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Title: Inventors & Inventions
Author: Robinson, Henry
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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    Inventors & Inventions

    By
    Henry Robinson

    Illustrations by
    T. M. Fleming

    [Illustration]

    Published by Henry Robinson
    41 West 33d Street
    New York, N. Y.
    1911



    COPYRIGHT, 1911
    BY
    H. ROBINSON
    41 WEST 33D STREET
    NEW YORK, N. Y.



Contents


    CHAPTER 1

    SUCCESSFUL INVENTION


    CHAPTER 2

    MACHINE DESIGNING


    CHAPTER 3

    FINANCING A NEW INVENTION


    CHAPTER 4

    MARKETING A NEW INVENTION


    CHAPTER 5

    DETERMINING THE SELLING PRICE OF A NEWLY INVENTED ARTICLE


    CHAPTER 6

    OFFICE MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS POLICIES


    CHAPTER 7

    DIVERS WAYS OF EXPLOITING AN INVENTION


    CHAPTER 8

    USEFUL POINTERS ON SUCCESSFUL MANUFACTURING


    CHAPTER 9

    WARNING TO PROSPECTIVE INVENTORS


    CHAPTER 10

    ADVICE TO INVENTORS ON INVENTIONS


    CHAPTER 11

    GENERAL DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INVENTIONS


    CHAPTER 12

    THE GLORY OF INVENTION AND PICTURES OF CELEBRATED INVENTORS AND
    SCIENTISTS


    CHAPTER 13

    HOW TO INVENT


    CHAPTER 14

    HOW TO MAKE SKETCHES AND SPECIFICATIONS

    CHAPTER 15

    THE NECESSITY OF COMPETENT ENGINEERING FOR SUCCESSFUL INVENTION


    CHAPTER 16

    PERT POINTERS FOR PROSPECTIVE INVENTORS THAT WILL BE FOUND HELPFUL


    CHAPTER 17

    PROTECTION OF AN INVENTION


    CHAPTER 18

    VARIOUS WAYS EMPLOYED TO CHEAT AND ROB INVENTORS


    CHAPTER 19

    GOVERNMENT CONNIVANCE AT THE DESPOILING OF A POOR INVENTOR


    CHAPTER 20

    OLD AND COMMON TRICKS EMPLOYED TO "DO" AN INEXPERIENCED INVENTOR


    CHAPTER 21

    THE ROOT OF THE EVIL


    CHAPTER 22

    COMPARATIVE LEGAL PROTECTION AFFORDED TO MENTAL AND PHYSICAL
    PROPERTY


    CHAPTER 23

    THE UTTER HELPLESSNESS OF A POOR INVENTOR TO OBTAIN JUSTICE


    CHAPTER 24

    PUBLIC ATTITUDE TOWARDS HIM WHO STEALS PHYSICAL AND TO THE ONE WHO
    STEALS MENTAL PROPERTY


    CHAPTER 25

    PRESENT AVAILABLE MEANS OF PROTECTING AN INVENTION


    CHAPTER 26

    COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT TREATMENT--A BOUNTY FOR RAISING "SUGAR
    BEETS," BUT A TAX ON INVENTIONS


    CHAPTER 27

    SOCIETY'S DEBT TO THE INVENTOR


    CHAPTER 28

    COMPARATIVE PROTECTION GIVEN BY THE GOVERNMENT


    CHAPTER 29

    THE LAW'S DEFINITION OF PROPERTY--AND PUBLIC POLICY


    CHAPTER 30

    THE SUCCESSFUL INVENTOR


    CHAPTER 31

    COMPARATIVE TREATMENT THE WORLD ACCORDS TO THEM, AND SUMMARY



Illustrations

    BY HENRY ROBINSON ENGINEER AND INVENTOR                            5

    A. G. ARNOLD, Esq.                                                 7

    THE SUCCESSFUL INVENTOR THE UNSUCCESSFUL INVENTOR                 12

    THE STEPS BY WHICH HE IS REQUIRED TO CLIMB AND MOUNT THAT
      DESIRED EMINENCE.                                               14

    INVENTORS SELDOM HAVE ANYTHING OUTSIDE OF THEIR ASPIRATIONS
      AND PROSPECTS.                                                  16

    FINANCE MINISTERS.                                                17

    VISION SUFFICIENTLY PENETRATING TO DETECT THE NIGGER IN THE
      WOODPILE.                                                       21

    "NO ONE POOR ENOUGH TO DO HIS INVENTION REVERENCE."               21

    "A BIRD IN THE HAND IS WORTH TWO IN THE BUSH."                    27

    THE GOOD WILL AND WELL WISHES OF THOSE WHO HELPED CREATE IT.      29

    NUMEROUS AND DEEP ARE THE PITFALLS THAT THE
      WOULD-BE-SUCCESSFUL INVENTOR MUST AVOID.                        31

    VICTIMS CONSTANTLY THROWN UP BY THE WAVES OF PASSION AND
      FOLLY, ON THE STERILE SHORE OF HUMAN INDIFFERENCE.              35

    SHORT AND EASY CUT TO OPULENCE AND EASE.                          35

    WHO CAN FATHOM OR SET A LIMIT TO THE INGENUITY OF THAT
      DIVINE CREATION, THE HUMAN BRAIN? NONE BUT ITS CREATOR.         37

    OUR ORDINARY EVERYDAY MECHANICAL UTILITIES WOULD BE
      CONSIDERED MAGIC BY HIM WHO WROTE--"THERE'S NOTHING
      NEW UNDER THE SUN."                                             37

    NEWTON.                                                           57

    HERSCHEL.                                                         57

    S. F. B. MORSE.                                                   57

    ROBERT FULTON, INVENTOR OF THE STEAMBOAT.                         57

    BENJ. FRANKLIN.                                                   57

    ELIAS HOWE.                                                       57

    JAS. WATT.                                                        57

    LORD KELVIN.                                                      57

    THOS. A. EDISON.                                                  57

    SIG. MARCONI.                                                     57

    SIR H. BESSEMER.                                                  57

    C. H. MC CORMICK.                                                 57

    PROFESSOR HUXLEY.                                                 57

    HUMBOLDT.                                                         57

    CHAS. DARWIN.                                                     57

    SEYMOUR M. BONSALL.                                               57

    AN INTELLIGENT AND PRUDENT INVENTOR WILL CAREFULLY NOTE
      HIS OWN CAPACITY.                                               61

    OBSERVE EVERYTHING CAREFULLY. TRY TO REMEMBER EVERYTHING
      YOU SEE. REASON LOGICALLY. DO NOT OVERLOOK DETAILS.             63

    DON'T IMAGINE YOURSELF A SOLOMON.                                 63

    "THE EAGLE AND THE JACKDAW." DON'T BITE OFF MORE THAN YOU
      CAN SWALLOW.                                                    63

    DON'T SET YOURSELF A QUIXOTIC TASK.                               63

    DON'T GO ABOUT WITH A FACE AS SOLEMN AND ANXIOUS AS THOUGH
      YOU WERE ATLAS.                                                 63

    SHE WANTS TO BE SHOWN.                                            63

    SHE WILL NOT BE SLOW IN HANDING YOU UP THE SUGAR LUMPS.           63

    TO CAST ASIDE WHEN YOU BECOME SUCCESSFUL THE SHARER OF YOUR
      EARLY POVERTY AND STRUGGLES.                                    63

    YOU WILL BE GREATER BY NOT FOLLOWING ANYBODY'S EXAMPLE IN
      THAT RESPECT.                                                   63

    ONLY A TEMPERATE ABSTEMIOUS REGIME OF LIFE CAN GIVE THE
      HEALTHY BRAIN.                                                  63

    DON'T FORGET THE PEOPLE YOU KNEW.                                 63

    THE SWIPEING MFG. CO. HAVE STOLEN MY INVENTION.                   80

    WE MUST HAVE 1000 DOLLARS AS A RETAINING FEE.                     80

    DEFENDED IN COURT * * * * ON TECHNICALITIES.                      80

    THE EXPLOITERS OF HIS INVENTION CAN ENJOY THEIR ILL-GOTTEN
      GAINS WITH IMPUNITY.                                            80

    WHY, OH WHY, IS THE STEALING OF ONE KIND OF PROPERTY A
      CRIMINAL OFFENSE, ANOTHER ONLY A CIVIL TORT?                    85

    BUT IS IT DIFFERENT OH! NOW! IF THE STOLEN PROPERTY IS A
      MENTAL INSTEAD OF A HAND PRODUCT?                               86

    THE WORLD IS USUALLY MORE MINDFUL OF THE MAN WITH THE
      "BIG STICK," THAN WITH THE "BIG GRIEVANCE."                     88

    DIFFERENCE IN THE TREATMENT METED OUT BY OUR GOVERNMENT TO
      HIM WHO RENDERS SERVICES TO SOCIETY, BY DIGGING IN THE
      DIRT, AND TO HIM WHO USES THE BRAIN.                            90

    HAS NOT THE INGENUITY OF THE INVENTOR ENABLED EVEN THE
      FARMER *  *  *  TO GET GREATER RETURNS FOR HIS
      LABOR? *  *  * HAS HE NOT MADE HIS WORK LIGHTER AND HAS
      HE NOT ENABLED HIM TO GET MORE OF THE GOOD THINGS OF
      THIS WORLD?                                                     92

    THROUGH THE INVENTOR'S INGENUITY AND INDUSTRY THIS COUNTRY
      HAS ATTAINED ITS MIGHTY POTENCY IN WAR.                         93



    Inventors and Inventions

    [Illustration

    BY
    HENRY ROBINSON
    ENGINEER AND INVENTOR

    1911]



    DEDICATED
    TO MY FRIEND AND BENEFACTOR
    A. G. ARNOLD, ESQ.

  [Illustration: A. G. ARNOLD. ESQ.]



Preface


The object of publishing this pamphlet is to awaken the public
conscience to the great injustice continually being done to a
numerous and worthy class of intellectual toilers, and the evil
resulting from the same to the general public.

If perchance this will help to remedy the wrong to any extent, the
author will feel amply repaid for the trouble and expense incurred in
pointing it out to the public.

    Respectfully yours
    THE AUTHOR
    H. Robinson



CHAPTER 1

SUCCESSFUL INVENTION


A very large number of people in and out of the mechanical
profession are intensely eager to know how to become successful
inventors. Wealth, honor and glory are the reward of the successful.
Disappointment, drudgery, oblivion, and poverty are often the portion
of the less fortunate ones.

Many of the latter foolishly attribute the greater measure of success
to their fellow-workers in the same chosen field of usefulness to
luck, which is far from the truth, and to that fallacious belief they
often owe their own less favored condition. It is also an injustice
to those who have reached the summit; as there is one, and only one
road that leads to it, and which they all have to take, and its name
is "Endeavor."

There are numerous fictitious definitions of the successful inventor,
and yet there is but one true gauge and test of merit that entitles
one to membership in the none-too-numerous and select fraternity.
This test is the ability of producing a commercially successful
invention.

That "Ability" is but the concentrated name for the possession of
numerous requirements, comprising a vast and varied knowledge,
theoretical, scientific, and practical, not only of the various
mechanical branches necessary for successful machine designing, but
of the art and conditions for the manipulation of that product for
which a machine is designed, with or without that machine, and the
newly designed machine's economic relation to the same.

Then securing the necessary co-operation of financial means must
be attended to; introducing the newly hatched-out novelty into the
market, compelling its adoption and general use, for its purpose,
and organizing the proper fabric for its production efficiently and
economically.

  [Illustration: THE SUCCESSFUL INVENTOR

  THE UNSUCCESSFUL INVENTOR]

Last, but not least, there must be secured the possession of a fair
share of its benefits to its originator, and to those "financial
interests" necessary in the production and marketing of a successful
invention.

All of these accomplishments are the necessary elements and
attributes of the successful inventor, and are the steps by which he
is required to climb and mount that desired eminence and through the
skipping or missing of any one of those steps, many aspiring climbers
have been hurled headlong to the bottom of the abyss just as they
were within reach of the goal.

No matter how naturally favored one may be, never has nature
so favored any individual as to bestow on him those necessary
accomplishments gratis.

It is one of the greatest anomalies of human nature, that the
performance of most difficult tasks, requiring for their consummation
numerous and rare attainments, are continually undertaken by those
who are least qualified to perform them. Lured by the glittering
reward of the few successful ones, they try to gain by chance what
can only be gained by work.



CHAPTER 2

MACHINE DESIGNING


While the elements of success in actual engineering are general,
comprised by knowledge of well-known sciences and arts; yet the
accomplishments of their undertaking must necessarily be stamped with
the individuality of its creator, and along those lines that repeated
experiences have found necessary, to insure success.

In inventing and designing a new machine, one must first thoroughly
familiarize himself with its desired performance, as the success or
failure of his mechanical creation depends on how nearly perfect that
performance is, compared to established or desired standards; and the
performance of that machine when made will truly denote how well its
designer understood it, and his skill in mechanical manipulation to
produce it.

  [Illustration: THE STEPS BY WHICH HE IS REQUIRED TO CLIMB AND
  MOUNT THAT DESIRED EMINENCE]

Another important item of calculation must be the relative value of
the probable production of the machine, its quantity and quality, to
the cost of the machine.

Careful consideration must be given to the working conditions the
machine will have to be adapted to. These must include a careful
study of the substance to be worked upon in the machine, its
regularity or irregularity in shape, its constant or changing
conditions under various environments or seasons, and its general
peculiarities.

The cost of manipulating the machine must be considered, that is,
the required amount of power for its propulsion, and the cost of
maintaining its efficient mechanical performance for a certain
amount of production, or its durability, and its proneness to get
out of order. Nor must one fail to take into account the required
intelligence and skill to operate it.

While constantly and carefully bearing in mind the before-mentioned
objective points, the prospective successful inventor in designing
his machine, must carefully aim for cheapness of construction, which
can only be properly accomplished by designing the various mechanical
performances of the machine with the least number of parts, and of
the simplest form, requiring for their proper production the least
amount and cheapest kind of labor in the Pattern Shop, Foundry, and
Machine Shop, and, next to the creating of efficient and durable
machines, the greatest order of skill in a machine designer is
required in producing simple and cheap mechanical designs.

And yet this is not all that is required from him, even in the
mechanical line, but he must have such mechanical movements and parts
in his machine, as will enable him to secure a good patent on it,
which will insure him protection, at the same time carefully and
absolutely avoiding any possible infringement on others. In a measure
that can be avoided by looking up the copies of patents of similar
inventions.

Another important factor in determining the general design of a
machine, is the probable market for the same, as that must, in a
great measure, decide the justifiable expenditure for the initial or
first general cost, for bringing the successful machine into being.

  [Illustration: INVENTORS SELDOM HAVE ANYTHING OUTSIDE OF THEIR
  ASPIRATIONS AND PROSPECTS.]

So much for the mechanical or engineering part of the invention.



CHAPTER 3

FINANCING A NEW INVENTION


The next important part is the financial side of it. The estimate for
this must necessarily vary with the intended mode of disposal of the
prospective invention after its perfection.

If it is the intention of the inventor to dispose of his invention
after it is perfected, the expense can be approximately estimated,
and in many cases will be moderate, of course varying with the nature
of the invention. But if it is the intention to manufacture it,
create and supply a market for it, the required capital will always
be considerable.

For many obvious reasons, it is considered advantageous for the
profitable exploitation of an invention to have the financial end of
it under a separate head, which is generally the case. Usually this
is "making a virtue of necessity," as inventors seldom have anything
outside of their "aspirations and prospects," whether it is that
"necessity is the mother of invention," or that "Invention is the
mother of necessity," is something that physiologists have not quite
determined. But in any event, the prospective successful inventor
must provide himself with a "finance minister," variously designated
as "Angel," "Backer," or "Octopus."

This part of the inventive problem, to many an inventor, is
insolvable for many reasons. To solve it successfully requires good
insight, and judgment of human nature. Ability to impart one's own
"enthusiastic aspirations," and to keep it up, requires diplomacy and
tact.

  [Illustration: FINANCE MINISTERS.]

But solve the problem he must if the inventor wants to be successful,
and various means have been employed to do so. One of them, which
is probably as good as any, is for the enterprising inventor to
divide that part of his problem into two or several parts. If he
cannot command a large amount at once, he will devote his energies to
interesting successively small amounts, which will enable him to
carry on the development of his invention from one stage to another;
each time advancing it further, becoming stronger, and showing
enhanced prospects. To sell to each successive "Backer" the interest
of his predecessor, and if the predecessor's money has been used to
good advantage, that can be done profitably, and to the satisfaction
of everybody concerned, as well as increasing the available means for
carrying on the exploitation of the invention.

That is one of the ways by which an inventor can provide himself
steadily with some one to take care of the "finance portfolio" in his
cabinet.

Another, but far more hazardous way, is to resort to the professional
promoter.

Great care, however, must be taken by the inventor in these various
financial transactions, which necessarily include the making and
signing of various contracts and legal instruments, that his entire
invention as well as himself are not entirely absorbed by others.

As competent and reliable legal advice may not always be within his
reach, he must be able to make contracts advantageously, and above
all to be the possessor of a vision sufficiently penetrating to
detect "the nigger in the woodpile," in any paper before he signs it.



CHAPTER 4

MARKETING A NEW INVENTION


The value and success of an invention depends upon its demonstrated
usefulness to those for whose use it is intended, and their desire to
avail themselves of the same.

It very often devolves on the inventor to give that value to it, a
task which will not be found easy, especially to the novice.

The first necessary steps to force an invention into the market is
to procure as many representative references from people using his
invention as possible. This may necessitate placing his machine on
trial for a certain length of time, and personally demonstrating
its usefulness; also educating other operators to operate his machine
advantageously.

  [Illustration: VISION SUFFICIENTLY PENETRATING TO DETECT THE
  NIGGER IN THE WOODPILE.]

The inventor will find ample opportunity to display his forebearance
at this stage of the game, as he will find at the beginning, "no one
poor enough to do his invention reverence." And it is one of the
strange things that one observes in life, that many people who have
not sufficient energy and intelligence to raise themselves beyond the
very humblest and meanest occupations in life, consider themselves
amply qualified to criticise, and even make suggestions on inventions
that some of the best brains have spent their best on.

But this is a condition that must be reckoned with and overcome
in introducing a new machine on the market, and the inventor will
find it to his advantage to use every possible means to persuade
and win over those who will have to operate his machine, as well
as to demonstrate to the proprietor himself the usefulness of the
invention; and sometimes even he may find it to his advantage to
furnish an educated operator for the machine.

If his means are limited, which is often the case, he will have to
act as his own salesman, advertisement-writer, and press-agent until
the invention becomes firmly established in the market. To go out in
the cold, wide world and solicit orders even on approval for a new
invention requires considerable adaptability, pluck, patience, and
hard work. Very often success or failure depends upon the initial
exertions in that direction.

No fixed rules can be laid down for that kind of work. To be
successful, it must be varied with the nature and the disposition
of every individual who does the selling and buying. But generally
speaking, it is a safe rule for a salesman to observe, "Brevity,
Directness, Simplicity, and Politeness," as the average business man
is, by force of circumstances, homeopathic. They like "Talks" in
small quantities, concentrated form, and sugar-coated.

  [Illustration: NO ONE POOR ENOUGH TO DO HIS INVENTION REVERENCE.]

Sometimes silence, the ability to keep one's mouth closed, and to
respectfully listen to a loquacious prospective buyer, will secure
an order for a machine, where a disposition to do all the talking,
however "silvery" will not accomplish the same "golden" results.

Another important factor in introducing a machine into the market is
advertising by mail.

Painstaking exertions coupled with the required ability to get up
a proper circular, which should include a clear cut, half-tone
preferably, of the machine to be sold, a concise explicit statement
of the nature of the machine, and its capacity, and its advantages
over previous or other methods of doing the same work.

In wording and phrasing your circular, observe simplicity. A list
of references will materially enhance your chances of securing
attention, as most people are willing to say "Me Too," where you
could never get them to say "I."

In the general get-up of your circular it is best to have such an
arrangement as will readily go into an ordinary business envelope,
without folding. If, however, it must be folded, it must be so
arranged that the fold so creased will not come at a vital point.
Plain, clear type of convenient size, on good white paper, and black
ink, is better than rainbow colors. However, a different color for
a few words now and then for emphasis, is permissible, and may help
to bring out certain points which you wish the prospective buyer's
attention called to.

The general get-up of the circular must be of such a nature and form,
that the prospective buyer of average intelligence will be attracted
by it, and will get a general idea of what it has to tell him at a
glance.

It is even best to leave the price of the article off the circular,
as that will induce people to inquire for it, and give one a chance
to get in touch with those who are interested, while those who would
not even inquire for the price, would not buy any way.

Another means for introducing a new invention on the market, is in
"write-ups" of the same in the daily papers, magazines, and trade
papers; as very unfortunately a good many people would not pay any
attention to circulars, and would not find time to grant a personal
interview to a solicitor, yet they do look up printed matter in the
form of a newspaper, magazine, or trade-paper, and very often get
their own views on any subject from the general tone of the article
they read.

These articles require considerable intelligence, care, and literary
ability to prepare, and more to get them printed, as they naturally
have to vary in tone and style with the paper, or magazine they are
printed in.

It is more or less easy to get a write-up in a trades-paper for an
article that comes within its sphere, and very often the editor of
that magazine will be willing to do the writing-up, from circulars
furnished to him or from observations of the machines as a news
item, for the dual purpose of furnishing its readers with useful
information, and of obtaining advertising patronage from the
beneficiary.

In other magazines, it will require more ingenuity and literary merit
to get in at all, and except in very rare instances, it would be best
for the inventor to turn that part of the business over to some one
who has experience in that line of work, and knows "how."



CHAPTER 5

DETERMINING THE SELLING PRICE OF A NEWLY INVENTED ARTICLE


Considerable business acumen is required in determining and fixing
the selling price of a new machine.

The factors to be taken into consideration are, the value of its
saving in every direction to its purchaser, the average amount of
capital invested in the prospective purchaser's business, and the
amount to be invested in the machine, as very often a machine may be
beyond the reach of those for whose use it is desired, by reason of
its price.

In any event, the cost of producing the machine should not be a
factor in determining the price, but the value of its product. And
the cost of producing the same results by any other process, will
give a very fair estimate, after taking into consideration the means
of the people who have to buy it.

Generally a machine is sold outright to the consumer, but in some
instances they are only rented for certain periods or volumes of
production.

That has to be determined by the nature of the invention and the
business to which it applies.



CHAPTER 6

OFFICE MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS POLICIES


If the inventor is unfortunate enough to be compelled to attend to
his own office work, he will probably find it advantageous to observe
the following rules:

Answer all letters promptly, briefly, and politely, and don't write
what you feel like, as that will often get you into trouble. Don't
forget to make a copy, and keep it, of every letter you send out, and
file carefully all letters you receive.

If the inventor has to be his own purchasing agent, he should
remember that the lowest price is not always the cheapest, and the
highest price doesn't indicate that you couldn't get it any cheaper
elsewhere, and as good, if not better.

Whenever possible, arrange for everything to be delivered at your
place, as that throws the transit responsibility on the contractor
until the goods are delivered, and your credit is also longer.

Order your goods as much ahead of time as possible as goods are very
rarely delivered on the time they are promised.

Examine all goods delivered in your place as to quality and weight,
and keep a careful memorandum of the same, and don't forget to check
off the bills you receive for the same.

Don't be afraid to complain of unfair treatment, even at the risk of
being called a "kicker."

Remember that the faithful performance of your duties for the firm
that trusts and depends upon you, is more important than the
catering to anybody, especially if it has to be done at the expense
of the firm you represent.

Don't expect "perfection" from people you are dealing with, as they
have also a good many things to contend with, and when once you have
O. K.'d the bills, pay for them as soon as possible if you want to
maintain your credit and your self-respect.

Honesty and straight dealings will materially increase your chances
of staying in the market, once you get there.

Cultivating a good name with the people you are dealing with, is
better than "kowtowing" to "Rating Agencies," as well as being the
cheapest and very best kind of advertising. Never misrepresent your
financial condition when furnishing a statement to your bank, for you
may do it once too often, and then you will wish "you hadn't." You
will travel more easily and further by telling the truth.



CHAPTER 7

DIVERS WAYS OF EXPLOITING AN INVENTION


Having advanced his invention to the stage of having obtained a
footing in the market, the inventor has reached the "Parting of the
Ways," and now is the time for him to decide whether he is to sell
his invention, or to keep it.

If he decides to sell, his likely buyers are those who are in that
line of business, and who are generally willing to add to their
established business some patented novelty in their own line, that
will give them exclusive use, and special advertising facilities,
thereby increasing their profits, and enhancing their prestige;
or some capitalist on the alert for a profitable investment, and
congenial occupation.

The decision of the inventor must depend upon the nature of the
invention, its profitableness, his own financial resources, his
health, his energies, temperament, and the likelihood of his
invention being imitated, and his mechanical and financial ability to
protect it.

  [Illustration: "A BIRD IN THE HAND IS WORTH TWO IN THE BUSH."]

Generally speaking the proverb about "A bird in the hand is worth
two in the bush," is very applicable to inventions, and the inventor
who is blessed with a grain of prudence in his make-up, will think
carefully, and his best, before he refuses a fair offer.

If he desires to sell, a sum of money outright is better than a
royalty.

Should it not be practical or desirable to dispose of it, he must
make preparations to supply the market in constantly increased
proportions.

Owing to the various kinds of skilled labor, numerous expensive
tools, machinery, high rents for suitable manufacturing places
necessary for the building of machinery, requiring the investment
of large capital, and the devotion of a great deal of time for
organization and supervision, many inventors find it convenient,
even profitable, to have their machines built under contract by
some established manufacturing concern which is properly equipped
for that special kind of work. This in many cases is a very wise
business-like course to pursue, as it eliminates the necessity of a
large investment, and leaves the inventor free to devote himself to
improving and enlarging the field for his invention, and to attend to
the business end to better advantage.



CHAPTER 8

USEFUL POINTERS ON SUCCESSFUL MANUFACTURING


Should it, however, be decided to manufacture his invention, it will
be found that a proper system for regular routine will be required to
produce the articles within reasonable cost.

If the inventor has no special experience in manufacturing, it will
be greatly to his advantage to procure information, by inspection,
and carefully noting the methods employed in up-to-date manufacturing
establishments, making similar articles.

Manufacturing must be carried out from "THE TOP DOWNWARDS," not from
"THE BOTTOM UPWARDS." That is, the brain work in the office must be
carefully planned and carried out first, and recorded in assembly
and detail drawings and carefully written-up specifications.

Next a double set of metal patterns should be made to be kept in two
separate places to guard against fire.

To do everything should not be attempted in the beginning, as many
parts requiring special equipment and special skill, such as foundry
work, drop forging, gear making, and wood work, can very often be
contracted for with persons especially equipped to do that work, at
less than the price it would cost to produce them by a firm which
has to do a little of everything. Elimination of that much of the
work permits better concentration and increased facilities for the
other work, resulting in a maximum of production with a minimum of
investment.

The work in the factory should be carefully divided up, and localized.

If the quantities of complete manufactured articles to be made
are large, or there is a fair prospect that they will be so, and
their sale is not localized, a duplicate, interchangeable system of
manufacture is indispensable, and should be employed from the very
beginning. In spite of the initial expenses for tools, it will be
found to be a great saver of worry, annoyance, trouble, and money.
Also the labor cost for duplicate parts in the making and assembling
is very considerably less than if made in the "GOOD OLD WAY." This
makes it possible to supply parts that will fit the machine which
will be required in the course of usage, in any part of the world
where it may happen to be, and which often forms a considerable part
of the profits. Indeed it may be truly said that it sometimes pays to
give machines away for nothing, if assured a monopoly of its repairs
at one's own prices.

The "gang-boss" system in the shop will be found a material aid in
producing and maintaining a desired standard of quality and quantity.
It will also lessen the necessary supervision and worry in tracing,
and eliminate deficient and jarring elements in production.

  [Illustration: THE GOOD WILL AND WELL WISHES OF THOSE WHO HELPED
  CREATE IT.]

A healthy, accessible location, and a clean, comfortable shop
are indispensable. Fair, just and considerate treatment, with an
apparent ready appreciation by the management, of the merits of
their employees, will be duly rewarded by the willing and faithful
co-operation of those on whom in a great measure the success or
failure of manufacturing depends; also enhancing the value of the
profits by the addition of the goodwill, and wellwishes of those who
help to create it, as the want of it often mars the enjoyment of the
money when earned.



CHAPTER 9

WARNING TO PROSPECTIVE INVENTORS


By a careful perusal of what has been said, it will be seen that the
undertaking of a successful invention is no easy task, and that it
cannot fall to one's lot by mere chance.

It is quite true that, like the diamond, the inventor, the general,
orator, or writer is born. But be it also remembered that even
a diamond has to be cut, ground, and polished before it attains
its lustre, and the inventor or general, writer and orator are no
exceptions to the rule.

The general could not conquer a valiant foe if he did not master the
science of war, or if he failed to familiarize himself with most of
the conspicuous experiences of others in the same profession.

The writer and orator would have no audience if they failed to
fertilize their brains with rich stores of knowledge to draw upon,
and with proper means of expressing themselves.

And the inventor is generally doomed to failure if he fails to
earnestly apply himself to the acquisition and mastery of that
knowledge which is potent to successful invention in the mechanical
line, and to get his just or fair share of its value.

  [Illustration: NUMEROUS AND DEEP ARE THE PITFALLS THAT THE
  WOULD-BE-SUCCESSFUL INVENTOR MUST AVOID.]

Numerous and deep are the pitfalls that the would-be-successful
inventor must avoid. Rich and powerful are the members of the
fraternity who thrive and fatten on him, through his short-comings
of "Omission or Commission." At every stage of his progress he has
to combat a new set and different kinds of vampires, each attacking
him with different weapons, and in different ways, who consider
the unlucky inventor their natural and legitimate prey. These men
respectively garb their duplicity with the respectable name of a
"profession," and justify the means of robbing him of his just and
hard earnings, with the all-condoning name of "Modern Business
Methods."

  [Illustration: VICTIMS CONSTANTLY THROWN UP BY THE WAVES OF
  PASSION AND FOLLY, ON THE STERILE SHORE OF HUMAN INDIFFERENCE.]

  [Illustration: SHORT AND EASY CUT TO OPULENCE AND EASE.

  ENCOURAGED TO PURSEVERE IN THEIR FALLACIES BY THE SLICK CUNNING
  SHARKS.

  WITH THEIR OWN ILL-CONCEIVED NOTIONS AND PRIDE.

  THEY BECOME UNFITTED FOR THEIR USUAL OCCUPATIONS.

  VERY OFTEN THE SUBSTANCE OF THOSE DEPENDING ON THEM.]

As numerous and as pitiful as are the various victims constantly
thrown up by the waves of passion and folly on the sterile shore of
"human indifference," none are more so than they who have nothing
better than the promptings of a more-than-ordinary share of vanity
and conceit to aspire to the honors and rewards of successful
inventors. Foolishly do they imagine it a short and easy cut to
opulence and ease. Enthused with their delusion, they become unfitted
for their usual occupations, and are encouraged to persevere in
their fallacies by the slick, cunning sharks whose inevitable prey
they become through it. These not only take their very last dollar,
but very often the substance of those depending upon them; until at
last, poor, ruined, deluded fools, they wake up to the realization
of the grand truth, "THAT ONE GETS NOTHING FOR NOTHING," not even
experience. But it is none the less unfortunately true, that those
very victims themselves are responsible for the existence of the
means and conditions for their undoing. If perchance in the outset
of their ruinous career, they encounter one who would give them
competent and honest advice, if it be at variance with their own
ill-conceived notions and pride, he will receive insults for his
pains, and be deprived of the opportunity of rendering any services
to the profession of which his ability and integrity makes him a
creditable and honorable member.



CHAPTER 10

ADVICE TO INVENTORS ON INVENTIONS


What and how to invent, is very often asked and variously answered.
On the nature of the answer to the honest inquirer often depends
whether he is to be discouraged in a good undertaking, or sent on a
fool's errand, or directed rightly to the avenue of success.

The various answers to what and how to invent may be divided
into three different kinds. The stupid, the misleading, and the
intelligent. The remark is often made by certain people, "Oh, there
used to be lots of chances to make fortunes out of inventions YEARS
AGO, but not NOW." This is as stupid as it is untrue.

Never in the history of the world, have the opportunities been as
numerous and the rewards as great as they are now for any and every
kind of meritorious invention. Our advanced civilization, the complex
intricacies of our social fabric, the enormous general increase in
wealth and the consequent general ability, to greater or less extent,
to gratify our numerous and various desires, has created an unlimited
field of opportunity for the ingenious, fertile and enterprising
brain. Not only for the improvements upon methods of "doing things,"
for which there is no man capable of setting a limit, but even for
the invention and creation of entirely new means of gratification and
utility.

The inventor of steam locomotion created for mankind a new means
of providing for certain phases of its existence. Yet THOSE who
successively contributed their ingenuity and made the MODERN
locomotive possible have filled a want, served a useful purpose,
conferred a benefit and justly earned and merited reward. The
existence of the perfected steam locomotive did not deter human
ingenuity and enterprise from developing electric traction. The
inventors of wireless telegraphy, were not deterred or discouraged
in their efforts by the existence of telegraph wires. The fact that,
in all the unknown thousands of years of human existence, speech was
considered only a human prerogative did not prevent "THE SAGE OF
LLEWELLYN" from giving to the world the phonograph.

Every human brain is different from every other; endowed with its own
special marvellous capacity, making it possible for it to succeed in
new directions.

Who can fathom, or set a limit to the ingenuity of that divine
creation, THE HUMAN BRAIN? None but its Creator. Our ordinary
every-day mechanical utilities would be considered MAGIC by him who
wrote, "There is nothing new under the Sun."

  [Illustration: WHO CAN FATHOM OR SET A LIMIT TO THE INGENUITY OF
  THAT DIVINE CREATION, THE HUMAN BRAIN? NONE BUT ITS CREATOR.]

  [Illustration: OUR ORDINARY EVERYDAY MECHANICAL UTILITIES WOULD
  BE CONSIDERED MAGIC BY HIM WHO WROTE--"THERE'S NOTHING NEW UNDER
  THE SUN."]

Happily the world is not apt to suffer from the foolish slogan of
"IN GOOD OLD TIMES," as generally the possessor of extraordinary
abilities will not be deterred by it from using them. And a SIGH for
PAST opportunities is but a true indication of the unfitness of its
unfortunate emitter for any opportunity.

The "MISLEADING ANSWER" to "WHAT AND HOW TO INVENT" is that which
tells everybody and anybody, to invent ANYTHING AND EVERYTHING.

Human abilities and environments vary, and it necessarily follows
that every individual cannot be successful in that undertaking which
requires for its successful accomplishment that which manifestly
his Creator did not endow him with. Nor is the capable man apt to
be as successful in a direction where, through his environments, he
is a stranger, as he would in that field of operation that he has
been most active in. It is better and cheaper for a person to first
determine his possession of the abilities for doing certain things,
than to find out the want of them by the failure of his undertaking.
The gifted individual will also find success easier to attain if his
efforts are directed in experienced channels, than if prospecting on
what is to him, "unexplored wilds."

And to the "MISLEADING ANSWER" OF "WHAT AND HOW TO INVENT," can
be, in a great measure, attributed the product of the inventive
weeds that choke up the patent offices as well as the elimination
of numerous individuals from ordinary but useful occupations for
which their Creator evidently intended them. Their wasted substances
furnishes a fat living to them who make a profession to give out this
"misleading" advice broadcast.



CHAPTER 11

GENERAL DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INVENTIONS


To "ANSWER INTELLIGENTLY WHAT AND HOW TO INVENT." It is first
necessary to analyze most carefully the various phases of invention
of various natures.

It will be observed that inventions in general may be divided into
several divisions, as follows:

First:--Fundamental physical principles, which are very rare and
purely scientific.

Second:--Basic mechanical adaptation to and for the first division
which generally comes into existence soon after the discovery of the
first.

Third:--Basic mechanical adaptation to a well-defined production,
substituting human or animal exertions; which comes by degrees, and
none too often.

Fourth:--Improved mechanical applications.

Fifth:--Diverse or varied mechanical applications.

The last two are the most prolific or numerous classes. The first
division includes our physical sciences. The second is the first
mechanical harness for utilizing a new discovery in the laws of
physics for different purposes. The third includes the first
mechanical appliances receiving impulse from some other body for
doing to greater advantage that which is done by direct human or
animal exertions, and are commonly termed labor-saving machines.

The fourth are the continuous improvements on the third, and may
include basic mechanical contrivances.

The fifth is for accomplishing the same ends as the Second, Third and
Fourth, but also for the greater adaptability for certain specific
purposes, and for popularizing its production; that is to prevent the
exclusive monopolizing of certain advantages gained through and by
the Second and Third.



CHAPTER 12

THE GLORY OF INVENTION AND PICTURES OF CELEBRATED INVENTORS AND
SCIENTISTS


Great and glorious are the opportunities for the lucky individual
possessing the required high standard of intelligence, education,
taste, and means of devoting himself to scientific investigations
and experiments, discovering and giving to the world new
scientific truths, and means of harnessing them to various human
usefulness, coming within range of different dynamic forces, such as:
steam, gas, electricity, hydraulics, etc. The gates of the treasuries
of rapturous joy are ajar to him, all his life, and an honored memory
afterwards, as enduring as the civilization that made his triumphs
possible. The products of his genius are his monuments, and are of
greater beauty than any sculptor could produce. More enduring than
the Pyramids, always noted by admiring and grateful humanity, to whom
it gives comfort and inspiration.

  [Illustration: NEWTON

  DISCOVERER OF GRAVITATION.]

  [Illustration: STEPHENSON

  INVENTOR OF STEAM ENGINE.]

  [Illustration: ELI WHITNEY

  INVENTOR OF COTTON GIN.]

  [Illustration: ERICSSON

  INVENTOR OF THE "MONITOR."]

  [Illustration: HERSCHEL, ASTRONOMER.]

  [Illustration: S. F. B. MORSE, INVENTOR OF THE TELEGRAPH.]

  [Illustration: ROBERT FULTON, INVENTOR OF THE STEAMBOAT.]

  [Illustration: BENJ. FRANKLIN, SCIENTIST.]

  [Illustration: ELIAS HOWE, INVENTOR OF THE SEWING MACHINE.]

  [Illustration: JAS. WATT, INVENTOR OF THE MODERN STEAM ENGINE.]

  [Illustration: LORD KELVIN, SCIENTIST.]

  [Illustration: THOS. A. EDISON, THE SAGE OF LLEWELLYN, INVENTOR
  OF THE PHONOGRAPH, INCANDESCENT LIGHT, ETC.]

  [Illustration: SIG. MARCONI, INVENTOR OF WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY.]

  [Illustration: SIR H. BESSEMER, INVENTOR OF BESSEMER STEEL.]

  [Illustration: C. H. MC CORMICK, INVENTOR OF THE REAPING MACHINE.]

  [Illustration: PROFESSOR HUXLEY, SCIENTIST.]

  [Illustration: HUMBOLDT, SCIENTIST.]

  [Illustration: CHAS. DARWIN, DISCOVERER OF EVOLUTION.]

  [Illustration: SEYMOUR M. BONSALL, INVENTOR OF THE "INNOVATION
  INGENUITIES."]

One cannot possibly fail to get enthusiastic over the achievements
of the long line of great scientific minds, who have made our
civilization possible. "When will their glory fade?"

More humble, yet as useful, are the numerous inventors whose
achievements necessarily come under the Third, Fourth and Fifth
classification. The inventing and designing of a machine to do work
more quickly and better than has been always done by hand increases
and cheapens a useful production, placing it within reach of those
who would otherwise be deprived of it, and always eliminates drudgery.



CHAPTER 13

HOW TO INVENT


How to invent? Invention is a problem and a solution. It necessarily
follows that the first thing to do is to thoroughly comprehend the
problem and then contrive mechanical means to solve it. Work from the
centre outwardly; that is, build up your machine around your object
of accomplishment. Do not try to design a machine and insert it
afterwards.

There are many men so extraordinarily gifted that it is possible for
them to succeed in diverse directions, even in those for which they
have not been especially equipped by training. That is conspicuously
true in invention.

Useful inventions have been invented, and fortunes made by the
inventors who were not engineers so far as training was concerned,
nor were they even machinists, yet their extraordinary gifts have
out-balanced the disadvantage of the lack of training for mechanical
creation; but they all had to enlist, more or less, the services of
others to make up for their own deficiencies. No doubt there will be
many more inventors from outside the ranks of mechanical engineers,
and they will find the following suggestions useful.

Understand thoroughly what you have to accomplish, first of all.
After conceiving your ideas of a mechanical contrivance to do it
with, try and make some kind of a sketch of the whole and the part
respectively.



CHAPTER 14

HOW TO MAKE SKETCHES AND SPECIFICATIONS


The fact that you are not a draftsman or have even no idea of how
drawings are made, need not deter you from making sketches that will
be understood. A sketch or drawing is a representation more or less
correct of the imaginary object in your brain. Drawings or sketches
are the easiest kind of writing. They are picture writing, usually
the first mode of writing employed by primitive people, and any man
who has the intelligence to invent, no doubt has sufficient ability
to make some kind of sketches with pencil on paper of the pictures he
conceives in his brain.

In making your sketch, remember that nearly every object has many
sides to it, and your sketch is to impart a conception of the shape
and form of that object to somebody else who has no knowledge of it,
and must necessarily get his ideas from your sketches as he cannot
look inside of your brain; therefore make as many sketches of your
object as there are sides to it, and mark them, front, side, back,
top and bottom, and every separate piece, 1, 2, 3, etc.

Write up explanations or specifications of the same. You can learn
how to do that by reading standard works on applied mechanics.



CHAPTER 15

THE NECESSITY OF COMPETENT ENGINEERING FOR SUCCESSFUL INVENTION


Having done that much, now do not make a "bee line" for the Patent
Office. Do not imagine that the goal of your ambition, or the end of
your tribulations lies in the Patent Office, that the obtaining of
some kind of a patent places an "Aladdin's Lamp" at your disposal.
You have not got anything positive as yet to get a patent on--the
fact is you only think you have something--but your judgment may not
be the very best on the subject for your own good. Take your sketches
and your specifications and consult a competent, reputable engineer,
and he will tell you what are the prospects and probabilities of your
invention. If your invention is a valuable one, engage his services
to re-design it for you, and to make it practical. Don't think that
because you are an inventor you are necessarily a "natural born
engineer." They don't grow that way. But be wise enough "to know what
you don't know," and to get the right services from the right man.
After your engineer has incorporated your invented idea in a suitable
body, try to get your protection in the Patent Office on the form in
which you intend utilizing your idea. No patents are granted on ideas.

You will find the money spent on engineering your invention well
spent, as very often large sums of money would be saved in making
models and experimenting, and litigation would often be avoided
if the inventor would have the practical "horse sense" to go to a
competent engineer when in need of engineering skill.

In designing and inventing a machine for doing certain work on
a certain article which is otherwise done by hand, it does not
necessarily follow that the machine must imitate in its actions the
method employed by hand in accomplishing the same ends. That is
very often not the only or the best method of doing it. While it is
desirable for the machine to accomplish as good, or better, results
than is accomplished by hand process, it may be far from desirable
for the machine to imitate in its action the HAND PROCESS in doing
it. That may be a very roundabout way of doing it, and may not lend
itself to simple and desirable mechanical manipulation. For that
reason the inventor of a labor-saving machine may often have to
first invent a new process for bringing about certain results on the
substances on which his machine is to operate, that may be radically
different from the method employed by hand.

  [Illustration: AN INTELLIGENT AND PRUDENT INVENTOR WILL CAREFULLY
  NOTE HIS OWN CAPACITY.]

It is therefore obvious that, to invent a labor-saving machine
successfully, it is first necessary to determine the executive method
of operation, and often to invent a more suitable and adaptable
one before inventing the means for accomplishing the same, as the
executive part of his contemplated machine is his problem, and the
ease or difficulty of its solution depends upon its simplicity.
The intelligent and prudent inventor will carefully note his own
special capacity, aptitude, taste, education, training, experience,
and opportunity in certain directions. He will carefully weigh and
measure so far as possible in advance his proposed undertaking,
and when finally decided upon, he will set himself to work
enthusiastically on the lines laid down in this article, and with
all the devotion and tenacity that is in him, knowing no defeat,
learning and finding new means to solve the problem from every
set-back and apparent failure, until he will bring it to a successful
accomplishment, and actually tear Victory from the Jaws of Defeat.



CHAPTER 16

PERT POINTERS FOR PROSPECTIVE INVENTORS THAT WILL BE FOUND HELPFUL


While it is impossible to lay down fixed rules for the would-be
successful inventor to follow, the following will be found useful:

Observe everything carefully. Try to remember everything you see.
Acquire the habit of concentration. Reason logically. Do not overlook
details. Be a hard worker. Keep your mouth shut. Don't count your
chickens before they are hatched. Don't get inflated with your
superiority, neglecting to avail yourself of the accumulated
knowledge and experience of others. Don't imagine yourself a Solomon.
Don't bite off more than you can swallow. (Read Æsop's fable about
the "Eagle and the Jackdaw.") Don't set yourself a Quixotic task,
and, on the other hand, don't think it is impossible for you to
succeed where others have failed.

  [Illustration: OBSERVE EVERYTHING CAREFULLY. TRY TO REMEMBER
  EVERYTHING YOU SEE. REASON LOGICALLY. DO NOT OVERLOOK DETAILS.]

Do not start an advance account in greatness by telling everybody you
come in contact with what a wonderful invention you are working on,
thereby trying to enhance your importance with them. Remember you are
not "It" until you have succeeded, and when you do, the world will
know it soon enough, and you will not suffer by reason of its having
found it out for itself. Remember an inventor is only judged by what
he has made good, not by what he has attempted.

Don't, oh! please don't go about with a face as solemn and anxious as
if you were an Atlas. Using the inside of your head, should not be
sufficient reason for neglecting the outside of it by "boycotting"
the barber. Hair is not "Wisdom teeth."

Do not waste your time complaining for the want of appreciation in
your wife, for the "great ideas" you have in your head. She may
have a strain of Missourian blood in her veins, and "She wants to
be shown." When you "do," you can be sure she will not be slow in
handing you up the "sugar lumps."

Because Shakespeare, Napoleon, Ruskin, etc., have parted from the
partners of their youth, should not lead you to the deduction that it
necessarily is the earmarks of greatness to cast aside, when you have
become successful, the sharer of your early poverty and struggles.
You will be greater by not following anybody's example, in that
respect.

  [Illustration: DON'T IMAGINE YOURSELF A SOLOMON.]

  [Illustration: "THE EAGLE AND THE JACKDAW." DON'T BITE OFF MORE
  THAN YOU CAN SWALLOW.]

  [Illustration: DON'T SET YOURSELF A QUIXOTIC TASK.]

  [Illustration: DON'T GO ABOUT WITH A FACE AS SOLEMN AND ANXIOUS
  AS THOUGH YOU WERE ATLAS.]

  [Illustration: SHE WANTS TO BE SHOWN.]

  [Illustration]

  [Illustration: SHE WILL NOT BE SLOW IN HANDING YOU UP THE SUGAR
  LUMPS.]

  [Illustration: TO CAST ASIDE WHEN YOU BECOME SUCCESSFUL THE
  SHARER OF YOUR EARLY POVERTY AND STRUGGLES.]

  [Illustration: YOU WILL BE GREATER BY NOT FOLLOWING ANYBODY'S
  EXAMPLE IN THAT RESPECT.]

  [Illustration: ONLY A TEMPERATE ABSTEMIOUS REGIME OF LIFE CAN
  GIVE THE HEALTHY BRAIN.]

  [Illustration: DON'T FORGET THE PEOPLE YOU KNEW.]

Remember that only a temperate abstemious régime of life can give
you the healthy brain required for the successful accomplishment of
anything worth doing. Don't fail to give credit to others when it is
due. Don't forget to repay those who have helped to make your success
possible, and, lastly, gain your success in such a manner that your
enjoyment of its reward will not be marred by the remorse
of your conscience.



CHAPTER 17

PROTECTION OF AN INVENTION


The protection of an invention implies the dual problem of how to
prevent others from stealing the product of one's mental labor, and
of how to insure a fair share of its value to the inventor.

To solve that problem absolutely is of course no more possible than
the absolute prevention of the pilfering of anything else of value in
the world, but it may be made as secure as the present circumstances
in the case will permit if the inventor, to use a slang expression,
will be "on to the game." To be that, he first has to know with whom
he has to reckon, and how the stealing is done, and the best way to
checkmate it.



CHAPTER 18

VARIOUS WAYS EMPLOYED TO CHEAT AND ROB INVENTORS


While it is impossible to enumerate all of the different methods
employed in bringing about the proverbial slip between the cup and
the inventor's lip, a few of the usual means, and those generally
adopted, in fact so general, that they have come to be looked upon as
almost legitimate, established precedents, are as follows:

If the inventor is in the employ of a company manufacturing goods,
to which his invention is a valuable addition, the company simply
"takes it," and applies for a patent on the same, as being the
original inventor. In most cases the inventor is not even informed
of the patent application, and generally some high official in the
company's employ claims and gets the credit and reward for inventing
it. Should that invention be very valuable, or the inventor commits
the indiscretion of making other inventions, he will be promptly
discharged on one pretense or another, to be rid of his presence, so
as to "nip any possible trouble in the bud," and the poor inventor
has to "drift" for a while until he strikes something again and
probably has a similar experience in the course of time, if he did
not get "wise" by his last experience.

Another pet practice is for a concern to boldly take another man's
invention that is valuable to it, and work it as if it were its
own, of course making money out of it, and very often doing so
undisturbed. This may be possible for a variety of reasons, such as,
being at a distance from the inventor and his having no means of
finding it out; or, again, he may be dead, and his rightful heirs
may have no knowledge of the patent, its value or its infringement.
But should even the inventor be alive and find them out and attempt
to call them to account, he will promptly be informed to "go and see
their lawyers," which is only another way of telling him, "well, what
are you going to do about it?" For if he goes to see their lawyers,
they will most condescendingly and patronizingly inform him that that
patent is not "valid," and advise him not to bother his head about
it, as it would do him no good. And unless he has the means to engage
lawyers, who require fat "retainers," he is absolutely helpless, and
the exploiters of his invention can enjoy their ill-gotten gains with
impunity.



CHAPTER 19

GOVERNMENT CONNIVANCE AT THE DESPOILING OF A POOR INVENTOR


Incredible, yet it is true, that if a patent is infringed upon,
and for some reason the inventor, though cognizant of it, does not
commence suit, it is held that he acquiesced in the same, and the
parties who are stealing his invention, as well as others, can go on
robbing him with impunity.

The "INTERFERENCE" trick is usually resorted to, to transfer a
valuable invention from a poor but rightful owner to those who want
it, and have the money to make profitable use of it and pay for the
trick. The most surprising part of it is that it is done quite
legally and generally successfully and with no "comeback." It is also
very remarkable for its simplicity of procedure, which is usually as
follows:

  [Illustration: THE SWIPEING MFG. CO. HAVE STOLEN MY INVENTION.]

  [Illustration: WE MUST HAVE 1000 DOLLARS AS A RETAINING FEE.]

  [Illustration: DEFENDED IN COURT * * * * ON TECHNICALITIES.]

  [Illustration: THE EXPLOITERS OF HIS INVENTION CAN ENJOY THEIR
  ILL-GOTTEN GAINS WITH IMPUNITY.]

A manufacturer of a certain line of goods makes it his business
promptly to obtain copies of all patents in his own line of goods
as soon as they are issued. When he finds something that he thinks
he wants or can use to advantage in his business, he promptly goes
ahead, starts to make it by copying the patent illustration in the
published records, and as promptly and innocently files a patent
application in the patent office, which is an exact duplicate and
copy of the other man's patent that has been issued and published.

In due course he gets the return of his patent application from the
patent office with the citation against it of the other man's patent
that he is copying. He then promptly notes the date of the patent
application of the other man's patent and files what is called in the
patent office as "INTERFERENCE," simply claiming that he invented
his invention or thought about it, or dreamed about it at a previous
time, allowing himself a sufficient margin of a year or two before
the date of application of the other man's patent, and thereby
claiming himself the rightful inventor of the same, boosting up his
own false affidavit by one or two lying witnesses, which experience
has demonstrated is a commercial commodity. Having done that, it is
necessary for the right inventor, who has received due notice from
the Patent Office, to come and defend his title to his patent, in
spite of the fact that the patent has been issued to him after the
customary and usual formalities in due legal form, and payment of all
legal fees. In order to defend the same now, he is obliged to engage
attorneys who require the usual and indispensable retainers, fees,
etc., without any certainty at all of being able to retain his just
claim to his patent, for the very simple reason that the time of the
filing of his patent was probably within a reasonable time of the
making of his invention, and he has to combat the sworn testimony
of his adversaries, who have given themselves ample latitude in
insuring their priority claim. While they are swearing falsely, they
reason, and rightly so, that it is no more criminal to lie by the
year than by the month, and consequently they make sure of it, and
give themselves plenty of rope, with the result that the rightful
inventor, after paying his original fees for the obtaining of the
patents and the second fees for defending it, usually loses the same
and his invention, simply because circumstances and his conscience
do not permit him to defend himself against his adversaries with the
same weapons he is attacked with, namely, perjury; thus he remains by
force of circumstances an honest man considerably poorer, and a whole
lot wiser by his experience.



CHAPTER 20

OLD AND COMMON TRICKS EMPLOYED TO "DO" AN INEXPERIENCED INVENTOR


Another method in vogue for appropriating other people's inventions,
is to copy it, making some slight minor change in it, and defend it
in court, if need be, on technicalities.

There are still other ways, by which inventors often lose their just
dues, which is generally the fault of their own inexperience, as for
instance, by giving exclusive manufacturing privileges to somebody
without a reasonable guarantee, for the making of a certain quantity
per stipulated period. The possessor of the privilege will then only
have to make one in the whole life of the contract, and thereby rid
himself of a competitive article from the market, at the inventor's
expense.

Then there are various methods of avoiding the payment of royalties
on all that's made, by getting them made at different places, unknown
to the inventor, and by keeping two sets of books. If the invention
forms the basis of a Stock Company, by allowing the inventor only
a minority of the stock, and taking all of the earnings of the
invention in large salaries by the controlling parties, thus leaving
the inventor out in the cold.



CHAPTER 21

THE ROOT OF THE EVIL


The different ways of appropriating other people's invention without
giving any equivalent for it, are made possible by our existing laws
which are notoriously defective for insuring justice and equity
to those who labor with their brains, who, in the opinion of most
people, are as deserving of protection, in the enjoyment of the
fruits of their labor, as they who work with their hands.

If the man who cultivates the soil, raises a crop and when the same
is ripe, some one should come and boldly reap and harvest the same,
and carry it off to his barn and enjoy the proceeds thereof, the
law would immediately lay its hands on that person, deprive him of
his stolen goods, to return the same to the rightful owner. The
community would also be wrought up in righteous indignation and add
its ostracism of the malefactor, even after he has been deprived of
his stealings, suffered the penalty, and is probably penitent.

But it is different, oh! how different, if the stolen property is
a mental instead of a hand product. It ought to be apparent that
there is a defect somewhere in the profound reasoning of our august
law-makers and honorable jurists in framing and interpreting our
laws for protection of property that makes it possible for a man to
arrest another man that he has found in possession of his plow, while
allowing a man to steal another man's invention, for the improvement
of all plows, and to throw the inventor out of his office for
attempting to remonstrate with him for appropriating his property.



CHAPTER 22

COMPARATIVE LEGAL PROTECTION AFFORDED TO MENTAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTY


The law is very partial in protecting the rightful owner in
possession of that which to produce requires but manual labor and
very little preparation, but it gives no practical protection to the
rightful owner in securing to him even a part of the benefits of his
production, if the same is the result of the labors of the brain,
after spending many years in hard and careful study in making it
possible for him to accomplish it.

Dame Justice with unsheathed sword stands guard over the cellar of
potatoes that took three months for the ox and his owner to produce,
but she is entirely indifferent if an intelligent and educated
engineer is robbed of the results of his labors of several years,
after collecting a fee from him for doing that which it does not do,
and which it ought to do freely. It is manifestly a peculiar logic,
entirely at variance with the rules, that govern the ideas of equity.

The man who produces a field of corn that will feed a dozen cows is
directly protected in the possession thereof by the paid officers
of the law of the community, while the man who, by his exertions,
lightens the burdens of millions of human beings has no claim upon
the services of the community's enforcers of the law of property
rights.



CHAPTER 23

THE UTTER HELPLESSNESS OF A POOR INVENTOR TO OBTAIN JUSTICE


It is confessedly an enigma to many a man, why if an inventor is so
unlucky as not to possess the large sums of money required to engage
the services of competent attorneys, he must be content to see the
despoiler of the fruits of his labor enjoy it. And should he, the
inventor, be so indecorous as to accuse him of it, the law will
immediately fly to the assistance of his despoiler, and clap the
unlucky inventor in jail for libel.

Again, if a man, as member of a corporation, appropriates another
man's property the law does not permit him to retain it, or exempt
him from the consequences of this unlawful action by reason of any
limitation of responsibility as a member of a corporation. But,
should the corporation appropriate another man's invention, and after
expensive and long drawn-out litigations, the inventor should be
awarded damages from the company for exploiting his invention, all
the company has to do to avoid paying the award is to fail, and
the same individuals can re-organize to do the same business under
a new charter and name, and may steal the same inventor's patent
again, providing it pays it to do so, and the inventor would have to
commence to fight again in court.

  [Illustration: WHY, OH WHY, IS THE STEALING OF ONE KIND OF PROPERTY A
  CRIMINAL OFFENSE, ANOTHER ONLY A CIVIL TORT?

  THE LAW IS VERY POWERFUL IN PROTECTING THE RIGHTFUL OWNER.

  DAME JUSTICE WITH UNSHEATHED SWORD STANDS GUARD OVER THE CELLAR OF
  POTATOES.

  NO CLAIM UPON THE SERVICES OF THE COMMUNITY'S OFFICERS OF THE
  LAW.]

Why, oh why, is the stealing of one kind of property a criminal
offense, and another only a civil tort?



CHAPTER 24

PUBLIC ATTITUDE TOWARDS HIM WHO STEALS PHYSICAL AND TO THE ONE WHO
STEALS MENTAL PROPERTY


Good people will justly gather up their coat-tails in holy horror,
when perchance they come in contact with a man convicted of highway
robbery, but when has a man been expelled from Church membership, or
from fashionable clubs, who has lost a patent suit by a clear case of
intentional infringement being proven against him?

At present it would seem that many inventors have a
special reason for deploring the decadence of the Eternal
Brimstone-Doctrine, as punishment for wrong-doing, especially
for the breaking of the Eighth and Tenth Commandments,
as its modern substitute of "Thou shalt not steal,
less-than-necessary-for-lawyers'-fees-to-absolve-you-and-a-reasonable-margin-of-profit,"
manifestly is broad enough to include the stealing of inventive
production.



CHAPTER 25

PRESENT AVAILABLE MEANS OF PROTECTING AN INVENTION


To protect an invention is indeed a very serious problem, under any
and all circumstances, yet there are certain conditions that will
protect it in a measure.

The first and most potent is to have a good deal of money to fight
infringements with, for money not only has the famed virtue of
"covering a multitude of sins," but of keeping others from sinning
against you.

  [Illustration: BUT IS IT DIFFERENT OH! NOW! IF THE STOLEN PROPERTY
  IS A MENTAL INSTEAD OF A HAND PRODUCT?

  THE COMMUNITY WOULD BE WROUGHT UP IN RIGHTEOUS INDIGNATION.]

Second: Good and careful invention and designing by making the
mechanical contrivance as nearly basic as the circumstances will
permit, and to design and invent contrivances for the same purpose
in as many other ways from the one to be used as possible, and by
patenting the same, making it harder for anybody else to get around
it.

Third: To so develop your means of producing your invention, that
they will enable you to hold your own in competition in the market
should it come.

Fourth: To have a good patent lawyer draw your patent claims.

Fifth: If possible have that lawyer interested in your invention.

Sixth: Never give it out to be worked on a royalty, unless it is to
some party with whose ability and integrity you are satisfied, and
even then have a clearly defined contract in writing as to quantities
and conditions.

Seventh: If the invention is assigned to a corporation, do not leave
yourself with a minority of stock if you can at all help it, but
if you cannot possibly avoid parting with a majority of the stock,
identify and amalgamate your interests with some other stockholder
in your company, that in combination with him will give you a
majority and control; and arrange if possible for your services to be
indispensable and profitable to the company.

Last, never sign an agreement with anybody assigning to them all of
your future improvements and inventions you may make for the same
purpose. You will be reasonably protected if you can keep that "up
your sleeve." For the world is usually more mindful of the man with
the "Big Stick" than with the "Big Grievance."

  [Illustration: THE WORLD IS USUALLY MORE MINDFUL OF THE MAN WITH
  THE "BIG STICK," THAN WITH THE "BIG GRIEVANCE."]



CHAPTER 26

COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT TREATMENT--A BOUNTY FOR RAISING "SUGAR BEETS,"
BUT A TAX ON INVENTIONS


Laws are framed and a great deal of money spent by our Government
for the encouragement of useful production by its people. For
illustration, it is considered that the best way to produce sugar,
is the raising of the sugar cane which is raised in the world in
sufficient quantities to meet all possible demands, and naturally
enough in places where it can be raised to the best advantage. Many
of those places are under the Stars and Stripes, namely, Louisiana,
Hawaii, Porto Rico, and the Philippine Islands. Yet if a citizen who,
on his farm, could produce many diverse articles and sell the same to
advantage, chooses instead to raise a vegetable (beets), from which
sugar can be manufactured at a disadvantage, expects and receives
from the Government not only absolute protection of his production,
and also the securing of an enhanced price for the same, through a
high tariff, but an actual bonus of money known as a "bounty." But
the inventor who bestows great benefits on his fellow citizens and
the world at large, and gives it that which can not be had at all
elsewhere at the time, is evidently not deemed by our law-makers of
sufficient importance to receive any encouragement or justice.

From what has been said here, it ought to be very evident that there
is a wide difference in the treatment meted out by our Government to
him who renders services to society by digging in the dirt, and to
him who digs in the brain.

  [Illustration: DIFFERENCE IN THE TREATMENT METED OUT BY OUR
  GOVERNMENT TO HIM WHO RENDERS SERVICES TO SOCIETY, BY DIGGING IN
  THE DIRT, AND TO HIM WHO USES THE BRAIN.]



CHAPTER 27

SOCIETY'S DEBT TO THE INVENTOR


It is certainly good and just public policy that the Government
should spend a good deal of money for the benefit of the farmers,
but where is the justice and the good public policy in making money
out of the inventors? (See statistics of the fiscal returns from the
Patent Office.) Is the former more indispensable to society than
the latter? Has not the ingenuity of the inventor enabled even the
farmer, the special protegé of the Government, to get greater returns
from his labor than ever in the history of the world? Has he not made
his task lighter, and has he not enabled him to get more of the good
things of the world for the earnings of his labor? And is it not in a
great measure through the inventor's ingenuity and industry that this
country has attained its unprecedented prosperity in Peace and mighty
potency in War?



CHAPTER 28

COMPARATIVE PROTECTION GIVEN BY THE GOVERNMENT


Our formidable warships are always ready to race to the furthest
end of the world to protect our merchants and their wares. Even our
missionaries have the "moral" support of our "strong arm," in forcing
on the so-called heathens the barter of "cozy corners in Heaven"
for "cash down," but it is a notorious fact that certain so-called
civilized countries are making it their habit and custom quite openly
to appropriate every invention that is worth appropriating, providing
the inventor is a foreigner, and the unfortunate inventor has not
even got a cause of action at law, nor would the inventor's complaint
at the State Department be productive of anything more substantial
than polite regrets. These modern Barbary Pirates need not fear
another Commodore Perry, so long as they devote their depredations
solely to the comparatively more valuable production of the brains
instead of the hands.

  [Illustration: HAS NOT THE INGENUITY OF THE INVENTOR ENABLED EVEN
  THE FARMER * * * TO GET GREATER RETURNS FOR HIS LABOR? * * * HAS
  HE NOT MADE HIS WORK LIGHTER AND HAS HE NOT ENABLED HIM TO GET
  MORE OF THE GOOD THINGS OF THIS WORLD?]

  [Illustration: THROUGH THE INVENTOR'S INGENUITY AND INDUSTRY THIS
  COUNTRY HAS ATTAINED ITS MIGHTY POTENCY IN WAR.]



CHAPTER 29

THE LAW'S DEFINITION OF PROPERTY--AND PUBLIC POLICY


Evidently the law's definitions of "Industry and Property" are
only that which were known and accepted as such before the Era of
Mechanical Inventions. And while the law is sufficiently modern in
exacting a fee from this modern class of toilers, yet it has not
modernized sufficiently to extend to them the encouragement and
protection that in all reason and justice they are entitled to, even
without additional exaction from them, and it is also against public
policy.

"Full many a gem of purest ray serene the dark unfathomed caves of
ocean bear."

"Full many a flower is born to blush unseen and waste its sweetness
on the desert air."

Many a great invention to increase human comfort and happiness would
be given to the world, if inventors were given that encouragement and
protection which their genius, industry and usefulness deserve.



CHAPTER 30

THE SUCCESSFUL INVENTOR


One has indeed to be more than ordinarily gifted, and most carefully
trained in many directions, spiritual, mental and physical, to be a
successful inventor. To improve by one's own ability and efforts the
results of any phase of human activities; to conceive, execute and
adopt and introduce a new and improved method for the carrying out
of certain human exertions without infringing upon, or appropriating
the efforts of others; to secure a fair and just share of its
benefits, to be translated to higher planes of life, without becoming
over-conscious of it; to be called to the management of affairs
involving the interests, and welfare of others; to be able to do so,
not only profitably, but in a manner to gain, hold and preserve the
esteem of our fellow-beings, is indeed a creditable achievement.
Well worth the ambition of every high-minded person extraordinarily
gifted. It requires the proverbial wisdom of an owl, the cunning of a
fox, and the courage and strength of a lion.

If the true history of all the pre-eminent inventors should be
written, it would be a record of "Making" the most of oneself,
painstaking labor, and of constant devotion to duty, of as brave and
as true men as ever wore brass buttons and gold lace; who, without
martial glamour and loud acclaim, quietly solve and overcome great
difficulties, against discouraging odds, and attain good results.



CHAPTER 31

COMPARATIVE TREATMENT THE WORLD ACCORDS TO THEM, AND SUMMARY


The world pays no heed to the efforts and struggles of such men,
often neglects to reward their good achievements, yet it never fails
to avail itself of their benefits.

The Monetary reward meted out by the world to even the most
successful inventors is insignificant, compared to the benefits
bestowed upon it by the beneficiary of its gratitude.

The world is full of monuments and statues to them who have or have
tried to benefit it by destruction and slaughter, and by the making
of widows and orphans, but one would have to use "Diogenes' Candle,"
to find the monuments to them who have benefited the world, by
giving it untold wealth and happiness, without sorrow or suffering,
except to themselves, through scientific and mechanical research and
invention.

The feeling of having benefited our fellows, of having helped to
improve the world for others, as others have done for us, the sweet
consciousness of having given the world "What was best in us," is the
true and only adequate reward to him who has given his best efforts
to lighten human burdens and increase their happiness.



Transcriber's note:
    Minor spelling inconsistencies, mainly hyphenated words, have been
    harmonized. Obvious typos have been corrected. An "Illustrations"
    section  has been added as an aid for the reader.





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