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Title: The pleasant historie of the conquest of the VVeast India, now called new Spayne - atchieued by the vvorthy Prince Hernando Cortes, marques - of the Valley of Huaxacac, most delectable to reade
Author: Gómara, Francisco López de
Language: English
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 Pleasant Historie of the
 Conquest of the VVeast India,
 _now called new Spayne_,

 Atchieued by the vvorthy Prince
 _Hernando Cortes_ Marques of the valley of
 _Huaxacac_, most delectable to Reade:

 Translated out of the Spanishe
 _tongue, by T. N._

 Anno. 1578.


 ¶ Imprinted at London by
 _Henry Bynneman_.


 Sir Francis VValsingham
 _Knight, principall Secretary to the_
 _Queenes most excellent Maiestie,_
 _and one of hir highnesse most_
 _Honorable priuie Counsell_.

Whilest I abode (right Honorable) in the Isle of Palma, in affaires
of merchandize for the vvorshipfull _Thomas Locke_ deceased, and his
company, time then permitted me, to haue cöference vvith auncient
gentlemen vvhiche had serued in the Conquest of the vveft India, novve
called nevve Spaine, vnder the princely Captaine _Hernando Cortez_.
By vvhom as present vvitnesses at many of the actes herein contayned,
I vvas credibly informed, that this delectable and vvorthy Historie
is a most true and iust reporte of matter paste in effect: vvherefore
I did the more vvillingly turne ouer and peruse the same, vvhiche
is a Mirrour and an excellent president, for all such as shall take
in hande to gouerne nevve Discoueries: for here they shall behold,
hovv Glorie, Renovvne, and perfite Felicitie, is not gotten but vvith
greate paines, trauaile, perill and daunger of life: here shall they
see the vvisedome, curtesie, valour and pollicie of vvorthy Captaynes,
yea and the faithfull hartes vvhiche they ought to beare vnto their
Princes seruice: here also is described, hovv to vse and correct the
stubbern & mutinous persons, & in vvhat order to exalt the good,
stoute and vertuous Souldiers, and chiefly, hovv to preserue and keepe
that bevvtifull Dame _Lady Victorie_ vvhë she is obtayned. And vvhere
it vvas supposed, that the golden mettall had his beginning and place
in the East and VVeast _India_, neare vnto the hote Zoane, (as moste
learned vvriters helde opinion) it is novve approued by the venterous
trauellour and vvorthy captaine _Martin Frobisher_ Esquire, yea and
also through the greate paynes, procurement, and firste inuention of
the vvorshipfull _Mychaell Locke_ Merchaunt, that the same golden
mettall dothe also lie incorporate in the bovvelles of the Norvveast
parties, enuironned vvith admirable Tovvers, Pillers and Pynacles,
of Rockes, Stone, and Ise, possessed of a people bothe straunge, &
rare in shape, attire and lyuing, yea suche a Countrey and people,
as all _Europe_ had forsaken and made no account of, excepte our
moste gratious Queene and her subiectes, vvhome vndoubtedly God hath
appoynted, not onely to be supreme Princesse ouer them, but also to be
a meane that the name of Christ maybe knovven vnto this Heathenish and
Sauage generation.

Not long since (right Honorable) I happened to trauayle from the famous
Cittie of _Tolledo_ in _Spayne_, tovvarde highe _Castile_, and by
fortune ouertooke an auncient Gentlemen, vvorshipfully accompanied,
vnto vvhö I vvas so bold as to approch, beseching his vvorship to
aduertise me of his iourney: vvho (after he had beheld my white head
& beard) ansvvered ful gentlely, that his intët vvas to trauayle vnto
the king of Spaynes Court, and vvelcomed me vnto his company. In shorte
space that vve had iourneyed togither, and communed of each other his
Countrey, it pleased him to say as follovveth: My good friende, if you
knevv my sute vnto the Kings maiestie, you vvould iudge that I vvere
a mad man, and therefore to shorten oure vvay, I vvill declare my
attempted sute vnto you. You shall vnderstande, that I am a Gentleman
of lxx. yeares of age, and sometimes I serued in the ciuill vvarres
of _Pirru_, vvhere I vvas vvounded in diuers parts of my body, and am
novv thereby lame in one of my legges and shoulder. I haue neyther
VVife nor childe, and at this presente (God be praised) I haue in the
Contractation house in the Citie of _Siuill_, in golde and plate, the
summe of thirtie thousande Duckates: and I haue also in _Pirru_ in
good lands and possessions, the yearely rente of tvvelue thousande
Duckates, vvhiche rentes and readye money is sufficiente to mainteyne a
poore Gentleman. But al this notvvithstanding, I do novv sue vnto the
Kings Maiestie, to haue licence and authoritie to discouer and conquere
a certayne parte of _India_, vvhyche adioyneth vvith _Brazile_, and
is part of the Empire of _Pirru_, I pray you novve declare what you
thinke of my sute. By my troth sir (quoth I) I trust your vvorship
vvill pardon a rash and suddaine iudgemët, which you now demand at my
häd: yea truly (quoth he) say vvhat you list. Then (quoth I) my opiniö
is, that you are not wel in your wit, for vvhat vvould you haue? vvil
not reason suffice you? or else would you now in your old days be an
Emperour, considering that your Sepulchre attendeth for you. Novve
truly I thanke you (quoth he) for of youre iudgement are most men: but
I say vnto you, considering that all flesh must finish, I seeke for
no quiet rest in this transitorie life: yea the vvise and Christian
Doctors do teach and admonish, that euery true Christian is borne,
not for his ovvne priuate vvealth and pleasure, but rather to help
and succoure others his poore breethren. Likevvise doe I consider the
greate number of Gentlemen, yonger brethren, and other valiät persons,
vvho through vvant of liuing, do fall into many disorders. VVherefore
to accomplish my dutie tovvard God and my Prince, and to releeue such
poore Gentlemen, do I novv attempte this iourney, vvith the aduenture
of my bodye and goodes, and for that purpose I haue in readinesse
foure tall Shippes, vvell furnished in the porte of _Saint Lucar de
Barrameda_, hoping assuredlye, that before the life depart from my
body, to heare these valiante yong Gentlemen (vvhome novv I meane to
haue in my company) say, oh happie day, vvhen olde _Zarate_ (for so is
my name) broughte vs from penurie, yea and from a number of perils that
vve vvere like to fall into. I hope also, that the royall estate of my
Prince shall be by my paynes and poore seruice enlarged: beleeue you
me, this is the onely sumptuous Tumbe that I pretende to builde for my
poore carkas. But yet I knovv there are some, vnto vvhome I may compare
the Bore that lyeth vvallovvyng in his Stye, vvho vvill not lette to
saye, vvhat neede vve any other vvorld, honor, or Kingdomes? let vs
be contented vvith that vve haue: vvho may easily be aunsvvered, Sir
glutton, your paunch is full, and little care you for the glory of
God, honor of youre Prince, neyther the neede and necessitie of youre
poore neyboures. VVith this conclusion the Gentleman ended his tale,
the iudgement vvhereof I leaue to noble Gentlemen his peeres to be

And vvhere oure Captayne _Hernando Cortez_, of vvhose valiant actes
this historie treateth, hathe deserued immortal fame, euë so doubtlesse
I hope, that vvithin this happie Realme is novv liuing a Gentleman,
vvose zeale of trauayle and valiant beginnings dothe prognosticate
greate, maruellous, and happie successe: for perfection of honor
and profite is not gotten in one daye, nor in one or tvvo voyages,
as the true histories of the East and VVest Conquests by Spanyardes
and Portingalles do testifye. And calling to remembrance the greate
zeale and good vvill vvhich your honor hath alvvayes extended to good
and profitable attemptes, and especially in the proceedings of the
nevv discouery, youre honor hath not only vsed liberalitie in your
aduëtures, but also taken greate paynes in Courte, to aduance and
further the voyage, a number I saye of Gentlemen, Marriners, and other
artificers, shal haue great cause to pray for your honor. And vvhere I
for my parte haue tasted of your honors goodnesse sundrye vvayes, I am
novve most humbly to beseech youre honor to accept this poore gifte,
the vvhiche I haue translated out of the Spanish tong, not decked vvith
gallant couloures, nor yet fyled vvith pleasant phrase of Rhetorike,
for these things are not for poore Marchant trauellers, but are
reserued to learned VVriters: yet I trust the Author vvill pardon mee,
bycause I haue gone as neere the sense of this Historie, as my cunning
vvoulde reach vnto. I also craue, that it may please youre honor, vvhen
your greate and vvaightie businesse vvill permitte, to beholde this
vvorke, and that shall be for me an encouragemente to take in hande the
translation of the East _India_, vvhiche is novve enioyed by the King
of Portingall. Thus I ende, beseeching the Almighty to preserue your
honorable estate.


 _Your honors most ready at commaundement
 Thomas Nicholas._


 The Conquest of the
 _Weast India_.

 The Byrth and lynage of
 _Hernando Cortez_.

In the yeare of our Sauiour, 1485. being kings of _Castill_ and
_Aragon_, the Catholike princes _Fernando_ and _Isabell_ his wyfe,
was borne _Hernando Cortez_ in a towne called _Medellin_, situated in
the prouince of _Andulozia_: his Father was named _Martyn Cortez de
Monroy_, & his mother was called Lady _Katherin Pisarro Altamirano_,
they were bothe of good byrth, and procéeded from foure principall
houses, that is to say, the house of _Cortez_, the house of _Monroy_,
the house of _Pisarro_, and the house of _Altamirano_, which foure
houses are auncient, noble and honorable: yet these parents but poore
in goods, but riche in vertue & good life, for whiche cause they were
muche estéemed and beloued among theyr neighbours. His mother was of
inclination deuoute, but somewhat harde: his father was charitable
and mercyfull, who in his youth applied himselfe to the warres, and
was Liuetenant to a company of horsemen. _Hernando Cortez_ in his
childehood was very sickely, so that many tymes he was at the poynt
of death: And when he came to .xiiii. yéeres of age, his parents sent
him to the Vniuersitie of _Salamanca_, where he remayned twoo yeares,
learnyng Grammar, and then returned to _Medellin_ werie of his studie,
yea possible for want of money: yet his parëts were much offended with
him for leauing his studie, for theyr onely desire was to haue had him
a student at lawe, whiche is a facultie both riche and worshipfull,
consideryng their sonne to be of a good witte and abilitie: Yet he
caused muche strife in his Fathers house, for he was a very vnhappy
ladde, high minded, and a louer of chiualrie, for which cause he
determined with himselfe to wander abroad to séeke aduentures. And at
that instant happened two iorneys fit for his purpose & inclination.
The one of them was to _Naples_ wyth _Gonsalo Hernandez_ of the Citie
of _Cordoua_, who was a worthy man, & named the great captaine. And
the other iourney was to the Weast India, with the Lorde _Nicholas de
Ouando_, a knight of the order of _Larez_, who was then appointed for
gouernour of those parties. And musing with himselfe which waye to
take, determined to passe into _India_, chiefly bycause the gouernour
was of his acquaintance, and such a one as would haue care of him. And
likewise the great desire of gold made him to couet that voyage more
than the Iorney vnto _Naples_. Now in the meane while that y^e fleet
was preparing for _India_, it chaunced, _Hernando Cartez_ pretended to
go vnto a certaine house in the night season to talke with a woman, and
clyming ouer a Wall whyche was of weake foundation, both he and the
Wal fell togither: So that with the noyse of hys fall, and ratling of
his armoure which he ware, came out a man newly married, and findyng
him fallen at hys dore would haue slayne hym, suspecting somewhat
of his newe married wife, but that a certaine olde woman (being his
mother in lawe) wyth great perswasions stayed him from that fact. Yet
with the fall he fell into a grieuous Ague, and continued sicke for a
long season, so that he could not procéede vppon his voyage with the
gouernour _Ouando_. And when he had obtained and fullye recouered his
health, he mynded to passe into _Italy_, And so toke hys way towarde
_Valentia_, wandering here and there almoste a whole yeare wyth much
necessitye and penurie, and then returned home againe to _Medellyn_,
with determination to procéed vppon his pretended voyage of _India_:
Wherevppon hys father and mother waying their sonnes estate, desired
God to blesse hym, and gaue him money in his purse for his iorney.

 The age of Cortez vvhen he passed
 _into India_.

_Hernando Cortez_ was of the age of nintéene yeares, in the yeare
of Christ 1504. and then he went toward _India_, and agréed for his
passage and victual with _Alonso Quintezo_ who went in companie of
other four shippes laden with merchandise, whiche nauie departed from
saint _Lucas de Barramedo_, with prosperous nauigation, vntyll they
arriued at the Iland of _Gomera_ one of the _Canarie_ Ilands, where
they did prouide themselues of all things necessarie for so long a
voyage as they then had in hand.

[Sidenote: Comfort of God.]

_Alounso Quintezo_, being greedie of his voyage, and desirous to come
to the Ilande of _Sainto Domingo_ before his fellowes, hoping to sel
his commoditie the better, departed from _Gomera_ in the night season
without knowledge giuing vnto his company. But incontinent after he
had hoysed vp his sayles, arose vp so great a winde and tempest, that
his maine mast brake, whereby hee was forced to retourne backe againe
to the Ilande of _Gomera_. And he made earnest requeste to them of
the other shyppes to staye for him, vntyl hee hadde mended his Mast,
who friendlye and neyghbourlye graunted hys desire, and departed
altogither, sayling in sight the one of the other certayne dayes: yet
the sayde _Quintero_, seyng the weather stedfast, and harpyng vpon
gaynes, flewe from his fellowes agayne. And where as _Frances Ninio de
Guelua_ his pilote was not experte in that Nauigation, they knew not
where they were at length: the Mariners did giue sundry Iudgements:
the Pilote was in great perplexitie and sadnesse, their passengers
lamented, and bewayled their unfortunate successe: the Master of the
shippe layde the faulte to the Pilote, and the Pilote likewise charged
the Master, for it did appeare that they were fallen out before. In
this meane time their victuall waxed skant, and their freshe water
wanted, so that they prepared themselues to die. Some cursed theyr
fortune, others asked mercie at Gods hande, lookyng for death and to
be eaten of the _Cariues_. And in this tyme of tribulation came a Doue
flying to the shippe, beyng on good Friday at Sunne sette, and satte
him on the shippe toppe: whereat they were all comforted, and tooke
it for a myracle and good token and some wept with ioy, some sayd y^t
God had sente the Doue to comforte them, others sayde that lande was
neare, and all gaue hartie thankes vnto God, directing their course
that way that the Doue flew: and when the Doue was out of sighte, they
sorrowed againe, but yet remayned with hope to sée shortlye lande and
on Easterday they discouered the Ilande of _Santo Domingo_, whiche was
firste discried by _Christopher Zorso_, who cryed, lande, lande, a
chéerefull voyce to the saylers. The Pilote looked out, and knewe that
it was the poynt, or cape of _Semana_, and within foure dayes after
they arriued in the porte of _Santo Domingo_, whiche was long wished
for, and there they founde the other shippes of their company arriued
many dayes before.

 The time that Cortez abode
 _in Santo Domingo_.

Soone after that the Gouernoure _Ouando_ was in his regimente and
office, _Cortez_ arriued at _Santo Domingo_, and the Gouernoures
Secretarie, called _Medina_, receyued and lodged him, and also enformed
him of the estate of the Iland, and aduised hym what was néedefull to
doe, wishing that hée would be a dweller there, and that he should
haue a plot to build vpon, with certaine ground for husbandry. But
_Cortez_ his thought was cleane contrary, for hée iudged, that as
soone as he came thither, he should lade with gold, whereby hée did
little estéeme his friend _Medina_ his coüsell, saying, that he had
rather goe to gather gold, than to trauell in husbandrie. _Medina_ yet
perswaded him, that he shoulde take better aduisement, for to finde
golde, was doubtfull, and very troubesome. This talke ended, _Cortez_
went to kisse the Gouernours handes, and to declare the cause of his
comming, with other newes from _Estremadure_ the Gouernours Coütrey.
The Gouernour friendly welcommed him, and also perswaded him to abide
there, the which councell he accepted, and shortlye after wente to the
warres, whereof was Captayne _Iaymes Velasques_, in the prouince of
_Anigua Iaqua_, and _Guaca Iarima_, and other Lordships whiche were not
as yet pacifyed wyth the late rebellion of _Anacoana_ widdowe, who was
a gentlewoman of great liuing. _Ouando_ gaue vnto _Cortez_ certayne
Indyans in the Countrey of _Daiguao_, and also the office of publike
notarie in _Azua_, a towne whyche the Gouernour had builded, and there
dwelt _Cortez_ fyue or syxe yeares, and began to play the good husband.
Now in this meane season he woulde haue gone to _Veragua_, which was
reported to bee maruellous riche, with the Captayn _Iaymes de Nicuesa_:
but bycause of an empostume that he had vnder his righte knée, he went
not, and as it happened, he was therein fortunate, for that thereby hée
escaped great perils and troubles, whiche happened to them that went on
that voyage and iourney.

 Things that happened to Cortez in
 _the Ilande of Cuba_.

[Sidenote: Cortez escapeth.]

[Sidenote: The Gouernoure vvas sore afrayde.]

The Lorde _Iames Colori_ being Admirall and chiefe Gouernour of the
new _India_, sent one _Iaymes Velasques_ to conquer the Ilande of
_Cuba_, in the yeare .1511. And gaue vnto him men, Armour, and other
thinges necessarie. And then _Hernando Cortez_ wente to that conquest
as a Clearke to the Treasorer called _Michaell de Passamontes_, for
to kéepe the accompts of the Kings fiftes and reuenewes, being so
intreated and required by the same _Iaymes Velasques_, bycause he was
holden for a man both able and diligente. And it followed, that in
the repartition of the lands conquered, _Iaymes Velasques_ gaue vnto
_Cortez_ the Indians of _Manicorao_, in coniunct company with his
brother in lawe called _Iuan Xuarez_, wherevpon _Cortez_ did inhabite
in _Saint Iames de Barucoa_, whiche was the first place of habitation
in that Ilande, whereas he bredde and broughte vp Kine, Shéepe, and
Mares, and was the first that hadde there any heard or flocke, and with
his _Indians_ he gathered great quantitie of golde, so that in short
time he waxed riche, and ioyned in company with one _Andres de Duero_
a Merchaunt, and put in two thousande Castlins for his stocke. He was
also highly estéemed with _Iaymes Velasques_, and put in authoritie to
dispatch businesse, and to giue order for edifices. In his tyme he
caused a money house to be built, & also an Hospital. At that time one
_Iuan Xuarez_ naturall of the Citie of _Granada_, carried to the Ile
of _Cuba_ his mother and thrée sisters, whiche came to the Iland of
_Santo Domingo_, with that vicequéene the Lady _Mary_ of _Toledo_, in
Anno .1509. hoping to marrie them there with rich men, for they were
very poore. And the one of them named _Cathelina_ was wont to say, That
she shoulde be a greate Gentlewoman: it was eyther hyr dreames and
fantasies, or else some Astronomer hadde made hir beléeue so, but hir
mother was reported to bée very cunning. The maydens were beautifull,
for which cause, and also being there but fewe Spanishe women, they
were muche made of, and often feasted. But _Cortez_ was woer to the
saide _Cathelina_, and at the ende married with hir: Although at the
first there was some strife about the matter, and _Cortez_ put in
prison, bycause he refused hir for his wife, but she demaunded him as
hir husband by faith and troth of hand: wherein _Iaymes Velasques_ did
stande hir friende, by reason of an other sister of hyrs which he had,
but of an euil name. It so fell out that one _Baltazar Bermudez_, _Iuan
Xuares_, and the two _Anthony Velasques_, with one _Villegas_ accused
_Cortez_, that he ought to marrie with _Cathelina_, yet those witnesses
spake of euill will many things, as touching y^e affaires cömitted
to his charge, alleadging y^t he vsed secret dealing with certaine
persons. The which causes although they were not true, yet they carried
great colour thereof. For why? many wët secretly to _Cortez_ his house,
complayning of _Iaymes Velasques_. Some bycause they had not iust
repertitiö of the cöquered Indiäs, and other some not according to
deserte. Contrariwyse _Iames Velasques_ gaue credit to his talebearers,
bicause _Cortez_ refused to marrie w^t _Cathelina Xuarez_, & vsed
vncourteous words vnto him in y^e presëce of many that stoode by, and
also commaunded him to warde. And when _Cortez_ sawe himselfe in the
stockes, he feared some proces of false witnesse, as many times dothe
happen in those parties. At time conueniente he brake the locke off the
stockes, and layde hand vpon the Sword and Target of the kéeper, and
brake vp a windowe, escaping thereby into the stréete, and tooke the
Church for Sanctuary. But when _Iaymes Velasques_ had notice thereof,
he was greatlye offended with _Christopher Lagos_ the Iayler, saying,
that for money he had losed him: wherefore he procured by al meanes to
plucke him out of the Sanctuary. But _Cortez_ hauing intelligence of
his dealing, did resiste and withstand his force. Yet notwithstanding
one daye _Cortez_ walking before the Churche dore, and being carelesse
of his businesse, was caught by the backe with a Serieant called _Iohn
Esquier_ and others, and then was put aboorde a Shyppe vnder hatches.
_Cortez_ was welbeloued among his neighboures, who did well consider
the euill will that the Gouernour bare vnto him. But nowe _Cortez_
séeing himselfe vnder hatches, despaired of his libertie, and did
verily thinke, that he shoulde be sent prisoner to the Chancerie of
_Santo Domingo_, or else to _Spayne_, who being in this extremitie,
soughte all meanes to get hys foote out of the chayne, and at length
he gote it out, and the same nighte he changed his apparell with a
ladde that serued him, and by the Pump of the Shippe he gote out, not
heard of any his kéepers, climbing softly along the Shippe syde, he
entred the Skiffe and went hys way therewith, and bycause they shoulde
not pursue after him, he losed the Boate of another Shippe that roade
by them. The Currant of _Macaguanigua_ a riuer of _Barucoa_, was so
fierce, that he could not gette in with his Skiffe, bicause he had
no help to row, & was also very werie, fearing to be drowned if he
should put himselfe to the land, wherefore he stripped himselfe
naked, and tyed a nyghtkerchiefe aboute hys head, with certayne
wrytings apperteyning to his office of Notarie and Clearkshippe to
the Treasourer, and other things that were agaynst the Gouernoure
_Iames Velasques_, and in this sorte swamme to lande, and wente home
to hys owne house, and spake with _Iohn Xuarez_ hys brother in law,
and tooke Sanctuarie agayne with Armour. Then the Gouernoure _Iames
Velasques_ sente hym worde, that all matters shoulde bée forgotten,
and that they shoulde remayne friendes, as in tyme past they hadde
bin, and to goe with hym to the Warres agaynste certayne Indians that
hadde rebelled. _Cortez_ made hym no aunswere, but incontinent married
with mistresse _Catalina Xuarez_ according to his promise, and to lyue
in peace. _Iames Velasques_ procéeded on hys iourney wyth a greate
companye agaynste the Rebelles. Then sayde _Cortez_ to hys brother in
lawe _Iohn Xuares_, bryng me (quoth he) my Launce and my Crosbowe to
the Townes ende. And so in that euening hée wente out of Sanctuarie,
and taking hys Crossebowe in hande, hée wente with his brother in
lawe to a certayne Farme, where _Iames Velasques_ was alone, with his
householde seruauntes, for hys armye was lodged in a Village thereby,
and came thither somewhat late, and at suche tyme as the Gouernoure was
perusing hys Booke of charges, and knocked at his dore which stoode
open, saying: Héere is _Cortez_ that woulde speake with the Gouernoure,
and so wente in. When _Iames Velasques_ sawe hym armed, and at such an
houre, he was maruellously afrayde, desiring hym to rest hymselfe, and
also to accepte hys Supper: No Sir (quoth he) my onely comming is, but
to knowe the complayntes you haue of me, and to satisfye you therein,
and also to bée youre friende and seruitor. They then embraced eache
other in token of friendship. And after long talke, they lay both in
one bedde, where _Iames de Orrelano_ founde them, who went to carrie
newes to the Gouernoure, how _Cortez_ had fledde. After this sort came
_Cortez_ agayne to his former friendshyppe with _Iames Velasques_, and
procéeded with him to the Warres, but afterwarde at his returne, he
was lyke to haue bin drowned in the sea: For as he came from the Caues
of _Bani_ to visite certayne of hys Shepheardes and _Indians_ that
wrought in the Pines of _Barrucoa_ where his dwelling was, his _Canoa_
or little boate ouerthrew, being night, and halfe a league from land,
with tempeste, wherby he was put to his shiftes, and forced to swimme,
and happened to espye lyght that certayne Shepheardes had which were at
supper néere the Sea side. By suche like perils and daungers, runne the
excellente menne their race, vntill that they arriue at the Hauen where
their good lotte is preserued.

 The discouerie of nevv Spayne.

[Sidenote: Men tangled in foolish loue.]

_Fraunces Hernandes de Cordoua_ did first discouer _Xucatan_, going
with thrée Shyps for _Indians_, or else to barter. These Shippes were
sette forthe by _Christopher Morante_, and _Lope Ochoa de Saizedo_,
in Anno .1517. And although he broughte home nothing at that time but
stripes, yet he broughte perfect relation, how the Countrey was rich of
gold and siluer, and the people of the countrey clothed. Then _Iames
Velasques_ Gouernoure of the Iland of _Cuba_, sent the next yeare
following his kinsman, called _Iohn de Grijalua_, with two hundred
_Spanyardes_ in foure Shippes, thinking to obtayne much gold and
siluer for his Merchandise at those places, which _Fraunces Hernandez_
had enformed him: So that _Iohn de Grijalua_ wente to _Xucatan_,
and there foughte with the _Indians_ of _Champoton_, and was hurt.
From thëce he entred the riuer of _Tauasco_, which _Grijalua_ hadde
so named, in the whiche place he bartered for things of small value.
He had in exchaunge golde, cloth of cotten wooll, and other curious
things wrought of feathers. He was also at Saint _Iohn de Vlhua_, and
tooke possession for the King, in the name of _Iames Velasques_, and
there also exchanged his Haberdashe wares, for Golde, and Couerlets
of cotten, and feathers: and if he hadde considered his good fortune,
he would haue planted habitation in so rich a land, as his company
did earnestly request him, and if he had so done, then had he bin as
_Cortez_ was. But suche wealth was not for him which knew it not,
although he excused himselfe, saying, he went not to inhabite, but to
barter onely in traffike of his Marchandise, and to discouer whether
that land of _Xucatan_ were an Ilande, or no. And finding it a mayne
land, and populous, he left off for very feare. Likewise, some of his
company were desirous to returne to _Cuba_, among whome, was one _Pedro
de Aluado_, who was farre in loue with a woman of that countrey. So
they determined to returne, with relation to the Gouernoure of suche
things as hadde happened till that day, and sayled homewardes along
the coast to _Panuco_, and so came to _Cuba_, to the greate griefe of
many of hys company. Yea some of them wept, with sorrowe that hée would
not abide in that rich countrey. He was fiue monethes vpon his voyage
homewarde from land to lande, and eyght monethes till his returne to
the Citie. But when he came home, the Gouernoure hauing hearde of his
procéedings, would not looke vppon him, whiche was hys iust reward.

 The Inuentorie of the treasure that
 _Grijalua brought for his wares_.

_Iohn de Grijalua_ bought of the Indians of _Potonchan_, _Saint Iohn
de Vlhua_, and other places of that coast, suche thynges as made his
fellowes farre in loue with the Countrey, and loth to depart from
thëce. The workmäship of many of the things that they bought, was more
worth than the thing it selfe, as this Inuentory perticularly doth shew.

 The Inuentory.

 A little Idoll of golde hollowe.

 A greater of golde, with hornes and heare, with a string of
 beadestones aboute his necke, and a Flyeflappe in his hand, and a
 little stone for his nauell.

 A péece of golde, like the patent of a Challice, garnished with

 A Skull of golde, with two hornes, and blacke heare.

 Two and twenty earerings of golde.

 Two and twenty péeces of an other fashion.

 Foure bracelettes of golde very broade.

 A payre of beades of golde, the stones hollowe, wyth a Frogge of
 golde hanging at the same.

 Another paire, with a Lyon of golde.

 A great paire of earerings of golde.

 Two little Eagles of golde hollowe.

 A little Saltseller of golde.

 Two earerings of golde with Turkie stones.

 A coller to hang aboute a womans necke, of twelue péeces, with
 four and twenty stones hanging thereat.

 A great coller of golde.

 Sixe little collers of golde thinne.

 Seauen other collers of gold with stones.

 Foure earerings of golden leafe.

 Twentie fishinghookes of golde.

 Twelue graines of gold, waying fiftie Duckets.

 A headlace of gold.

 Certaine thinne planches of gold.

 A Potedge pot of gold.

 An Idoll of golde hollowe.

 Certaine thinne brouches of gold.

 Nine beade stones of gold.

 Two payre of gilt beades.

 One payre of wodden beades guilt.

 A little cuppe of golde, with eighte purple stones, and twentie
 thrée stones of an other collour.

 Foure belles of gold.

 A little sauser of gold.

 A little boxe of gold.

 Certaine smal collers of gold of smal value.

 A hollow apple of gold.

 Fourtie hatchets of gold mixed with copper, valued in two thousand
 fiue hundred Duckets.

 A whole harneis or furniture for an armed man of gold thinne

 An other whole armour of wood with leaues of golde, garnished with
 little blacke stones.

 A certaine piece made like vnto a feather, of an hyde and gold
 ioyntly wrought.

 Foure pieces of armour of wood made for the knées, and couered
 with golden leafe.

 Two targets couered with feathers of many and fyne colours.

 Diuerse other targets of gold and feathers.

 A tuffe of feathers of sundry colours, with a little byrd in the
 middest, very liuely.

 A wing of gold and feathers.

 Two flyflappes of feathers.

 Two little chamberpottes of Allabaster, beset with many trimme
 stones, and some fyne, & among them there was one esteemed at two
 thousand Duckets.

 Certaine beades of tinne.

 Fiue paire of woodden beades rounde and couered wyth a leafe of
 gold very thinne.

 A hundred and thirty hollow bead stones of gold.

 Many beades of woodde gilt.

 A paire of Sissers of wood gilt.

 Two gilt vissors.

 A vissor of strange gesture of gold.

 Foure vissors of wood guilt.

 Foure dishes of wood couered with golden leafe.

 A dogges head of gold beset with stones.

 An other beastes head garnished with gold.

 Fiue paire of rush shooes.

 Thrée red hides.

 Seuen rasors of flint stone, for to cut vp men that were

 Two painted dishes of wood with an Ewer.

 A garmët with halfe sléeues of feathers of excéeding fine colours.

 A couerlet of feathers.

 Many couerlets of cotten very fine.

 Many other couerlets of cotten course.

 Two kerchiefs of good cotten.

 Many perfumes of sweete odor, much of that countrey fruite.

They also brought a gentlewoman that was giuen thë, and other prisoner
_Indians_. And for one of them was offered hys weight in golde, but
_Grijalua_ woulde not take it.

They also brought newes that there were _Amazons_ women of warre,
in certaine Ilandes, and manye gaue credit, being amazed at the
things that they had brought bartered for things of a vile price:
as here-vnder appeareth the Merchandise that they gaue for al the
aforesaid Iewels.

 The Inuentorie of the Spanish Merchandise.

 Sixe course shirts.

 Thrée paire of Maryners breeches of lynnen.

 Fiue paire of womens shoes.

 Fiue broad leatherne girdels wrought with coloured thréed, with
 their purses.

 Manye purses of shéepes skinne.

 Sixe glasses a little gilt.

 Foure brouches of glasse.

 Two thousand beadstones of glasse greene.

 A hundred paire of beades of diuerse colours.

 Twenty wooddencombes.

 Sixe paire of Sissers.

 Fiftéene kniues great and small.

 A thousand taylers nedels.

 Two thousand pinnes of sorts.

 Eight paire of corded shoes.

 A paire of pinsers and a hammer.

 Seauen red night cappes.

 Thrée coates of colours.

 A freese coate with a cap of the same.

 An old gréene veluet coate.

 An olde veluet cappe.

 The determination of Cortez to prepare a
 _Nauie for discouerie_.

Bycause _Iohn de Grijalua_ was absent a löger season than was
_Francisco Hernandez de Cordoua_, before his returne, or giuing aduise
of his procéedings, the gouernoure _Valasques_ prepared a Caruel,
and therein sent one _Christofer de Olid_, for to séeke _Grijalua_
with succor if néed wer, and gaue _Olid_ great charge, that he should
returne with newes from _Grijalua_ with all spéede. But this messenger
taried but a small while vpon his voyage, and saw but little of
_Yucatan_, and not fynding _Grijalua_, he returned backe againe to
_Cuba_, which returne happed not wel for the gouernour nor yet for
_Grijalua_. For if he had procéeded forthe on his way to Saint _Iohn de
Vlhua_, hee had then mette with whom he sought for, and likewise caused
him to haue inhabited there. But he excused him self, alleaging that he
had lost his ankers, and was therfore forced of necessitie to returne.

And as soone as _Olid_ was departed on that voyage, _Pedro de Aluarado_
returned to _Cuba_, wyth full relation of the discouerie, & brought
many things w^t hym, wrought in gold, with strange coloured feathers,
and cotton wool. The gouernour _Iames Valasques_ reioyced much to
behold those principles: And all the Spaniardes of _Cuba_ wondered
therat, and likewise to heare the whole relatiö of the iourney. Yet
the gouernour feared the returne of his kinsman, bycause some of his
companye that came sicke and diseased from those parties, saide that
_Grijalua_ meaned not to inhabite there, and that the people and land
was great, and also how the same people were warlike: likewise the
gouernour feared the wisedome and courage of his kinsman. Wherevppon
he determined to send thyther certaine shippes, with souldiers and
armor and other trifling things, thinking chiefly to enrich himself
by barter, and also to inhabite by force. He requested one _Baltazer
Vermudez_ to take that voyage in hand, who accepted the offer, but
he demaunded thrée thousand duckets for his furniture and prouision.
Their gouernour hearing this demaund, answered, that in such sorte the
charges would be more than the profite: And so for that tyme lefte
off the matter, bycause he was couetous, and loth to spend, thinking
to prouide an army at other mës cost, as he had done before, when
_Grijalua_ went firste on that voyage, for at that time one _Francisco
de Montezo_ did furnish one shippe. And also certaine gentlemen called
_Alaunso Fernädez_, _Porto Carero_, _Alaunso de Auila_ & _Iames de
Ordas_ with manye others, wente with _Grijalua_ at theyr proper
costes and charges. It followed that the gouernour brake the matter
to _Cortez_, & required that the voyage shoulde be set forth betwixte
them, knowing that _Cortez_ had two thousand Castlyns of gold in the
power of one _Andres de Duero_, a merchaunt, and also that _Cortez_
was a man diligent, wise, and of stoute courage. _Cortez_ being of
haughtye stomacke, accepted both the voyage and the charges, thinking
the cost would not be much .&c. So that the voyage and agréemente
was concluded, whervpon they sent one _Iohn de Sanzedo_ to the kings
coüsel and chauncery, resident in the Iland of _Santo Domingo_, who
were then religyous persons to haue and obtain of them licence, fréelye
to goe and traffike into those parties of newe discouerie, and also
to séeke for _Iohn de Grijalua_, for they imagyned that wythout hym
small trafficke woulde bee hadde, whyche was, to exchaunge trifles of
Haberdashe for golde and syluer. The chiefe rulers of gouernemente at
that tyme in y^e kings counsell there, were these following, _Segniour
Aloüso de Säto Domingo_, _Segniour Luys de Figueroa_, & _Segniour
Barnardo de Munsanedo_, who graunted the licence, and appointed
_Hernando Cortez_ for captaine Generall of the voyage, and setter forth
in company of _Iames Velasques_. They also appointed a Treasurer,
and Surueyour to procure for the kings portion or parte, whych was
according to custome one fifte parte. In thys meane season _Cortez_
prepared hymselfe for the Iourney, and communed wyth hys especiall
friendes to sée who woulde beare hym companye: And hee founde thrée
hundred men that agréed to his request. He then bought a Caruell and
Vergantine, and another Caruell that _Pedro de Aluarado_ brought home.
An other Vergantine he had of _Iames Valesques_: he prouided for them
armour, artillery, and other Munition: hee brought also wyne Oyle,
Beanes, Pease, and other victuals necessarye: he toke vp also vppon
hys credite, of one _Iames Sauzedo_ muche Haberdashe, to the value of
seauen hundred Castlyns in golde. The gouernour _Velasques_ deliuered
vnto hym a thousande Castlyns whyche he possessed of the goods of
one _Pamfilo de Naruaiz_ in hys absence, alleaging that he had no
other money of hys owne proper. And beeyng in thys manner agréed, the
Articles and Couenauntes were drawen and set downe in wryting, before
a Notary, called _Alounso de Escalantes_, the thrée and twenty day of
October _Anno_ .1518.

[Sidenote: The cöming home of _Grijalua_.]

[Sidenote: The gouernour an old enemy.]

[Sidenote: Courage of _Cortez_.]

In this meane time arriued at _Cuba_, _Iohn de Grijalua_, vpon whose
arriuall, the gouernour chaunged his purpose and pretence, for hee
refused to disburse any more money, nor yet would consent that _Cortez_
should furnish his Nauie. For the onely cause was, that he ment to
dispatch backe againe his kinseman and his army. But to behold the
stoute courage of _Cortez_, his charges, and liberalitie in expences,
it was straunge, and to sée how hee was deceiued. And also to cösider,
the flatterie and deceite of his aduersarie, yea what complaints
were made to the Lord Admiral, saying that _Cortez_ was subtil, high
minded, and a louer of honor, which were tokës that he wold rebel,
being in place conuenient, and that he woulde reuenge olde griefes.
Also it grieued _Vermudez_ that he had not accepted y^t voyage, vnto
whö it was once offered, seing the great treasure that _Grijalua_ had
brought, & what a rich land the countrey newely discouered was. Also he
pretended that y^e gouernor would be chieftain of y^e fléet, although
his kinesman were not fit for y^e roome. The gouernor also thought
y^t he being slacke, _Cortez_ would also be slacke. But yet he séeing
_Cortez_ earnestly procéed, he sent one _Amador de Larez_ a principal
mä, to intreate him to leaue off y^e voyage (cösidering y^t _Grijalua_
was returned) and y^t he would pay him al y^e costs & charges y^t he
had layd out. _Cortez_ vnderstäding the gouernors minde, made answere
vnto _Larez_, y^t he wold not leaue of the Iorney, for very shame,
nor yet breake the agréement made. And also if _Valasques_ would send
a Nauy for his owne account, he woulde be contente, for (quoth he) I
haue alreadie my licence and dispatch of the fathers & gouernours. And
thë he conferred with his friendes, to knowe their mindes if that they
would fauour and beare him cöpany, at whose handes he found both ready
helpe and friendshippe. Hee sought then for money, and toke vp vpon his
credit foure M. Castlyns in gold, of his friend _Andreas de Duero_, &
of _Pedro de Xerez_ & others. With y^e which money he bought two ships,
6. horses, & much apparel, & began to furnish a house & kepe a good
table for cömers & goers: he went also armed like a captaine, & many
wayting & attëding vpon him, whereat diuerse murmured, saying that hee
was a Lord without rente. In thys meane whyle came _Grijalua_ to the
Cittie of Sainte _Iames de Cuba_: but hys kinseman the gouernour woulde
not loke vppon hym bycause he had lefte and forsaken so riche a lande.
Also it grieued him inwardlye that _Cortez_ procéeded thitherward so
strong and mightye, and coulde by no meanes disturbe or lette hym,
and to sée the greate traine that wayted vppon hym wyth manye of them
that had byn the other voyage with _Grijalua_: yea if that he should
disturbe him, bloud shedde would follow in the Citie. So that he was
forced to dissemble his sorow. Yet (as many affyrme) hee commaunded
that hee shoulde haue no victuals solde vnto hym. Nowe _Cortez_
departed from thence, proclayming himselfe for General, and that the
gouernour _Valasques_ had nothing to doe wyth hys Nauie, requesting his
soldiers to enbarke themselues wyth such victuals as they had. He also
bargayned wyth one _Fernando Alfonso_ for certaine Hogges and Shéepe
that were prepared for the shambles, and gaue vnto hym a chayne of
golde and brouches for payment, and also moneye, to pay the penaltie
that the butcher fel into for not prouiding the Cittie. And so he
departed frö Saint _Iames de Baracoa_ the eightéenth of Nouember, with
about thrée hundred Spaniardes in sixe shippes.

 The nauie and men that Cortez caried
 _with him to the Conquest_.

_Cortez_ departed from Saint _Iames de Barocoa_ with small prouision
of victuals for suche a number of men, and also for the nauigation
whyche as yet was vncertaine. And beeyng out of that parte, he sent
_Pedro Xuarez Gallinato_ with a Caruell to _Iaymaica_ for vittailes,
commaunding him, that those things which he should there buy, to goe
therwith to _Cape de Corrientes_, or to _S. Anthonies_ point, which
is the farthest part of that Iland Westward. And he himselfe wente
with his companye to _Macaca_, and boughte there greate quantitie of
bread, and some Hogges, of one _Taymaio_. Then he procéeded to the
Trinitie Ilande, and there boughte an other Shippe of one _Alonso
Guillen_. And of perticulare persons he bought thrée Horses, and fiue
hundred bushels of Corne. And being there at roade, he had aduice,
that _Iohn Nonez Sedenio_ passed that way with a Shippe laden with
victuals, for to make sale thereof at the Mynes. Wherevppon he sente
_Iames de Ordas_, with a Caruel well armed, for to take him, and to
bring him vnto _S. Anthonies_ point. _Ordas_ went and tooke him at
the Channell _de Iardines_, and brought him to the place appointed.
_Sedenio_ broughte the register of his marchandise, whiche was
greate store of bread, Bacon, and Hennes: _Cortez_ gaue him chaynes
of golde, and other pieces for payment, and a bil for the rest. In
consideration whereof, _Sedenio_ wente with him to the Conquest.
In the Trinitie Ilande _Cortez_ gathered togyther two hundred men
more, who had bin in _Grijalua_ hys company, and were dwellers in
that Iland, and in _Matancas_, _Carenias_, and other Villages, and
sending his ships forward, he went with his men by land to _Hauana_,
which was then inhabited on the South side in the mouth of the riuer
called _Onicaxinall_, but there they would sell him no prouision, for
feare of the Gouernour _Velasques_. But yet one _Christopher Galsada_
rentgatherer to the Byshoppe, and receyuer for the Popes Bulles, solde
to him great store of Bacon and bread of that Countrey called _Maiz_,
and other prouision, whereby his fléete was reasonably prouided .&c.
And then he beganne to distribute his men and vittayles aboorde
eache vessell in good order. Then came _Aluarado_ with his caruell,
with his other friendes _Christopher de Olid_, _Alonso de Auila_,
_Francisco de Monteio_, & manye others of _Grijalua_ hys company, who
had bin to talke with the Gouernoure _Velasques_. And among them came
one _Garnica_ so called, with letters for _Cortez_ from _Velasques_,
wherein he wrote, desiring him to abide there, for that he meant
to come himselfe, or else to send vnto hym, to treate of matters
profitable for them both.

[Sidenote: A snare layde for Cortez.]

Also, the sayd Gouernour sente other secret letters to _Iames de Ordas_
and others, requiring them to apprehende and take prisoner _Cortez_.
Nowe _Ordas_ did inuite _Cortez_ to a banket aboorde his Caruel,
thinking by that meanes to catche _Cortez_ in a snare, and so to carrie
him prisoner to the Citie of _Saint Iames de Barocoa_, but _Cortez_
vnderstood the matter, and fayned hymselfe to be very sicke, and also
fearing some vprore, he went aboorde his Shippe Admirall, and shot off
a péece of Ordinance, giuing warning to his Nauie to be in a readinesse
to make sayle, and to follow him to _Saint Anthonies_ poynte, whiche
was done with expedition, and there in the Towne of _Guani Guaniga_
he mustered his men, and found fiue hundred and fiftie Spanyardes,
whereof fiftie were Marriners. He deuided them into eleuen companies,
and appointed these persons following for Captaynes, that is to say,
_Alonso de Auila_, _Alonso Fernandez Porto Carrero_, _Iaimes de Ordas_,
_Francisco de Monteio_, _Francisco de Morla_, _Francisco de Salzeda_,
_Iohn de Escalante_, _Iohn Velasques de Leon_, _Christopher de Olid_,
and one _Escouar_, and he himselfe as Generall tooke one Company. He
made these many Captaynes, bycause his whole fléete was eleuen sayle,
and that eache of them shoulde seuerally be Captayne, both of Shippe
and men. He also appoynted for chiefe Pilote _Antonio de Alamines_,
who had taken charge before with _Francisco de Hernandez de Cordoua_,
and _Grijalua_, &c. He carried also 200 _Indians_, borne in y^e Ile of
_Cuba_, to serue and to carrie baggage, & also certayne _Negros_ with
some _Indian_ womë, and sixtéene Horses & Mares, with great prouision
of Bacon, corne, bisket, hennes, wine, oyle, pease, and other fruites,
w^t great store of Haberdash, as Belles, necklaces, beades of glasse,
collers, points, pinnes, purses, nedels, girdels, thredde, kniues,
sissers, pinsars, hämers, hatchets, Shirts, Coyfes, headkerchiefes,
handkerchiefs, bréeches, coates, clokes, cappes, Marriners bréeches,
all y^e which Merchädise be deuided amög his nauie. The Ship Admiral
was of the burthen of a hüdred Tunnes. Other thrée Shippes of the
burthen of eightie Tunnes the péece. All the residue were small
withoute ouerloppe, and vergantines. The deuice of his ensigne or
aunciente, was flames of fire in white and blewe, with a redde crosse
in the middest, and bordred round with letters, in the Lattine and
Spanishe tongs, which signified this in effect: friends, let vs
follow the Crosse, and with liuely faith with this standerde we shall
obteyne victorie. The premisses (as ye haue hearde) was the furniture
that _Cortez_ prouided for his iourney, and with so small a thing
he conquered so greate and mightie an Empire, & strange Countreys,
vnknowen at that time. There was neuer Captayne that did with like army
ouercome so infinite a people, & bring both thë and their coütrey vnder
subiectiö. He caried no money to pay his souldiers, but was rather much
indebted to others at his departure. And to say the truth, there néeded
any money to make pay to those souldiers that went to the Cöquest, for
if they shuld haue serued for wages, they would haue gone to other
places néere hand. But in _India_, euery one pretëdeth y^e state of a
noble man, or else great riches. Now all y^e fléete being in readinesse
(as ye haue hearde,) _Cortez_ began an exhortation to his cöpany as

 The Oration that Cortez made
 _to his Souldiers_.

My louing fellowes and déere friendes, it is certayne that euery
valiant manne of stoute courage, doth procure by déedes to make him
selfe equall with the excellente men of his time, yea and with those
that were before his time. So it is, that I do now take in häd such an
enterprise, as godwilling shall be héereafter of greate fame, for myne
heart doth pronosticate vnto mée, that we shall winne greate and rich
Countreys, and manye people, as yet neuer séene to anye of oure nation,
yea and (I beléeue) greater Kingdomes than those of oure Kinges. And
I assure you, that the desire of glory dothe further extend, than
treasure, the whiche in sorte, mortall life doth obtayne. I haue now
prepared Shippes, Armor, Horses, and other furniture for the warres,
with victuall sufficient, and all things that are vsed as necessary
in Conquestes. I haue bin at greate costes and charges, wherein I
haue not onely employed myne owne goodes, but also the goodes of my
friendes, yet me thinketh that the employmente thereof dothe encrease
my treasure and honor. We ought (louing fellowes) to leaue off small
things, when great matters doe offer themselues. And euen as my trust
is in God, euen so greater profite shall come to our kings, and a
nation of this oure enterprise, than hath héeretofore of any other. I
doe not speake how acceptable it will be to God our sauiour, for whose
loue I do chiefly and willingly hazard my goods and trauel. I will not
nowe treat of the perils and danger of life that I haue passed since I
began this voyage. This I say, that good men doe rather expect renoune,
than treasure. We doe now attempt and begin warre that is both good and
iust, and the almighty God in whose name and holy faith this voyage is
begonne, will assuredly graunte vnto vs victory, and the time will shew
the end of things well begonne. Therefore we will now haue an other
manner in our procéedings, than eyther _Cordoua_ or _Grijalua_ hadde,
whereof I meane not nowe to dispute, for the presente time doth hasten
vs away, but at our arriuall, we will do what shall séeme vnto vs
conuenient. Héere déere friends do I lay before you great gaynes, but
wrapped in greate trauell, yet _Vertue_ is an enimie to idlenesse .&c.
Therefore if you will accept hope for _Vertue_, or _Vertue_ for hope,
and also if ye forsake me not, as I will not forsake you, I will with
Gods help make you in shorte time the richest men that euer passed this
way. I doe sée you are but fewe in number, but yet such men of haughtie
courage, that no force or strength of _Indians_ can offende. Likewise
wée haue experience, that Christ our sauiour hathe alwayes fauoured
our nation in these parties. Therfore my déere friendes, let vs now in
Gods name depart ioyfull, exspecting good successe, according to our
beginning .&c.

 The entrance of Cortez into the
 _Iland of Acusamill_.

[Sidenote: The feare of the Indians of Acusamil.]

[Sidenote: Hovv the people vver found]

[Sidenote: A facte vvorthy of prayse.]

VVith the aforesayd communication, _Cortez_ gaue great hope to his
cöpany of waightie matters, yea and great admiration of his person,
so that all his company had an earnest desire to procéede on that
iorney. And _Cortez_ likewise reioyced, to sée his men so willing:
and incontinente, they embarqued themselues, and after their prayers
made vnto God, hoysed vp their sayles, and with faire winde departed
the eighttenth day of Februarie Anno 1519. And beyng at Sea, he willed
all his nauie (as the vse is) to haue S. Peter for their patrone,
warning them alwayes to follow the Admirall (wherin he went) bycause
he carried a light for the night season to guide them the way, whiche
was almost East and West from _S. Anthonies_ point, being the nerest
part of _Cuba_ to _Cape de Cotoche_, which is the first läd point of
_Yucatan_, whither they were bounde, so y^t being there, they might run
alög the coast, betwene the North point and the West. The firste night
y^t _Hernando Cortez_ begä to passe ouer the gulfe betweene _Cuba_
& _Yucatan_, being little aboue lx. leagues, the winde rose vp at
Northeast with much force, so y^t all the Fléete were separated without
sight y^e one of the other: yet by the accompt that their Pilots kept,
they arriued all sauing one at the Ilande of _Acusamil_, although not
at one time, and those that last ariued, wer the Admirall, and Captayne
_Morla_ his Ship, who had lost his Ruther, but by shoting off a pece,
_Cortez_ vnderstood his necessitie, and came vering to him, and amayned
his sailes to succour him, being in y^e night season. Yet when the day
appeared, it pleased God y^t the rage of the tempest ceassed, & being
cléere day, they found agayne their Ruther, and trimmed the Ship, and
made sayle, and sayled that day and the next following, without sighte
of land, or any of the Fléete. But the third day they arriued at a cape
or point of land, called Womens cape. _Cortez_ cömanded _Morla_ to
follow him, directing his course to séeke the residue of his Fléete,
and arriued in this sorte at the Iland of _Acusamil_, and there found
all his nauie excepte one, whereof they hearde no newes in many dayes
after. The people of that Ilande beholding suche a straunge sight, were
in great feare and admiratiö, so that they gathered their stuffe and
wente vp into the Mountaynes. _Cortez_ caused a certayne number of his
më to goe a land to a Towne which was néere the place where they were
arriued, and they foüd the towne wrought with Masons worke, and good
building, but they founde no creature therein, yet in some houses
they foüd cloth made of cottë woll, and certaine Iewels of gold. Also
they entred into a high tower made of stoneworke, néere the sea side,
and there they founde nothing but Idols of earth and stone. With this
newes they returned to _Cortez_, and enformed him what they had séene,
and also many faire sowë fields of _Maiz_, and great store of hiues of
Bées, and many trées of fruites, and also presented vnto him the gold
and other things that they had foüd. _Cortez_ reioyced with y^e newes
but yet maruelled that the people were fledde, considering that when
_Grijalua_ was there, they had not so done, wherby he iudged, that his
nauie béeyng greater, caused them to feare and flie, and likewise he
feared least a snare were prepared for him. Then he cömanded to vnship
his Horses for thrée causes: the one to discouer the Countrey: and
the other to fight if néede were: and also to grase thë, hauing there
abüdance. Also he vnshipped his më of warre, and sent them to discouer
the land. And in the thickest of the Mountaynes, they found four
women, and thrée childrë, whome they brought to _Cortez_, so that not
vnderstanding their language, by signes & tokens they ymagined that one
of thë was the mother to the children, & mistresse to the other women.
The pore creatures bewayled theyr captiuitie. _Cortez_ made muche of
them, & apparrelled the mistresse as wel as he might with Spanish
attire: and to hir seruants he gaue loking glasses and sissers: and to
the little children other toyes to play withall, vsing no dishonestie
towards thë. And thë he determined to send one of the wenches to
call hir maister, and to enforme him how well they were intreated.
In this meane season came certaine spies lurking a farre off, by the
cömandement of their Lord, who was called _Calachuni_, to bring newes
of his wife, & what else passed. _Cortez_ receyued them gëtly, & gaue
vnto them certayne trifles, and sent others to their Lord, and returned
thë w^t embassage on his behalfe & his wiues, to desire hym to come
vnto him, and to sée those folke from whome he had fledde, promising,
that neyther his person, nor none of his countrey should receyue anye
molestation of him, nor of any of his company. _Calachuni_ vnderstäding
this friendshippe, and also with the loue hée bare to his wife and
childrë, came the next day following with all the Townesmen, in whose
houses y^e Spanyards were lodged, who woulde not permitte that their
guestes should giue place. And the Lorde commaunded, that they should
be wel entertayned, and frö that day forward prouided them of bread,
fishe, honey, & fruite. _Calachuni_ spake and saluted _Cortez_ with
greate humilitie and ceremonie, and euen so was he louingly receyued,
& wel entertained. _Cortez_ did then declare vnto him the commoditie
that would ensue vnto him by that nation. And also presented vnto him
& his cöpany many toyes, which were vnto thë of small valewe, but
muche estéemed among them, yea more than golde. And moreouer _Cortez_
cömaunded, that all the golde and other things that his men had taken
in the Towne, shoulde be broughte before him, and placed it so, that
euery _Indian_ knewe his owne, and was restored vnto them, whereat
they were not a little ioyfull, wondering at the liberalitie of the
straungers, and departed both merrie and riche with their straunge
giftes, and went throughout al the Iland, shewing to their fellowes
their presentes, commaunding them in the name of _Calachuni_ their
Lord, to returne euery man to his house, with ther wiues and children,
commending highly the honest and gentle nature of the straungers. With
this newes and commaundemente, euery man returned to his house and
Towne from whence he had fledde. And after thys sort their feare was
past, and they prouided the Camp abundantly of honey, bread, waxe,
fishe, and frute, all the time that they abode in that Iland.

 The Indians of Acusamil gaue nevves
 _to Cortez of certaine bearded men_.

[Sidenote: Nevves of bearded men.]

Now _Cortez_ seeing these _Indians_ quiet and wel pleased, and also
very seruiceable, he did determyne to take away theyr Idols, and to
giue them a remembraunce of Iesu Christ borne of the Virgin Mary, by
one _Melchior_ a fisher man and very rustical, who had bin ther before
with _Francisco Hernandez de Cordoua_, who declared vnto them, that
_Cortez_ his Lord and captaine would enforme them of a better god,
and better lawes, than those which they maintained. The _Indians_
answered, that they were contented therewith, and went with them vnto
their temples, and there brake downe their Idols, and celebrated diuine
seruice, teaching them to adore and worshippe Christ crucifyed, so
that they were verye attentiue to the doctrine, and ceased sacrifise
of men which they were wöt to vse. These _Indians_ did wonder much
at the shippes and horses, yea and marueyled as muche at our colour
and beardes, so that many times they would come and féele them, and
signifyed vnto them by signes and tokens towardes _Yucatan_, that there
were fiue or sixe bearded men. Then _Cortez_ considering how profitable
it wold be to haue an interpreter to vnderstand and to be vnderstood,
he besought _Calachuni_ that he would appoint a messenger to carrye
a letter to the bearded men, who were in the power of a great Lord
and Tyrant, and _Calachuni_ found none that durst take that iourney
in hand, fearing that they should be slaine and eaten. _Cortez_ seing
this, entreated with faire words, thrée of the _Indians_ that serued
him to accept the iourney, and gaue thë rewards for theyr labour:
yet the _Indians_ excused them, saying that they should be slayne,
notwithstanding with faire promises and rewardes, they accepted the
voyage, so that _Cortez_ wrote with them this letter following.

 Worshipful sirs, I departed from _Cuba_ with eleuen saile in my
 fléete, furnished with fiue hundred and fiftie Spaniardes, and I
 arriued here at _Acusamil_ from whence I write you this letter.
 The people of this Iläd haue certifyed me, that there is in that
 countrey fiue or sixe bearded men, and in al pointes like vnto
 vs: they can not here enforme me of anye other signes or tokens,
 but hereby I do coniecture, and certainely beleue that ye be
 Spaniards. Both I and these gentlemen of my company do come to
 discouer and inhabit this land, we hartily pray you y^t within
 sixe days after the receite hereof, ye come vnto vs, w^tout
 any excuse or delay, and if ye so doe, al we of this nauie wil
 gratifye your gentlenesse & good seruice y^t ye shal do vnto vs.
 I do send you a Vergantyn wherin you may come, & two shippes for
 your safeconduct.

 _Hernando Cortez._

This letter being written, there was found an inconuenience, which
was, they knew not how to carrye the letter so secretly y^t it might
not be séene, & they taken for espies, wherof the saide _Indians_
stoode in great feare. Thë _Cortez_ bethought him, y^t the letter wold
passe wrapped in y^e haire of the head of one of thë, for ordinarily
the _Indians_ wear lög heare, & on their solemn feasts & in wars
they vse their haire platted & boüd about their forheads. And he
appointed captaine of the Vergantine wherin y^e messëgers wët, _Iohn
de Escalante_, & _Iames de Ordas_ for captaine of the other two ships,
with fiftie men if any nede should happen. So shortly after the ships
arriued at the place appointed, _Escalante_ set a land his messengers,
and abode there eight days they returne, although he promised thë to
abide there but sixe dayes. And thë séeing that they came not, he
surmysed y^t they were either slaine or taken captiues: & so returned
backe againe to _Acusamill_ without his messëgers, wherof al the army
were sorowful, & chiefly _Cortez_, thinking that the _Indians_ had wrög
enformed him. Nowe in this meane season they trymmed their shippes of
the hurte receiued by the late tempest, & at the returne of the two
ships and Vergantyne, they hoysed vp sailes and departed.

 A miraculous chaunce hovv Geronimo de
 _Aguilao came to Cortez_.

_Calachuni_ and all his subiectes were full of heauinesse (as it semed)
with the departure of the Christians, bycause they were wel vsed at
their handes. From _Acusamil_ the fleete sayled to get the coast of
_Yucatan_ to the cape called Womens point, with prosperous weather,
& there _Cortez_ came to an Anker, desirous to sée the disposition
of the lande, and the manner of the people: but it liked him not, so
that y^e next day folowing being shrouetuisday, he departed, meaning
to double the sayde cape, and so to passe to _Cotoche_ and to viewe
it. But before they hadde doubled the poynte, _Peter de Aluarado_
shotte off a piece, in token that hee was in great peril, wherevppon
the other shippes drewe neare to knowe what hadde happened: And when
_Cortez_ vnderstoode that _Aluarados_ shippe was in so great a leake
that with two pumpes they mighte not emptie the water, he found no
other remedy but to returne backe again to _Acusamil_ with al his
fléet. The _Indians_ of y^t Ilande came incontinent to y^e water side
very ioyfull, and to knowe whether they had left any thing behind thë.
The Christiäs enformed thë of their mishap, and came a shore, & in
short time found the leake & amended it. The Saterday following they
toke shipping again, al the army excepte _Hernando Cortez_, and fiftie
of his company, then the wind arose contrary, and so much, that they
could not departe that day: & the furie of the winde endured al that
night, but in the morning it waxed calme, so that they myghte proceede
on their voyage. But for as much as that was the Sabboth daye, they
determined to heare diuine seruice, and after dinner to make saile.
When their seruice was ended, and _Cortez_ sitting at his meate, there
was newes brought him that a little vessell called a _Canoa_, came
vnder saile toward the shippes, whiche seemed to come from _Yucatan_:
with that newes _Cortez_ arose from his meate, to behold whether the
_Canoa_ went, and perceiuyng that she left the way toward the shippes,
he sente _Andrew de Tapia_ with certaine others, as secrete & closely
as might be deuised, to lye in ambushe for their comming a shoare.
The _Canoa_ arriued in a calme place, out of the which came foure men
all naked, except their priuie members, and the heare of their heades
platted and bound aboute their foreheades like vnto women, with bowes
and arrowes in their hands: three of them which were _Indians_, wer
afraide when they saw the Spaniards with their drawen swordes, and
would haue fled againe to their _Canoa_, but the Christian feared not,
and desired his fellowes in the _Indian_ tong to abide with hym. And
then he began to speake in the Spanish tongue in thys wise: Maisters
are ye Christians, yea (quoth they) and of the Spanish nation. Then he
reioyced so much, that the teares fell from his eyes, and demaunded of
them what day it was, although he had a Primer wherein he dayly prayed.

[Sidenote: The cöming of Aguilar to Cortez.]

He then besought them earnestlye to assist him with their prayers
& thanksgiuing vnto god for his deliuery, & kneling deuoutly downe
vppon his knees, holding vp his handes, his eyes toward heauen, and
his face bathed with teares, made his humble prayer vnto God, giuing
most hartie thankes, that it hadde pleased hym to deliuer him out of
the power of Infidels and infernal creatures, and to place hym among
Christians and men of his owne nation. _Andrew de Tapia_ holpe hym
vppe, and toke hym in hys armes, and so did al y^e others embrace &
louingly salute him. Then he commaunded the other thrée _Indians_ to
follow him, and went talking wyth hys friendes, where _Cortez_ aboade,
who receyued him ioyfully, and gaue vnto hym such apparel as he néeded,
and wyth great pleasure hauing him in his companye, hee demaunded the
estate of his misfortune, and what was hys name, who aunswered before
them al, saying, Sir my name is _Geronimo de Aguilar_, I was borne
in the Cittie of _Esija_ in the _Andolozia_, and by misfortune I was
loste after this sorte. In the warres of _Darien_ and in the time of
the contentions and passions of _Iames de Nicuessa_, and _Vasco Nonez
Balboa_, I came with Captaine _Valdinia_ in a little Caruell, toward
_Santo Domingo_, to giue aduice to the Admirall and gouernour, of the
troubles which had happned, and my comming was for men and victuals:
and likewise we brought twentye thousand Duckettes of the kings in
_Anno .1511._ And whë we apported at _Iamayca_, our Caruel was lost
on the shallowes whiche were called the Vipars, and with greate pain
we entred (about twenty persons) into the boate, w^t out sayle, water
or bread, and weake prouision of oares: we thus wander thirtéene or
fourtéene dayes, and then the currant, whiche is there very great &
runneth alway weastward, cast vs a shoare in a prouince called _Maija_,
& traueling on our way, seauen of our fellowes died wyth hunger &
famin. And captain _Valdinia_ & other 4. were sacrifised to the ydols
by a cruel and cursed _Cacike_, that is to say, a Lord in whose power
we fell .&c.

And after the sacrifice, they were eaten among the _Indians_ for a
solemne banket: and I, and other sixe wer put into a Cage or coupe, to
be fatned for an other sacrifice. And for to escape suche abhominable
death, we brake the prison and fledde through certaine mountaines:
So that it pleased God that wee mette with another _Cazike_ who was
enimy to him that first toke vs, his name was _Quinqus_, a man of more
reason and better condition, hee was Lord of _Xamansana_: he accepted
vs for his captiues, but shortly after he dyed, and then I aboad with
_Taxmar_ his heire. Then deceased other fiue of our fellowes, so that
there remayned but onely I and one _Gonsalo Guerrer_, a maryner, who
now abydeth with _Nachancan_ the Lorde of _Chetemal_, and he married
with a rich gentlewoman of that countrey, by whom he hath children,
and is made a Captaine, and wel estéemed with the _Cazike_ for the
victories y^t he hath had in the wars against the other Lords. I sent
vnto him your worships letter, desiring him that he would come with
me hauing so fit a passage, but he refused my request, I belieue for
verye shame, bycause hee had his nose ful boared of holes, & his eares
iagged, hys face & handes painted according to the vse of y^t countrey,
or else he abode there for the loue he bare to his wife and children.
All those whiche stoode by & hard this Historie, were amased, to heare
_Geronimo de Aguilar_ report howe those _Indians_ did sacrifise & eate
mans flesh. They also lamented the miserie & death of his fellowes,
and highly praysed God, to sée him frée frö his bondage & from such
cruel & barbarous people, & to haue likewise so good an enterpreter
with thë, for vndoubtedly it semed a miracle y^t _Aluarados_ ship fel
into a leak, for with y^t extremity they returned back again to that
Iland, wheras with contrarie winde they were constrayned to abide y^e
cöming of _Aguilar_. And certainly he was y^e mean & spéech of al their
procéedings. And therfore haue I bin so prolixious in y^e rehearsal of
this matter, as a notable point of this historie. Also I wil not let to
tell how the mother of _Geronimo de Aguilar_, became mad .&c.

When she hard y^t hir son was captiue among people y^t vsed to eate mäs
flesh, & euer after whë she saw any flesh spitted or roasted, she would
make an open outcrie, saying, oh I miserable woman, behold this is the
flesh of my dearebeloued sonne who was all my comfort.

 The Iland of Acusamil.

The _Indians_ naturall of that countrey do cal their Ilande _Acusamil_,
& corruptlye _Cosumel_. _Iohn de Grijalua_ was y^e first Spaniard that
apported there, and named it the holy Roode, bycause hee fell in sighte
therof on holy roade daye. It cötayneth ten leagues in length & thrée
leagues in breadth, although some say more, some lesse: it standeth
twentye degrées on this side the equator, and fiue leagues from the
womës cape: it hath thrée villages, in y^e which liueth nere 3 thousand
më. The houses are of stone and brick, and couered with straw & bowes,
& some with tile. Their temples and towers are made of lime & stone
very wel built: thei haue no other fresh water but out of welles and
raine water. _Calachuni_ is their chiefe Lord: they are browne people
& goe naked: & if any weare cloth, it is made of cotten wool only to
couer their priuie mëbers: they vse lög hear platted & bound about
their foreheads: they are great fishermë, so y^t fish is their chiefest
foode & sustenance, they haue also _Maiz_ which is for bread: also good
fruites: & hony, but somewhat soure: and plots for bées, which contayn
.1000 hiues. They knew not to what vse wax serued, but whë they saw
our më make cädels therof, they wödred therat. Their dogges haue Foxe
faces and barke not, these they gelde and fatten to eate. This Iland
is ful of high moütaines, & at the feete of them, good pastures, many
Deare, and wilde Boares, Connyes and Hares, but they are not great.
The Spaniardes with their handguns and crossebowes prouide them of
that victual, fresh salt and dried. The people of this _Iland_ are
Idolaters, they doe sacrifice children, but not manye. And many times
in stead of children they sacrifice dogges. They are poore people, but
very charitable and louing in their false religion and beliefe.

 The religion of the people of

[Sidenote: A straunge Idol.]

[Sidenote: The God of rayne.]

The temple is like vnto a square Toure broad at the foote, & steps
round about it, & from y^e middest vpward very straight: the top is
hollow & couered with straw: it hath foure windowes with frontals and
galleries. In y^t holow place is their chappel, wheras their Idols do
stand. The temple that stoode by the sea side was such a one, in the
which was a maruellous straunge Idol, and differed muche from all the
rest, although they haue manye and of diuerse fashions. The body of
this Idol was great and hollow, and was fastened in that wall with
lime: hee was of earth. And behinde this Idols backe was the Vesterie,
where was kept ornaments & other things of seruice for y^e temple. The
priests had a little secret dore hard adioyning to y^e Idol, by which
dore they crept into y^e hollow Idol, and answered the people y^t came
with prayers & peticiös. And w^t this deceit y^e simple soules beleued
al y^t the Idol spake, & honored y^e god more thä al the rest w^t
many perfumes & swéete smelles, and offered bread and fruite, with
sacrifice of Quayles bloud, and other birds, and dogges, and sometime
mans bloud. And through the fame of this Idoll and Oracle, many
Pilgrimes came to _Acusamil_ from many places. At the foote of this
Temple was a plotte like a Churchyard, well walled and garnished with
proper pinnacles, in the middest whereof stoode a Crosse of ten foote
long, the which they adored for God of the rayne, for at all times whë
they wanted rayne, they would goe thither on Procession deuoutely, and
offered to the Crosse Quayles sacrificed, for to appease the wrath
that the God séemed to haue agaynste them: and none was so acceptable
a sacrifice, as the bloud of that little birde. They vsed to burne
certaine swéete güme, to perfume that God withall, and to besprinckle
it with water, and this done, they beléeued assuredly to haue rayne.
Suche is the Religiö of those _Indians_ of _Acusamil_. They could neuer
know the original how that God of Crosse came amögst them, for in all
those parties of _India_, there is no memorie of anye Preaching of the
Gospell that had bin at any time, as shall be shewed in another place.

 The Battell and vvinning of _Potonchan_.

[Sidenote: Policie.]

_Cortez_ procéeded with his Fléete very ioyfull, bycause he had found
one of his Ships which hée thought had bin lost, & aported at the
riuer _de Grijalua_, whiche in the _Indian_ tong is called _Tauasco_,
and anckred at the riuers mouth, fearing to enter in with the bigger
vessels ouer the barre: and incontinente came manye _Indians_ to gaze
at them and theyr Shippes, who were armed with feathers, and suche
lyke armour as they vse, séeming a farre off trimme fellowes. They
wondered not muche to sée oure Shyppes and menne, bycause they hadde
séene before _Iohn de Grijalua_ in the same Riuer. The behauiour of
that people, and scituation of the Countrey, liked _Cortez_ verye
well, so that leauyng sufficiente garde in hys Shyppes, he manned
hys Vergantynes and Boates, and carried with hym certayne pieces of
Ordinance, and with force of oares he entred the Riuer agaynste the
streame, whiche was verye greate, and hauyng rowen little more than
halfe a league, they espyed a greate Towne walled wyth Timber, and the
houses made of mudwall, couered with strawe. The Towne wall was verye
strong, with loope holes to offende withall. And before oure menne
came néere the Towne, they mette with manye little Boates, whiche the
_Indians_ call _Tahucup_, full of armed menne, shewyng themselues
desirous of battayle. _Cortez_ procéeded forwardes, and made vnto
them signes of peace, declaring vnto them by his interpreter, that
hys commyng thither was not to molest or disquiet them, but onely to
take freshe water, and to buy victuals, as menne that trauelled by
Sea, and stoode in néede thereof, promising good paymente for anye
thing that they shoulde take. The _Indians_ hearyng theyr request,
promised to shewe theyr message to the Townesmen, and woulde also
returne with theyr aunswere and vittayles, and so departed. In shorte
space they returned againe, and broughte bread and fruite, and eyght
Turkie Cockes, and presented it franckely vnto them. _Cortez_ gaue them
thankes, but (quoth he) the prouision that ye haue brought, is very
little, for the néede that I and so manye persons which I haue within
yonder greate vessels locked and shutte vp, therefore I pray you to
bryng me more vittayles, or else to permitte and suffer mée and my
folkes to come vnto youre Towne to séeke oure remedie.

[Sidenote: Diligence of a good Captayne.]

The _Indians_ demaunded one nyghtes space to doe the one and the
other, and departed towarde the towne. _Cortez_ also went to a little
Iland that standeth in the riuer, to abide their aunswere, so that
eache pretended to deceyue the other, for the _Indians_ demaunded that
time, to the intent to carrie that night away theyr goodes, and to put
in safetie their wiues and children in the Mountaynes, and likewise
to gather their men of warre to defende theyr Towne. _Cortez_ also
commaunded his Hargabushiers and Crossebowmen to goe a lande vppon the
Ilande, and caused the Riuer vpwardes to bée soughte for way, to wade
ouer, so that these thyngs were done that nyghte without anye knowledge
to the contrarye syde. And all those whyche abode aboorde the Shyppes,
came vnto _Cortez_, and those who wente to séeke the passage, founde
within lesse than halfe a league vpwardes, a place that was of depth to
the girdle of a manne. And likewise founde suche couerte of wooddes,
that they myghte come néere vnto the Towne, and not to bée séene.

Thys newes lyked well _Cortez_, wherevppon he appoynted two Captaynes,
whose names were _Alonso de Auila_, and _Peter de Aluarado_, and
to eache of them fiftie menne. The same nyghte hée sente certayne
Souldyers wyth a sea compasse, to lye in ambushe in the woodde whyche
stoode betwéene the riuer and the towne, for two considerations.
The one, bycause the _Indians_ shoulde sée, that there were no moe
Spanyardes in the Ilande, than were the daye before. And the other was,
that hys menne hearing their watchword, shoulde assaulte the towne on
the land side. And as soone as the day appeared, came eight boates of
_Indians_ armed, wheras oure Campe was pitched, who broughte a little
victuall, saying they could get no more, bycause that the inhabitantes
of the Towne were fledde, with feare of them, and their deformed
vessels, desiring them to returne aboorde their Shippes, and not to
disquiet the people of that Countrey. The interpreter aunswered, that
it was against humanitie to suffer them to perishe wyth hunger, yea and
if they woulde heare the cause of theyr comming, they should shortly
sée what profite would rebound vnto them. The _Indians_ replyed, that
they woulde take no counsell of straungers and menne whome they knewe
not. Lykewise, they thoughte not good to lodge suche guestes in their
houses, for they séemed terrible, and such as would be commaunders. But
if they woulde néedes haue water, they mighte take riuer water, or else
make welles on the shore, for so dyd they at theyr néede.

Then _Cortez_ séeyng that wordes preuayled not, hée signifyed vnto
them that he woulde enter their Towne by force, to sée it and their
Countrey, for to giue thereof relation to the greatest Prince in the
worlde, who hadde sent them thither: requesting them to be therewith
contented, considering he meante not to disquiet them: and if they
would not permitte the same, he would commend himselfe to his God, and
to the strength and force of hys men. The _Indians_ aunswered agayne,
that they shoulde depart, and not thus bragge in other mens land,
for in no wise they woulde permitte them to enter their Towne. And
if with this warning they would not departe, they meante to kyl both
him and as many as were with him. Yet _Cortez_ ceassed not to vse all
humanitie with those barbarous people, according to the commaundemente
and instructions giuen vnto him by the King of _Castill_, whiche was,
to require those people oftentimes with peace, before the attempting
of warre, or entring perforce into their Townes and Countrey, so that
yet agayne he conuited them with peace, promising them libertie with
good entertainement, assuring them of things profitable both for body
and soule, and that they myghte accompt themselues happie with the
knowledge thereof: but if now they would refuse his offer, he did then
warne them to make them ready for the euening, for before the going
downe of the Sunne, he did hope with the help of his God, to rest and
take vp his lodging in the Towne, in despite of all the inhabitants
thereof, who had refused his offer.

The _Indians_ laughed at his talke, and skorning at him, they returned
to the Towne, to enforme their fellowes of the pride and madnesse
that they thought they hadde hearde. Then the Spanyardes wente to
dinner, and hauing well refreshed themselues, they putte on their
Armour, and went aboorde their Boates and Vergantines, looking for
some aunswere from the _Indians_, and séeyng the Sunne decline apace,
and no aunswere, _Cortez_ aduised the Spanyardes that lay in ambushe
in the woodde, to giue assault, and he embarqued himselfe with his
rapier and Targette, gyuyng likewise assaulte with néere two hundred
men, who comming néere the Towne walles, discharged his Ordinance,
and lept into the water to the knées, and began valiantly to assault
the walles and bulwarkes. The _Indians_ séeyng their enimies so nigh
vnto them, beganne to fighte with courage, shooting arrowes, throwing
of dartes and stones, wherewith they hurte about twenty Spanyardes:
yea, and though the fearefull noyse of the Ordinance did many times
so annoy them, being things so straunge, and neuer before séene of
them, yet they fledde not from the walles, but resisted the Christians
valiantlye, and suffered them not to enter the Towne that way, if they
had not bin assaulted in another place. But when the Company that lay
in ambush hearde the shooting of their fellowes, they began likewyse
theyr onsette. The _Indians_ knowyng nothyng what was prepared behynde
theyr backes, and hauing also theyr handes full in defending the
entrance by the Riuer: and the Christians fyndyng that parte of the
Towne without resistance, entred in wyth a terrible noyse, killing as
many as they mette. Then the Townesmen vnderstoode theyr oversyghte,
and woulde haue remedyed it, and fledde from the place where _Cortez_
was gyuing combat, whereby _Cortez_ and hys Company entred the Towne at
ease, without contradiction, so that hée and the other Companye of his
Souldyers mette togither at the Markette place, and expulsed all the
_Indians_ out of the Towne, excepte those that were taken prisoners,
and the carkases of the deade. Then the Chrystians soughte the spoyle,
and founde nothyng but Turkie Hennes, and some thyngs wrought of Cotten
wooll, but verye little Golde.

There was that daye aboue foure thousande _Indians_ in fyghte and
defence of the Towne: There was much _Indian_ bloud shedde, bycause
they fought naked, manye were wounded, and fewe Captiue. _Cortez_
lodged himselfe wyth hys armie in the chiefest Temple of the Idolles,
where was roome sufficiente. They kepte that nyghte good watche, as in
a house of enimies, but the poore _Indians_ durst not once interrupte
them. After thys forte was _Potonchan_ taken, béeyng the fyrste Cytie
that _Cortez_ wanne by force in all hys Conquest.

 The Battell of Cintla.

[Sidenote: Care of a good Captayne.]

[Sidenote: Fortye thousande Indians.]

[Sidenote: Perill of the Christians.]

[Sidenote: A miracle.]

Al y^t nighte _Cortez_ slept not, but rather occupyed himselfe in
carrying the wounded men, & other stuffe aboord y^e Shyps, & also
to disenbarke thirtéene Horses, & the residue of his më y^t he had
left aboord, y^t which he brought to passe before the sunne rising,
although the _Tauascans_ had notice thereof. Whë the sunne was risen,
he had with his company made vnto God their prayers, and mustered his
men, where were at that time in Campe néere fiue hundred Spanyardes,
thirtéene Horses, and sixe péeces of ordinance: These Horses were
the fyrste that euer came into that Countrey, whych now is called
new _Spayne_. He planted his men and munition in good order, and
thus marched forwardes toward _Cintla_. The _Indians_ séeyng this
preparation, began also to make readie, and to place in good order
fortie thousand men in fyue cöpanies: their méeting was in ploughed
lande among manye déepe lakes and pondes, very daungerous to passe,
so that our men by reason thereof were brought out of order. And
_Hernando Cortez_ with his horsemen wente to séeke a better passage,
and to enclose himselfe among certayne trées on their left hand, for
to set vpon the enimies when time should serue. The footemen procéeded
on, and passed many marishe groundes, vntill they came to the tilled
land. The _Indians_ were expert in those places wher they beganne the
battayle, shooting with their bowes and slings, and throwing of dartes.
And although our më did some hurt among them with their Crossebowes,
hädgunnes, and Ordinance, whë they were in place to shoote, yet the
_Indians_ pursued our men so thicke, that they could not put them off,
for by pollicie, the _Indians_ of _Potonchan_ hadde soughte out that
place: and it is to bée thoughte that they were not barbarous, nor of
small vnderstanding in warres, yet notwithstanding wyth muche payne,
oure men gate out of that place, and obtayned another somewhat better,
and more playner grounde, whereas they myghte vse their Ordinance, and
fyghte with their weapons bodye to body. But the _Indians_ béeyng so
greate a number, draue our men to so narrowe a place, that they were
fayne to ioyne backe to backe for theyr owne defence, yea & for all
that were in maruellous greate daunger, for they hadde no roome to vse
their Ordinance, nor yet Horsemen to make them waye. They béeyng in
thys perplexitie, and readie to flye, suddaynely appeared a Horseman
with a speckled Horse, whome they iudged to be Captayne _Morla_, whych
Horsemanne sette vppon the _Indians_, and made them retyre: and hauyng
more space than before, they sette afreshe vppon the enimies, and slewe
some of them. In thys meane tyme the Horsemanne vaded away, and was not
séene, and wyth hys absence the _Indians_ beganne afreshe, and enclosed
the Chrystians in the same daunger that they were in before: then the
Horsemanne appeared agayne néere oure menne, and made maruellous way
among the enimies, wherevpon our menne séeyng this succoure, gaue the
onset agayne with great courage, and slewe and hurt many _Indians_, but
at the best season, the Horseman vanished away cleane out of sighte,
and when the _Indians_ sawe not the Horseman, with feare of whome they
fledde, thinkyng that he hadde bin a _Centaure_, and that the Horse and
man was all one incorporate, they returned agayne with liueley courage,
and vsed our Christians worse than they hadde done before. Then the
Horseman returned the third time, and putte the _Indians_ to flight
with great hurte, whom our footemë pursued with great slaughter.

Now at this instant came _Cortez_ with al his company of horsemen,
being wearied with the trauaile in passing such strange lakes and
wildernesse, wherof the countrey is replenished. Our men being ioyful
of his comming, they began to enforme him what wonders they had sene
a horseman do, which came to succour them, demanding of him which of
their company it was. _Cortez_ answered and faithfully assured them,
that it was none of their cöpany, bicause it was not possible for any
of them to come any sooner: Then they al gaue God praise, belieuing
that it was a helpe sent from heauen. _Cortez_ said (my deare fellows)
forwards, for god is with vs. Then the horsemë set vpon the _Indians_,
and with force of lance droue them out of the marish ground, and brake
their mayne battel. The _Indians_ incontinent left the fielde, and fled
into the thicke wooddes, the footemen followed them, and slue aboue
thrée hundred _Indians_, besides many other that were hurt. There wer
aboue seauenty Spaniardes wounded with arrowes and stones.

[Sidenote: A sodaine disease.]

And whether it were with labour of the battel, or with excessiue heate,
or with drinking the water of that place, there fel such a stitch in
their loynes, that about a hüdred of them fel flat vpon the groüd, not
able to go nor stand, their fellowes being forced to carry thë on their
backes. But it pleased god that the same night the payne wente frö
them, being in the morning wel againe. Who séeyng themselues deliuered
from so manye perils, gaue moste humble thankes to the almightye god
that had miraculously deliuered them. They all agréed that thrée times
they had séene the straunge horseman, with the speckled horse, fight in
their fauour, as is aforesaid, beléeuing generally it was a miracle, as
certainely it did appeare, for the Christians did not alone sée this
thing, but also the _Indians_ dyd muche note it, for the maruelous
fiercenesse wherwith he came vppon them, with such great murder,
that they were amased, and almoste blynde with hys bryghtnesse, being
so trodden vnder hys féete. The captiue _Indians_ after the battayle
declared the circumstance therof.

 The Lord Tauasco submitteth
 _himselfe to the Christians_.

[Sidenote: The Cazike enbassadours.]

_Cortez_ released some of hys prisoners and sent them to their Lorde,
saying that it grieued him the hurt done on both parties, but the
fault was theirs. And that god was witnesse of hys innocencie and
also of hys curtesie offered vnto thë. But notwithstanding all that
was paste, he pardoned their errour with suche condition, That if in
continent or within two dayes, theyr Lorde woulde come vnto him, to
yéelde satisfaction of their malice and stubbornesse, and to treate of
peace and friendship, warning and aduising them, that if they came not
wythin the time appointed, hee woulde enter into his countrey, burning
and spoyling with slaughter both great & smal, armed and vnarmed:
with which message the messengers departed, and _Cortez_ returned to
the towne to cure his wounded men. The next day came fiftie auncient
Indians to craue pardon for their offence, and also licence to bury
the dead, with likewise safeconduct that their rulers and principal
persons myght safely come vnto the towne. _Cortez_ graunted their
request, warning them to make any lyes or yet to conspire againe:
and also if their lords came not personally, he would not heare any
more embassadors: with this rigorous cömaüdemët & protestation they
departed. These _Indians_ féeling their strength woulde not preuaile,
thinking the christians to be inuincible, their Lords and chiefest
persons did determine to goe and visite the christians and their
captaine. And according to the time appointed, the Lorde of that town
and other foure Lords his neyghbours came vnto _Cortez_ with a good
trayne of their vessals and seruitours, and presented vnto him, bread,
turkie hennes, & fruites, with other like prouision for his host, with
four hundred pieces of gold of y^e value of 400. double duckets, w^t
other small iewels, and certaine turkie stones of small value. And
twentie women slaues, to serue to make breade and dresse meate for
y^e whole army. He craued and beseeched _Cortez_ to pardon his former
offence. And to accept and receiue them into hys friendshippe. And in
token of his obedience, hee and his fellowes dyd willinglye deliuer
their bodies, landes and goods into his handes and power. _Cortez_
did louingly receiue them, and gaue vnto them certaine trifles of his
wares, whiche they estéemed much. And those _Indians_ hearing the
horses and mares ney, they maruelled at their neying, thinking that
the horses could speake, & demaunded of the Christians what they sayd,
(mary quoth they) these horses are sore offended with you bycause ye
fought with them, & wold haue you corrected and chastened for your so
doing. The simple _Indiäs_ hearing this, presented roses and Gynea Hens
vnto the horses, desiring them to eate and to pardon thë.

 Certaine questions that Cortez demaunded
 _of the Cacike Tauasco_.

Many things passed betweene our men & the _Indians_: for where the
_Indians_ vnderstood thë not, their behauiour was much to laugh at. And
vsing conuersation with our men, & seeing they receiued no hurte of
them, they brought to the towne their wiues and children, which were
no smal number. And among many matters that _Cortez_ communed with
_Tauasco_ by the mouth of _Ieronimo de Aguila_ his enterpreter:

The first question was: Whether there wer mynes of gold or siluer in
that countrey, and from whëce they had that small quantitye that they
hadde broughte vnto them?

The secöd question was: Why they denyed him their friendshippe, more
than the other captaine that had bin there the yeare before?

The third was: Why they being so many in nüber, fled from them being so

The fourth was: To giue thë to vnderstäd the mightie power of the king
of Castill. And last of all to giue them knowledge of the faith of Iesu

[Sidenote: The ansvvere of the Cacike.]

As touching Sir (quoth he) the Mynes of gold and siluer in our country,
we séeke for none, for we séeke not after treasure and riches, but
we procure and desire a quiet life. And that golde which we haue,
was founde by chaunce: for we know not what Mynes do mean. Yet
notwithstanding further within the lande, whereas the sunne doth hide
himselfe, ther the people do finde muche gold and are giuen to séeke
the same.

And as touching the captaine that was here of late, we seeing the men
and shippes to be such as we had neuer before seene, spake vnto them
and demaunded what they would haue, they sayde that their comming was,
to chaunge their merchandice for gold and nothyng else, wherefore we
graunted to their request. But now séeing greater vessels and moe in
number, wee feared least ye came to take our substance. And I knowing
my selfe nothing inferiour to any of my neyghbours, would not permit
any iniurie to be offered me, and that he and his subiectes did estéeme
themselues the most valiant of men of warre in all these parties, and
that none durste take away their goods, women, and children, to be
sacrificed by force, wherevpon he thought to withstande those fewe
Christians, but (quoth he) I founde my selfe deceiued, seeyng we could
not kill any of your companye. And likewise the brightnesse of youre
weapons dyd blynde vs, and the woundes you made were incurable.

But the noyse and lightning of your ordinance dyd more amase vs, than
either thunder-clappes or tempest: and also the great spoyle that you
made among vs therwith: likewise your straunge horses made vs greatly
to wonder, to behold their open mouthes, wee feared to be swallowed.
And then to consider their swiftnesse in running, we knew no creature
could escape them. But y^e first horse that fought with vs, put vs in
marueylous feare, being but one, but when we espyed many, then all
oure helpe was past, for we belieued that the horse and man was al one

 Hovv the Indians of Potonchan brake
 _downe their Idols, and worshipped Christ

VVith the relation of _Tauasco_, _Cortez_ sawe that the countrey
was not for Spaniardes, nor yet he toke it a thing conueniente to
settle themselues where no golde nor siluer was, or other riches.
And so pretended to passe forwardes to discouer westward the lande
endewed with golde. But before his departure, he declared to those new
conquered _Indians_, that the Lord in whose name he and hys company had
taken that iourney was king of Spayne and Emperour of Christians, and
the greatest Prince in the worlde, vnto whom many kings and Princes
dyd homage and obey. And that hys rule and gouernemente in iustice
proceeded from God, beeing iust, holy, peaceable, and sweete, and also
the _Monarchie_ of the vniuersall did appertaine vnto him. And for
these causes he required them to yelde themselues as his subiectes.
And if they would doe so, there shoulde ensue vnto them great profite,
lawes and pollicie. And as touching their religion, he declared their
blindnesse & greate abuses which they vsed in worshipping many Gods,
and in making sacrifice vnto them with mans bloud, yea & thinking that
those images and Idols, did or coulde doe good or euill vnto them,
being dübe, without life or soule, yea and y^e worke of their owne
hands. He certifyed them of one god maker of heauen and earth, and all
creatures whom the Christians did worshippe and serue, and that all
creatures ought to doe the same. In conclusion with thys doctryne they
brake downe their Idols, and receyued the crosse, _Cortez_ hauing first
declared vnto them the great miseries that the son of God suffered on
y^e Crosse for mankynde. And in the greatest temple of _Potonchan_,
set vp a Crosse in remëbrance of the death of Christ and celebrated
the feast vpon their knees, and the multitude of _Indians_ likewise,
and departed to their meate. _Cortez_ desired them within two dayes to
come agayne to theyr diuine seruice. And that day was Palme sunday. And
so they did and brought an infinite number of men women and children
of other villages with them whych was straunge to behold. And there
generally gaue theyr vassalship to the king of Spaine into the handes
of _Hernando Cortez_, with protestation of perpetuall friendship with
the Spanish nation. So that these were the fyrste vassals that the
Emperour had in the new Spayne. And this feast and ceremony ended, our
men toke shipping with the palme boughes in their handes. In this doyng
_Cortez_ deserued no lesse prayse than in his victorie, for he vsed
wisedome with manhoode in all his doings: he lefte those _Indians_ with
a newe faith, and the towne frée and without hurt, he toke none for
slaues, nor yet any spoyle nor exchäged his merchaundice for any thing
although he aboade there twentye dayes. The towne is called in the
_Indian_ tongue _Potonchan_, that is to saye, a place that stincketh,
and our menne named it, the victorie.

[Sidenote: The armor of the Indians.]

The Lord (as ye haue heard) was called _Tauasco_, and therefore the
firste Spaniardes that came thyther, named the riuer _Tauasco_, but
_Grijalua_ called it after hys owne name, whose name and remembraunce
will not so soone be forgotten. And truely all those that do discouer
newe countreys, ought to make perpetuall their owne names. This town
doth containe neare fiue and twentye thousand houses (as some say)
but as euery house städeth by himselfe like an Iland, it seemeth much
bigger than it is in déede. The houses are great, made of lime stone, &
bricke: others there are made of mood wal, and rafters & couered with
straw or bordes. Their dwelling is in the vpper part of the house, for
the greate moystnesse of the riuers and lakes, and for feare of fier,
they haue theyr houses separated the one from the other. Without, the
towne they haue more fairer houses than wythin for their recreation and
pleasure. They are browne people, and go almost naked, and eat mans
flesh sacrificed. Their weapons are bowes and arrowes, slyngs, darts,
and lances. The armour wherwith they defend themselues, are Targets and
skulles made of woodde or barke of trées, and some of gold very thinne.
They haue also a certayne kinde of harneis made of cotten wooll wrapped
aboute their stomacke.

 The good entertainement that
 _Cortez had in Saint Iohn de Vlhua_.

Captaine _Cortez_ and his company beeyng embarked, sayled weastwards
as nye the shoar as thei might. And this coast hauing no harbors,
they founde no place where they might Anker safely with their greater
vessels, vntil they arriued vpon Mandie thursday at _Saint Iohn de
Vlhua_, whiche séemed a good harbor for them. The _Indians_ of this
place call this harbour _Chalchicoeca_, there the fleete came to Anker.
They were not so soone at Roade, but incontinente came two little
boates named _Acalles_, enquiring for the Generall of the Fleete, who
when they came to hys presence, dyd humble reuerence vnto him, and
sayde vnto hym that _Teudilli_ the Gouernoure of that Prouince sente
to knowe what people they were, and what they woulde haue, and whether
they meante to stay there or procéede farther. _Aguillar_ dyd not
well vnderstande that language. _Cortez_ caused them to come aboorde
hys Shyppe, gyuyng them thankes for theyr paynes and visitation. Hée
made vnto them a banket of Wyne and Conserua, and sayde vnto them,
that the nexte day followyng hee would come alande, and talke with
the Gouernoure, whome hée besoughte not to alter him nor hys people
wyth hys commyng a shore, for he meant not to molest hym, but rather
to pleasure and profyte hym. To that these messengers were rewarded
wyth certayne gyftes, they eate and dranke, but yet suspected euill,
although they lyked the Wyne well, wherefore they desired to haue
thereof, and also of the Conserua, to presente vnto theyr Lorde, whyche
was giuen them, and so departed.

The nexte daye béeyng good Friday, _Cortez_ came alande wyth hys Boates
full of menne, and broughte hys Horses and artillerie a shore by little
and little, wyth all hys menne of warre, and two hundred _Indians_ of
_Cuba_, whyche serued to toyle and laboure. Hée planted hymselfe in the
best scituation that hée coulde fynde among the Sandy bankes on the Sea
syde, and there pytched hys Campe, and hauyng néere that place manye
trées, they builte them Cotages with boughes.

[Sidenote: VVisedome.]

[Sidenote: The comming of the Gouernor.]

[Sidenote: A straunge salutation.]

From a little Village that was at hand, came many _Indians_ to gaze
at things so straunge, and the like neuer séene vnto them, and
brought with thë gold to barter for suche toyes, as the two little
Boates had broughte from them before. They brought also bread and
meate readie dressed after their vse likewise to sell. Oure men
chaunged wyth them beadestones of glasse, looking glasses, sissers,
kniues, pinnes, and suche other wares, whereof the _Indians_ were
not a little glad, returning home to their houses, shewing their
neighbours. The ioy and pleasure that these simple soules tooke with
these trifles, was so greate, that the next day they came agayne
wyth other _Indians_ ladë with Iewels of gold, Turkie Hennes, bread,
meate, and fruite, that suffised for all the Campe, and for the same
they receyued nedels, and beadestones of glasse, but the poore soules
thought themselues therewith so riche, that they knewe not where they
were with ioy and pleasure, yea and they thoughte that they hadde
deceyued the Straungers. Nowe _Cortez_ séeyng the greate quantitie of
golde broughte and bartered so foolishly for trifles of no valewe,
proclaymed throughout all hys host, that no Christian shoulde take
any golde vppon greate penaltie, and that they shoulde all shewe, as
though they knewe not to what purpose the golde serued, and that they
passed not for it, bycause they shoulde not thynke that the desire
thereof had broughte them thyther, and so they did dissemble that great
demonstration of golde, to sée what was meante thereby, and whether
the _Indians_ hadde brought that golde, to proue whether theyr commyng
was for that or no. On Easter day in the morning, came _Teudilli_ the
Gouernour to the Campe, from _Cotosta_ hys dwellyng place, whyche was
eyght leagues from thence. He brought attendyng vpon his person foure
thousande men without weapon, and the most part well clothed, some of
them with garments of Cotton, riche after their manner. And others
naked, laden with victuals in great abundance, whiche was straunge to
sée. _Teudilli_ according to their vsance, did his reuerence to the
Captaine, burning frankinsence, and little strawes touched in bloud of
his owne bodye, he presented vnto him the victuals, and certayne Iewels
of golde very riche and well wrought, and other things made of feathers
very curious straunge and artificiall. _Cortez_ embraced him in his
armes, and receyued hym ioyfully, saluting all hys company. He gaue to
_Teudilli_ a coate of silke, a brooche, and a coller of glasse, with
many other péeces of Haberdashe wares, whiche was highly estéemed of

 The talke of Cortez vvith

[Sidenote: A maruellous happe.]

Al the former talke was had without an Interpreter, bycause _Ieronimo
de Aguillar_ vnderstoode not thys language, bycause it differed muche
from the spéeche of the other _Indians_, whereas hée hadde bin captiue:
for whyche cause _Cortez_ was somewhat carefull, bicause he would
largely haue discoursed with _Teudilli_. It chanced that among those
twentie women giuen hym in _Potonchan_, one of them stoode talking
with a seruaunte of _Teudilli_, bycause she vnderstoode them as menne
of hir owne language. _Cortez_ espying this, called hir aside, and
promised hir more than libertie, so that she woulde bée a trustie and
faithfull interpreter betwixte hym and those _Indians_, and that hée
woulde estéeme hir as his Secretarie. And further demanded of hir of
what lignage she was, then she aunswered, that she was naturall of the
Countrey that bordered vpö _Xalixco_, and of a towne called _Viluto_,
daughter vnto riche parentes, and of the kinrede of the Lorde of that
lande. And béeyng a little girle, certayne Merchantes dyd steale hir
away in tyme of warre, and brought hir to be solde at the fayre of
_Xicalanco_, whyche is a greate Towne néere _Coasaqualco_, not farre
distant from _Tauasco_: and after this sorte shée came to the power
of the Lord of _Potonchan_. This woman was Christened _Marina_. She
and hir fellowes were the firste Christians baptised in all the newe
_Spayne_, and she onely with _Aguilar_, were Interpreters betwixt the
_Indiäs_ and our men.

[Sidenote: The aunsvvere of Teudilli.]

[Sidenote: The disease of the Spaniardes.]

Nowe _Cortez_ béeyng assured of hys true Interpreters, hée celebrated
hys accustomed deuine seruice, and _Teudilli_ wyth hym, and after they
hadde dyned in _Cortez_ hys Tente in presence of many _Spanyardes_
and _Indians_, _Cortez_ enformed _Teudilli_ howe that hée was vassall
to the Lord _Charles_ of _Austria_ Emperour of the Christiäs, and
King of _Spayne_, and Lorde ouer a greate parte of the worlde, whome
great Kings and Princes dyd serue and obey: and that all Princes were
glad to bée hys friendes for his Vertue and myghte. And hée hauyng
aduertisemente of that Countrey and Lorde thereof, had sente him
thyther to visite hym on hys behalfe, and to enforme hym of certayne
secrete matters, the effecte whereof he hadde in wrytyng. Sir (quoth
_Teudilli_,) I am very glad to heare the Maiestie and Vertue of the
Emperoure youre maister, but you shall vnderstande, that my Lorde the
Emperoure _Melzuma_ is as greate and as good a Prince as he. And I doe
muche maruell, that there shoulde bée anye so greate a Prince in the
whole worlde, but yet according to youre request, I wyll certifye hym,
and knowe hys pleasure, for I trust (quoth he) in the clemencie of my
Prince, that youre newes and message shall bée acceptable vnto him,
and you well recompensed for your paynes. _Cortez_ then commaunded al
his men to set themselues in order of battayle with fife and drumme,
and to skirmishe before _Teudilli_. And that the horsemen shoulde
runne, and the ordinaunce shotte of, to the entent that _Mutezuma_
shoulde be aduertised thereof. The _Indians_ did much beholde the
gesture, apparell and beardes of our men, they wondered to sée the
horses runne, they feared the brightnesse of the swordes, and at the
noyse of the ordinaunce they fell flatte to the ground, thinking that
the heauens did fall. And the shippes, they held opinion was the God
of the ayre called _Quezalcoualt_, whiche came with the temples on his
backe, for they dayly looked for him. _Teudilli_ dispatched the poste
to _Mexico_, to _Mutezuma_, aduising him of all that he had séene,
and demaunded golde of him for to giue vnto the Captayne of that newe
people. Bicause _Cortez_ had inquired of him, whether _Mutezuma_ had
gold or no, he answered (yes) mary quoth _Cortez_, I and my fellowes
haue a certayne disease of the harte, and golde helpeth vs. This
message wente from the campe to _Mexico_ in one day and a night,
whiche is 210. myle, and the poste caried paynted the horses and
horsemen vpon them, the maner of theyr armour, and howe many péeces of
ordinaunce they had, & what number of bearded men there were: and as
for the shippes he had giuë aduise as soone as they arriued, shewing
the greatnesse and quantitie of them. All these things aforesayde,
_Teudilli_ caused to be paynted in cloth of Cotten very liuely, that
_Mutezuma_ mought sée it. The cause that this message wente so farre in
so shorte a space, was, they had certayne places that postes attended,
as we may say horsepostes which gaue alwayes from hand to hande the
paynted cloth: they doe runne on foote faster in this sorte, than by
horsepost, and is more of antiquitie than horsepost: Also _Teudilli_
sent to _Mutezuma_ the garments & many other things whiche _Cortez_
had giuen him, whiche things were after wardes founde in the treasorie
of _Mutezuma_.

 The present and ansvvere that
 _Mutezuma sente vnto Cortez_.

[Sidenote: The excuse of Mutezuma.]

After the message sente, and the answere promised, _Teudilli_ tooke
his leaue, and within twoo flight shoote of _Cortez_ his campe, he
caused a thousande cotages of boughes to be made, & lefte there twoo
principall men as Captaynes ouer two thousande persons men and women,
and then departed for _Cotosta_ hys dwellyng place. The twoo Captaynes
had charge to prouide the Christians of all things necessarie, and the
women serued to grynde their corne and make bread of _Maiz_, and to
dresse theyr fishe and flesh and other victuals, and the men serued to
carrie the dressed meate to the Christians cäpe, and wood, water, &
grasse for the horses and al other necessaries, and this they passed
eight dayes. In this meane season returned the poste with a riche
and gentle present, whiche was many couerlets and clothes of cotton,
white, and of other colours wrought, many tuffes of feathers very
fayre, and some things wrought with golde and fethers, quantitie of
Iewels and péeces of golde and siluer, twoo thinne whéeles, the one
of siluer whiche wayde .25. markes with the signe of the Moone, and
the other whéele of golde which wayed a hundreth markes, made like
vnto the Sunne, with many leaues and beasts, a very curious péece of
worke: these twoo things they helde for Gods in that countrey, & giueth
thë the colours of the metall that is likest thë, euery whéele was
two yardes & a half broade, and so proportionally in compasse round
aboute, this present was estéemed at 20900. Ducates. This present
shold haue bene giuen to _Grijalua_, if he had not so soone departed as
the _Indians_ reported. He also gaue vnto _Cortez_ this answere, that
_Mutezumas_ his Lorde was very gladde to know, & to be friend to suche
a mighty Prince as the king of Spayne was, and that in his time should
arriue in his countrey such new people, & the like neuer séene before,
& that he was readie to shew them al pleasure & honour, requesting him
to sée what things he stoode in néede of for y^e time that he meant to
abide there, as well for himselfe as for his ships, army and deceasse,
and it should be prouided abundantly: yea & also if he could finde any
thing in that countrey to his contentment, to present to the Emperour
of Christians, he would willingly prouide it. And as touching the
desire that _Cortez_ had to come to visite & to haue cömunication with
him, he thought it vnpossible, bycause that he was sickly and could not
come vnto the sea coast, and likewise for _Cortez_ to come where he did
abide, it was harde, troublesome and difficill, as well for the many
and cragged mountaynes, as also the countrey, wilde, desert & without
habitation, and shoulde be constrayned to suffer hunger, thirst, and
other necessitie: and moreouer the enhabitaunts of much part of the way
that he should passe, were his enimies, both cruell & cursed people,
and knowing thë to be his friendes, they should not escape with life.

All these excuses did _Mutezuma_ by the mouth of _Teudilli_ declare
vnto _Cortez_, thinkyng to driue him frö his purpose & pretëded
iourney, alleaging the foresayd difficulties and perils, the _Indians_
did also hope that with some cötrary weather they should be forced to
leaue that coast & coütrey. Notwithstäding this cötradiction, so
much the more desire had _Cortez_ to visite _Mutezuma_, who was so
great a prince in that parties, & throughly to discouer the treasure
which he imagined to be there. And hauing receiued y^e present, & also
y^e answer, he gaue vnto _Teudilli_ a garmët of his owne wearyng,
and many other trifles of his Haberdash, to be sente vnto _Mutezuma_,
saying that if it were for no other purpose but onely to sée so mightie
and vertuous a Prince, it should be requisite and iuste to trauayle
vnto his Court, how much the more, he was of duetie cöstrayned to
doe the Embassage which the Emperour of Christians had willed and
commaunded him to doe, for otherwyse he shoulde incurre the displeasure
of the King his mayster, wherefore he besought _Teudilli_ yet once
agayne to aduertise _Mutezuma_ of his constant determination, bycause
hée shoulde vnderstande that he would not leaue off hys pretended
purpose for any inconuenience that was obiected vnto him. Alleagying
moreouer, that he who had cömen 2000. leagues by sea, mought well
goe 70. leagues by lande, and consideryng that he had many at his
charge with small prouision, and likewise his shippes in daunger, he
required that with all expedition the messengers should be dispatched.
_Teudilli_ desired him to recreate himself, & not to take any grief,
for as much as he himself did dayly aduertise _Mutezuma_ of his
procéedings, euen so with all expedition the full resolution should
come from _Mexico_, although it were somewhat farre off. And as for
his victuals, he shoulde take no care, for abundantly he should be
prouided. And also desired him for so much as he was not well placed
among those sandy bankes, that it might please him to goe with him
to certayne townes aboute sixe or seuen leagues frö thence. _Cortez_
refused that offer, wherevpon _Teudilli_ departed, and he abode there
ten dayes looking for answere from _Mutezuma_.

 Hovv Cortez knevv of discorde and
 _dissention to be in the Countrey_.

In this meane season certayne _Indians_ were espied, that went lurkyng
a farre of among the sandy hilles. And those came not neare the
_Indians_, that serued the Spaniarde, _Cortez_ demaunded what people
they were, & for what cause they went lurkyng so farre off, and came no
néerer vnto them.

The twoo Captaynes answered, that they were husbandmen, that went
aboute theyr husbandry. _Cortez_ lyked not theyr answere, but suspected
that they had tolde hym a lye: for it séemed vnto hym that those people
desired to come among the Christians, and that they durste not with
feare of the _Indians_ of _Teudilli_, and so it was in very déede. For
all that coaste and mayne lande within, as farre as _Mexico_, was full
of the newes and straunge things that our men had done in _Potonchan_.
Wherefore they all desired to sée them and to talke with them, but they
durste not for feare of the _Indians_ of _Culhua_, who are subiectes
vnto _Mutezuma_, wherevpon _Cortez_ sente fiue Spaniardes to call
them with signes and tokens of peace. This company of _Indians_ were
in number twentie, and were gladde to beholde those fiue men commyng
towardes them, and were desirous to sée suche straunge people and
shippes, wherefore they came willingly altogither vnto _Cortez_ his

[Sidenote: The Indiäs attyre.]

These _Indians_ dyd differ muche from all the other _Indians_ yet
séene, for they were hygher of person, and had the grystels of theyr
noses slitte, hangyng ouer their mouths, and rings of Iette and Amber
hanging thereat. They had also theyr neither lippes bored, and in the
holes rings of golde and turky stones, whiche wayed so muche, that
their lippes hanged downe ouer theyr chinnes, and their téeth remayned
bare: The whiche custome although they vsed for a brauery, it séemed a
foule and vgly sighte in the Spanyardes eyes, and very lothsome.

The other _Indians_ of _Mutezuma_, had theyr lippes and eares bored,
with rounde stones hangyng at the iagges thereof, yet they had not
suche foule slittes in their noses, but they had suche bored holes that
a manne myght put any finger of his hande through them, with rings of
golde and stone hanging thereat, the euill fauoured sighte of their
faces made our men to muse.

_Cortez_ communed with them by hys interpreter _Marina_, to knowe
from whence they were, they answered, that they were dwellers in
_Zempoallan_, a Cittie distant from thence one dayes iourney, situated
vpon a riuer side, and bordered vpon the Countrey of _Mutezumazin_, and
that their _Cazique_ or Lorde had sente them, to sée what Goddes were
comen in those _Teucallis_, that is to say, Temple, saying, also that
they durste not come sooner, not knowyng what people they were.

_Cortez_ made muche of them and shewed a chéerefull countenaunce vnto
them, for they séemed very bestiall, he declared vnto them that he
was gladde of theyr commyng, and to knowe the good will that theyr
Lorde bare vnto him, and gaue them Haberdashe toyes, and shewed them
the Horses and Armour, a straunge sighte for them. And so they wente
through the army lookyng and gasing here and there as menne amazed. And
in all the tyme they abode there, they vsed no conuersation with the
other _Indians_. _Cortez_ enquired of _Maryna_ the cause thereof, and
shée sayde that those menne did not onely speake an other languague,
but also did appertayne to another Lorde, who was not vassall to
_Mutezuma_, but by force and extortion.

_Cortez_ was very gladde of that newes, for hée coniectured by the
talke of _Teudilli_ that _Mutezuma_ had warres and enimies, wherevppon
hée tooke aside thrée of those _Indians_ whiche séemed moste wysest,
and demaunded of them by _Maryna_ what Lordes there were in that
Countrey: they answered that _Mutezuma_ was Lorde ouer all, although
in euery Cittie and Prouince was a Lorde, yet neuerthelesse all in
generall dyd paye tribute and serue him as vassals, nay rather lyke
slaues. But yet many of them of late dayes did reknowledge hym by force
of armes, and payde vnto him suche tolle and tribute that they were not
accustomed to pay, of whiche number their Lorde of _Zempoallan_ was one
of them, and other his neyghbours, who many tymes helde him warre to
be frée from his tiranny and bondage, but yet sayde they, it preuayled
not, for his hoste was greate and his warriers valiant.

_Cortez_ receyued greate pleasure to finde in that countrey dissention
and discorde among some Noble menne, and at deuision among themselues,
thynking thereby the better to bryng his purpose to passe. He gaue
thanks vnto those _Indians_ for their aduise, offeryng vnto them his
fauour, helpe and friendshippe, praying them to come often to his
campe, and so tooke his leaue of them, with his commendations to their
Lorde, and sente him certayne presents, with aduertisement, that
shortly he would come and sée him, yea and also serue him.

 Hovv Cortez vvent to suruey the
 _Countrey with foure hundreth men_.

At the ende of tenne dayes came _Teudilli_ backe againe, and brought
certaine cloth of Cotten, and other things made of feathers well
wrought for recompence of the thyng sente vnto _Mexico_, and warned
_Cortez_ to departe, for at that tyme there was no remedie to sée
_Mutezuma_, and to looke what was necessary for his prouision and
furniture, and it shoulde be prouided, offeryng the same seruice at
any time that hée shoulde happen to come that way. _Cortez_ would not
accept the offer, saying: That he would not departe from that countrey,
vntill he had bothe séene and talked with _Mutezuma_. The gouernour
_Teudilli_ yet agayne replied, that he shoulde not contende therein,
and with those wordes departed from hym. The nexte night followyng he
with all those _Indians_ as well men as women whiche attended to serue
and prouide the Spanishe campe, wente from thence: so that in the
mornyng all the cotages were emptie, where those seruitors had bene.

_Cortez_ suspecting this alteratiö prouided himselfe with preparation
for battayle, & finding the matter contrary to his expectation, he
deliberated to séeke a sure roade or harbor for his nauie, & also a
good plotte or situation to buylde vpon, for then he fully meant to
obtayne perpetuitie & to conquere the lande, considering y^t he had
found such great tokens of gold, plate, & other riches, & thereaboute
within a whole league cöpasse was no fit place for y^e purpose: for
why? all was sandy ground, & such as tossed too & fro with the winde,
with other morish groüd not méete for habitation. In consideration
wherof he sent _Francisco de Monteio_, with two vergantines, and
fiftie men, to runne along the coast, vntill they should finde some
reasonable poart and good scituation to build vpon.

_Monteio_ procéeded on his voyage, and sayled in sighte of lande,
vntill he came to _Panuco_, withoute finding anye port or harbor,
sauing the shadowe of a Rocke, whyche stoode somewhat distant from the
land a sea boord, so that at thrée wéekes ende he returned backe agayne
with the foresayde newes. Hauing runne so little a way, he fell into
suche terrible currants, that although he made waye wyth oares and
sayles, yet the sayde Currant forced hym backe agayne. Also he broughte
newes, that the _Indians_ of that coast did let themselues bloud,
offering the same vnto them vpon little strawes, in token of friendship
or deitie.

The relation of _Monteio_ contented not _Cortez_, yet notwithstandyng
he pretended to goe to the shade or succoure of the Rocke, bycause hée
was enformed, that néere that place, was two fayre Riuers, wyth store
of wooddes, necessarye for tymber and fyre woodde, greate quantitie of
stones to builde with, fayre pastures, and ground for tyllage, although
the harbour was not sufficiente for hys Nauie and contratation, bycause
that roade was without defence, and open vppon the Northe, which is the
winde that most ruleth with greatest hurte vpon that coast.

And also considering that _Teudilli_ and hys menne were departed,
fearing also the want of victuals, and likewise, that hys Shyppes
myghte perishe vppon the shore, he commaunded to lade aboorde all theyr
stuffe, and hée wyth foure hundred menne, and all his Horses, followed
on the hygh way that the _Indians_ hadde gone.

After hée hadde iourneyed thrée leagues, hée came to a fayre vadeable
Riuer, and passing ouer the Riuer, hée found a towne not inhabited,
for the inhabitantes thereof were fledde with feare: he entred into a
great house, which séemed the place of the Lorde of the Towne, built
with timber and earthen walles, the foundation whereof was raysed with
handie worke, about a fadome high: the roofe was couered with strawe,
but of a fayre & strange workemanshippe inwardes, with many greate
pertitions, some full of pottes of honey, and Maiz, with other grayne
whiche they kéepe in store all the yeare: other roomes had cloth of
Cotten wool, wrought with feathers, golde and siluer.

_Cortez_ commaunded Proclamation to be made, that none of his company
shoulde take any thyng away, vppon payne of deathe (onely victuals
excepted) to the intente to obtayne the good will and friendship among
the _Indians_.

There was in that Village a Temple, whiche hadde a little Tower with a
Chappell on the toppe, and twentie steppes to come vnto the Chappell,
where they found some Idolles, and many bloudy papers, and much mans
bloud of those which hadde bin sacrificed, as _Marina_ dyd certifie.

They found also the blocke wherevppon they vsed to cutte open the menne
sacrificed, and the razors made of Flint, wherewyth they opened their
breastes, and plucked out their heartes béeyng aliue, throwing them
vppe toward Heauen as an offering, and after this done, they annoynted
their Idolles, and the papers they offered, and then burned them.

This sight put a great compassion, yea and a feare among our
_Spanyards_, who did beholde these things. From this Village they went
to other thrée or foure, and found none aboue two hundred houses, and
all without people, yet well prouided with victuall, as the firste
towne was. _Cortez_ returned from thence to discharge his Shippes,
and to take order to sende for moe men: and with desire to beginne
habitation, in these affaires he occupyed hymselfe tenne dayes.

 Hovv Cortez rendred vp his charge
 _and office with pollicie_.

VVhen _Cortes_ was come where his Ships were, and the residue of his
company, hée began this talke, saying:

Now my louing friends and fellowes, ye doe sée what greate mercy God
hathe shewed vnto vs, in bringing vs safe and in health to so good and
riche a Countrey, as by manifest signes and tokens we haue alreadye
séene, yea and howe plentifull of meate, inhabited of people, better
clothed, and of more iudgement and reason, than the others whiche ye
haue séene, since your firste comming: also better buildings, fieldes
of grayne and corne: yea and it is to be thought, that the things not
yet séene, doe surmount all that hithervnto ye haue playnely séene.
Wherefore wée ought to giue most hartie thankes vnto God, and to
beginne oure habitation héere, whereas we shall enioy the grace and
mercy of God. And to bryng this matter to passe, me thinke best that we
abide héere, vntill we may finde a better port or scituation. Also that
we make a wall or Castell for oure defence, if néede shoulde happen,
for the people of this land hath little ioy of our comming and abiding

It was then considered that frö that place they might the sooner
haue friendshippe and contractation with the _Indians_ and Townes
nexte adioyning, as _Zempoallan_, and others whyche were enimies
to _Mutezuma_, and béeyng in this order once placed, they myghte
discharge their Shyppes, and sende them incontinent to _Cuba_,
_Santo Domingo_, _Iamayca_, _Borriquen_, and other Ilandes, or else
to _Spayne_ for more men, armour and Horsses, and for clothing and

[Sidenote: Policie.]

Moreouer, it was thought iust and méete, to sende relation of all
their procéedings to the Emperoure theyr King and maister, with the
demonstration of golde, syluer, and other riches, which they had in
their power.

And bycause all these things should be done in good order, _Cortez_
determined as Captayne generall, to appoint a Counsell, Aldermen, and

And also ordeyne all other offices that shoulde be necessary and
néedefull to rule and gouerne a Citie, whych he then pretended to
edifie and erecte, the whiche Magistrates should fully commaund,
vntill such time that the Emperour should otherwise prouide in matters
conuenient for his seruice.

[Sidenote: A good subiecte.]

After this diligence put in vre, he solemnely tooke possession of all
y^e land, in the name of the Emperour _Charles_ King of _Castill_, with
all the actes and ceremonies, as to such a matter apperteyned. And
demaunded of _Francisco Fernandez_ notarie appoynted, that he shoulde
gyue vnto him by testimonie in writing, all the actes done therein. All
his company aunswered, that they did very well allowe hys procéedings
and praysed, and also approued hys determination, besieching hym to
procéede accordingly, sithence they were come to serue and obey hym.
Then _Cortez_ named Iudges, Aldermen, Attorney, Serieant, Notary,
and Towneclearke, and all other officers apperteyning to the good
gouernement of a Citie, in the name and behalfe of the Emperoure hys
naturall Lord, and delyuered incontinent to the Iudges white roddes to
beare in their handes in token of Iustice, and named the newe Citie
to be builte, The ryche Towne _De la vera Crux_, bycause that one
goodfriday they had entred into that land. After these things finished,
_Cortez_ began before y^e saide Notary, another act in presence of
the iudges, who were _Alounso Fernandez Portocarero_, and _Fräcisco
de Monteio_, in whose handes he made cession, and dyd desyst from all
rule and offices whiche heretofore he had receiued, which was his
gouernership, captaineship and general discouerer, receiued in the
Chauncerie of _Santo Domingo_, at the handes of the presidentes, who
were there chiefe of the kings counsell, and presidents, likewise
he protested not to vse the power and auctority of the gouernour of
_Cuba_, Admirall of _India_, for so much y^t now none of them had any
rule or gouernement in that Countrey which he and his fellowes had
newely discouered, and begun to enhabite in the name of the king of
Castil, as his naturall subiectes. The which auctoritie he likewise
required to be set downe in recorde, and to haue a copie of the same.

 Hovv the soudiours chose Cortez
 _for Captaine generall, and chiefe ruler
 in Iustice_.

Al the newe officers toke possession and charge of their offices, and
entred into the towne house to counsel according to the vse and custome
of Castill. In the which congregation or counsel then holden, many
matters were had in question as touching the good gouernemente of the
common weale. And among many other things, they al agréed to electe
_Hernando Cortez_ for captaine generall and chiefe Iustice, and to giue
vnto him full power and authority for all matters appertayning to the
wars and conquest, vntill such time as the Emperour should otherwise
prouide: with this determination the next day following al the
Aldermen, Iudges, and Counsellers, went vnto _Cortez_, and sayde vnto
him: Sir we haue greate neede of a guide and captaine for the warres to
procéede vppon the conquest of this countrey, wherfore vntil such time
as y^e Emperour shall prouide therein, they all besought hym to accepte
that office and charge, approuing him a man most fit for the same, both
to rule and gouerne, for y^e great experience that they had séene of
his courage, wisdome, and pollicie, and by Vertue of their offices,
did cömaund him to accept the same, saying, that in so doing, God and
the king shoulde bee faithfully serued. And they woulde thankfully
gratify the same, knowing that at his hands they should be ruled
with iustice, vsed with humility, & be preserued with diligence and
strength. And for that purpose, they had chosen him for that office,
giuing vnto him their ful & whole authority, submitting thëselues vnder
his hands, iurisdiction & defence. _Cortez_ accepted y^e charge at smal
entreating, for he desired nothing so much.

[Sidenote: Liberality.]

And being in this sort elected general, the counsel said vnto him.
Sir you do wel vnderstäd, that vntil such time as we shal bee better
planted in this countrey, we haue not wherwith to maintaine our selues
but only w^t suche things as are abord our shippes. Therfore it may
please you to commaund it to be brought ashore, and that you take
therof what shal seme good vnto you, for your houshold and familie, and
the residue may be taxed at a reasonable price, and so to be deuided
among them: & for payment they wold al binde thëselues, or else y^t
presently it should be deducted out of the stocke, after that the
kings fift parte were subtracted. Likewise they desired him to value
his ships and artillery, bycause they would make like payment for the
same, and that frö thence forwards the ships should serue in common,
for to passe to the Iläds for bread, wine, clothes, weapons, horses,
and other things which should be néedeful for the new towne and army,
for therby they mought be better cheape prouided than if merchants
should prouide them, consideryng alway they seke for excessiue gaine,
saying that if it would please hym to accepte thys offer and request,
they would thankfully requite the same. _Cortez_ aunswered, that at y^e
time he made his preperation and furniture in _Cuba_, he ment not to
sel his prouision as others vsed to do, but he would and did frankely
giue it vnto them, although hee had spent his goods and indetted
himselfe therin. And incontinent he commaunded the maisters of the
ships and pursers, to bring a läd al their victual to the town house,
requiring the Aldermen to deuide it equally, to euerye man his part,
without making any difference of him or of any other, for (quoth he)
in time of neede of victuals y^e yongest hath as muche allowaunce as
the eldest. And although I am indetted and do owe more than seauen M.
Duckets, I giue this victuall al franckly vnto you. And as cöcerning
the ships, I wil do y^t which shal be most cöueniët for you al. And
(quoth he) I wil determin nothing to be done with thë, but wil first
giue you aduertisemët of the same.

Al this did _Cortez_ for to get their loue and fauour, bycause there
were many that loued hym not, althoughe in very trouth he was of his
own nature liberal and large in experiences with al his souldiers in
the warres.

 The receiuing of Cortez into

For as much as the situation there was not conuenient to place the newe
worke, they determined to go from thence, to _Aguiahuiztlan_, which
standeth nere the shadowe of the rocke that _Monteio_ had informed
them of, wherevppon _Cortez_ commaunded the shippes to depart, for
that place. And he with his foure hundred men and horses would goe by
land, and there mete thë, which may be about ten leagues iorney. In
this order the fléete departed, and likewise _Cortez_ with his company
toward _Zempoallan_ which stoode directly weastward. And after he
had iourneyed three leagues he came to the riuer which deuided the
Lordshippe of _Mutezuma_ and _Zempoallan_, & coulde finde no passage,
wherefore he was forced to returne to the seaside, where with muche
adoe they passed ouer, and so trauayled on that side of the riuer,
& found cotages of fishermen and other poore houses, and some sowen
ground, and procéeding on their iorney at length they came into very
faire valleys, wher was great store of deare, and stil they went along
the riuer side, hoping to finde some good towne, and in short space,
they espied neare twenty persons vppon the toppe of a hill, _Cortez_
commaunded foure of his horsemen to fetch them vnto him, willing thë to
make signes of peace vnto them, but if they flie (quoth he) then follow
them, vntill you ouertake them, for they shall stand vs in steade, as
wel to lead vs the way as to serue vs for enterpreters.

[Sidenote: Simplicitie.]

The horsemen tooke on theyr way, and when they came to the hill toppe,
they made signes of peace vnto them, but the poore and fearefull
_Indians_ fledde with spéede, yea being amased and in great feare to
beholde suche a monsterous thyng as a horseman, beleuyng assuredly,
that horse and man was one thing incorporate, but in theyr flight they
were soone ouertaken, and they yéelded themselues, and so were all
brought vnto _Cortez_.

These men had in their eares and noses bored holes, with rings of golde
hangyng thereat, for so was the vse of _Zempoallan_: they enformed
_Cortez_ that the Cittie was neare at hande. _Cortez_ demaunded the
cause of their comyng thither, they answered to behold and sée so
straunge a sight, but why fledde you then (quoth he?) for feare only
sir sayde they, of people which we knew not. Then _Cortez_ willed
them to put all feare aside, and tolde them that he with his small
company woulde goe vnto their Cittie to visite their Lorde, and to
be acquaynted with him: the _Indians_ sayde, that the day was farre
spent, and that it was late to goe that night to _Zempoallan_, but
if it pleased hym they would conduct him to a village whiche stoode
on the otherside of the Riuer and within sight, and although it were
but a small village, yet there was reasonable lodging with meate
sufficiente for his armie: their counsell séemed well, so they wente to
that village, and when they were comen thither, the _Indians_ craued
license to goe & to aduertise their Lorde how the straungers abode in
that place, promising to returne the nexte day with answere. Some of
the _Indians_ had licence to do the message, the others abode there,
attendyng and prouiding for the newe gestes, & in this order they were
al lodged and their supper abundantly prouided. That night _Cortez_
fortified himselfe as strong as mought be, and the nexte morning came a
hundreth men laden with Hennes, saying that their Lord much reioyced
of their comming, and bicause he was so grosse and vnwealdie, he came
not personallye vnto him, but yet notwithstanding he aboade in the
cittie expecting his comming. _Cortez_ friendly welcomed them, and with
that presente, he and his company brake their faste, and then proceeded
with his guides in good order with two fauconets in readinesse, if
néede should happen: and from that passage of the riuer they had a
faire way vntil they came to another riuer, which being likewise waded
ouer, they discried _Zempoallan_, whiche stoode a myle distant from
them, all beset wyth fayre Orchardes and Gardens, verye pleasaunte to
beholde: they vsed alwayes to water them with sluses when they pleased.

There procéeded out of the Towne many persons, to behold and receyue
so strange a people vnto them. They came with smiling countenance, and
presented vnto thë diuers kinde of Floures, and sundry fruites, which
none of our menne had héeretofore séene. These people came without
feare among the Ordinance, with this pompe, triumph and ioy they were
receiued into the Citie, which séemed a beautifull Garden: for the
trées were so gréene and high, that scarsely the houses appeared.

[Sidenote: Mens folly vvith a great lyr.]

At the Citie gate stoode many graue persons of nobilitie, as
Magistrates of the Citie, who solemnely welcomed the Strangers. Sixe
Horsemen, which hadde gone before the army to discouer, returned backe
as _Cortez_ was entring into the Citie, saying, that they had séene a
great house and Court, and that the walles were garnished with siluer.
_Cortez_ commaunded them to procéede on, willing them not to shew any
token of wonder of any thing that they should sée. All the stréetes
were replenished with people, whiche stoode gaping and wondering at
the horses and straügers. And passing through a great market place,
they saw on their right hande, a great walled house made of lyme and
stone, with loupe holes and towers, whited with playster that shined
lyke siluer, being so well burnished and the sunne glistering vpon it.
And that was the thing that the Spaniards thought had bene walles of
siluer. I doe beléeue that with the imagination and great desire whiche
they had of golde and siluer, all that shined they déemed to be the
same mettall.

[Sidenote: A vigilant Captayne.]

Within this great house was a long rew of lodgings, and on the other
side sixe or seuen Towers one higher than another. They procéeded on,
dissimulyng the errour of the siluer walles, and followed their guide
vntill suche time as they came to the Lordes lodging, who came forth
accompanied with many auncient persons, and better attired than the
other Citizens were, with twoo Gentlemen that ledde him by the armes.
They saluted eche other according to the vse of their countreys, and
then entred into the pallayce, where certayne principall men conducted
_Cortes_ and all his trayne to their lodgyng, and Captayne _Cortes_
was lodged in the house whiche had the glisteryng walles, situated in
the markette place, whiche house was sufficient for him and all his
company. And when they were placed, and behelde the walles, they were
ashamed of their owne folly: for where they thought those walles had
bene adorned with siluer, they founde them cleane contrary. _Cortes_
deuided his men, caused his horses to be trimmed, and planted his
ordinaunce at his dore, making himselfe as strong as though he had bene
in campe and néere his enimies. And commaunded, that none of his men
shoulde goe out of the house without his expresse licence vpö payne of
death. The officers of the Lorde prepared a plenteous supper for them,
and beddyng according to their vse.

 The talke that the Lorde of Zempoallan
 _had with Cortez_.

The nexte day in the mornyng came the Lorde, to visite _Cortez_ with an
honorable company, and presented vnto him many garmëts wrought of Cottë
wolle, according to their fashion, with a knot on the shoulder like
vnto the Egiptian garments, and certaine iewels of golde that might
be worth two thousande Ducates, besechyng both him and his cöpany to
recreate themselues and take their reste, and at that present he meante
not to trouble him with any matters: And so tooke his leaue for that
time as he had done the day before, willing him to demaunde and call
for any thing that he should néede. _Cortez_ gaue him hartie thäks, and
so departed.

Then came moe _Indians_ in number than there were Spaniardes, with
their courses & seruice of meate ready dressed, and many boughes of
daintie fruits. In this sorte they were feasted & bäketed fiftene
daies most plëtuously. The next day folowyng, _Cortez_ sent vnto the
Spaniardes certaine olde garments of the Spanishe fashion, and many
other trifles, besechyng him to appoynt a day of conference at his
owne pallayce: worde was sent agayne that he was ready and very well
contented. Wherevpon _Cortez_ tooke with him fiftie of his men all
armed, and left the residue at his lodgyng in a good readinesse, and
appoynted an vnder Captayne to gouerne them. The Lorde hearing of
his comming, came out of his Courte into the streate to receyue him.
And hande in hand they entred togither into a lowe hall, whiche they
vse for the extremitie of heate in that countrey, the plotte that
they buylde vpon is raysed a fadome from the grounde, so that they
ascende vpon steppes, and the walles plaistered with very white lime,
their tile is eyther of straw or leaues of trées, very beautifull and
straungely wrought, and a good defence against the rayne. The Lorde and
_Cortes_ satte them downe vpon thrée footed stooles made all of one
péece, the Lorde commaunded his seruitours to stand aside, and by their
interpreters they began to commune of their affayres a great space, in
demaundes and answeres, bicause _Cortes_ desired to be well instructed
of the affayres of that countrey, and lykewise of that mightie kyng of

This _Cacike_ or Lord although he were huge and laden with fleshe,
yet in his demaundes and questions séemed very wise. The summe of all
_Cortes_ his talke was to shewe the cause of his comming thither, and
who had sente him, euen as he had done in _Tauasco_ to _Teudilli_ and

This _Cacike_ after he had heard _Cortes_ attentiuely, he began a long
communication, makyng his complaynt and opening his griefe in this

[Sidenote: The Indiäs complaynt.]

[Sidenote: Vnder colour of holinesse.]

Mightie Sir, my Antecessors liued a long tyme in great peace, libertie
and quietnesse, but of late yéeres my countrey and Cittie was destroyed
by tiranny, bycause the Lordes of _Mexico Tenuchtitlan_ with their men
of _Culhua_ did not only vsurpe my Citie, but also my lands by force of
armes, in suche sorte that my power coulde not resiste them. And in the
beginnyng those Princes beganne theyr vsurpation by way and colour of
religion and holinesse, and afterwardes with force of armes, and with
this title became Lordes ouer vs.

And nowe we seyng our errour, haue thought it to late to preuayle
agaynst them to take away our yoke of seruitude and bondage, although
we haue attempted it. And as often as we haue so done, still the
victorie was theyrs, and the ouerthrowe ours. Nowe all suche as doe
submitte themselues vnto them, are taxed with certayne tributes, and
reknowlegyng them for Lordes, are defended by them, and estéemed as
friendes. But if after such submission made, any chaunce to speake
agaynst them, or rebell, then they are terribly corrected, yea
murdered, and after Sacrifice made to the Goddes of warre, called
_Tezcatlipuca_ and _Vitzilopuchtli_ of theyr carkasses, then is theyr
fleshe eaten in banquet, and those who remayne alyue, doe serue for
slaues, yea and the Fathers, Mothers and Children, are compelled to
labour and toyle from the Sunne rising to the Sunne settyng, with
confiscation of all their goodes and landes. And besides all this
crueltie and vituperie, they sende theyr officers and Serieantes
to execute the premisses, who without eyther pittie or mercie many
tymes suffereth them to sterue with hunger. And beyng thus cruelly
punished of _Mutezuma_, who nowe raigneth in _Mexico_, who woulde not
suffer to bée Vassall willingly to so good a Prince as you enformed
me of the Emperour, although it were but onely to bée frée from suche
vexation and robbery whiche suche a mighty King coulde doe. And with
these wordes the teares gusshed out of his eyes, and pawsing a whyle,
he beganne to extoll the strength, magnificence and situation of
_Mexico_ planted in a greate lake of water: also he exalted the riches,
courte, Maiestie and mightie power of _Mutezuma_. Hée sayde also howe
_Tlaxcallan_, _Huexocinco_ and other prouinces thereaboute, as also the
people called _Totonaquez_ of the Mountaynes were of contrary opinion
to the _Mexicans_, yea enimies vnto them, who had intelligence what had
happened in _Tauasco_, Yea sir (quoth hée) if it please you, I will
treate suche a compact with this people that _Mutezuma_ with al his
power shall not preuayle agaynst vs.

_Cortes_ reioyced in harte to heare this newes, and sayde vnto him.
It grieueth mée to heare of the euill vsage of _Mutezuma_ towarde his
countrey and subiectes. But I assure you with Gods helpe I will deliuer
you, yea and reuenge all your iniuries, for my commyng hither is to
take away all euill customes, and to helpe the oppressed, to fauour the
prysoner, and comforte the afflicted, and chiefly to abolishe tyrannie.
And for the good entertaynement that I haue receyued at your handes, I
doe remayne yours to doe you any pleasure, and to defende you agaynst
your enimies, and the lyke will I doe for your friendes, wherefore I
pray you aduertise them thereof as many as are of our confederacie.

_Cortes_ then tooke hys leaue, saying that he had bene many dayes
there, and that he had greate néede to goe visite his shippes and
menne, who muche desired his returne, and abode in _Aquiahuiztlan_,
where hée meante to soiourne for a certayne season, and from thence
dayly they mighte conferre of their affayres. The Lorde of _Zempoallan_
sayde, that if it pleased hym to abyde with him hée woulde gladly
accept it, and if his businesse were suche that he might not, that then
he besought him to remember him.

[Sidenote: An other gifte.]

Then the Lorde commaunded eyght maydens to be called, who were very
well apparelled after theyr maner, theyr attyre was muche lyke the
_Morisca_ fashion, (the one of them was more costely apparelled than
the others) and sayde vnto _Cortes_, all these maydens whiche you here
sée are Gentlewomen, noble and riche, and this mayden whiche is beste
attired, is a Lady of Vassals, and my brothers daughter, I doe presente
hyr vnto you (meaning that _Cortes_ shoulde marrie with hyr,) and the
others you may bestow vpon the Gentlemen in your company, in a token of
perpetuall loue and friendship.

_Cortes_ receyued the presente with thankes, bycause he woulde not
offende the giuer thereof. And so departed with their women ridyng
behinde them, with many _Indian_ women to wayte vpon them, and many
_Indian_ men to beare them company, and to puruey all things necessarie.

 Things that happened to Cortez
 in _Chiauiztlan_.

The same day that they departed frö _Zempoallan_ they came to
_Chiauiztlan_, and yet the shippes were not arriued. _Cortes_ marueyled
at their long tarying in so shorte a iourney. Ther was a village within
shotte of a hargabushe from the rocke called _Chiauiztlan_ standyng
vpon a litle hill. _Cortes_ hauing little to do, went thither with his
men, and the _Indians_ of _Zempoallan_, who certified _Cortes_ that
the village was appertayning to a Lorde oppressed by _Mutezuma_. They
came to the foote of the hill, without sighte of any man of the towne,
excepte twoo, that _Marina_ vnderstoode not, and going vp the hill, the
horsemen to fauour their horses would alight, bicause the ascending
was cragged and euill way, _Cortes_ commaunded that they shoulde not
alight, bycause the _Indians_ shoulde thinke that there was no place
highe nor lowe, but that these horses shoulde and coulde come vnto it.
So by litle and litle they came into the towne, and finding no creature
there, they feared some deceyte, yet approchyng further, they mette
with twelue auncient men, whiche brought with them an interpreter who
vnderstoode the language of _Culhua_ and the speache of that place,
whiche is the language of the _Totonaquez_, or inhabitauntes of the
Mountaynes. These auncient menne declared that the cause of theyr goyng
out of the towne, was bycause that they had neuer séene anye such
men as the Spaniardes were, nor yet heard that any such had passed
that way, wherefore with feare they had fledde from thence. But (quoth
they) when the Lord of _Zempoallan_ aduertised vs, how you did hurt
no bodye, but rather being a people good and peaceable, then wee were
well assured who ye were, when we saw you come toward vs. And wee are
nowe comen vnto you on the behalfe of the Lorde, to bring you to your

_Cortez_ gaue them thankes, and went with them to a certaine place
where the Lord was abydyng their comming wel accompanyed: he shewed
vnto the Christians great good wil, and maruelled to sée those
straungers with their long beardes.

[Sidenote: A straunge salutation.]

The Lord toke a little chafyngdishe in his hande, and cast into
it a certaine gumme, whych sauoured in swéet smel much like vnto
frankinscence. And with a sencer he smoked _Cortez_ with this ceremony
they vse their salutations to theyr gods and nobilitie.

[Sidenote: A straunge hap.]

This done they set them down, and _Cortez_ enformed him of the cause
of their comming into that countrey as he had done in all other places
where he had bin.

The _Casike_ certifyed _Cortez_ euen as the Lord of _Zempoallan_
had done, but he stood in great feare least _Mutezuma_ should be
offended for receyuing and lodging him within that towne, without
his commaundement, and being in thys communication, sodenly appeared
twentye men entring where they sate, w^t certain wäds like cudgels in
their häds, which did signify y^t they were rent gatherers & in ech
other hand, a fly flap of feathers, the _Cacike_ & hys company were
soare afrayde. _Cortez_ demaunded wherefore he so altered himself, he
answered, bicause those twëty _Indians_ were collecters of _Mutezuma_,
and that he feared that they would complayne of him, hauing founde
those Christians there, he feared likewise cruell punishment for the
same. _Cortes_ comforted him, saying that _Mutezuma_ was his friende,
and that he would so vse the matter that he shoulde receyue no blame
at all, but rather that _Mutezuma_ shoulde giue him thankes for that
whiche he had done: And if _Mutezuma_ did not, or would not so accept
it, that then he would defend both him and his subiects, for (quoth
he) euery one of my më is sufficient for a thousand _Mexicans_, as
_Mutezuma_ himselfe was well enformed by the late warres at _Potonchan_.

Yet for and notwithstanding all this talke, the Lorde and all his folke
were in great feare, and meante to arise and to lodge the receyuers.
_Cortes_ woulde not suffer him, and bycause (quoth he) thou shalte sée
what I and my men can doe, commaund thy seruaunts to apprehend and take
prysoners these receyuers of _Mexico_, and I wil abide here with thée,
in such sorte that _Mutezuma_ with all his power shall not offende thée.

[Sidenote: The receyuers put in pryson.]

With the courage that he receyued at these wordes, he commaunded to lay
hande vpon the _Mexicans_, and bycause they defended themselues, they
were sore beaten, and layde euery one in a seuerall prison, and bounde
them to a great poste whereat they were tied by the throate, féete,
and handes, and beyng in this sorte imprysoned, they asked of _Cortes_
whether they should kill them. _Cortes_ requested that they should not
be slaine, but that they might remayne as they were, with good watch
that they might not escape: Then they were brought into a hall in the
Spaniardes lodging, and were placed rounde aboute a good fire, but yet
bounde hande and foote with garde of watchmen. _Cortes_ also appoynted
certaine of his men to watch the hall dore, and then went to his
lodging to supper, where he and his company was well prouided at the
_Caziks_ furniture.

 The messages sent by Cortez
 _vnto Mutezuma_.

[Sidenote: Pollicie.]

The nighte beyng farre spent, and the _Indians_ that kepte the watch
being asléepe, _Cortes_ sente vnto the Spanyardes that watched at the
hall dore where the prysoners were, and commaunded them to let goe twoo
of the prysoners, as secretly as they might, and to bring them vnto
him. The Spaniardes handled the matter so well, that they fulfilled his
desire, and brought twoo of them to _Cortes_ his chamber, who looked
vppon them as though he had not knowen them, and willed _Aguillar_
and _Maryna_ to demaunde who they were, and what they would haue, and
why they had bene in pryson. They answered, that they were vassals of
_Mutezuma_, and that they had the charge to receyue certayne tributes,
that those of that towne & prouince payde vnto their Lorde. And also
(quoth they) we know not for what cause we are nowe imprysoned and so
euelly vsed. We rather wöder to sée this new custome and madnesse,
for in time past these men were wont to méete vs and receiue vs with
great honour & curtesie, shewing all seruice and pleasure. Therefore
we thinke that the cause of this alteration is through the fauour of
you and your cöpany, who beare the name of immortalitie. We also feare
least our felowes which are in prison shal be slaine, before _Mutezuma_
haue knowlege therof. Also said they, these barbarous people dwelling
in the Mountaynes, would be glad to rebel if they foüd any succour
or ayde, only to put their Prince to cost and charges, as heretofore
they haue done. Therefore they moste humbly besought _Cortes_ that hée
shoulde not permitte them and their fellowes to be slaine, nor yet
to abide in the handes of their enimies wherein he should do singular
pleasure to _Mutesuma_ their lord, & otherwise if they should perish,
their Lord would be very sorowfull that his olde, faithful and trustie
seruaunts shoulde haue such a reward for their good seruice.

[Sidenote: A vvise Captaine.]

_Cortez_ aunswered that it grieued him much, that _Mutesuma_ his
friend should be misvsed wher he was, no nor yet his seruauntes euill
entreated, and that hee woulde haue as muche care ouer them as of his
owne, willing them to prayse the god of heauen, and to be thankful vnto
him that had commaunded them to be set at liberty, in the grace and
friendshippe of _Mutesuma_: he certifyed that in all haste they shoulde
be dispatched, for _Mexico_ with certaine busynesse therefore (quoth
he) get you to meate, and make you strög to take in hand that iourney,
trusting to your féete least ye should be taken againe to your greate
perill and daunger, Iwis their meate was soone eaten with the great
hast they had to be gone.

_Cortez_ brought them out of the towne and gaue them victuall to carry
with them. And charged for the liberty and curtesie shewed vnto them,
that they should signifye to _Mutesuma_ their Lorde, howe that he was
his assured friend, and that after he had vnderstanding of his fame,
goodnes and mighty power, he much desired to serue him yea and that
he helde himselfe happy, to fynde himselfe at such a time & season to
loose those his seruaunts, and to shew therin his good wil, likewyse
he woulde do all that lay in him to preserue the honour and auctority
of so gret a Prince as hee was, & also to defende his subiectes and to
loke to his affaires as his owne proper, although his highnesse dyd
little estéeme hys friendshippe as appeared by _Teudilli_, who departed
from him without bidding him farewell, and likewise absenting all the
people of the sea coaste: yet thys notwithstanding he would not let to
do him seruice at all times when occasion shoulde serue, and to procure
by all meanes possible his grace, fauour, and friendship, and that he
was fully perswaded, that his hyghnesse woulde not refuse his good will
and friendship, considering that with his acquaintance, God had done
much for him, to méete with a seruaunte of the Emperoures, for thereby
he might know great secretes of holy things, and also receyue greate
benefytes, if then he would refuse the same, the fault shoulde be his:
but yet notwithstanding he trusted in his wisedome, that considering
the thing well, he woulde be glad both to sée hym, and talke with him,
and also to be friende and brother with the King of _Spayne_, in whose
most happie name, both he and his company were come thither. And as
touching his seruauntes that remayned in prison, hée woulde so vse the
matter, that they should escape all perill, promising also to set them
at libertie to pleasure him, and that incontinente he woulde haue done
it, but onely bycause he woulde not offende the Lorde of the Towne,
who had friendly entertayned him with greate curtesie, for which cause
he would not presume to controll him in his owne house, nor yet to
shewe himselfe vnthankefull. The messengers departed with this message
very glad and ioyfull, promising to accomplishe faithfully y^e charge
committed vnto them.

 The confederacy and rebellion
 _done by the industrie of Cortez_.

VVhen the _Cazike_ founde missing the two prisoners, he blamed muche
the guarde or watch, and pretended forthwith to murther those that
remayned. Then came _Cortez_, and requested that their deathe shoulde
be pardoned, for so muche as they were but officers obediente to
their Lorde and maister, and according to iustice they had committed
no offence, nor yet deserued anye correction in the facte, whiche was
seruice to their King: but for so muche as they shall not flée as the
other two haue done, deliuer them vnto mee, and I will take them to my
custody and charge.

[Sidenote: Diuers opinions in counsell.]

Vpon this request the eyghtéene prisoners were delyuered vnto _Cortez_,
who sent them aboorde his Shyppes, and there commaunded them to be
put in yrons. The Lorde and his counsellors fearing what mighte
followe, entred into councell what was best to doe, consideryng that
they certaynely beléeued that the two prisoners whiche were escaped,
would certifie in _Mexico_ the shame and cruell entertaynemente done
vnto them. Some replyed that it was iust and requisite to sende vnto
_Mutezuma_ hys tribute, with other presentes, to mitigate hys anger,
and to excuse them, and accuse the Christians, who were the causes of
the apprehension of his officers, and to craue pardon of their erroure
and ouersighte whyche they hadde committed as madde men, in dishonor
of the maiestie of _Mexico_. Others aunswered agayne, that it were
muche better to cast off that yoke of bondage and slauery, and to
giue no longer obedience to the _Mexicans_, who were both cruell and
wicked tyrants, and also considering that now they had on their side
those halfe Gods, and inuincible horsemen, saying likewise that they
should not wante many others their neyghbours and borderers to help and
succour them.

In this sorte they resolued themselues fully to rebell, and not to lose
so good an occasion, wherevppon they besoughte _Hernando Cortes_ to bée
their defendor and Captayne, considering that for his sake they had
begun that enterprise, and whether _Mutezuma_ shoulde prepare hys army
againste them or no, yet they on their parte were fully pretended to
hold hym warre, and to desist from seruitude.

God knoweth how glad _Cortes_ was to heare this matter, for he well
wayed that it was the high way to hys iourneys ende: yet dissimuling
the cause, he aunswered that they should well looke to the thing which
they meant to take in hande, bycause (quoth he) I vnderstande that
_Mutezuma_ is a mightie Prince, but if ye will valiantly procéede, I
will be youre Captayne, and safely defende you, for I do more estéeme
your friendship, than the good will of _Mutezuma_, whyche I nothing
care for: therefore lette me knowe what number of men of warre yée
are able to make. Sir (quoth they) among all our friends wée are able
to make a hundred thousande menne of warre. I lyke that well quoth
_Cortez_, wherefore incontinente sende youre postes, with aduise vnto
all your friendes in league againste _Mutezuma_, and certifie them of
this agréemente and succoure of the Christians, not (quoth he) that I
stande in néede of your help, for I alone with my company are able to
stande againste those of _Culhua_, although they were as manye more,
but reason required that they shoulde be warned of your pretence, and
to be in readinesse for the same, fearing least _Mutezuma_ mighte sende
his army vpon a suddayne, and finde you vnprouided.

With this aduise and encouragement of _Cortez_, & also they themselues
being a people heady and of small consideratiö, they dispatched
incötinent their messëgers to all the Townes and Villages of neyghbours
and friendes, aduertising them what they hadde determined, exalting the
strangers aboue the cloudes.

And by this meanes rebelled many _Cazikes_ & townes, and all the whole
Mountaynes, so y^t there was not left any collector or other officer
of _Mexico_ in al those borders, with open proclamation of warres
againste _Mutezuma_, and all his adherentes.

_Cortez_ his intët was on the other side, to stirre vp these Indians,
to get both their goodes, willes, and landes, for otherwise, he could
not well bring his matter to passe: he only caused the officers of
_Mutezuma_, to be taken prisoners, and to be loused agayne, he fayned a
greate loue to _Mutezuma_, and stirred his subiectes agaynste him, he
offered to be their defendor, and lefte them rebelled, to the intent
that they should stand in néede of him.

 The foundation of the riche
 _Towne called Vera Crux_.

At this instant the Fléete was arriued at the port, then wente _Cortez_
to visit them, and carried with him many _Indians_ of the Rebels, both
of that Towne, and also of _Zempoallan_, who did good seruice to cutte
downe timber, and to carrie stones to the place appoynted, for the
building of the Citie, named the riche towne of _Vera Crux_, accordyng
to the determination, when the officers were appoynted for the same,
and chosen in S. _Iohn de Vlhua_, and in good order made repertition to
the inhabitants of the ground, and plottes to builde vpon.

[Sidenote: Embassadors.]

They appoynted also a place for the high Churche, a Market place, a
Towne house, a Gayle, store houses, a kay or Wharfe, to lade or vnlade,
a butcher row, & other places necessary to the good gouernement and
pollicie of a Towne. They also drew out a plot to build the Castel or
Fort on, néere the roade in a place conueniente, and in this sort began
theyr worke, and their houses made with mudwall, for the earth there is
good for that purpose. And euery man being this occupyed in this new
worke, came from _Mexico_ two kinsmen of _Mutezuma_, with other four
graue learned menne for Councellors, and many seruing men that attended
vppon them, as Ambassadors from _Mutezuma_, they presented vnto
_Cortez_ certayne cloth of Cotten well wouen, and feathers curiously
and fynely wroughte, other péeces of golde and siluer wrought, and
a Casket of graynes of golde, as they were founde in the Mynes not
molten, which wayed altogyther two thousand & ninetie Castlins, & sayd,
y^t _Mutezuma_ hadde sente hym the golde in the Casket, to cure theyr
disease, and woulde gladly knowe howe they fared, giuing also vnto him
most hartie thankes, for loosing his two housholde seruauntes, and
preseruing the others from slaughter, besiechying hym to make accompte,
that hée woulde doe the lyke in anye affayres of his, desiring hym
also to procure the libertie of the other eyghtéene Prisoners: and
bycause those _Indians_ hadde entertayned hym well in their houses, he
did pardon their vprore, yet notwithstanding he knewe very well that
they were suche a kynde of people, that in shorte space they woulde
committe some other offences, whereby they myght bée chastned for all
togyther, euen as a Dogge deserueth stripes. And as concernyng the rest
of hys request, theyr Lorde was not well at ease, and also occupyed in
matters of warre of greate importance, whereby at that presente, there
was no remedie to visit eache other, but in processe of tyme his desire
shoulde be accomplished.

_Cortez_ welcommed them friendly and ioyfully, and also lodged them in
Cotages néere vnto the water side, and sent forthwith for the Lorde
of _Chiautztlan_, that had rebelled, who came at his commandement.
_Cortez_ sayd vnto him, lo sée what troth I haue vsed with thée, for
_Mutezuma_ dareth not to send any army, no nor yet displease anye
person where I am. Therefore from this daye forwarde you and all youre
lignage and friendes maye accompte your selues frée and exempt from
the seruitude of _Mexico_, without rendryng the tributes accustomed.
He requested to set at libertie the prisoners, and to restore thë
to the Ambassadors of _Mutezuma_. Thys _Cazike_ wylled _Cortez_ to
doe what pleased him, for sayde he, euen as wée haue chosen you for
oure Captayne, we will not excéede one iote of youre commaundemente:
wherevppon hée returned home to his towne, and the Ambassadors toward
_Mexico_, all well pleased and content.

Nowe fame flew abroade, blasing that _Mutezuma_ feared the Christians,
wherevpon all the _Totonaques_ prepared themselues for the warres,
taking cleane awaye from _Mexico_ their tribute and obedience.

The Ambassadors departed from _Cortez_ with theyr prisoners, and manye
other things that were giuen thë, of linnen, wollen, skynnes, glasse,
and yron, being greately amazed at the things which they had séene.

 Hovv Cortez tooke by force of
 _armes Tizapansinca_.

Not long after that these things had happened, the _Indians_ of
_Zempoallan_ sente vnto _Cortes_, to desire him of succour against the
garrisö of _Culhua_, which _Mutezuma_ mainteyned in _Tizapansinca_,
who did greately anoy them, in spoyling, burning, and destroying
theyr corne in the fieldes, and slew their husbandmen, and toke
many prisoners. The Towne of _Tizapansinca_ doth confine with the
_Totonaquez_, and with the grounde of _Zempoallan_, and is a good
strong Towne, scituated néere the Riuer, and hath a fort standing vpon
a high rocke. And bycause this Towne was strong, and planted among
them who were alwayes seditious and Rebelles, _Mutezuma_ placed there
his garrison, who séeyng the officers of receyuers and auditors come
flying thyther for helpe, béeyng persecuted of the Rebels, they wente
out to pacifie the Rebellion, and for to chasten them, they burned and
destroyed whatsoeuer they found, and also had taken many prisoners.

_Cortez_ hearing this newes, departed towarde _Zempoallan_, and from
thence in two dayes iourney with a greate armye of _Indians_ to
_Tizapansinca_, which stoode eyghte leagues and more from that Citie.

The garrison of _Culhua_ came into the fielde, thinkyng to haue hadde
battayle onely with those of _Zempoallan_, but when they saw the
Horsemen and the bearded men, they lost theyr courage, and beganne to
flye as fast as they myghte possible: theyr succoure béeyng néere, they
were soone in holde: they woulde haue entred into theyr Castell, but
for y^e swiftnesse of the Horses which stopped theyr way.

[Sidenote: The valiant courage of Cortez.]

And when the Horses coulde not ascende vp vnto the forte, _Cortes_
alighted with other foure of hys men, and among the preasse of the
Townesmen gote into the forte, and béeyng within, they kept the dore
tyll theyr companye came wyth manye friendes, vnto whome hée delyuered
the forte and Towne, desiring to do no hurte to the inhabitantes,
but to suffer them to depart fréely without weapon and standerde. It
was a newe worlde to those _Indians_, who did fulfyll _Cortes_ hys
commaundemente in all poyntes. Thys done, _Cortez_ returned agayne to
the Sea coast, by the same way whiche hée hadde come.

This was the firste victory that _Cortes_ had among the subiectes
of _Mutezuma_, whereby all the Mountaynes remayned frée from the
vexations of the _Mexicans_, and all our men with great fame and
reputation, as well among their friendes, as among their enimies, in so
much that afterwardes when any neede did happen among the _Indians_,
they would immediately sende vnto _Cortes_ for one of his men, saying,
that one man alone of the Chrystians, was sufficient to be their
Captayne and securitie.

Thys was a good begynnyng for the pretence of _Cortes_. Now when he
came to _Vera Crux_ wyth hys company triumphantly, he founde there
_Francisco de Salzeda_, who was come with his caruell which he had
boughte of _Alonso Cauallero_, a dweller in _Saint Iames de Cuba_,
and was left there to be grounded and dressed at his departure from
thence. He brought with him .70. Spanyardes, and nine Horses and Mares,
wherewith they all maruellously reioyced.

 The presents that Cortez sent to
 _the Emperour for his fifte_.

_Cortez_ made greate hast in building vp the new town and the Castell,
bycause the Citizens and souldiers mighte haue succoure againste winde
and rayne, and commoditie of householde, and lykewise to bée assured of
defence against enimies if néede shoulde happen, pretending lykewise
with all expedition, to enter within the land toward _Mexico_, to visit
_Mutezuma_, and to leaue in that newe worke all thing in good order, he
finished many thinges, touching as well the peace as the warre.

He commaunded to be brought a lande out of his shippes all the armour
& other furniture for the warres, with the Merchandise, victuall and
other prouision, and to deliuer it to the rulers of the newe Cittie,
accordyng to his promisse. He also signified vnto all his company that
it was méete and conuenient, to sende relation to the Kyng of all theyr
proceedings and dealings in that countrey, with demonstration of Golde
and Siluer there founde.

And (quoth he) to deale vprightly in this case, it is necessary to
deuide equally our treasure to euery man his portion, accordyng to the
vse of the warres, the deuision beyng made, then firste and principally
lette vs deduct the Kings fifte parte. And for the better performance
therof, I doe name and appoynt _Alounso de Auila_ Treasurer for the
King, and also I doe elect _Gonsalo Mexia_ Treasurer of the armie.

All the newe Magistrates ratified his sayings, and allowed his
discretion and wisedome, praysing the election of the newe officers as
men moste méete for suche an office, and besought them to accept theyr

This diligence done, he commaunded to bring foorth into the markette
place all the goodes and treasure which they had gotten, as well cloth
of Cotten, Feathers, Golde, and Plate, whiche mought amount vnto in
valew the summe of .27000. Ducates: The same he caused to be delyuered
vnto the newe elected treasorers by account, requestyng the whole
counsell of the Cittie that they shoulde make deuision thereof. The
counsellours and communaltie replyed, saying: Sir here is nothing to
deuide, for deductyng the fifte parte whiche appertayneth to the King,
all the reste shall be to make payment for the furniture whiche you
prepared for this voyage, and you beyng satisfied, then the shippes,
munition and furniture shall serue in common for vs all, beséeching
him with one assent to take all the treasure, and to sende vnto the
kings maiestie his portion or fifte parte, euen as shoulde séeme most
conuenient vnto him.

[Sidenote: Liberalitie of Cortez.]

_Cortes_ replied and sayde, that time hereafter shoulde serue to pay
him according to their gentle offer: But for this present time my
louyng felowes (quoth he) I will receyue no more than the share or
portion that appertayneth vnto my office of generall Captayne, and all
the residue shal be for the Gentlemen of my company, wherewith yée may
beginne to make payment of your debtes, whiche ye ought when ye made
your prouision to come with me on this voyage.

And where I haue appoynted certayne things to send to the King, of
more value than his fifte parte, it mighte please them, for as muche
as they were suche things as coulde not be well deuided, and likewyse
the firste fruite of that Conquest, fréely to giue him libertie to vse
his discretion in that onely poynt. They al in generall graunted to his
request, wherevpon he tooke out of the stocke, these things followyng.


 Firste the twoo whéeles of Golde and siluer, whiche _Heudilli_
 presented vnto him on the behalfe of _Mutezuma_.

 A coller of golde of eight péeces, whereat hanged a hüdreth and
 four score and thrée little Emeraldes, and twoo and thirtie little
 redde stones, lyke vnto Rubies, of small value: there hanged at
 the same coller seauen and twentie little belles of Golde, and
 certayne heads of pearle.

 Another coller of foure doubled twiste, with a hundreth and twoo
 Rubies, and a hundreth and seuentie and twoo Emeraldes, and tenne
 good pearles well sette, and for border or fringe sixe and twentie
 belles of golde: both those collers were beautifull to beholde,
 and had many other fine thyngs wrought in them, than is here

 Many graynes of golde of the bignesse of a pease, euen as they
 were founde.

 A Casket of graynes of golde of the same sorte.

 A Helmet of woodde champed with golde and besette with stones, and
 at the beuier fiue and twentie belles of golde, and vpon the toppe
 a gréene birde, with his eyes, beake, and féete of golde.

 A sallet of planches of golde, and belles rounde aboute it, decked
 with stone.

 A bracelet of golde of small weight.

 A rodde lyke vnto a roiall Scepter, with twoo rings of golde
 hangyng thereat, garnished with pearle.

 Foure forkes with thrée shepehookes at ech, couered with feathers
 of sundry colours.

 Many payres of shoes made of Déere skinnes, sowed with golde
 thréede, and in the soales were sette certayne stones of colour
 white and blewe whiche shyned fayre.

 Sixe payre of letherne shoes of diuers colours, garnished with
 golde, siluer, and pearle.

 A Targatte of woodde couered with leather, beset round about with
 belles of Latton, and the bosse in the midst was planched with
 gold, and there was engraued vpon the same _Vitsilopucthli_, God
 of the warres, and also foure heads set crossewise, whiche heades
 were of a Lion, a Tigre, an Eagle, and an Owle, verye liuely made
 with feathers.

 Many skinnes of beast and foule, curried and dressed in their
 feathers and in haire.

 Foure and twenty targets of gold feathers, and set with pearle
 both curious and gallant to behold.

 Fiue Targets of feathers and siluer.

 Foure fishes of gold wel wrought.

 Two birdes called Auades, and other birdes of gold.

 Certaine Hatchets and a rod of latten.

 Diuerse loking glasses garnished with gold.

 Many Myters and crownes of gold & feathers wrought of many colours
 beset with pearle and stone.

 Many faire feathers of sundry colours.

 Many tuffes of feathers adorned with siluer and gold.

 A garment like a coape of cotten, wouen of sundry coulours, and in
 the middest a blacke whele made of feathers.

 Many surplices, vestments, palles, frontals and ornaments of Idols
 alters and temples.

 Many couerlets of cotten of diuerse colours, whyche shewed like
 vnto vnshorne veluet.

 Manye shirtes, Iackettes, headclothes and other naperie.

 Many Carpets and hangings of cotten.

Al these things wer more beautiful than rich, although the whéeles were
very rich, the workmanshippe of al the rest, was more worth than the
thing it selfe. The colours of the cloth of cotten wool was excéeding
fine, and the fethers natural.

[Sidenote: Straunge Paper.]

The pounced worke in gold and siluer did excéed our goldsmithes, of
whiche things we wil write in an other place. They ioyned with this
present certaine _Indian_ bookes of figures which serue to their vse
for letters: these bookes are folden like vnto clothes, and written
on both sides. Some of these bookes were made of cotten & glewe, and
others were made of leaues of a certaine trée called Melt, whyche serue
for theyr paper, a thyng straunge to behold.

At that time the _Indiäs_ of _Zempoallan_ had many prisoners to
sacrifice. _Cortez_ demaunded them to send vnto the Emperour, but the
_Indians_ desired him to pardon them, for if we so do (quoth they) we
shall offend our gods, who will take awaye our corne and children from
vs, yea and also our liues in so doing.

Yet notwithstanding, _Cortez_ tooke foure of them, and two women which
were al yong and lustie.

But it was very strange to sée those that shold be sacrificed, how they
wer trimmed and deckt with feathers, and went dauncing through the
Cittie, asking almes for their sacrifice & death. It was also strange
to sée the offerings y^t were giuen thë. They had at their eares
hanging rings of gold beset with turkie stones, & likewise other rings
at their lippes, whiche shewed their téeth bare, a griesely sight to
sée, but yet estéemed among them a thing beautifull.

 Letters from the army and magistrates of
 _the new towne directed to the Emperour_.

VVhen this present and fift part was layde aside for the king, _Cortez_
required the magistrats to name and appoint two atturnyes, to carry the
Emperors portion vnto Spayne. And that he for his part wold giue vnto
them his full power, and letter of attourneye, with also one of his
beste Shippes for that voyage.

The Counsell of the newe towne chose _Alounso Fernandez Portocarero_,
and _Francisco de Monteio_ for that iourneye: whereof _Cortez_ was
verye glad, and gaue them _Antonio de Alominos_ for their pilot, with
golde and plate sufficiente for tourne and retourne of the voyage.
_Cortez_ gaue them instructions, what they shoulde doe particularlye
for hym, in the Courte of Spaine as also in Ciuil, and the towne where
he was borne. Hee sente to his Father and Mother certaine money, with
newes of his prosperitye: hee sente also with them the ordinaunces and
actes instituted, and wrote by them a large letter to the Emperour,
in the whiche hee gaue full aduertisemente of all things whyche hadde
passed from the time of his departure from the Ilande of _Cuba_ vntil
that day, and of the discord betwéene hym and _Iames Valasques_, and
of their greate traueyle and paynes, with the greate good will whiche
they all bare vnto hys royall seruice: hee certified likewise of the
riches of that countreye, with the maiestie and power of _Mutezuma_.
Hee offered to bring in subiection vnto his royall Crown and state of
Castil, al that Empire, & to winne also the greate Citie of _Mexico_,
and to bring that mightie king _Mutezuma_ to his handes quicke or deade.

Beséeching the Emperours maiestie to haue hym in remembraunce when
offices and prouisions shoulde bee sente vnto that newe Spayne latelye
discouered at hys great costes, and in recompence of hys paines and

The Counsell and magistrates of _Vera Crux_ wrote also two letters to
the Emperour, the one was touching the successe of their procéedings in
his royall seruice. In that letter, went onely the Aldermens firmes,
and Iudges.

[Sidenote: A good protestatiö.]

The other letter was firmed by the generalitye and chiefest of the
army, the contentes whereof was in substance, that they would holde and
kepe that towne and countrey wonne, in his royall name, or ende theyr
lyues in the quarrel, if his maiestie did not otherwise determyne.

They also moste humblye besought him, that the gouernement thereof, and
of al that hereafter shoulde bee conquered, might be giuen to _Hernädo
Cortez_ their guide, generall captaine, and chiefe Iustice by them
electe and chosen, saying, that wel he had deserued the same, for that
he alone spent more than the whole army vpon that iourney. And that
it might please his maiesty to confirm that, which they generally of
fréewill had done for theyr owne safegard and securitye, in the name of
his royall maiestie.

And if by chaunce his maiestie had already giuen the sayde office of
gouernement to any other person, that it might please him to reuoke it.

For so should it be expedient for his seruice, and quietnesse of the
countrey. And thereby might be excused, rumours, slanders, perils, and
slaughters, that myght ensue, if any other should gouerne and rule as
captaine general.

And moreouer they besoughte hys maiestie to graunte them aunswere with
breuity, and good dispatch of theyr attourneys, who departed from the
porte of _Aguiahuistlan_ in a reasonable shippe the twenty sixe day of
July, _Anno_ .1519.

They touched by the way at _Marien_ a port of _Cuba_, declaring that
they went to _Hauana_: they passed through the chanell of _Bahama_
without disturbaunce, and sayled with a prosperous winde, till they
arriued in Spayne.

The cause why the generaltye had written these letters was, suspecting
_Iames Velasques_, who had frends and great fauour in the Court and
counsel of _Indias_, and also some secrete friendes in _Cortez_ his
campe. For _Francisco Salzeda_ brought newes that _Iames Velasques_ had
already obteyned a graunt of the Emperor for the gouernment of that
land by the meanes of one _Benito Martinez_ going into Spayne. And
although they knew not the certainty thereof, yet it was most true, as
shal appeare in another place.

 An vproare among the souldiers against
 _Cortez, and the punishment for the same_.

There wer some in the host y^t murmured against the election of
_Cortez_, for thereby was excluded _Iames Valasques_, vnto whö they
bare good wil.

Some were _Valasques_ friends, and other some his kinesfolkes, who
letted not to say openly, that _Cortez_ by flattery, sutteltie and
giftes had gotten and obtayned his purpose.

[Sidenote: Mischefe.]

[Sidenote: Tvvo hanged, and tvvo whipped.]

And that the dissymulation in makyng hym selfe to bee entreated and
prayed to accepte that charge and office, was a thing craftily fayned,
whereby suche election coulde not bee of anye value, and chieflye
without any such authority of the Ierome Friers dame, who ruled and
gouerned the _Indians_ as chiefe presidents: how muche more they hadde
newes that _Iames Velasques_ had already obteyned the gouernement of
that land, and _Yucatan_. Then _Cortez_ began to vnderstande in those
matters, and made informatiö who had raysed vp this rumoure, and béeing
knowen, he apprehended the chiefest, and sent them prisoners aboorde
his Ship: and to molifye their wrath, he shortly releassed them agayne,
the which afterwards was cause of more mischief, for these his enimies
woulde haue fledde with a Vergantine and killed the maister, pretending
to flye vnto the Ilande of _Cuba_, for to aduertise _Iames Velasques_
of the great present sent vnto the Emperour, to the intent it shoulde
be taken from their attorners passing néere the porte of _Hauana_, with
all the letters and relations of their businesse, bycause the Emperoure
shoulde not sée it, to conceyue well of their procéedings. Then
_Cortez_ began to be agréeued in earnest, and apprehended diuers of
them, whose confessions being taken, the matter was manifestly knowen
to be true, and therevppon according to the processe, hée condemned
those that were most culpable, and caused forthwith two of them to
be hanged, who were _Iohn Escudero_, and _Iames Cermenio_ pilot, and
condemned _Gonsalo de Vmbria_ and _Alonso Penate_ to be whipped, and
incontinent execution was done, all the rest being pardoned.

With this correction _Cortez_ was more feared, and also estéemed, than
before he was, for certainely if he hadde vsed gentlenesse, he should
neuer haue tamed them, yea and if he had not loked to them in time,
he had bin spoyled: for their pretence was, to haue aduertised _Iames
Velasques_, who would haue preuented them of their Shyps and present,
and yet afterwarde he sente a Caruell after the sayd Ship, although it
were too late.

 Cortez caused all his Shippes to be
 _sunke, and broken vpon the shore, a most worthy facte_.

[Sidenote: A famous facte.]

_Cortez_ purposed to goe vnto _Mexico_, and would not gyue his
Souldyers to vnderstand it, bycause they shoulde not refuse the
iourney, through the talke of _Teudilli_, especially hearing that the
Citie of Mexico was situated vpon water, whyche they imagined to be
excéeding strong, as in effect it was: and to the intent that they
should all follow hym, although againste their willes, he determined
to spoyle all his Shyppes, which was a strange case, perillous, and a
great losse. His intent throughly weyed, he little estéemed the losse
of his Shippes to withstand his men from disturbance of his enterprise,
for doubtlesse they woulde haue stayed him, yea and rebelled, if they
hadde knowen his minde and pretended purpose. He did secretly accord
with one of the Maisters of hys Fléete in the nighte season to bore
holes in them, that thereby they myghte synke, wythoute anye remedie to
recouer them agayne.

Also he requested the other Maisters and Pylots to publish among the
army, that the Shyppes were so rotten and wormeaten, that they were not
fytte to goe to sea agayne, and that they shoulde, when they chanced
to espye him and many of his Souldies togither, come and certifie him
openly of the estate and force of the sayde Shippes, bycause that
afterwardes they shoulde not laye any fault to his charge.

According to this instruction, the Pylots and Maisters did accomplish
his commaundemente: for shortlye after they espyed him among a flocke
of his companye, and then came they vnto him, saying: Sir, your nauie
is not to make any moe voyages, by reason that they are all leake, and
spoyled, rotten, and worme eaten, wherfore according to our duetie, we
do certifie you thereof, to prouide therein as you shall see cause.
All the Souldiers gaue credite to their tale, bycause the Shippes had
bin there more than thrée monethes. And after long talke aboute the
matter, _Cortez_ commaunded that they shoulde profite themselues of
them the best that they myght, and as for the Hulles, let them sinke
or runne a shore, fayning great sorrow for so great a losse, and want
of such prouision. And in this manner they lette runne a shore fyue of
the best Shyppes, sauyng theyr Ordinance, vittayles, sayles, Cables,
Ankers, ropes, and all other tacle: and shortely after they spoyled
other foure vessels, but that was done wyth some difficultie, bycause
they beganne to surmise the intente of _Cortez_, and beganne openly to
saye, that _Cortes_ meant to carrie them to the slaughter house. He
then pacifyed them wyth gentle wordes, saying, what is he that will
refuse the warres in so riche a Countrey? if there be any of you that
wyll leaue my companye, hée or they may (if please them) returne to
_Cuba_ in a Shyppe that yet remayneth. And this hée spake, to knowe
howe many were the cowards, meanyng in tyme of néede to haue no trust
or confidence in them. Then dyuers shamelesse persons demaunded licence
to returne to _Cuba_, but they were suche as loued no warres. There wer
also others that said nothing, who woulde gladly haue retourned, séeyng
the greatenesse of the Countrey, and the multitude of the people, but
yet they were ashamed to shewe cowardise openlye.

_Cortez_ knowing his souldyers mindes, commanded the other Ship to
be sunke, so that then they were all without hope to goe out of
that Countrey at y^t time, exalting and praysing the noble minde
of _Cortes_ shewed in that worthy facte. Certaynely it was a déede
necessary for the present time, and done by the iudgement of a stout
Captayne, although he lost much by his Shyppes, and abode without
succour of the sea. There are few of these examples, which are not of
valiant personages, as was _Omiez Barbaroza_ with the cut arme, who
a few yeares past brake seauen Galleys and Foystes, to winne thereby
_Bugia_, as largely I do write thereof in battayles of y^e sea in our

 Hovv the inhabitants of Zempoallan
 _brake downe their Idolles_.

[Sidenote: Nevves for Cortez.]

Euery day séemed long to _Cortes_, with the desire to sée _Mutezuma_.
He nowe began to publishe openly his iourney and departure, and chose
out of the body of his host a hüdred and fiftie më, which he thought
sufficient to leaue for safegard of the new towne and fort, which
was almost finished, and appoynted _Pedro de Hircio_ their Captaine,
leauing with them two Horses, and two small péeces of Ordinance, wyth
many _Indians_ to serue them, and fiftie Townes round about them in
faithfull friendship and league, out of the which Townes they might
alwayes haue at their néede fiftie thousande men of warre: and he
departed with the residue of his Spanyardes towarde _Zempoallan_,
whyche mighte be foure leagues from thence, and was scarcely come to
the Towne, when newes was broughte hym that foure Shippes of _Francisco
Garray_ sayled along hys coast, and were in sight of _Vera Crux_.
With this newes he returned incontinent with a hundred of his men,
suspecting euill of those Shippes. At his comming to _Vera Crux_, his
Captaine there enformed him how he had gone himselfe to know what they
were, and from whence they came, and what they would, but coulde speake
with none of them. _Cortes_ beyng informed how they roade at anker,
toke Captaine _Hircio_ and certaine of his company to expect their
commyng ashore, suspectyng them muche, bicause they roade so farre off,
being by signes and tokens willed to come into the Harbor. _Cortes_
hauing wandered neare thrée miles, mette with thrée Spaniardes whiche
came from the shippes, the one of them sayde that he was a Notary, and
the other twoo were to serue for witnesses in their affayres, which
was, to ascite and notifie certaine wrytings, whiche they shewed not:
and also to require _Cortes_ by vertue of the same, to come and make
repartitiö of that countrey with captayne _Garay_ their generall, for
theyr sayd Captaine pretended that conquest (as first discouerer of the
same,) certifying moreouer that hée was determined to inhabite twentie
leagues distät from that place Westwarde neare vnto _Nahutlan_, whiche
nowe is called _Armeria_. _Cortes_ answered, that they should returne
vnto their shippes, and to will theyr Captayne to come to _Vera Crux_
with his nauie, and there they woulde commune togither aboute his
comming, and if he stoode in néede of any thing it shoulde be prouided.
And if it were (as they reported) that he was comen on the Kings
affaires, he woulde gladly fauour his procéedings, considering that
he and all his were there in seruice of his highnesse, how muche more
beyng all of one nation.

They answered, that in no wise their captaine nor none of his army
would come ashore, nor yet come where as _Cortes_ was. With this
answere _Cortes_ vnderstood the matter, and layde holde of them, and
went and placed himself in ambushe behinde a little hill of sande,
whiche stoode right ouer agaynst the shippes, beyng neare sunne sette,
& slepte there that night till daye approched, and the mornyng farre
spent, hopyng that _Garay_ his Pilote or some of his company woulde
come ashore, meanyng likewise to apprehende them for to be certified
what course they had made, and what hurte they had done, and findyng
them guiltie, to sende them prysoners into Spayne, likewise he desired
to knowe whether they had spoken with any vassals of _Mutezuma_, and
seyng they came not a lande his suspition was the greater.

[Sidenote: A vvise practise.]

_Cortes_ commaunded thrée of his men to chaunge apparell with the thrée
messengers that came from _Garay_, and this done, caused them to goe
to the Sea side, wauyng with theyr clokes, and callyng for the shippe
boate, nowe those of the shippes thought by theyr apparell that they
were their owne menne, and came with a dozen persons in the skiffe with
Crossebowes and Handgunnes. Then _Cortes_ his men whiche were clothed
in other mens garments hidde themselues among bushes, as who woulde
say, they were gone into the shadowe, for to flée from the great heate
of the Sunne, being at that time highe noone, and bicause they should
not be knowen.

The Mariners of the skiffe set a lande twoo men with Hargabushes, and
other two më with Crossebowes, and and _Indian_ who went straight way
to the bushes, thinkyng to finde their fellowes. Then stept forth
_Cortes_ and caught them before they coulde gette aborde the skiffe,
although they meant to haue defended themselues, so that one of them
who was a Pilote, hauing his Hargabushe ready charged, & would haue
shot at captaine _Hircio_, & assuredly if his match and pouder had bene
good he had slayne him. When the general aborde the ships perceiued
this deceit, would abide no longer, & cömaunded to make saile, not
tarying for his skiffe. By these seuen më taken at two times _Cortes_
was satisfied, & also certified how captain _Garay_ had sayled along
the coast séeking _Florida_, and arriued in a riuer, the King of that
prouince was called _Panuco_, where they founde little golde, barteryng
aborde their shippes, all theyr golde passed not thrée thousande
Castelins, but in exchaunge of things of small value, nothing contented
_Garay_ on that voyage, bycause the quantitie of golde was small and
not fine.

With this newes _Cortes_ returned to _Zempoallan_ with his men which
he brought in his company: and there concluded and fully agreed with
those _Indians_ to pull downe theyr Idols & sepulchres of their
_Cassikz_, whiche they did reuerence as Gods, perswading them to
worship the God of heauen. And after this doctrine their league of
friendship was effectually established, and with other townes adioyning
against _Mutezuma_. Those _Indians_ gaue vnto him gagues to be alwayes
faithfull of worde & promisse, and offered vnto him as many men fitte
for warre & seruice as he would require. _Cortes_ receiued the gagues
which were of the principallest persons of the townes, as _Mamexi
Teuch_, and _Tamalli_, he tooke also a thousand _Tamemes_, that is to
say, men that are carriars, who ordinarily taketh his burden vpon his
backe which is halfe a hundred waight, and those fellowes followe the
campe with their bagge & bagage: These men serued for horses to draw
the ordinance, and to carrie other munition and victuals.

 Hovv Olintlec exalted the mightie
 _power of Mutezuma_.

_Cortes_ departed frö _Zempoallan_, leauing that towne named
_Siuillia_, towarde _Mexico_ the sixtene day of August of the same
yéere, with 400. Spaniardes and fiftene horses, & sixe péeces of
ordinance, and 1300. _Indians_ w^t the carriers & më of _Cuba_. And
whë _Cortes_ departed frö _Zempoallan_ he had not one vassall of
_Mutezuma_ in his campe to leade them the way towarde _Mexico_, for al
were fledde, seing the new league, or else by commaundement of their
Lord, and the _Indians_ of _Zempoallan_ knew not well the way.

The first thrée dayes iourney the army passed through countrey of
their friendes, and were louingly receyued and lodged, especially
in _Xalapan_. The fourth day they came to _Sicuchimatl_, whiche is
a strong place situated on a hill side very craggy, and the way to
passe therevnto is made with force of mans hande as a stayre. And
if the inhabitants thereof would haue resisted the entraunce, with
greate difficultie bothe footemen & horsemen mought haue entred the
towne, but as afterwarde appeared, they were commaunded by _Mutezuma_
to lodge them and also to honour them. The rulers of that towne sayde
to _Cortes_, that for as muche as he wente to visite their Prince
_Mutezuma_, he should assure himselfe that they were and would be his
friendes. This towne hath many villages and farmes beneath in the
playne, for _Mutezuma_ was alwayes prouided there of .5000. men of

_Cortes_ gaue great thankes to the Lorde for his curtesie and good
entertaynement, muche estéeming the good will of his Lorde _Mutezuma_,
and so departed from thence, and wente to passe ouer a mountayne very
high, the passage whereof he named _Nombre de dios_, bycause it was
the first that he had passed, beyng so asperous and highe, that there
is none suche in all Spayne, for it conteyned directly vpright thrée
leagues, and hath in many places grapes and trées with hony. And
discendyng downe on the other side of that hill, they came to a towne
called _Theuhixuacan_, whiche is a forte and friende to _Mutezuma_,
where our army was receyued and entertayned as in the other towne

[Sidenote: Troubles.]

And from thence he traueled thrée dayes in a countrey inhabitable,
and passed some necessitie of hunger, & much more of thirst, bicause
all the water that they founde was saltishe, and many of his men for
wante of other dranke thereof, whereof they fell into sickenesse: and
sodainely fel a meruaylous Hayle with great colde, whiche increased
their griefe, yea and the _Indians_ of their company thought there to
ende theyr liues, & some of the _Indians_ of _Cuba_ died there through
nakednesse, not being accustomed to so cold a countrey. After the
fourth iourney of euill way they ascended vp an other hil, and vpon the
toppe therof, (to their iudgement) they founde a thousande carte loade
of wood ready cut, neare to a little tower of idolles: they named that
place the porte of wood: & hauing passed twoo leagues from the porte
of wood, they founde the countrey barren and poore, but soone after
the army came to a place whiche they named white Castell, bicause the
Lordes house was of stone very white and newe, and the beste that they
had séene in all that countrey, and so curiously wrought, that they
meruayled thereat: that towne in their language is called _Zaclotan_,
and the valley neare vnto it is name _Zacatami_, and the Lordes name
is _Olintlec_, who receyued _Cortes_ honorably, and prouided for him
and his company abundantly, being so commaunded by _Mutezuma_, as hée
reported afterwarde.

[Sidenote: A straunge ioy.]

And in token that he had receyued that cömission from his Lorde, he
commaunded fiftie men to be sacrificed for ioy, whose bloud they sawe
newe and freshe. The townes men of that towne caried the Spanyardes
on their shoulders, on suche beares as we carry dead men to Churche.
_Cortes_ enformed them (by his enterpreters) of the cause of his
comming into that countrey, as he had vsed in other places, & demaunded
whether he the Lorde of this towne were tributary to _Mutezuma_. This
_Cazike_ being amazed at his question, answered, saying: What is he
that is not eyther slaue or vassall to the great _Mutezuma_. Then
_Cortes_ certified him, who and what the Emperour king of Spayne was,
willing him to be his friend and seruitour, & further enquired if he
had any golde to sende him some. This _Cazike_ answered that he would
do nothing without the commaundement of his Lorde, nor yet send his
king any golde although he had inough. _Cortes_ dissimuled the matter,
and helde his peace, yet by and by he desired to knowe the Maiestie and
mightie power of _Mutezuma_, the _Cazike_ answered, that _Mutezuma_
was Lorde of the whole worlde, and that he had thirtie Vassals who
were able to make a .100000. men of warre: eche one of them he also
certified that he sacrificed .20000. men yerely to his Goddes: And also
his dwellyng was in the most beautyfullest and strongest cittie of
al that euer was enhabited, likewise (quoth he) his house and courte
is moste greate, noble, and replenished with Gentlemen, his riches
incredible, and his charges excessiue. And truely therein he sayde the
very troth, excepte in the sacrifice wherein he something enlarged,
although the slaughter of men for sacrifice in euery temple was very
great, yea and some hold opinion, that some yéeres were sacrificed
aboue .50000. men. Being in this conuersation, came two Gentilmen of
that valley to sée the Spanyardes, and eche of them presented vnto
_Cortes_ foure women slaues, & certayne collers of golde of small
price. _Olintlec_ although he was vassall to _Mutezuma_, was a greate
Lorde, and had .20000. vassals, and thirtie wiues altogither in his
house, beside a hundreth other women that attended vpon them. And had
for his garde and houshold .2000. persons, his towne was great, & had
.13. temples in it, & eche temple many idolles of stone of diuers
fashiös, before whom they sacrificed men, doues, quayles, & other
things w^t perfumes & great veneratiö. In this place and territorie,
_Mutezuma_ had .5000. souldiers in garrison, and ordinarie postes
from thence to _Mexico_. Vntill this time, _Cortez_ had not so amply
vnderstoode the mighte and power of _Mutezuma_, yea and though many
inconueniences, difficulties, feare, and such like, did represent it
selfe vnto him in his iourney to _Mexico_, whiche perhaps would haue
amazed some valiät persons, yet he shewed not one iote of cowardise,
hauyng hearde suche a reporte of that mightie Prince, but rather his
desire was so much the more to sée hym.

Considering now that he shoulde passe through _Taxcallon_ to goe to
_Mexico_, being _Taxcallon_ a greate & strong Citie, and warlike
people, he dispatched four _Zeampoallanezes_ to the Lordes and
Captaynes of that Citie, on the behalfe of _Zempoallan_ and his
owne, offering vnto them his friendship and fauour, giuing them to
vnderstande, that those few Christians woulde come vnto their Citie to
serue thë, desiring thë to accept the same, thinking assuredly that
those of _Taxcallon_ would haue done with him as the _Zempoallanezes_
had done, which were both good and faithful, who had always vsed trouth
with him, euë so he thought that now he moughte credite them, for they
had enformed him, that the _Tlaxcaltecas_ were their friendes, and so
would be his, considering that they were vtter enimies to _Mutezuma_,
and willingly would goe with him to the siege of _Mexico_, with desire
of libertie, and to reuenge olde iniuries and griefes, whiche they
had susteyned many yeares before of the people of _Culhua_. _Cortez_
refreshed himselfe in _Zaclotan_ fiue dayes, where is a fresh riuer and
quiet folke, pulling downe the Idolles, and placed a remembrance of
Christ crucifyed, as he hadde done in all the Townes that he had passed.

He toke his leaue of _Olintlec_, leauing him wel pleased, & went to a
town two leagues frö thëce along y^e riuer side, whereof was Lorde
_Iztacmixtlitan_, one of the Gentlemen who had giuen him the slaues and
collers of golde.

This towne standeth in a playne grounde of two leagues compasse, which
is replenished with so many houses as doth séeme to touche one an
other, in that way that our army passed--and the towne it selfe doth
contayne fiue thousande householdes, standing on a hill, and on the one
side thereof is the Lordes house with a strong forte, being the beste
yet séene in those parties, walled with good stone with barbucan and
déepe ditche. There _Cortes_ rested himselfe thrée dayes, abiding the
foure messengers whiche he sent from _Zacloton_, to knowe the answere
that should be brought.

 The first encounter that Cortez had
 _with the men of Tlaxcallan_.

[Sidenote: A straunge vvall.]

_Cortes_ seyng the long tarying of the messengers he departed from
_Zaclotan_ without any intelligence from _Tlaxcallan_. Our cäp had
not marched much after their departure from that place, but they came
to a great circuite of stone made without lyme or morter, being of a
fadom and a half high, and twentie foote brode with loupe holes, to
shoote at: that wall crossed ouer all the valley from one mountayne to
another, and but one onely entraunce or gate, in the whiche the one
wall doubled against the other, and the way there was fourtie paces
brode, in such sort, that it was an euill and perilous passage, if
any had bene there to defend it. _Cortes_ demaunded the cause of that
circuite, and who had buylte it, _Iztacmixtlitan_ that wente to beare
him company, tolde him that it was but a deuision from their countrey
and _Tlaxcallan_, and that their antecessors had made the same to
disturbe the entrance of the _Tlaxcaltecas_ in time of warre, who came
to robbe and murther them, bycause of the friendship betwixte them and
_Mutezuma_, whose vassals they were.

That strange and costly wall, séemed a thing of greate maiestie to our
Spanyardes, and more superfluous than profitable, yet they suspected
that the _Tlaxcaltecas_ were valiant warriers, who had suche defense
made agaynst them. And as _Cortes_ and his army stoode beholding thys
worke, _Iztacmixtlitan_ thought he had bin afrayde to procéede forward,
and prayed him (for so much as he was his Lordes friend) not to passe
that way, nor yet through the Countrey of _Tlaxcallan_, for so muche as
he wente to visite his maister, for (quoth he) if they knowe you to be
my Lordes friende, they will séeke youre displeasure, as they haue done
to others, and I will prouide you of guides to leade you continually
through the dominion of _Mutezuma_, where you shall be well receyued
and prouided, vntil you come to _Mexico_.

But _Mamexi_ and the others of _Zempoallan_ willed hym to refuse
that offer and counsell in any wise, alleadgyng that it was an onely
pretence to separate them from the friendship of that prouince, whose
people were good, honorable, and valiant, and that _Iztacmixtlitans_
perswasion was to prohibite theyr helpe and succoure agaynst
_Mutezuma_, willing hym earnestly to giue no credite vnto hys sayings,
for he and his allyes are false Traytors, and meante to bryng hym into
some snare, where they myghte kill both him and his company, and féede
vppon theyr fleshe.

_Cortes_ for a space was amazed at y^e talke of y^e one and the other,
but in conclusion he accepted the councell of _Mamexi_, for that he
hadde conceyued a better opinion of the _Zeampoallanezes_ his allyed
friendes, than of the others. And setting all feare asyde, he tooke
the way to _Tlaxcallon_, byddyng _Iztacmixtlitä_ farewell, and with
thrée hundred Souldyers on a ranke, he entred the way in the wall, and
procéeded in good order all the way forwardes, carrying the Ordinance
ready charged, and he himselfe the leader of all his army, yea and
sometimes he woulde be halfe a league before them, to discouer and make
the way playne.

And hauing gone the space of thrée leagues from that circuite, he
commaunded his footemen to make hast, bycause it was somewhat late, and
he with his Horsemen went to descrye the way forwardes, who ascendyng
vp a hyll, two of the formost horsemenne mette with fiftéene _Indians_
armed with swordes and Targets and tuffes of feathers, whiche they vse
to weare in the warres. These fiftéene were spyes, and when they sawe
the Horsemen, they beganne to flye with feare, or else to gyue aduise.

Then approched _Cortez_ with other thrée horsemen, calling to them
to stay, but by no meanes they woulde abyde: then syxe Horsemen
ranne after them, and ouertooke them, & ioyned all togither, with
determination rather to dye than to yéelde, shewing them signes to
stande still: yet the Horsemen comming to lay handes on them, they
prepared themselues to battayle, and foughte, defendyng themselues for
a whyle. In thys fyghte the _Indians_ slewe two of theyr Horses, and
as the _Spanyardes_ doe witnesse, at two blowes they cutte off a Horse
head, bridle and all. Then came the rest of the Horsemenne, and the
army approched, for there were in syghte néere fiue thousande _Indians_
in good order, to succoure theyr fiftéene fyghting menne, but they came
too late for that purpose, for they were all slayne wyth the anger that
was taken for the killyng of the two Horses, and woulde not render
themselues in tyme: yet notwythstandyng theyr fellowes foughte, vntyll
they espyed oure armye commyng, and the Ordinance, then they returned,
leauyng the fielde to oure menne, but oure Horsemenne followed them,
and slewe aboute 70. persons of them, withoute receyuing anye hurte.

[Sidenote: A subtill message.]

Thys done, the _Indians_ sente vnto _Cortes_ two of the foure
messengers whiche hadde bin sente thither before wyth other _Indians_,
saying, that the _Tlaxcaltecas_ knewe nothyng of the thynges that
were happened, certifying lykewyse that those with whome hée hadde
fought were of other comunities, and not of their iurisdiction,
béeyng sorowfull for that whyche hadde passed: and for so muche as
it happened in theyr Countrey, they woulde willingly pay for the two
Horses whyche were slayne, praying them to come in good time to theyr
Towne, who woulde gladly receyue them, and enter into theyr league of
friendshippe, bycause they séemed to bée valiante menne: but all was a
fayned and a false message.

Yet _Cortes_ beléeued them, and gaue them thankes for theyr curtesie
and good will, and that accordyng to theyr request he woulde goe vnto
theyr Towne, and accepte their friendshippe. And touchyng the deathe of
his Horses, he required nothyng, for within shorte space he expected
many moe: but yet God knoweth how sorowfull he was for the want of
them, and not only so much for thë, as that the _Indians_ shoulde
thinke that Horses could dye, or be slayne.

_Cortez_ procéeded forwardes aboute two leagues where the Horses were
kylled, although it was almost Sunnesette, and his men wéeried, hauing
trauelled farre that day.

His will was, to haue pitched his Camp in a strong place of water:
wherefore he planted his army by a Riuer side, whereas they remayned
all that night with good watche both of footemen and horsemen, fearing
some assault: but there was no attempt giuen that night, whereby they
might haue taken better rest, than they were aware of.

 Hovv there ioyned a hundred and fiftie
 _thousand men against Cortez_.

The next morning at Sunne rising, _Cortez_ departed with his army
in good order, and in the middest of them wente the fardage and
artillerie, and as soone as they were come to a little Village
there néere at hande, they mette with the other two messengers
of _Zempoallan_, who departed from them at _Zaclotan_: they came
with pitifull chéere, exclayming of the Captaynes of the power of
_Tlaxcallan_, who had bounde them, and deteyned them from returning:
but with good fortune, that nighte they hadde broken loose, and
escaped, for otherwise in the morning following, they had bin
sacrificed to the God of Victory, and after the sacrifice, to be eaten,
for a good beginning of their warres, protesting the like to be done
with the berded men, and with as many as came with them.

They had no sooner tolde their tale, when there appeared behinde a
little hill about a thousande _Indians_, verye well appoynted after
their fashion, and came with suche a maruellous noyse and crye, as
though theyr voyces shoulde haue pearced the Heauens, hurling at oure
menne stones, dartes, and shotte wyth bowes and arrowes.

[Sidenote: First battayle.]

[Sidenote: 80000. më.]

[Sidenote: Seconde battayle.]

_Cortes_ made many tokens of peace vnto them, and by his interpreters
desired them to leaue the battell. But so much the more as he entreated
for peace, the more hastie and earnest were they, thinkyng either to
haue ouercomen them, or else to holde them play, to the entët that the
Spanyardes should haue folowed them to a certaine ambushe that was
prepared for them, of more then .80000. men, whiche they had planted in
a créeke of a riuer which abutted vpö the high way. Then our men began
to cease from wordes, and to lay hande vpon their weapons, for that
company of a thousande were as many, as on our side were fighting men,
they were well practised in the warres, very valiät, and also pitched
in a better place for fight. This battell endured certaine houres, and
at the ende the _Indians_ being eyther wearied, or else meanyng to
take our men in the snare appointed, began to flie toward theyr maine
battell, not as ouercome, but to ioyne with their owne folke. And
our men being hote in the fight and slaughter whiche was not litle,
followed them with all their fardage, and vnwares fell into the ambushe
among an infinite number of _Indians_ armed, they stayde not bycause
they would not put themselues out of order, and passed through their
campe with great haste & feare. The enimies began to sette vpon the
horsemen, thinkyng to haue taken their lances from them, their courage
was so stoute: many of the Spaniardes had there perished, had it not
bin for the _Indian_ friends. Likewise the courage of _Cortes_ did much
animate them, for although he ledde his army making way yet, diuers
times, he turned him backe to place his men in order and to comforte
them, and at length came out of that daungerous way into the playne
fielde, where the horses mought helpe, and the ordinaunce stande in
stéede, whiche two things did greatly anoy the enimie to their great
wonder and maruell, and at the sight thereof began to flie.

In bothe encounters remayned many _Indians_ slayne and wounded, and
of the Spaniardes some were hurt, but none killed, giuyng moste
hartie thankes vnto God for their deliuery from so great a multitude
of _Indians_ their enimies with muche ioye and pleasure of the
victory. Then they wente to pitche their campe in a village called
_Teoacazinco_, where was a little Tower and a Temple, and there
fortified themselues, and buylte cotages of bowes and strawe. The
_Indians_ of _Zeampoallan_, and those of _Iztacmixtlitan_ did play
the valiant men that day, wherfore _Cortes_ honoured them with harty

[Sidenote: The care of good souldiers.]

This day was the first of September. The night followyng our men slepte
not quietly with feare of inuasion of their enimies, but they came
not, for they neuer vse to fighte in the nighte season. And as soone
as it was day _Cortes_ sente to the Captaynes of _Tlaxcallan_, to
requyre them of peace and friendshippe, willyng them quietly to suffer
the passage through their countrey to _Mexico_, for that they meant
them no hurte but rather good will. This done, hée lefte twoo hundreth
Spanyardes and the Carreirs in the campe. And tooke with him other twoo
hundreth, with seuen hundreth _Indians_, and wente with them abrode to
skirmishe in the face of their enimies, and at that tyme burned fiue
or sixe villages, and returned with foure hundreth prysoners, without
receyuyng any hurte, although they followed him to his campe. At his
returne he founde the answere of the Captaynes his enimies, whiche was,
that the next day they would come and talke with him and declare theyr

[Sidenote: 150000. men.]

_Cortes_ was well preuented that night, for the answere liked him not,
but rather séemed braue, and a matter determined to be done as they had
sayde: lykewise those whiche were taken prysoners, certified that his
enimies were ioyned togither to the nüber of a .150000. më to giue him
battaile the next day folowing, & to swallow thë aliue whom so mortally
they did hate, thinking thë to be friëds to _Mutezuma_, vnto whom they
wished all euil & mischief.

[Sidenote: Indian armour.]

It was moste true that the _Tlaxcaltecas_ had gathered all their whole
power to apprehende the bearded menne, and to make of them a more
solemne sacrifice vnto their Goddes, than at any time heretofore they
had done, with a generall banquet of their flesh, which they called
Celestial. The Captaines of _Tlaxcallan_ deuided their souldiers into
foure battayles, the one to _Tepeticpac_, another to _Ocotelulco_,
the third to _Tizatlan_, and the fourth to _Quiahuiztlan_, that is to
say, the men of the Mountaynes, the men of the Lymepittes, the men of
the Pinetrées, and the water men, euery of these had their Lardes and
Captaynes whome they shoulde repayre vnto and obey, and all these foure
sortes of men dothe make the body of the common weale and cittie, and
also commaunde both in tyme of warre and peace. So that euery of these
Captaynes had his iust portion or number of warriers, but the general
of al the whole army was called _Xicotencatl_, who was of the Limepits:
and he had the standart of the cittie, which is a Crane of gold with
his wings spred, adorned with Emeralds & siluerworke, which standart
is according to their vse, either caried before the whole host or else
behinde thë all. The second Captaine or Lieuetenant was _Maxixcazin_,
& the number of the whole army was .150000. men. Such a great number
they had ready against .400. Spaniardes & yet at length ouercome:
neuerthelesse after all this broyle, they were most greatest friends.
These foure captains came w^t their cöpany that the fields where they
were séemed a forest. They were trimme felowes & well armed according
to their vse, although they were paynted so that their faces shewed
like diuels with great tuffes of feathers and triumphed gallantly.
They had also slinges, staues, speares, swordes, bowes and arrowes,
skulles, splintes, gantlettes all of wood, gilte or else couered with
feathers or leather, their corselets were made of cotten woolle, their
targettes and bucklers gallant and strong, made of woodde couered with
leather, and trimmed with laton and feathers, theyr swordes were staues
with an edge of flint stone cunningly ioyned into the staffe, which
woulde cutte very well and make a sore wounde.

The host (as is declared) was deuided into foure parts, their
instrumentes of warre were hunters hornes, and drummes called attabals
made like a caldron and couered with vellam. So that the Spanyardes in
all the discouery of _India_ did neuer sée a better army togither nor
better ordered.

 The threatning of the Indian campe
 _agaynst the Spanyardes_.

[Sidenote: A present.]

[Sidenote: A reckning made before the hoste.]

[Sidenote: Battayle.]

These _Indians_ were great braggers, and sayde among themselues, what
madde people are these that threatneth vs and yet knoweth vs not. But
if they will be so bolde to inuade our countrey without our licence,
let vs not sette vpon them so soone, it is méete they haue a litle
reste, for we haue tyme inough to take & binde them, let vs also sende
them meate for they are commen with empty stomackes: And againe they
shall not say that we do apprehende them with wearinesse and hunger.
Wherevpon they sent vnto the Christians thrée hundreth Gynnea cockes,
and two hundreth baskets of bread called _Centli_. The whiche present
was a great sucker for the néede that they stoode in. And soone after
(quoth they) nowe let vs goe and sette vpon them, for by this time
they haue eaten their meate, and nowe wée will eate them, and so
shall they pay vs the victuals that we sent: likewise we wil know if
_Mutezuma_ commaunded them to come into our countrey, or who else. And
if he sente them, then let him come and deliuer them: and if it be
their owne enterpryse, they shall receyue theyr reward accordingly.
These and such like bragges they vsed, seing so fewe Spaniardes before
them, and not knowyng their strength. Then the foure Captaynes sente
twoo thousande of their valiantest men of warre and olde Souldiers,
to take the Spanyardes quietly, with commaundement that if they did
resist, either to binde them or else to kill them, meanyng not to
sette their whole army vpon them, saying that they shoulde gette but
small honour for so great a multitude, to fight agaynst so fewe. The
twoo thousande Souldiers passed the trench that was betwixt the twoo
campes, and came boldely to the Tower where the Christians were. Then
came foorth the Horsemen, and after them the footemen, and at the first
encounter they made the _Indians_ féele howe the yron swordes woulde
cutte: and at the seconde, they shewed of what force those fewe in
number were, of whome a little before they had so iested: But at the
thirde brunte they made those lusty Souldiers fly, who were come to
apprehende them, for none of them escaped, but onely suche as knewe the
passage of the trenches or ditche.

Then the mayne battell and whole army sette foorth with a terrible
and maruellous noyse, and came so fierce vppon our menne, till they
entred into our campe without any resistaunce, and there were at handye
strokes and wrastlyng with the Spanyardes, and in a good space coulde
not gette them out, killyng many of them whiche were so bolde to enter:
and in this sorte they fought foure howers, before they coulde make
way among their enimies. And then the _Indians_ began to faynt, seyng
so many dead on theyr side, and the greate woundes they had, and that
they coulde kill none of the Christians: yet the battayle ceased not
till it drewe neare night and then they retyred. Whereof _Cortes_ and
his Souldiers were excéedyng gladde, for they were fully weried with
killyng of _Indians_, so that all that nighte our men triumphed with
more ioy than feare, consideryng that the _Indians_ fought not by
night, they slepte and tooke their reste at pleasure, whiche they had
not done til that tyme, but alwayes kept bothe watche and warde.

The _Indians_ finding many of their hoste missyng, yet they would not
yéelde themselues as ouercome, as after did appeare. They coulde not
well tell howe many were slayne, nor yet our men had leasure to count

[Sidenote: Cortes vvas a painfull man.]

The nexte day in the mornyng _Cortes_ wente forth to runne the fieldes
as he had done before, leauing halfe his menne to kéepe the campe,
and bicause he shoulde not be espied he departed before day, & burned
aboute .x. townes, and sacked one towne, whiche was of thrée thousande
houses, in the whiche were founde but few folke of fight, bycause
the moste of them were gone to their campe: After the spoyle, he set
fire on the towne and came his way to his campe with a great pray by
noone time. The enimies pursued thinkyng to take away their pray, and
followed them into the camp, where they fought fiue houres and could
not kill one Spaniarde, although many of their side were slaine: for
euen as they were many and stoode on a throng togither, the ordinaunce
made a wonderfull spoyle among them, so that they lefte off fighting,
and the victory remayned for our men. The _Indians_ thought that the
Spanyardes were inchaunted bycause their arrowes coulde not hurte them.

[Sidenote: A straunge presente.]

The nexte day followyng, the foure Captaynes sente thrée seuerall
things in present to _Cortes_, and the messengers that brought them
sayd: Sir behold here fiue slaues, and if thou be that rigorous God
that eatest mans fleshe and bloud, eate these whiche we bring vnto
thée, and we will bring thée moe. And if thou be the gentle and méeke
God, beholde here Franckinsense and Feathers. And if thou be mortal
man, take here foule, bread, & Cherries.

_Cortes_ answered, that both he and his were mortal men euen as they
were. And bicause that alwayes he had vsed to tell them trouth,
wherfore did they vse to tell him lies, and lykewise to flatter him,
for he desired to bée their friende, aduising them not to be madde and
stubborne in their opinion, for if they so did, assuredly they shoulde
receyue great hurte and dammage. Likewise (quoth he) it is apparant
vnto you how many of your side are slayne without the losse of one of
mine, and with this answere sent them away. Notwithstanding the answere
sent, there came aboute .30000. of them euen to _Cortes_ his campe to
proue their Corselettes, as they had done the day before, but they
returned with brokë pates. Here is to be noted, that although the first
day the whole host of _Indians_ came to combat with our men, & finally
all they came to fight, yet the next day they did not so, but euery
seueral captaine by himselfe, for to deuide the better the trauayle
& paynes equally amög them: & bicause that one should not disturbe
another through y^e multitude, considering that they should fight
but with a few, & in a narrow place, & for this consideration, their
battayles were more fresher & stronger, for eche captaine did contende
who should do most valiantly, for to get honour, & especially in
killyng one Spaniarde, for they thought that all their hurtes shoulde
be satisfied with the death of one Spaniarde, or taking one prisoner.

[Sidenote: Indian policie.]

Likewyse is to bée considered, the straungenesse of their battayle,
for not withstandyng their controuersse all those fiftene dayes that
they were there, whether they fought or no. The _Indians_ sente vnto
the Spanyardes cakes of breade, Gynnea cockes and Cherries. But this
polycie was not to giue them that meate for good will, but onely to
espie and sée what hurte was done amongst them, and also to sée what
feare or stomacke they had to procéede: but the Spanyardes fell not
into that reckenyng, for the espies of _Tlaxcallan_ sayde, that none
had fought with them but certayne outlawes and knaues called _Otomies_,
who lyued as vagaboundes without a Lorde or other ruler: And that they
were théeues, who had theyr abyding behinde a hill, whiche they poynted
vnto with their hande.

 Hovv Cortez cut off the handes
 _of fiftie Indian espies_.

The nexte day after these presentes were sente vnto them as Goddes,
whiche was the sixte of September, there came to the Campe fiftie
_Indians_ of _Tlaxcallan_, whiche séemed after theyr sorte honest
menne, and gaue vnto _Cortes_ bread, cherries, & Gynnea cocks, as they
ordinarily vsed to do, enquiring how all his Spaniardes did and what
they meant to doe, and whether they stoode in necessitie of any thing.
And after this communication they went vp and downe the camp, gasing
and beholding the horses, armour and artillery, and seemed amased to
sée such things. But the effect of their cöming was the office of

[Sidenote: The good aduise of a friende.]

_Teuche_ of _Zempoallan_ marking these things, who being of a childe
brought vp in wars, by reason wherof he was expert and wise, came vnto
_Cortes_, saying, sir it semeth not well, y^t these _Tlaxcaltecas_
wander vp & downe your campe beholding the entrance and going out of
the same, to beholde likewise the fortitude and weakenesse of youre
power, I like it not: It may please you to make enquirie whether they
be espyes or no. _Cortez_ hauing heard hys tale, gaue him hartie
thankes for his good aduice, yea and maruelled, that neyther he
himselfe, nor none of his Spanyardes had noted the thing, the _Indians_
hauing so many dayes come vnto them after this sort, yea and that only
_Indian_ of _Zempoallan_ had considered it.

[Sidenote: Confessiö.]

Nowe the originall cause was not bycause _Teuch_ was more wise than
the Christians, but by reason that hée had séene and heard those
_Indians_ commune with the subiectes of _Iztacmixtlitan_ to féele
their mindes, and wyth craft and subtiltie to obteyne their desire:
whereby _Cortez_ vnderstoode that those fellowes came not to any good
purpose: he apprehended that _Indian_ whiche stoode nexte vnto him, and
hauing him alone from his fellowes, by his interpreters examined him
effectually, who incontinent confessed that he was a spye, and that
his comming thither was to view the way how to enter their Campe for
to spoyle and burne their Tentes: and for so much as they hadde proued
fortune all the houres of the day, and all happened contrary to their
desire, against their auncient fame and glory which they hadde obteyned
by noble exploytes in warres, they now meant to proue their successe
by nighte, hoping of better fortune: and also bycause their souldiers
shoulde not feare the Horses, with the darkenesse of the nighte, nor
the blowes or stripes of the bright swordes, nor yet the fire and
terrible noyse of the Ordinance: and that Captayne _Xicoteucatl_
was alreadye appoynted for that enterprise, with prouision of manye
thousand souldiers which lay in ambush in a vale behind certayne
hilles, right ouer against their Campe.

[Sidenote: A good correction.]

After this confession taken, _Cortes_ full prudently commaunded to
take also the severall confessions of other foure or fyue, who likewise
confessed that they were all espies, vppon whose confessions the were
al fiftie taken prisoners, and iudgmente giuen, that their one hande
should be cut off, which was forthwith executed, and then were returned
to their Camp, signifying vnto them that the like iustice should be
executed vpon as many espyes as they might take. And also they were
charged to shew vnto their Generall who had sente them, that both daye
and night he would be ready for them.

When the _Tlaxcaltecas_ sawe their espyes come in thys pickle, they
were in a maruellous feare, and it séemed a newe world vnto them: they
also beléeued that oure men hadde some familiar spirites that did
instructe them of their thoughtes, and with feare of cutting off häds,
there went no moe espies with victuals.

 An embassage that Mutezuma sente
 _to Hernando Cortez_.

[Sidenote: A carefull Captayne.]

VVhen these espyes were gone, oure men espyed out of our Campe a great
multitude of men goe crossing ouer a hill, and it séemed that they were
those that the Captayne _Xicotencatl_ hadde in ambush: and although
it was néere night, _Cortes_ determined to followe them, and not to
abide their comming, fearing that at a first brunt they mighte set fire
among his cotages, as was pretended among them, whiche pretence hauing
taken effecte, myght haue bin the destruction of all his men, eyther
by the fier or otherwise: wherefore he put all his men in good order,
and commaunded the Horsemenne to decke the brest plates of hys Horses
with belles, and then procéeded towarde their enimies, who durst not
abide their comming, hauing intelligence of the cutting of their espyes
hands, and likewise hearing the new noyse of belles: yet oure men
followed them tyll two houres within night, through many sowen fieldes
of _Centli_, and slew many of thë, and then returned with victorie to
the Campe.

[Sidenote: Ambassage from Mutezuma.]

At that season were come sixe noble men from _Mexico_, who brought two
hundred seruing men to wayt vpon them. They brought vnto _Cortes_ a
present, whiche was a hundred garments of cotten, and some of feathers,
and a thousand péeces of golde.

[Sidenote: Excuses.]

These ambassadors on the behalfe of _Mutezuma_, declared, that their
Lord would be friende with the Emperoure, and also with him, and his
company, requestyng to knowe what tribute he woulde yearely demaunde,
in golde, plate, pearles, slaues, or garments, or of any other thing
that was within his kingdome, and the same tribute he woulde well and
truly pay withoute delay, wyth such condition, that neyther he nor his
company shoulde come vnto _Mexico_. And this request (quoth they) is
not only bycause you should bée disturbed to come into hys countrey,
but chiefly bycause the waye is euill, barren, and full of euill
rockes, whyche lette dothe gréeue _Mutezuma_, that suche valiant menne
as ye be shoulde suffer in his Countrey, lying not in hys power to
remedie it.

_Cortez_ dyd thankefully receyue the present and gentle offer for the
Emperoure King of _Castile_, but (quoth hée) my earnest desire is, that
you depart not til ye sée the end of these warres whyche I haue nowe
in hande, bycause yée shall carrie newes thereof to _Mexico_, what I
pretende to doe againste these mortall enimies of _Mutezuma_.

Then _Cortez_ fel into an ague, for which cause he went not out to
skyrmish as he was wonte to do, but only prouided to make his Camp
strong against certaine flockes of _Indians_, whiche came dayly to
skirmishe, for that was as ordinarie, as the meate that was wont to be
broughte to thë: but yet these skirmishes nor furie of y^e _Indiäs_
were not like to their fierce beginning.

_Cortez_ now meaneth to take a purgation for his ague: and tooke
certayne pilles whiche he broughte with him from _Cuba_, at suche houre
of the nighte as is vsed for purgations.

It happened that the nexte daye following, before hys purge had
wrought, came thrée great companies of _Indians_ to besiege his Camp.
It should séeme that those _Indians_ had some intelligence of his
sicknesse, or else thinking with feare that he durst not come abroade
as he was wont to doe.

[Sidenote: A valiant Captayne.]

_Cortes_ being aduertised of this newes, withoute anye more respect to
his purgation taken, tooke his horse, and with his menne came to the
encounter, and foughte with his enimies all day till it was nighte,
and draue them a good way off, to their great hurt, and then returned
to his Camp, and the next day following, he purged as fresh, as though
it had bin newly taken. I doe not rehearse thys for a miracle but to
declare what he passed: for _Hernando Cortez_ was a greate sufferer of
trauell and paynes, and one of y^e firste that alway was at any assay
or brunt of enimies, and he was not onely a good man of his handes, but
also graue in counsell. And hauing thus purged hym selfe, and taken
rest those dayes, he watched euery night that fell to his lotte, as
well as any other souldier, and so continually he vsed to do. He was
not for this the lesse estéemed, but rather muche the more beloued
among hys men.

 Hovv Cortez vvan a great Citie
 _called Zimpanzinco_.

[Sidenote: An euill Spirite appeared.]

[Sidenote: A couragious Captayne.]

In an euening _Cortes_ went vp to the toppe of his Tower, and looking
rounde aboute hym, he espyed aboute foure leagues distant in the
Mountaynes among rockes and procéeding out of a wodde dyuers smokes,
whereby he ymagined people to be there: he opened not his minde to
anye man, but commaunded two hundred of his men to followe hym, and
some _Indians_ hys friendes, and within thrée or foure houres of the
nyghte he toke hys iourney towarde the Mountaynes, béeing very darke.
He had not fully gone a league, when suddaynely appeared the lykenesse
of a great Bull whiche ouerthrewe them that they could not stirre.
The firste Horseman béeing fallen, they aduysed _Cortez_ thereof, who
aunswered, that he shoulde returne wyth hys Horse to the Campe: and
incontinente fell another, _Cortez_ commaunded hym the lyke: and when
thrée or foure were fallen, his company retyred, saying, it was an
euill token, desiring him to returne and abyde the morning, that they
myghte sée whether they wente. He aunswered, saying, yée oughte to gyue
no credite to witchcraftes or fantasies, for God, whose cause we take
in hande, is aboue all nature: wherefore I will not leaue my pretended
iourney, for I doe ymagine that of thys nyghtes trauell shall come
greate ease and pleasure, saying, that the Deuill hathe in this forme
of a Bull appeared, to disturbe vs. He hadde no sooner ended his talke,
when hys Horse fell likewise: then counsell was taken what was best to
be done.

It was determined that the Horses which were fallë, should be returned
to the Campe, and that of the residue, eache Horseman should leade hys
Horse by the bridle, and so proceede on theyr way, and shortly after
the Horses were well agayne, but they neuer knewe of what motion they
hadde fallen: wyth the darkenesse of the nyghte they lost theyr way
to the Mountaynes, and chanced into a cragged rockie waye, that they
thoughte neuer to haue come out thereof.

[Sidenote: A famous Cortez.]

And after a whyle that they had gone this euill waye, wyth their heare
standing with very feare, they espyed a little lyghte, and tooke the
way thyther, where they founde a little house, wherein were two Women,
and those Women, with other two women that afterwards they mette,
conducted them to the Wildernesse, where they had espyed the smoke, and
before day they sette vpon certayne Villages, and slewe many, yet they
burned not those Villages, bycause they should not be perceyued through
the lyght thereof. They receyued there aduyse, that néere at hand were
great populations and soone after he came to _Zimpanzinco_, a towne
of twenty thousand houses, as after dyd appeare by the visitation of
_Cortes_. These inhabitantes béeyng vnaduised of this suddayne happe,
were taken in their beddes, and came out all naked through the stréetes
to knowe what the great mourning and lamentation meante: at the first
entrance many were slayne, but bycause they made no resistance,
_Cortez_ commaunded to ceasse from killyng, nor yet to take any of
theyr goodes, or women.

The feare of these poore inhabitantes was so greate, that they fledde
without respect of the father to the child, or husbande to the Wyfe, or
yet eyther of house or goodes.

_Cortes_ commaunded sygnes of peace to be made vnto them, and with that
they stayed, and before the Sunne rising, the Towne was pacifyed.

_Cortez_ went vp into a Tower to descry the Countrey, and there
espyed a moste greate population: he then demaunded what it was:
aunswere was made that it was called _Tlaxcallan_, and the Townes
therevnto apperteynyng. Then he called hys Spanyardes, and sayd vnto
them: beholde, what woulde it haue preuayled vs to kyll these poore
soules, hauyng yonder so manye enimies? and wythoute doyng anye more
hurte in that Towne, hée wente to a fayre Fountayne there at hande,
and thyther came the Rulers of that Towne, and other foure hundred
menne withoute weapon, and broughte wyth them muche victuall, most
humbly they besought _Cortes_ to doe them no more hurte, gyuing hym
likewise greate thankes, that hée hadde so fauourablye vsed them,
offering both to serue and obey hym, and from that daye forwarde they
woulde not onely kéepe hys friendshippe, but also trauell wyth the
Lordes of _Tlaxcallan_ and others, that they should doe the same.
_Cortez_ replyed, that sure he was, howe they had foughte agaynste
hym before that time, although that nowe they broughte hym meate, yet
notwithstandyng hée pardoned them, and also receyued them into hys
seruice and friendshippe, to the vse of the Emperoure.

Wyth thys communication he departed from them, and returned to the
Campe verye ioyfull wyth so good successe, hauyng such a daungerous
beginning, wyth the suddayne fall of theyr Horses, wherein the Prouerbe
is fulfylled, whyche sayeth, Speake not euill of the daye, till it be
at an ende.

They hadde also a greate hope, that those newe friendes woulde bée a
meane, to cause the _Tlaxcaltecas_ to leaue from Warre, and to become
theyr friendes.

From that day forward he commaunded that none of hys Campe shoulde doe
any hurte to any _Indian_, and certifyed his men that the same daye his
warres were at an ende with that prouince.

 The desire that some of the Spanyardes
 _had to leaue the warres_.

[Sidenote: Murmuration.]

VVhen _Cortez_ was returned so ioyfull to his Camp, he founde some of
his men discouraged with the suddayne mishappe of the Horses, fearing
that likewise some misfortune hadde happened to _Cortes_, but when they
sawe him come well and with victorie, their ioy was great, although
true it is that manye of his men were not well pleased, but desired
muche to leaue the warres, and to returne to the coast, as they had
often requested, but nowe chiefly séeyng such a great Countrey, and
full of people, who woulde not permitte theyr abiding there, and they
béeing so fewe in number in the middest among them withoute hope of
succoure, certaynely things to be feared. With this murmuration they
thought it good to talke with _Cortes_, & also to require him to
procéede no further, but returne backe agayne to _Vera Crux_, from
whence by little and little they mighte haue intelligence with the
_Indians_, and therevppon procéede according to tyme, and that he
mighte prouide more Horses and men, whiche was the chiefest prouision
of the warre.

And although some secretely enformed _Cortes_ of thys matter, yet he
gaue no eare to their talke, but on a night as hée came out of hys
Tower to ouerlooke the watche, hée hearde a loude talke out of one of
the Cotages, and beganne to hearken what theyr communication was: and
the matter was, that certaine souldiers sayde these wordes: If our
Captayne be madde, and go where he may be slayne, let him goe alone,
what néede we to follow him. _Cortez_ hearyng this talke, called twoo
of his friendes for witnesse, willyng them to harken his souldiers
talke, for he that durst speake suche wordes would be ready to doe
it. Also he hearde others say, what shall our iourney be as _Pedro
Carbonerotes_ was? who went into _Barbaria_ to take Mores, and he and
all his were there slayne, wherefore sayde they let vs not follow him
but turne in time. It grieued _Cortez_ muche to heare this talke, who
would fayne haue corrected them but it was not then tyme, wherefore
he determined to leade them with sufferaunce, and spake vnto them as

 The Oration made by Cortez
 _to his Souldiers_.

Maisters and louyng friendes, I did choose you for my fellowes, and ye
chose me for your captaine, and all was for the seruice of God, and
the augmenting of his holy faith, & also the seruice of our soueraigne
Lord the King now Emperour: and next for our owne commoditie, I (as yée
haue séene) haue not fayled nor yet displeased yée, nor yée likewise
haue otherwise done to me vnto this day. But now I do féele faintnesse
in some, yea and an euill will to goe forwarde in the warres whiche we
haue in hande: but (God be praysed) it is now finished, at the least
the ende is vnderstood, what it may be, and also the wealth that may
follow, as partely you haue séene, but much without comparison of that
you haue not séene, whiche is a thing that doth excéede the greatnesse
of our wordes or thoughts.

Feare not my louyng fellowes to goe and abide with me, God forbidde
that I should thynke, yea or that any shoulde reporte, that feare
vexeth my company, or else disobedience to their Captayne, whiche is a
perpetuall infamie, if wée shoulde leaue this Lande, this Warre, this
way already made, and returne as some doe desire, shall wée then lyue
at reste, loytring as idell and loste folke: God forbidde, that euer
oure nation shoulde haue suche a name, hauyng warres of honour. And
whether (I pray) shall the Oxe goe where he shall not helpe to ploughe
the grounde? doe yée thinke peraduenture that yée shall finde lesse
people, worse armed, and not farre from the sea? I doe assure you,
that in so thynkyng yée séeke after fiue féete for a Catte, yea and
you shall trauell no way, but that you shall méete some euill passage
(as the Prouerbe sayth) yea and farre worser than this that we haue in
hande. For why (God be thanked) since wée came into this Countrey, we
neuer wanted meate, friendes, neyther money nor honour. For nowe yée
sée that yée are estéemed more than menne, yea as persons immortall,
and Goddes, if it mighte be spoken, for these _Indians_ beyng so many
and without number, and so armed as ye your selues affirme, yet can
they not kyll one of vs: and as touchyng theyr weapons, you sée that
they are not poysoned, as the _Indians_ of _Cartagena_, _Veragna_, and
the _Caribez_ doe vse, whiche haue killed many of our nation therewith,
dying as madde menne ragyng.

And if there were no other cause than this onely, you shoulde not séeke
others with whome to warre: I doe confesse that the Sea is somewhat
farre from vs, and neuer Spaniarde trauelled so farre into the mayne
lande of _India_, as wée haue done: for why? nowe we leaue the Sea a
hundreth and fiftie myles behinde vs, nor yet euer any hath come to
neare _Mexico_ where _Mutezuma_ dothe reside, from whome suche messages
and Treasure wée haue receyued. It is nowe but thrée score myles
thyther, and the worste is paste, as you doe sée, if we come thither,
as I truste in Iesus wée shall, then shall we not onely gette and winne
for the Emperoure oure naturall Lorde a riche Lande, greate Kingdomes,
infinite Vassalles, but lykewyse for oure selues muche riches, as
Golde, Siluer, Pretious stones, Pearles, and other commoditie, and
besides thys, the greatest honour that euer any nation did obtayne. For
loke howe great a King this is, howe large his countrey is, and what
greate multitude of people hée hath, so muche the more is our glory.

Besides all this, wée are bounde as Christians to exalte and enlarge
oure Catholyke fayth, as wée haue begonne, abolishyng Idolatrie and
blasphemie agaynst our Sauiour Christe, takyng away the blouddy
Sacrifice and eatyng of mannes fleshe, so horrible and agaynste nature,
and many other grieuous sinnes so muche here vsed, for the foulenesse
whereof I name them not.

And therefore (I saye) feare you nor yet doubte you the victorie,
consideryng that the worste is paste. Of late wée ouercame the
_Indians_ of _Tabasco_, and also an hundreth and fiftie thousande this
other daye of the _Tlaxcaltecas_, who haue the onely name of breakers
of Lyons iawes: so with Gods helpe you shal be Conquerers of the reste,
if ye faynt not and folowe me.

All hys company was pleased and contente with this comfortable
exhortation, and those that were faynt harted recouered strength. And
hys valiaunt Souldiers recouered double courage, & those who hated
him began to honour him: and in conclusion he departed from thence
excéeding welbeloued of all his company. But all his former talke was
very néedefull as time then requyred: for why? some of his (as you haue
heard) were desirous to returne: likewise vpon dissention, rebellion
mought haue growen, and he forced to returne to the sea coaste, where
all his toyle and trauell taken had bene lost.

 Hovv Xicotencatl came for Embassadour
 _to Cortez his Campe_.

_Cortez_ had not so soone made an ende of his talke, when _Xicotencatl_
came entryng into the campe, who was chiefe and generall captayne in
_Tlaxcallan_, & of all the warres: he brought in his company fiftie
persons of auctoritie to kéepe him cöpany. They approched neare where
_Cortes_ was, and saluted eche other according to the vse of their
countrey. Their salutations ended and the parties setten downe,
_Xicotencatl_ began the talke, saying: Sir I am come on mine owne
behalf and also of my fellow Captaine, and Lieuetenant _Maxixca_,
and in the name of many other noble personages, and finally in the
name of the whole state and common weale of _Tlaxcallan_, to beséeche
and pray you to admitte vs into your friendshippe, and to yéelde our
selues and countrey vnto your King, crauyng also at your hande pardon
for our attempt in takyng armes agaynst you, wée not knowyng what you
were, nor what you sought for in our countrey. And where we presumed
to resiste and defende your entrance, we did it as agaynst straungrrs
whome we knewe not, and suche menne as we had neuer here tofore séene:
and fearyng also that you had bene friendes to _Mutezuma_, who is and
alwayes hath bene our mortall enimy. And these things wée suspected,
seyng _Mutezuma_ his seruaunts in your company, or else we imagined
that you were comen to vsurpe our libertie, the which of tyme without
memory we haue possessed, as our forefathers did with the shedyng of
their bloud. And of our owne naturall prouision we wante cotten woolle
to clothe vs, wherfore in tyme paste we wente as naked as we were
borne, but some of vs vsed other clothe to couer our nakednesse, made
of the leaues of the trée called _Metl_: and Salte also wée wanted,
of which twoo things so necessarie to humayne lyfe, _Mutezuma_ had
greate store, and other our enimies, with whome we are rounde aboute
enuironed. And lykewise where wée haue no gold, stones of value, or
any riche thyng to barter with them, of very pure necessitie many
times we are forced to sell our owne bodies to buy these wantes.
And this extremitie (sayde he) wée néeded not, if that we woulde be
subiectes and vassalles to _Mutezuma_. But yet had we rather all in
generall to end our lyues, than wée woulde putte oure selues in suche
subiection, for we thynke our selues as valiaunt menne in courage
as our forefathers were, who alwayes haue resisted agaynst him and
his grandfather, who was as mightie as nowe is he: wée woulde also
haue withstoode you and your force, but wée coulde not, although we
proued all our possibilitie by night and day, and found your strength
inuincible, and we no lucke agaynst you. Therefore sithence our fate
is such, we had rather be subiect vnto you than vnto any others. For
wée haue knowen and hearde by the _Zeampoallanezes_, that you doe no
euill, nor came not to vere any, but were moste valliaunt and happie,
as they had séene in the warres, beyng in your companie. For whiche
consideration, we truste that our libertie shall not be diminished, but
rather our owne persons, wyues, and familie better preserued, and our
houses and husbandry not destroyed. And in süme of all his talke, the
teares trickling downe his chéekes, he besought _Cortes_ to wey that
_Tlaxcallan_ did neuer at any tyme reknowledge any superiour King or
Lorde, nor at any time had commen any person among them to commaunde,
but onely he, whome they did voluntarily electe and chose as their
superiour and ruler.

It can not be tolde, howe muche _Cortes_ reioyced with this Embassage,
and to sée such a mighty Captayne come vnto his campe to submitte
himselfe: and also it was a matter of great wayght to haue that Cittie
in subiection, for the enterprice whiche he had in hande, whereby he
fully made an account that the warres were at an ende, to the great
cötentation of him and his company, and with great fame and reputation
among the _Indians_.

_Cortes_ with a mery and louing countenaunce answered, laying to their
charge the hurte and damage whiche he had receyued in their countrey,
bycause they refused at the firste to harken vnto him, and quietly
to suffer him to enter into their countrey, euen as he had required
and desired by his Messengers of _Zeampoallan_ sente vnto them from
_Zaclotan_. Yet al this notw^tstandyng, he did both pardon the kyllyng
of his twoo horses, the assaultyng of him in the highe way, and the
greate lies whiche they had moste craftily vsed with hym, (for where
as they themselues fought agaynst him, yet they layde the faulte to
others) likewise their pretence to murder him in the ambush prepared
for him, (enticing him to come to their Citie,) without makyng firste
defiance according to the law of armes.

These causes notwithstanding, he did louingly receyue their offer made
in subiection to the Emperour, and in this sorte departed, saying,
that shortely hée woulde be with him in _Tlaxcallan_, and presently
he coulde not goe with him for the dispatche of the Ambassadours of

 The receyuing and entertaynement
 _of Cortez in Tlaxcallan_.

It grieued muche the Embassadours of _Mutezuma_, to sée _Xicotencates_
in the Spanishe Campe, and the offer made vnto _Cortes_ in the behalfe
of his King, of their persons, Cittie and goodes, aduising _Cortes_ to
gyue no credite vnto them, for all their saying (quoth they) is treason
and lies, and to the entent to locke you vp in their Cittie.

_Cortes_ answered, that although their aduise were true, yet he did
determine to go thither, for that he feared them lesse in the towne
than in the fielde. They hearyng this answere and determination,
besought him to giue vnto one of them licence to returne vnto _Mexico_,
to aduertise _Mutezuma_ of all that was past, with an answere to their
Ambassage, promising within sixe dayes to haue newes from _Mexico_, and
till then prayed him not to departe with his Campe.

_Cortes_ graunted their request, and abode there the time appointed,
expectyng the answere. In this meane season came many of _Tlaxcallan_
to the camp, some brought Ginnea cockes, other brought bread
and Cherries, and gaue it for nothyng in comparison, with merry
countenaunce, desiryng them to goe home with them vnto their houses.

[Sidenote: A riche present.]

The sixth day the _Mexican_ came, accordyng to promise, and brought
vnto _Cortes_ tenne Iewelles of Golde, bothe riche and well wrought,
and a fiftene thousand garments of Cotten excéeding gallant, and moste
earnestly besought hym on the behalfe of _Mutezuma_, that he shoulde
not daunger himselfe in trustyng to the wordes of the _Tlaxcaltecas_,
who were so poore y^t with necessitie they would robbe him of the
thyngs whiche his mayster had sente him, yea and lykewise murder him,
knowyng of the friendshippe betwéene his mayster and him: likewise all
the chiefest Lordes of _Tlaxcallan_, came to intreate hym to goe with
them to _Tlaxcallan_ where he shoulde be cherished, lodged, and well
prouided. For it was a greate dishonour and shame for them to permitte
suche personages to abyde in suche vyle cotages as they were in. And if
(quoth they) you truste vs not, that then wée are ready to gyue you for
your securitie what soeuer gages you shall demaunde: notwithstandyng
they dyd bothe sweare and faithfully promise, that they might safely
goe with them, saying also that the Othe and fayth of theyr common
weale should neuer be broken for all the goodes in the worlde.

[Sidenote: Entraunce into Tlaxcallan.]

Wherevpon _Cortez_ seyng the good will of so many Gentlemen his newe
friendes, and lykewise the _Indians_ of _Zeampoallan_, of whome he
had good credite, did so importune him and assure him of his goyng,
he commaunded his fardage to be laden and also his ordinaunce, and
departed towarde _Tlaxcallan_, whiche was sixe leagues from that place,
with as good order as it had bene to a battayle: And at the Tower where
he had pitched hys campe, he lefte certayne Crosses for a memorie, with
a greate heape of stones, and entred into _Tlaxcallan_ the eightenth of
September. There came out such a multitude of people to sée him and to
méete him in the way, that it was a wonder to sée.

He was lodged in the greatest temple, which had many great and fayre
lodgyngs, sufficient for hym and all his companie, except the _Indians_
hys friends which were lodged in other Temples. He set certayne
limittes, out of the whiche he commaunded straightely that none of
hys company should passe, vpon payne of deathe, and also commaunded
that they shoulde take nothing, but what shoulde be giuen them. His
commaundement was well obserued, for none presumed to goe a stoanes
cast without his licence. The _Indian_ Gentlemen shewed greate
pleasure and curtesie to the strangers, and prouided thë of all things
necessarie, and manye of them gaue theyr daughters vnto them, in token
of true friendshippe, and likewise to haue fruite of their bodyes, to
be brought vp for the warres, beyng such valiant men.

This Countrey lyked well oure men, and the greate loue of the people.
They abode there at their pleasure twenty dayes, in whiche time they
did procure to knowe particularly the estate of their common weale
and secretes, and also were sufficiently instructed of the estate of

 The description of Tlaxcallan.

_Tlaxcallan_ is properly in the _Indian_ tong as much to say, as bread
well baked, for there is more grayne called _Centli_ gathered, than is
in all y^e prouince round about.

In times past the Citie was called _Texcallan_, that is to say, a
valley betwixt two hilles. It is a greate Citie, and planted by a riuer
side, whiche springeth out of _Atlancatepec_, and watreth the most
parte of that prouince, and from thence issueth out into the South
sea, by _Zacatullan_. This Citie hathe foure goodly stréetes, whiche
are called _Tepeticpac_, _Ocotelulco_, _Tizatlan_, _Quiahuiztlan_. The
firste stréete standeth on hygh vpon a hyll, farre from the riuer,
whiche maye be aboute halfe a league, and bycause it standeth on a
hill, it is called _Tepeticpac_, that is to say, a hyll, and was the
firste population which was foüded there on high, bycause of the warres.

An other stréete was scituate on the hill side towarde the Riuer,
bycause at the building thereof, there were many pyne trées: they named
it _Ocotelulco_, which is to say, a pine apple plot. This stréete was
beautifull, and firste inhabited of all the Citie, and there was the
chiefest Market place, where all the buying and selling was vsed, and
that place they called _Tianquiztli_: in that stréete was the dwelling
house of _Maxixca_. Along the Riuer side in the playne standeth another
stréete called _Tizatlan_, bycause there is muche lyme and chalke. In
this stréete dwelled _Xicotencatl_, Captayne generall of the common
weale. There is another stréete named by reason of the brackish water,
_Quiahuiztlan_, but since the Spanyardes came thither, all those
buildings are almost altered, after a better fashion, and built with
stone. In the plaine by the riuer side, standeth the Towne house, and
other offices, as in the Citie of _Venice_. This _Tlaxcallan_ was
gouerned by noble and riche men: they vse not that one alone should
rule, but rather flye from that order, as from tyrannie.

In their warres (as I haue sayde before) they haue foure Captaynes,
whiche gouerneth eache one stréete, of the whiche foure, they do
elect a Captayne generall. Also there are other Gentlemen that are
vndercaptaynes, but a small number. In the warres they vse their
standerde to be carried behynde the army, but when the battayle is to
be fought, they place the standerde where all the hoste may sée it, and
he that commeth not incontinent to hys auntient, payeth a penaltie.
Their standerd hathe two crossebowe arrowes set thereon, whiche they
estéeme as the relikes of their auncetors. Thys standerd two olde
souldiers and valiant menne, being of the chiefest Captaynes, haue the
charge to carrie, in the which standerde an abusion of southsaying,
eyther of losse or victory is noted. In this order they shote one of
these arrowes against the first enimies that they méete, and if with
that arrow they doe eyther kill or hurte, it is a token that they shall
haue the victorie, and if it neyther kill nor hurt, then they assuredly
beléeue that they shall lose the field.

[Sidenote: A strange contractation.]

This prouince or Lordship of _Tlaxcallan_, hath .28. Villages and
townes, wherein is conteyned 150000. householdes. They are men well
made, and good warriors, the lyke are not among the _Indians_. They
are very poore, and haue no other riches, but only the grayne or corne
called _Centli_, and with the gayne and profite thereof, they doe
both cloth themselues, and paye their tributes, and prouide all other
necessaries. They haue many market places, but the greatest and most
vsed dayly, standeth in the stréete of _Ocotelulco_, whiche is so
famous, that 30000. persons come thither in one day to buy and sell,
whyche is to say, changing one thing for another, for they know not
what money meaneth.

They sell such things in that market, as héere we vse, & al thing vnto
them néedeful to eate, and cloth for themselues, and necessaries for

They haue all kinde of good policie in the Citie: there are
Goldsmithes, fetherdressers, Barbors, hotehouses, and potters, who make
as good earthen vessel, as is made in _Spayne_. The earth is fat and
fruitefull for corne, fruite, and pasture, for among the pine trées
groweth so muche grasse, that our men féede their cattell there, whiche
in _Spayne_ they can not do.

Within two leagues of that Citie standeth a rounde hill of sixe miles
of heigth, and fiue and fortie myles in compasse, and is now called
Saint Bartholmewes hill, where the snow fréeseth. In times past they
called that hill _Matealcucie_, who was their God for water. They
had also a God for wyne, who was named _Ometochtli_, for the great
dronkennesse whiche they vsed. They chiefest God was called _Camaxtlo_,
and by another name _Mixcouatl_, whose Temple stoode in the stréete
of _Ocotelulco_, in the whiche temple there was sacrifised some
yeares aboue eyghte hundred persons. In _Tlaxcallan_ they spake thrée
languages, that is to saye, _Nahualh_, whiche is the courtly spéech,
and chiefest in all the land of _Mexico_: an other is called _Otomir_,
which is most commonly vsed in the Villages: There is one onely stréete
that spake _Pinomer_, which is the grosest speache. There was also in
that Citie a common Iayle, where fellons lye in yrons, and all things
which they held for sinne, was there corrected.

[Sidenote: Correctiö.]

It chanced at that time a Townesman to steale from a Spanyard a little
golde, whereof _Cortes_ complayned to _Maxixca_, who incötinent made
such enquirie, y^t the offender was found in _Chololla_, whiche is
another Citie fyue leagues from thence: they brought the prisoner
with the golde, and deliuered him to _Cortez_, to doe with him hys
pleasure: _Cortes_ woulde not accepte him, but gaue hym thankes for his
diligence: then was he carried wyth a Cryer before hym, manifestyng
hys offence, and in the Market place vppon a skaffolde they brake
hys ioyntes with a cudgell: our men maruelled to sée suche straunge

 The aunsvvere of the Tlaxcaltecas
 _touching the leauing of their Idolles_.

[Sidenote: A godly persvvasiö.]

VVhen _Cortez_ saw that these people executed Iustice, and liued in
Religion after theyr manner, although abhominable and diuelish: and
alwayes when he desired them to leaue off from their Idolatrie and that
cruell vanitie, in killing and eating men sacrifised, considering that
none among them how holly soeuer he were, would willingly be slayne &
eaten, required them to beléeue in the most true God of the Chrystians,
who was the maker of Heauen and earth, the giuer of rayne, and creator
of all things that the earthe produceth only for the vse and profite of
mortall man.

Some of them aunswered, that they woulde gladly do it, onely to
pleasure him, but they feared that the commons would arise and stone
them. Others sayde, that it was an hard matter to vnbeléeue that which
their forefathers had so long beléeued, and that it shoulde be a cause
to condemne their forefathers and themselues.

Others sayde, that it mighte be in time they woulde conuert, séeing
the order of the Christian Religion, and vnderstanding the reasons and
causes to turne Christians, and likewise perceyuing thoroughly the
manner and life of the Christiäs, with their lawes and customs: and as
for warlike feates, they were satisfyed, & had séene suche tryall, that
they helde them for men inuincible in that poynte, and that their God
did help them.

_Cortes_ promised them, that shortlye he woulde bring them suche men,
as shoulde instruct and teache them, and then they should sée which way
was best, with the greate ioy and fruite that they shoulde féele. They
accepting that councell which he like a friende had giuen them, and
for as much as presently it could not be brought to passe by reason of
his iourney to _Mexico_.

He desired them, that the Temple wherein he was lodged, shoulde be made
a Churche for him and his company, and if it pleased them, they mighte
also come to sée and heare their diuine seruice.

The _Indians_ graunted to his request, and dayly came among them all
the time of their abode there, and some came and dwelte with the
_Spanyardes_, but the chiefest friende was Captayne _Maxixca_, who
neuer went from _Cortez_.

 The discord betvveene the
 _Mexicans and Tlaxcaltecas_.

_Cortez_ being throughly satisfyed of theyr hartie good wylles, he
demaunded of them the estate and riches of _Mutezuma_. They exalted
him greately, as men that had proued his force. And as they affyrmed,
it was néere a hundred yeares that they mainteyned warre with him and
his father _Axaiaca_, and others his Vnckles and Grandfathers. And
saide also, that the golde and treasure of _Mutezuma_, was without
number, and his power and dominion ouer all the lande, and hys people
innumerable: for (quoth they) he ioyneth sometime two hundreth thousand
men, yea and thrée hundred thousande for one battayle. And if it
pleased hym, he woulde make as manye men double, and thereof they were
good witnesse, bycause they had manye times fought with thë.

_Maxixca_ desired that _Cortes_ should not aduenture themselues into
the power of the men of _Culhua_, whereat some of the _Spanyardes_
feared and suspected euill of the matter.

_Cortes_ tolde him, that notwithstanding all those things whiche
they had tolde him, he was fully minded to goe to _Mexico_, to visit
_Mutezuma_, wishing him to aduise hym what he mought do, or bring to
passe for them with _Mutezuma_, for he woulde willingly do it, for the
curtesie shewed vnto him, and that he beléeued _Mutezuma_ woulde graunt
him any lawfull request.

Then they besought him to procure for them a licence to haue cotten
wooll and salte out of his Countrey, for (sayd they) in time of the
warres we stoode in greate néede thereof, and that they had none but
suche as they boughte by stealthe of the Comercans verye déere, in
change of golde: for _Mutezuma_ had made a straight lawe, whereby
all suche as carried anye of those commodities to them shoulde be
slayne. Then _Cortez_ enquired the cause of their disorder and euill
neyborhood. They aunswered, that their griefes were olde, and cause of
libertie: but as the Ambassadors did affyrme, and _Mutezuma_ afterward
declare, it was not so, but for other matter farre differente. So
that eache partye alleadging their causes, theyr reasons were, that
the yong menne of _Mexico_ and _Culhua_ dyd exercise and bryng them
vppe in warlike feates néere vnto them, and vnder theyr noses, to
theyr greate annoyance, whereas they moughte haue gone to _Panuco_ and
_Teocantepec_, hys frontiers a farre off.

Lykewyse theyr pretence was, to haue warre wyth them béeyng theyr
neyghbors, onely to haue of them to sacrifice to their Gods: so
that when they would make any solemne feast, then would they send
to _Tlaxcallan_ for men to sacrifice, with such a great army, that
they might take as many as they néeded for that yeare: for it is most
certayne if _Mutezuma_ woulde, in one daye hée moughte haue broughte
them in subiection, and slayne them all, ioyning his whole power in
effecte: but his purpose was, to kéepe them for a pray to hunt withall,
for men to be sacrificed to his Goddes, and to eate, so that hée woulde
neuer sende but a small armye againste them: whereby it did chance that
sometimes those of _Tlaxcallan_ did ouercome.

_Cortez_ receyued great pleasure to heare these discordes betwixt his
newe friendes and _Mutezuma_, whiche was a thing fitte for his purpose,
for by that meanes he hoped to bring them all vnder subiection, and
therefore hée vsed the one and the other secretely, to build his
pretence vpon a good foundation.

At all this communication there stoode by certayne _Indians_ of
_Vexozinco_, whiche had bin against our men in the late warres, the
which Towne is a Citie as _Tlaxcallan_, and ioyned with them in league
of friendship against _Mutezuma_, who oppressed them in like effect
of slaughter for their Temples of _Mexico_, and they also yéelded
themselues to _Cortes_ for vassals to the Emperoure.

 The solemne receyuing of the
 _Spanyardes into Chololla_.

[Sidenote: A gentle offer.]

The Ambassedors of _Cortes_ séeyng the determination of _Cortes_ to
procéede on his iourney towarde _Mexico_, they besoughte him to goe by
_Chololla_, whiche stoode fiue leagues from thence, certifying that
_Chololla_ was a Citie in their friendship, and that there he might at
his pleasure abide the resolution of their Lord _Mutezuma_, whether
it were his pleasure that he should enter into _Mexico_ or no. This
request was onely to haue him from thence, for truly it gréeued much
_Mutezuma_ of theyr new friendshippe and league, fearyng that thereof
woulde some great displeasure happen towardes him, and therefore
procured all that was possible to haue him from thence, sending him
alwayes presents to allure him to come frö thence the sooner. But when
the _Tlaxcaltecas_ saw that he would goe to _Chololla_, it grieued them
muche, saying vnto _Cortes_, that _Mutezuma_ was a liar and fraudelent
person, and that _Chololla_ was a cittie his friende but not constant,
and it mighte happen that they would displease him, hauyng him within
their Cittie, wishyng him to looke wel to himself: And if néedes he
would goe thither, yet they woulde prouide .20000. men to kéepe him

[Sidenote: Correction of treason.]

The women that were giuen to the Spaniardes at their firste entraunce,
had vnderstandyng of a snare that was layde to murder them at their
commyng to _Chololla_, by meanes of one of the foure Captaynes, who
had a sister which discouered the thing to _Pedro de Aluarado_ who
kepte hir. _Cortes_ incontinent called that Captayne out of his house,
and caused him to be choked, and so was the matter kepte close that
his death was neuer knowen, whereby the snare was vndone without any
rumour. It was a wonder that all _Tlaxcallan_ had not made an vprore
seyng one of their greatest Captaynes dead. There was inquirie made of
that snare, and the truth being knowen, it was approued that _Mutezuma_
had prepared .30000. Souldiers who were in campe for that purpose
within twoo leagues of the Citie, and that the streates in _Chololla_
were stopped vp with timber and rayles, and the toppes of their houses
prouided with stones, which houses are made with playne rooffes or
sotties, and the highe way stopped vp, & other false bywayes made with
déepe holes pitched ful of stakes very sharpe, to spoyle and lame
both horse and man: these engines were finely couered with sande, and
coulde not be espied, although the skoute had gone before on foote
to discouer. The matter also was very suspitious, for these Citizens
of _Chololla_ had not at any time come to visite hym, or sente any
presente vnto him as others had done.

Wherevpon _Cortez_ consulted with the _Tlaxcaltecas_ to sende certayne
messengers to _Chololla_, to request their Captaynes and rulers to
come vnto him, who did their message accordingly, and the _Cholollans_
woulde not come, but yet they sent thrée or foure persons to excuse
them, saying that they were not well at ease, praying to signifie
vnto them what he woulde haue: the _Tlaxcaltecas_ enformed _Cortes_
that those messengers were menne of small credite and of lowe degrée,
wishyng hym not to departe till theyr Captayne came. In this sorte
_Cortes_ returned theyr messengers backe agayne, with commaundement
written, declaring that if they came not within thrée dayes, hée woulde
proclayme them rebelles and his vtter enimies, and as suche would he
chasten with all rigour.

When this commaundement came vnto them, the next day followyng came
many Lordes and Captaynes to make their excuse, saying, that the
_Tlaxcaltecas_ were their enimies, and that through them they could not
liue in safetie, lykewise they knewe of the euill reporte whiche they
had made agaynst them: wherefore they besought him to giue no credite
vnto them, for why, they were both false and cruell menne: beséechyng
him also to goe with them to their Citie, and then he should sée that
all was but a mockery that had bene tolde him, and they his good and
faythfull friends: and laste of all they offered to serue him as
tributary subiectes.

_Cortes_ commaunded that all this talke should be sette downe in
wryting before the Notary and his interpreters, and so tooke his leaue
of the Citizens of _Tlaxcallan_. _Maxixca_ wepte at his departure, but
there wente in his company a hundreth thousande men of warre: there
were among them many Marchantes that wente to barter for Salte and

_Cortes_ commaunded that those hundreth thousande men should go alwayes
by thëselues: that day he reached not to _Chololla_, but abode by a
broke side, and thither came many of the citie, to desire him that the
_Tlaxcaltecas_ should not doe any hurte in their countrey: wherevpon
_Cortes_ cömaunded them to returne backe againe all sauing .5000. or
there aboute, much against their willes. But they stil required him to
take good héede of those euill folke, who be not (quoth they) men of
warre, but pedlers, and men of double harte: and they of their partes
would be very loth to leaue him in any peril or daunger, hauing giuen
themselues to be his true and faithfull friendes.

The nexte day in the morning the Spaniardes came to _Chololla_, and
there came out néere .10000. _Indians_ to receyue him with their
Captaynes in good order: many of them presented vnto him bread, foule,
& roses, and euery Captayne as he approched welcomed _Cortes_, and then
stoode aside that the reste in order mighte come vnto him. And when
he came entring into the Citie, all the other Citizës receyued him,
marueling to sée such men & horses.

After all this came out all the religious menne, as Priests, and
Ministers to the idols (who were many and straunge to beholde,) and
all were clothed in white lyke vnto surplices and hemmed with Cotten
thréede: some brought instrumentes of musicke like vnto Cornettes,
other brought instrumëts made of bones, other an instrumët like a ketel
couered with skin, some brought chafing dishes of coales with perfumes,
others brought idols couered, and finally they al came singing in their
language, which was a terrible noyse, and drew néere _Cortes_ and his
cöpany, sensing them with swéete smelles in their sensers.

With this pompe and solemnitie (whiche truely was great) they brought
him into the Cittie, and lodged him in a house where was roume inough
for him and his, and gaue vnto eche of them a Gynnea cocke, and his
_Indians_ of _Tlaxcallan_, _Zempoallan_ and _Iztacmixtlitan_, were
prouided by themselues.

 The conspiracie of the Cholollans
 _to kill Cortes and his men_.

Al that night followyng _Cortes_ was vigilant with all his company, for
bothe in the way and in the towne they had found some of the things
wherof they had bene aduised before in _Tlaxcallan_, and although their
firste present was a Gynnea cocke to eche mans allowance, other thrée
dayes followyng they gaue them nothing almost to eate, and very seldome
the Captaynes came to visite them, whereof _Cortes_ had great suspition.

[Sidenote: Many perils.]

And in this meane while the Embassadours of _Mutezuma_ entreated him
to leaue of his iourney to _Mexico_, alleaging that their great King
woulde die in beholdyng their beardes & gesture: other times they
sayde that there was no passage, other times they woulde say that they
wanted wherewith to sustayne them. And seyng them fully and in euery
respecte answered to all these poyntes, they caused the Townes menne
to enforme them, that where _Mutezuma_ his abiding was, were monstrous
Lysardes, Tigers, Lions, and many other fierce beastes, the whiche
when _Mutezuma_ commaunded to be losed, were sufficient to plucke in
péeces, and to destroy those fewe straungers: and seyng that all these
pollicies auayled not, they consulted with the Captaynes and chiefe
Citizens to murder the Christians. And bycause they shoulde so bryng
it to passe, the Embassadours promysed the Citizens greate rewardes on
the behalfe of _Mutezuma_, and presented to theyr generall a drumme of
Golde, and promised to bryng the thirtie thousande souldiers whiche lay
aboute twoo leagues from thence: the _Cholollans_ promysed to deliuer
them bounde hande and foote. But yet they woulde not consente that
those Soldiers of _Culhua_ should come into their Cittie, fearyng that
they (vnder colour of friendshippe) woulde remayne with the towne, for
why, the _Mexicans_ had vsed the lyke sleyght. And in this sorte they
with one bolte meante to kill twoo byrdes at a shote, for they thought
to take the Spaniardes sléepyng, and then to remayne with the Towne of
_Cholalla_. Also it was determined, that if all these pretences coulde
not be brought to passe, that then they should be conducted a contrary
way to _Mexico_ vpon the left hande, in the whiche were many daungerous
places, bycause the way was all sandy, with many sluces, diches, and
holes of thrée fadome déepe, meanyng there to méete them and to carry
them bounde to _Mutezuma_: this matter being fully agreed, they beganne
to take away theyr householde stuffe, and to carry it with their wiues
and chyldren vp into the mountaynes.

[Sidenote: Helpe from God.]

And our men beyng also ready to departe from thence for theyr small
chéere with euill countenaunce, it happened, an _Indian_ woman (beyng
wife to one of the principalest Cittizens,) hauing some affection to
the bearded men, sayde vnto _Marina_, that shée shoulde abide there
with hyr, for that she loued hir well, and that it woulde grieue hir
that she should be slayne with hir mayster. _Marina_ dissimulyng the
matter, procured to knowe what they were that had conspired the thing,
and hauing knowledge therof, she ranne to séeke _Aguillar_ hir fellow
interpreter, and both togither enformed _Cortes_ of the whole matter.

_Cortes_ hearyng this newes, slepte not, but incontinent examined twoo
of the Citizens, who confessed the thyng euen as it passed, and as
the Gentlewoman had declared: wherevpon _Cortes_ stayed his iourney
twoo dayes, to mollifie the matter and to disapoynt them of that euill
pretended purpose, and also to correcte their offences, he commaunded
their rulers to be called, saying that he had to talke with them,
and when they were comen he requyred them neyther to vse lies nor
deceytes with hym, but rather lyke menne to defie him to the fielde and
battayle, for (quoth hée) honest menne vse rather to fighte than to
lie. They all answered that they were his friendes and seruitours, and
no liars, and that it mighte please him to shewe them when he woulde
departe, for they woulde goe armed to kéepe hym company. He answered
that he woulde departe the nexte day followyng, and that he required
but onely some of their slaues to carry his fardage, bycause his owne
_Tamemez_ or Carriars were weried: lykewise he requyred some prouision
of victuall.

At this laste requeste they smyled, saying among themselues, to what
purpose will these men haue victuals, for shortly they themselues
shalbe boyled and eaten with the sause called _Axi_, yea, and if
_Mutezuma_ had not pretended their bodies for his owne dishe, they had
bene eaten here before this tyme.

 The punishment that Cortez executed
 _for conspiracie_.

[Sidenote: O vvorthy Cortes.]

The nexte day in the mornyng the _Cholollans_ thinkyng that they had
their determinate purpose in good readinesse, they came and brought
many to carry their fardage, & other some to carry the Spaniardes vppon
their backes, hopyng to apprehëd them in the same order. There came
also many armed men of the most valiantest, to kill him that should
disorder himselfe. Likewise that day their Priests sacrificed ten
children of thrée yeares of age to their God _Quezalcouatl_, fiue of
these children were menne, and the other fiue wemen, whiche was their
custome when they began their warres: the Captaynes placed themselues
at the foure dores of _Cortes_ his house with some armed men. _Cortes_
earely in the mornyng had secretely in a readinesse the _Indians_ of
_Zempoallan_ and _Tlaxcallan_, and other friends: he cömaunded his
horsemen to take their horses, giuing them this watche worde, that when
they hearde the noyse of the shotte of a handgun, that then they should
play the më, for it imported all their liues. And he seing the townes
men approch néere his lodging, commaunded y^e captaynes & chiefest of
them to come vnto him, saying, y^t he would take his leaue of them:
there came many, but he would not suffer aboue thirtie persons to come
in, who were the principallest, and declared vnto thë, that alwaies he
had dealte truly with them, & they with him nothing but treason and
lies. Likewise they had vnder colour requested that his friëds the
_Tlaxcaltecas_ shuld not come vnto their towne, & that he fulfilled
therein their desire, & also cömaunded his own men in no wise to be
hurtful vnto thë, yea & although they had not prouided him of victuals
as reason did require, yet he would not permit any of his men to take
the value of one henne from them, so that in recompence of all his
gentle dealings and good will, they had moste wickedly procured the
death of him and all his companie. And bycause they coulde not performe
it in their owne towne, they had prepared the slaughter in the high
way, at those daungerous places whiche they had determined to leade
them vnto, pretendyng also the helpe of thirtie thousand men, Souldiers
of _Mutezuma_, whiche army stoode not fully two leagues from thence.
And for this horrible and detestable wickednesse yée shall all die,
and in memory of traytors I will destroy this cittie, and turne the
fundations vpwardes, so that there shall remayne no remembraunce of you.

Their offence beyng manifest, coulde not be denied, and lookyng one
vpon an other, their colours waxed pale and wanne, saying, this man
is lyke vnto our Goddes, who knoweth all things, therefore lette vs
not denie the truth, and openly before the Embassadours of _Mutezuma_
confesse their errour and euill facte.

Then sayd _Cortes_ to the Embassadours, you do sée that we should
haue bene slaine by the _Cholollans_, and through the procurement of
_Mutezuma_, but yet I beleue it not, cösideryng that he is my friende
and a mightie Prince, saying also that Noble men vsed neyther treason
nor lyes, wherefore feare not you, but these dissemblyng Traytors shall
be punished, for you are persons inuiolable and messengers of a Prince,
whome he meante to serue and not offende, bicause he had an assured
opinion in _Mutezuma_, to be a vertuous Prince, and one that woulde not
committe villanie.

All these wordes he spake, bycause he woulde not fall out with
_Mutezuma_, vntill he sawe himselfe within the Cittie of _Mexico_.

Incontinent he commaunded some of those Captaines to be slayne, and
kepte the residue bounde. Then he shotte off hys handgun, whiche was
the watch vnto his armye, who forthwith sette vppon the Townesmen, and
within two houres slewe sixe thousand persons and more.

_Cortes_ commaunded that they shoulde kill neyther woman nor childe:
they foughte welnéere fyue houres: they sette fire on all the houses
and Towers that made resistance, and draue all the inhabitantes out of
the Towne. The dead carcases lay so thicke, that of force they must
treade vpon them.

There were twentie Gentlemen, and many Priestes, who ascended vp to the
high tower of the temple, whiche hathe a hundred and twenty steppes,
from whence wyth arrowes and stones they did much hurt, and woulde not
yéelde, wherevpon oure men set fier to the Tower, and burned them all.
Then they exclaymed on their Goddes, who woulde neyther helpe them nor
their Citie and holy sanctuary.

The Citie being sacked, oure men tooke the spoyle of golde, plate, and
feathers, and the _Indians_ their friendes tooke clothes and salte,
which was the treasure that they desired.

_Cortez_ commaunded to ceasse the spoyle. The other Captaynes that lay
bounde, hearing of suche a greate destruction and punishment, most
pitifully besought _Cortez_ to loase some of them, for to sée what was
become of their Gods and cömö people. Likewise they humbly besought
him to pardon them, who had not so muche faulte as _Mutezuma_, who
perswaded and entised them to that pretended treason.

Vpon their lamentable request, he loased two of them, and the next day
following the Citie was as ful of people agayne, that there séemed not
one to be wanting.

At the sute of the _Tlaxcaltecas_ who were put for mediators, _Cortes_
pardoned them all, and sette his prisoners at libertie, assuring
them that the like correction he woulde do vppon al them that should
dissemble or shewe an euil countenance, or make lyes, or fynally
vse anye kinde of treason toward him: wherevpon they all abode in
greate feare. He made the knot of friendship betwéene them and the
_Tlaxcaltecas_, which in time past had bin betwixt them, for _Mutezuma_
and his auncetors made them enimies, with fayre promises, words and
also feare.

The Citizens hauing their generall slayne, chose an other with licence
of _Cortes_.

 The Sanctuary or holy place among
 _the Indians was Chololla_.

_Chololla_ is a city as _Tlaxcallan_, and hathe but one person who
is gouernour and general Captayne, chosen by the consente of all the
Citizens. It is a Citie of twentie thousande householdes within the
walles, and in the suburbes as muche more. It sheweth outwardes verye
beautifull, and full of towers, for there are as manye temples as dayes
in y^e yeare, & euery temple hath his tower. Our men counted foure
hundred towers. The men and womë are of good disposition well fauoured,
and very wittie.

The women are Goldsmithes and also Caruers, the men are warriers, and
light fellowes, and good maisters for any purpose: they goe better
apparelled than anye other _Indiäs_ yet séene. They weare for their
vtter garmët clokes like vnto Moriscos, but after an other sort. Al
the Countrey rounde aboute them is fruitefull and eareable grounde,
well watered, and so full of people, that there is no wast grounde, in
respect whereof, there are some poore, whiche begge from dore to dore.
The _Spanyardes_ hadde not seene any beggers in that Coütrey before
they came thither.

_Chololla_ is a Citie of most deuotion and Religion in all _India_, it
is called y^e Sanctuary or holy place among y^e _Indians_, and thither
they trauelled from many places farre distante on pilgrimage, and for
this cause there were so many temples.

Their Cathedrall Temple was the best and hyghest of all the new
_Spayne_, with a hundred and twenty steppes vppe vnto it.

The greatest Idoll of all their Gods was called _Quezalcouately_, God
of the ayre, who was (say they) the founder of their Citie, being a
Virgin of holy lyfe, and great penance. He instituted fasting and
drawing of bloud out of their eares and tongs, and lefte a precepte,
that they shoulde sacrifice but onely Quayles, Doues, and other foule.

He neuer ware but one garmente of Cotten, whyche was white, narrow, and
long, and vpon that a mantle besette with certayne redde crosses.

They haue certayne gréene stones whiche were hys, and those they kéepe
for relikes. One of them is lyke an Apes head. Héere they abode twentye
dayes, and in thys meane whyle there came so manye to buy and sell,
that it was a wonder to sée. And one of the things that was to bée
séene in those fayres, was the earthen vessell, which was excéeding
curious and fine.

 The hill called Popocatepec.

There is a hill eyght leagues from _Chololla_, called _Popocatepec_,
whiche is to say, a hill of smoke, for manye tymes it casteth oute
smoke and fier. _Cortez_ sente thither tenne _Spanyardes_, with manye
_Indians_, to carrie their victuall, and to guide them in the way. The
ascending vp was very troublesome, and full of craggie rockes. They
approched so nigh the toppe, that they heard such a terrible noyse
which procéeded frö thence, that they durst not goe vnto it, for the
ground dyd tremble and shake, and great quantitie of Ashes whyche
disturbed the way: but yet two of them who séemed to be most hardie,
and desirous to sée straunge things, went vp to the toppe, because they
would not returne with a sleuelesse aunswere, and that they myghte not
be accompted cowardes, leauing their fellowes behinde them, procéeded
forwards. The _Indians_ sayd, what meane these men: for as yet neuer
mortall man tooke suche a iourney in hande.

These two valiät fellowes passed through y^e desert of Ashes, and at
length came vnder a greate smoke verye thicke, and standing there a
while, the darkenesse vanished partly away, and then appeared the
vulcan and concauetie, which was about halfe a league in compasse,
out of the whiche the ayre came rebounding, with a greate noyse, very
shrill, and whistling, in sort that the whole hil did tremble. It
was to be compared vnto an ouen where glasse is made. The smoke and
heate was so greate, that they coulde not abide it, and of force were
constreyned to returne by the way that they had ascended: but they
wer not gone farre, whë the vulcan began to lash out flames of fier,
ashes, and imbers, yea and at the last stones of burning fire: and
if they had not chanced to finde a rocke, where vnder they shadowed
themselues, vndoubtedlye they had there bin burned.

When with good tokens they were returned where they left their
fellowes, the other _Indians_ kissed their garments as an honor due
vnto Gods. They presented vnto them such things as they had, and
wondred much at their facte.

[Sidenote: Purgatory.]

Those simple _Indians_ thoughte, that that place was an infernall
place, where all suche as gouerned not well, or vsed tyrannie in their
offices, were punished when they dyed, and also beléeued, that after
their purgation, they passed into glory.

This vulcan is like vnto the vulcan of _Cicilia_, it is high and round,
and neuer wanteth Snowe about it, and is séene a farre off in the
nighte, it lasheth out flames of fire.

There is néere aboute this hyl many Cities, and _Huexozinco_ is one of
the nighest.

In tenne yeares space this straunge hill of workyng did expell no
vapoure or smoke: but in the yeare .1540. it beganne agayne to burne,
and with the horrible noyse thereof, the neyghbours that dwelte foure
leagues from thence were terrifyed, for the especiall straunge smokes
that then were séene, the like to their predecessors hadde not bin

The ashes that procéeded from thence came to _Huexozinco_,
_Quelaxcopan_, _Tepiacac_, _Quauhquecholla_, _Chololla_, and
_Tlaxcallan_, whiche standeth tenne leagues from thence, yea some say,
it extended fiftéene leagues distant, and burned their hearbes in their
gardens, their fieldes of corne, trées, and clothes that lay a drying.

 The consultation that Mutezuma had,
 _concerning the comming of Cortez into Mexico_.

_Cortez_ pretended not to fall out with _Mutezuma_, before his comming
to _Mexico_, and yet he vnderstoode all _Mutezuma_ hys pretence,
wherevppon he complayneth to the Ambassadors, saying that he muche
maruelled that suche a mightie Prince, who by so manye Gentlemen had
assured his friendship vnto him, shoulde nowe procure his totall
destruction, in not kéeping hys promise and fidelitie. In consideration
whereof, where he meant to visit him as a friend, that now he would
goe to his Courte as an enimie. The Ambassadors excused their maisters
cause, besieching him to withdrawe hys furie, and to giue licence to
one of them to goe to _Mexico_, who woulde bryng aunswere from thence
with all spéede.

_Cortes_ graunted vnto the request, the one of them went, and returned
agayne within sixe dayes in company of another messenger that hadde
gone thither before, who broughte tenne platters of golde, and a
thousande fiue hundred mantels of cotten, with much victuall, and
_Cacao_ whiche is a kinde of fruite that serueth for currant money
among them. Likewise they brought a certaine kind of wine or licoure
made of _Cacao_ and _Centli_. They enformed _Cortes_, that _Mutezuma_
was innocente of the coniuration in _Chololla_, nor by anye meanes
priuie to their dealings, affyrming moreouer that the garrison of
souldyers did apperteine to _Acazinco_, and _Acazan_, who were
neyghbors to _Chololla_, who by inducement of some naughtye persons,
had procured that thing, saying that he shuld both sée and vnderstand
him to be his faithful and louing friend, praying him to come forwarde
on his iourney, for he would abide his comming in _Mexico_.

[Sidenote: Prophecie of the Diuell.]

This ambassage pleased well _Cortez_, but _Mutezuma_ feared, when
he hearde of the slaughter, and burning of _Chololla_, and sayde to
his friends, these are the people that our Gods said should come and
inherite this land.

_Mutezuma_ went incontinent to his Oratorie, and shut in himselfe
alone, where he abode in fasting and prayer eyght dayes, with sacrifice
of many menne, to asllake the fury of his Idolles, who séemed to be

The voyce of the Diuell spake vnto him, bidding him not to feare the
Christians, saying they were but fewe, and when they were come, he
should doe what he lysted with them, willing him in no wise to ceasse
from the bloudy sacrifice, least some mischance might happen vnto him.
And assured hym that he should haue the Goddes _Vitzipuchtli_, and
_Tescatlipuca_ to preserue and kéepe hym. And bycause _Quezalcouatle_
was agréeued for wante of bloudy sacrifice, he permitted the Straungers
to punishe them of _Chololla_. And _Mutezuma_ hearing this dyuelishe
Oracle, and likewise _Cortez_ hauing warned him that hée would visite
hym as an enimie, he was by this perswasion of Sathan, the better
willing to receyue hym into _Mexico_.

Likewise _Cortes_ when he came to _Chololla_, was strong, and hadde
at commaundemente a mightie power, and there made hymselfe stronger,
the fame whereof, was blowen abroade, throughout all the dominions of
_Mutezuma_. And whereas the poore _Indians_ hadde but onely maruelled
at their persons and furniture, nowe they began to tremble and to feare
at his doings, so that wheresoeuer he came, they opened him the gates
with pure feare, more than for any loue.

[Sidenote: An euill counsellor.]

_Mutezuma_ at the beginning, pretended to feare _Cortes_ with the
fearefull passages and other perils and danger, as the fortitude of
_Mexico_, with his greate multitude of subiectes, and the great number
of Princes that dyd both serue and obey him: and séeyng that all these
things profited not, he thoughte to haue ouercome him with gyftes
and treasure, knowyng that he hadde required golde: yet he sawe that
nothing woulde preuayle, for that _Cortez_ woulde néedes come to sée
hym, wherevppon, he tooke counsell of the Diuell what he shoulde doe
in that case, vpon which counsell he was satisfyed by hys Priests and
Captaynes, that he ought not to warre against so fewe straungers, for
if he so did, the dishonor would be his, and chiefly, bycause _Cortez_
certifyed that he was an Ambassador, and vsing hym otherwise, it
myghte so fall out, that hys owne subiectes would rebell againste him
theyr Lorde and Prince, saying likewise that it was manifest that the
_Otomies_ and _Tlaxcaltecas_ woulde fauour his syde, and also manye
others, for to destroy and spoyle _Mexico_, vpon which consultation it
was openly proclaymed, that his will was that the straungers should
enter into _Mexico_ fréely, thinking that if at anye time they shoulde
displease hym, to make a breakefast of them the nexte day.

 Things that happened to Cortez in
 _his iourney to Mexico_.

_Cortez_ hauyng so good an aunswere of the Ambassadors, he gaue licence
to as manye of the _Indians_ hys friendes, as listed to departe home
to their houses, and he likewise departed from _Chololla_ with some
borderers that would néedes follow him.

[Sidenote: Oh vvise Cortes.]

He lefte the way that the _Mexicans_ had perswaded him to come, for it
was bothe euill and daungerous, as the Spaniarde whiche went to the
vulcan had séene, he went another playner way and more nearer. That
day he traueled but foure leagues, bicause he meant to lodge in the
villages of _Huexozinco_, where he was friendly receyued, and they
presented vnto him slaues, garments, and golde, although but little,
for they are poore by reason that _Mutezuma_ hath enuironed them
aboute, bicause they were of the parcialitie of _Tlaxcallan_. The next
day in the morning he ascended vp a hill couered with snowe, which
was sixe myles of heigth, where if the .30000. Souldiers had wayted
for them, they might easily haue taken them, by reason of the great
colde: and from the toppe of that hill, they discouered y^e land of
_Mexico_, and the great lake with his villages rounde about, whiche is
an excéedyng goodly sight. But when _Cortes_ saw that beautifull thing,
his ioy was without comparison, and he tooke not so much pleasure, but
some of his men feared as muche, and there was a murmuration among them
to returne backe againe, yea and like to haue bene a mutinie among
them. But _Cortes_ with his wisedome and dissimulation did pacifie the
matter, with courage, hope, and gentle wordes, and they seing that
their Captayne at all assayes was the first himselfe, they feared the
lesse the things that they imagined. And discending downe into the
playn, they found a great large house, sufficient for him and all his
company, with sixe thousande _Indians_ of _Tlaxcallan_, _Huexozinco_,
and _Chololla_. And y^e seruants of _Mutezuma_ made cotages of straw
for the _Tamemez_ or carriers, who were ladë with the fardage, and
victuals: there was a good supper prepared for them, and great fires
to warme them, and all things necessary. Thither came many principall
persons from _Mexico_ to visite him, among whome was a kinsman of
_Mutezuma_, who presented vnto _Cortes_ the value of thrée thousand
Ducates in gold, & besought him to returne backe againe, and to haue
consideration of the pouertie, hunger, & euill way, yea and to passe
in litle boates in daunger of drowning. And as for tribute to be giuen
to the Emperour, a greater summe should be appointed thë though he
went personally to _Mexico_, yea and that it should be payde at what
place he would apoint. _Cortes_ welcomed them, as reason did require,
and presented vnto them haberdashe toyes, which they estemed in much,
& chiefly he did louingly entertayne _Mutezuma_ his kinesman, vnto
whome he made this answere, saying, I woulde gladly serue & pleasure
such a mightie prince as your soueraigne _Mutezuma_ is, if it lay in my
handes without offence of the King my mayster, and concerning my goyng
to _Mexico_, _Mutezuma_ shall receyue both pleasure and honour rather
than otherwise, & after I haue talked with him I will soone returne,
likewise hunger I feare not, neyther yet doubt that I nor none of mine
shall wante, and for my passage on the water, I say it is nothing in
comparison of twoo thousande leagues, which I haue sayled onely to come
and visit him.

But yet for all this talke, if they had founde him carelesse, they
would haue pinched him as some doth say, for he gaue them to vnderstand
that he nor his men slept not by night, nor yet vnarmed themselues, yea
and also if it chanced thë to find in the night season any that were
not of their company, they slew them out of häd, desiring him to aduise
his men thereof, least any of them should happen to fall into that
daunger, which would much grieue him, and with this talke they went all
to take their reste.

The next day in the morning he proceded forward and came to
_Amaquemecan_ which is two leagues frö thence, & standeth in the
prouince of _Chalco_, a towne that cötayneth 20000. householders.
The Lorde of that towne presented to _Cortes_ fourtie women slaues,
and .3000. Ducats in gold, with meate abüdantly for two dayes, and
secretely made complaynt vnto him of _Mutezuma_. And from thence he
went to another towne foure leagues from thëce, the one half therof
was builte vpon the lake, and the other halfe vpon the lande at the
foote of a ragged hill. There went in his company many subiectes of
_Mutezuma_ for purueyors, but yet both they and the townes men would
fayne haue layde hand vpon the Spaniardes, and euery night would sende
their spies to sée what the Christians did, but the watch slew about
twentie of them, whervpon the matter stayed and their pretence tooke
no effect: sure it is a thing to laugh at, for at euery fancie they
woulde proue to kill them, and yet they were not for the purpose.
The nexte day in the mornyng came twelue Lordes from _Mexico_, among
whome was _Cacama_ Neuew to _Mutezuma_, who was Lorde of _Tezcuco_ a
yong man of .xxv. yeares of age, whom the _Indians_ did much honour:
he was carried vpon their shoulders, & when they set him downe one
went before with a brome to swéep the dust out of his way. These
Gentlemen came to accöpany _Cortes_ excusing _Mutezuma_, saying that
he was not well at ease & therfore he came not personally to receiue
him. And yet they entreated _Cortes_ to returne backe againe, & not
to come vnto _Mexico_, gyuing him to vnderstand by signes, y^t they
would there displease him, yea & also defend the passage & entrance,
a thing easie to be done, but they were either blinded or else they
durst not breake the Calsey. _Cortes_ entertayned thë like noble më,
& gaue vnto thë of his haberdashe, & departed from y^e towne w^t many
graue personages who carried with thë a great trayne, whiche filled
vp the way well nigh as they should passe, wödring at their beardes,
harneys, apparell, horses & ordinaunce, saying to themselues, these be
Gods. _Cortes_ gaue them warning not to come among the horses, nor
among his men, for feare they would kil them. This he made them beléeue
bicause he would not haue his way stopped, for y^t the number of thë
was so great. They then came to a towne buylte vpon the water of two
thousand houses, and before they came thither they had gone more than
halfe a league vppon a fayre Calsey, whiche was twentie foote brode:
the towne had fayre houses and many towers: the Lord of the towne
did receyue them worshipfully, and prouided all things plentifully,
desiryng him to abide there that night, and secretly made complayntes
against _Mutezuma_, of many wrongs and exactions done by him, and
certified him, that from thence the way was very fayre to _Mexico_, and
al the like calsey as he had passed. With this newes _Cortes_ was very
glad, for he meant to haue stayed there for to haue buylte barkes and
foystes, & yet he feared least they woulde breake the calsey, wherfore
he had alwayes a care ouer _Cacama_, who with the other Lordes desired
him not to abide there, but to procéede forward to _Iztacpalapan_,
which was but twoo leagues off, and that the Lorde thereof was another
Neuew to _Mutezuma_. To admit their request he wët with them to that
towne, and from thence to _Mexico_ was but twoo leagues, the which the
next day he might goe at pleasure, and come timely into the Citie, & in
this order came to _Iztacpalapan_.

Euery two houres came messengers betwixte _Cortes_ and _Mutezuma_:
then came _Cuetlauac_ Lorde of that towne, with the Lorde _Culhuacan_
his kinsman to receyue him, who presented vnto him, slaues, garments,
and feathers, and to the value of foure thousande Ducates in golde.
_Cuetlauac_ receyued al the Spaniards into his own house, whiche hath
very fayre lodgings all of stone and Carpenters worke excéeding well
wrought, with high & lowe roumes, with all kinde of seruice: The
chambers were hanged with cloth of Cotten, very rich, after their
maner. There were fayre gardës replenished with many swéete floures,
and swéete trées garnished with networke, made of Canes, and couered
with roses and other fine hearbes, with sundry pondes of swéete water.
There was an other garden very beautifull of all sortes of fruytes and
hearbes, with a great ponde walled with lyme and stone, and was foure
hundreth paces square, made with fayre steppes to discende vnto the
bottome in many places, and was full of diuers kindes of fishes, and
many kinde of water birds, which somtimes couered y^e pond, as Gulles,
Mewes, and such like. _Iztacpallapan_ is a towne of .10000. households,
& is pläted in a lake of salt water, the one half of the towne buylt on
the water, & the other on the lande.

 The Solemne pompe vvherevvith
 _Cortez was receyued into Mexico_.

From _Iztacpalapan_ to _Mexico_ is twoo leagues all vpon a fayre
calsey, vpon the which eight horsemë may passe on räke, and so directly
straight as though it had bene made by line. And who soeuer hath good
eiesight might discerne the gates of _Mexico_ from thence. _Coyoacan_
is a towne of sixe thousande dwellers, _Vizilopuchtli_ is of fiue
thousand. These townes are planted in the lake, and are adorned with
many temples, whiche haue many fayre towers, that doe beautifie
excedingly the lake. There is great contractatiö of Salte, which is
made there, and from thence is carried abrode to fayres and markets,
whiche thing was a greate rente to _Mutezuma_. Vpon this Calsey are
many drawebridges buylt vpon fayre arches that the water passeth

_Cortes_ passed this calsey with .400. Spaniardes, & .6000. _Indians_
his friends: theyr passage was with much ado, by reason of the great
multitude of _Indians_ which came to sée him, & cöming neare the
citie, there adioyned another calsey with a broder passage, where
standeth a strong bulwark of stone of the heigth of .ij. fadom, with
two towers on eche side, and two gates very strong. Here at this forte
came thrée thousande Courtiers and Citizens to receyue him, & euery
of them touched the grounde with his right hand and kissed it, and
passed forwards in the order as they came. These salutatiös endured an
houre & more. From the bulwark the calsey lieth directly, and before
the entraunce into the streate there is an other drawe bridge made of
timber ten paces broade, vnder the which the water passeth too and fro.
At this bridge came _Mutezuma_ to receyue _Cortes_ vnder a Canapie of
gréene feathers & golde with much argentery hangyng thereat, whiche
Canapie foure noble men did carry. And the two princes _Cuetlauac_, and
_Cacama_ his neuewes, did leade him by eache arme: all thrée were riche
appareled & al of one fashion, except _Mutezuma_, whiche had a payre
of shoes of golde besette with pretious stones, and the soles were
tied to the vpper part with latchets, as is paynted of the Antikes.
His Gentlemen wente by two and two laying downe and taking vp mantels
and couerlets vpon the ground, bicause his féete should not touche the
same: then followed him as in procession .200. noble men barefooted,
with garments of a richer liuery then the first thrée thousand.
_Mutezuma_ came in the middest of the streate, and the others came
behinde him as nigh the wal as they mought, their faces towards the
grounde, for it was a great offence to looke him in the face. _Cortes_
alighted from his horse, and according to our vse went to embrace him,
but the Princes who led him by the armes would not suffer him to come
so nigh, for they held it for sin to touch him, but yet saluted ech one
y^e other.

_Cortes_ put about _Mutezuma_ his necke a coller of Margarites,
Diamondes, & other stones al of glasse. _Mutezuma_ receyued it
thankfully, & wente before with one of the princes his Neuewes, &
cömaunded the other to lead _Cortes_ by the hand next after him in the
middest of the streat: and procéeding forwarde in this order, then came
the Gëtlemen in the richest liuery to welcome him one by one, touchyng
the ground with their handes, & after returned to their standyng. And
if the Citizens had come as they requested, all y^e day would not haue
serued for salutatiös. The coller of glasse pleased well _Mutezuma_,
and bycause he woulde not take without giuyng a better thing as a great
prince, he commaunded to be brought twoo collers of redde prawnes,
which there are muche estéemed, and at euery one of them hanged eight
shrimpes of gold of excellent workemanship, & of a finger length euery
one, he put these collers with the owne hands about _Cortes_ his necke,
the which was estéemed a most great fauour, yea and the _Indians_
marueled at it. At this time they were come to the streate ende, whiche
was almost a mile long, broade, straight and very fayre and full of
houses on eche side, in whose dores, windowes and tops was such a
multitude of _Indians_ to beholde the strangers, that I knowe not who
wondered most, our men to sée such a number of them, or else they to
sée our men, their ordinance & horses, a thing so straunge vnto them.
They were brought vnto a great court or house of idols, which was y^e
lodging of _Axaiaca_, at the dore where of _Mutezuma_ tooke _Cortes_
by the hande and brought him into a fayre hall, and placed him vpon a
riche carpet, saying vnto him, Sir nowe are you in your owne house,
eate and take your rest & pleasure, for I wil shortly come and visite
you againe. Such (as you heare) was the receiuing of _Hernando Cortes_
by _Mutezuma_ a most mightie King, into his great and famous Citie of
_Mexico_, the eight day of Nouember .1519.

 The Oration of Mutezuma to
 _the Spanyardes_.

[Sidenote: A strange opinion.]

The house where the Spaniardes were lodged was great and large, with
many fayre chambers sufficient for them all: it was nete, cleane
matted, and hanged with cloth of Cotten, and feathers of many colours,
pleasant to behold. When _Mutezuma_ was departed frö _Cortes_, he
began to sette his house in order, and placed the ordinaunce at his
dore, and hauing all his things in good sorte, he went to a sumptuous
dinner that was prepared for him. As soone as _Mutezuma_ had made an
ende of his dinner hearyng that the straungers were rysen from the
table, and reposed a while, then came he to _Cortes_, salutyng him,
and satte downe by him. He gaue vnto him diuers iewels of gold plate,
feathers, and many garmëts of Cotten, both riche, well woven, & wrought
of straunge colours, a thing comely, that did manifest his greatnesse,
and also cöfirme their imagination. This gifte was deliuered honorably,
and then began his talke as foloweth: Lorde and Gentlemen, I doe much
reioyce to haue in my house such valiant men as ye are, for to vse you
with curtesie, and entreate you with honour, according to your deserte
and my estate. And where heretofore I desired that you shoulde not come
hither, the onely cause was, my people had a greate feare to sée you,
for your gesture & grimme beards did terrifie them, yea, they reported
that yée had such beastes as swallowed men, and that your cöming
was frö heauen, bringing with you lightning, thunder & thüderbolts,
wherwith you made the earth to trëble & to shake, and that yée slew
therewith whom ye pleased. But now I do sée & know that you are mortall
më, & that ye are quiet & hurt no man: also I haue séene your horses,
which are but your seruauntes, and youre Gunnes lyke vnto shootyng
Trunkes. I do now hold all for fables and lyes which hath bin reported
of you, and I do also accept you for my méere kinsmen. My father tolde
me that hée had heard his forefathers say, of whome I doe descende,
that they helde opinion howe they were not naturals of thys lande, but
come hither by chance, in companye of a mighty Lorde, who after a while
that they hadde abode héere, they returned to their natiue soyle: After
manye yeares expyred, they came agayne for those whome they had left
héere behind them, but they would not goe wyth them, bycause they had
héere inhabited, and hadde wyues and children, and great gouernement in
the land. Nowe these myghtie Lords séeyng that they were so stubborne,
and woulde not returne with them, departed from them sore displeased,
saying, that he woulde sende his children that should both rule and
gouerne them, in iustice, peace, and auntient Religion, and for this
consideration, wée haue alwayes expected and beléeued, that suche a
people should come to rule and gouerne vs, and cösidering from whence
you come, I doe thinke that you are they whome we looked for, and the
notice which the greate Emperour _Charles_ had of vs, who hath now sent
you hither. Therefore Lorde and Captayne, be well assured, that we wyll
obey you, if there be no fayned or deceytefull matter in your dealings,
and will also deuide wyth you and youres all that we haue. And although
this which I haue sayde were not only for youre vertue, fame, and
déedes of valiant Gentlemen, I would yet do it for your worthinesse in
the battayles of _Tauasco_, _Teocazinco_, and _Chololla_, béeyng so
few, to ouercome so many.

Now agayne, if ye ymagine that I am a God, and the walles and routes of
my houses, and all my vessell of seruice to be of pure golde, as the
men of _Zempoallan_, _Tlaxcallan_, and _Huexozinco_ hath enformed you,
it is not so, and I iudge you to be so wise, that you giue no credit
to such fables. You shall also note, that through your commyng hither,
manye of my subiectes haue rebelled, and are become my mortall enimies,
but yet I purpose to breake their wings. Come féele you my body, I am
of fleshe and bone, a mortal man as others are, and no God, although
as a King I doe estéeme my selfe of a greater dignitie and preheminëce
than others. My houses you do also sée, which are of tymber and earthe,
and the principallest of Masons worke, therefore nowe you do both knowe
and sée what odious lyars those talebearers were. But troth it is, that
golde plate, feathers, armour, iewels, and other riches, I haue in the
treasory of my forefathers a long time preserued, as the vse of Kings
is, all the which you & yours shal enioy at all times. And now it may
please you to take your rest, for I know that you are wéery of your
iourney. _Cortez_ with ioyfull countenance humbled himselfe, séeing
some teares fall from _Mutezuma_ his eyes, saying vnto him, vppon the
trust I haue hadde in youre clemencye, I insisted to come both to sée
and talke wyth your highnesse, and now I know that all are lyes which
hath bin tolde me. The like youre highnesse hath hearde reported of
vs, assure youre selfe, that the Emperoure Kyng of _Spayne_ is your
naturall Lorde, whome yée haue expected for, he is the onely heyre from
whence youre lynage dothe procéede, and as touching the offer of youre
highnesse treasure, I do most hartyly thanke you.

[Sidenote: A louing aunsvvere.]

After all this communication, _Mutezuma_ demaunded whether the bearded
men whiche came with him, were eyther his vassals or his slaues,
bycause he would entertayne eache one according to his estate. _Cortes_
aunswered, that they were all his bréethren, friendes, and fellowes,
except some that were his seruauntes.

Then he departed, and wente home to his Pallace, and there enformed
himselfe particularlye who were Gentlemen, and who were not, and
according therevnto, sent euery one particular gift or present. To the
Gentlemen he sente the rewarde by his Controller, and to the Marriners
& other seruitors, by a Page of his housholde.

 The Maiestie and order, vvherevvith
 _Mutezuma was serued_.

Mvtezuma was a man of a small stature and leane, his couloure tawnie as
all the _Indians_ are. He hadde long heare on hys heade, sixe little
heares vppon him, as though they hadde bin put in with a bodkin. His
thinne bearde was blacke. Hée was a man of a fayre condition, and a
doer of Iustice, well spoken, graue and wise, beloued and feared among
his subiectes. _Mutezuma_ doth signifie sadnesse.

To y^e proper names of Kings and Lords, they do adde this sillable C.
whiche is for cortesie and dignitie, as we vse Lord. The Turke vseth
_Zultan_. The Moore or Barbarian calleth his Lorde _Mulley_, and so the
_Indians_ say _Mutezumazin_. His people hadde him in such reuerence,
that he permitted none to sit in his sight, nor yet in his presence to
weare shoes, nor looke him in the face, except very few Princes. He
was glad of the conuersation of the _Spanyardes_, and would not suffer
them to stande on foote, for the great estimation he had of them, and
if he lyked any of the _Spanyardes_ garments, he woulde exchange his
apparrell for theirs.

He changed his owne apparell foure times euery day, and he neuer
clothed himselfe agayne with the garmentes whiche he hadde once worne,
but all suche were kept in his Guardrobe, for to giue in presents to
his seruantes and Ambassadors, and vnto valiante souldyers which had
takë any enimie prisoner, and that was estéemed a great reward, and a
title of priuiledge.

The costly mätels whereof had bin diuers sent to _Cortes_, were of the
same Guardrobe.

_Mutezuma_ went alwayes very net and fine in hys attire. He bathed him
in his hotehouse foure times euerye day. He went seldome out of his
Chamber, but when hée went to his meate. He eate alwayes alone, but
solemnelye and with great abundance. His table was a pillowe, or else a
couple of coulloured skynnes. His Chayre was a fourefooted stole made
of one péece, and hollowe in the middest, well wroughte and paynted.
His table clothes, napkins and towels were made of Cotten woll, verye
white and newe, for he was neuer serued but once wyth that naperie.
Foure hundred Pages broughte in hys meate, all sonnes of greate Lordes,
and placed it vppon a table in his greate Hall. The meate béeyng
broughte in, then came _Mutezuma_ to beholde the dishes, and appoynted
those dishes that liked him best, and chafing dishes were prepared
to kéepe that meate warme, and seldome would eate of any other dish,
except the Lord Stewarde or Controller should highly commende any other

Before he sate downe, came twentie of his wiues of the fayrest and best
estéemed, or else those that serued wéekely by turne, broughte in the
bason and ewer, wyth greate humblenesse. This done, he sate him downe,
and then came the Lord Steward, and drewe a wodden nette before him,
bycause none shoulde come nigh his table. And this noble man alone
placed the dishes, and also tooke them away, for the Pages who broughte
in the meate came not néere the table, nor yet spake any word, nor no
man else.

While the Lord _Mutezuma_ was at his meate, excepte some Iester, they
al serued him barefooted. There assisted alwayes somewhat a farre
off, sixe auntiente and noble men, vnto whome he vsed to giue of the
dish that best lyked him, who receyued the same at his hande with
greate reuerence, and eate it incontinent, without loking in his
face, whiche was the greatest humilitie that they coulde vse before
him. He had musike of Fiddle, Flute, and of a Snayle shell, and a
Caudron couered with a skinne, and suche other strange instrumentes.
They hadde very euill voyces to sing. Always at dinner time he had
Dwarfes, crookebackes, and other deformed counterfets, all for maiestie
and to laugh at, who hadde their meate in the Hall among the Iesters
and Idyots, whiche were fedde with parte of the meate that came from
_Mutezuma_ hys table, all the rest of the meate was giuen to thrée
thousand of the Guard, who attended ordinarily in the yarde or court,
and therefore they say that there was broughte for his table thrée
thousande dishes, and as manye pottes of wine, suche as they vse, and
that continually the buttrey and Pantrey stoode open, whiche was a
wonder to sée what was in them. The platters, dishes, and cuppes, were
al of earth, whereof the King was serued but once, and so frö meale to
meale new. He had likewise his seruice of golde and plate verye riche,
but he vsed not to bée serued with it, (they say) bycause he woulde not
be serued twice therewith, the whiche he thoughte a base thing. Some
affirme, that yong children were slayne and dressed in diuers kind of
dishes for _Mutezuma_ his table, but it was not so, only of mans flesh
sacrifised he fedde nowe and then. The table being taken vp, then came
againe the Gentlewomen to bring water for his hands, with the like
reuerëce as they vsed at the first, and then went they to dinner with
the other wiues, so that then the Gentlemen and Pages waited as their
course fell.

 The footeplayers that played
 _before Mutezuma_.

VVhen his table was taken vp, and his seruitors gone to meate,
_Mutezuma_ sate stil: then came in the suiters that hadde any
affayres to deale with him, barefoted, for all the persons did vse
that reuerence, excepte some Princes his kinsmen, as the Lordes of
_Tescuco_, and _Tlacopan_, and a fewe others: and béeing colde weather,
they vsed to weare olde ragged clothes vppon theyr riche garmentes.
Al suiters vsed to make thrée or foure curtesies, not loking toward
his face, and speaking vnto him their heads downewardes, and in that
order retyred backe agayne. _Mutezuma_ aunswered his suiters very
grauely, with lowe voyce, and in fewe words, and not to al suiters,
for others his secretaries or counsellers that stoode by, answered for
him, and hauyng their aunswere, they returned backewardes, not turning
their tayles to the prince. After these businesses done, hée vsed some
recreation, hearing Iesters or songs, wherein he delighted much, or
else to looke vpon the players, who play with their féete, as we doe
with oure handes. These haue a cudgell like vnto a pastlers rowler,
whiche they tosse high and lowe, as it were a bal in the ayre, straunge
to beholde. They vse other playes to passe the tyme, in such an order,
that it séemed maruellous to the lookers on. _Cortez_ broughte into
_Spayne_ some of these players. Also they vse _Matachines_, in suche
sorte they do play, that they stand each vppon others shoulders, and
he that standeth highest, sheweth many feates. Sometime _Mutezuma_ did
beholde the players, who played at a game called _Patoliztli_, whiche
is muche like oure Tables, and they play with beanes, squared like
dice, which they call _Patolli_, and throw them out of both their hands
vpon a matte, or else vpon the ground, where are made certaine strikes,
vpon which they set downe the chance that is throwen: and at this game
they play all that they haue, and many tymes they valew theyr owne
bodyes, and play that into captiuitie, and to remayne a slaue, I meane
such as are common gamesters of small estate.

 The Tennis play in Mexico.

Sometimes _Mutezuma_ went to the Tennis Courte. Their ball is called
_Villamaliztli_, and is made of the gumme which commeth from a trée
called _Vlli_. This trée groweth in a hote Countrey. The gumme being
kneded togither, and so made roüd, is as blacke as pitch, and somewhat
heauie, and very harde for the hande, but yet good and light to
rebound, and better than our windballes. They play not at chases,
but at bädie, or at check, that is, if the ball touch the wall, it
loseth. They maye strike the ball with any part of their body, but
there is alwayes a penaltie if they only strike not with the buttoke
or side, whiche is the finest play: wherefore they vse a skynne vpon
eache buttocke. They play so many to so many for a packe of mantels,
or according to the abilitie of the players. Also they play for golde
and feathers, and sometime for their owne bodyes, as they vse at
_Patolli_, which is there permitted & lawfull. The Tennis Court is
called _Tlachco_, and is a Hall long and narrow, but wyder vpwards,
than downewardes, and higher on the sides than at y^e ends, which is an
industrie for their play. The house is always white and smooth in the
side walles: they haue certain stones like vnto mylstones, w^t a little
hole in the middest that passeth through the stone, the hole is so
small, that scarcely the ball maye passe through, but hée that chanceth
to strike the ball into the hole, whiche seldome happeneth, winneth
the game, and by an auntiente lawe and custome among Tennis players,
he ought to haue the clokes of all those that stande and beholde the
play, on that side that the ball went in, and in some Tennis Courtes,
the halfe of the garmentes of them that stande lookyng on. The winner
is then bounde to make certayne sacrifice to the God of the Tennis
play, and to the stone where the ball entred. The beholders of the play
woulde saye, that suche a wynner should be a thiefe and an adulterer,
or else that he shoulde dye quickly.

They vsed in the Temple of the Tennis play two Images of the God of
the ball, which stoode vpon the two lower walles. Their Sacrifice
was celebrated at midnighte, with many Ceremonies and Witchcraftes,
and songs for that purpose. Then came a Prieste from the Cathedrall
Churche, wyth other Religious persons to blesse the Sacrifice, saying
certayne diuelishe prayers, and throwing the ball four tymes in the
Tennis Court. In thys order was the Tennis play consecrated, and
after thys consecration it was lawfull to play, or else not, for this
dilligence was firste to be done when any Tennis Court or play was
newly built.

The owner of the Tennis Courte also woulde neuer suffer any to play,
vntill he had first offered something to the Idoll, theyr superstition
was so great.

_Mutezuma_ broughte the _Spanyardes_ to behold this pastyme, and gaue
thë to vnderstande, y^t he delyghted much in thys game, and also to sée
our men play at Cardes and Dyce.

 The number of vviues that Mutezuma
 _had in his house_.

_Mvtezuma_ had many houses as wel in _Mexico_ as without, for his
recreation and pleasure, as also for his ordinary dwelling. To write of
al it should be tedious, but where his continual abyding was, he named
_Tepac_, that is to say, Pallace. And that Pallace had twenty dores or
gates which had their outcomming into the cömon streates.

It hath thrée courtes, and in the one standeth a fayre fountaine, many
halles, and a hundred chambers of twentie-thrée, and thirtie foote
long, an hundered bathes & hothouses: and although the building was
without nayles, yet very good workmanship.

The walles were made of masons work, and wrought of Marble, Iaspe, and
other blacke stone, with vaines of redde, like vnto rubies and other
stones, whiche glistered very fayre: the Rooffes wer wrought of Tymber,
and curiously carued: the Timber was Cedre, Cipers, & Pynetree: the
chambers were painted and hong with cloth of cotten, and clothe made of
Conneys haire and feathers. The beddes were poore and of no vallew, for
they were nothing but Mantels layde vpon mattes, or vpon Hay, or else
mattes alone: fewe men lay within those houses.

There were a thousande women, and some affyrme y^t there were thrée
thousand, accounting gentlewomen, seruaunts and slaues: the most were
noble mens daughters, _Mutezuma_ toke of them for himselfe, those that
liked him best, and the others he gaue in mariage to Gentlemen his

The saying was that he had at one tyme a hundreth & fiftie women hys
wiues with childe, who through the perswasion of the Deuill tooke
Medicines to caste theyr creatures, bycause they knewe that they
shoulde not inherite the state: these hys wiues had many olde women for
their Guarde, for no man was permitted to looke vpon them.

The shielde of armes that is sette in his pallayce, and likewyse
carried to the warres, is an Eagle soryng vpon a Tiger hys talents
bente as takyng pray. Some thynk it is a Gryphon and not an Egle. The
Gryphons in time paste, say they, did cause the vale of _Auacatlan_ to
be dispeopled, for they were greate deuourers of menne, and that theyr
abidyng was in the Mountaynes of _Teoacan_: they approue that these
Mountains were called _Cuitlachtepelt_, of _Cuitlachtli_, which is a
Gryphon bigger than a Lion: but the Spaniardes dyd neuer sée any of

The _Indians_ by theyr olde Pictures doe paynt those Gryphons to haue
a kynde of heare and no feathers, and also affirme, that with theyr
talandes & téeth they breake mens bones. They haue the courage of a
Lion and the countenaunce of an Egle: they paynte him with foure féete,
and téeth, with a kinde of downe more lyke woolle than feathers, with
his beake, talandes and wings.

And in all those things the picture agreeth with our paynting and
wryting, in suche sorte that a Gryphon is no approued naturall Foule,
nor yet beast. _Plinie_ iudgeth this tale of Gryphons to be lies. There
are also other Lordes that giue the Gryphon in their armes, flying with
a harte in his Talandes.

 A house of Foule, vvhiche vvere onely
 _preserued for their feathers_.

_Mvtezuma_ had another house, with very good lodgings and fayre
gallaries, buylt vpö pillers of Iaspe, whiche extendeth towarde a
goodly garden, in the whiche there are ten pondes or moe, some of salte
water for sea foule, & other some of fresh water for riuer foule and
lake foule, which pondes are deuised w^t sluyses to emptie & to fill
at their pleasure for the cleannesse of the feathers. There is such
a number of foule, that scarcely the ponds may holde them, and of
suche diuers kindes bothe in feathers and makyng, as sure it was an
admiration for the Spaniardes to beholde, for the moste of them they
knew not, nor yet had at any tyme séene the lyke. And to euery kynde
of foule they gaue suche bayte as they were wont to féede of in the
fieldes or Riuers. There did belong to that house thrée hundred persons
of seruice: some were to clense the pondes: other some did fishe for
bayte: other some serued them with meate: other did loose them and
trimme theyr feathers: others had care to looke to their egges: others
to sette them abroode: others cured them when they were sicke: and the
principallest office was to plucke the feathers: for of them was made
riche Mantels, Tapissarie, Targattes, Tuffes of feathers, and many
other things wrought with Golde and Siluer: a most perfite worke.

 A house of foule for havvking and other
 _straunge things_.

There is another house with large quarters & lodgings, which is called
a house for foule, not bycause there are more thä in the other, but
bycause they bee bigger and to hauke withal, and are foule of rapine,
wherfore they are estéemed as more nobler than al the others.

There are in this house many high halles, in the whiche are kept men,
women and Children: in some of them are kept suche as are borne white
of colour, which doth very seldome happen: in other some are dwarfes,
crokebackes, burstenmen, counterfaites, and monstrous persons, in
greate number: they say that they vsed to deforme them when they were
children, to sette forth the kings greatnesse: euery of these persons
were in seuerall Halles by themselues.

In the lower Halles were greate Cages made of Tymber: in some of them
were Lyons, in other Tygres, in other Ownzes, in others Wolues: in
conclusion, there was no foure footed beaste that wanted there, onely
to the effect that the mightie _Mutezuma_ might say that hee had such
things in his house.

They were fed with their ordinary, as Gynea cockes, Deare, Dogges, and
such like.

There was also in other Halles great Earthen vessels, some with earth,
and some with water, wherin were snakes, as grosse as a mans thigh,
Vipers, Crocodrilles, whiche they cal _Caymanes_, or _Lizarts_ of
twenty foote long, wyth suche Scales and head as a Dragon hathe: Also
other little Lisarts, and other venemous beastes and Serpentes as well
of the water as of the land, a terrible sight for the lokers on.

There were also other Cages for foule of rapyne of all sortes, as
Hawkes, Kyghtes, Boyters, and at the least nine or ten kind of Haukes.
This house of foule had of dayly allowance fiue hundred Gynea cockes,
and thrée hundred men of seruice, besides the Falconers and Hunters,
which are infinite. There were many other sortes of Foules that our men
knowe not, which séemed by theyr beake and talents good to Hauke withal.

To the Snakes and other venemous beastes they gaue the bloude of men
sacrifised, to féede them, and some saye they gaue vnto them mannes
fleshe, whych the greate Lysarts doe eate very well. The Spaniardes saw
the floure couered with bloud like a iealy in a slaughter house, it
stonke horribly.

It was straunge to sée the officers in this house howe euery one was
occupied. Our men tooke greate pleasure in beholding suche straunge
thyngs, but they coulde not awaye wyth the roaryng of the Lyons, the
fearefull hissing of the Snakes and Adders, the dolefull howling and
barking of the Wolues, the sorowfull yelling of the Ownzes & Tigres,
when they would haue meate.

Moste certaine, in the nighte season it séemed a Dongeon of Hell, and
a dwelling place of the Deuill, and euen so it was indéede, for neare
at hande was a Hall of a hüdred & fiftie foote long, and thirtie foote
broad, where was a Chappel with the Roofe of siluer and gold in leafe
Wainescotted, and decked with greate store of pearle and stone, as
Agattes, Cornerines, Emeraldes, Rubies, and diuerse other sortes, and
thys was the Oratory where _Mutezuma_ prayed in the nighte season, and
in that chappell the Diuell did appeare vnto hym, and gaue him answere
accordyng to his prayers.

He had other houses lyke vnto Barnes, onely for the feathers of foules,
and for mantels whiche procéeded of his rentes and tributes, a thing
muche to be séene: vpon the dores was sette his armes, whiche was a

Here dwelled the chiefe officers of his house, as Tresorer, Controller,
Receyuers and other officers appertainyng to the Kings reuenewes.
_Mutezuma_ had no house wherein was not an oratory for the Deuill,
whome they worshipped for the Iewels there. And therefore those houses
were great and large.

 The Armory of Mutezuma.

_Mvtezuma_ had some houses of Armour, vpon the dores wherof stoode
a bow and arrowes. In these houses was greate store of all kinde of
munition whiche they vse in their wars: as Bowes, Arrowes, Slings,
Launces, Dartes, Clubbes, Swordes and Bucklers, and gallant Targettes
more trimme than strong, Skulles and Splintes, but not many, and al
made of woodde, gilte or couered with leather. The woodde whereof they
make their Armour and Targettes, is very harde and strong, for they
vse to toaste it at the fire, and at their arrowe endes they inclose
a litle péece of flinte stone, or a péece of a fishe bone called
_Libisa_, and that is venemous, for if any bée hurte therewith and
the head remayne in the wounde, it so festereth, that it is almost

Theyr swordes are of woodde, and the edge thereof is flint stone,
inclosed or ioyned into a staffe, with a certaine kynde of glew whiche
is made of a roote called _Zacole_ and _Teuxalli_, whiche is a kinde
of strong sande, whereof they make a mixture, and after kneade it
with bloud of Battes or Rearemice and other foule, which doth glewe
maruelous strong, and lightly neuer vncleaueth: of this stuffe they
make nayles, pearcers, & ogars, wherwith they bore timber & stone:
with theyr swordes they cut speares, yea and a horse necke at a blowe,
and make dentes into iron, whiche séemeth a thing vnpossible and
incredible. In the Citie no man may weare weapon, but onely in warres,
huntyng, and among the kings Guarde.

 The Gardens of Mutezuma.

Besides the foresayde houses hée had many others for hys onely
recreation and passetyme, with excellent fayre gardens of medicinall
hearbes, swéete floures, and trées of delectable sauour, whiche were
many, and a thing to gyue prayse to God the maker and creator of all.

In that Garden were a thousande personages, made and wrought
artificially of leaues and flowers. _Mutezuma_ woulde not permitte that
in this Garden shoulde be any kynde of potte Hearbes, or thyngs to be
solde, saying, that it dyd not appertayne to Kings to haue thyngs of
profite among theyr delytes and pleasures, for suche thyngs (sayde hée)
dyd appertayne to Merchants.

Yet notwithstanding he had Orchards with many and sundry fruites,
but they stoode farre from the Cittie, and whyther seldome times hee
wente: he had likewise out of _Mexico_ pleasaunte houses in wooddes
and forrestes, of greate compasse, enuyroned with water, in the which
he hadde fountaynes, riuers, pondes with fishe, warrantes of Conneys,
rockes & couert where were Harts, Buckes, Hares, Foxes, Wolues, and
such like, with wildernesse for euery sort.

To these places the Lords of _Mexico_, vsed to goe and sporte
themselues, suche and so manye were the houses of _Mutezuma_, wherein
fewe Kings were equall with him.

 The court and Guarde of

He had dayly attending vppon hym in hys priuye garde sixe hundred noble
men and gentlemen, and eche of them thrée or foure seruants, and some
hadde twenty seruaunts or moe, according to his estate: and in this
maner he had thrée thousand men attendant in his court, and some affirm
more, al the which were fed in his house of the meate that came from
his table.

The seruing men alwayes abode belowe in the court all the daye, and
wente not from thence tyll after Supper.

It is to be thought that his Guard was the greater, bycause the
straungers were there, although in effecte of troth it is most
certayne, that all the Lords that are vnder the _Mexicall_ Empire (as
they say) are thirtie persons of high estate, who are able to make each
of them a hundred thousand men. There are thrée thousand Lordes of
Townes, who haue many vassals.

These noble menne did abide in _Mexico_ certayne tyme of the yeare,
in the Court of _Mutezuma_, and could not departe from thence without
especiall licence of the Emperoure, leauing each of them a sonne or
brother behinde them for securitie or Rebellion, and for this cause
they had generally houses in the Citie: such and so great was the court
of _Mutezuma_.

 The great subiection of the Indians
 _to their King_.

There is not in all the dominions of _Mutezuma_ any subiect that payeth
not tribute vnto him. The noblemen paye theyr tribute in personall
seruice. The husbädmen called _Maceualtin_, with body & goodes. In this
sort they are eyther tenauntes, or else heyres to their possessions.
Those which are heyres, do pay one third part of all their fruite and
commoditie that they doe reape or bring vp, as Dogges, Hennes, Foule,
Conyes, Gold, Siluer, Stones, Salt, Waxe, Honey, Mantels, Feathers,
Cotten, and a certayne fruite called _Cacao_, that serueth for money,
and also to eate. Also all kinde of grayne, and garden Herbes and
fruites, whereof they do maynteyne themselues.

The Tenantes doe paye monethly or yearely as they can agrée, and
bycause their tribute is greate, they are called slaues, for when
they maye haue licence to eate egges, they thinke it a greate fauour.
It was reported that they were taxed what they shoulde eate, and all
the residue was taken from them. They went very poorely clothed, yea
and the most of their treasure was an earthë potte, wherein they
boyled theyr herbes, a couple of Milstones to grinde their Corne, and
a matte to lye vppon. They did not onely pay this rente and tribute,
but also serued with their bodyes at all times when the great King
should commaunde. They were in such great subiectiö to their prince,
that they durst not speake one word, although their daughters shoulde
be taken from them to be vsed at their pleasure. It was reported, that
of euerye thrée sonnes, they deliuered one to be sacrifised, but y^e
report was false, for if it had bin true, the Townes had not bin so
replenished with people as they were: and also the noble men did not
eate mans flesh, but only of those whiche were sacrifised, and they
were slaues or prisoners taken in the warres. Assuredly they were
cruell butchers, and slewe yearely for that bloudy sacrifice many
menne, and some children, but not so many as was reported. All the
aforesayde rentes they brought to _Mexico_ vpon theyr backes and in
boates, I meane so much as was necessary for the prouision of the house
and Courte of _Mutezuma_, all the residue was spente among souldyers,
and bartred for golde, plate, precious stones, and other riche Iewels,
estéemed of Princes, all the whiche was broughte to the treasory. In
_Mexico_ was large and greate barnes and houses to receyue and kéepe
the Corne for prouision of the Citie, with officers and vnderofficers,
who did receyue the same, and kepte accompte thereof in bookes of
paynted figures. Also in euerye Towne was a receyuer, who bare in his
hand a rodde or a bushe of feathers, and those gaue vp their accomptes
in _Mexico_. If any such had bin taken with deceypt and falsehoode,
death was his reward, yea and his kinred punished with penalties, as of
a lignage of a Traytor to his Prince. The Husbandmenne, if they payd
not well their tribute, were apprehended for the same, and if they were
founde to bée poore through sicknesse and infirmitie, then they were
borne withall, but if they were found to be lazie and slouthfull, they
should be vsed accordingly: but in conclusion, if they payde if not at
a daye appoynted, then they shoulde bée solde for slaues to pay their
dette, or else be sacrificed.

There were many other prouinces, whiche paid a certayne portion, and
reknowledged seruice, but this tribute was more of honor than profite.
In this sort _Mutezuma_ had more than sufficiente to prouide his house
& warres, and to heape vp greate store in his treasory. Moreouer, he
spente nothing in the buildings of his houses, for of long time he
had certayne townes that payd no other tribute, but only to worke and
repayre continually his houses at their owne proper cost, and payde all
kind of workemen, carrying vpon their backes, or drawing in sleddes,
stone, lyme, timber, water, and all other necessaries for the worke.
Likewise they were bounde to prouide all the fierwod that should be
spent in the Court, whiche was a great thing, and did amount to 230.
hüdred waight a day, which was fiue hundred mens burthens, and some
dayes in the winter much more. And for the Kings Chimneys they brought
the barke of Oke trées, whiche was best estéemed for the light thereof,
for they were greate sorcerers. _Mutezuma_ had 100. cities with their
prouinces, of whome he receiued rentes, tributes, & vassalage, where
he mainteined garrison of souldiers, & had treasorers in each of thë.
His dominiö did extend from the North sea to the South sea, & 600.
miles in lögitude within the maine läd, although in very déed ther were
some towns, as _Tlaxcallö_, _Mechuacan_, _Panuco_, and _Teocantepec_,
whiche were his enimies, and payde him neyther tribute nor seruice: but
yet the ransome was muche, when any of them were taken.

Also there were other kings and noble men, as of _Tezcuco_ and
_Tlacopan_, which were not in subiection vnto him, but onely in homage
and obedience, for they were of his owne lignage, vnto whome _Mutezuma_
married hys daughters.

 The scituation of Mexico.

_Mexico_ at the time when _Cortes_ entred, was a Citie of sixtye
thousande houses. The Kings house and other noble mens houses were
great, large, and beautifull, the others were small and roynish,
without eyther dores or windowes: and although they were small, yet
there dwelled in some of them two, thrée, yea and tenne persons, by
reason whereof, the Citie was wonderfully replenished with people.

This Citie is built vpon the water, euen in the same order as _Venice_
is. All the body of the Citie standeth in a greate large lake of water.
There is thrée sortes of stréetes very broade and fayre, the one sorte
are onely of water, with many bridges, an other sort of onely earth,
and the thirde of earth and water, that is to saye, the one halfe
earth to walke vpon, and the other halfe for boates to bring prouision
of all sorts. These stréetes are kepte alwayes cleane, and the moste
parte of the houses haue two dores, the one towarde the calsey, and
the other towarde the water, at the whiche they take boate to goe
where they list. And although this Citie is founded vppon water, yet
the same water is not good to drynke, wherefore there is broughte by
conduit water from a place called _Chapultepec_, thrée myles distant
from the Citie, which springeth out of a little hill, at the foote
whereof standeth two Statues or couered Images wrought in stone, with
their Targettes and Launces, the one is of _Mutezuma_, and the other of
_Axaiaca_ his father.

The water is broughte from thence in two pypes or Canalls in greate
quantitie, and when the one is foule, then all the water is conuayed
into the other, til the first be made cleane. From this fountayne al
the whole Citie is prouided, so that they goe selling the same water
from stréete to stréete in little boates, and doe paye a certayne
tribute for the same.

This Citie is deuided into two stréetes, the one was called
_Tlatelulco_, that is to say, a litle Iland, and the other _Mexico_,
where _Mutezuma_ his dwelling and courte was, & is to be interpreted a
spring. This stréete is the fayrest and most principall, and bycause of
the Kings pallace there, the Citie was named _Mexico_, although the old
and first name of the Citie was _Tenuchtitlan_, whiche doth signifie
fruite out of stone, for the name is compounded of _Tetl_, which is,
stone, and _Nuchtli_, which is fruite, called in _Cuba_, _Tunas_. The
trée that beareth this fruite, is named _Nopal_, and is nothing almost
but leaues of a foote broade and round, and thrée ynches thicke, some
more, and some lesse, according to the growth, full of thornes whiche
are venemous: the leafe is gréene, and the thorne or pricke russet.
After that it is planted, it encreaseth, growing leafe vnto leafe, and
the foote thereof commeth to bée as the body of a trée, and one leafe
dothe not onely produce another at the poynt, but at the sides of the
same leaues procéedeth other leaues: And bycause héere in _Spayne_ is
of the same trées and fruite, it néedeth no further description.

In some prouinces where water is scante, they vse to drynke the iuice
of these leaues. The fruite thereof called _Nuchtli_, is lyke vnto
fygges, and euen so hathe hys little kernels or graynes within, but
they are somewhat larger, and crowned lyke vnto a Medler. There are of
them of sundrye coloures, some are gréene without, and Carnationlike
within, which haue a good tast. Others are yellowe, and others white,
and some speckled: the best sort are the white: it is a fruite that
will last long.

Some of them tasteth of peares, and other some of Grapes: it is a
colde and fresh fruite, and best estéemed in the heate of Sommer. The
_Spanyardes_ doe more estéeme them than the _Indians_. The more the
grounde is laboured where they growe, the fruite is so muche the better.

There is yet another kinde of this fruite redde, and that is nothing
estéemed, although his tast is not euill, but bycause it dothe coloure
and dye the eaters mouth, lippes, and apparell, yea and maketh his
vryne looke like pure bloud. Many _Spanyardes_ at their first comming
into _India_, and eating this fruite, were in a maze, and at their
wittes ende, thinking that all the bloud in their bodyes came out in
vryne: yea and manye Phisitions at theyr first comming were of the same
beliefe: for it hathe happened, when they haue bin sent for vnto such
as haue eaten this fruite, they not knowing the cause, and beholding
the vryne, by and by they ministred medicine to staunch bloud: surely
a thing to laugh at, to sée the Phisitions so deceyued. Of this fruite
_Nuchtli_ and _Tetl_, which is a stone, is compounded _Tenuchtlitan_.
When this Citie was begunne to bée founded, it was placed néere vnto
a great stone that stoode in the middest of the lake, at the foote
whereof grewe one of these _Nopal_ trées, and therefore _Mexico_ giueth
for armes and deuise the foote of a _Nopal_ trée springing from a
stone, according to the Cities name.

Others do affirme, that this Citie hathe the name of his first founder,
called _Tenuch_, béeyng the seconde sonne of _Iztacmixcoatl_, whose
sonnes and descendentes did first inhabite thys lande of _Ananac_,
called nowe newe _Spayne_.

Howsoeuer the opinions are, certayne it is that the scituation is
called _Tenuchtlitan_, and the dwellers there _Tenuchca Mexico_.

_Mexico_ is as much to say, as a spring or fountayne, according to the
propertie of the vowell and spéech.

Others doe affirme, that _Mexico_ hathe his name of a more auntiente
time, whose firste founders were called _Mexiti_, for vnto this day the
_Indian_ dwellers in one strete of this citie are called of _Mexica_.
The _Mexiti_ tooke name of their principallest Idoll called _Mexitli_,
who was in as greate veneration as _Vitzilopuchtli_, God of the warre.

_Mexico_ is enuironed with swéete water, and hathe thrée wayes to come
vnto it by calsey, the one is from the West, and that calsey is a mile
and a halfe long. Another from the North, and conteyneth thrée myles in
length. Eastwarde the Citie hathe no entrye. But Southwarde the Calsey
is syxe myles long, whyche was the waye that _Cortez_ entred into the

The lake that _Mexico_ is planted in, although it séemeth one, yet it
is two, for the one is of water saltishe, bitter, and pestiferous, and
no kinde of fyshe lyueth in it. And the other water is wholesome, good
and swéete, and bringeth forth small fishe.

The salte water ebbeth and floweth, accordyng to the winde that
bloweth. The swéete water standeth higher, so that the good water
falleth into the euill, and reuerteth not backward, as some hold
opinion. The salt lake conteyneth fiftéene miles in breadth and
fiftéene in length, and more than fiue and fortie in circuite, and the
lake of swéete water conteyneth euen as muche, in such sort, that the
whole lake conteyneth more than thirtie leagues, and hath about fiftie
townes scituated round about it, many of whyche Townes doe conteyne
fiue thousand housholdes, and some tenne thousande, yea and one Towne
called _Tezcuco_, is as bigge as _Mexico_. Al this lake of water
springeth out of a Mountayne that standeth within sight of _Mexico_.
The cause that the one part of the lake is brackishe or saltish, is,
that the bottome or ground is all salte, and of that water greate
quantitie of salt is dayly made.

In this greate lake are aboue two hundred thousande little boates,
which the _Indians_ call _Acalles_, and the _Spanyardes_ call them
_Canoas_, according to the spéeche of _Cuba_ and _Santo Domingo_,
wrought like a kneding trough: some are bigger than other some,
according to the greatenesse of the body of y^e trée whereof they
are made. And where I number two hüdred thousand of these boates, I
speake of the least, for _Mexico_ alone hathe aboue fiftie thousande
ordinarily to carrie and bring vnto the Citie victuall, prouision, and
passengers, so that on the market day all y^e stréetes of water are
full of them.

 The Market place of Mexico.

The Market is called in the _Indian_ tong _Tlanquiztli_: euery parish
hath his Market place to buy and sel in: but _Mexico_, and _Tlatelulco_
only, which are y^e chiefest cities, haue great fayres and places
fitte for the same, and especiallye _Mexico_ hath one place where most
dayes in the yeare is buying and selling, but euery fourth day is the
greate Market ordinaryly: and the like custome is vsed throughout the
dominions of _Mutezuma_.

This place is wide and large, compassed round about with dores, and is
so great, that a hundered thousand persons come thither to choppe and
change, as a Cittie most principall in all that region. Wherefore the
resort is frö farre parties vnto that place. Euery occupatiö and kinde
of Marchädise hath his proper place appointed, which no other may by
any means occupy or disturbe. Likewise pesterous wares haue their place
accordinglye, (that is to say) stone, timber, lyme, bricke, and all
kinde of stuffe vnwrought, being necessarie to buylde withall. Also
mattes both fine and course of sundry workemanship, also coles, woodde,
and all sorts of Earthen vessell glazed and painted very curiously:
Deare skinnes both rawe and tanned in haire and without haire, of many
colours, for shoomakers, for bucklers, Targets, Ierkins, and lyning of
woodden Corselets: also skinnes of other beastes and foule in feathers
ready dressed of all sortes, the colours and straungnesse thereof was
a thing to behold. The richest Marchandise was salte, and mantels of
Cotten wolle of diuers colours, both great and small, some for beddes,
others for garments and clothing, other for Tapissarie to hang houses,
other cotten clothe for linnen breaches, shirtes, table clothes,
towels, napkins, and suche like things.

There were also Mantels made of the leaues of the trée called _Metl_,
and of Palme trée, & Connie heare, which are wel estéemed, being very
warm, but y^e couerlets made of feathers are the best: they sell
thréede made of Connie heare, péeces of linnen clothe made of cotten
wolle, also skaynes of thréede of all colours: also it is straunge to
sée the great store of poultrie that is brought to that market, and
although they eate the fleshe of the foule, yet the feathers serue
for clothing, mixyng one sorte with another. There are of these foule
so many sortes and seuerall colours, that I can not number them: some
wilde, some tame, some water foule, and other some of rapine. All the
brauery of the market, is the place where golde and feathers ioyntly
wrought is solde, for any thyng that is in request is there liuely
wrought in golde and feathers and gallant colours. The _Indians_ are
so expert and perfite in this science, that they will worke or make a
Butterflie, any wilde beaste, trées, roses, floures, hearbes, rootes
or any other thyng so liuely, that it is a thyng maruelous to behold.
It hapneth many tymes that one of these workemen in a whole day will
eate nothyng, onely to place one feather in his dew perfection, turnyng
and tossing the feather to the lighte of the Sunne, into the shade
or darke place, to sée where is his moste naturall perfection, and
till his worke be finished he will neyther eate nor drinke. There are
few nations of so muche fleame or sufferance. The Arte or Science of
Goldsmiths among them is the moste curious, and very good workemanship
engrauen with toles made of flinte, or in moulde. They will caste a
platter in moulde with eight corners, and euery corner of seuerall
mettall, that is to say, the one of golde, and the other of siluer,
without any kinde of sowder: they will also founde or cast a litle
caudren with lose handles hangyng thereat, as we vse to caste a Bell:
they will also caste in mould a fish of mettal with one scale of siluer
on his back and another of gold: they will make a Parret or Popingay of
mettall, that his tongue shall shake, and his head moue, & his wings
flutter: they wil caste an Ape in mold, that both hands & féete shall
stirre, & holde a spindle in his hande séeming to spinne, yea and an
apple in his hande as though he would eate it. Our Spaniardes were not
a litle amazed at the sight of these things, for our Goldsmithes are
not to be compared vnto them. They haue skil also of Amell worke, and
to sette any pretious stone. But now as touchyng the markette, there
is sell Golde, Siluer, Copper, Leadde, Latton, and Tinne, although
there is but little of the thrée laste mettals mentioned. There are
Pearles, Pretious stones, diuers and sundry sortes of Shelles, and
Bones, Sponges, and other pedlers ware, whiche certainely are many
and straunge sortes, yea and a thing to laughe at their Haberdashe
toyes and trifles. There are also many kinde of hearbes, rootes, and
séedes, as well to be eaten as for Medicine, for bothe men, wemen and
chyldren haue great knowledge in hearbes, for through pouertie and
necessitie, they séeke them for theyr sustenaunce and helpe of theyr
infirmities and diseases. They spende little among Phisitions, although
there are some of that Arte, and many Poticaries, who doe bryng into
the markette, oyntments, Siroppes, waters, and other drugges fitte for
sicke Persons: they cure all diseases almost, with hearbes, yea as
muche as for to kill lyse they haue a proper hearbe for the purpose.

The seuerall kyndes of meates to be solde is without number, as Snakes
without head & tayle, little Dogges gelte, Moules, Rattes, Long wormes,
Lyse, yea and a kinde of earth, for at one season in the yéere they
haue Nettes of mayle with the which they rake vp a certayne duste that
is bredde vpon the water of the lake of _Mexico_, and that is knéeded
togither like vnto oas of the sea: they gather much of this victuall,
& kéepe it in heapes, & make thereof cakes like vnto brickebats: they
sell not only this ware in y^e market, but also send it abroad to other
fayres & markets a far of: they eat this meate w^t as good stomake as
we eate chéese, yea and they holde opinion that this skume or fatnesse
of the water, is y^e cause that such great number of foule cömeth to
the lake, which in the winter season is infinite.

They sel in this market venison by quarters or whole, as Does, Hares,
Connies, and Dogges, and many other beastes, which they bring vp for
the purpose, and take in huntyng. There are a great number of shoppes
that sell all kinde of orfall and tripes. It is a wonder to sée how
so much meate ready dressed coulde be spent. There is also fleshe and
fishe rosted, boyled and baked, Pies and Custardes made of diuers
sortes of egges, the great quantitie of bread is without number. Also
corne of all sortes threshed and vnthreshed. The greate store of sundry
kyndes of fruytes is maruellous which are there solde, bothe gréene and
ripe: there is one sorte as bigge as Almondes called _Cacao_, whiche
is both meate and currant money. There are diuers kind of colours
to be solde, whiche they make of Roses, floures, fruites, barkes of
trées, and other things very excellent: they sell there Honie of sundry
kindes, oyle of _Chian_, made of a séede like vnto mustarde séede, and
oynting any paynted clothe therewith, the water can not hurte it, they
also dresse therwith their meate, although they haue both butter and
larde. Theyr sundry sortes of wines shalbe declared in an other place:
it woulde be a prolixious thing to rehearse all the things that are to
be solde in that markette. There are in this fayre many Artificers, as
Packers, Barbars, Cutlers, & may others, although it was thought that
among these _Indians_ were none such. All the things recited, and many
others which I speake not of, are solde in euery market of _Mexico_,
all the sellers paye a certaine summe for theyr shops or städings
to the King, as a custome, & they to be preserued and defended from
théeues: and for that cause there goe certayne Sergeants or officers
vp & downe the market to espie out malefactours. In the middest of the
market standeth a house whiche may be séene throughout the fayre, &
there sitteth twelue auncient men for iudges to dispatch lawe matters:
their buying and selling is to chaunge one ware for another, as thus,
one giueth a hen for a bundell of _Maiz_, other giue mantels for salte,
or money whiche is _Cacao_, and this is theyr order to choppe and
chaunge: they haue measure and strike for all kynde of corne, and other
earthen measures for Hony and Wine, and if any measure be falsified,
they punish the offenders and breake their measures.

 The great Temple of Mexico.

The Temple is called _Teucalli_, that is to say, Gods house, _Teutl_
signifieth God, & _Calli_ is a house, a vowell very fitte, if that
house had bene of the true God. The Spaniards that vnderstäd not the
language, do pronounce and call those Temples _Cues_, and the God
_Vitzilopuchtli_, _Vchilobos_. There are in _Mexico_ many parishe
churches, with towres, wherein are chappels and Altares where the
images & idols do stande, & those chappels do serue for burial places
of their founders, and the Parishioners are buried in the Churchyarde.
All their tëples are of one fashion, therefore it shal be nowe
sufficient to speake of the cathedral church. And euen as those tëples
are al in generall of one making in that citie. I doe beleue that the
lyke was neuer séene nor heard off. This temple is square, & doth
containe euery way as much ground as a crossebow can reach leuell:
it is made of stone, with foure dores that abutteth vpon the thrée
calseys, and vpon an other parte of the Cittie, that hath no calsey but
a fayre streate.

[Sidenote: A straunge dore.]

In the middest of this Quadern standeth a mount of earth and stone
square lykewise, and fiftie fadom long euery way, buylte vpward like
vnto a pyramide of Egipt, sauyng the toppe is not sharpe, but playne
and flatte, and tenne fadom square: vppon the weast side, were steppes
vp to the toppe, in number an hundreth and fourtene, whiche beyng so
many, high, and made of good stone dyd séeme a beautifull thing. It
was a straunge sight to beholde the Priestes, some goyng vp, and some
downe with ceremonies, or with men to be sacrificed. Vpon the toppe of
this Temple are two great Alters, a good space distant the one from
the other, and so nigh the edge or brimme of the wall, that scarcely
a man mought go behind them at pleasure. The one Alter standeth on
the right hande, & the other on the left, they were but of fiue foote
highe, eche of them had the backe part made of stone, paynted with
möstrous and foule figures, the Chappell was fayre & well wrought
of Masons worke & timber, euery Chappell had thrée loftes one aboue
another, susteyned vpon pillers, & with y^e height thereof it shewed
like vnto a fayre tower, and beautified the Cittie a farre of: from
thence a man mought sée all the cittie and townes rounde aboute the
lake, whiche was vndoubtedly a goodly prospect. And bycause _Cortes_
& his company shoulde sée the beautie therof, _Mutezuma_ brought him
thither, and shewed hym all the order of the Temple, euen from the
foote to the toppe. There was a certaine plot of space for the idoll
priests to celebrate their seruice without disturbance of any. Their
general prayers were made toward y^e rising of the sunne. Vpon ech
alter standeth a great idoll. Beside this tower that standeth vpö the
pyramide, there are fourtie towers great & small belonging to other
little tëples which stand in the same circuite, the which although they
were of the same making, yet theyr prospect was not westwarde, but
otherwayes, bicause there should be a difference betwixte the great
temple & them. Some of these Temples were bigger than others, and euery
one of a seuerall God, among the whiche there was one rounde temple
dedicated to the God of the ayre called _Quecalcouatl_, for euen as
the ayre goeth rounde aboute the heauens, euen for that consideration
they made his temple rounde. The entraunce of that Temple had a dore
made lyke vnto the mouth of a Serpent, and was paynted with foule and
Diuelish gestures, with great téeth & gummes wrought, whiche was a
thing to feare those that should enter in thereat, & especially the
Christians vnto whom it represented very Hel with that ougly face and
monsterous téeth.

There were other _Teucalles_ in the citie, that had the ascending vp
by steps in thrée places: all these temples had houses by thëselues
with all seruice & priests & particular Gods. At euery dore of the
great temple standeth a large Hall & goodly lodgings, both high and
lowe round about, which houses were cömon armouries for the Citie, for
the force and strength of euery towne is the temple, and therfore they
haue there placed their storehouse of munition. They had other darke
houses full of idols, greate & small, wrought of sundry mettals, they
are all bathed and washed with bloud, and do shewe very blacke through
theyr dayly sprinklyng and anoynting thë with the same, when any man
is sacrificed: yea & the walles are an inche thicke with bloud, and
the grounde is a foote thicke of bloud, so that there is a diuelish
stench. The Priests or Ministers goe daylye into those Oratories, and
suffer none others but great personages to enter in. Yea and when any
such goeth in, they are bounde to offer some man to be sacrificed, that
those bloudy hangmen and ministers of the Diuell may washe their handes
in bloud of those so sacrificed, and to sprinkle their house therewith.

For their seruice in the kitchin they haue a ponde of water that is
filled once a yéere, which is brought by conduct from the pryncipal
fountayne. All the residue of the foresayde circuite serueth for places
to bréede foule, with gardens of hearbes and swéete trees, with Roses
and floures for the Altars. Such, so great & straunge was this temple
of _Mexico_, for the seruice of the Diuell who had deceiued those
simple _Indians_. There dothe reside in the same temple continually
fiue thousand persons, and all they are lodged and haue theyr liuing
there, for that tëple is maruellous riche, & hath diuers townes onely
for their maintenaunce and reparation, and are bounde to sustayne the
same alwayes on foote. They doe sowe corne, and maintayne all those
fiue thousande persons with bread, fruyte, flesh, fishe, and firewoodde
as much as they néede, for they spende more fire woodde than is spent
in the kings courte: these persons doe liue at their hartes ease, as
seruauntes and vassals vnto the Goddes. _Mutezuma_ brought _Cortes_ to
this temple, bicause his men shoulde sée the same, and to enforme them
of his religion and holinesse, wherof I will speake in an other place,
being the most straunge and cruellest that euer was heard off.

 The Idols of Mexico.

The Gods of _Mexico_, were two thousand in number, as the _Indians_
reported, the chiefest were _Vitcilopuchtli_ and _Tezcatlipuca_, whose
images stoode highest in the Temple vppon the Altars: they were made of
stone in ful proportion as bigge as a Gyant. They were couered with a
lawne called _Nacar_. These images were besette with pearles, precious
stones, & péeces of gold, wrought like birds, beasts, fishes, and
floures, adorned with Emeralds, Turquies, Calcedons, and other little
fine stones, so that when the lawne _Nacar_ was taken away, the Images
séemed very beautifull to beholde.

[Sidenote: A vvicked attire.]

The Image had for a girdle great snakes of gold, and for collors or
chaynes about their neckes, ten hartes of men, made of golde, and
each of those Idolles had a counterfaite visor with eies of glasse,
and in their necks death painted: eache of these things hadde their
considerations and meanings. These two Goddes were brethren, for
_Tezcatlipuca_ was the God of Prouidence, and _Vitcilopuchtli_ God of
the warres, who was worshipped and feared more than all the rest.

[Sidenote: A madde offering.]

There was another God, who hadde a greate Image placed vppon the toppe
of the Chappell of Idols, and hée was estéemed for a speciall and
singular God aboue all the rest. This God was made of all kinde of
séedes that groweth in that Countrey, and being ground, they made a
certayne past, tempered with childrens bloud, and Virgins sacrifised,
who were opened with their razures in the breastes, and their heartes
taken out, to offer as first fruites vnto the Idoll. The Priestes
and Ministers doe consecrate this Idoll with great pomp and many
Ceremonies. All the _Comarcans_ and Citizens are presente at the
consecration, with great triumph and incredible deuotion. After the
consecration, many devoute persons came and sticked in the dowy Image
precious stones, wedges of golde, and other Iewels. After all this pomp
ended, no secular man mought touche that holye Image, no nor yet come
into his Chappell, nay scarcely religious persons, except they were
_Tlamacaztli_, who are Priestes of order. They doe renue this Image
many times wyth new dough, taking away the olde, but then blessed is
hée that can get one péece of the olde ragges for relikes, and chiefly
for souldyers, who thought themselues sure therwith in the warres. Also
at the consecration of thys Idoll, a certayne vessell of water was
blessed with manye wordes and ceremonyes, and that water was preserued
very religiously at the foote of the altar, for to consecrate the King
when he should be crowned, and also to blesse any Captayne generall,
when he shoulde be elected for the warres, with only giuing him a
draught of that water.

 The Charnell house or place of dead
 _mens sculles for remembrance of death_.

VVithout the temple, and ouer againste the principall dore thereof, a
stones cast distant, standeth the Charnell house onely of dead mens
heads prisoners in warres and sacrifised with the knife.

This monument was made like vnto a Theatre, more larger than broade,
wrought of lyme and stone, with ascending steppes, in the walles
whereof was graffed betwixt stone and stone a skul with the téeth

At the foote and head of this Theatre, were two Towers, made only of
lime and skulles, the téeth outwarde, and this wall hauing no other
stuffe, séemed a straunge sight. At and vppon the toppe of the Theatre,
were 70. polles, standing the one from the other foure or fiue foote
distant, and eache of them was full of staues from the foote to the
toppe. Each of these staues had others made fast vnto them, so that
euery of them had fiue skulles broched through the temples. _Andrewe de
Tapia_ did certifie me, that he and _Gonsalo de Vmbria_ dyd recken them
in one daye, and founde a hundred thirtie and sixe thousande skulles
on the polles, staues, and steppes. The other Towers were replenished
out of number, a most cruell custome, being only mens heads slaine in
sacrifice, although it hath a shewe of humanitie for the remembrance
there placed of death. There are also men appoynted, that when one
skull falleth, to set vp another in his place, so that the number may
neuer want.

 Hovv Cortez tooke Mutezuma

_Hernando Cortez_ and his companye, were sixe dayes in beholding and
perusing the scituation of the Citie, and secretes of the same, with
the notable thinges before rehearsed: they were often visited by
_Mutezuma_, & the Gentlemen of hys Courte, and abundantly prouided of
things necessarye for his vse, and the _Indians_ of his company.

[Sidenote: A svveete bedde.]

[Sidenote: Determination of Cortez.]

Likewise his Horses were cherished and serued with gréene barley and
grasse, whereof there is plentie all the yeare: Likewise of corne,
meale, roses, and of all thynges that their owners would request, in
so much that beddes of floures were made for them in place of litter.
But yet notwithstanding, although they were in this sorte cherished,
and also lodged in so riche a Countrey, where they mighte fyll their
purses, they were not yet all contente and merrie, but rather with
great feare and care, especially _Cortes_, who hadde the onely care as
head and chiefe Captayne for the defence of hys fellowes, hée (I saye)
was pensiue, noting the scituation of the Citie, the infinite number of
people, the state and maiestie of _Mexico_, yea and some disquietnesse
of hys owne companye, who woulde come and laye vnto hys charge the
snare and nette that they were in, thynkyng it a thyng vnpossible that
anye of them coulde escape, if _Mutezuma_ were therevnto determined,
or else with the least muteny in the worlde, that mought be raysed in
the Citie, although that euery inhabitant shoulde throw but one stone
at them, or else to breake vp the drawbridges, or withdrawing their
victuals, things verye easie to bée done. With this greate care that he
had of the preseruation of his fellowes, and to remedie the perill and
daunger that he stoode in, he determined to apprehëd _Mutezuma_, and
to builde foure Foystes to haue the lake in subiection, which he hadde
tofore ymagined, and without the apprehension of the King, he coulde
not come by the Kingdome: he would very gladly haue buylt the Foystes
out of hand, but he left off that pretence, only bycause he would not
delay the emprisonment of _Mutezuma_, wherein consisted the effect of
all his businesse, so that forthwith he minded to put in execution his
intent, without gyuing any of his company to vnderstand thereof.

[Sidenote: Treasory of Mutezuma.]

The quarrell wherewith he had armed himselfe for that purpose, was,
that the Lorde _Qualpopoca_ hadde slayne nine _Spanyardes_: likewise
encouraged him the greate presumption of his letters written to
the Emperour _Charles_ his king, wherein he wrote that he would
take _Mutezuma_ prisoner, and dispossesse him of his Empyre. These
causes considered, he tooke the letters of _Pedro Hircio_, wherein
was written, how _Qualpopoca_ was the cause of the death of nine
_Spanyardes_, and put those letters into his pocket, and walking vp
and downe his lodging, tossyng too and fro these ymaginations in his
brayne, full of care of the great enterprise that he had in hande,
yea he hymselfe iudging the matter doubtfull, and his head béeyng in
this sort occupyed, he chanced to espye one wall more whiter than the
rest, and beholding the same, he sawe that it was a dore lately dammed
vp, & callyng vnto him two of his seruaunts (for all the residue were
asléepe) bycause it was late in the nighte, he opened that dore,
and went in, and there found sundry halles, some with Idols, some
with gallant feathers, Iewels, precious stones, plate, yea and such
an infinite quantitie of golde, that the sight thereof amazed him,
and other gallant things that made him to maruell. He shutte thys
dore agayne as well as he moughte, withoute touching any part of that
treasure, bycause he woulde not make any vprore therabout, nor yet to
delay the emprisonment of _Mutezuma_, for that treasure was alwayes
there to be had.

The nexte daye in the morning came certayne _Spanyardes_ vnto hym,
and manye _Indians_ of _Tlaxcallon_, saying that the Citizens did goe
about to conspire their deathe, and to breake downe the bridges of the
calseys, to bryng their purpose the better to passe. So that with this
newes, béeyng true or false, _Cortes_ left the one halfe of his men to
defende and kéepe his lodging, and at euery crosse stréete he planted
më, and the residue he sent to the Court by two and two, and thrée and
thrée, and he hymselfe came to the pallaice, saying that he must talke
wyth _Mutezuma_ of matters that did emport their liues. _Cortes_ was
secretely armed. _Mutezuma_ hearyng howe _Cortez_ attended for hym,
came forth and receyued him, taking him by the hand, and placed him in
his seate. Thirtie _Spanyardes_ wayted vpon _Cortez_, and the residue
abode without at the dore.

_Cortez_ saluted _Mutezuma_ according to his accustomed manner, and
began to rest and talke merily as hée was wont to do. _Mutezuma_
béeyng carelesse of the thing that Fortune hadde prepared agaynste
hym, was also very merrie, and pleased with that conuersation. He gaue
vnto _Cortes_ Iewels of golde, and one of his daughters, and other
noble mens daughters to others of his company. _Cortes_ receyued the
gift, for otherwise it hadde bin a frent vnto _Mutezuma_. But yet he
enformed him, that he was a married man, and that he coulde not marrie
with his daughter, for the Christian law did not permitte the same, nor
yet that any Christian mought haue more than one wife, vppon payne of
infamy, and to be marked in the forehead.

After all this talke ended, _Cortez_ tooke the letters of _Pedro
Hircio_, and caused them to be interpreted vnto _Mutezuma_, makyng hys
grieuous complaynte agaynste _Qualpopoca_, who hadde slayne so many
_Spanyardes_ through hys commaundement, yea and that his subiectes had
published, that they woulde kill the _Spanyardes_, and breake downe the

_Mutezuma_ excused himselfe earnestly, as well of the one as of the
other, saying, the report giuen out agaynste hys subiectes was false
and vntrue, and as for _Qualpopoca_ who had slayne the _Spanyardes_,
he was innocent thereof: and bycause that he shoulde sée the troth,
he called incontinent certayne of his seruauntes, commaunding thë
to goe for _Qualpopoca_, and gaue vnto them his seale, whiche was a
stone that he ware at his wrest, engraued with the figure of the God
_Vitzilopuchtli_, and the messengers departed therewith incontinent.

_Cortez_ replyed and sayd: My Lord, your highnesse must goe with me
to my lodging, and there abide, vntill youre messengers returne with
_Qualpopoca_, and the certaynetie of the deathe of my men: In my
lodging youre highnesse shall rule and commaund as you do héere in
Court, your person shall bée well vsed, wherefore take you no care,
for I will haue respecte vnto youre honor, as to myne owne proper, or
the honor of my Kyng, beséeching you to pardon me in this my request,
for if I shoulde doe otherwise, and dissemble with you, mine own
company would be offended with me, saying that I doe not defende them,
according to duetie. Wherefore commaund your householde seruauntes to
repose themselues without alteration, for be you assured, that if any
hurte come vnto me, or vnto anye of mine, youre person shall pay the
same with life, considering that it lyeth in youre hand to goe quietly
with me.

_Mutezuma_ was sore amazed, saying, Sir, my person is not fytte to be
a prisoner, yea, and though I woulde permitte the same, my subiectes
would not suffer.

They abode arguing the matter néere foure houres, and at length
_Mutezuma_ was content to goe, hauing promise that he should rule and
gouerne as he was wont to do. _Cortes_ cömaunded a place in his lodging
to be trimmed for him, and he went forthwith thither with _Cortes_.
There came many noble men barefooted, wéeping and lamenting the case,
carrying their best garmentes vnder their armes, and brought a rich
seate, whereon _Mutezuma_ was placed, & they carried hym vpon their

[Sidenote: A sorovvful pastime.]

When it was blowen abroade in the Citie that _Mutezuma_ was carried
prisoner to the _Spanyards_ lodging, all the Citie was on an vprore:
but yet _Mutezuma_ did comfort the Gentlemen that carried and followed
him wéeping, praying them to ceasse their lamentation, saying that he
was not prisoner, nor yet went with the Chrystians againste his will,
but for his onely pleasure. _Cortes_ appointed a _Spanish_ garde for
him, with a Captayne, the which he dayly changed, and had _Spanyards_
always in his cöpany to make him pastime. Also poore _Mutezuma_ was
cötented with their conuersation, & gaue thë stil rewards. He was
serued with his owne seruäts _Indiäs_, as at home in his pallace.
_Cortes_ always intreated him to put off sadnes, & to be merrie,
permitting him to dispatch suters, & to deale in all affayres of his
estate, & to comune and talke openly or secretely with his noble më as
he was wont to do, and that was but onely a bayte to bring them to
the hooke. There was neuer Greeke nor Romayne, nor any other nation
since the name of Kings was ordeyned, dyd gyue y^e lyke enterprise, as
_Hernando Cortez_ did, in taking _Mutezuma_ prisoner in his owne house,
béeing a most mighty King, & in a most strong fort among infinite
people, he hauyng but only 450. companions.

 The recreation of Hunting, vvhiche
 _Mutezuma vsed_.

_Mvtezuma_ had not only al the libertie that he desired in the Citie,
béeyng prisoner among the _Spanyardes_, but also _Cortes_ permitted him
to hunt and hauke, or to go to the temple, for he was very deuoute, and
a great hunter.

When he went a hunting, he was carried vpon mens shoulders with eyght
or ten _Spanyards_ in his guard, and thrée thousande _Mexicans_, who
were Gentlemen, his seruants, and hunters, of whome he hadde a great
number, some to séeke the game, others to beate the couertes, and
others to marke. Some of those Hunters were only for hares and connyes,
other for all sorts of Déere, Wolues, foxes, and such like. They were
very perfite with theyr bowes, and good markemë, for he that missed
his marke at fourescore pases distant was punished. It was strange to
sée the number of people that wente with him on hunting, and to sée
the slaughter of beasts killed, with hande, staues, nettes, and bowes,
some of those beastes were tame, and other braue and fearefull, as
Lyons, Tigers, and Ounces. It is a harde thing to take a fierce Lion
in hunting as they do, being in manner a naked people, and the beast
couragious and strong, but yet the Prouerbe saith, slight and cunning
is better than strength.

It is a more straunge thyng to take any foule that flieth in the ayre
as their Fauconers doe, for after they haue once marked and set eye
vpon any foule, the Faulconers of _Mutezuma_ will vnder take to catch
him, although the foule be neuer so swifte of wing, beyng at the least
so commaunded by the King. It happened one day that _Mutezuma_ stoode
in his gallerie with his Guarde of Spanyardes, who had espied a fayre
Hauke soryng in the ayre, oh quoth they what a fayre Hauke flieth
yonder, _Mutezuma_ hearyng their talke, called vnto him certayne of
his Faulconers, commaundyng them to followe that Hauke & to bring him
vnto him. The Faulconers wente to fulfill his request, and followed
that foule with such diligence, that in shorte space they brought the
Hauke vnto him, who presented the same vnto the Spanyards, a thing
truely almoste incredible, but yet certified by worde and wrytings of
the present witnesses. Their chiefest and most pleasant pastime of
Hauking was, of Kightes, Rauens, Crowes, Pies, and other birdes of
hardie stomake and slowe in flight, greate and small of all sortes, for
the which he had Egles, Buyters, and other foule of rapyne marueylous
swifte of wing, and suche as would mounte very high in the ayre, with
the whiche they murdered Hares, Wolues, and (as some say) Hartes.

He had other foulers, that vsed Nettes, Snares, and sundry engins.
_Mutezuma_ vsed much to shoote in a tronke, and with his bow killed
many wilde beastes. His houses of pleasure as I haue before declared,
stoode sixe myles from the Citie in pleasant wooddes: and alwayes when
he went a huntyng after the tyme that he was prysoner, the same day he
would returne agayne to _Cortes_ his lodging, although he banketed &
feasted with the Spaniardes at his places of sporting and pastime, and
would alwayes at his returne to his lodgyng giue some present vnto thë,
that had accompanied him that day.

_Cortes_ seyng the liberalitie of _Mutezuma_, sayde vnto him: sir, my
company are vnruly fellowes, and as I vnderstand, they haue founde out
some of your treasure, and haue made spoyle thereof: wherfore I would
know your pleasure what shal be done with thë. And in effect it was the
treasure that _Cortes_ himselfe had founde out. _Mutezuma_ answered,
saying, sir that treasure which they haue founde, did appertayne vnto
the Goddes: But yet notwithstandyng, let them leaue the feathers, and
all suche things as are neyther golde nor siluer, and all the residue
take for you and them, and if you will haue more, I will prouide it for

 Hovv Cortez began to plucke dovvne
 _the Idols of Mexico_.

VVhen _Mutezuma_ went vnto the temple, he went leaning vpon a noble
mans arme, or else was leade betwéene two, and a noble personage
wente alwayes before him with thrée small wandes in his hande,
signifying thereby that the King in person was there at hand, and in
token also of iustice and correction. If he had bene carried vpon
mens shoulders then at his alighting downe he tooke one of those
roddes into his owne hand. He was a Prince ful of ceremonies in al
his doings, but the substaunce of his estate is already declared,
from the time that _Cortes_ entred into _Mexico_ vntil this present.
Those first dayes that the Spaniardes came to the Citie, & as often as
_Mutezuma_ went to the temple, _Indian_ men were slayne in sacrifice.
And to prohibite suche adhominable crueltie & sinne, cömitted in the
presence of the Christians who wët in company of _Mutezuma_, _Cortes_
required _Mutezuma_ to commmaunde that no mans fleshe should be any
more spoyled, or bloud shedde in sacrifice, and in not fulfilling
his request, he would destroy bothe the temple and Cittie. Also he
signified vnto him, that he himselfe woulde throw downe the idols,
before his presence and all the Citizens.

_Mutezuma_ replied to his demaüd, saying: It may please you to leaue of
your determination, least that in so doing all the Citie fall into an
vprore and rebellion to defende their good Gods, and auncient Religion,
the which Gods had alwayes prouided them of water, bread, health,
light, and all other things néedefull. This notwithstanding, the first
time that _Mutezuma_ wente to the temple after his imprisonment,
_Cortes_ and his company wente with him, and euery of them layde handes
vpon the idols, & threwe them downe headlong from their seates, and
Altars, and other Chapels. _Mutezuma_ with this sight was in great
agonie, yea and his subiects ready to take weapon to slay them there
present, but yet _Mutezuma_ commaunded his subiectes to stay from their
pretence: beséechyng _Cortes_ to stay from his procéedings, at whose
request _Cortes_ ceased, for he thought, as yet time serued not for the
purpose and pretence: but he declared vnto them by his interpreters as

 The exhortation that Cortez made
 _to Mutezuma and to the Citizens of Mexico,
 concerning their Idols_.

All creatures in the world (mightie prince, and yée Gentlemen and
religious persons whether it be yée here or we in Spayne, or whatsoeuer
other nation that it may be) haue I say, all one begynnyng and ending
of mortall lyfe, whiche is had from God: we are al formed and made of
one mettall, and haue all soules and senses, euen so doubtlesse as we
are like in proportion of body and soule, yea and kinsfolke in bloud,
although that by the prouidence of the same our God, some are borne
fayre and beautifull, and other some fowle and disfigured: some of one
colour, and some of another: some prudent and wise, and other some
fonde and foolishe, without eyther iudgement or vertue: in the which
his maruellous works God sheweth himselfe iuste, holy and almightie,
giuyng those seuerall giftes, to the entent that the wise and learned
mought teache the rude and ignorant, and to guyde the blinde into the
right way of saluation, by the steppes of true and vnfayned religion.

Therfore I and my fellowes, as your gestes and kinsmen, according to
equitie doe procure and wish the same vnto you. A man and his life
consisteth in thrée things as yée shal vnderstande, that is body,
soule, and goodes: as for your goodes and ritches, whiche is the least
that wée desire, for yée know well that we haue taken nothing forcible
from you, but onely those things whiche yée haue fréely and liberally
giuen vs. Likewise we haue not hurt, misused or molested your persons,
wiues or chyldren, nor yet do meane any such thing, your soules health
onely is the thing we séeke, for your saluation, and that we nowe
pretende to shewe, and to giue vnto you perfite notice of the true and
euerlasting God. There is none of naturall iudgement can denie, but
that there is one God, but yet through ignoraunce and deceyte of the
Diuell, will also thinke that there are many Goddes, and not acerte
vnto the true God. But I doe say and moste assuredly certifie you, that
there is no other true God, but onely he whome we Christians doe serue,
adore, and worshippe, the which is one eternall, without beginnyng and
without ende, the onely creator & gouernour of things created: he
alone made the Heauens, the Sunne, the Moone, and Starres, the whiche
his creatures ye doe worship: he (I say) founded and made the Sea, and
the sundry and maruelous fishes therein: he planted and made the lande
with all the monstrous beastes therein, foules likewise in the ayre,
Plantes, Hearbes, Stones and suche like. Al the whiche creatures ye as
blinde and ignorant do hold for Goddes.

[Sidenote: It vvas maruel that Cortes vvas not taken for an heretike.]

Our almighty God after he had finished and made all the former workes
with his own blessed hands, made one man & one woman, and being so
formed and wrought, he put a soule and breath into each body, and
then deliuered the worlde vnto them, shewyng them Paradise and glory.
So that of that manne and woman, we all mortall menne procéeded in
generation, and in this sorte are the handy worke of God, kinsmen and
brethren. Nowe if we will come vnto God our father, it is néedefull
and necessary that we be good, vertuous, pitifull, innocent and vnder
obedience, the whiche yée can not be if you worshippe statues, images,
idols, and vse bloudy sacrifice of mans fleshe. Is there any of you
that woulde willingly be slayne? no truely: why then doe you slea
other so cruelly, and where you can put no soules, why doe you take
them from thence? there is none of you, nor your false Gods, that can
make soules, nor can forge mens bodies of fleshe and bone, for if yée
coulde, there is none of you woulde be without children, accordyng to
your owne appetite and desire, in fashion, beautie and workemanship.
But where our God of heauen dothe make al creatures, he vseth therein
his owne discretion, and giueth chyldren to whome hée pleaseth: and
therefore is he GOD alone, and for these causes shoulde yée haue,
estéeme, and worshippe him for suche a mightie God, desiryng of him by
prayers to giue rayne and temperature, that the earth may bryng foorth
Corne, Fruite, Hearbes, Fleshe, Foule, and all other necessaries for
the sustentation of lyfe. All these thyngs the harde stones giueth not
vnto you, no nor yet your dry woodden images & colde mettall, neyther
yet the small séedes wherewith your seruaunts and slaues, with theyr
filthy handes doe make these images and foule statues, the whiche yée
doe worshippe. O what fonde people and madde religious persons, who
worship theyr owne workemanshippe, doe ye thynke that they are Gods
that rotte and moldre away, and haue no lyfe, and can neyther helpe nor
kill: Therefore I say vnto you, that nowe and hereafter there is no
cause that yée shoulde haue any moe idolles, nor yet any moe slaughters
for sacrifice, no nor yet to make any moe prayers or supplications vnto
them, beyng bothe Blinde, Deafe, and Dumme.

Will yée knowe who is God, and where he is: lifte vp your eyes vnto
Heauen, and then shall you vnderstande that aboue is a Godhead or
Deitie that moueth the heauens, and gouerneth the course of the Sunne,
ruleth the Lande and replenisheth the Sea, who prouideth for Man and
Beast bothe Corne and Water. This God whome yée nowe imagine in your
hartes, him (I say) serue and worshippe, not with death of menne or
blouddy sacrifice abominable, but with deuotion and humble prayer as we
Christians doe. And consider well, that to teach and instruct you these
things, was the cause of our commyng hither.

With this exhortation, _Cortes_ aplaked the yre of the Priestes and
Citizens: theyr idols beyng throwen downe, _Mutezuma_ tooke order that
no moe shoulde be sette vp, commaundyng to swéepe and make cleane the
Chappels of the stinking bloud that was in thë, forbidding sacrifice
of mans flesh. _Mutezuma_ and his officers made a solëpne vowe and
promise to permitte no more slaughter of men, and to set vp a Crosse
for remembrance of the death and passion of Iesu Christe borne of
the virgin Marie. The whiche their promisse was well fulfilled, for
after that day the Spanyardes coulde neuer heare nor finde of any moe
sacrifice: But yet there abode in their hartes a mortall rancor, the
whiche coulde not long be dissimuled.

Truely in this worthy facte _Cortes_ gotte more honour than though he
had ouercomen them in battayle.

 The burning of the Lorde Qualpopoca
 _and other Gentlemen_.

After twentie dayes that _Mutezuma_ had bene prysoner, returned the
messengers who had gone with the seale for _Qualpopoca_, and brought
him, his Sonne, and other fiftene principall persons, with them, the
whiche by inquirie made, were culpable and partakers in the counsell
and death of the nine Spaniardes. _Qualpopoca_ entred into _Mexico_
accompanied like a greate Lorde as he was, beyng borne vpon his
seruaunts shoulders in rich furniture. As sone as he had saluted
_Mutezuma_, he & his Sonne were deliuered vnto _Cortes_, with the other
fiftene Gentlemen. _Cortes_ placed them asunder, and commaunded them to
be put in Irons, and theyr examinations taken, they confessed that they
had slayne those Spaniardes in battayle.

_Cortes_ demaunded of _Qualpopoca_ if he were subiect to _Mutezuma_,
why (quoth he) is there any other Prince to whome I might be in
subiection? giuing almost to vnderstand that he was a Lorde absolute.
_Cortes_ answered, that a farre greater Prince was the King of Spayne,
whose subiects vnder colour of friendship and salfeconduct he had
slayne. But (quoth he) nowe shalte thou make payment thereof. And
beyng agayne more straighter examined, they confessed that they had
slaine two Spaniards by the aduice and inducement of the greate
prince _Mutezuma_, and the residue were slayne in the warres, and had
assaulted their houses, and entred their countrey, wherefore they helde
it lawfull to kill them.

Through the confession pronounced by their owne mouthes, sentence was
giuen against them, and they condëned to be burned, whiche sentence was
openly executed in the market place in sight of all the people, without
any mutine or slaunder, and with great silence, terrour & feare of the
newe maner of iustice which they sawe there executed vpon so noble a
man, in the chiefe seate and kyngdome of _Mutezuma_, beyng gestes and

 The cause of the burnyng of

At the time that Cortes departed from _Vera Crux_, he left in cömission
to _Pedro Hircio_, to procure to inhabite in that place which is
called _Almeria_, & not to permit _Francisco de Garray_ to soiourne
there, for so much as once he was driuen frö that coast. Now _Hircio_
to fulfill his cömission, sente to requyre those _Indians_ with peace
and friëdship, and to yéeld themselues for vassals of the Emperour.
_Qualpopoca_ Lorde of _Nahutlan_, which is now called as aforesaid
_Almeria_, sent to aduertise _Pedro Hircio_, that he could not come to
yéelde his obedience, for the enimies that were in the way: but if it
would please him to sende some of his men, for the securitie of the
way, he would willyngly come vnto him.

_Hircio_ hearing this answere, sent foure of his men, giuing credite
to his message, and for the desire he hadde to inhabite there.

When the foure _Spanyardes_ came into the prouince of _Nahutlan_, there
mette with them many armed men, who slew two of them, and made thereof
a great triumph: the other two escaped sore wounded, and returned
with that newes to the Towne of _Vera Crux_. _Pedro Hircio_ beléeuing
that _Qualpopoca_ had done that iniurie, armed out agaynst hym fiftie
_Spanyardes_, and ten thousand _Indians_ of _Zempoallan_, with two
horses, and two péeces of Ordinance.

_Qualpopoca_ hearing this newes, came with a mightie power to driue
them out of his Countrey, and in that encounter, seauen _Spanyardes_
were slayne, and many _Zempoallanezes_, but at the ende he was
ouercome, his Countrey spoyled, and Towne sacked, and many of his
army slaine and taken captiues. The prisoners declared, that by the
commaundement of the greate Lorde _Mutezuma_, all this vprore was
attempted by _Qualpopoca_: it mighte well be, for at the houre of death
they confessed the same. But some affirme, they sayde so, but to excuse
themselues, and to lay the fault to the _Mexicans_. _Hircio_ wrote
these newes to _Cortez_ béeyng in _Chololla_, and through these letters
_Cortez_ apprehended _Mutezuma_ (as is afore declared.)

 Hovv Cortez put a payre of giues
 _on Mutezuma his legges_.

Before the execution of _Qualpopoca_ and hys fellowes, _Cortes_
declared vnto _Mutezuma_, that _Qualpopoca_ and his company had
confessed, that by hys aduice and commaundemente, the nine _Spanyardes_
were slayne, wherein he had done very euill, they being his friendes
and guestes: but (quoth he) if it were not in respect of the loue I
beare vnto you, this matter shoulde not in this sort be shut vp, and
then knocked a payre of giues on his legges, saying, he that killeth
ought to be killed, according to the lawes of God. These things did
_Cortes_, bycause he shoulde occupye himselfe in his owne griefe and
sorrow, and to let other mens passe.

_Mutezuma_ waxed pale w^t countenäce of death, through the great feare
that he was in, séeyng himselfe in Irons, a new and strange thing for
suche a great King, excusing himselfe that he was innocent of the
facte. And as soone as the execution of burning was done, _Cortez_
commaunded to put away the Irons that _Mutezuma_ ware, offering him
libertie, and willing him to goe vnto his owne pallace, who reioyced
much to sée himselfe out of the Irons, and gaue _Cortes_ most hartie
thankes, and refused to goe home to his owne pallace, surmising that
the offer was but wordes, or else fearing least his subiects woulde
kyll him, séeing him out of the _Spanyardes_ power, for permitting
himselfe to be taken prisoner, and so to be kept. Hée sayd also, that
if he went from them, his subiectes woulde rebell, and compell him to
kill the _Spanyardes_.

Truly the poore simple soule was of small hearte and courage, to suffer
himselfe to be taken prisoner, and after his imprisonment woulde neuer
procure libertie, _Cortes_ offering it vnto him, and many of his noble
men desiring him. And remayning in that order, there was none in
_Mexico_ durst offende any _Spanyard_ for feare of displeasing him,
for _Qualpopoca_ came 70. leagues with only warning him that the great
Lorde had sent for him, shewing hym the figure of his seale: yea and al
the péeres of his realme that dwelte farthest off, were ready to obey
hys commaundementes.

 Hovv Cortez sent to seeke for Mines
 _of golde into diuers places_.

_Cortez_ had a greate desire to know howe farre the Empire of
_Mutezuma_ dyd extende, and what friendship was betwixte him and
other Kings and Princes Comarcans, and also to gather togither a good
summe of gold, to send to _Spayne_ to the Emperoure for his custome
or fifte parte, with full relation of the Countrey people, and things
happened untill that day. Wherefore he prayed _Mutezuma_ to shew
him where the mynes were, from whence he and his subiectes had the
golde and plate. _Mutezuma_ graunted to his request, and incontinent
appoynted eyght _Indians_, of the which four were Goldsmythes, who had
knowledge and vnderstanding of Mynes, and the other foure were guydes
for the iourney. He commaunded them that by two and two they shoulde
goe into foure prouinces, that is to say _Zucolla_, _Malinaltepec_,
_Tenich_, and _Tutepec_, with other eyghte _Spanyardes_ whiche _Cortez_
appoynted, to haue knowledge of the riuers and mynes of gold, and to
bring a moster of the same. The eyght _Spanyardes_ departed on their
iourney, with the other eyghte _Indians_, with tokens from _Mutezuma_.
_Zucolla_ is 80. leagues from _Mexico_, and the Lord thereof is subiect
to _Mutezuma_, who shewed vnto the _Spanyardes_ thrée riuers with
golde, and gaue of each riuer a moster thereof, although it were but
little, for with want of knowledge they knew not wel the mäner how to
get it out of the riuer. These messengers in their iourney too and
fro, passed through thrée prouinces full of people and habitatiö, with
good buildings & frutefull ground, and the people of the one of them
called _Tlamacolapan_, are of good reason and iudgemente, and better
apparelled than the _Mexicans_.

_Malinaltepec_ is 70. leagues from _Mexico_, from whence also they
brought mosters of golde, the which is had out of a great riuer, by the
naturals of that Countrey.

_Tenich_ standeth vp towarde the head of the same riuer of
_Malinaltepec_, who are people of another language, and would not
permitte our men to haue relation of the thing that they sought. The
Lorde of that place is called _Coatelicamatl_, who is not subiecte
to _Mutezuma_, nor yet is his friende, thinking that his men hadde
bin espyes: but when he was enformed who they were, he gaue the
_Spanyardes_ licence to be resolued of their affayres, but straitly
commaunded, that the _Indians_ of _Mexico_ should not presume to
come into his dominion. When the _Mexicans_ hearde these newes, they
required the _Spanyardes_ not to credite that _Cazike_, saying, that he
was an euill and a cruell man, and would surely kill them. Our men were
somewhat amazed, fearing to talke with _Coatelicamatl_, although they
hadde his licence, séeyng the people of the countrey armed with Launces
of fiue and twenty foote lög: but yet at lëgth leauing cowardise aside,
they procéeded forwards. _Coatelicamatl_ receyued thë curteously, and
shewed them sixe or seauen riuers with golde, out of the which graynes
of golde were taken in his presence, who gaue the same moster vnto
them, and sente also his Embassadors to _Cortez_, offering his lande
and person vnto him, with certayne mantels, and Iewels of golde.

_Cortez_ more reioyced of the Embassage, than of the gold and presents,
knowing thereby that _Mutezuma_ hys enimies desired his friendshippe:
but _Mutezuma_ and hys counsell liked not the matter, for although
_Coatelicamatl_ is no great Lord, yet his people are good souldyers,
and his countrey full of wildernesse, of Rockes and Mountaynes. The
other that wente to _Tutepec_, which standeth néere the sea coast, and
twelue leagues frö _Malinaltepec_, returned likewise with moster of
golde of two Riuers, and brought newes that the Countrey was fit to
buylde vppon, with hope to reape muche golde, finding once an arte to
get it out of the riuer.

_Cortez_ hearing these news, prayed _Mutezuma_ to build a house there
in the name of the Emperoure _Charles_, who incontinente sente thither
workemen and labourers, whyche within two monethes hadde built a greate
house, and other thrée little houses round aboute it, with a ponde
of water full of fishe, and fiue hundred Duckes, and a thousand fiue
hundred Turkie cockes and hennes, and muche housholde stuffe, so that
the gifte was worth twentie thousand Castlins of golde. He gaue vnto
hym also twenty bushels of the grayne called _Centli_, readye sowen,
and two thousand stockes of trées called _Cacauatl_, whiche bringeth
forthe the fruite _Cacao_, that serueth for money and meate. _Cortes_
began this husbandrye, but yet made not an ende thereof, with the
comming of _Pamfilo de Naruaiz_, and the vprore in _Mexico_, whiche
shortly followed. He also besoughte _Mutezuma_ to certifie him if there
were any sure porte or harbor on the Sea coast, where the Spanish nauie
mought ride in safetie: he aunswered that he knew of none, but that
he woulde sende to make enquirie thereof. And forthwith he commaunded
all that coast to be painted in a cloath made of cotten woll, with all
the riuers, bayes, créekes and capes that were within his dominion. In
all the same portrayture did not appeare anye porte, skale, or sure
roade, sauyng a gulfe that falleth out of the Mountaynes, which place
is now called the harbor of _Saint Martine_, and _Saint Anthonie_ in
the prouince of _Coazacoalco_. The _Spanyards_ thought the same to be
a straight or passage into the South sea, to passe vnto the _Maluccos_
and spicerie, but they were deceiued although they beléeued the thing
that they desired. _Cortes_ for this purpose sent tenne Spanyardes,
all good marriners and Pylots, in companye of the _Indians_ that
_Mutezuma_ sent on that voyage at his owne cost.

They departed, and came to _Chalohicoeca_, where firste they came
aland, the which place is now called _S. Iohn de Vlhua_.

They wente 70. leagues along the coast, without finding any Riuer,
although they mette with many brookes of shallowe water, not fytte for
a roade for Shyppes.

They aported at _Coazacoalco_, the Lorde whereof was enimie to
_Mutezuma_, hys name was _Tuchintlec_, who friendly receyued the
Spanyardes, for he hadde intelligence of them, at their lying at
_Potonchan_. He gaue vnto them boates, to sounde and séeke the Riuer,
where they found sixe fadome in deapth, and wente vppe that Riuer
twelue leagues, wher they descryed many great townes, and it séemed a
fruitefull soyle. This _Cazike Tuchnitlec_, sente vnto _Cortes_ with
the Spanyards certayne gold, precious stones, and cloth of cotten, with
apparrell made of skynnes, and tygers, requesting his friendship, and
to admitte him tributarie to the Emperour, paying yéerely a certayne
portion of his riches, with suche condition, that the _Indians_ of
_Culhua_ should not enter into his iurisdictiö.

_Cortes_ muche reioysed with these messages, and was glad of the
finding of the faire riuer, for the Marriners hadde enformed him, that
from the riuer of _Grijalua_ vnto _Panuco_, was no riuer to be found,
but I beléeue they were deceyued. _Cortes_ returned backe agayne some
of those messengers, with a present of Spanish ware for _Tuchnitlec_,
and to be better enformed of all his meaning, with a special charge to
knowe the cömoditie of that porte and Countrey, who went, and in shorte
time returned wel satisfyed of their demaund: wherevpon _Cortes_ sente
thyther _Iohn Velasques de Leon_, for Captayne of a hundred and fifty
Spanyardes, with commission to build a fort.

 The imprisonment of Cacama, King
 _of Tezcuco_.

The weake courage and stomake of _Mutezuma_, caused his subiectes not
onely to murmure, but also to seeke meanes of rebellion, especially
his nephew _Cacamazin_, Lorde of _Tezcuco_, who was a stoute yong man
and an honorable, and one y^t receiued greate griefe of his Vncles
imprisonment: and seeing that y^e matter séemed long, he besought his
Vncle to procure his libertie, and to shew himselfe a Lorde, and not
a slaue: but séeing at length that he could not accepte and follow
his councell, he began to stirre in the matter, threatning the death
and destruction of the Spanyardes. Some said, that _Cacama_ did begin
that matter, to reuenge the iniurie and dishonor done vnto his Vncle.
Others saide, that his meaning was to make himselfe Kyng of _Mexico_.
Others held opinion, that his pretence was only to make an ende of y^e
Spanyards. But let it be for whatsoeuer purpose. Once he gathered a
great army, which he coulde not want, although _Mutezuma_ was prisoner,
especially against y^e Spanyards. He published that he would redéeme
his Vncle out of Captiuitie, and expulse the Straungers, or else kill
and eate them.

This was a terrible newes for the Christians, but yet for all those
bragges _Cortes_ dismayde not, rather hée determined forthwith to
prepare himselfe for the warres, and to besiege him in his owne house
and Towne, sauing that _Mutezuma_ disturbed him, saying that _Tezcuco_
was a place very strong, and scituated in water, and that _Cacama_ was
a man of bolde and stoute courage, and had at commaundemente of the
_Indians_ of _Culhua_, and was also Lorde of _Culhuacan_ and _Otumpa_,
whiche were fortes of great strength, thinking to bring the matter to
a better passe another way: so that _Cortez_ ruled himselfe by the
counsell of _Mutezuma_, and sent vnto _Cacama_, praying him to haue
in remembrance the friendshippe that hadde bin betwixt them two, from
the time that he came and broughte hym into _Mexico_, and that alwayes
peace was better than warre, and especially for a noble man of vassals,
for the begynnyng of warres was pleasant to hym that knewe not what
warres meante: and in so doyng, he shoulde do both pleasure and seruice
to the Kyng of _Spayne_.

[Sidenote: Cacama vvas vvise.]

_Cacama_ aunswered, that he had no friendship with him that woulde take
away hys honor and kingdome, and that the warres whych he pretended,
was profitable for his vassals, and in defence of their Countrey and
Religion, yea and before he determined peace, he meante to reuenge hys
Vncles wrongs and his goddes.

Also (quoth he) what haue I to doe wyth the Kyng of _Spayne_, who is a
man that I know not, no nor yet would gladly heare of hym.

_Cortez_ turned agayne to admonishe and require hym diuers tymes to
leaue off his determination, and wylled _Mutezuma_ to commaunde hym to
accepte hys offer.

Wherevpon _Mutezuma_ sente vnto hym, desiryng him to come vnto
_Mexico_, to take some order in those controuersies and discordes
betwixte hym and the _Spanyardes_.

_Cacama_ aunswered very sharply vnto his Vncles request, saying, if you
had bloud in your eye, or the hearte of a Prince, you woulde not permit
your selfe to bée prisoner, and captiue of foure poore straungers, who
with their fayre speache and flatteryng talke haue bewitched you,
and vsurped your kingdome, no nor yet, suffer the Goddes of _Culhua_
to be throwen downe and spoyled, yea and the _Mexican_ religion and
holy places, violated and troden with théeues féete and deceyuers:
likewise the honour, glory, and fame of your predecessors blotted and
abased, through your faynt stomacke and cowardize. But notwithstanding,
accordyng to your request, and to repayre our religiö, to restore the
Goddes to their Temples, to preserue the kingdome, and to procure
libertie for you and the Cittie, I will obay your commaundement: But
how? not with my handes in my bosome, but lyke a warrier, to kill those
Spaniardes who haue so affrented the nation of _Culhua_. Our men stoode
in great perill, as well of the losing of _Mexico_ as of their owne
liues, if this warre and mutinie had not soone bene qualified: for
why? _Cacama_ was valiant, stoute, and a good souldier, yea and well
furnished of men of warre: also the Citizens of _Mexico_, were desirous
of the same, for to redéeme _Mutezuma_ their prince, and to kill the
Spaniardes, or else to expulse them out of the Cittie.

[Sidenote: Cacama prysoner.]

But poore _Mutezuma_ remedied the matter, knowyng or foreseing,
that warres would not preuayle, yea and beleued, that at the ende
all shoulde fall vpon his backe. He dealt with certayne Captaynes &
Gentlemen that dwelt in _Tezcuco_ with _Cacama_, to apprehend him, and
bryng him prysoner, cösidering that he was their king and yet aliue.
But whether it were, that those Captaynes had serued _Mutezuma_ in the
warres, or whether it were for giftes & rewardes, they apprehended
_Cacama_ being in counsell among them, treatyng of his warres
pretended, and embarked him in a boate armed for the purpose, and so
brought him to _Mexico_ without any further slander or stryfe, and
when he was comen to _Mexico_, they put him on a riche seate, as the
Kings of _Tezcuco_ were wonte to sitte vpon, beyng the greatest Prince
in all that lande next vnto _Mutezuma_: and in this sorte brought him
before his vncle, who would not looke vpon him, but commaunded him to
be deliuered vnto _Cortes_, who incontinent clapped a payre of giues
on his legges, and a payre of manacles on his handes, and put hym into
sure Guarde and custodie.

After that _Cacama_ was in this order prysoner, with the consent of
_Mutezuma_ was elected Lorde and Prince of _Tezcuco_ and _Culhuacan_,
_Cucuzca_, _Cacama_ his yonger brother, who was abidyng in _Mexico_
with his vncle, and fled from his brother: _Mutezuma_ did entitle
him with the ceremonies accustomed vnto Princes newly elected and
chosen. So that forthwith he was obeyed in _Tezcuco_ by _Mutezuma_ his
commaundement, for he was there better beloued than _Cacama_, who was
somewhat of a croked nature. In this sorte was remedied all the former
perill, but if there had bene many _Cacamas_, it would haue fallen out

Here _Cortes_ made kings, and cömaunded with as great auctoritie as
though he had obtayned already the whole Empire of _Mexico_: and
certainely sithens his first entry into that countrey, he had an
assured hope to win _Mexico_, and to be Lorde ouer the whole state of

 The Oration that Mutezuma made
 _vnto his Noble men, yeelding himselfe to the King of Castile_.

After the imprisonment of _Cacama_, _Mutezuma_ proclaymed a Parliament,
vnto the which came all the Seniors _Comarcans_, and beyng all
together, he made the Oration followying vnto them.

[Sidenote: A fonde beliefe.]

My kinsmen, friendes and seruants, yée do well know that eightene
yeares I haue bene your kyng, as my fathers and Grandfathers were, and
alwaies I haue bene vnto you a louing Prince, and yée vnto me good and
obedient subiectes, and so I hope you will remayne all the dayes of my
life. Ye ought to haue in remembrance, that eyther ye haue heard of
your fathers, or else our adeuines haue instructed you, that we are not
naturalles of this countrey, nor yet our kingdome is durable, bycause
our forefathers came from a farre countrey, and theyr king and captayne
who brought them hither, returned againe to his naturall countrey,
saying that he woulde sende suche as shoulde rule and gouerne vs, if by
chaunce hée himselfe returned not. Beleeue ye assuredly, that the king
whiche wée haue looked for so many yeares, is he that hath nowe sente
these Spaniardes, whiche yée here sée. Who dothe certifie, that wée are
their kinsmen, and that they haue had notice of vs a long tyme: lette
vs therefore gyue thankes vnto the Goddes, that nowe they are comen in
our dayes, beyng a thing that we so muche desired.

[Sidenote: Poore Mutezuma.]

Yée shall nowe doe me seruice and pleasure, that yée yéelde your selues
vnto this Captayne for vassals of the Emperoure King of Spayne our
soueraygne, I my self haue already yéelded me for his seruitour and
friend, praying you that from hence forwardes ye obey him as ye haue
obeyed mée. And that yée yéelde and pay vnto him the tributes, customes
and seruice that ye were wont to pay vnto me, and in so doyng, ye can
doe me no greater pleasure. Hys harte then woulde not suffer hym to
speake any more, with the sobbes, sighes, and teares, that fell from
hys eyes. All his subiectes there presente fell into a crie, wéepyng
and mournyng, that for a good space they had no power to speake:
they gaue thankes, and sighings, vtteryng with their mouthes many
dolefull, and sorrowfull speaches, yea that it pitied our owne men
at the hartes. But in conclusion, they answered that they would obey
his commaundement. Then _Mutezuma_ and the Burgesses of Parliament in
order yelded themselues for vassals of the king of _Castile_, promising
loyaltie. This acte was set downe by the Notarie, and with witnesses
auctorized. Then the _Indians_ departed home to their houses with
sorowfull hartes, God knoweth, as you may imagine. It was a straunge
thing to sée _Mutezuma_ wéepe with so many Noble men and Gentlemen, yea
and with what griefe they became subiects to an vnknowë Prince, but
they coulde not otherwise doe, seyng that _Mutezuma_ did commaunde the

[Sidenote: A true prophecie.]

Also they had a certaine Prognostication and forwarning by their
Priestes of the comming from the east parties a straunge people, white
of colour and bearded men, who should winne and rule that countrey.
Likewise there was a secrete talke amög them, that in _Mutezuma_
should ende and finishe, not alone the lynage of _Culhua_, but also
the Empyre and kingdome: therefore some were of opinion, not to name
him _Mutezuma_ whiche signifieth, agrieued with misfortune. They say
also that _Mutezuma_ himself had many times answere of the Oracle of
the Gods, that in him shoulde finishe the _Mexican_ Emperours, and that
no childe of his shoulde succéede in his kingdome, and that he should
lose his seate in the eyght yeare of his raigne: & for these causes he
woulde neuer procure warre to withstande the Spaniardes, beleuyng that
they should be his successours. Yet on the other side he thought his
opinion would take no place, for that he had raygned seuentene yeares:
But this should séeme to come from the prouidence of God, whiche giueth
kingdomes and taketh them away.

_Cortes_ gaue vnto _Mutezuma_ moste hartie thankes on the behalfe of
the Emperour, and for himself, and comforted him, who was very sad,
promysing also that alwayes he should be king and Lorde, & commaunde
as heretofore he had done, and better, yea and also he should be chief
ruler of all the other landes and countreys, that he shoulde gette and
bryng to the seruice of the Emperour.

 The Golde and Ievvels that Mutezuma
 _gaue vnto Cortes for tribute_.

After certaine dayes that _Mutezuma_ and his counsell had yéelden
their obedience, _Cortes_ sayde vnto him, how that the Emperour was at
great costes & charges in his warres, wherfore it should be necessary
that his newe vassals shoulde begin to serue in some thing, and to pay
their tribute, willyng him to sende throughout his dominion to sée
what coulde be gathered of Gold, and that he himselfe should beginne
firste to pay tribute to the example of others. _Mutezuma_ answered
that he was contented so to doe, willyng that some of his men shoulde
goe vnto the house of foule for the same. There went many, and there
sawe golde in planches like brickebattes, Iewels, and péeces wrought
in a hall, and two chambers which were opened vnto thë. The Spaniardes
wödering at the sight, would not touch any thing, without giuing firste
aduertisement to _Cortes_, who incontinent went thither, and caused
it all to be carried to his lodgyng: besides this treasure _Mutezuma_
gaue vnto him rich clothes of cotten and feathers maruelously wouen in
figures & colours, it séemed without cöparison, for the Spaniardes had
neuer séene the like: he gaue vnto him more, twelue shooting tronkes,
wherewith he himself was wont to passetime: some of them were paynted
with birdes, beasts, floures & trées very perfite, a worke surely much
to be commended: and some of them were engrauë very curiously, with
their mouldes and pellets of golde.

He sente also his seruants by twoo and twoo, and fiue and fiue,
ech company with one Spaniarde, to the Lords of other prouinces,
fourescore, and a hundred leagues frö _Mexico_, to gather in golde for
the accustomed tributes, and newe seruice to the Emperour. Euery Lorde
and Seignior payde the quantitie appointed & taxed by _Mutezuma_, in
golde, plate, iewels, stones and pearles.

The messengers returned, although they had taried somewhat long on
their iourney, of whom _Cortes_ receyued all that they brought, and
caused it to be molten, out of the whiche was had in fine golde
.1600000. Castlins, of the value of seuen shillings and sixe pence the
péece, and rather more, and also fiue hundred markes of plate, after
sixe Ducates the marke.

This treasure was deuided among the Souldiers, but not all: euery man
was payde accordyng to his office. The horsemen had twise as muche
as the footemen. Also _Cortes_ was payde out of the stocke the money
promised him in _Vera Crux_.

There came to the kings parte .32000. Castlins and a hundred markes of
plate, the whiche was wrought there in platters, saucers, cuppes, ewers
and other péeces, according to the _Indian_ fashion, to be sent to the
Emperour. Besides this, the present that _Cortes_ layde aside, and takë
out of the stocke to send to y^e Emperour, was worth .100000. Ducates,
in pearles, precious stones, golde, and feathers, feathers and siluer,
and many other iewels, as the gallant tronkes, whiche beside their
value were straunge to behold, wrought with the brauery aforesayde.
This present appoynted, was not sent, for that and al the rest was
afterwarde loste at the troubles in _Mexico_, as hereafter shall more
playnly appeare.

 Hovv Mutezuma required Cortez
 _to departe from Mexico_.

_Cortes_ seyng himselfe riche and mightie, he occupied hymselfe in
thrée things, the one was to sende vnto _Santo Domingo_ and other
Ilands, newes of his procéedings and prosperitie, and also money to
prouide menne, horses and armour, for his owne company were to fewe
for so greate a countrey. The other was, to take fully and wholly the
state of _Mutezuma_, hauing him prisoner, and also at his commaundement
_Tlaxcallan_, _Coatelicamath_, and _Tuchintlec_, knowyng also that
the _Indians_ of _Panuco_, _Tecoantepec_, and _Mechuacan_, were
mortall enimies to the _Mexicans_, who woulde ayde and assist him
hauing néede of their helpe, his thirde pretence was, to procure all
the _Indians_ to be Christened, the which purpose he tooke first in
hand, as a thing most nedefull. On the other side, _Mutezuma_ repented
himselfe, hauyng newes that _Pamfilo de Naruaiz_ was arriued, who came
as enimy to _Cortes_, yea and after all this he was at length driuen
out of _Mexico_. These notable things shalbe rehersed in their order.
But now _Mutezuma_ came, and desired _Cortes_ to departe out of his
countrey, aduising hym that otherwise bothe he and his menne were in
perill of killyng, saying also, that thrée especiall causes moued him
to this requeste: the one was, the dayly sute of the subiectes, who
enportuned him to come out of captiuitie, and to murder the Spanyardes,
saying, that it was a great shame for them to suffer theyr Prince to
bée in pryson in the power of so fewe straungers, whom they might
vse as a footebal: hauing dishonored thë and robbed them of their
goodes, gatheryng and heaping vp their gold for themselues, & for
their king, who as séemed by their doings, was but a poore fellowe,
and if hée would not accept their offer and sute, that then of theyr
owne auctoritie they would take the thyng in hande, for so much as he
refusing to be theyr king they woulde also refuse to be his vassals,
giuyng warnyng and aduice that he should looke for no better rewarde at
the Spaniardes handes, than _Qualpopoca_ and _Cacama_ his Neuewe had
receiued, although they shoulde flatter him neuer so muche.

[Sidenote: A suttle Foxe.]

An other cause was that the Diuell had appeared vnto him, and willed
him to kill those Christians, or dryue them out of the lande,
threatnyng him that if he did not so, that then he woulde goe from him
and neuer talke any more with him, for (quoth he) with their gospels,
baptisme and deuotion, they doe muche displease me. _Mutezuma_ answered
him, that there was no reason to kill thë being his friendes and honest
men, but he would entreate them to departe, (vnto this) the Diuell
answered that hée should do so, and therein he would receyue great
pleasure, for eyther he woulde goe his way and leaue him, or else
that Christian fellowes should departe, for they sow here (quoth he)
a Christian fayth y^e which is much against our Religiö, and can not
dwell both togither. Another cause was, that _Mutezuma_ was not well
pleased with the imprysonment of _Cacama_, whö once he loued excedyng
wel: so in fine, secretely hee repented him of all that was past in the
Spanyardes fauour, and chiefly by the persuasion of the Diuell, who
sayde that he coulde not doe vnto him a more acceptable seruice, and
of greater pleasure to the Goddes, than to expell the Spaniardes and
abolishe the name of Christians, and in so doyng, the seate of Kings
should not finish in the linage of _Culhua_, but rather be enlarged,
& his childrë should raigne after him, wishing him not to beléeue in
prophesies, sithence the eight yeare was past, and was nowe in the
eyghtenth yeare of his raigne. For these causes, or possible for other
whiche we knowe not off, _Mutezuma_ prepared an army of a hundred
thousand men so secretely, that _Cortes_ knew not thereof, to the
effecte, that if the Spanyardes woulde not departe, being once more
required, that then he meant not to leaue one of them aliue. With this
determination, he came forthe one day into the yard or courte, and
had long conference and consultation with his Gentlemen aboute this
matter. This done, he sente for _Cortes_, who liked not this newes,
saying to him selfe, I pray God this message be to good purpose, and
taking twelue of his men whych were readyest at hand, went to know
wherefore hée had sente for him. _Mutezuma_ arose from the place where
hée sate, and tooke _Cortez_ by the hande, commaunding a stoole to be
brought for him, and so sate them downe both togither, and beganne his
talke as followeth. Sir, I beséeche you to departe from this Citie
and Countrey, for my Gods are sore offended with me, bycause I doe,
and haue permitted you héere so long: demaunde of me what you please,
and it shall be giuen you, bycause I loue you well: and thinke you
not, that I giue you this warning in iest, but rather in good earnest,
therefore it is conuenient, that you depart. It séemed strange vnto
_Cortez_ this talke. Also he saw by the countenance of _Mutezuma_, that
some thing was a working, and before the interpreter of _Mutezuma_
had made an end of his talke, _Cortes_ willed one of his më to goe
forthwith, and to aduise all his fellowes, saying, y^t the waight of
their liues was in questiö. Then our më called to remembrance what was
tolde them in _Tlaxcallon_, considering that it was néedeful of courage
and help from God to bring them out of that daunger. Whë _Mutezuma_ had
ended his tale, I haue (quoth _Cortes_) vnderstood your meaning, and
doe thanke you for the same: also I would know when it is your pleasure
that we should depart, and it shal be done. Euen when it please you
(quoth _Mutezuma_) take the time that you thinke méete, and againste
that time will I prepare a hundred waighte of gold for you, and fiftie
pound waight to each of your më.

_Cortes_ sayde, you knowe, that when I came into thys Countrey, I
commaunded all my Shippes to be sonke, so that nowe I haue néede of
time conueniente to builde vessels to carrie vs into oure Countrey:
wherefore my request is, that you commaund some of your Carpëters to be
called, to cutte downe timber for the purpose, for I haue men that can
make the vessels. And this done, wée will departe, so that you giue vs
the golde whiche you haue promised, and certifie you the same to youre
Gods and vassals.

_Mutezuma_ receyued great pleasure at this aunswere, and sayd,
your request shall be fulfilled: and incontinente he sent for many
Carpenters. Likewise _Cortes_ prepared certayne of his Marriners
for Shipwrightes. All the which workemen went vnto great woddes of
Pinetrées, and there cut downe the timber necessarye for the purpose.
_Mutezuma_ being a simple man, gaue credite to all _Cortez_ his talke:
_Cortes_ likewise aduertised his men of his procéedings, and sayd vnto
them, _Mutezuma_ would haue vs departe out of his Countrey, bycause
his vassals and the Diuell hathe entised him therevnto: wherefore it
is néedefull that we build shipping, and therefore I praye you goe
with these _Indians_, and procure to cut downe the best timber fit for
oure purpose, and in the meane season God will prouide for vs, whose
affayres we haue nowe in hand, of remedie and succour in suche sort
that we lose not this frutefull countrey. It is also necessary, that
whë you come vnto the wodde, that you make all the delay possible,
giuing a shew that you are busie occupyed, and with great desire
to make an ende, that those _Indians_ may suspect nothing of oure
pretence. Departe in Gods name, and aduise me alwayes what doth passe
in your affaires.

 The feare that our men stoode in to
 _be sacrifised_.

Eight dayes after their departure toward the woddes, arriued fiftéene
saile of ships at the coast of _Chalchicoeca_. The _Indians_ of that
coast aduised _Mutezuma_ therof, who was not a little afraide with
the newes, & called _Cortes_ vnto him, who feared asmuch some vprore
there, and when they shewed _Cortez_ y^t _Mutezuma_ was come forth into
the yarde, he suspected that if _Mutezuma_ pleased, they shoulde be
all destroyed. Wherefore he said vnto his men, maisters and friends,
_Mutezuma_ hath sent me, considering what passed this other day, I
hold it for no good token. I nowe goe to knowe his wyll: wherefore,
whatsoeuer happen, be you alwayes vigilant and ready, commending your
selues to God. Remember also whome ye are, and who are these Infidels,
abhorred of God, and friends vnto the Diuel, without weapon, and
experience in warre: if we chance to fight, the handes of each of vs
shal shew by déede with sword, the vallor and courage of our heartes:
yea, and although we all die, yet shall we remaine with victory, for
that we haue fulfilled the thing we tooke in hand, and the seruice
which we owe vnto God as faithfull Christiäs, with our duetie as true
subiects to our prince. They all answered, saying, we wil do all our
possibilitie while life lasteth, withoute feare of perill or daunger,
for we lesse estéeme deathe than honor. With this aunswere _Cortes_
wente to _Mutezuma_, who sayde vnto him, _Senior_ Captayne, you shall
vnderstande that now you haue Shippes wherein you may departe,
therefore now at your pleasure make you ready.

_Cortez_ answered, not knowing of that shipping, saying, Mightie Sir,
when my Shippes are finished I will depart, nay (quoth _Mutezuma_) I
meane not those Shyppes, for there are ariued eleuen other Shippes at
the coast néere vnto _Zempoallan_, and shortlye I shall be certifyed,
whether the people that are come in them, are come a shore, and then
shall we know what people, and how many they are in number. Blessed is
Iesu Christe (quoth _Cortez_) vnto whome I giue most hartie thankes for
his great mercies shewed vnto me, and to the Gentlemen of my company.
One of _Cortes_ his men went to shewe the glad tidings to their
fellowes, who then receyued double strength, praysing God, and embraced
one another wyth great pleasure and ioy. And _Cortes_ with _Mutezuma_
béeing in communication togither, came another poast, who broughte
newes of fourescore Horsemen that were landed, with eyght hundred
footemen, and twelue péeces of Ordinance, and shewed painted in a cloth
the whole relation both of men, horses, shippes, and ordinance.

[Sidenote: At the time of neede prouideth God.]

_Mutezuma_ hearing the newes that this poast hadde broughte, arose
from his seate, and tooke _Cortes_ in hys armes, saying, now do I
more loue you, than I haue done héeretofore, and will this day dyne
with you. _Cortes_ gaue him thankes for the one and the other, and in
this sorte wente hande in hand to _Cortes_ his Chamber, who willed
his Spanyards not to make any extraordinary ioy, or alteration, but
that they shoulde kéepe all togither with vigilant watche, and to
giue hartie thankes vnto God for the comfortable newes. _Mutezuma_
and _Cortes_ dyned togither with greate content and pleasure, the one
thynking to abide and to enioy the kings state and Countrey, the other
thinking that then they woulde auoyd the land. But notwithstanding all
these ymaginations, a certaine _Indian_ Captaine importuned _Mutezuma_
secretely to kill all _Cortes_ his menne, being but few in number, and
then should he be the readier to dispatch the others that were newly
come, and not to permitte them to ioyne one with another: yea and
againe, when the newe come menne shoulde knowe of the deathe of their
countreymen, they would not presume to abide in the lande.

[Sidenote: A drunken reckoning.]

With this counsell _Mutezuma_ called many his friends and chiefe
estates to counsell, propounding the case and iudgement of the
Captaine, whych béeyng among them throughly hearde, there were many
of sundrye opinions, but the conclusion was, to permitte the other
Spanyards to come, saying, the more enimies, the more gaine, and if
we kill but those whiche are héere, then the others wyll returne to
their shippes, and so shall we not make the solemne sacrifice of them
to the Gods, according to our desire. _Mutezuma_ was occupyed in this
counsell with fiue hundred noblemen and Gentlemen dayly, and accordyng
to determination, they commaunded to cherish and serue _Cortes_ and his
company more than ordinary, saying their ioy was at an ende.

 Hovv Iames Velasques sent Pamfilo
 _de Naruaiz against Cortes_.

_Iames Velasques_ béeyng sore agréeued, with desire of reuenge against
_Cortes_, not only for his expences at the time of preparation of
_Cortes_ his fléete, whiche was but small, but of méere hatred of the
present honor & prosperitie of _Cortes_. Wherevpon he inuented greate
causes and quarrels againste him, saying and alleaging, that _Cortez_
hadde not giuen accompt of his procéedings vnto him, béeyng Gouernoure
of _Cuba_, and _Cortez_ his Deputie, but rather without his consent and
knowledge, had sente to _Spayne_ to the King, aduise of his discouery,
as who would say, that was treason, or an euill facte: but chiefly his
fury was, knowing how _Cortes_ had sent an honorable present, with
the Kings parte or portion of treasure vnto _Spayne_, yea and whole
relation of the discouery, with _Francisco de Monteio_, and _Alounso
Fernandez Portocarrero_, the whiche procéedings _Iames Velasques_ meant
to disturbe, for that he hadde layde in ambushe a coupell of caruels,
to haue taken _Cortes_ hys presente, and messengers, the whiche his
pretence and purpose tooke no place, so that with the prosperous newes
of _Cortes_, his furie and madnesse the more encreased, ymagining still
his destruction.

[Sidenote: A noble Iudge.]

And being occupyed in these fonde ymaginations, it happened that his
Chaplin, one _Benito Martine_, broughte letters from the Emperoure
vnto him, with title and letters pattentes, of Generall and chiefe
Gouernour of all that then was discouered, inhabited, and conquered in
the land and coast of _Yucatan_. With this newes, _Velasques_ began
to triumph, not only so much for the honor, as also to driue _Cortez_
from _Mexico_. Wherevpon, he incontinent prepared this Fléete or Nauie
of eleuen Shyppes, and seauen Vergantines, with nine hundred men, and
fourescore Horses, and appoynted one _Pamfilo de Naruaez_ for Captayne
Generall, and his Deputie in the regiment of the Countrey: and for
his more quicker dispatch, he himselfe wente with him throughout that
Ilande, till they came to _Guaniguanico_, whiche is the Westermost
harbor of the Ilande, and being there _Naruaez_ ready to departe for
_Mexico_, and _Velasques_ to returne to _Cuba_, came the lisenciat
_Lucas Vasques de Aillon_, a chiefe Iudge of _Santo Domingo_, in name
of the whole Chancery, to require _Velasques_ vpon great penalties,
that he should not permitte or suffer _Pamfilo de Naruaez_ to procéede
on that voyage agaynst _Cortes_, whiche woulde bée cause of Murther,
ciuil warres, and other mischiefes among the Spanyards, yea and that
_Mexico_ should be in daunger of losing, wyth all the rest that was
conquered, and in quiet to the Kings vse, saying vnto him moreouer,
that if there were anye discorde betwéene them for goodes, or poyntes
of honor, that then it did apperteyne to the Emperoure to iudge, and
determine the cause, and not that he himselfe should be iudge in his
owne cause, vsing force against the other partie, praying them for
the seruice of God and the King, that if they would goe to conquere,
that then they shoulde séeke other Countreys, hauing so good an armye
and fléete, and Countreys ynough to séeke. This diligëce, request and
authoritie of the Licentiate _Aillon_, to _Velasques_ and _Naruaez_
preuayled not: he séeyng their obstinacie and little regarde to him
being a chiefe Iudge, determined to goe with _Naruaez_ in his Shippe,
to lette and disturbe the greate hurte that might follow, thinking
there in the newe _Spayne_ to perswade _Naruaez_, better than in the
presence of _Velasques_, yea and also if néede should bée, to be a
meane of quietnesse betwixt them.

_Pamfilo de Naruaez_ tooke shipping in _Guaniguanico_, and sailed
till he came néere vnto _Vera Crux_ with al his fléete, and hauing
intelligence that there were a hundred and fiftie Spanyards of _Cortes_
his band, he sente vnto them a Priest, with one _Iohn Ruiz de Gueuara_,
and _Alonso de Vergara_, to require them to receyue him for their
Captayne and gouernoure. But the newe Citizens would giue no eare to
their talke, but rather apprehended them, & sente them prisoners to
_Mexico_ to _Cortez_, to aduertise hym of their embassage, wherevpö
_Naruaez_ vnshipped his men, horses, armor, & artillery, & wët w^t thë
directly to _Zëpoallä_. The _Indian Comarcans_ being as well friends
to _Cortez_, as vassals to _Mutezuma_, gaue vnto him golde, mantels,
and vittayles, thinking that they had bin _Cortez_ his men.

 The substance of a letter that Cortez
 _wrote vnto Naruaez_.

Before _Cortes_ knew the effect of the cöming of this new fléete,
his head was sore troubled, for, on the one side he was glad of the
comming of his owne nation, on the other side he liked not so great
an armye. Likewise he ymagined, that if they came to succour him, he
helde the Countrey for conquered: also if that they were come againste
him, he iudged the Countrey to bée lost. He iudged also, that if they
were come from _Spayne_, that then they hadde brought to him the
thing loked for, but if they were come from _Cuba_, be feared ciuil
warres. He also thought, that from _Spayne_ could not come so many
folke in so shorte space. Finally, he déemed, that his olde enemie
_Iames Velasques_ was come personally, but when he knew the whole
truth, then was he muche more pensiue, thinking that the thread of
his prosperitie was cut asunder, yea and that they would be meane to
stoppe the gappes of the whole discouery, both of the secretes of the
land, mines and treasure, as also, in the knowledge of the friends or
enimies of _Mutezuma_. It shoulde be also a let to inhabite the places
which he had begunne, yea and also to Christen the _Indians_, whiche
was the principall thing that he pretended, yea & a let or stop of many
other things begun in y^e seruice of God & the prince, fearing also
by flying from one inconuenience, to fall into many, and also if he
should permit _Pamphilo de Naruaez_ to come vnto _Mexico_, it shoulde
be a meane of hys perdition: if likewise he should encounter him, he
feared some rebellion in the Citie, and the setting at libertie of
_Mutezuma_, putting in perill his owne honour, life, and trauayle: and
to auoyde all these daungers and inconueniences, he determined remedy.
First, he dispatched twoo men, the one vnto _Iohn Velasques de Leon_,
who was gone to inhabite at _Coazacoalco_, willyng him at the sight of
his letter to repaire vnto _Mexico_, giuing him aduise of the comming
of _Naruaez_ and of the great néede that he stoode in, of him & his
company. The other messenger he sent to _Vera Crux_, to bryng full
relation of the arriuall of _Naruaez_, and what was his pretence.

The letter sent to _Iohn Velasques_, came no sooner to his hande, but
forthwith he obeyed and fulfilled the same, contrary to the expectation
of _Naruaez_, for he was his brother in law, and kinsman vnto _Iames
Velasques_. _Cortes_ seing his constancie, had him euer after that tyme
in great estimation.

From the _Vera Crux_ came twentie of the townes men with certificat
what _Naruaez_ had published, and brought with them a priest, with
_Alonso Gueuara_ and _Iohn ruiz de Vergara_, who had comen to _Vera
Crux_ to amotiue the towne, vnder colour that they had brought the
commissiö from the king. _Cortes_ on the otherside, sent vnto _Naruaez_
seignior _Bartholome de Olmedo_, with other two Spaniards, to offer
vnto him his friendship, & otherwise to require & commaunde him on the
behalfe of the kyng & of his owne, as chiefe iustice of the land, and
in the name of the rulers and Aldermen of the towne of _Vera Crux_, who
were then in _Mexico_, that he shoulde enter peaceably, without making
any alteration vntill his auctoritie and commission were séene and
allowed, and to make no slaunder or vprore to the hinderäce of the king
his maisters procedings.

But al this diligence and letters of _Cortes_ and the other rulers
preuailed not, he seing this, set at libertie the priest that was
brought prisoner, and sente him vnto _Naruaez_, with certaine riche
collers of gold, and other iewels with a letter, wherein he wrote,
that he was more gladder of his comming in that fléete than any other,
for the friendship and olde acquaintaunce that had bene betwixt them,
desiring him that they mought talke and cöferre togither, alone, for to
take order to prohibite wars, sedition, bloudshedde and disquietnesse
among them, beyng of one natiö and brethren, requestyng him to shew his
cömission from the king vnto him, or vnto the counsell of _Vera Crux_,
and he would willingly obey it as reason did require: and if he had not
brought any such commission, yet he would make some honest agrement
with him. _Pamfilo de Naruaez_ seing himselfe strong and mightie, did
little regarde _Cortes_ his letters, offers, nor requestes, and chiefly
bycause _Iames Velasques_ was sore displeased with _Cortes_.

 The talke of Naruaez to the Indians,
 _and his answere to Cortes_.

[Sidenote: A foule bragge.]

_Pamphilo de Naruaez_ declared to the _Indiäs_ that they were deceyued
with their opiniö in _Cortes_, for that he alone was Captayne generall
and chiefe Lorde, and that _Cortes_ was but a naughty man, and so were
all they of his company which are now in _Mexico_, who were all but his
boyes, and that his present commyng was to cut of _Cortes_ his head,
and to chasten the others, likewyse he meant to dryue them all out of
the countrey, & then to departe himselfe, and to leaue them in full

[Sidenote: A cruell proclamation.]

[Sidenote: A madde reckenyng.]

The _Indians_ gaue credite to his talke seyng so many bearded men
and horses, and therevpon began to attende and serue him, leauyng
their olde friendes in _Vera Crux_. Also _Naruaez_ began to flatter
_Mutezuma_, and sente him worde that _Cortes_ aboade in that countrey
against the will of his Prince, & that he was a couetous rebell, who
robbed his countrey, and that he pretended to kill _Mutezuma_, and to
make himself king. Also that his comming was to set him at libertie,
and to restore vnto him all that those wicked fellowes had taken from
him. And bicause that others should take example of their factes, he
would commaunde them all to be slaine, willing him to take no care,
for in short space they would sée ech other. And that when he had set
him at libertie with restitution of his goodes, he would incontinent
departe his countrey. These treaties were so foule & abhominable, with
the iniurious wordes which _Pamfilo de Naruaez_ spake openly against
_Cortes_ and his men, yea they séemed odious vnto all his owne hoste
& army, and some of his own më checked him for the same, especially
_Barnardino de Santa Clara_, who seyng the countrey so peaceable and so
well pleased with _Cortes_, he could not let but reprehende _Naruaez_
in his wordes. Also the licenciat _Aillon_ required him diuers times
to cease frö his slanderous talke, vpon paine of death & losse of his
goodes, & also not to procéede towarde _Mexico_, for the great hurte
that might ensue, with slander among the _Indians_, disquietnesse among
the Spaniardes, and offence to the Emperour his Maiestie. _Pamfilo de
Naruaez_ being moued with his talke layde hand vpon _Aillon_, being
a chiefe iudge for the King, and apprehended also his Secretary & an
other officer, and forthwith shipped them, and sente thë to _Iames
Velasques_ gouernour of _Cuba_. But when _Aillon_ saw himselfe at sea,
and frée from _Naruaez_, he began to threaten y^e Mariners, cömanding
thë not to presume to carrie him to _Cuba_ to _Velasquez_ his power,
but onely to _Santo Domingo_, where he was one of y^e kings coüsell in
chancery: the Mariners fearing the Kings iustice, obeyed his cömandemët
and when he was aported at _Santo Domingo_, he wholly enformed the
Counsell there, of _Naruaez_ and his wicked dealyng, whose testimonie
and information did much blemishe the credite of _Velasques_, &
exalt the trauels of _Cortes_. After that _Naruaez_ had shipped away
_Aillon_, he proclaymed warre with fire and sworde agaynst _Cortes_,
and promised certayne markes of Golde to him that shoulde apprehende
or kill him, or _Pedro de Aluarado_, and _Gonsalo de Sandoual_, with
other principall persons of his company. Also he made diuision of his
goodes among his më before they came to possesse it. Surely these thrée
poyntes were of a man without wisedome or discretion.

Many of _Naruaez_ his company did amotiue themselues, through the
commaundement of the Licenciat _Aillon_, and through the fame
and liberalitie of _Cortes_. Wherevpon incontinent one _Pedro de
Villalobos_ a Portingal, and sixe or seuen more fledde vnto _Cortes_,
yea and others wrote vnto him, offeryng themselues to his seruice, if
by chauce they should encounter.

[Sidenote: A good captayne and a vvise.]

_Cortes_ receyued the letters, but kept in silence from his company
the firmes of those whiche had written to hym. Some doe thinke that
_Cortes_ had suborned them with letters, fayre promises, yea and a
horse loade of chaynes and planches of golde, which he sente secretely
to _Naruaez_ his campe with a seruaunt of his, publishing likewise,
that he had an army of twoo hundreth Spaniardes in _Zempoallan_, where
he had none at all: these policies mought well be, for he was prudent,
carefull and quicke in his businesse, and _Pamfilo de Naruaez_ was
slouthfull and carelesse.

_Naruaez_ made answere to _Cortes_ his letter by seignior _Bartholome
de Olmedo_, the substaunce of his message was, that forthwith he
shoulde repayre to the place where he was abiding, and there he should
sée the Emperours commission & order, wherein was auctoritie giuen
to hym to take and kéepe that countrey for _Iames Velasques_, yea
and that already he had made a towne of men onely, with all officers
therevnto appertayning.

After this letter and message sent, he dispatched likewise one
_Barnaldino de Quesada_, and _Alonso de Mata_, to requyre _Cortes_ to
depart and leaue the countrey vpon paine of death, and to notifie vnto
him these actes by order of law. _Cortes_ layde hande vpon _Alonso de
Mata_, bicause he named himselfe the kings Notary, and shewed no title
or authoritie for the same.

 The talke that Cortes had vvith
 _his owne Souldiers_.

_Cortes_ perceyuing the small fruyte that his letters (presentes) and
messengers, obtayned at the handes of _Naruaez_, and that in no case,
he woulde shewe his commission whiche came from the kyng, he determined
to goe vnto him, and according to the olde Prouerbe, Face to face doth
get respect, and likewise if it were possible, to agrée vpon some good
order and quietnesse: wherevpon he sent _Rodrigo Aluarez_ his surueyor,
with _Iohn Velasques_, and _Iohn del Rio_, to treate with _Naruaez_ of
many matters, whereof thrée things were the principalest. The first
was, that they two might méete alone, or else so many, for so many,
and that _Naruaez_ should permit _Cortes_ to abyde in _Mexico_, and
he withall his company shoulde cöquere _Panuco_ or other kingdomes,
also that _Cortes_ would pay the charges, and haue consideration
to gratifie his souldiers, or else that _Naruaez_ should abide in
_Mexico_, and deliuer vnto _Cortes_ .400. of his men, to the intent
that with them, and his owne men he myght procéede to séeke other
countreys to conquere. Laste of all, he required to sée the kings
commission, for that he would obey the same. _Naruaez_ liked none of
these offers, only he accepted that they should méete togither with ech
of them ten Gentlemë for securtie, bound with solemne othe, and firmed
this agréement with their names. But it tooke no effect, for _Rodrigo
Aluarez_ aduised _Cortes_ that _Naruaez_ had made a snare to apprehend
him, or to kill him at their méeting. _Cortes_ vnderstoode the matter,
or else he had some other intelligence by some that loued him wel. And
this former agrement taking no place, _Cortes_ determined to goe vnto

But before his departing, he declared vnto his cöpany, saying, I trust
ye haue in remembräce what & how much I haue done for you, since y^e
beginning of this enterprise, yea & also how louingly & friendly yée
haue dealt for me: Yée shall now vnderstand that _Iames Velasques_,
in stéede of thankes giuing vs, hath sent to murder vs, _Pamfilo de
Naruaez_, who is a stubborne & an vnreasonable man, one readie to
execute our good desertes done in the seruice of God & our Prince,
with an euill reward. And the cause is only, for doyng our duetie in
the sending of the Kings parte & portiö to his Roiall person & not
vnto him. Also this _Naruaez_ hath already confiscated our goodes,
and giuen them to other men, and our bodies condemned to the Gallows,
yea and our fame and honour plaide at tables, with great iniurious &
slanderous wordes proclaymed agaynst vs, which things truly are not
of a Christian, no nor yet we with Gods helpe will let the matter so
to slippe: yea and though we ought to leaue the reuengment vnto God,
yet we will not suffer them to enioy our trauayles & paynes, who are
now comen white fingered to spoile the bloud of their neighbours, yea
& like madde men to striue against their owne nation, sowing slander
among those _Indians_ which serued vs as our friëds, yea & procuring
more cruel warres, than the ciuill warre betwene _Mario_ & _Sila_,
or of _Cesar_ & _Pompeio_, who turned vpsidowne the Romaine Empire.
Wherfore I do determine to méete him by y^e way, & not to suffer him to
come vnto _Mexico_, for it is better to say, God saue you, than they to
come & say who is there? yea & though they are many, a good hart doth
breake euil fortune, as it hath appered by vs, who haue passed thorow
the pikes since our cöming hither: moreouer, I doubte not but that many
of _Naruaez_ his cöpany will come vnto vs. Therfore my déere friends
doe I giue you aduise of my pretence, to the entent y^t those which wil
go with me, may them prepare thëselues, & those that will not, let them
remaine to kéepe _Mexico_ & _Mutezuma_, whiche is as much in effect.
At the end of this talke he promised great rewards if y^t with victory
he returned. His më answered al w^t one voyce, y^t they were al at
his cömandemët, & ready to fulfil his wil, yet some feared the pride
& blindnesse of _Pamfilo de Naruaez_: on the other side the _Indians_
began to be lusty, to sée dissention among the Spanyardes, & that the
_Indians_ of the coast were ioyned in league with the new come më.

 The requests of Cortez to Mutezuma.

[Sidenote: Oh vvise Cortes.]

After al his talk & answer of his souldiers, he wët to visite & to
comune w^t _Mutezuma_ for to departe on his iourney, w^t somewhat y^e
lesser care, & also to proue the minde & wil of _Mutezuma_, vnto whome
he vttered his mind as foloweth. Sir, you know y^e loue y^t I haue, &
desire to serue you, & chiefly the trust againe, that you will haue to
my cöpanions whë I am gone frö this citie. Therfore I pray you, that it
may please you to remaine here in this lodgyng, & to haue regard vnto
these strangers, which I leaue with you: also I cömend vnto you, the
gold & iewels whiche is in their custodie, and gyuen vnto vs of your
owne liberalitie. For I doe now goe to signifie vnto those which of
late are comen in the new fléete, how your highnesse doth commaunde
that I departe from this land, and that they doe not agrauate or molest
your subiectes, nor yet presume to enter into your countrey, but that
they remayne on your coast, vntill we be ready to departe with them,
according to your will and pleasure. And if in the meane season, any of
your subiects be so vnaduised, as to molest my men, whiche now remayne
in your power and Guarde, that then it may please you to be their
shielde, succour, and onely defence. _Mutezuma_ promised to fulfill
his request, wishing him moreouer, that if any in his iourney shoulde
offende him, then immediatly to aduise him, and that he would sende
his men of warre to chasten thë, yea and also (if it pleased him,)
he woulde giue vnto hym guydes to salfe conduct him through his owne
dominion to the Sea coast, who should prouide him of all necessaries by
the way. _Cortes_ kissed his handes for his curtesie, with moste hartie
thankes for the same, and gaue vnto him certayne Spanishe apparell, and
other glasen Iewels, and also other like treasure to his Noble men,
which stoode by at all the talke. But in effect he tolde him not what
he pretended to doe, nor yet the newes of _Pamfilo de Naruaez_ his
procedings was not come to his eare, or else, it may be that _Mutezuma_
dissumuled the matter with inwarde pleasure, that one Christian should
kill the other, thinkyng thereby to haue most sure his libertie, and
the Goddes pleased.

 The imprisonment of Pamfilo
 _de Naruaez_.

_Cortes_ was so wel beloued among hys companie, that they offered
willingly to goe with him, by reason whereof he chose .250. men fitte
for his iourney, & lefte other .200. in guarde of _Mutezuma_ and the
Citie, with _Pedro de Aluarado_ for their Captayne. He lefte also with
them the artillerie and foure Foystes readye made, to haue the lake
in subiection, beséeching them onely to haue speciall regard that
_Mutezuma_ fled not from them to _Naruaez_, and not to permitte him to
goe out of their fort or strong house.

With those fewe Spanyards _Cortes_ tooke his iourney with no more but
eyght or nine Horsemen, and certayne _Indians_ for his seruice, and

[Sidenote: A stoute man.]

[Sidenote: An vncertayne reckoning.]

Passing through _Chololla_ and _Tlaxcallan_, he was honorably receyued
and lodged, and aboute fiftéene leagues from _Zempoallan_ where
_Naruaez_ was abiding, he mette with two Priestes, and his old especial
friend _Andres de Duero_, who had lente him money for the setting
forthe of that voyage. These thrée persons came to require him to obey
the Generall lately come as Lieutenant to the Gouernour _Velasques_,
and to deliuer vnto him the Countrey, with all the fortes or Castels
therein, aduising him, that if he would not accomplish the same, that
then he woulde procéede againste him, euen as an enemie and Rebell,
to the execution of death. Likewise, if he would fulfill the request
made vnto him, that then he shoulde haue libertie, and conueniente
shipping to depart, both for him, and as many as would goe with him.
_Cortes_ aunswered, that hée would rather suffer deathe, than to leaue
the Countrey whiche he had conquered and pacifyed with his handes and
industrie, without anye commaundemente from the Emperoure: and (quoth
he) if againste all equitie and iustice, he will contend with me in
warre, I will defend me as well as I may, and if I haue the victory
(as I trust in God and the righte that I haue on my side,) I shall not
stand in néede of shipping, and if I be slaine, muche lesse. Therefore
I doe require him to shew vnto me his commission and authoritie had
from the Emperour, for vntil I doe both sée and reade the same, I will
accepte no agréemente: and if (quoth he) that he refuse the same, that
then I dare warne, admonish, and require him to returne to _Cuba_, the
place from whence he came, and if he wil not obey my precept, I will
then apprehende him, and sende him prisoner in yrons to the Emperoure:
and with thys aunswere dispatched the thrée messengers, sending
also a notarie of his owne, to commaund him to take his shipping,
and to departe without making any altercation in the Countrey, or
y^t ensuing of further murders and strife, and if not, that vppon
Whitsonday, whiche was within thrée dayes following, he meante to be
with him at supper. _Pamfilo de Naruaez_ made a mockery and iest at
his commaundemente, and tooke Prisoner the Notarie whiche came from
_Cortes_ with that order, holding _Cortes_ for madde, who made so manye
bragges with so small a company. And before _Iohn Velasques de Leon_,
and _Iohn de Rio_, _Cortes_ his friendes, he mustered his men, who were
in number fourescore Hargabushers, a hüdred and twëtie Crossebowes,
sixe hundred men, with other weapon, and fourescore Horsemen, saying,
how will _Cortes_ defend himselfe againste vs, nay at length he will
know his dutie: he promised money to him that shoulde eyther kyll,
or take _Cortes_ prisoner. And the same offer made _Cortes_ against
_Pamfilo_, who made a rounde of his footemen, and skirmished with
his Horsemen, shooting off his artillerie, to put in feare the pore

_Naruaez_ signifyed againe vnto _Mutezuma_ with the messengers who
carried all the triumph and muster pointed, all his former dealings,
but hearing that _Cortes_ was néere at hande, he sente out hys lyght
Horsemen to dyscrie his Campe.

All _Naruaez_ his Horses were readye sadled and brideled, and his men
armed. _Cortes_ entred so close and secret, that no man almost hearde
him, and the firste worde hée spake, hauyng all hys men within with
him, was, shut the gates, and strike, downe with them. There were at
that time many shining wormes, whiche with their glistering séemed
matches of Hargabushe, so that if one péece at that time had bin
discharged, they woulde haue bin in a great feare.

_Naruaez_ béeing about to put on his priuie coate, came one vnto him,
saying: Sir, _Cortes_ is néere your lodgyng, let him come in (quoth
he) for he commeth to talke with me. _Naruaez_ had his men in foure
Towers of his lodging, and he himselfe was in the one, with a hundred
Spanyardes, and at his dore thirtéene péeces of Ordinance ready
charged. _Cortes_ commanded his chiefe Sheriffe _Gösalo de Sädoual_,
with fortie or fiftie of his fellowes, to goe vp into _Naruaez_ his
Chamber, and he himselfe with other twentie men abode at the dore to
defende and kéepe that none might enter thereat, vntil he had finished
his businesse. The residue of his men besieged the other Towers, so
that they might not succoure one another.

[Sidenote: A darke night for Naruaez.]

_Naruaez_ hearing the noyse, woulde néedes fighte, although he was
required to stay his handes, and comming out at his Chamber dore, they
strake out one of his eyes with a pike, and then they layde hande vpon
hym, dragging and drawyng him downe the stayres by the héeles, and
when he sawe hymselfe broughte before _Cortes_, he sayde, oh _Senior
Cortes_, thanke your great fortune, in hauyng my person prisoner: who
aunswered hym againe, oh _Naruaez_, the hauing of thy body prisoner,
is the least thing that I haue done, sithence I came into thys lande.
_Cortes_ commaunded forthwith to lay him in yrös, and to carrie him to
the riche towne of _Vera Crux_, where he abode prisoner certayne yeares.

This combat endured but a while, for within one hour _Pamfilo de
Naruaez_ and the chiefest of his company were taken prisoners, and
their weapös & armour taken from all the rest. There were slayne of
_Naruaez_ his men sixetéene, and of _Cortes_ his side were killed only
two persons with a péece of Ordinance. They had no leysure to giue fire
to their Ordinance, with the great diligence and hast of _Cortes_,
sauing vnto one péece that killed the two men. The tutche holes were
stopped with waxe, through the great raine that had fallen. By this
meane those that were ouercome, did take occasion to ymagine that
_Cortes_ had suborned the maister gunner, and others.

_Cortes_ vsed great sobrietie and discretion, for he would not permitte
anye of the prisoners to be reuiled or misused with any iniurious
wordes, no nor yet _Naruaez_, who hadde spoken so much euill of him,
although many of hys men desired reuengement. _Pedro de Maluenda_
seruaunt to _Iames Velasques_, who was chiefe Stewarde to _Naruaez_,
fledde to the Shippes with all the stuffe that he coulde gette, without
any lette of _Cortes_. Héere may you sée what difference and aduantage
is betwixt man and man, what did eache of these Captiues say, thinke,
and doe, seldome time dothe happen that so fewe of one nation dothe
ouercome so many of the same nation, especially the greater number
béeyng fresh, lustie, and in a strong holde.

 The Rebellion of Mexico against

After that _Cortes_ had obteyned victorye against _Naruaez_, he knew
very well the most part of his company, vnto whome he spake curteously,
praying them to forget the things past, and so would hée also. And also
likewise, that it mighte please them to goe with him to _Mexico_,
whiche was the richest Citie of all that _India_. He also restored to
euerye man his armour and weapons, whiche were taken from them in their
ouerthrowe. Hée also left very few of them prisoners with _Naruaez_.
The Horsemen tooke the fielde with stomacke to fight, but after they
had hearde of hys offer, they submitted themselues. In conclusion, all
those that were come, hoping of spoyle, were glad to accepte his offer,
and to goe with him with faithfull promise truly to serue him.

He renued his power in _Vera Crux_, and brought thyther the nauie of
_Naruaez_. He also dispatched two hundred Spanyardes to the riuer of
_Garay_, and sent also _Iohn Velasques de Leon_ with other two hundred
men. To inhabite of _Coazacoalco_. He dispatched also a Spanyarde by
post to _Mexico_, with newes of the victory, and hée himselfe followed
towarde _Mexico_, with the great care that he had of those whome he had
lefte there in guard of _Mutezuma_ and the Citie.

The Post that wente on this iourney, in steade of thankes, was sore
wounded by the _Indian_ Rebelles, but although he was so hurte, yet he
returned to _Cortes_, wyth newes that _Mexico_ was reuolted, and that
they had burned the foure Foystes, also assieged the Spanish house,
and throwen downe a wall, and myned another, yea and set fire vpon the
munition, taken away their vittayles, and had broughte them to suche
extremitie, to be eyther slayne, or remayne prisoners, sauing that
_Mutezuma_ commaunded to ceasse the combate, yea and for all that they
woulde not leaue their armoure, nor departe from the siege, only they
somewhat amayned their furie for theyr princes sake.

These newes were sorrowfull to _Cortes_, for thereby his pleasure was
turned into care, the rather to make hast to succoure his friendes and
fellowes, for if he hadde delayed hys comming but a small whyle, he had
founde them eyther slayne, or else their bodyes ready to sacrifice: but
his greatest comforte was, that _Mutezuma_ remayned styll prisoner. He
mustered his men in _Tlaxcallan_, and founde of his Spanishe nation a
thousand footemen, and néere a hundred Horsemen. He procéeded forwardes
towarde _Tezcuco_, where he founde none of the Gentlemen of his
acquaintance, nor yet he there was receyued, as in time past he had
bin, but rather he found a great alteration in the Coütrey, and also
many townes without people, or else rebelled. In _Tezcuco_ met with him
a _Spanyarde_, whome _Aluarado_ had sente to desire him to come vnto
them, and to certifie hym of all the premisses, saying moreouer, that
with his comming their furye woulde be pacifyed.

With this messenger came another from _Mutezuma_, who declared vnto
_Cortes_, that hys Lorde was innocent of all that was done, praying
hym, that if he had conceiued any euill opinion agaynste hym, to putte
away the same agayne, and that it mighte please hym to goe directly to
hys own house, where hée abode hys comming, wyth the Spanishe guarde
that he hadde lefte with him, who were aliue and in good healthe as he
hadde lefte them.

With thys message, _Cortes_ and hys companye reposed all that nyghte,
and the nexte daye, béeyng Midsommer daye, he entred into _Mexico_ at
dynner tyme, with hys hundred Horsemen, and the thousande footemen,
with a greate companye of theyr friendes of _Tlaxcallan_, _Huexocinco_,
and _Chololla_, but he saw but few folke in the stréetes, and small
entertaynement, with manye bridges broken, and other euill tokens.

He came to hys lodgyng, and all those of his companye whyche coulde
not well bée lodged there, hée sente them to the greate Temple.
_Mutezuma_ came forth into the yarde to receyue hym, full heauie
and sorrowfull, as it séemed, of that offence whiche his subiectes
had done, excusing hymselfe: and then euery one entred into hys
lodgyng and Chamber: but the ioy and pleasure of _Pedro de Aluarado_
was incomparable, saluting the one the other, with demaundes and
questions howe they fared, yea and how much the one company declared of
prosperitie and pleasure, the other againe replyed as muche of sorrow
and trouble.

 The causes of the Rebellion.

_Cortes_ procured to knowe the principall cause of the insurrection
of the _Mexican Indians_, and hauing a generall daye of hearyng, the
charge béeyng layde against them, some sayd, that it was through the
letters and persuasion of _Naruaez_: Others aunswered, their desire and
meaning was, to expell the straungers, according to agréemente made,
for in theyr skirmishes they cryed nothing but gette you hence, get you
hence: Other sayde, that they pretended the libertie of _Mutezuma_, for
in theyr Combates they woulde saye, lette goe oure God and Kyng, if you
list not to bée slayne. Others sayde, that they were Théeues, and hadde
robbed theyr golde and plate from them, whyche was in valewe more than
seauen hundred thousande duckettes: Others cryed, héere shall you leaue
the golde that you haue taken from vs. Others sayde, that they coulde
not abyde the syghte of the _Tlaxcaltecas_, and other theyr mortall
enimies. Manye beléeued that the mutinye was for throwyng downe theyr
Goddes and Idolles: each of these causes were sufficient to rebell,
how muche more altogither.

But the chiefest and most principall cause was, that after the
departure of _Cortes_ towarde _Naruaez_, happened a solemne holiday,
whiche the _Mexicans_ were wont to celebrate, and desiring to obserue
the same, as they were wont to do, they came and besoughte Captayne
_Aluarado_ to graunt them licence, & not to ymagine that they were
ioyned togither to kill the Spanyardes. _Aluarado_ gaue them licence,
with such conditions, that in their Sacrifice shoulde no mans bloude be
spilte, nor yet to weare anye weapon.

At this feast, sixe hundred Gentlemen and principall persons ioyned
togither in the greate temple: some doe saye, that they were more than
a thousande persons of greate estate, but that nighte they made a
maruellous great noyse, with cornets, shels, clouen bones, wherewith
they made a straunge musicke: they celebrated the feast, their naked
bodyes couered with telc, made and wrought with precious stones,
collers, girdels, bracelettes, and many other iewels of golde, siluer,
and aliofar, with gallant tuffes of feathers on their heads. They
daunced a daunce called _Mazeualiztli_, which is to say, deserte wyth
payne, and so they call _Mazauali_ a husbandman. Thys daunce is like
_Netoraliztli_, which is another daunce. The manner is, that they lay
mattes in the Temple yarde, and with the sounde of their Drummes,
called _Atabals_, they daunce a round, hande in hande, some singing,
and others answere, which songs were in y^e honor and prayse of the God
or Saincte, whose feast it is, hoping for thys seruice to haue rayne,
corne, healthe, victory, peace, chyldren, or anye other thing that they
maye wishe for, or desire.

[Sidenote: A couetous desire and a vile.]

These _Indian_ Gentlemen being occupied in their daunsing and
ceremonies, it fortuned that _Pedro de Aluarado_ went to the Temple of
_Vitzilopuchtli_ to beholde theyr doings, and whether his goyng was of
his owne accorde, or by the consent of his cöpany I am not certaine,
although some saye that he was aduised howe the mutinie was there
conspired, as after did follow: others holde opinion, that their onely
goyng to the Temple was to beholde the maruaylous and straunge daunce.
And then seying them so richely attyred, they coueted their Golde and
Iewels whiche they were, and besieged the Temple with tenne Spaniardes
at each dore, & the Captayne entred in, with fiftie men, and without
any Christian respect slewe and murdered them al, and tooke from them
all their treasure. Although this facte séemed odious vnto _Cortes_,
yet he dissimuled the mater, for feare least he shoulde hurte his owne
procéedings, as time did then require knowyng not, what néede he might
haue of them, but especially to auoyde contention among his company.

 The threatenings of the Mexicans
 _agaynst the Spaniardes_.

The cause of this rebellion, beyng well knowen, _Cortes_ demaunded how
theyr enimies fought, mary (quoth they) after they had taken weapon
agaynst vs for the space of ten dayes arew, they neuer seased with
great fury to assaulte and cöbat our house, and we with feare least
_Mutezuma_ shoulde escape and flée vnto _Naruaez_, durst not goe out
of dores to fight in the streate, but onely to defende the house with
especiall care of _Mutezuma_, accordyng to your charge giuen vnto vs.
Also we being but few and the _Indians_ many, who still refreshed
their men, they did not onely wery vs, but also put vs in great feare
and cleane out of courage, yea and if at the greatest brunt, _Mutezuma_
personally had not ascended to the toppe of our wal, commaunding them
if euer they meant to sée him aliue, to stay and cease from their

At the sight of _Mutezuma_ they were all amazed, and incontinent
ceased the combat and assault. They sayde also that with the newes of
the victory had agaynst _Pamfilo de Naruaez_, _Mutezuma_ requyred his
men to leaue off from theyr pretence: notwithstandyng, the _Indians_
calling to remembraunce, that _Cortes_ was cöming with a greater
company, at whose returne they should haue the more to doe, began
afreshe to assaulte the house, wherevppon some doe thinke, that it
was agaynst the will of _Mutezuma_. But it followed, that one day the
Spaniardes standing in greate perill, charged their greatest péece of
ordinaunce, and gyuing fire, the péece discharged not: the _Indians_
seyng the same, beganne a freshe with a marueylous terrible noyse,
vsing staues, Bowes, lances, & stones that came as thicke as Hayle,
saying, nowe will wée redéeme our King, sette our houses at libertie,
and reuenge our iniuries. But in the middest of theyr fury the péece
wente of, without any more prymyng or touche, with a greate and
fearefull thunderyng, the péece beyng great and ful of hayle shotte,
with the mayne pellotte, made a straunge spoyle among them, and with
feare they retyred. But yet they beganne to say, well, well, shortely
shall your fleshe be boyled, although wée meane not to eate it, for
truely it is very carrayne and good for nothing. But yet we will
bestowe the same vpon the Eagles, Lions, Tigres and Snakes, who shal be
the graues for your filthy carcases.

But if forthwith ye let not _Mutezuma_ departe, and restore him to his
libertie, yée shall quickly haue your rewarde, for your presumption &
pride, who durst be so bold, as to lay hande on _Mutezuma_ being our
God and Lorde that giueth vs our dayly foode. And yet yée with your
filthy théeues handes presumed to touch him, oh why dothe not the earth
open & swallow you which taketh other mës goodes? But marke the end,
for our Gods whose religion you did profane, will rewarde you according
to your deserte: & if they do not shortly execute their wrath, then
let vs alone, for we will out of hande make an ende of you. And as for
those théeues and villaines of _Tlaxcallan_ your slaues, shall not
depart praysing their gaynes, who nowe presume to take their maisters
wiues, ye and to demaund tribute of them, vnto whome they themselues
are tributors. These & such like were the wordes of the _Mexicans_. But
our men, although they were in a maruelous feare, yet they reprehended
their folly as touchyng _Mutezuma_, saying that _Mutezuma_ was no God,
but a mortall mä as they were, and no better, and that their Gods were
vayne idols, and their religion most false and abhominable, and that
only our God was holy, iuste, true, and infinite.

 The great extremitie and daunger that
 _our men were put in by the Mexicans_.

In hearyng the former talke in defense of the house, and prouiding of
things necessary, the night passed away. And in the mornyng to proue
the _Mexicans_ intent, _Cortes_ commaunded the market to be vsed as
in time past. _Aluarado_ wished _Cortes_ to shew himself toward him
as agrieued & not well pleased, makyng as though he would apprehend &
correct him for the things passed, thinking that _Mutezuma_ and his
men would haue entreated for him. _Cortes_ passed not for that talke,
saying that they were infidels, diuelish and wicked people, with whome
suche complementes shoulde not bée vsed.

But he commaunded a certaine principal Gentleman of _Mexico_, who
stoode there presente, that out of hande he should commaunde the market
to be furnished as in time past. This _Indian_ vnderstäding that
_Cortes_ had spoken euil of them, made as though he went to fulfill his
commandment: but he wente to proclayme libertie, publishyng the heynous
and iniurious wordes whiche he had harde, so that in shorte space
the matter beganne to waxe hoate, for some went and brake downe the
bridges, others went to call all the Citizens, who ioyned themselues
togither, and besieged the Spaniardes house, with suche straunge noyse
that one coulde not heare another: the stones flewe lyke hayle, Dartes
and arrowes filled the Spanyardes yarde, which troubled them much.
_Cortes_ seing this broyle, he with certaine of his men went out at one
dore, and an other Captayne at another, with eache of them twoo hundred
men. They fought with the _Indians_, who slewe foure Spaniardes, and
wounded many moe, and of them were slayne very fewe with their succor
and defence at hande. If our men fought with them in the streates,
then would they stoppe their passage at the bridges: if they assaulted
their houses, then they were beaten with stones from the toppe of their
houses whiche were flatte ruffed, and at their retire they persecuted
them terribly.

They sette fire vpon the Spaniardes house in sundry places, but chiefly
in one place they coulde not aplake the fire a great whyle, vntill
they threwe downe certayne chambers and walles, whereas they had
entered at pleasure, had it not bene for the Artillerie, Crossebowes
and handgunnes, which were there in defence of that place. This
combat endured all that day vntill night, yea and in the night also
they had their handes full: our men had litle leasure to sleepe, but
rather spente the night in mendyng the walles and dores, and curing the
wounded men who were more than foure score, & likewise to set their men
in order & readinesse for the fight of the next day following.

[Sidenote: A straunge inuention.]

It was no sooner day, but the _Indians_ beganne theyr assault a fresh,
with more courage and furie than the day before, so that our men were
fayne to trust to their artillery, the whiche the _Indians_ feared not
a whitte: for if a shotte carried ten, fiftene or twentie _Indians_
at a clappe, they would close againe as though one man had not bene
missyng. _Cortes_ came out with other twoo hundreth men, and gate some
bridges, burned some houses, and slew many that defended them. But the
_Indians_ were so many in number, that no hurte appeared, yea and our
men were so fewe in comparison of them, that although they fought al
the day, yet had they much a doe to defend themselues, how much more
to offende. That day neuer a Spaniarde was slayne outright, but thrée
score of them were wounded and hurte, wherby they had inough to do to
cure them for that night, and to procure remedy and defence against
the hurtes whiche they receyued from the house toppes. They inuented
Engines of timber made vpon whéeles, and foure square, couered on the
toppe, and with Arte to passe through the streates: there were placed
on eache of them twentie men with Pikes, Hargabush, Crossebowes and one
double Base. Behinde the Engines wente men with shouels and Mattockes,
to throwe downe houses, bulworkes, and to rule and gouerne the Engines.

 The death of Mutezuma.

All the while that the Engines were a makyng, our men came not out to
fight, beyng occupied in the worke, but onely to defende their lodgyng.
The enimies thinkyng that they were all sore hurte and wounded,
beganne their warres agayne, reuilyng them with many iniurious wordes,
threatnyng them, that if they woulde not deliuer _Mutezuma_, that they
woulde giue them the moste cruellest death that euer man suffered, and
came with great force to haue entred the house.

_Cortes_ desired _Mutezuma_ to goe vp into the sotie, which is the
toppe of the flatte roufe of the house, and to commaunde his subiects
to ceasse from their heate and furie. At _Cortes_ his request he wente
vp, and leaned ouer the wall to talke with them, who beginnyng to
speake vnto them, they threw so many stones out of the streate, houses
and windowes, that one happened to hitte _Mutezuma_ on the temples
of his head, with whiche blowe he fell downe to the ground: this was
his ende, euen at the handes of his owne subiectes and vassalles
agaynst theyr willes: for the truth is that a Spaniarde helde a Target
ouer his head, wherby they knew him not, nor yet would beléeue that
he was there, for all the signes and tokens whiche were made vnto
them. _Cortes_ forthwith published the hurte and daunger of life of
_Mutezuma_: some gaue credite to his tale, and othersome woulde not,
but rather fought very stoutly. Thrée dayes _Mutezuma_ remayned in
extréeme payne, and at the ende departed his life.

And bicause it shoulde appeare that his death was of the stripe that
they had giuen, and not by any hurte receyued at their hands, he caused
two gentlemë of _Mexico_, who were prysoners, to carry him out vpon
their backes, who certified the Citizens of the certentie of his
death, that at that presente time were giuyng battery to the house.
But yet for all this they woulde not leaue off the combat, nor yet the
warres, as some of our men thought they woulde, but rather procéeded
on their purpose, with greater courage and desire of reuenge. And when
they retyred, they made a pityfull lamentation, with preparation to
bury their king in _Chapultepec_. On this sorte died _Mutezuma_, who
was holden for a God among the _Indians_. Some say that hée desired to
be Baptised at the Shrouetide before his death, and they prolonged the
matter, thinking at Easter followyng to haue christened him with honour
and triumph. But as it happened, it had bene better to haue done it at
that time according to his request. But with the comming of _Pamfilo
de Naruaez_ the thyng was also delayed, and after hée was wounded it
was likewyse forgotten, with the troubles that they were in. It was
credibly enformed, that _Mutezuma_ was neuer consentyng to the death
of any Spaniarde, nor yet in conspiracie agaynst _Cortes_, but rather
loued him entierly: yet some are of an other opinion, and bothe giue
good reasons to approue their arguments, but the truth could not wel
be knowen, for at that tyme our men vnderstoode not the language, and
agayne _Mutezuma_ after his death, lefte none to open that secrete.

The _Indians_ affirme that he was of the greatest bloud of all his
linage, and the greatest kyng in estate, that euer was in _Mexico_.
It is also to be noted, that when the kingdomes do most florish, then
are they niest to a chäge, or else to change their Lorde, as doth
appeare in this history of _Mutezuma_. Our men lost more by y^e death
of _Mutezuma_ than the natural _Indians_, if we cösider the murder and
destruction that incontinent did follow. _Mutezuma_ was a man very
moderate in his diet, and not so vicious as other _Indiäs_, although
he had many wiues. He was also liberal and frée harted: he was estéemed
for a very wise man, in my iudgement he was eyther wise in lettyng
things passe after that sorte, or else a very foole, that did not
vnderstande their doings: he was as deuoute as warlyke, for he had
bene presente in many battayles: it is reported that he wanne and had
victory in nine battayles, & also other nine times victorie man for man
in the fielde, he reygned seuentene yeares and certaine moneths.

 The combat betvveene the Spaniardes
 _and the Indians_.

After the death of _Mutezuma_, _Cortes_ sente vnto his Neuewes, and
to the other noblemen who mainteyned the warres, desiryng thë to come
and speake with him, and they came, vnto whome _Cortes_ spake from
the wall where _Mutezuma_ was slayne, saying, that it were méete that
they should ceasse from warre, and to chose another king, and also
to burie the dead, and that he woulde come to his buriall as his
friende: likewise he signified vnto them, that for the loue he bare
vnto _Mutezuma_ who had intreated for them, he had stayed from the
finall spoyle of the cittie, & correction of them for their rebellion
and obstinacie. But now that he had not vnto whome to haue respect,
he woulde bothe burne their houses, and chasten them, if that they
submitted not themselues to his friendship.

They answered, that they woulde neyther leaue the warres, nor yet
estéeme his friëdship, vntill they saw thëselues in their libertie, and
their wrongs wholly reuenged, yea and that without his counsell they
coulde elect the King vnto whom of right y^e kingdome did apertaine.
And sithens the Gods hath taken our welbeloued _Mutezuma_, we will
giue his body a Sepulchre, as vnto such a King doth apperteyne: yea and
if he would goe and beare his friend _Mutezuma_ company to the Gods,
that then he should come forth, and they would quickly dispatch him:
and as for the residue, they would haue rather warre thä peace, yea and
that they were not menne that did yéelde with wordes. Also séeing their
King was dead, for whose respecte they ceassed to burne their houses,
rost their bodyes, and eate their fleshe, but nowe (quoth they) if ye
depart not, we will not dally long time with you.

[Sidenote: A valiant man.]

_Cortez_ finding them stoute and stubborne, liked not the bargaine.
Againe, he knewe well that their meaning was, that if they hadde
departed from the Citie, to haue spoyled and murthered them by the
way. And séeing that their liues, rule and gouernement consisted in
strength of hand and good courage, he came forth in a morning with the
thrée engines, foure péeces of Ordinance, and fiue hüdred Spanyards,
and thrée thousand _Tlaxcaltecas_, to fighte with the enimies, and
to burne and spoyle their houses. They broughte the engines néere
vnto certaine greate houses which stoode néere vnto a bridge, casting
theyr scaling ladders on the walles, and so gote vp to the toppe where
manye people were, and there combated awhile, but shortly turned to
their forte againe, without doing any greate hurte, with one Spanyarde
slayne, and manye wounded, and also the engines broken and spoyled,
yea the multitude of _Indians_ were so thicke, and flewe vppon the
Ordinance in suche sorte, that they had no leysure to discharge them.
The stones came also so thicke from the house toppes, that the engines
were soone at an ende. And the Citizens hauing housed them againe in
the forte and lodging, began to amende the hurt done in their houses,
and to recouer the stréetes that were lost: also y^e great Temple,
in the Tower whereof, fiue hundred principall men hadde fortifyed
themselues wyth vittayles, stones, and long Launces, piked with yron
and flint stone verye sharp, but truly they did most hurt with stones.
This Tower was high and strong, as I haue before declared, and stoode
néere vnto the Spanyardes forte, whiche from that tower receiued muche
hurt. Although _Cortes_ was somewhat sadde and heauie, yet he ceassed
not like a good Captayne to comfort and encourage his menne, and
alwayes was the firste man at any brunt or assay, and hys heart coulde
not permitte him to remaine penned vp in that fort, wherefore he toke
thrée hundred Spanyardes, and went to assiege the high tower. Thrée
or foure dayes he ceassed not that enterprise, but coulde not come to
the toppe, being so high a thing, and manye persons in defence of the
same, well prouided, with fitte munition for the purpose, so that our
men came dayly tumbling downe the stayres, flying to their house with
broken pates, so that our Spanyardes dysmayed more and more, and many
murmured at the matter: you may well iudge howe _Cortes_ his heart was
afflighted, for the _Indians_ encreased still in courage, hauing the
better hand, and dayly victory from the high Tower. But nowe _Cortes_
determined to leaue his house, and not to returne therevnto agayne,
vntill he had wonne the Tower. He bounde his Target to his arme whiche
had bin hurt before, and beséeged the Tower againe with many of his
men, _Tlaxcaltecas_ and other friends, and many times, although they
were beaten downe, arose agayne, succoring one another, tyll at length
they gote to the toppe, and there foughte with the _Indians_, till some
of them lept out of the Tower, and stood hanging vpon the listes of the
wall, which were thrée in number, the one higher than the other, and a
foote broad. Some fell downe to the ground, who besides their falles,
were receyued vpon the swordes poynt, and in this sorte they left none
aliue. Thrée houres they fought on the top of the Tower, bycause y^e
multitude of _Indians_ wer great. In conclusion, the whole fiue hundred
men there dyed very valiantly, and if their weapon and knowledge had
bin equall, the victory had bin doubtfull. _Cortes_ set fire on all
the Chappels, and other thrée Chappels, where infinite Idols were, yet
those sely _Indians_ lost no poynte of courage with the losse of their
Temple and Gods, which touched them at the hearte, but rather began
with more furie to assault the Spanish house.

 Hovv the Mexicans refused the offer
 _of peace made by Cortez_.

_Cortez_ considering the great multitude of _Indians_ his enimies,
and also the greate courage, with desire of reuengement: and waying
also how his men were weake and wéeryed with fight, yet (I may say)
with great desire to goe frö thence, if that the Citizens would haue
suffered them: he began againe to require them with peace, and to
desire them of truce, saying vnto them also, that they should consider,
how that many of their side were slayne, and yet they coulde kill
none of them. They béeing more hard harted than before, answered that
they vtterly refused his offer, saying, that they neuer woulde haue
peace with those who had slained their men and burned their Gods:
yea (quoth they) and although some of vs are killed, yet wée also do
both kill and hurt, for ye are mortall men, and not immortall, as we
are: beholde ye also the number of vs, vpon _Zoties_, in windowes and
stréetes: assure youre selues there are thrée tymes as manye within
the houses. So wée shall sooner make an ende of you by kyllyng one and
one, than you shall doe of vs by killing a thousande by thousande, or
ten thousand by ten thousand: for ending all these whome you sée, there
wyll come so many more, and after them so manye more: but if ye were
once killed, there woulde come no more Spanyardes, yea and when oure
weapons can not throughly destroy you, that then we will sterue you to
deathe with hunger and famine, yea and though nowe you would depart,
it is too late, bycause y^e bridges are throwen downe, and the calseys
broken, and succoure by water you haue none. In this communications
the daye was spente, and night at hand, their heads occupyed, and
heartes full heauie, for hunger alone hadde bin ynough to finish theyr
dayes, without any further warre. That nighte, the one halfe of the
number of Spanyardes armed themselues, and late in the euening came
forthe into the Citie. The _Indiäs_ now being not accustomed to fight
at such houres, the Spanyardes burned aboue thrée hundred houses in
one stréete, and in some of them found many Citizens, of whome they
left not one aliue. They burned and spoyled thrée _Zoties_ néere vnto
their owne lodging, whiche hadde greately annoyed them before. The
residue of the Spanyardes whiche abode at home, amended the engins, and
repaired their houses. As this iourney hapned well vnto them, earely in
the morning they procéeded out againe, and wente to the bridge where
their engins hadde bin broken, and although they founde there greate
resistance, yet the matter imported their liues. They foughte with
noble courage, and gote manye towers, houses and _Zoties_. They wanne
also four of the eyght bridges which were in the Citie, leauing gard
in those places whyche were wonne, returning to their Campe with manye
woundes, beyng both wéery and full of care and sorrow.

The next daye they came forth againe, and wanne the other foure
bridges, and dammed them vp with earth, in such sorte, that the
Horsemen that way followed the enimies to the firme lande. _Cortez_
being occupyed in damming vp the ditches, and making plaine way of the
bridges, there came certayne messengers vnto him, saying, that néere at
hand, abode many noblemen and Captaines to treate of peace, requiring
hym to come vnto them, praying him to bring _Tlamacazque_ his prisoner,
who was one of the principallest of the Diuels Cleargie there, to heare
the treatie of the matter.

_Cortes_ wente, and carried the Priest with him, whome he appoynted to
require them to ceasse from contention, and to remoue their siege, but
he came not backe wyth aunswere. All thys was a fayned fetche, to sée
the state of the Christian Campe, or else to recouer their religious
_Tlamacazque_. _Cortes_ séeyng theyr deceyte, wente hys way to dinner,
and was no sooner sette at hys meate, but certayne _Tlaxcaltecas_
came running in with an open crye, saying, that theyr enimies hadde
recouered agayne the bridges, and wente armed vp and downe the
stréetes, and hadde also slayne the most of the Spanyardes that were
lefte in garde of the bridges. Incontinente _Cortes_ wente out with the
Horsemenne, who were readyest at that tyme, and made way through the
troupe of enimies, following them euen vnto the firme lande, but at
theyr returne, the footemen that were hurt and wéeried in kéeping of
the stréete, coulde not susteyne the force and furie of the infinite
number of _Indians_, whyche came vpon them, yea with muche adoe they
coulde escape home to their forte. The multitude was not so greate
of _Indians_ in the stréete, but also by water in _Canoas_, so that
stones flewe on both sydes, and galled oure men cruelly. _Cortes_ was
hurte in one of hys knées very sore, wherevppon it was blowen abroade
through the Citie, that _Cortes_ was slayne, whiche newes dyd greately
discourage our men, and much animate the _Indians_. But yet _Cortes_
for all hys payne and hurt, ceassed not to embolden & encourage hys
Souldyers, who set afreshe vpon the enimies. At the farthest bridge
fel two Horses, which troubled muche oure men that followed. _Cortes_
made suche way among the _Indians_, that the Horsemen hadde reasonable
passage, and béeyng y^e hindmost man himselfe, he was in great peril of
taking. It was a maruell to sée what a spring hee gaue with hys Horse,
and thereby escaped, but in conclusion, with stones they were forced to
returne to their hold, beyng very late.

As soone as he had ended his supper, he sente some of his men to gard
the stréete and bridges, and to defend the same againste the enemie.
They were somewhat ioyfull of their procéedings and good successe
whiche they hadde the same day.

 Hovve Cortez fledde from

But _Cortes_ waying the substance of the matter, sawe in effecte that
his syde wente to wracke, wherefore he requested hys menne to departe
from thence, who were not a little ioyfull to heare their Captayne
pronounce that saying, for few or none of them escaped vnhurt and
wounded. They feared death, but yet wanted not stomacke and hearte to
dye. The _Indians_ were so many, that if the Chrystians shoulde but
onlye haue cutte their throtes without resistance, yet they had bin too
few for that purpose.

They were also in suche necessitie of bread, that pinched them sore.
Their pouder and shotte was spente, and almost all other prouision.
Their house was welnigh beaten downe about their eares. All these
causes were sufficient to leaue _Mexico_, and to séeke to saue their
liues: yet on the other side, they iudged it an euill case, to turne
their backes to their enimies, for (quoth they) the very stones riseth
vp against hym that flyeth. They feared agayne the passage of the
arches where the bridges hadde bin, so that now they were full besette
with sorrow, care, and misery: but in fyne, they all agréed to departe
that nighte, for many dayes before, one of their companye called
_Botello_, who presumed to haue good skyll in the Arte of Nigromäcie,
did declare vnto them, that if they would depart from _Mexico_ at a
certayne houre appoynted, that then they shuld escape, or else not: but
whether they gaue credite to his sayings or no, they fully determined
to departe that night, and like vnto politike and good Souldyers,
they prepared a bridge of tymber to carrie wyth them, to passe ouer
the arches where bridges hadde bin. This is most certayne, they were
all priuie and agréede to the departure, and not as some report, that
_Cortes_ fledde away, leauing aboue two hundred Spanyardes in the
house, who knewe nothyng of hys departure, and were afterwardes all
slayne, sacrifised, and eaten in _Mexico_, for out of the Citie he
coulde not haue departed so secretely, but it shoulde haue come to
their eares: howe muche more out of one house, where they were all

[Sidenote: Revvarde of a couetous mind.]

_Cortes_ called _Iohn de Guzman_ hys Chamberlayne, commaunding him to
open the hall where the treasure was, and called all the officers and
others, to sée the distribution of the same. First the kings portion
was deducted, and he gaue a Horse of his owne, and men to carrie it:
and for the remainder, he willed euery man to take what he listed,
for he gaue it frankely vnto them. The souldiers which had come with
_Naruaez_, & now serued _Cortes_, were somewhat hungry of treasure, so
that they tooke as much golde and other riches, as they myghte possible
carrie, but it cost them déere, for at their going out of the Citie,
with the waight of their heauie burthens, they coulde neyther fighte,
nor yet make hast on their way, vppon whiche occasion, the _Indians_
caught many of them, and drewe them by the héeles to the slaughterhouse
of Sacrifice, where they were slayne and eaten: yet those that escaped,
had eache of them some profyte, for that pray was well worth seauen
hundred thousand Ducketes: but beeyng things wrought in greate péeces,
they were troublesome to carrie, so that he whiche carried least,
escaped best. Yet some doe thinke, that there remayned in that house a
great parte of the treasure, but it was not so, for after our men had
taken what they would, then came in the _Tlaxcaltecas_, and made spoyle
of all the rest.

_Cortes_ gaue charge to certayne of his menne, to garde with much
respecte, a sonne and two daughters of _Mutezuma_, _Cacama_, and his
brother, and manye other greate Gentlemen his prisoners.

He also appoynted other fortie më to carrie the bridge of timber,
and other _Indians_ to carrie the Ordinance, and a little grayne of
_Centli_ that remayned.

The vantgarde he committed to _Gonsalo de Sandoual_, and _Antonio de
Quiniones_: and the reregarde he committed to _Pedro de Aluarado_, and
he hymselfe remayned with a hundred men, to vse his discretion. In
this order, and with good deliberation, at midnight he departed from
_Mexico_ in a darke myst, and so quietely, that none of the _Indians_
knewe thereof, commendyng themselues vnto GOD, beséechyng hym in theyr
prayers, to delyuer them from that presente daunger, and tooke the way
of _Tlacopan_, béeyng the same way that he came into the Citie.

The firste arche whereof the bridge was throwen downe, they passed with
the timber bridge whiche they carried with them at ease.

In this meane time the watche and espies which warded in the hiest
temples, had descried their flight, and began to sounde their
instruments of warre with a maruelous crie, saying, they flie, they
flie: And sodenly with this noyse, they hauing no armour to put on,
nor other impedimët, ioyned an infinite company of them togither, and
followed with greate celeritie, yea and with suche a heauy and terrible
noyse, that all the lake pronounced the Eccho, saying, let the cursed
and wicked be slayne, who hath done vnto vs such great hurte.

But when _Cortes_ came to plante his bridge vpon the second arche of
the Cittie, there mette him a greate company of _Indians_ to defende
the same, yet with much adoe he planted his bridge and passed thervpon
with fiue horsemen and a hundred Spaniardes, and with them procéeded
through the Calsey to the mayne lande passing many perilous places,
wherein swamme both man and horse, for the bridge of timber was broken:
this done, he lefte his foote menne on the firme lande, vnder the
gouernement of _Iohn Xaramillo_, and returned backe with the fiue
horsemen for to succour and helpe the residue of his company whiche
were behinde. But when he came vnto them, he found some fighting with
great courage, but many slaine. He lost also his golde and fardage,
his ordinance and prisoners, yea in fine he founde a maruellous change
and alteracion of the estate he lefte them in, wherevpon lyke a good
Captayne he shewed his wisdome and valour, helpyng and recoueryng as
many of his men, as he myght, and brought them into safetie. He lefte
also Captayne _Aluarado_ to succour the reste.

But _Aluarado_ with all his power and strength could not resiste the
fury of the enimies, wherefore with the Lance in his hande he beganne
to flie, seyng the greate slaughter of his company, so that hée was
forced to passe ouer the dead carkases, yea and vpon some that were
not throughly dead, who made a lamentable, pytifull, and dolefull
mone. And commyng to the next arche, whose brydge was broken downe, of
necessitie he tooke hys Lance, and therewith leaped such a space, that
the _Indians_ were amased to sée, for none of his fellowes could doe
the like, although they approued the enterprise, and were drowned for
their labour.

When _Cortes_ sawe this sorrowfull sight, he sate hym downe, not to
take any rest for his wearinesse, but only to bewayle the dead men,
yea and also them that were aliue and in greate daunger, and also to
ponder the vnstedfastnesse of cruell fortune in the perdition of so
many his friends, such great treasure and lordshippe, so greate a
Citie and Kingdome, but also to bewayle the sorrowfull estate that he
himself stoode in, seyng the moste of his men wounded & hurte, and
knowyng not whyther to goe, for that he was not certayne of the helpe
and friendship of _Tlaxcaltecas_. Yea and what harde hart, woulde not
haue relented to behold the dead bodies, who a litle before had entred
that same way, with suche magnificall triumphe, pompe and pleasure. But
yet hauing care of those whom he had lefte on the firme lande, he made
haste to _Tlacopan_.

This sorowfull night, which was the tenth of July in _An_ .1520. were
slaine aboute .450. Spaniardes, 4000. _Indian_ friends, and .46. horse,
yea & (as I iudge) all the prisoners which were in his company. If this
mishap had fortuned in the day time, possible so many and so great a
nüber had not perished. But where it fortuned by night, the noyse of
the wounded was sorrowful, & of the victors horrible and feareful. The
_Indians_ cried victory, calling vpon their diuelish and filthy Goddes
with ioy & pleasure, our men being ouercome, cursed their vnfortunate
lot, yea the hower, and he that brought them thither, others cried
vnto God for succour, others sayd helpe, help, for I stande in daüger
of drowning. I know not certenly whether moe perished in the water or
the lande, hopyng to saue themselues by swimming and leapyng ouer the
sluces and broken places, for they say, that a Spaniarde was no sooner
in the water, but an _Indian_ was vppon his backe. They haue great
dexteritie & skill in swimming, so that catching any Spaniarde in the
water, they would take him by the one arme, and carrie him whither they
pleased, yea & would vnpanch him in the water. If these _Indians_ had
not occupied themselues in taking the spoyle of those that were fallen
and slaine, certenly one Christian had not escaped that day: but in
fine, the greatest number of Spaniardes that were killed, were those
that went moste laden with golde plate and other iewels, & those which
escaped, were they that carried least burdens, & the first that with
noble courage made way to passe through the troupe of _Indians_.

Nowe wée may safely say, that the couetous desire of gold, wherof
they had plenty, was cause of their death, and they may answere that
they died riche. After that those, whiche had escaped, were paste the
calsey, the _Indians_ stayed and followed them no further, eyther for
that they contented themselues with that whiche they had done, or else
they durst not fight in open fields: But principally it is thought,
that they abode to mourne and lament for the death of _Mutezuma_ his
chyldren, not knowing till then their sorrowfull ende. But nowe seyng
the thyng present before their eyes, they wrang theyr hands, and made
a pitifull dole and crie, and the rather, bycause they themselues had
slayne them against their willes.

 The battayle of Otumpan, a notable

The Inhabitants of _Tlacopan_, knewe not how our men came spoyled,
hurte, and ouerthrowen, and againe our men stoode in a maze, and knew
not what to doe nor whither to goe. _Cortes_ came vnto them, & cöforted
them & placed them in order before him, requyring them to make hast,
vntill they might come into the broade field, before such tyme as
the men of _Tlacopan_ should heare of the newes passed, & so to arme
thëselues and to ioyne with fourtie thousande _Mexicans_, who after the
mournyng for their friends, came marchyng after them. He placed in the
vantgard the _Indians_ his friëds, and passed through certayne tilled
grounde, and continually fought as they went, vntill they came to a
high hill, where was a tower and a Temple, whiche is called our Lady
churche at this day.

[Sidenote: A vvery iourney.]

The _Indians_ slewe some of the Spaniardes whiche came in the reregard,
and many of their _Indian_ friends, before they could get vp to the
toppe of the hill. They loste muche of the golde, that had remayned,
and with greate hazarde escaped through the multitude of _Indians_
with life, their horses whiche remayned aliue, were foure and twentie,
who were tyred both with trauell and hunger, & the Spaniardes their
maisters, with the residue coulde scarsely stirre hande or foote with
wearinesse of fightyng, and penurie of hunger, for al that day and
night they ceassed not from fight, eating nothing at all.

[Sidenote: A payneful man.]

In this Temple were reasonable lodgings, where they fortified
themselues as well as they myght, and dranke one to an other, but
theyr supper was very slëder. After their simple feast was ended, they
went and beheld an infinite number of _Indians_, whiche had beset
them almost round about, makyng a maruellous shoute and crie, knowyng
that they were without victuals, whiche onely is a warre worser than
to fight with the enimie. They made many fires with the woodde of
sacrifice, rounde about the tower and Temple, & with this pollicie, at
midnight departed secretely. It happened that they had _Tlaxcalteca_ to
be their guide, who knew well the way, assuring to bring them into the
iurisdiction of _Tlaxcallan_: with this guide they began to iourney.
_Cortes_ placed his wounded men and fardage in the middest of his
company, the souldiours that were whole and in health, he deuided into
the vantgarde & reregarde: he could not passe so secretly, but y^t they
were espied by the _Indian_ scoute, whiche was neare at hand, who gaue
aduise therof incötinent. Fiue horsemë which went before to discouer,
fell among certayne cöpanies of _Indians_, which attended their cöming
to robbe thë, & seing the horsemen, they suspected that the whole army
was at hand, whervpon they fled, but yet seing them few in number städe
and ioyned with the other _Mexicans_ that followed & pursued our men
thrée leagues vntil they came to a hill where was an other temple with
a good tower & lodgyng, where they lodged that night without supper.
They departed in the mornyng from thence, and wente through a cragged &
naughty way, to a great towne the enhabitantes whereof were fledde for
feare, so that they abode there two daies to rest thëselues, to cure
their më, & horses: also they somewhat eased their hügery stomakes and
carried frö thence prouision, although not muche, for they had none to
carrie it. And being departed frö thence, many enimies pursued them &
persecuted them very sore. Likewise y^e guide erred out of his way, &
at lëgth came to a little village of few houses, where they reposed y^e
night. In the morning they procéeded vpon their way, and the enimies
still pursuyng and troubled them sore all the day.

[Sidenote: Cortes vvounded vvith a slyng.]

[Sidenote: Oh noble Cortez.]

_Cortes_ was woüded with the stripe of a sling, and therewith was in
greate daunger of life, for his head so rancbled, that of necessitie
they were forced to take out certaine péeces of his skull, whervpon
he was driuen to séeke a solitarie place in the wildernesse to cure
him, and in goyng thitherwardes, the enimies wounded fiue Spaniardes
and foure horses, whereof one died, and that was eaten among them for
a sumptuous supper, and yet not sufficient for them all, for there
was none of them whiche were not vexed with hunger. I speake not of
their woundes and wearinesse, things sufficient to haue made an ende
of lyfe. But certainely the Spanishe nation can abide more hunger than
any other, and especially these with _Cortes_ dyd shewe the proofe. The
nexte day in the mornyng departing from a litle Village, and fearyng
the multitude of enimies, _Cortes_ commaunded eche horseman to take
a sicke manne behinde him, and those that were somewhat stronger, to
holde by the horse tayles and stirroppes: he likewise made cruches for
other some to ease them, and woulde not leaue one of his men behinde
him to be a pray and supper for the _Indian_ enimies. This aduise was
very profitable as things fell out, yea also there were some of them
that carried vpon their backe their fellowes, & thereby were saued.
They had not iourneyed a full league into a playne fielde, when there
mette them an infinite number of _Indians_ who compassed them round
aboute, and assaulted our men in such sorte, that they verily beléeued
that day to ende generally their liues, for there were many _Indians_
that durst wrastell with our men, man to man, yea and layd some of them
in the duste, and drewe them by the héeles, whether it were with the
great courage whiche they had, or whether it were with the trauayle,
hunger and hurtes of our men I know not, but great pittie it was to
sée, how they were drawen by the _Indian_ enimies, and what grieuous
mone they made.

[Sidenote: Oh valiant Cortez.]

[Sidenote: 200000. Indians.]

_Cortes_ that wente with vigilant care comfortyng his men, as muche
as was possible to doe, and well perusing the great daunger that
they were in, commendyng himselfe to God, sette spurres to his horse
and made way thorow the greatest troupe of _Indians_, and came vnto
the captayne generall who bare the Royall standart of _Mexico_, and
passed him through with his Lance, whereof he incontinent died.
But when the _Indians_ sawe the standart fallen, they threw their
auncient on the grounde and fled, scattering them here and there like
men amazed, knowing not whither to fly, for such is their custome in
warre, that when they sée the generall slayne, they forthwith leaue
the fielde. Then our wery soules began to recouer hart and strength,
and the horsemen followed thë to their great anoyance and slaughter.
It was credibly reported, that there were that day in fielde .200000.
_Indians_. And the fielde where this battayle was fought is called
_Otumpan_: there was neuer a more notable facte done in _India_,
nor greater victorie since the first discouery of the same. And as
manye Spaniardes as sawe _Hernando Cortes_ fighte that day, did holde
opinion, that neuer one man did more greater feates in armes, and that
he only was the meane in his owne person to saue and deliuer them all.

 The entertaynement vvhiche the
 _Spaniardes had in Tlaxcallan_.

After this victory obtayned, _Cortes_ with his company went to lodge
in a house planted alone, in a playne grounde, from whence appeared
the Mountaynes of _Tlaxcallan_, whereof our menne muche reioyced: yet
on the other side they stoode in doubt whether they should finde them
their friendes in such a daungerous season, for bycause the vnfortunate
man that flieth, findeth nothing in his fauour, for all thing that he
pretendeth, happeneth cleane contrary. That night _Cortes_ himselfe was
scoute, not bycause he was more whole than his fellowes, but like a
good Captayne, he deuided the trauayle & paynes equally, euen as their
hurte and damage was come.

[Sidenote: 50000. më.]

[Sidenote: Faythfull friendes.]

Being day, they iourneyed in plaine and straight way, directly to
the Mountaynes and Prouince of _Tlaxcallan_, they passed by a swéete
foütaine of water, where they wel refreshed themselues, and after they
came to _Huazilipan_, a towne of _Tlaxcallan_, of .4000. housholdes,
where they were louingly receiued & abundantly prouided for thrée
dayes, whiche they abode there refreshing & curing their weary bodies.
Some of the townes men would giue thë nothing without payment, but the
moste parte did vse them very gently: Vnto this Towne came _Maxixca_,
_Xicotencatlh_, _Axotecalth_, and many other principall persons of
_Tlaxcallan_, and _Huexozinca_ with .50000. men of warre, who were
going to _Mexico_ to succour the Spaniardes, knowyng of their troubles,
but not of their hurte and spoyle, yet some holde opinion that they
hauyng certayne knowledge of all theyr mishappes and flight from
_Mexico_, came only to comforte them, and in the name of all theyr
communaltie and state, to offer them their Towne, in conclusion, they
séemed sorrowfull for their misfortunes, and agayne ioyfull to sée them
there: Yea some of them with anguishe of harte wepte, and sayde, wée
did aduise and warne yée, that the _Mexicans_ were Traytours and wicked
persons, and yet yée woulde not beléeue vs: wée doe pyttie and bewayle
your troubles, but if it please you, lette vs goe thither to reuenge
your iniuries, and the death of your Christians, and our Citizens: and
if now ye will not, that then it may please you to goe with vs home to
our houses, for to recreate youre persons, and to cure your woundes.

_Cortes_ did cordially reioyce, to heare and finde such succour and
friendship, in such good men of warre, whereof he stoode in doubt as
he came thitherward. He gaue them most hartie thankes for their louing
offer, curtesie, and good will. He gaue vnto them of such Iewels as
remayned, and sayd vnto them, the time will come, that I shall desire
your helpe against the _Mexicans_, but now presently it is néedefull,
to cure my sicke and wounded men.

The noble men that were there present, besought him to giue them leaue
to skirmish with the _Indians_ of _Culhua_, for as yet many of them
wandered there aboute. _Cortes_ graunted their request, and sente
with them some of hys men, which were lustie, and in good health, who
procéeded forth all togither, and in that iourney slewe many _Indian_
enimies, so that after this time, the enimies appeared no more. Then
with triumph, pleasure, and victory, they departed toward the Citie,
and oure men followed. It is credibly reported, that twenty thousande
men and women met them by the way with sundry kindes of meates: I do
beléeue that the most of them came to sée them, for the great loue
whiche they bare vnto them, and likewise to enquire of their friends
which had gone with them to _Mexico_, of whome few returned. In
_Tlaxcallan_ they were honorable receyued, and well vsed. _Maxixca_
gaue hys house to _Cortes_, and the residue of hys company were hosted
at Gentlemens houses, who cherished them excéedingly, whereby they
forgate the paynes, sorrowes, and trauels past, for in fiftéene dayes
before, they lay on the bare ground.

Certaynely the Spanyardes were muche indebted to the _Tlaxcaltecas_,
for their loyaltie and faithfull friendship, especially vnto that good
and vertuous Gentleman _Maxixca_, who threwe _Xicotencatl_ downe the
stayres and steppes of the chiefe Temple, for giuing his counsell to
kyll the Spanyardes, meaning to reconcile hymselfe with the _Mexicans_.

He also made two Orations, the one to the men, and the other to the
women, in the greate fauoure and prayse of the Spanyardes, putting them
in remembrance, howe that they hadde not eaten salt, nor worne cloth
of cotten wooll in many yeares before, vntil now that their friends
were come: and to this day these _Indians_ doe muche presume of their
fidelitie, and likewise of the resistance and battayle they made with
_Cortes_ in _Teoacazinco_, so that now when they celebrate any great
feast, or receyue any Christian vizeking, there commeth of them out
into the field sixtie or seauentie thousande men, to skirmishe and
fight in the same order as they did with _Cortes_.

 The protestation and request
 _of the Souldyers to Cortes_.

VVhen _Cortes_ departed firste from _Tlaxcallon_ towardes _Mexico_ to
visit _Mutezuma_, hée lefte there twentie thousande Castlins of golde
and moe, besides the Kings portion which was sent with _Monteio_ and
_Portocarrero_. He lefte there also manye other things if néede should
haue happened in _Mexico_ of money, or other things to prouide his men
in _Vera Crux_, and this he lefte there also, to proue the fidelitie
of his friendes in _Tlaxcallon_. And after he had obteyned the victory
against _Naruaez_, he wrote vnto the Captayne that he shoulde sende for
the same, for reason required that in all things they should haue their

[Sidenote: Exclamation.]

The Captaine of _Vera Crux_ sente fiftie Spanyardes and fiue Horsemen
for the same, who at their returne, were slayne and taken prisoners
with all that treasure, by y^e men of _Culhua_ who had rebelled
through the comming of _Pamfilo de Naruaez_, robbing and spoyling
sundrye dayes. But when _Cortez_ vnderstoode this newes, his ioy was
turned to sorrowe, not onely for the golde and treasure so muche, as
for the losse of his menne, fearyng also some other warre or vprore
to haue bin in the riche Towne of _Vera Crux_, wherevpon hée sente a
messenger thyther, who returned in shorte time, certifying that all the
inhabitantes there were in good health, and also all the _Comarcans_
quiet, and without any token of alteration. This newes and answere
pleased _Cortes_ and all his company, whiche desired to goe thither,
but he woulde not permitte them, wherefore they began to murmure and
to exclayme, saying, what thinketh _Cortes_, what meaneth he to doe
with vs? why, will he kéepe vs héere to dye an euill death? what haue
we offended him, that he will not let vs goe? we are alreadye full of
wearinesse, our bodyes are yet ful of fresh woundes, we haue spente
our bloude, and are nowe withoute strength and apparell: wée sée oure
selues in a straunge Countrey, and full of miserye, enuironed with
enimies, yea and without hope to come to that hygh place from whence
we fell, yea then mighte wée bée accompted for worse than madde men,
to come into the perils from whence wée escaped: wée meane not nowe
to ende oure lyues so desperately, as he would haue vs, for wyth the
insatiable thirste of honoure and glorye, hée estéemeth not hys life,
neyther oures. He doth not lykewyse consider, that he wanteth menne,
horses, artillerie, and armoure, things so necessarye for the warres,
yea he also wanteth victuall, whyche is a thyng moste principall:
what shall wée saye, but that, he erreth, and is deceyued, in giuing
credite to these _Tlaxcaltecas_, who are, like vnto the other nations
of _India_, which are light, changeable, and louers of newe things, yea
and rather, in effecte of troth, they better loue the _Culhuacans_,
than the Spanishe nation, yea and although they nowe dissemble, yet
when they shall sée a greate army of _Mexicans_ come vpon them, they
will then deliuer vs aliue, to be eaten, and sacrificed, for it is an
olde rule, that friendship dothe not long endure betwixte them that are
of sundry religion, apparell, and spéech.

After all these complayntes and murmurations amög themselues, they made
a protestation and request, in forme as it were in the name of the King
and all the company, praying him incontinent to departe frö thence, and
to goe with them to the Towne of _Vera Crux_, before the enimies mighte
disturbe their way and passage, and then they to remayne both bought
and solde, and shutte vp as it were in a prison: also they declared,
that in _Vera Crux_ they should haue better opportunitie to make
themselues strong, if that he meante to returne agayne vpon _Mexico_,
or else to take shipping, if so it shoulde séeme conuenient.

_Cortes_ hearing this request, and determination of hys Souldyers, was
at his wits ende, ymagining that theyr pretence was, onely to procure
him to goe from thence, and afterwardes to rule him at their pleasures,
and béeing a thing cleane contray to his pretended purpose, hée
aunswered them as followeth.

 The Oration made by Cortez in answere
 _to his Souldyers demaunde_.

My maisters, I would do and fulfill youre request, if it were a thing
méete and conueniente for you, for there is not one alone of you, how
much more all in generall, for whome I shoulde not willingly aduenture
my goodes and life, if he shuld néede the same: for why? your deedes
haue bin such, that I stand bound neuer to forget thë, or else to
shewe my selfe an ingratefull man. And thinke you not good friendes,
although I do not fulfill the thing whiche you so earnestly desire,
that therefore I estéeme not youre authoritie: but in not graunting to
the same, I do exalt and estéeme you in greater reputation: for why? in
oure departing nowe from hence, oure honor is blotted and stayned for
euermore, and in abiding héere, we shall like valiant menne preserue
the same. What nation is there, that had rule, dominon, and Empire
in this world, that hath not bin ouercome at some time? What famous
Captayne returned home to his house, for the losse of one battayle?
none truly, for he that dothe not perseuer, shall neuer triumph with
Lady Victory: he that retyreth, sheweth that he flyeth, and remayneth
a mockingstocke for all men: but hée that sheweth nobly his face,
dothe vtter the courage of his heart, yea and is both feared, and also

If we now should depart from hence, these our friëds would accept and
iudge vs for cowardes, and refuse perpetually our friendship. Likewise
oure enimies woulde iudge the same, and neuer héereafter stande in
feare of vs, which shoulde be a greate shame vnto oure estimation. Is
there any amög vs, that would not holde himselfe affrented, if it
shoulde be sayde, that he turned his backe and fledde, how much more
would it be a dishonor for vs all to haue the same report?

I doe much maruell at the greatenesse of your inuincible heartes in
battell: you were wont to be desirous of warres, and nowe that suche
iust and laudable warre doth offer it selfe, you doe feare and refuse
the same: sure it is a thing cleane contrary to oure nature. What is
hée that will prate of harnes, and neuer ware none? It was neuer yet
séene in all this _India_ and new world, that any of our nation retired
with feare. And woulde you nowe that it should be said, that _Cortes_
and his company fledde, being in securitie, and without perill or
daunger? I beséech God not to permitte any suche thing. The warres doe
muche consist in fame: why then? what better thyng would you desire,
than to be héere in _Tlaxcallan_ in despite of all youre enimies, yea
proclayming open warres againste them, and they not dare to annoy vs?
Therefore you may well consider, that héere you are more sure than if
you were from hence, so that héere in _Tlaxcallan_ you are honored with
securitie and strength, and besides this, you haue al things necessary
for phisick and medicine to cure youre woundes and obteyne your health:
yea, and I am bolde to saye, that if you were in youre owne naturall
Coütrey, you should not haue the like, nor yet be so much made off.

I do nowe meane to send for our men that are in _Coazacoalco_ and
_Almeria_, and so we shall haue a reasonable army: yea and although
they come not, wée are sufficient, for we were fewer in number when
first we entred into thys Countrey, hauyng no friendes: and likewise
you knowe well, it is not the number that doth fighte, but the
couragious hearte and minde. I haue séene one of you discomfyte a whole
army, as _Ionathas_ did, yea and many among you haue had victory
against a thousand, yea ten thousand _Indians_, as King _Dauid_ had
againste the _Philistines_. I looke dayly for Horses from the Ilandes,
and other armoure and artillerie we shall haue from _Vera Crux_. And
as for vittayles, take you no care, for I wyll prouide you abundantly,
for they are thinges that alwayes followe the Conqueroures: and as
for these Citizens of _Tlaxcallan_, I binde my selfe that you shall
finde them trustie, loyall, and perpetuall friendes, for so they haue
promised me vppon their solemne othes, yea, and if they had meante
otherwise, what better opportunitie of time could they haue wished,
thä these latter dayes, where as we lay sicke in their owne beddes
and houses, yea some of vs lame, wounded, and in manner rotten, and
they like louing friendes haue not only holpen you, but also serued
you with diligence of seruantes, for they woulde rather choose to be
your slaues, than subiectes to the _Mexicans_: theyr hatred is suche
to them, and their loue so great to you. And bycause you shall sée the
troth, I will now proue them and you, againste these of _Tepeacac_,
who slewe of late dayes twelue Spanyardes. And if this iourney happen
euill, then will I followe youre request, and if it please God that it
happen well, then wyll I entreate and pray you to follow my counsell.

The Souldyers hearing this comfortable speeche, began to lay aside
their desire to goe from thence to _Vera Crux_. They aunswered
generally, that they woulde obey his commaundemente, it shoulde
séeme with the promise made, touching the successe of the victory in
_Tepeacac_, and lightly seldome it happeneth, that a Spanyard saith no,
when he is required to goe on warfare, for it is holden for a dishonor
and shame.

 The vvarres of Tepeacac.

_Cortez_ found himselfe at hearts ease with this answere, for it was a
thing y^t had much troubled him: & vndoubtedly if he had followed his
fellowes demand, he shoulde neuer haue recouered _Mexico_ agayne, &
they likewise had bin slayne in the way towards _Vera Crux_, for they
hadde manye perilous places to passe. Eache one of them waxed whole
of his wounds, sauing some which dyed for wät of loking to in time,
leauing their wounds filthy & vnbound, as Surgiös doe affirme, with
also their great trauell & weakenesse. And likewise other some remayned
lame and halt, which was no small griefe and losse: but the most
parte recouered healthe, as I haue declared. After twenty dayes fully
past, whiche they had abode in _Tlaxcallan_, _Cortes_ determined to
make warre with the _Indians_ of _Tepeacac_, which is a greate Towne,
and not farre from thence, for they hadde slayne twelue Spanyards,
whiche came from _Vera Crux_ towardes _Mexico_. Likewise they were of
the league of _Culhua_, and therfore were holpen by the _Mexicans_,
and did many times great hurt to the inhabitantes of _Tlaxcallan_,
as _Xicotencatl_ did testifye. _Cortes_ desired hys louing friende
_Maxixca_, and diuers other Gentlemen, to goe with him, who forthwith
entred into counsell wyth the states and comunaltie of the Citie,
and there determined with generall consente to gyue vnto him fortie
thousand fighting men, besides many _Tamemoz_, who are foote carriers,
to beare the baggage, victuall, and other things. With this number
of _Tlaxcaltecas_, his owne men and horses, he wente to _Tepeacac_,
requiring them in satisfaction of the death of y^e twelue Christiäs
that they shuld now yéelde themselues to the obedience of the Emperor,
and that héereafter neuer more to receiue any _Mexican_ into theyr
towne or houses, neyther yet any of the prouince of _Culhua_.

The _Tepeacacs_ answered, that they had slaine the Spaniardes for good
and iuste cause, whiche was, that being tyme of warre they presumed to
passe through their countrey by force, without their will and licence.
And also that the _Mexicans_ and _Culhuacans_ were their friendes and
Lordes, whom alwayes they would friendly entertayne within their towne
and houses, refusing vtterly their offer and request, protesting to
giue no obedience to whom they knew not, wishyng them therefore, to
returne incontinent to _Tlaxcallan_, excepte they had desire to ende
their werie dayes.

_Cortes_ innuited them diuers times with peace, and seing it preuailed
not, he begä his warres in earnest. Their enimies lykewise with the
fauour of the _Culhuacans_ were braue and lustie, and began to stoppe
and defend their pretended entraunce. And they beyng many in number,
with diuers valiant men among them, began to skirmishe sundry times,
but at the end, they were ouerthrowen, and many slayne, without killing
any Spaniarde, although many _Tlaxcaltecas_ were killed that day.

The Lordes and principall persons of _Tepeacac_ seyng theyr ouerthrow,
and that their strength coulde not preuayle, yéelded themselues vnto
_Cortes_ for vassalles of the Emperour, with condition to banish for
euer their allied friendes of _Culhua_. And that he should punishe and
correct at his will and pleasure, all those whiche were occasion of the
death of the twelue Spaniardes. For which causes and obstinacie, at
the firste _Cortes_ iudged by his sentence, that all the townes whiche
had bene priuie to the murder, should for euer remaine captiues and
slaues: others affirme that he ouercame them without any condition,
and corrected them for their disobedience, being Sodomites, idolaters
and eaters of mans flesh, and chiefly for exäple of all others. And in
conclusion, they were condemned for slaues, and within twenty daies
that these warres lasted, he pacified all that prouince, which is very
great: he draue from thëce the _Culhuacans_: he threw downe the idols,
and the chiefest persons obeyed him. And for more assuraunce he builte
there a towne, naming it _Segura de la Frontera_: he appoynted all
officers for the purpose, being a towne situated in the high way from
_Vera Crux_ to _Mexico_, whereby the Christians and straungers mighte
passe without daunger. In these warres serued lyke faithfull friendes
the _Indians_ of _Tlaxcallan_, _Huexocinco_ and _Cholalla_, promysing
the lyke seruice and succour agaynst _Mexico_, yea and rather better
than worse. With this victory the Spaniardes recouered great fame, for
they were thought to haue bene slayne.

 The great auctoritie that Cortez
 _had among the Indians_.

After all these things were finished, _Cortes_ cömaunded & gaue licence
to al the _Indian_ friëds, to returne home vnto their houses, except
his assured friends of _Tlaxcallan_, whö he kept in his company for
the warres of _Mexico_: he nowe dispatched a poste to _Vera Crux_,
commaundyng that foure of the shippes which _Naruaez_ had brought,
should be sent with al spéede to y^e Iland of _Santo Domingo_, for men,
horses, armour, pouder & other munition, also for wollen cloth, linnen,
shooes, and many other things: and wrote his letters for the same to
the licenciat _Rodrigo de Figueroa_, and to the whole magistrates of
Chancery, certifying them of all their procéedings in that countrey;
beséechyng them of helpe and succour, and that forthwith to be sent by
the messenger.

This done, he sente twentie horsemen, twoo hundred Spaniardes, and
many _Indians_ vnto _Zacatami_ and _Xalaxinco_, whiche were townes
subiect to the _Mexicans_, and placed in the high way to _Vera Crux_,
who had slayne certaine Spaniardes passyng that way. This company
wente thither, with their accustomed protestations, whiche preuayled
not, wherevpon followed fire and spoyle: many Gentlemen and other
principall persons came to yéelde themselues to _Cortes_, more for
feare than for good will, crauyng pardon for theyr offence, promising
also not to offende agayne, nor yet at any tyme to take armour agaynst
the Spaniardes. _Cortes_ pardoned them, & then hys armie returned,
with determination to kéepe his Christmasse in _Tlaxcallan_, whiche
was within twelue dayes followyng. He left a Captaine with thrée score
Spaniards in the newe towne of _Segura_, to kéepe that passage, and
also to put in feare the _Comarcans_ that dwelled thereabout: he sente
before him his whole armie, and he himself went with twentie horsemen
from thence to _Coliman_ to lodge there that night, being a cittie of
his allied friendes, and there to ordaine and make by hys auctoritie,
bothe Noble men and Captaynes in lue of them whiche died with the
disease of small pockes. He aboade there thrée dayes, in the whiche
the newe Lordes were ordeyned, who afterwardes remayned his especiall
friendes. The nexte day hée came _Tlaxcallan_, beyng sixe leagues
distant from thence, where he was triumphantly receyued. And truely at
that time he made a iourney most worthie of renowne and glory.

At this season his déere friende _Maxixca_ was departed this
transitorie lyfe, for whome he mourned clothed in blacke, after the
Spanishe fashion: he lefte behinde him certaine sonnes, of whom the
eldest was .xij. yéeres of age, whome _Cortes_ named and appoynted
for Lorde of his fathers estate, and the commons did certifie it to
appertaine vnto him. This was no small glory for _Cortes_ to giue
estates, and also to take them away at his pleasure, yea and that those
_Indians_ should haue him in suche feare and respect, that none durste
doe any thyng in acceptyng the inheritaunce of their fathers without
his good will and licence.

Now _Cortes_ procured that euery man shoulde make his harneys, weapons
and prouision readie and in good order: he made also great haste in
building Vergantines, for his timber was already cutte and seasoned:
he sente vnto _Vera Crux_ for sayles, tacle, nayles, roapes and other
necessarie things, whereof there was store remaynyng of the furniture
of the shippes that were sunke. And hauyng wante of pitche, for in that
countrey the _Indians_ knewe not what it meant, he commaunded certayne
of his Mariners to make the same in the highe Mountaynes where was
store of Pine trées, and not farre from the cittie.

 The Vergantines that Cortez commaunded
 _to be built, and the Spaniardes which he
 had ioyned togither to besiege Mexico_.

The fame of prosperitie whiche _Cortes_ enioyed, was wonderfully
blowen abroade with the newes of the imprisonment of _Mutezuma_, and
the victory against _Pamfilo de Naruaez_, wherevppon there came many
Spaniardes by twenty and twentie in a company from _Cuba_, _Santo
Domingo_, and other Ilandes. Although that iourney coste some their
liues, for in the way they were murdered by those of _Tepeacac_ and
_Xalacinco_, as is before declared, yet notwithstanding there came
many to _Tlaxcallan_, whereby his hoste was muche encreased, beséechyng
him to make haste towarde the warres.

It was not possible for _Cortes_ to haue espies in _Mexico_, for the
_Tlaxcaltecas_ were knowen by their lippes, eares, and other tokens,
and also they had in _Mexico_ garde and greate enquirie for that
purpose, by reason wherof he could not certainely knowe what passed in
those parties, accordyng as he desired, for to haue prouided himself
of things néedefull: yet a Captayne whiche was taken prysoner in
_Huacacholla_, certified that _Cuetlauac_ Lorde of _Iztacpalapan_,
Neuewe to _Mutezuma_, was elected Emperour after his Vncles death, who
was a wise and valiant man, and hée it was that had dryuen _Cortes_
out of _Mexico_, who now had fortified _Mexico_ with many bulworkes
and caues, and with many and sundry sortes of weapon, but chiefly
very long Lances, yea and planted them in the grounde to resiste and
molest the horsemen. He proclaymed pardon and frée libertie, without
paying any tribute for the space of one whole yéere, yea and further
as long as the warres should laste, he promysed also great rewardes to
all them that shoulde kill any Christian, or expulse them from that
countrey. This was a policie whereby he gatte muche credite among
his vassals, yea and gaue them greate courage to play the valiant
men. All this newes was founde to be true, sauyng onely _Cuetlauac_
was dead. And that _Quahutimoccin_, Neuew also, as some doe say, of
_Mutezuma_, raygned at that tyme, who was a valiant man and a good
warrier, as hereafter shalbe declared, who sente his messengers through
out his Empyre, proclaymyng as great rewardes as _Cuetlauac_ had done
before, declaryng vnto them that it was more reason to serue him than
straungers, and also to defende theyr olde auncient Religion, and not
to credite suche Christians as woulde make themselues Lordes of other
mens goodes, yea and make them slaues and captiues as they had done in
other places. _Quahutimoc_ encouraged muche his subiectes, and kindled
with his talke their wrath agaynst the Spaniards: yet there were some
prouinces that gaue no eare to his information, but rather leaned to
our side, or else medled with neyther side. _Cortes_ seyng the effect
of the matter, determined forthwith to beginne the warres: he mustered
his men on Sainct Steuens day, and founde fourtie horsemen, and fiue
hundreth & fourtie footemen, wherof foure score were Hargabushiers,
and crossebow men, niene péeces of ordinaunce, and little powder: his
horsemen he diuided into foure squares, and his footemen into nine: he
named & appointed captaynes, and other officers for the host, vnto whom
in general he spake as followeth.

 The exhortation of Cortez to
 _his Souldiers_.

My louyng brethren, I gyue moste hartie thankes vnto Iesu Christ, to
sée you now whole of your woundes and frée from diseases: likewise
I muche reioyce to sée you in good order trimly armed, yea and with
suche desire to sette agayne vpon _Mexico_, to reuenge the death of
our fellowes, and to winne that greate Citie, the whiche I truste in
God shalbe brought to passe in shorte time, hauing the friendship of
_Tlaxcallan_ and other prouinces, who haue as great desire to sée the
ouerthrowe of the _Mexicans_, as we our selues, for therein they gette
both honour, libertie & safegarde of life. Also it is to be considered,
that if the victory should not be ours, they poore soules should be
destroyed and remaine in perpetuall captiuitie. Also the _Culhuacans_
do abhorre them worse than vs, for receyuing vs into their houses and
countrey: therefore sure I am that they will sticke vnto vs vnfaynedly.
I muste néedes confesse their vnfayned friendship, for presente workes
doe testifie the same. They will not onely be a meane to bryng others
their neyghbours to our seruice, but also haue now in readinesse
.100000. më of warre, to sende with vs, besides a great nüber of
_Tamemez_ or carriers to carrie al our prouision. Ye also, are now the
same which alwaies heretofore ye haue bene, for I as witnesse beying
your captayne, haue had the victory of many battayles fighting with a
.100. yea & 200000. enimies: we got also by strength of arme many strög
cities, yea & brought in subiection many prouinces, not beyng so many
in number as we are nowe, for when we came firste into this countrey we
were not so many as now presently we are. Agayne in _Mexico_ they feare
our cöing: it should also be a blot vnto our honour that _Quahutimoc_
should inherite y^e kingdome that cost our friëd _Mutezuma_ his life.
Likewise I esteme al that we haue done is nothing, if we winne not
_Mexico_, our victories shoulde also be sorowfull if we reuenge not
the death of our déere fellowes. The chiefe and principall cause of
our cöming into this countrey, was to set forth the faith of Iesu
Christ, & therwithal doth folow honour & profite which seldome times
do dwell togither. In those fewe dayes that we were in _Mexico_, we
put downe the idols, we caused sacrifice and eatying of mans fleshe to
bée layde aside, and also in those dayes wée beganne to conuerte some
to the fayth. It is not therefore nowe reason to leaue of so laudable
an enterpryse, so well begonne. Lette vs now goe whither holy fayth
doth call vs, and where the sinnes of our enimies deserueth so great a
punishment, and if yée well remember, the Citizens of that citie were
not cötent to murder such an infinite number of men, women & children
before the idols, in their filthy sacrifice, for honour of their
Diuelishe Goddes, but also to eate their fleshe, a thyng inhumayne,
and much abhorred of God, and al good men doth procure, and especially
Christians, to defende and punishe suche odious customes.

Besides all this, they committe that horrible sinne for the whiche the
fiue cities with _Sodom_ were burned by fire from heauen: Why then what
greater occasion should any man wishe for in earth, than to abolish
such wickednesse, and to plant among these bloudy tirants the fayth of
Iesu Christ, publishing his holy gospel? Therfore now, with ioyfull
hartes lette vs procéede to serue God, honour our nation, to enlarge
our Princes dominions, and to enriche our selues with the goodly pray
of _Mexico_, to morrow God willyng we will beginne the same.

All his men answeared with chéerefull countenaunce, that they were
ready to departe when it pleased him, promising their faithful seruice
vnto him. It should séeme the rather with the desire of that pleasure
and greate treasure whiche they had eyght moneths enioyed before.

_Cortes_ commaunded to proclayme throughout his army, certaine
ordinaunces of warre for the good gouernement of his hoste, whiche he
had written among others: and were these that followeth:

 That none should blaspheme the holy name of Iesus.

 That no Souldier should fight with his fellowe.

 That none shoulde play at any game, his horse nor armour.

 That none should force any woman.

 That none should robbe or take any _Indian_ captiue without his
 speciall licence and counsellers.

 That none should wrög or iniurie any _Indian_ their friëds: he
 also taxed yron worke and apparell, for cause of the excessiue
 prices that they were there solde for.

 The exhortation made by Cortez to
 _the Indians of Tlaxcallan_.

The nexte daye following, _Cortes_ called before him all the Lordes,
Captaynes, and principall persons of _Tlaxcallan_, _Huexocinco_,
_Chololla_, _Chalco_, and of other townes, who were there presente
at that time, saying as followeth. My Lords and friendes, you know
the iourney which I haue nowe in hande, to morrowe God willing I will
departe to the warre and siege of _Mexico_, and enter into the land of
youre enimies and mine: And the thing that now I do require, and also
pray, is, that you remayne faithfull and constant in your promise made,
as hithervnto you haue done, and so I trust you will continue. And
bycause I can not bring so soone my purpose to passe according to youre
desire and mine, without the _Vergantines_ which are now a making, and
to be placed in the lake of _Mexico_, therefore I praye you to fauoure
these workemen whiche I leaue héere, with suche loue and friendship,
as héeretofore you haue done and to giue them all things necessary for
their prouision, and I do faithfully promise to take away the yoke of
bondage, which the inhabitantes of _Culhua_ haue layde vpon you, and
also will obteyne of the Emperoure great libertie and priuiledges for

All the _Indians_ shewed countenance of obedience, and the chiefest
Gentlemen aunswered in few words, saying, we will not onely fulfyll
youre request, but also when your vessels are finished, we will bring
them to _Mexico_, and we all in generall will goe with you, and truly
serue you in your warres.

 Hovv Cortez tooke Tezcuco.

_Cortez_ departed from _Tlaxcallan_ wyth hys Souldyers in good order,
whyche was a goodly sight to beholde, for at that time he had eyghtie
thousand men in his host, and the most of them armed after their
manner, which made a gallant shew: but _Cortes_ for diuers causes
would not haue them all with him, vntill the _Vergantines_ were
finished, and _Mexico_ beséeged, fearing wante of vittayle for so
greate an armye: yet notwithstanding hée tooke twentie thousand of
them, besides the Carriers, and that night came to _Tezmoluca_, which
städeth sixe leagues from _Tlaxcallan_, and is a Village apperteyning
to _Huexocinco_, where he was by the principall of the Towne wel
receyued. The next day he iourneyed foure leagues, into the territorie
of _Mexico_, and there was lodged on the side of a hill, where many
had perished with colde, had it not bin for the store of woodde which
they found there. In the morning he ascended vpwards on this hill, and
sente hys scoute of foure footemen and foure horsemen to discouer, who
found the way stopped with great trées newly cutte downe, and placed
crossewise in the way: but they thynking that yet forwards it was not
so, procéeded forthe as well as they might, till at length the let
with great hugie trées was such, that they could passe no further, and
with this newes were forced to returne, certifying _Cortes_ that the
Horsemenne coulde not passe that way in any wyse. _Cortes_ demaunded
of them, whether they hadde séene anye people, they aunswered no,
wherevppon he procéeded forwarde with all the Horsemen, and a thousande
footemen, commaundyng all the residue of hys armye to followe hym wyth
as muche spéede as myghte bée, so that wyth that companye whyche
he carried with him, he made waye, takyng away the trées that were
cutte downe to disturbe his passage: and in this order, in short time
passed his host, without any hurt or daunger, but with great payne and
trauell, for certaynely if the enimies had bin there to defende that
passage, oure menne hadde not passed, for it was a verye euill way, and
the enimies also thoughte the same to be sure with the trées whiche
were crossed the way, wherevppon they were carelesse of that place,
and attended their comming in playne grounde: for from _Tlaxcallan_
to _Mexico_ are thrée wayes, of the whiche _Cortes_ chose the worst,
ymagining the thing that afterwards fell out, or else some hadde
aduised him howe that way was cléere from the enimies. And béeing past
this crooked passage, they espyed the lake of _Mexico_, and gaue vnto
God moste hartie thankes for the same, and there made a solemne vowe
and promise, not to returne, vntill they had wonne _Mexico_, or lost
their liues. They abode there and rested themselues, till all the
whole armye were come togither, to descende downe into the playne,
for nowe they myghte descrye the fires and beacons of theyr enimies
in sundrye places, and all those whyche hadde attended theyr commyng
by the other two wayes, were now gathered togyther, thynkyng to sette
vppon them betwixte certayne bridges, where a greate company aboade,
exspecting theyr commying: but _Cortes_ sente twenty Horsemen, who made
way among them, and then followed the whole armye, who slewe manye of
them, wythoute receyuyng anye hurte. And in thys order they came to
_Quahutipec_, whiche is of the iurisdiction of _Tezcuco_, where they
abode that nyghte, and in that place founde neyther manne nor Woman:
but not farre off was pytched the Campe of the _Indians_ of _Culhua_,
which myght be néere a hundred thousand men of warre, who were sent
by the Seniors of _Mexico_, and _Tezcuco_, to encounter oure armye, in
consideration whereof, _Cortes_ kept good watch with tenne Horsemen,
and all his Souldyers were warned to be in readynesse at a call, if
néede should happen.

The next day in the morning he departed from thence towarde _Tezcuco_,
whiche standeth thrée leagues distante, and procéeding on their
iourney, foure principal persons, inhabitantes of _Tezcuco_, mette
with them, bearing a rod of golde, with a little flagge, in token of
peace, saying, that _Coacuacoyozin_ their Lord had sent them to desire
him not to make any spoyle in his Countrey, and likewise, to offer his
friendship, praying also, that it might please him with his whole army
to take his lodging in the Towne of _Tezcuco_, where he shoulde be well
receyued. _Cortes_ reioyced with this message, although he suspected
that it was a fayned matter, but one of them he knewe verye well,
whome he saluted, saying: My comming is not to offend any, but rather
to do you good. I will also receyue and hold your Lord for a friende,
with condition, that hée doe make vnto me restitution of the treasure
whyche hée tooke from fiue and fortie Spanyards, and thrée hundred
_Tlaxcaltecas_, all the which were by his commaundements also slayne of
late dayes. They aunswered that _Mutezuma_ caused them to be murthered,
who had likewise taken the spoyle, and that the Citizens of _Tezcuco_
were not culpable in that fact, and with this aunswere they returned.

_Cortes_ went forward on his way, and came to _Quahutichan_ and
_Huaxuta_, which are suburbes of _Tezcuco_, where he and all his host
were plenteously prouided of al things necessary, and threw downe the
Idolles. This done, hée entred into the Citie, where his lodging was
prepared in a great house, sufficient for him and all the Spanyardes,
with many other the _Indian_ friends. And bycause that at his first
entry, he sawe neyther women nor children, hee suspected some treason,
and forthwith proclaymed, vpon payne of death, that none of his men
should go out. The Spaniards began to triumph in their lodgings and
chäbers, placing euery thing in good order. In the euening they
went vp into the _Zoties_ and galleries, to beholde the Citie, which
is as bigge as _Mexico_, and there they sawe the greate number of
Citizens that fledde from thence with their stuffe, some towardes
the mountaines, and others to the water side to take boate, a thing
straunge, to sée the great hast and stirre to prouide for themselues,
at the least ther were twentie thousand litle boates (called _Conoas_)
occupyed, in carying houshold stuffe and passengers. _Cortes_ would
fayne haue remedied it, but that night was so nygh at hand, that he
coulde not. He would gladly also haue apprehended the Lord, but he
was one of the first that fledde vnto _Mexico_. _Cortes_ caused many
of the Citizens, to be called before him, and hauing in hys company
a yong gentleman of a noble house in that coütrey, who was also last
christened, & had to name _Hernädo_, _Cortes_ being his godfather,
who loued him well, sayde vnto the citizens, that this new Christian
lord, _Don Hernädo_, was sonne vnto _Nezaualpincintli_ their louing
Lord, wherfore he required them to make him their king, considering
that _Coacnacoyocin_, was fled vnto the enimies, laying also before
them his wicked fact in killing of _Cacuza_ his own brother, only to
put him from his inheritance & kingdome, through the enticemente of
_Quahutimoccin_, a mortal enimie to the Spaniards. In this sort was
_Don Hernando_ elected king, and the fame therof being blowen abroade,
manye citizens repayred home againe to visite their newe Prince, so
that in short space the citie was as wel replenished with people, as
it was before, and being also well vsed at the Spaniardes handes,
they serued them dilygentlye in all thyngs that they were commaunded.
And _Don Hernando_ aboade euer after a faithfull friende vnto the
Spaniardes, and in short tyme learned the Spanishe tongue: and soone
after came the inhabitants of _Quahutichan_, _Huaxuta_ and _Auntenco_,
to submytte them selues, crauing pardon, if in any thyng they had
offended. _Cortez_ pardoned them, and gaue them licence to departe home
vnto their houses.

_Quahutimoc_, _Coacnacoijo_ and other magistrates of _Culhua_ sente to
rayle vppon those townes, for yéeldyng themselues to the Christians,
but they layde hold vpon the messengers, and brought them vnto
_Cortes_, of whome he enformed himselfe of the state of _Mexico_,
and sent them backe againe, requiring their Lords of peace and
friendshippe: but it preuayled not, for they were fully armed for the

[Sidenote: A good correction.]

At this instante certaine friendes of _Iames Velasquez_ went vp and
downe the Campe, procuring secretly a mutenie among the souldiers,
to haue them to returne to _Cuba_, and vtterly to destroy _Cortes_
his procéedings. This thing was not so secretly wrought, but that
_Cortes_ had knowledge, wherevppon he apprehended the doers thereof,
and by their confessions the matter did plainely appeare, whervpon he
condemned to death one _Antonio de Villafania_, who was natural of
_Samora_, and forthwith executed the sentence, wherwith the punishment
and Mutinie was ended, and ceassed.

 The Spaniardes vvhich vvere
 _sacrificed in Tezcuco_.

Dayly increased _Cortes_ in strength and reputation, and many townes
as wel of the partes of _Culhua_ as others came vnto his friendship
and obedience. Within two days that _Don Hernando_ was made king, came
certayne gentlemen of _Huaxuta_ and _Quahutichan_, to certify vnto
him, how al the power of the _Mexicans_ was comming towardes them, and
to knowe if it were his pleasure, that they should carry their wiues,
children, and other goods into the Mountaines, or els to bring them
where he was, theyr feare was so great. _Cortes_ made vnto thë this
answere, saying: be ye of good courage, and feare ye not. Also I pray
you to cömaunde your wiues & families to make no alteratiö, but rather
quietly to abide in your houses. And cöcerning the enimies, I am glad
of their comming, for ye shal sée how I will deale with them. But
the enimies wente not to _Huaxuta_, as it was thought: neuerthelesse
_Cortes_ hauing intelligence where they were, wente out to encounter
them, with two pieces of Ordinaunce, twelue horsemen and two hundred
Spaniardes, with many _Indians_ of _Tlaxcallä_. He fought with the
enemie, and slew but few, for they fledde to the water. He burnt
certaine townes where the _Mexicans_ were wonte to succour themselues.
The next day came the chiefest men of thrée townes to craue pardon,
and to beséech him not to destroy thë, promising neuer to harbour nor
succour, any of _Culhua_.

The _Mexicans_ hearing what these townes men pretended, with greate yre
made a foule correction among them, as dyd appeare by many of them,
which came vnto _Cortes_ with broken heads, desiring reuengement.

The inhabitaunts of _Chalco_ sent also vnto him for succour, declaring
that the _Mexicans_ made greate spoyle among them. But _Cortes_ being
ready to send for his Vergantines, could not relieue them all, and
especially wyth Spaniardes: wherefore he remitted them to the helpe
of the _Tlaxcaltecas_, and vnto thë of _Huexocinco_, _Chololla_,
_Huacacholla_ and other friends, promising that shortly he would come
himselfe. But this answere pleased him not, yet for the present néede
they required his letters to be written vnto those townes. And being in
this communication, there came messengers from _Tlaxcallan_, with news,
that the Vergantines were ready, and to knowe if he stoode in néede of
any succour, for of late, (quoth they) we haue séene many beacons, and
fiers, which are greater tokens of warre, than heretofore hath bene

There came at that time, a Spaniard also from _Vera Crux_, with
certaine newes, that there had arriued a ship, whiche had brought
thirtie Souldiers besides the mariners of the shippe, with eight
horses, great store of pouder, shotte, crossebowes, and Harquebushes.
The plesent newes reioyced much our men, wherevpon _Cortes_ sente
forthwith to _Tlaxcallan_ for the Vergantines, _Gonzalo de Sandoual_,
with two hundered Spaniards, and fiftéene horsemen, and commaunded that
in their way they shold burne and destroy the towne where the fourty
fiue Spaniardes, and thrée hundered _Tlaxcaltecas_ were slayn, with
fiue horses moe, when _Mexico_ was last besieged: and y^t village is
in y^e iurisdiction of _Tezcuco_, and bordereth vpon the territorie of
_Tlaxcallan_, yea, and for that purpose hée would gladly haue corrected
and punished the dwellers of _Tezcuco_, but time then permitted not
y^e same, although they had deserued more punishment than the others.
For why? in their town they were sacrifised and eaten, yea & the walles
painted with their bloud, shewing moreouer perfit tokens, how it was
spaniards bloud. They pluckt off also the horses skinnes & tanned thë
in the heare, and afterwards hung them vppe, with the horseshoes in
their great temple, & next vnto them, the spaniards garmëtes, for a
perpetual memory.

_Sandoual_ went vnto that place with determinate entët to follow his
cömission, & also before he came to y^e place, he found writtë in
a house w^t a cole, these words: here in this house was a prisoner
y^e vnfortunate _Iohn Iust_, who was a gentleman, and one of the
fiue horsemen that wer taken. But the people of that towne, being
many, fledde when they saw the Spaniardes approch neare vnto thë.
But _Sandoual_ followed them, and slewe many of them: he toke also
prisoners, manye women and children, who yelded themselues vnto his
mercie, and their bodies for slaues. He séeing so little resistance,
and beholding the pitiful mone of the wiues for their husbandes, and
the children for their fathers, had compassiö on them, and wold not
destroye their towne, but rather caused the dwellers to come again,
and pardoned them, with othe, that hereafter they shoulde serue them
truely, and be vnto them loyal friends. In this sorte was the death
of the Christians reuenged, yet _Sandoual_ asked them howe they slewe
so manye Christians without resistaunce, marye (quoth they) we made
an ambush in an euil and narrow way, ascending vp a hill, and there
as they went vppe by one and one we spoyled them, for there, neyther
horses nor other weapon could defend or help thë, so y^t we tooke them
prisoners and sente them to _Tezcuco_, where, as is before declared,
they were sacrificed in the reuengement of the imprisonment of

 Hovv the Vergantines vvere brought frö
 _Tlaxcall to Tezcuco_.

Nowe when the enemies which murdered the Spaniardes, were reduced and
chastened, _Sandoual_ procéeded forwarde towarde _Tlaxcallan_, and at
the border of that prouince, he mette with the Vergätines whiche were
broughte in pieces, as tables, planches, and nayles, with all other
furniture, the whyche eight thousand men caryed vpon their backes.

There came also for their safeconduicte twentie thousande men of warre,
and a thousande _Tamemez_, who were the carriers of victuals, and
seruantes. Thë the Spanishe Carpenters sayde vnto _Sandoual_, that for
as muche as they were nowe come into the countrey of enimies, it might
please him to haue regarde thervnto, for daungers that myght happen: he
allowed wel theyr iudgement.

Nowe _Chichimecatetl_, being a principal man and a valiant also, was
captaine of a thousande men & desired to haue the vantguard with the
Tymber, and hauing had the same charge hithervnto, it should be an
affrent for him, to be put from it, and gaue manye reasons in hys
behalfe. But notwithstanding his request, he was entreated to take the
reregarde. And that _Tutipil_ and _Teutecatl_ captaines, very principal
gentlemen, should haue the vantgard, with ten thousand men. In the
myddest were placed the _Tamemez_, and those that carryed the foyst,
with all the apparell of the Vergantines. Before those two captaynes,
went a hundered Spaniardes, and eight horsemen, and behind and last
came _Sandoual_ with all the residue, and seuen horsemen. But now
although _Chichimecatetl_ was offended, touching his firste charge, now
much more bycause the Spaniardes were not in his company, saying (quoth
he) ye take me not for valiant, or else not faithful. That matter being
pacified, and euery thing in good order, they toke their way towarde
_Tezcuco_, with a marueylous noyse, crying, Christians, Christians,
_Tlaxcallan_, _Tlaxcallan_, and Spayne.

On the fourth day they entred into _Tezcuco_, in verye good order, with
the sounde of drummes, snayle-shelles, and other like instrumentes
of Musicke, and againste their entry into the Citie, they put on al
their brauerye of clothes, and bushes of feathers, whiche truely was a
gallant sight: they were sixe houres, in entryng into the towne, keping
their array.

_Cortez_ came forth to receyue them, and gaue greate thankes vnto the
gentlemen, and all the company, and prouided them of good lodgings and

 Of the Docke or trench vvhich
 _was made to launch, the Vergantines_.

Manye prouinces of _India_, came to submitte and offer their seruice
vnto _Cortes_, some for feare of destruction, and others for the
hatred whyche they bare to the _Mexicans_: so that nowe _Cortes_
was strong both with Spaniardes and _Indians_. Also the Spanishe
Captaine of _Segura_, sent a letter to _Cortez_, the which letter he
had receyued of another spaniard, the effect therof was as foloweth.
Noble gentlemen, diuerse times I haue written vnto you, but as yet
I neuer receiued answere, nor yet now doe I. I thynke otherwise,
notwithstanding yee shall vnderstande, that the _Culhuacans_ haue
done much hurte in thys countrey, but we remayne with victorie. This
prouince desireth to see and knowe Captaine _Cortez_, for to render
themselues vnto him, and nowe they stande in neede of our nation,
wherfore it may please you to sende vnto vs thirtie Spaniardes.

_Cortez_ aunswered the letter in suche sort, that he then presently
coulde not sende the thing desired, for that he was readye to the siege
of _Mexico_: notwythstanding hée gaue them great thankes, with hope
shortlye to sée thë. He that writte the former letter, was one of the
Spaniardes that _Cortez_ hadde sente to the prouince of _Chinanta_, a
yeare paste, to enquire of the secretes of that place, and to séeke for
golde and other commodities. And if it so happened, that the Lorde of
that place made that Spaniarde a Captayne, agaynste the _Culhuacans_
theyr enemyes, for _Mutezuma_ made them warre béeyng farre from
_Mexico_, bycause they had entertayned the Spaniardes. But through the
industrie of that Christian, the Lorde aboade alwayes with victorye,
and hauing vnderstanding that some of hys nation were in _Tepeacac_, he
wrote so often as the letter declareth, but none of them came to their
handes, but only this last letter: our men reioyced muche to heare
that the Spaniardes were aliue, and also the Lorde of _Chinanta_ to be
their friende: likewise they marueyled much howe they had escaped, for
at the time that they fledde from _Mexico_, all other Spaniardes that
were abidyng in the Mynes and other Lordshippes, were slaine by the

_Cortes_ made his preparation for the séege of _Mexico_ with all hast,
and furnished hym with scalling ladders, and other necessaryes, fitte
for such a purpose. His _Vergantines_ being nayled, and throughly
ended, he made a sluise or trench of halfe a league of length, twelue
foote broad & more, and two fadome in depth. This worke was fiftie
dayes a doyng, although there were foure hundred thousand më dayly
working, truly a famous worke and worthy of memory.

[Sidenote: A strange tallovve.]

The _Vergantines_ were calked with Towe and cotten woll, and for want
of tallow and oyle, they were (as some reporte,) driuen to take mans
grease, not that they slewe men for that effect, but of those which
were slayne in the warres. The _Indians_ who were cruell and bloudy
butchers, vsing sacrifice, would in this sort open the dead bodye, and
take out the grease. The _Vergantines_ being lanched, _Cortes_ mustered
his men, and founde nine hundred Spanyardes, of the which were 86.
Horsemen, and a hüdred and eyghtéene with Crossebowes and Hargabushes,
and all the residue had sundry weapons, as swords, daggars, Targets,
Launces, and Halbertes. Also they had for armour, corselets, coates of
mayle, and Iackes. They had moreouer thrée great péeces of cast yron,
fiftéene small péeces of brasse, and tenne hundred waighte of powder,
with store of shotte. All that ye haue hearde, was the prouision that
_Cortes_ had for the séege of _Mexico_, the strongest and greatest
Citie in all _India_ and newe world. In eache _Vergantine_ he placed
a péece of brasse. He proclaymed agayne all the institutions and
ordinances of the warre, praying and commaunding that they might be
well and faithfully obserued, and said, Brethrë and my fellowes, now
do you sée our vessels readye, yea and also you do remember howe
troublesome a thyng it hathe bin to bring them hither with the coste
and sweate of our friendes, and one of the chiefest hopes that I haue
shortly to winne _Mexico_, are these vessels, for with them we will
burne all their _Canoas_, or else we will so locke them vp, that they
shall not help them, whereby we wyll annoy our enimie as muche that
way, as our army shall do by land. I haue also a hundred thousand men
of warre my friends to beséege this Citie, who are (as you know) y^e
valiantest men in all these parties. You haue also your vittailes
prouided abundantly, and that which now importeth, is, that you play
the menne, as héeretofore you haue done, and most humbly to pray vnto
God for victorie, for that this warre is his.

 The order of the host and army of
 _Cortes for to beseege Mexico_.

The nexte day following, _Cortes_ sente vnto the prouinces of
_Tlaxcallan_, _Huexocinco_, _Chololla_, _Chal_, and other Townes,
warning thë within tenne dayes to come vnto _Tezcuco_, with theyr
armoure, weapon, and other necessaries, for the séege of _Mexico_. He
certifyed them also, how the _Vergantines_ were ready with all other
furniture accordingly, and the Spanyardes were very desirous to lose no
time, wherefore they meante not to delay their pretence, farther than
the day appoynted.

The _Indians_ hearing this newes, and bycause they would not come
too late to the beginning of the assaulte, came incontinente, and
entred into _Tezcuco_ in good order of warre, aboue sixtie thousand
men, gallantly trimmed after their vse and custome. _Cortes_ friendly
welcommed them, and prouided them lodgings accordingly.

On Whitsonday, all the Spanyardes came into the fielde, whereas
_Cortes_ made thrée chiefe Captaynes among whome he deuided his whole
army. Vnto _Pedro de Aluarado_ the first Captayne, he appoynted thirtie
horsemen, and a hundred and seauentie footemen of the Spanyardes, two
péeces of ordinance, and thirtie thousande _Indians_, commaunding him
to campe in _Tlacopan_. Vnto _Cristoual de Olid_ the seconde Captayne,
he gaue thrée and thirtie Horsemen, and a hundred and eyghtéene
footemen of the Spanish nation, two péeces of ordinance, and thirtie
thousand _Indians_, and appoynted him to pitch his camp in _Culhuacan_.
To _Gonsalo de Sandoual_ who was the thyrde Captayne, he gaue thrée and
twenty Horsemen, and 160. footemen, two péeces of Ordinance, and 40000.
_Indians_, with commission to choose a place to pitch his Campe.

In euery _Vergantine_ he planted a péece of ordinäce, sixe hargabushes,
or crossebowes, and 23. Spaniards, më most fittest for that purpose. He
appointed also Captaynes for eache, and himselfe for general, whereof
some of the chiefest of his companye began to murmure that wente by
lande, thinking that they had bin in greater daunger, wherefore they
required him to goe with the mayne battell, and not by water. _Cortes_
little estéemed their words, for although it is more daunger in the
water than in the land, yet it did more importe to haue greater care in
the warres by water, than on the land, bycause his men had bin in the
one, and not in the other.

On the tenth of May _Aluarado_, and _Cristoual de Olid_ departed, and
went that night to a Towne called _Acolman_, where was betwéene them
greate discorde touchyng their lodgings, yea and if _Cortes_ had not
sente to take vp the matter, much mischiefe had ensued. The nexte daye
they lodged in _Xolotepec_, whych was not inhabited. The thyrde daye
they came vnto _Tlacopan_, whyche was also as all the Townes of the
lake, wythout people, there they were lodged in the Lordes house of the

The _Tlaxcaltecas_ began to viewe _Mexico_ by the calsey, and foughte
with their enimies, vntill the nighte made them to ceasse.

On the thirtéenth of May, _Cristoual de Olid_ came to _Chapultepec_,
and brake the conduites of swéete water, wherevpon _Mexico_ was
destitute of the same, being the conduit that did prouide all the
Citie. _Pedro de Aluarado_ wyth his company procured to amende all the
broken places of the calsey, that the horsemen might haue frée passage,
and hauing muche to do in these affaires, he spente thrée dayes,
and fighting with many enimies, some of his men were hurt, and many
_Indian_ friendes slayn. _Aluarado_ abode in _Tlacopan_ with his armye,
and _Cristoual de Olid_ retired to _Culhuacan_ with his men, according
to the instruction receyued from _Cortes_, and fortifyed themselues
in the Lordes houses of the Towne, and euery daye skyrmished with
the enimies, and some went to the Townes néere at hande, and brought
_Centli_, fruite, and other prouision. In this businesse they occupyed
théëselues a whole wéeke.

 The Battaile and victory of the Vergantines
 _against the Canoas_.

The newe Kyng _Quahutimoc_ hauing intelligence how _Cortes_ hadde
launched hys _Vergantines_ and so mightie a power to beséege _Mexico_,
entred into counsell wyth the chiefest péeres of hys Realme. Some were
of opinion, and dyd prouoke hym to the warres, considering theyr greate
multitude of people, and fortitude of the Citie.

Others were of opinion, who tendred muche the common weale, that no
_Spanyarde_ that shoulde happen to be taken prysoner shoulde be
sacrificed, but rather to be preserued for conclusion of peace if néede
shoulde so requyre. And finally some sayde, that they should demaunde
of their Goddes what was best to doe.

The King that inclined himselfe more to peace than to warre, sayde that
he woulde remitte the matter to the iudgement of the idolles, and that
he would aduise them what answere should be made vnto him but: in harte
he desired to come to some honest order and agréement with _Cortes_,
fearing the thyng that after did ensue. But seyng his Counsell and
subiectes so determined to warre, he cömaunded foure Spaniardes whiche
he had prysoners in a cage, to be sacrificed vnto the Goddes of warre,
with a greate number more of _Indians_.

[Sidenote: A Diuelish sentence.]

He spake to the Diuell in the image of _Vitzilopuchtli_, who answered
him that he shoulde not feare the Spaniardes being but fewe, nor yet
those whiche were comen to helpe them, for that they shoulde not long
abide in the siege, commaunding him to goe forth and to encounter them
without feare, for he would helpe them and kill his enimies. With this
answere of the diuel, _Quahutimoc_ commaunded forthwith to breake
downe the bridges, watche the Cittie, make bulwarkes, and to arme fiue
thousande boates, and sayde vnto the Spaniardes, that the Goddes woulde
be pleased with the sacrifice of their bodies, the Snakes filled with
their bloud, and the Tigres relieued with their flesh, they sayde also
to the _Indians_ of _Tlaxcallan_, ah yée Cuckold knaues, slaues and
traytors to your gods and kyng, will you not repent the wickednesse
whiche yée haue committed agaynst your maisters, therefore shall you
nowe die an euill death, for either you shall die with hunger, or else
vpon the knife: and then wil we eate your fleshe, and make thereof
solemne a banket as the like hath heretofore neuer bene séene, and in
token therof hold take these armes and legges whiche we throwe vnto
you of your owne men, which we haue now sacrificed for the obtayning
of victory. And after these warres we will goe vnto your countrey and
spoyle your Towne, & leaue no memory of your bloud or generation. The
_Tlaxcaltecas_ laughed at their madde talke, and sayd, that it should
be better for them to yéelde and submitte themselues to _Cortes_ his
mercy, and if not, yet it were more honorable to fight than to bragge,
willyng them to come out into the field. And bad them assuredly
beléeue, that the ende of all their knauery was at hande: it was a
world to heare and sée the bragges and crakes on both sides. _Cortes_
hearyng of all these matters, sent _Sandoual_ to take _Iztacpalapan_,
and he enbarked himselfe to méete him at that place.

_Sandoual_ combated the towne on the one side, and the townes menne
and people with feare fledde vnto _Mexico_, on the otherside by water:
he burned the towne. _Cortes_ came at y^t time to a strög rocke lyke
a tower, situated in the water, where many men of _Culhua_ were, who
seyng them approche with their Vergantines, sette theyr beacons on
fire, and threwe downe vpon them stones and shotte of theyr arrowes.
_Cortes_ wente ashore with a hundreth and fiftie menne, and combatted
the forte, till at length he wanne the battlement, whiche was the
_Indians_ beste defence, and with muche adoe hée came to the toppe,
and there fought vntill he had not lefte one aliue, sauyng women and
chyldren. It was a fayre victorie, although fiue and twentie Spanyardes
were hurte and wounded, yet the forte was strong, and the ourethrowe a
great discouragyng of the enimie.

At this instant were so many beacons and other fires made rounde aboute
the lake and vpon the hilles, that all séemed a lighte fire. And also
the _Mexicans_ hearyng that the Vergantynes were comyng, they came out
in their boates, with fiue hundreth Gentlemen whiche came to sée suche
newe kinde of vesselles, and to proue what they were, beyng a thyng of
so greate a fame. _Cortes_ embarked himselfe with the spoyle of the
forte, and commaunded his men to abide all togither for the better
resistance, and bycause the enimies shoulde thynke that they feared,
wherevpon they mighte without any good order gyue the onsette vpon the
Christians, and so to fall suddenly into the snare. But it followed,
that when they came within shotte of the Spaniardes ordinaunce: they
stayed abydyng more company, but in shorte space there came so many
_Canoas_, that it séemed a wonder to beholde: They made suche a
terrible noyse with theyr voyces, drummes, Snayle shelles, and other
like instruments of warre, that they could not heare one an other, with
such great crakes and bragges, as they had done in time paste.

And beyng bothe parties in readinesse to fight, there happened suche a
poupewinde to the Vergantines which came from the shore, that it séemed
meruellous. _Cortes_ thë praysing God, commaunded al his Captaines to
giue the onset altogithers, & not to ceasse vntill the enimies should
be dryuen to retire into _Mexico_, for that it was the pleasure of
God to sende vnto them that prosperous winde in token of victory.
This talke ended, they beganne to sette vpon the enimy, who seyng the
Vergantines come with such lucky winde, yea & such a sight as the like
vnto them had not bene séene, they began to flie with suche greate
haste, that they spoyled, brake, and sunke many of them, and suche as
stoode to defende themselues were slayne, so that this battayle was
soone ended. They pursued them twoo leagues, vntill they had locked
them vp in the water streates of _Mexico_, and tooke many Lordes and
Gentlemen prisoners. And the key of al these warres cösisted in this
victory, for our më remayned for Lords of the whole lake, and the
enimie with great feare and losse: they had not bene so soone spoyled,
but that there were so many of them, who disturbed one an other. But
when _Aluarado_, and _Cristoual de Olid_ saw the fortunate successe of
_Cortes_ by water, they entered the calsey with their army, and tooke
certaine bridges and bulwarkes, and draue the _Indians_ from them, with
all their force and strength. But with the helpe of the Vergantines
which came vnto them, the _Indians_ were dryuen to runne a whole league
vpon the calsey, and where they founde the calsey broken, they procured
to leape ouer, and so fel into the middest.

_Cortes_ procéeded forwards, and findyng no _Canoas_, he landed vpon
the calsey that commeth from _Iztacpalapan_, with thirtie men, and
combatted two towers of idolles whiche were walled with wall of lyme
and stone: it was the same place where _Mutezuma_ receyued _Cortes_.
He wan those towers in shorte time, although they were defended with
all possibilitie: he vnshipped thrée péeces of ordinäce to scoure the
calsey, which was full of enimies: at first shotte he did greate hurte
among thë, and beyng the night at hande, they seased on bothe sides
for that day. And although _Cortes_ had determined otherwise with his
Captaynes, yet he aboade there that night, and sente to the campe of
_Gonsalo de Sandoual_ for pouder and fiftie më, with halfe the company
of _Indians_ of _Culhuacan_.

 Hovv Cortez besieged Mexico.

The night of _Cortes_ his abiding there, was perillous, for he had not
aboue a hundreth men in his cöpany, and aboute midnight set vpö him
many _Mexicans_ both by water and lande, although they accustomed not
to fight in the night, but the Vergantines made them soone to retire.

In the morning came vnto _Cortes_ from _Cristoual de Olid_, eight
horsemen, and foure score footemen. The _Mexicans_ combated the towers,
where _Cortes_ was lodged, who incontinent came forth & draue them
along the calsey, vntil he had wonne an other bridge and a bulwarke,
and made a great spoyle among them, with the ordinaunce & horse men,
pursuyng them to the vtmoste houses of the Cittie: and bycause many
of the _Canoas_ whiche were on the other side of the calsey galled
_Cortes_ and his menne, he brake downe so muche of the calsey, that he
mighte well passe some of his Vergantines to the otherside, the which
with few encounters shutte vp the _Canoas_ on that side, within the
succour of _Mexico_: and in this wise he remayned Lord ouer bothe the

The next day _Sandoual_ departed from _Iztacpalapan_ toward
_Culhuacan_, and in his way he tooke and spoyled a little Citie that
standeth in the lake, bycause they came out to resist him. _Cortes_
sente vnto him two Vergantines to passe his men where the calsey was
broken. _Sandoual_ left his company with _Cristoual de Olid_, and wët
to _Cortes_ with tenne horsemen, and when he came he found him in fight
with the enimies, and he alightyng from his horse, an _Indian_ persed
him through the foote with a dart. Many Spaniardes were hurte that day,
but theyr griefe was well reuenged, for from that day forwarde the
_Indians_ courage was muche abated. With the paynes, labour and victory
already obtayned, _Cortes_ might now at ease pitche his campe at his
owne pleasure where he woulde, and also prouide his army of victuals:
sixe dayes he ceassed not skirmishyng, and the Vergantines likewise
founde out channels that they mighte goe rounde aboute the Cittie, yea
and wente spoylyng and burning many houses within the Suburbes.

_Mexico_ was besieged in foure places, although at the first they
determined but thrée. _Cortes_ was placed betwixt the twoo towers of
the calsey: _Pedro de Aluarado_ in _Tlacopan_: _Cristoual de Olid_ in
_Culhuacan_: _Gonsalo de Sandoual_ in _Xaltoca_: for they had aduise
that the same way they would flée out of the Citie, seyng themselues in
any daunger. It would not haue grieued _Cortes_ to haue lefte a passage
for the enimy, but only bycause they should not profite themselues vpon
the lande, and prouide the Cittie that way of armour & victuall, yea,
he also thought to preuaile against his enimies better vpon the lande
than vpon the water. And againe according to the olde prouerbe, When
thine enimy flieth make him a bridge of siluer.

 The first skirmishe vvithin the
 _cittie of Mexico_.

_Cortes_ pretended to enter the Citie, and to gette what he could,
& also to sée what stomacke the enimy had: he sent to aduise his
captaines, that eche of them should do the like, requiring them to
sende vnto him some of their horsemen and footemë. He gaue speciall
commaundement to _Cristoual de Olid_ to haue regard to the kéeping
of his calsey, and to forsée that the inhabitants of _Xochmilco_,
_Culhuacan_, _Iztacpalapan_, _Vitzilopuchtli_, _Mexicalcinco_,
_Cuetlauac_, & other cities thereaboutes come not that way behinde them
and vnwares. He commaunded that the Vergantines should goe along the
calsey on bothe the sides, if any néede shoulde happen. _Cortes_ early
in the morning came out of his campe with .200. Spaniardes and .80000.
_Indian_ friends: they had gone but a small space, when they met with
their enimies well armed, keping the gappe where the calsey was brokë,
which broken place mought be a speares length, and as much in depth.
They fought with them, who for a great space defended themselues
behinde a bulwarke, but in fine he wanne the passage, and followed
them vnto the entrance of the citie, where was a Tower, and at the
foote thereof a bridge drawen, where a good streame of water passed.
This place was very strong to combat, yea and fearefull to behold the
passage where the draw bridge was. They ceased not shotyng of arrowes
and hurlyng of stones, so that our men coulde not come neare, vntill
the Vergantines came, and by meanes of them they wanne that fort with
lesser paynes than they imagined: for without the Vergantines it had
not bene possible to haue entred the Cittie.

The enimies being now fled from that holde, our men alanded there,
with the Indian friendes, who incontinent dammed vp the broken place
with stones and earth. The Spaniardes of the vantgarde, tooke another
bulwarke, which was planted in the largest and fayrest streate of the
Citie, and pursued the enemy to another draw bridge, which remayned,
but with one poste or beame, vppon the which many of the Indians passed
ouer, and then toke y^e beame awaye and aboue to defende the place: but
when our men approched & sawe how the matter went, _Cortez_ commaunded
two pieces of Ordinaunce to be broughte, with the whiche, and with
their Harquebushes, they did great hurt among the _Mexicans_, who
began to fainte, and lose their courage, the which being vnderstoode,
certayne Spaniards swä ouer where the draw bridge was, w^t their
weapons in their mouthes. But when the enimy sawe them passe ouer,
they began, as well from that place as from the house toppes, zoties
and bulwarke, whiche they had defended for the space of two houres, to
flie. _Cortes_ and his whole army beyng passed ouer, he commaunded to
damme vp that broken place of the drawe brydge, with earth, rubbishe
and stones, and procéedyng forwarde they came to an other bridge
whiche had no bulwarke, but was neare one of the chiefest places of
the cittie, and there placed a péece of ordinaunce wherewith they dyd
greate hurte, and seyng them now past all the bridges, they determined
to enter into the harte of the Citie. When the _Mexicans_ perceyued
their determination, they beganne to prouide euery one for himselfe,
for some fledde one way and some another, but the moste wente to the
great temple of Idols. The Spaniardes and theyr friends pursued after
them, and among the throng gotte into the Temple, where they slewe
many, and at length they wente vp into the high tower, and there threwe
downe the idols, among whome they made a great spoyle.

_Quahutimoc_ beganne to reprehende his men for their cowardie and
flight, who gathered themselues togither, and considering theyr
ouersight, and that there were no horses, began a freshe to sette vppon
the Spanyardes, and with force and strength draue them out of all the
circuite of the Temple, and made them truste to their féete. But when
_Cortes_ sawe his menne come flying, he caused them to returne and to
shewe face vnto the enimy, declaryng vnto them how shamefull a thyng
it was to flie: But seing the strength and multitude of their enimies,
they had no other remedie but onely to retire to the greate market
place, yea & from thence also they were expelled, and lost a péece of
their ordinaunce. But beyng nowe in this extremitie, there came thrée
horsemen who played the valiant men and made way through the troupe
of enimies, who at the sight of the horses began to flie, and our men
to follow with suche harte and courage, that in short time they wan
the great temple agayne: then came other sixe horsemen who ioyned with
the other thrée, and lay in ambushe, where they slew .30. _Mexicans_.
The day being now farre spent, and the nighte at hande, _Cortes_
commaunded his army to retire, and they obeying his commandemët, hadde
not so soone turned their backes, but an infinite number of enimies
were at their héeles, who if it hadde not bin for the Horsemen, had
slayne many Spanyardes, for they came vpon them like rauening dogges
without any feare, yet with the succoure of the Horsemen, the enimie
was putte agayne to flighte, and our men burned many houses, to auoyde
at their next comming the daunger of stones whiche were throwen from
their toppes. The other Captaynes, who were _Sandoual_ and _Aluarado_,
fought valiantly on the other side of the Citie.

 The great hurt and dammage in the
 _houses of Mexico with fire_.

In this meane while, _Don Hernando_ of _Tezcuco_, wente throughout
his Lordship, to allure his vassall to the seruice and friendship of
_Cortes_, according to his former promise: and whether it were seyng
the Spanyards prosperitie in the séege of _Mexico_, or otherwise, he
broughte almost the whole prouince of _Culhuacan_, whiche is vnder the
gouernemente of _Tezcuco_, with sixe or seauen of his owne bréethren,
for more he could not, although he had more than a hundred bréethren,
as héereafter shall be declared. One of them named _Iztlixuchilh_
béeyng a valiant yong man, of the age of foure and twenty yeares, he
appoynted generall Captayne ouer fiftie thousande men of warre, well
armed and trimmed according to their fashion. _Cortes_ dyd friendly
receyue and welcome them, giuing them greate thankes for their ayde and
good willes. Of these newcome men, he tooke into his owne host thirtie
thousande, and deuided the residue equally among the other Captaynes.

This was a sorrowfull newes to the _Mexicans_, to heare of the succoure
which _Don Hernando_ hadde sente to serue _Cortes_, and with holden the
same from them, yea and also among them were come kinsmen, bréethren,
and fathers to many of them which were in _Mexico_ in the seruice of

Two dayes after that these menne were come, there came also men of
_Xochmilco_, and certayne husbandmen of the Moütaines, who spake the
_Otomitlh_ spéech, beséeching _Cortes_ to pardon their long tarrying,
offering also both men and vittayles for the séege. _Cortes_ was
pleased wyth their cöming and gentle offer, for they being his friëds,
he was assured of them of _Culhuacan_, and sayd vnto them, within these
thrée daies (God willing) I wil combate the Citie, therefore againste
that time I praye you prepare your selues accordingly, and therein
shall I knowe whether you are my friendes or no: and with this aunswere
they departed, promising to fulfill his request, as they did in déede.
This done, he sente thrée _Vergätines_ to _Sandoual_, and other thrée
to _Aluarado_, for to disturbe anye succoure that mighte come from the
land to the Citie, and likewise to defende and ayde the Spanyardes at
all times, when they would land vpon the calsey, to combate the Citie,
for he well vnderstoode howe profitable those vessels would be néere
vnto the bridges.

The Captaines of the _Vergantines_ ceased not night and day to runne
the coast and Townes of the lake, where they tooke manye boates from
the enimies, laden with men and victuall, and permitted none to come
into the Citie, nor yet any to come out.

The daye appointed to the enimies for the combate, _Cortes_ made his
prayers vnto God, & then enformed each Captayne what he should do,
and came foorth with twëtie horsemen, thrée hundred Spanyardes, and a
great number of _Indians_, with their péeces of Ordinance, and where in
thrée or foure dayes before they had not skirmished, time serued the
_Mexicans_ at will to open al those places which were dammed vp before,
and also to builde better bulwarkes thä those which were throwen downe,
attending with that horrible noyse accustomed. But whë they sawe the
_Vergantines_ on eache side, theyr ioy was turned into sorrowe, and
beganne to fainte, the whiche oure men vnderstood well, and therewith
alanded themselues vpon the calsey, and wanne the bulwarke and the
bridge. Our army procéedyng forward, set vppon the enimies, vntill they
came to another bridge, the whyche was likewise wonne in shorte time,
and this pursued from bridge to bridge, alwayes fighting, vntill they
had driuen them from the Calsey and stréetes.

_Cortes_ for his part lost no time, for he with tenne thousande
_Indians_ laboured to damme vp againe the sluses and broken places of
the bridges, making the way plaine both for Horsemen and footemen: it
was so much to doe, that all those ten thousand _Indians_ were occupyed
therein from the morning vntill the euening.

The other Spanyards and _Indian_ friends skirmished continually, and
slew many of their enimies. Likewyse the Horsemen so scoured the
stréetes, that the enimies were forced to locke them vp in their houses
& Temples. It was a notable thing to sée how our _Indians_ played the
menne that daye againste the Citizens: sometimes they would chalenge
them the fielde: other times they would conuite them to supper, and
shewe vnto them legges, armes, and other péeces of mäs flesh, saying
behold your owne flesh which shal serue for our supper and brekefast,
and to morrow we wil come for more, therefore flye not, you are
valiant fellowes, yet it were better for you to dye fighting than with
hunger. And after all this spéech, euery one of them called vppon the
name of his owne Towne with a loude voyce, setting fire vppon their
houses. The _Mexicans_ were replenished with sorrow, to sée themselues
so afflicted with Spanyardes, but yet theyr sorrowe was the greater, to
heare their owne vassals so raile againste them, saying and crying at
their owne dores, victory, victory, _Tlaxcallan_, _Chalcho_, _Tezcuco_,
_Xochmilco_, and other Townes: the eating of the fleshe gréeued them
not, for they did the like.

_Cortes_ séeing the _Mexicans_ so stoute and hard harted, with full
determination eyther to defend themselues or else to dye, therevpon he
bethought himselfe vppon two things, the one was, that he shoulde not
obteyne the treasure whiche he had séene in the time of _Mutezuma_: the
other was, that they gaue him occasion totally to destroy the Citie.
Both these things gréeued him much, but especially the destructiö of
the citie. He ymagined with himselfe what he mighte doe, to bring
them to acknowledge their error, and the hurt that mighte fall vpon
them, and for these considerations he pluckt downe their Towers,
and brake their idolles. He burned also the greate house wherein he
was lodged before, and the house of foule which was néere at häd.
There was not one Spanyard who had séene that magnificall building
before, but lamented sore the sight: but to agréeue the Citizens, it
was commaunded to be burned. There was neuer _Mexican_, that thought
any humaine force, how much lesse so fewe Spanyards, shoulde haue
entred into _Mexico_ in despite of them all, and to sette fire vpon
their principallest edifices within the Citie. While this house was
a burning, _Cortes_ gathered his men, and retired to his Campe. The
_Mexicans_ would fayne haue remedyed the fire, but it was too late,
and séeing our men retire, they followed wyth their noyse accustomed,
and slue some of our men, who were laden with the spoyle, and came
behinde the reste. The horsmen relieued our men, and caused the enimy
to retire, in such wise, that before night al our men were in safetie
and the enimies in their houses, the one sorte full of sorowe, and the
others wearied with fighte and trauel. The slaughter was great that
day, but the burning, and spoyle of houses was greater, for besides
those whiche wee haue spoken of, the Vergantines did the like where
they wente, and the other Captaines also were not idle where they were

 Things that happened to Pedro de
 _Aluarado through his bolde attempt_.

_Pedro de Aluarado_, would passe his army to y^e market place of
_Tlalulco_, for he toke much payn & stoode in perill in susteyning
y^e bridges which he had gotten, hauing hys forte almost a league frö
thence. And again, he being a man of a haughtie stomacke, thinking
as wel to get honor as his general, and likewise being procured by
his company, who sayde, that it were a shame for them if _Cortez_
should winne that market place, being more nearer vnto them, than vnto
him: wherevpon he determined to winne those bridges which as yet wer
vnwonne, and to place himselfe in the market place. He procéeded with
all his army vntill they came to another brokë bridge, which was sixtie
paces of length, and two fadome depe, the whiche with the helpe of
the Vergantines, he wan in short space, and gaue order to certaine of
his men to damme it vppe substancially, and he himselfe pursued his
enimies, with fiftie Spaniardes. But when the Citizens sawe so few in
number, and al footemen, (for the horses coulde not passe the sluce so
soone,) they came vpon them so sodainely & fiercely, that they made our
men to turne their backes, and trust to theyr legges, yea and our men
fel into the water, they knewe not which way. They slew many of our
_Indias[=a?]_, and four Spaniards, who forthwith they sacrifised, and
eate their fleshe in the open sight of al the army.

_Aluarado_ saw his owne folly, in not beleauing _Cortes_, who had
always forewarned him, not to procede foreward, vntil he had made
the way sure behinde him: but _Aluarado_ his counsellers payde their
counsel with life _Cortes_ sorrowed for the same, for the like had
happened vnto him, if he had giuen credite to their counsel. But as
a prudent captain, he considered the matter better, for euery house
was then an Ilande, the calsey broken in many places, and the zoties
or house toppes beset with stones, for these and suche like places
vsed _Quahutimoc_. _Cortes_ went to see where _Aluarado_ had pitched
hys campe, and also to rebuke him for that which was past, and to
aduise him what he shold do: But when he came and found him so farre
within the libertie of the Citie, and the daungerous places which
hadde passed, he dyd highly cömend his valiaunt and good seruice: he
also cömuned with him of manye things concerning the siege, and then
returned to his owne campe.

 The tryumph and sacrifice vvhich the
 _Mexicans made for their victorie_.

_Cortez_ delayed the time to pitche his campe in the market place
of _Mexico_, although daily his menn entrede and skirmished with in
the Citie, for the causes before alleaged, and likewise to sée if
_Quahutimoc_ would yéeld himself. And also the entrie could not be but
very daungerous, for the great multitude of enimies that filled vp the

Al his company Spaniardes ioyntly, with the kings Treasurer, séeing
the determination of _Cortes_, and the hurt already receyued, besought
and also required him to passe his campe vnto the market place: who
aunswered them, that they had spoken like valiaunt men, but as yet
(quoth he) it is not time conuenient, & we oughte to consider better
of the matter: for why? the enimies are fully determined to ende their
liues in defence of that place. But his men replyed so muche, that
hee was compelled to graunte to theyr requeste, and proclaymed the
entraunce for the nexte daye following. Hee wrote also in his letters
to _Gonsalo de Sandoual_, & to _Pedro de Aluarado_, the instructions of
the things that they should doe, whiche was in effect, to _Sandoual_,
that hee shoulde remoue hys campe wyth all hys fardage, as thoughe he
woulde retire and flye, and that vppon the calsey he shoulde haue tenne
horsemen in ambushe, behinde certaine houses to the intent that when
the Citizens should espie thë flie, and would pursue after, thë to
passe betwixt them and home with the said horsemen, & after the hurt
done among them, in this sort, that then he with al his army shoulde
come where _Pedro de Aluarado_ aboade, with other tenne horsemen, a
hundered footemen, and the Nauye of Vergantines, and leauing with hym
his men, should then take thrée of the Vergantines, and to procure to
winne that broken bridge, where _Aluarado_ of late receiued the foyle:
and if he fortuned to wynne that place, that then he should damme it
vp, and make it sure, before he passed anye further: and the like order
he gaue vnto him for al other broken places that he should passe.

Vnto _Aluarado_ he gaue commission, that he shoulde passe as farre into
the Citie as he myght possible, requyring him also to send vnto him
eightie Spaniardes. Hée also appointed the other seauen Vergantines,
to passe into both y^e lakes, with thrée thousand _Canoas_. He deuided
likewise all his army into thrée companies, bycause they had thre ways
to enter into the citie. By the one of these wayes or streates, entred
the Treasurer and Auditor, with seauentye Spaniardes, twentie thousande
_Indians_, eight horsemen, twelue labourers with pickeaxes and Shouels,
and many other ydle felowes, to cary earth and stones, and to fill vp
the broken places, and to make the way plaine.

[Sidenote: A kinde harted captaine.]

The seconde streate he commended to _George de Aluarado_ and _Andres
de Tapia_, with eightie Spaniardes, tenne thousande _Indians_, two
pieces of Ordinaunce, and eight horsemen. _Cortes_ himselfe toke the
thirde way, wyth a great number of friendes, and a hundred Spaniardes
footemen, of the whiche were twentye fiue with Crossebowes and
Harquebushes, and cömaunded his horsemë which were eight in number,
to abide there behinde, and not to falow after, vntil he shold sende
for them. In thys order, and al at one instaut, they entred the Citie,
shewing the harts of valiaunt men, greatly annoying the enemy, and
wan many bridges, but when they came neare vnto y^e towne house called
_Tianquiztli_, there gathered togither such a number of the _Indian_
friendes, who before theyr eyes scaled, entred, and robbed their
houses, that they thought assuredly, that y^e same day the citie had
bin wonne. _Cortez_ commaunded that they should procéede no further,
saying, that they had done sufficientlye for that day, for also he
feared afterclappes. He likewise demanded whether all the broken
bridges were made sure, in the whych (quoth he) cösisteth the peril and
victorie. But those that went with the Treasurer, following victorie
and spoyle, had left a bridge not well dammed vp, but verye hollowe
and false, the whiche was of twelue paces broad, and two fadom in
depth. When _Cortez_ was aduertised hereof, he went thither to remedy
the same, but he was no sooner come, when he sawe his men fléeing,
and leaping into the water, with feare of the cruel enimies, which
followed, who leapt after them into the water, to kill them. There came
also along the calsey manye _Indian_ boates of enimies, who toke many
of y^e _Indian_ friends and Spaniards aliue. Then _Cortes_ and other
fiftéene persons, which were with him, serued for no other purpose but
to helpe out of the water those that were fallen, some came wounded,
and others halfe drowned, and without armour: yea and the multitude of
enimies so beset _Cortes_, and his fiftéene companions, who wer helping
their më, and so occupyed in the same, that they had no regarde to
their owne peril. Wherevpon certaine _Mexicans_ layd häd vpö _Cortes_,
who truly they had carried away if it had not bin for one _Francisco
de Olea_ his seruät, who cut off at one blowe the armes of them that
had hold of him, and he by the enemies was immediately slain, so that
he died to saue his maisters life. Then came _Antonio de Quinionez_
captaine of the guard, who caught _Cortes_ by the arme, & by force
pluckt him out of the throng of enimies, wyth whom valiantly he fought.
But thë with the fame that _Cortez_ was prisoner, came many spaniards,
among whö was one horseman, who made some roome, but in shorte space
they thrust him through the throte with a launce, and made him to
retire. The fight ceassed a little, & _Cortes_ had a horse brought vnto
him, on the which he lightlye amounted, and gathering his men togither,
came to the streate of _Tlacopan_, whiche was large and faire. There
died _Guzman_ his Chamberlayne, giuing a horse vnto his maister, whose
death was much lamented among them all, for he was a man valiant,
honeste, & welbeloued. There fel also into the water two horses, the
one was saued, but the other was killed by the _Indians_. As the
Treasurer and his company were Combatting a bulwarke, the enimies threw
out of a window thrée Spaniards heads vnto them, saying, the like they
would do with their heads, if they went not from thence the sooner.
They séeing this sight, and likewise cösidered the great hurte and
spoyle made among them, began to retire by little and little.

The _Mexican_ Priestes went vp into the Towres of _Tlatelulco_, and
made their fiers in chafing dishes, and put therevnto the swéete güme
of _Copalli_ in token of victorie, and forthwith stripped fiftie
Spaniards captiues as naked as they were borne, and with their fine
rasors opened them in the breastes, and pluckt out their hartes for
an offering to the Idols, and sprinckled their bloud in the ayre.
Our men seing before their eies the doleful sight, would fain haue
gone to reuëge the cruel custome. But as time then required they had
ynough to doe, to put themselues in sauetie through the great troupe
of _Indians_ which came vpon them, who now feared neither horse nor
sword. This day as ye haue heard, were fortie Spaniards sacrificed,
and _Cortes_ wounded in one of hys legges, and thirtie moe of his men:
they loste a piece of Ordinance, and foure horses. Also that day was
slayne aboue two thousand _Indian_ friends, and many _Canoas_ lost and
the Vergantines in great daunger, and the captain and maister of one
of them were wounded. Whereof the captaine died within eight dayes,
the same day wer also slaine foure of _Aluarado_ his men, that daye
was an vnfortunate or dismal day, and the nyght heauy, sorrowfull and
replenished with lamentable griefe among the spaniardes and their
friendes. On the other side, the _Mexicäs_ tryumphed with ioy, and made
great bonefiers, blewe their hornes, stroke vp their drummes, daunced,
banqueted and dranke themselues drunk: they also opened their streats
and bridges, as they were before, and placed their scout and watch
about the Citie. And as soone as it was day, the king _Quehutimoc_,
sent two Christians heads, and two horse heads into al the comarcanes
there aboute, to signifye their victorie and to require them to forsake
the Christians friendship, promising in short space to make the like
ende of all those that remayned, and deliuer the countrey from warre,
these things encouraged some prouinces to take armour againste _Cortes_
being his allied friendes, as _Maliualco_ and _Cuixco_. This newes was
soone blowen abroade into many prouinces, wherevppon our men feared
rebellion among their new friends, yea and mutinie in their owne campe,
but it pleased god that it fel out otherwise. The next day _Cortes_
came out againe to fight, to shewe face to the enimies, but he turned
again from the first bridge, without doing any great act.

 The determination of Cortez to destroy
 _the citie of Mexico_.

_Chichimecatl_, a noble man of _Tlaxcallan_, (who hadde brought the
Timber of y^e Vergantines, frö whence it was wrought, and was placed in
the companye of _Aluarado_ at the beginning of the siege of _Mexico_,)
séeing that the Spaniards fought not as they wer wont to do, he alone
with y^e men of his owne countrey, went forth to cöbate the Citie,
being a thing which toofore he had not attëpted, gaue assault against
those which defended a certain bridge, and with great noyse cryed and
named his City and lynage, and in short space wanne the bridge, where
he lefte foure hundered archers, and followed after the enimie, who of
industrie fledde, thinking to take him at his returne, and at length
the enemy returned vppon him, where they made a fayre skirmishe, for
the fight was equall. There were many hurt and slaine on both sides, so
that with the dead carcasses they supped at will. But they thoughte to
ouerthrowe him at the bridge, not knowing of y^e foure hundered archers
which were there to attend _Chichimecatls_ comming, by meanes of whome,
he passed at pleasure, to the greate griefe of the _Mexicans_, yea and
remayned not a little amazed to sée the valor and bolde attempte of the

The Spanyards likewise highly commended the fact, for where oure men
combated not as they were wont to do, the _Mexicäs_ ymagined that the
cause was cowardize, infirmitie, or want of vittayles: wherevpon one
daye at the sunne rising, they set vpon _Aluarado_ his Camp, whiche
being espyed by the watch, they began to crye, arme, arme, who came
forth as well footemen as horsemen, and put them to flight, at whiche
retire many of the _Mexicans_ were drowned, and others sore hurt
and wounded. Then said the _Mexicans_, that they desired to talke
with _Cortez_, who came vnto a drawe bridge to knowe what they would
haue, vnto whome sometime they sayd, that peace was their request,
and other times they demanded truce, but finally required that the
Spanyards shoulde departe from that Countrey. All this policie was but
to féele what strength and courage our menne had, and to haue truce
for a certayne time, for to prouide them of such necessaries as they
wanted, for their determinate purpose was, to dye in the defence of
their countrey and religion. _Cortes_ aunswered, that truce was not
conueniente for eyther partie, but peace was laudable at al times, the
whiche for his parte, although he hadde beséeged the Citie, should not
be denyed: therfore he willed them to wey his plentifull estate of
vittayles, and their owne néede and necessitie of the same. They being
in this communication with their interpreters, appeared an auntient
olde man on the toppe of the Bulwarke, who in the sighte of them all,
pluckt bread out of his satchell péece by péece, and began to eate,
giuing them to vnderstand, that they stoode in no néede of vittayles,
and so made an ende of theyr talke.

The séege of this Citie séemed a long time to _Cortes_, for in néere
fiftie dayes that he had begun the same, yet could not he bring his
desire to passe, yea and much maruelled that the enimies coulde endure
so long a season with dayly skirmishing, and also how they refused
peace and concord, knowing how many thousands of them had bin slayne,
and ended their miserable liues with hunger.

Yet once agayne he sente this last message vnto them, that if they
woulde not yéelde themselues, then he hauing them enuironed by land and
water, woulde slea thë all, and not permitte anye kinde of victuall to
come vnto them, so that theyr extremitie shoulde be so greate, that
they should eate one another: their aunswere was, that firste the
Spanyardes shoulde tast of the same cuppe, so that threatning increased
their courages, and occupyed themselues in carrying stones to the
market place, and many other stréetes, to stoppe the way against the
Horses and their maisters.

_Cortes_, although it gréeued him to destroy totally so beautifull a
Citie, yet he determined to bring all the houses of the stréetes that
he should winne to be equall with the ground, and to stoppe with them
the Chanels of water. He cömuned the matter with his Captaynes, who
liked well of his intente, although it was a troublesome thing. He also
aduertised the Gentlemen _Indians_ hys friends of his determination,
who highly commended his deuice.

_Cortes_ séeyng the towardnesse of all his armye, he called and
prepared all his labourers, with their pikeaxes and shouels, so that in
these affaires, and in setting hys men in good order, he spent foure
dayes, and then he begä to cöbate the stréete, which goeth directly to
the market place, then fainedly the Citizës desired peace. _Cortes_
stayed, and asked for their King: they aunswered, that they had sent
for him, wherevpon _Cortes_ taried an houre, and then they began to
reuile him, and to throwe stones, and shot at him. The Spanyards séeing
this, gaue the onser, and wanne a forte, and came into the chiefe
place of the Citie. They cleansed the stréetes of the stones whiche
they had laide to disturbe their passage, and stopped so vp the water
stréete in that place, in suche wise, that neuer after it was opened
againe, and threw downe all the houses, making the entrance into the
Citie an open playne high way, and then retired to their camp. Also
sixe dayes arowe they did the like, without receyuing any hurt, sauing
the last day two horses were hurt.

The nexte day _Cortes_ laide an ambush with fiftie horsmen, and sent
before him the Vergantines, but hée himselfe with thirtie horsemen,
abode in certaine great houses in the Market place. They foughte
that day in many places of the Citie, and at the retire, one shot
of a handgun, whiche was the token that those which lay in ambushe
should come forth. The enimies folowed our men, that séemed to flée
with maruellous greate courage. But they were not so soone passed the
snare, when _Cortes_ came forth with his thirtie horsemen, saying, vpon
them, vpon them: By this onely meane were slaine aboue fiue hundred
_Mexicans_, besides the prisoners.

Our _Indian_ friends had a good supper that nyght with mans fleshe,
whiche as yet they would not be perswaded to leaue. Certaine Spaniards
went vppe into a Tower of Idols, and there opened a sepulchre, where
they found fiue hundred Castlins in golde: With this ouerthrowe the
_Mexicans_ remayned in suche feare, that all their threatnings and
triumphes were turned into mourning: and euer after whë they saw our
men retire, they would not folow them, fearing the like danger, so that
this was a meane, the sooner to win _Mexico_.

 The hunger and infirmitie vvhich the
 _Mexicans suffered with greate courage_.

Two poore soules who were vexed wyth hunger, came in the nighte season
out of the citie vnto _Cortes_ his Camp, who certifyed, how the
Citizens were in greate necessitie, and so manye dead with hunger and
sicknesse, that there were heapes of dead bodyes in the houses, only to
kéepe close their extreame miserie: and said also, that in the night
season manye came out to fishe betwéene the houses with feare of the
_Vergantines_, and others came out to séeke for wodde, hearbes, and
rootes to eate.

[Sidenote: A cruell fact of Cortez.]

_Cortes_ hearing these newes, determined to knowe the troth thereof, so
that the nexte night he commaunded the _Vergantines_ to goe round about
the Citie, and he himselfe with fiftéene Horsemen, a hundred footemen,
and manye _Indian_ friends, placed themselues betwixte certaine houses,
with order to his espyes, to aduertise him what they shoulde sée. It
was no sooner day, but manye poore folke came out to séeke for foode,
and when _Cortes_ had intelligence thereof, he made a greate slaughter
among them, whereas at that time of vnarmed men, women, and chyldren,
were slayne to the number of eyght hundred: and the _Vergantines_ on
their side made another spoyle. The pitiful noise being heard into the
Citie, the Citizens were astonyed, and knew not what to doe, fearing
the like ambushe that they had séene and fealt the day before, & also
wondered, that at such an houre not accustomed, y^e Spanyardes were so
nigh. The next day following, béeing S. Iames his euen, _Cortes_ entred
againe into the Citie, according as he had done before, and wanne the
stréete of _Tlacopan_, where he burned the riche and faire houses of
king _Quahutimoc_, whiche were motted round aboute: so that nowe of
foure partes of the citie, thrée partes were wonne, and the Spaniardes
might safely passe from _Cortes_ his campe, to the campe of _Aluarado_,
by reason that all the houses were burned, and beaten downe playne with
the grounde.

[Sidenote: A true prophesie.]

But yet the poore _Mexicans_ would say to the _Indians_ of
_Tlaxcallan_, goe to, go to, make hast, burne and destroy these houses,
for time will come that yée shall buylde them againe at your owne
coste. For if we haue victory then shall ye buylde them for vs, and if
we be ouercome then shall yée buylde them for these straungers.

Within foure dayes after, _Cortes_ entred the citie againe, and also
_Aluarado_ on his side, who to shewe hys haultie stomacke, laboured all
that was possible to gette two towers of the temple of _Tlatelulco_,
the whiche at the length he wan, although he loste thrée horses in the

[Sidenote: An extreme penurie.]

The next day followyng, the horsemen walked vp and downe in the greate
market place at pleasure, the poore _Mexicans_ beholding that sorrowful
sight frö their houses. And as the Spaniardes wente walking in the
cittie, they founde heapes of dead bodies in the houses, streates, and
in the water: they found also the barke of trées and rootes gnawen by
the hungry creatures, and the men so leane and yellow, that it was
a pitifull sighte to beholde. _Cortes_ yet agayne required them to
yéelde, and they although they were so leane of body were strong in
harte, and answered that he should not speake of any friendshippe, nor
yet hope of their spoyle, for when no fortune would fauour them, then
they woulde eyther burne their treasure, or throwe it into the lake,
where they should neuer profite therby, and that they would fight while
one alone shoulde remayne aliue. At _Cortes_ his nexte entry into the
citie, he founde the streates full of women, children, olde folke, and
many miserable sicke persons whiche were perishyng for want of foode.

_Cortes_ commaunded that none of his army should doe any hurte vnto
such miserable creatures. The principall folke who were whole and
sounde, they stoode in their zoties or house toppes, without weapon,
and clothed in mätels. It was thought that they kepte a certaine holy
day, peace was againe offered, but they answered with dissimulation.
The next day followyng _Cortes_ required _Aluarado_ on his side to
combat a streat of .1000. houses that was not yet won, and that he
would doe the like on the otherside: for a little space the Citizens
defended thëselues, but their defence endured not, but were driuen to
flie, being not able to resiste the force of theyr contraries. So that
the Spanishe army wan also that streate, and slewe 12000. Cittizens,
the murder was so great bicause the _Indian_ friends would shewe no
mercie or compassion vpon them, although they were required to the
cötrary. So that now the _Mexicans_ hauing lost this streate also, the
houses that were not beatë downe could scarcely hold the people y^t
were aliue, the streates also being so full of dead carcasses and sicke
bodies, that our men coulde not passe but must néedes treade vpon them.
_Cortes_ desirous to sée what remayned of the cittie to win, went vp
into a high tower, and hauyng well vewed the Cittie, he iudged that
of eight parts one remained yet to win. And y^e next day following he
assaulted the same, with speciall cömaundement giuen to his army, not
to kil any but only such as should resist.

[Sidenote: A sorovvfull tale.]

The sorrowful Citizens bewayling their vnfortunate fate & destinie,
besought the Spaniards to make an ende, and to kill them all out of
hande. Then certayne of the horsemen called _Cortes_ in great hast,
who went vnto them incontinent, hopyng of some agrement of peace: and
standing at the brymme of the water neare vnto a drawe bridge, the
_Mexicans_ sayde, oh captayne _Cortes_, consideryng that thou art the
childe of the Sunne, why doest thou not entreate the Sunne thy father,
to make an ende of vs: oh thou Sunne that canst goe rounde about the
worlde in a day and a night, we pray thée make an end of vs, and take
vs out of this miserable lyfe, for we desire death to go and rest with
our God _Quetcauatlh_ who tarieth for vs. After these speaches they
made a lamentable crie, callyng vpon their Goddes with loude voyces.
_Cortes_ answered what he thought good, but yet could not perswade them
to yéelde, truely it was a pitefull sight to beholde.

 The imprisonment of Quahutemoc.

[Sidenote: An euill revvarde.]

_Cortes_ seing the great extremitie that these poore wretched people
were in, thinkyng nowe that they woulde yéelde vnto him, therevppon
hée spake to an vncle of _Don Hernando de Tezcuco_, who was taken
prisoner thrée dayes before, whom he desired to go to the king & treate
of peace: this Gentleman refused the message, knowyng the determinate
will of _Quahutimoc_, but through muche entreatie he graunted to his
request. So the next day followyng _Cortes_ entred into the Cittie,
& sent that Gentleman & certaine Spaniardes before him. The _Indian_
guarde of that streate receyued him with the honour which vnto such
a noble man did appertayne. He procéeded forward toward the king, &
being come where he was, he declared vnto him his embassage. When
_Quahutimoc_ had hearde his tale, he was so moued with yre & choller,
that forthwith he commaüded him to be sacrificed, and gaue the
Spaniardes for theyr answere blowes with stones, staues and arrowes,
saying also that they desired death and no peace, and fought so stoutly
that day, that they slewe many of our menne, and one horse. Lykewise on
their side many were slayne.

The nexte day _Cortes_ entred the cittie agayne, but he fought
not, hoping then that they woulde submitte themselues, but yet the
Citizens had no such thought. He came néere vnto a certayne bulwarke
on horsebacke, and spake vnto certaine Gentlemen with whome he was
acquaynted, saying that now within a shorte space he could make an ende
of their finall destruction, but yet of meare compassion he wished
it not, for the loue whiche he bare vnto them, so that they would in
time rëder themselues: wherfore (quoth he) entreate yée the king to
doe the same, and in so doyng ye shalbe well vsed, and haue victuals
sufficient. The Gëtlemen hearing these wordes, fell on weping, and
answered, that now they knew well their errour, and felte their losse
and destruction, notwithstäding they were bounde to obey their king
and Goddes. But yet (quoth they) abide a while, and we will certifie
_Quahutimoc_ what you haue sayde, and in shorte space they went and
returned againe, saying that the next day without fayle their Lord
woulde come and talke with him in the markette place. With this
answere _Cortes_ returned to his campe, and thought at their méeting
to conclude an honorable peace. So against the next day he caused
a Canapie and chayre of estate to be sette in the markette place,
accordyng to the _Mexican_ vse, and also a dinner to be prepared. The
day followyng came _Cortes_ at the houre appoynted, with many of his
men armed, but the king came not: neuerthelesse he sente fiue noble
men to treate of the matter, excusing the kyng, saying he was not well
at ease. _Cortes_ welcomed those Gentlemen, and was gladde of their
cöming, hoping thereby to conclude and make some good ende. And when
they had dined and well refresshed their hungry bodies, _Cortes_ gaue
them victuals, and desired them to returne agayne to the King, and to
declare vnto him that without his presence the conclusion coulde not
be certayne. They wente and returned againe within twoo houres, and
brought vnto _Cortes_ certaine mantels made of cotton woll, very good
& well wrought, with answere that the king would not come in any wise,
both for shame and feare. And the next day these messengers came agayn,
saying that the king would come to the place appointed. But yet he came
not, although _Cortes_ attended his commyng more than foure houres: who
seing the mockerie, he forthwith sente _Sandoual_ with his Vergantines
one way, and he himself went an other, combatting the houses & fortes
that yet remayned, where he founde small resistaunce, so that he might
doe what he pleased. There was that day slayne and taken prysoners
aboue .40000. persons, & then he retired to his campe. The lamentable
crie and mourning of the women and children woulde haue made a stony
hart relent, the stench also of the dead bodies was wöderfull noysome.
That night _Cortes_ purposed to make an end the next day of the warres,
and _Quahutimoc_ pretended to flie, and for that purpose had enbarked
hymselfe in a _Canoa_ of twëtie ores. When the day appeared _Cortes_,
with his men, and foure péeces of ordinance, came to the corner where
those that yet remayned were shut vp, as cattell in a pounde. He gaue
order to _Sandoual_ and _Aluarado_ what they shold do, which was, to
be ready with their Vergätines, and to watche the comyng out of the
_Canoas_ whiche were hidden betwixte certayne houses, and especially to
haue regard vnto the kings person, and not to hurte him, but to take
him aliue. He commaunded the residue of hys men to force the _Mexican_
boates to goe out, and he himselfe wente vp into a tower, inquiryng for
the King, and there founde _Xihuacoa_, gouernour and Captayne generall
of the Cittie, who woulde in no wise yéelde himselfe. Then came out of
the Cittie a greate multitude of olde folkes, men, women and childrë to
take boate. The throng was so great with hast to enter the _Canoas_,
that many by that means were drowned in the lake. _Cortes_ required his
më not to kil those miserable creatures: But yet he could not stay the
_Indians_ his friends, who slewe and sacrificed aboue fiftene thousand.
After this, there was a great rumour among the cömon people, that the
king would flie, making a piteous mone and saying that they sorowfull
creatures knew not whither to goe: But yet procuryng to goe into the
_Conoas_, whiche were so full that there was no roume for thë, by
reason thereof many were drowned.

The men of warre stoode in the house toppes and zoties beholding
their perdition. All the nobilitie of _Mexico_ were enbarked with the
kyng. Then _Cortes_ gaue signe with the shotte of a handgunne, that
his captaines should be in a readinesse, so that in shorte space they
wanne fully and wholy the great Cittie of _Mexico_. The Vergantines
likewise brake in among the fléete of boates, without any resistaunce,
and euery one sought where he might beste succour himselfe, the Royall
Standarte was beaten downe. _Garcia Holguin_, who was captayne of a
Vergantine, had espied a great _Canoa_ of .xx. ores déepe laden with
men. And one of his prysoners sayde vnto him, that the king wente in
that greate _Canoa_. _Holguin_ beyng gladde of the newes, gaue chase to
that _Canoa_ and ouertooke him. In his foreship he had thrée crossebowe
men. And when _Quahutimoc_ who stoode on the puppe of the _Canoa_ ready
to fighte, sawe those bowes ready bente, and many drawen swordes, he
yéelded himselfe, declaryng that he was the king. _Garcia Holguin_
being a gladde man of his prysoner, tooke and carried him vnto _Cortes_
who receiued him reuerently. When _Quahutimoc_ came neare vnto him,
he layde his hande vpon _Cortes_ his dagger, saying, I haue done all
my possibility to defende me and mine, accordyng to my duetie, hoping
not to haue come to this estate and place where now I stande: And
considering that you may doe with me what you please, I beséeche you
to kill me, and that is my only request. _Cortes_ comforted him with
faire words, giuyng him hope of life and seniory, and tooke him vp into
a zotie, requiring him to commaund his subiectes to yéelde and render
themselues: he obeyed his request. At that time there was about thrée
score and tenne thousande persons, who in seing their Prince, threwe
downe their weapons and submitted themselues.

 The taking of Mexico.

In the order before declared, wanne _Hernando Cortes_ the famous cittie
of _Mexico_, on tuesday being the .xiij. of August, _An._ 1521. in
remembraunce wherof, and of the great victory, euery yéere on that day
they make a sumptuous feast & solemne procession, wherin is carried the
standart royall, with the whiche the cittie was won. The siege endured
thrée moneths, & had therein .200000. _Indians_ .900. Spaniardes .80.
horses .17. péeces of ordinaunce, 13. Vergantines, & 6000. _Canoas_.
In this siege were slayne fiftie Spaniardes & sixe horses, & no great
number of the _Indians_ their friends. There was slaine on the cötrary
side a hundred thousand, and some affirme many moe: but I speake not of
them that died with hunger and pestilence.

At the defence of the citie were al the nobilitie, by reason wherof
many were slayne. The multitude of people was great, who eate litle,
dranke salte water, and slepte among the dead bodies, where was a
horrible stenche: for these causes the disease of pestilence fell
among them, and thereof died an infinite number. Wherevpon is to be
considered, their stedfaste determination, for although they were
afflicted with such hunger, that they were dryuen to eate boughes,
ryndes of trées, and to drinke salte water, yet woulde they not yéelde
themselues. But at the laste they would haue submitted them, and then
their kyng _Quahutimoc_ woulde not, bycause at the begynnyng they
refused his will and counsell, and also with their generall deaths,
should appeare no cowardise, for they kept the dead bodies in theyr
houses to kéepe that secrete from theyr enimies. Here also is to bée
noted, that although the _Mexicans_ eate mans fleshe, yet they eate
none of their owne Cittie or friendes, as some doe thynke: for if they
had, there woulde not so many haue died with hunger. The _Mexican_
women were highly commended, not onely bycause they aboade with their
husbandes and Fathers, but also for the greate paynes they tooke with
the sicke and wounded persons, yea and also they laboured in makyng
slings, cuttyng stones fitte for the same, and throwyng stones from the
soties, for therein they dyd as muche hurte as their men. The Cittie
was yéelded to the spoyle, and the Spanyardes tooke the Golde, Plate
and Feathers, the _Indian_ friends had all the rest of cloth and other

_Cortes_ commaunded greate bonfiers to be made in token of victory,
and also to mortifie the horrible stenche of the dead bodies, whome he
lykewise commaunded to be buried, and some of the prysoners menne and
women he caused to be marked in the face, for the Kings slaues, and
pardoned all the residue. He commaunded the Vergantines to bée brought
ashore, and appoynted one _Villa fuerte_, with .80. men to guarde thë,
fearyng least the _Mexicans_ shold set fire or otherwise destroy them.
In this businesse he occupied himself foure dayes, & then remoued
his campe to _Culhuacan_, where he rendred hartie thanks to all the
Gentlemen his friendes, promysing to gratifie their good and faythfull
seruice, desiryng them to departe home to theyr houses, cösidering y^e
warre was at an end, wherevpon they departed almost all in generall,
both rich and iocond with the spoyle of _Mexico_, and also to remayne
in the fauour and grace of _Cortes_.

 Maruellous signes and tokens of the
 _destruction of Mexico_.

Not long before _Hernando Cortes_ came vnto the newe _Spayne_, did many
nightes after the midnighte appeare in the aire, and in the same port
and place where _Cortes_ entred into that land, great lightning of
fire, whiche amounted vpward, and suddaynely vaded away. The _Mexicans_
at that time saw flames of fire toward the orient, where now _Vera
Crux_ standeth, with a great and thicke smoke, that séemed to touche
the heauen and earthe: thys sight was fearfull vnto them.

They also saw the figures of armed men fighte in the aire one with
another, a new and strange sight for them, and a thing that filled
their heads with ymaginations: for when there was a prophecie spoken
of among them, how that white men with beardes should come and rule
their kingdome in the time of _Mutezuma_. The Lordes of _Tezcuco_ and
_Tlacopan_ were much amazed, saying, that the sword whiche _Mutezuma_
hadde, was the armes of those folke, whose figures they had séene in
the ayre, with their apparell and attire. _Mutezuma_ had muche adoe
to pacifie them, fayning that the weapon and apparell was of hys
forefathers, and bycause they should sée the troth thereof, he gaue
them the sworde, and willed them to breake it if they coulde, and they
prouing to breake the same and could not, they maruelled thereat, and
also were resolued of their opinions.

It shoulde séeme, that a little before these things happened, some of
_Mutezuma_ his subiectes founde a chest of apparell and a sworde in
it on the sea coast, which came floting out of some shippe that had
wracked there about, and broughte it to their prince. Others affirme,
that the cause of alteration among the noble men, was, when they saw
the sword and apparell that _Cortes_ had sent vnto _Mutezuma_ by
_Teudilli_, séeing it a thing so like the attire of the figures whiche
they had séene in the ayre, but howsoeuer it was, they beléeued with
these new tokens, that their Kingdome shoulde haue an ende, when they
saw those straungers come into their Countrey.

The same yeare that _Cortes_ came into _Mexico_, appeared a vision vnto
a certaine _Malli_, which is to say, a slaue taken in the warres to be
sacrificed, who at the time of his deathe and Sacrifice, bewayled his
sorrowfull ende; calling vppon the God of Heauen, who at that instante
sawe in spirite a vision, and heard a voyce, bidding hym not to feare
that death, for the God whome be had called vpon, would haue mercy vpon
hym, willing hym also to say vnto the pristes and ministers of the
Idols, that their wicked sacrifice and bloudsheding was néere at an
ende, and that there was a people at hand, that should take away all
that wicked and abhominable religion.

This _Malli_ was sacrificed in the middest of the market place of
_Tlatelulco_, where at this daye is the place of execution.

They remembred, and noted well the wordes of the _Malli_, and the
vision whiche they called a breath from heauen.

The earth also brake open, out of the whiche issued a maruellous greate
streame of water, with many greate fishes, which they iudged and held
for a strange pronostication.

The _Mexicans_ did reporte, that when on a time _Mutezuma_ came
triumphantly with victory of _Xochnuxco_, said vnto the Lorde of
_Culhuacan_: Now (quoth he) _Mexico_ is strong and inuincible, for I
haue in subiection _Xochnuxco_, and other prouinces, so that now I am
without feare of any enemie. The Lord of _Culhuacan_ aunswered, saying,
trust not good King too muche, for one force forceth another, with
the whiche aunswere, _Mutezuma_ was not a little offended. But when
_Cortes_ hadde taken them both prisoners, then he called to remembrance
the former talke, and held that saying for a prophesie.

 The building vp agayne of

_Cortes_ pretended to recdifie againe the Citie of _Mexico_, not onely
for the scituation and maiestie, but also for the name & great fame
thereof, and also to builde vp that which he hadde beaten downe, by
reason whereof he trauelled to make this Citie greater, better, and
to be more replenished with people. He named and appoynted Iudges,
Aldermen, Attourneys, Towneclearke, Notaries, Skauengers, and Seriants,
with all other officers, necessarie for the common weale of a Citie.
He deuided the Citie among the Conquerors, hauing first taken out
places for Churches, market places, townehouse, and other necessarie
plottes to builde houses, profitable for the common weale. He also
separated the dwellings of the _Spanyards_ from the _Indiäs_, so that
the water passeth and maketh deuision betwixt them. Hée procured many
_Indians_ to come to the building of the Citie, for auoiding charges,
although therein he had somewhat to do, by reason that many kinsmen of
_Quahutimoc_ were not as yet come vnder obedience.

[Sidenote: Seauen thousand Ceder beames.]

He made Lorde of _Tezcuco_, _Don Carolus Iztlixuchitl_, by the
consent of the Citie, in place of _Don Hernando_ his brother, who
was deceassed, and commaunded many of hys vassals to labour in the
workes, bycause they were Carpenters, masons, and builders of houses.
He promised also to them that were naturals of the Citie of _Mexico_,
plottes to build vpon, inheritance, fréedome, and other liberties, and
the like vnto all those that woulde come and inhabite there, whiche was
a meane to allure many thither. He sette also at libertie _Xihuaco_
the generall Captayne, and made him chiefe ouer the _Indians_ in the
Citie, vnto whome he gaue a whole stréete. He gaue likewyse another
stréete to _Don Pedro Mutezuma_, who was sonne to _Mutezuma_ the King.
All this was done, to winne the fauoure of the people. He made other
Gentlemen Seniors of little Ilands and stréetes to builde vpon, and to
inhabite, and in this order the whole scituation was reparted, and the
worke began with great ioy and diligence: but when the fame was blowen
abroade, that _Mexico_ should be built againe, it was a wonder to sée
the people that resorted thither, hearing of libertie & fréedome, the
number was so greate, that in a whole league compasse was nothing but
people both men and women. They laboured sore, and eate little, by
reason whereof, many sickned, and pestilence followed, whereof dyed an
infinite number. Their paines was great, for they bare on theyr backes,
and drew after them stones, earth, timber, lyme, bricke, and all other
things necessary in this sort, and by little and little, _Mexico_ was
built againe with a hundred thousande houses, more stronger and better
than the olde building was. The Spanyardes also built their houses
after the Spanish fashion. _Cortes_ built his house vpon the plotte
where _Mutezuma_ his house stoode, whiche renteth now yéerely foure
thousand duckates a yeare. _Pamfilo de_ _Naruaez_ accused him for the
same, saying, that he hadde spoyled the woddes and mountaynes, and
spente seauen thousand beames of Ceder trées in the worke of his own
house. The number séemeth more héere than there, for where all the
Mountaynes are replenished with Ceder trées, it is a small matter.
There are Gardines in _Tezcuco_, that haue a thousand Ceder trées for
walles and circuite, yea and there are Ceder trées of a hundred & twëty
foote long, and twelue foote in compasse from ende to end. They built
faire dockes couered ouer with arches for y^e Vergantines, whereas
(for a perpetuall memorie) all the thirtéene Vergantines do remayne
vntil this day. They dammed vp the stréetes of water, where now faire
houses stand, so that _Mexico_ is not as it was wont to be, yea and
since the yeare of 1524. the lake decreaseth, and sometime casteth
out a vapour of stench, but otherwise it is a wholesome and temperate
dwelling, by reason of the Mountaynes that standeth round about it, and
well prouided through the fertilitie of the Countrey, and commoditie
of the lake, so that now is _Mexico_ one of the greatest Cities in the
world, and the most noble in all _India_, as well in armes as policie.
There are at the least two thousande Citizens, that haue each of them
his horse in his stable, with riche furniture for them. There is also
great contractation, and all sortes of occupations. Also a money house,
where money is dayly coyned: a fayre schole, whiche the Vizeroy _Don
Antonio de Mendosa_ caused to be made. There is a greate difference
betwixte an inhabitant of _Mexico_, and a Conqueror, for a Conqueror
is a name of honor, and hathe landes and rentes, and the inhabitante
or onely dweller payeth rente for hys house. When this Citie was a
building, & not throughlye furnished, _Cortes_ came from _Culhuacan_
to dwell there. The fame of _Cortes_, and maiestie of _Mexico_, was
blowen abroade into farre prouinces, by meanes whereof, it is now so
replenished, as I haue before declared, yea & hath so many _Spanyards_,
who haue conquered aboue 400. leagues of land, being all gouerned by
the princely seate of _Mexico_.

 Hovv the Emperour sent to take accompt
 _of Cortes of his gouernement in the newe Spayne_.

[Sidenote: The revvard of a knaue.]

In these dayes _Cortes_ was the man of the greatest name of all the
Spanish nation, although many had defamed him, and especially _Pamfilo
de Naruaez_, who was in the Court of Spaine accusing him. And where,
of long time the Counsell of _India_ had receyued no letters from
him, they suspected, yea and beléeued, whatsoeuer euil was spoken of
him. Wherevppon they prouided the Admirall _Don Diego Colon_, for
Gouernour of _Mexico_, who at that time went to lawe wyth the king,
pretending the said office and many others, with condition to carrie
at his owne coast a thousand men to apprehend _Cortes_. They prouided
also for Gouernour of _Panuco_, one _Nonio de Gusman_, and _Simon de
Alcazaua_ portingall, for gouernour of _Honduras_. To kindle more thys
mischiefe, and to set this businesse forward, one _Iohn de Ribera_, the
Attourney of _Cortes_, was a fitte and an earnest instrument againste
his maister, and the cause was, for falling out with _Martin Cortes_,
father vnto _Hernando Cortes_, about foure thousand Duckates which
_Cortes_ had sent by him to his father, which money the said _Ribera_
his Attourney kept to his owne vse, and therefore raised many slaunders
against his maister, yea and credite was giuen to his tales, but on a
night he had a morsell of bacon gyuen him vppon a skaffolde, wherewith
he was choked in the chiefe time of his businesse. These newe
officers, and their prouisions, were not so secretely obteyned, but the
matter was as secretely talked in the Courte, whiche at that time was
abiding in the Citie of _Toledo_, and the procedings séeme not iust
vnto the friends of _Cortes_. The Commendador _Pedro de Pina_ opened
the matter to the Licenciat _Nouez_, and vnto father _Melgareio_,
wherevppon they reclaymed of the Counsels determination, beséeching
them to stay for a season, to sée what newes should come from _Mexico_.
Also the Duke of _Beiar_ tendred the cause of _Hernando Cortez_, for
that _Cortez_ by promise of faith and troth, was assured in marriage to
his brothers daughter, named the Lady _Iane de Zuniga_, who aplaked the
Emperoure his anger, and the saide Duke became suretie to aunswere in
all causes for him.

The matter standing in this estate, there arriued in _Spayne Diego
de Zoto_, with a whole Coluerin made of siluer, and 70000. castlins
in golde, the newes whereof was blowen ouer all _Spaine_. And to say
the troth, this presente was y^e cause, that _Cortes_ was not put
out of his office, but a Iudge of residence was sent thither to take
an accompt of him. Now a wise and a learned man was sought for that
purpose, yea suche a one as could rule the matter, for some souldiers
are oftentimes vnmanerly: whervpö they thought the Licenciat, _Lewes
pouce de Leon_ a fitte mä, who had bin Lieutenante to _Don Martin de
Cordoua_, Earle of _Alcaudete_, & chiefe gouernour of the citie of
_Tolledo_. This Licenciate with power sufficient, was sent vnto the
new _Spaine_, who carried in his company as assistant, the batcheler
_Marcus de Aguillar_, who hadde ruled in time past, in a worshipfull
office of Iustice in the Ilande of _Santo Domingo_.

With prosperous weather they departed from Spayne, and in shorte tyme
arriued at _Vera Crux_, _Cortez_ hauing newes of their arriuall by
foote postes within two dayes. And vppon Midsomer day came letters to
_Cortes_ from the Licenciate _Ponce_, with another letter from the
Emperour, wherby he vnderstood y^e cause of their comming. He returned
backe incontinët an aunswere, and desired to know which way he would
come to _Mexico_, eyther by y^e way inhabited, or else the other way
which is néerer. The Licenciate replyed, that he woulde for a while
abide in _Vera Crux_, to refresh himselfe, béeyng seasicke, and a man
y^t had not heeretofore at any time passed the seas, thinking that
_Cortes_ meante to haue done iustice on certain offenders, yea & also
to haue takë hym by the way: wherefore he suspected, that _Cortes_ had
sent, bycause he woulde knowe whiche way he meant to come, wherevpon he
secretely tooke post horse, with certaine Gentlemë, and other religious
persons that came in hys company, & passed through the Townes, although
it was the farther way, and made suche hast, that in fiue dayes he came
to _Iztacpallapan_, refusing the entertaynement and prouision of meate
and lodging that _Cortes_ had prepared by his Gentlemë, that wët both
the wayes to méete him.

In _Iztacpallapä_ they receyued him with great feast and maiestie,
but after dinner, the Licenciate fell a vomiting, and the most of hys
companye, and after the vomite, they fell into a flixe. They thoughte
that certayne hearbes was the cause thereof, whiche were in a dishe
of curdes. The Licenciate was somewhat gréedie of the curdes, and
tooke the dishe, and offered it to father _Thomas Ortiz_, no (quoth
the Stewarde) hys reuerence shall haue another dishe, no (quoth father
_Ortiz_) I will none of these, nor yet of anye other, of whyche wordes
there were afterwardes Verses made, suspecting somethyng of the curdes:
but truely there was no hurte, or anye euill thyng putte in them, (as
héereafter shalbe declared) for the _Comendador_, _Proano_, who was
then chiefe Sheriffe, did eate of all those dishes, yea in the same
dishe that the Licenciat eate of, who neyther vomited nor yet receyued
any hurte or alteration. But I thinke, that they cömyng hoate, wery
and hungry, did eate too muche, and dranke also colde water, whereby
their stomackes reuolted, and thereof followed the flixe with vomite.
On the behalfe of _Cortes_ there was presented to the Licenciat a riche
present, but he refused it.

_Cortes_ with al the flower of Gentlemen in _Mexico_, came to receyue
him, and giuyng him the right hand, they went togyther vntill they came
to _Sainct Frances_ abbay, where after their praiers made, _Cortes_
demaüded to sée the kings prouisions, who answered, that the nexte day
he woulde shew them vnto him: then they accompanied him to his house,
where he was well lodged.

The nexte day followyng, all the magistrates of the Cittie mette the
Licentiat in the cathedrall Church, and by acte, before the notary,
he presented his auctoritie from the Emperour. He tooke the Vares
of Iustice from the Iudges and Sargeants, and incontinent restored
them agayne, and saide with gentle speach, this rodde of the Senior
gouernour, I will haue for my selfe. _Cortes_ with all the other
Magistrates kissed the Emperours letters, and put them vpon the crowne
of their heads, in tokë of great obedience, saying, that they woulde
obserue and obey all that was therein contayned, as the commaundement
of their king and Lorde, requyring the same to be set downe by acte and

After these things done, they proclaymed the residence and account
of iustice, of _Hernando Cortes_, to the intent that all persons who
coulde accuse him of any vnrightful dealing, should come and make their
complaint, and to haue remedy for the same. There should you then sée
the stirre and talke among them, euery officer fearyng his owne cause,
with desire to sée the ende of their businesse.

 The death of the Licenciat
 _Luys Ponce_.

The Licenciat comming one day from _Saint Frances_ abbay from seruice,
fell into an extréeme burnyng feuer, and lay him downe in his bedde,
where he remayned the space of thrée dayes, as a man out of his wittes,
and the feuer stil encreasing, so that on the seuenth day he yéelded vp
the ghost. In the time of his sickenesse he receyued the communion, and
made his laste will & testament. He left for substitute in his office,
the bacheler _Marcus de Aguillar_. _Cortes_ made as greate sorrow for
his death, as if he had bene his owne father, his funeralles were
celebrated with great pompe.

[Sidenote: A madde daunce.]

The enimies of _Cortes_ published, that he died of poyson. But the
Licenciat _Pero Lopez_, and Doctor _Hoieda_, who were his Phisitions,
swore that he died of a burnyng feuer, and shewed a further
consequence, that the euenyng before he deceased, he desired them to
play the measures vpon a lute, and as he lay in his bedde, shewed with
stirryng his féete the compasses and pointes of the daunce. It was a
thing which diuers persons saw, and forthwith he lost his speach, and
that night towarde the dawning of the day he yéelded vp his spirite.
I thinke that fewe men do die daüsing, as this Lawier did. The number
of a hundred persons came out of Spayne with the Licenciat, whereof
the moste parte died by sea and on the lande. It was suspected to be a
pestilence, for one of them infected another. There were in his company
many Gentlemen & ech of them had an office. There was a Frier who was
a very slaunderous fellow, & reported that _Cortes_ had poysoned the
Licenciat, and also that the Licenciat had an expresse order from the
Emperour to cut of _Cortes_ his head, as sone as he had taken the Vare
of Iustice from him. The subtle Frier, had thought to haue gotten money
of the one, and thankes of the other, and at the ende had nothyng.

 Hovv Cortez came into

VVhere one _Alonso de Estrada_ gouerned the state of _Mexico_, as
substitute of _Marcus de Aguillar_, accordying to the Emperours
commaundement, _Cortes_ considered with himselfe that it was not
possible for him to haue agayne his office, except he wente personally
to the Emperours court, where he had many aduersaries and fewe
friendes, so that he was afflicted on euery side: yet he in fine
determined to goe into Spayne, as well for businesse of importaunce of
his owne, as also matters touchyng the Emperour and his new kingdoms
whereof I will reherse particularly some.

As touchyng his owne causes, first he beyng a man of good yéeres, went
to marry, hoping to haue children, vnto whom he might leaue the profite
of his labour and payne: also to appeare before the King his maister
face to face, and to enforme his Maiestie what landes and Kyngdomes hée
had wonne and brought vnto his royall crowne: To signifie lykewise vnto
hym, of the dissention among the Spanyardes hys subiectes in _Mexico_,
and to answere for himselfe, to any false reportes whiche had bene made
agaynst hym: And finally, to receyue a condigne rewarde for hys worthie
and faythfull seruice. _Cortes_ beyng in these imaginations, there
was brought a letter vnto him, from the reuerend father _Garcia de
Loaisa_ ghostly father vnto the Emperour, and afterwarde was ordeyned
Cardinall, in the whiche letter he conuited him earnestly to come vnto
Spayne, to the entent that the Emperours Maiestie mighte bothe sée
and know him, assuring him of his friendshippe. After the receyte of
this letter, he made al the hast possible to departe vpon his iourney,
ceasing from his voyage whiche he had in hande, for to inhabite the
riuer _De las Palmas_. Before his departure he dispatched twoo hundred
Spaniardes, & thrée score and ten horsemen, with many _Mexicans_ for
the countrey of _Chichimea_, to inhabite there, finding the lande riche
of siluer mines, as it was reported, giuyng vnto those men expresse
order, that if the people of that prouince did not entertayne them
with friendship, that then they should accept thë as enimies, and
forthwith to make warre, and to take them for slaues, for that they
are a barbarous people. He wrote his letter to _Vera Crux_, to prepare
with all spéede twoo good shippes, and for that purpose he sent _Pero
ruiz de Esquiuel_, who was a Gentleman of Siuill: But he wente not on
the iourney, for a moneth after, they founde him buried in a little
Iland of the lake, with one hande out of the graue, whiche was eaten
with dogges and foule: he was buried in his dublet and his hose: he had
one onely wounde in his forehead: And a _Negro_, his slaue, who wente
in his company, was neuer hearde of, nor yet the _Canao_ and _Indians_
that wente with him, so that the truth of his death was neuer knowen.

_Cortes_ made an Inuentary of his moueable goodes, whiche was valued
at twoo hundred thousande Castlins of golde: he left for gouernour of
his owne estate, the Licenciat _Altamirano_ his kinsman, with other
two friends: he furnished twoo shippes, and proclaymed frée passage
and victuals vnto all those that would goe in his cöpany: he shipped
for his owne account a thousand fiue hundred markes of siluer, twentie
thousand Castlins in good gold, and ten thousand Castlins of base
golde. He tooke in his company _Gonsalo de Sandoual_, _Andres de
Tapia_, and other of the chiefest of the conquerours. He brought with
him a Sonne of _Mutezumas_, & another Sonne of _Maxixca_, who was
become a Christian, & named _Don Lorenso_, with many other _Indian_
Gentlemen of _Mexico_, _Tlaxcallan_, and other cities: eight players
with a cudgell, twelue tenis players, with certaine men & women of
that countrey, who were white of colour, and other dwarfes & deformed
persons. He brought also wilde beasts, as Tigres, & other strange
beastes called _Aiotochtli_, and one _Tlaquaci_. Moreouer he brought a
great number of mantels made of feathers & Conny heare, Targets, bushes
or tuffes of galant feathers, and looking glasses of stone. In fine, he
came lyke a great Lorde, & arriued in Spayne, in the ende of the yéere
1528. the Courte being then in _Tolledo_. The newes of his arriuall was
blowen through out all Spayne, and euery one desirous to sée him.

 The honour vvhiche the Emperour
 _shewed vnto Hernando Cortes, with rewarde_.

The Emperour receyued _Cortes_ magnifically, and to giue him the
greater honour, he went & visited him at hys owne lodging.

The Emperour beyng in a readinesse to passe into Italy, to be there
crowned with the Emperiall crowne, _Cortes_ went in his maiesties
company vnto the Citie of _Saragoza_, whereas his Maiestie calling
to remembrance his worthy seruice, & valour of his person, made him
_Marques del valle de Huaxacac_, accordyng to his desire, on the .vi.
of July, _An._ 1528, and Captayne generall of the newe Spayne, with
all the prouinces and coast of the south sea, chiefe discouerer and
inhabiter of the same coaste and Ilandes, with the twelfth parte of all
that after that tyme should be discouered, for a sure inheritaunce to
him and his discendentes: he offered vnto him also the habite of the
order of Knighthoode of Saint Iames, the whiche offer _Cortes_ refused,
bycause there was no rent gyuen with the habite, but he besought his
Maiestie to graunt vnto him the gouernmët of _Mexico_, the whiche
request the Emperour denied, bycause that no Conquerour shoulde thinke
that the office of gouernment and iustice is due vnto hym, for the like
demaunde was desired of the king _Don Fernando_, by _Cristoual Colon_
who firste discouered the _India_, and also the great Captaine _Gonsalo
Hernandoz de Cordoua_, who conquered _Naples_. _Cortes_ deserued muche,
and also the Emperour gaue him much, to honour him as a most bountifull
and gratefull King, who neuer taketh away that whiche once he giueth.
He likewise gaue vnto _Cortez_ all the kyngdome of _Michuacan_, but hée
had rather haue had diuers other townes whiche he demaunded, many other
great fauours and rewardes he receyued at the Emperours handes, but the
principall are those before declared.

 The Mariage of Cortez.

VVhen it was knowen in Spayne, that the lady _Catherin Xuares_, wife
vnto _Cortes_, was deceassed in _India_, by intercessours he was
assured vnto the Duke of _Beiar_, his brothers daughter, who was named
the Lady _Iane_ of _Zuniga_: hyr fathers name was _Don Carolus de
Arrellano_, Earle of _Aguilar_. This Lady was a bewtifull Dame, and
hyr brethrene noble personages, who were highly in fauour with the
Emperour. And _Cortes_ to matche with so honorable an house and lynage
he iudged himselfe fortunate and well maried.

[Sidenote: The riche Emeraldes.]

Among many Iewelles whiche _Cortes_ broughte with him, were fiue moste
riche and fine Emeraldes, whiche were valued at a hundreth thousande
Duckets: the one was wrought lyke vnto a Rose, an other like a Cornet,
an other lyke a fishe with the eyes of golde, whiche was a maruellous
péece of worke, beyng wrought among _Indians_: an other péece was
wrought lyke vnto a bell, with a great and a riche pearle for the
clapper, garnished with golde, ingrauen about with letters, whiche
sayde, Blessed is he that created thée. The fifth was made lyke a cuppe
with the foote of gold, and had foure little chaynes of gold, that were
ioyned all at the top togither, in a great pearle, and the brimme of
this cuppe was of gold, with this verse ingrauen rounde aboute, _Inter
nates mulierum non furrexit maior_. For this onely péece the Merchantes
of _Geneua_ did offer fourtie thousand Ducates, for to sel the same
again to the great Turke. But at that tyme _Cortes_ woulde not giue
it for any money, although afterwarde he lost them all in the warres
of _Argel_, beyng there with the Emperour. It was told _Cortes_ that
the Empresse desired to haue those péeces, meaning to demaunde them
of him, and that the Emperour shoulde pay for the same, for whiche
cause he sent them to the Lady his newe wife, with many other Iewelles
before he came at the Courte, and there, when he was enquired for them,
he answered, and excused himselfe, for then certaynely he gaue suche
Iewels vnto his Espouse, that the lyke neuer Lady had in Spayne. And
after he was maried to the Lady _Iane_ of _Zuniga_, he departed with
hyr to the newe Spayne, with title of _Marques_.

 Hovv the Chancery vvas first placed
 _in Mexico, and certayne Diuelishe pretences
 wrought against Cortes_.

Before _Cortes_ his cöming into Spayne, _Pamfilo de Naruaez_ his old
enimy wët vp & down in the Court, procuring the conquest of the riuer
_De Palmas_ & _Florida_, where at the laste he died, and alwayes when
he saw time conuenient he made cöplaints against _Cortes_, yea and to
the Emperours owne hand he deliuered a scrole of many articles, amög
the which was one, wherein he affirmed that _Cortes_ had as many barres
of gold and siluer, as in _Biscay_ were barres of yron, and offered to
proue the same: but although it was not true, yet it was suspicious. He
also earnestly procured that he shold be punished, saying that he had
plucked out one of his eyes, & killed with poyson the Licenciat _Luys
ponce de Leon_, & _Francisco Garay_. Through his many and importunate
petitiös, it was determined to send to _Mexico_, _Don Pedro de la
Cueua_, who was bothe fierce and seuere, and Lorde stewarde of the
Emperour his house, and afterwarde made general of the ordinance, and
chiefe Comendador of the order and knighthood of _Alcantara_, who
findyng the accusation true, should cut off _Cortes_ his head.

But as God would, in the meane season came the testimoniall from the
Doctor _Hoieda_, and the Licenciat _Pero Lopez_, Phisitions, who had
cured the persons that were reported to haue bene poysoned, whervpon
that commission ceased. And when _Cortes_ came into Spayne, _Don Pedro
de la Cueua_ would many times laugh and iest with him, saying, From
farre places long lies.

[Sidenote: Before the Iudges came, Cortez vvas gone to Spayne.]

The Emperour and his councell of _India_ prouided a Courte of Chancery
in _Mexico_, as chiefe place, where as all controuersies and matters
of righte throughout the new _Spayne_ mighte there be determined, and
also to correct the mutinies, and partes taking among the Spanyardes:
likewise to take residence and accompte of _Cortes_, and to be
satisfyed both of his seruice and offences. Moreouer that they should
visite the officers, and royall Treasorie there. _Munio de Gusman_ was
appoynted president and gouernoure, with other foure Licenciates for
Iudges to accompany him. He departed toward _Mexico_ Anno 1529. and
at his comming, he began to vnderstande in his regimente and office,
with the Licenciate _Iohn Ortiz_, for the other thrée Iudges died by
the way. _Cortes_ béeing nowe absente, and vppon his iourney toward
_Spayne_, this newe Iudge made a terrible residence and condemnation
againste him, and commaunded all his goodes to be solde by out-thrappe,
for a greate deale lesse then hys goodes were worth, and in his absence
they called him by Proclamation: but if he hadde bin there present, his
life had bin in daunger, although face to face some respect is had, and
it is an ordinarie rule that the Iudge sheweth rigoure against him that
is absent. This hatred was not only against _Cortes_, but also againste
his friendes, for hée apprehended _Pedro de Aluarado_, who was newly
come from _Spayne_, bycause he spake in the fauour of _Cortez_, laying
to his charge the rebellion of _Mexico_, when _Naruaez_ was there. He
also apprehended _Alonso de Estrada_, & manye others, doing manifest
wrongs vnto them.

[Sidenote: A good sentence.]

In shorte space the Emperour had more complayntes against _Nunio de
Gusman_, and the other Iudge, than had bin héeretofore againste any
other, wherevpon he was put out of office in the yeare 1530. His
wrongful dealing in iustice was not onely proued in _Mexico_, but
also in the Court of _Spayne_, with many persons that were come from
thence, so that the nexte president and Iudges that went thither, did
pronounce _Nunio de Gusman_ and his fellowe for partiall Iudges, and
enimies vnto _Cortes_, and condemned him to pay all his goodes whiche
were euill solde. But whë _Nunio de Gusman_ vnderstoode that he was
put out of office, he then was afraide, and tooke his iourney against
the _Teuchichimecas_, séeking after the Towne of _Culhuacan_, from
whence the _Mexicans_ descended. He caried in his company fiue hundred
Spanyardes, whereof the most were horsemen, and many of them went as
prisoners, and against their willes.

[Sidenote: Abhominable fact.]

In _Mechuacan_ he tooke prisoner the King _Caconcin_, who was a great
friende vnto _Cortes_, a seruitor vnto the Spanyards, and vassal to
the Emperour, and as the same goeth, he tooke from him tenne thousande
markes of plate, and much golde, and afterward burned him, and many
other Gentlemen, and principal persons of that kingdome, bycause
they shoulde not complayne, saying, that a dead dogge biteth not.
He tooke from thence sixe thousand _Indians_ for the seruice of his
army, and with them conquered _Xalixco_, whiche is nowe called the
new _Gallizia_. He abode there, vntill the Vizeroy _Don Antonio de
Mondoza_, and Chancery of _Mexico_, caused him to be apprehended, who
sent him prisoner into Spayne, to giue accompte of his office. If
_Nunio de Gusman_ had bin so good a gouernour and Iudge, as he was in
bloud a Gentleman, he had then enioyed the best plot of all the West
_India_, but he behaued himselfe euill, both with the _Indians_ and

The same yeare that he came from _Mexico_, went thyther for president
_Sebastian Ramirez_, who was a Bishop, and had in time past bin
presidente in _Santo Domingo_, and the Licenciates _Iohn de Salmeron_,
_Gasco Quiroga_, _Francisco Ceynos_, and _Alonso Maldonado_, for Iudges
to accompany him.

These Iudges gouerned well the land, and caused the Citie of _Angels_
to be inhabited which the _Indians_ called _Cuetlaxcoapan_, that is to
say a Snake in water. The reason was, bycause they haue two fountaynes,
the one of euill water, and the other of good. This Citie standeth
twentie leagues from _Mexico_, in the high way to _Vera Crux_. The
Bishop set the _Indians_ at libertie, and therefore many Spanyards
departed from thence, who hadde inhabited there before, and wente to
séeke their liuing at _Xalixco_, _Hunduras_, _Quahutemallan_, and other
places where warre was.

 The returne of Cortez to Mexico.

At this season arriued _Cortes_ at the riche Towne of _Vera Crux_, and
when his comming was published, how he came wyth title of Marquez, and
had broughte hys wife with him, an infinite number of _Indians_ came to
visite him, and almost all the Spanyards of _Mexico_, so that in few
dayes there came a thousand persons of his owne nation, who made theyr
complaintes vnto him, how they were vndone, and that the Iudges which
had bin there, had destroyed both him and them, and asked his iudgement
whether that nowe they might kill both them and theirs. _Cortes_
hearing their odious request, reprehended them, and also gaue them hope
shortly to reléeue their necessitie with new discoueries, and in this
order fearing some mutinie, he held them in pleasure and pastime.

When the president hearde howe _Cortes_ was visited of the Spanyaryds,
they commaunded forthwith euery one of them shoulde immediately returne
to _Mexico_, or else, where their dwelling places were vpö paine of
death, yea and they were aboute to apprehende _Cortes_ for a stirrer
of vprore, and to sende him backe againe prisoner into _Spayne_.
But when he saw howe soone these Iudges were moued, he commaunded to
proclayme himselfe openly in _Vera Crux_ Captayne Generall of all the
dominions of the new _Spayne_, and there caused the Emperours letters
pattentes to be redde, whiche thing being knowen to the _Mexican_
Iudges, it caused them to wring their noses. After this diligence
ended, he departed toward _Mexico_ wyth a great company of _Spanyards_
and _Indians_, among whom were a good company of horsemen: but when he
came to _Tezcuco_, the President sent to commaund him not to enter into
_Mexico_, vpon payne of losse of his goodes, and hys body to be at the
Kings pleasure.

He obeyed the commaundemente with greate wysedome, being a thing
conuenient to the seruice of the Emperour, and profite of the land,
which he had wonne wyth great toyle and laboure: but yet he abode in
_Tezcuco_ with a greater maiestie and court, than the President in
_Mexico_, and wrote vnto him, that he should consider his good will and
whole intent, and not to giue occasion to the _Indians_ to rebell, and
for the _Spanyards_ he might assure hymselfe.

The _Indians_ vnderstäding y^e discord betwixt the President and
_Cortes_, slew as many Spanyards as they coulde get at aduantage,
so that in fewe dayes there wanted aboue two hundred of the Spanish
nation, being slayne as well in Townes, as in the high wayes, yea and
also they had communed among themselues to rebell in déede. But when
the Bishop and the Iudges heard this newes, they began to feare the
matter, and considering that they had no better remedy, nor other sure
defence, but only y^e name valor, person, and authoritie of _Cortes_,
they sente to desire him to come vnto _Mexico_, wherevpon he obserued
theyr commaundement and request, & wente toward the Citie, well
accompanyed with men of warre, so that he shewed himselfe in estate a
generall captaine. All the Citizens came out to receiue him and the
lady Marques his wife: his entrie into the cittie was a day of great
pleasure among them. Then the president and iudges entred into counsell
for to remedie the greate hurt whiche had bene done by the _Indians_.
_Cortes_ toke the matter in hand, and apprehended many _Indians_,
of whom some he burned, others wer torne with dogges, he did such
correction, that in shorte time al the countrey was quiet, and the
highe ways without daunger, a thing worthy of great thanks.

 The letters that the Indians vsed in

There hath not bin found letters at any time in the Weast _India_,
onely in the newe Spain were vsed certain figures which serued for
letters, with the which they kept in memorie, and preserued their
antiquities. The figures y^t the _Mexicans_ vsed for letters are great,
by reason whereof they occupy gret volumes: they ingraue them in stone
or timber, and paint them vpon walles, and also vpon a paper made of
cotten wool, and leaues of the tree _Metl_. Their bookes are great and
folden vp like vnto our broade clothes, and written vpon both sides.
There are some bokes rolled vp like a piece of flannel. They pronoüce
not .b.g.e.f. Therfore they vse much .p.e.l.x. This is the Mexical
spéech, and _Nahual_, which is the best, playnest, and moste eloquent,
in al newe Spayne. There are some in _Mexico_ that do vnderstand ech
other, by whistling, whiche is ordinarily vsed among louers, & théeues,
a spéeche truely to wonder at, & none of our men could come to the
knowledge therof.

The order hovv to recken.

 _Ce_                   One
 _Ome_                  Two
 _Ei_                   Thrée
 _Naui_                 Foure
 _Macuil_               Fiue
 _Chicoace_             Sixe
 _Chicome_              Seauen
 _Chicuei_              Eight
 _Chiconaui_            Nine
 _Matlac_               Tenne
 _Matlactlioce_         Eleuen
 _Matlactliome_         Twelue
 _Matlactlomei_         Thirtéene
 _Matlactlinaui_        Fourtéene
 _Matlactlinacui_       Fiftéene
 _Matlactlichicoace_    Sixtéene
 _Matlactlichicome_     Seuentéene
 _Matlactlichicuei_     Eightéene
 _Matlactlichiconaui_   Ninetéene
 _Cempoalli_            Twentie

Euery number is simple, vntil you come to sixe, and then they count,
six and one, sixe and two, sixe and thrée. Ten is a number by himselfe,
then you must counte ten and one, tenne and two, tenne and thrée, tenne
and foure, tenne and fiue.

Then you count ten fiue and one, tenne fiue and two, ten fiue and
thrée. Twenty goeth by himselfe, and al the greater numbers.

 The Mexican yeare.

The _Mexicans_ yeare is thrée hundered sixtie dayes, for they haue in
their yere eightéene monethes, and euery moneth contayneth twentie
dayes. They haue other fiue odde dayes, whiche goeth by themselues, in
the which they vsed to celebrate greate feastes of cruell and bloudy
sacrifice, with much deuotion. And reconing after this sort, they could
not choose but erre, for they could not make equal the punctuall course
of the Sunne. Yea the Christian yere is not perfit, although we haue
learned Astronomers. But yet these simple _Indians_ wente neare the

The names of the moneths.

 _Huei Tozeuztli._
 _Huei Pachtli._

The names of dayes.

 _Cipactli_                  A Spade
 _Hecatl_                    Ayre or Winde
 _Calli_                     A House
 _Cuez Pali_                 A Lizart
 _Coualt_                    A Snake
 _Mizquintli_                Death
 _Macatl_                    A wilde Hart
 _Tochtli_                   A Conny
 _Atl_                       Water
 _Izcuyntli_                 A Dogge
 _Ocumatli_                  An Ape
 _Malinalli_                 A Brome
 _Acatlh_                    A Caue
 _Ocelotl_                   A Tigre
 _Coautli_                   An Egle
 _Cozcaquahutl_              A Bussard
 _Olin_                      A Temple
 _Tepatlh_                   A Knife
 _Quiauitl_                  Rayne
 _Xuchitl_                   A Rose

Althoughe these twentie names serue for the whole yere, and are but
the dayes of euery moneth, yet therfore euery moneth beginneth not
with _Cipactli_, which is the first name, but as they followe in
order, and the fiue odde dayes is the cause thereof. And also bycause
theyr wéeke is of thirtéene dayes, which changeth the names, as by
example, _Cecipactli_ can go no further thä vnto _Matlactlomeiacatl_,
which is thirtéene, and then beginneth an other wéeke: and we do not
say _Matlactlinaui Ocelotl_, whiche is the fourtéenth day, but we say
_Ceocelotl_ whiche is one, and then recken the other sixe names, vnto
twenty. And when al the twentie dayes are ended, begin againe to
recken from the first name of the twentie, but not frö one, but from
viij. And bicause ye may better vndrestand the matter, here is the

 _Ei Calli._
 _Naui Cuezpali._
 _Chicoacen Mizquinth._
 _Chicome Macatl._
 _Chicuei Tochtli._
 _Matlaciz Cuintli._
 _Mailactlioce Ocumatli._
 _Matlactliome Malinalli._
 _Matlactlomei Acatlh._

The next wéeke following doth begin his dayes from one. And that one is
the fouretéenth name of the moneth and of the dayes, and saith.

 _Naui Olui._
 _Macuil Tecpatl._
 _Chicoacen Quiauitl._
 _Chicome Xuchitl._
 _Chicoei Cipactli._

In this second wéeke, _Cipactli_ came to fal on the eighte day, being
in the first wéeke the first day.

 _Nauizi cunitli._
 _Macuil Ocumatli._

And so proceede on to the thirde wéeke, in the which this name
_Cipactli_ entreth not, but _Macatl_, which was the seuenth day in
the first wéeke, & had no place in y^e second, and is the first in
the third. This reconing is no darker, than ours, which we haue in
a.b.c.d.e.f.g. For they also change with time, and runne in such sort,
that .a. whiche was the firste letter of this moneth, commeth to be the
fift daye of the nexte moneth, and the thirde moneth he counteth to be
the third day, and so orderly doth the other sixe letters.

The accounting of yeares.

These _Mexicans_ had another order to recken theyr yeares, which
exceded not aboue foure in number, as one, two, thrée, foure, wherewith
they accounte a hundred, fiue hundred, a thousand, and as many moe
as they lust. Those foure figures or names are, _Tochtli_, _Acatlh_,
_Tecpatlh_, _Calli_, and do signifye, a Conny, a Caue, a Knife, and a
House, saying.

 _Ce Totchtli_             One yeare
 _Ome Acatlh_              Two yeares
 _Ei Tecpatlh_             Thrée yeares
 _Naui Calli_              Foure yeares
 _Macuil Tochtli_          Fiue yeares
 _Cicoacen Acatlh_         Sixe yeares
 _Cicome Tecpatlh_         Seauen yeares
 _Chicuei Calh_            Eight yeares
 _Chiconaui Tochtli_       Nine yeares
 _Matlactli Acatlh_        Tenne yeares
 _Matlactlioce Tecpatlh_   Eleuen yeares
 _Matlactliome Calli_      Twelue yeares
 _Matlactliomei Tochtli_   Thirtéene yeares

So that the reconing passeth not aboue thirtéene, whiche is one wéeke of
the yeare, and endeth where he began.

Another Weeke.

 _Ce Acatlh_              One yeare
 _Ome Tlepatlh_           Two yeares
 _Ei Calli_               Thrée yeares
 _Naui Tochtli_           Foure yeares
 _Macuil Acatlh_          Fiue yeares
 _Chicoacen Tecpatlh_     Sixe yeares
 _Chicome Calli_          Seuen yeares
 _Cichuei Tochtli_        Eight yeares
 _Chiconaui Acatlh_       Nine yeares
 _Matlactli Tecpatlh_     Tenne yeares
 _Matlactlioce Calli_     Eleuen yeares
 _Matlactliome Tochtli_   Twelue yeares
 _Matlactliomei Acatlh_   Thirtéene yeares

The third vveeke of yeares.

 _Ce Tecpatlh_              One yeare
 _Ome Calli_                Two yeres
 _Ei Tochtli_               Thrée yeres
 _Naui Acatlh_              Foure yeres
 _Macuil Tecpatlh_          Fiue yeres
 _Chicoacan Calli_          Sixe yeares
 _Chicome Tochthi_          Seauen yeares
 _Chicuei Acatlh_           Eight yeares
 _Chiconaui Tecpatlh_       Nine yeares
 _Matlactli Calli_          Tenne yeares
 _Matlactliome Tochtli_     Eleuen yeares
 _Matlactliome Acatlh_      Twelue yeares
 _Matlactliomei Tecpatlh_   Thirtéene yeares

The fourth Weeke.

 _Ce Calli_                One yeare
 _Ome Tochtii_             Two yeares
 _Ei Acatlh_               Thrée yeares
 _Naui Tecpatlh_           Foure yeares
 _Macuil Calli_            Fiue yeares
 _Chicoacen Tochtli_       Sixe yeares
 _Chicome Acatlh_          Seauen yeares
 _Chicuei Tecpatlh_        Eight yeares
 _Chiconaui Calli_         Nine yeares
 _Matlactli Tochtli_       Tenne yeares
 _Matlactlioce Acatlh_     Eleuen yeares
 _Matlactliome Tecpatlh_   Twelue yeares
 _Matlactliomei Calli_     Thirtéene yeares

Ech of these wéekes, which our men cal Indition, doth conteyne
thirtéene yeares, so that all the foure wéekes make two and fiftie
yeares, which is a perfit number in the reconing, and is called the
yeare of grace, for from fiftie two yeres, to fiftie two yeares, they
vsed to make solemne feastes, with strange Ceremonies, as hereafter
shall be declared. And when fiftie two yeares are ended, then they
beginne againe, by the same order before declared, vntil they come to
as many moe, beginning at _Ce Tochtli_, and so forwarde. But alwayes
they begin at the Conny figure. So that in the forme of reconing they
kepe & haue in mëmorye, things of 850. yeares, and by this Cronicle
they know in what yere euerye thing hapned, and how long euery king
raygned: howe many children they had, and all things else that
importeth to the estate of the gouernement of the lande.

 The Indians beleeued that fiue ages
 _were past, which they called Sunnes_.

The _Indians_ of _Culhua_ did beléeue that the Gods had made y^e world,
but they knew not how, yet they beléeued that since the creation of the
world four Sunnes were past, and that the fift and last is y^e Sunne
that now giueth light to the world.

They helde opinion that the firste Sunne perished by water, and at the
same time all liuing creatures perished likewise.

The second Sunne (say they) fell from the heauës, with whose fall all
liuing creatures were slayne, and then (said they) were manye Giantes
in that Countrey, and certayne monstrous bones, which our men found in
opening of graues, by proportion whereof, some shoulde séeme to be men
of twenty spannes high.

The third Sunne was consumed by fire, whiche burned day and night, so
that then all liuing creatures were burned.

The fourth Sunne finished by tempest of ayre or winde, which blew
downe houses, trées, yea and y^e mountaynes and Rockes were blowë
asunder, but the lignage of mankinde perished not, sauing that they
were conuerted into Apes. And touching the fift Sunne, which now
raigneth, they know not how it shall consume. But they say that when
the fourth Sunne perished, all the worlde fell into darkenesse, and so
remained for the space of fiue and twenty yeares continually, and at
the fiftenth yeare of that fearefull darkenesse, the Gods did forme
one man and a woman, who brought forth children, and at the end of the
other tenne yeares, appeared the Sunne whiche was newly borne vppon
the figure of the _Conny_ day, and therfore they begin their account
of yéeres at y^t day, & reckoning from the yeare of oure Lorde 1552.
their age or Sunne is 858. so that it appeareth that they haue vsed
many yeares their writing in figures: and they had not onely this vse
from _Cetochtli_, whiche is the beginning of their yeare, moneth, and
day of their fifth Sunne, but also they hadde the same order and vse in
the other foure Sunnes which were past: but they let many things slippe
out of memorie, saying, that with the newe Sunne, all other things
should be likewise new. They held also opinion, that thrée dayes after
this last Sunne appeared, all the Gods did dye, and that in processe
of time the Gods whiche nowe they haue, and worshippe, were borne. And
through these false opinions, our Diuines did soone conuert them to the
knowledge of the true lawes of God.

 The nation of the Indians called

In the lande nowe called newe _Spayne_, are dyuers and sundry
generations of people: but they holde opinion, that the stocke of most
antiquitie, is the people nowe called _Chichimecas_, which procéeded
out of the house of _Aculhuacan_, which standeth beyond _Xalixco_,
about the yeare of our Lorde .720. Many of this Generation did inhabite
aboute the lake of _Tenuchtitlan_, but their name ended by mixture in
marriage with other people. At that time they hadde no King, nor yet
did builde eyther house or Towne. Their only dwellings was in caues in
y^e Moütaynes. They went naked, they sowed no kind of graine, nor vsed
bread of any sorte. They did mainteyne themselues with rootes, hearbes,
and siluester fruites: and béeing a people cunning in shooting with the
bowe, they kylled deare, hares, connyes, and other beastes and foule,
which they eate also, not sodden or rosted, but rawe, and dryed in the
Sunne. They eate also Snakes, Lizardes, and other filthye beastes, yea
and at this day there are some of this generation that vse the same
dyet. But although they liued suche a bestiall life, & being a people
so barbarous, yet in their diuelish religion they were verye deuout.
They worshipped the Sunne, vnto whome they vsed to offer Snakes,
Lizards, & such other beasts. They likewise offered vnto their God all
kinde of foule, from the degrée of an Eagle, to a little Butterflie.
They vsed not sacrifice of mäslaughter, nor had any Idolles, no not
so muche as of the Sunne, whome they helde for the sole and only God.
They married but with one woman, & in no degrée of kinred. They were a
stoute and a warlike people, by reason whereof, they were Lordes of the

 The Coronation of the Kings of Mexico.

Although one brother was heire to an other among the _Mexicans_, and
after their deceasse, did inherite the Sonne of the eldest brother, yet
they tooke no possession of the state nor name of King vntil they were
annoynted and Crowned openlye.

[Sidenote: The oyntment.]

As soone as any King of _Mexico_ deceassed, and his funerals ended,
then were called to Parliamente the Lorde of _Tezcuco_, and the Lorde
of _Tlacopan_, who were the chiefest estates, and then in order all
other noble men, who owed any seruice to the Mexican Empire. And béeyng
come togither, if any doubt of the inheritäce of y^e crowne happened,
then the matter was decided with al hast: then the newe King being
knowen, he was stripped starke naked, except a cloth to couer his
priuie partes, and in thys sorte was carried among them, to the greate
Temple of _Vitzilopuchtli_ with greate silence, and without any ioy
or pleasure: Two Gentlemen of the Citie whose office it was, ledde him
vppe the staires of the Temple by the armes, and before him wente the
Princes of _Tezcuco_ and _Tlacopan_, who that day did weare their robes
of Coronation, wherevpon was paynted their armes and title. Verye fewe
of the Laytie wente vp into the Chappels, but only those that were
appoynted to attire the newe king, and to serue in other Ceremonies,
for all the residue stoode vpon the steppes and belowe, to beholde the
Coronation. These Magistrates being aboue in the Chappell, came with
great humilitie and reuerence, knéelyng downe vpö their knées before
the Idoll of _Vitzilopuchtli_, and touched the earth with one finger
and then kissed the same. Then came the high prieste clothed in his
pontificall vestmentes, with many others in his company, who did weare
surplices: and withoute speaking any worde, they paynted or couloured
the Kings person, with ynke made for the purpose, as blacke as any
cole. After thys Ceremonye done, they blessed the annoynted Kyng, and
sprinckled him foure times with a certayne holly water, that was made
at the time of consecration of the God, made of dowe or paste, with a
sprinckle made of boughes of Cane leaues, Ceder, & willow leaues. Then
they put vpon his head, a cloth painted with the bones and skulles of
dead men, and next they clothed him with a black garment, and vpon
y^t another blewe, and both were paynted with y^e figures of dead
mens skulles & bones. Then they put about his necke certaine laces,
whereat did hang the armes of y^e Crowne. And behind his backe they did
hang certain little bottels ful of powders, by vertue wherof he was
deliuered from pestilence and diseases, according to their opiniö: yea
& therby witches, nor witchcrafts could not hurt him, nor yet euill
menne deceyue him. In fyne, with those relickes he was sure from all
perill and daunger. Vpon his lefte arme they bounde a litle bagge of
incense, and then brought vnto him a chaffyng dishe of imbers made of
the barke of an Oke trée. Then the king arose, and with his owne hande
threw of the same incense into the chaffing dishe, and with great
reuerence brought the same to the God _Vitzilopuchtli_, and after he
had smoked him therewith, he satte him downe, then came the high Priest
and tooke his othe to mainteyne the religion of the Goddes, to kéepe
also all the lawes and customes of his predecessours, to maynteyne
iustice, and not to agrauiate any of his vassals or subiects, and that
he should be valiant in the warres, that he shoulde cause the Sunne
to giue his light, the clowdes to yéelde rayne, the riuers to runne,
and the earth to bring foorth all kinde of grayne, fruytes, and other
néedefull hearbes and trées. These and many other impossible things
the newe kyng did sweare to performe: and then he gaue thankes to the
high priest, and commended himself to the Goddes and to the lookers
on, and they who brought him vp in the same order, carrieth him downe
agayne. Then all the people cried, the Goddes preserue the newe kyng,
and that he may raigne many yéeres in health with al his people. But
then some began to daunce, other to play on their instrumëts, shewing
outwardly their inwarde ioyes of harte. And before the king came to the
foote of the steppes, all the noble men came to yéelde their obedience,
and in token of louing and faythfull subiectes they presented vnto
him feathers, strings of snayle shelles, collours, and other Iewelles
of golde and siluer, also mantels paynted with death, & bare him
company vnto a great hal within the compasse of the temple, and there
lefte him. The king sitteth downe vnder his cloth of estate, called
_Tlacatecco_, and in foure daies departeth not out of the circuyte of
the temple, the which he spendes in prayers, sacrifice and penaunce,
he eates then but once a day, and euery day he bathes himselfe, and
agayne in the night in a great ponde of water, and then lettes himselfe
bloud in his eares, and senseth therewith the God of Water, called
_Tlaloc_: he likewise senseth the other idols, vnto whome he offereth
bread, flowers, Papers and little Canes died in the bloudde of his owne
tongue, nose, handes, and other partes of his body. After the foure
dayes expired, then come all the Noblemen to beare him company to his
palayce with great triumphe and pleasure of all the Cittie, but after
his consecration fewe or none dare looke him in the face.

And now with the declaryng of the actes and Ceremonies that the
_Mexican_ Kings are crowned, I shall not néede to rehearse of other
kyngs, for generally they all do vse the same order, sauyng that other
Princes goe not vp to the toppe of the Temple, but abide at the foote
of the steppes to be crowned, and after theyr Coronation they come to
_Mexico_ for their confirmation, and then at theyr returne to their
countrey, they made many drunkë feasts and banquets.

 The opinion of the Mexicans
 _concerning the Soule_.

The _Mexicans_ did beléeue that the Soule was immortal, and that they
receyued eyther ioy or payne according to theyr desertes & liuyng in
this worlde, vnto which opinion all their religion did attayne, and
chiefly appeare at their burials. They helde for an assured faith,
that there were nine places appointed for soules, & the chiefest place
of glory to be neare vnto the Sunne, where the soules of those whiche
were good men slaine in the warres, & those which were sacrifised
were placed, and that all other sortes of euill persons their soules
abode on the earth, & were deuided after this sorte, children that
were dead borne went to one place, those which died of age or other
disease went to another, those which died of sodden death to another,
those whiche died of woundes or contagious diseases went to an other
place, those which were drowned went to another, those which were put
to death for offence by order of iustice, as for robbery and adultery
to another: Those which slewe their fathers, mothers, wiues or childrë,
to another place by themselues, also those who slew their maysters or
any religious person went to another place. The common sorte of people
were buried, but Lordes and rich men had their bodies burned & their
ashes buried. In their shreudes they had a greate difference, for
many dead bodies were buried better apparelled than when they were on
liue. Women were shrewded after another sorte. And he that suffered
death for adulterie was shrewded like vnto the God of leachery, called
_Tlazoulteutl_, he that was drowned like vnto the God of water named
_Tlacoc_, and he that died with drunkennesse was shrewded like vnto
the God of wyne called _Ometochtli_. But the Souldier had an honorable
shrewde like vnto the attyre of _Vitzilopuchtli_, and the lyke order in
all other sortes of deathes.

 The buriall of Kings in

VVhen any Kyng of _Mexico_ happened to fall sicke, they vsed forth-with
to put a visor vppon the face of _Tezcatlipuca_, or _Vitzilopuchtli_,
or some other Idoll, whiche Visor was not taken awaye, vntill they
sawe whether the kyng did amend, or else die: But if he chaunsed to
die, then worde was sent throughout all his dominions to bewaile his
death, and also other postes were sent to call the Noble menne that
were his nighest kinsmen, and to warne them within foure dayes to come
vnto his buriall.

The dead body was layde vpon a fayre matte, & was watched foure
nightes, with great lamëtation and mournyng: then the body was
washed, and a locke of heare cut from the crowne of his head, whiche
was preserued as a great relicke, saying that therein remayned the
remembrance of his soule. This done, a fine Emerald was put into his
mouth, and his body shrewded in seuentene riche mantles, of colours,
both riche and costly wrought. Vpon the vpper mantle was sette the
deuise or armes of _Vitzilopuchtli_ or _Tezcalipuca_, or of some other
idoll, in whome the kyng had greate confidence in his lyfe tyme, and in
his temple should the body be buried. Vpö his face they put a visor,
paynted with foule and Diuelish gestures, besette with many iewelles,
precious stones, and pearles. Then they killed his slaue, whose office
was to light the Lampes and make fire vnto the Goddes of his pallayce.
These things done, they carried the dead body vnto the Temple: some
followed him with dolefull tune, others song the death of the kyng by
note, for so was the custome.

The Noble men and Gentlemen of his housholde carried Targets, Arrowes,
Maces, and Ensignes to throwe into the fire where the body should be
buried in the Temple. The high Priest and all the Clergie receyued him
at the Temple gate, with a sorrowfull song, and after he had sayde
certayne wordes, the body was throwen into a great fire made for the
purpose, with all the iewels that he had aboute him, and all the other
things whiche was brought to honour the burial: also a dogge newly
strangled with an arrowe, whiche was to guyde him his way. In the meane
whyle that the King and dogge were burnyng, the Priests sacrificed
twoo hüdred persons, howbeit in this Ceremonie there was no ordinary
taxe, for sometymes they sacrificed many moe: they were opened with
a rasour of flinte in the breastes, and theyr hartes taken out and
throwen into the fire where the Kings body was. There miserable persons
beyng sacrificed, and their bodies throwen into a hole, they beléeued
assuredly that those shoulde serue for his slaues in another worlde:
some of them were dwarffes, monstrous and deformed persons, with some
women. They placed about the dead body of the King before his buriall,
Roses, Floures and sundry dishes of meate and drinke, and no creature
durste touche the same, but onely y^e Priests, for it séemed to be an

The nexte day followyng, all the ashes were gathered togither, and
the téeth with the Emerald that was in his mouth, the whiche things
were put into a chest, paynted on the inside with horrible figures of
diuels, and the locke of heare whiche was cut from his crowne, and
another locke of heare which was preserued from the tyme of his birth.
Then the chest was lockte, and an image of wood made and clothed like
vnto the Kings person, which was set on the toppe of the chest. The
obsequies endured foure dayes, in the whiche the wiues and daughters
of the king offered great offerings at the place where his body was
buried, and before the chest and his image.

On the fourth day after the buriall, fiftene slaues were sacrificed
for his soule, and on the twentith day other fiue persons were also
sacrificed, likewise on the sixtie thrée, and fourescore, whiche was
lyke vnto the yéeres minde.

 The order of buriall of the Kings
 _of Michuacan_.

The kingdome of _Michuacan_ is almoste as great as the Empire of
_Mexico_, and when any king of that countrey happened to be visited
with sicknesse, and brought to suche extremitie, that hope of life were
past, according to the opinion of Phisitions, then would he name and
appoint whiche of his Sonnes shoulde inherite the estate, and beyng
knowen, the new king or heyre, incontinent sent for all the gouernours,
Captaines, and valiant souldiers, who had any office or charge to come
vnto the buriall of his Father, and he that came not, from thencefoorth
was helde for a Traytour and so punished. When the death of the olde
King was certayne, then came al degrées of Estates and brought presents
to the newe king, for the approbation of his kyngdome, but if the King
were not throughly dead, but at the poynt of death, then the gates were
shut in, and none permitted to enter, and when hys lyfe was departed,
then beganne a generall crie and mournyng, and they were permitted to
come where their dead kyng lay, and to touche him with their handes:
this beyng done the carkasse was washed with swéete waters, and then a
fine shyrte put vpon him, and a payre of shoes made of a Déere skinne
put on his féete, and aboute his ancles were tied certayne belles of
golde, about his wrestes of his handes were put Manyllias of Turkies,
and other bracelets of golde, lykewise aboute his necke they hong
other collers of precious stones and golde, and rings in his eares,
with greate Turkise in his neather lippe. Then his body was layde vpon
a large beare, whereon was placed a good bedde vnder him: on his one
side lay a bowe with a quyuer of arrowes, and on his other side lay
an image made of fine mantels of his owne stature or bignesse with a
greate tuffe of fine feathers, shoes vpon his féete, with bracelets and
a coller of gold. Whyle this worke was a doyng, others were busied in
washyng the men and women whiche shoulde be slayne for to accöpany him
into Hell: these wretched folke that should be slaine were banqueted
& filled with drinke, bycause they shoulde receyue their death with
lesse paine. The newe kyng did appoint those who shoulde die for to
serue the king his father, but yet many of them had rather bene without
his seruice, notwithstanding some simple soules estéemed that odious
death for a thyng of immortall glory. First seuen Gentlewomen of noble
parentage were appoynted to die, the one to haue the office of keper
of his iewels which he was wont to were, another for the office of
cup bearer, another to giue him water with a basen and ewer, another
to giue him alwayes the vrinall, another to be his Cooke, and another
to serue for landres. They slewe also many women slaues, and frée
maydens for to attende vpon the Gentlewomen, and moreouer one of euery
occupation within the citie. When all these that were appoynted to die
were washed & theyr bellies full with meate & drinke, then they paynted
their faces yellow, and put garlandes of swéete floures vpon each of
their heads. Then they went in order of processiö before the beare
whereon the dead king was caried, some wente playing on instruments
made of snayle shelles, others played vpon bones and shelles of
seaturtils, others went whistlyng and the most part weping: the Sonnes
of the dead kyng & other noble men carried vpö their shoulders the
beare where y^e corse lay, & proceded with an easie pace towarde the
Temple of the God _Curicaueri_: his kinsmen went round about the bere,
singyng a sorowful song. The officers and houshold seruants of the
Court w^t other Magistrates and rulers of iustice bare the Standartes
and diuers other armes.

About midnight they departed in the order aforesayde out of the Kings
palayce with great light of fire brandes and with a heauy noyse of
trumpets and drummes. The Citizens which dwelt where the corse passed,
attended to make cleane the streate. And when they were come to the
temple, they wente foure tymes rounde about a great fire made of the
woodde of Pine trée, whiche was prepared to burne y^e dead body: then
the beare was layd vpon the fire, and in the meane while that the body
was burnyng, they mawled with a clubbe those whiche had the garlandes,
and afterwarde buried them by foure and foure, as they were apparelled
behind the Temple.

The nexte day in the mornyng, the ashes, bones and Iewels was gathered
and layde vpon a riche mantle, the whiche was carried to the temple
gate, where the priests attended to blesse those Diuelishe relickes,
whereof they made a dowe or paste, and thereof an image whiche was
appareled lyke a man, with a visor on his face, and all other sortes
of Iewels that the dead King was wonte to weare, so that it séemed a
gallant idoll. At the foote of the temple stayres, they opened a graue
ready made, whiche was square, large, & twoo fadome déepe, it was also
häged with new mattes rounde about, and a fayre bed therein, in the
whiche a religious man placed the idoll made of ashes, with his eyes
towarde the east parte, and honge rounde aboute the walles Targets
of golde and siluer, with bow and arrowes, & many gallant tuffes of
feathers with earthen vessels, as pottes, dishes & platters, so that
the graue was filled vp with houshold stuffe, chests couered with
leather, apparell, iewels, meate, drinke, and armour. This done, the
graue was shut vp & made sure with beames, bordes, and floored with
earth on the toppe.

All those Gentlemen which had serued or touched any thing in the
buriall, washed them selues, and wente to dinner in the Courte or yard
of the Kings house without any table, and hauing dined, they wiped
their hands vpon certayne lockes of Cotton wol, hanging downe their
heads, and not speaking any word, except it were to aske for drinke.
This Ceremonie endured fiue dayes, and in all that time no fire was
permitted to be kindled in the Citie, except in the Kings house and
Temples, nor yet any corne was ground, or market kept, nor none durst
goe out of their houses, shewing all the sorrow that might be possible
for the death of theyr King.

 The order of Matrimony among
 _the Indians_.

In _Tlaxcallan_ and many other Cities, was vsed as a principall
Ceremonie and token of marriage, that the Bridegrome and his Bride,
against the day of marriage, had their heads polled, whiche was to
signifie, that from that day forward, al childishe orders should be
laide aside, and from that tyme new heare myght grow, to declare
another kind of lyfe. The chiefest knotte of marriage vsed in
_Michuacan_ was, that the Bride doe looke directly vppon hir spouse,
for otherwise the Matrimony was not perfite nor auaylable.

In _Mixteoapan_ which is a greate prouince, they vse to carrie the
Bridgrome to be married vpon their backes, which is to be vnderstoode,
that he goeth against his wil, but yet they take hands, in token that
the one shall helpe the other, and then they knitte both their mantels
togyther with a great knotte, signifying that they ought continually,
while life lasteth, to dwell togither.

The _Indians_ called _Macatecas_, consüme not their Matrimony in twenty
dayes after their marriage, but abide in fasting and prayer all that
while, sacrificing their bodyes, and annoynting the mouthes of the
Idolles wyth their owne proper bloud.

In _Panuco_ the husbandes buy their wiues for a bowe, two arrowes, and
a nette, and afterwarde the father in lawe speaketh not one worde to
his sonne in law for the space of a whole yeare. And when the husbande
hapneth to haue any child, he lyeth not any more with his wife in two
yeares after, for feare least she might be with childe againe before
the former childe were out of daunger, although some doe sucke vntyll
twelue yeares of age, and for this consideration they haue many wiues.
Likewise there is an order among them, that no woman may touch or
dresse any thing being with theyr menstruall ordinarie.

Diuorcement was not permitted without a iust cause and authoritie of
Iustice, among those who were openly married, but the other sort might
be as easily forsaken as taken.

In _Mechuacan_ was not permitted any diuorcemente, excepte the
partie made a solemne othe, that they loked not the one on the
other stedfastly and directly at the time of their marriage. But in
_Mexico_ they must proue how the wife is barraine, foule, & of a
naughty cödition: but if they put away their wiues without order and
commaundemente of the Iudge, then the heare of the offenders head is
burned in the market place, as a shame or punishment of a man without
reason or witte.

The payne of adultery was death, as well for the mä as the woman: but
if the adulterer were a Gentleman, his head was decked with feathers
after that he was häged, and his body burned, and for this offence was
no pardon, eyther for man or woman, but for the auoyding of adultery
they do permitte other common women, but no ordinary stewes.

 Of the Iudges and order of Iustice.

In _Mexico_ were twelue Iudges, who were all noble men, graue, and
well learned in the Mexican lawes. These men liued only by the rentes
that properly apperteyne to the maintenance of Iustice, and in anye
cause iudged by thë, it was lawfull for the parties to appeale vnto
other twelue Iudges, who were of the princes bloud, and alwayes abode
in the Court, and were mainteyned at the Kings owne cost and charge.
The inferior Iudges came ordinarily once euery moneth to cösult with
the higher. And in euery fourescore dayes came the Iudges of euery
prouince within the Mexican Empire, to consult with the Iudges of
_Mexico_, but all doubtfull causes were reserued to the King, onely to
passe by his order and determination. The Painters serued for notaries,
to paint al the cases which were to be resolued, but no sute passed
aboue fourescore dayes without finall ende and determination. There
were in that citie twelue Sergeants, whose office was to arrest, and
to cal parties before the Iudges. Their garments were painted mantels,
wherby they were knowen a farre off. The prisons were vnder ground,
moyst and darke, the cause whereof, was to put the people in feare to
offend. If anye witnesse were called to take an oth, the order was,
that he shoulde touche the grounde with one of his fingers, and then
to touch his tong with the same, whiche signifyed that hée had sworne
and promised to speake the troth wyth hys tög, taking witnes therof,
of y^e earth which did mainteine him. But some do interprete the oth,
y^t if the partie sware not true, that then he mighte come to such
extremitie, as to eate earthe. Sometime they name and call vppon the
God of the crime, whose cause the matter touched.

The Iudge that taketh bribes or giftes, is forthwith put out of his
office, whiche was accounted a most vyle and shamefull reproch. The
_Indians_ did affirme, that _Necaualpincintli_ did hang a Iudge in
_Tezcuco_, for giuing an vniust sentence, he himselfe knowing the
contrary. The murther is executed without exception.

The woman with child that wilfully casteth hir creature, suffereth
deathe for the same, bycause many women did voluntary vse that fact,
knowing their children could not inherite. The punishment of adultery
was death.

The Théefe for the firste offence was made a slaue, and hanged for the
second. The traytor to the King and cömon weale, was put to death with
extreame tormëts.

The woman taken in mans apparel dyed for the same, and likewise the
man taken in womans attire. Euerye one that challëged another to fight
except in the warres, was cödemned to die. In _Tezcuco_ the sinne
of _Zodomy_ was punished with death, & that law was instituted by
_Necaualpincintli_, & _Necaualcoio_, who were Iudges, which abhorred
y^e filthy sinne, & therfore they deserued great praise, for in other
prouinces y^e abhominable sin was not punished, although they haue in
those places cömon stewes, as in _Panuco_.

 The order of cruell Sacrifice
 _vsed among the Indians_.

At the ende of euery twenty dayes, is celebrated a festiuall feast
called _Tonalli_, which falleth continually the last daye of euerye
moneth, but the chiefest feast in the yeare, when most men are
sacrificed & eaten, is at the ende of euerye fiftye two yeares. But
the _Tlaxcaltecas_ and other common weales, do celebrate this feast
euery fourth yeare.

The last day of the first moneth is called _Tlacaxipeualiztli_, on the
which day were slaine a hundred slaues, which were taken in the warres,
and after the sacrifise, their flesh was eaten in this order. Al the
Citizens, gathered themselues togither in the high Temple, and thë the
Ministers or Priestes came and vsed certaine ceremonies, the which
being ended, they toke those whyche were to be sacrifised, by one and
one, and layd them vpon their backes vpon a large stone, and then the
slaue being on liue, they opened him in the breast, with a knife made
of flinte stone, and toke out his hart, whiche they threw immediately
at the foote of the Aulter, as an offering, and anoynted with the
fresh bloude, the face of the God _Vitzilopuchtli_, or any other Idol.
This done, they pluckt of the skinnes of a certaine number of them,
the which skinnes so many auntient persons put incontinët vppon their
naked bodies, al fresh & bloudy, as they wer fleane from the deade
carcasses. And being open in the backe part and shoulders, they vsed
to lace them, in such sorte that they came fitte vppon the bodies of
those that ware them, and being in this order attired, they came to
daunce among many others. In _Mexico_ the king him selfe did put on one
of these skinnes, being of a principall captiue, and daunced among the
other disguised persons, to exalte and honor the feast, and an infinite
number followed him to behold his terrible gesture, although some hold
opinion that they followed him to cötemplate his greate deuotion. After
the sacrifise ended, the owner of the slaues did carry their bodies
home to their houses, to make of their fleshe a solemne feaste to all
their friendes, leauing their heades and hartes to the Priests, as
their dutie and offering. And the skinnes were filled with cotten wool,
or strawe, to be hong in the temple, and kings pallayce, for a memorie.

The slaues when they went to their sacrifice, were apparelled in
the habite or deuise of the Idol vnto whom ech of them did commende
himselfe: and moreouer they decked them with feathers, garlands and
floures. Many of these sort of people, do go to the slaughter with
ioyfull countenannce, dauncing, demaunding almes through the Citie
for their sacrifice, all the whiche almes is due vnto the priestes.
When the gréene corne was a foote aboue the ground, they vsed to go
vnto a certain hil whiche was appointed for such deuotion, and there
sacrifised two children, a boy, and a girle of thrée yeares of age, to
the honor of _Tlaloc_ god of water, beséeching him therefore deuoutlye,
to haue alwayes a care to prouide them water: these children were frée
borne, and therfore theyr hartes were not taken out of their bodies,
but after that their throtes were cut, their bodies were wrapped in a
new mantel, and then buried in a graue of stone.

The feaste of _Tozoztli_ was, when the fields of _Maiz_ were growen two
foote high, then a certaine summe of merchandise was gathered among
the dwellers in the towne, wherewith were bought foure little slaues
betwixt the age of fiue and seuen, and they were likewise sacrificed
to the god _Tlaloc_, for continuall shoures of rayne. And those dead
bodies were shut vp in a caue appointed for the same purpose. The
beginning of this sacrifice of foure children was, at the time when
in foure yeres space it rayned not, in the whiche season y^e springs
were dryed vp, and al gréene things perished: wherfore they were
forced to leaue the countrey, and went to inhabite at _Nicaragua_.
In the moneth and feast of _Hueitozotli_, when the corne fields of
_Maiz_ waxed ripe, then euery one in generall gathered his handful of
_Maiz_, and brought it vnto the temple for an offering, with a certaine
drinke called _Atuli_, whiche is made of the same _Maiz_. They brought
also the swéete gum _Copalli_ to sense the gods which do cause the
corne to growe: and all that night they ceassed not dauncing without
drunkennesse. At the beginning of summer they celebrate an other feast
called _Tlaxuchimcaco_, with all kinde of Roses and swéete floures that
might be gotten, and thereof they vsed to make garlands to set vpon the
Idols heades, and so spente all that day in dauncing. And to celebrate
the feast called _Tecuilhuitli_, al the gentlemen, and principall
persons of ech prouince, do come vnto the Citie, on the euening of the
feast, and then they apparell a woman with the attire of the Gods of
salt, who daunced among a great company of hir neighboures. But on the
nexte day she was sacrificed with all the Ceremonies and solemnitie
accustomed, and al that day was spent in gret deuotion, burning of
incense in the fire pannes of the temple.

The merchants who had a temple by themselues dedicated to the god of
gaines, made their feast vppon the day called _Miccailhuitl_, wherein
they slewe many slaues in sacrifice, which they had bought, and
banqueted that feast with mans flesh, dauncing al the day. The feast
of _Vchpaniztli_ they sacrificed a woman, and afterward hyr bodye was
slayne, and hir skinne put vppon an _Indians_ backe, who daunced two
days a row with al the townsmen, which were apparelled in their best
attire to celebrate y^e feaste. The day of _Hatamutztli_ y^e feast is
kept in _Mexico_, where they enter into y^e lake w^t a great nüber of
_Canoas_, & there they drown a boy & a girle in a litle boat, which
they cause to be sonke, in such sorte, that neuer after that boat
appeareth again: and they hold opinion y^t those children were in
company with the Goddes of the lake. So that, that daye was spente in
feasting in the temples, and annoynting the Idols chéekes, with gum
called _Vlli_. There were some Images that had their faces two ynches
thicke with that gum.

 The order of certaine religious

On the backe side of euerye greate Temple, in euerye Cittie was made
a greate Hall or lodgyng, standing alone, where as manye women did
eate, drincke, lodge, & leade their liues. And although suche houses
had no orders, they aboad there sure ynough. These women which lay in
the houses of the Goddes, were of sundry intentions. But none of them
came to abide there al their life time, although among them wer some
olde women. Some entered into those religious houses being sicke and
disseased, hoping there to recouer theyr health: others came thither
through pure néede, and necessitie, to be there relieued: other some
came thither to be good and vertuous: and some entered into the
religion, hoping that the Goddes woulde giue vnto them riches, and long
life. But generallye their comming thyther was, to haue good husbandes,
and manye chyldren: eche of them vowed the time that shee woulde or
ment to abide in that order, and after that time expired they marryed.

The first thing that they did comming into the religion, was to polle
their heads, to be knowen frö others. Their offices were to spinne
cotton wool and feathers, and to weaue cloth, for to apparel the Goddes
and themselues, to swepe the yarde and lodgings of the temple (for the
stayres and high chappels, the ministers themselues did make cleane)
they vsed also to let them bloud in certaine partes of the body, to
offer to the Diuellish Idols. On euery festiual day they went on
procession with the priestes, but it was not lawful for them to presume
to go vppe the stayres of the temple, nor yet to sing. They liued on
almes, for their kinsefolke being rich, did mayntaine them with almes
as a charitable seruice done vnto the Goddes: their foode was boyled
flesh, and hote bread, to the intent that they should offer therof to
the Goddes, that they might tast of the smoke of that victual: they
vsed to eate in communitie, and lay altogither in one dormitorye, as a
flocke of shéepe: they lay alwayes in theyr clothes, for honestie sake,
and also to be the sooner ready in the morning to serue the Gods, &
to go to their worke. And yet I know not why they shold put off their
clothes, for they went almost naked. On the holy dayes they vsed to
daunce before the Gods, and she that either talked or laughed with
any religious or secular person, was reprehended for the same. And if
any of them committed whoredome, then both the man & the woman were
slain, yea they belieued that all suche offenders fleshe woulde rotte
and consume away, and especially those which had lost their Virginity
in the time of their religion. So that with feare of punishmente and
infamie, they were good women al the while that they aboade there.

 Hovv the Diuell appeared to
 _the Indians_.

The Diuell did many times talke wyth the priestes, and with other
rulers and perticular persons, but not with al sorts of men. And vnto
him to whom the Diuel had appeared, was offered & presented great
giftes. The wicked spirit appeared vnto thë in a thousand shapes, and
fashions, & finally he was conuersant and familiar among them very
often. And the fooles thought it a greate wonder, that Gods would be so
familiar with mortal men. Yea they not knowing that they were Diuels,
and hearing of them many things before the had hapned, gaue great
credite and beliefe to their illusions and deceites. And bycause he
commaunded them, they sacrificed suche an infinite number of creatures.
Likewise he, vnto whom he had apeared, carried about him painted, the
likenesse wherin he shewed himself the first time. And they painted his
image vpon their dores, benches, and euery corner of the house. And as
he appeared in sundry figures & shapes, euen so they painted him, of
infinite fashions, yea and some foule, grieslye, & feareful to beholde,
but yet vnto them, it semed a thing delectable. So this ignorant people
giuing credite to y^e condëned spirite, were growen euen to y^e highest
hil of crueltie, vnder the coulour of deuout & religious persons, yea
they had suche a custome, that before they would eat or drink, they
wold take therof a little quantitie, & offer it vnto the sun and to the
earth. And if they gathered corne, fruite, or roses, they would take a
leafe before they would smel it, & offer the same. And he that did not
obserue these & such other ceremonies, was iudged one y^t had not god
in his hart, yea & (as they say) a man out of the gods fauour.

 The Viceroys of Mexico.

The greatnesse of the newe Spayne, the Maiestie of _Mexico_, and the
qualitie of the cöquerers, required a man of noble bloude to gouerne,
wherevpon the Emperour sente thither _Don Antonio de Mendosa_,
brother vnto the Marques _de Moniar_, for viceroy, at whose ariual
there returned from thence _Sebastian Camires_, who had gouerned that
countrey with great discretion and worthy commendation. In recompëce
wherof the Emperour made him president of the chancery of _Valladolid_,
and bishop of _Culuca_. _Don Antonio de Mendosa_ was appointed viceroy
in the yeare .1534. who carried with him many artificers verye experte
in their sciences, likewise through his intercession, a money house was
erected in _Mexico_: he also caused silke to be made and wrought in
that countrey, and planted many Mulbery trées for the same, although
the _Indians_ little care for suche things through their slouthfulnesse
and gret liberty. This viceroy _Don Antonio_, called all the Bishoppes,
cleargy, and learned men togither, to consult vpö ecclesiastical
matters, which tended to the doctrine of the _Indians_. At that instant
was decreed, that the _Indians_ shoulde be instructed only in the latin
tong, which they learned verye wel and also the Spanishe tong. They
learne the Musicke with good wil, especially the flaute: their voyces
are not good for the pricke song. At that season was also decréed,
that no _Indian_ should take order of Priesthood. The viceroy _Don
Antonio_ built certaine townes with Romaine pillers, in honor of the
Emperour, and caused his name to be grauen in Marble. He also began
the Kay or wharfe in the porte of _Medellin_, a costly and necessarie
worke: he also reduced the _Chichimecas_ to ciuel liuing: he spente
muche money in the entraunce of _Sibola_, without any profit, and also
thereby remayned an enemy to _Cortes_. He likewise discouered much land
on the south coast near _Xalixco_: he sente also shippes to _Molluca_,
for spices, which were lost: he behaued himself very prudëtly in the
rebellion time of the _Indians_ of _Piru_.

The Emperour commaunded him afterwarde to goe vnto the _Piru_ for
viceroy, considering the licenciat _Gasca_, who gouerned there,
was returned into Spain, and likewise hauing vnderstood his good
gouernement in the new Spaine, although some complaintes were made of
hym. It grieued _Don Antonio de Mendosa_, to departe from the newe
Spaine, where he founde himselfe wel beloued among the _Indians_,
who had cured him of sundry disseases with bathes of Hearbes, where
before he was starke lame, and also possessed of lands, Cattel, and
other riche things, whiche he was loth to leaue. Likewise he desired
not to haue to deale with other newe men, whose conditions he knewe
not, although he knewe that the _Piruleros_ were stubborne and vnruely
felowes. But of necessitie he was compelled to take that iourney by
lande from _Mexico_ to _Panama_, which standeth fiue hundred leagues
distant, in the yeare a 1851. And that yere came _Don Luys de Valasco_
for viceroie to _Mexico_, who was a Gentleman wise and discrete in his
gouernement. The office of viceroy in the newe Spaine, is a charge of
great honor and profite.

 The conuersion of the Indians.

Oh how greately are those _Indians_ bound to prayse God, who being
seruants of Satan, and lost Shéepe, yet it pleased the goodnesse of the
Almighty to haue compassion of thë, who hath giuen them light to come
out of darkenesse, and brought them to the knowledge of theyr cruell
and abhominable life, and hath nowe giuen vnto them the holy Ghost in
baptisme: oh most happie _Cortes_, thy paynes was well employed, oh
valiant Conquerors, your names shall liue for euer. I am now bolde to
saye, that all the lande which is conquered in the new _Spaine_, the
people thereof are generally conuerted vnto the faith of Iesus Chryste:
oh what a greate felicitie is it vnto those blessed Kyngs who were the
beginners thereof.

Some doe saye, that in the newe Spayne onely are conuerted Christians
sixe Millions. Others hold opinion of eyghte Millions. And othersome
doe assuredly affirme, that aboue tenne Millions are Christened. But
in conclusion, I am assured, that within the limittes of four hundred
leagues, there are none vnchristened.

The conuersion began with the Conquest, but wyth the diligence in
prosecuting the warres, little good was done, vntyll the yeare 1524.
and then the matter wente forwarde effectuallye, by reason that
certayne learned menne wente thyther for the same purpose.

At the begynnyng it was a troublesome thyng to teach them, for wante
of vnderstandyng the one of the other, wherefore they procured to
teache the chyldren of Gentlemen whiche were most aptest, the Spanishe
tong, and they likewise learned the _Mexican_ spéeche, in the whiche
language they dayly preached. It was at the firste a paynefull thing
to make them leaue those Idols in whome they hadde euer beléeued, yea
and the Diuell gaue them cruell warres in spirite, and manye times, in
appearing in diuers formes vnto them, threatning, that if they dyd call
vpon the name of Iesus Christ, it should not rayne, and that all their
delight and pleasure shoulde be taken from them, prouoking them still
to Rebellion against the Christians, but his wicked counsell woulde not

Through greate punishmente they haue left off the horrible sinne of
Sodomy, although it was a greate griefe to put away their number of

There are nowe in the newe Spayne eyght Byshoprikes, whereof one is an

 The death of Hernando

There was a greate contention betwéene _Hernando Cortes_, and _Don
Antonio de Mendosa_, the Vizeroy, as concerning the prouince of
_Sibola_, for each of them pretended a title vnto the same through the
Emperoures gift, the one by meanes of his office of Vizeroy, and the
other by his office of Captayne Generall, vpon the whyche matter they
grewe into such hatred, that perfyte friendshippe coulde neuer after
take place betwéene them, although at the beginning they were familiar
and louing friendes: but malice grewe to such extremitie, that eache of
them wrote vndecently agaynste other, to the Emperoure theyr maister,
the whyche theyr doyngs blemished both theyr credites.

_Cortes_ wente to lawe with the Licenciat _Villa Lobos_ the Kings
Attourney, aboute certayne of his vassals, and also the Vizeroy
assisted agaynste him as muche as hée myghte. Vpon consideration
whereof, he was enforced to come into Spayne in Anno 1540. and broughte
_Don Martin_ his sonne and heyre, béeyng a childe of eyghte yeares of
age, and hys sonne _Don Luys_, to serue the Prince: he came very riche,
but not so riche as the fyrste time. He entred into great friendship
with the Cardinal _Loaisa_, and the Secretarie _Cobos_, but it
preuayled not, for the Emperoure was gone into Flanders about matters
of Gant.

In the yeare 1541. the Emperoure personally wente to the séege of
Argell with a mightie armye, and _Cortez_ with his two sonnes went also
thither to serue him with a good companye of men and Horses, but it
pleased God to raise vp suche a tempest, wherewith the most parte of
the fléete perished. _Cortes_ then being in the Galley of _Don Henrike
Enrikes_, called the _Esperanca_, and fearing to lose his rich emraldes
and other Iewels at the time that the Galley was driuen by violence of
weather vpon the shore, he then bound about him the sayde fyue rich
emraldes, estéemed in a hundred thousande Duckates, yet notwithstanding
through the throng of people, and hast to escape out of oese and mire,
the Iewels fell from him, who could neuer heare more of them, so that
the present warres cost hym more than any other, except the Emperoures
maiestie, although _Andrea de Oria_ lost eleuen Galleys.

But the losse of treasure gréeued hym not so much, as the excluding
hym out of the Counsell of the warres, whereas other yong Gentlemen
of lesse knowledge and abilitie were accepted, which was a cause of
greate murmuryng among the host. And where in the counsell of warre
it was determined to leaue the séege and to depart, it gréeued manye,
whereupon _Cortes_ made an open offer, that he alone with the Spanishe
nation would presume to take _Argell_, hauyng but the one halfe of the
_Tudescos_ and _Italians_, if it woulde please the Emperoure to graunte
vnto hym the enterprise. The Souldyers on the lande dyd hyghly commende
hys courage, but the Sea menne woulde giue no eare vnto him, so that
it is thoughte that the offer came not to the Emperoures knowledge.
_Cortes_ wente vp and downe in the Courte a long season, being sore
afflicted in a certaine sute aboute hys vassals, and also the processe
and allegations of _Nunio de Guzman_, layde vnto hys charge in hys
residence. The whole processe was séene in the counsell of _Indias_,
but iudgemente was neuer pronounced, whyche was a greate hartes ease
for _Cortes_. And then hée departed from the Courte towarde Siuill,
with determinate wyll to passe vnto the newe Spayne, and to ende his
lyfe in _Mexico_, and also to receyue the Lady Mary, _Cortes_ hys
daughter, who was come from _India_, and promised in marriage vnto _Don
Aluar Perez Osorio_, with a hundred thousande Duckates in dowry, and
hyr apparell, but the marriage tooke no effecte, through the faulte of
_Don Aluar_ and hys father.

He then fell sicke of a flixe and indisgestion, whiche endured long,
so that on hys iourney towarde the Citie of Siuill, he departed thys
transitory lyfe, in a little Village called _Castilleia de La Cuesta_,
whyche standeth a myle from the Citie of Siuill, on the seconde of
December Anno 1547. béeyng thréescore and thrée yeares of age.

His body was deposited w^t y^e dukes of _Medina Sidonia_.

He left a Sonne and thrée Daughters begotten of the Lady _Iane de
Zuniga_ his wife, his Sonne was called _Don Martin Cortes_, who did
inherite his fathers estate, and was married vnto the Lady _Ana de
Arellano_, his cousine, daughter to the Countie _De Aguilar_, by order
of his father.

The doughters vnto _Cortes_ were named as foloweth, the lady _Donea
Maria_, _Donea Catalina_, and _Donea Iuana_ who was the yongest. He
had another Sonne by an _Indian_ woman, and he was called _Don Martin
Cortez_. He had also another base sonne by a Spanish woman, who was
named _Don Luys Cortez_, and thrée daughters by thrée seuerall _Indian_

_Cortez_ buylt an hospitall in _Mexico_, and gaue order for a Colledge
to be also erected there. He builte also a Temple in _Coioacan_, where
he willed in his Testament that his bones shoulde be buried at the
charges of his Sonne and heyre. He situated foure thousand Ducates of
rent, whiche yéeldeth yéerely his houses in _Mexico_ for the purpose
aforesayd, of the which foure thousande Ducates, two thousand should be
to maynteyne the Studients in the Colledge.



 A Table expressyng the Chapiters
 vvhiche are conteyned in this

 The birth and lynage of Hernando Cortez. Fol. 1.

 The age of Cortes vvhen he passed into India. 2

 The time that Cortes abode in Santo Domingo. 5

 Things that happened to Cortes in the lande of Cula. 6

 The discouery of the nevv Spayne. 10.

 The inuentory of the treasure that Griialua brought. 12

 The determinatiö of Cortes to prepare a fleete for discouery. 16

 The nauy and men that Cortes caried to the Conquest. 20

 The oration made by Cortes to his Souldiers. 24

 The entraunce of Cortes into the Iland of Acusamil. 25

 The Indiäs of Acusamil gaue nevves of bearded men. 29

 A miraculous chaunce hovv Aguillar came to Cortes. 31

 The Iland of Acusamil. 35

 The religion of the people of Acusamil. 40

 The battell of Potonchan. 41

 The battell of Cintla. 43

 The Lord Tauasco yeeldeth to the Christians. 46

 Questions demaunded by Cortes of the Cacike Tauasco. 48

 Hovve the Indians of Potonchan brake dovvne their Idols. 50

 The good entertaynement that Cortes had in Saint Iohn de Vlhua. 51

 The talke of Cortes vvith Teudilli. 55

 The presente by Mutezuma vnto Cortes. 58

 Hovve Cortes knevv of discorde in the countrey. 61

 Hovve Cortes vvent to suruey the countrey vvith .400. men. 64

 Hovve Cortes rendred vp his office by pollicie. 67

 Hovve the Souldiers chose Cortes for their Captayne generall. 69

 The receeuing of Cortes into Zempoallan. 72

 The talke of the Lorde of Zempoallan vvith Cortes. 76

 Things that happened vnto Cortes in Chiauiztlan. 80

 The message sent by Cortes to Mutezuma. 83

 The rebellion done by the industry of Cortes. 85

 The fundation of the riche tovvne of Vera Crux. 88

 The taking of Tizapanfinca. 90

 The presente that Cortes sente to the Emperour Charles for his
 fifth parte. 92

 Letters in generall from the Magistrates of Vera Crux to the
 Emperour. 97

 An vprore among the Souldiers agaynst Cortes, and the correction
 for the same. 100

 Cortes caused all his shippes to bee sunke, a vvorthy fact. 102

 Hovv the inhabitantes of Zempoallan brake dovvne their Idolles.

 Hovv Olintlec exalted the mightie povver of Mutezuma. 107

 The first encounter that Cortes had vvith the men of Tlaxcallan.

 Hovve there ioyned a hundreth and fiftie thousande men agaynst
 Cortes. 116

 The threatenings of the Indian campe agaynst the Spaniardes. 120

 Hovve Cortes cut off the handes of fiftie espies. 124

 The Embassage that Mutezuma sent vnto Cortes. 126

 Hovve Cortes vvanne the Cittie of Zimpanzinco. 129

 The desire that some of the Spanierdes had to leaue the vvarres.

 The oration made by Cortes to his Souldiers. 133

 Hovv Xicotencatl came for Embassadour to Cortes his campe. 136

 The receiuing of Cortes into Tlaxcallan. 136

 The description of Tlaxcallan. 141

 The ansvvere of the Tlaxcaltecas touchyng the leauyng of their
 Idolles. 145

 The discorde betvvene the Mexicans and the Tlaxcaltecas. 147

 The solemne receyuing of the Spaniardes into Chololla. 148

 The conspiracie of the Cholollans against the Spaniardes. 152

 The punishment for conspiracy. 155

 The sanctuary among the Indians vvas Chololla. 158

 The hill called Popocatepec. 160

 The consultation of Mutezuma cöcerning the cöming of Cortes into
 Mexico. 162

 Things that happened to Cortes in his iourney tovvarde Mexico. 164.

 The solemne pompe vvherevvith Cortes vvas receyued into Mexico. 169

 The Oration of Mutezuma to the Spaniardes. 172

 The Maiestie and order vvhervvith Mutezuma vvas serued at his
 table. 175

 The foote players that played before Mutezuma. 178

 The tennys play in Mexico. 179

 The number of vviues that Mutezuma had. 181

 A house of foule vvhiche vvere only preserued for the feathers. 183

 A house of fovvle for havvking. 184

 The armory of Mutezuma. 186

 The gardens of Mutezuma. 187

 The court and guarde of Mutez. 188

 The greate subiection of the people to their King. 189

 The situation of Mexico. 192

 The market place of Mexico. 196

 The great temple of Mexico. 201

 The Idols of Mexico. 204

 The charnell house of Mexico. 206

 Hovv Cortes tooke Mutezuma prisoner. 207

 The recreation of hunting vvhiche Mutezuma vsed. 212

 Hovve Cortes beganne to plucke dovvne the Idols of Mexico. 214

 The exhortation made by Cortes to Mutezuma and the Citizens for
 the abolishing of Idolles. 215

 The burning of the Lorde Qualpopoca and other Gentlemen. 219

 The cause of the burnyng of Qualpopoca. 220

 Hovv Cortes put a paire of gyues on Mutezuma his legges. 221

 Hovve Cortes sente to seeke for the mynes of golde in diuers
 places. 223

 The imprisonment of Cacama king of Tezcuco. 227

 The sorovvfull oration that Mutezuma made vnto his noble men, to
 yeeld them to the Emperour. 230

 The golde and Ievvels that Mutezuma gaue vnto Cortes for his first
 tribute. 233

 Hovve Mutezuma required Cortes to depart from Mexico. 235

 The feare that our men stande in to be sacrificed. 239

 Hovv Iames Velasques sente Pamfilo de Naruaez agaynst Cortes. 241.

 The substaunce of a letter that Cortes vvrote vnto Naruaez. 244

 The talke of Naruaiz to the Indians, and his ansvvere to Cortes.

 The talke that Cortes had vvith his ovvne Souldiers. 249

 The requestes of Cortes to Mutezuma. 251

 The imprisonment of Pamfilo de Naruaiz. 252

 The rebellion of Mexico. 256

 The cause of the rebellion. 259

 The threatnings of the Mexicans against the Spaniardes. 261

 The great daüger that our më vvere put in by the straungers. 263

 The death of Mutezuma. 266

 The combat betvveene the Spaniardes and the Indians. 268

 Hovve the Mexicans refused the offer of peace and amitie. 271

 Hovv Cortes fledde from Mexico. 274.

 The battell of Otumpan. 280

 The entertaynement of the Spaniardes at their returne to
 Tlaxcallan. fol. 283

 The protestation and request of the Souldiers to Cortes. 286

 The oration made by Cortes in ansvvere to his Souldiers demaunde.

 The vvarres of Tepcacac. 292

 The great auctoritie that Cortes had among the Indians. 294

 The Vergätines that Cortes caused to be buylte, and the Spanyerdes
 vvhiche he had to besiege Mexico. 296

 The exhortation of Cortes to his Souldiers. 298

 The exhortation made to the Indians of Tlaxcallan. 301

 Hovv Cortes tooke Tezcuco. 302

 The Spaniardes vvhich vvere sacrifised in Tezcuco. 307

 Hovv the Vergätines vvere brought from Tlaxcallan to Tezcuco. 310.

 Of the docke or trenche vvhiche vvas made to lanche the
 Vergantines. 311

 The order of the hoste and army to besiege Mexico. 314

 The battell and victory of the Vergantines agaynst the Canoas. 316

 Hovve Cortes besieged Mexico. 320.

 The firste skirmishe vvithin the Citie of Mexico. 322

 The great hurte and damage in the house of Mexico by fire. 327

 Things that happened to Pedro de Aluarado through his bolde
 attempt. 329

 The triumph & sacrifice vvhich the Mexicans made for victory. 331

 The determination of Cortes to destroy Mexico. 336

 The hungar and infirmitie vvhiche the Mexicans suffered vvith
 great courage. 340

 The imprisonment of Quahutimoc. 343.

 The taking of Mexico. 347

 Maruelous signes and tokens of the destruction of Mexico. 349

 The buylding vp agayne of the Citie of Mexico. 352

 Hovv the Emperour sent to take account of Cortes his gouernment.

 The death of the Licenciat Luys Ponce. 358

 Hovv Cortes came into Spaine. 359

 The honour vvhiche the Emperour shevved vnto Cortes vvith
 revvarde. 361

 The mariage of Cortes. 362

 Hovv the Chancery vvas firste placed in Mexico. 364

 The returne of Cortes to Mexico. 367.

 The letters vvhich the Indians vsed in Mexico. 369

 The Mexican yeare. 371

 The Indians beleeued that fiue ages vvere paste, &c. 377

 The nation of the Indians called Chichimecas. 378

 The Coronation of the Kings of Mexico. 379

 The opinion of the Mexicans concerning the soule. 382

 The buriall of kings in Mexico. 383

 The order of the burial of the kings of Michuacan. 386

 The order of Matrimony among the Indians. 389

 Of the iudges and order of Iustice. 391.

 The order of cruell sacrifice vsed among the Indians. 392

 The order of certayne religions vvomen. 396

 Hovv the Diuell appeared to the Indians in a strange forme. 398

 The viceroys of Mexico. 399

 The conuersion of the Indians. 401

 The death of Hernädo Cortes. 402



Inconsistent and strange spelling and grammar has been retained,
with a few exceptions noted below. Sidenotes have been moved from
beside paragraphs to the heads of the associated paragraphs. In some
cases this may result in several sidenotes appearing together, between
paragraphs. Italic type was used freely in the printed book. In this
text version, _italic phrases_ are surrounded by underscores.

This book was printed in a kind of blackletter textura or fraktur
typeface which contained three ligatures now uncommon, and which may
T OVER SMALL W. These have been rendered herein with superscript
notation: y^e, y^t, and w^t. These are abbreviations for "ye", "that",
and "with".

The letters "a", "e", "o", and "u" originally printed with macrons are
rendered in this Latin-1 text version with diaeresis. This notation
signifies that the following sound should be "n" or "m", as in "amög",
meaning "among".

Certain names such as "Mutezuma" or "Vitzilopuchtli" were generally
printed in italic type, and were sometimes printed with what
appears to the transcriber to be an interior capital Z, like this:
"VitZilopuchtli". These have all been rendered with small z.

Occasionally commas were printed where full stops were wanted, and vice
versa. These have sometimes been fixed without comment.

This book was originally printed with some incorrect page numbers. For
one example, starting at page 32, the sequence of printed numbers was
32, 37, 34, 35, 40, 41, 38, 39, 37, 41, 42, 43. . . . The printed page
numbers have been discarded in this ebook. In the following notes, the
page numbers referenced are the printed ones.

P. 23: "vergan ines" changed to "vergantines".

P. 47: "crrtaine" changed to "certaine".

P. 50: "_Tauasco_ _Cortez_" changed to "_Tauasco_, _Cortez_".

P. 58: In "of siluer whiche wayde .25. markes", the text between
"wayde" and "markes" was somewhat unclear.

P. 100: The word after "Ierome Friers" was unclear, but a different
edition had "dame", which is adopted herein.

P. 170: In "as i paynted of the Antikes", changed "i" to "is",
supported by a different edition of the book.

P. 179: "butttocke" changed to "buttocke".

P. 209: "crosse stéete" changed to "crosse stréete", supported by a
different edition.

P. 218: "officers made a solëpne vowe" changed to "officers made a
solëne vowe".

P. 309: "deblared" to "declared".

P. 312: "entefrayned" to "entertayned".

P. 375: "Chicoei Cipactti" to "Chicoei Cipactli".

P. 390: "Diuoremcent" to "Diuorcement".

P. 395: "solempnitie" to "solemnitie".

P. 400: "prudëtdently" to "prudëtly".

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The pleasant historie of the conquest of the VVeast India, now called new Spayne - atchieued by the vvorthy Prince Hernando Cortes, marques - of the Valley of Huaxacac, most delectable to reade" ***

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