybrids of _B. papyrifera_ and _B. pumila_ var.
_glandulifera_ Regl. occur in Tamarack swamps in Hennepin County,
Minnesota.

Passing into the following varieties.


                Betula papyrifera var. cordifolia Fern.

[Illustration: Fig. 200]

Leaves ovate, abruptly pointed and acuminate or acute at apex, cordate
at base, coarsely doubly serrate, glabrous or pilose on the under side
of the midrib and veins, often furnished below with axillary tufts of
pale hairs, 1½′—3′ long, 1′—2½′ wide; petioles glabrous or rarely
villose, ½′—¾′ in length. Fruit: strobiles ¾′—2′ long and ¼′—½′ thick,
on villose peduncles up to ¾′ in length; scales glabrous or pubescent.

A tree rarely more than 30° tall, with slender glabrous or pubescent
branchlets, and at high altitudes on the New England mountains reduced
to a low shrub. Bark separating in thin layers, white or dark reddish
brown.

Distribution. Labrador and Newfoundland to northern New England, and
westward to the shores of Green Bay, Wisconsin, and those of Lake
Superior, Minnesota (Grand Marais, Cook County); on Mt. Mitchell, North
Carolina, at an altitude of 5550° (_W. W. Ashe_).


                Betula papyrifera var. subcordata Sarg.

                       _Betula subcordata_ Rydb.

[Illustration: Fig. 201]

Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate at apex, slightly cordate or rounded at
base, rarely slightly lobed above the middle, finely often doubly
serrate with teeth pointing forward or spreading, glabrous, 2′—2½′ long,
1′—1½′ wide; petioles sparingly villose or glabrous, ½′—¾′ in length.
Fruit: strobiles drooping on slender peduncles 1′—1½′ long, about ⅓′
thick, their scales puberulous, ciliate on the margins, the middle lobe
acute, rather longer than the broad truncate lateral lobes; nut obovoid,
cuneate at base, 1/12′ long, narrower than its wings.

A tree 25°—40° or occasionally 60° high, with a trunk 12′—18′ in
diameter, and slightly glandular glabrous red-brown branchlets. Bark
separating freely into thin layers, white or occasionally dark reddish
brown or orange color.

Distribution. Alberta (Crow Nest Pass, neighborhood of Jasper and
Cypress Hills), through northern Montana and Idaho to western
Washington, northeastern Oregon (Minum River Valley) and British
Columbia.


                Betula papyrifera var. montanensis Sarg.

                      _Betula montanensis_ Butler.

[Illustration: Fig. 202]

Leaves broadly ovate, acute at apex, truncate or rounded at base to
oblong-ovate or lanceolate and long-pointed and acuminate at apex,
narrowed and rounded at base, coarsely doubly serrate, thick, dark green
above, paler, sparingly pubescent and furnished with conspicuous tufts
of axillary hairs below, 3′—5′ long, 2′—2¼′ wide; petioles puberulous,
¾′—1′ in length. Flowers unknown. Fruit: strobiles cylindric, 1¾′—2′
long, ½′ thick, pendent on puberulous peduncles ½′—¾′ in length, their
scales puberulous, finely ciliate on the margins, the slender base of
those below the middle of the ament rather more than twice as long as
the expanded upper portion of the scale.

A tree 40°—50° high, with a trunk 12′—18′ in diameter, and slender
branchlets red-brown, lustrous, marked by small pale lenticels and
puberulous during their first season. Winter-buds narrow-obovoid,
acuminate, dark red-brown, resinous, ⅓′ long. Bark white, or dark gray
or brown.

Distribution. Shore of Yellow Bay, Flathead Lake, Flathead County,
Montana, and at Sandpoint, Bonner County, Idaho.


               Betula papyrifera var. occidentalis Sarg.

                      _Betula occidentalis_ Hook.

[Illustration: Fig. 203]

Leaves ovate, acute, or abruptly acuminate at apex, rounded or
occasionally cordate or rarely cuneate at the broad base, coarsely and
generally doubly serrate with straight or incurved glandular teeth, thin
and firm in texture, dull dark green above, pale yellow-green below, and
puberulous on both sides of the stout yellow midrib and slender primary
veins, 3′—4′ long, 1½′—2′ wide; petioles stout, glandular, at first
tomentose, ultimately pubescent or puberulous, about ¾′ long; stipules
oblong-obovate, rounded and acute or apisculate at apex, ciliate on the
margin, puberulous, glandular-viscid. Flowers: staminate aments during
the winter about ¾′ long and ⅛′ thick, with ovate scales rounded or
abruptly narrowed and acute at apex; puberulous on the outer surface,
ciliate on the margins, becoming 3′—4′ long and about ¼′ thick;
pistillate aments about 1′ long and 1/16′ thick, with acuminate bright
green scales. Fruit: strobiles cylindric, puberulous, spreading, 1¼′—1½′
long, ¼′—½′ thick, on stout peduncles ¾′ in length, their scales ciliate
on the margins; nut oval, about 1/16′ in length, and nearly as wide as
its wings.

A tree, 100°—120° high, with a trunk 3°—4° in diameter, comparatively
small branches often pendulous on old trees, and pale orange-brown
branchlets more or less glandular and coated with long pale hairs when
they first appear, becoming bright orange-brown and nearly destitute of
glands during their first winter, and in their second year orange-brown,
glabrous, and very lustrous. Winter-buds acute, bright orange-brown,
⅛′—¼′ long, their light brown inner scales sometimes becoming ¾′ in
length. Bark thin, marked by long oblong horizontal raised lenticels,
dark orange-brown or white, very lustrous, separating freely into thin
papery layers displaying in falling the bright orange-yellow inner bark.

Distribution. Banks of streams and lakes; southwestern British Columbia
and northwestern Washington and eastward through eastern Washington and
northern Idaho to northern Montana west of the continental divide;
nowhere common and probably of its largest size on the alluvial banks of
the lower Fraser River, and on the islands of Puget Sound.


    Betula papyrifera var. kenaica A. Henry. Red Birch. Black Birch.

                        _Betula kenaica_ Evans.

[Illustration: Fig. 204]

Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, broadly cuneate or somewhat rounded at
the entire base, irregularly coarsely often doubly serrate, glabrous,
dark dull green above, pale yellow-green below, 1½′—2′ long, 1′—1¾′
wide, with a slender yellow midrib and 5 pairs of thin primary veins;
petioles slender, ¾′—1′ long. Flowers: staminate aments clustered, 1′
long, with ovate acute scales apiculate at apex, puberulous on the outer
surface; pistillate aments, ⅓′—½′ long, about 1/16′ thick, on slender
glandular pubescent peduncles ½′—¾′ in length; scales acuminate light
green strongly reflexed; styles bright red. Fruit: strobiles cylindric,
glabrous, 1′ long, their scales ciliate on the margins; nut oval,
somewhat narrower than its thin wing.

A tree, 30°—40° high, with a trunk 12′—20′ in diameter, wide-spreading
branches, stout branchlets marked by numerous small pale lenticels,
bright red-brown during 2 or 3 years, gradually becoming darker. Bark
thin, more or less furrowed, very dark brown or nearly black near the
base of the trunk, grayish white or light reddish brown and separating
into thin layers higher on the stem and on the branches.

Distribution. Coast of Alaska from Cook Inlet southward to the head of
the Lynn Canal.


                 7. Betula alaskana Sarg. White Birch.

[Illustration: Fig. 205]

Leaves rhombic to deltoid-ovate, long-pointed, truncate, rounded or
broadly cuneate, or on leading shoots occasionally cordate at the entire
base, coarsely and often doubly glandular-serrate, thin, dark green
above, pale and yellow-green below, 1½′—3′ long, 1′—1½′ wide, with a
slender midrib and primary veins pubescent or ultimately glabrous below;
petioles often bright red, somewhat hairy at first, finally glabrous,
about 1′ long; Flowers: staminate aments clustered, sessile, 1′ long, ⅛′
thick, with ovate acuminate scales puberulous on the outer surface, and
bright red, with yellow margins; pistillate aments slender, cylindric,
glandular, 1′ long, ⅛′ thick, on stout peduncles nearly ½′ in length.
Fruit: strobiles glabrous, pendulous or spreading, 1′—1¼′ long, ⅓′—½′
thick, their scales ciliate on the margins; nut oval, narrower than its
broad wing.

A tree, usually 30°—40°, occasionally 80°, high, with a trunk 6′—12′ in
diameter, slender erect and spreading or pendulous branches, and
glabrous bright red-brown branchlets more or less thickly covered during
their first year with resinous glands sometimes persistent until the
second or third season. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse at the gradually
narrowed apex, about ¼′ long, with light red-brown shining outer scales
sometimes ciliate on the margins, and oblong rounded scarious inner
scales hardly more than ½′ long when fully grown. Bark thin, marked by
numerous elongated dark slightly raised lenticels, dull reddish brown or
sometimes nearly white on the outer surface, light red on the inner
surface, close and firm, finally separable into thin plate-like scales.

Distribution. Valley of the Saskatchewan northwestward to the valley of
the Yukon, growing sparingly near the banks of streams in forests of
coniferous trees and in large numbers on sunny slopes and hillsides; the
common Birch-tree of the Yukon basin.

× _Betula commixta_ Sarg., a shrub, growing on the tundra near Dawson,
Yukon Territory, is believed to be a hybrid between _B. alaskana_ and
_B. glandulosa_ Michx.


                8. Betula fontinalis Sarg. Black Birch.

[Illustration: Fig. 206]

Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, sharply and often doubly serrate,
except at the rounded or abruptly cuneate often unequal base, and
sometimes slightly laciniately lobed, pale green, pilose above, and
covered by conspicuous resinous glands when they unfold, at maturity
thin and firm, dark dull green above, pale yellow-green, rather lustrous
and covered by minute glandular dots below, 1′—2′ long, ¾′—1′ wide, with
a slender pale midrib, remote glandular veins, and rather conspicuous
reticulate veinlets; turning dull yellow in the autumn; petioles stout,
puberulous, light yellow, glandular-dotted, flattened on the upper side,
often flushed with red, ⅓′—½′ long; stipules broadly ovate, acute or
rounded at apex, slightly ciliate, bright green, soon becoming pale and
scarious. Flowers: staminate aments clustered, ½′—¾′ long and 1/16′
thick during the winter, with ovate acute light chestnut-brown scales
pale and slightly ciliate on the margins, becoming 2′—2½′ long, and
about ⅛′ thick, with apiculate scales; pistillate aments short-stalked,
about ¾′ long, with ovate acute green scales; styles bright red. Fruit:
strobiles cylindric, rather obtuse, puberulous or nearly glabrous,
1′—1¼′ long, ½′ thick, erect or pendulous on slender glandular
peduncles, ¼′ to nearly ¾′ in length; their scales ciliate, puberulous,
the lateral lobes ascending, shorter than the middle lobe; nut ovoid or
obovoid, puberulous at apex, nearly as wide as its wing.

A tree 20°—25° high with a short trunk, rarely more than 12′ or 14′ in
diameter, ascending spreading and somewhat pendulous branches forming a
broad open head, and slender branchlets, when they first appear light
green glabrous or puberulous and covered with lustrous resinous glands
persistent during their second season, and dark red-brown in their first
winter; more commonly shrubby, with many thin spreading stems forming
open clusters, 15°—20° high; often much lower, and frequently crowded in
almost impenetrable thickets. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, very resinous,
chestnut-brown, ¼′ long. Bark about ¼′ thick, dark bronze color, very
lustrous, marked by pale brown longitudinal lenticels becoming on old
trunks often 6′—8′ long and ¼′ wide. Wood soft and strong, light brown,
with thick lighter-colored sapwood; sometimes used for fuel and fencing.

Distribution. Moist soil near the banks of streams usually in mountain
cañons; generally distributed, although nowhere very common: valley of
the Saskatchewan (Saskatoon), Saskatchewan, westward to the basin of the
upper Fraser and Pease Rivers, British Columbia, southward along the
Rocky Mountains to eastern Utah, northern New Mexico and Arizona, the
valleys of the Shasta region and the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada,
northern California, and eastward in the United States to the eastern
foothills of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, the Black Hills of South
Dakota, and northwestern Nebraska. Passing into


                  Betula fontinalis var. Piperi Sarg.

                         _Betula Piperi_ Britt.

[Illustration: Fig. 207]

A tree occasionally 50°—60° high with a tall trunk 12′—18′ in diameter,
short spreading branches, and usually longer and often narrower
strobiles.

Distribution. Spokane, Spokane County, Almota and Pullman, Whitman
County, eastern Washington.


                       9. Betula Eastwoodæ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 208]

Leaves broad-ovate to elliptic, acute, rounded or abruptly short-pointed
at apex, coarsely serrate except at the cuneate base, thick, glabrous,
dark green above, pale below, reticulate-venulose, the veinlets more
conspicuous on the lower surface, 1′—1½′ long, ¾′—1½′ wide; petioles
slender, glabrous ⅕′—⅓′ in length; stipules scarious, ovate-oblong,
rounded at apex. Flowers: staminate aments usually solitary or in pairs,
sessile, 1′—1¼′ long, ⅕′ thick, with broadly ovate pubescent dark red
scales acute and apiculate at apex; pistillate aments ½′ long, about
1/12′ thick, with acute light green scales. Fruit: strobiles pendulous
on peduncles ⅓′—½′ long, cylindric, ¾′ in length, about ⅙′ thick, their
scales glabrous longer than broad, the lobes narrowed at the rounded
apex, ciliate, the lateral slightly spreading, one third shorter than
the terminal lobe.

A tree 18°—20° high, with a trunk rarely more than 6′ in diameter, and
slender red glabrous branchlets thickly covered with circular white
glands. Bark close, chestnut-brown, marked by conspicuous horizontal
white lenticels, about ⅕′ thick.

Distribution. Swamps near Dawson, Yukon Territory, forming jungles with
_Betula glandulosa_ Michx., _B. alaskana_ Sarg., and various Willows; as
a large shrub in Jasper Park near Jasper, Alberta.



                           4. ALNUS L. Alder.


Trees and shrubs, with astringent scaly bark, soft straight-grained
wood, naked stipitate winter-buds formed in summer and nearly inclosed
by the united stipules of the first leaf, becoming thick, resinous, and
dark red. Leaves open and convex in the bud, falling without change of
color; stipules of all but the first leaf ovate, acute, and scarious.
Flowers vernal, or rarely opening in the autumn from aments of the year,
in 1—3-flowered cymes in the axils of the peltate short-stalked scales
of stalked aments formed in summer or autumn in the axils of the last
leaves of the year or of those of minute leafy bracts; staminate aments
elongated, pendulous, paniculate, naked and erect during the winter,
each staminate flower subtended by 3—5 minute bractlets adnate to the
scales of the ament, and composed of a 4-parted calyx, and 1—3 or
usually 4 stamens inserted on the base of the calyx opposite its lobes,
with short simple filaments; pistillate aments ovoid or oblong, erect,
stalked, produced in summer in the axils of the leaves of a branch
developed from the axils of an upper leaf of the year, and below the
staminate inflorescence, inclosed at first in the stipules of the first
leaf, emerging in the autumn and naked during the winter, or remaining
covered until early spring; pistillate flowers in pairs, each flower
subtended by 2—4 minute bractlets adnate to the fleshy scale of the
ament becoming at maturity thick and woody, obovate, 3—5-lobed or
truncate at the thickened apex, forming an ovoid or subglobose strobile
persistent after the opening of its closely imbricated scales; calyx 0;
ovary compressed; nut minute, bright chestnut-brown, ovoid to oblong,
flat, bearing at the apex the remnants of the style, marked at the base
by a pale scar, the outer coat of the shell produced into lateral wings
often reduced to a narrow membranaceous border.

Alnus inhabits swamps, river bottom-lands, and high mountains, and is
widely and generally distributed through the northern hemisphere, often
forming the most conspicuous feature of vegetation on mountain slopes,
ranging at high altitudes southward in the New World through Central
America to Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia, and to upper Assam and Japan in
the Old World. Of the eighteen or twenty species now recognized nine are
North American; of these, six attain the size and habit of trees. Of the
exotic species, _Alnus vulgaris_ Hill., a common European, north
African, and Asiatic timber-tree, was introduced many years ago into the
northeastern states, where it has become locally naturalized. The wood
of Alnus is very durable in water, and the astringent bark and strobiles
are used in tanning leather and in medicine.

_Alnus_ is the classical name of the Alder.


         CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES.

  Flowers opening in spring with or after the leaves; stamens 4;
        pistillate aments inclosed during the winter; wing of the nut
        broad; leaves ovate, sinuately lobed, lustrous on the lower
        surface.
                                                1. A. sinuata (B, F, G).
  Flowers opening in winter or early spring before the unfolding of the
        leaves; pistillate aments usually naked during the winter.
    Wing of the nut broad; leaves ovate or elliptic, rusty-pubescent on
          the lower surface; pistillate aments often inclosed during the
          winter; stamens 4.
                                                     2. A. rubra (B, G).
    Wing of the nut reduced to a narrow border.
      Stamens 4; leaves oblong-ovate, glabrous or puberulous on the
            lower surface.
                                             3. A. tenuifolia (B, F, G).
      Stamens usually 2, or 3.
        Leaves ovate or oval.
                                            4. A. rhombifolia (B, F, G).
        Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute.
                                                 5. A. oblongifolia (H).
  Flowers opening in autumn from aments of the year; stamens 4; wing of
        the nut reduced to a narrow border; leaves oblong-ovate or
        obovate, dark green and lustrous above, pale yellow-green below.
                                                     6. A. maritima (A).


                     1. Alnus sinuata Rydb. Alder.

                        _Alnus sitchensis_ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 209]

Leaves ovate, acute, full and rounded and often unsymmetrical and
somewhat oblique or abruptly narrowed and cuneate at base, divided into
numerous short acute lateral lobes, sharply and doubly serrate with
straight glandular teeth, glandular-viscid as they unfold, at maturity
membranaceous, yellow-green on the upper surface, pale and very lustrous
on the lower surface, glabrous, or villose along the under side of the
stout midrib with short brown hairs also forming tufts in the axils of
the numerous slender primary veins, 3′—6′ long, 1½′—4′ wide; petioles
stout, grooved, abruptly enlarged at the base, ½′—¾′ in length; stipules
oblong to spatulate, rounded and apiculate at apex, puberulous, about ¼′
long. Flowers: staminate aments sessile, in pairs in the axils of the
upper leaves sometimes reduced to small bracts, and single in the axil
of the leaf next below, during the winter about ½′ long and ⅛′ thick,
with dark red-brown shining puberulous apiculate scales, becoming when
the flowers open from spring to midsummer 4′ or 5′ long, with a
puberulous light red rachis and ovate acute apiculate 3-flowered scales;
calyx-lobes rounded, shorter than the 4 stamens; pistillate aments in
elongated panicles, inclosed during winter in buds formed the previous
summer in the axils of the leaves of short lateral branchlets,
long-pedunculate, ⅓′ long, ⅙′ thick. Fruit: strobiles on slender
peduncles in elongated sometimes leafy panicles 4′—6′ in length, oblong,
½′—⅝′ long, about ⅓′ thick, their truncate scales thickened at the apex;
nut oval, about as wide as its wings.

A tree, sometimes 40° high, with a trunk 7′—8′ in diameter, short small
nearly horizontal branches forming a narrow crown, and slender slightly
zigzag branchlets puberulous and very glandular when they first appear,
bright orange-brown and lustrous and marked by numerous large pale
lenticels during their first season, much roughened during their second
year by the elevated crowded leaf-scars, becoming light gray.
Winter-buds acuminate, dark purple, covered especially toward the apex
with close fine pubescence, about ½′ long. Bark thin bluish gray, with
bright red inner bark; often a shrub only a few feet tall spreading into
broad thickets.

Distribution. Northwest coast from the borders of the Arctic Circle to
the high mountains of northern California; common in the valley of the
Yukon and eastward through British Columbia to Alberta, and through
Washington and Oregon to the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains in
Montana; at the north with dwarf Willows, forming great thickets; in
southeastern Alaska often a tall tree on rich moist bottom-lands near
the mouths of mountain streams, and at the upper limits of tree growth a
low shrub; very abundant in the valley of the Yukon on the wet banks of
streams and often arborescent in habit; in British Columbia and the
United States generally smaller and a shrub, growing usually only at
altitudes of more than 3000° above the sea, and often forming thickets
on the banks of streams and lakes.


                      2. Alnus rubra Bong. Alder.

                         _Alnus oregona_ Nutt.

[Illustration: Fig. 210]

Leaves ovate to elliptic, acute, abruptly or gradually narrowed and
cuneate at base, crenately lobed, dentate with minute gland-tipped
teeth, and slightly revolute on the margins, covered when they unfold
with pale tomentum, at maturity thick dark green and glabrous or pilose
with scattered white hairs above, clothed below with short rusty
pubescence, 3′—5′ long, 1¾′—3′ wide, or on vigorous branchlets sometimes
8′—10′ long, with a broad midrib and primary veins green on the upper
side and orange-colored on the lower, the primary veins running
obliquely to the points of the lobes and connected by conspicuous
slightly reticulate cross veinlets; petioles orange-colored, nearly
terete, slightly grooved, ¼′—¾′ in length; stipules ovate, acute, pale
green flushed with red, tomentose, ⅛′—¼′ long. Flowers: staminate aments
in red-stemmed clusters, during the winter 1¼′ long, ⅛′ thick, with dark
red-brown lustrous closely appressed scales, becoming 4′—6′ long and ¼′
thick, with ovate acute orange-colored glabrous scales; calyx yellow,
with ovate rounded lobes rather shorter than the 4 stamens; pistillate
aments in short racemes usually inclosed during the winter in buds
formed during the early summer and opening in the early spring, ⅓′—½′
long, about 1/16′ thick, with dark red acute scales; styles bright red.
Fruit: strobiles raised on stout orange-colored peduncles sometimes ½′
in length, ovoid or oblong, ½′—1′ long, ⅓′—½′ thick, with truncate
scales much thickened toward the apex; nut orbicular to obovoid,
surrounded by a membranaceous wing.

A tree, usually 40°—50°, occasionally 90° high, with a trunk sometimes
3° in diameter, slender somewhat pendulous branches forming a narrow
pyramidal head, and slender branchlets marked by minute scattered pale
lenticels, light green and coated at first with hoary tomentum sometimes
persistent until their second year, becoming during the first winter
bright red and lustrous and ultimately ashy gray. Winter-buds about ⅓′
long, dark red, covered with pale scurfy pubescence. Bark rarely more
than ¾′ thick, close, roughened by minute wart-like excrescences, pale
gray or nearly white, with a thin outer layer, and bright red-brown
inner bark. Wood light, soft, brittle, not strong, close-grained, light
brown tinged with red, with thick nearly white sapwood; in Washington
and Oregon largely used in the manufacture of furniture and for smoking
salmon; by the Indians of Alaska the trunks are hollowed into canoes.

Distribution. Shores of Yakutat Bay, southeastern Alaska, southward near
the coast to the cañons of the Santa Inez Mountains, Santa Barbara
County, California; common along the banks of streams, and of its
largest size near the shores of Puget Sound; in California most abundant
in Mendocino, Humboldt and Marin Counties, forming groves on
bottom-lands near the coast; often ranging inland for 20 or 30 miles,
and occasionally ascending to altitudes of 2000° above the sea.


                    3. Alnus tenuifolia Nutt. Alder.

[Illustration: Fig. 211]

Leaves ovate-oblong, acute or acuminate, broad and rounded or cordate or
occasionally abruptly narrowed and cuneate at base, usually acutely
laciniately lobed and doubly serrate, when they unfold light green often
tinged with red, pilose on the upper surface and coated on the lower
with pale tomentum, at maturity thin and firm, dark green and glabrous
above, pale yellow-green and glabrous or puberulous below, 2′—4′ long,
1½′—2½′ wide, with a stout orange-colored midrib impressed on the upper
side, and slender primary veins running to the points of the lobes;
petioles stout, slightly grooved, orange-colored, ½′—1′ in length;
stipules ovate, acute, thin, and scarious, ½′ long, about ⅛′ wide,
covered with pale pubescence. Flowers: staminate aments 3 or 4 in number
in slender-stemmed racemes, nearly sessile or raised on stout peduncles
often ½′ long, during the winter light purple, ¾′—1′ long and ¼′ thick,
becoming 1½′—2′ in length; calyx-lobes rounded, shorter than the 4
stamens; pistillate aments naked during the winter, dark red-brown,
nearly ¼′ long, with acute apiculate loosely imbricated scales, only
slightly enlarged when the flowers open. Fruit: strobiles
obovoid-oblong, ⅓′—½′ long, their scales much thickened, truncate and
3-lobed at apex; nut nearly circular to slightly obovoid, surrounded by
a thin membranaceous border.

A tree, occasionally 30° tall, with a trunk 6′—8′ in diameter, small
spreading slightly pendulous branches forming a narrow round-topped
head, and slender branchlets marked at first by a few large
orange-colored lenticels and coated with fine pale or rusty caducous
pubescence, becoming light brown or ashy gray more or less deeply
flushed with red in their first winter and ultimately paler; more often
shrubby, with several spreading stems, and at the north and at high
altitudes frequently only 4°—5° tall. Winter-buds ¼′—⅓′ long, bright
red, and puberulous. Bark rarely more than ¼′ thick, bright red-brown
and broken on the surface into small closely appressed scales.

Distribution. Banks of streams and mountain cañons from Francis Lake in
latitude 61° north to the valley of the lower Fraser River, British
Columbia, eastward along the Saskatchewan to Prince Albert, and
southward through the Rocky Mountains to northern New Mexico; on the
Sierra Nevada of southern California, and in Lower California; the
common Alder of mountain streams in the northern interior region of the
continent; very abundant on the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains,
and on the southern California Sierras; forming great thickets at
6000°—7000° above the sea along the headwaters of the rivers of southern
California flowing to the Pacific Ocean; the common Alder of eastern
Washington and Oregon, and of Idaho and Montana; very abundant and of
its largest size in Colorado and northern New Mexico.


             4. Alnus rhombifolia Nutt. White Alder. Alder.

[Illustration: Fig. 212]

Leaves ovate or oval or sometimes nearly orbicular, rounded or acute at
apex, especially on vigorous shoots, gradually or abruptly narrowed and
cuneate at base, finely or sometimes coarsely and occasionally doubly
serrate, slightly thickened and reflexed on the somewhat undulate
margins, when they unfold pale green and covered with deciduous matted
white hairs, at maturity dark green and lustrous on the upper surface,
frequently marked, especially on the midrib, with minute glandular dots,
light yellow-green and slightly puberulous below, 2′—3′ long, 1½′—2′
wide, with a stout yellow midrib and primary veins; petioles slender,
yellow, hairy, flattened and grooved on the upper side, ½′—¾′ long;
stipules ovate, acute, scarious, puberulous, about ¼′ in length.
Flowers: staminate aments in slender-stemmed pubescent clusters, usually
short-stalked, during the summer dark olive-brown and lustrous, ¾′—1′
long and about 1/16′ thick, beginning to lengthen late in the autumn
before the leaves fall, fully grown and 4′—6′ long and ¼′ thick in
January, with dark orange-brown scales, and deciduous in February before
the appearance of the new leaves; calyx yellow, 4-lobed, rather shorter
than the 2 or occasionally 3 or rarely single stamen; pistillate aments
in short pubescent racemes emerging from the bud in December, their
scales broadly ovate and rounded. Fruit: strobiles oblong, ⅓′—½′ long,
with thin scales slightly thickened and lobed at apex, fully grown at
midsummer, remaining closed until the trees flower the following year;
nut broadly ovoid, with a thin margin.

A tree, frequently 70°—80° high, with a tall straight trunk 2°—3° in
diameter, long slender branches pendulous at the ends, forming a wide
round-topped open head, and slender branchlets marked by small scattered
lenticels, at first light green and coated with pale caducous
pubescence, soon becoming dark orange-red and glabrous, and darker
during the winter and following summer. Winter-buds nearly ½′ long, very
slender, dark red, and covered with pale scurfy pubescence. Bark on old
trunks 1′ thick, dark brown, irregularly divided into flat often
connected ridges broken into oblong plates covered with small closely
appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained,
light brown, with thick lighter colored often nearly white sapwood.

Distribution. Banks of streams from northern Idaho to the eastern slope
of the Cascade Mountains of Washington and southeastern Oregon, and
southward from the valley of the Willamette River, Oregon (near Salem,
Marion County, _J. C. Nelson_) over the coast ranges and along the
western slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the mountains of southern
California (San Bernardino, San Jacinto, and Cuyamaca Ranges); the
common Alder of the valleys of central California, occasionally
ascending on the southern Sierra Nevada to altitudes of 8000°, and the
only species at low altitudes in the southern part of the state.


                   5. Alnus oblongifolia Torr. Alder.

                 _Alnus acuminata_ Sarg., not H. B. K.

[Illustration: Fig. 213]

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute; or rarely obovate and rounded at apex,
gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, sharply and usually doubly
serrate, more or less thickly covered, especially early in the season,
with black glands, dark yellow-green and glabrous or slightly puberulous
above, pale and glabrous or puberulous below, especially along the
slender yellow midrib and veins, with small tufts of rusty hairs in the
axils of the primary veins, 2′—3′ long, about 1½′ wide; petioles
slender, grooved, pubescent, ¾′ long; stipules ovate-lanceolate, brown
and scarious, about ¼′ in length. Flowers: staminate aments in short
stout-stemmed racemes, during the winter light yellow, ½′—¾′ long and
about 1/16′ thick, becoming when the flowers open at the end of February
before the appearance of the leaves 2′—2½′ in length, with ovate pointed
dark orange-brown scales; calyx 4-lobed; stamens 3 or occasionally 2,
with pale red anthers soon becoming light yellow; pistillate aments
naked during the winter, ⅛′ to nearly ¼′ long, with light brown ovate
rounded scales; stigmas bright red. Fruit: strobiles ½′—1′ long, with
thin scales slightly thickened and nearly truncate at apex; nut broadly
ovoid, with a narrow membranaceous border.

A tree, in the United States rarely more than 20°—30° high, with a trunk
sometimes 8′ in diameter, long slender spreading branches forming an
open round-topped head, and slender branchlets slightly puberulous when
they first appear, light orange-red and lustrous during their first
winter, and marked by small conspicuous pale lenticels, becoming in
their second year dark red-brown or gray tinged with red and much
roughened by the elevated leaf-scars. Winter-buds acute, red, lustrous,
glabrous, ½′ long. Bark thin, smooth, light brown tinged with red.

Distribution. Banks of streams in cañons of the mountains of southern
New Mexico and Arizona at altitudes of 4000°—6000° above the sea; in Oak
Creek Cañon near Flagstaff, northern Arizona (tree 100° × 3°, _P.
Lowell_); and on the mountains of northern Mexico.


                     6. Alnus maritima Nutt. Alder.

[Illustration: Fig. 214]

Leaves oblong-ovate, or obovate, acute, acuminate or rounded at apex,
gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, remotely serrate with minute
incurved glandular teeth, and somewhat thickened on the slightly
undulate margins, when they unfold, light green tinged with red, hairy
on the midrib, veins, and petioles, and coated above with pale scurfy
pubescence, at maturity dark green, very lustrous, and covered below by
minute pale glandular dots, 3′—4′ long, 1½′—2′ wide, with a stout yellow
midrib and primary veins prominent and glandular on the upper side and
slightly puberulous below; petioles stout, yellow, glandular, flattened
and grooved on the upper side, ½′—¾′ in length; stipules oblong, acute,
about ⅛′ long, dark reddish brown, caducous. Flowers opening in the
autumn: aments appearing in July on branches of the year and fully grown
in August or early in September; staminate in short scurfy-pubescent
glandular-pitted racemes on slender peduncles sometimes 1′ in length
from the axils of upper leaves, covered at first with ovate acute dark
green very lustrous scales slightly ciliate on the margins and furnished
at apex with minute red points, at maturity 1½′—2½′ long, ¼′ to nearly
½′ thick, with dark orange-brown scales raised on slender stalks, and 4
bright orange-colored stamens; pistillate usually solitary from the
axils of the lower leaves on stout pubescent peduncles, bright red at
apex and light green below before opening, with ovate acute scales
slightly ciliate on the margins, about ⅛′ long when the styles protrude
from between the scales, beginning to enlarge the following spring.
Fruit attaining full size at midsummer and then raised on a stout
peduncle, broadly ovoid, rounded and depressed at base, gradually
narrowed to the rather obtuse apex, about ⅝′ long and ½′ broad, with
thin lustrous scales slightly thickened and crenately lobed at apex,
turning dark reddish brown or nearly black and opening late in the
autumn and remaining on the branches until after the flowers open the
following year; nut oblong-obovoid, gradually narrowed and apiculate at
apex, with a thin membranaceous border.

A tree, occasionally 30° high, with a tall straight trunk 4′—5′ in
diameter, small spreading branches forming a narrow round-topped head,
slender slightly zigzag branchlets, light green and hairy at first, pale
yellow-green, very lustrous, slightly puberulous, marked with occasional
small orange-colored lenticels, and glandular with minute dark glandular
dots during their first summer, becoming dull light orange or reddish
brown in the winter, and ashy gray often slightly tinged with red the
following season; more often shrubby, with numerous slender spreading
stems 15°—20° tall. Winter-buds acute, dark red, coated with pale
lustrous scurfy pubescence, about ¼′ long. Bark ⅛′ thick, smooth, light
brown or brown tinged with gray. Wood light, soft, close-grained, light
brown, with thick hardly distinguishable sapwood.

Distribution. Banks of streams and ponds in southern Delaware and
Maryland, and in south central Oklahoma (Johnson and Bryan Counties).

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in the eastern states and
hardy as far north as Massachusetts.



                              X. FAGACEÆ.


Trees, with watery juice, slender terete branchlets marked by numerous
usually pale lenticels, alternate stalked penniveined leaves, and narrow
mostly deciduous stipules. Flowers monœcious, the staminate in unisexual
heads or aments, composed of a 4—8-lobed calyx, and 4 or 8 stamens, with
free simple filaments and introrse 2-celled anthers, the cells parallel
and contiguous, opening longitudinally; the pistillate solitary or
clustered, in terminal unisexual or bisexual spikes or heads, subtended
by an involucre of imbricated bracts becoming woody and partly or
entirely inclosing the fruit, and composed of a 4—8-lobed calyx adnate
to the 3—7-celled ovary with as many styles as its cells and 1 or 2
pendulous anatropous or semianatropous ovules in each cell. Fruit a nut
1-seeded by abortion, the outer coat cartilaginous, the inner
membranaceous or bony. Seed filling the cavity of the nut, without
albumen; seed-coat membranaceous; cotyledons fleshy, including the
minute superior radicle; hilum, basal, minute.

The six genera of this widely distributed family occur in North America
with the exception of Nothofagus, separated from Fagus to receive the
Beech-trees of the southern hemisphere.


                CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA.

  Staminate flowers fascicled in globose-stalked heads; the pistillate
        in 2—4-flowered clusters.
                                                               1. Fagus.
  Staminate flowers in slender aments.
    Pistillate flowers in 2—5-flowered clusters below the staminate, in
          bisexual aments.
      Nut inclosed in a prickly burr.
        Leaves deciduous; ovary 6-celled; nut maturing in one season;
              branchlets lengthening by an upper axillary bud;
              bud-scales 4.
                                                            2. Castanea.
        Leaves persistent; ovary 3-celled; nut maturing at the end of
              the second season; branchlets lengthening by a terminal
              bud; bud-scales numerous.
                                                         3. Castanopsis.
      Nut inclosed only partly in a shallow cup covered by slender
            recurved scales united only at the base, free above.
                                                         4. Lithocarpus.
    Pistillate flowers solitary, in few-flowered unisexual spikes; nut
          more or less inclosed in a cup covered by thin or thickened
          scales, closely appressed or often free toward its rim.
                                                             5. Quercus.



                           1. FAGUS L. Beech.


Trees, with smooth pale bark, hard close-grained wood, and elongated
acute bright chestnut-brown buds, their inner scales accrescent and
marking the base of the branchlets with persistent ring-like scars.
Leaves convex and plicate along the veins in the bud, thick and firm,
deciduous; petioles short, nearly terete, in falling leaving small
elevated semioval leaf-scars, with marginal rows of minute
fibro-vascular bundle-scars; stipules linear-lanceolate, infolding the
leaf in the bud. Flowers vernal after the unfolding of the leaves;
staminate short-pedicellate, in globose many-flowered heads on long
drooping bibracteolate stems at base of shoots of the year or from the
axils of their lowest leaves, and composed of a subcampanulate 4—8-lobed
calyx, the lobes imbricated in æstivation, ovate and rounded, and 8—16
stamens inserted on the base of and longer than the calyx, with slender
filaments and oblong green anthers; pistillate in 2—4-flowered stalked
clusters in the axils of upper leaves of the year, surrounded by
numerous awl-shaped hairy bracts, the outer bright red, longer than the
flowers, deciduous, the inner shorter and united below into a 4-lobed
involucre becoming at maturity woody, ovoid, thick-walled, and covered
by stout recurved prickles, inclosing or partly inclosing the usually 3
nuts, and ultimately separating into 4 valves; calyx urn-shaped,
villose, divided into 4 or 5 linear-lanceolate acute lobes, its 3-angled
tube adnate to the 3-celled ovary surmounted by 3 slender recurved
pilose styles green and stigmatic toward the apex and longer than the
involucre; ovules 2 in each cell. Nut ovoid, unequally 3-angled, acute
or winged at the angles, concave and longitudinally ridged on the sides,
chestnut-brown and lustrous, tipped with the remnants of the styles,
marked at the base by a small triangular scar, with a thin shell covered
on the inner surface with rufous tomentum. Seed dark chestnut-brown,
suspended with the abortive ovules from the tip of the hairy dissepiment
of the ovary pushed by the growth of the seed into one of the angles of
the nut; cotyledons sweet, oily, plano-convex.

Fagus as here limited is confined to the northern hemisphere, with a
single American species and seven Old World species; of these one is
widely distributed through Europe, another is found in the Caucasus, and
the others are confined to eastern temperate Asia. Of exotic species,
the European _Fagus sylvatica_ L., an important timber-tree, is
frequently planted for ornament in the eastern states in several of its
forms, especially those with purple leaves, and with pendulous branches.
The wood of Fagus is hard and close-grained. The sweet seeds are a
favorite food of swine, and yield a valuable oil.

_Fagus_ is the classical name of the Beech-tree.


                   1. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. Beech.

                        _Fagus americana_ Sweet.

[Illustration: Fig. 215]

Leaves remote at the ends of the branches and clustered on short lateral
branchlets, oblong-ovate, acuminate with a long slender point, coarsely
serrate with spreading or incurved triangular teeth except at the
gradually narrowed generally cuneate base, when they unfold pale green
and clothed on the lower surface and margins with long pale lustrous
silky hairs, at maturity dull dark bluish green above, light
yellow-green, very lustrous, and glabrous or rarely pilose below (f.
_pubescens_ Fern. & Rehd.) with tufts of long pale hairs in the axils of
the veins, 2½′—5′ long, 1′—3′ wide, with a slender yellow midrib covered
above with short pale hairs, and slender primary veins running obliquely
to the points of the teeth; turning bright clear yellow in the autumn;
very rarely deeply laciniate; petioles hairy, ¼′—½′ length; stipules
ovate-lanceolate on the lower leaves, strap-shaped to linear-lanceolate
on the upper, brown or often red below the middle, membranaceous,
lustrous, 1′—1½′ long. Flowers opening when the leaves are about one
third grown; staminate in globose heads 1′ in diameter, on slender hairy
peduncles about 2′ long; pistillate in usually 2-flowered clusters, on
short clavate hoary peduncles ½′—¾′ long. Fruit: involucres ½′—¾′ in
length often shorter than the nuts, on stout hairy club-shaped peduncles
¼′—¾′ long, fully grown at midsummer, and then puberulous, dark
orange-green, and covered by long slender recurved prickles red above
the middle, becoming at maturity in the autumn light brown and
tomentose, with crowded much recurved pubescent prickles, persistent on
the branch after opening late into the winter; nut about ¾′ long.

A tree, usually 70°—80° but exceptionally 120° high, sending up from the
roots numerous small stems sometimes extending into broad thickets round
the parent tree, in the forest with a long comparatively slender stem
free of branches for more than half its length, and short branches
forming a narrow head, in open situations short-stemmed, with a trunk
often 3°—4° in diameter, and numerous limbs spreading gradually and
forming a broad compact round-topped head of slender slightly drooping
branches clothed with short leafy laterals, and branchlets pale green
and coated with long soft caducous hairs when they first appear,
olive-green or orange-colored during their first summer, and
conspicuously marked by oblong bright orange lenticels, gradually
growing red, bright reddish brown during their first winter, darker
brown in their second season and ultimately ashy gray. Winter-buds
puberulous, especially toward the apex, ¾′ to nearly 1′ long, about ⅛′
broad, the inner scales hirsute on the inner surface and along the
margins and when fully grown often 1′ long, lustrous, brown above the
middle, and reddish below. Bark ¼′—½′ thick, with a smooth light
steel-gray surface. Wood hard, strong, tough, very close-grained, not
durable, difficult to season, dark or often light red, with thin nearly
white sapwood of 20—30 layers of annual growth; largely used in the
manufacture of chairs, shoe-lasts, plane-stocks, the handles of tools,
and for fuel. The sweet nuts are gathered and sold in the markets of
Canada and of some of the western and middle states.

Distribution. Rich uplands and mountain slopes, often forming nearly
pure forests, and southward on the bottom-lands of streams and the
margins of swamps; valley of the Restigouche River, New Brunswick, to
the northern shores of Lake Huron and the southern shores of Lake
Superior, and southward to Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, the ravines of Rock
River near Oregon, Ogle County, Illinois, Minnesota and northern
Missouri; southward passing into the var. _caroliniana_ Fern. & Rehd.,
differing in its ovate to short-ovate thicker leaves, usually rounded or
subcordate at base, and often less coarsely serrate or undulate on the
margins, glabrous or rarely densely soft pubescent below (f. _mollis_
Fern. & Rehd.), in the often shorter involucre of the fruit with shorter
and less crowded prickles; usually on the bottom-lands of streams and
the borders of swamps, New Jersey, and southern Ohio and Missouri to
western Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, eastern Texas, and
northeastern Oklahoma; ascending on the southern Appalachian Mountains
to altitudes of 3000°; probably growing to its largest size in eastern
Louisiana.

The northern form is occasionally planted in the northern states as a
shade and park tree.



                      2. CASTANEA Adans. Chestnut.


Trees or shrubs, with furrowed bark, porous brittle wood, durable in the
ground, terete branchlets without terminal buds, axillary buds covered
by 2 pairs of slightly imbricated scales, the outer lateral, the others
accrescent, becoming oblong-ovate and acute and marking the base of the
branch with narrow ring-like scars, and stout perpendicular tap-roots;
producing when cut numerous stout shoots from the stump. Leaves
convolute in the bud, ovate, acute, coarsely serrate, except at the
base, with thin veins running to the points of the slender glandular
teeth, deciduous; petioles leaving in falling small elevated semioval
leaf-scars marked by an irregular marginal row of minute fibro-vascular
bundle-scars; stipules ovate to linear-lanceolate, acute, scarious,
infolding the leaf in the bud, caducous. Flowers opening in early
summer, unisexual, strong-smelling; the staminate, in 3—7-flowered
cymes, in the axils of minute ovate bracts, in elongated simple
deciduous aments first appearing with the unfolding of the leaves from
the inner scales of the terminal bud and from the axils of the lower
leaves of the year, composed of a pale straw-colored slightly puberulous
calyx deeply divided into 6 ovate rounded segments imbricated in the
bud, and 10—20 stamens inserted on the slightly thickened torus, with
filiform filaments incurved in the bud, becoming elongated and exserted,
and ovoid or globose pale yellow anthers; the pistillate scattered or
spicate at the base of the shorter persistent androgynous aments from
the axils of later leaves, sessile, 2 or 3 together or solitary within a
short-stemmed or sessile involucre of closely imbricated oblong acute
bright green bracts scurfy-pubescent or tomentose below the middle,
subtended by a bract and 2 lateral bractlets, each flower composed of an
urn-shaped calyx, with a short limb divided into 6 obtuse lobes, minute
sterile stamens shorter than the calyx-lobes, an ovary 6-celled after
fecundation, with 6 linear spreading white styles hairy below the middle
and tipped by minute acute stigmas, and 2 ovules in each cell, attached
on its inner angle, descending, semianatropous. Fruit maturing in one
season, its involucre inclosing 1—3 nuts, globose or short-oblong,
pubescent or tomentose and spiny on the outer surface, with elongated
ridged bright green ultimately brown branched spines fascicled between
the deciduous scales, coated on the inner surface with lustrous
pubescence, splitting at maturity into 2—4 valves; nut ovoid, acute,
crowned by the remnants of the style, bright chestnut-brown and
lustrous, tomentose or pubescent at apex, cylindrical, or when more than
1 flattened, marked at the broad base by a large conspicuous pale
circular or oval thickened scar, its shell lined with rufous or hoary
tomentum. Seed usually solitary by abortion, dark chestnut-brown, marked
at apex by the abortive ovules, with thick and fleshy more or less
undulate ruminate sweet farinaceous cotyledons.

Castanea is confined to the northern hemisphere, and is widely
distributed through eastern North America, southern Europe, northern
Africa, southwestern Asia, and central and northern China, Korea, and
Japan. Seven species are distinguished. In the countries of the
Mediterranean Basin much attention has been given to improving the fruit
of the native species _Castanea sativa_ Mill., which is occasionally
planted in the middle United States; in Japan the seeds of _Castanea
crenata_ S. & Zucc. in many varieties and in China those of _Castanea
mollissima_ Bl. are important articles of food. Castanea produces
coarse-grained wood very durable in contact with the soil, and rich in
tannin. Chestnut-trees suffer in the eastern United States from the
attacks of a fungus, _Endothia parasitica_ Anders. which has nearly
exterminated them in many parts of the country.

_Castanea_ is the classical name of the Chestnut-tree.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Involucre of the fruit containing 2 or 3 flattened nuts.
                                                   1. C. dentata (A, C).
  Involucre of the fruit containing a single terete nut.
    Involucre of the fruit densely covered with spines; branchlets hoary
          tomentose.
                                                    2. C. pumila (A, C).
    Involucre of the fruit covered with scattered spines; branchlets
          glabrous or sparingly pilose.
                                                    3. C. alnifolia (C).


                  1. Castanea dentata Borkh. Chestnut.

[Illustration: Fig. 216]

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute and long-pointed at apex, gradually
narrowed and cuneate at base, when they unfold puberulous on the upper
surface and clothed on the lower with fine cobweb-like tomentum, at
maturity thin, glabrous, dark dull yellow-green above, pale yellow-green
below, 6′—8′ long, about 2′ wide, with a pale yellow midrib and primary
veins; turning bright clear yellow late in the autumn; petioles stout,
slightly angled, puberulous, ½′ long, often flushed with red; stipules
ovate-lanceolate, acute, yellow-green, puberulous, about ½′ long.
Flowers: staminate aments about ½′ long when they first appear, green
below the middle and red above, becoming when fully grown 6′—8′ long,
with stout green puberulous stems covered from base to apex with crowded
flower-clusters; androgynous aments, slender, puberulous, 2½′—5′ long,
with 2 or 3 irregularly scattered involucres of pistillate flowers near
their base. Fruit: involucre attaining its full size by the middle of
August, 2′—2½′ in diameter, sometimes a little longer than broad,
somewhat flattened at apex, pubescent and covered on the outer surface
with crowded fascicles of long slender glabrous much-branched spines,
opening with the first frost and gradually shedding their nuts; nuts
usually much compressed, ½′—1′ wide, usually rather broader than long,
coated at apex or nearly to the middle with thick pale tomentum, the
interior of the shell lined with thick rufous tomentum; seed very sweet.

A tree, occasionally 100° high, with a tall straight columnar trunk
3°—4° in diameter, or often when uncrowded by other trees with a short
trunk occasionally 10°—12° in diameter, and usually divided not far
above the ground into 3 or 4 stout horizontal limbs forming a broad low
round-topped head of slightly pendulous branches frequently 100° across,
and branchlets at first light yellow-green sometimes tinged with red,
somewhat angled, lustrous, slightly puberulous, soon becoming glabrous
and olive-green tinged with yellow or brown tinged with green and
ultimately dark brown. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, about ¼′ long, with
thin dark chestnut-brown scales scarious on the margins. Bark from 1′—2′
thick, dark brown and divided by shallow irregular often interrupted
fissures into broad flat ridges separating on the surface into small
thin closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, liable to
check and warp in drying, easily split, reddish brown, with thin lighter
colored sapwood of 3 or 4 layers of annual growth; largely used in the
manufacture of cheap furniture and in the interior finish of houses, for
railway-ties, fence-posts, and rails. The nuts, which are superior to
those of the Old World chestnuts in sweetness were formerly gathered in
great quantities in the forest and sold in the markets of the eastern
cities.

Distribution. Southern Maine to Woodstock, Grafton County, New Hampshire
(rare) and to the valley of the Winooski River, Vermont, southern
Ontario, and southern Michigan, southward to Delaware and Ohio, southern
Indiana, and southwestern Illinois (Pulaski County) along the
Appalachian Mountains up to altitudes of 4000° to northern Georgia, and
to western Florida (Crestview, Walton County) southeastern (Henry and
Dale Counties) and south central (Dallas County) Alabama, Northern,
central and southeastern Mississippi (Pearl River County), and to
central Kentucky and Tennessee; very common on the glacial drift of the
northern states and, except at the north, mostly confined to the
Appalachian hills; attaining its greatest size in western North Carolina
and eastern Tennessee.

Formerly sometimes planted in the eastern states as an ornamental and
timber tree, and for its nuts, of which several varieties have been
recognized.

× _Castanea neglecta_ Dode with leaves intermediate between those of _C.
dentata_ and _C. pumila_ and an involucre containing a single large nut
occurs on the Blue Ridge near Highlands, Macon County, North Carolina.


                  2. Castanea pumila Mill. Chinquapin.

[Illustration: Fig. 217]

Leaves oblong-elliptic to oblong-obovate, acute, coarsely serrate, with
slender rigid spreading or incurved teeth, gradually narrowed and
usually unequal and rounded or cuneate at base, when they unfold tinged
with red and coated above with pale caducous tomentum and below with
thick snowy white tomentum, at maturity rather thick and firm in
texture, bright yellow-green on the upper surface, hoary or silvery
pubescent on the lower, 3′—5′ long, 1½′—2′ wide; turning dull yellow in
the autumn; petioles stout, pubescent, flattened on the upper side,
¼′—½′ long; stipules light yellow-green, pubescent, those of the 2
lowest leaves broad, ovate, acute, covered at apex by rufous tomentum,
on later leaves ovate-lanceolate, often oblique and acute, becoming
linear at the end of the branch. Flowers: staminate aments ½′ long when
they first appear, pubescent, green below, bright red at apex, becoming
when fully grown 4′—6′ long, with stout hoary tomentose stems and
crowded or scattered flower-clusters; androgynous aments silvery
tomentose, 3′—4′ long; involucres 1-flowered, scattered at the base of
the ament or often spicate and covering its lower half, sessile or
short-stalked. _Fruit_: involucre 1′—1½′ in diameter, with thin walls
covered with crowded fascicles of slender spines tomentose toward the
base; nut ovoid, terete, rounded at the slightly narrowed base,
gradually narrowed and pointed at apex, more or less coated with silvery
white pubescence, dark chestnut-brown, very lustrous, ¾′—1′ long, ⅓′
thick, with a thin shell lined with a coat of lustrous hoary tomentum,
and a sweet seed.

A round-topped tree, rarely 50° high, with a short straight trunk 2°—3°
in diameter, slender spreading branches, and branchlets coated at first
with pale tomentum, becoming during their first winter pubescent or
remaining tomentose at the apex, bright red-brown, glabrous, lustrous,
olive-green or orange-brown during their second season and ultimately
darker; east of the Mississippi River often a shrub spreading into broad
thickets by prolific stolons, with numerous intricately branched stems
often only 4° or 5° tall. Winter-buds ovoid, or oval, about ⅛′ long,
clothed when they first appear in summer with thick hoary tomentum,
becoming red during the winter and scurfy-pubescent. Bark ½′—1′ thick,
light brown tinged with red, slightly furrowed and broken on the surface
into loose plate-like scales. Wood light, hard, strong, coarse-grained,
dark brown, with thin hardly distinguishable sapwood of 3 or 4 layers of
annual growth; used for fence-posts, rails, and railway-ties. The sweet
nuts are sold in the markets of the western and southern states.

Distribution. Dry sandy ridges, rich hillsides and the borders of
swamps; southern New Jersey and Pennsylvania to central (Lake County)
and western Florida and westward through the Gulf States to the valley
of the Neches River, Texas, and through Arkansas to eastern Oklahoma and
southwestern Missouri; on the Appalachian Mountains ascending to
altitudes of 4500°; most abundant and of its largest size in southern
Arkansas and eastern Texas.


                3. Castanea alnifolia Nutt. Chinquapin.

A low shrub spreading into broad thickets by underground stems, with
leaves pale pubescent on the lower surface; and distributed in the
neighborhood of the coast from the valley of the Cape Fear River, North
Carolina, to southern Georgia. Passing into


          Castanea alnifolia var. floridana Sarg. Chinquapin.

[Illustration: Fig. 218]

Leaves oblong-obovate to elliptic, acute, acuminate or rounded at apex,
gradually narrowed and cuneate or rounded at base, irregularly
sinuate-toothed with apiculate teeth, hoary tomentose below when they
unfold, soon glabrous with the exception of the last leaves of vigorous
summer shoots, and at maturity thin, glabrous, dark green above, light
green and lustrous below, 3′—4′ long and 1′—1¾′ wide; petioles stout,
glabrous, about 1/12′ in length. Flowers: staminate aments pale
pubescent, 4′—5′ long; androgynous aments pubescent, as long or rather
longer with ten or twelve involucres of pistillate flowers below the
middle, often only the lowest being fertilized. Fruit: involucre
1-seeded, subglobose to short-oblong, pale tomentose, ¾′ to 1¼′ in
diameter, covered with stout pubescent scattered spines divided at base
into numerous branches; nut ovoid, terete, acute, dark chestnut-brown,
lustrous, ½′ to nearly ¾′ in length.

A tree occasionally 40°—45° high, with a tall trunk sometimes a foot in
diameter, small irregularly spreading branches forming a narrow head,
and slender glabrous or rarely pilose red-brown branchlets; more often a
shrub sometimes with broader obovoid leaves sometimes puberulous on the
lower surface.

Dry sandy soil; coast of North Carolina, near Wrightsville, New Hanover
County; Dover, near the Ogechee River, Screven County, Georgia;
Jacksonville, Duval County, and Panama City on Saint Andrew’s Bay, Bay
County, Florida; near Selma, Dallas County, Alabama; and Covington, St.
Tammany Parish, Louisiana.

A tree only on the shores of Saint Andrew’s Bay.



                         3. CASTANOPSIS Spach.


Trees, with scaly bark, astringent wood, and winter-buds covered by
numerous imbricated scales. Leaves convolute in the bud, 5-ranked,
coriaceous, entire or dentate, penniveined, persistent; stipules obovate
or lanceolate, scarious, mostly caducous. Flowers in 3-flowered cymes,
or the pistillate rarely solitary or in pairs, in the axils of minute
bracts, on slender erect aments from the axils of leaves of the year;
the staminate on usually elongated and panicled aments, and composed of
a campanulate 5 or 6-lobed or parted calyx, the lobes imbricated in the
bud, usually 10 or 12 stamens inserted on the slightly thickened torus,
with elongated exserted filiform filaments and oblong anthers, and a
minute hirsute rudimentary ovary; the pistillate on shorter simple or
panicled aments or scattered at the base of the staminate inflorescence,
the cymes surrounded by an involucre of imbricated scales; calyx
urn-shaped, the short limb divided into 6 obtuse lobes; abortive stamens
inserted on the limb of the calyx and opposite its lobes; ovary sessile
on the thin disk, 3-celled after fecundation, with 3 spreading styles
terminating in minute stigmas, and 2 ovules in each cell attached to its
interior angle. Fruit maturing at the end of the second or rarely of the
first season, its involucre inclosing 1—3 nuts, ovoid or globose,
sometimes more or less depressed, rarely obscurely angled, dehiscent or
indehiscent, covered by stout spines, tuberculate or marked by
interrupted vertical ridges; nut more or less angled by mutual pressure
when more than 1, often pilose, crowned with the remnants of the style,
marked at the base by a large conspicuous circular depressed scar, the
thick shell tomentose on the inner surface. Seed usually solitary by
abortion, bearing at apex the abortive ovules; cotyledons plano-convex,
fleshy, farinaceous.

Castanopsis inhabits California with two species, and southeastern Asia
where it is distributed with about twenty-five species from southern
China to the Malay Archipelago and the eastern Himalayas. Of the
California species one is usually arborescent and the other _Castanopsis
sempervirens_ Dudley is a low alpine shrub of the coast ranges and the
Sierra Nevada.

_Castanopsis_ from κὰστανα and ὄψις, in allusion to its resemblance to
the Chestnut-tree.


 1. Castanopsis chrysophylla A. DC. Chinquapin. Golden-leaved Chestnut.

[Illustration: Fig. 219]

Leaves lanceolate or oblong-ovate, gradually narrowed at the ends or
sometimes abruptly contracted at apex into a short broad point, entire
with slightly thickened revolute margins, when they unfold thin, coated
below with golden yellow persistent scales and above with scattered
white scales, at maturity thick and coriaceous, dark green and lustrous
above, 2′—6′ long, ½′ to nearly 2′ wide, with a stout midrib raised and
rounded on the upper side; turning yellow at maturity and falling
gradually at the end of their second or in their third year; petioles
¼′—⅓′ in length; stipules ovate, rounded or acute at apex, brown and
scarious, puberulous, ¼′—⅓′ long. Flowers appearing irregularly from
June until February in the axils of broadly ovate apiculate pubescent
bracts on staminate and androgynous scurfy stout-stemmed aments 2′—2½′
long and crowded at the ends of the branches; calyx of the staminate
flower coated on the outer surface with hoary tomentum, divided into
broadly ovate rounded lobes much shorter than the slender stamens; calyx
of the pistillate flower oblong-campanulate, free from the ovary,
clothed with hoary tomentum, divided at apex into short rounded lobes,
rather shorter than the minute abortive stamens; anthers red; ovary
conic, hirsute, with elongated slightly spreading thick pale stigmas.
Fruit ripening at the end of the second season, involucre globose,
dehiscent, irregularly 4-valved, often slightly shorter than the nuts,
sessile, solitary, or clustered, tomentose and covered on the outer
surface by long stout or slender rigid spines, 1′—1½′ in diameter,
containing 1 or occasionally 2 nuts; nuts broadly ovoid, acute, obtusely
3-angled, light yellow-brown and lustrous; seeds dark purple-red, sweet
and edible.

A tree, 50°—100° high, with a massive trunk 3°—6° in diameter,
frequently free of branches for 50°, stout spreading branches forming a
broad compact round-topped or conic head, and rigid branchlets coated
when they first appear with bright golden-yellow scurfy scales, dark
reddish brown and slightly scurfy during their first winter, and
gradually growing darker in their second season; often much smaller and
sometimes reduced to a shrub, 2°—12° high (var. _minor_ A. De Candolle).
Winter-buds fully grown at mid-summer, usually crowded near the end of
the branch, ovoid or subglobose, with broadly ovate apiculate thin and
papery light brown scales slightly puberulous on the back, ciliate on
the scarious often reflexed margins, the terminal about ¼′ long and
broad and rather larger than the often stipitate axillary buds. Bark
1′—2′ thick and deeply divided into rounded ridges 2′—3′ wide, broken
into thick plate-like scales, dark red-brown on the surface and bright
red internally. Wood light, soft, close-grained, not strong, light brown
tinged with red, with thin lighter colored sapwood of 50—60 layers of
annual growth; occasionally used in the manufacture of ploughs and other
agricultural implements.

Distribution. Skamania County, Washington, valley of the lower Columbia
River, Oregon, southward along the western slopes of the Cascade
Mountains, and in California along the western slopes of the Sierra
Nevada and through the coast ranges to the elevated valleys of the San
Jacinto Mountains, sometimes ascending to altitudes of 4000° above the
sea; of its largest size in the humid coast valleys of northern
California.

Occasionally cultivated in the gardens of temperate Europe.



                           4. LITHOCARPUS Bl.


                            _Pasania_ Örst.

Trees, with astringent properties, pubescence of fascicled hairs, deeply
furrowed scaly bark, hard close-grained brittle wood, stout branchlets,
and winter-buds covered by few erect or spreading foliaceous scales.
Leaves convolute in the bud, petiolate, persistent, entire or dentate,
with a stout midrib, primary veins running obliquely to the points of
the teeth, or on entire leaves forked and united near the margins, and
reticulate veinlets; stipules oblong-obovate to linear-lanceolate, those
of the upper leaves persistent and surrounding the buds during the
winter. Flowers in erect unisexual and in bisexual tomentose aments from
the axils of leaves of the year, from the inner scales of the terminal
bud or from separate buds in the axils of leaves of the previous year;
staminate in 3-flowered clusters in the axils of ovate rounded bracts,
the lateral flowers subtended by similar but smaller bracts, each flower
composed of a 5-lobed tomentose calyx, with nearly triangular acute
lobes, 10 stamens, with slender elongated filaments and small oblong or
emarginate anthers, and an acute abortive hairy ovary; pistillate
scattered at the base of the upper aments below the staminate flowers,
solitary in the axils of acute bracts, furnished with minute lateral
bractlets, and composed of a 6-lobed ovoid calyx, with rounded lobes,
inclosed in the tomentose involucral scales, 6 stamens, with abortive
anthers, an ovoid-oblong 3-celled ovary, 3 elongated spreading light
green styles thickened and stigmatic at apex, and 2 anatropous ovules in
each cell. Fruit an oval or ovoid nut maturing at the end of the second
season, 1-seeded by abortion, surrounded at base by the accrescent woody
cupular involucre of the flower, marked by a large pale circular basal
scar, the thick shell tomentose on the inner surface. Seed red-brown,
filling the cavity of the nut, bearing at apex the abortive ovules;
cotyledons thick and fleshy, yellow and bitter.

Lithocarpus is intermediate between the Oaks and the Chestnuts, and,
with the exception of one California species, is confined to
southeastern Asia, where it is distributed with many species from
southern Japan and southern China through the Malay Peninsula to the
Indian Archipelago.

_Lithocarpus_ from λίθος and καρπός, in allusion to the character of the
fruit.


      1. Lithocarpus densiflora Rehd. Tan Bark Oak. Chestnut Oak.

                   _Quercus densiflora_ Hook. & Arn.
                       _Pasania densiflora_ Örst.

[Illustration: Fig. 220]

Leaves oblong or oblong-obovate, rounded or acute or rarely cordate at
base, acute or occasionally rounded at apex, or rarely lanceolate and
acuminate (f. _lanceolata_ Rehdr.) repand-dentate, with acute callous
teeth, or entire with thickened revolute margins, coated when they
unfold with fulvous tomentum and glandular on the margins with dark
caducous glands, at maturity pale green, lustrous and glabrous or
covered with scattered pubescence on the upper surface, rusty-tomentose
on the lower, ultimately becoming glabrous above and glabrate and bluish
white below, 3′—5′ long, ¾′—3′ wide, with a midrib raised and rounded on
the upper side, thin or thick primary veins and fine conspicuous
reticulate veinlets; persistent until the end of their third or fourth
year; petioles stout, rigid, tomentose, ½′—¾′ in length; stipules brown
and scarious, hirsute on the outer surface. Flowers in early spring and
frequently also irregularly during the autumn; aments stout-stemmed,
3′—4′ long; staminate flowers crowded, hoary-tomentose in the bud, their
bracts tomentose. Fruit solitary or often in pairs, on a stout tomentose
peduncle ½′—1′ in length; nut full and rounded at base, gradually
narrowed and acute or rounded at apex, scurfy-pubescent when fully
grown, becoming light yellow-brown, glabrous and lustrous at maturity,
¾′—1′ long, ½′—1′ thick, its cup shallow, tomentose with lustrous
red-brown hairs on the inner surface, and covered by long linear rigid
spreading or recurved light brown scales coated with fascicled hairs,
frequently tipped, especially while young, with dark red glands and
often tomentose near the base of the cup.

A tree, usually 70°—80° but sometimes 150° high, with a trunk 1°—4° in
diameter, stout branches ascending in the forest and forming a narrow
spire-like head, or in open positions spreading horizontally and forming
a broad dense symmetrical round-topped crown, and branchlets coated at
first with a thick fulvous tomentum of fascicled hairs often persistent
until the second or third year, becoming dark reddish brown and
frequently covered with a glaucous bloom; or sometimes reduced to a
shrub, with slender stems only a few feet high (var. _montana_ Rehdr.).
Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse, ¼′—⅓′ long, often surrounded by the
persistent stipules of the upper leaves, with tomentose loosely
imbricated scales, those of the outer ranks linear-lanceolate,
increasing in width toward the interior of the bud, those of the inner
ranks ovate or obovate and rounded at apex. Bark ¾′—1½′ thick, deeply
divided by narrow fissures into broad rounded ridges broken into nearly
square plates covered by closely appressed light red-brown scales. Wood
hard, strong, close-grained, brittle, reddish brown, with thick darker
brown sapwood; largely used as fuel. The bark is exceedingly rich in
tannin and is largely used for tanning leather.

Distribution. Valley of the Umpqua River, Oregon, southward through the
coast ranges to the Santa Inez Mountains, California, and along the
western slope of the Sierra Nevada up to elevations of 4000° above the
sea to Mariposa County; very abundant in the humid coast region north of
San Francisco Bay and on the Santa Cruz and Santa Lucia Mountains, and
of its largest size in the Redwood forest of Napa and Mendocino
Counties; southward and on the Sierras less abundant and of smaller
size; the form _lanceolata_ in southern Oregon and in Del Norte and
Mendocino Counties, California; the var. _montana_ at high altitudes on
the Siskiyou Mountains, in the region of Mount Shasta and on the
northern Sierra Nevada.



                           5. QUERCUS L. Oak.


Trees or shrubs, with astringent properties, pubescence of fascicled
hairs, scaly or dark and furrowed bark, hard and close-grained or porous
brittle wood, slender branchlets marked by pale lenticels and more or
less prominently 5-angled. Winter-buds clustered at the ends of the
branchlets, with numerous membranaceous chestnut-brown slightly
accrescent caducous scales closely imbricated in 5 ranks, in falling
marking the base of the branchlet with ring-like scars. Leaves 5-ranked,
lobed, dentate or entire, often variable on the same branch,
membranaceous or coriaceous, the primary veins prominent and extending
to the margins or united within them and connected by more or less
reticulate veinlets, deciduous in the autumn or persistent until spring
or until their third or fourth year; petioles in falling leaving
slightly elevated semiorbicular more or less obcordate leaf-scars
broader than high, marked by the ends of numerous scattered
fibro-vascular bundles; stipules obovate to lanceolate, scarious,
caducous, or those of upper leaves occasionally persistent through the
season. Flowers vernal with or after the unfolding of the leaves;
staminate solitary in the axils of lanceolate acute caducous bracts, or
without bracts, in graceful pendulous clustered aments, from separate or
leaf-buds in the axils of leaves of the previous year, or from the axils
of the inner scales of the terminal bud or from those of the leaves of
the year; calyx campanulate, lobed or divided to the base into 4—7,
usually 6, membranaceous lobes; stamens 4—6, rarely 2, or 10—12,
inserted on the slightly thickened torus, with free filiform exserted
filaments and ovate-oblong or subglobose glabrous or rarely hairy
2-celled usually yellow anthers; pistillate solitary, subtended by a
caducous bract and 2 bractlets, in short or elongated few-flowered
spikes from the axils of leaves of the year; calyx urn-shaped, with a
short campanulate 6-lobed limb, the tube adnate to the incompletely 3 or
rarely 4 or 5-celled ovary inclosed more or less completely by an
accrescent involucre of imbricated scales, becoming the cup of the
fruit; styles as many as the cells of the ovary, short or elongated,
erect or incurved, dilated above, stigmatic on the inner face or at apex
only, generally persistent on the fruit; ovules anatropous or
semianatropous, 2 in each cell. Fruit a nut (_acorn_) maturing in one or
in two years, ovoid, subglobose, or turbinate, short-pointed at apex,
1-seeded by abortion, marked at base by a large conspicuous circular
scar, with a thick shell, glabrous or coated on the inner surface with
pale tomentum, more or less surrounded or inclosed in the accrescent
cupular involucre of the flower (_cup_), its scales thin or thickened,
loosely or closely imbricated. Seed marked at base or at apex or rarely
on the side by the abortive ovules; cotyledons thick and fleshy, usually
plano-convex and entire.

Quercus inhabits the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere and
high altitudes within the tropics, ranging in the New World southward to
the mountains of Colombia and in the Old World to the Indian
Archipelago. Two hundred and seventy-five species have been described;
of the North American species fifty-four are large or small trees. Of
exotic species, the European _Quercus Robur_ L., and _Quercus
sessiliflora_ Salisb., have been frequently cultivated as ornamental
trees in the eastern United States, where, however, they are usually
short-lived and unsatisfactory. Many of the species are important
timber-trees; their bark is often rich in tannin and is used for tanning
leather, and all produce wood valuable for fuel and in the manufacture
of charcoal.

_Quercus_ is the classical name of the Oak-tree.


         CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES.

  Fruit maturing at the end of the second season (except 22); shell of
        the nut silky tomentose on the inner surface; leaves or their
        lobes bristle-tipped. Black Oaks.
    Stamens usually 4—6; styles elongated, finally recurved; abortive
          ovules apical.
      Leaves deciduous in their first autumn or winter.
        Leaves pinnately lobed, convolute in the bud.
          Leaves green on both surfaces.
            Scales of the cup of the fruit closely appressed.
              Leaves usually dull on the upper surface, 7—11-lobed; cup
                    of the fruit cup-shaped or in one variety broad and
                    saucer-shaped, its scales thin.
                                                     1. Q. borealis (A).
              Leaves lustrous.
                Leaves dimorphous, 5—7-lobed, axillary clusters of hairs
                      large and prominent; cup of the fruit
                      saucer-shaped or in one form deep cup-shaped.
                                                 2. Q. Shumardii (A, C).
                Leaves similar on upper and lower branches.
                  Cup of the fruit turbinate or deep cup-shaped.
                    Leaves 5-lobed, the lobes usually entire, rarely
                          furnished with tufts of axillary hairs below.
                                                       3. Q. texana (C).
                    Leaves 5—7-lobed, the lobes dentate, furnished with
                          tufts of axillary hairs below.
                                                4. Q. ellipsoidalis (A).
                  Cup of the fruit deep cup-shaped to turbinate; leaves
                        5—9-lobed, the lobes toothed.
                                                  5. Q. coccinea (A, C).
                  Cup of the fruit saucer-shaped.
                    Leaves 5—9-lobed.
                                                 6. Q. palustris (A, C).
                    Leaves 3—5-lobed.
                                                    7. Q. georgiana (C).
            Scales of the cup of the fruit more or less loosely
                  imbricated, forming a free margin on its rim.
              Leaves usually 7-lobed.
                Winter-buds tomentose.
                                                  8. Q. velutina (A, C).
                Winter-buds pubescent only at apex.
                                                    9. Q. Kelloggii (G).
              Leaves usually 3—5-lobed; winter-buds rusty pubescent.
                                                    10. Q. Catesbæi (C).
          Leaves whitish or grayish tomentulose below.
            Leaves mostly acutely 5-lobed, pale or silvery white below.
                                                  11. Q. ilicifolia (A).
            Leaves often dimorphous, 3—11-lobed, the lobes often
                  falcate.
                                                    12. Q. rubra (A, C).
        Leaves broad-obovate, often abruptly dilated at the wide
              obscurely lobed apex.
          Leaves rounded or cordate at base.
            Lower surface of the leaves orange color or brownish, the
                  upper scales of the cup forming with several rows a
                  thick rim on its inner surface, often reflexed.
                                              13. Q. marilandica (A, C).
            Lower surface of the leaves pale, the erect scales on the
                  rim of the cup in a single row.
                                                   14. Q. arkansana (C).
          Leaves cuneate at base.
            Leaves oblong-obovate.
                                                       15. Q. nigra (C).
            Leaves rhombic.
                                                    16. Q. rhombica (C).
        Leaves lanceolate-oblong or lanceolate-obovate, usually entire,
              involute in the bud. Willow Oaks.
          Leaves glabrous.
            Leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, deciduous in autumn.
                                                  17. Q. Phellos (A, C).
            Leaves elliptic or rarely oblong-obovate, deciduous in the
                  late winter.
                                                  18. Q. laurifolia (C).
          Leaves tomentose or pubescent below, oblong-lanceolate to
                oblong-obovate.
            Leaves pale blue-green, hoary tomentose below.
                                                     19. Q. cinerea (C).
            Leaves dark green, pubescent below.
                                                  20. Q. imbricaria (A).
      Leaves not deciduous in the autumn, revolute in the bud (convolute
            in 23).
        Leaves mostly persistent until after the appearance of those of
              the following year.
          Leaves lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, pale and
                tomentose below.
                                                21. Q. hypoleuca (E, H).
          Leaves oval, orbicular to oblong, green and pubescent below;
                fruit maturing at the end of the first season.
                                                   22. Q. agrifolia (G).
        Leaves persistent until their second summer or autumn.
          Leaves lanceolate to oval or oblong-lanceolate, entire or
                serrate; cup of the fruit turbinate or tubular.
                                                  23. Q. Wislizenii (G).
          Leaves oval to oblong-obovate; cup of the fruit saucer-shaped
                or turbinate.
                                                  24. Q. myrtifolia (C).
    Stamens usually 6—8; styles dilated; abortive ovules basal or
          lateral; leaves persistent until their third or fourth season,
          involute in the bud.
      Leaves oblong, entire, dentate, or sinuate-toothed,
            fulvous-tomentose and ultimately pale on the lower surface;
            cup of the fruit usually thick.
                                              25. Q. chrysolepis (G, H).
      Leaves oblong-lanceolate, crenate-dentate or entire, pubescent or
            tomentose below; cup of the fruit usually thin.
                                                  26. Q. tomentella (G).
  Fruit maturing at the end of the first season; shell of the nut
        glabrous on the inner surface (hoary-tomentose in 27); abortive
        ovules basal; stamens 6—8; styles dilated; lobes of the leaves
        not bristle-tipped. White Oaks.
    Leaves mostly persistent until the appearance of those of the
          following year, revolute in the bud (convolute in 28).
      Leaves yellow-green.
        Fruit sessile or short-stalked.
          Leaves oblong-lanceolate, entire or repand-dentate; inner
                surface of the nut hoary tomentose.
                                                   27. Q. Emoryi (F, H).
          Leaves oblong or obovate, entire, sinuate-toothed or lobed.
                                                      28. Q. dumosa (G).
        Fruit long-stalked; leaves oblong, elliptic or obovate, pale,
              glabrous or in one form densely tomentose below.
                                                  29. Q. virginiana (C).
      Leaves blue-green.
        Fruit usually in many-fruited long-stalked clusters; leaves
              broad-obovate, coarsely reticulate-venulose.
                                                  30. Q. reticulata (H).
        Fruit solitary or in pairs.
          Cup of the fruit saucer-shaped; leaves ovate to ovate-oblong,
                entire.
                                                     31. Q. Toumeyi (H).
          Cup of the fruit cup-shaped or hemispherical,
                oblong-lanceolate to broad-obovate, pubescent below.
                                                   32. Q. arizonica (H).
          Cup of the fruit usually cup-shaped or turbinate.
            Leaves ovate, oval or obovate, usually cordate at base;
                  fruit rather long-stalked.
                                             33. Q. oblongifolia (E, H).
            Leaves oblong to obovate, usually cuneate or rounded or
                  cordate at base.
                                                 34. Q. Engelmannii (G).
    Leaves deciduous in their first season.
      Leaves blue-green.
        Arboreous; leaves oblong, lobed, spinescent-dentate or entire,
              pubescent below; cup of the fruit shallow cup-shaped.
                                                   35. Q. Douglasii (G).
        Arborescent or shrubby.
          Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, undulate-lobed; cup of the
                fruit saucer-shaped to cup-shaped.
                                                    36. Q. Vaseyana (C).
          Leaves oblong-obovate to elliptic or lanceolate, undulate,
                serrate-toothed or irregularly lobed; cup of the fruit
                hemispheric to cup-shaped.
                                                    37. Q. Mohriana (C).
          Leaves oblong to oblong-ovate, slightly lobed or entire; cup
                of the fruit cup-shaped or rarely saucer-shaped.
                                                      38. Q. Laceyi (C).
      Leaves yellow-green.
        Leaves entire or slightly lobed.
          Leaves different on upper and lower branches, oblong to
                oblong-obovate, slightly lobed or entire.
            Cup of the fruit cup-shaped.
                                                    39. Q. annulata (C).
            Cup of the fruit shallow saucer-shaped.
                                                    40. Q. Durandii (C).
          Leaves similar on upper and lower branches, entire or slightly
                sinuate-lobed toward the apex, oblong or oblong-obovate.
                                                   41. Q. Chapmanii (C).
        Leaves more or less deeply sinuate-lobed.
          Leaves white-tomentulose below (sometimes green and pubescent
                in 43).
            Leaves obovate or oblong, lyrately pinnatifid or deeply
                  sinuate-lobed; cup of the fruit fringed by the awned
                  scales.
                                            42. Q. macrocarpa (A, C, F).
            Leaves obovate-oblong, deeply 5—9-lobed or pinnatifid; nut
                  often inclosed in the cup.
                                                   43. Q. lyrata (A, C).
          Leaves pubescent below.
            Leaves usually covered above with fascicled hairs, obovate,
                  3—5-lobed, their lobes truncate or rounded.
                                                 44. Q. stellata (A, C).
            Leaves glabrous above at maturity.
              Leaves obovate to oblong; cup of the fruit shallow
                    cup-shaped or slightly turbinate, its scales usually
                    thin.
                                                 45. Q. Garryana (B, G).
              Leaves oblong-obovate; cup of the fruit hemispheric, the
                    scales often much thickened.
                                                   46. Q. utahensis (F).
              Leaves oblong-obovate, deeply lobed; nut conic, elongated,
                    inclosed for one-third its length in the cup-shaped
                    cup.
                                                      47. Q. lobata (G).
          Leaves glabrate or puberulous below, oblong to oblong-obovate.
                                                 48. Q. leptophylla (F).
          Leaves glabrous below.
            Leaves oblong-obovate, usually 5-lobed.
                                                    49. Q. austrina (C).
            Leaves oblong-obovate, obliquely pinnatifid or 3—9-lobed.
                                                     50. Q. alba (A, C).
        Leaves coarsely sinuate-toothed. Chestnut Oaks.
          Fruit on peduncles much longer than the petioles; leaves
                obovate or oblong-obovate, generally sinuate-dentate or
                lobed, pubescent, and usually hoary on the lower
                surface.
                                                     51. Q. bicolor (C).
          Fruit on peduncles about as long or shorter than the petioles.
            Leaves obovate or oblong-obovate, cuneate or rounded at the
                  broad or narrow base, tomentose or pubescent and often
                  silvery white below.
                                                   52. Q. Prinus (A, C).
            Leaves obovate or oblong to lanceolate, acuminate, with
                  rounded or acute teeth.
                                                  53. Q. montana (A, C).
          Fruit sessile or nearly so; leaves oblong to lanceolate, acute
                or acuminate or broadly obovate, puberulous and pale,
                often silvery white on the lower surface.
                                            54. Q. Muehlenbergii (A, C).


                  1. Quercus borealis Michx. Red Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 221]

Leaves obovate or oblong, acute or acuminate, abruptly or gradually
cuneate or rounded at the broad or narrow base, usually divided about
half way to the midrib by wide oblique sinuses rounded at the bottom
into 11 or sometimes into 7 or 9 acute oblique ovate lobes tapering from
broad bases and mostly sinuately 3-toothed at apex with elongated
bristle-pointed teeth, or sometimes oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed
and cuneate at base, and sinuately lobed with broad acute usually entire
or slightly dentate lobes, when they unfold pink, covered with soft
silky pale pubescence on the upper surface and below with thick white
tomentum, soon glabrous, at maturity thin and firm, dark green, dull and
glabrous above, pale yellow-green, glabrous or rarely puberulous and
sometimes furnished with small tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the
veins below, 5′—9′ long, 4′—6′ wide; falling early in the autumn after
turning dull or sometimes bright orange color or brown; petioles stout,
yellow or red, 1′—2′ in length. Flowers: staminate in pubescent aments
4′—5′ long; calyx divided into 4 or 5 narrow ovate rounded lobes shorter
than the stamens; pistillate on short glabrous peduncles, their
involucral scales broadly ovate, dark reddish brown, shorter than the
conspicuous linear acute bract of the flower and as long as the
lanceolate acute calyx-lobes; stigmas bright green. Fruit solitary or in
pairs, sessile or short-stalked, ovoid, gradually narrowed and acute at
apex or cylindric and rounded at apex, pale brown, lustrous, more or
less tomentose toward the ends, ½′—1′ long; ½′—¾′ in diameter; cup
cup-shaped, puberulous on the inner surface, covered with small closely
appressed ovate acute red-brown pubescent scales slightly thickened on
the back toward the base of the cup, with a thin dark-colored tip and
margins.

A tree usually not more than 60°—70° high, with a trunk 2°—3° in
diameter, often much smaller, stout branches forming a narrow head, and
slender lustrous branchlets light green and covered with pale scurfy
pubescence when they first appear, dark red during their first winter
and ultimately dark brown. Winter-buds ovoid, gradually narrowed to the
acute apex, about ¼′ long, with thin ovate acute light chestnut-brown
scales. Bark on young stems and on the upper part of the limbs of old
trees 1′—1½′ thick, dark brown tinged with red and divided into small
thick appressed plates scaly on the surface. Wood heavy, hard, strong,
close-grained, light reddish brown, with thin lighter-colored sapwood;
used in construction, for the interior finish of houses, and in
furniture.

Distribution. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, through Quebec to southern
Ontario, and southward to northern New England, western New York,
northern Pennsylvania (Presque Isle, Erie County), northern Michigan,
southeastern Wisconsin, central Minnesota, central Iowa (Winneshick
County), and on the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina at altitudes
of about 4000°. Passing with many intermediate forms differing in the
size of the nut and in the depth of the cup into


              Quercus borealis var. maxima Ashe. Red Oak.

                     _Quercus rubra_ Du Roi, not L.

[Illustration: Fig. 222]

Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile or short-stalked; nut ovoid to
slightly obovoid, gradually narrowed and rounded at apex, slightly
narrowed at base, usually 1′—1¼′ long and ½′—⅔′ thick, occasionally not
more than ⅔′ long and thick, inclosed only at the base in a thick
saucer-shaped cup.

A tree, usually 70°—80°, or occasionally 150° high, with a trunk 3°—4°
in diameter, and stout spreading and ascending branches forming a broad
head.

Distribution. Province of Quebec in the neighborhood of Montreal, and
southern Ontario, westward through southern Michigan to southeastern
Nebraska, and southward to northern Georgia, on the southern Appalachian
Mountains up to altitudes of 3000°, southern Kentucky, eastern and
central Tennessee, northeastern (Tishomingo County), northwestern (Yazoo
County), and central and southern (Hinds and Union Counties)
Mississippi, northern and southwestern Alabama (Dekalb, Cullman,
Jefferson, and Dallas Counties), northwestern Arkansas, and eastern
Kansas and Oklahoma; one of the largest and most generally distributed
trees of the northern states; rare and local in the south; of its
largest size in the region north of the Potomac and Ohio Rivers.

Often planted as a park and shade tree in the northeastern states and in
the counties of western and northern Europe; generally more successful
in Europe than other American Oaks.

× _Quercus Lowellii_ Sarg., a possible hybrid of _Quercus borealis_ and
_Q. ilicifolia_, has been found in the neighborhood of Seabury, York
County, Maine.

× _Quercus Porterii_ Trel., probably a hybrid of _Quercus borealis_ var.
_maxima_ and _Q. velutina_, has been found on Bowditch Hill, Jamaica
Plain, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, on College Hill, Easton,
Northampton County, Pennsylvania, and near Columbus, Franklin County,
Ohio.

× _Quercus runcinata_ Engelm., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
borealis_ var. _maxima_ and _Q. imbricaria_ first found near St. Louis,
occurs also in the neighborhood of Independence, Jackson County, and at
Williamsville, Wayne County, Missouri, and in Richland and Wayne
Counties, Illinois.


                      2. Quercus Shumardii Buckl.

               _Quercus texana_ Sarg. in part, not Buckl.

[Illustration: Fig. 223]

Leaves obovate, seven rarely five-lobed, the lobes two or three-lobed
and sometimes dentate at apex, on leaves of lower branches short and
broad, and separated by narrow sinuses pointed or rounded in the bottom,
on upper branches deeply divided by broad rounded sinuses into narrow
acuminate lobes, when they unfold often tinged with red and covered with
pale loose tomentum deciduous before they are half grown, at maturity
glabrous, dark green and lustrous above, paler and furnished below with
large axillary tufts of pale hairs, 6′—8′ long, 4′—5′ wide, with a thin
midrib and slender primary veins running to the points of the lobes;
petioles slender, glabrous, 2′—2½′ in length. Flowers: staminate in
slender glabrous aments 6′—7′ long; calyx divided into 4 or 5 rounded
slightly villose lobes shorter than the stamens; pistillate on pubescent
peduncles, their involucral scales ovate, light brown, pubescent;
stigmas red. Fruit: nut oblong-ovoid, narrowed and rounded at apex,
¾′—1¼′ long, ½′—1′ in diameter, inclosed at the base only in the thick
saucer-shaped cup with a slightly incurved rim and covered with closely
appressed ovate pale pubescent or nearly glabrous scales narrowed above
the middle, abruptly long-pointed, thin or often conspicuously
tuberculate.

A tree up to 120° high, with a tall trunk occasionally 5° in diameter,
stout wide-spreading branches forming a broad rather open head, and gray
or grayish brown glabrous branchlets. Winter-buds ovoid, acute or
acuminate, about ¼′ long, with closely imbricated gray glabrous or
rarely pubescent scales. Bark 1′—1½′ thick, ridged, broken into small
appressed plates scaly on the surface. Wood heavy, hard, close-grained,
light reddish brown, often manufactured into lumber in the Mississippi
valley and considered more valuable than that of the northern Red Oak.

Distribution. Borders of streams and swamps in moist rich soil; coast
region of Texas eastward from the Colorado River and ranging inland up
the valley of that river to Burnet County, southeastern Oklahoma,
through Arkansas, southeastern Kansas and Missouri to Fayette County,
Iowa, southern Illinois and Indiana, the neighborhood of Columbus,
Franklin County, Ohio, and southeastern Michigan (near Portage Lake,
Jackson County); through the eastern Gulf States to western and central
Florida and northward in the neighborhood of the coast to the valley of
the Neuse River, North Carolina; Chesapeake Beach, Calvert County,
Maryland (_W. W. Ashe_); ranging inland in the south Atlantic States to
Rome, Floyd County, Georgia, Calhoun Falls, Abbeville County, and
Columbia, Richland County, South Carolina, and Chapel Hill, Orange
County, North Carolina. Passing into


                 Quercus Shumardii var. Schneckii Sarg.

               _Quercus texana_ Sarg. in part, not Buckl.
                       _Quercus Schneckii_ Britt.

[Illustration: Fig. 224]

Differing from the type in the deep cup-shaped cup of the fruit covered
with thin scales, rarely much thickened and tuberculate at base (only on
river banks near Vicksburg, Warren County, Mississippi), and connected
with it by forms with the cups of the fruit differing from saucer to
deep cup-shaped.

Distribution. Growing with _Quercus Shumardii_; more common in Texas and
in the Mississippi valley than the type, and ranging eastward through
Louisiana and Mississippi to central and southern Alabama, central and
southeastern Tennessee (neighborhood of Chattanooga), and central
Kentucky; apparently not reaching the Atlantic States.


                        3. Quercus texana Buckl.

[Illustration: Fig. 225]

Leaves widest above the middle, broad-cuneate, concave-cuneate or nearly
truncate at base, deeply or rarely only slightly divided by broad
sinuses rounded in the bottom into 5 or 7 lobes, the terminal lobe
3-lobed and acute at apex, the upper lateral lobes broad and more or
less divided at apex and much larger and more deeply lobed than those of
the lowest pair, when they unfold densely covered with fascicled hairs
and often bright red, soon glabrous, thin, dark green and lustrous
above, pale and lustrous and rarely furnished below with small
inconspicuous axillary tufts of pale hairs, 3′—3½′ long, 2½′—3′ wide,
with a thin midrib and slender primary veins running to the points of
the lobes; petioles slender, soon glabrous, ¾′—1½′ in length. Flowers:
staminate in slender villose aments 3′—4′ long; calyx thin, villose on
the outer surface, divided into 4 or 5 acute lobes shorter than the
stamens; pistillate on short hoary tomentose peduncles, their involucral
scales brown tinged with red; stigmas bright red. Fruit short-stalked,
usually solitary; nut ovoid, narrowed and rounded at apex, light
red-brown, often striate, ¼′—¾′ long and broad, sometimes acute, nearly
1′ in length and not more than ⅓′ in diameter; cup turbinate, covered
with thin ovate acuminate slightly appressed glabrous scales, in the
small fruit of trees on dry hills inclosing a third or more of the nut,
in the larger fruit of trees on better soil comparatively less deep.

A tree on dry hills rarely more than 30° tall, with a trunk 8′—10′ in
diameter, small spreading or erect branches and slender red or reddish
brown glabrous or rarely pubescent branchlets; often a shrub; on better
soil at the foot of hills occasionally 50° high with a trunk 12′—18′ in
diameter. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, ⅙′—¼′ long and covered with closely
imbricated acute slightly or densely pubescent red scales. Bark light
brown tinged with red, ¾′—1′ thick, deeply ridged and broken into
plate-like scales.

Distribution. Dry limestone hills and ridges, and in the more fertile
soil at their base; central and western Texas (Dallas, Tarrant County to
Travis and Bexar Counties), and to the Edwards Plateau (San Saba, Kerr,
Brown, Coke and Uvalde Counties); westward replaced by the var.
_chesosensis_ Sarg. differing in the acuminate lobes of the leaves and
smaller cups of the fruit; known only on the dry rocky slopes of the
Chesos Mountains, Brewster County, Texas; and by the var. _stellapila_
Sarg., differing in the presence of fascicled hairs on both surfaces of
the mature leaves and on the branchlets of the year; above Fort Davis,
Jeff Davis County, Texas.


            4. Quercus ellipsoidalis E. J. Hill. Black Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 226]

Leaves elliptic to obovate-orbicular, acute or acuminate, truncate or
broadly cuneate at base, deeply divided by wide sinuses rounded in the
bottom into 5—7 oblong lobes repandly dentate at apex, or often,
especially those of the upper pair, repandly lobulate, when they unfold
slightly tinged with red and hoary-tomentose, soon becoming glabrous
with the exception of small tufts of pale hairs in the axils of the
principal veins, at maturity thin and firm, bright green and lustrous
above, paler and sometimes entirely glabrous below, 3′—5′ long, 2½′—4′
wide, with a stout midrib and primary veins and prominent reticulate
veinlets; late in the autumn turning yellow or pale brown more or less
blotched with purple; petioles slender, glabrous or rarely puberulous,
1½′—2′ in length. Flowers: staminate in puberulous aments 1½′—2′ long;
calyx campanulate, usually tinged with red, 2—5-lobed or parted into
oblong-ovate or rounded segments, glabrous or slightly villose, fringed
at apex with long twisted hairs, about as long as the 2—5 stamens, with
short filaments and oblong anthers; pistillate on stout tomentose
1—3-flowered peduncles, red, their involucral scales broad, oblong,
acute, hairy; calyx campanulate, 4—7-lobed, ciliate on the margins.
Fruit short-stalked or nearly sessile, solitary or in pairs; nut
ellipsoidal to subglobose, chestnut-brown, often striate and puberulous,
inclosed for one third to one half its length in a turbinate or
cup-shaped cup gradually narrowed at base, thin, light red-brown, and
covered by narrow ovate obtuse or truncate brown pubescent closely
appressed scales.

A tree, 60°—70° high, with a short trunk rarely 3° in diameter, much
forked branches ascending above and often pendulous low on the stem,
forming a narrow oblong head, and slender branchlets covered at first
with matted pale hairs, bright reddish brown during their first winter,
becoming dark gray-brown or reddish brown in their second season.
Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse or acute, sometimes slightly angled, about ⅛′
long, with ovate or oval red-brown lustrous slightly puberulous outer
scales ciliate on the margins. Bark thin, light yellow internally,
close, rather smooth, divided by shallow connected fissures into thin
plates, dark brown near the base of the tree, dull above, gray-brown and
only slightly furrowed on the large branches.

Distribution. In the neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois, to southeastern
Minnesota common; often covering large areas of sandy soil with a
stunted growth and on the prairies sometimes a low shrub; eastern Iowa
(Muscatine County), and the Lower Peninsular of Michigan (Montmorency,
Arenac, and St. Clair Counties).


         5. Quercus coccinea Muench. Scarlet Oak. Spanish Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 227]

Leaves oblong-obovate or elliptic, truncate or cuneate at base, deeply
divided by wide sinuses rounded in the bottom into 7 or rarely 9 lobes
repand-dentate at apex, the terminal lobe, ovate, acute, and 3-toothed,
the middle division the largest and furnished with 2 small lateral
teeth, the lateral lobes obovate, oblique or spreading, sometimes
falcate, usually broad and oblique at the coarsely toothed apex, when
they unfold bright red covered with loose pale pubescence above and
below with silvery white tomentum, green at the end of a few days, at
maturity thin and firm, bright green, glabrous and very lustrous above,
paler and less lustrous and sometimes furnished with small tufts of
rusty pubescence in the axils of the veins below, 3′—6′ long, 2½′—4′
broad, with a yellow midrib and primary veins, late in the autumn
turning brilliant scarlet; petioles slender, terete, 1½′—2½′ in length.
Flowers: staminate in slender glabrous aments 3′—4′ long; calyx
pubescent, bright red before opening, divided into 4 or 5 ovate acute
segments shorter than the stamens; pistillate on pubescent peduncles
sometimes ½′ long, bright red, their involucral scales ovate, pubescent,
shorter than the acute calyx-lobes. Fruit sessile or stalked, solitary
or in pairs; nut oval, oblong-ovate or hemispheric, truncate or rounded
at base, rounded at apex, ½′—1′ long, ⅓′—⅔′ thick, light reddish brown
and occasionally striate, inclosed for one third to one half its length
in a deep cup-shaped or turbinate thin cup light reddish brown on the
inner surface, covered by closely imbricated oblong-ovate acute thin, or
rarely much thickened (var. _tuberculata_ Sarg.) light reddish brown
slightly puberulous scales.

A tree, 70°—80° high, with a trunk 2°—3° in diameter, comparatively
small branches spreading gradually and forming a rather narrow open
head, and slender branchlets coated at first with loose scurfy
pubescence, soon pale green and lustrous, light red or orange-red in
their first winter and light or dark brown the following year; usually
much smaller. Winter-buds ellipsoidal or ovoid, gradually narrowed at
apex, ⅛′—¼′ long, dark reddish brown, and pale-pubescent above the
middle. Bark of young stems and branches smooth, light brown, becoming
on old trunks ½′—1′ thick and divided by shallow fissures into irregular
ridges covered by small light brown scales slightly tinged with red.
Wood heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, light or reddish brown, with
thicker darker colored sapwood.

Distribution. Light dry usually sandy soil; valley of the Androscoggin
River, Maine, southern New Hampshire and Vermont to southern Ontario,
southward to the District of Columbia and along the Appalachian
Mountains to eastern Kentucky and Tennessee, and northern Georgia; in
central Georgia and northeastern Mississippi (near Corinth, Alcorn
County), and westward through New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and
southern Wisconsin to central Missouri (Jerome, Phelps County); in
eastern Oklahoma (Arkansas River valley near Fisher, Creek County, _G.
W. Stevens_); ascending to altitudes of nearly 5000° on the southern
mountains; the prevailing Oak above 2500° to the summits of the Blue
Ridge of the Carolinas; very abundant in the coast region from
Massachusetts Bay to southern New Jersey; less common in the interior,
growing on dry gravelly uplands, and on the prairies skirting the
western margins of the eastern forest.

Occasionally planted in the northeastern states and in Europe as an
ornamental tree valued chiefly for the brilliant autumn color of the
foliage.

× _Quercus Robbinsii_ Trel., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
coccinea_ and _Q. ilicifolia_, occurs at North Easton, Bristol County,
Massachusetts.

× _Quercus Benderi_ Baenitz, a supposed hybrid of _Quercus coccinea_ and
_Q. borealis_ var. _maxima_, appeared several years ago in Silesia, and
a similar tree has been found in the Blue Hills Reservation near Boston.


        6. Quercus palustris Muench. Pin Oak. Swamp Spanish Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 228]

Leaves obovate, narrowed and cuneate or broad and truncate at base,
divided by wide deep sinuses rounded in the bottom into 5—7 lobes, the
terminal lobe ovate, acute, 3-toothed toward the apex, or entire, the
lateral lobes spreading or oblique, sometimes falcate, especially those
of the lowest pair, gradually tapering and acute at the dentate apex, or
obovate and broad at apex, when they unfold light bronze-green stained
with red on the margins, lustrous and puberulous above, coated below and
on the petioles with pale scurfy pubescence, at maturity thin and firm,
dark green and very lustrous above, pale below, with large tufts of pale
hairs in the axils of the conspicuous primary veins; 4′—6′ long, 2′—4′
wide, with a stout midrib; late in the autumn gradually turning deep
scarlet; petioles slender, yellow, ½′—2′ in length. Flowers: staminate
in hairy aments 2′—3′ long; calyx puberulous and divided into 4 or 5
oblong rounded segments more or less laciniately cut on the margins,
shorter than the stamens; pistillate on short tomentose peduncles, their
involucral scales broadly ovate, tomentose, shorter than the acuminate
calyx-lobes; stigmas bright red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked,
solitary or clustered; nut nearly hemispheric, about ½′ in diameter,
light brown, often striate, inclosed only at the base in a thin
saucer-shaped cup dark red-brown and lustrous within, and covered by
closely appressed ovate light red-brown thin puberulous scales.

A tree, usually 70°—80° high, with a trunk 2°—3° in diameter, often
clothed with small tough drooping branches, or when crowded in the
forest sometimes 120° high, with a trunk 60°—70° tall and 4°—5° in
diameter, slender branches beset with short-ridged spur-like laterals a
few inches in length, forming on young trees a broad pyramidal head,
becoming on older trees open and irregular, with rigid and more
pendulous branches often furnished at first with small drooping
branchlets, and slender tough branchlets dark red and covered by short
pale silvery tomentum, soon becoming green and glabrous, lustrous dark
red-brown or orange color in their first winter, growing darker in their
second year and ultimately dark gray-brown. Winter-buds ovoid, gradually
narrowed and acute at apex, about ⅛′ long, with imbricated light
chestnut-brown scales puberulous toward the thin sometimes ciliate
margins. Bark of young trunks and branches smooth, lustrous, light brown
frequently tinged with red, becoming on older trunks ¾′—1¼′ thick, light
gray-brown, generally smooth and covered by small closely appressed
scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, light brown, with thin
rather darker colored sapwood; sometimes used in construction, and for
shingles and clapboards.

Distribution. Borders of swamps and river-bottoms in deep rich moist
soil; valley of the Connecticut River in western Massachusetts and
Connecticut; on Grand Isle in the Niagara River, New York to southern
Ontario and southwestern Michigan, and westward to eastern Iowa
(Muscatine County), and southward to southern West Virginia (Hardy and
Mercer Counties), southwestern Virginia (Wythe County), central North
Carolina (on Bowling’s Creek, near Chapel Hill, Orange County, and on
Dutchman’s Creek, Forsyth County); and to southern Kentucky, central
Tennessee, southern Arkansas (Fulton, Hempstead County), and
northeastern Oklahoma; rare and of small size in New England;
exceedingly common on the coast plain south of the Hudson River; very
abundant on the bottom-lands of the streams of the lower Ohio River.

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in the northeastern states and
occasionally in the countries of western and central Europe.


                   7. Quercus georgiana M. A. Curtis.

[Illustration: Fig. 229]

Leaves convolute in the bud, elliptic or obovate, gradually narrowed and
cuneate at base, divided generally about half way to the midrib by wide
or narrow oblique sinuses rounded in the bottom into 3—7 lobes, the
terminal lobe ovate, acute, or rounded and entire or frequently
furnished with 1 or 2 small lateral teeth, the lateral lobes oblique or
spreading, mostly triangular, acute and entire, or those of the upper
and of the middle pair often broad and repand-lobulate at the oblique
ends, sometimes gradually 3-lobed at the broad apex and narrowed and
entire below, or equally 3-lobed, with broad or narrow spreading lateral
lobes, or occasionally pinnatifid, when they unfold bright green tinged
with red, ciliate on the margins and coated on the midrib, veins, and
petioles with loose pale pubescence, at maturity thin, bright green and
lustrous above, paler below, and glabrous or furnished with tufts of
hairs in the axils of the primary veins, usually about 2½′ long and 1½′
wide; turning dull orange and scarlet in the autumn; petioles slender,
½′—¾′ in length. Flowers: staminate in slender glabrous or pubescent
aments 2′—3′ long; calyx divided into 4 or 5 broadly ovate rounded
segments rather shorter than the stamens; pistillate on short glabrous
slender peduncles; their involucral scales rather shorter than the acute
calyx-lobes, pubescent or puberulous; stigmas bright red. Fruit
short-stalked; nut ellipsoidal or subglobose, ⅓′—½′ long, light
red-brown and lustrous, inclosed for one third to nearly one half its
length in a thick cup-shaped cup light red-brown and lustrous on the
inner surface, and covered by thin ovate bright light red-brown truncate
erose scales.

Distribution. Georgia; on Stone Mountain, and Little Stone Mountain,
Dekalb County; on a few other granite hills between the Yellow and
Oconee rivers in the region south and east of Stone Mountain (Winder,
Jackson County, Rockmart, Polk County and at Warm Springs, Meriwether
County).

Occasionally cultivated, and hardy in eastern Massachusetts.

× _Quercus Smallii_ Trel., a possible hybrid of _Quercus georgiana_ and
_Q. marilandica_, occurs on the slopes and summit of Little Stone
Mountain, Dekalb County, Georgia.


          8. Quercus velutina Lam. Black Oak. Yellow-bark Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 230]

Leaves ovate or oblong, rounded, cuneate or truncate at base, mostly
7-lobed and sometimes divided nearly to the middle by wide rounded
sinuses into narrow obovate more or less repand-dentate lobes, or into
elongated nearly entire mucronate lobes tapering gradually from a broad
base, the terminal lobe oblong, elongated, acute, furnished with small
lateral teeth, or broad, rounded, and coarsely repand-dentate, or
slightly divided into broad dentate lobes or sinuate-dentate, bright
crimson when they unfold, and covered above by long loose scattered
white hairs and below with thick pale or silvery white tomentum,
hoary-pubescent when half grown, and at maturity thick and firm or
subcoriaceous, dark green and lustrous above, below yellow-green, brown
or dull copper color and more or less pubescent or glabrous with the
exception of tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the principal veins,
3′—12′ long and 2′—10′ wide, but usually 5′—6′ long and 3′—4′ wide, with
a stout midrib and primary veins; late in the autumn turning dull red,
dark orange color, or brown, and falling gradually during the winter;
petioles stout, yellow, glabrous or puberulous, 3′—6′ in length.
Flowers: staminate in tomentose or pubescent aments 4′—6′ long; calyx
coated with pale hairs, with ovate acute lobes; pistillate on short
tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales ovate, shorter than the
acute calyx-lobes; stigmas bright red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked,
solitary or in pairs; nut ovoid-oblong, obovoid, oval or hemispheric,
broad and rounded at base, full and rounded at apex, light red-brown,
often striate, frequently coated with soft rufous pubescence, ½′—¾′ long
and broad, or rarely 1′ long and broad, inclosed for about half its
length or rarely nearly to the apex in the thin deeply cup-shaped or
turbinate cup dark red-brown on the inner surface, covered by thin light
chestnut-brown acute hoary scales closely appressed at the base of the
cup, loosely imbricated above the middle, with free scarious tips
forming a fringe-like border to its rim.

A tree, often 70°—80° and occasionally 150° high, with a trunk 3°—4° in
diameter, slender branches spreading gradually into a narrow open head,
stout branchlets coated at first with pale or fulvous scurfy tomentum,
becoming in their first winter glabrous, dull red or reddish brown,
growing dark brown in their second year or brown slightly tinged with
red. Winter-buds ovoid, strongly angled, gradually narrowed and obtuse
at apex, hoary-tomentose, ¼′—½′ long. Bark of young stems and branches
smooth, dark brown, deep orange color internally, becoming ¾′—1½′ thick
on old trunks, and deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken on
the surface into thick dark brown or nearly black closely appressed
plate-like scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, bright
brown tinged with red, with thin lighter colored sapwood; of little
value except as fuel. The bark abounds in tannic acid and is largely
used in tanning, as a yellow dye, and in medicine.

Distribution. Dry gravelly uplands and ridges; coast of southern Maine
to northern Vermont, southern and western Ontario, the southern
peninsula of Michigan, northwestern, eastern and southern Iowa, and
southeastern Nebraska, and southward to western Florida, southern
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, eastern Kansas, northeastern Oklahoma
and eastern Texas to the valley of the Brazos River; one of the
commonest Oaks on the gravelly drift of southern New England and the
middle states; ascending on the southern Appalachian Mountains to
altitudes of about 4000°, and often forming a large part of the forest
growth on their foothills; abundant in all parts of the Mississippi
basin, and of its largest size in the valley of the lower Ohio River;
the common species of the Black Oak group reaching the south-Atlantic
and Gulf Coast, and here generally scattered on dry ridges through the
maritime Pine belt.

_Quercus velutina_, which is more variable in the form of its leaves
than the other North American Black Oaks, is easily recognized by the
bright yellow color of the inner bark, in early spring by the deep red
color of the unfolding leaves, becoming pale and silvery in a few days,
and by the large tomentose winter-buds. From western Missouri to
northwestern Arkansas a form occurs (var. _missouriensis_ Sarg.) with
the mature leaves covered above with fascicled hairs, and coated below
and on the petioles and summer branchlets with rusty pubescence, and
with broader more loosely imbricated hoary-tomentose cup-scales.


                 9. Quercus Kelloggii Newb. Black Oak.

                      _Quercus californica_ Coop.

[Illustration: Fig. 231]

Leaves oblong or obovate, truncate, cuneate or rounded at the narrow
base, 7 or rarely 5-lobed by wide and deep or shallow and oblique
sinuses rounded in the bottom, the terminal lobe ovate, 3-toothed at the
acute apex, the lateral lobes tapering gradually from the base or broad
and obovate, coarsely repand-dentate with acute pointed teeth, or rarely
entire, when they unfold dark red or purple and pilose above and coated
below and on the petioles with thick silvery white tomentum, at maturity
thick and firm, lustrous, dark yellow-green and glabrous or rarely
pubescent above, light yellow-green or brownish and glabrous or
pubescent, or occasionally hoary-tomentose below, 3′—6′ long, 2′—4′
wide; turning yellow or brown in the autumn before falling; petioles
slender, yellow, 1′—2′ in length. Flowers: staminate in hairy aments
4′—5′ long; calyx pubescent, divided into 4 or 5 ovate acute segments
shorter than the stamens; anthers bright red; pistillate on short
tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales ovate, coated like the
acute calyx-lobes with pale tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit
short-stalked, solitary or clustered; nut oblong, ellipsoidal or
obovoid, broad and rounded at base, full and rounded or gradually
narrowed and acute at the puberulous apex, 1′—1½′ long, about ¾′ broad,
light chestnut-brown, often striate, inclosed for one fourth to two
thirds of its length in the deep cup-shaped cup light brown on the inner
surface, and covered by thin ovate-lanceolate lustrous light chestnut
brown scales, sometimes rounded and thickened on the back toward the
base of the cup, their tips elongated, thin and erose on the margins,
often forming a narrow fringe-like border to the rim of the cup.

A tree, occasionally 100° high, with a trunk 3°—4° in diameter, stout
spreading branches forming an open round-topped head, and branchlets
coated at first with thick hoary caducous tomentum, bright red or brown
tinged with red, and usually glabrous or pubescent or puberulous during
their first winter, becoming dark red-brown in their second year;
frequently much smaller and at high elevations a small shrub (f.
_cibata_ Jeps.). Winter-buds ovoid, gradually narrowed and acute at
apex, about ¼′ long, with closely imbricated pale chestnut-brown scales
ciliate on the thin scarious margins and pubescent toward the point of
the bud. Bark of young stems and branches smooth, light brown, becoming
on old trunks 1′—1½′ thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red or
nearly black, divided into broad ridges at the base of old trees and
broken above into thick irregular oblong plates covered by minute
closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, very brittle, bright
red, with thin lighter colored sapwood; occasionally used as fuel.

Distribution. Valleys and mountain slopes; basin of the Mackenzie River
in western Oregon, southward over the California coast ranges, and along
the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada up to altitudes of 6500° to the
Cuyamaca Mountains near the southern boundary of California; extending
across the Sierra Nevada to the foothills of Owens valley (_Jepson_) in
eastern California; rare in the immediate neighborhood of the coast; the
largest and most abundant Oak-tree of the valleys of southwestern Oregon
and of the Sierra Nevada, sometimes forming groves of considerable
extent in coniferous forests; of its largest size at altitudes of about
6000° above the sea.


                10. Quercus Catesbæi Michx. Turkey Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 232]

Leaves oblong or obovate or nearly triangular, gradually narrowed and
cuneate at base, deeply divided by wide rounded sinuses into 3 or 5 or
rarely 7 lobes, the terminal lobe ovate, elongated, acute and entire or
repand-dentate, or obovate and coarsely equally or irregularly 3-toothed
at apex, the lateral lobes spreading, usually falcate, entire and acute,
tapering from the broad base, and broad, oblique, and repand-lobulate at
apex, or 3-toothed at the broad apex and gradually narrowed to the base,
coated when they unfold with rufous fascicled hairs, and when fully
grown thick and rigid, bright yellow-green and lustrous above, paler,
lustrous, and glabrous below, with large tufts of rusty hairs in the
axils of the veins, 3′—12′ long, 1′—10′ wide, but usually about 5′ long
and wide, with a broad yellow or red-brown midrib; turning bright
scarlet before falling in the late autumn or early winter; petioles
stout, grooved, ¼′—¾′ in length. Flowers: staminate in slender hairy
red-stemmed aments 4′—5′ long; calyx puberulous and divided into 4 or 5
ovate acute lobes; pistillate on short stout tomentose peduncles, their
involucral scales bright red, pubescent, hairy at the margins; stigmas
dark red. Fruit short-stalked, usually solitary; nut oval, full and
rounded at the ends, about 1′ long and ¾′ broad, dull light brown,
covered at the apex by a thin coat of snow-white tomentum, inclosed for
about one third its length in a thin turbinate cup often gradually
narrowed into a stout stalk-like base, light red-brown and lustrous on
the inner surface, covered by ovate-oblong rounded scales extending
above the rim of the cup and down over the upper third of the inner
surface, and hoary-pubescent except their thin bright red margins.

A tree, usually 20°—30°, or occasionally 50°—60° high, with a trunk
rarely exceeding 2° in diameter, stout spreading more or less contorted
branches forming a broad or narrow open irregular generally round-topped
head, and stout branchlets coated at first with fascicled hairs, nearly
glabrous and deep red when the leaves are half grown, dark red in their
first winter, gradually growing dark brown; generally much smaller and
sometimes shrubby. Winter-buds elongated, acute, ½′ long, with light
chestnut-brown scales erose on the thin margins, and coated, especially
toward the point of the bud, with rusty pubescence. Bark ½′—1′ thick,
red internally, dark gray tinged with red on the surface, and at the
base of old trunks becoming nearly black, deeply and irregularly
furrowed and broken into small appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard,
strong, rather close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick
lighter colored sapwood; largely used for fuel.

Distribution. Dry barren sandy ridges and sandy bluffs and hummocks in
the neighborhood of the coast; southeastern Virginia (near Zuni, Isle of
Wight County) to the shores of Indian River and Peace Creek, Florida,
and westward to eastern Louisiana; comparatively rare toward the western
limits of its range, and most abundant and of its largest size on the
high bluff-like shores of bays and estuaries in South Carolina and
Georgia; the prevailing tree with _Quercus cinerea_ in the flat woods of
the interior of the Florida peninsula as far south as the sandy ridges
in the neighborhood of Lake Istokpoga, De Soto County.

× _Quercus Mellichampii_ Trel. believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
Catesbæi_ and _Q. laurifolia_ occurs at Bluffton on the coast of South
Carolina, in the neighborhood of Orlando, Orange County and near San
Mateo, Putnam County, Florida.

× _Quercus Ashei_ Trel. believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus Catesbæi_
with _Q. cinerea_ occurs at Folkston and near Trader’s Hill, Charlton
County and St. Mary’s, Camden County, Georgia.

× _Quercus blufftonensis_ Trel., a probable hybrid of _Quercus Catesbæi_
and _Q. rubra_ L., has been found at Bluffton, South Carolina.

× _Quercus Walteriana_ Ashe, believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
Catesbæi_ and _Q. nigra_, is not rare in the immediate neighborhood of
the coast of South Carolina and Georgia, and occurs on sand hills in
Sampson County, North Carolina, near Jacksonville, Duval County,
Florida, at Mount Vernon, Mobile County and in the neighborhood of
Selma, Dallas County, Alabama.


           11. Quercus ilicifolia Wang. Bear Oak. Scrub Oak.

                          _Quercus nana_ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 233]

Leaves obovate or rarely oblong, gradually or abruptly cuneate at base,
divided by wide shallow sinuses into 3—7, usually 5, acute lobes, the
terminal lobe ovate, elongated, rounded and 3-toothed or acute and
dentate or entire at apex, the lateral lobes spreading, mostly
triangular and acute, or those of the upper pair broad, oblique and
repand-lobulate or broad at apex, slightly 3-lobed and entire below, or
deeply 3-lobed above and sinuate below, or occasionally oblong to
oblong-obovate and entire, with undulate margins, when they unfold dull
red and puberulous or pubescent on the upper surface and coated on the
lower and on the petioles with thick pale tomentum, with conspicuous
tufts of silvery white hairs in the axils of the veins, at maturity
thick and firm, dark green and lustrous above, covered below with pale
or silvery white pubescence, 2′—5′ long, 1½′—3′ wide, with a stout
yellow midrib and slender primary veins; turning dull scarlet or yellow
in the autumn; petioles slender, glabrous, or pubescent, 1′—1½′ in
length. Flowers: staminate in hairy aments 4′—5′ long, and often
persistent until midsummer; calyx red or green tinged with red and
irregularly divided into 3—5 ovate rounded lobes shorter than the
stamens; anthers bright red ultimately yellow; pistillate on stout
tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales ovate, about as long as the
acute calyx-lobes, red and tomentose; stigmas dark red. Fruit produced
in great profusion, sessile or stalked, in pairs or rarely solitary; nut
ovoid, broad, flat or rounded at base, gradually narrowed and acute or
rounded at apex, about ½′ long and broad, light brown, lustrous, usually
faintly striate, inclosed for about one half its length in the
cup-shaped or saucer-shaped cup often abruptly enlarged above the
stalk-like base, thick, light reddish brown within, and covered by thin
ovate closely imbricated red-brown puberulous scales acute or truncate
at apex, the minute free tips of the upper scales forming a fringe-like
border to the cup.

A tree, occasionally 18°—20° high, with a trunk 5′—6′ in diameter, with
slender spreading branches usually forming a round-topped head, and
slender branchlets dark green more or less tinged with red and
hoary-pubescent at first, during their first winter red-brown or ashy
gray and pubescent or puberulous, becoming glabrous and darker in their
second year and ultimately dark brown or nearly black; more frequently
an intricately branched shrub, with numerous contorted stems 3°—10°
tall. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse, about ⅛′ long, with dark chestnut-brown
rather loosely imbricated glabrous or pilose scales. Bark thin, smooth,
dark brown, covered by small closely appressed scales.

Distribution. Dry sandy barrens and rocky hillsides; coast of eastern
Maine southward through eastern and southern New England to southern and
southwestern Pennsylvania and along the Appalachian Mountains,
principally on their eastern slopes, to southern Virginia; on Crowder
and King Mountains, Gaston County, North Carolina; and westward to the
shores of Lake George and the valley of the Hudson River; common in
eastern and southern New England, in the Pine barrens of New Jersey, and
in eastern Pennsylvania.

× _Quercus Brittonii_ Davis, believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
ilicifolia_ and _Q. marilandica_, has been found on Staten Island, New
York, and at Ocean Grove, Monmouth County, New Jersey.

× _Quercus Giffordii_ Trel., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
ilicifolia_ and _Q. Phellos_, has been found at May’s Landing, Atlantic
County, New Jersey.

× _Quercus Rehderi_ Trel., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
ilicifolia_ and _Q. velutina_, is not rare in eastern Massachusetts and
occurs on Martha’s Vineyard (Chilmark).


               12. Quercus rubra L. Red Oak. Spanish Oak.

                        _Quercus digitata_ Sudw.

[Illustration: Fig. 234]

Leaves ovate to obovate, narrowed and rounded or cuneate at base, the
terminal lobe long-acuminate, entire or slightly lobed, often falcate,
usually longer than the 2 or 4 acuminate entire lateral lobes narrowed
from a broad base and often falcate, or oblong-obovate and divided at
the broad apex by wide or narrow sinuses broad and rounded in the bottom
into 3 rounded or acute entire or dentate lobes, and entire and
gradually narrowed below into an acute or rounded base (var. _triloba_
Ashe), the two forms usually occurring on different but sometimes on the
same tree, at maturity thin and firm, dark green and lustrous above,
coated below with soft close pale or rusty pubescence, 6′—7′ long and
4′—5′ wide, obscurely reticulate-venulose, with a stout tomentose midrib
and primary veins; turning brown or dull orange color in the autumn;
petioles slender, flattened, 1′—2′ in length. Flowers: staminate in
tomentose aments, 3′—5′ long; calyx thin and scarious, pubescent on the
outer surface, divided into 4 or 5 ovate rounded segments; pistillate on
stout tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales coated with rusty
tomentum, as long or rather shorter than the acute calyx-lobes; stigmas
dark red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked; nut subglobose to ellipsoidal,
full and rounded at apex, truncate and rounded at base, about ½′ long,
bright orange-brown, inclosed only at base or sometimes for one third
its length in a thin saucer-shaped cup flat on the bottom or gradually
narrowed from a stalk-like base, or deep and turbinate, bright red-brown
on the inner surface, covered by thin ovate-oblong reddish scales acute
or rounded at apex and pale-pubescent except on the margins.

A tree, usually 70°—80° high, with a trunk 2°—3° in diameter, large
spreading branches forming a broad round-topped open head, and stout
branchlets coated at first, like the young leaves, with thick rusty or
orange-colored clammy tomentum, dark red or reddish brown and pubescent
or rarely glabrous during their first winter, becoming in their second
year dark red-brown or ashy gray. The var. _triloba_ usually 20°—30°
rarely 40°—50° high. Winter-buds ovoid or oval, acute, ⅛′—¼′ long, with
bright chestnut-brown puberulous or pilose scales ciliate with short
pale hairs. Bark ¾′—1′ thick, dark brown or pale, and divided by shallow
fissures into broad ridges covered by thin closely appressed scales.
Wood hard, strong, not durable, coarse-grained, light red, with thick
lighter colored sapwood; sometimes used in construction, and largely as
fuel. The bark is rich in tannin, and is used in tanning leather and
occasionally in medicine.

Distribution. Southeastern and southern Pennsylvania and southern New
Jersey southward to central Florida, through the Gulf states to the
valley of the Brazos River, Texas, and through eastern Oklahoma and
southwestern Missouri to central Tennessee and Kentucky, southern
Indiana and Illinois, southern Ohio (Black Fork Creek, Lawrence County),
and Kanawha County, West Virginia; in the north Atlantic states only in
the neighborhood of the coast and comparatively rare; very common in the
south Atlantic and Gulf states on dry hills between the coast plain and
the Appalachian Mountains; less abundant in the southern maritime Pine
belt. The var. _triloba_: rare and local. Pleasant Grove, Lancaster
County, Pennsylvania and Jefferson County, Indiana, southward to central
and western Florida, southern Alabama and Mississippi, western Arkansas
and eastern Texas; on dry uplands near Milledgeville, Baldwin County,
Georgia, the prevailing form.


    Quercus rubra var. pagodæfolia Ashe. Swamp Spanish Oak. Red Oak.

                         _Quercus pagoda_ Rafn.
                      _Quercus pagodæfolia_ Ashe.

[Illustration: Fig. 235]

Leaves elliptic to oblong, acuminate, gradually narrowed and cuneate or
full and rounded or rarely truncate at base, deeply divided by wide
sinuses rounded in the bottom into 5—11 acuminate usually entire
repand-dentate lobes often falcate and spreading at right angles to the
midrib or pointed toward the apex of the leaf, when they unfold coated
with pale tomentum, thickest on the lower surface, and dark red on the
upper surface, at maturity dark green and very lustrous above, pale and
tomentose below, 6′—8′ long and 5′—6′ wide, with a stout midrib usually
puberulous on the upper side, slender primary veins arched to the points
of the lobes, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets; turning bright clear
yellow before falling; petioles stout, pubescent or tomentose, 1½′—2′ in
length. Flowers and Fruit as in the species.

A tree, sometimes 120° high, with a trunk 4°—5° in diameter, heavy
branches forming in the forest a short narrow crown, or in more open
situations wide-spreading or ascending and forming a great open head,
and slender branchlets hoary tomentose at first, tomentose or pubescent
during their first winter, and dark reddish brown and puberulous during
their second year. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, often prominently 4-angled,
about ¼′ long, with light red-brown puberulous scales sometimes ciliate
at the apex. Bark about 1′ thick and roughened by small rather closely
appressed plate-like light gray, gray-brown or dark brown scales. Wood
light reddish brown, with thin nearly white sapwood; largely
manufactured into lumber in the Mississippi valley, and valued almost as
highly as white oak.

Distribution. Rich bottom-lands and the alluvial banks of streams;
Maryland (Queen Anne County) and coast of Virginia to northern Florida,
and through the Gulf states and Arkansas to southern Missouri, western
Tennessee and Kentucky, and southern Illinois and Indiana; most abundant
and one of the largest and most valuable timber-trees in the river
swamps of the Yazoo basin, Mississippi, and of eastern Arkansas.
Differing chiefly from the type in the more numerous and more acuminate
lobes of the usually more elongated leaves usually paler on the lower
surface, and in the generally paler bark of the trunk; passing into
_Quercus rubra_ var. _leucophylla_ Ashe with leaves on upper branches
nearly as broad as long thickly covered below with brownish pubescence
and deeply divided into 5—7 lobes, and on lower branches slightly
obovate, less deeply divided, thin, dark green, sometimes pubescent
becoming glabrous above and often covered below with pale or brown
pubescence.

A tree sometimes 120° high; in low rich soil; coast region of
southeastern Virginia, southward to western Florida and through the Gulf
states to the valley of the Neches River, Texas, and northward to
northern Arkansas; in southern Illinois (near Mt. Carmel, Wabash County)
and southwestern Indiana (near Hovey Lake, Posey County); abundant in
low woods about River Junction, Gadsden County, Florida, and in central
Mississippi.

× _Quercus Willdenoviana_ Zabel is believed in Europe to be a hybrid of
_Quercus rubra_ and _Quercus velutina_.


         13. Quercus marilandica Muench. Black Jack. Jack Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 236]

Leaves broadly obovate, rounded or cordate at the narrow base, usually 3
or rarely 5-lobed at the broad and often abruptly dilated apex, with
short or long, broad or narrow, rounded or acute, entire or dentate
lobes, or entire or dentate at apex, sometimes oblong-obovate,
undulate-lobed at the broad apex and entire below, or equally 3-lobed
with elongated spreading lateral lobes broad and lobulate at apex, when
they unfold coated with a clammy tomentum of fascicled hairs and bright
pink on the upper surface, at maturity thick and firm or subcoriaceous,
dark yellow-green and very lustrous above, yellow, orange color, or
brown and scurfy-pubescent below, usually 6′—7′ long and broad, with a
thick broad orange-colored midrib; turning brown or yellow in the
autumn; petioles stout, yellow, glabrous or pubescent, ½′—¾′ in length.
Flowers: staminate in hoary aments 2′—4′ long; calyx thin and scarious,
tinged with red above the middle, pale-pubescent on the outer surface,
divided into 4 or 5 broad ovate rounded lobes; anthers apiculate, dark
red; pistillate on short rusty-tomentose peduncles coated like their
involucral scales with thick rusty tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit,
solitary or in pairs, usually pedunculate; nut oblong, full and rounded
at the ends, rather broader below than above the middle, about ¾′ long,
light yellow-brown and often striate, the shell lined with dense fulvous
tomentum, inclosed for one third to nearly two thirds of its length in a
thick turbinate light brown cup puberulous on the inner surface, and
covered by large reddish brown loosely imbricated scales often ciliate
and coated with loose pale or rusty tomentum, the upper scales smaller,
erect, inserted on the top of the cup in several rows, and forming a
thick rim round its inner surface, or occasionally reflexed and covering
the upper half of the inner surface of the cup.

A tree, 20°—30°, or occasionally 40°—50° high, with a trunk rarely more
than 1′ in diameter, short stout spreading often contorted branches
forming a narrow compact round-topped or sometimes an open irregular
head, and stout branchlets coated at first with thick pale tomentum,
light brown and scurfy-pubescent during their first summer, becoming
reddish brown and glabrous or puberulous in the winter, and ultimately
brown or ashy gray. Winter-buds ovoid or oval, prominently angled, light
red-brown, coated with rusty brown hairs, about ¼′ long. Bark 1′—1½′
thick, and deeply divided into nearly square plates 1′—3′ long and
covered by small closely appressed dark brown or nearly black scales.
Wood heavy, hard, strong, dark rich brown, with thick lighter colored
sapwood; largely used as fuel and in the manufacture of charcoal.

Distribution. Dry sandy or clay barrens; Long Island and Staten Island,
New York, eastern and southern Pennsylvania, and southern New Jersey to
the shores of Matanzas Inlet and Tampa Bay, Florida, and westward
through the Gulf states to western Texas (Callahan County) and to
western Oklahoma (Dewey and Kiowa Counties), Arkansas, eastern Kansas,
southeastern Nebraska and through Missouri to northeastern Illinois,
southwestern and southern Indiana, and northeastern Kentucky (South
Portsmouth, Greenup County, _R. E. Horsey_); rare in the north, very
abundant southward; west of the Mississippi River often forming on
sterile soils a great part of the forest growth; of its largest size in
southern Arkansas and eastern Texas.

× _Quercus Rudkinii_ Britt., with characters intermediate between those
of _Quercus marilandica_ and _Q. Phellos_, and probably a hybrid of
these species, has been found near Tottenville, Staten Island, New York,
at Keyport, Monmouth County, New Jersey, and at the Falls of the Yadkin
River, Stanley County, North Carolina.

× _Quercus sterilis_ Trel., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
marilandica_ and _Q. nigra_ has been found in Bladen County, North
Carolina.

× _Quercus Hastingsii_ Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
marilandica_ and _Q. texana_, occurs near Boerne, Kendall County, and at
Brownwood, Brown County, Texas.

× _Quercus Bushii_ Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
marilandica_ and _Q. velutina_, although not common, occurs in eastern
Oklahoma (Sapulpa, Creek County), Mississippi (Oxford, Lafayette
County), Alabama (Dothan, Houston County, near Berlin, Dallas County,
and Daphne, Baldwin County), Florida (Sumner, Levey County), and in
Georgia (Climax, Decatur County).


                      14. Quercus arkansana Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 237]

Leaves broadly obovate, slightly 3-lobed or dentate at the wide apex,
cuneate at base, on sterile branches often oblong-ovate, acute or
rounded at apex, rounded at base, the lobes ending in long slender
mucros, when they unfold tinged with red, thickly covered with pale
fascicled hairs persistent until summer, the midrib and veins more
thickly clothed with long straight hairs, and at maturity glabrous, with
the exception of small axillary tufts of pubescence on the lower
surface, light yellow-green above, paler below, 2′—2¾′ long and broad,
with a slender light yellow midrib, thin primary veins and prominent
veinlets; on sterile branches often 4½′—5½′ long and 2½′—2¾′ wide;
petioles slender, coated at first with clusters of pale hairs, becoming
glabrous or puberulous, ⅗′—⅘′ in length. Flowers: staminate in aments
covered with clusters of long pale hairs, 2′—2½′ long; calyx usually 4
rarely 3-lobed, thinly covered with long white hairs; stamens usually 4;
anthers ovoid-oblong, apiculate, dark red; pistillate on stout
peduncles, hoary-tomentose like the scales of the involucre; stigmas
dark red. Fruit solitary or in pairs, on short glabrous peduncles; nut
broad-ovoid, rounded at apex, sparingly pubescent especially below the
middle with fascicled hairs, light brown, obscurely striate, ¼′—⅓′ long,
½′—⅝′ thick, inclosed only at base in the flat saucer-shaped cup,
pubescent on the inner surface, covered with closely appressed scales
obtuse at their narrow apex, red on the margins, pale pubescent, those
of the upper rank smaller, erect, inserted on the top of the cup and
forming a thin rim round its inner surface.

A tree when crowded in the forest often 60°—70° high, with a tall trunk,
stout ascending branches forming a long narrow head, and slender
branchlets thickly coated early in the season with pale fascicled hairs,
pubescent or nearly glabrous in their first autumn and darker and
glabrous in their second year, when not crowded by other trees rarely
40° high with a short trunk occasionally 1° in diameter. Winter-buds
ovoid, acute, with thin light chestnut-brown slightly pubescent or
nearly glabrous scales. Bark thick, nearly black, divided by deep
fissures into long narrow ridges covered with thick closely appressed
scales.

Distribution. Low woods and on rolling sand hills four miles north of
Fulton, Hempstead County, Arkansas; rare and local.


                    15. Quercus nigra L. Water Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 238]

Leaves oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and cuneate at base and
enlarged often abruptly at the broad rounded entire or occasionally
3-lobed apex, on vigorous young branchlets sometimes pinnatifid with
acute, acuminate or rounded lobes or broadly oblong-obovate and rounded
at apex with entire or undulate margins, on upper branches occasionally
linear-lanceolate, on occasional trees narrowed below to an elongated
cuneate base and gradually widened above into a more or less deeply
3-lobed apex, the lobes rounded or acute (var. _tridentifera_ Sarg.), or
often acute at the ends, and on upper branchlets sometimes
linear-lanceolate to linear-obovate, acute or rounded at apex, divided
above the middle by deep wide rounded sinuses into elongated lanceolate
acute entire lobes, or pinnatifid above the middle, when they unfold
thin, light green more or less tinged with red and covered by fine
caducous pubescence, with conspicuous tufts of pale hairs in the axils
of the veins below, at maturity thin, dull bluish green, paler below
than above, glabrous or with axillary tufts of rusty hairs, usually
about 2½′ long and 1½′ wide, or on fertile branches sometimes 6′ long
and 2½′ wide; turning yellow and falling gradually during the winter;
petioles stout, flattened, ⅛′—½′ in length; leaves of seedling plants
linear-lanceolate with entire or undulate margins, or occasionally lobed
with 1 or 2 pointed lobes, often deeply 3-lobed at a wide apex, and
occasionally furnished below the middle with a single acuminate lobe,
all the forms often occurring on a plant less than three feet high.
Flowers: staminate in red hairy-stemmed aments 2′—3′ long; calyx thin
and scarious, covered on the outer surface with short hairs, divided
into 4 or 5 ovate rounded segments; pistillate on short tomentose
peduncles, their involucral scales a little shorter than the acute
calyx-lobes and coated with rusty hairs; stigmas deep red. Fruit usually
solitary, sessile or short-stalked; nut ovoid, broad and flat at base,
full and rounded at the pubescent apex, light yellow-brown, often
striate, ⅓′—⅔′ long and nearly as thick, usually inclosed only at the
base in a thin saucer-shaped cup, or occasionally for one third its
length in a cup-shaped cup, coated on the inner surface with pale silky
tomentum and covered by ovate acute closely appressed light red-brown
scales clothed with pale pubescence except on their darker colored
margins.

A tree, occasionally 80° high, with a trunk 2°—3½° in diameter, numerous
slender branches spreading gradually from the stem and forming a
symmetrical round-topped head, and slender glabrous branchlets light or
dull red during their first winter, becoming grayish brown in their
second season. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, strongly angled, covered by
loosely imbricated dark red-brown puberulous scales slightly ciliate on
the thin margins. Bark ½′—¾′ thick, with a smooth light brown surface
slightly tinged with red and covered by smooth closely appressed scales.
Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, light brown, with thick lighter
colored sapwood; little valued except as fuel.

Distribution. High sandy borders of swamps and streams and the rich
bottom-lands of rivers, or northward sometimes in dry woods; southern
Delaware, southward to the shores of the Indian River and Tampa Bay,
Florida, ranging inland in the south Atlantic states through the
Piedmont region, and westward through the Gulf states to the valley of
the Colorado River, Texas, and through eastern Oklahoma and Arkansas to
southeastern Missouri and to central Tennessee and Kentucky. The var.
_tridentifera_ Sarg. rare and local; southwest Virginia to Alabama (near
Selma, Dallas County), central and western Mississippi, eastern
Louisiana; valley of Navidad River, Lavaca County, Texas. A form (f.
_microcarya_ Sarg.—_Quercus microcarya_ Small) occurs in the dry soil on
slopes of Little Stone Mountain, Dekalb County, Georgia.

The Water Oak is commonly planted as a shade-tree in the streets and
squares of the cities and towns of the southern states.


                       16. Quercus rhombica Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 239]

Leaves rhombic, rarely oblong-obovate to lanceolate, acute or rounded
and apiculate at apex, cuneate at base, the margins entire or slightly
undulate, those on vigorous shoots occasionally furnished on each side
near the middle with a short lobe, when they unfold deeply tinged with
red, covered with short pale caducous pubescence and furnished below
with usually persistent tufts of axillary hairs, at maturity thin, dark
green and lustrous above, pale below, 3½′—4′ long, 1½′—2′ wide, with a
stout conspicuous yellow midrib and slender forked primary veins;
turning yellow and falling gradually in early winter, rarely at the ends
of branches, obovate and rounded, slightly 3-lobed or undulate at the
broad apex (var. _obovatifolia_ Sarg.); petioles yellow, ⅕′—½′ in
length. Flowers not seen. Fruit sessile or short-stalked; nut ovoid,
rounded at apex, thickly covered with pale pubescence, ⅖′—½′ long, ⅗′
thick; inclosed only at the base in a saucer-shaped cup, rounded on the
bottom, silky pubescent on the inner surface, and covered with slightly
pubescent reddish brown loosely appressed scales rounded at apex, with
free tips, those of the upper rank thin and ciliate on the margins.

A tree often 120°—150° high, with a tall trunk 3°—4½° in diameter,
stout, wide-spreading smooth branches forming a broad open head, and
slender glabrous branchlets red-brown during their first season and dark
gray the following year. Bark pale gray, slightly furrowed and covered
with closely appressed scales, ½′—¾′ thick.

Distribution. Borders of swamps and low wet woods of the coast region;
southeastern Virginia (Dismal Swamp) to northern Florida, and through
the Gulf states to the valley of the Neches River (Beaumont, Jefferson
County), eastern Texas; in Louisiana northward to the valley of the Red
River; most abundant in south central Alabama and in Louisiana.

× _Quercus beaumontiana_ Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
rhombica_ and _Q. rubra_ has been found growing by a street in Beaumont,
Jefferson County, Texas.

× _Quercus Cocksii_ Sarg., probably a hybrid of _Quercus rhombica_ and
_Q. velutina_, has been found at Pineville, Rapides Parish, Louisiana.


                   17. Quercus Phellos L. Willow Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 240]

Leaves ovate-lanceolate or rarely obovate-lanceolate, often somewhat
falcate, gradually narrowed and acute at the ends, and entire with
slightly undulate margins, when they fold light yellow-green and
lustrous on the upper surface, coated on the lower with pale caducous
pubescence, at maturity glabrous, light green and rather lustrous above,
dull and paler or rarely hoary-pubescent below, conspicuously
reticulate-venulose, 2½′—5′ long, ¼′—1′ wide, with a slender yellow
midrib and obscure primary veins forked and united about halfway between
the midrib and margins; turning pale yellow in the autumn; petioles
stout, about ⅛′ in length. Flowers: staminate in slender-stemmed aments
2′—3′ long; calyx yellow, hirsute, with 4 or 5 acute segments;
pistillate on slender glabrous peduncles, their involucral scales brown
covered by pale hairs, about as long as the acute calyx-lobes; stigmas
bright red. Fruit short-stalked or nearly sessile, solitary or in pairs;
nut hemispheric, light, yellow-brown, coated with pale pubescence,
inclosed only at the very base in the thin pale reddish brown
saucer-shaped cup silky-pubescent on the inner surface, and covered by
thin ovate hoary-pubescent closely appressed scales rounded at apex.

A tree, often 70°—90° high, with a trunk 2° or rarely 4° in diameter,
small branches spreading into a comparatively narrow open or conical
round-topped head, and slender glabrous reddish brown branchlets
roughened by dark lenticels, becoming in their second year dark brown
tinged with red or grayish brown; usually much smaller. Winter-buds
ovoid, acute, about ⅛′ long, with dark chestnut-brown scales pale and
scarious on the margins. Bark ½′—¾′ thick, light red-brown slightly
tinged with red, generally smooth but on old trees broken by shallow
narrow fissures into irregular plates covered by small closely appressed
scales. Wood heavy, strong, not hard, rather coarse-grained, light brown
tinged with red, with thin lighter colored sapwood; occasionally used in
construction, for clapboards and the fellies of wheels.

Distribution. Low wet borders of swamps and streams and rich sandy
uplands; Staten Island, New York, southern New Jersey and southeastern
Pennsylvania and southward to northeastern Florida, through the Gulf
states to the valley of the Navasota River, Brazos County, Texas, and
through Arkansas, eastern Oklahoma and southeastern Missouri to central
Tennessee and northwestern Kentucky (Ballard County), and in
southwestern Illinois (Massac and Pope Counties); in the Atlantic states
usually confined to the maritime plain; less common in the middle
districts, rarely extending to the Appalachian foothills.

Occasionally planted as a shade-tree in the streets of southern towns,
and rarely in western Europe; hardy in eastern Massachusetts.


                     Quercus heterophylla Michx. f.

[Illustration: Fig. 241]

This has usually been considered a hybrid between _Quercus Phellos_ and
_Quercus velutina_ or _Quercus borealis_ var. _maxima_; first known in
the eighteenth century from an individual growing in a field belonging
to John Bartram on the Schuylkill River, Philadelphia. What appears to
be the same form has since been discovered in a number of stations from
New Jersey to Texas, and it is possible that _Quercus heterophylla_ may,
as many botanists have believed, best be considered a species.

× _Quercus subfalcata_ Trel., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
Phellos_ and _Q. rubra_ has been found at Wickliffe, Ballard County,
Illinois, at Campbell, Lawrence County, Mississippi, Fulton, Hempstead
County, Arkansas, and Houston, Harris County, Texas; its var.
_microcarpa_ Sarg., probably of the same parentage, originated in a
Dutch nursery.

× _Quercus ludoviciana_ Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
Phellos_ and _Q. rubra_ var. _pagodæfolia_ grows in low wet woods ten
miles west of Opelousas, St. Landry Parish, Louisiana.


          18. Quercus laurifolia Michx. Laurel Oak. Water Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 242]

Leaves elliptic or rarely slightly broadest above the middle, acuminate
at the ends, apiculate at apex, occasionally lanceolate or
oblong-obovate and rounded at apex (var. _hybrida_ Michx.) sometimes
3-lobed at apex, the terminal lobe acuminate, much larger than the
others (var. _tridentata_ Sarg.), frequently unequally lobed on vigorous
branches of young trees, with small nearly triangular lobes, when they
unfold in spring yellow-green, or later in the season often pink or
bright red, and slightly puberulous, at maturity thin, green, and very
lustrous above, light green and less lustrous below, usually 3′—4′ long
and ¾′ wide, with a conspicuous yellow midrib; falling abruptly in early
spring leaving the branches bare during only a few weeks; petioles
stout, yellow, rarely more than ¼′ in length. Flowers: staminate in
red-stemmed hairy aments 2′—3′ long; calyx pubescent on the outer
surface, divided into 4 ovate rounded lobes; pistillate on stout
glabrous peduncles, their involucral scales brown and hairy, about as
long as the acute calyx-lobes; stigmas dark red. Fruit sessile or
subsessile, generally solitary; nut ovoid to hemispheric, broad and
slightly rounded at base, full and rounded at the puberulous apex, dark
brown, about ½′ long, inclosed for about one fourth its length in a thin
saucer-shaped cup red-brown and silky-pubescent on the inner surface,
and covered by thin ovate light red-brown scales rounded at apex and
pale-pubescent except on their darker colored margins.

A tree, occasionally 100° high, with a tall trunk 3°—4° in diameter, and
comparatively slender branches spreading gradually into a broad dense
round-topped shapely head, and slender glabrous branchlets dark red when
they first appear, dark red-brown during their first winter, becoming
reddish brown or dark gray in their second season. Winter-buds broadly
ovoid or oval, abruptly narrowed and acute at apex, 1/16′—⅛′ long with
numerous thin closely imbricated bright red-brown scales ciliate on the
margins. Bark of young trees ½′—1′ thick, dark brown more or less tinged
with red, roughened by small closely appressed scales, becoming at the
base of old trees 1′—2′ thick, nearly black, and divided by deep
fissures into broad flat ridges. Wood heavy, very strong and hard,
coarse-grained, liable to check badly in drying, dark brown tinged with
red, with thick lighter colored sapwood; probably used only as fuel.

Distribution. Sandy banks of streams and swamps and rich hummocks in the
neighborhood of the coast; North Carolina (near Newbern) southward to
the shores of Bay Biscayne and the valley of the Caloosahatchie River,
Florida, and in the interior of the peninsula to the neighborhood of
Lake Istokpaga, De Soto County, and westward to eastern Louisiana,
ranging inland to Darlington, Darlington County, South Carolina, to the
neighborhood of Augusta, Richmond County, Mayfield, Hancock County,
Albany, Dougherty County, Cuthbert, Randolph County, and Bainbridge,
Decatur County, Georgia, Georgiana, Butler County, and Berlin, Dallas
County, Alabama, Rockport, Copiah County, Mississippi, and to the
neighborhood of Bogalusa, Washington Parish, Louisiana (_R. S. Cocks_);
nowhere abundant, but most common and of its largest size in eastern
Florida.


        19. Quercus cinerea Michx. Blue Jack. Upland Willow Oak.

                       _Quercus brevifolia_ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 243]

Leaves oblong-lanceolate to oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and
cuneate or sometimes rounded at base, acute or rounded and apiculate at
apex, entire with slightly thickened undulate margins, or at the ends of
vigorous sterile branches occasionally 3-lobed at the apex and variously
lobed on the margins (β _dentato-lobata_ A. De Candolle), when they
unfold bright pink and pubescent on the upper surface, coated on the
lower with thick silvery white tomentum, at maturity firm in texture,
blue-green, lustrous, conspicuously reticulate venulose above,
pale-tomentose below, 2′—5′ long, ½′—1½′ wide, with a stout yellow
midrib and remote obscure primary veins forked and united within the
margins; turning red and falling gradually late in the autumn or in
early winter; petioles stout, ¼′—½′ in length. Flowers: staminate in
hoary-tomentose aments 2′—3′ long; calyx pubescent, bright red and
furnished at apex with a thick tuft of silvery white hairs before
opening, divided into 4 or 5 ovate acute lobes, becoming yellow as it
opens; stamens 4 or 5; anthers apiculate, dark red in the bud, becoming
yellow; pistillate on short stout tomentose peduncles, their involucral
scales about as long as the acute calyx-lobes and coated with pale
tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit produced in great profusion, sessile
or raised on a short stalk rarely ¼′ long; nut ovoid, full and rounded
at the ends or subglobose, about ½′ long, often striate, hoary-pubescent
at apex, inclosed only at the base or for one half its length in a thin
saucer-shaped or cup-shaped cup bright red-brown and coated with
lustrous pale pubescence on the inner surface, and covered by thin
closely imbricated ovate-oblong scales hoary-tomentose except on the
dark red-brown margins.

A tree on dry hills, usually 15°—20° high, with a trunk 5′—6′ in
diameter, stout branches forming a narrow irregular-head, and thick
rigid branchlets coated at first with a dense fulvous or hoary tomentum
of fascicled hairs, soon becoming glabrous or puberulous, dark brown
sometimes tinged with red during their first winter and darker in their
second year; or in low moist soil often 60°—75° high, with a trunk
18′—20′ in diameter, and a broad round-topped shapely head of drooping
branches. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, with numerous rather loosely
imbricated bright chestnut-brown scales ciliate on the margins, often ¼′
long on vigorous branches, frequently obtuse and occasionally much
smaller. Bark ¾′—1½′ thick, and divided into thick nearly square plates
1′—2′ long, and covered by small dark brown or nearly black scales
slightly tinged with red. Wood hard, strong, close-grained, light brown
tinged with red, with thick darker colored sapwood; probably only used
as fuel.

Distribution. Sandy barrens and dry upland ridges, and in the rich moist
soil of the pine-covered flats of the Florida peninsula; North Carolina
southward to the shores of the Indian River and Peace Creek, Florida,
and along the Gulf coast to the valley of the Brazos River, Texas; in
the Atlantic and middle Gulf states mostly confined to a maritime belt
40°—60° wide, extending across the Florida peninsula as far south as the
sand hills in the neighborhood of Lake Istokpoga, De Soto County, and
west of the Mississippi River, ranging inland to the neighborhood of
Dallas, Dallas County, Texas and to southeastern Oklahoma (near Antlers,
Pushmataha County).

× _Quercus dubia_ Ashe, believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus cinerea_ and
_Q. laurifolia_ occurs at Abbottsburg, Bladen County, North Carolina, on
the coast of South Carolina, in southern Georgia and northern and
central Florida, and at Mississippi City, Lincoln County, Mississippi.

× _Quercus subintegra_ Trel., a supposed hybrid of _Quercus cinerea_ and
_Q. rubra_ occurs at Lumber City, Telfair County, Georgia, Lake City,
Columbia County, Florida, and at Berlin, Dallas County, Alabama.

× _Quercus sublaurifolia_ Trel., a supposed hybrid of _Quercus cinerea_
and _Q. laurifolia_ occurs at Folkston, Charlton County, Georgia, and at
Biloxi, Harrison County, Mississippi.

× _Quercus carolinensis_ Trel., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
cinerea_ and _Q. marilandica_ occurs at Newbern, Craven County, North
Carolina, Lumber City, Telfair County and Climax, Decatur County,
Georgia, and near Fletcher, Hardin County, Texas.

× _Quercus caduca_ Trel., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus cinerea_
and _Q. nigra_, occurs at Folkston, Charlton County and Lumber City,
Telfair County, Georgia, Jacksonville, Duval County, and Gainsville,
Alachua County, Florida, Mississippi City, Harrison County, Mississippi,
and at Milano, Milano County and Bryan, Brazos County, Texas.

× _Quercus oviedoensis_ Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
cinerea_ and _Q. myrtifolia_, has been found near Oviedo, Orange County,
Florida.


         20. Quercus imbricaria Michx. Shingle Oak. Laurel Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 244]

Leaves oblong-lanceolate to oblong-obovate, apiculate and acute or
rounded at apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate or rounded at base,
entire with slightly thickened, revolute often undulate margins, or
sometimes more or less 3-lobed, or on sterile branches occasionally
repand-lobulate, when they unfold bright red, soon becoming
yellow-green, covered with scurfy rusty pubescence on the upper surface
and hoary-tomentose on the lower, at maturity thin, glabrous, dark
green, and very lustrous above, pale green or light brown and pubescent
below, 4′—6′ long, ¾′—2′ wide, with a stout yellow midrib, numerous
slender yellow veins arcuate and united at some distance from the
margins, and reticulate veinlets; late in the autumn turning dark red on
the upper surface; petioles stout, pubescent, rarely more than ½′ in
length. Flowers: staminate in hoary-tomentose aments, 2′—3′ long; calyx
light yellow, pubescent, and divided into 4 acute segments; pistillate
on slender tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales covered with
pale pubescence and about as long as the acute calyx-lobes; stigmas
greenish yellow. Fruit solitary or in pairs, on stout peduncles often
nearly ½′ in length; nut nearly as broad as long, full and rounded at
the ends, dark chestnut-brown, often obscurely striate, ½′—⅔′ long,
inclosed for one third to one half its length in a thin cup-shaped or
turbinate cup bright red-brown and lustrous on the inner surface, and
covered by thin ovate light red-brown scales rounded or acute at the
apex and pubescent except on their darker colored margins.

A tree, usually 50°—60° high, with a trunk rarely exceeding 3° in
diameter, or rarely 100° high, with a long naked stem 3°—4° in diameter,
slender tough horizontal or somewhat pendulous branches forming a narrow
round-topped picturesque head, and slender branchlets dark green,
lustrous, and often suffused with red when they first appear, soon
glabrous, light reddish brown or light brown during their first winter
and dark brown in their second year. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, about ⅛′
long, obscurely angled, and covered by closely imbricated light
chestnut-brown lustrous scales erose and often ciliate on the margins.
Bark on young stems and branches thin, light brown, smooth, and
lustrous, becoming on old trunks ¾′—1½′ thick, and slightly divided by
irregular shallow fissures into broad ridges covered by close slightly
appressed light brown scales somewhat tinged with red. Wood heavy, hard,
rather coarse-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thin lighter
colored sapwood; occasionally used in construction, and for clapboards
and shingles.

Distribution. Rich hillsides and the fertile bottom-lands of streams;
Lehigh County (Allentown to Dorney’s Park), Bedford, Huntington,
Franklin and Union Counties, Pennsylvania, westward through Ohio to
southern Michigan, southern Wisconsin and southeastern and southern Iowa
(Muscatine to Taylor County), and southward to the District of Columbia,
along the Appalachian Mountains and their foothills, up to altitudes of
2200°, to the valley of the Little Tennessee River, North Carolina, and
to northern Georgia (Wilkes County), and middle Tennessee; through
Missouri to northeastern Kansas and southeastern Nebraska, and in
northern and southern Arkansas (Fulton, Hempstead County); comparatively
rare in the east; one of the most abundant Oaks of the lower Ohio basin;
probably growing to its largest size in southern Indiana and Illinois.

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the northern states, and
hardy as far north as Massachusetts.

× _Quercus Leana_ Nutt., scattered usually in solitary individuals from
the District of Columbia and western North Carolina to southern
Michigan, central and northern Illinois and southeastern Missouri, is
believed to be a hybrid between this species and _Quercus velutina_.

× _Quercus tridentata_ Engelm., described as a hybrid of _Quercus
imbricaria_ and _Q. marilandica_ first found at Allenton, Saint Louis
County, Missouri, occurs also near Olney, Richland County, Illinois.

× _Quercus exacta_ Trel., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
imbricaria_ and _Q. palustris_, occurs near Olney, Richland County,
Illinois, and at Crown Point, Lake County, Indiana.


                     21. Quercus hypoleuca Engelm.

[Illustration: Fig. 245]

Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, occasionally
somewhat falcate, acute and often apiculate at apex, cuneate or rounded
or cordate at the narrow base, entire or repandly serrate above the
middle with occasionally small minute rigid spinose teeth, or on
vigorous shoots serrate-lobed with oblique acute lobes, when they unfold
light red, covered with close pale pubescence above and coated below
with thick hoary tomentum, at maturity thick and firm, dark yellow-green
and lustrous on the upper surface, covered on the lower with thick
silvery white or fulvous tomentum, 2′—4′ long, ½′—1′ wide, with
thickened revolute margins; turning yellow or brown and falling
gradually during the spring after the appearance of the new leaves;
petioles stout, flattened, pubescent or tomentose, ⅛′—¼′ in length.
Flowers: staminate in slender aments 4′—5′ long; calyx slightly tinged
with red, covered with pale hairs and divided into 4 or 5 broadly ovate
rounded lobes; anthers acute, apiculate, bright red becoming yellow;
pistillate mostly solitary, sessile or short-stalked, their involucral
scales thin, scarious, and soft-pubescent; stigmas dark red. Fruit
sessile or borne on a stout peduncle up to ½′ in length, usually
solitary; nut ovoid, acute or rounded at the narrow hoary-pubescent
apex, dark green and often striate when ripe, becoming light
chestnut-brown in drying, ½′—⅔′ long, the shell lined with white
tomentum, inclosed for about one third its length in a turbinate thick
cup pubescent on the inner surface, and covered by thin broadly ovate
light chestnut-brown scales rounded at apex and clothed, especially
toward the base of the cup, with soft silvery pubescence.

A tree, usually 20°—30° or sometimes 60° high, with a tall trunk 10′—15′
in diameter, slender branches spreading into a narrow round-topped
inversely conic head, and stout rigid branchlets coated at first with
thick hoary tomentum disappearing during the first winter, becoming
light red-brown often covered with a glaucous bloom and ultimately
nearly black; frequently a shrub. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse, about ⅛′
long, with thin light chestnut-brown scales. Bark ¾′—1′ thick, nearly
black, deeply divided into broad ridges broken on the surface into thick
plate-like scales. Wood heavy, very strong, hard, close-grained, dark
brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood.

Distribution. Scattered but nowhere abundant through Pine-forests on the
slopes of cañons and on high ridges usually at altitudes between
6000°—7000° above the sea on the mountains of western Texas, and of
southern New Mexico and Arizona; in northern Chihuahua and Sonora.


              22. Quercus agrifolia Née. Live Oak. Encina.

[Illustration: Fig. 246]

Leaves oval, orbicular or oblong, rounded or acute and apiculate at
apex, rounded or cordate at base, entire or sinuate-dentate with slender
rigid spinose teeth, when they unfold tinged with red and coated with
caducous hoary tomentum, at maturity subcoriaceous, convex, dark or pale
green, dull and obscurely reticulate above, paler, rather lustrous,
glabrous or pubescent below, with tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of
the principal veins, or sometimes covered above with fascicled hairs and
coated below with thick hoary pubescence, ¾′—4′ long and ½′—3′ wide,
with thickened strongly revolute margins; falling gradually during the
winter and early spring; petioles stout or slender, pubescent or
glabrous, ½′—1′ in length. Flowers: staminate in slender hairy aments
3′—4′ long; calyx bright purple-red in the bud, sometimes furnished with
a tuft of long pale hairs at the apex, glabrous or glabrate, divided
nearly to the base into 5—7 ovate acute segments reddish above the
middle; pistillate sessile or short-stalked, their involucral scales
bright red and covered with thick hoary tomentum, or glabrous or
puberulous; stigmas bright red. Fruit sessile or nearly so, solitary or
in few-fruited clusters; nut elongated, ovate, abruptly narrowed at
base, gradually narrowed to the acute puberulous apex, light
chestnut-brown, ¾′—1½′ long, ¼′—¾′ thick, the shell lined with a thick
coat of pale tomentum, inclosed for one third its length or only at the
base in a thin turbinate light brown cup coated on the inner surface
with soft pale silky pubescence, and covered by thin papery scales
rounded at the narrow apex, and slightly puberulous, especially toward
the base of the cup.

A tree, occasionally 80°—90° high, with a short trunk 3°—4° or rarely
6°—7° in diameter, dividing a few feet above the base into numerous
great limbs often resting on the ground and forming a low round-topped
head frequently 150° across, and slender dark gray or brown branchlets
tinged with red, coated at first with hoary tomentum persistent until
the second or third year; or with a trunk, rising to the height of 30°
or 40°, and crowned by a narrow head of small branches; often much
smaller; frequently shrubby in habit, with slender stems only a few feet
high. Winter-buds globose and usually about 1/16′ thick, or
ovoid-oblong, acute, and sometimes on vigorous shoots nearly ¼′ in
length, with thin broadly ovate closely imbricated light chestnut-brown
glabrous or pubescent scales. Bark of young stems and branches thin,
close, light brown or pale bluish gray, becoming on old trunks 2′—3′
thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red, and divided into broad
rounded ridges separating on the surface into small closely appressed
scales. Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, very brittle, light brown or
reddish brown, with thick darker colored sapwood; valued and largely
used for fuel.

Distribution. Usually in open groves of great extent from Sonoma County,
California, southward over the coast ranges and islands to the San Pedro
Mártir Mountains, Lower California; less common at the north; very
abundant and of its largest size in the valleys south of San Francisco
Bay and their commonest and characteristic tree; frequently covering
with semiprostrate and contorted stems the sand dunes on the coast in
the central part of the state; in southwestern California the largest
and most generally distributed Oak-tree between the mountains and the
sea, often covering low hills and ascending to altitudes of 4500° in the
cañons of the San Jacinto Mountains.

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in temperate western, and
in southern Europe.


                23. Quercus Wislizenii A. DC. Live Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 247]

Leaves narrowly lanceolate to broadly elliptic, generally
oblong-lanceolate, acute or rounded and generally apiculate at apex,
rounded or truncate or gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, entire,
serrulate or serrate or sinuate-dentate with spreading rigid spinescent
teeth, when they unfold thin, dark red, ciliate, and covered with pale
scattered fascicled hairs, at maturity thick and coriaceous, glabrous
and lustrous, dark green on the upper and paler and yellow-green on the
lower surface, usually 1′—1½′ long and about ⅔′ wide, with obscure
primary veins and conspicuous reticulate veinlets, gradually deciduous
during their second summer and autumn; petioles coated at first with
hoary tomentum, usually pubescent or puberulous at maturity, ⅛′ to
nearly 1′ in length. Flowers: staminate in hairy aments 3′—4′ long;
calyx tinged with red in the bud, divided into broadly ovate ciliate
glabrous light yellow lobes shorter than the 3—6 stamens; pistillate
sessile or short-stalked, their involucral scales and peduncle
hoary-tomentose. Fruit sessile, short-stalked or occasionally spicate;
nut slender, oblong, abruptly narrowed at base, pointed and pilose at
the apex, ¾′—1½′ long, about ⅓′ thick, light chestnut-brown, often
striate, the shell lined with a scanty coat of pale tomentum, more or
less inclosed in the thin turbinate sometimes tubular cup ½′—1′ deep, or
rarely cup-shaped and shallow, light green and puberulous within, and
covered by oblong lanceolate light brown closely imbricated thin scales,
sometimes toward the base of the cup thickened and rounded on the back,
usually pubescent or puberulous, especially above the middle, and
frequently ciliate on the margins.

A tree, usually 70°—80° high, with a short trunk 4°—6° in diameter,
stout spreading branches forming a round-topped head, and slender rigid
branchlets coated at first with hoary tomentum or covered with scattered
fascicled hairs, puberulous or glabrous and rather light brown during
their first season, gradually growing darker in their second year;
usually much smaller and sometimes reduced to an intricately branched
shrub, with numerous stems only a few feet tall. Winter-buds ovoid or
oval, acute, ⅛′—¼′ long, with closely imbricated light chestnut-brown
ciliate scales. Bark on young trees and large branches thin, generally
smooth and light-colored, becoming on old trunks 2′—3′ thick, and
divided into broad rounded often connected ridges separating on the
surface into small thick closely appressed dark brown scales slightly
tinged with red. Wood heavy, very hard, strong, close-grained, light
brown tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sapwood; sometimes
used for fuel.

Distribution. Lower slopes of Mt. Shasta southward through the coast
region of California to the Santa Lucia Mountains, and to Santa Rosa and
Santa Cruz Islands, and along the slopes of the Sierra Nevada to Kern
County, up to altitudes of 2000° at the north and of 4500° at the south;
as a shrub 4°—6° high with small thick leaves (var. _frutescens_
Engelm.) on the desert slopes of the San Bernardino, San Jacinto and
Cuyamaca mountains, at altitudes of 5000°—7000° above the sea, and on
San Pedro Mártir in Lower California; nowhere common as a tree, but most
abundant and of its largest size in the valleys of the coast region of
central California at some distance from the sea, and on the foothills
of the Sierra Nevada; very common as a shrub in the cañons of the desert
slopes of the mountains of southern California; near the coast and on
the islands small and mostly shrubby.

× _Quercus morehus_ Kell., a supposed hybrid between _Quercus
Wislizenii_ and _Q. Kelloggii_ occurs in Lake County, California.


                     24. Quercus myrtifolia Willd.

[Illustration: Fig. 248]

Leaves oval to oblong-obovate, acute and apiculate or broad and rounded
at apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate or broad and rounded or cordate
at base, entire, with much thickened revolute sometimes undulate
margins, or on vigorous shoots sinuate-dentate and lobed above the
middle, when they unfold, thin, dark red, coated below and on the
petioles with clammy rusty tomentum and densely pubescent above, at
maturity thick and coriaceous, lustrous, dark green, glabrous and
conspicuously reticulate-venulose above, paler, yellow-green, or light
orange-brown, glabrous or pubescent below, with tufts of rusty hairs in
the axils of the veins, ½′—2′ long and ¼′—1′ wide; falling gradually
during their second year; petioles stout, pubescent, yellow, rarely more
than ⅛′ in length. Flowers: staminate in hoary pubescent aments 1′—1½′
long; calyx coated on the outer surface with rusty hairs and divided
into 5 ovate-acute, segments shorter than the 2 or 3 stamens; pistillate
sessile or nearly sessile, solitary or in pairs, their involucral scales
tomentose and tinged with red. Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile or
short-stalked; nut subglobose or ovoid, acute, ¼′—½′ long, dark brown,
lustrous and often striate, puberulous at apex, the shell lined with a
thick coat of rusty tomentum, inclosed for one fourth to one third its
length in a saucer-shaped or turbinate cup light brown and puberulous
within, and covered by closely imbricated broad-ovate light brown
pubescent scales ciliate on the margins and rounded at their broad apex.

A round-topped tree, rarely 40° high, with a trunk 4′—5′ or rarely up to
15′ in diameter, short or rarely long spreading branches and slender
branchlets coated at first with a thick pale fulvous tomentum of
articulate hairs usually persistent during the summer, light brown more
or less tinged with red or dark gray, and pubescent or puberulous during
their first winter, becoming darker and glabrous in their second season;
more often an intricately branched shrub, with slender rigid stems 3°—4°
or rarely 15°—20° high and 1′—3′ in diameter. Winter-buds ovoid or oval,
gradually narrowed to the acute apex, with closely imbricated dark
chestnut-brown slightly puberulous scales. Bark thin and smooth,
becoming near the ground dark and slightly furrowed.

Distribution. Dry sandy ridges on the coast and islands of South
Carolina to Bay Biscayne, Florida, crossing the central peninsula and
from the valley of the Caloosahatchee River, westward along the coast of
Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi; most abundant on the islands off the
coast of east Florida, and of Alabama and Mississippi; often covering
large areas with low impenetrable thickets; perhaps of its largest size
in Orange County, on Jupiter Island, and on the coast west of the
Apalachicola River, Florida.


           25. Quercus chrysolepis Liebm. Live Oak. Maul Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 249]

Leaves oblong-ovate to elliptic, acute or cuspidate at apex, cordate,
rounded or cuneate at base, mostly entire on old trees, often dentate or
sinuate-dentate on young trees with 1 or 2 or many spinescent teeth, the
two forms often appearing together on vigorous shoots, clothed when they
unfold with a thick tomentum of fulvous hairs soon deciduous from the
upper and more gradually from the lower surface, at maturity thick and
coriaceous, bright yellow-green and glabrous above, more or less
fulvous-tomentose below during their first year, ultimately becoming
glabrate and bluish white, 1′—4′ long, ½′—2′ wide, with thickened
revolute margins; deciduous during their third and fourth years;
petioles slender, yellow, rarely ½′ in length. Flowers: staminate in
slender tomentose aments 2′—4′ long; calyx light yellow, pubescent,
divided usually into 5—7 broadly ovate acute ciliate lobes often tinged
with red above the middle; pistillate sessile or subsessile or rarely in
short few-flowered spikes, their broadly ovate involucral scales coated
with fulvous tomentum; stigmas bright red. Fruit usually solitary,
sessile or short-stalked; nut ellipsoidal or ovoid, acute or rounded at
the full or narrow slightly puberulous apex, light chestnut-brown, ½′—2′
long and about as thick, the shell lined with a thin coat of loose
tomentum, with abortive ovules scattered irregularly over the side of
the seed, inclosed only at the base in a thin hemispheric or in a thick
turbinate broad-rimmed cup pale green or dark reddish brown within, and
covered by small triangular closely appressed scales with a short free
tip, clothed with hoary pubescence, or often hidden in a dense coat of
fulvous tomentum.

A tree, usually not more than 40°—50° high, with a short trunk 3°—5° in
diameter, dividing into great horizontal limbs sometimes forming a head
150° across, and slender rigid or flexible branchlets coated at first
with thick fulvous tomentum, becoming during their first winter dark
brown somewhat tinged with red, tomentose, pubescent, or glabrous, and
ultimately light brown or ashy gray; occasionally in sheltered cañons
producing trunks 8°—9° in diameter; on exposed mountain sides forming
dense thickets 15°—20° high. Winter-buds broadly ovoid or oval, acute,
about ⅛′ long, with closely imbricated light chestnut-brown usually
puberulous scales. Bark ¾′—1½′ thick, light or dark gray-brown tinged
with red, and covered by small closely appressed scales. Wood heavy,
very strong, hard, tough, close-grained, light brown, with thick darker
colored sapwood; used in the manufacture of agricultural implements and
wagons.

Distribution. Southern Oregon, along the California coast ranges and the
western slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the San Bernardino and San
Jacinto mountains; of its largest size in the cañons of the coast ranges
of central California and on the foothills of the Sierra Nevada;
ascending to altitudes of 8000°—9000° above the sea; near the southern
boundary of California, on the mountains of northern Lower California
and Sonora and in Arizona (Santa Rita and Huachuca Mountains, on Beaver
Creek and in Copper Cañon near Camp Verde, and in Sycamore Cañon south
of Flagstaff), usually shrubby, with rigid branches, rigid coriaceous
oblong or semiorbicular spinose-dentate leaves, subsessile or
pedunculate fruit, with ovoid acute nuts 1′—1½′ long, their shells lined
with thick or thin pale tomentum, and purple cotyledons (var. _Palmeri_
Engelm.—_Quercus Wilcoxii_ Rydb.)


                     26. Quercus tomentella Engelm.

[Illustration: Fig. 250]

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, sometimes cuspidate or occasionally
rounded at apex, broad and rounded or gradually narrowed and abruptly
cuneate at base, remotely crenate-dentate with small remote spreading
callous tipped teeth, or entire, when they unfold light green tinged
with red, covered above with scattered pale fascicled hairs and below
and on the petioles with thick hoary tomentum, at maturity thick and
coriaceous, dark green, glabrous and lustrous on the upper surface, pale
and covered with fascicled hairs on the lower surface, 2′—4′ long, 1′—2′
wide, with thickened strongly revolute margins, and a pubescent midrib;
gradually deciduous during their third season; petioles stout,
pubescent, about ½′ in length. Flowers: staminate in pubescent aments
2½′—14′ long, calyx light yellow, pubescent, divided into 5—7 ovate
acute lobes; pistillate subsessile or in few-flowered spikes on short or
elongated pubescent peduncles, their involucral scales like the calyx
coated with fascicled hairs; stigmas red. Fruit subsessile or
short-stalked; nut ovoid, broad at base, full and rounded at apex, about
1½′ long and ¾′ thick, inclosed only at the base in a cup-shaped shallow
cup thickened below, light brown and pubescent on the inner surface, and
covered by thin ovate acute scales, their free chestnut-brown tips more
or less hidden in a thick coat of hoary tomentum.

A tree, 30°—40°, or occasionally 60° high, with a trunk 1°—2° in
diameter, spreading branches forming a shapely round-topped head, and
slender branchlets coated at first with hoary tomentum, becoming light
brown tinged with red or orange color. Winter-buds ovoid, acute or
obtuse, nearly ¼′ long, with many loosely imbricated light
chestnut-brown scales more or less clothed with pale pubescence. Bark
thin, reddish brown, broken into large closely appressed scales. Wood
heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, pale yellow-brown, with lighter
colored sapwood.

Distribution. Deep narrow cañons and high wind-swept slopes of Santa
Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Santa Catalina islands, California; on Guadalupe
Island off the coast of Lower California.


                  27. Quercus Emoryi Torr. Black Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 251]

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute and mucronate at apex, cordate or
rounded at the slightly narrowed base, entire or remotely repand-serrate
with 1—5 pairs of acute rigid oblique teeth, when they unfold thin,
light green more or less tinged with red and covered with silvery white
tomentum, at maturity thick, rigid, coriaceous, dark green, very
lustrous and glabrous or coated above with minute fascicled hairs, pale
and glabrous or puberulous below, usually with 2 large tufts of white
hairs at the base of the slender midrib, obscurely reticulate-venulose,
1′—2½′ long, ½′—1′ wide; falling gradually in April with the appearance
of the new leaves; petioles stout, pubescent, about ¼′ in length.
Flowers: staminate in hoary tomentose aments; calyx light yellow, hairy
on the outer surface, divided into 5—7 ovate acute lobes; pistillate
sessile or short-stalked, their involucral scales covered with hoary
tomentum. Fruit ripening irregularly from June to September, sessile or
short-stalked; nut oblong, oval, or ovate, narrowed at base, rounded at
the narrow pilose apex, ½′—¾′ long, about ⅓′ thick, dull light green
when fully grown, dark chestnut-brown or nearly black at maturity, with
a thin shell lined with thick white tomentum, inclosed for from one
third to one half its length in the deeply cup-shaped or nearly
hemispheric cup light green and pubescent within, and covered by closely
imbricated broadly ovate acute thin and scarious light brown scales
clothed with short soft pale pubescence.

A tree, usually 30°—40° high, with a short trunk 2°—3° in diameter,
stout rigid rather drooping branches forming a round-topped symmetrical
head, and slender rigid branchlets covered at first with close hoary
tomentum, bright red, pubescent or tomentose in their first winter,
ultimately glabrous and dark red-brown or black; sometimes 60°—70° high,
with a trunk 4°—5° in diameter, with a head occasionally 100° across; or
at high altitudes or on exposed mountain slopes a low shrub. Winter-buds
ellipsoidal, acute, about ¼′ long, pale pubescent toward the apex, with
thin closely imbricated light chestnut-brown ciliate scales. Bark 1′—2′
thick, dark brown or nearly black, deeply divided into large oblong
thick plates separating into small thin closely appressed scales. Wood
heavy, strong, brittle, close-grained, dark brown or almost black, with
thick bright brown sapwood tinged with red. The sweet acorns are an
important article of food for Mexicans and Indians, and are sold in the
towns of southern Arizona and northern Mexico.

Distribution. Mountain ranges of western Texas, southern New Mexico,
Arizona south of the Colorado plateau, and of northern Mexico; in Texas
common in the cañons and on the southern slopes of the Limpio and Chisos
mountains; the most abundant Oak of southern New Mexico and Arizona,
forming a large part of the forests covering the mountain slopes and
extending from the upper limits of the mesa nearly to the highest
ridges; attaining its largest size and beauty in the moist soil of
sheltered cañons.


                  28. Quercus dumosa Nutt. Scrub Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 252]

Leaves oblong, rounded and acute at apex, broad and abruptly cuneate or
rounded at base, usually about ¾′ long and ½′ wide, spinescent with a
few minute teeth, or undulate and entire or coarsely spinescent, with an
obscure midrib and primary veins, conspicuous reticulate veinlets, and
stout petioles rarely ⅛′ long; or sometimes oblong to oblong-obovate and
divided by deep sinuses into 5—9 oblong acute rounded or emarginate
bristle-tipped lobes, the terminal lobe 3-lobed, rounded or acute, 2′—4′
long and 1′—1½′ wide, with primary veins running to the points of the
lobes, obscure reticulate veinlets, and petioles sometimes 1′ long, thin
when they unfold and clothed with scattered fascicled hairs, or rarely
tomentose above and coated below and on the petioles with hoary
tomentum, at maturity thick and firm, dark green and glabrous on the
upper surface, paler and more or less pubescent on the lower surface;
mostly deciduous during the winter. Flowers: staminate in pubescent
aments; calyx divided into 4—7 ovate lanceolate hairy segments;
pistillate sessile or stalked, in long many-flowered tomentose spikes,
their involucral scales and calyx hoary-tomentose; stigmas red. Fruit
sessile or short-stalked; nut ovoid, broad at base, broad and rounded or
acute at apex, ½′—1′ long, ⅓′—⅔′ thick, inclosed for one half to two
thirds its length in a deep cup-shaped or hemispheric cup light brown
and pubescent within, covered by ovate pointed scales coated with pale
or rufous tomentum, usually much thickened, united and tuberculate,
those above with free acute tips forming a fringe to the rim of the cup,
or frequently with basal scales but little thickened and furnished with
long free tips; in var. _Alvordiana_ Jeps., with a nut 1½′—1⅝′ long,
¼′—½′ thick, gradually narrowed and acute at apex, inclosed only at base
in a shallow cup-shaped cup.

A tree, rarely 20° high, with a trunk 12′—18′ in diameter, small
branches forming a round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at
first with hoary tomentum, becoming in their first winter ashy gray or
light or dark reddish brown and usually pubescent or tomentose; more
often an intricately branched rigid shrub, with stout stems covered by
pale gray bark and usually 6°—8° high, often forming dense thickets.
Winter-buds ellipsoidal, generally acute, 1/16′—⅛′ long, with thin pale
red often pilose and ciliate scales. Bark of the trunk bright brown and
scaly.

Distribution. California; western slopes of the central Sierra Nevada;
common on the coast ranges south of San Francisco Bay and on the islands
off the coast of the southern part of the state, ranging inland to the
borders of the Mohave Desert and to the cañons of the desert slopes of
the San Bernardino and San Jacinto mountains, and southward into Lower
California; arborescent only in sheltered cañons of the islands; the
var. _Alvordiana_, in the San Emidio Cañon of the coast ranges of Kern
County and on the San Carlos Range, Fresno County; north of San
Francisco Bay replaced by the variety _bullata_ Engelm. ranging to
Mendocino County and to Napa valley.

× _Quercus MacDonaldii_ Greene, a shrub or small tree with characters
intermediate between those of _Quercus dumosa_ and _Q. Engelmannii_, is
usually considered a hybrid of these species. It occurs on Santa Cruz
and Santa Catalina Islands, and in Santa Barbara, and Los Angeles
Counties, California.


                 29. Quercus virginiana Mill. Live Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 253]

Leaves oblong, elliptic or obovate, rounded or acute at apex, gradually
narrowed and cuneate or rarely rounded or cordate at base, usually
entire with slightly revolute margins, or rarely spinose-dentate above
the middle, thin, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, pale and
pubescent on the lower surface, 2′—5′ long, ½′—2½′ wide, and
inconspicuously reticulate-venulose, with a narrow yellow midrib, and
few slender obscure primary veins forked and united at some distance
from the margins; gradually turning yellow or brown at the end of the
winter and falling with the appearance of the new leaves in the spring;
petioles stout, rarely more than ¼′ in length. Flowers: staminate in
hairy aments 2′—3′ long; calyx light yellow, hairy, divided into 5—7
ovate rounded segments; anthers hirsute; pistillate in spikes on slender
pubescent peduncles 1′—3′ long, their involucral scales and ovate
calyx-lobes coated with hoary pubescence; stigmas bright red. Fruit
usually in 3—5 fruited spikes or rarely in pairs or single on stout
light brown puberulous peduncles 1′—5′ long; nut ellipsoidal or slightly
obovoid, narrowed at base, rounded or acute at apex, dark chestnut-brown
and lustrous, about 1′ long and ⅓′ thick, inclosed for about one fourth
its length in a turbinate light reddish brown cup puberulous within, its
scales thin, ovate, acute, slightly keeled on the back, covered by dense
lustrous hoary tomentum and ending in small closely appressed reddish
tips; seed sweet, with light yellow connate cotyledons.

A tree, 40°—50° high, with a trunk 3°—4° in diameter above its swollen
buttressed base, usually dividing a few feet from the ground into 3 or 4
horizontal wide-spreading limbs forming a low dense round-topped head
sometimes 130° across, and slender rigid branchlets coated at first with
hoary tomentum, becoming ashy gray or light brown and pubescent or
puberulous during their first winter and darker and glabrous the
following season; occasionally 60°—70° tall, with a trunk 6°—7° in
diameter; often shrubby and occasionally not more than a foot high.
Winter-buds globose or slightly obovoid, about ⅙′ long, with thin light
chestnut-brown scales white and scarious on the margins. Bark of the
trunk and large branches ½′—1′ thick, dark brown tinged with red,
slightly furrowed, separating on the surface into small closely
appressed scales. Wood very heavy, hard, strong, tough, close-grained,
light brown or yellow, with thin nearly white sapwood; formerly largely
and still occasionally used in shipbuilding.

Distribution. Shores of Mobjack Bay, Virginia, southward along the coast
and islands to southern Florida, and along the shores of the Gulf of
Mexico to northeastern Mexico, spreading inland through Texas to the
valley of the Red River and to the mountains in the extreme western part
of the state; on the mountains of Cuba, southern Mexico, and Central
America; most abundant and of its largest size on the Atlantic and east
Gulf coasts on rich hummocks and ridges a few feet above the level of
the sea; abundant in Texas in the coast region, near the banks of
streams, and westward toward the valley of the Rio Grande often forming
the principal part of the shrubby growth on low moist soil; in sandy
barren soil in the immediate vicinity of the seacoast or on the shores
of salt water estuaries and bays often a shrub, sometimes bearing fruit
on stems not more than a foot high (var. _maritima_, Sarg., and var.
_dentata_ Sarg.).

Occasionally planted as a shade and ornamental tree in the southern
United States.

Variable in habit and in the size and thickness of the leaves the
different forms of _Quercus virginiana_ show little variation in their
fruit. The most important of these varieties is


                 Quercus virginiana var. geminata Sarg.

                       _Quercus geminata_ Small.

[Illustration: Fig. 254]

Leaves oblong-obovate to elliptic, rounded or acute at apex, cuneate or
narrowed and rounded at base, occasionally slightly and irregularly
dentate above the middle on vigorous shoots, conspicuously
reticulate-venulose, hoary tomentose below, 1½′—3′ long, ⅓′—1′ wide,
with thickened strongly revolute margins; persistent until after the
leaves of the typical _Q. virginiana_ in the same locality have all
fallen; occasionally in Florida with oblong-elliptic to slightly obovate
leaves 4½′—5′ long and 1′—2′ wide (f. _grandifolia_ Sarg.). Flowers and
Fruit as in the species.

A tree often 75° high with a trunk 3° in diameter, with the habit,
branchlets, winter-buds and bark of the typical form; often much smaller
and occasionally a shrub.

Distribution. Sandy soil; coast region of North Carolina south of the
Cape Fear River, South Carolina and Georgia, and southward in Florida to
Jupiter Island on the east coast and the valley of the Caloosahatchee
River on the west coast; abundant and often the common Live Oak in the
central part of the peninsula, at least as far south as Orange County,
and westward through western Florida, southeastern and southern Alabama
to the Gulf coast and islands of Mississippi.

Other varieties of _Quercus virginiana_ are var. _macrophylla_ Sarg.,
differing from the type in its much larger ovate or slightly obovate
leaves rounded or acute at base, entire or occasionally repand-dentate,
pale tomentose below, 3½′—4′ long and 1¼′—2½′ wide. Large trees forming
groves; sandy bottoms of the Atascosa River and in flat woods above
them, Pleasanton, Atascosa County, Texas: var. _virescens_ Sarg.,
differing from the type in the green glabrous or rarely puberulous lower
surface of the leaves and in the glabrous branchlets. A large tree in
sandy soil; Gainesville, Alachua County, Sanford, Seminole County,
Sumner, Levey County, Simpson’s Hummock, and near Long Key in the
Everglades, Dade County, Florida: var. _eximea_ Sarg., differing from
the type in its narrow elliptic to narrow oblong-obovate leaves and pale
bark; a tree rarely 20° high, with a trunk 8′—12′ in diameter; rarely a
shrub; dry sandy open woods, near Springfield, Livingston Parish and
near Hammond, Tangipahoa Parish, eastern Louisiana. The following small
shrubby small-leaved forms are recognized: var. _fusiformis_ Sarg., with
oblong-ovate leaves acute at apex, rounded or cuneate at base, entire or
occasionally dentate, and pale pubescent below, and small fruit; dry
limestone ridges and flat-topped hills of the Edwards Plateau (Kerr and
Comal Counties), western Texas: var. _dentata_ Chapm., distinct in the
oblong-obovate repand-dentate lower leaves with large triangular teeth,
acute at the broad apex, often 4′ long and 1¼′ wide at the base of the
stems, and much larger than the oblong-lanceolate entire upper leaves;
common in sterile pine-barrens near the coast of Florida: var.
_maritima_ Sarg., with oblong-obovate or rarely lanceolate leaves, acute
and apiculate or rounded at apex, cuneate at base, and entire or
slightly and irregularly toothed above the middle; fruit solitary or in
pairs, or rarely in elongated spikes (_Quercus succulenta_ Small); sandy
barrens near the coast, South Carolina to Miami, Dade County, Florida:
var. _pygmaea_ Sarg., with oblong-obovate leaves, cuneate at base, 3—5
lobed at apex with small acute lobes, or rarely elliptic and entire, and
nearly sessile fruit, the nut inclosed nearly to the apex; a shrub
rarely 3° high; Pine-woods in sandy soil; widely distributed in Florida.


                    30. Quercus reticulata H. B. K.

[Illustration: Fig. 255]

Leaves broadly obovate, obtuse and rounded or rarely acute at apex,
usually cordate or occasionally rounded at the narrow base, repandly
spinose-dentate above the middle or only toward the apex with slender
teeth, and entire below, when they unfold coated with dense fulvous
tomentum, at maturity thick, firm, and rigid, dark blue and covered with
scattered fascicled hairs above, paler and coated with thick fulvous
pubescence below, 1′—5′ long, ¾′—4′ broad, with a thick midrib, and
primary veins running to the points of the teeth or arcuate and united
within the slightly revolute margins, and very conspicuous reticulate
veinlets; petioles stout about ¼′ in length. Flowers: staminate in short
tomentose aments in the axils of leaves of the year; calyx light yellow,
hirsute, with pale hairs, divided into 5—7 ovate acute segments;
pistillate in spikes on elongated peduncles, clothed like their
involucral scales with hoary tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit usually
in many-fruited spikes or occasionally in pairs or rarely solitary, on
slender hirsute or glabrous peduncles 2′—5′ long; nut oblong, rounded or
acute at the pilose apex, broad at base, about ½′ long, inclosed for
about one fourth its length in a shallow cup-shaped cup dark brown and
pubescent within, hoary tomentose without and covered by small ovate
acute scales, with thin free scarious tips, slightly thickened and
rounded on the back at the bottom of the cup.

A tree, rarely more than 40° high, with a trunk 1° in diameter, and
stout branchlets coated at first with thick fulvous tomentum, light
orange color and more or less thickly clothed with pubescence during
their first winter, becoming ashy gray or light brown; in the United
States usually shrubby in habit and sometimes only a few feet tall;
becoming on the Sierra Madre of Mexico a large tree. Winter-buds ovoid
to oval, often surrounded by the persistent stipules of the upper
leaves, about ⅛′ long, with thin loosely imbricated light red scales
ciliate on the margins. Bark about ¼′ thick, dark or light brown, and
covered by small thin closely appressed scales. Wood very heavy, hard,
close-grained, dark brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood.

Distribution. Near the summits of the mountain ranges of southeastern
New Mexico (Mogollon Mountains) and southeastern Arizona, and southward
in Mexico.


                       31. Quercus Toumeyi Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 256]

Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong or oval, acute and apiculate at apex,
rounded or cordate at base, entire with thickened slightly revolute
margins, or remotely spinulose-dentate, often minutely 3-toothed at
apex, thin but firm in texture, light blue-green, glabrous and lustrous
above, pale and puberulous below, conspicuously reticulate-venulose;
½′—¾′ long, ¼′—½′ wide; falling early in spring with the appearance of
the new leaves; petioles stout, tomentose, about 1/16′ in length.
Flowers unknown. Fruit sessile, solitary or in pairs, ripening in June;
nut oval or ovoid, ½′—⅔′ long, ¼′ thick, light brown and lustrous,
furnished at the acute apex with a narrow ring of pale pubescence,
inclosed for about one half its length in a thin shallow tomentose cup
light green and pubescent within, and covered by thin ovate regularly
and closely imbricated light red-brown scales ending in a short rounded
tip and coated on the back with pale tomentum.

A tree, 25°—30° high, with a short trunk 6′—8′ in diameter, dividing not
far from the ground into numerous stout wide-spreading branches forming
a broad irregular head, and slender branchlets bright red-brown more or
less thickly coated with pale tomentum at midsummer, covered during
their second and third years with thin dark brown nearly black bark
broken into small thin closely appressed scales. Wood light brown, with
thick pale sapwood.

Distribution. Forming an open forest on the Mule Mountains, Cochise
County, southeastern Arizona.


                 32. Quercus arizonica Sarg. White Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 257]

Leaves oblong-lanceolate to broadly obovate, generally acute or
sometimes rounded at apex, rounded or cordate at base, repandly
spinose-dentate usually, except on vigorous shoots, only above the
middle or toward the apex, or entire and sometimes undulate on the
margins, when they unfold light red clothed with bright fulvous tomentum
and furnished with dark dental glands, at maturity thick, firm and
rigid, dull dark blue-green and glabrate above, duller and covered with
thick fulvous or pale pubescence below, 1′—4′ long, ½′—2′ wide, with a
broad yellow midrib, slender primary veins, arcuate and united near the
thickened revolute margins, and coarsely reticulate veinlets; falling in
the early spring just before the appearance of the new leaves; petioles
stout, tomentose, ¼′—½′ in length. Flowers: staminate in tomentose
aments 2′—3′ long; calyx pale yellow, pubescent, and divided into 4—7
broad acute ciliate lobes; anthers red or yellow; pistillate on short
stems tomentose like their involucral scales. Fruit sessile or on
hoary-tomentose stems rarely ½′ long, usually solitary, ripening
irregularly from September to November; nut oblong, oval or slightly
obovoid, obtuse and rounded at the puberulous apex, ¾′—1′ long, ½′
thick, dark chestnut-brown, lustrous and often striate, soon becoming
light brown, inclosed for half its length in a cup-shaped or hemispheric
cup light brown and pubescent within, covered by regularly and closely
imbricated scales coated with pale tomentum and ending in thin light red
pointed tips, those below the middle of the cup much thickened and
rounded on the back; seed dark purple, very astringent.

A tree, occasionally 50°—60° tall, with a trunk 3°—4° in diameter, and
thick contorted branches spreading nearly at right angles and forming a
handsome round-topped symmetrical head, and stout branchlets clothed at
first with thick fulvous tomentum persistent during their first winter,
reddish brown or light orange color and pubescent or puberulous in their
second season, ultimately glabrous and darker; usually not more than
30°—40° tall; at high elevations reduced to a low shrub. Winter-buds
subglobose, about 1/16′ long, with loosely imbricated bright
chestnut-brown puberulous scales ciliate on the margins. Bark of young
stems and branches thin, pale, scaly with small appressed scales,
becoming on old trunks about 1′ thick and deeply divided by narrow
fissures into broad ridges broken into long thick plate-like scales pale
or ashy gray on the surface. Wood heavy, strong, hard, close-grained,
dark brown or nearly black, with thick lighter colored sapwood; used
only for fuel.

Distribution. The most common and generally distributed White Oak of
southern New Mexico and Arizona, covering the slopes of cañons of
mountain ranges at altitudes of from 5000°—10,000° above the sea, often
ascending nearly to the summits of the high peaks; and in northern
Mexico.


               33. Quercus oblongifolia Torr. White Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 258]

Leaves ovate, elliptic, or slightly obovate, rounded and occasionally
emarginate or acute at apex, usually cordate or occasionally rounded at
base, entire and sometimes undulate with thickened revolute margins, or
remotely dentate with small callous teeth, on vigorous shoots and young
plants oblong, rounded or cuneate at the narrow base, coarsely sinuate
or undulate-toothed or 3-toothed at the broad apex and entire below,
when they unfold bright red and coated with deciduous hoary tomentum, at
maturity thin and firm, blue-green and lustrous above, paler below,
1′—2′ long, ½′—¾′ wide, or on vigorous shoots sometimes 3′—4′ long, with
a prominent pale midrib, slender primary veins, and conspicuous
reticulate veinlets; persistent during the winter without change of
color, gradually turning yellow in the spring and falling at the
appearance of the new leaves; petioles stout, nearly terete, about ¼′ in
length. Flowers: staminate in short hoary-tomentose aments; calyx bright
yellow, pilose, divided into 5 or 6 laciniately cut or entire acute
segments tinged with red above the middle; pistillate usually sessile,
or on peduncles tomentose like the involucral scales; stigmas bright
red. Fruit usually solitary and sessile, rarely long-stalked; nut ovoid,
ellipsoidal, or slightly obovoid, full and rounded at apex surrounded by
a narrow ring of white pubescence, dark chestnut-brown, striate, and
very lustrous, soon becoming light brown in drying, ½′—¾′ long, about ⅓′
thick, inclosed for about one third its length in a cup-shaped or rarely
turbinate thin cup yellow-green and pubescent on the inner surface and
covered by ovate-oblong scales slightly thickened on the back, coated
with hoary tomentum and ending in thin acute bright red tips ciliate on
the margins and sometimes forming a minute fringe to the rim of the cup.

A tree, rarely more than 30° high, with a short trunk 18′—20′ in
diameter, many stout spreading often contorted branches forming a
handsome round-topped symmetrical head, and slender rigid branchlets
coated at first with pale or fulvous tomentum, light red-brown, dark
brown or dark orange color in their first winter, becoming ashy gray in
their second or third year. Winter-buds subglobose, 1/16′—⅛′ long, with
thin light chestnut-brown scales. Bark ¾′—1¼′ thick, ashy gray, and
broken into small nearly square or oblong close plate-like scales. Wood
very heavy, hard, strong, brittle, dark brown or nearly black, with
thick brown sapwood; sometimes used as fuel.

Distribution. Chisos Mountains, western Texas, southeastern New Mexico,
southern Arizona, and southward into northern Mexico; comparatively rare
in Texas; abundant on the foothills of the mountain ranges of southern
New Mexico and Arizona at altitudes of about 5000°, and dotting the
upper slopes of the mesa where narrow cañons open to the plain.


             34. Quercus Engelmannii Greene. Evergreen Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 259]

Leaves oblong to obovate, usually obtuse and rounded or sometimes acute
at apex, gradually or abruptly cuneate or rounded or cordate at base,
entire, often undulate, or sinuate-toothed with occasionally rigid
teeth, or at the ends of sterile branches frequently coarsely crenately
serrate with incurved teeth, or rarely lobed with acute oblique rounded
lobes, when they unfold bright red and coated with thick pale rufous
tomentum, at maturity thick, dark blue-green and glabrous or covered
with fascicled hairs above, pale, usually yellow-green and clothed with
light brown pubescence, or puberulous or often glabrous below, 1′—3′
long, ½′—2′ wide; deciduous in the spring with the appearance of the new
leaves; petioles slender, tomentose, becoming pubescent, ¼′—½′ in
length. Flowers: staminate in slender hairy aments 2′—3′ long; calyx
light yellow, pilose, with lanceolate acute segments; pistillate on
slender peduncles, clothed like their involucral scales with dense pale
tomentum. Fruit sessile or on slender pubescent peduncles sometimes ¾′
long; nut oblong, gradually narrowed and acute or broad rounded and
obtuse at apex, broad or narrow at base, dark chestnut-brown more or
less conspicuously marked by darker longitudinal stripes, turning light
chestnut-brown in drying, ¾′—1′ long, about ½′ thick, inclosed for about
half its length in a deep saucer-shaped, cup-shaped or turbinate cup
light brown and puberulous within, and covered by ovate light brown
scales coated with pale tomentum, usually thickened, united and
tuberculate at the base of the cup, and near its rim produced into small
acute ciliate tips.

A tree, 50°—60° high, with a trunk 2°—3° in diameter, thick branches
spreading nearly at right angles and forming a broad rather irregular
head, and stout rigid branchlets coated at first with hoary tomentum,
light or dark brown tinged with red and pubescent during their first
winter, becoming glabrous and light brown or gray in their second or
third year. Winter-buds oval or ovoid, about ⅛′ long, with thin light
red pubescent scales. Bark 1½—2′ thick, light gray tinged with brown,
deeply divided by narrow fissures and separating on the surface into
small thin appressed scales. Wood very heavy, hard, strong,
close-grained, brittle, dark brown or nearly black, with thick lighter
brown sapwood; used only for fuel.

Distribution. Low hills of southwestern California west of the coast
range, occupying with _Quercus agrifolia_ Née, a belt about fifty miles
wide, and extending to within fifteen or twenty miles of the coast, from
the neighborhood of Sierra Madre and San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, to
the mesa east of San Diego; in northern Lower California.


    35. Quercus Douglasii Hook. & Arn. Blue Oak. Mountain White Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 260]

Leaves oblong, acute or rounded at apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate
or broad and rounded or subcordate at base, divided by deep or shallow,
wide or narrow sinuses acute or rounded in the bottom into 4 or 5 broad
or narrow acute or rounded often mucronate lobes, 2′—5′ long, 1′—1¾′
wide, or oval, oblong or obovate, rounded or acute at apex, equally or
unequally cuneate or rounded at base, regularly or irregularly
sinuate-toothed with rounded acute rigid spinescent teeth, or
denticulate toward the apex, 1′—2′ long, ¼′—1′ wide, when they unfold
covered by soft pale pubescence, at maturity thin, firm and rather
rigid, pale blue, with scattered fascicled hairs above, often
yellow-green and covered by short pubescence below, with a hirsute or
puberulous prominent midrib and more or less conspicuous reticulate
veinlets; petioles stout, tomentose, ¼′—½′ in length. Flowers: staminate
in hairy aments 1½′—2′ long; calyx yellow-green, coated on the outer
surface with pale hairs, deeply divided into broad acute laciniately cut
segments; pistillate in short few-flowered spikes coated like the
involucral scales with hoary tomentum. Fruit sessile or short-stalked,
solitary or in pairs; nut ellipsoidal, sometimes ventricose, with a
narrow base, gradually narrowed and acute at apex, ¾′—1′ long, ½′—1′
thick, or often ovoid and acute, green and lustrous, turning dark
chestnut-brown in drying, with a narrow ring of hoary pubescence at
apex, inclosed only at base in a thin shallow cup-shaped cup light green
and pubescent on the inner surface, covered on the outer by small acute
and usually thin or sometimes, especially in the south, thicker tumid
scales coated with pale pubescence or tomentum and ending in thin
reddish brown tips.

A tree, usually 50°—60°, rarely 80°—90° high, with a trunk 3°—4° in
diameter, short stout branches spreading nearly at right angles and
forming a dense round-topped symmetrical head, stout branchlets brittle
at the joints, coated at first with short dense hoary tomentum, dark
gray or reddish brown and tomentose, pubescent, or puberulous during
their first winter, becoming ultimately ashy gray or dark brown;
frequently not more than 20°—30° high, and sometimes, especially
southward shrubby, in habit. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse, ⅛′—¼′ long, with
light rather bright red pubescent scales. Bark ½′—1′ thick, generally
pale, and covered by small scales sometimes tinged with brown or light
red. Wood hard, heavy, strong, brittle, dark brown, becoming nearly
black with exposure, with thick light brown sapwood; largely used as
fuel.

Distribution. Scattered over low hills, dry mountain slopes and valleys;
California, Mendocino County, and the upper valley of the Sacramento
River, southward along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada up to
elevations of 4000°, and through valleys of the coast ranges to the
Tehachapi Pass, the borders of the Mohave Desert (Sierra de la Liebre)
and the neighborhood of San Fernando, Los Angeles County; most abundant
and of its largest size in the valleys between the coast mountains and
the interior ridges of the coast ranges south of the Bay of San
Francisco.

× _Quercus jolonensis_ Sarg. with characters intermediate between those
of _Quercus Douglasii_ and _Quercus lobata_ and believed to be a hybrid
of those species occurs, with a number of large trees, at Jolon and
between Jolon and King City, Monterey County, California.


                 36. Quercus Vaseyana Buckl. Shin Oak.

                _Quercus undulata_ var. _Vaseyana_ Rydb.

[Illustration: Fig. 261]

Leaves oblong, rarely oblong-obovate, acute or rounded at apex, cuneate
at base, undulately lobed with small acute lobes pointing forward,
rarely nearly entire, when they unfold covered above with short
fascicled hairs sometimes persistent until midsummer, and tomentose
below, and at maturity thin, pale gray-green, glabrous and lustrous
above, pale pubescent below, 1′—1½′ long and ½′—¾′ wide; deciduous late
in winter or in early spring; petioles covered with fascicled hairs when
they first appear, becoming glabrous, ¼′ in length. Flowers: staminate
in villose aments 1′—1¼′ long; calyx deeply divided into 4 or 5 ovate
scarious lobes rounded at apex and shorter than the stamens; pistillate
on short tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales ovate, acute,
pubescent, shorter than the calyx-lobes; stigmas red. Fruit solitary or
in pairs, sessile or short-stalked; nut ellipsoidal and only slightly
narrowed at the rounded ends to oblong and slightly ovoid or obovoid,
½′—¾′ in length, ¼′—½′ in diameter, pale chestnut-brown and lustrous,
the base only inclosed in the thin, saucer-shaped to cup-shaped cup,
puberulous on the inner surface, covered with closely appressed ovate
acute hoary tomentose scales, on some individuals abruptly contracted
into short acute red-brown nearly glabrous tips.

A tree, rarely 15°—20° high, usually a shrub only 1°—3° tall, spreading
into great thickets, with slender branchlets thickly covered with matted
fascicled hairs during their first season, and light gray and glabrous
or puberulous in their second year. Winter-buds ovoid or obovoid, about
⅛′ long, with red-brown scales ciliate on the margins. Bark rough,
deeply furrowed and scaly.

Distribution. Limestone slopes and ridges or in sheltered cañons;
western Texas; Kimble, Real, Kendall, Kerr, Uvalde, Edwards, Menard and
Valverde Counties.


                  37. Quercus Mohriana Rydb. Shin Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 262]

Leaves oblong-obovate to elliptic or lanceolate, acute, acuminate or
rounded at apex, rounded or cuneate and often unsymmetrical at base,
entire, undulate, sinuately toothed with triangular apiculate teeth, or
occasionally irregularly lobed above the middle with rounded lobes,
thick, gray-green, lustrous and covered above with short fascicled
hairs, and densely hoary tomentose below, 2°—4° long, ½′—1′ wide, with a
stout midrib thickly covered with fascicled hairs, sometimes becoming
glabrous, slender primary veins and reticulate veinlets; petioles stout,
hoary tomentose, ⅛′—¼′ in length. Flowers: staminate in short hoary
tomentose aments; calyx densely villose, deeply divided into broad ovate
lobes rounded at apex; anthers red; pistillate on hoary tomentose
peduncles, with hairy bracts and calyx-lobes. Fruit solitary or in
pairs, nearly sessile or raised on a pubescent peduncle ½′—¾′ in length;
nut ellipsoidal or ovoid, broad and rounded at the ends, light
chestnut-brown, lustrous, ⅓′—½′ long, ¼′—⅓′ thick, inclosed for from
half to two thirds its length in the hemispheric to cup-shaped cup,
hoary tomentose on the inner surface, and covered with small closely
appressed acute hoary tomentose scales much thickened below the middle
of the cup, thin and much smaller toward its rim.

A tree, rarely 18°—20° high, with a trunk rarely 1° in diameter, small
spreading and ascending branches forming a round-topped head, and
slender branchlets thickly coated during their first season with
fascicled hairs, dark gray-brown and pubescent in their second season
and ultimately gray and glabrous; usually a low shrub spreading into
thickets. Winter-buds broad-ovoid, obtuse, pale pubescent. Bark thin,
pale, rough, deeply furrowed.

Distribution. On dry limestone hills, usually not more than 18° high
with spreading branches; on deep sand, often not more than 3° high with
more erect stems, often covering thousands of acres; only a tree in the
protection of ledges in deep ravines and on steep hillsides;
northwestern Texas (Tom Green, Coke, Nolan, Howard, Armstrong, and
Wheeler Counties); central Texas (Bryan, Brazos County); southwestern
Oklahoma (Beckham County).


                       38. Quercus Laceyi Small.

[Illustration: Fig. 263]

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, usually with two pairs of small rounded
lateral lobes, occasionally 3-lobed toward the apex, rarely nearly
entire, narrowed and rounded at apex, rounded, cuneate or rarely cordate
at the gradually narrowed base, coated below when they unfold with loose
white tomentum, soon glabrous, at maturity thin, blue-green above,
yellow-green below, 2′—3′ long, ¾′—2′ wide, with a slender midrib and
primary veins, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets; deciduous late in
the autumn; on vigorous shoots sometimes 6′—7′ long and 3′—4′ wide;
petioles glabrous or sparingly villose, ¼′—⅓′ in length. Flowers:
staminate in slightly villose aments 2′—2½′ long; calyx deeply divided
into 4 or 5 ovate acuminate lobes shorter than the stamens; pistillate
flowers not seen. Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile or raised on a
stem up to ½′ in length; nut ellipsoidal or oblong-ovoid, rounded at
apex, slightly narrowed and nearly truncate at base, light
chestnut-brown and lustrous, ¾′—1′ long, ⅓′—½′ in diameter, the base
inclosed in the thick, cup-shaped to rarely saucer-shaped cup, tomentose
on the inner surface, covered with acute much thickened pale tomentose
scales.

A tree, 30°—45° high, with a trunk 20′—30′ in diameter, heavy erect and
spreading branches and slender branchlets villose when they first
appear, soon becoming glabrous and red-brown or gray during their second
season; often a tall shrub with numerous stems. Winter-buds ovoid,
acute, ⅙′ long, with chestnut-brown scales ciliate on the margins. Bark
gray, thick, deeply ridged or checkered.

Distribution. Rocky banks of streams, the steep sides of cañons and on
limestone bluffs; common in the southern and southwestern parts of the
Edwards Plateau, western Texas (Kendall, Kerr, Bandera, Uvalde, Menard,
Kemble, Real and Edwards Counties); easily distinguished in the field by
the peculiar smoky or waxy appearance of the foliage.


                      39. Quercus annulata Buckl.

                       _Quercus breviloba_ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 264]

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate or elliptic, rounded or acute at apex,
cuneate or rounded at base, entire, undulate, slightly lobed with
rounded or acute lobes, or 3-lobed, when they unfold covered above with
fascicled hairs and tomentose below, and at maturity green, glabrous and
lustrous above, green and pubescent below on lower branches, often pale
or hoary tomentose on upper branches, 1¼′—2½′ long, ½′—1¼′ wide;
petioles covered when they first appear with fascicled hairs, soon
glabrous, ¼′—½′ in length; on vigorous branchlets sometimes thinner,
glabrous, divided into broad rounded lateral lobes, gradually narrowed
and cuneate at the long base, 4′ long and 2½′ wide. Flowers: staminate
in pubescent aments 1′—2′ long; calyx deeply divided in villose rounded
lobes, shorter than the stamens; anthers red; pistillate on tomentose
peduncles, their scales rounded, tomentose; stigmas red. Fruit solitary
or in 2 or 3-fruited clusters, sessile or short-stalked, oblong-ovoid to
ellipsoidal, slightly narrowed and rounded at apex, light yellow-brown
and lustrous, ¾′—1′ long, ⅓′—½′ in diameter; inclosed for about a
quarter of its length in the cup-shaped cup, tomentose on the inner
surface, covered with acute tomentose scales somewhat thickened and
closely appressed below the middle of the cup, their tips
chestnut-brown, free and often glabrous.

A tree, 20°—30° tall with a trunk rarely more than 1° in diameter, small
spreading often slightly pendulous branches forming a round-topped head,
and slender branches covered when they first appear with fascicled
hairs, soon becoming glabrous and gray or grayish brown; the large stems
often surrounded by a ring of smaller stems produced from its roots;
more often a shrub than a tree spreading into broad thickets.
Winter-buds ovoid to ellipsoidal, acute, ⅛′—¼′ long, with closely
imbricated chestnut-brown puberulous scales ciliate on the margins. Bark
thick, rough, deeply ridged.

Distribution. Dry limestone hills and bluffs; central and western Texas,
from the neighborhood of Dallas, Dallas County, and Palo Pinto County to
Kendall, Kerr, Brown, Bandera, Real and Menard Counties.


                      40. Quercus Durandii Buckl.

                   _Quercus breviloba_ Sarg. in part.

[Illustration: Fig. 265]

Leaves thin, obovate to elliptic, entire, 3-lobed toward the rounded or
acute apex or irregularly laterally lobed, the three forms appearing on
different branches of the same tree, on lower branches usually lobed,
dark green and lustrous above, often green and glabrous below, sometimes
6′ or 7′ long and 3′ or 3½′ wide, on upper branches mostly entire, white
and pubescent or tomentose below, 2½′—3′ long, ½′—1½′ wide; falling late
in the autumn; petioles glabrous, ⅓′—¼′ in length. Flowers: staminate in
slender villose aments 3′—4′ in length; calyx deeply divided into acute
villose lobes shorter than the stamens; pistillate on a short tomentose
peduncle, the linear acuminate bract and involucral scales
hoary-tomentose; stigmas red. Fruit solitary or in pairs, short-stalked
or nearly sessile; nut ovoid, or slightly obovoid, rounded or rarely
acute at apex, nearly truncate at base, pale chestnut-brown, lustrous,
½′—⅔′ long, ⅓′—½′ thick, barely inclosed at base in the thin, shallow
saucer-shaped cup, pale tomentose on the inner surface, and covered with
small acuminate closely appressed tomentose scales slightly thickened on
the back.

A tree, often 60°—90° high with a tall trunk 2°—3° in diameter,
comparatively small branches, the lower horizontal, the upper ascending,
forming a dense round-topped handsome head, and slender pale gray-brown
branchlets covered when they first appear with fascicled hairs, soon
glabrous, or puberulous during their first season, and darker in their
second season. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, ¼′—⅓′ long with dark
chestnut-brown rounded scales ciliate on the margins. Bark thin, light
gray or nearly white and broken into thin loosely appressed scales.

Distribution. East of the Mississippi River scattered on rich limestone
prairies; westward on the well drained soil of river bottoms, and often
on low hummocks; near Augusta, Richmond County, and De Soto, Sampson
County, Georgia; West Point, Clay County, Columbus, Muscogee County,
Brookville, Noxubesco County, and near Natchez, Adams County,
Mississippi; McNab, Hempstead County, Arkansas; Natchitoches,
Natchitoches Parish, western Louisiana; coast region of eastern Texas to
the bottoms of the Guadalupe River (Victoria, Victoria County), ranging
inland to San Saba County and to the neighborhood of Dallas, Dallas
County; on the mountains near Monterey, Nuovo Leon; rare and local.


                      41. Quercus Chapmanii Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 266]

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, rounded at the narrow apex, narrowed
and cuneate or rounded or broad and rounded at base, entire with
slightly undulate margins, or obscurely sinuate-lobed above the middle,
when they unfold coated below with thick bright yellow pubescence and
covered above with pale fascicled deciduous hairs, at maturity thick and
firm or subcoriaceous, dark green, glabrous and lustrous above, light
green or silvery white and glabrous below except on the slender often
pubescent midrib, usually 2′—3′ long and 1′ wide, but varying from 1′—3′
in length and ¾′—1′ in width; falling gradually during the winter or
sometimes persistent until the appearance of the new leaves in the
spring; petioles tomentose, rarely ⅛′ in length. Flowers: staminate in
short hirsute aments; calyx hirsute, divided into 5 acute laciniately
cut segments; anthers hirsute; pistillate sessile or short-stalked,
their involucral scales coated with dense pale tomentum. Fruit usually
sessile, solitary or in pairs; nut oval, about ⅝′ long and ⅜′ thick,
pubescent from the obtuse rounded apex nearly to the middle, inclosed
for nearly half its length in the deep cup-shaped light brown cup
slightly pubescent on the inner surface, and covered by ovate-oblong
pointed scales thickened on the back, especially toward the base of the
cup, and coated with pale tomentum except on their thin reddish brown
margins.

Occasionally a tree, 50° high, with a trunk 1° in diameter, stout
branches forming a round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at
first with dense bright yellow pubescence, becoming light or dark
red-brown and puberulous during their first winter and ultimately ashy
gray; more often a rigid shrub sometimes only 1°—2° tall. Winter-buds
ovoid, acute, obtuse, about ⅛′ long, with glabrous or puberulous light
chestnut-brown scales. Bark dark or pale, separating freely into large
irregular plate-like scales.

Distribution. Sandy barrens usually in the neighborhood of the coast;
Bluffton, Beaufort County, South Carolina, Colonels Islands, Liberty
County, Georgia, southward along the east coast of Florida to the shores
of Indian River; on the west coast from the valley of the Caloosahatchee
River to the shores of Pensacola Bay, and in the interior of the
peninsular from Lake County to De Soto County (neighborhood of Sebring);
rare and local on the Atlantic coast; comparatively rare in the interior
of the Florida peninsular; abundant in western Florida from the shores
of Tampa Bay to those of Saint Andrews Bay.


         42. Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Burr Oak. Mossy Cup Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 267]

Leaves obovate or oblong, cuneate or occasionally narrow and rounded at
base, divided by wide sinuses sometimes penetrating nearly to the midrib
into 5—7 lobes, the terminal lobe large, oval or obovate, regularly
crenately lobed, or smaller and 3-lobed at the rounded or acute apex,
when they unfold yellow-green and pilose above and silvery white and
coated below with long pale hairs, at maturity thick and firm, dark
green, lustrous and glabrous, or occasionally pilose on the upper
surface, pale green or silvery white and covered on the lower surface
with soft pale or rarely rufous pubescence, 6′—12′ long, 3′—6′ wide,
with a stout pale midrib sometimes pilose on the upper side and
pubescent on the lower, large primary veins running to the points of the
lobes, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets; turning dull yellow or
yellowish brown in the autumn; petioles stout, ⅓′—1′ in length. Flowers:
staminate in slender aments 4′—6′ long, their yellow-green peduncles
coated with loosely matted pale hairs; calyx yellow-green, pubescent,
deeply divided into 4—6 acute segments ending in tufts of long pale
hairs; pistillate sessile or stalked, their involucral scales broadly
ovate, often somewhat tinged with red toward the margins and coated,
like the peduncles, with thick pale tomentum; stigmas bright red. Fruit
usually solitary, sessile or long-stalked, exceedingly variable in size
and shape; nut ellipsoidal or broad-ovoid, broad at the base and rounded
at the obtuse or depressed apex covered by soft pale pubescence, ⅗′ long
and ⅓′ thick at the north, sometimes 2′ long and 1½′ thick in the south,
its cup thick or thin, light brown and pubescent on the inner surface,
hoary-tomentose and covered on the outer surface by large irregularly
imbricated ovate pointed scales, at the base of the cup thin and free or
sometimes much thickened and tuberculate, and near its rim generally
developed into long slender pale awns forming on northern trees a short
inconspicuous and at the south a long conspicuous matted fringe-like
border, inclosing only the base or nearly the entire nut.

A tree, sometimes 170° high, with a trunk 6°—7° in diameter, clear of
limbs for 70°—80° above the ground, a broad head of great spreading
branches, and stout branchlets coated at first with thick soft pale
deciduous pubescence, light orange color, usually glabrous or
occasionally puberulous during their first winter, becoming ashy gray or
light brown and ultimately dark brown, sometimes developing corky wings
often 1′—1½′ wide; usually not more than 80° high, with a trunk 3°—4° in
diameter; toward the northwestern limits of its range sometimes a low
shrub. Winter-buds broadly ovoid, acute or obtuse, ⅛′—¼′ long, with
light red-brown scales coated with soft pale pubescence. Bark 1′—2′
thick, deeply furrowed and broken on the surface into irregular
plate-like brown scales often slightly tinged with red. Wood heavy,
strong, hard, tough, close-grained, very durable, dark or rich light
brown, with thin much lighter colored sapwood; used in ship and
boat-building, for construction of all sorts, cabinet-making, cooperage,
the manufacture of carriages, agricultural implements, baskets,
railway-ties, fencing, and fuel.

Distribution. Low rich bottom-lands and intervales, or rarely in the
northwest on low dry hills; Nova Scotia and New Brunswick southward to
the valley of the Penobscot River, Maine, the shore of Lake Champlain,
Vermont, western Massachusetts, central, southern and western
Pennsylvania, northern Delaware, northern West Virginia (Hardy and Grant
Counties), prairies of Caswell County, North Carolina, and middle
Tennessee, and westward through the valley of the Saint Lawrence River
and along the northern shores of Lake Huron to southern Manitoba,
through western New York and Ohio, northern Michigan, to Minnesota
(except in the northeastern counties), eastern and northwestern
Nebraska, the Black Hills of South Dakota, the Turtle Mountains of North
Dakota, and northeastern Wyoming, and to central Kansas, the valley of
the north Fork of the Canadian River (Canton, Blaine County, and
Seiling, Dewey County), Oklahoma, and the valley of the San Saba River,
(Menard County and Callahan County), Texas; attaining its largest size
in southern Indiana and Illinois; the common Oak of the “oak openings”
of western Minnesota, and in all the basin of the Red River of the
North, ranging farther to the northwest than the other Oaks of eastern
America; common and generally distributed in eastern Nebraska, and of a
large size in cañons or on river bottoms in the extreme northwestern
part of the state; the most generally distributed Oak in southern
Wisconsin, and in Kansas growing to a large size in all the eastern part
of the state.

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the eastern United States
and in South Africa.

× _Quercus Andrewsii_ Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
macrocarpa_ and _Q. undulata_ Torr., in habit and characters
intermediate between those of its supposed parents with which it grows,
occurs at Seiling, Dewey County, western Oklahoma.

× _Quercus guadalupensis_ Sarg., with characters intermediate between
those of _Quercus macrocarpa_ and _Q. stellata_ and evidently a hybrid
of these species, occurs at Fredericksburg Junction in the valley of the
Guadalupe River, Kendall County, Texas.

× _Quercus Hillii_ Trel., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
macrocarpa_ and _Q. Muehlenbergii_, has been found at Roby, Lake County,
Indiana, and near Independence, Jackson County, Missouri.


         43. Quercus lyrata Walt. Overcup Oak. Swamp White Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 268]

Leaves oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, divided
into spreading or ascending lobes by deep or shallow sinuses rounded,
straight, or oblique on the bottom, the terminal lobe oblong-ovate,
usually broad, acute or acuminate at the elongated apex, and furnished
with 2 small entire nearly triangular lateral lobes, the upper lateral
lobes broad, more or less emarginate, or acuminate and entire or
slightly lobed and much longer than the acute or rounded lower lobes,
when they unfold bronze-green and pilose above with caducous hairs, and
coated below with thick pale tomentum, at maturity thin and firm, dark
green and glabrous above, silvery white and thickly coated with pale
pubescence, or green and often nearly glabrous below, 7′—10′ long, 1′—4′
wide; turning yellow or scarlet and orange in the autumn; petioles
glabrous or pubescent, ⅓′—1′ in length. Flowers: staminate in slender
hairy aments 4′—6′ long; calyx light yellow, coated on the outer surface
with pale hairs and divided into acute segments; pistillate sessile or
stalked, their involucral scales covered, like the peduncles, with thick
pale tomentum. Fruit sessile or borne on slender pubescent peduncles
sometimes 1½′ in length; nut subglobose to ovoid or rarely to
ovoid-oblong, ½′—1′ long, usually broader at base than long, light
chestnut-brown, more or less covered above the middle with short pale
pubescence, entirely or for two thirds of its length inclosed in the
ovoid, nearly spherical or deep cup-shaped thin cup, bright red-brown
and pubescent on the inner surface, hoary-tomentose and covered on the
outer by ovate united scales produced into acute tips, much thickened
and contorted at its base, gradually growing thinner and forming a
ragged edge to the thin often irregularly split rim of the cup.

A tree, rarely 100° high, with a trunk 2°—3° in diameter, generally
divided 15°—20° above the ground into comparatively small often
pendulous branches forming a handsome symmetrical round-topped head, and
slender branchlets green more or less tinged with red and pilose or
pubescent when they first appear, light or dark orange-color or grayish
brown and usually glabrous during their first winter, ultimately
becoming ashy gray or light brown. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse, about ⅛′
long, with light chestnut-brown scales covered, especially near their
margins, with loose pale tomentum. Bark ¾′—1′ thick, light gray tinged
with red and broken into thick plates separating on the surface into
thin irregular appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, tough, very
durable in contact with the ground, rich dark brown, with thick lighter
colored sapwood; confounded commercially with the wood of _Quercus
alba_, and used for the same purpose.

Distribution. River swamps and small deep depressions on rich
bottom-lands, usually wet throughout the year; southern New Jersey
(Riddleton, Salem County), and valley of the Patuxent River, Maryland,
southward near the coast to western Florida, through the Gulf states to
the valley of the Navasota River, Brazos County, Texas, and through
Arkansas to the valley of the Meramec River (Allenton, St. Louis
County), Missouri, and to central Tennessee and Kentucky, southern
Illinois, and southwestern Indiana to Spencer County; comparatively rare
in the Atlantic and east Gulf states; most common and of its largest
size in the valley of the Red River, Louisiana, and the adjacent parts
of Texas and Arkansas.

Occasionally cultivated in the northeastern states and hardy in eastern
Massachusetts.

× _Quercus Comptonae_ Sarg., a hybrid of _Quercus lyrata_ and _Q.
virginiana_, with characters intermediate between those of its parents,
discovered many years ago on the banks of Peyton’s Creek, Matagorda
County, Texas (now gone), occurs with several individuals near dwellings
in Natchez, Adams County, Mississippi, near Selma, Dallas County,
Alabama, and in Audubon Park and streets, New Orleans, Louisiana. A
tree, sometimes 100° high and one of the handsomest of North American
Oaks; also produced artificially by _Professor H. Ness_ by crossing
_Quercus lyrata_ and _Q. virginiana_.


                  44. Quercus stellata Wang. Post Oak.

                         _Quercus minor_ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 269]

Leaves oblong-obovate, usually deeply 5-lobed, with broad sinuses
oblique in the bottom, and short wide lobes, broad and truncate or
obtusely pointed at apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate, or
occasionally abruptly narrowed and cuneate or rounded at base, when they
unfold dark red above and densely pubescent, at maturity thick and firm,
deep dark green and roughened by scattered fascicled pale hairs above,
covered below with gray, light yellow, or rarely silvery white
pubescence, usually 4′—5′ long and 3′—4′ across the lateral lobes, with
a broad light-colored midrib pubescent on the upper side and tomentose
or pubescent on the lower, stout lateral veins arcuate and united near
the margins and connected by conspicuous coarsely reticulated veinlets;
turning dull yellow or brown in the autumn; petioles stout, pubescent,
½′ to nearly 1′ in length. Flowers: staminate in aments 3′—4′ long;
calyx hirsute, yellow, usually divided into 5 ovate acute laciniately
cut segments; anthers covered by short scattered pale hairs; pistillate
sessile or stalked, their involucral scales broadly ovate, hirsute;
stigmas bright red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked; nut oval to ovoid or
ovoid-oblong, broad at base, obtuse and naked or covered with pale
persistent pubescence at apex, ½′—1′ long, ¼′—¾′ thick, sometimes
striate with dark longitudinal stripes, inclosed for one third to one
half its length in the cup-shaped, turbinate, or rarely saucer-shaped
cup pale and pubescent on the inner surface, hoary-tomentose on the
outer surface, and covered by thin ovate scales rounded and acute at
apex, reddish brown, and sometimes toward the rim of the cup ciliate on
the margins with long pale hairs.

A tree, rarely 100° high, with a trunk 2°—3° in diameter, and stout
spreading branches forming a broad dense round-topped head, and stout
branchlets coated at first, like the young leaves and petioles, the
stalks of the aments of staminate flowers and the peduncles of the
pistillate flowers, with thick orange-brown tomentum, light orange color
to reddish brown, and covered by short soft pubescence during their
first winter, ultimately gray, dark brown, nearly black or bright brown
tinged with orange color; usually not more than 50°—60° tall, with a
trunk 1°—2° in diameter, and at the northeastern limits of its range
generally reduced to a shrub. Winter-buds broadly ovoid, obtuse or
rarely acute, ⅛′—¼′ long, with bright chestnut-brown pubescent scales
coated toward the margins with scattered pale hairs. Bark ½′—1′ thick,
red more or less deeply tinged with brown, and divided by deep fissures
into broad ridges covered on the surface with narrow closely appressed
or rarely loose scales. Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, durable in
contact with the soil, difficult to season, light or dark brown, with
thick lighter colored sapwood; largely used for fuel, fencing,
railway-ties, and sometimes in the manufacture of carriages, for
cooperage, and in construction.

Distribution. Dry gravelly or sandy uplands; Cape Cod and islands of
southern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Long Island, New York, to western
Florida and southern Alabama and Mississippi, and from New York westward
to southern Iowa, Missouri, eastern Kansas, western (Dewey County)
Oklahoma, Louisiana and Texas; most abundant and of its largest size in
the Mississippi basin; ascending on the southern Appalachian Mountains
to altitudes of 2500°; the common Oak of central Texas on limestone
hills and sandy plains forming the Texas “Cross Timbers”; usually
shrubby and rare and local in southern Massachusetts; more abundant
southward from the coast of the south Atlantic and the eastern Gulf
states to the lower slopes of the Appalachian Mountains; in western
Louisiana rarely in the moist soil of low lands.

Showing little variation in the shape of the fruit and in the character
of the cup scales _Quercus stellata_ is one of the most variable of
North American Oaks in habit, in the nature of the bark, and in the
presence or absence of pubescence. Some of the best marked varieties are
var. _araniosa_ Sarg., a large tree differing from the type in the
usually smooth upper surface of the leaves, in the floccose persistent
tomentum on their lower surface, in the less stout usually glabrous
yellow or reddish branchlets, and in its scaly bark; dry sandy soil,
southern Alabama, western Louisiana, southern Arkansas, eastern Oklahoma
and eastern Texas. Var. _paludosa_ Sarg., a tree up to 75° in height,
differing from the type in its oblong-obovate leaves 3-lobed above the
middle, slightly pubescent branchlets becoming nearly glabrous, and in
its scaly bark; in rich deep soil on the often inundated bottoms of
Kenison Bayou, near Washington, St. Landry Parish, Louisiana. Var.
_attenuata_ Sarg., a large tree differing from the type in the oblong to
oblong-obovate narrow leaves 3-lobed at apex and gradually narrowed to
the long cuneate base; near Arkansas Post on the White River, Arkansas
County, Arkansas. Var. _parviloba_ Sarg., a round-topped tree 25°—30°
high, differing from the type in the smaller lobes of the leaves with
more prominent reticulate veinlets; dry sandstone hills near Brownwood,
Brown County, Texas. Var. _anomala_ Sarg., a tree 15°—18° high,
differing from the type in its broadly obovate subcoriaceous leaves
slightly 3-lobed and rounded at apex; dry sandstone hills near
Brownwood, Brown County, Texas; possibly a hybrid. Var. _Palmeri_ Sarg.,
a shrub 6°—15° high, forming clumps, differing from the type in its
narrow oblong or slightly obovate 5—7-lobed leaves with narrow lobes,
densely tomentose below, and in the thicker and more tomentose scales of
the cup; sandy uplands, Elk City, Beckham County, Oklahoma. Var.
_rufescens_ Sarg., a shrub 12°—15° high, forming large clumps, differing
from the type in the rusty brown pubescence on the lower surface of the
polymorphous leaves, in the deeper cups of the fruit with thicker basal
scales; sandy uplands, Big Spring, Howard County, Texas, and Elk City,
Beckham County, Oklahoma. Var. _Boyntonii_ Sarg., a shrub or small tree
spreading into thickets, rarely more than 15° in height, differing from
the type in its obovate leaves, mostly 3—5-lobed toward the apex, with
small rounded lobes, and in their yellow-brown pubescence also found on
the branchlets; in glades on the summit of Lookout Mountain, above
Gadsden and Attala, Etowah County, Alabama.

The common and most widely distributed of the varieties of the Post Oak
is


                 Quercus stellata var. Margaretta Sarg.

                       _Quercus Margaretta_ Ashe

[Illustration: Fig. 270]

Leaves oblong-obovate, rounded at apex, cuneate or rounded at base,
3—5-lobed with usually narrow rounded, but often broad and truncate
lobes, the two forms frequently occurring on the same branch, usually
becoming glabrous on the upper surface early in the season, slightly
pubescent, sometimes becoming nearly glabrous below, 2½′—5′ long and
2′—2½′ wide; petioles glabrous or pubescent. Flowers and Fruit as in the
species.

A small tree, rarely 40° high, with slender glabrous reddish or reddish
brown branchlets. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, ¼′ long with closely
imbricated chestnut-brown scales glabrous, or ciliate on the margins.
Bark thick, rough and furrowed, light gray.

Distribution. Usually on dry sandy slopes, hills and ridges, and
southward on Pine-barren lands; coast of Virginia (Capron, Southampton
County) southward in the coast and middle districts to central (Lake and
Orange Counties) and western Florida, through central and southern
Alabama, and eastern and southern Mississippi; in Western Louisiana
(Natchitoches and Caddo Parishes); southern Arkansas (McNab, Hempstead
County), and southwestern Missouri (Prosperity, Jasper County). The
common Post Oak of the south Atlantic and Gulf states; occasionally a
shrub (f. _stonolifera_ Sarg.) 4°—6° high, with smaller leaves,
spreading into broad thickets by stoloniferous shoots; common near
Selma, Dallas County, Alabama, and on the dry sand hills of central
Oklahoma.

× _Quercus Harbisonii_ Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
stellata_ var. _Margaretta_ and _Q. virginiana_ var. _geminata_, has
been found in the neighborhood of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida.


                 45. Quercus Garryana Hook. White Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 271]

Leaves obovate to oblong, pointed at apex, cuneate or rounded at base,
coarsely pinnatifid-lobed, with slightly thickened revolute margins,
coated at first with soft pale lustrous pubescence, at maturity thick
and firm or subcoriaceous, dark green, lustrous and glabrous above,
light green or orange-brown and pubescent or glabrate below, 4′—6′ long,
2′—5′ wide, with a stout yellow midrib, and conspicuous primary veins
spreading at right angles, or gradually diverging from the midrib and
running to the points of the lobes; sometimes turning bright scarlet in
the autumn; petioles stout, pubescent, ½′—1′ in length. Flowers:
staminate in hirsute aments; calyx glabrous, laciniately cut into ovate
acute slightly ciliate or linear-lanceolate much elongated segments;
pistillate sessile and coated with pale tomentum. Fruit sessile or
short-stalked; nut oval to slightly obovoid and obtuse, 1′—1¼′ long and
½′—1′ thick, inclosed at the base in a shallow cup-shaped or slightly
turbinate cup puberulous and light brown on the inner surface, pubescent
or tomentose on the outer, and covered by ovate acute scales with
pointed and often elongated tips, thin, free, or sometimes thickened and
more or less united toward the base of the cup, decreasing from below
upward.

A tree, usually 60°—70° or sometimes nearly 100° high, with a trunk
2°—3° in diameter, stout ascending or spreading branches forming a broad
compact head, and stout branchlets coated at first with thick pale
rufous pubescence, pubescent or tomentose and light or dark orange color
during their first winter, becoming glabrous and rather bright reddish
brown in their second year and ultimately gray; frequently at high
altitudes, or when exposed to the winds from the ocean, reduced to a low
shrub. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, ⅓′—½′ long, densely clothed with light
ferrugineous tomentum. Bark ⅛′—1′ thick, divided by shallow fissures
into broad ridges separating on the surface into light brown or gray
scales sometimes slightly tinged with orange color. Wood strong, hard,
close-grained, frequently exceedingly tough, light brown or yellow, with
thin nearly white sapwood; in Oregon and Washington used in the
manufacture of carriages and wagons, in cabinet-making, shipbuilding,
and cooperage, and largely as fuel.

Distribution. Valleys and the dry gravelly slopes of low hills;
Vancouver Island and the valley of the lower Fraser River southward
through western Washington and Oregon and the California coast-valleys
to Marin County; rare and local and the only Oak-tree in British
Columbia; abundant and of its largest size in the valleys of western
Washington and Oregon; on the islands in the northern part of Puget
Sound reduced to a low shrub (Vine Oak); ascending in its shrubby forms
to considerable altitudes on the western slopes of the Cascade
Mountains; abundant in northwestern California; less common and of
smaller size southward.


                      46. Quercus utahensis Rydb.

[Illustration: Fig. 272]

Leaves oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and rounded or cuneate at
base, divided often nearly to the midrib by broad or narrow sinuses into
four or five pairs of lateral lobes rounded or acute at apex, the upper
lobes usually again lobed or undulate, the terminal lobe rounded at
apex, entire or three-lobed, thick, dark green, glabrous or nearly
glabrous above, pale and soft pubescent below, 2½′—7′ long, 1½′—3½′
wide, with a prominent midrib and primary veins, and conspicuous
veinlets; petioles stout, hoary-tomentose early in the season, pubescent
or glabrous before maturity, ⅖′—1′ in length. Flowers: staminate in
aments covered with fascicled hairs, 2′—2½′ long; calyx scarious,
divided to the middle by wide sinuses into narrow acuminate lobes;
anthers yellow; pistillate usually solitary or in pairs, the scales of
the involucre thickly coated with hoary tomentum. Fruit usually
solitary, sessile or raised on a stout pubescent peduncle ¼′—½′ in
length; nut ovoid, broad and rounded at the ends, ⅗′—¾′ long, ½′—2½′
thick, usually inclosed for about half its length in the thick
hemispheric cup covered with broad ovate pale pubescent scales much
thickened on the back and closely appressed below the middle of the cup,
gradually reduced in size upward, thin and less closely appressed toward
its rim bordered by the free projecting tips of the upper row of scales.

A tree, occasionally 30° high, with a trunk 4′—8′ in diameter, thick
erect branches forming a narrow open head, and stout branchlets
red-brown and covered with fascicled hairs when they first appear,
becoming light orange-brown and puberulous. Bark dark gray-brown, rough
and scaly.

Distribution. Dry foothill slopes and the sides of cañons; borders of
southwestern Wyoming to the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains of
Colorado, and to Utah, northern New Mexico and Arizona, passing into
var. _mollis_ Sarg. with thinner scales on the lower part of the cup of
the fruit; with the species over its whole range, but most abundant on
the Colorado Plateau of northern Arizona; here rarely 40° high, with a
trunk 18′—20′ in diameter.


             47. Quercus lobata Née. White Oak. Valley Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 273]

Leaves oblong to obovate, deeply 7—11 obliquely lobed, rounded at the
narrow apex, narrow and cuneate or broad and rounded or cordate at base,
the lateral lobes obovate, obtuse or retuse, or ovate and rounded, thin,
2½′—3′ or rarely 4′ long, 1′—2′ wide, dark green and pubescent above,
pale and pubescent below, with a stout pale midrib, and conspicuous
yellow veins running to the slightly thickened and revolute margins;
petioles stout, hirsute, ¼′—½′ in length. Flowers: staminate in hirsute
aments 2′—3′ long; calyx light yellow and divided into 6 or 8 acute
pubescent ciliate lobes; pistillate solitary, sessile or rarely in
elongated few-flowered spikes, their involucral scales broadly ovate,
acute, coated with dense pale tomentum, about as long as the narrow
calyx-lobes. Fruit solitary or in pairs, nearly sessile; nut conic,
elongated, rounded or pointed at apex, 1¼′—2¼′ long, bright green and
lustrous when fully grown, becoming bright chestnut-brown, usually
inclosed for about one third its length in the cup-shaped cup coated
with pale tomentum on the outer surface, usually irregularly tuberculate
below, all but the much-thickened basal scales elongated into acute
ciliate chestnut-brown free tips longest on the upper scales and forming
a short fringe-like border to the rim of the cup.

A tree, often 100° feet high, with a trunk generally 3°—4°, but
sometimes 10° in diameter, divided near the ground or usually 20°—30°
above it into great limbs spreading at wide angles and forming a broad
head of slender branches hanging gracefully in long sprays and sometimes
sweeping the ground; less frequently with upper limbs growing almost at
right angles with the trunk and forming a narrow rigid head of variously
contorted erect or pendant branches, and slender branchlets coated at
first with short silky canescent pubescence, ashy gray, light reddish
brown, or pale orange-brown and slightly pubescent in their first
winter, becoming glabrous and lighter colored during their second year.
Winter-buds ovoid, acute, usually about ¼′ long, with orange-brown
pubescent scales scarious and frequently ciliate on the margins. Bark
¾′—1½′ thick and covered by small loosely appressed light gray scales
slightly tinged with orange or brown, becoming at the base of old trees
frequently 5′—6′ thick and divided by longitudinal fissures into broad
flat ridges broken horizontally into short plates. Wood hard,
fine-grained, brittle, light brown, with thin lighter colored sapwood;
used only for fuel.

Distribution. Valleys of western California between the Sierra Nevada
and the ocean from the valley of the Trinity River to Kern and Los
Angeles (rare) Counties; most abundant and forming open groves in the
central valleys of the state.


                     48. Quercus leptophylla Rydb.

[Illustration: Fig. 274]

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, cuneate or rarely rounded at base,
divided about halfway to the midrib into two to four acute or rounded
lateral lobes entire or occasionally furnished on the lower side with a
small nearly triangular lobe, the terminal lobe short, entire, rounded
at apex or three-lobed, when they unfold thickly coated with hoary
tomentum, about one-third grown when the flowers open and then covered
above with fascicled hairs and tomentose below, at maturity thin, dark
green, lustrous and glabrous or nearly glabrous on the upper surface,
yellow-green and covered below by short white hairs most abundant on the
midrib and veins, 3½′—4′ long, 1½′—2′ wide; petioles slender, pubescent
⅓′—½′ in length. Flowers: staminate in slender villose aments; calyx
scarious, divided into five or six narrow acute lobes; anthers dark
red-brown as the flowers open; pistillate not seen. Fruit solitary or
racemose, sessile or raised on a stout tomentose peduncle ⅖′—⅗′ in
length; nut oblong-ovoid, abruptly narrowed and rounded at base,
gradually narrowed and rounded at apex, ½′—¾′ long; inclosed for half
its length in the thin, hemispheric cup, ⅖′—½′ in diameter, and covered
with acuminate only slightly thickened appressed scales densely covered
with hoary tomentum.

A tree, 30°—45° high, with a trunk 16′—24′ in diameter, heavy spreading
ashy gray branches forming a round-topped head, and stout branchlets,
light red-brown or purple and covered with long fascicled hairs when
they first appear, becoming light brown and glabrous before autumn. Bark
thick, deeply furrowed, covered with small appressed pale gray scales.

Distribution. Rich bottom-lands of the Cucharas River above La Veta,
Huerfano County, Colorado; on the Mogollon Mountains, Socorro County,
New Mexico.


                      49. Quercus austrina Small.

[Illustration: Fig. 275]

Leaves oblong-obovate, acute or rounded at apex, gradually narrowed to
the long cuneate base or rarely rounded at base, usually 5-lobed with
rounded lobes, the terminal lobe often 3-lobed, the upper lateral lobes
pointing forward and much larger than those of the lower pair, or
occasionally 3-lobed at the broad apex, or rarely nearly entire with
undulate margins, when they unfold sparsely covered below with caducous
fascicled hairs, at maturity glabrous, dark green and lustrous above,
paler below, 3′—8′ long, 1′—4′ wide, with a prominent midrib and slender
primary veins; petioles slender, at first pubescent, soon glabrous,
¼′—⅓′ in length. Flowers not seen. Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile
or raised on a stout stalk up to ½′ in length; nut ovoid, slightly
narrowed toward the base, narrowed at the rounded pubescent apex, ½′—¾′
long, ½′ thick, inclosed for a third to a half its length in the thin
hemispheric or deep cup-shaped cup, pale tomentose on the inner surface
and covered with thin narrow loosely appressed blunt-pointed tomentose
scales.

A tree, 70°—80° and rarely 100° high, with a tall trunk 2°—3° in
diameter, spreading and ascending branches forming a broad rather open
head, and slender glabrous red-brown or gray-brown brittle-jointed
branchlets. Winter-buds ovoid to ellipsoid, acute, ⅛′—¼′ long, with
closely imbricated acute puberulous chestnut-brown scales ciliate on the
margins. Bark pale, scaly, and on old trunks divided into broad ridges.

Distribution. Banks of streams and river bluffs in deep rich soil; coast
of South Carolina (Bluffton, Clay County, and near Charleston); Dover,
Scriven County, McIntosh County, De Soto Co., Sumter County, and near
Bainbridge, Decatur County, Georgia, to central and western Florida
(Gainesville, Alachua County, near Santos, Marion County, Lake City,
Columbia County, River Junction, Gadsden County, Marianna, Jackson
County); western Alabama (Gallion, Hale County, and the neighborhood of
Selma [common] and Pleasant Hill, Dallas County); and southern
Mississippi (Meridian, Lauderdale County, Laurel, Jones County, Byram
and near Jackson, Hinds County, near Natchez, Adams County).


                     50. Quercus alba L. White Oak.

[Illustration: Fig. 276]

Leaves oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, divided
often nearly to the midrib by narrow or broad sinuses usually oblique in
the bottom into 7 or 9 lobes, the lateral, narrow, lanceolate or
obovate, pointing forward, rounded or acute and often lobed at apex, the
terminal usually obovate and 3-lobed, when they unfold bright red above,
pale below and coated with soft pubescence, soon becoming silvery white
and very lustrous, at maturity thin, firm, glabrous, bright green and
lustrous or dull above, pale or glaucous below, 5′—9′ long, 2′—4′ wide,
with a stout bright yellow midrib and conspicuous primary veins; turning
late in the autumn deep rich vinous red, gradually withering and
sometimes remaining on the branches nearly through the winter; petioles
stout, glabrous, ½′—1′ in length. Flowers: staminate in hirsute or
nearly glabrous aments 2½′—3′ long; calyx bright yellow and pubescent,
with acute lobes; pistillate bright red, their involucral scales broadly
ovate, hirsute, about as long as the ovate acute calyx-lobes. Fruit
sessile or raised on a slender peduncle 1′—2′ long, the two forms
sometimes appearing on the same branch; nut ovoid to oblong, rounded at
apex, lustrous, ¾′ long, green when fully grown, becoming light
chestnut-brown, inclosed for about one fourth its length in the
cup-shaped cup coated with pale or light brown tomentum, its scales at
the base much thickened, united and produced into short obtuse
membranaceous tips, and thinner toward the rim of the cup.

A tree, 80°—100° high, with a trunk 3°—4° in diameter, tall and naked in
the forest, short in the open, and surmounted by a broad round-topped
head of stout limbs spreading irregularly, small rigid branches, and
slender branchlets at first bright green, often tinged with red, and
coated with a loose mass of long pale or ferrugineous deciduous hairs,
reddish brown during the summer, bright red and lustrous or covered with
a glaucous bloom during their first winter, becoming ultimately ashy
gray. Winter-buds broadly ovoid, rather obtuse, dark red-brown, about ⅛′
long. Bark light gray slightly tinged with red or brown, or occasionally
nearly white, broken into thin appressed scales, becoming on old trunks
sometimes 2′ thick and divided into broad flat ridges. Wood strong, very
heavy, hard, tough, close-grained, durable, light brown, with thin light
brown sapwood; used in shipbuilding, for construction and in cooperage,
the manufacture of carriages, agricultural implements, baskets, the
interior finish of houses, cabinet-making, for railway-ties and fences,
and largely as fuel.

Distribution. Sandy plains and gravelly ridges, rich uplands,
intervales, and moist bottom-lands, sometimes forming nearly pure
forests; southern Maine to southwestern Quebec, westward through
southern Ontario, the southern peninsula of Michigan, southeastern
Minnesota, eastern Iowa, and southeastern Nebraska, and southward to
western Florida, through the Gulf states to the valley of the Brazos
River, Texas and through Arkansas to eastern Oklahoma, eastern Kansas,
Missouri, Tennessee, and Kentucky; ascending the southern Appalachian
Mountains as a low bush to altitudes of 4500°; most abundant and of its
largest size on the lower western slopes of the Alleghany Mountains and
on the bottom-lands of the lower Ohio Basin. Passing into


                    Quercus alba var. latiloba Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 277]

Leaves obovate-oblong, acute or rounded at apex, gradually narrowed and
cuneate at base, divided usually less than half way to the midrib into
broad rounded lobes; rarely obovate, with undulate margins, or slightly
lobed, with broad rounded lobes (var. _repanda_ Michx.). Flowers as in
the type. Fruit rarely more than 1½′ in length, with usually thinner cup
scales.

Distribution. More abundant than the species and the common northern
White Oak.

× _Quercus Beadlei_ Trel., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus alba_ and
_Q. Prinus_, has been found in a swamp near Clarkton, Bladen County,
North Carolina.

× _Quercus Bebbiana_ Schn., probably a hybrid of _Quercus alba_ and _Q.
macrocarpa_, occurs at Charlotte, Chittenden County, Vermont, and near
Kenton, Hardin County, Ohio.

× _Quercus Deamii_ Trel., with characters intermediate between those of
_Quercus alba_ and _Q. Muehlenbergii_ and evidently a hybrid of these
species, is growing near Bluffton, Wells County, Indiana.

× _Quercus Faxonii_ Trel., with characters intermediate between those of
_Quercus alba_ and _Q. prinoides_ and evidently a hybrid of these
species, has been found in East Walpole, Norfolk County, and Concord,
Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and at Greenville, Montcalm County,
Michigan.

× _Quercus Fernowii_ Trel., evidently a hybrid of _Quercus alba_ and _Q.
stellata_, has been found near Allenton, St. Louis County, Missouri, and
on Red Clay Creek, Virginia.

× _Quercus Jackiana_ Schn., evidently a hybrid of _Quercus alba_ and _Q.
bicolor_, is growing in Franklin Park, Boston.

× _Quercus Saulei_ Schn., with characters intermediate between those of
_Q. alba_ and _Q. montana_ and evidently a hybrid of these species,
occurs with widely distributed individuals in Vermont (Monkton, Addison
County), eastern Massachusetts, near Providence, Rhode Island, New
Jersey, eastern Pennsylvania, and the District of Columbia, on the
Appalachian Mountains near Biltmore, Buncombe County, and Highlands,
Macon County, North Carolina, at Valleyhead, Gadsden County, Alabama,
and in Richland County, Illinois.


              51. Quercus bicolor Willd. Swamp White Oak.

                      _Quercus platanoides_ Sudw.

[Illustration: Fig. 278]

Leaves obovate to oblong-obovate, rounded at the narrowed apex, acute or
rounded at the gradually narrowed and cuneate entire base, coarsely
sinuate-dentate, or sometimes pinnatifid, with oblique rounded or acute
entire lobes, when they unfold light bronze-green and pilose above,
covered below with silvery white tomentum, with conspicuous glands on
the teeth, at maturity thick and firm, dark green and lustrous on the
upper surface, pale or often silvery white or tawny on the lower
surface, 5′—6′ long, 2′—4′ wide, with a slender yellow midrib, primary
veins running to the points of the lobes, and conspicuous reticulate
veinlets; turning in the autumn dull yellow-brown or occasionally
orange-color or rarely scarlet before falling; petioles stout, pilose at
first, becoming glabrous, ½′—¾′ in length. Flowers: staminate in hairy
aments 3′—4′ long; calyx light yellow-green, hirsute with pale hairs,
and deeply divided into 5—9 lanceolate acute segments rather shorter
than the stamens; pistillate in few-flowered spikes on elongated
peduncles covered like the involucral scales with thick white or tawny
tomentum; stigmas bright red. Fruit usually in pairs on slender dark
brown glabrous puberulous or pubescent stalks 1½′—4′ in length; nut
ovoid, with a broad base, rounded, acute and pubescent at apex, light
chestnut-brown, ¾′—1¼′ long, ½′—¾′ thick, inclosed for about one third
its length in the thick cup-shaped light brown cup pubescent on the
inner surface, hoary-tomentose, and sometimes tuberculate or roughened
toward the base on the outer surface by the thickened contorted tips of
the ovate acute scales, thin, free, acute and chestnut-brown higher on
the cup, and often forming a short fringe-like border on its margin, or
sometimes entirely covered by thin scales with free acute tips.

A tree, usually 60°—70° or exceptionally 100° high, with a trunk 2°—3°
or occasionally 8°—9° in diameter, rather small branches generally
pendulous below and rising above into a narrow round-topped open head
and often furnished with short pendulous laterals, and stout branchlets,
green, lustrous, and slightly scurfy-pubescent when they first appear,
light orange color or reddish brown and glabrous or puberulous during
their first winter, becoming darker and often purplish and clothed with
a glaucous bloom. Winter-buds broadly ovoid and obtuse, or subglobose to
ovoid and acute, ⅛′ long, with light chestnut-brown scales usually
pilose above the middle. Bark of young stems and small branches smooth,
reddish or purplish brown, separating freely into large papery
persistent scales curling back and displaying the bright green inner
bark; becoming on old trunks 1′—2′ thick, and deeply and irregularly
divided by continuous or interrupted fissures into broad flat ridges
covered by small appressed gray-brown scales often slightly tinged with
red. Wood heavy, hard, strong, tough, light brown, with thin hardly
distinguishable sapwood; used in construction, the interior finish of
houses, cabinet-making, carriage and boat-building, cooperage, and
railway-ties, and for fencing and fuel.

Distribution. Borders of streams and swamps in moist fertile soil;
southern Maine to northern Vermont and southwestern Quebec, through
Ontario and the southern peninsula of Michigan to southeastern
Minnesota, eastern and southern Iowa, southeastern Nebraska and western
Missouri, and to the District of Columbia, northern Kentucky and
northeastern Oklahoma, and along the Appalachian Mountains to West
Virginia; widely scattered, usually in small groves but nowhere very
abundant; most common and of its largest size in western New York and
northern Ohio.

× _Quercus Schuettii_ Trel., with characters intermediate between those
of _Quercus bicolor_ and _Q. macrocarpa_, and probably a hybrid of these
species, occurs at Fort Howard, Brown County, Wisconsin, near Rockfield
and Chateaugay, Quebec, and near Rochester and Golah, Munroe County, New
York.


               52. Quercus Prinus L. Basket Oak. Cow Oak.

                       _Quercus Michauxii_ Nutt.

[Illustration: Fig. 279]

Leaves broadly obovate to oblong-obovate, acute or acuminate at apex
with a short broad point, cuneate or rounded at the broad or narrow
entire base, regularly crenately lobed with oblique rounded entire lobes
sometimes furnished with glandular tips, or rarely entire with undulate
margins, when they unfold bright yellow-green, lustrous and pubescent
above, coated below with thick silvery white or ferrugineous tomentum,
at maturity thick and firm or sometimes membranaceous, especially on
young and vigorous branches, dark green, lustrous, glabrous or
occasionally roughened by scattered fascicled hairs on the upper
surface, more or less densely pubescent on the pale green or silvery
white lower surface, 6′—8′ long, 3′—5′ wide; turning in the autumn dark
rich crimson; petioles stout, ½′—1½′ in length. Flowers: staminate in
slender hairy aments, 3′—4′ long; calyx light yellow-green, pilose with
long pale hairs, and divided into 4—7 acute lobes; pistillate in
few-flowered spikes on short peduncles coated like the involucral scales
with dense pale rufous tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit solitary or in
pairs, sessile or subsessile, or borne on short stout puberulous stalks
rarely ½′ in length; nut ovoid to ellipsoidal, with a broad base, and
acute, rounded, or occasionally truncate at apex surrounded by a narrow
ring of rusty pubescence, or sometimes pilose nearly to the middle,
bright brown, rather lustrous, 1′—1½′ long, ¾′—1¼′ thick, inclosed for
about one third its length in the thick cup-shaped cup often broad and
flat on the bottom, reddish brown and pubescent within, hoary-tomentose
and covered on the outer surface by regularly imbricated ovate acute
scales rounded and much thickened on the back, their short tips
sometimes forming a rigid fringe-like border to the rim of the cup; seed
sweet and edible.

A tree, often 100° high, with a trunk sometimes free of branches for
40°—50°, and 3°—7° in diameter, stout branches ascending at narrow
angles and forming a round-topped rather compact head, and stout
branchlets at first dark green and covered by pale caducous hairs,
becoming bright red-brown or light orange-brown during their first
winter and ultimately ashy gray. Winter-buds broadly ovoid or oval,
acute, ¼′ long, with thin closely and regularly imbricated dark red
puberulous scales with pale margins, those of the inner ranks coated on
the outer surface with loose pale tomentum. Bark ½′—1′ thick, separating
into thin closely appressed silvery white or ashy gray scales more or
less deeply tinged with red. Wood heavy, hard, very strong, tough,
close-grained, durable, easy to split, light-brown, with thin darker
colored sapwood; largely used in all kinds of construction, for
agricultural implements, wheels, in cooperage, for fences and fuel, and
in baskets.

Distribution. Borders of streams, swamps, and bottom-lands often covered
with water; New Jersey (Morristown, Morris County and Pittsgrove, Salem
County), near Wilmington, Delaware, southward through the coast and
middle districts to Putnam (San Mateo) and Citrus Counties, Florida,
through the Gulf states to the valley of the Trinity River, Texas, and
through Arkansas and southeastern Missouri to central Tennessee and
Kentucky, the valley of the lower Wabash River, Illinois, and southern
Indiana eastward to Jefferson County (_C. C. Deam_); conspicuous from
the silvery white bark, the massive trunk, and the broad crown of large
bright-colored foliage.


        53. Quercus montana L. Chestnut Oak. Rock Chestnut Oak.

                    _Quercus Prinus_ Engelm., not L.

[Illustration: Fig. 280]

Leaves obovate or oblong to lanceolate, acute or acuminate or rounded at
apex, gradually or abruptly cuneate or rounded or subcordate at the
narrow entire base, irregularly and coarsely crenulate-toothed with
rounded, acute, or sometimes nearly triangular oblique teeth, when they
unfold orange-green or bronze-red, very lustrous, and glabrous above
with the exception of the slightly pilose midrib, green and coated below
with soft pale pubescence, at maturity thick and firm or subcoriaceous,
yellow-green and rather lustrous on the upper surface, paler and covered
by fine pubescence on the lower surface, 4½′—9′ long, 1½′—3′ wide, with
a stout yellow midrib and conspicuous primary veins, often much broader
near the bottom of the tree than on fertile upper branches; turning dull
orange color or rusty brown in the autumn; petioles stout or slender,
½′—1′ in length. Flowers: staminate in elongated hirsute aments; calyx
light yellow, pilose and deeply divided into 7—9 acute segments tipped
with clusters of pale hairs; pistillate in short spikes on stout
puberulous dark green peduncles, their involucral scales covered with
pale hairs; stigmas dark red. Fruit on short stout stems singly or in
pairs; nut ovoid or ellipsoidal, rounded and rather obtuse or pointed at
apex, bright chestnut-brown, very lustrous, 1′—1½′ long, ⅝′—1′ thick,
inclosed for about half its length or sometimes only at the base in a
turbinate or cup-shaped thin cup light brown and pubescent on the inner
surface, reddish brown and hoary-pubescent on the outer surface
roughened or tuberculate, especially toward the base, by small scales
thickened and knob-like with nearly triangular free light brown tips.

A tree, usually 60°—70° or occasionally 100° high, with a trunk 3°—4° or
rarely 6°—7° in diameter, divided generally 15° or 20° above the ground
into large limbs spreading into a broad open rather irregular head, and
stout branchlets green tinged with purple or bronze color and glabrous
or pilose when they first appear, light orange color or reddish brown
during their first winter, becoming dark gray or brown; on dry exposed
mountain slopes often not more than 20°—30° tall, with a trunk 8′—12′ in
diameter. Winter-buds ovoid, acute or acuminate, ¼′—½′ long, with bright
chestnut-brown scales pilose toward the apex and ciliate on the margins.
Bark of young stems and small branches thin, smooth, purplish brown,
often lustrous, becoming on old trunks and large limbs ¾′—1½′ thick,
dark reddish brown or nearly black, and divided into broad rounded
ridges covered with small closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard,
strong, rather tough, close-grained, durable in contact with the soil,
largely used for fencing, railway-ties, and fuel. The bark, which is
rich in tannin, is consumed in large quantities in tanning leather.

Distribution. Hillsides and the high rocky banks of streams in rich and
deep or sometimes in sterile soil; coast of southern Maine, southern New
Hampshire and eastern Massachusetts, southward to Delaware and the
District of Columbia, and along the Appalachian Mountains and their
foothills to northern Georgia (Wilkes County); ascending to altitudes of
4000°—4500°; in northern Alabama; westward to the shores of Lake
Champlain, western New York; southeastern and southern Ohio, and
southern Indiana westward to Orange County (_C. C. Deam_); and to
central Kentucky and Tennessee, and northeastern Mississippi (Alcorn,
Prentiss and Tishomingo Counties); rare and local in New England and
Ontario; abundant on the banks of the lower Hudson River and on the
Appalachian hills from southern New York to Alabama; most common and of
its largest size on the lower slopes of the mountains of the Carolinas
and Tennessee, here often forming a large part of the forest.

× _Quercus Sargentii_ Rehd., believed to be a hybrid of _Quercus
montana_ and the European _Q. Robur_ L., has been growing for nearly a
hundred years at what is now Holm Lea, Brookline, Norfolk County,
Massachusetts.


      54. Quercus Muehlenbergii Engelm. Yellow Oak. Chestnut Oak.

                       _Quercus acuminata_ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 281]

Leaves usually crowded at the ends of the branches, oblong-lanceolate to
broadly obovate, acute or acuminate with a long narrow or with a short
broad point, abruptly or gradually narrowed and cuneate or slightly
narrowed and rounded or cordate at base, equally serrate with acute and
often incurved or broad and rounded teeth tipped with small glandular
mucros, or rarely slightly undulate, when they unfold bright bronzy
green and puberulous above, tinged with purple and coated below with
pale tomentum, at maturity thick and firm, light yellow-green on the
upper surface, pale often silvery white and covered with short fine
pubescence on the lower surface, 4′—7′ long, 1′—5′ wide, with a stout
yellow midrib and conspicuous primary veins running to the points of the
teeth; turning in the autumn orange color and scarlet; petioles slender
¾′—1½′ in length. Flowers: staminate in pilose aments 3′—4′ long; calyx
light yellow, hairy, deeply divided into 5 or 6 lanceolate ciliate
segments; pistillate sessile or in short spikes coated like their
involucral scales with thick white tomentum; stigmas bright red. Fruit
sessile or raised on a short stout peduncle, solitary or often in pairs;
nut broadly ovoid, narrowed and rounded at apex, ½′ to nearly 1′ long,
light chestnut-brown, inclosed for about half its length in a thin
cup-shaped light brown cup pubescent on the inner, hoary-tomentose on
the outer surface, and covered by small obtuse scales more or less
thickened and rounded on the back toward the base of the cup, the small
free red-brown tips of the upper ranks forming a minute fringe-like
border to its rim; seed sweet and sometimes edible.

A tree, 80°—100°, occasionally 160° high, with a tall straight trunk
3°—4° in diameter above the broad and often buttressed base,
comparatively small branches forming a narrow shapely round-topped head,
and slender branchlets, green more or less tinged with red or purple,
pilose when they first appear, light orange color or reddish brown
during their first winter, and ultimately gray or brown; east of the
Alleghany Mountains and on dry hills often not more than 20°—30° tall.
Winter-buds ovoid, acute, ⅛′—¼′ long, with chestnut-brown scales white
and scarious on the margins. Bark rarely ½′ thick, broken on the surface
into thin loose silvery white scales sometimes slightly tinged with
brown. Wood heavy, very hard, strong, close-grained, durable, with thin
light-colored sapwood; largely used in cooperage, for wheels, fencing,
and railway-ties.

Distribution. Gardner’s Island, Lake Champlain, Vermont, western
Massachusetts and Connecticut, near Newberg, Orange County, New York,
westward through New York, southern Ontario and southern Michigan to
northern Iowa, southeastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and Oklahoma to
the valley of the Washita River (Garvin County) and to the Devil’s Cañon
near Hinton (Caddo County), and southward in the Atlantic states to the
District of Columbia, eastern Virginia; sparingly on the eastern
foothills of the Blue Ridge in North and South Carolina at altitudes
between 1000° and 2000°; in central Tennessee and Kentucky, central and
northeastern Georgia, western Florida, and through the Gulf states to
the valley of the Guadalupe River, Texas; on the Guadalupe Mountains,
Texas, and on the Capitan Mountains, New Mexico (Lincoln County); rare
and comparatively local in the Atlantic states, usually on limestone
soil; very abundant in the Mississippi basin, growing on ridges, dry
flinty hills, deep rich bottom-lands and the rocky banks of streams;
probably of its largest size on the lower Wabash River and its
tributaries in southern Indiana and Illinois; on the Edwards Plateau
(Kemble, Kerr, Uvalde, Bandera and Real Counties), Texas, a form occurs
with nuts sometimes 1¼′ long with deeper cups up to 1′ in diameter (var.
_Brayi_ Sarg.).

Section 2. Flowers unisexual (_usually perfect in Ulmus_); calyx
regular; stamens as many as its lobes and opposite them; ovary superior,
1-celled (_rarely 2-celled in Ulmus_); seed 1.



                              XI. ULMACEÆ.


Trees, with watery juice, scaly buds, terete branchlets prolonged by an
upper lateral bud, and alternate simple serrate pinnately veined
deciduous stalked 2-ranked leaves unequal and often oblique at base,
conduplicate in the bud, their stipules usually fugaceous. Flowers
perfect or monœciously polygamous, clustered, or the pistillate
sometimes solitary; calyx 4—9-parted or lobed; stamens 4—6; filaments
straight; anthers introrse, 2-celled, opening longitudinally; ovary
usually 1-celled; ovule solitary, suspended from the apex of the cell,
anatropous or amphitropous; styles 2. Fruit a samara, nut, or drupe;
albumen little or none; embryo straight or curved; cotyledons usually
flat or conduplicate. Five of the thirteen genera of the Elm family
occur in North America. Of these four are represented by trees.


          CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA.

  Fruit a dry samara, or nut-like.
    Flowers perfect; fruit a samara.
                                                               1. Ulmus.
    Flowers polygamo-monœcious; fruit nut-like, tuberculate.
                                                             2. Planera.
  Fruit drupaceous.
    Pistillate flowers usually solitary.
                                                              3. Celtis.
    Pistillate flowers in dichotomous cymes.
                                                               4. Trema.



                            1. ULMUS L. Elm.


Trees, or rarely shrubs, with deeply furrowed bark, branchlets often
furnished with corky wings, and buds with numerous ovate rounded
chestnut-brown scales closely imbricated in two ranks, increasing in
size from without inward, the inner accrescent, replacing the stipules
of the first leaves, deciduous, marking the base of the branchlet with
persistent ring-like scars. Leaves simply or doubly serrate; stipules
linear, lanceolate to obovate, entire, free or connate at base,
scarious, inclosing the leaf in the bud, caducous. Flowers from axillary
buds near the ends of the branches similar to but larger than the
leaf-buds, the outer scales sterile, the inner bearing flowers and
rarely leaves. Flowers perfect, jointed on slender bibracteolate
pedicels from the axils of linear acute scarious bracts, in pedunculate
or subsessile fascicles or cymes sometimes becoming racemose, appearing
in early spring before the leaves in the axils of those of the previous
year, or autumnal in the axils of leaves of the year; calyx campanulate,
5—9-lobed, membranaceous, marcescent; stamens 5 or 6 inserted under the
ovary; filaments filiform or slightly flattened, erect in the bud,
becoming exserted; anthers oblong, emarginate, and subcordate; ovary
sessile or stipitate, compressed, crowned by a simple deeply 2-lobed
style, the spreading lobes papillo-stigmatic on the inner face, usually
1-celled by abortion, rarely 2-celled; ovule amphitropous; micropyle
extrorse, superior. Fruit an ovoid or oblong, often oblique, sessile or
stipitate samara surrounded at base by the remnants of the calyx, the
seminal cavity compressed, slightly thickened on the margin,
chartaceous, produced into a thin reticulate-venulose membranaceous
light brown broad or rarely narrow wing naked or ciliate on the margin,
tipped with the remnants of the persistent style, or more or less deeply
notched at apex, and often marked by the thickened line of the union of
the two carpels. Seed ovoid, compressed, without albumen, marked on the
ventral edge by the thin raphe; testa membranaceous, light or dark
chestnut-brown, of two coats, rarely produced into a narrow wing; embryo
erect; cotyledons flat or slightly convex, much longer than the superior
radicle turned toward the oblong linear pale hilum.

Ulmus, with eighteen or twenty species, is widely distributed through
the boreal and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere with the
exception of western North America, reaching in the New World the
mountains of southern Mexico and in the Old World the Sikkim Himalaya,
western China, and Japan. Of the exotic species, _Ulmus procera_
Salisb., the so-called English Elm, and _Ulmus glabra_, Huds., the
Scotch Elm, and several of its varieties, have been largely planted for
shade and ornament in the north Atlantic states, where old and large
specimens of the former can be seen, especially in the neighborhood of
Boston.

Ulmus produces heavy, hard, tough, light-colored wood, often difficult
to split. The tough inner bark of some of the species is made into ropes
or woven into coarse cloth, and in northern China nourishing
mucilaginous food is prepared from the inner bark.

_Ulmus_ is the classical name of the Elm-tree.


               CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.

  Flowers vernal, appearing before the leaves.
    Flowers on slender drooping pedicels; fruit ciliate on the margins.
      Wing of the fruit broad.
        Bud-scales and fruit glabrous; branchlets destitute of corky
              wings; leaves obovate-oblong to elliptic, usually smooth
              on the upper, soft-pubescent on the lower surface.
                                                 1. U. americana (A, C).
        Bud-scales puberulous; branches often furnished with corky
              wings; fruit hirsute; leaves obovate to oblong, smooth on
              the upper, soft-pubescent on the lower surface.
                                                     2. U. racemosa (A).
      Wing of the fruit narrow; bud-scales glabrous or slightly
            puberulous; branchlets usually furnished with broad corky
            wings; fruit hirsute, leaves ovate-oblong to
            oblong-lanceolate, smooth on the upper, soft-pubescent on
            the lower surface.
                                                     3. U. alata (A, C).
    Flowers on short pedicels; fruit naked on the margins; bud-scales
          coated with rusty hairs; fruit pubescent; leaves ovate-oblong,
          scabrous on the upper, pubescent on the lower surface.
                                                     4. U. fulva (A, C).
  Flowers autumnal, appearing in the axils of leaves of the year;
        branchlets furnished with corky wings; fruit hirsute.
    Bud-scales puberulous; flowers on short pedicels; leaves ovate,
          scabrous on the upper, soft-pubescent on the lower surface.
                                                  5. U. crassifolia (C).
    Bud-scales glabrous; flowers on long pedicels; leaves oblong to
          oblong-obovate, acuminate, glabrous on the upper, pale and
          puberulous on the lower surface.
                                                     6. U. serotina (C).


                    1. Ulmus americana L. White Elm.

[Illustration: Fig. 282]

Leaves obovate-oblong to elliptic, abruptly narrowed at apex into a long
point, full and rounded at base on one side and shorter and cuneate on
the other, coarsely doubly serrate with slightly incurved teeth, when
they unfold coated below with pale pubescence and pilose above with long
scattered white hairs, at maturity 4′—6′ long, 1′—3′ wide, dark green
and glabrous or scabrate above, pale and soft-pubescent or sometimes
glabrous below, with a narrow pale midrib and numerous slender straight
primary veins running to the points of the teeth and connected by fine
cross veinlets; turning bright clear yellow in the autumn before
falling; petioles stout, ¼′ in length; stipules linear-lanceolate, ½′—2′
long. Flowers on long slender drooping pedicels sometimes 1′ in length,
in 3 or 4-flowered short-stalked fascicles; calyx irregularly divided
into 7—9 rounded lobes ciliate on the margins, often somewhat oblique,
puberulous on the outer surface, green tinged with red above the middle;
anthers bright red; ovary light green, ciliate on the margins with long
white hairs; styles light green. Fruit on long pedicels in crowded
clusters, ripening as the leaves unfold, ovoid to obovoid-oblong,
slightly stipitate, conspicuously reticulate-venulose, ½′ long, ciliate
on the margins, the sharp points of the wings incurved and inclosing the
deep notch.

A tree, sometimes 100°—120° high, with a tall trunk 6°—11° in diameter,
frequently enlarged at the base by great buttresses, occasionally rising
with a straight undivided shaft to the height of 60°—80° and separating
into short spreading branches, more commonly divided 30°—40° from the
ground into numerous upright limbs gradually spreading and forming an
inversely conic round-topped head of long graceful branches, often 100°
or rarely 150° in diameter, and slender branchlets frequently fringing
the trunk and its principal divisions, light green and coated at first
with soft pale pubescence, becoming in their first winter light reddish
brown, glabrous or sometimes puberulous and marked by scattered pale
lenticels, and by large elevated semiorbicular leaf-scars showing the
ends of three large equidistant fibro-vascular bundles, later becoming
dark reddish brown and finally ashy gray. Winter-buds ovoid, acute,
slightly flattened, about ⅛′ long, with broadly ovate rounded light
chestnut-brown glabrous scales, the inner bright green, ovate, acute,
becoming on vigorous shoots often nearly 1′ in length. Bark 1′—1½′
thick, ashy gray, divided by deep fissures into broad ridges separating
on the surface into thin appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong,
tough, difficult to split, coarse-grained, light brown, with thick
somewhat lighter colored sapwood; largely used for the hubs of wheels,
saddle-trees, in flooring and cooperage, and in boat and shipbuilding.

Distribution. River-bottom lands, intervales, low rich hills, and the
banks of streams; southern Newfoundland to the northern shores of Lake
Superior and the headwaters of the Saskatchewan, southward to the
neighborhood of Lake Istokpoga, De Soto County, Florida, westward in the
United States to the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota, the Black Hills
of South Dakota, western Nebraska, central Kansas and Oklahoma, and the
valley of the upper Colorado River (Fort Chadbourne, Coke County),
Texas; very common northward, less abundant and of smaller size
southward; abundant on the banks of streams flowing through the
midcontinental plateau.

Largely planted as an ornamental and shade tree in the northern states,
and rarely in western and northern Europe.


             2. Ulmus racemosa Thomas. Rock Elm. Cork Elm.

                         _Ulmus Thomasii_ Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 283]

Leaves obovate to oblong-oval, rather abruptly narrowed at apex into a
short broad point, equally or somewhat unequally rounded, cuneate or
subcordate at base, and coarsely doubly serrate, when they unfold pilose
on the upper surface and covered on the lower with soft white hairs, at
maturity 2′—2½′ long, ¾′—1′ wide, thick and firm, smooth, dark green and
lustrous above, paler and soft-pubescent below, especially on the stout
midrib and the numerous straight veins running to the point of the teeth
and connected by obscure cross veinlets; turning in the autumn bright
clear yellow; petioles pubescent, about ¼′ in length; stipules
ovate-lanceolate, conspicuously veined, light green, marked with dark
red on the margins above the middle, ⅔′ long, clasping the stem by their
abruptly enlarged cordate base conspicuously dentate with 1—3 prominent
teeth on each side, falling when the leaves are half grown. Flowers on
elongated slender drooping pedicels often ½′ long, in 2—4, usually in
3-flowered, puberulous cymes becoming more or less racemose by the
lengthening of the axis of the inflorescence, and when fully grown
sometimes 2′ in length; calyx green, divided nearly to the middle into 7
or 8 rounded dark red scarious lobes; anthers dark purple; ovary coated
with long pale hairs most abundant on the margins; styles light green.
Fruit ripening when the leaves are about half grown, ovoid or
obovoid-oblong, ½′ long, with a shallow open notch at the apex,
obscurely veined, pale pubescent, ciliate on the slightly thickened
border of the broad wing, the margin of the seminal cavity scarcely
thickened.

A tree, 80°—100° high, with a trunk occasionally 3° in diameter, and
often free of branches for 60°, short stout spreading branches forming a
narrow round-topped head, and slender rigid branchlets, light brown when
they first appear, and coated with soft pale pubescence often persistent
until their second season, becoming light reddish brown, puberulous or
glabrous and lustrous in their first winter, and marked by scattered
oblong lenticels and large orbicular or semiorbicular leaf-scars
displaying an irregular row of 4—6 fibro-vascular bundle-scars,
ultimately dark brown or ashy gray, and usually furnished with 3 or 4
thick corky irregular wings often ½′ broad, and beginning to appear in
their first or more often during their second year. Winter-buds ovoid,
acute, ¼′ long, with broadly ovate rounded chestnut-brown scales pilose
on the outer surface, ciliate on the margins, the inner scales becoming
ovate-oblong to lanceolate, and ½′ long, often dentate at the base, with
1 or 2 minute teeth on each side, bright green below the middle, marked
with a red blotch above, and white and scarious at the apex. Bark ¾′—1′
thick, gray tinged with red, and deeply divided by wide irregular
interrupted fissures into broad flat ridges broken on the surface into
large irregularly shaped scales. Wood heavy, hard, very strong and
tough, close-grained, light clear brown often tinged with red, with
thick lighter colored sapwood; largely employed in the manufacture of
many agricultural implements, for the framework of chairs, hubs of
wheels, railway-ties, the sills of buildings, and other purposes
demanding toughness, solidity and flexibility.

Distribution. Dry gravelly uplands, low heavy clay soils, rocky slopes
and river cliffs; Province of Quebec westward through Ontario, the
southern peninsula of Michigan and central Wisconsin to northeastern
Nebraska, western Missouri and eastern Kansas, and southward to northern
New Hampshire, southern Vermont, western New York, (valley of the
Genesee River), northern New Jersey, southern Ohio (near Columbus,
Franklin County), and central Indiana; rare in the east and toward the
extreme western and southern limits of its range.

Occasionally planted as a shade and ornamental tree in the northern
states.


                3. Ulmus alata Michx. Wahoo. Winged Elm.

[Illustration: Fig. 284]

Leaves ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, often somewhat falcate, acute
or acuminate, unequally cuneate or rounded or subcordate at base, and
coarsely doubly serrate with incurved teeth, when they unfold pale green
often tinged with red, coated on the lower surface with soft white
pubescence and glabrous or nearly so on the upper surface, at maturity
thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark green and smooth above, pale and
soft-pubescent below, especially on the stout yellow midrib and numerous
straight prominent veins often forked near the margins of the leaf and
connected by rather conspicuous reticulate veinlets; turning yellow in
the autumn; their petioles stout, pubescent, ⅓′ in length; stipules
linear-obovate, thin and scarious, tinged with red above the middle,
often nearly 1′ long. Flowers on drooping pedicels, in short
few-flowered fascicles; calyx glabrous and divided nearly to the middle
into 5 broad ovate rounded lobes as long as the hoary-tomentose ovary
raised on a short slender stipe. Fruit ripening before or with the
unfolding of the leaves, oblong, ⅓′ in length, contracted at base into a
long slender stalk, gradually narrowed and tipped at apex with long
incurved awns, and covered with long white hairs most numerous on the
thickened margin of the narrow wing; seed ovoid, pointed, ⅛′ long, pale,
chestnut-brown, slightly thickened into a narrow wing-like margin.

A tree, occasionally 80°—100° but usually not more than 40°—50° high,
with a trunk 2°—3° in diameter, short stout straight or erect branches
forming a narrow oblong rather open round-topped head, and slender
branchlets glabrous or puberulous and light green tinged with red when
they first appear, becoming light reddish brown or ashy gray and
glabrous, or on vigorous individuals frequently pilose in their first
winter, marked by occasional small orange-colored lenticels and by small
elevated horizontal semiorbicular leaf-scars, sometimes naked, more
often furnished with usually 2 thin corky wings beginning to grow during
their first or more often during their second season, abruptly arrested
at the nodes, often ½′ wide, and persistent for many years. Winter-buds
slender, acute, ⅛′ long, dark chestnut-brown, with glabrous or
puberulous scales, those of the inner ranks becoming oblong or obovate,
rounded and tipped with a minute mucro, thin and scarious, light red,
especially above the middle, and ½′ long. Bark rarely exceeding ¼′ in
thickness, light brown tinged with red, and divided by irregular shallow
fissures into flat ridges covered by small closely appressed scales.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, difficult to split, light
brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood; sometimes employed for the
hubs of wheels and the handles of tools. Ropes used for fastening the
covers of cotton bales are sometimes made from the inner bark.

Distribution. Usually on dry gravelly uplands, less commonly in alluvial
soil on the borders of swamps and the banks of streams, and occasionally
in inundated swamps; southeastern Virginia, southwestern Indiana,
southern Illinois (Richland and Johnson Counties) and southern Missouri,
and southward to central Florida (Lake County), and the valley of the
Guadalupe River, Texas; ranging westward in Oklahoma to Garfield County
(near Kingfisher, _G. W. Stevens_).

Often planted as a shade-tree in the streets of towns and villages of
the southern states.


              4. Ulmus fulva Michx. Slippery Elm. Red Elm.

[Illustration: Fig. 285]

Leaves ovate-oblong, abruptly contracted into a long slender point,
rounded at base on one side and short-oblique on the other, and coarsely
doubly serrate with incurved callous-tipped teeth, when they unfold
thin, coated below with pale pubescence, pilose above with scattered
white hairs, at maturity thick and firm, dark green and rugose with
crowded sharp-pointed tubercles pointing toward the apex of the leaf
above, soft, smooth, and coated below, especially on the thin midrib and
in the axils of the slender straight veins with white hairs, 5′—7′ long,
2′—3′ wide; turning a dull yellow color in the autumn; petioles stout,
pubescent, ⅓′ in length; stipules obovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate,
thin and scarious, pale-pubescent, and tipped with clusters of rusty
brown hairs. Flowers on short pedicels, in crowded fascicles; calyx
green, covered with pale hairs, divided into 5—9 short rounded thin
equal lobes; stamens with slender light yellow slightly flattened
filaments and dark red anthers; stigmas slightly exserted, reddish
purple, papillose with soft white hairs. Fruit ripening when the leaves
are about half grown, semiorbicular, rounded and bearing the remnants of
the styles or slightly emarginate at apex, rounded or cuneate at base,
½′ broad, the seminal cavity coated with thick rusty brown tomentum, the
broad thin wing obscurely reticulate-veined, naked on the thickened
margin, and marked by the dark conspicuous horizontal line of union of
the two carpels; seed ovoid, with a large oblique pale hilum, a light
chestnut-brown coat produced into a thin border wider below than above
the middle of the seed.

A tree, 60°—70° high, with a trunk occasionally 2° in diameter,
spreading branches forming a broad open flat-topped head, and stout
branchlets bright green, scabrate, and coated with soft pale pubescence
when they first appear, becoming light brown by midsummer, often
roughened by small pale lenticels, and in their first winter ashy gray,
orange color or light red-brown, and marked by large elevated
semiorbicular leaf-scars showing the ends of 3 conspicuous equidistant
fibro-vascular bundles, ultimately dark gray or brown. Winter-buds
ovoid, obtuse, ¼′ long, with about 12 scales, the outer broadly ovate,
rounded, dark chestnut-brown, and covered by long scattered rusty hairs,
the inner when fully grown ½′ long, ⅛′—¼′ wide, light green,
strap-shaped, rounded and tipped at the apex with tufts of rusty hairs,
puberulous on the outer surface, slightly ciliate on the margins,
gradually growing narrower and passing into the stipules of the upper
leaves. Bark frequently 1′ thick, dark brown tinged with red, divided by
shallow fissures and covered by large thick appressed scales. Wood
heavy, hard, strong, very close-grained, durable, easy to split, dark
brown or red, with thin lighter colored sapwood; largely used for
fence-posts, railway-ties, the sills of buildings, the hubs of wheels,
and in agricultural implements. The thick fragrant inner bark is
mucilaginous and demulcent, and is employed in the treatment of acute
febrile and inflammatory affections.

Distribution. Banks of streams and low rocky hillsides in deep rich
soil; comparatively common in the valley of the St. Lawrence River,
Province of Quebec, and through Ontario to northern and eastern South
Dakota, northeastern and eastern Nebraska, southeastern Kansas, and
Oklahoma to the valley of the Canadian River (McClain County), and
southward to western Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi, western
Louisiana and the valley of the upper Guadalupe (Kerr County) and Leon
Rivers (Comal County), Texas; in the South Atlantic states not common
and mostly confined to the middle districts, ascending to altitudes of
2000° on the southern Appalachian foothills.


                 5. Ulmus crassifolia Nutt. Cedar Elm.

[Illustration: Fig. 286]

Leaves elliptic to ovate, acute or rounded at apex, unequally rounded or
cuneate and often oblique at base, coarsely and unequally doubly serrate
with callous-tipped teeth, when they unfold thin, light green tinged
with red, pilose above and covered below with soft pale pubescence, at
maturity thick and subcoriaceous, dark green, lustrous and roughened by
crowded minute sharp-pointed tubercles on the upper surface and soft
pubescent on the lower surface, 1′—2′ long, ½′—1′ wide, with a stout
yellow midrib, and prominent straight veins connected by conspicuous
more or less reticulate cross veinlets; usually turning bright yellow
late in the autumn; petioles stout, tomentose, ¼′—½′ in length; stipules
½′ long, linear-lanceolate, red and scarious above, clasping the stem by
their green and hairy bases, deciduous when the leaves are about half
grown. Flowers usually opening in August and sometimes also in October,
on slender pedicels ⅓′—½′ long and covered with white hairs, in
3—5-flowered pedunculate fascicles; calyx divided to below the middle
into oblong pointed lobes hairy at base; ovary hirsute, crowned with two
short slightly exserted stigmas. Fruit ripening in September and rarely
also in November, oblong, gradually and often irregularly narrowed from
the middle to the ends, short-stalked, deeply notched at apex, ⅓′ to
nearly ½′ long, covered with soft white hairs, most abundant on the
slightly thickened margin of the broad wing; seed oblique, pointed, and
covered by a dark chestnut-brown coat.

A tree, often 80° high, with a tall straight trunk 2°—3° in diameter,
sometimes free of branches for 30° or 40°, divided into numerous stout
spreading limbs forming a broad inversely conic round-topped head of
long pendulous branches, or while young or on dry uplands a compact
round head of drooping branches, and slender branchlets, tinged with red
and coated with soft pale pubescence when they first appear, becoming
light reddish brown, puberulous and marked by scattered minute lenticels
and by small elevated semiorbicular leaf-scars showing the ends of 3
small fibro-vascular bundles, and furnished with 2 corky wings covered
with lustrous brown bark, about ¼′ broad and continuous except when
abruptly interrupted by lateral branchlets, or often irregularly
developed. Winter-buds broadly ovoid, acute, ⅛′ long, with closely
imbricated chestnut-brown scales slightly puberulous on the outer
surface, those of the inner ranks at maturity oblong, concave, rounded
at apex, thin, bright red, sometimes ¾′ long. Bark sometimes nearly 1′
thick, light brown slightly tinged with red, and deeply divided by
interrupted fissures into broad flat ridges broken on the surface into
thick scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, brittle, light brown tinged with
red, with thick lighter colored sapwood; in central Texas used in the
manufacture of the hubs of wheels, for furniture, and largely for
fencing.

Distribution. Valley of the Sunflower River, Mississippi (Morehead,
Sunflower County), through southern Arkansas, and Texas to Nuevo Leon,
ranging in western Texas from the coast to the valley of the Pecos
River; in Arkansas usually on river cliffs and low hillsides, and in
Texas near streams in deep alluvial soil and on dry limestone hills; the
common Elm-tree of Texas and of its largest size on the bottom-lands of
the Guadalupe and Trinity Rivers.

Occasionally planted as a shade-tree in the streets of the cities and
towns of Texas.


                    6. Ulmus serotina Sarg. Red Elm.

[Illustration: Fig. 287]

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, acuminate, very oblique at base,
coarsely and doubly crenulate-serrate, when they unfold coated below
with shining white hairs and puberulous above, at maturity thin and firm
in texture, yellow-green, glabrous and lustrous on the upper surface,
pale and puberulous on the midrib and principal veins below, 2′—4′ long,
1′—1¾′ wide, with a prominent yellow midrib, about 20 pairs of primary
veins extending obliquely to the points of the teeth and often forked
near the margins of the leaf, and numerous reticular veinlets; turning
clear orange-yellow in the autumn; petioles stout, about ¼′ in length;
stipules abruptly narrowed from broad clasping bases, linear-lanceolate,
usually about ¼′ long, persistent until the leaves are nearly fully
grown. Flowers opening in September on slender conspicuously jointed
pedicels often ⅛′ long, in many-flowered glabrous racemes from 1′—1½′ in
length; calyx 6-parted to the base, with oblong-obovate red-brown
divisions rounded at apex; ovary sessile, narrowed below,