Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Lyman's History of old Walla Walla County, Vol. 1 (of 2) - Embracing Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield and Asotin counties
Author: Lyman, William Denison
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Lyman's History of old Walla Walla County, Vol. 1 (of 2) - Embracing Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield and Asotin counties" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Libraries.)



                         TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES:

--Obvious print and punctuation errors were corrected.

--Due to a fair amount of tables, it is recommended the use of a
  monospaced font.

[Illustration: W. D. LYMAN.]



                            LYMAN'S HISTORY
                                 _of_
                        Old Walla Walla County

                              _Embracing_

                    Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield
                          and Asotin Counties


                    By W. D. LYMAN, M. A., Lit. D.


                              ILLUSTRATED


                               VOLUME I


                                CHICAGO
                  THE S. J. CLARKE PUBLISHING COMPANY
                                 1918



                               CONTENTS


    PART I

  THE COUNTY AND ITS EARLIEST STAGES

  CHAPTER I

  PHYSICAL AND GEOLOGICAL FEATURES, SOIL, CLIMATE, WATER-COURSES, AND
  MOUNTAINS                                                            1

  CHAPTER II

  THE NATIVE RACES OF OLD WALLA WALLA COUNTY                          10

  CHAPTER III

  THE FIRST EXPLORERS AND THEIR ROUTES THROUGH THE REGION             32

  CHAPTER IV

  THE FUR-TRADE AND FUR-TRADERS                                       42

  CHAPTER V

  THE MISSIONARY PERIOD                                               57

  CHAPTER VI

  INDIAN WARS AND OPENING OF COUNTRY TO SETTLEMENT                    83


    PART II

  SETTLEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

  CHAPTER I

  THE PERMANENT ORGANIZATION OF WALLA WALLA COUNTY AND FOUNDING
  OF THE CITY                                                        109

  CHAPTER II

  TIMES OF COWBOYS, MINERS AND VIGILANTES                            124

  CHAPTER III

  POLITICAL HISTORY TO TIME OF COUNTY DIVISION                       136

  CHAPTER IV

  THE EARLY TRANSPORTATION AGE                                       155

  CHAPTER V

  THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY IN OLD WALLA WALLA COUNTY TO THE PERIOD
  OF COUNTY DIVISION AND AFTERWARDS IN THE PRESENT WALLA WALLA       175

  CHAPTER VI

  INTELLECTUAL AND RELIGIOUS FORCES OF WALLA WALLA COUNTY; EDUCATIONAL
  INSTITUTIONS OF WALLA WALLA                                        210

  CHAPTER VII

  THE PRESS OF WALLA WALLA COUNTY                                    257

  CHAPTER VIII

  WITH THE LAWYERS, JUDGES AND DOCTORS                               265


    PART III

  PERIOD OF COUNTY DIVISIONS

  CHAPTER I

  POLITICAL HISTORY OF WALLA WALLA COUNTY SINCE COUNTY DIVISION      285

  CHAPTER II

  DISTINCTIVE FEATURES IN HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY                 319

  CHAPTER III

  GARFIELD COUNTY                                                    358

  CHAPTER IV

  ASOTIN COUNTY                                                      395

  CHAPTER V

  PIONEER REMINISCENCES                                              426

  BIOGRAPHICAL

                                                                     481



PART I

THE COUNTY AND ITS EARLIEST STAGES



Old Walla Walla County

(Embracing Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield and Asotin Counties.)



CHAPTER I

PHYSICAL AND GEOLOGICAL FEATURES, SOIL, CLIMATE, WATER-COURSES, AND
MOUNTAINS

A land of scenic charm, of physical interest, of fertile soil and
ample resources, of climate in which living is a delight, of two
great rivers and many impetuous tributaries, of mountain chains with
rich and varied hues and contours of stately majesty,--such is the
imperial domain included in that portion of the State of Washington
lying east of the Columbia River and south of the Snake. While this
region has distinctive physical features, it yet has a sufficient
family resemblance to the other parts of Eastern Oregon and Eastern
Washington to indicate a common origin. We may therefore properly take
first a general view of this larger area. The greater part of the vast
Inland Empire of Northeastern Oregon and Eastern Washington consists
of rolling prairies, sometimes fairly hilly, with extensive "flats"
in various parts, and low-lying, level valleys bordering the numerous
streams. These valleys are usually quite narrow, the three marked
exceptions being the broad valleys of the Walla Walla, Umatilla, and
Yakima, the two latter being outside of the scope of our story. The
Inland Empire varies in elevation above sea-level from about three
hundred and fifty feet on the Columbia River to about nine thousand
at the highest summits of the Blue Mountains. The larger part of the
cultivated portions ranges from eight hundred to two thousand feet.
The variations in elevation have a remarkable effect on temperature
and rainfall, the former decreasing and the latter increasing very
rapidly from the lower to the higher levels. The atmosphere throughout
this region is ordinarily very clear, and the majestic sweep of the
Blue Mountains and the wide expanses of hills and dales and flats lie
revealed in all their imposing grandeur with vivid distinctness.

As there is a general physical similarity in the different parts of
this entire Columbia Basin, so has there been a common geological
history. Broadly speaking, the upper Columbia Basin from near Spokane
on the north to Wallowa on the south is volcanic in origin. The scope
of this work does not permit any detailed discussion of the geology of
the region, but it is of interest to refer to the fascinating little
book of Prof. Thomas Condon, formerly of the Oregon State University,
on the "Two Islands." Professor Condon was the first systematic
student of the geology of the Northwest, and during his active career,
extending from about 1855 to 1890, he accumulated a large and valuable
collection of fossil remains as data from which to infer the stages in
the geological history of the Northwest. One of his working hypotheses
was that there were two islands as the first lands in what is now
the Northwest. These were the Blue Mountain Island and the Siskiyou
Mountain Island. Later geologists have not entirely accepted all the
details of Professor Condon's hypothesis, though they regard his
general reasoning as sound. It is generally believed now that there
was a very early uplift, possibly a third island, in what is now the
Okanogan, Methow, and Chelan highlands and mountains. At any rate,
there is a general concurrence in the opinion that the oldest land in
this part of the continent was those very regions where the two or
perhaps three islands are supposed to have risen. The Chelan region
and thence a vast sweep northeast and then southeast toward Spokane is
of granite, andesite, and porphyry, the primeval crust of the earth.
Again on the south, the core of the Blue Mountains, especially in the
vicinity of Wallowa, is limestone and granite. All these formations are
very ancient. On the other hand, the volcanic regions are comparatively
recent, and those compose practically all the central parts. This
area between those two ancient formations, the part covering the four
counties of our present story being in the very heart of it, seems
to have undergone almost every possible dynamic influence, fire,
frost, and flood. Apparently it was a deep basin between the earlier
elevations and was the scene of stupendous volcanic and seismic energy.
Then it was covered with water and for ages a great lake extended over
much of what is now the Walla Walla Valley and the valleys of its
tributaries and the lower courses of the other streams, as the Touchet
and Tucanon. When the water had drained off, there succeeded an age of
ice and frost, with disintegration by cold and even some glaciation.
Probably there were several alternating eras of fire and frost and
flood. The Yakima Indians have a fantastic tale of the formation of
these lakes and from them the Columbia River, which may have some basis
of scientific fact. They say that in the times of the Watetash (animal
people, before the Indians) a monstrous beaver, Wishpoosh, inhabited
Lake Kachees, now one of the sources of the Yakima. Wishpoosh had the
evil habit of chewing up and cutting to pieces all the trees as well as
other animals in his reach. Speelyi, the chief God of the Mid-Columbia
Indians, endeavored to make way with this destructive monster, but
succeeded only in wounding him severely and making him so angry that he
laid around him with furious energy and soon burst the rocky barriers
of the lake. The water flowing out streamed over the country and formed
the Upper Yakima. The deluge was checked by the mountain ramparts of
the Kittitas Valley, as we know it, and thus was formed a great lake
over all that valley. But the raging beaver finally tore out that
barrier also and the flood passed on into the Yakima Valley, making
another lake over the whole region where Yakima now is, but it was
stayed for a time by the ridge just below the Atahnum of the present.
In like manner that barrier was torn out and the accumulation of waters
swept on to the vast level region where the Snake and Columbia, with
the lesser streams of the Yakima and Walla Walla, unite. Thus, a large
part of the region which we shall describe in this history was a lake.
But the infuriated Wishpoosh was not yet content, and by successive
burstings of barriers the Walla Walla lake was emptied through the
Umatilla highlands, then the Cascade Mountains themselves were parted,
and the chain of lakes was opened to the ocean, the Columbia River
itself being the connecting stream. Wishpoosh having reached the ocean
making havoc among the whales and all other objects of creation, when
Speelyi at last pierced him to the heart and his monstrous carcass was
cast up on Clatsop Beach. There Speelyi cut him into fragments and of
him made the various Indian tribes.

Whatever may be the facts in regard to Wishpoosh, it is quite obvious
that considerable areas of the lower level parts of the Columbia basin
and the tributary valleys are lake beds. While the soil has all the
indications of having been washed from the hills and mountains and
then settled in the lakes, it is plain also that it was originally the
product of fire. For the soil of this region is essentially volcanic.
In the parts which have the larger rainfall, the decaying vegetation
of ages upon ages has covered the volcanic ash with a deep, rich
loam. In other places the action of glaciers grinding and dumping
the triturated marls and clays of the mountains has resulted in the
deposit of heavy white and blue clays. In yet other parts erosion
of the volcanic rocks by wind and rain and frost, together with the
wash of the streams at flood stage, has left great beds of gravel.
Through successive strata of these varying materials there have burst
at intervals new volcanic eruptions. These in turn, worn away by sun
and wind and frost and stream, have been blown and washed over the
earlier strata and have formed a new blanket of the richest soil. This
process of successive stages of volcanic outflow, disintegration, wash
deposit, glacial dumping, dust drift, growth and decay of vegetation,
has gone on through the ages. The result has been that the greater part
of the Inland Empire has a soil of extraordinary depth and fertility.
Analysis has shown that it possesses the ingredients for plant food to
an unusual degree. It is said to have an almost identical composition
with the soil of Sicily. That fair and fertile island was made by the
volcanic matter blown out of Mount Etna, covered by decayed vegetation
and worked over by frost and sun and rain until it became almost an
ideal region for grain production. Two thousand years ago Sicilian
wheat-fields fed the hungry multitudes of Rome, and the same fields
still produce a generous quota of food products. Soil experts expect a
similar history in this country.

In no part of the Columbia basin have the processes of soil creation
been more active than in the parts of the Old Walla Walla County of
this history. Beginning with the Columbia River on the west we find as
soon as we have passed the margin of river sand, which in a few places
has encroached upon the customary volcanic covering, that the soil,
though dry, is susceptible of the highest cultivation and with water
is capable of producing the finest products in the greatest profusion.
Almost every mile from the river eastward towards the mountains seems
to increase the blanket of loam upon the underlying volcanic dust,
until upon the foothills of the Blue Mountains there is a soil hard to
match anywhere in the world, a mingling of volcanic dust, loam, and
clay, a strong and heavy soil, not difficult to work, and retaining
and utilizing moisture with remarkable natural economy. Throughout
this region the soil is of extraordinary depth and there seems to be
no limit to its productiveness. There is a cut forty feet deep through
a hill near Walla Walla, in which the same fertile soil goes down to
the very bottom. It is of lighter color when first opened to the light,
but with exposure turns darker and after a year or two of cultivation
possesses the same friability and productiveness as the top soil. Wells
have been bored in the Eureka Flat region where over a hundred feet of
soil have been pierced without the drills even touching rock. In such
soils the process of sub-soiling can go on almost indefinitely with
continuous preservation and renewal of productiveness.

The climate of the region covered in this work has the general
character of that of the Inland Empire as a whole. As compared with the
portions of Oregon and Washington west of the Cascade Mountains, the
climate of our section is drier and has the seasons more distinctly
marked, hotter in summer and colder in winter. The average yearly
temperature is, however, higher than that of the sea-coast, and
much higher than that of the Atlantic states of the same latitude.
The average of Walla Walla is about that of Virginia, though in the
latitude of Wisconsin and Maine. On account of lower altitude the
climate of the greater part of this section, especially the portions
on the large rivers, all the way from Asotin to Wallula, is warmer
than that of the parts of the state north of Snake River. The weather
reports of Walla Walla ordinarily run from four to eight degrees higher
than those of Spokane. The spring season opens from two to four weeks
earlier than at Spokane or Colfax and the difference is even greater
compared with Pullman.

Perhaps no part of the Inland Empire, unless it be the Horse Heaven
and Rattlesnake Mountain section of Benton County, is so peculiarly
the native home of that most dramatic atmospheric phenomenon, the
Chinook wind. Scarcely can anything more interesting be imagined than
that warm winter wind. No wonder that the native red man, with his
superstitious awe of Nature's tokens of love or wrath, idealized this
heavenly visitant, opening the gates of summer in midwinter chill and
gloom and wooing the flowers from their dark abodes even while the
heavy snows still crown the mountain peaks and pile the timbered flanks
of the hills with their frozen burdens. A long wintry period, two or
three or four weeks in January or February, may have sent the great
blocks of ice down the big rivers, there may be a foot of snow upon
the plains and much more in the mountains and the breath of the north
may wrap all Nature in chill and gloom, when suddenly some afternoon
the frozen fog will lift, a blue-black band will be visible along the
southern horizon, the white tops of the mountains will begin to be
streaked with dark lines, there seems to thrill through the atmosphere
a certain rustle of expectancy, night drops with a rising temperature,
during the night the snow begins to slip from the trees and slide off
the roofs, and with the morning, rushing and roaring, here comes the
blessed Chinook, fragrant with the bloom of the south, turning the snow
and ice into singing streams, calling the robins from their winter
retreats, and bidding the buttercups push from their heads the crust
of winter and open their golden petals to greet the sun. The Klickitat
myth is to the effect that there were originally two sets of brothers,
one of the Walla Wallas from the north, the other the Chinooks from the
south. The fathers of the two lived with their respective sons upon the
shore of the Columbia near the present Umatilla. The Walla Walla were
the cold wind brothers, coming down the river from the north, freezing
the streams and whirling the dust in vast clouds. At one time they
challenged the Chinook brothers to a wrestling match and threw them
all and killed them. The chilly brothers had it all their own way for
a long time after that, and they made the lives of the poor old father
and mother of the vanquished Chinooks a burden. No sooner would the
old man go out in his canoe to fish than the implacable Walla Walla
brothers would blow with their icy breath, crusting the water with ice
and compelling the old man to hurry half frozen to the shore. But a
deliverer was at hand, for one of the fallen Chinooks had left a son.
His mother had taken him to the lower river, and there he had grown up
with only the one thought of avenging his father and uncles. When he
had become grown and so strong that he could pull up huge fir trees and
toss them around like straws, he felt that his time had come. Going
up the river he slept one night near the stream now called the Satus,
and a curious depression in the hills can be seen there now which the
Indians say was his sleeping place. After his night's rest he went on
to the home of his grandparents. He found them in a most deplorable
state, half-starved and half-frozen. Young Chinook washed the grime
and filth from the old folks and from it came all the trout now found
in this region. Then transforming himself into a little creature he
crawled into the stern of his grandfather's boat and bade the old man
put forth for fish. At once the hateful Walla Wallas swept down from
the north to blow on the old man, but for some mysterious reason could
never reach him. Striving desperately in vain they saw the explanation
when suddenly Chinook rose to giant size and challenged them to
wrestle. The God Speelyi now appeared to judge the combat. One after
another the cold wind brothers were thrown. Chinook, more merciful than
they had been, did not kill them. But Speelyi declared that they should
henceforth lose their power and could blow only at very rare intervals
and that Chinook should be the lord of the land. However, Speelyi
decreed that he should blow on the mountain peaks first as a token that
he was coming.

The meteorologists tell us that the Chinook wind is not, properly
speaking, an ocean wind, though when there is a Chinook in the interior
there is a warm wind with rain on the coast. They say that the Chinook
is due to dynamic heating or atmospheric friction. When there is a low
barometer on the coast and a high over Nevada and Utah, as is very
common in winter, the high pressure will descend upon the low and
raise the temperature at a regular rate of about seven degrees to a
thousand feet of descent. This accounts for the fact that the Chinook
strikes the mountains sooner than the valleys. During the prevalence
of a Chinook, as shown by the weather reports, the thermometer will
usually be higher at Walla Walla than at Portland or Astoria. It has
been as high as seventy degrees in January during a big Chinook. As
can be imagined, snow will vanish like a dream under a wind of such
temperature, or even one at fifty degrees or fifty-five degrees, which
is more common.

A few general statistics as to the average records at Walla Walla may
be of interest. The average annual temperature as shown by official
records during thirty-one years is fifty-three degrees. The average
for January is thirty-three degrees; for July and August, seventy-four
degrees. The lowest ever recorded was seventeen degrees below zero, and
the highest was 113 degrees. The average rainfall is 17.4 inches. The
average date of the last killing frost of spring is March 30th, and the
first of autumn is November 7th. The average number of clear or mainly
clear days is 262, of cloudy is 103. The prevailing wind is always
from the south, and the highest velocity ever recorded was sixty-five
miles per hour. There is an average of eight thunder showers in a
year. The other parts of the four counties included in this history
have essentially the same climate as Walla Walla. There is, however, a
regular decrease of temperature and an increase of rainfall from the
west to east. Recent records of the Weather Observer at Walla Walla,
giving a comparison of various stations, show extraordinary differences
in rainfall according to elevation and proximity to the mountains.
Thus, the average precipitation, including melted snow, for some years
past, has been at Kennewick, 6.46 inches; at Lowden, 11.18; at Eureka,
14.35; at Walla Walla, 17.37; at Milton, 19.50; at Dayton, 22.14;
and at the "intake," only fourteen miles from Walla Walla, but at an
elevation of twenty-five hundred feet (Walla Walla being nine hundred
and twenty), and at the entrance to the mountains, it was, in 1916,
47.93. The natural rainfall is sufficient for all the staple grains and
fruits in all parts except the areas in the west and north bordering
the Columbia and Snake rivers. In those semi-arid tracts irrigation is
necessary, and the same means of artificial moisture is practiced for a
succession of vegetables and small fruits and alfalfa in considerable
parts of the other valley lands. One of the interesting and important
features of Walla Walla is the fine system of spouting artesian wells.
There are now over thirty of these wells in the Walla Walla Valley,
the largest having a flow of twenty-five hundred gallons per minute,
sufficient to irrigate a half section of land. Owing to the immense
snowfall on the Blue Mountains, ranging from ten to fifty or sixty
feet during the season, a large part of the slopes and valleys below
seems to be sub-irrigated and also to be underlaid by a great sheet of
water. Hence it seems reasonable to expect that artesian water will be
found in other places. In general it may be said that the climate of
the sections considered in this work is eminently conducive to health,
wealth, and comfort. It is a happy medium between the extreme dryness
of the Great Plateau and the extreme humidity of Western Washington; as
also between the rather muggy and enervating climate of the South and
the biting cold of winter and prostrating heat of summer of the belt
of northern states east of the Rocky Mountains. If we may judge by a
comparison of the native races, as well as by the "bunch-grass" horses
and cattle, the "bunch-grass" boys and girls will be on the road to
becoming superior specimens of humanity. Thus far there is too much of
a mixture of the human stock to make scientific comparisons.

Old Walla Walla County shares with other parts of Washington, Oregon,
Idaho, Montana, and British Columbia, the distinction of joint
ownership of one of the sublimest systems of waterways on the globe.
This system consists of the Columbia and its tributaries. The Columbia
itself washes the western verge of Walla Walla County for a distance
of only about sixteen miles. Yet, in this short distance the great
stream sustains its reputation as belonging in the front rank of scenic
rivers. Although the region around the junction of the blue, majestic
Columbia and the turbid and impetuous Snake is regarded as a desert in
its native condition, yet on one of the bright, still days of spring
or autumn views of such grandeur looking either up or down can be
obtained that no appreciative observer would ever say "desert." The
azure and gold and russet and purple that play upon the mountains and
islands looking up river, or upon the Wallula Gateway looking down,
with the mile-wide majesty of the river in the midst, must be seen to
be understood. No words of description can do justice to those scenes.

[Illustration: HUDSON BAY POST AT WALLULA. ERECTED IN 1818]

An inspection of the map will show that Snake River touches a much
larger rim than the greater stream. For it borders each one of the
four counties, for a total distance of about a hundred and fifty
miles. For this entire space Snake River is swift and turbid, having
an average fall of about three feet to the mile. Nevertheless, it
is navigable the whole distance during six or eight months in the
year. The immense volume of these two big rivers is not generally
understood by strangers. The Columbia is less than half as long as
the Mississippi, yet it is but slightly inferior in volume to the
"Father of Waters," and far surpasses any other river in the United
States. Its maximum flood stage at Celilo in the flood of 1894, the
greatest on record, was estimated at one million six hundred thousand
second feet, while the maximum of the Snake, just above its mouth, was
about four hundred thousand. We shall have occasion later to speak of
the steamer traffic upon these rivers and the improvements, past and
prospective, by the Federal Government. Suffice it to say here that
as that phase of early history was among the most important, so it is
plain that the future will bring on a new era of water-borne traffic,
and that with it will come a new era of production. Nearly all the
tributaries of the two big rivers flow from the snow banks and the
canons of the Blue Mountains. Though conveying in the aggregate during
the flood season an immense volume, the tributaries are too swift for
navigation. They supply abundant water for irrigation where needed,
and each is a superb trout stream. The largest, the Grande Ronde, is
in truth an Oregon river, for its main supplies come from the Grande
Ronde and Wallowa valleys, but it crosses the corner of Asotin County
and enters Snake River within that scenic country. The Grande Ronde is
a powerful stream and for varied scenes of wild grandeur and gentle
beauty, it is not easily matched. The Wallowa Basin (the "Far Wayleway"
of Longfellow's Evangeline) is sometimes called the Switzerland of
the Inland Empire. Of the historic interest of that region which thus
finds its exit through one of the counties of Old Walla Walla, we shall
speak again. The next affluent of the Snake River below the Grande
Ronde is Asotin Creek, a small stream and yet one of the busiest and
most useful for it is the source of the water supply of that fair and
productive region around Clarkston and extending thence to Asotin City.
Some distance below Clarkston is the Alpowa, also a historic stream.
Yet another stage and about half way between the Grande Ronde and the
mouth of Snake River we find one of the most charming in appearance
as well as most attractive to the fishermen of all the Blue Mountain
streams, the Tucanon. This also is invested with historic interest,
as we shall see later. Below the mouth of the Tucanon the previously
lofty, almost mountainous, shores of Snake River rapidly drop away
and the vast expanse of arid plain stretches away toward the crests
of the Blue Mountains. No more tributaries of the Snake River enter,
and with another stage that most interesting point in the history
of this turbulent and historic river is reached--its mouth, and its
individuality is lost in the mighty sweep of the Columbia. A few
miles below the junction the most historic and in some respects most
beautiful of the small tributaries of the Columbia streams in through
the verdant meadow and overhanging willows, the Walla Walla. The events
which have made the place of entrance, as well as many other places on
the course of this stream famous in the history of the Northwest, will
become manifest as our story proceeds.

In the great semicircle of one hundred and fifty miles in which Snake
River borders our four counties, there are frequent profound canons
through which the snow-crested mountains from which the streams issue
can be seen. The observer who has made that long journey and reaches
the open prairie at the mouth of the Snake will behold with wonder and
delight the distant chain, all in one splendid picture, of which he
had before seen broken glimpses through the rifted canon walls or up
the sources of the foaming creeks. But whether in broken glimpses or
in their grand unity, the Blue Mountains possess a unique charm and
individuality. While not so bold and aiguillated as the Cascades, and
while there are no peaks standing in lonely sublimity to compel the
vision of the traveller, like Mount "Takhoma" or Mount Adams or Mount
Hood, the Blue Mountains are not inferior in many of the features of
mountain charm to their greater brothers. The marvelous coloring is
perhaps the most distinctive of these features. While most mountains
are blue, these are blue blue. They are all shades of blue, according
to the hour and the month and the season--blue, indigo, ultramarine,
violet, purple, amethyst, lapis lazuli, everything that one can think
of to denote variations of blueness. "Blue Mountain" is a real name.
The French voyageurs of the fur-traders were the first to note the
characteristic blue, and according to Ross Cox, began at once to say,
"_Les Montagnes Bleues_." Another characteristic feature of these
mountains is the fact that they do not so much constitute a range or
chain, like the long, narrow, regular Cascade Range, as a huge mass
with prongs radiating from something like a central axis which might
be considered the great granite and limestone knot of peaks about
Wallowa Lake, of which Eagle Cap is the loftiest, over nine thousand
feet in elevation. On account of this ganglionic structure there are
many radiating canons from the long ridges and plateaus to the lower
levels. The views from the open ridges and rounded summits down these
canons constitute a scenic gallery of contours and colorings which may
challenge comparison with even the views of the loftier and bolder
Cascades.

The value of the Blue Mountains in condensing the moisture of the
atmosphere and dropping it upon the plains below in rain and snow
can hardly be conceived unless we reflect that without this vast
reservoir of salvation to all growing things the Inland Empire would
be a desert. Nor could it even be irrigated, for in the absence of the
Blue Mountains there would be no available streams for distribution.
Wonderful indeed is it to consider how the ardent sun of the Pacific
lifts the inconceivable masses of invisible vapor from the ocean and
the west wind carries them inland. The coast mountains constitute the
first condenser of that vapor, and almost constant rain during half the
year with a predominance of clouds and fogs at all times prevails along
the ocean margin of Oregon and Washington. The Cascade Range lifts its
stupendous domes and sentinel-like cliffs to catch the vapor that still
sweeps inland and to feed the greedy rootlets of their interminable
forests and to clothe the heights with perpetual snow and ice. But
those vast demands fail to exhaust the limitless resources of the sky,
and there are yet remaining infinite treasures of moisture floating
eastward. And so the next great suppliant for the vital nourishment
of all life stands with uplifted, appealing hands, our wide-extended
and clustered uplift of the Blues. Nor do they appeal in vain, as the
fertile prairies and benches with their millions of bushels of grain
and their far-reaching cattle ranges and their orchard valleys and
their countless springs can testify.

Whether from the standpoint of the forester or the farmer or the
stockman or the gardener or the orchardist or the fisherman or the
artist or the poet, the Blue Mountains constitute one of the great
vital working facts, the very framework of the life of Old Walla Walla
County. We shall discover that they are not simply a picture gallery,
but that the history of this region is fairly set within this stately
frame.

With these necessarily hurried and fragmentary glances at the physical
scene of the story, we shall be prepared to bring the human characters
upon the stage.



CHAPTER II

THE NATIVE RACES OF OLD WALLA WALLA COUNTY


Any history of any part of America would be incomplete without some
view of the aborigines. Such a view is due to them, as well as to the
accuracy of statement and the philosophical perspectives of history.
Such a view is required also by justice to the natives themselves. The
ever westward movement of American settlement has been marked by trails
of blood and fire. Warfare has set its red stains upon nearly every
region wrested from barbarism to civilization. This has been in many
cases due to flagrant wrong, greed, and lust by the civilized man. It
has been due also to savage cruelty by the barbarian. Perhaps more than
to wrong by either party, it has been due to that great, unexplained
and unexplainable tragedy of human history, the inability of either
party to comprehend the viewpoint of the other. And yet, most of all,
it has been due to that inevitable and remorseless evolution of all
life by which one race of plants, animals, and human beings progresses
by the extermination of others. Perhaps the philosophical mind, while
viewing with pity the sufferings and with reprobation the crimes and
irrational treatment forced upon the natives by the civilized race,
and while viewing with equal horror the atrocities by which the losers
in the inevitable struggle sought to maintain themselves--if to such
a philosophical mind comes the question who was to blame for all this
seemingly needless woe--must answer that the universe is mainly to
blame, and we have not yet reached the point to explain the universe.

We have found in the preceding chapter and shall find in succeeding
chapters frequent occasion to refer to events in connection with
Indians. Our aim in this chapter is rather to give an outline of
locations of different tribes, to sketch briefly some of their
traits as illustrated in their myths and customs, and to state the
chief published sources of our knowledge in regard to these myths
and customs. The history of Indian wars, which also includes other
incidental matter about them, will be found in the last chapter of Part
One of this volume.

The literature of Indian life is voluminous. Practically all the
early explorers from Lewis and Clark down devoted large space to the
natives. The pioneer settlers knew them individually and some of them
derived much matter of general value which has been preserved in brief
newspaper articles or handed down in story and tradition. Out of this
vast mass a few writers have formed groups of topics which serve well
for those generalizations which a bird's-eye view like this must be
content to take. Foremost among the writers dealing with the subject
in a large way is Hubert Howe Bancroft. Although his great work on the
history of the Pacific Coast has been severely and sometimes justly
censured, yet it must be granted that, as a vast compendium of matter
dealing with the subject, it is monumental and can be turned to with
confidence in the authenticity of its sources and in the general
accuracy of its statements of fact, even if not always in the breadth
of its opinions or the reliability of its judgments.

[Illustration: HUMISHUMA, OR MORNING DOVE, A WOMAN OF THE OKANOGAN TRIBE
Her deerskin robe, decorated with beads, elk teeth and grizzly-bear
claws, is worth over one thousand dollars]

In Volume One, Chapter Three, of Bancroft's "Native Races," there is
generalized grouping of the Columbian native tribes which may well
be accepted as a study of ethnology, derived from many observations
and records by those early explorers most worthy of credence. These
general outlines by the author are supported by numerous citations from
those authorities. The Colombians occupied, according to Bancroft,
all the vast region west of the Rocky Mountains lying between the
Hyperboreans on the north and the Californians on the south. They are
divided into certain families and these families into nations, and the
nations into tribes. There is naturally much inter-tribal mingling,
and yet the national and even tribal peculiarities are preserved with
remarkable distinctness. Beginning on the northern coast region around
Queen Charlotte Island are the Haidahs. South of them on the coast
comes the family of the Nootkas, centered on Vancouver Island. Then
comes the family of the Sound Indians, and still farther south that
of the Chinooks. Turning to the east side of the Cascades, which more
especially interests us, we find on the north the Shushwap family,
embracing all the inland tribes of British Columbia south of lat.
52°, 30´. This group includes the Okanogans, Kootenais, and others of
the border between British Columbia and Northeastern Washington and
Northern Idaho and Northwestern Montana. Then comes the Salish family,
in which we find the Spokanes, Flatheads, Pend Oreilles, Kalispels,
and others as far south as the Palouse region. There we begin with the
family of Sahaptins, the one which particularly concerns us in Old
Walla Walla County. Numerous citations in Bancroft's volume indicate
that the early explorers and ethnologists did not altogether agree on
the subdivisions of this family. It would seem that the groups have
been somewhat arbitrarily made, yet there was evidently considerable
effort to employ scientific methods by study of affiliations in
language, customs, treaty relations, range, and other peculiarities.
In general terms it may be said that the different writers pretty
nearly agree in finding some six or eight nations, each divided into
several tribes. These are the Nez Perces or Chopunnish, the Yakimas,
the Palouses, the Walla Wallas, the Cayuses, the Umatillas, the Wascos,
and the Klickitats. The tribes are variously grouped. The modern
spelling appears in the above list, but there is a bewildering variety
in the early books. This is especially true of Palouse and Walla
Walla. The former appears under the following forms: Palouse, Paloose,
Palus, Peloose, Pelouse, Pavilion, Pavion and Peluse. The word means
"Gooseberry," according to Thomas Beall of Lewiston. Our familiar Walla
Walla, meaning, according to "Old Bones," the Cayuse chief, the place
where the four creeks meet, the Walla Walla, Touchet, Mill Creek,
and Dry Creek, appears as Oualla-Oualla (French), Walla Wallapum,
Wollow Wollah, Wollaolla, Wolla-walla, Wallawaltz, Walla Walle, Wallah
Wallah, Wallahwallah, Wala-Wala, and Wollahwollah. For Umatilla we
find Umatallow, Utalla, Utilla, and Emmatilly. Cayuse has as variants,
Cailloux, Kayuse, Kayouse, Skyuse, Cajouse, Caagua, Kyoose, and Kyoots.
Doctor Whitman's station, now known as Waiilatpu, appears in sundry
forms, as Wyeilat, Willetpu, Wailatpui, and Wieletpoo. Some odd names
are found in Hunt, "Nouvelles Annales des Voyages," where it is stated
that the Sciatogas and Toustchipas live on Canoe River (apparently the
Tucanon) and the Euotalla (perhaps the Touchet), and the Akaitchis
"sur le Big-River," i. e., the Columbia. The tribe at the junction
of the Columbia and Snake was the Sokulks, apparently a branch of
the Walla Wallas. It would seem that the Cayuses occupied mainly the
middle Walla Walla region including Mill Creek, the Umatilla, the upper
Walla Walla, and across the high lands to the Umatilla River, while
the Walla Wallas were from the vicinity of the junction of Dry Creek,
the Touchet, and the Walla Walla River to its mouth. It appears that
the most of the region now composing Columbia, Garfield, and Asotin
counties was occupied by Nez Perces. All the tribes were more or less
on the move all the time, to mountains, plains, and rivers, according
to the season and variations in the food supply. The Sahaptin family
seem to have been in general of the best grade of Indians. Lewis and
Clark found the Nez Perces a noble, dignified and honest race, though
they say that they were close and reserved in bargaining. Generally
speaking, the inland Indians were far superior in physique and in
mental capacity to those of the Sound or the lower Columbia. Townsend
in his "Narrative" goes so far as to say that the Nez Perces and
Cayuses were almost universally fine-looking, robust men. He compares
one of the latter with the Apollo Belvedere. Gairdner says that the
Walla Wallas were generally powerful men, at least six feet high, and
the Cayuses were still stouter and more athletic. Others remarked that
very handsome young girls were often seen among the Walla Wallas. With
them doubtless, as with other Indians, the drudgery of their lives and
their early child-bearing made them prematurely old and they soon lost
their beauty.

There seems to have been much variation among these natives as to
personal habits and morality. The Nez Perces and Cayuses are almost
always described as clean, both of body and character. Palmer in his
"Journal," says that the Nez Perces were better clad than any others,
the Cayuses well clothed, Walla Wallas naked and half-starved. The last
statement seems not to correspond with the observations of Lewis and
Clark. Wilkes says that "at the Dalles women go nearly naked, for they
wear little else than what may be termed a breech-cloth, of buckskin,
which is black and filthy with dirt." About the same seems to have
been true of the Sokulks. But among the Tushepaws and Nez Perces and
Cayuses the men and women often wore long robes of buffalo or elk-skin
decorated with beads and sea-shells. Farnham speaks of the Cayuses as
the "Imperial tribe of Oregon, claiming jurisdiction over the whole
Columbia region."

The chief wealth of the tribes of Old Walla Walla County was in horses.
Doctor Tolmie expressed the supposition that horses had come from the
southward at no very long time prior to white discovery. It is well
known that a prehistoric horse, the hipparion, not larger than a deer,
existed in Oregon. Remains of that creature have been found in the John
Day Basin. But there is no evidence that there was a native horse among
the Indians of Oregon. Their "Cayuse horses," to all indications, came
from the horses of California, and they, in turn were the offspring of
the horses brought to Mexico and Southern California by the Spanish
conquerors. At the time of the advent of the whites, horses existed in
immense numbers all through the Columbia Valley. It was not uncommon
for a Walla Walla, Umatilla, Cayuse, or Nez Percé chief to have bands
of hundreds, even thousands. Canoes were a highly esteemed possession
of the Indians on the navigable rivers, and they had acquired marvelous
skill in handling them. The lower Columbia Indians spent so much time
curled up in canoes that they were distorted and inferior in physique
to the "bunch-grass Indians."

Like all barbarian people the Indians of the Columbia Valley were next
door to starvation a good part of the time. They gorged themselves
when food was plentiful, and thus were in distress when the bounty of
Nature failed, for there was no accumulated store as under civilized
conditions. Their food consisted of deer, elk, and other game, in which
the whole Blue Mountain country with the adjoining plains abounded,
and of salmon and sturgeon which they obtained in the Columbia and
Snake rivers by spearing and by ingenious weirs. They also obtained an
abundance of vegetable food from the camas and couse which were common,
and in fact still are in this region. Rather curiously, considering the
fertility of this Walla Walla County, there are very few wild berries,
nuts, or fruits. The huckleberry is practically the only berry in large
quantities and wild cherries the only kind of wild fruit.

Such were the physical conditions, hastily sketched, of the natives
of Old Walla Walla County. Their mental and moral characteristics may
be derived in a degree from the events narrated in the pages which
follow. In their best estate they were faithful, patient, hospitable,
and generous. In their worst estate, in which the whites more usually
found them, they seemed vindictive, suspicious, cruel, and remorseless.
Too many cases of the former type occurred to justify any sweeping
condemnation. One of the finest examples of Indian character in its
better light is shown by an event in this region narrated by Ross Cox
in his "Adventures on the Columbia River." The party of trappers of
the Northwestern Fur Company, of which Cox was one, was on its way
from Astoria to "Oakinagan," as he calls it--a company of sixty-four
in eight canoes. When at a point in the Columbia about equidistant
between the mouth of the "Wallah Wallah" and that of the Lewis (Snake),
a number of canoes filled with natives bore down upon their squadron,
apparently without hostile design. But within a few minutes the Indians
evinced the purpose of seizing the canoes of the whites and plundering
them by violence. It was soon give and take, and arrows began to fly.
Pretty soon one of the company, McDonald, seeing an Indian just at the
point of letting fly an arrow at him, fired and killed the Indian. A
struggle ensued, but the whites broke loose and defended themselves
sufficiently to reach an island, which must have been the one nearly
opposite the present Two Rivers. It was a gloomy prospect. Cox says
that they had pretty nearly given up hope of escaping, and had written
farewell notes which they hoped might reach their friends. It was a
dark, gloomy night in November, with a drizzling rain. During the night
the party saw signal fires on the shore to the northwest, followed
by others to east and west. Soon after a large band of ravens passed
over, the fluttering of whose wings they could hear. This had a most
depressing effect on the superstitious Canadians, and one of them
declared that the appearance of ravens at night was an infallible
sign of approaching death. Mr. Keith, one of the Scotchmen, seeing
the gloomy state of their minds and wishing to forestall the effect,
instantly joined the conversation, declaring that while there was
such a general fear of a night flight of ravens, yet it never worked
disaster unless the flight was accompanied by croaking. But when
ravens passed over without croaking, they were a harbinger of good
news. Much relieved, the Canadians regained their nerve and shouted
out, "you are right, you are right! Courage! There is no danger!" The
beleaguered band on their dismal retreat waited for the dawn, making
all preparations for resistance to the death. Early in the morning
the party crossed to the north bank of the river, and there waited
developments. A large force of Indians soon appeared, well armed, and
yet ready for a parley. The whites sent forward their interpreter,
Michel, to indicate their willingness to parley. A group of thirty or
forty of the relatives of the dead Indians advanced chanting a death
song, which, as they afterwards learned, was about as follows: "Rest,
brothers, rest! You will be avenged. The tears of your widows shall
cease to flow, when they behold the blood of your murderers; and your
young children shall leap and sing with joy, on seeing their scalps.
Rest, brothers, in peace; we shall have blood."

The events which followed this lugubrious song cannot be better told
than by following the vivid narrative of Cox:

"They took up their position in the center; and the whole party then
formed themselves into an extended crescent. Among them were natives
of the Chimnapum, Yackaman, Sokulk, and Wallah Wallah tribes. Their
language is nearly the same; but they are under separate chiefs, and
in time of war always unite against the Shoshone or Snake Indians, a
powerful nation, who inhabit the plains to the southward.

"From Chili to Athabasca, and from Nootka to the Labrador, there
is an indescribable coldness about an American savage that checks
familiarity. He is a stranger to our hopes, our fears, our joys, or
our sorrows; his eyes are seldom moistened by a tear, or his features
relaxed by a smile; and whether he basks beneath a vertical sun on the
burning plains of the Amazonia, or freezes in eternal winter on the
ice-bound shores of the Arctic Ocean, the same piercing black eyes, and
stern immobility of countenance, equally set at naught the skill of the
physiognomist.

"On the present occasion, their painted skin, cut hair, and naked
bodies, imparted to their appearance a degree of ferocity from which
we boded no good result. They remained stationary for some time and
preserved a profound silence.

"Messrs. Keith, Stewart, LaRocque, and the interpreter, at length
advanced about midway between both parties unarmed, and demanded to
speak with them; upon which two chiefs, accompanied by six of the
mourners, proceeded to join them. Mr. Keith offered them the calumet
of peace, which they refused to accept, in a manner at once cold and
repulsive.

"Michel was thereupon ordered to tell them that, as we had always been
on good terms with them, we regretted much that the late unfortunate
circumstance had occurred to disturb our friendly intercourse; but that
as we were anxious to restore harmony, and to forget what had passed,
we were now willing to compensate the relations of the deceased for the
loss they had sustained.

"They inquired what kind of compensation was intended; and on
being informed that it consisted of two suits of chief's clothes,
with blankets, tobacco, and ornaments for the women, etc., it was
indignantly refused; and their spokesman stated that no discussion
could be entered into until two white men (one of whom should be
the big red-headed chief) were delivered to them to be sacrificed,
according to their law, to the spirits of the departed warriors.

"Every eye turned on McDonald, who on hearing the demand, 'grinned
horribly a ghastly smile'; and who, but for our interposition,
would on the spot have chastised the insolence of the speaker. The
men were horrified, and 'fear and trembling' became visible in their
countenances, until Mr. Keith, who had observed these symptoms of
terror, promptly restored their confidence, by telling them that such
an ignominious demand should never be complied with.

"He then addressed the Indians in a calm, firm voice, and told them
that no consideration whatever should induce him to deliver a white
man to their vengeance; that they had been the original aggressors,
and in their unjustifiable attempt to seize by force our property,
the deceased had lost their lives; that he was willing to believe
the attack was unpremeditated, and under that impression he had made
the offer of compensation. He assured them that he preferred their
friendship to their enmity; but that, if unfortunately they were not
actuated by the same feelings, the white men would not, however deeply
they might lament it, shrink from the contest. At the same time he
reminded them of our superiority in arms and ammunition; and that for
every man belonging to our party who might fall, ten of their friends
at least would suffer; and concluded by requesting them calmly to
weigh and consider all these matters, and to bear in recollection that
upon the result of their deliberation would in a great measure depend
whether white men would remain in their country or quit it forever.

"The interpreter having repeated the above, a violent debate took place
among the principal natives. One party advised the demand for the two
white men to be withdrawn, and to ask in their place a greater quantity
of goods and ammunition; while the other, which was by far the most
numerous, and to which all the relatives of the deceased belonged,
opposed all compromise, unaccompanied by the delivery of the victims.

"The arguments and threats of the latter gradually thinned the ranks
of the more moderate; and Michel told Mr. Keith that he was afraid an
accommodation was impossible. Orders were thereupon issued to prepare
for action, and the men were told, when they received from Mr. Keith
the signal, to be certain that each shot should tell.

"In the meantime a number of the natives had withdrawn some distance
from the scene of deliberation, and from their fierce and threatening
looks, joined to occasional whispers, we momentarily expected they
would commence an attack.

"A few of their speakers still lingered, anxious for peace; but their
feeble efforts were unavailing when opposed to the more powerful
influence of the hostile party, who repeatedly called on them to
retire, and allow the white men to proceed on their journey as well as
they could. All but two chiefs and an elderly man, who had taken an
active part in the debate, obeyed the call, and they remained for some
time apparently undecided what course to adopt.

"From this group our eyes glanced to an extended line of the enemy who
were forming behind them; and from their motions it became evident that
their intention was to outflank us. We therefore changed our position,
and formed our men into single files, each man about three feet from
his comrade. The friendly natives began to fall back slowly towards
their companions, most of whom had already concealed themselves behind
large stones, tufts of wormwood, and furze bushes, from which they
could have taken a more deadly aim; and Messrs. Keith and Stewart, who
had now abandoned all hopes of an amicable termination, called for
their arms.

"An awful pause ensued, when our attention was arrested by the loud
tramping of horses, and immediately after twelve mounted warriors
dashed into the space between the two parties, where they halted and
dismounted. They were headed by a young chief, of fine figure, who
instantly ran up to Mr. Keith, to whom he presented his hand in the
most friendly manner, which example was followed by his companions. He
then commanded our enemies to quit their places of concealment, and to
appear before him. His orders were promptly obeyed; and having made
himself acquainted with the circumstances that led to the deaths of
the two Indians, and our efforts towards effecting a reconciliation,
he addressed them in a speech of considerable length, of which the
following is a brief sketch:

"'Friends and relations! Three snows only have passed over our heads
since we were a poor miserable people. Our enemies, the Shoshones,
during the summer stole our horses, by which we were prevented from
hunting, and drove us from the banks of the river, so that we could not
get fish. In winter they burned our lodges by night; they killed our
relations; they treated our wives and daughters like dogs, and left us
either to die from cold or starvation, or become their slaves.'

"'They were numerous and powerful; we were few, and weak. Our hearts
were as the hearts of little children; we could not fight like
warriors, and were driven like deer about the plains. When the thunders
rolled and the rains poured, we had no spot in which we could seek a
shelter; no place, save the rocks, whereon we could lay our heads. Is
such the case today? No, my relations! it is not. We have driven the
Shoshones from our hunting-grounds, on which they dare not now appear,
and have regained possession of the lands of our fathers, in which they
and their fathers' fathers lie buried. We have horses and provisions in
abundance, and can sleep unmolested with our wives and our children,
without dreading the midnight attacks of our enemies. Our hearts are
great within us, and we are now a nation!'

"'Who then, my friends, have produced this change? The white men.
In exchange for our horses and for our furs, they gave us guns and
ammunition; then we became strong; we killed many of our enemies, and
forced them to fly from our lands. And are we to treat those who have
been the cause of this happy change with ingratitude? Never! Never! The
white people have never robbed us; and, I ask, why should we attempt
to rob them? It was bad, very bad!--and they were right in killing
the robbers.' Here symptoms of impatience and dissatisfaction became
manifest among a group consisting chiefly of the relations of the
deceased; on observing which, he continued in a louder tone: 'Yes! I
say they acted right in killing the robbers; and who among you will
dare to contradict me?'

[Illustration: Hotel Dacres]

[Illustration: Grand Hotel

LEADING HOTELS OF WALLA WALLA]

"'You all know well my father was killed by the enemy, when you all
deserted him like cowards; and, while the Great Master of Life spares
me, no hostile foot shall again be set on our lands. I know you all;
and I know that those who are afraid of their bodies in battle are
thieves when they are out of it: but the warrior of the strong arm
and the great heart will never rob a friend.' After a short pause, he
resumed: 'My friends, the white men are brave and belong to a great
nation. They are many moons crossing the great lake in coming from
their own country to serve us. If you were foolish enough to attack
them, they would kill a great many of you; but suppose you should
succeed in destroying all that are now present, what would be the
consequence? A greater number would come next year to revenge the death
of their relations, and they would annihilate our tribe; or should not
that happen, their friends at home, on hearing of their deaths, would
say we were a bad and wicked people, and white men would never more
come among us. We should then be reduced to our former state of misery
and persecution; our ammunition would be quickly expended; our guns
would become useless, and we should again be driven from our lands,
and the lands of our fathers, to wander like deer and wolves in the
midst of the woods and plains. I therefore say the white men must not
be injured! They have offered you compensation for the loss of your
friends: take it; but, if you should refuse, I tell you to your faces
that I will join them with my own band of warriors; and should one
white man fall by the arrow of an Indian, that Indian, if he were my
brother, with all his family, shall become victims to my vengeance.'
Then, raising his voice, he called out, 'Let the Wallah Wallahs, and
all who love me, and are fond of the white men, come forth and smoke
the pipe of peace!' Upwards of one hundred of our late adversaries
obeyed the call, and separated themselves from their allies. The
harangue of the youthful chieftain silenced all opposition. The above
is but a faint outline of the arguments he made use of, for he spoke
upwards of two hours; and Michel confessed himself unable to translate
a great portion of his language, particularly when he soared into the
wild flights of metaphor, so common among Indians. His delivery was
generally bold, graceful, and energetic. Our admiration at the time
knew no bounds; and the orators of Greece or Rome when compared with
him, dwindled in our estimation into insignificance.

"Through this chief's mediation, the various claimants were in a
short time fully satisfied, without the flaming scalp of our Highland
hero; after which a circle was formed by our people and the Indians
indiscriminately: the white and red chiefs occupied the center, and our
return to friendship was ratified by each individual in rotation taking
an amicable whiff from the peace-cementing calumet.

"The chieftain whose timely arrival had rescued us from impending
destruction was called 'Morning Star.' His age did not exceed
twenty-five years. His father had been a chief of great bravery and
influence, and had been killed in battle by the Shoshones a few years
before. He was succeeded by Morning Star, who, notwithstanding his
youth, had performed prodigies of valor. Nineteen scalps decorated
the neck of his war horse, the owners of which had been all killed in
battle by himself to appease the spirit of his deceased father. He
wished to increase the number of his victims to twenty; but the terror
inspired by his name, joined to the superiority which his tribe derived
by the use of firearms, prevented him from making up the desired
complement by banishing the enemy from the banks of the Columbia.[1]

[1] The Indians consider the attainment of twenty scalps as
the summit of a warrior's glory.

"His handsome features, eagle glance, noble bearing, and majestic
person, stamped him one of Nature's own aristocracy; while his bravery
in the field, joined to his wisdom in their councils, commanded alike
the involuntary homage of the young, and the respect of the old.

"We gave the man who had been wounded in the shoulder a chief's coat;
and to the relations of the men who were killed we gave two coats, two
blankets, two fathoms of cloth, two spears, forty bullets and powder,
with a quantity of trinkets, and two small kettles for their widows.
We also distributed nearly half a bale of tobacco among all present,
and our youthful deliverer was presented by Mr. Keith with a handsome
fowling-piece, and some other valuable articles.

"Four men were then ordered to each canoe, and they proceeded on with
the poles; while the remainder, with the passengers, followed by land.
We were mixed pell-mell with the natives for several miles: the ground
was covered with large stones, small willows, and prickly-pears; and
had they been inclined to break the solemn compact into which they had
entered, they could have destroyed us with the utmost facility.

"At dusk we bade farewell to the friendly chieftain and his companions,
and crossed to the south side, where we encamped, a few miles above
Lewis River, and spent the night in tranquillity.

"It may be imagined by some that the part we acted in the foregoing
transaction betrayed too great an anxiety for self-preservation; but
when it is recollected that we were several hundred miles from any
assistance, with a deep and rapid river to ascend by the tedious and
laborious process of poling, and that the desultory Cossack mode of
fighting in use among the Indians, particularly the horsemen, would
have cut us off in piecemeal ere we had advanced three days, it will be
seen that, under the circumstances, we could not have acted otherwise."

And now we most turn to another phase of Indian life and character
which is most worthy of record, and one in which more than anywhere
else they show some of those "touches of nature which make the whole
world kin." This is that phase exhibited in myths and superstitions.
Here we shall find, as almost nowhere else, that Indians are, after
all, very much like other people. In this portion of this chapter the
author is incorporating portions of articles written by himself for the
_American Antiquarian_.

Like all primitive men, the Oregon Indians have an extensive
mythology. With childlike interest in the stars and moon and sun
and fire and water and forests, as well as plants and animal life
and their own natures, they have sought out and passed on a wealth
of legend and fancy which in its best features is worthy of a place
with the exquisite creations of Norse and Hellenic fancy, even with
much of the crude and grotesque. Yet it is not easy to secure these
legends just as the Indians tell them. In the first place few of the
early explorers knew how or cared to draw out the ideas of the first
uncontaminated Indians. The early settlers generally had a stupid
intolerance in dealing with Indians that made them shut right up
like clams and withhold their stock of ideas. Later the missionaries
generally inclined to give them the impression that their "heathen"
legends and ideas were obstacles to their "salvation," and should be
extirpated from their minds. Still further the few that did really get
upon a sympathetic footing with them and draw out some of their myths,
were likely to get them in fragments and piece them out with Bible
stories or other civilized conceptions, and thus the native stories
have become adulterated. It is difficult to get the Indians to talk
freely, even with those whom they like and trust. Educated Indians seem
to be ashamed of their native lore, and will generally avoid talking
about it with whites at all, unless under exceptional conditions.
Christianized Indians seem to consider the repetition of their old
myths a relapse into heathenism, and hence will parry efforts to draw
them out. In general, even when civilized, Indians are proud, reserved,
suspicious, and on their guard. And with the primal Indians few can
make much headway. The investigator must start in indirectly, not
manifesting any eagerness, and simply suggest as if by accident some
peculiar appearance or incident in sky or trees or water, and let the
Indian move on in his own way to empty his own mind, never suspecting
any effort by his listener to gather up and tell again his story. And
even under the most favoring conditions, one may think he is getting
along famously, when suddenly the Indian will pause, glance furtively
at the listener, give a moody chuckle, relapse into stony and apathetic
silence--that is the end of the tale.

Our stories have been derived mainly from the reports of those who have
lived much among the Indians, and who have been able to embrace the
rare occasions when, without self-consciousness or even much thought
of outsiders, the natives could speak out freely. There is usually no
very close way of judging of the accuracy of observation or correctness
of report of these investigators, except as their statements are
corroborated by others. These stories sometimes conflict, different
tribes having quite different versions of certain stories. Then again
the Indians have a peculiar habit of "continued stories," by which at
the teepee fire one will take up some well known tale and add to it and
so make a new story of it, or at least a new conclusion. As with the
minstrels and minnesingers of feudal Europe at the tournaments, the
best fellow is the one who tells the most thrilling tale.

One confusing condition that often arises with Indian names and
stories is that some Indians use a word generically and others use
the same word specifically. For instance the native name for Mount
Adams, commonly given as "Pahtou," and Mount Rainier or Tacoma, better
spelled "Takhoma," as sounded by the Indians, really means any high
mountain. A Wasco Indian once told the author that his tribe called
Mount Hood, "Pahtou," meaning the big mountain, but that the Indians on
the other side of the Columbia River applied the same name to Adams.
A very intelligent Puyallup Indian says that the name of the "Great
White Mountain" was "Takhoma," with accent and prolonged sound on the
second syllable, but that any snow peak was the same, with the second
syllable not so prolonged according to height or distance of the
peak. Mount St. Helens was also "Takhoma," but with the "ho" not so
prolonged. But among some other Indians we find Mount St. Helens known
as "Lawailaclough," and with some Mount Hood is known as "Yetsl." Still
other names are "Loowit" for St. Helens and "Wiyeast" for Hood. Adams
seems to be known to some as "Klickitat." "Koolshan" for Baker, meaning
the "Great White Watcher," is one of the most attractive of Indian
names and should be preserved. There is "Shuksan" or "The place of the
Storm Wind," the only one of the northwestern peaks which has preserved
its Indian name. In reference to "Takhoma," a Puyallup woman told the
writer that among her people the name meant the "Breast that Feeds,"
or "The Breast of the Milk White Waters," referring to the glaciers or
the white streams that issue from them. On the other hand, Winthrop in
"Canoe and Saddle," states that the Indians applied the name "Takhoma"
to any high snow peak. Mr. Edwin Eells of Tacoma has written that he
derived from Rev. Father Hylebos of the same city the statement that
the name "Takhoma" was compounded of "Tah" and "Koma," and that among
certain Indians the word "Koma" meant any snow peak, while "Tah" is a
superlative. Hence, "Tahkoma" means simply the great peak.

We find something of the same inconsistencies in regard to the Indian
names of rivers. Our maps abound with supposed Indian names of rivers
and yet an educated Nez Percé Indian named Luke, living at Kamiah,
Idaho, says that the Indians, at least of that region, had no names of
rivers, but only of localities. He told the author that "Kooskooskie,"
which Lewis and Clark understood to be the name of what we now call
the Clearwater, was in reality a repetition of "Koos," their word
for water, and they meant merely to say that it was a strong water.
On the other hand we find many students of Indian languages who have
understood that there were names for the large rivers, even for the
Columbia. In the beautiful little book by B. H. Barrows, published and
distributed by the Union Pacific Railroad Company, we find the name
"Shocatilicum" or "Friendly Water" given as the Chinook name for the
Columbia. It is interesting to notice that this same word for "friendly
water" appears in Vol. II, of the Lewis and Clark Journal, but with
different spelling, in one place being "Shocatilcum" and in another
place "Chockalilum." Reverend Father Blanchet is authority for the
statement in "_Historical Magazine_," II, 335, that the Chinook Indians
used the name "Yakaitl Wimakl" for the Lower Columbia. A Yakima Indian
called William Charley gives "Chewanna" as still another Indian name
for the Columbia.

We have many supposed Indian names for God, as "Nekahni," or "Sahale,"
but Miss Kate McBeth, long a missionary among the Nez Perces, records
in her book about them that those Indians had no native name for
the deity. Of these Indian myths many deal with the chief God, as
"Nekahni," "Sahale," "Dokidatl," "Snoqualm," or "Skomalt," while others
have to do with the lesser grade of the supernatural beings, as the
Coyote god, variously named "Tallapus," "Speelyi," or "Sinchaleep."
Others may treat of "Skallalatoots" (Fairies), "Toomuck," (Devils),
or the various forms of "Tomanowas" (magic). A large number of these
myths describe the supposed origin of strange features of the natural
world, rocks, lakes, whirlpools, winds and waterfalls. Some describe
the "animal people," "Watetash," as the Klickitats call them. Some of
the best are fire-myths. These myths seem to have been common among all
Indians of the Columbia Valley.

In the preceding chapter we have given two of the best Indian myths,
that of Wishpoosh and that of the Chinook Wind. We insert here two
stories of a very different nature, derived from the same investigator
as the two preceding, Dr. G. B. Kuykendall of Pomeroy, Washington.

There is a legend among the Yakima Indians which seems to have the
same root in human nature as the beautiful Greek myth of Orpheus and
Eurydice, showing the instinctive desire of people on earth to bring
back the spirits of the dead, and the impossibility of doing so. This
myth sets forth how Speelyi and Whyama the eagle became at one time
so grieved at the loss of their loved ones that they determined to go
to the land of the spirits and bring them back. The two adventurers
journeyed for a long distance over an unbroken plain, and came at last
to a great lake, on the farther side of which they saw many houses.
They called long and vainly for someone to come with a boat and ferry
them over. But there was no sign of life and at last Whyama said
that there could be no one there. Speelyi insisted, however, that
the people were simply sleeping the sleep of the day and would come
forth at night. Accordingly, when the sun went down and darkness began
to come on, Speelyi started to sing. In a few minutes they saw four
spirit men come to the bank, enter a boat and cross the lake to meet
them. It seemed not necessary for them to row the boat, for apparently
it skimmed over the water of its own accord. The spirit men, having
landed, took Whyama and Speelyi with them in the boat and began their
return to the island of the dead. The island seemed to be a very sacred
place. There was a house of mats upon the shore, where music and
dancing were in progress. Speelyi and Whyama begged leave to enter,
and feeling hungry, they asked for food. The spirit land was so much
less gross than the earth that they were satisfied by what was dipped
with a feather out of a bottle. The spirit people now came to meet them
dressed in most beautiful costumes, and so filled with joy that Speelyi
and Whyama felt a great desire to share their happiness. By the time of
the morning light, however, the festivities ceased and all the spirit
people became wrapped in slumber for the day. Speelyi, observing that
the moon was hung up inside the great banquet hall and seemed to be
essential to the ongoings of the evening, stationed himself in such a
place that he could seize it during the next night's meeting. As soon
as night came on the spirits gathered again for the music and dance.
While their festivities were in progress as usual, Speelyi suddenly
swallowed the moon, leaving the entire place in darkness. Then he
and Whyama brought in a box, which they had previously provided, and
Whyama, flying swiftly about the room caught a number of the spirits
and enclosed them in the box. Then the two proceeded to start for the
earth, Speelyi carrying the box upon his back.

As the two adventurers went upon their long journey toward the earth
with the precious box, the spirits, which at first were entirely
imponderable, began to be transformed into men and to have weight. Soon
they began to cry out on account of their crowded and uncomfortable
position. Then they became so heavy that Speelyi could no longer carry
them. In spite of the remonstrances of Whyama, he opened the box.
They were astonished and overwhelmed with grief to see the partially
transformed spirits flit away like autumn leaves and disappear in the
direction from which they had come. Whyama thought that perhaps even
as the buds grow in the spring, so the dead would come back with the
blooming of the next flowers. But Speelyi deemed it best after this
that the dead should remain in the land of the dead. Had it not been
for this, as the Indians think, the dead would indeed return every
spring with the opening of the leaves.

The Klickitat Indians, living along the Dalles of the Columbia, have
another legend of the land of spirits. There was a young chief and
a girl who were devoted to each other and seemed to be the happiest
people in the tribe, but suddenly he sickened and died. The girl
mourned for him almost to the point of death, and he, having reached
the land of spirits, could find no happiness there on account of
thinking of her.

And so it came to pass that a vision began to appear to the girl by
night, telling her that she must herself go into the land of the
spirits in order to console her lover. Now there is near that place one
of the most weird and funereal of all the various "memaloose" islands,
or death islands, of the Columbia. The writer himself has been upon
this island and its spectral and volcanic desolation makes it a fitting
location for ghostly tales. It lies just below the "great chute," and
even yet has many skeletons upon it. In accordance with the directions
of the vision, the girl's father made ready a canoe, placed her in it,
and rowed out into the great river by night to the memaloose island. As
the father and his child rowed across the dark and forbidding waters,
they began to hear the sound of singing and dancing and great joy. Upon
the shore of the island they were met by four spirit people, who took
the girl but bade the father return, as it was not for him to see into
the spirit country. Accordingly the girl was conducted to the great
dance house of the spirits, and there she met her lover, far stronger
and more beautiful than when upon earth. That night they spent in
unspeakable bliss, but when the light began to break in the east and
the song of the robins began to be heard from the willows on the shore,
the singers and the dancers began to fall asleep.

The girl, too, had gone to sleep, but not soundly like the spirits.
When the sun had reached the meridian, she woke, and now, to her
horror, she saw that instead of being in the midst of beautiful
spirits, she was surrounded by hideous skeletons and loathsome,
decaying bodies. Around her waist were the bony arms and skeleton
fingers of her lover, and his grinning teeth and gaping eye-sockets
seemed to be turned in mockery upon her. Screaming with horror she
leaped up and ran to the edge of the island, where, after hunting
a long time, she found a boat, in which she paddled across to the
Indian village. Having presented herself to her astonished parents,
they became fearful that some great calamity would visit the tribe on
account of her return, and accordingly her father took her the next
night back to the memaloose island as before. There she met again the
happy spirits of the blessed and there again her lover and she spent
another night in ecstatic bliss.

In the course of time a child was born to the girl, beautiful beyond
description, being half spirit and half human. The spirit bridegroom,
being anxious that his mother should see the child, sent a spirit
messenger to the village, desiring his mother to come by night to the
memaloose island to visit them. She was told, however, that she must
not look at the child until ten days had passed. But after the old
woman had reached the island her desire to see the wonderful child was
so intense that she took advantage of a moment's inattention on the
part of the guard, and, lifting the cloth from the baby board, she
stole a look at the sleeping infant. And then, dreadful to relate, the
baby died in consequence of this premature human look. Grieved and
displeased by this foolish act, the spirit people decreed that the dead
should never again return nor hold any communication with the living.

As showing still another phase of Indian imagination, the stories of
the "Tomanowas Bridge" of the Cascades may well find a place here.

This myth not only treats of fire, but it also endeavors to account for
the peculiar formation of the river and for the great snow peaks in
the near vicinity. This myth has various forms, and in order that it
may be the better understood, we shall say a word with respect to the
peculiar physical features in that part of the Columbia. This mighty
river, after having traversed over a thousand miles from its source
in the heart of the Rocky Mountains of Canada, has cleft the Cascade
range asunder with the cañon 3,000 feet in depth. While generally very
swift, that portion of the river between The Dalles and the Cascades,
of about fifty miles, is very deep and sluggish. There are moreover
sunken forests on both sides of the river, visible at low water, which
seem plainly to indicate that at that point the river was dammed up
by some great rock slide or volcanic convulsion. Some of the Indians
affirm that their grandfathers have told them there was a time when the
river at that point passed under an immense natural bridge and that
there were no obstructions to the passage of boats under the bridge.
At the present time there is a cascade of forty feet at that point.
This is now overcome by Government locks. Among other evidences of
some such actual occurrence as the Indians relate is the fact that the
banks of the river at that point are gradually sliding into the river.
The prodigious volume of the Columbia which here rises from fifty
to seventy-five feet during the summer flood and which, as shown by
Government engineers, carries as much water as the Mississippi at New
Orleans, is here continually eating into the banks. The railroad has
slid several inches a year at this point toward the river and requires
frequent readjustment. It is obvious at a slight inspection that this
weird and sublime point in the course of this majestic river has been
the scene of terrific volcanic and probably seismic action. One Indian
legend, probably the best known of all their stories, is to the effect
that the downfall of the great bridge and consequent damming of the
river was due to a great battle between Mount Hood and Mount Adams, in
which Mount Hood hurled a great rock at his antagonist, but falling
short of the mark the rock demolished the bridge instead. This event
has been made use of by Frederick Balch in his beautiful story, "The
Bridge of the Gods," the finest story yet produced in Oregon.

But the finer, though less known legend, which unites both the physical
conformation of the Cascades and the three great snow mountains of
Hood, Adams, and St. Helens, with the origin of fire, is to this
effect. This story was secured by Mr. Fred Saylor of Portland.

According to the Klickitats there was once a father and two sons who
came from the east down the Columbia to the vicinity of where Dalles
City is now located, and there the two sons quarreled as to who should
possess the land. The father, to settle the dispute, shot two arrows,
one to the north and one to the west. He told one son to find the arrow
to the north and the other the one at the west and there to settle and
bring up their families. The first son, going northward, over what
was then a beautiful plain, became the progenitor of the Klickitat
tribe, while the other son was the founder of the great Multnomah
nation of the Willamette Valley. To separate the two tribes more
effectively Sahale reared the chain of the Cascades, though without
any great peaks, and for a long time all things went in harmony. But
for convenience' sake Sahale had created the great tomanowas bridge
under which the waters of the Columbia flowed, and on this bridge he
had stationed a witch woman called Loowit, who was to take charge of
the fire. This was the only fire in the world. As time passed on Loowit
observed the deplorable condition of the Indians, destitute of fire and
the conveniences which it might bring. She therefore besought Sahale
to allow her to bestow fire upon the Indians. Sahale, having been
greatly pleased by the faithfulness and benevolence of Loowit, finally
granted her request. The lot of the Indians was wonderfully improved
by the acquisition of fire. They now began to make better lodges and
clothes and had a variety of food and implements and, in short, were
marvellously benefited by the bounteous gift.

But Sahale, in order to show his appreciation of the care with which
Loowit had guarded the sacred fire, now determined to offer her any
gift she might desire as a reward. Accordingly, in response to his
offer, Loowit asked that she be transformed into a young and beautiful
girl. This was effected and now, as might have been expected, all the
Indian chiefs fell deeply in love with the beautiful guardian of the
tomanowas bridge. Loowit paid little heed to any of them, until finally
there came two magnificent chiefs, one from the north called Klickitat,
and one from the south called Wiyeast. Loowit was uncertain which of
these two she most desired, and as a result a bitter strife arose
between the two, and this waxed hotter and hotter, until finally, with
their respective warriors, they entered upon a desperate war. The land
was ravaged, all the beautiful things which they had made were marred,
and misery and wretchedness ensued. Sahale repented that he had allowed
Loowit to bestow fire upon the Indians, and determined to undo all his
work in so far as he could. Accordingly he broke down the tomanowas
bridge, which dammed up the river with an impassable reef and put to
death Loowit, Klickitat and Wiyeast. But, he said, inasmuch as they
had been so grand and beautiful in life, he would give them a fitting
commemoration after death. Therefore he reared over them as monuments
the great snow peaks; over Loowit what we now call Mount St. Helens,
over Wiyeast the modern Mount Hood, and above Klickitat the stupendous
dome of what we now call Mount Adams.

And now it is a matter of much interest to learn something of the
chief original sources and the most reliable investigators of these
myths. This survey is necessarily incomplete. The endeavor is to name
the students and writers of myths as far as possible. This search goes
beyond Old Walla Walla and covers Old Oregon.

First in the natural order of the investigators and records of Indian
myths come the early explorers and writers of Old Oregon. Most of these
give us little on the special subject of myths, though they give much
on the habits, customs, occupations, and implements of the natives.
The earliest explorer in Oregon, so far as known to the author, to
give any native legend, is Gabriel Franchere, who came to Astoria with
the Astor Fur Company in 1811. In his narrative, upon which Irving's
"Astoria" is largely based, we find a fine story of the creation of men
by Etalapass, and their subsequent improvement by Ecannum. Franchere
says that this legend was related to him by Ellewa, one of the sons
of Concomly, the one-eyed Chinook chief, who figures conspicuously
in Franchere's narrative. Of valuable books of the same period of
Franchere, are Ross Cox's "Adventures on the Columbia River," and
Alexander Ross' "Adventures on the Columbia," both of which contain
valuable references to the customs and superstitious ideas of the
natives, though not much in the way of myths. Ross gives an interesting
myth of the Oakinackens (Okanogans as we now say) about the origin of
the Indians or Skyloo on the white man's island, Samahtumawhoolah.
The Indians were then very white and ruled by a female spirit, or
Great Mother, named Skomalt, but their island got loose and drifted
on the ocean for many suns, and as a result they became darkened to
their present hue. Ross gives also an account of the belief of the
Oakinackens in a good spirit, one of whose names is Skyappe, and a bad
spirit, one of whose names was Chacha. The chief deity of those Indians
seems to have been the great mother of life, Skomalt, whose name also
has the addition of "Squisses." Ross says that those Indians change
their names constantly and doubtless their deities did the same.

[Illustration: POSTOFFICE, WALLA WALLA]

Of valuable books a few years later than those just named, one
especially deserving of mention is Dr. Samuel Parker's "Exploring Tour
Beyond the Rocky Mountains," the result of observations made in 1835
and 1836. This, however, contains little in the way of mythology.
Capt. Charles Wilkes, the American explorer of the early '40s, gives
a very interesting account of a Palouse myth of a beaver which was
cut up to make the tribes. This is evidently another version of the
Klickitat story of the great beaver, Wishpoosh, of Lake Cleelum. One
of the most important of the early histories of Oregon is Dunn's, the
materials for which were gathered in the decade of the '40s. With other
valuable matter it contains accounts of the religious conceptions
of the Indians, and here we find the legend of the Thunder Bird of
the Tinneh, a northern tribe. In this same general period, though
a little later, we find the most brilliant of all writers dealing
with Oregon; that is, the gifted scholar, poet and soldier, Theodore
Winthrop. His book, "Canoe and Saddle," has no rival for literary
excellence and graphic power, among all the books which have dealt with
the Northwest. The book was first published in 1862, and republished
fifty years later in beautiful form by John H. Williams of Tacoma.
"Canoe and Saddle" commemorates a journey from Puget Sound across the
mountains and through the Yakima and Klickitat countries in 1854. It
contains several fine Indian stories, notably that of the Miser of
Mount Tacoma, and that of the Devil of the Dalles. Winthrop does not
state from whom directly he secured the second of these myths, but no
doubt from the Indians themselves, though the peculiar rich imagination
and picturesque language of Winthrop are in evidence throughout the
narration. The tale of the Miser of Mount Tacoma is attributed by
Winthrop to Hamitchou, an Indian of the Squallygamish tribe.

At about the some time as Winthrop's, occurred the visit and
investigations of James G. Swan, whose book, "The Northwest Coast," was
published in 1857. In this is found the creation myth of the Ogress
of Saddle Mountain, relating the issuing forth of Indians from eggs
cast down the mountain-side by the Ogress. Many years ago Rev. Myron
Eells told the writer a variation of that story, which has appeared
in sundry forms and publications, being the story of Toulux, the
South Wind, Quootshoi the witch, and Skamson the Thunder Bird. In
addition to the legend of the Thunder Bird, Swan gives many items of
peculiar interest. Among these we find his idea that certain customs
of the Indians ally them with the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. His final
impression seems to be, however, that they are autocthonous in America.
He refers to the observation of General George Gibbs of the similarity
of Klickitat myths to those in Longfellow's Hiawatha. He also refers
to the beeswax ship of the Nehalem. In connection with the thought
of Indian resemblance to the Ten Lost Tribes, it is worth noticing
that this has come forth from various directions. Miss Kate McBeth
has expressed the same in connection with the Nez Perces. It was also
a favorite idea with B. B. Bishop, one of the earliest builders of
steamboats on the Columbia, who lived many years at Pendleton, Oregon.
He told the writer that the Indians at the Cascades had a spring
festival with the first run of salmon. They would boil whole the first
large salmon caught, and have a ceremony in which the whole tribe would
pass in procession around the fish, each taking a bit. They exercised
the utmost care to leave the skeleton intact, so that at the end it had
been picked clean but with not a bone broken. Mr. Bishop thought that
this was a survival of the Jewish idea of the Paschal Lamb.

Among the great collectors of all kinds of historical data in what
might be called the middle period of Northwest history and not exactly
belonging to any one of the specific groups, is H. H. Bancroft, already
referred to in the first part of this chapter. In his "Native Races,"
are found many myths, with references given, but these mainly deal
with Mexican, Central American, and Californian Indians. He refers to
Holmburg's ethnological studies in German as containing valuable matter
in regard to our Northwestern Indians. _Harmon's Journal_, with its
reference to the Tacullies of British Columbia and their legend of the
Musk Rat, is also named. In the same connection we find reference to
Yehl the Raven, an especial favorite of the Indians of British Columbia
and the upper part of Puget Sound.

From what may be termed the first group of narrators of native tales,
we may turn to those that may be called the scientific ethnologists.
We are indebted to Dr. Franz Boas, himself the foremost of the group,
for the list of these professional students of the subject. These men
took up the matter in a more scientific and methodical way than the
travellers and pioneers and have presented the results of their work in
form that appeals to the scholar, the work of trained investigators,
seeking the facts and giving them as exactly as possible, not affected
by the distortions and exaggerations common to unscientific observers.
They were all connected with the Smithsonian Institute, and their work
was mainly under the Government.

The Bibliography as given by Doctor Boas, is as follows:

 Edward Sapir, Wishram Texts (publications of the American
 Ethnological Society, Vol. II).

 Leo J. Frachtenberg, Coos Texts (Columbia University contributions to
 Anthropology, Vol. I).

 Leo J. Frachtenberg, Lower Umpqua Texts (Ibid., Vol. IV).

 James Teit, Traditions of the Thompson Indians (Memoirs of the
 American Folk-Lore Society, Vol. VI). (This is not Washington, but
 practically identical with material from the interior of Washington.)

 James Teit, Mythology of the Thompson Indians (Jesup North Pacific
 Expedition Publications, Vol. VIII).

 James Teit, The Shuswap (Ibid., Vol. II).

 Franz Boas, Indianische Sagen von der Nord-Pacifischen Küste Amerikas.

 Franz Boas, Mythology of the Indians of Washington and Oregon
 (Globus, Vol. LXIII, pp. 154-157, 172-175, 190-193).

 H. J. Spinden, Myths of the Nez Percé (Journal of American Folk Lore,
 Vol. XXI).

 Louisa McDermott, Myths of the Flathead Indians (Ibid., Vol. XIV).

 Franz Boas, Sagen der Kootenay (Berlin Society for Anthropology,
 Ethnology, etc., Vol. XXIII, pp. 161-172).

 Livingston Farrand, Traditions of the Quinault Indians (Publications
 of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. II).

 Franz Boas, Chinook Texts (Bureau of Ethnology, Government Printing
 Office, 1894).

 Franz Boas, Cathlamet Texts (Ibid.).

 James Teit, Traditions of the Lilloost Indians (Journal of American
 Folk-Lore, Vol. XXV).

 Jeremiah Curtin, Myths of the Modocs (Little, Brown & Co.).

To these may be added, as of special value, the studies of Prof.
Albert S. Gatchett among the Modocs, found under the title, "Oregonian
Folk-Lore" in the _Journal of American Folk-Lore_, Vol. IV, 1891,
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. The other volumes of the _Journal of American
Folk-Lore_ from 1888 to 1913 contain valuable matter.

Doctor Boas found a treasury of information in an old Indian named
Charlie Cultee, at Bay Center in Willapa Harbor, Wash., and from that
source derived the material for the most scientific and uncolored study
of Indian lore yet given to the public. These appear in the Chinook
Texts of Doctor Boas. In this is a fine story of the first ship seen by
the Clatsops. This is found also in H. S. Lyman's History of Oregon. In
Professor Gatchett's book are found some of the finest fire myths and
fish myths of the Northwest.

Following the groups of the explorers and the professional
ethnologists, may come the larger body of miscellaneous collectors and
writers, who, through local papers and magazines and published books,
as well as personal narration, have rescued many quaint and curious
gems of Indian mythology from oblivion and through various channels
have imparted them to the slowly accumulating stock.

Those no longer living may properly appear first. Of comparatively
recent students no longer living, Silas Smith of Astoria was of the
best. His father was Solomon Smith of the Wyeth Expedition, while his
mother was Celiast, daughter of the Clatsop chief Cobaiway. Through his
Indian mother Mr. Smith obtained much interesting matter, much of which
was preserved by H. S. Lyman in his history of Oregon, and in articles
in the _Oregonian_, _Historical Quarterly_, and other publications. H.
S. Lyman was also an original investigator, deriving his data mainly
from Silas Smith and from a group of Indians who formerly lived at the
mouth of the Nekanicum. These stories appear in his history of Oregon
and in a group contained in the "Tallapus Stories," published in the
_Oregonian_. Another intelligent and patient investigator was Rev.
Myron Eells, who lived for many years on Hood's Canal. Many years ago
the author heard from him legends from the Indians which he derived
directly from the natives, such as the Thunder Bird, the Flood around
Mount Tacoma (which he thought colored by the story of Noah in the
Bible), and others. In the book by Mr. Eells, entitled "Ten Years'
Missionary Work in Skokomish," he gives a valuable description of the
"Tomanowas." In various numbers of the _American Antiquarian_ Mr. Eells
has valuable articles as follows: "The Religion of the Twana Indians,"
July, 1879; "Dokidatl, or the God of the Puget Sound Indians,"
November, 1884; "The Indians of Puget Sound," May, 1888, and March,
1890.

Prominent among the scholars and lecturers of Oregon is the great name
of Thomas Condon, for a long time in the State University, and the
earliest student in a large way of the geology of the Northwest. He
was interested in Indian myths as in almost everything that had to do
with man and nature. The legend of the "Bridge of the Gods," already
given in this chapter, particularly appealed to him. One of the notable
students of both the geology and anthropology of the Northwest was
George Gibbs, who came to Oregon as a Government geologist in 1853.
In his report on the Pacific Railroad in House of Representatives
Documents of 1853-4, he gives the first published version, so far as
we can discover, of the "Bridge of the Gods." He tells the story thus:
"The Indians tell a characteristic tale of Mount Hood and Mount St.
Helens to the effect that they were man and wife; that they finally
quarreled and threw fire at one another, and that St. Helens was
victor; since when Mount Hood has been afraid, while St. Helens, having
a stout heart, still burned. In some versions this story is connected
with the slide which formed the Cascades of the Columbia." Mr. Gibbs
also gives some Yakima legends.

One of the most distinguished of all the literary pioneers of Old
Oregon was Samuel A. Clark. In his "Pioneer Days in Oregon" are several
interesting legends well told. In this we find the legend of the
Nahalem, with Ona and Sandy and all their tribulations. We find here
told also the story of the Bridge of the Gods, in which Hood and Adams
are represented as the contending forces, having been originally the
abutments of the Bridge of the Gods. But the most noted contribution
of Mr. Clark to this legend was his poem called, "The Legend of the
Mountains," referring to the fabled bridge, which appeared in _Harper's
Magazine_ of February, 1874. This represents Mount St. Helens as a
goddess for whom Hood and Adams contended, hurling huge stones at each
other and finally breaking down the bridge. The story of the bridge
became the most noted of all native myths, being related to practically
every traveller that made the steamboat trip down the Columbia.

Let us now turn to those discoverers and writers of Indian myths who
are still living. The majority of these are from the nature of the case
adaptors and transcribers, rather than original students. But some
among them are entitled to the place of genuine investigators. Among
these a foremost place must be accorded to Fred A. Saylor of Portland.
He was for several years editor of the _Oregon Native Son_, and for
it he wrote a number of stories which he derived directly from the
Indians. A student of these stories from boyhood, he has accumulated
the largest collection of matter both published and unpublished of
anyone in the Northwest. This collection is preserved by him in
fourteen large scrap books, and constitutes a treasury of valuable
data which it is to be hoped may soon appear in a published form for
the delight and profit of many readers. Among the legends of which
Mr. Saylor is entitled to be regarded as the discoverer are these:
"The Legend of Tahoma"; "Why the Indian Fears Golden Hair," or, "The
Origin of Castle Rock;" "Speelyi, or the Origin of Latourelle Falls,
and the Pillars of Hercules;" "Thorns on Rosebushes;" "The Noah of the
Indians;" "The Strange Story of a Double Shadow;" "The Legend of Snake
River Valley;" "A Wappato Account of the Flood;" "The Last Signal Fire
of the Multnomah;" "The Legend of the Willamette;" "The Love of an
Indian Maid;" "Enumpthla;" "Coyote's Tomb;" "Multnomah." The last named
has been presented by students on the campus of the State University
and also at the Agricultural College of Oregon.

Of investigators known to the author, none seems more worthy of
extended and favorable mention than Dr. G. B. Kuykendall of Pomeroy,
Wash. He was for a number of years the physician for the Yakima
Reservation at Fort Simcoe. He began his work of collecting in 1875,
deriving his knowledge directly from the Indians. His authorities
were almost entirely old Indians, for from such only could he secure
narrations of unadulterated character. His first published writings
were in the "West Shore," of Portland, in 1887. His most mature
contribution, which may indeed be considered the best yet given to the
public, is found in Vol. II, of the "History of the Pacific Northwest,"
published by the North Pacific History Co., of Portland, in 1889. This
is an admirable piece of work, and students of the subject will find
here a treasure of native lore. The following is the list of stories
given by Dr. Kuykendall in that work: "Wishpoosh, the Beaver God, and
the Origin of the Tribes;" "Speelyi Fights Enumtla;" "Speelyi Outwits
the Beaver Women;" "Rock Myths;" "Legend of the Tick;" "Mountain Lake
Myths;" "The Origin of Fire;" "Water Nymphs;" "Wawa, the Mosquito God;"
"Origin of the Loon;" "Castiltah, the Crayfish;" "Wakapoosh, the Rattle
Snake;" "The Tumwater Luminous Stone God;" "The Wooden Fireman of the
Cascades;" "Contest Between the Chinooks and Cold Wind Brothers;"
"Speelyi's Ascent to Heaven;" "Coyote and Eagle Attempt to Bring the
Dead Back from Spirit Land;" "The Isle of the Dead."

Another original investigator and the author of an unique and
picturesque book devoted exclusively to Indian myths, is W. S. Phillips
of Seattle, well known by his non-de-plume of "El Comancho." The book
by Mr. Phillips is "Totem Tales." Mr. Phillips says that he gathered
the matter for "Totem Tales" from the Puget Sound Indians and from
Haida Indians who had come south. This work was mainly done about
twenty-five years ago. He verified much of his matter by comparing
with Judge Swan, and by the stories acquired by Doctor Shaw, who was
at one time Indian agent at Port Madison, and whose wife was one of
the daughters of old Chief Sealth (Seattle). He derived matter for
comparison also from Rev. Myron Eells. The chief Indian authority of
Mr. Phillips was old Chisiahka (Indian John to the Whites), and it
was a big tree on the shore of Lake Union that suggested the idea of
the "Talking Pine," which the author wove so picturesquely into the
narrative. Mr. Phillips has also published the "Chinook Book," the most
extensive study of the jargon language yet made. To the others he has
added a most attractive book entitled, "Indian Tales for Little Folks."

Another present day investigator, whose work is especially worthy of
mention is Rev. J. Neilson Barry, an enthusiastic and intelligent
student of every phase of the history of the Northwest. In Chapter III
of Volume I of Gaston's "Centennial History of Oregon," Mr. Barry gives
a valuable contribution to Indian legends.

Yet another original student is Miss Kate McBeth of Lapwai, Idaho,
who with her sister lived for years among the Nez Perces, performing
a most beneficent missionary work for them. In her book, "The Nez
Perces Since Lewis and Clark," may be found the Kamiah myth, and a few
others derived directly from those Indians. Mention may well be made
here also of a Nez Percé Indian named Luke, previously referred to,
living at Kamiah, who has a very intelligent knowledge of all kinds of
Indian matters. Miss McBeth says that the Nez Perces do not like to
discuss generally their "heathen" stories and customs. In connection
with the Nez Perces it may be stated that Yellow Wolf of Nespilem is an
authority on the myth of the Kamiah Monster.

Still another enthusiastic student of Indian legends is Lucullus V.
McWhorter of North Yakima. He is an adopted member of the Yakima tribe,
and has been of incalculable benefit to the Indians in instructing them
as to their rights, in presenting their cause to the Government, and in
making known their needs as well as some of their wrongs to the general
public through voice and pen. He has made a specialty in recent years
of organizing the Indians and taking them to "Round-Ups" and "Frontier
Days." A recent pamphlet by him on the treatment of the Yakimas in
connection with their water rights is an "eye-opener," on some phases
of Indian service and Indian problems. Mr. McWhorter has gathered a
large amount of matter from the Indians, in which is material for three
books: "Traditions of the Yakimas;" "Hero Stories of the Yakimas;" "Nez
Percé Warriors in the War of 1877." Among the proteges of Mr. McWhorter
from whom he tells me much of interest could be derived, are Chief
Yellow Wolf of the Joseph Band of Nez Perces, and Mrs. Crystal McLeod,
known to her people as Humishuma, or Morning Dove, an Okanogan woman
of unusual beauty and intelligence and well instructed in the English
language. Her picture appears in this work from photographs taken by
Mr. John Langdon of Walla Walla.

Any reference to any phase of Oregon would be incomplete without
mention of John Minto, one of the most honored of pioneers, one of
the noblest of men, and one of the best examples of those ambitious,
industrious, and high minded state builders who gave the Northwest its
loftiest ideals. Mr. Minto was a student of the Indians and discovered
and gave to the world various Clatsop and Nehalem legends. Hon. E. L.
Smith of Hood River, Ore., well known as an official and legislator
of both Oregon and Washington, and a man of such character that all
who ever knew him have the highest honor for him in every relation
of life, has made a lifelong study of the natives and has a great
collection of myths both in mind and on paper. He is one of the most
sympathetic, tolerant, and appreciative of investigators, one whom the
Indians of the Mid-Columbia trust implicitly. He has written little for
publication in comparison with what he knows, and it is to be hoped
that his stores of material may be brought within reach before long.
Worthy of mention as a general student of the geography and language
of the Indians is Mr. John Gill of Portland. While he has not made a
specialty of myths, he has studied the habits and language with special
attention, and his dictionary of the Chinook jargon is one of the most
valuable collections of the kind.

It is proper to mention here several who are well versed in native
lore, yet who have not given their knowledge of legends or myths to the
public in book or magazine form. The most conspicuous, indeed, of this
group is no longer living. This was Dr. William C. McKay, a grandson of
the McKay of the Astor Fur Company, who lost his life on the Tonquin.
The mother of Doctor McKay was a Chinook "princess." He was a man of
great ability and acquired a fine education. He lived for years, in
Pendleton, Ore., where he died some time ago. In the possession of his
children and grandchildren there is undoubtedly valuable material and
if it could be reduced to written form it would furnish matter of great
interest. Certain others of Indian blood may be properly added here who
could give material for interesting narrations. Among these are Henry
Sicade and William Wilton, living on the Puyallup Reservation near
Tacoma, Samuel McCaw of Yakima, Wash., and Charlie Pitt of the Warm
Springs Agency in Oregon.

This summary of Indian stories and their investigators is necessarily
incomplete. One of the hopes in including it in this work is that it
may lead to added contributions. As we contemplate the beauty and
grandeur of Old Oregon, which includes Washington and Idaho and a part
of Montana, and the pathos, heroism and nobility of its history, and
as we see the pitiful remnant of the Indians, we cannot fail to be
touched with the quaint, the pathetic, and the suggestive myths and
legends that are passing with them into the twilight. In our proud days
of possession and of progress we do well to pause and drop the tear of
sympathy and place the chaplet of commemoration upon the resting place
of the former lords of the land, and to recognize their contributions
to the common stock of human thought.



CHAPTER III

THE FIRST EXPLORERS AND THEIR ROUTES THROUGH THE REGION


Of all events in early American history influential in their bearing
upon the territorial development of the United States, the Louisiana
Purchase in 1803 must be accorded the foremost place. Until that
event the United States, in spite of the fact that it had gained
independence, was essentially European in its habit of thought
and colonial in its aspirations and outlook. A few seers indeed
recognized the possibilities of continental expansion. The doctrine of
"manifest destiny" had held the glowing vision of the place in history
which might be wrought by a continent, or at least the dominating
parts of it, under the control of the same race of men who had
redeemed the Atlantic seaboard from the wilderness and successfully
maintained against the greatest empire of the world the proposition
that "Governments derive their just powers from the consent of the
governed." The author of those words had seen more clearly perhaps than
any other the world vision of a great American democracy, independent
of Europe and yet by reason of geographical position as well as
political ideals and social aspirations, the natural mediator among
peoples and the ultimate teacher and enlightener of mankind.

When, therefore, as a result of the political revolution of 1800
and the permanent establishment of the democratic conception in the
leadership of American politics, Thomas Jefferson found himself
invested with the enormous responsibility of framing policies and
measures for the new era, one of his foremost aims was to turn the face
of the nation westward. Having long entertained the idea that the true
policy was to secure such posts of vantage beyond the Alleghenies as
would lead by natural stages to the acquisition of the country beyond
the Mississippi, even to the Pacific, he was alert to seize any opening
for pursuing that truly American policy. He did not have long to wait.
At the time of his inauguration the stupendous energies of the French
Revolution had become concentrated in that overpowering personality,
Napoleon Bonaparte. Holding then the position of first consul, but
as truly the imperial master as when he placed the iron crown of the
Lombards upon his own head, "the man on horseback" perceived that a
renewal of the great war was inevitable and that Austria on land and
England at sea were going to put metes to his empire if human power
could do it. Nothing was more hateful to Napoleon than to let French
America, or Louisiana, slip from his grasp. But he had not the maritime
equipment to defend it. England was sure to take it and that soon.
Monroe, the American envoy, was in Paris fully instructed by President
Jefferson what to do. All things were ready. The man and the occasion
met. The Louisiana Purchase was consummated. For less than three cents
an acre, a region now comprising thirteen states or parts of states,
estimated at over five hundred and sixty-five million acres, equal in
extent to all Europe outside of Russia and Scandinavia, became part of
the United States.

[Illustration: HIGH SCHOOL, WAITSBURG]

When that great event was consummated and one of the milestones in the
world's progress upon the highway of universal democracy had been set
for good, the next step in the mind of Jefferson was to provide for
the exploration of the vast new land. The westward limits of Louisiana
were not indeed defined by the treaty of purchase otherwise than as the
boundaries by which the territory had been ceded by Spain to France,
and those boundaries in turn were defined only as those by which France
had in 1763 ceded to Spain. Hence the western boundary of Louisiana
was uncertain. Although subsequent agreements and usages determined
the boundary to be the crest of the Rocky Mountains as far south as
Texas, Jefferson seems to have thought that the entire continent to
the Pacific ought to be included in the exploration, for he saw also
that the destiny of his country required the ultimate union of Atlantic
and Pacific coasts, as well as the great central valley. From these
conceptions and aims of Jefferson sprang that most interesting and
influential of all exploring expeditions in our history, the Lewis and
Clark exploration from St. Louis up the Missouri, across the Rocky
Mountains, and down the Snake and Columbia rivers to the Pacific Ocean.
Jefferson had contemplated such an expedition a long time. Even as far
back as December 4, 1783, in a letter to George Rogers Clark, he raised
the question of an exploration from the Mississippi to California.
In 1792 he took it up with the American Philosophical Society, and
even then Meriwether Lewis was eager to head such an expedition.
In a message to Congress of January 18, 1803, before the Louisiana
Purchase, Jefferson developed the importance of a thorough exploration
of the continent even to the Western Ocean. With his characteristic
secrecy, Jefferson was disposed to mask the great design of ultimate
acquisition of the continent under the appearance of scientific
research. In a letter to Lewis of April 27, 1803, he says: "The idea
that you are going to explore the Mississippi has been generally given
out; it satisfies public curiosity and masks sufficiently the real
destination." That real destination was, of course, the Pacific Ocean,
and the fundamental aim was the continental expansion of the then crude
and straggling Republic of the West. Considering the momentous nature
of the undertaking and the possibilities of the unknown wilderness
which it was to cover, it is curious and suggestive that Lewis had
estimated the expenses at $2,500, and Jefferson called upon Congress
for that amount of appropriation. An explorer of the present would
hardly expect to go out doors on that scale of expense. Jeffersonian
simplicity with a vengeance!

The scope of our book does not permit any detailed account of the
preparations or of the personnel of the party. Suffice it to say that
the leader, Meriwether Lewis, and his lieutenant, William Clark, were
men of energy, discretion, courage, and the other necessary qualities
for such an undertaking. While not men of education or general culture
(Clark could not even spell or compose English correctly) they both
had an abundance of common sense and in preparation for their mission
gained a hurried preparation in the essentials of botany, zoology, and
astronomy such as might enable them to observe and report intelligently
upon the various objects of discovery and the distances and directions
traversed.

Jefferson's instructions to Captain Lewis give one an added respect for
the intelligence and broad humanity of the great democrat. Particularly
did he enjoin upon the leader of the party the wisdom of amicable
relations with the natives. The benevolent spirit of the President
appears in his direction that kine-pox matter be taken and that its use
for preventing smallpox be explained to the Indians. All readers of
American history should read these instructions, both for an estimate
of Jefferson personally, and for light they throw on the conditions and
viewpoints of the times.

The number in the party leaving St. Louis was forty-five. But one death
occurred upon the whole journey, which lasted from May 14, 1804, to
September 23, 1806. Never perhaps did so extended and difficult an
expedition suffer no little. And this was the more remarkable from the
fact that there was no physician nor scientific man with the party
and that whatever was needed in the way of treating the occasional
sicknesses or accidents must be done by the captains. While to their
natural force and intelligence the party owed a large share of its
immunity from disaster, good fortune surely attended them. This seems
the more noticeable when we reflect that this was the first journey
across a wilderness afterwards accentuated with every species of
suffering and calamity.

The members of the party were encouraged to preserve journals and
records to the fullest degree, and from this resulted a fullness
of detail by a number of the men as well as the leaders which has
delighted generations of readers ever since. And in spite of the fact
that none of the writers had any literary genius, these journals are
fascinating on account of the nature of the undertaking and a certain
glow of enthusiasm which invested with a charm even the plain and
homely details of the long journey.

The first stage of the expedition was from St. Louis, May 14, 1804,
to a point 1,600 miles up the Missouri, reached November 2. There
the party wintered in a structure which they called Fort Mandan. The
location was on the west bank of the Missouri, opposite the present
City of Pierre. The journey had been made by boats at an average
advance of ten miles a day. The river, though swift and with frequent
shoals, offered no serious impediments, even for a long distance above
Fort Mandan.

After a long, cold winter in the country of the Mandans, the expedition
resumed their journey up the Missouri on April 7, 1805. Of the
interesting details of this part of their course we cannot speak.
Reaching the headwaters of the Missouri on August 12, they crossed that
most significant spot, the Great Divide. A quotation from the journal
of Captain Lewis indicates the lively sentiments with which they passed
from the Missouri waters to those of the Columbia: "As they proceeded,
their hope of seeing the waters of the Columbia rose to almost painful
anxiety; when at the distance of four miles from the last abrupt turn
of the stream, they reached a small gap formed by the high mountains
which recede on either side, leaving room for the Indian road. From
the foot of one of the lowest of these mountains, which rises with a
gentle ascent for about half a mile, issued the remotest water of the
Missouri. They had now reached the hidden sources of that river which
had never before been seen by civilized man; and as they quenched their
thirst at the chaste and icy fountain--as they sat down by the brink
of the little rivulet which yielded its distant and modest tribute to
the parent ocean--they felt themselves rewarded for all their labors
and difficulties. * * * They found the descent much steeper than on the
eastern side, and at the distance of three-quarters of a mile, reached
a handsome, bold creek of cold, clear water running to the westward.
They stopped to taste for the first time the waters of the Columbia."

After some very harassing and toilsome movements in that vast cordon
of peaks in which lie the cradles of the Missouri, Yellowstone, Snake,
Clearwater, and Bitterroot rivers--more early reaching starvation point
than at any time on the trip--the party emerged upon a lofty height
from which their vision swept over a vast expanse of open prairie,
in which it became evident that there were many natives and, as they
judged, the near vicinity of the great river, which, as they thought,
would carry them in short order to the Western Ocean of their quest.
They little realized that they were yet more than six hundred miles
from the edge of the continent. Descending upon the plain, they made
their way to the Kooskooskie, now known as the Clearwater River. As
judged by Olin D. Wheeler in his invaluable book, "On The Trail of
Lewis and Clark," the explorers crossed from what is now Montana into
the present Idaho at the Lolo Pass, and proceeded thence down the
broken country between the north and middle forks of the Kooskooskie,
reaching the junction on September 26. The camp at that spot was called
Canoe Camp. There they remained nearly two weeks, most of them sick
through overeating after they had sustained so severe a fast in the
savage defiles of the Bitter Roots, and from the effects of the very
great change in temperature from the snowy heights to the hot valley
below. At Canoe Camp they constructed boats for the further prosecution
of their journey. They left their thirty-eight horses with three
Indians of the Chopunnish or Pierced-Nose tribe, or Nez Percé as we now
know them.

With their canoes they entered upon a new stage of their journey,
one easy and pleasant after the hardships of the mountains. Down the
beautiful Kooskooskie, then low in its autumn stage, they swept gaily,
finding frequent rapids, though none serious. The pleasant-sounding
name Kooskooskie, which ought to be preserved (though Clearwater is
appropriate and sonorous), was supposed by the explorers to be the
name of the river. This it appears was a misapprehension. The author
has been told by a very intelligent Indian named Luke, living at
Kamiah, that the Indians doubtless meant to tell the white men that the
stream was _Koos_, _koos_, or _water_, _water_. _Koos_ was and still
is the Nez Percé word for water. Luke stated that the Indians did not
regularly have names for streams, but only for localities, and referred
to rivers as the water or _koos_ belonging to some certain locality.

After a prosperous descent of the beautiful and impetuous stream
for a distance estimated by them at fifty-nine miles (considerably
overestimated) the party entered a much larger stream coming from the
south. This they understood the Indians to call the Kimooenim. They
named it the Lewis in honor of Captain Lewis. It was the great Snake
River of our present maps. The writer has been told by Mr. Thomas
Beall of Lewiston that the true Indian name is Twelka. Still another
native name is Shahaptin. The party was now at the present location
of Lewiston and Clarkston, one of the most notable regions in the
Northwest for beauty, fertility, and all the essentials of capacity
for sustaining a high type of civilized existence. The land adjoining
Snake River on the west is Asotin County, one of the components of our
history. The party camped on the right bank just below the junction,
and that first camp of white men was nearly opposite both Lewiston
and Clarkston of today. They say that the Indians flocked from all
directions to see them. The scantiness of their fare had brought them
to the stage of eating dog-meat, which they say excited the ridicule
of the natives. The Indians gave them to understand that the southern
branch was navigable up about sixty miles; that not far from its mouth
it received a branch from the south, and at two days' march up a larger
branch called Pawnashte, on which a chief resided who had more horses
than he could count.

The first of these must be the Asotin Creek, unless indeed they
referred to the Grande Ronde, which is the first large stream, but
is considerable distance from the junction. The Pawnashte must have
been the Salmon, the largest tributary of the Snake. The Snake at the
point of the camp of the explorers was discovered to be about three
hundred yards wide. The party noticed the greenish blue color of the
Snake, while the Kooskooskie was as clear as crystal. The Indians at
this point are described as of the Chopunnish or Pierced-Nose nations,
the latter of those names translated by the French voyageurs into the
present Nez Percé. According to the observations of the party, the men
were in person stout, portly, well-looking men; the women small, with
good features and generally handsome. The chief article of dress of the
men was a "buffalo or elk-skin robe decorated with beads, sea-shells,
chiefly mother-of-pearl, attached to an otter-skin collar and hung
in the hair, which falls in front in two queues; feathers, paints of
different kinds, principally white, green, and light blue, all of
which they find in their own country. The dress of the women is more
simple, consisting of a long skirt of argalia or ibex-skin, reaching
down to the ankles without a girdle; to this are tied little pieces
of brass and shells and other small articles." Further on the journal
states again: "The Chopunnish have few amusements, for their life is
painful and laborious; and all their exertions are necessary to earn
even their precarious subsistence. During the summer and autumn they
are busily occupied in fishing for salmon and collecting their winter
store of roots. In the winter they hunt the deer on snow-shoes over
the plains, and towards spring cross the mountains to the Missouri for
the purpose of trafficking for buffalo robes." It may be remarked here
parenthetically that there is every indication that buffalo formerly
inhabited the Snake and Columbia plains. In fact, buffalo bones have
been found in recent years in street excavations at Spokane. What
cataclysm may have led to their extermination is hidden in obscurity.
But at the first coming of the whites it was discovered that one of the
regular occupations of the natives was crossing the Rocky Mountains to
hunt or trade for buffalo.

Soon after resuming the journey on October 11, the explorers noted with
curiosity one of the vapor baths common among those Indians, which they
say differed from those on the frontiers of the United States or in the
Rocky Mountains. The bath-house was a hollow square six or eight feet
deep, formed in the river bank by damming up with mud the other three
sides and covering the whole completely except an aperture about two
feet wide at the top. The bathers descended through that hole, taking
with them a jug of water and a number of hot rocks. They would throw
the water on the rocks until it steamed and in that steam they would
sit until they had perspired sufficiently, and then they would plunge
into cold water. This species of entertainment seems to have been
very sociable, for one seldom bathed alone. It was considered a great
affront to decline an invitation to join a bathing party.

The explorers seem to have had a very calm and uneventful descent
of Snake River. They describe the general lay of the country
accurately, noting that beyond the steep ascent of 200 feet (it is in
reality a great deal more in all the upper part of this portion of
Snake River) the country becomes an open, level, and fertile plain,
entirely destitute of timber. They note all the rapids with sufficient
particularity to enable anyone thoroughly familiar with the river to
identify most of them. They make special observation of the long series
of rapids commonly known now as the Riparia and Texas Rapids, and
below these observe a large creek on the left which they denominate as
Kimooenim Creek. This is rather odd, for that had already been noted
as the native name of the main river. A few miles further down they
pass through a bad rapid but twenty-five yards wide. Of course, it
must be remembered that the time was October and the river was about
at its lowest. This was the narrow crack of the Palouse Rapids, which,
however, is not so narrow as they estimated, even at low water. At the
end of this rapid they discovered a large river on the right, to which
they gave the name of Drewyer, one of their party, their mighty hunter
in fact. This was a many-named stream, for it was later the Pavion,
the Pavillion, and at the last the present Palouse, the equivalent, we
are told again by Thomas Beall, for gooseberry. The principal rapids
below the entrance of the Palouse are known at present as Fishhook,
Long's Crossing, Pine Tree, the Potato Patch, and Five Mile. Five
Mile looked so bad to them that they unloaded the canoes and made a
portage of three-quarters of a mile. At a distance below this, which
they estimated as seven miles, they reached that interesting place
where the great northern and southern branches of the Big River unite.
They were then at the location of the present Village of Burbank.
Many interesting events and observations are chronicled of their stay
at that point. Soon after their arrival a regular procession of 200
Indians from a camp a short distance up the Columbia came to visit
them, timing their approach with the music of drums, accompanied with
the voice. There seems to have followed a regular love-feast, both
parties taking whiffs of the friendly pipe and expressing as best they
could their common joy at the meeting. Then came a distribution of
presents and a mutual pledging of good will.

The captains measured the rivers, finding the Columbia 960 yards wide
and the Snake 575. From their point of observation across the continued
plain they noted how it rose into the heights on the farther side
of the river. They had already taken into account the far distant
mountains to the south, our own Blue Mountains, which they thought
about sixty miles distant, just about the right estimate. It is to be
hoped that it was one of the perfect days not infrequent in October
and that the azure hues of those mountains which we love today were
before them in all their rich, soft splendor. They noted in the clear
water of the river the incredible number of salmon. The Indians gave
them to understand that frequently in the absence of other fuel they
burned the fish that, having been thrown upon the bank, became so dry
as to make excellent fuel. These Indians were of a tribe known as
Sokulks. According to the description they were hardly so good-looking
a people as the Chopunnish, but were of mild and peaceable disposition
and seemed to live in a state of comparative happiness. The men, like
those on the Kimooenim, were said to content themselves with a single
wife. The explorers noted that the men shared with their mates the
labor of procuring subsistence more than is usual among savages. They
were also very kind to the aged and infirm. Nor were they inclined to
beggary. All things considered, these Sokulks at the junction of the
big rivers were worthy of much esteem. Captain Clark made a journey
up the Columbia, in the course of which he made sundry interesting
observations on the Indian manner of preparing salmon for preservation,
as well as for present use. At one point he entered one of the mat
houses. He was immediately provided with a mat on which to sit and his
hosts proceeded at once to cook a salmon for his repast. This they did
by heating stones, and then, bringing in the fish in a bucket of water,
they dropped in the hot stones in succession till the water boiled.
After sufficiently boiling the salmon, they placed it before the
captain. He found it excellent. He noticed that many of these Indians
were blind in one or both eyes and had lost part of their teeth. The
first of these unfortunate conditions he attributed to the glare of the
water on their unshaded eyes, and the second to their habit of eating
roots without cleansing them from the sandy soil in which they grew. It
would appear from the topography of the journal that Captain Clark went
a short distance above the present site of Kennewick, for he was near
the mouth of a large stream flowing from the west, which the Indians
called the Tapteal, but which later became known as the Yakima, also a
native name. While on land during this trip, the party got grouse (or
what we now call prairie chickens) and ducks, and also a "prairie cock,
about the size of a small turkey." This was evidently a sage hen. It is
recorded that they saw none of that bird except on the Columbia. While
camped at the junction of the rivers, the men were busily engaged in
mending their clothes and travelling outfits and arms, and otherwise
preparing for the next stage of the journey. One very interesting
feature of the stay here was the fact that one of the chiefs with one
of the Chimnapum, a tribe further west, provided the party with a map
of the Columbia and the nations on its banks. This was drawn on a robe
with a piece of coal and afterwards transferred by some one of the
explorers to a piece of paper. They preserved it as a valuable specimen
of Indian delineation.

On October 18, the party packed up and pushing off into the majestic
river, proceeded downward toward the highlands, evidently what we
call the Wallula Gateway. In the general journal, called the Edition
of 1814., in which the contributions of all the party are merged,
there seems to be some confusion as to the mouth of the Walla Walla
River. The record mentions an island near the right shore fourteen and
one-half miles from the mouth of Lewis' River and a mile and a half
beyond that of small brook under a high hill on the left, "seeming to
run its whole course through the high country." This evidently must
be the Walla Walla River, though it can hardly be called a "small
brook," even in the low season, and it flows quite distinctly in a
valley, though the highlands begin immediately below. They also say:
"At this place, too, we observed a mountain to the southwest, the
form of which is conical, and its top covered with snow." This is
obviously incorrect, for Mount Hood, which is the only snow mountain
to the southwest visible anywhere near that place, cannot be seen from
near the mouth of the Walla Walla, except by climbing the highlands.
On the next day, October 19, the party was visited by a chief of whom
they saw more and tell more on their return. This was Yelleppit. They
describe him as a "handsome, well-proportioned man, about five feet,
eight inches high and about thirty-five years old, with a bold and
dignified countenance." His name is preserved in a station on the S.
P. & S. Railroad, located just about at the place where the party met
the chieftain.

After the meeting with Yelleppit, the party once more committed
themselves to the downward rushing current of the Columbia, and passed
beyond the range of our story. Of the interesting details of their
continued journey down the river and the final vision of the ocean,
"that ocean, the object of all our labors, the reward of all our
anxieties," we cannot speak.

Having spent the winter at Fort Clatsop, about ten miles from the
present Astoria and nearly the same distance from the present Seaside,
they left Fort Clatsop for their long return journey, on March 23,
1806. They saw many interesting and important features of the country
on the return, which they failed to note in going down. Among these,
strange to say, was the entrance of the Willamette, the largest river
below the Snake. The return was made as far as the "Long Narrows" (The
Dalles) with the canoes, but at that point they procured horses and
proceeded thence by land. They passed the "Youmalolam" (Umatilla) and
then entering the highlands, were again within the area of "Old Walla
Walla County." Reaching the country of the "Wallawollahs," they again
came in contact with their old friend, whose name appears in that
portion of the journal as Yellept. They found him more of a gentleman
than ever. He insisted on his people making generous provision for the
needs of the party, and gave them the valuable information that by
going up the Wallawollah River and directly east to the junction of the
Snake and Kooskooskie they might have a route full of grass and water
and game, and much shorter than to follow the banks of Snake River.
Accordingly crossing from the north bank of the Columbia, which they
had been following, they found themselves on the Wallawollah. They do
not now describe it as before as a "small brook," but as a "handsome
stream, about fifty yards wide and four and a half feet in depth." They
got one curious misapprehension here which was held later by explorers
in general in regard to the Multnomah or Willamette. They understood
from the Indians that the Willamette ran south of the Blue Mountains
and was as large as the Columbia at the mouth of the Wallawollah, which
they say was about a mile wide. They infer from the whole appearance,
as the Indians seem to explain it, that the sources of the Willamette
must approach those of the Missouri and Del Norte. One quaint and
curious circumstance is mentioned at this stage of the story, as it has
been, in fact, at various times. And that is the extravagant delight
which the Indians derived from the violin. They were so fascinated with
the sound of the instrument and the dancing which accompanied it that
they would come in throngs and sometimes remain up all night. In this
particular instance, however, they were so considerate of the white
men's need of sleep that they retired at ten o'clock.

On the last day of April, 1806, the party turned their horses' heads
eastward up the Wallawollah River across sandy expanses, which,
however, they soon discovered to improve in verdure and in groves of
trees. Having followed the main stream fourteen miles, they reached
"a bold, deep stream, about ten yards wide, which seems navigable for
canoes." They found a profusion of trees along the course of this creek
and were delighted to see all the evidences of increasing timber. This
stream, which they now followed for a number of miles, was evidently
the Touchet, and the point where they turned to follow it was at the
present Town of Touchet. Their course was up the creek for about
twelve miles to a point where the creek bottom widened into a pleasant
country two or three miles in width. This presumably was the fertile
region beginning a mile or so east of the present Lamar, and extending
thence onward to Prescott and beyond. The party made a day's march of
twenty-six miles and camped at a point, which according to the figures
of the next day, would have been near the present Bolles Junction.
One rather quaint incident appears at this point in the narration, to
the effect that when encamped for the night, three young men of the
Wollawollahs came up with a steel trap which had inadvertently been
left behind. The Indians had come a whole day's journey to restore
this. This exhibition of honesty was so gratifying that the narration
affirms that: "Of all the Indians whom we have met since leaving the
United States, the Wollawollahs were the most hospitable, honest, and
sincere."

Resuming the march the next day the explorers noted at a distance of
three miles a branch entering the creek from the "southeast mountains,
which, though covered with snow, are about twenty-five miles distant,
and do not appear high." That branch must have been our Coppei, which
joins the main creek at our pleasant little City of Waitsburg. Having
proceeded a total distance of fourteen miles from the previous night's
camp, the travellers found themselves at a point where the main creek
bore to the south toward the mountains from which it came, and where a
branch entered it from the northeast. This spot was evidently the site
of Dayton, and the branch from the northeast which they now followed
was the Patit. The next day they crossed the Kimooenim, which is the
same that they had designated the Kimooenim Creek on their descent of
Snake River in the fall, being, curiously enough, as already noted, the
same name that they had already understood to be the Indian name of
Snake River. The stream was evidently the Tucannon. From the Tucannon
the course led our adventurers over the high, fertile plains near
to the "southwest mountains" to a ravine "where was the source of a
small creek, down the hilly and rocky sides of which we proceeded for
eight miles to its entrance into Lewis' River, about seven miles and
a half above the mouth of the Kooskooskie." This creek was the Asotin
and therefore the point where they again reached Snake River was that
grand and picturesque place where the attractive town of Asotin is now
located.

The explorers having crossed the river were beyond the jurisdiction of
this volume, and even of the State of Washington, being within that of
Idaho, and hence we cannot follow them further on their return journey.
We must content ourselves, in this farewell glance at this first, and
in many respects, the most interesting and important of all the early
transcontinental expeditions, with saying that the effects were of
momentous, even transcendent value to the development of our country.
Without the incorporation of Old Oregon into the United States, we
would in all probability not have got California, and without our
Pacific Coast frontage, think what a crippled and curtailed Union this
would be! We would surely have missed our destiny without the Pacific
Coast. The Lewis and Clark expedition was one of the essential links in
the chain of acquisition. The summary of distances by the party is a
total of 3,555 miles on the most direct route from the Mississippi at
the mouth of the Missouri, to the Pacific Ocean, and the total distance
descending the Columbia waters is placed at 640 miles.

[Illustration: Y. M. C. A. BUILDING, WALLA WALLA]

President Jefferson did not exaggerate the character of this expedition
in the tribute which he paid to Captain Lewis in 1813, when he
expressed himself thus: "Never did a similar event excite more joy
throughout the United States; the humblest of its citizens have taken
a lively interest in this journey, and looked with impatience for the
information which it would furnish. Nothing short of the official
journals of this extraordinary and interesting journey will exhibit
the importance of the service, the courage, the devotion, zeal, and
perseverance, under circumstances calculated to discourage, which
animated this little band of heroes, throughout the long, dangerous,
and tedious travel."

Though many additional valuable discoveries of this land where we live
were made by later explorers, Lewis and Clark and their assistants may
justly be regarded as the true first explorers. They were, moreover,
the only party that came purely for exploration. Later parties, though
making valuable explorations, did such work as incidental to fur trade.
With the completion of this great expedition, therefore, we may regard
the era of the explorers completed and that of the fur-hunters begun.



CHAPTER IV

THE FUR-TRADE AND FUR-TRADERS


With the great new land between the Mississippi and the Pacific Ocean
opened to the world by the Lewis and Clark expedition, the question
came at once to the active, pushing, ambitious spirits of America and
England, what shall we do with it, and what can we make of it? The
rights of the natives have usually had little concern to civilized
man. His thought has been to secure as rapidly and easily as possible
the available resources, to skim the cream from the wilderness ahead
of all rivals. Two great quests have commonly followed discovery of a
new land; that for the precious metals, and that for furs. Gold and
silver and precious stones have always had a strange fascination, and
the search for them and the wars of conflicting nations for possession
of their sources of supply have constituted the avenues of approach to
some of the greatest changes of history. The search for furs, while not
making so brilliant and showy a chapter in history as that for gold and
jewels, has had even profounder effects upon the march of exploration
and conquest and the formation of states.

Now, it must be remembered that though the Lewis and Clark expedition
was the first to cross our part of the continent and to give the world
any conception of the interior and its resources within the area
composing the western half of the United States, yet the coast line had
been known for many years, and the region around Hudson Bay and thence
northward to the Arctic Ocean and westward to the Pacific had also
been traversed some years earlier. Oregon had long been a lure to the
explorers and fur-hunters of all nations. There had taken shape before
the discoverers of the age of Columbus the conception of a Northwest
passage through the new continent to Asia. Strange to say, they did not
realize at first the surpassing importance of a new world, but thought
of it mainly as an impediment to the journey to the land of the "Great
Cham" and other supposed magnates of the Orient. Hence the vital thing
was to find a way through the intercepting land. Only eight years after
Columbus landed on San Salvador, the Portuguese, Gaspar Cortereal, had
announced that sailing westward from Labrador he had discovered the
connecting strait between the Atlantic and the waters that bordered
eastern Asia. Out of that supposed discovery the idea of the Strait of
Anian grew and for two centuries persisted in the minds of mariners. It
was while searching for Anian that Juan de Fuca, just a century after
the first landing of Columbus, entered that strait which now bears
his name. Along the western edge of California and Oregon during that
same century, the English flag was borne by the Golden Hind of Francis
Drake. Later Spanish explorers, Cabrillo and Ferrelo, and Vizcaino
and Aguilar, had made their way up the Oregon coast and there is some
reason to believe that the last-named had looked upon the mouth of the
Columbia. Following that earlier era of discovery, there was a long
interval. Spain, England, France, Holland, Austria, Germany, and Italy
were absorbed in the gigantic wars growing out of the Reformation, and
their ships almost entirely disappeared from the Pacific. But during
the latter part of the seventeenth century there was initiated that
vast movement in eastern Europe and northern Asia which shaped and
will yet more shape the policies and destinies of the world. Peter
the Great, one of the world figures, started to lead Russia out of
barbarism. Then was began that glacier-like movement of the "Colossus
of the North" toward the open waters of two continents which will no
doubt never end until the political world comes to a condition of
stable equilibrium. The successors of Peter pursued the same march for
warm water and open ports. A series of explorers made their way across
Siberia. In 1728 and 1741 Vitus Bering, one of the true "Vikings of
the Pacific," made his daring and significant voyages with the aim of
realizing Peter's great conception of the Russian acquisition of the
shores of the Pacific by sailing eastward from Asia to America. In
his last voyage, after having gone as far south as Oregon, and then
turned north along the Alaskan coast, the heroic Bering was cast upon
the desolate island which bears his name, and there in the cold and
darkness of the Arctic winter he died. His men found during that winter
that the sea-otters of the island had most beautiful furs, and they
clothed themselves with the skins of those animals. Returning in the
spring in rude boats constructed from the fragments of their wrecked
ship to Avatscha Bay, these survivors of Bering's voyage made known
to the world the possibilities of the use of these treasures of the
animal world. That was the beginning of the Russian fur-trade. A new
era in history was inaugurated. Within a few years an enterprising
Pole, Maurice de Benyowski, conveyed a cargo of furs from Kamchatka to
China. That country was then the great market for furs, and the success
of Benyowski's venture suggested to others the enormous possibilities
of the business. The great girdle of volcanic islands beginning a
little east of Kamtschatka and extending northeast and then southeast,
known now as the Aleutian Islands, and the Alaskan coast and thence
southward to Oregon and California, were found by Russians, Spaniards,
and English to abound in fur-bearing animals, of which the sea-otter
was most available immediately upon the coast, though it was soon known
that the beaver, the fox, and many others existed in great numbers
further inland.

In connection with the eager search along the coast some of the most
famous of all explorers steered their course. Among them was James
Cook, one of the most manly and intrepid of all that long line of
navigators who bore the Union Jack around the "Seven Seas." Cook's
great series of voyages, beginning in 1776 and lasting several years,
and extending through all parts of the Pacific, were designed primarily
as voyages of discovery. But while in Alaskan waters his men secured
many sea-otter furs. They did not fully realize their value until they
reached China some time later and saw the huge profit on furs in that
market. Now there was in Cook's service a certain very interesting
American sailor, John Ledyard. Ledyard was a genuine Yankee, keen,
inquisitive, and observing. He noted the possibilities of the fur-trade
in Oregon and Aleutian waters, and determined that as soon as he could
reach his own home country he would interest his countrymen in sending
their own ships upon the quest. That was just when the Revolutionary
war was in progress and several years elapsed before Ledyard was in
America. When there he lost no time in getting into communication
with leading Americans. Among others he greatly interested Thomas
Jefferson. Here then we have a most important chain of sequences. Cook,
Ledyard, Jefferson, English and American rivalries and counter aims
and claims on the Pacific coast of America--a whole nexus of related
events out of which the fabric of great history became woven. Within
a few years the race for possession of Oregon by sea was on. Earlier
than Cook, Heceta, the Spaniard, had sailed along the Oregon coast
and looked into the mouth of the Columbia. But after Cook came a long
line of Spanish explorers whose names appear upon our present day
maps, Bodega, Camano, Fidalgo, Galiano, Valdez, and many more. Then
came another group of Englishmen, Portlock, Dixon, Meares, Barclay,
Douglas, Colnett, and, most prominent of all, Vancouver. But to us,
more important than any other of the nations whose banners were carried
along the western coast, was the new republic, the United States of
America. The Stars and Stripes were flying on the Pacific. Robert Gray
in the Lady Washington, and John Kendrick in the Columbia Rediviva
had been placed in command of an expedition by certain enterprising
merchants of Boston in the very same year of the construction of the
American constitution. In 1788 they reached the coast of Oregon. That
was the initiation of the American fur-trade. Those were the great days
of that business. A ship would be fitted out with a cargo of trinkets
and tobacco and tools and blankets, and sail from Boston or New Bedford
or Marblehead or New York for its three years' round-up of the seas.
The Indians had not yet learned the value of furs. On one occasion
Gray secured for a chisel a quantity of furs worth $8,000. The cargo
of trinkets and tools and blankets out and the cargo of furs in, the
next stage of the voyage was from Oregon to Canton, in China, where
the cargo of furs was displaced by one of tea and nankeen and silk,
and then the ship would square away for her home port, a three-years'
round-up. The glory, the fascination, and also the danger of the sea
was in it. Fortunes were sometimes made in a single voyage--and also
sometimes lost. For ships and crews were sometimes lost by wreck
or savages or scurvy. Yet in spite of disasters the game was so
fascinating that during the period from 1790 to 1818 there were 108
American vessels, twenty-two English and several French and Portuguese
vessels regularly engaged in the business on the Oregon coast. Profits
were sometimes immense. Dixon, an English trader, says that during
the years 1786 and 1787 5,800 sea-otter skins were sold for $160,700.
Sturgis states that he knew a capital of $50,000 to yield a return of
$284,000.

The fur-trade on the coast was naturally first in the order of growth.
But exploration of the interior would naturally follow when the great
results of the sea-trade were known. Moreover, it most be remembered
that the fur-trade had been pursued with great assiduity and success
in Canada and even Louisiana long years before Gray and Vancouver
were contesting for the discovery of the "River of the West," or the
solution of the mystery of Juan de Fuca. As the Spaniards were the
first to try to grasp the treasure of precious stones and metals
in the New World, so the French were the pioneers in the attempted
exploitation of the treasure of the furs. Monopoly by kingly favor was
the chief method of driving out rivals and monopolizing advantages in
those days. An American railway or iron master has a feeble grip on the
bounty of a state or nation compared with the grip of a Seventeenth
Century royal favorite. Way back in the early part of that century,
Louis XIII and his minister, Richelieu, granted concessions to De
Monts, Pontgrave, Champlain, Radisson, Crozat, and others. Later, La
Salle, Joliet, Hennepin, D'Iberville, and still later the Verendryes
and many more had similar monopolies from Louis XIV and Louis XV.
The regions of the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi
were the fields of these great concessionaires. But England was not
inactive all that time. In the desperate rivalry of Gaul and Briton for
supremacy in America, the Fleur-de-lis was lowered before the Cross
of St. George and North America became British instead of French.
The fur-trade, one of the chief prizes of contest, fell to English
monopolists. Long before the final decision on the Plains of Abraham
when Montcalm fell before Wolf, Charles II had granted to Prince Rupert
a charter to the Hudson's Bay Company. That gigantic organization,
which later had so intimate a relation to Oregon, was established in
1670 with a capital of 10,500 pounds. Besides the vast enterprises
connected directly with the fur-trade, this company carried on many
great geographical expeditions. But this great monopoly could not, even
with all its privileges, entirely prevent rivalry. In 1783, the French
and Indian wars and the American Revolution now being past, a new
organization arose, destined to bear a vital part in northwest history.
This was the Northwestern Fur Company. One of its leading partners,
Alexander Mackenzie, discovered in 1789 the river which flows to the
Polar Sea and which fittingly bears his name. Four years later he made
even a more notable journey from the upper Athabasca waters across the
mountains and down the Pacific slope to a point on what was later known
as Cascade Inlet. There he proclaimed his journey by painting upon a
rock the inscription: "Alexander Mackenzie, from Canada by land, the
twenty-second of July, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-three."
That was only a year after Gray discovered the Columbia River and
Vancouver circumnavigated the island which bears his name.

Thus we see that from both sea and land the fur-traders were converging
upon Oregon. It was emerging from the mists of myth and romance into
the light of modern conditions. The rivalry between the Hudson's Bay
Company and the audacious Northwesters who had ventured to break into
their monopoly became keen and indeed sanguinary. Pitched battles were
fought and lives lost. The bold and aggressive Northwesters pushed to
the western side of the Rockies and in 1807 David Thompson, one of the
most admirable of all the early explorers of any of the rival nations
or companies, began to establish posts at various strategic points upon
Columbia waters. During several years beginning with 1807 he located
trading stations on Lake Windermere near the head of the river, on the
Spokane at the Junction with it of the Little Spokane, and on the Pend
d'Oreille and Coeur d'Alene lakes.

While the Northwesters were thus posting themselves at some of the
vantage points of Oregon, the Americans were not idle. The reader who
desires an extended view of the fascinating theme of the American
fur-trade should consult that foremost book on the subject by Gen. H.
M. Chittenden of Seattle, to which we here make our acknowledgments.
What was to become the American trade began indeed with Frenchmen and
Spaniards before the independence of the United States. In 1764 Pierre
Liguest and Auguste Chouteau founded St. Louis, which became the center
of all trading operations for many years. The Treaty of Paris of 1763
had as a matter of fact already delivered all the country west of the
Mississippi to Spain, but the Frenchmen did not yet know it. In 1800
the Louisiana Territory again became French, and three years later,
by a happy juxtaposition of statesmanship and good fortune, it passed
from French to American control. Then immediately followed, as already
narrated, the Lewis and Clark expedition with its momentous results.
After St. Louis became an American town the fur-trade was still largely
in the hands of French and Spanish traders established there during the
possession by their respective governments. Of these the most prominent
were Pierre Chouteau, Jr., a Frenchman, and Manuel Lisa, a Spaniard.
The first expedition to the Far West was that of Lisa in partnership
with William Morrison, an American of Illinois, and Pierre Menard, a
Frenchman, also living in Illinois. One interesting feature of this
expedition is that it occurred in the same year with the first of David
Thompson. Another is that on the way the party met John Colter who had
been one of the Lewis and Clark party, but on the return had decided
to stop in the wilderness to trap and explore. He was on his way to
the settlements, but was induced to return to the Rocky Mountains with
the party. In connection with Colter we may very properly digress a
little, for he was one of the typical adventurers of that period and
some of the events of his career in the wilderness cast a vivid light
upon the conditions of those times. Lisa proceeded with his party to
the mouth of the Bighorn River and there established a fort. Desiring
to notify the Indians of the arrival of the party, Lisa sent Colter
all alone on a journey of several hundred miles to the Crows on Wind
River and to the Blackfeet at the Three Forks of the Missouri. On this
journey Colter became an unwilling participant in a battle between
those two contending tribes. He was on the side of the Crows, and after
rendering efficient aid to his side in winning a victory, was severely
wounded in the leg. Nevertheless, nothing daunted, he set forth across
the ranges of towering, snowy peaks to reach Lisa's fort. He succeeded
in the solitary and desperate undertaking, and in the course of it
discovered Yellowstone Lake and the geyser region which now makes the
Yellowstone Park one of the wonders of the world. Returning to the
mountains, Colter was captured by the savage and cruel Blackfeet.
Wishing to have a little sport with their hapless victim, the Indians
stripped him and asked him if he was a fast runner. From his knowledge
of their customs he understood that he was to be put up in a race for
life against several hundred Indians. He gave them to understand that
he was a poor runner, though as a matter of fact he was very fast.
Accordingly they gave him several hundred yards start on the open
prairie with the Jefferson fork of the Missouri six miles distant. Away
he sped with the whole pack behind him like a band of wolves, with the
war-whoop ringing over the plain. With his naked feet torn and bleeding
from the cactus Colter soon outdistanced most of the pursuers, but half
way across the plain, glancing over his shoulder, he saw that one swift
Indian armed with a spear was gaining on him. With the violence of
Colter's exertions the blood was streaming from his nostrils down the
front of his body, and just as the Indian was almost within striking
distance Colter suddenly stopped and turned, a ghastly spectacle, with
extended arms. The Indian was so disconcerted with the unexpected
move that in endeavoring to wield his spear he lost his footing and
fell. Instantly picking up the spear Colter pinned his assailant to
the ground and on he went again toward the river. The foremost of the
pursuing Indians, finding their expiring comrade, paused long enough to
set up a hideous howl and then rushed on. But Colter, though almost
at the limit of his strength, drove himself on to the river ahead of
the band, and breaking through the copse of cottonwoods which skirted
the stream he plunged in. Just below was a small island against which
drift had lodged. Diving beneath the drift Colter managed to find a
crack between the trees where he might get his head in the air. There
he remained undiscovered all night while the savages were shrieking
around like so many devils. In the early morning he let loose from the
drift and floated and swam a long ways down the stream, and when day
fairly broke had got beyond the immediate vicinity of his enemies. But
in what a horrid plight! Stark naked, with no food and no weapons for
game, the soles of his feet pierced thick with the cruel spikes of the
cactus! Yet such is the endurance of some men that in seven days during
which his only subsistence was roots dug with his fingers, Colter made
his way to Lisa's fort. "Such was life in the Far-West." The story was
told by Colter to Bradbury, who narrated it in his book, "Travels in
North America." Irving used it in his "Astoria," and it also appears in
Chittenden's "American Fur-trade."

One of the partners of Lisa in the Missouri Fur Company, Andrew Henry,
in 1810 built a fort on the west side of the Great Divide on a stream
afterwards known as Henry's Fork, a branch of Snake River. It was near
the present Egin, Idaho, and was the first structure built by white men
upon Snake River or any of its tributaries.

We have given the extended narration thus far of fur-traders prior to
any actual entrance by any of them into the region treated in this
work, in order that the nature of the business and the manner in
which all parts of Oregon were involved might become clear. We now
bring upon the scene still another enterprise which came yet closer
to our own region. This was the Pacific Fur Company of John Jacob
Astor. This first of the great business promoters of our country
was born in Germany, and coming to New York in 1784 began his great
career as a fur merchant. Having made a fortune in the business almost
entirely by operations in Canada, Astor conceived the project of a
vast emporium upon the Columbia to which should converge the trade
in furs from all the region west of the Rocky Mountains and south of
the region definitely occupied by the Northwestern Fur Company. He
contemplated also a lucrative business with the Russians centered
around Sitka and Kodiak on the north, and the Spaniards on the south.
It was a noble enterprise and worthy of all success. It would have
had a most important bearing upon the progress of American enterprise
and settlement in Oregon and might have materially changed certain
chapters in history. That it failed of full accomplishment was due to
various untoward circumstances, of which the chief were: first, Astor's
own error of judgment in selecting the majority of his partners and
employees from Canadians and also selecting captains for his first two
ships who were not qualified for their important task; and second, the
War of 1812. It will be remembered that the Northwesters of Canada were
thoroughly located upon the Athabasca and had crossed the Divide and
as early as 1807 had built posts on the upper Columbia and Spokane and
on the lakes in what is now Northern Idaho. Astor no doubt anticipated
a strenuous contest with those bold, ambitious Canadians, but his own
highly successful enterprises thus far had been with Canadians and he
knew them well qualified. He reasoned that he could make it well worth
their while to be loyal to him and to the company to which he admitted
them. It is probable that all would have worked as he calculated had
not the war with Great Britain defeated all his well-laid plans.

The part of the great Astoria enterprise which more especially comes
within the scope of our story is that of the journey of the land party
across the Rocky Mountains and down the Snake and Columbia rivers,
and the subsequent establishment of forts and trading posts. The land
division was under Wilson Price Hunt of New Jersey, the partner second
in command to Astor himself. He was one of the comparatively few
Americans in the company and seems to have been a man of the highest
type, brave, humane, enterprising, and wholesouled, worthy of a place
at the head of those Jasons of the Nineteenth Century who sought
the golden fleeces of the Far-West. Both divisions got under way in
1810, the land division from Montreal in July, and the sea division
in September. The latter, however, reached the promised land of the
Columbia first, for after a tragic entrance of the mouth of the river,
the Tonquin with the party on board brought to in Baker's Bay on the
north side of the river on March 25th. Astoria was founded on April
12, 1811. A few months later, owing to the criminal obstinacy and bad
judgment of Captain Thorn, the Tonquin with all her crew but one (from
whom the story is derived) was captured by Indians and then blown up
at a place presumably Nootka Sound or near there on the west side of
Vancouver Island.

Hunt, with three other partners, McKenzie, Crooks, and Miller, after
having collected and fitted out a party of such miscellaneous material
as they could find at various places between Montreal and St. Louis,
left the latter place on October 21, 1810, and reaching a stream called
the Nadowa, near the present site of St. Joseph, Mo., stopped for the
winter. Resuming the long journey on April 21st of the next year, the
party reached the abandoned Fort Henry on October 8th. They were now on
the headwaters of Snake River. Down that wild stream they ran a losing
race with oncoming winter. For before they reached the present vicinity
of Huntington, Ore., the December snows fell thick upon them. McKenzie
and McLellan with seven of the strongest men went ahead of the main
party, and reaching the vicinity of the present Seven Devils country
made their way after twenty-one days of struggle and peril through
the great canyon of Snake River to its junction with the Clearwater,
the site of the present Lewiston and Clarkston. They had a clear idea
then of their location by a knowledge of the experiences of Lewis and
Clark. They were then within the area of our four counties of this
history and had no trouble in making their way, though in midwinter,
down the Snake, then at its lowest stage and not difficult to navigate,
to that most interesting spot, the junction of the Snake and Columbia.
Thus the advance party on this historic journey, the first of the
fur-traders, though later than the Lewis and Clark expedition, reached
the Columbia. With their canoes floating upon its broad waters they had
an easy and pleasant journey, after their former desperate straits, to
the rude stockade of Astoria, which they reached on January 18, 1812.
The main party had a more distressing time. After nearly starving and
freezing they turned toward the mountains from the present Huntington
and must have very nearly followed the course of the present railroad
from that point to the Grande Ronde. They were at just about the limit
of endurance when on December 30th, looking down from their snowy
elevation they saw far below them a sunny valley, looking to the
winter-wasted refugees like a vision of paradise. Thither hastening
they found several lodges of Indians who took pity on their forlorn
and destitute state and provided them with food and fuel. Irving gives
with his graphic pen a brilliant narration of the celebration of New
Year's day in this valley of salvation for this party. Rested and
recuperated by these few days in the Grande Ronde, they essayed their
last tussle with the mountains by scaling the snowy heights between
their resting place and the Umatilla. Reaching that warm and beautiful
valley they found that their deliverance was at hand, for there they
took a two-weeks' rest. On January 21st, having started again, they
beheld before them a blue flood nearly a mile wide hastening toward the
sunset, evidently the "Great River." Their journey afoot down the river
to the Cascades and thence in canoes to Astoria was a soft and gentle
exercise after the arduous struggles though the mountains.

[Illustration: PUBLIC SCHOOL BUILDING, DIXIE]

Such was the inauguration of the Pacific Fur Company in this country.
While amid such suffering the Americans were endeavoring to launch
their great enterprise, the Northwesters were employing great energy
and skill in planting themselves upon the upper river. They, too,
looked for new fields to conquer. In July, 1811, the redoubtable David
Thompson appeared at Astoria expecting to file a claim on the lower
river for his company. He was too late by three months, for Astoria had
been founded in April. The Scotchmen of the Astoria Company fraternized
with their countryman, but to David Stuart, one of the American
partners, this was not pleasing. Hastening his preparations he hurried
on his journey up the river. At the mouth of Snake River he found a
British flag upon a pole and on it a paper claiming the country in the
name of Great Britain. It was obvious to Stuart that there would be a
contest between his company and the Northwesters. He wished to secure
certain strategic points as far inland as possible and accordingly he
pressed on up the Columbia to the mouth of the Okanogan, estimated
to be five hundred and forty miles above Astoria. There on September
2nd, Stuart planted the American flag and started the construction
of a post, the first American structure within the present State of
Washington.

Of the interesting and varied events in the Okanogan and Spokane
countries Alexander Ross and Ross Cox, clerks in the Astor Company,
have given the most complete data. These events, important as they
were, are outside the scope of our story. We will simply say that the
rivalry between the Astorians and the Northwesters came to a sudden
climax by the War of 1812. Misfortune dogged the course of the Astor
Company. Hunt had gone from Astoria to Sitka in the second ship from
New York, the Beaver, and had started a profitable business with the
Russians, but on the return to the Columbia, the captain of the Beaver,
finding his ship damaged by a storm, insisted on going to Honolulu,
though Hunt's presence was sorely needed at Astoria. At Honolulu Hunt
received the evil tidings of the wreck of the third ship, the Lark.
With the cargo of the Beaver conveyed to Canton, while Hunt was wasting
his vitally important time at Honolulu, the same timid captain, Sowles,
lost all the best chances of the market, both for selling his furs
and buying Canton goods. Thus the whole voyage was a failure. After
an intolerable delay, Hunt chartered a vessel with which he left the
Sandwich Islands and reached Astoria August 20, 1813. more than a year
from the time of his departure. But his return was too late. The Scotch
partners had sold the company out to the Northwesters.

Such was the untoward end of the vast undertaking of John Jacob Astor.
The Americans were down and out. The Britishers were in possession of
the fur territory of Oregon. By the Joint Occupation Treaty of 1818,
both English and Americans were privileged to carry on business in
Oregon, but the effect of the downfall of the Astor Company was to
place the country in the hands of the Northwesters. That company had
two great aims: first, to get rid of American rivalry; second, to
prevent the entrance of the Hudson's Bay Company. Having accomplished
the first purpose, they set about the second. The upshot of that was
the final coalescence of the two companies in 1821 with the name of
the Hudson's Bay Company, but with the members of the younger company
on equal terms, and as far as Oregon was concerned, with the advantage
of profit in the hands of the partners of that company. And now for
twenty-five years the Hudson's Bay Company, thus reorganized, lorded it
over Oregon.

During all the years from the time of the entrance of the Pacific Fur
Company through the struggle between it and the Northwesters and then
the united fortunes of the Northwesters and the Hudson's Bay Company
down to American ownership in 1846, Walla Walla and the rest of the
region which now composes the scene of our history were prominent in
the affairs of the fur-traders. Perhaps the most valuable narrative
by any of the Astor Company of entrance into the Walla Walla County,
is that by Alexander Ross, one of the clerks, in a book of which the
full title is, "Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or
Columbia River." In this narrative Ross tells of their first journey
into the interior, beginning July 22, 1811. Describing the passage
of the Cascades and the "Long Narrows" (The Dalles) and the Falls
(Celilo) he mentions a river which he calls the Lowhum (Des Chutes),
then the Day (John Day), then the Umatallow (Umatilla). He describes
here a "large mound or hill of considerable height," which from its
peculiar form they called Dumbarton Castle. This was doubtless the
curious rock just east of Umatilla, noticeable to all travellers by
steamer. Passing through the "colonnade rocks," the party soon found
themselves at a bluff where there "issues the meandering Walla Walla,
a beautiful little river, lined with weeping willows." Here they
found a great concourse of Indians, "Walla-Wallas, Shaw Haptens, and
Cajouses, altogether 1,500 souls." Some were armed with guns and some
with bows and arrows. Their chiefs rejoiced in the names of Tummatapam,
Quill-Quills-Tuck-a-Pesten, and Allowcatt. The plains were literally
covered with horses, of which there could not have been less than four
thousand in sight of the camp. Passing beyond the Walla Walla, the
party reached the junction of the two big rivers, noting the difference
in color of the two. Noting also the fine salmon fishing, where,
however, Ross observed that not so many salmon can be captured in a
day as on the Copper Mine River or in Kamtschatka. They soon reach the
Eyakema (Yakima), and here they note that the landscape at the mouth
of that river surpassed in picturesque beauty anything that they had
yet seen. They are surprised at being overtaken at that point by three
Walla Walla Indians on horseback who brought to them a bag of shot
which they had accidentally left at the preceding camp,--an evidence
of honesty similar to that experienced by Lewis and Clark among the
Walla Wallas. From the "Eyakema" this party proceeded up the river to
Okanogan, where, as already related, they built the first structure
erected by white men in the present State of Washington.

It gives some conception of the hardihood of the traders of that time
to note that Ross remained entirely alone at "Oakanacken," while the
rest of the party went northward 350 miles to find a new fur region.
During their absence of 188 days Ross secured from the Indians 1,550
beaver skins for 35 pounds, worth in Canton (China) market 2,250 pounds!

One of the most characteristic incidents of the life of that time
is found in an account given in the narratives of Cox, Ross, and
Franchére, about the Indian wife of Pierre Dorion, a hunter in one of
the parties which had been located in the Blue Mountains south of Walla
Walla. Following Franchére's account of this, it appears that while a
party of Northwesters of which he was one were on their way in 1814 up
the Columbia to cross the mountains into Canada, while they were in the
river near the mouth of the Walla Walla, they heard a child's voice
from a canoe call out: "Arretez donc, Arretez donc!" (Stop! Stop!) The
woman with her two boys were in an canoe trying to overtake the party.
Halting, they discovered that this pitiful little group were all that
remained of the trappers that had been located among the Snake Indians.
According to Madame Dorion's story, while they were engaged in trapping
in January, the trappers had been attacked one by one by the Indians
and all murdered. Securing two horses the brave woman mounted her boys
upon them and started for the Walla Walla. In the bitter cold they
could not proceed and having no other food, the woman killed the horses
and after spending the rest of the winter in the mountains made her way
with the children to the Walla Walla, where the Indians treated them
with kindness and placed them where they might find the boats of the
white men. Think of the endurance and faithfulness of the woman who
could win such a fight for life for her children.

Ross Cox gives an interesting account of his journey from Astoria to
Spokane in 1812. He too commends the "Wallah Wallah" Indians for their
honesty and humanity. He describes the immense numbers of rattlesnakes
around the mouth of the Wallah Wallah, and--a more pleasing theme the
appearance of the mountains which he says the Canadians called from
their color, "Les Montagnes Bleues." From what Cox says in this same
connection, it appears that the name Nez Perces was a translation into
French from the name Pierced-Nose, which had already been applied to
the Indians up Snake River by Lewis and Clark.

The most important event in this stage of the history was the founding
of Fort Walla Walla, at first called Fort Nez Perces. This was founded
in 1818 by Donald McKenzie. This efficient and ambitious man will be
remembered as one of Astor's partners, one who accompanied Hunt on his
great journey and had been one of the most active and influential in
the sale of Astoria to the Northwestern Company. Having been for ten
years prior to his connection with Astor a member of the Northwestern
Company, he felt more at home with it, and upon its establishment
in practical possession of the fur trade of Oregon. McKenzie became
one of its most faithful and useful managers. McKenzie seems to have
been opposed by his associates in his desire to establish a post on
the Walla Walla. But with a keen eye for strategic places and with
a sagacity and pertinacity unequalled by any of them, he forced all
to his views. Orders came from headquarters that he be allowed the
needful men and equipment, and in July, 1818, with ninety-five men
and our old friend Ross as his second in command, he set to work in
the construction of the fort at the point half a mile above the mouth
of the Walla Walla, long known in the annals of the Columbia during
both British and American possession. At that spot the foundation of
the fort may still be seen, and just abreast of it is the present
landing of the Wallula ferry. The structure consisted of a palisade of
timbers 30 inches wide, 6 inches thick, and 20 feet high. At the top
were loop-holes and slip-doors. Two bastions and water tanks holding
200 gallons still further guarded against both attack from Indians and
danger of fire. The enclosure was 100 feet square, and within it were
houses built of drift logs, though there was one of stone. Subsequently
adobe buildings were added, and some of those remained in some degree
of preservation till the great flood of 1894.

From Fort Walla Walla, as it came to be known within a few years,
McKenzie carried on a great and profitable trade to the Snake country
and the Blue Mountains. At one of his encampments while having a force
of only three men, and with a very valuable stock of furs and goods, a
crowd of piratical Indians tried to rush the ramp and plunder the whole
establishment. McKenzie with his usual nerve seized a match and holding
it over a keg of powder declared that if they did not immediately
clear out, he would blow them all up. They cleared out and left him
in possession. It is said that Archibald McKinley performed a similar
exploit at Walla Walla.

Many interesting things could be told of this historic fort. Gardens
were started, cattle brought to feed on the meadow land of the Walla
Walla, and by the time that the missionaries and immigrants began to
come in the '30s and '40s the lower Walla Walla bore a homelike and
civilized appearance. Other pasture and garden regions were added,
one of the most extensive being that now known as Hudson's Bay, the
location of the "Goodman Ranch," about fifteen miles southwest of the
present City of Walla Walla.

Our limits forbid space for all the other fur enterprises and companies
aside from the two important companies already described. There were,
however, three Americans who come within the range of our story
whose careers were so interesting and important that we cannot omit
mention of them. These were Jedadiah Smith, Nathaniel Wyeth and B.
L. E. Bonneville. The first named was a member of the Rocky Mountain
Fur Company, of which W. H. Ashley was founder. The main operations
of the company were on the Upper Missouri, Green River, and around
Great Salt Lake. Smith, however, made several remarkable journeys far
beyond the earlier range. He was a very unique character, a devout
Christian and yet one of the boldest of traders and discoverers. He
might be said to have carried the Bible in one hand and his rifle in
the other. He usually began the day with devotions and expected his
men to be present. Yet he pushed his business and discoveries to the
limit. His first great trip was in 1826. He proceeded from Great Salt
Lake to the Colorado, thence across Arizona and Southern California,
to San Diego, a route unknown to whites before. After going up and
down California hundreds of miles he crossed the mountains and deserts
eastward the next summer, following a more northern route abounding in
perils and hardships. In 1827 the journey to California was repeated
almost immediately upon his return from the first. In the spring and
summer of 1828, he struck out on an entirely new course. This was up
the Sacramento and northwesterly across the lofty ranges of Southern
Oregon to the Umpqua on the Oregon Coast. There, with his nineteen
men he did successful trapping, but a difficulty with the Indians
resulted in the massacre of the whole party except himself and three
others. Those three being separated from the leader, he made his way
in utter destitution and with great suffering to the Hudson's Bay Fort
at Vancouver. Dr. John McLoughlin, the chief factor, with his usual
generosity supplied the survivors of this disaster with their vital
necessities and sent a well-armed party to secure the valuable furs
of which the Umpquas had robbed them. Most of the furs were brought
to Vancouver and McLoughlin paid Smith $20,000 for them. Remaining in
Vancouver till March, 1829, Smith made his way up the Columbia to the
Flathead country and thence along the Rocky Mountains to the Teton
range on the Upper Snake River. This vast series of routes by Jedadiah
Smith through Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, California, Oregon,
Washington, Idaho, Wyoming, and Colorado, was the most extensive that
had yet been taken and did more than any other to give a comprehensive
view of what became the west third of the United States. In 1831,
lamentable to relate, this truly heroic and enterprising master trapper
was killed by Comanche Indians on the Cimarron desert.

Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth and Benjamin Louis Eulalie de Bonneville were
practically contemporary, and in their adventurous careers crossed
each other's trails. Wyeth was born at Cambridge, Mass., and from
the traditions of the family should have been a graduate of Harvard
College. He was, however, so eager to enter some active career that
he did not complete a college course. He became quite fascinated with
the utopian ideas about Oregon given to the world by Hall J. Kelley,
and in 1832 he started upon a grand enterprise toward the setting
sun. He had conceived a general plan of a vast emporium of American
business in furs and salmon, similar to that of Astor. With an ardent
imagination and yet great practical good sense, Wyeth had the material
for an empire builder. That he failed to fulfil his grand design was
due partly to sheer bad luck, but mainly to the invincible monopoly of
the Hudson's Bay Company. The work of Wyeth was, however, an essential
link in the great chain which finally led to American ownership of
Oregon. The first trip of Wyeth was in 1832. He crossed the mountains
in company with Sublette, a noted trapper of the Rocky Mountain
Company, and after some disasters with the Indians, he traversed the
Blue Mountains and reached Fort Walla Walla (the present Wallula) in
October. Pierre Pambrun was the Hudson's Bay Company's agent at Walla
Walla and he received the destitute and nearly famished Americans with
lavish hospitality. After recuperating a few days at Walla Walla,
Wyeth descended the Columbia, with unabated enthusiasm, expecting to
find the ship which had left Boston in the spring, well laden with
stores already waiting his arrival. But alas for human hopes! When he
reached Fort Vancouver he learned that his vessel had been wrecked.
His men had already suffered much and lost faith in the lucky star
of their employer and asked to be relieved from further service. He
was compelled perforce to grant their request, for he had no money.
Spending the winter in and around Vancouver, treated by McLoughlin with
utmost kindness, and acquiring much knowledge and experience, but no
money, the indomitable Yankee determined to return and raise another
fund and challenge fate and his rivals again. February, 1833, found him
again at Walla Walla. Thence he pursued a devious course to Spokane
and Colville, across the Divide, down the mountains to the Tetons on
the Upper Snake, where he fell in with Bonneville. First planning to
go with Bonneville to California, Wyeth suddenly decided to return to
Boston and make ready for an immediate new expedition to Oregon. He
made an extraordinary voyage down the Bighorn and finally down the
Missouri to St. Louis in a "bull-boat." Safely reaching Boston in
November, he brought all his contagious enthusiasm to bear on certain
moneyed men with the result that he organized a new company known as
the Columbia River Fishing and Trading Company. A new vessel, the May
Dacre, was outfitted for the voyage around Cape Horn to Oregon.

Again with new men and equipment and with such experience from his
former journey as made success seem sure, Wyeth started on his new
expedition from St. Louis on April 3, 1834. One interesting feature of
this journey was that two conspicuous scientists, Thomas Nuttall and J.
K. Townsend, and the advance guard of the missionaries, Jason Lee and
party of the Methodist Church, accompanied the party. But even though
better equipped than before and though seemingly having the sanction of
both Science and the Church to bless his aims, the same old ill-fortune
seemed to travel with him. He had brought, under a contract made on his
return the year before, a valuable stock of goods for the Sublettes
of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, and now when on reaching their
rendezvous he made ready to deliver the goods brought with on much toil
and expense, the Sublettes refused to receive them. Their company was,
in fact, at the point of dissolution. Though Wyeth had the forfeit
money that they had put up with the contract, that was small recompense
for his labor of transportation. But nothing daunted, the stout-hearted
promoter declared to the Sublettes, "I will roll a stone into your
garden which you will never be able to get out." In fulfillment of his
threat he prepared to invade their territory by building a fort in
which to store the rejected goods and from which to send his trappers
to all parts of the upper Snake. The fort thus established was the
famous Fort Hall, the most notable fort on the whole route, in the near
vicinity of the present Pocatello. In spite of delays, the party seems
to have travelled with unparalleled celerity, for leaving Fort Hall
they reached the Grande Ronde on August 31st, a date at which previous
parties had hardly reached the head of Snake River. In the Grande Ronde
the party again encountered Bonneville. Three days more saw them at
Walla Walla, and on September 2d, Wyeth was once more at Vancouver.
Here came misfortune number two. He had expected to find the May Dacre
already in the river with a good haul of salmon which they planned to
salt and take east on the return trip. But the vessel reached Vancouver
the next day after Wyeth's own arrival, too late for any effective
fishing that year. She had been struck by lightning and had lost three
months' time in repairs. With indefatigable energy, Wyeth inaugurated
his plans. He sent a detail of men to Fort Hall with supplies. He
conducted an extensive trapping expedition to Central Oregon up the
Des Chutes River. He built Fort William on Sauvie's Island. If anyone
ever deserved success, Wyeth did. But Doctor McLoughlin, though the
kindest of men and though personally wishing every success to Wyeth,
could not forget that he was responsible to the Hudson's Bay Company.
He underbid Wyeth for the Indian trade and headed him off at every turn
in opening new regions. Nothing but a purse as long as that of the
Hudson's Bay Company's could have stood the pressure. Worst of all, a
pestilence broke out among the Indians from which they died like flies
and from which some of Wyeth's own men perished. The Indians attributed
the scourge to the evil "Tomanowas" of the "Bostons" and absolutely
boycotted them. The brave fight was lost. Bad luck and the Hudson's Bay
Company were too much for this all-deserving Yankee. Wyeth threw up his
hands, sold out to the Hudson's Bay Company for what they would give,
yielding to them possession of his cherished Fort Hall, which became
one of their most advantageous posts, and made his way, baffled but by
no means disheartened, to his New England home. With his downfall it
became clear that no ordinary force could dispossess the great British
Company from its vantage ground in Oregon.

[Illustration: RESIDENCE OF MRS. AUGUSTA WARD REES, ON BIRCH STREET,
WALLA WALLA]

But meanwhile Bonneville was upholding the Stars and Stripes as
valorously, but not more successfully than Wyeth. Bonneville was
a Frenchman who came to New York in his youth, and who had most
influential friends, and had also the extreme good fortune of
attracting the favorable notice of Washington Irving and becoming the
hero of one of the most fascinating books of that leading American
writer, "Bonneville's Adventures." Through this introduction to the
reading public, greedy in those days for tales of the romance and
adventure of the Far-West, Bonneville acquired a fame and vogue and
became invested with a certain glamour beyond that of any of the
fur-traders of Old Oregon. By the favor and influence of Thomas Paine,
Bonneville became a West Point appointee and graduated in 1819. When La
Fayette came to America in 1825 Bonneville was detailed to accompany
the "Hero of Two Continents" on his tour of the States. Greatly pleased
with his young compatriot, La Fayette took him back to France on his
return, and for several years the young French-American was a member
of the household of that great man. Returning to the land of his
adoption and resuming his army connections, Bonneville became absorbed
with the idea that he might gratify both his love of adventure and of
money by entering the fur trade in the Far West. Securing from the
War Department an appointment as a special explorer of new lands,
and investigator of the Indian tribes, he was also allowed to make a
personal venture in the fur trade.

H. H. Bancroft in his "Pacific Coast History" viciously attacks
Bonneville as well as Irving who immortalized him. General Chittenden
in his "History of the American Fur Trade in the Far-West" defends both
in a very spirited and successful manner.

The series of expeditions undertaken by Bonneville extended over the
years 1832-5. Those years were replete with adventure, hardship,
romance of a sort, but very little success in the quest of furs. In
the course of those years the adventurous army officer traversed and
retraversed the country covered by the water-sheds of the Snake River
and its tributaries, Green River and the Colorado, the Great Salt Lake
Basin, and down the Columbia. One of the most valuable journeys of
his party was through the Humboldt Basin, across the Sierras and into
California, a new route somewhat similar to the earlier one of Jedadiah
Smith. That, however, was commanded not by Bonneville himself, but by
I. R. Walker, Bonneville's most valued assistant. The most interesting
part of Bonneville's expedition to the inhabitants of Old Walla Walla
County was his winter trip from the Grande Ronde to the "Wayleway"
(Wallowa), down the Snake to the present vicinity of Asotin, thence
across the prairies of what is now Garfield and Columbia counties,
to Walla Walla. He describes that region as one of rare beauty and
apparent fertility and predicts that it will sometime be the scene
of high cultivation and settlement. Reaching Fort Walla Walla, he
was received by Pierre Pambrun with the same courtesy which that
commandant had bestowed on Wyeth, but when he tried to secure supplies
for his depleted equipment, Pambrun assured him that he would have to
draw the line at anything which would foster the American fur-trade.
Like Wyeth, Bonneville discovered to his sorrow and cost that he was
"up against" an immovable wall of monopoly of the hugest and most
inflexible aggregation of capital in the western hemisphere. He could
not compete at Walla Walla. Descending the Columbia River he found the
same iron barrier of monopoly. He too threw up his hands. The American
fur-traders were at the end of their string. They retired and left the
great monopoly in undisputed possession.

Thus ends, in American defeat, this first combat for possession of
Oregon. Another combat and another champion for the Americans was due.
Exit the trapper. Enter the missionary. Another chapter--and we shall
see what the new actor could do and did do on the grand stage of Oregon
history.



CHAPTER V

THE MISSIONARY PERIOD


In the preceding chapter we learned that the various attempts of
American trappers and fur companies to control the fur trade of
Oregon failed. The Hudson's Bay Company was too firmly entrenched in
its vast domain to be loosened by any business of its own kind. Nor
would there have been any special advantage to the United States or
the world in dislodging the great British company and substituting an
American enterprise of the same sort. The aims and policy of all fur
companies were the same: i. e., to keep the country a wilderness, to
trade with the natives and derive a fortune from the lavish bounty
of wild animal life. The Hudson's Bay Company was as good as any
enterprise of its type could be. The unfortunate fact was not so much
that it was the British who were skimming the cream of the wilderness,
as that the regime of any fur company was necessarily antagonistic to
that incoming tide of settlers who would bring with them the home,
the shop, the road, the church, the school, in short, civilization.
Hence the necessary policy of the great fur company was to discourage
immigration, or, in fact, any form of enterprise which would utilize
the latent agricultural, pastoral, and manufacturing resources of
Oregon. This policy existed, in spite of the fact (of which we shall
see many illustrations later) that individual managers and officers
of the company were often of broad and benevolent character and
predisposed to extending a cordial welcome to the advance guard of
American immigration. A few stray Americans had drifted to Oregon and
California with the hope of inaugurating enterprises that would lead to
American occupation. In general, however, the land beyond the Rockies
was as dark a continent as Africa.

But in 1832 a strange and interesting event occurred which unlocked
the gates of the western wilderness and led in a train of conditions
which made American settlement and ownership a logical result. In
1832 a party of four Indians from the Far West appeared at St. Louis
on a strange quest--seeking the "White Man's Book of Life." Efforts
have been made by certain recent writers to belittle or discredit
this event, for no very apparent reason unless it be that general
disposition of some of the so-called critical school of investigators
to spoil anything that appeals to the gentler or nobler emotions, and
especially to appose the idea that men are susceptible to any motives
of religion or human sympathy or any other spirit than the mercenary
and materialistic. But there can be no question about the journey of
these four Indians, nor can there be any reasonable doubt that their
aim was to secure religious instruction for their people. The details
of the journey and the nature of the expectations of the tribe and of
the envoys might of course be variously understood and stated, but the
general statements given by reliable contemporary authorities are not
open to doubt.

To what tribe the Indians belonged seems uncertain. It has been stated
by some that they were Flatheads and that tribe, though quite widely
dispersed, had their principal habitat in what is now Northern Idaho
and Northwestern Montana. Miss Kate McBeth, for many years a missionary
to the Nez Percé Indians, and located at Kamiah and then at Lapwai,
near Lewiston, thought that three of the Indians were Nez Perces and
one a Flathead. Nor is it known how those Indians got the notion of a
"Book of Life." Bonneville states in his journal that Pierre Pambrun,
the agent at Fort Walla Walla, taught the Indians the rudiments of
Catholic worship. Some have conjectured that the American trapper,
Jedadiah Smith, a devout Christian, may have imparted religious
instruction. Miss McBeth formed the impression that their chief hope
was that they might find Lewis and Clark, whose journey in 1805-6 had
produced a profound effect on the Nez Perces. It is interesting to
note that Clark was at the very time of this visit of the Indians the
superintendent of Indian affairs at St. Louis. He has left no statement
as to the location of these Indians, though he referred to the fact
of their visit to several passers who have recorded his statements.
The first published account of this visit appeared in the _New York
Christian Advocate_, of March 1, 1833. This was in the form of a letter
from G. P. Disoway, who had charge of the removal of certain Indians
to a reservation west of St. Louis. In his letter Disoway enclosed one
from William Walker, an interpreter for the Wyandotte Indians. Walker
had met the four Indians in General Clark's office in St. Louis. He was
impressed with their appearance, and learned that General Clark had
given them some account of the origin and history of man, of the coming
of the Savior, and of his work for the salvation of men. According to
Walker, two of the Indians died in St. Louis. As to whether the others
reached their home he did not know.

Walker's account was confirmed in a most valuable way by George Catlin,
the noted painter and student of Indian life. He was making a journey
up the Missouri River on one of the first steamers to ascend that
stream to Fort Benton. In the Smithsonian Report for 1885 can be found
Catlin's account, as follows: "These two men, when I painted them, were
in beautiful Sioux dresses which had been presented to them in a talk
with the Sioux, who treated them very kindly, while passing through the
Sioux country. These two men were part of a delegation that came across
the mountains to St. Louis a few years since, to inquire for the truth
of the representations which they said some white men had made among
them, that our religion was better than theirs, and that they would all
be lost if they did not embrace it. Two old and venerable men of this
party died in St. Louis, and I travelled 2,000 miles, companion with
these two fellows, toward their own country, and became much pleased
with their manners and dispositions. When I first heard the objects
of their extraordinary mission across the mountains, I could scarcely
believe it; but on conversing with General Clark on a future occasion,
I was fully convinced of the fact." Rather curiously Catlin speaks
of these Indians as being Flatheads or Nez Perces, as though the two
tribes were identical.

[Illustration: DR. MARCUS WHITMAN
From a statue on the Witherspoon Building, Philadelphia]

The letter of Disoway in the _Christian Advocate_ was discussed in
the _Illinois Patriot_ of October, 1833, together with the statement
that the subject had excited so much interest that a committee of
the Illinois Synod had been appointed to report on the duty of the
churches. The committee went to St. Louis and conferred with General
Clark, receiving from him a confirmation of the report. When this
pathetic story, together with the stirring appeal of the committee, had
reached the Christian people of the country, it produced a profound
impression, although, quite curiously, the little book by Lee and Frost
of the first Methodist Mission, which passed through St. Louis in 1834,
and whose members conferred with Gen. Clark, refers rather slightingly
to the event. The decades of the '20s and '30s were a time of deep
religious sentiment. It was the beginning of the Missionary movements
of the century. To the sensitive souls of the time this unheralded call
from the Far West seemed a veritable Macedonian cry. From it sprang the
Christian Missions of Oregon. And the missionaries were the advance
guard of immigration. And the immigration decided that the American
home-builder and farmer should own Oregon, rather than that the
British fur-trader and the Indians should keep it as a game preserve
and fur depot. It would indeed be too much to say that American
ownership of Oregon would not have resulted, if it had not been for
the missionaries. But it may safely be said that the acquisition would
have been delayed and that there would have been many more chances of
failure, if the missionaries had not fitted into the evolution of the
drama just as and just when they did. The missionary period was an
essential one, coming between that of the fur-traders and that of the
immigrants.

While the scope of our undertaking requires us to confine our narration
mainly to the area covered in this history, yet in order to preserve
the historical continuity and to exhibit the forces which led to
subsequent developments, we must enlarge the picture enough to include
glimpses of the mission locations outside of Walla Walla.

The first of the Christian Crusaders to respond to the Macedonian
call from Oregon was a party under Jason Lee of the Methodist Church.
This party came to Oregon in 1834 in company with Nathaniel Wyeth,
the American trader, of whose bold and worthy, and yet unsuccessful
undertakings we have spoken in Chapter Four. Reaching Vancouver, the
missionaries presented themselves to Doctor McLoughlin, the chief
factor. He met them with every expression of generous goodwill and
advised them to locate in the Willamette Valley rather than among the
tribes from whom had proceeded the Macedonian call. As a result, Lee
with his assistants, located at Chemawa, near the present Salem, Ore.
From that mission sprang the first permanent American settlement, the
native name of which was Chemeketa, place of Council, or peace-ground.
The missionaries gave it the Bible equivalent, Salem, a proceeding
of more piety than good judgment. The Willamette University of the
present is the offspring of the school started by the missionaries for
the Indian children, and within a few years modified so as to meet the
needs of the white children. For that earliest mission, like the later,
discovered that this great work, after all, must be for the white race,
not for the Indians.

The next year after the coming of the Lee party, another movement was
initiated which was destined to have a most intimate connection with
Walla Walla. For in 1835, the man who became the first white man, aside
from the fur trappers and traders, in the Walla Walla Valley, left his
home in New York for Oregon. This was Dr. Marcus Whitman, who, more
than any other one man, put Walla Walla on the map of the world. In
1835, Doctor Whitman, in company with Dr. Samuel Parker, set forth on
a reconnaissance to determine the advisability of locating a mission
among the Indians from whom had gone the Macedonian call. Reaching
Green River, the outlook seemed so encouraging that it was decided to
part company; Doctor Parker continuing westward with Indians who had
met them at Green River, while Doctor Whitman, the younger and more
active of the two, returned to his home in Rushville, N. Y., and there
organized a missionary band.

As a result of Doctor Whitman's return, a party consisting of himself
and his bride, Narcissa Prentiss, and Rev. H. H. Spalding and his newly
wedded bride, Eliza Hart, set forth in 1836 for Oregon. With them was
William H. Gray as secular agent and general manager. With the party
also were two Indian boys who had accompanied Doctor Whitman the year
before on his return from Green River. Of this bridal journey of 4,000
miles, most of it on horseback, our space permits only a few hurried
views. Aside from the momentous results in the history of Oregon and
the United States, the story is one of heroism and devotion which has
few parallels, and the record closes with a martyr's crown for Marcus
and Narcissa Whitman.

Among the precious relics in Whitman College, is Mrs. Whitman's diary
of the journey, and also that of Mrs. Spalding. That of Mrs. Whitman
was made by herself from notes on the way and was sent from Vancouver
to her parents upon the completion of the journey. Its heading is as
follows:

"Narcissa Whitman's Diary of a Missionary Tour West of the Rocky
Mountains performed 1836. Being the first white female ever beyond the
mountains on the continent. The journey was performed on horseback--a
distance of 4,000 miles. She, in company with her husband, Marcus
Whitman, M. D., and H. H. Spalding and wife, left the state of New
York for this tour in February of 1836--travelled through a part of
Pennsylvania, Ohio--and finally arrived at St. Louis in Missouri. Here
they joined the Fur Company that crosses the mountains every year--and
were also joined by Messrs. Suturly [Saturleé in Mrs. Spalding's diary]
and Gray--missionaries to the West. Matters thus arranged they all left
St. Louis in March--for the 'far West.' The further particulars of the
journey may be learned from the following extracts from her journal
taken on the way."

Following this heading is a letter addressed to her parents, dated
Vancouver, October 20, 1836, in which she says that the journal covers
the journey from the "Rendezvous," and that while at Vancouver she
had been so situated that she could copy her notes taken on the way.
The party had crossed the Great Divide on July 4th, and on that day
celebrated the natal day of the country, and as they looked down the
long vista westward, seem to have felt that they would claim possession
of that western land in the name of the American Union and the Church
of Jesus Christ. They had reached the "Rendezvous" on Green River July
6th. After several days there, refitting and resting and conferring
with Indians, they resumed the next great stage of the march with a
detachment of the Hudson's Bay Company, under Mr. McLeod, bound for
Walla Walla.

It was July 18, 1836, when they set forth under these new auspices. A
company of Flathead and Nez Percé Indians also travelled with them.
It appears from the diary of Mrs. Spalding that the Nez Perces were
very anxious that the party accompany them, but as they apparently
wished to hunt on the way it was manifestly necessary that the party go
with the traders. One chieftain, Mrs. Spalding says, concluded to go
with them, though it would deprive him of the privilege of securing a
supply of meat for the winter. Mrs. Whitman tells of the tedious time
which Doctor Whitman had with his wagon. This was one of the notable
features of his journey. Some have asserted that he was the first to
drive a wagon from the Missouri to the Columbia. This is only partly
true. Ashley, Smith, Sublette, Bonneville, and other trappers, had
driven wagons to the Black Hills, and to other points, but none of them
had gone so far west as Whitman, with a wagon. But when he reached
"Snake Fort," near Boise, generally known as Fort Boise, he left his
wagon. In 1840 Robert Newell went clear through the Blue Mountains and
reached Walla Walla. However, Doctor Whitman deserves all praise for
his energy and persistence in pushing his "Chick-chick-shaile-kikash,"
as the Indians called his wagon, even to Fort Boise, and he may be very
justly called one of the first wheel-track-makers. It is interesting
and pathetic to see how Mrs. Whitman craved some of her mother's bread.
During part of their journey they had an exclusive diet of buffalo
meat. Occasionally they would have berries and fish. They had several
cows with them and from them had some milk, which was a great help.
They had to shoe their cattle (presumably with hide, though it is not
so stated) on account of sore feet. With the cows were two sucking
calves, which, Mrs. Whitman says, seemed to be in excellent spirits,
and made the journey with no suffering, except sore feet. Soon after
passing a point on Snake River, where the Indians were taking salmon,
Mrs. Whitman bade good-by to her little trunk which they had been
able to carry thus far, but were now compelled to leave. It is truly
pathetic to read the words in her journal.

"Dear H. (This was her sister Harriet, to whom she is especially
addressing the words): The little trunk you gave me has come thus with
me so far and now I must leave it here alone. Poor little trunk! I am
sorry to leave thee. Thou must abide here alone and no more by thy
presence remind me of my dear Harriet. Twenty miles below the falls on
Snake River, this shall be thy place of rest. Farewell, little trunk.
I thank thee for thy faithful services, and that I have been cheered
by thy presence so long. Thus we scatter as we go along." A little
later it appears that Mr. McKay rescued the trunk. Mrs. Whitman shows
that she had quite a sense of humor by recording that when she found
what Mr. McKay had done her "soliloquizing about it last night was for
naught."

The journal contains quite a glowing account of the beauties of Grande
Ronde Valley, then of the toilsome, zigzag trail out of it into the
Blue Mountains westward. On August 29th, the party stood upon the
open summit, from which they saw the Valley of the Columbia. "It was
beautiful. Just as we gained the highest elevation and began to descend
the sun was dipping his disk behind the western horizon. Beyond the
valley we could see two distant mountains, Mount Hood, and Mount St.
Helens." The latter of those mountains was Adams, not St. Helens. Our
missionary band were now in sight of their goal. It was not, however,
till September 1st, that they actually rode into Walla Walla. In fact,
part of the company, including the Spaldings, did not reach the fort
till September 3d. It was a thrilling moment to that devoted little
band. It seemed to them almost equal to what it would to one of us
moderns to enter Washington or Paris or London. Think of the journey
of those two women, those brides, three thousand miles from St. Louis
to Walla Walla, five months and mainly on horseback. As they drew
near the fort, both horses and riders became so eager to reach the
end of the journey that they broke into a gallop. They saw the first
appearance of civilization in a garden about two miles from the fort.
That garden must have been nearly upon the present location of Wallula.
As they rode up to the fort, Mr. McLeod (who had gone ahead to prepare
for their coming), Mr. Pambrun, the commandant, and others, came forth
to meet so new and remarkable an addition to the population of Walla
Walla. Mrs. Whitman has the enthusiasm of a child in describing the
chickens, turkeys, pigeons, hogs, goats, and cattle, which latter were
the fattest that she ever saw and then she goes into ecstasies over
the breakfast of salmon, potatoes, tea, bread, and butter, and then
the room in the fort with its comfort after all their hardships. The
officers of the fur company treated them with the utmost courtesy and
consideration. Such was that momentous entrance of the missionaries and
of the first white women into Fort Walla Walla, September 1, 1836.

The next chapter in the story of the Whitman party was their journey
to Vancouver, the emporium of the Hudson's Bay Company. Leaving Walla
Walla by boat on the 7th of September, they reached the "New York of
the Pacific," as Mrs. Whitman says they had been told to consider it,
on the 14th. Mrs. Whitman in her journal the admiration of the party
for the beauty of the river, more beautiful, she says, than the Ohio,
though the rugged cliffs and shores of drifting sand below Walla Walla
looked dismal and forbidding. They found much to delight them at
Vancouver,--the courtesy and hospitality of Doctor McLoughlin and his
assistants, the bounteous table, with feasts of salmon, roast duck,
venison, grouse and quail, rich cream and delicious butter, a picture
of toothsomeness which it makes one hungry to read; the ships from
England moored to the river brink, and the well-kept farm with grain
and vegetables, fruits of every sort, grapes and berries, a thousand
head of cattle, and many sheep, hogs, and horses--a perfect oasis of
civilized delights to the little company of missionaries, worn and
homesick during their months on horseback across the barren plains and
through wild mountains.

Doctor Whitman and Mr. Spalding, leaving their wives in the excellent
keeping of the Hudson's Bay people at Vancouver, returned, in company
with Mr. Gray, to the Walla Walla country to decide upon locations.
They had expected, so Mrs. Whitman says, to locate in the Grande Ronde,
the beauty and fertility of which had been portrayed in glowing colors
by returning adventurers and fur-traders. But discovering as they
passed through that it was so buried in the mountains and so difficult
of access from the rivers and the regular routes of travel, they fixed
upon Waiilatpu (Wielitpoo, Mrs. Whitman spells it) for one post and
Lapwai for another. The Whitmans became established at Waiilatpu,
"the place of rye grass," six miles west of the present Walla Walla;
and the Spaldings at Lapwai, two miles up the Lapwai Creek, and about
twelve from the mouth of the Clearwater, the present site of Lewiston.
A few months after the location at Waiilatpu, on March 4, 1837, a
beam of sunshine lighted in the home of the Whitmans, in the form of
a daughter, Alice Clarissa, the first white child born west of the
Rockies and north of California. The Indians were extraordinarily
pleased with the "little white papoose," or "Cayuse temi" (Cayuse
girl), and if she had lived, the tragedy of a little later might not
have occurred. In a letter preserved at Whitman College, from Mrs.
Whitman to her sister and husband, Rev. Lyman P. Judson of Angelica, N.
Y., dated March 15, 1838, the mother says: "Our little daughter comes
to her mother every now and then to be cheered with a smile and a kiss
and to be taken up to rest for a few moments and then way she goes
running about the room or out of doors, diverting herself with objects
that attract her attention. A refreshing comfort she is to her parents
in their solitary situation." With her parents so needing that child,
fairly idolizing her and their very lives wrought up with hers, it is
too sad to relate that on June 23, 1839, the bright, active little
creature wandered out of the house while the mother was engaged in
some household task, and took her way to the fatal river that then ran
close to the mission house, though it now has a new channel a quarter
mile away. Missing little Alice Clarissa, Mrs. Whitman hastened to the
river, with a sinking dread, and there she saw the little cup where
the child had dropped it. This mutely told the heart-breaking tale.
An Indian, diving in the stream, found the body, but the gentle and
lovable life, the life of the whole mission, was gone. The faithful
and devoted father and mother had one less tie to life. The patient
resignation with which the anguished parents endured this infinite
sorrow shows vividly what strength may be imparted by the real
Christian spirit.

Both Doctor Whitman and Mr. Spalding were indefatigable workers and
quickly created civilized conditions upon the beautiful places where
they had planted their missions. That of Mr. Spalding was outside of
the territory covered by this history, and we therefore devote our
larger attention to the mission at Waiilatpu. It should, however,
be said that from the standpoint of results among the Indians, Mr.
Spalding accomplished more than any of the missionaries. This may be
accounted for in some part by the superior characters and minds of the
Nez Perces, among whom he was so fortunate as to have cast his lot.
They seem to have been of the best Indian type, while the Cayuses in
the vicinity of Waiilatpu were turbulent, treacherous, and unreliable.

Doctor Whitman was of powerful physique and familiar from boyhood with
the practical duties of farm and mill. He could turn his hand to almost
anything in the way of construction. The same was true of Mr. Gray,
who spent part of his time at Waiilatpu and part at Lapwai, though he
returned in 1837 to the east in search of new helpers. But within a
few months the Whitmans were comfortably housed, and every year saw
some improvement about the buildings and land. Seed for grain, and
fruit trees were secured at Vancouver, and stock was provided also.
The Waiilatpu farm consisted of a fertile belt of bottom land of about
three hundred acres between the Walla Walla River and Mill Creek, with
an unlimited range of low hill and bench land covered with bunch-grass,
which furnished the finest of stock feed almost the whole year round.
Doctor Whitman was himself a practical millwright and soon had a small
sawmill equipped about twenty miles up Mill Creek, while adjoining the
mission house he laid out a mill dam, the lines of which can still
be seen. The water for the mill pond was supplied from Mill Creek by
a ditch which followed nearly the course of the ditch of the present
time. The mill was a grist mill and located at the western side of the
pond, and within a few steps of the mission house and the "mansion,"
as they called the large log building erected a few years after their
arrival for the accommodation of the frequent visitors, especially
after American immigrants began to come. Toiling incessantly, the
missionary doctor and hero was rewarded by seeing his mission brought
in a surprisingly brief time to a condition of profitable cultivation.
T. J. Farnham who came with the so-called "Peoria party" in 1839, says
of Whitman's place: "I found 250 acres enclosed and 200 acres in good
cultivation. I found forty or fifty Indian children between the ages of
seven and eighteen years in school, and Mrs. Whitman an indefatigable
instructor. It appeared to me quite remarkable that the doctor could
have made so many improvements since the year 1836; but the industry
which crowded every hour of the day, his untiring energy of character,
and the very efficient aid of his wife in relieving him in a great
degree from the labors of the school, enabled him, without funds for
such purposes, and without other aid than that of a fellow-missionary
for short intervals, to fence, plow, build, plant an orchard, and do
all the other laborious acts of opening a plantation on the face of
that distant wilderness, learn an Indian language, and do the duties,
meanwhile, of a physician to the associate stations on the Clearwater
and Spokane." Joseph Drayton of the Wilkes Exploring Expedition of the
United States Navy, visited Waiilatpu in 1841. He says of the mission:
"All the premises looked comfortable, the garden especially fine,
vegetables and melons in great variety. The wheat in the fields was
seven feet high and nearly ripe, and the corn nine feet in the tassel."
Had not Doctor Whitman possessed great physical strength, as well as
determination and energy, he could not have endured the excessive toil
which was the price of his rapid progress. Senator Nesmith, who came to
Oregon in the immigration of 1843, said in the hearing of the author
of this work: "Whitman had a constitution like a sawmill." Another
old timer said of him that he had the energy of a Napoleon. Some old
timer has said that Whitman used to ride in a day to the present site
of Lewiston, from Waiilatpu, about ninety miles. He would do it by
changing horses several times. He was hard on horses, and when someone
remonstrated on the ground of cruelty, the doctor replied: "My time is
worth more than the horse's comfort."

As has been stated, Mr. W. H. Gray went east in 1857 for
reinforcements. The next year he came again to Oregon with a valuable
addition. Besides the addition to his own life of a bride, Mary Dix
(who was one of the choice spirits of Old Oregon, and during many
years a center of life and light in the new country) there were three
missionaries, each also with a newly-wed wife. These were Revs.
Elkanah Walker, Cushing Eells, and A. B. Smith. Mr. Cornelius Rogers
accompanied the party. Reaching Walla Walla, the new arrivals were
assigned to new stations, Messrs. Eells and Walker to Tschimakain, near
the present City of Spokane, while Mr. Smith went to Kamiah, about
sixty miles east of the present site of Lewiston. Mr. Rogers and the
Grays went to Lapwai. There seem never to have been more faithful and
devoted missionaries than were these of the four missions of Waiilatpu,
Lapwai, Tschimakain, and Kamiah. Yet, it could not be said that they
were successful in turning any considerable number of natives to
Christianity. The Nez Perces at Lapwai and other stations established
by Mr. Spalding, notably the one at Alpowa, were most amenable to
Christian influences, while the Cayuses in the Walla Walla Valley
were least so. In contemplation of the apparently scanty progress,
the Missionary Board at Boston decided to discontinue the missions at
Waiilatpu and Lapwai, to discharge Messrs. Spalding, Gray, Smith, and
Rogers, and to send Doctor Whitman to the Spokane country.

[Illustration: WHITMAN PARTY ON CREST OF ROCKY MOUNTAINS, JULY 4,
1836]

While these difficulties were harassing the missionaries, very
important events were taking place in national life. The slavery and
the tariff questions had become firebrands in domestic politics. The
questions of annexation of Texas, of the occupation of Oregon, of
possible trouble with Mexico over the former, and with England over
the latter, were threatening corresponding chaos in foreign affairs.
Doctor Whitman, reticent and sagacious, saw clearly that his chosen aim
of leading the natives to civilization and Christianity was rapidly
sinking in importance in comparison with the question of the white race
in the new land, and of the ownership of this great region. In 1842 the
Ashburton treaty with England settled the Northeastern boundary and the
supposition was that it would also settle the Oregon question. But when
the treaty was signed on August 9th, it appeared that the question of
Oregon was left unsettled. In a message of August 11th, President Tyler
explained to the Senate that so little probability of agreement existed
that it was thought not expedient to make that subject a matter of
negotiation.

While the Ashburton treaty was pending, the first real immigration,
though a small one of 112 persons, came to Oregon. In it, among
several of the most notable of the old Oregonians, was A. L. Lovejoy,
a young New England lawyer, a man of energy and ambition, destined
to play a conspicuous part in Oregon history. When the party reached
Whitman's Station on the Walla Walla, they delivered to him letters
from the United States and discussed with him the pending treaty and
the danger that it might draw the line so as to leave Oregon to Great
Britain, or at least to make the Columbia River the boundary, placing
the entire Puget Sound Basin and the mountains and plains eastward to
the river in possession of Great Britain. Seeing the imminence of the
danger, Whitman determined upon a supreme effort. He decided to make
a mid-winter journey East with three aims in view: to present to the
Government the situation and the vital need of preserving Oregon for
the United States; to try to aid in forming and guiding an immigration
to Oregon; and to settle affairs of the mission with the Board at
Boston. He asked Lovejoy to go with him. It looked like a desperate
undertaking, but Lovejoy, an athletic, ambitious young man, agreed to
go.

At this point comes in the bitterly disputed "Whitman Controversy."
It is not within the scope of this work to undertake an argumentative
treatment of this question. The question at issue, if rationally
considered, is rather the extent of the services of Doctor Whitman
in "saving Oregon to the United States." Mrs. F. V. Victor, Elwood
Evans, Prof. E. G. Bourne, and Principal W. I. Marshall have, more than
others, presented arguments in favor of the contention that Doctor
Whitman had no important part to play in the great political drama of
Oregon, while the claim that he had large political aims and bore a
conspicuous part in influencing the final result has been supported in
books written by Dr. O. W. Nixon, Rev. William Barrows, Prof. William
Mowry, and Rev. Myron Eells. The final book by the last named, the
"Life of Marcus Whitman," is, in the judgment of the writer, the final
and unanswered and indeed unanswerable word on the subject. The author
of this history has given in the _Washington Historical Quarterly_ of
April, 1917, his reasons for thinking the statements of Professors
Bourne and Marshall inaccurate and their arguments inconclusive. The
fact acknowledged by all is that Whitman made a ride during the fall
and winter of 1842 and succeeding months of 1843, which for daring,
heroism, and fortitude has few parallels in history. The question of
controversy is, what did he make such a journey for? His critics say
that it was in consequence of the decision of the Missionary Board to
discontinue his mission on the Walla Walla. Mrs. Victor and Principal
Marshall are the only ones among these critics who have achieved
the distinction of attributing base or selfish motives to Whitman.
They have held forth the idea that he, foreseeing the incoming of
immigrants, wanted to maintain the station at Waiilatpu in order to
raise vegetables and other supplies to sell at a high price. Whether
a motive of that sort would lead a man of Whitman's type to take that
desperate ride in mid-winter through the Rocky Mountains, at peril of
life a dozen times over from Indians, freezing, and starvation, is a
question which different people would view differently, according to
their way of estimating the motives which determine men's actions.
Perhaps people whose estimate of human nature, based possibly on their
own inner consciousness of motives, is that selfish gain is the leading
motive, would agree that the hope of cornering the vegetable market
at Waiilatpu was an adequate cause of Whitman's ride. To some people
it would seem likely that the mainspring of his action was some great
national and patriotic aim and that while he wished to maintain the
mission, his great aim was to convince the Government of the value
of Oregon and to help organize an immigration which would settle the
ownership of Oregon in favor of his country. At any rate, he went. That
much is undisputed.

Practically the only account of that memorable mid-winter ride from
Waiilatpu to St. Louis is from A. L. Lovejoy, the sole white companion
of Whitman. Whitman himself was, like most heroes, a man of few words.
He told various friends something of his experiences in Washington and
Boston, and told to associates and wrote a few letters to friends about
the immigration of 1843, but he seems to have been very reticent about
the "Ride." Mr. Lovejoy wrote two letters about that journey, one dated
November 6, 1869, which is found in W. H. Gray's History of Oregon,
and one addressed to Dr. G. H. Atkinson and used by him in an address
on February 22, 1876. This letter so vividly portrays the character
of this undertaking as it comes from the only witness besides Whitman
himself, that we deem it suitable to incorporate it here.

"We left Waiilatpu October 3, 1842, traveled rapidly, reached Fort Hall
in eleven days, remained two days to recruit and make a few purchases.
The doctor engaged a guide, and we left the Fort Uinte. We changed
from a direct route to more southern, through the Spanish country,
via Salt Lake, Taos and Santa Fe. On our way from Fort Hall to Fort
Uinte we had terribly severe weather. The snows retarded our progress
and blinded the trail, so we lost much time. After arriving at Fort
Uinte, and making some purchases for our trip, we took a new guide and
started for Fort Uncumpagra, situated on the waters of Grand River,
in the Spanish country. Here our stay was very short. We took a new
guide and started for Taos. After being out some four or five days we
encountered a terrific snowstorm, which forced us to seek shelter in a
deep ravine, where we remained snowed in for four days, at which time
the storm had somewhat abated, and we attempted to make our way out
upon the highlands, but the snow was so deep and the winds so piercing
and cold, we were compelled to return to camp and wait a few days for
a change of weather. Our next effort to reach the highlands was more
successful; but, after spending several days wandering around in the
snow without making much headway, our guide told us that the deep snow
had so changed the face of the country that he was completely lost and
could take us no further. This was a terrible blow to the doctor, but
he was determined not to give it up without another effort.

"We at once agreed that the doctor should take the guide and return
to Fort Uncumpagra and get a new guide, and I remain in camp with the
animals until he could return, which he did in seven days with our
new guide, and we were now on our route again. Nothing of much import
occurred but hard and slow traveling through deep snow until we reached
Grand River, which was frozen on either side about one-third across.
Although so intensely cold, the current was so very rapid that about
one-third of the river in the center was not frozen. Our guide thought
it would be dangerous to attempt to cross the river in its present
condition, but the doctor, nothing daunted, was the first to take the
water. He mounted his horse; the guide and myself shoved the doctor and
his horse off the ice into the foaming stream. Away he went, completely
under water, horse and all, but directly came up, and after buffeting
the rapid foaming current, he reached the ice on the opposite shore a
long way down the stream. He leaped from his horse upon the ice and
soon had his noble animal by his side. The guide and myself forced in
the pack animals, and followed the doctor's example, and soon were on
the opposite shore, drying our frozen clothes by a comfortable fire.
We reached Taos in about thirty days, having suffered greatly from
cold and scarcity of provisions. We were compelled to use mule meat,
dogs and such other animals as came in our reach. We remained at Taos
a few days only, and started for Bent's and Savery's Fort, on the head
waters of the Arkansas River. When we had been out some fifteen or
twenty days we met George Bent, a brother of Governor Bent, on his way
to Taos. He told us that a party of mountain men would leave Bent's
Fort in a few days for St. Louis, but said we would not reach the fort
with our pack animals in time to join the party. The doctor, being very
anxious to join the party so he could push on as rapidly as possible
to Washington, concluded to leave myself and guide with the animals,
and he himself, taking the best animal, with some bedding and a small
allowance of provision, started alone, hoping by rapid travel to reach
the fort in time to join the St. Louis party, but to do so he would
have to travel on the Sabbath, something we had not done before. Myself
and guide traveled on slowly and reached the fort in four days, but
imagine our astonishment when on making inquiry about the doctor we
were told that he had not arrived nor had he been heard of. I learned
that the party for St. Louis was camped at the Big Cottonwood, forty
miles from the fort, and at my request Mr. Savery sent an express,
telling the party not to proceed any farther until we learned something
of Doctor Whitman's whereabouts, as he wished to accompany them to St
Louis. Being furnished by the gentleman of the fort with a suitable
guide, I started in search of the doctor, and traveled up the river
about one hundred miles. I learned from the Indians that a man had been
there who was lost and was trying to find Bent's Fort. They said they
had directed him to go down the river and how to find the fort. I knew
from their description it was the doctor. I returned to the fort as
rapidly as possible, but the doctor had not arrived. We had all become
very anxious about him.

"Late in the afternoon he came in very much fatigued and desponding;
said that he knew that God had bewildered him to punish him for
traveling on the Sabbath. During the whole trip he was very regular in
his morning and evening devotions, and that was the only time I ever
knew him to travel on the Sabbath.

"The doctor remained all night at the fort, starting only on the
following morning to join the St. Louis party. Here we parted. The
doctor proceeded to Washington. I remained at Bent's Fort until spring,
and joined the doctor the following July near Fort Laramie, on his way
to Oregon, in company with a train of emigrants."

In the life of Whitman by Myron Eells, there is a summary of the
events which immediately followed, so well adapted to our purpose that
we quote it here as resting upon the authority of Mr. Eells, whom we
regard as a writer of undoubted candor and accuracy.

"When Doctor Whitman arrived at St. Louis he made his home at the
house of Doctor Edward Hale, a dentist. In the same house was William
Barrows, then a young school teacher, afterward a clergyman and author
of Barrows' 'Oregon.'

"Reaching Cincinnati, he went to the house of Doctor Weed. Here,
according to Professor Weed, he obtained a new suit of clothes, but
whether he wore them all the time until he left the East or not is
a question. Some writers speak of him as appearing in buckskins, or
something akin to them, afterwards both at Washington and Boston. Some,
as Dr. S. J. Parker, say he was not so dressed. It is just barely
possible that both may be true--that he kept his buckskins and buffalo
coat and occasionally wore them. It is quite certain that he did not
throw them away, as according to accounts he wore his buckskins in
returning to Oregon the next summer.

"The next visit on record was at Ithaca, New York, at the home of his
old missionary friend and fellow traveler, Rev. Samuel Parker. Here,
after the surprise of his arrival was over, he said to Mr. Parker:
'I have come on a very important errand. We must both go at once to
Washington, or Oregon is lost, ceded to the English.' Mr. Parker,
however, did not think the danger to be so great, and not for lack of
interest in the subject, but because of other reasons, did not go.
Doctor Whitman went alone, and reached Washington.

"The doctor, or his brother, had been a classmate of the Secretary of
War, James M. Porter. Through him the doctor obtained an introduction
to Daniel Webster, then Secretary of State, with whom he talked about
Oregon and the saving of it to the United States, but Mr. Webster
received him very coolly, and told him it was too late, as far as he
was concerned, for he had considered it, decided it, and turned it
over to the President, who could sign Oregon away or refuse to do so.
Accordingly Doctor Whitman went to President Tyler, and for some time
they talked about Oregon. Even the Cabinet were called together, it
is said, and an evening was spent on the subject. The objection was
made that wagons could never be taken to Oregon and that consequently
the country could never be peopled overland by emigrants, while the
distance around Cape Horn was altogether too great to think of taking
settlers to the country that way. In reply to this, Doctor Whitman
told of the great value of the country and of his plans to lead an
emigration through with their wagons the next summer. He stated that
he had taken a wagon into Oregon six years before to Fort Boise, that
others had taken one from Fort Hall to Walla Walla, and that with his
present knowledge, having been over the route twice, he was sure he
could take the emigrant wagons through to the Columbia. The President
then said that he would wait, before carrying the negotiations any
further, until he could hear whether Doctor Whitman should succeed, and
if he should there would be no more thought of trading off Oregon. This
satisfied the doctor.

[Illustration: DR. WHITMAN LOST IN A SNOW STORM, 1842]

"He then went to New York to see Mr. Horace Greeley, who was known to
be a friend of Oregon. He went there dressed in his rough clothes,
much the same that he wore across the continent. When he knocked at
the door a lady came, Mrs. Greeley or a daughter, who, on seeing such
a rough-looking person, said to his inquiries for Mr. Greeley, 'Not
at home.' Doctor Whitman started away. She went and told Mr. Greeley
about him and Mr. Greeley, who was of much the same style and cared but
little for appearances, looked out of the window, and seeing him going
away, said to call him in. It was done, and they had a long talk about
this Northwest Coast and its political relations.

"From New York Doctor Whitman went to Boston, where the officers of
the American Board at first received him coldly, because he had left
his station for the East without permission from them, on business
so foreign to that which he had been sent to Oregon to accomplish.
Afterwards, however, they treated him more cordially.

"From Boston he went to New York State and visited relatives. Then
taking with him his nephew, Perrin B. Whitman, bade them good-by and
left for Missouri. While there he did all he could to induce people
to join the emigration for Oregon, then went with the emigration,
assisting the guide, Captain Gantt, until they reached Fort Hall, and
aiding the emigrants very materially. Fort Hall was as far as Captain
Gantt had agreed to guide them, and from that place Doctor Whitman
guided them or furnished an Indian guide, so that the emigrants reached
the Columbia River safely with their wagons."

The incoming of the immigration of 1843 was a determining factor in the
settlement of the Oregon question. There can be no question that Doctor
Whitman performed a conspicuous service in organizing and leading that
immigration. It is true, however, that many influences combined to draw
that company of frontiersmen to the border of civilization and to give
them the common purpose of the great march across the wilderness. The
leading motives perhaps were the desire first to acquire land in what
they thought would prove a paradise and second to carry the American
flag across the continent and secure ownership of the Pacific Coast
for their country. Perhaps no one ever so well expressed the mingled
motives of that advance guard of American possession as did James W.
Nesmith, father of Mrs. Levi Ankeny of Walla Walla, who was himself
a member of the immigration and later became one of the conspicuous
builders of Oregon and of the nation. Senator Nesmith's account is
as follows, given in an address at a meeting of the Oregon Pioneer
Association:

"Without orders from any quarter, and without preconcert, promptly
as the grass began to start, the emigrants began to assemble near
Independence, at a place called Fitzhugh's Mill. On the 17th day of
May, 1843, notices were circulated through the different encampments
that on the succeeding day, those who contemplated emigrating to
Oregon would meet at a designated point to organize. Promptly at the
appointed hour the motley groups assembled. They consisted of people
from all the States and Territories, and nearly all nationalities;
the most, however, from Arkansas, Illinois, Missouri and Iowa, and
all strangers to one another, but impressed with some crude idea that
there existed an imperative necessity for some kind of an organization
for mutual protection against the hostile Indians inhabiting the great
unknown wilderness stretching away to the shores of the Pacific, and
which they were about to traverse with their wives and children,
household goods, and all their earthly possessions.

"Many of the emigrants were from the western tier of counties of
Missouri, known as the Platte Purchase, and among them was Peter
H. Burnett, a former merchant, who had abandoned the yardstick and
become a lawyer of some celebrity for his ability as a smooth-tongued
advocate. He subsequently emigrated to California, and was elected the
first Governor of the Golden State, was afterward Chief Justice, and
still an honored resident of that state. Mr. Burnett, or, as he was
familiarly designated, 'Pete,' was called upon for a speech. Mounting
a log, the glib-tongued orator delivered a glowing, florid address. He
commenced by showing his audience that the then western tier of states
and territories was overcrowded with a redundant population, who had
not sufficient elbow room for the expansion of their enterprise and
genius, and it was a duty they owed to themselves and posterity to
strike out in search of a more expanded field and more genial climate,
where the soil yielded the richest returns for the slightest amount
of cultivation, where the trees were loaded with perennial fruit,
and where a good substitute for bread, called 'La Camash.' grew in
the ground, salmon and other fish crowded the streams, and where the
principal labor of the settler would be confined to keeping their
gardens free from the inroads of buffalo, elk, deer and wild turkeys.
He appealed to our patriotism by picturing forth the glorious empire
we would establish on the shores of the Pacific. How, with our trusty
rifles, we would drive out the British usurpers who claimed the soil,
and defend the country from the avarice and pretensions of the British
lion, and how posterity would honor us for placing the fairest portion
of our land under the dominion of the Stars and Stripes. He concluded
with a slight allusion to the trials and hardships incident to the
trip, and dangers to be encountered from hostile Indians on the route,
and those inhabiting the country whither we were bound. He furthermore
intimated a desire to look upon the tribe of noble 'red men' that the
valiant and well-armed crowd around him could not vanquish in a single
encounter.

"Other speeches were made, full of glowing descriptions of the fair
land of promise, the far-away Oregon, which no one in the assemblage
had ever seen, and of which not more than half a dozen had ever read
any account. After the election of Mr. Burnett as captain, and other
necessary officers, the meeting, as motley and primitive a one as ever
assembled, adjourned, with 'three cheers' for Captain Burnett and
Oregon. On the 20th of May, 1843, after a pretty thorough military
organization, we took up our line of march, with Captain John Gantt,
an old army officer, who combined the character of trapper and
mountaineer, as our guide. Gantt had in his wanderings been as far
as Green River, and assured us of the practicability of a wagon road
thus far. Green River, the extent of our guide's knowledge in that
direction, was not half-way to the Willamette Valley, then the only
inhabited portion of Oregon. Beyond that we had not the slightest
conjecture of the condition of the country. We went forth trusting to
the future, and would doubtless have encountered more difficulties
than we experienced had not Doctor Whitman overtaken us before we
reached the terminus of our guide's knowledge. He was familiar with
the whole route and was confident that wagons could pass through the
cañons and gorges of Snake River and over the Blue Mountains, which the
mountaineers in the vicinity of Fort Hall declared to be a physical
impossibility.

"Captain Grant, then in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort
Hall, endeavored to dissuade us from proceeding farther with our
wagons, and showed us the wagons that the emigrants of the preceding
year had abandoned, as an evidence of the impracticability of our
determination. Doctor Whitman was persistent in his assertions that
wagons could proceed as far as the Grand Dalles of the Columbia River,
from which point he asserted they could be taken down by rafts or
batteaux to the Willamette Valley, while our stock could be driven by
an Indian trail over the Cascade Mountains, near Mount Hood. Happily
Whitman's advice prevailed, and a large number of the wagons with a
portion of the stock did reach Walla Walla and The Dalles, from which
points they were taken to the Willamette the following year. Had we
followed Grant's advice and abandoned the cattle and wagons at Fort
Hall, much suffering must have ensued, as a sufficient number of horses
to carry the women and children of the party could not have been
obtained, besides wagons and cattle were indispensable to men expecting
to live by farming in a country destitute of such articles.

"At Fort Hall we fell in with some Cayuse and Nez Percé Indians
returning from the buffalo country, and as it was necessary for Doctor
Whitman to precede us to Walla Walla, he recommended to us a guide in
the person of an old Cayuse Indian called 'Sticcus.' He was a faithful
old fellow, perfectly familiar with all the trails and topography of
the country from Fort Hall to The Dalles, and, although not speaking a
word of English, and no one in our party a word of Cayuse, he succeeded
by pantomime in taking us over the roughest wagon route I ever saw."

In that immigration were nearly a thousand persons, among them several
families whose members and descendants have borne honorable parts in
building the region of Old Walla Walla County and the part of Umatilla
County adjoining, in Oregon. In the belief that among the readers
of this work may be many now living in the counties covered by this
story, who can trace their ancestry to the blood royal of that great
immigration and that a list of its names would have a permanent value
in such a record as this, we incorporate here a list of the names of
all the male members of the train over sixteen years of age, as secured
by J. W. Nesmith at the time of the organization of the train. His list
included some who turned back or went to California, or died on the
way. We quote from the "History of the Willamette Valley," by H. B.
Lang:

"The following list contains the names of every male member of that
great train over the age of sixteen years. It was prepared by J. W.
Nesmith when the train was organized, and was preserved among his
papers for a third of a century before given for publication. All
reached the Willamette Valley, except a few, the exceptions being
designated by marks and foot-notes:

  Applegate, Jesse
  Applegate, Charles
  Applegate, Lindsay
  Athey, James
  Athey, William
  Atkinson, John[2]
  Arthur, Wm.
  Arthur, Robert
  Arthur, David
  Butler, Amon
  Brooke, George
  Burnett, Peter H.
  Bird, David
  Brown, Thomas A.
  Blevins, Alexander
  Brooks, John P.
  Brown, Martin
  Brown, Oris
  Black, J. P.
  Bane, Layton
  Baker, Andrew
  Baker, John G.
  Beagle, William
  Boyd, Levy
  Baker, William
  Biddle, Nicholas[4]
  Beale, George
  Braidy, James
  Beadle, George
  Boardman, ----[2]
  Baldridge, Wm.
  Cason, F. C.
  Cason, James
  Chapman, Wm.
  Cox, John
  Champ, Jacob
  Cooper, L. C.
  Cone, James
  Childers, Moses
  Carey, Miles
  Cochran, Thomas
  Clymour, L.
  Copenhaver, John
  Caton, J. H.
  Chappel, Alfred
  Cronin, Daniel
  Cozine, Samuel
  Costable, Benedict
  Childs, Joseph[2]
  Clark, Ransom
  Campbell, John G.
  Chapman, ----
  Chase, James
  Dodd, Solomon
  Dement, Wm. C.
  Dougherty, W. P.
  Day, William[3]
  Duncan, James
  Dorin, Jacob
  Davis, Thomas
  Delany, Daniel
  Delany, Daniel, Jr.
  Delany, William
  Doke, William
  Davis, J. H.
  Davis, Burrell
  Dailey, George
  Doherty, John
  Dawson, ----[2]
  Eaton, Charles
  Eaton, Nathan
  Etchell, James
  Emerick, Solomon
  Eaker, John W.
  Edson, E. G.
  Eyres, Miles[3]
  East, John W.
  Everman, Niniwon
  Ford, Nineveh
  Ford, Ephriam
  Ford, Nimrod
  Ford, John
  Francis, Alexander
  Frazer, Abner
  Fowler, Wm.
  Fowler, Wm. J.
  Fowler, Henry
  Fairly, Stephen
  Fendell, Charles
  Gantt, John[2]
  Gray, Chiley B.
  Garrison, Enoch
  Garrison, J. W.
  Garrison, W. J.
  Gardner, Samuel
  Gardner, Wm.
  Gilmore, Mat
  Goodman, Richard
  Gilpin, Major
  Gray, ----
  Haggard, B.
  Hide, H. H.
  Holmes, Wm.
  Holmes, Riley, A.
  Hobson, John
  Hobson, Wm.
  Hembree, Andrew
  Hembree, J. J.
  Hembree, James
  Hembree, A. J.
  Hall, Samuel B.
  Houk, James
  Hughes, Wm. P.
  Hendrick, Abijah
  Hays, James
  Hensley, Thomas J.[2]
  Holley, B.
  Hunt, Henry
  Holderness, S. M.
  Hutchins, Isaac
  Husted, A.
  Hess, Joseph
  Haun, Jacob
  Howell, John
  Howell, Wm.
  Howell, Wesley
  Howell, G. W.
  Howell, Thomas E.
  Hill, Henry
  Hill, William
  Hill, Almoran
  Hewett, Henry
  Hargrove, Wm.
  Hoyt, A.
  Holman, John
  Holman, Daniel
  Harrigas, B.
  James, Calvin
  Jackson, John B.
  Jones, John
  Johnson, Overton
  Keyser, Thomas
  Keyser, J. B.
  Keyser, Plasant
  Kelley, ----
  Kelsey, ----
  Lovejoy, A. L.
  Lenox, Edward
  Lenox, E.
  Layson, Aaron
  Looney, Jesse
  Long, John E.
  Lee, H. A. G.
  Lugur, F.[4]
  Linebarger, Lew
  Linebarger, John
  Laswell, Isaac
  Loughborough, J.[4]
  Little, Milton[2]
  Luther, ----
  Lauderdale; John
  McGee, ----[2]
  Martin, Wm. J.[2]
  Martin, James
  Martin, Julius[3]
  McClelland, ----[2]
  McClelland, F.[2]
  Mills, John B.
  Mills, Isaac
  Mills, Wm. A.
  Mills, Owen
  McGarey, G. W.
  Mondon, Gilbert
  Matheny, Daniel
  Matheny, Adam
  Matheny, Josiah
  Matheny, Henry
  Matheny, J. N.
  Mastire, A. J.
  McHaley, John
  Myers, Jacob
  Manning, John
  Manning, James
  McCarver, M. M.
  McCorcle, George
  Mays, William
  Millican, Elijah
  McDaniel, William
  McKissic, D.
  Malone, Madison
  McClane, John B.
  Mauzee, William
  McIntire, John[2]
  Moore, Jackson[4]
  Matney, W. J.
  Nesmith, J. W.
  Newby, W. T.
  Newman, Noah
  Naylor, Thomas
  Osborn, Neil
  O'Brien, Hugh D.
  O'Brien, Humphrey
  Owen, Thomas A.
  Owen, Thomas
  Otie, E. W.
  Otie, M. B.
  O'Neil, Bennett
  Olinger, A.
  Parker, Jesse
  Parker, William
  Pennington, J. B.
  Poe, R. H.
  Paynter, Samuel
  Patterson, J. R.
  Pickett, Charles E.
  Prigg, Frederick
  Paine, Clayborn[3]
  Reading, P. B.[2]
  Rodgers. S. P.
  Rodgers, G. W.
  Russell, William
  Roberts, James
  Rice, G. W.
  Richardson, John
  Richardson, Daniel[3]
  Ruby, Philip
  Ricord, John
  Reid, Jacob
  Roe, John
  Roberts, Solomon
  Roberts, Emseley
  Rossin, Joseph
  Rivers, Thomas
  Smith, Thomas H.
  Smith, Thomas
  Smith, Isaac W.
  Smith, Anderson
  Smith, Ahi
  Smith, Robert
  Smith, Eli
  Sheldon, William
  Stewart, P. G.
  Sutton, Dr. Nathan'l
  Stimmerman, C.
  Sharp, C.
  Summers, W. C.
  Sewell, Henry
  Stout, Henry
  Sterling, George
  Stout, ----
  Stevenson, ----
  Story, James
  Swift, ----
  Shively, John M.
  Shirly, Samuel
  Stoughton, Alex
  Spencer, Chancey
  Strait, Hiram
  Summers, George
  Stringer, Cornelius
  Stringer, C. W.[3]
  Tharp, Lindsey
  Thompson, John
  Trainor, D.
  Teller, Jeremiah
  Tarbox, Stephen
  Umnicker, John
  Vance, Samuel
  Vaughn, William
  Vernon, George
  Wilmont, James
  Wilson, Wm. H.
  Wair, J. W.
  Winkle, Archibald
  Williams, Edward
  Wheeler, H.
  Wagoner, John
  Williams, Benjamin
  Williams, David
  Wilson, Wm.
  Williams, John[2]
  Williams, James[2]
  Williams, Squire[2]
  Williams, Isaac[2]
  Ward, T. B.
  White, James
  Watson, John (Betty)
  Waters, James
  Winter, William
  Waldo, Daniel
  Waldo, David
  Zachary, Alexander
  Zachary, John

[2] Turned off at Fort Hall and went to California.

[3] Died on the route.

[4] Turned back at the Platte.

"There were in Oregon at the time the train arrived the following
individuals, a few names, possibly, having been omitted from the list,
and the list not including the various missionaries named elsewhere:

  Armstrong, Pleasant
  Burns, Hugh
  Brown, ----
  Brown, William
  Brown, ----
  Black, J. M.
  Baldro, ----
  Balis, James
  Bailey, Dr.
  Brainard, ----
  Crawford, Medorem
  Carter, David
  Campbell, Samuel
  Campbell, Jack
  Craig, Wm.
  Cook, Amos
  Cook, Aaron
  Connor, ----
  Cannon, William
  Davy, Allen
  Doty, William
  Eakin, Richard
  Ebbetts, Squire
  Edwards, John
  Foster, Philip
  Force, John
  Force, James
  Fletcher, Francis
  Gay, George
  Gale, Joseph
  Girtmann, ----
  Hathaway, Felix
  Hatch, Peter H.
  Hubbard, Thomas J.
  Hewitt, Adam
  Horegon, Jeremiah
  Holman, Joseph
  Hall, David
  Hoxhurst, Weberly
  Hutchinson, ----
  Johnson, William
  Kelsey, ----
  King, ----
  Lewis, Reuben
  Le Breton, G. W.
  Larrison, Jack
  Meek, Joseph L.
  Matthieu, F. X.
  McClure, John
  Moss, S. W.
  Moore, Robert
  McFadden, ----
  McCarty, William
  McKay, Charles
  McKay, Thomas
  McKay, William C.
  Morrison, ----
  Mack, J. W.
  Newbanks, ----
  Newell, Robert
  O'Neil, James A.
  Pettygrove, F. W.
  Pomeroy, Dwight
  Pomeroy, Walter
  Perry, ----
  Rimmick, ----
  Russell, Osborn
  Robb, J. R.
  Shortess, Robert
  Smith, Sidney
  Smith, ----
  Smith, Andrew
  Smith, Andrew, Jr.
  Smith, Darling
  Spence, ----
  Sailor, Jack
  Turnham, Joel
  Turner, John
  Taylor, Hiram
  Tibbetts, Calvin
  Trask, ----
  Walker, C. M.
  Warner, Jack
  Wilson, A. E.
  Winslow, David
  Wilkins, Caleb
  Wood, Henry
  Williams, B.

The men in these lists, with their families, constituted the population
of Oregon in 1843, aside from the Hudson's Bay Company people."

Doctor Whitman himself wrote several valuable letters referring to
the immigration of 1843. The most important of these was one to the
Secretary of War, inclosing a proposed bill for a line of forts across
the plains to defend immigrations. This letter has such an important
bearing on the whole story of Whitman and his connection with the
immigration and the acquisition of Oregon that it is incorporated here.
And we would submit to the reader the difficulty which any candid
critic would experience in examining this letter and then denying
Whitman's part in "saving Oregon to the United States." Whitman's
letter was found among the files of the War Department, with the
following endorsement:

       *       *       *       *       *

"Marcus Whitman inclosing synopsis of a bill, with his views in
reference to importance of the Oregon Territory, War. 383--rec. June
22, 1844."

Portions of the letter follow:

  "To the Hon. James M. Porter,

  Secretary of War.

"Sir: In compliance with the request you did me the honor to make last
winter, while in Washington, I herewith transmit to you the synopsis of
a bill which, if it could be adopted, would, according to my experience
and observation, prove highly conducive to the best interests of the
United States generally, to Oregon, where I have resided for more than
seven years as a missionary, and to the Indian tribes that inhabit the
immediate country. The Government will now, doubtless for the first
time, be apprised through you, or by means of this communication, of
the immense immigration of families to Oregon which has taken place
this year. I have, since interview, been instrumental in piloting
across the route described in the accompanying bill, and which is
the only eligible wagon road, no less than three hundred families,
consisting of one thousand persons of both sexes, with their wagons,
amounting to 120,694 oxen, and 773 loose cattle.

"The emigrants are from different states, but principally from
Missouri, Arkansas, Illinois and New York. The majority of them are
farmers, lured by the prospect of bounty in lands, by the reported
fertility of the soil, and by the desire to be first among those who
are planting our institutions on the Pacific Coast. Among them are
artisans of every trade, comprising, with farmers, the very best
material for a new colony. As pioneers, these people have undergone
incredible hardships, and having now safely passed the Blue Mountain
Range with their wagons and effects, have established a durable road
from Missouri to Oregon, which will serve to mark permanently the route
of larger numbers each succeeding year, while they have practically
demonstrated that wagons drawn by horses or oxen can cross the
Rocky Mountains to the Columbia River, contrary to all the sinister
assertions of all those who pretended it to be impossible.

"In their slow progress, these persons have encountered, as in all
former instances, and as all succeeding emigrants must, if this or some
similar bill be not passed by Congress, the continual fear of Indian
aggression, the actual loss through them of horses, cattle and other
property, and the great labor of transporting an adequate amount of
provisions for so long a journey. The bill herewith proposed would, in
a great measure, lessen these inconveniences by the establishment of
posts, which, while having the possessed power to keep the Indians in
check, thus doing away with the necessity of military vigilance on the
part of the traveler by day and night, would be able to furnish them
in transit with fresh supplies of provisions, diminishing the original
burdens of the emigrants, and finding thus a ready and profitable
market for their produce--a market that would, in my opinion, more than
suffice to defray all the current expenses of such posts. The present
party is supposed to have expended no less than $2,000 at Laramie's
and Bridger's Forts, and as much more at Fort Hall and Fort Boise,
two of the Hudson's Bay Company's stations. These are at present the
only stopping places in a journey of 2,200 miles, and the only place
where additional supplies can be obtained, even at the enormous rate of
charge, called mountain prices, i. e., $50 the hundred for flour and
$50 the hundred for coffee; the same for sugar, powder, etc.

"Many cases of sickness and some deaths took place among those who
accomplished the journey this season, owing, in a great measure, to the
uninterrupted use of meat, salt and fresh, with flour, which constitute
the chief articles of food they are able to convey on their wagons, and
this could be obviated by the vegetable productions which the posts
in contemplation could very profitably afford them. Those who rely on
hunting as an auxiliary support, are at present unable to have their
arms repaired when out of order; horses and oxen become tender-footed
and require to be shod on this long journey, sometimes repeatedly, and
the wagons repaired in a variety of ways. I mention these as valuable
incidents to the proposed measure, as it will also be found to tend in
many other incidental ways to benefit the migratory population of the
United States choosing to take this direction, and on these accounts,
as well as for the immediate use of the posts themselves, they ought to
be provided with the necessary shops and mechanics, which would at the
same time exhibit the several branches of civilized art to the Indians.

"The outlay in the first instance would be but trifling. Forts like
those of the Hudson's Bay Company, surrounded by walls enclosing all
the buildings, and constructed almost entirely of adobe, or sun-dried
bricks, with stone foundations only, can be easily and cheaply erected.
* * *

"Your familiarity with the Government policy, duties and interest
render it unnecessary for me to more than hint at the several objects
intended by the enclosed bill, and any enlargement upon the topics here
suggested as inducements to its adoption would be quite superfluous, if
not impertinent. The very existence of such a system as the one above
recommended suggests the utility of post-offices and mail arrangements,
which it is the wish of all who now live in Oregon to have granted
them; and I need only add that contracts for this purpose will be
readily taken at reasonable rates for transporting the mail across
from Missouri to the mouth of the Columbia in forty days, with fresh
horses at each of the contemplated posts. The ruling policy proposed
regards the Indians as the police of the country, who are to be relied
upon to keep the peace, not only for themselves, but to repel lawless
white men and prevent banditti, under the solitary guidance of the
superintendents of the several posts, aided by a well-directed system
to induce the punishment of crime. It will only be after the failure of
these means to procure the delivery or punishment of violent, lawless
and savage acts of aggression, that a band or tribe should be regarded
as conspirators against the peace, or punished accordingly by force of
arms.

"Hoping that these suggestions may meet your approbation, and conduce
to the future interest of our growing country, I have the honor to be,
Honorable Sir,

  "Your obedient servant,

  "MARCUS WHITMAN."

It may be added that Whitman was so thoroughly interested in the
idea of the line of forts across the continent that he wrote another
communication to the Secretary of War from Waiilatpu in 1847, October
16th, only about six weeks before his murder, setting forth with
similar force and clearness the wisdom of such a system.

During the four years that followed the coming of the "Great
Immigration," the mission at Waiilatpu was a center of light and help
to the incoming immigrations. Many incidents have been preserved
showing the industry, fortitude, and open-handed philanthropy of the
Whitmans. The earlier immigration usually stopped at Waiilatpu, coming
across the country in the vicinity of the present location of Athena
and Weston and down Pine Creek to the Walla Walla. The immigrants were
always short of provisions and generally had no money. To have a stock
of provisions at all equal to emergencies put a tremendous strain on
Doctor Whitman, and nobly did he meet the needs. Among many instances
of the helping hand of the missionaries are two given in Eells' life of
Whitman which we give as illustrative of many that might be given.

"Among the immigrants of 1844 was a man named Sager, who had a family
consisting of his wife and seven children, between the ages of infancy
and thirteen. The father died of typhoid fever on Green River, and the
mother sank under her burdens when she reached Snake River and there
died. The immigrants cared for the children until they reached Doctor
Whitman's, but would take them no farther. The doctor and his wife took
the strangers in at first for the winter, but afterward adopted them
and cared for them as long as they lived.

"Mrs. C. S. Pringle, one of these children, afterwards gave the
following account of this event. It was written in answer to a charge
made by Mrs. F. F. Victor that the doctor was mercenary, making
money out of the immigrants: 'In April, 1844, my parents started for
Oregon. Soon after starting we were all camped for the night, and
the conversation after awhile turned upon the probability of death
before the end of the journey should be reached. All told what they
would wish their families to do in case they should fall by the way.
My father said: 'Well, if I should die, I would want my family to
stop at the station of Doctor Whitman.' Ere long he was taken sick
and died, but with his dying breath he committed his family to the
care of Captain Shaw, with the request that they should be left at
the station of Doctor Whitman. Twenty-six days after his death his
wife died. She, too, requested the same. When we were in the Blue
Mountains, Captain Shaw went ahead to see about leaving us there.
The doctor objected, as he was afraid the board would not recognize
that as a part of his labor. After a good deal of talk he consented
to have the children brought, and he would see what could be done.
On the 17th day of October we drove up to the station, as forlorn a
looking lot of children as ever was. I was a cripple, hardly able to
walk, and the babe of six months was dangerously ill. Mrs. Whitman
agreed to take the five girls, but the boys must go on (they were
the oldest of the family). But the 'mercenary' doctor said, 'All or
none.' He made arrangements to keep the seven until spring and then
if we did not like to stay, and he did not want to keep us, he would
send us below. An article of agreement was drawn up in writing between
him and Captain Shaw, but not one word of money or pay was in it. I
had it in my possession for years after I came to the (Willamette)
Valley, having received it from Captains Shaw. Before Captain Shaw
reached The Dalles he was overtaken by Doctor Whitman, who announced
his intention of adopting the seven, on his own responsibility, asking
nothing of the Board for maintenance. The next summer he went to
Oregon City and legally became our guardian, and the action is on the
records of Clackamas County. Having done this, he further showed his
mercenary nature by disposing of our father's estate in such a way that
he could not realize a cent from it. He exchanged the oxen and old
cows for young cows, and turned them over to the two boys to manage
until they should grow to manhood; besides this, he gave them each
a horse and saddle, which, of course, came out of his salary, as we
were not mission children, as the three half-breeds were that were in
the family. After doing all this he allowed the boys opportunities to
accumulate stock by work or trade. Often he has said to us, 'You must
all learn to work, for father is poor and can give you nothing but an
education. This I intend to do to the best of my ability.'

"Another incident with an immigrant is here related, given almost in
the words of the narrator, Joseph Smith, who came to the country in
1846. He says: I was mighty sick crossing the Blues, and was so weak
from eating blue mass that they had to haul me in the wagon till we got
to Doctor Whitman's place on the Walla Walla River. Then Mother Whitman
came and raised the wagon cover and says, 'What is the matter with you,
my brother?' 'I am sick, and I don't want to be pestered much, either.'
'But, but, my young friend, my husband is a doctor, and can probably
cure your ailment; I'll go and call him.' So off she clattered, and
purty soon Doc. came, and they packed me in the cabin, and soon he had
me on my feet again. I eat up a whole band of cattle for him, as I had
to winter with him. I told him I'd like to work for him, to kinder pay
part of my bill. Wall, Doc. set me to making rails, but I only made two
hundred before spring, and I got to worryin' 'cause I hadn't only fifty
dollars and a saddle horse, and I reckoned I owed the doctor four or
five hundred dollars for my life. Now, maybe I wasn't knocked out when
I went and told the doctor I wanted to go on to Webfoot and asked him
how we stood; and doctor p'inted to a Cayuse pony, and says, 'Money I
have not, but you can take that horse and call it even, if you will.'"

It is worth noticing that though Mr. Smith says "Mother" Whitman, she
was only thirty-eight at the time.

But at that time, the very year of the final consummation of the great
work of Whitman, the treaty of 1846, giving Oregon up to latitude 49°
to the United States, a consummation which must have made the brave
hearts of the heroic pair thrill with joy and gratitude, the shadow
was approaching, the end was near. The crown of heroism and service
must be still further crowned with martyrdom. Even since the death of
little Alice, the Indians at Waiilatpu had seemed to lose in growing
measure the personal interest which they had manifested. With the
coming of constantly growing immigrations and the apparent eagerness
of the whites to secure land, the natives felt increasing suspicion.
The more thoughtful of them, especially those who had been in the
"States" and had seen the countless numbers of the "Pale-faces,"
began to see that it was only a question of time when they would be
entirely dispossessed. Again, the unavoidable policies of the Hudson's
Bay Company were hostile to the American settler. While as kind and
courteous to the missionaries as men well could be and helpful to them
in their religious labors, it was a different matter when it came to
settlers swarming into the country with the Stars and Stripes at the
head of wagon trains and with the implements of husbandry in their
hands. The Indians were predisposed for many reasons to side with
the company. With it they did their trading. It preserved the wild
conditions of the country. The French-Canadian voyageurs and coureurs
des bois were much kinder and more considerate of the Indians than the
Americans and intermarried with them. Besides those general causes of
hostility to the Americans, there were certain specific events during
that period of doubt and suspicion which brought affairs to a focus and
precipitated the tragedy of the Whitman Massacre. Some have believed
that the murder of "Elijah" (as the whites called him), the son of
Peupeumoxmox, the chief of the Walla Wallas, apparently a fine, manly
young Indian, was a strong contributory cause. The young brave had gone
to California in 1844 and while near Sutter's Fort had become involved
in a dispute with some white settlers and had been brutally murdered.
The old chief Peupeumoxmox had brooded over this dastardly deed, and
though there is no evidence that he had any part in the massacre, there
was deep resentment among the Indians of the Walla Walla Valley and no
doubt many of them were in the mood to apply the usual Indian rule that
a life lost demanded a life in payment. Apparently the most immediate
influence leading to the massacre was due to an epidemic of measles
which swept the valley in 1847. Doctor Whitman was indefatigable in
ministering to the sick, but many died. The impression became prevalent
among the Indians that they were the victims of poison. This idea was
nurtured in their minds by several renegade Indians and half-breeds, of
whom Lehai, Tom Hill, and Jo Lewis were most prominent.

Seeing the gathering of clouds about the mission and the many warning
indications, Doctor Whitman had taken up the project of leaving Walla
Walla and going to The Dalles, a point where he had in fact at first
wished to locate, but had been dissuaded by the Hudson's Bay Company
officials. The story of the massacre has been many times told and may
be found in many forms. We can but briefly sketch its leading events.
Mr. Spalding of Lapwai was temporarily at Waiilatpu, and on November
27, 1847, he and Doctor Whitman went to the Umatilla in response to
a request for medical attention. Feeling uneasy about affairs at
home, Doctor Whitman returned on the next day, reaching Waiilatpu
late at night. On the following day, the 29th, while engaged with his
medicine chest, two Indians, who seem to have been leaders in the
plot, approached him, and while one, Tilaukait, drew his attention
by talking, the other, Tamahas, struck him with a tomahawk. He fell
senseless, though not yet dead. Jo Lewis seems to have directed the
further execution of the cruel conspiracy and soon Mrs. Whitman, shot
in the breast, fell to the floor, though not dying for some time. She
was the only woman slain. There were in all fourteen victims of this
dreadful attack. Several escaped, Mr. Spalding, who was on his way back
from the Umatilla, being one of them. After several days and nights of
harrowing suffering, he reached Lapwai. There were forty-six survivors
of the massacre, nearly all women and children. Many of these are said
to have been subjected to cruelty and outrage worse than death, though
it may be noted that some of the few living survivors of the present
date deny the common opinion. They were ransomed by Peter Skeen Ogden
of the Hudson's Bay Company, and transported to the Willamette Valley.
The full story of the war which follows belongs in the succeeding
chapter.

So ended in darkness, but not in shame, the mission at Waiilatpu. The
peaceful spot six miles west of Walla Walla, in the midst of the fair
and fruitful valley, is marked with a granite monument on the summit of
the hill, and a grave at the foot. There the dust of the martyrs rests
in a plain marble crypt upon the surface of which appear their names.
It is indeed one of the most sacred spots in the Northwest, suggestive
of patriotism, devotion, self-sacrifice, suffering, sorrow, tragedy,
and final triumph. In November, 1916, the remains of W. H. Gray and
Mary Dix Gray, his wife, were removed from Astoria and placed in the
grave at Waiilatpu. As associates from the first of the Whitmans, and
engaged in the same arduous struggle for the establishment of civilized
and Christian institutions in this beautiful wilderness, they are
fittingly joined with them in their final resting place.

By reason of priority in time as well as its connection with
immigration and public affairs, and also its tragic end, and perhaps,
too, the controversies that have arisen in connection with it, the
Whitman Mission has secured a place in history far more prominent than
that of any other, either east or west of the Cascade Mountains. But
it should not be forgotten that within a short time after the incoming
of white settlers, all the leading churches sent missionaries into the
Northwest, both for the Indians and whites. Next in point of time after
the Methodist missions of the Willamette Valley and the Presbyterian
and Congregational missions of the Upper Columbia and Snake rivers,
came the Catholic. It should be understood that in speaking of that
church as third in time, we speak of the era of the beginnings of
settlement. For it should be remembered that there had been visiting
Catholic priests among the Hudson's Bay posts long prior to the coming
of Jason Lee, the first of the Protestants. The French-Canadians
were almost universally of Catholic rearing, and the officers of the
company encouraged the maintenance of religious worship and instruction
according to the customary methods. There were not, however, any
regular permanent Catholic missions until a little after the Protestant
missions already described. The inauguration of regular mission work
by the Catholic Church grew out of the planting of a settlement at
Champoeg on the Willamette by Doctor McLoughlin during the years from
1829 on. Quite a little group of retired Hudson's Bay Company men,
French-Canadians with Indian wives and half-breed children, became
located on the fertile tract still known as French Prairie. So well
had the settlement thrived that in 1834, the year of the arrival of
Jason Lee in the same neighborhood, an application was made to Doctor
Provencher, Vicar Apostolic of Hudson Bay, to send a clergyman to that
point. Not till 1837 could the request be fulfilled. In that year
Rev. Modeste Demers went to the Red River, and the following year, in
company with Rev. Francis N. Blanchet, resumed the journey to Oregon.
In the progress of their journey they stopped at Walla Walla for a day.
Reaching Vancouver on November 24, 1838, they entered with zeal and
devotion upon their task of ministering both to the whites and Indians.
Remaining at Vancouver till January, 1839, Father Blanchet started on
a regular course of visitations, going first to the settlement on the
Willamette where there were twenty-six Catholic families and where
the people had already constructed a chapel. Next he visited Cowlitz
Prairie, where there were four families. These stations were, of
course, outside of the scope of the present work, but reference to them
indicates the time and place and manner of starting the great series
of Catholic missions which soon became extended all over Oregon. While
Father Blanchet was at Cowlitz, his fellow worker, Demers, started on
an extended tour of the upper Columbia region. In the course of this
he visited Walla Walla, Okanogan, and Colville, starting work among
the Indians by baptizing their children. From that time on Father
Demers or some one of the Jesuit priests made annual visits to Walla
Walla, adding children by baptism each year. In the meantime another
of the most important of the Catholic missionaries, and the one to
whom the world is indebted for one of the best histories of Oregon
missions, was on his way. This was Rev. Father Pierre J. De Smet. In
March, 1840, he set out for Oregon from the St. Joseph Mission at
Council Bluffs, journeying by the Platte River route. On June 25th he
reached Green River, long known as a rendezvous of the fur-traders.
There he held mass for the trappers and Indians. Referring to this in
a subsequent letter he writes thus: "On Sunday, the 5th of July, I had
the consolation of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice sub dio. The altar
was placed on an elevation, and surrounded with boughs and garlands
of flowers; I addressed the congregation in French and in English and
spoke also by an interpreter to the Flatheads and Snake Indians. It
was a spectacle truly moving for the heart of a missionary to behold
an assembly composed of so many different nations who all assisted at
our holy mysteries with great satisfaction. The Canadians sang hymns in
French and Latin, and the Indians in their native tongue. It was truly
a Catholic worship. The place has been called since that time by the
French-Canadians, la prairie de la Messe."

[Illustration: WHITMAN MONUMENT AT WAIILATPU, SIX MILES WEST OF WALLA
WALLA]

After a week at the Green River rendezvous, Father De Smet with his
Indian guides resumed the journey westward by way of the Three Tetons
to the upper waters of Snake River. While at Henry Lake he climbed a
lofty peak from which he could see in both directions and while there
he carved on a stone the words: "Sanctus Ignatius, Patronus Montium,
Die Julii 23, 1840." That was as far west as Father De Smet went at
that time. After two months among the Flatheads about the head of
Snake River, he returned to St. Louis in the last part of the year.
One point of interest in connection with this return, as showing the
disposition of the Indians to seek religious instruction, is that a
certain Flathead chief named Insula who accompanied Father De Smet
to St. Louis, had gone to Green River in 1835 to meet missionaries.
It is stated by Rev. Father E. V. O'Hara in his valuable "Catholic
History of Oregon" that Insula was much disappointed to find, not the
"black-gowns" as he had expected, but Doctor Whitman and Doctor Parker
on their reconnaissance. It is probably impossible to determine just
what distinction between different denominations of Christians may have
existed in the Indian mind, but it may be recalled that Whitman and
Parker while at Green River deemed the outlook so encouraging that they
decided that Whitman should return to the "States" for reinforcements,
while Parker went on with the Indians and made an extensive exploration
of the entire Oregon country. Father De Smet returned to the Flathead
mission in 1841 and in 1842 proceeded to Vancouver by way of the
Spokane. In the course of the journey he visited all the principal
Indian tribes in the Kootenai, Pend Oreille, Coeur d'Alene, and
Spokane countries. In the progress of this journey he made a brief
visit at Walla Walla. Returning to the East after twenty-five months
of missionary service in Oregon and then spending some time in Europe,
he returned with quite a reinforcement in the ship "L'Infatigable" in
1844. The ship was nearly wrecked on the Columbia River bar, and of the
experience De Smet gives a peculiarly vivid description. He deemed the
final safe entrance due to special interposition of Divine Providence
on account of the day, July 31st, being sacred to St. Ignatius. Father
De Smet was a vivid and interesting writer and a zealous missionary. He
greatly overestimated the number of Indians in Oregon, placing them at
a hundred and ten thousand and in equal ratio estimated the converts at
numbers hardly possible except by the most sweeping estimates.

The Catholic missions were gradually extended until they covered
points in the entire Northwest. The bishop of Oregon was Rev. Francis
N. Blanchet who was located near Salem. In 1845 and 1846 he made
an extensive tour in Canada and Europe for the purpose of securing
reinforcements. As a result of his journey and the action of the Holy
See the Vicariate was erected into an ecclesiastical province with the
three Sees of Oregon City, Walla Walla, and Vancouver Island. Rev. A.
M. A. Blanchet was appointed bishop of Walla Walla, and Father Demers
bishop of Vancouver Island, while Bishop F. N. Blanchet was promoted
to the position of archbishop of Oregon City. Bishop A. M. A. Blanchet
reached Fort Walla Walla on September 4, 1847, having come with a
wagon train by the usual emigrant road from St. Louis. This might be
regarded as the regular establishment of Catholic missions in Walla
Walla. The bishop was accompanied to Walla Walla by four oblate fathers
of Marseilles and Father J. B. A. Brouillet as vicar general, and also
by Father Rousseau and Wm. Leclaire, deacon. Bishop Blanchet located
among the Umatilla Indians at the home of Five Crows. The mission was
fairly established only a few days prior to the Whitman Massacre.
Bishop Blanchet went to Oregon City after the massacre and by reason
of the Indian war he found it impossible to return to Walla Walla. He
established St. Peter's Mission at The Dalles, and there he remained
till September, 1850. During that year there came instructions from
Rome to transfer the bishop of Walla Walla to the newly established
diocese of Nesqually. The diocese of Walla Walla was suppressed and
its administration merged with that of Colville and Fort Hall in the
control of the archbishop of Oregon City.

That event might be considered as closing the missionary stage of
Catholic missions in Walla Walla, though Father Brouillet remained
into the period of settlement and in conjunction with Father Arvidius
Junger, founded the Catholic Church at Walla Walla of what may be
called the modern period. There was during the period of the Hudson's
Bay Company and of the Indian wars, a location at Frenchtown, known as
St. Rose Mission. There was a little church building there until a few
years ago.

With the period of Indian wars it may be said that the missionary era
ended and after that sanguinary interim the modern period began in
Walla Walla.

[Illustration: Archbishop Francis N. Blanchet, 1838

Rev. J. B. A Brouillet, 1847

Bishop Modeste Demers, 1838

Bishop A. M. A. Blanchet, 1847

EARLY CATHOLIC MISSIONARIES]



CHAPTER VI

INDIAN WARS AND OPENING OF COUNTRY TO SETTLEMENT


In the preceding chapter we have narrated the Whitman Massacre. It was
followed by the first of the succession of wars which desolated Old
Oregon for about eleven years. During that time Walla Walla, as well
as the other parts east of the mountains, was swept clean of white
settlers. Not till the public proclamation of opening Eastern Oregon by
General Clarke in 1858 and the beginnings of immigration in the next
year can the epoch of Indian wars be said to have ended.

The war following the Whitman Massacre may be taken as the starting
point of this chapter. Great praise most be accorded to the Hudson's
Bay Company's people for promptness and efficiency in meeting the
immediate emergency. Dr. John McLoughlin, with whom we have become
acquainted in earlier chapters, had retired from the company and made
his home at Oregon City. This truly great man, a man for whom no
commendation seems too strong in the minds of the old-timers, had been
deciding during the years following the advent of the missionaries
that American possession of Oregon was inevitable and that in order to
ally himself with the future he should become an American. His humane
and liberal policy toward the American immigrants was disapproved
by the company in London, and in 1844 James Douglas was appointed
to succeed him. The good doctor thereby not only lost what was then
and in those conditions a princely salary, $12,000 per year, but was
charged by the company for the large supplies which he had advanced
to the Americans, who in many cases were unable to pay. Moving to the
Falls of the Willamette where he had taken up a valuable claim, he
started the process of naturalization. But after the Treaty of 1846,
his claim was contested by the representative of the Methodist Mission,
Rev. A. F. Waller, and the first territorial delegate to Congress,
Samuel R. Thurston, was chosen largely on the platform of hostility to
the Hudson's Bay Company and the British in general, and he secured
a provision in the Congressional land law debarring anyone who had
not acquired his final naturalization from holding a donation claim.
This law deprived Doctor McLoughlin of the main part of his property.
It was a cruel blow. He said with grief and bitterness that he had
intended in good faith to become an American citizen, but found that
he was rejected by the British and not received by the Americans and
was practically a man without a country. It may truthfully be said
that he died of a broken heart. It is gratifying to remember that
the Oregon Legislature, recognizing the injustice, made amends by
restoring his land claim. But this action came too late to do the "Old
King of Oregon" any good. We have digressed to make this reference to
Doctor McLoughlin, inasmuch as his change of location and condition
occurred just prior to the Oregon Treaty and the Whitman Massacre.
James Douglas, the new Chief Factor, while not at all equal in breadth
and philanthropy to Doctor McLoughlin, was an energetic and efficient
manager. Upon learning of the tragedy at Waiilatpu he immediately
dispatched Peter Skeen Ogden to rescue the survivors. As narrated in
Chapter Five, Ogden performed his duty with promptness and success,
and as a result the pitiful little company, almost entirely women and
children, were conveyed to the Willamette Valley, where nearly all of
them made their homes. A number of them are still living in different
parts of the Northwest.

When the tidings of the massacre reached the Willamette Valley, then
the chief settlement in Oregon, there was an immediate response by the
brave men who were carrying in that trying time the responsibility of
the government of the scattered little community. And yet the situation
was a peculiar and difficult one. The formal treaty placing Oregon
within possession of the United States had legally set aside the
Provisional Government. But Congress was absorbed, as it frequently
has been, in furthering the little schemes of individual members, or
in promoting the progress of slavery or some other tyrannical and
corrupt interest, and hence had done nothing to establish a territorial
government. In the emergency the Provisional Government assembled on
December 9th and provided for a force of fourteen companies of Oregon
volunteers to move immediately to the hostile country. Every feature of
equipment had to be secured by personal contribution, and the services
of the men were purely voluntary. It was a characteristic American
frontiersmen's army and movement. Several men well known in Walla Walla
and vicinity took part in this campaign. The commander of the force was
Cornelius Gilliam, an immigrant of 1845 from Missouri. His son, W. S.
Gilliam, was one of the best known and noblest of the pioneers of Walla
Walla County. He was truly one of the builders of this region. Daniel
Stewart, Ninevah Ford, William Martin, and W. W. Walter were among
the citizens of the Walla Walla country and adjoining region who were
in that historic army of the Cayuse war. While we shall not usually
load this work with lists of names or other purely statistical matter,
yet in the belief that the list of volunteers in the Cayuse war may
have a permanent reference value to possessors of this volume, we are
including here such a list derived from the "History of the Pacific
Northwest," published by the North Pacific Publishing Co. of Portland
in 1889:

First Company, Oregon Rifles: Captain, Henry A. G. Lee; first
lieutenant, Joseph Magone; second lieutenant, John E. Ross; surgeon, W.
W. Carpenter; orderly sergeant, J. S. Rinearson; first duty sergeant,
J. H. McMillan; second duty sergeant, C. W. Savage; third duty
sergeant, S. Cummings; fourth duty sergeant, William Berry; privates,
John Little, Joel McKee, J. W. Morgan, Joseph B. Proctor, Samuel K.
Barlow, John Richardson, Ed Marsh, George Moore, Isaac Walgamot, Jacob
Johnson, John Lassater, Edward Robeson, B. B. Rodgers,---- Shannon,
A. J. Thomas, R. S. Tupper, O. Tupper, Joel Witchey, G. W. Weston,
George Wesley, John Flemming, John G. Gibson, Henry Leralley, Nathan
Olney, ---- Barnes, J. H. Bosworth, Wm. Beekman, Benjamin Bratton, John
Balton, Henry W. Coe, John C. Danford, C. H. Derendorf, David Everst,
John Finner, James Kester,---- Pugh (killed by Indians near the Dalles
in a skirmish),---- Jackson (killed in a skirmish near the Dalles),
John Callahan; Alex McDonald (killed by a sentry, who mistook him for
an Indian at the camp on the east side of the Des Chutes). Forty-eight
men.

Second Company: Captain, Lawrence Hall; first lieutenant, H. D.
O'Bryant; second lieutenant, John Engart; orderly sergeant, William
Sheldon; duty sergeants, William Stokes, Peter S. Engart, Thos. R.
Cornelius, Sherry Ross; Color-bearer, Gilbert Mondon; privates, A.
Engart, Thos. Fleming, D. C. Smith, W. R. Noland, Jos. W. Scott, G.
W. Smith, A. Kinsey, John N. Donnie, A. C. Brown, F. H. Ramsey, S. A.
Holcomb, A. Stewart, Wm. Milbern, A. Kennedy, Oliver Lowden, H. N.
Stephens, P. G. Northrup, W. W. Walter, J. Z. Zachary, Sam Y. Cook,
J. J. Garrish, Thos. Kinsey, J. S. Scoggin, Noah Jobe, D. Shumake, J.
N. Green, J. Elliot, W. Williams, John Holgate, R. Yarborough, Robert
Walker, J. Butler, I. W. Smith, J. W. Lingenfelter, J. H. Lienberger,
A. Lienberger, Sam Gethard, John Lousingnot, A. Williams, D. Harper, S.
C. Cummings, S. Ferguson, Marshall Martin.

Third Company: Captain, John W. Owen; first lieutenant, Nathaniel
Bowman; second lieutenant, Thomas Shaw; orderly sergeant, J. C.
Robison; duty sergeants, Benj. J. Burch; J. H. Blankenship, James M.
Morris, Robert Smith; privates, George W. Adams, William Athey, John
Baptiste, Manly Curry, Jesse Clayton, John Dinsmore, Nathan English,
John Fiester, Jesse Gay, Lester Hulan, Stephen Jenkins, J. Larkin,
Joshua McDonald, Thomas Pollock, J. H. Smith, S. P. Thornton, William
Wilson, Benjamin Allen, Ira Bowman,---- Currier, George Chapel, William
Duke,---- Linnet, T. Dufield, Squire Elembough, Henry Fuller, D. H.
Hartley, Fleming R. Hill, James Keller, D. M. McCumber, E. McDonald,
Edward Robinson, Chris. Stemermon, Joseph Wilbert, T. R. Zumwalt,
Charles Zummond.

Fourth Company: Captain, H. J. G. Maxon; first lieutenant, G. N.
Gilbert; second lieutenant, Wm. P. Hughes; orderly sergeant, Wm. R.
Johnson; duty sergeants, O. S. Thomas, T. M. Buckner, Daniel Stewart,
Joseph R. Ralston; privates, Andrew J. Adams, John Beattie, Charles
Blair, John R. Coatney, Reuben Crowder, John W. Crowel, Manly Danforth,
Harvey Graus, Albert H. Fish, John Feat, Andrew Gribble, Wm. Hawkins,
Rufus Johnson, John W. Jackson, J. H. Loughlin, Davis Lator, John
Miller, John Patterson, Richard Pollard, Wm. Robison, Asa Stone, Thos.
Allphin, Wm. Bunton, Henry Blacker, Wm. Chapman, Samuel Chase, Sam
Cornelius, James Dickson, S. D. Earl, Joseph Earl, D. O. Garland,
Richmond Hays, Goalman Hubbard, Isaiah M. Johns, S. B. Knox, James
H. Lewis, Horace Martin, John McCoy, James Officer, Henry Pellet,
Wm. Russell, John Striethoff, A. M. Baxster, D. D. Burroughs, Samuel
Clark, John M. Cantrel, Asi Cantrel, Albert G. Davis, S. D. Durbin,
Samuel Fields, Rezin D. Foster, Isaac M. Foster, Horace Hart, Wm. Hock,
Wm. A. Jack, Elias Kearney, James Killingsworth, Isaac Morgan, N. G.
McDonnell, Madison McCully, Frederick Paul, Wm. M. Smith, H. M. Smith,
Jason Wheeler, John Vaughn, Reuben Striethoff, Wm. Vaughn, Wm. Shirley.

Fifth Company: Captain, Philip F. Thompson; first lieutenant, James
A. Brown; second lieutenant, Joseph M. Garrison; orderly sergeant,
George E. Frazer; duty sergeants, A. Garrison, A. S. Welton, Jacob
Greer, D. D. Dostins; privates, Martin P. Brown, William A. Culberson,
Harrison Davis, James Electrels, William Eads, Alvin K. Fox, William
J. Garrison, William Hailey, John A. Johnson, J. D. Richardson, Martin
Wright, William Smith, E. T. Stone, John Thompson, H. C. Johnson,
Joseph Kenny, Henry Kearney, Jacob Leabo, Daniel Matheny, William
McKay, John Orchard, John B. Rowland, John Copenhagen, Bird Davis, John
Eldridge, John Faron, C. B. Gray, Robert Harmon, James O. Henderson,
Green Rowland, William Rogers, Thomas Wilson, William D. Stillwell,
William Shepard, Alfred Jobe, T. J. Jackson, Jesse Cadwallader, Andrew
Layson, J. C. Matheny, Adam Matheny, Charles P. Matt, James Packwood,
Clark Rogers.

McKay's Company: Captain, Thomas McKay; first lieutenant, Charles
McKay; second lieutenant, Alexander McKay; orderly sergeant, Edward
Dupuis; duty sergeants, George Montour, Baptiste Dorio, David Crawford,
Gideon Pion; privates, John Spence, Louis Laplante, Augustine Russie,
Isaac Gervais, Louis Montour, Alexis Vatrais, Joseph Paino, Jno.
Cunningham, Jno. Gros, Louis Joe Lenegratly, Antoine Poisier, Antoine
Plante, Pierre Lacourse, Ashby Pearce, Antoine Lafaste, Nathan English,
Charles Edwards, Gideon Gravelle, Chas. Corveniat, Antoine Bonanpaus,
Nicholas Bird, Francis Dupres, William Torrie, Thomas Purvis, A. J.
Thomas, J. H. Bigler, Mango Antoine Ansure, Narcisse Montiznie, Edward
Crete.

English's Company: Captain, Levin N. English; first lieutenant, William
Shaw; second lieutenant, F. M. Munkers; orderly sergeant, William
Martin; duty sergeants, Hiram English, George Shaw, Thomas Boggs,
L. J. Rector; privates, Jackson Adams, L. N. Abel, William Burton,
Joseph Crauk, John Downing, Thos. T. Eyre, R. D. Foster, Alexander
Gage, Thomas Gregory, G. W. Howell, Fales Howard, J. H. Lewis, N.
G. McDonald, James Officer, Joseph Pearson, Jackson Rowell, William
Simmons, Lewis Stewart, Charles Roth, Daniel Waldo, George Wesley,
William Vaughn, L. N. English, Jr., Nineveh Ford, Albert Fish, A.
Gribble, Samuel Senters, Thomas Wigger, Richard Hays, Wesley Howell,
Richard Jenkins, G. H. March, William Medway, J. R. Payne, Benjamin
Simpson, Alexander York.

Martin's Company: Captain, William Martin; first lieutenant, A. E.
Garrison; second lieutenant, David Waldo; orderly sergeant, Ludwell J.
Rector; duty sergeants, William Cosper, Fales Howard, Joseph Sylvester,
Benjamin Wright; privates, J. Albright, H. Burdon, T. J. Blair, Joseph
Borst, George Crabtree, Joseph Crauk, Wesley Cook, Samuel Center, John
Cox, John Eads, Parnel Fowler, S. M. Crover, John Kaiser, Clark S.
Pringle, Israel Wood, Lewis Stewart, Pleasant C. Kaiser, Thomas Canby,
Sidney S. Ford, William Melawers, A. N. Rainwater, B. F. Shaw, Wm.
Waldo, Silas G. Pugh, G. H. Vernon, Isaiah Matheny, Thomas T. Eyre,
John C. Holgate.

Shaw's Company: Captain, William Shaw; first lieutenant, David
Crawford; second lieutenant, Baptiste C. Dorio; orderly sergeant,
Absalom M. Smith; duty sergeants, George Laroque, Vatall Bergeren,
George W. Shaw, Charles McKay; privates, John H. Bigler, O. Crum,
Joseph Despont, William Felix, Xavier Plante, Eli Viliell, F. M.
Mankis, Antonio Plante, Charles Edwards, Andrew Heeber, Xavier Gervais,
David Jones, John Pecares, Samuel Kinsey, Joseph Pearson, William
Towie, Peter Jackson, Alexander Laborain, William McMillen, B. F.
Nichols, Hiram Smead, William Marill, Francis Poiecor, George Westley.

Garrison's Company: Captain, J. M. Garrison; first lieutenant, A. E.
Garrison; second lieutenant, John C. Herren; orderly sergeant, J.
B. Kaiser; duty sergeants, George Crabtree, George Laroque, Joseph
Colester; privates, E. Biernaisse, Thomas R. Blair, John C. Cox, Joseph
Despart, Caleb M. Grover, Isaiah Matheny, John Picard, William Philips,
Henry Barden, Silas P. Pugh, Isaac Wood, Penel Fowler, Andrew Hubert,
Daniel Herren, Xavier Plante, Vitelle Bergeron.

[Illustration: LOG BUILDING OCCUPIED BY THE OFFICERS IN THE OLD FORT
WALLA WALLA, WHEN IN THE PRESENT LIMITS OF THE CITY. 1857-60

This building was upon the site now covered by the garage erected in
1917 by the Stone estate. The picture is reproduced from a crayon
sketch made by Lizzie Hungate (Mrs. H. A. Gardner), when a young
girl in St. Paul's school. The building was of cottonwood logs and
remained on the original site until 188--, when it was removed by C.
W. Phillips, who designed keeping it as a historical relic, but the
cottonwood logs soon decayed.]

Colonel Gilliam, though having had no military education, had the
American pioneer's capacity and fertility of resources, and conducted
his midwinter campaign with courage and energy. As already noted, Peter
Skeen Ogden of the Hudson's Bay Company, had ransomed the captives of
Waiilatpu long before even the scantily equipped regiment of Oregon
volunteers could take the field. But even though the first necessity,
that of rescuing the captives, had been filled, the command felt
that the situation compelled a definite campaign and the capture and
bringing to justice of the murderers. Hence Colonel Gilliam pressed on
his march as rapidly as possible. On the last day of February, 1848,
he crossed the Des Chutes River to a point where hostile Indians had
already taken a stand. A battle ensued the next day, resulting in the
defeat of the Indians and a treaty of peace with the Des Chutes tribe.
Pressing on toward Walla Walla, the command was checked at Sand Hollows
in the Lower Umatilla River Valley, by a strong force of Indians in
command of Five Crows, a Cayuse chief. This chieftain claimed the
powers of a wizard and declared that he could swallow all the bullets
fired at him by the whites. Another brave called War Eagle, or Swallow
Ball, made equal claims to invulnerability. The two chiefs undertook
to demonstrate their wizard powers by dashing out in front of the
volunteers. Tom McKay, who was the stepson of Doctor McLoughlin and
was then the captain of a company composed mainly of French Canadians,
could not withstand the challenge and sent a bullet from his trusty
rifle through the head of Swallow Ball. At the same time Charles McKay
sent a companion ball into the supposedly invulnerable anatomy of Five
Crows, wounding him so severely that he was out of the war henceforth.
After a desultory series of engagements, the Indians retreated and
Colonel Gilliam's command pushed on to Waiilatpu, which point they
reached on March 2d. At the desolate spot they discovered that the
remains of the martyrs of the Whitman Mission had been hastily interred
by the Ogden party, but that in the interval of time coyotes had
partially exhumed them. They reverently replaced the sacred remains in
one large grave, covering them with a wagon box found on the ground.
Them in that abandoned place the bones of the martyred band remained
unmarked for many years. As now known to all residents of Walla Walla,
a monument was reared upon the hill overlooking the scene of the
tragedy, and the remains were reinterred and covered with a marble slab
inscribed with the names of the victims of the massacre. A lock of long
fair hair was found near the ruined mission which there is every reason
to think was from the head of Mrs. Whitman. It is now preserved among
the precious relics in the museum of Whitman College.

With the volunteers was Joseph L. Meek, one of the Rocky Mountain
trappers who had settled in the Willamette Valley and had become
prominent in establishing the Provisional Government of Oregon in
1843. He now with a few companions was on his way across the continent
to carry dispatches to Washington announcing the Whitman Massacre
and urging the Government to make immediate provision for a proper
territorial government. Meek had come thus far with the troops, but now
passed beyond them on his difficult and dangerous journey. It may be
added that with much hardship from cold and near starvation he reached
St. Louis in the extraordinarily short time of seventy-two days.

The dilatory and scheming Congress and administration was roused by the
Whitman Massacre to some sense of the needs of far-away Oregon. A great
struggle ensued over the slavery question in which Calhoun, Davis,
Foote, and other southern senators made determined efforts to defeat
the prohibition of slavery in Oregon. They were overpowered by the
eloquence of Corwin, the determination of Benton and the statesmanship
of Webster, and on August 13, 1848, the bill to establish a territorial
government for Oregon with slavery prohibited passed Congress.
President Polk appointed Joseph Lane governor, Joseph Meek marshal,
and William B. Bryant judge in the new territory. Not till March 3,
1849, did they reach their stations and take up their duties. Of all
the history of the great congressional discussion with the momentous
national questions involved, there is a graphic account by Judge
Thornton, while Benton in his "Thirty Years in Congress" gives a vivid
and illuminating view.

Meanwhile the little army of Oregon volunteers were engaged in a
long-drawn and harassing series of marches and counter marches in
search of the guilty murderers. An adobe fort, called Fort Waters,
from Lieut. Col. James Waters, was built at Waiilatpu. The Cayuses
had counted upon the help of the other tribes, but the Nez Perces and
Spokanes repudiated their murderous kindred, and the Yakimas took an
attitude of indifference. Peupeumoxmox of the Walla Wallas, though
having more of a real grievance against the whites than any other
Indian on account of the brutal murder of his son, as related in the
preceding chapter, did not actively aid the hostiles. He played a wily
game, and was justly regarded with suspicion by the command.

In the midst of the tangle and uncertainty, and the scattering of the
guilty parties in all directions, Colonel Gilliam decided to make an
expedition northeasterly to the Tucanon and Snake rivers in the hope of
encountering and destroying the main force of the hostiles and bringing
the war to a conclusion at one blow. Reaching the mouth of the Tucanon,
a few miles below the present Starbuck, the colonel was outgeneraled by
the wily Indians who gave him to understand that the Indian camp was
that of Peupeumoxmox. Taking advantage of the delay the Cayuses drove
their large bands of stock into the Snake River and made them swim to
the north bank. The main body of Indians succeeded in getting away with
their valuable stock. The Palouses were doubtless aiding and abetting
them. Disappointed in his aims Colonel Gilliam gave the order to return
to Walla Walla. Upon reaching the Touchet in the near vicinity of
the present Bolles Junction, the Indians made a rush for the Touchet
River in the evident hope of entangling the troops at the crossing. A
desperate encounter took place, the hardest, and in fact the only real
battle of the year, in which the whites fought their way through the
stream and made their way to the Walla-Walla. Reaching Fort Waters at
Waiilatpu on March 16th, it was determined by a council of war that
Colonel Gilliam should go to The Dalles with 160 men in order to meet
and escort a supply train to the Walla Walla, while Lieutenant-Colonel
Waters should take command at the fort. On the way, just having crossed
the Umatilla, Colonel Gilliam while in the act of drawing a rope from
a wagon accidentally caught it in the trigger of a loaded gun. The
weapon was discharged and the commander was instantly killed. This was
a most lamentable loss, for Colonel Gilliam was not only an efficient
commander, but was one of the best of the Oregon pioneers, with the
capacity for a most useful career in the new land. Lieutenant-Colonel
Waters became colonel in command upon the announcement of the death
of Colonel Gilliam. He undertook at once a march to Lapwai under
the belief that the murderers were harbored among the Nez Perces.
Nothing definite was accomplished by this expedition. According to the
assertions of the Nez Perces Telaukaikt, one of the supposed leaders of
the Whitman Massacre, had fled. The Nez Perces delivered a number of
cattle and horses which they said belonged to the Cayuses. The attempt
to seize the murderers themselves being seemingly futile, Colonel
Waters returned again to the fort at Waiilatpu. It had now become
evident that the condition did not justify the retention of a regiment
in the Cayuse country. Governor Abernethy, still acting as head of the
Provisional Government of Oregon, decided to recall the main body of
troops. A small force under Major Magone was sent to Chimakain, the
mission near Spokane where Eells and Walker were located, in order to
bring that missionary band to a place of safety. It was found by Major
Magone that the Spokane Indians had been faithful to their teachers
and had guarded them from danger. Few things more thrilling have been
narrated in the hearing of the author than the accounts given by Mr.
Eells and Mr. Walker, and above all by Edwin Eells, oldest son of
Father Eells, of the conditions under which that devoted group existed
for some days when it was thought that the hostile Indians were on the
way to Spokane to destroy them. On one evening hearing an awful powwow
and hullaballoo from a crowd of mounted Indians and seeing them rapidly
approaching in the dim light, Father Eells went out bravely to meet
them, thinking it likely was the dreaded marauders, to discover in a
moment that it was their own Spokanes, armed for their defence.

Escorted by the company of volunteers, the missionaries of Chimakain
went to the Willamette Valley where the Walker family made their
permanent home, while Father Eells with his family remained twelve
years and then returned to the Walla Walla country to found Whitman
College and to make his home for a number of years at Waiilatpu.

While Major Magone was thus engaged in caring for the last of the
missionaries, Capt. William Martin was left at Fort Waters (Waiilatpu)
with fifty-five men to look out for the interests of immigrants who
might enter the country and to keep a vigilant eye upon the movements
of the savages. This Captain Martin, it may be remembered by some
readers, took up his residence at Pendleton in 1880 and was long a
leading citizen of that city. One of his sons now lives at Touchet
in Walla Walla County and one of his grandsons, of the same name as
himself, became one of the most noted athletes at Whitman College
and now occupies a place as physical director in a large eastern
university. Another small force in command of Lieutenant Rogers was
stationed at Fort Lee at The Dalles. But as to further operations in
the field they seemed to be at an end. The Cayuses scattered in various
directions, and other Indians, while making no resistance to the
whites, gave them little or no assistance. Finally in 1850 a band of
friendly Umatillas pursued a bunch of Cayuses under Tamsaky or Tamsucky
to the headwaters of the John Day River and after a severe struggle
killed Tamsaky and captured the most of his followers.

The last act in the tragedy was the execution of several Indian chiefs
who had voluntarily gone to Oregon City and had been seized and
subjected to trial as being the murderers of the Whitman party. There
is a very unsatisfactory condition of testimony about the real guilt
of this group of Indians. The Cayuse Indians claimed, and many of
the whites believed that one only of the five who were hung on June
3, 1850, was guilty. As a concluding glance at this grewsome event,
the reader may be interested in the following official declaration of
innocence of those Indians.

"Tilokite--I am innocent of the crime of which I am charged. Those who
committed it are dead, some killed, some died; there were ten, two
were my sons; they were killed by the Cayuses. Tumsucky, before the
massacre, came to my lodge; he told me that they were going to hold a
council to kill Doctor Whitman. I told him not to do so, that it was
bad. One night seven Indians died near the house of Doctor Whitman,
to whom he had given medicines. Tumsucky's family were sick; he gave
them roots and leaves; they got well. Other Indians died. Tumsucky came
often. I talked to him, but his ears were shut; he would not hear; he
and others went away. After a while some children came into my lodge
and told me what was going on. I had told Tumsucky over and over to
let them alone; my talk was nothing; I shut my mouth. When I left my
people, the young chief told me to come down and talk with the big
white chief, and tell him who it was, that did kill Doctor Whitman and
others. My heart was big; 'tis small now. The priest tells me I must
die tomorrow. I know not for what. They tell me that I have made a
confession to the marshal that I struck Doctor Whitman. 'Tis false! You
ask me if the priests did not encourage us to kill Doctor Whitman? I
answer no, no."

"Monday, 11:30 o'clock--I am innocent, but my heart is weak since I
have been in chains, but since I must die, I forgive them all. Those
who brought me here and take care of me, I take them all in my arms, my
heart is opened."

"Quiahmarsum (skin or panther's coat)--I was up the river at the time
of the massacre, and did not arrive until the next day. I was riding on
horseback; a white woman came running from the house. She held out her
hand and told me not to kill her. I put my hand upon her head and told
her not to be afraid. There were plenty of Indians all about. She, with
the other women and children, went to Walla Walla, to Mr. Ogden's. I
was not present at the murder, nor was I any way concerned in it. I am
innocent. It hurts me to talk about dying for nothing. Our chief told
us to come down and tell all about it. Those who committed the murder
are killed and dead. The priest says I must die tomorrow. If they kill
me, I am innocent."

"Monday, 11:30 A.M.--I was sent here by my chief to declare who the
guilty persons were; the white chief would then shake hands with me;
the young chief would come after me; we would have a good heart. My
young chief told me I was to come here to tell what I know concerning
the murderers. I did not come as one of the murderers, for I am
innocent. I never made any declarations to any one that I was guilty.
This is the last time that I may speak."

"Kloakamus--I was there at the time; I lived there, but I had no hand
in the murder. I saw them when they were killed, but did not touch or
strike any one. I looked on. There were plenty of Indians. My heart
was sorry. Our chief told us to come down and tell who the murderers
were. There were ten; they are killed. They say I am guilty, but it is
not so; I am innocent. The people do not understand me. I can't talk
to them. They tell me I must die by being hung by the neck. If they do
kill me, I am innocent, and God will give me a big heart."

[Illustration: Courtesy of Mr. Michael Kenny

FORT WALLA WALLA IN 1857]

"Monday, 11:30 A.M.--I have no reason to die for things that I did
not do. My time is short. I tell the truth. I know that I am close to
the grave; but my heart is open and I tell the truth. I love every
one in this world. I know that God will give me a big heart. I never
confessed to the marshal that I was guilty, or to any other person; I
am innocent. The priests did not tell us to do what the Indians have
done. This is my last talk."

"Siahsaluchus (or Wet Wolf)--I say the same as the others; the
murderers are killed; some by the whites, some by the Cayuses, and some
by others. They were ten in number."

"Monday, 11:30 A.M.--I have nothing more to say; I think of God. I
forgive all men; I love them. The priests did not tell us to do this."

"Thomahas--I did not know that I came here to die. Our chief told
us to come and see the white chief and tell him all about it. The
white chief would then tell us all what was right and what was wrong.
Learn us (how) to live when we returned home. Why should I have a bad
heart--after I am showed and taught how to live? My eyes were shut
when I came here. I did not see, but now they are opened. I have been
taught; I have been showed what was good and what was bad. I do not
want to die; I know now that we are all brothers. They tell me the same
Spirit made us all."

"Monday, 11:30 A.M.--Thomahas joined With Tilokite. My heart cries my
brother was guilty, but he is dead. I am innocent. I know I am going to
die for things I am not guilty of, but I forgive them. I love all men
now. My hope, the priest tells me, is in Christ. My heart shall be big
with good."

  "(Signed)
  HENRY H. CRAWFORD,
  Sergeant, Co. D, R. M. R.

  ROBERT D. MAHON,
  Corporal, Co. A, R. M. R."

Following the close of the Cayuse war there was a lull in hostilities
during which several white men came to the Walla Walla country or near
it, with a view to locating. In Col. F. T. Gilbert's valuable history
of Walla Walla and adjoining counties, published in 1882, we find the
data for a summary of the earliest settlers as follows:

The first settlers of all were William C. McKay, son of Thomas McKay
(who himself was the stepson of Dr. John McLoughlin) and Henry M.
Chase. These men were located on the Umatilla River in 1851 at a point
near the present Town of Echo. Doctor McKay later became a resident of
Pendleton where he was well known for many years. In 1852 Mr. Chase
went with Wm. Craig to the Nez Percé country near Lewiston where he
entered the cattle business. In 1855 he went to the region of the
present Dayton and a short time later to Walla Walla. He lived in Walla
Walla a number of years and was well known to all old-timers. He lived
upon the property now the site of St. Paul's School. Louis Raboin, a
Frenchman, though an American citizen, was in the Walla Walla country a
number of years beginning in 1851. In 1855 he located at what is now
the Town of Marengo on the Tucanon. P. M. Lafontain came to the region
in 1852 and located a claim adjoining that of Mr. Chase, near the
present Dayton, in 1855. Lloyd Brooke, George C. Bumford, and John F.
Noble came to Waiilatpu in 1852, and in the following year established
themselves there in the cattle business. There they remained till
driven out by the War of 1855. A. P. Woodward was a resident of the
Walla Walla country during the same period. It is proper to name here
Wm. Craig who had been a mountain man a number of years and became
located among the Nez Percé Indians at Lapwai in 1845. From him Craig
Mountains took their name. He was an important personage as interpreter
and peace-maker among the Nez Perces during the great war later. There
were several men drifting through the country employed as laborers by
Mr. Chase and by the cattle-men at Waiilatpu.

There was at that time quite a settlement on the Walla Walla around
what is now known as Frenchtown, about ten miles from the present city.
These were Hudson's Bay Company men. We find in the list of names
several whose descendants lived subsequently in that region, though
they mainly left during the Indian Wars and did not return. There
were two priests among them, Fathers Chirouse and Pondosa, and they
were assisted by two brothers. James Sinclair had at that time charge
of Fort Walla Walla on the Columbia. Though the region was then in
possession of the United States, the Hudson's Bay Company had not yet
delivered up its locations.

During this lull a very important event occurred. On March 3, 1853,
the Territory of Washington was created and Isaac I. Stevens was
appointed governor. The first Territorial Legislature laid out sixteen
counties. Among them was Walla Walla County. That was the first "Old
Walla Walla County." That it was much more extensive than the area
especially covered by this work will appear when the boundaries are
given, thus: "Beginning its line on the north bank of the Columbia at
a point opposite the mouth of Des Chutes River, it ran thence north to
the forty-ninth parallel." It therefore embraced all of what was then
Washington Territory east of that line, which included all of present
Idaho, about a fourth of present Montana, and about half of what is
now Washington. That was the first attempt at organized government in
Eastern Washington. The county seat was located "on the land of Lloyd
Brooke," which was at Waiilatpu. The Legislature further decreed:
"That George C. Bumford, John Owens, and A. Dominique Pambrun be,
and they are hereby constituted and appointed the Board of County
Commissioners; and that Narcises Remond be, and hereby is appointed
sheriff; and that Lloyd Brooke be, and is hereby appointed judge of
probate, and shall have jurisdiction as justice of the peace; all in
and for the County of Walla Walla." These appointees with the exception
of Mr. Owens (who lived near the present Missoula), were residents of
the region of Waiilatpu and Frenchtown. That county organization was
never inaugurated, and it remains as simply an interesting historical
reminiscence.

In March, 1855, another most notable event occurred, the first in a
series that made much history in the Northwest. This was the discovery
of gold at the junction of the Pend Oreille River with the Columbia.
The discoverer was a French half-breed who had previously lived at
French Prairie, Ore. The announcement of the discovery caused a
stampede to the east of the mountains and inaugurated a series of
momentous changes.

Governor Stevens had entered upon his great task of organizing the
newly created territory by undertaking the establishment of a number
of Indian reservations. The necessities of the case--both justice
to the Indians and the whites, as well as the proper development of
the country whose vast possibilities were beginning to be seen by
the farsighted ones--seemed to compel the segregation of the natives
into comparatively small reservations. The history of the laying out
of these reservations is an entire history by itself. There has been
controversy as to the rights and wrongs of the case which has been
best treated by Hazard Stevens in his "Life of Governor Stevens" (his
father) in defence, and by Ezra Meeker in his "Tragedy of Leschi" in
condemnation. Suffice it to say that the reservation policy was but
faintly understood by the Indians and occurring in connection with
the gold discoveries and the entrance of whites, eager for wealth
and opportunity, it furnished all the conditions requisite for a
first-class Indian war. Doubtless the great underlying cause was, as
usual in Indian wars, the perception by Indians that their lands were
steadily and surely passing out of their hands.

In 1854 and 1855 a general flame of war burst forth in widely separated
regions. There can be no question that there was an attempt at
co-operation by the tribes over the whole of Oregon and Washington.
But so wide and so scattered was the field and so incapable were the
Indians of intelligent unity of action that the white settlements were
spared a war of extermination. The centers of warfare were the Rogue
River in Southern Oregon, a number of points on Puget Sound, especially
Seattle and vicinity, and White River Valley.

In May, 1855, Governor Stevens with a force of about fifty men reached
Walla Walla for a conference with the tribes. The best authorities
on the conference are Hazard Stevens, then a boy of fourteen, who
accompanied his father, and Lieutenant Kip of the United States
Army. This meeting at Walla Walla was one of the most interesting
and important in the annals of Indian relationships with the United
States Government. There seems some difference of opinion as to the
exact location of the conference. It has generally been thought that
Stevens' camp was at what is now known as "Council Grove Addition,"
near the residence of ex-Senator Ankeny. When General Hazard Stevens
was in Walla Walla some years ago he gave his opinion that it was in
the near vicinity of the residence of Mrs. Clara Quinn. William McBean,
a son of the Hudson's Bay Company agent at Fort Walla Walla during the
Cayuse war, who was himself in Stevens' force, as a young boy, told the
author nearly thirty years ago that he believed the chief point of the
conference was almost exactly on the present site of Whitman College.
It appears from the testimony of old-timers that Mill Creek has changed
its course at intervals in these years, and that as a result the exact
identification is difficult. It seems plain, however, that the Indians
were camped at various places along the two spring branches, "College
Creek" and "Tannery Creek."

With his little force, Governor Stevens might well have been startled,
if he had been a man sensible of fear, when there came tearing across
the plain to the northeast of the council ground an army of twenty-five
hundred Nez Perces, headed by Halhaltlossot, known to the whites as
Lawyer. After the Indian custom they were whooping and firing their
guns and making their horses prance and cavort in the clouds of dust
stirred by hundreds of hoofs. But as it proved, these spectacular
performers were the real friends of the Governor and his party and
later on their salvation. Two days after, three hundred Cayuses, those
worst of the Columbia River Indians, surly and scowling, made their
appearance, led by Five Crows and Young Chief. Within two days again
there arrived a force of two thousand Yakimas, Umatillas, and Walla
Wallas. The "Valley of Waters" must have been at that time a genuine
Indian paradise. The broad flats of Mill Creek and the Walla Walla
were covered with grass and spangled with flowers. Numerous clear cold
steams, gushing in springs from the ground and overhung by birches
and cottonwoods, with the wild roses drooping over them, made their
gurgling way to a junction with the creek. Countless horses grazed on
the bunch-grass hills and farther back in the foothills there was an
abundance of game. No wonder that the Indians, accustomed to gather for
councils and horse-races, and all the other delights of savage life,
should have scanned with jealous eyes the manifest desire of the whites
for locations in a spot "where every prospect pleases and man alone is
vile."

It became evident to Governor Stevens that a conspiracy was burrowing
beneath his feet. Peupeumoxmox of the Walla Wallas and Kahmiakin of the
Yakimas were the leaders. The former was now an old man, embittered
by the murder of his son Elijah, and regarded by many as having been
the real fomenter of the Whitman Massacre. Kahmiakin was a remarkable
Indian. Winthrop, in his "Canoe and Saddle," gives a vivid description
of him as being an of extraordinary force and dignity. Governor Stevens
said of him: "He is a peculiar man, reminding me of the panther and the
grizzly bear. His countenance has an extraordinary play, one moment in
frowns, the next in smiles, flashing with light and black as Erebus
the same instant. His pantomime is great, and his gesticulations many
and characteristic. He talks mostly in his face and with his hands and
arms." He was a man of lofty stature and splendid physique, a typical
Indian of the best type. This great Yakima chief saw that his race was
doomed unless they could check White occupancy at its very beginning.
Restrained by no scruples (as indeed his civilized opponents seldom
were) he seems to have conspired with the Walla Wallas and Cayuses to
wipe out Stevens and his band, then rush to The Dalles and exterminate
the garrison there; then with united forces of all the Eastern Oregon
Indians sweep on into the principal settlements of the whites, those of
the Willamette Valley, and wipe them out. Meanwhile their allies on the
Sound were to seize the pivotal points there. Thus Indian victory would
be comprehensive and final. Preposterous as such an expectation appears
now to us, it was not, after all, so remote as we might think. Six or
seven thousand of these powerful warriors, splendidly mounted and well
armed, if well directed, crossing the mountains into the scattered
settlements of Western Oregon and Washington might well have cleaned
up the country, with the exception of Portland, which was then quite
a little city and in a position which would have made any successful
attack by Indians hopeless.

But the Nez Perces saved the day. Halhaltlossot perceived that the
only hope for his people was in peace and as favorable reservation
assignments as could be secured. He nipped the conspiracy in the bud.
Hazard Stevens gives a thrilling account of how the Nez Percé chief
went by night to the Governor's camp and revealed the conspiracy. He
moved his own camp to a point adjoining the whites and made it clear
that the hostiles could accomplish their aims only in the face of Nez
Percé opposition. This situation made the conspiracy impotent.

[Illustration: Lewis McMorris

J. J. Rohn

Dr. John Tempany

Michael Kenny

Joseph McEvoy

COMRADES AT FORT WALLA WALLA IN 1857]

Not all, however, of the Nez Perces approved the tactics of Lawyer.
There was a powerful faction that favored the Yakimas, Cayuses, and
Walla Wallas. While Governor Stevens had been gradually bringing the
main body of the Nez Perces to consent to a treaty assigning certain
reservations to them, and was flattering himself that with the aid
of Lawyer he was just about to clinch the deal, there was a sudden
commotion in the council, and into the midst there burst the old chief
Apashwayhayikt (Looking Glass). He had just been on a raid against
the Blackfeet, and hearing of the probable outcome of the Walla Walla
Council, had made a ride of 300 miles in seven days. With his little
band of attendants he came racing over the "bench" on which "Garden
City Heights" is now located, and with scalps of several slaughtered
Blackfeet dangling from his belt he rushed to the front, and fixing
his angry and reproachful eyes upon his tribesmen he broke forth into
a harangue which Hazard Stevens was told by some Indians began about
thus: "My people, what have you done? While I was gone you sold my
country. I have come home and there is not left me a place on which
to pitch my lodge. Go home to your lodges. I will talk with you."
Lieutenant Kip declares that though he could not understand the words,
the effect was tremendous and the speech was equal to the greatest
bursts of oratory that he had ever heard. The council broke up and the
nearly accepted treaty went to naught.

With great patience and skill Stevens and Lawyer rallied their
defeated forces and, in spite of the opposition of Looking Glass they
secured the acquiescence of the main body of the Indians to three
reservations. These were essentially the same as now known: the Yakima,
the Umatilla, and the Nez Percé. In case of the last, however, there
was a lamentable and distressing miscarriage of agreement and perhaps
of justice. William McBean, already mentioned as a half-breed boy
employed by Governor Stevens, stated to the author many years ago that
he discovered that the general impression among the Nez Percé Indians
was that by accepting the treaty and surrendering their lands in the
Touchet, Tucanon, and Alpowa countries, they would be assured of the
permanent possession of the Wallowa. Now, if there was any region more
suitable to Indians and more loved by them than another, it was that
same Wallowa, with its snowy peaks, its lakes and streams filled with
fish, its grassy upland with deer and elk, its thickets and groves with
grouse and pheasants. The understanding of the "Joseph band" of Nez
Perces was, according to McBean, that the loved Wallowa was to be their
special range. Upon that supposition they voted with Lawyer for the
treaty and that was the determining influence that secured its passage.
But twenty years later, white men began to perceive that the Wallowa
was also suitable to them. With that lack of continuity in dealing with
natives in face of a demand for land by whites which has made most of
our Indian treaties mere "scraps of paper," the administration (that of
Grant) forgot the understanding, the Indians were dispossessed, and the
Nez Percé war with the very people who had saved Stevens in 1855 was
precipitated in 1877. Young Joseph (Hallakallakeen) led his warriors
in the most spectacular Indian war in the history of this country, as
a result of which his band was finally overpowered and located on the
Nespilem, a part of the Colville reservation. Kamiakin had seemed to
agree to the treaty at Walla Walla. But he was only biding his time.
Governor Stevens, having, as he thought, pacified the tribes by that
group of treaties, proceeded on a similar mission to the Flatheads in
Northern Idaho. There, after long discussion, a treaty was negotiated
by which a million and a quarter acres was set aside for a reservation.
The next move of the Governor was across the Rocky Mountains to Fort
Benton.

But what was happening on the Walla Walla? No sooner was the Governor
fairly out of sight across the flower-bespangled plains, which extended
200 miles northeast from Walla Walla, than the wily Kamiakin began to
resume his plots. So successful was he, with the valuable assistance
of Peupeumoxmox, Young Chief, and Five Crows, that the treaties, just
ratified, were torn to shreds and the flame of savage warfare burst
forth across the entire Columbia Valley.

Hazard Stevens, in his invaluable history of his father, gives a vivid
picture of how the news reached them in their camp, thirty-five miles
up the Missouri from Fort Benton. Summer had now passed into autumn. A
favorable treaty had been made with the Blackfeet. On October 29th the
little party were gathered around their campfire in the frosty air of
fall in that high altitude when they discerned a solitary rider making
his way slowly toward them. As he drew near they soon saw that it was
Pearson, the express rider. Pearson was one of the best examples of
those scouts whose lives were spent in conveying messages from forts
to parties in the field. He usually traveled alone, and his life was
always in his hand. He seemed to be made of steel springs, and it had
been thought that he could endure anything. "He could ride anything
that wore hair." He rode 1,750 miles in twenty-eight days at one time,
one stage of 260 miles having been made in three days. But as he slowly
drew up to the party in the cold evening light, it was seen that even
Pearson was "done." His horse staggered and fell, and he himself could
not stand or speak for some time. After he had been revived he told his
story, and a story of disaster and foreboding it was, sure enough.

All the great tribes of the Columbia plains west of the Nez Perces had
broken out, the Cayuses, Yakimas, Palouses, Walla Wallas, Umatillas,
and Klickitats. They had swept the country clean of whites. The ride of
Pearson from The Dalles to the point where he reached Governor Stevens
is one of the most thrilling in our annals. By riding all day and
night, he reached a horse ranch on the Umatilla belonging to William
McKay, but he found the place deserted. Seeing a splendid horse in the
bunch near by, he lassoed and saddled him. Though the horse was as wild
as air, Pearson managed to mount and start on. Just then there swept
into view a force of Indians who, instantly divining what Pearson was
trying to do, gave chase. Up and down hill, through vale, and across
the rim-rock, they followed, sending frequent bullets after him, and
yelling like demons. "Whupsiah si-ah-poo, Whupsiah!" ("Kill the white
man!") But the wild horse which the intrepid rider bestrode proved his
salvation, for he gradually outran all his pursuers. Traveling through
the Walla Walla at night Pearson reached the camp of friendly Nez Percé
Red Wolf on the Alpowa the next day, having ridden 200 miles from The
Dalles without stopping except the brief time changing horses. Snow
and hunger now impeded his course. Part of the way he had to go on
snow-shoes without a horse. But with unflinching resolution he passed
on, and so now here he was with his dismal tidings.

The dispatches warned Governor Stevens that Kamiakin with a thousand
warriors was in the Walla Walla Valley and that it would be impossible
for him to get through by that route, and that he must therefore
return to the East by the Missouri and come back to his territory
by the steamer route of Panama. That meant six months' delay. With
characteristic boldness, Governor Stevens at once rejected the more
cautious course and went right back to Spokane by Coeur d'Alene Pass,
deep already with winter snows, suffering intensely with cold and
hunger, but avoiding by that route the Indians sent out to intercept
him. With extraordinary address, he succeeding in turning the Spokane
Indians to his side. The Nez Perces, thanks to Lawyer's fidelity, were
still friendly, and with these two powerful tribes arrayed against the
Yakimas, there was still hope of holding the Columbia Valley.

After many adventures, Governor Stevens reached Olympia in safety.
Govornor Curry of Oregon had already called a force of volunteers into
the field. The Oregon volunteers were divided into two divisions, one
under Col. J. W. Nesmith, which went into the Yakima country, and the
other under Lieut.-Col. J. K. Kelly, which went to Walla Walla. The
latter force fought the decisive battle of the campaign on the 7th,
8th, 9th and 10th of December, 1855. It was a series of engagements
occurring in the heart of the Walla Walla Valley, a "running fight"
culminating at what is now called Frenchtown, ten miles west of the
present City of Walla Walla.

The famous battle of the Walla Walla, being so conspicuous and so near
the present city, is worthy of some detail. The report of Col. J. K.
Kelley is as follows:

"On the evening of the 8th inst., I gave you a hasty report of our
battle with Indians up to the close of the second day's fight, and
then stated that at a future time I would give a more detailed account
of all transactions that occurred since the march from the Umatilla
River. Owing to active engagements in the field, and in pursuit of the
Indians, I have not hitherto had leisure to make that report.

"As soon as it was dark on the evening of the second, I proceeded with
my command from Fort Henrietta to Walla Walla, having left a detachment
of twenty-five men, under command of Lieutenant Sword, to protect the
former post. On the morning of the third we encamped on the bank of
the Walla Walla River about four miles from the fort; and, proceeding
to the latter place, I found it had been pillaged by the Indians, the
buildings much defaced and the furniture destroyed.

"On the morning of the fourth, a body of Indians was observed on the
opposite side of the Columbia, apparently making preparations to cross
the river with a large amount of baggage. Seeing us in possession of
the fort, they were deterred from making the attempt, when I sent a
small detachment down to a bar making into the Columbia immediately
below the mouth of the Walla Walla, and opposite to where the Indians
were, with directions to fire upon them and prevent the removal of
their packs of provisions. The width of the river at this place is
about 250 yards; and a brisk fire was at once opened upon the Indians,
which was returned by them from behind the rocks on the opposite shore.
No boats could be procured to cross the river in order to secure the
provisions or to attack the body of Indians, numbering about fifty, who
had made their appearance on the hill north of Walla Walla, who, after
surveying our encampment, started off in a northeasterly direction. I
at once determined to follow in pursuit of them on the following day.

"Early on the morning of the fifth I dispatched Second Major Chinn,
with 150 men, to escort the baggage and packtrains to the mouth of the
Touchet, there to await my return with the remainder of the forces
under my command. On the same morning I marched with about two hundred
men to a point on the Touchet River about twelve miles from its mouth,
with the view of attacking the Walla Walla Indians, who were supposed
to be encamped there. When I was near to and making towards the
village, Peupeumoxmox, the chief of the tribe, with six other Indians,
made their appearance under a flag of truce. He stated that he did not
wish to fight; that his people did not wish to fight; and that on the
following day he would come and have a talk and make a treaty of peace.
On consultation with Hon. Nathan Olney, Indian agent, we concluded
that this was simply a ruse to gain time for removing his village and
preparing for battle. I stated to him that we had come to chastise him
for the wrongs he had done to our people, and that we would not defer
making an attack on his people unless he and his five followers would
consent to accompany and remain with us until all difficulties were
settled. I told him that he might go away under his flag of truce if he
chose; but, if he did so, we would forthwith attack his village. The
alternative was distinctly made known to him; and, to save his people,
he chose to remain with us as a hostage for the fulfillment of his
promise, as did also those who accompanied him. He at the same time
said that on the following day he would accompany us to his village;
that he would then assemble his people and make them deliver up all
their arms and ammunition, restore the property which had been taken
from the white settlers, or pay the full value of that which could
not be restored; and that he would furnish fresh horses to remount my
command, and cattle to supply them with provisions, to enable us to
wage war against other hostile tribes who were leagued with him. Having
made these promises, we refrained from making the attack, thinking we
had him in our power, and that on the next day his promises would be
fulfilled. I also permitted him to send one of the men who accompanied
him to his village to apprise the tribes of the terms of the expected
treaty, so that they might be prepared to fulfill it.

"On the sixth, we marched to the village and found it entirely
deserted, but saw the Indians in considerable force on the distant
hills, and watching our movements. I sent out a messenger to induce
them to come in, but could not do so. And I will here observe that I
have since learned from a Nez Percé boy who was taken at the same time
with Peupeumoxmox, that instead of sending word to his people to make
a treaty of peace, he sent an order for them to remove their women and
children and prepare for battle. From all I have since learned, I am
well persuaded that he was acting with duplicity, and that he expected
to entrap my command in the deep ravine in which his camp was situated,
and make his escape from us. We remained at the deserted village until
about one o'clock in the afternoon; and seeing no hope of coming to any
terms we proceeded to the mouth of the Touchet with a view of going
from thence to some spot near Whitman's Station, where I had intended
to form a permanent camp for the winter.

"On the morning of the seventh, Companies H and K crossed the Touchet,
leading the column on the route to Whitman's Valley, and when formed
on the plain, were joined by Company B. A few persons in front were
driving our cattle; and a few were on the flanks of the companies
and near the foot of the hills that extended along the river. These
persons, as well as I can ascertain, were fired on by the Indians.
Immediately all the companies except A and F (who were ordered to
remain with the baggage) commenced an eager chase of the Indians in
sight. A running fight was the consequence, the force of the Indians
increasing with every mile. Several of the enemy were killed in the
chase before reaching the farm of La Rocque, which is about twelve
miles from the mouth of the Touchet. At this point they made a stand,
their left resting on the river covered with trees and underbrush,
their center occupying the flat, as this place was covered with clumps
of sagebrush and small sand knolls, their right on the high ridge of
hills which skirt the river bottom.

[Illustration: FORT WALLA WALLA]

"When the volunteers reached this point, they were not more than forty
or fifty men, being those mounted on the fleetest horses. Upon these
the Indians poured a murderous fire from the brushwood and willows
along the river, and from the sage bushes along the plain, wounding a
number of the volunteers. The men fell back. The moment was critical.
They were commanded to cross the fence which surrounds La Rocque's
field, and charge upon the Indians in the brush. In executing this
order, Lieutenant Burrows of Company H was killed; and Captain Munson
of Company I, Isaac Miller, sergeant-major, and G. W. Smith of Company
B, were wounded. A dispatch having been sent to Captain Wilson of
Company A to come forward, he and his company came up on the gallop,
dismounted at a slough, and with fixed bayonets pushed on through the
brush. In the course of half an hour Captain Bennett was on the ground
with Company F; and, with this accession, the enemy was steadily driven
forward for two miles, when they took possession of a farm house and
close fence, in attempting to carry which Captain Bennett of Company F
and Private Kelso of Company A were killed.

"A howitzer found at Fort Walla Walla under charge of Captain Wilson,
by this time was brought to bear upon the enemy. Four rounds were
fired, when the piece bursted, wounding Captain Wilson. The Indians
then gave way at all points; and the house and fence were seized and
held by the volunteers and the bodies of our men recovered. These
positions were held by as until nightfall, when the volunteers fell
slowly back and returned unmolested to camp.

"Early on the morning of the 8th the Indians appeared with increased
forces, amounting to fully six hundred warriors. They were posted as
usual in the thick brush by the river, among the sage bushes and sand
knolls, and on the surrounding hills. This day Lieutenant Pillow with
Company A and Lieutenant Hannah with Company H were ordered to take and
hold the brush skirting the river and the sage bushes on the plain.
Lieutenant Fellows, with Company F, was directed to take and keep the
possession of the point at the foot of the hill. Lieutenant Jeffries
with Company B, Lieutenant Hand with Company I, and Captain Cornoyer
with Company K, were posted on three several points on the hills, with
orders to maintain them and to assail the enemy on other points of the
same hills. As usual, the Indians were driven from their position,
although they fought with skill and bravery.

"On the ninth, they did not make their appearance until about ten
o'clock in the morning, and then in somewhat diminished numbers. As I
had sent to Fort Henrietta for Companies D and E, and expected them
on the tenth, I thought it best to act on the defensive and hold our
positions, which were the same as on the eighth, until we could get
an accession to our forces sufficient to enable us to assail their
rear and cut off their retreat. An attack was made during the day on
Companies A and H in the brushwood, and upon B on the hill, both of
which were repulsed with great gallantry by those companies, and
with considerable loss to the enemy. Companies F, I, and K also did
honor to themselves in repelling all approaches to their positions,
although in doing so one man in Company F and one in Company I were
severely wounded. Darkness as usual closed the combat, by the enemy
withdrawing from the field. Owing to the inclemency of the night, the
companies on the hill were withdrawn from their several positions,
Company B abandoning the rifle pits which were made by the men for its
protection. At early dawn on the next day, the Indians were observed
from our camp to be in possession of all points held by us on the
preceding day. Upon seeing them, Lieutenant McAuliffe of Company B
gallantly observed that his company had dug those holes, and that after
breakfast they would have them again. And well was his declaration
fulfilled; for in less than half an hour the enemy were driven from the
rifle pits, and had fled to an adjoining hill which they had occupied
the day before. This position was at once assailed. Captain Cornoyer
with Company K and a portion of Company I, being mounted, gallantly
charged the enemy on his right flank, while Lieutenant McAuliffe
with Company B, dismounted, rushed up the hill in face of a heavy
fire, and scattered them in all directions. They at once fled in all
directions to return to this battlefield no more; and thus ended our
long-contested fight.

"I have already given you a list of the killed and wounded on the
first two days of the battle. On the last two days, we had only three
wounded, whose names you will find subjoined to this report. J. Fleming
of Company A, before reported as mortally wounded, has since died. I
am happy to state, however, that Private Jasper Snook of Company H,
reported by me as mortally wounded, is in a fair way to recover. The
surgeon informs me that all the wounded in the hospital are now doing
well. The loss of the enemy in killed, during the four days, I estimate
at about seventy-five. Thirty-nine dead bodies have already been found
by the volunteers; and many were carried off the field by their friends
and comrades. So that I think that my estimate is about correct. The
number of their wounded must, of course, be great. In making my report,
I cannot say too much in the praise of the conduct of the officers
of the several companies and most of the soldiers under my command.
They did their duty bravely and well during those four trying days of
battle. To Second Major Chinn, who took charge of the companies in the
bush by the river, credit is due for his bravery and skill, also to
Assistant Adjutant Monroe Atkinson for his efficiency and zeal as well
in the field as in the camp. And here, while giving to the officers and
men of the regiment the praise that is justly due, I cannot omit the
name of Hon. Nathan Olney, although he is not one of the volunteers.
Having accompanied me in the capacity of Indian agent, I requested him
to act as my aid, on account of his admitted skill in Indian warfare;
and, to his wisdom in council and daring courage on the field of
battle, I am much indebted and shall never cease to appreciate his
worth.

"Companies D and E having arrived from Fort Henrietta on the evening
of the tenth, the next morning I followed with all the available
troops along the Nez Perces' trail in pursuit of the Indians. On Mill
Creek, about twelve miles from here, we passed through their village,
numbering 196 fires, which had been deserted the night before. Much
of their provisions were scattered along the wayside, indicating that
they had fled in great haste to the north. We pursued them until it
was too dark to follow the track of their horses, when we camped on
Coppei Creek. On the twelfth we continued the pursuit until we passed
some distance beyond the station of Brooke, Noble and Bumford on the
Touchet, when we found the chase was in vain, as many of our horses
were completely broken down and the men on foot. We therefore returned
and arrived in camp on yesterday evening with about one hundred head of
cattle which the Indians left scattered along the trail in their flight.

"On the eleventh, while in pursuit of the enemy, I received a letter
from Narcisse Raymond by the hands of Tintinmetzy, a friendly chief
(which I enclose), asking our protection of the French and friendly
Indians under his charge.

"On the morning of the twelfth, I dispatched Captain Cornoyer with his
company to their relief. Mr. Olney, who accompanied them, returned
to camp this evening, and reports that Captain Cornoyer will return
tomorrow with Mr. Raymond and his people, who now feel greatly relieved
from their critical situation. Mr. Olney learned from these friendly
Indians what we before strongly believed, that the Palouses, Walla
Wallas, Umatillas, Cayuses, and Stock Whitley's band of Des Chutes
Indians were all engaged in the battle on the Walla Walla. These
Indians also informed Mr. Olney that, after the battle, the Palouses,
Walla Wallas, and Umatillas had gone partly to the Grande Ronde and
partly to the country of the Nez Perces, and that Stock Whitley,
disgusted with the manner in which the Cayuses fought in the battle,
has abandoned them and gone to the Yakima country to join his forces
with those of Kamiakin. We have now the undisputed possession of the
country south of the Snake River; and I would suggest the propriety
of retaining this possession until such time as it can be occupied by
the regular troops. The Indians have left much of their stock behind,
which will doubtless be lost to us if we go away. The troops here will
not be in a situation for some time to go to the Palouse country, as
our horses at present are too much jaded to endure the journey; and we
have no boats to cross Snake River and no timber to make them nearer
than this place. But I would suggest the propriety of following up the
Indians with all possible speed, now that their hopes are blighted and
their spirits broken. Unless this be done, they will perhaps rally
again.

"Today I received a letter from Governor Stevens, dated yesterday,
which I enclose. You will perceive that he is in favor of a vigorous
prosecution of the war. With his views I fully concur.

"I must earnestly ask that supplies be sent forward to us without
delay. For the last three days none of the volunteers, except the two
companies from Fort Henrietta, have had any flour. There is none here,
and but little at that post. We are now living on beef and potatoes
which are found _en cache_; and the men are becoming much discontented
with this mode of living. Clothing for the men is much needed as the
winter approaches. Tomorrow we will remove to a more suitable point,
where grass can be obtained in greater abundance for our worn-out
horses. A place has been selected about two miles above Whitman's
Station, on the same (north) side of the Walla Walla; consequently I
will abandon this fort, named in honor of Captain Bennett of Company F,
who now sleeps beneath its stockade, and whose career of usefulness and
bravery was here so sadly but nobly closed.

  "Very respectfully, your ob't serv't,
  "JAMES K. KELLY,
  "Lieut.-Col., Com'g Left Col."

A most bitterly disputed feature of this battle was the killing
of Peupeumoxmox. It has been esteemed by many as nothing short of
murder. The author of this work found difference of opinion among the
old-timers formerly resident in Walla Walla, as Lewis McMorris and
James McAuliffe, as to the rights and wrongs of the case. The former
narrated a ghastly story as follows: The Indian chief having been taken
prisoner with several followers was under guard. In the hottest of the
fight they undertook to escape. The guards shot them down. The body of
the old chieftain was mutilated. His ears were cut off and put in a jar
of whiskey in order to preserve them, and subsequently they were nailed
to the State House at Salem. But, according to McMorris, the whiskey
in the jar disappeared. It was believed by the soldiers that a certain
lieutenant had taken it for beverage purposes, and it was common for
someone in camp to bawl out at night when he could not be identified,
"Who drank the whiskey off of Peupeumoxmox's ears?" This event, while
so repulsive, casts a certain light on the conditions. Perhaps a fuller
view can be obtained by quoting the official superintendent, Joel
Palmer, as follows:

"We arrived near the camp (Walla Wallas) just before night (the 5th
of December), and were met by Peupeumoxmox and about fifty of his men
with a white flag. They asked for a talk. We halted (Colonel Kelly's
command) and demanded what he wanted. He said peace. We told him to
come with us and we would talk. He said no. We then told him to take
back his flag and we would fight. He said no. We then told him to take
his choice--go back and fight or come and stop with us. He chose the
latter. We retained him until the next day. We tried to come to an
understanding, but could not. We still retained him as a prisoner, with
four of his men who came along with him. The next morning, the seventh,
a large force attacked us as we left camp. In trying to escape from
their guard during the seventh, they were killed."

As presenting the other view of the subject, we quote from Colonel
Gilbert as follows:

"An important event transpired that day which it would be more proper
to designate as a disgraceful tragedy enacted, that is omitted from
this official report. The following is an account of it, as given to
the writer by Lewis McMorris, who was present at the time and saw what
he narrated. * * * The combatants had passed on up the valley, and the
distant detonation of their guns could be heard. The flag of truce
prisoners were there under guard, and everyone seemed electrified with
suppressed excitement. A wounded man came in with his shattered arm
dangling at his side, and reported Captain Bennett killed at the front.
This added to the excitement, and the attention of all was more or less
attracted to the wounded man, when some one said, 'Look out, or the
Indians will get away!' At this, seemingly, every one yelled, 'Shoot
'em! Shoot 'em!' and on the instant there was a rattle of musketry on
all sides.

"What followed was so quick, and there were so many acting that
McMorris could not see it in detail, though all was transpiring within
a few yards of, and around him. It was over in a minute, and three of
the five prisoners were dead; another was wounded, knocked senseless
and supposed to be dead, who afterwards recovered consciousness, and
was shot to put him out of misery, while the fifth was spared because
he was a Nez Percé. * * * All were scalped in a few minutes, and later
the body of Yellow Bird, the great Walla Walla chief, was mutilated in
a way that should entitle those who did it to a prominent niche in the
ghoulish temple erected to commemorate the infamous acts of soulless
men. Let us draw a screen upon this affair that has cast a shadow
over the otherwise bright record of Oregon volunteers in that war,
remembering, when we do so, that but few of them were responsible for
its occurrence."

Following this decisive victory of Colonel Kelly and his command, in
December, 1855, on the Walla Walla, a second regiment of Washington
volunteers was despatched for Walla Walla in the summer of 1856 in
command of Col. B. F. Shaw. On July 17, 1856, Colonel Shaw gained a
brilliant victory over the allied forces of the savages in the Grande
Ronde. While this important campaign was in progress, Governor Stevens
had his hands full in Western Washington. The little settlement
at Seattle had been nearly destroyed. Many of the settlers in the
scattered settlements on the sound had lost their lives, their homes
were destroyed and their stock driven off. In the spring the Klickitat
Indians had made a sudden dash upon the settlements on the Columbia
River between the White Salmon and the Cascades. A certain young
lieutenant, afterwards somewhat distinguished, fought his first battle
at the latter point. It was Phil Sheridan. In spite of these absorbing
events in Western Washington and at the Cascades, Governor Stevens,
realizing the vital importance of holding the allegiance of the Nez
Perces, proceeded to Walla Walla for another council. His location was
about two miles above the camp of 1855. Shortly after his arrival, Col.
E. J. Steptoe of the regular army made camp at the location of the
present fort.

And now came on the second great Walla Walla council. The tribes were
fathered as before, and were aligned as before. The division of Nez
Perces under Lawyer stood firmly by Stevens and the treaty. The others
did not. The most unfortunate feature of the entire matter was that
Colonel Steptoe, acting under General Wool's instructions, thus far
kept secret, refused to grant Stevens adequate support and subjected
him to humiliations which galled the fiery Governor to the limit. In
fact, had it not been for the vigilance of the faithful Nez Perces of
Lawyer's band, Stevens and his force would surely have met the doom
prepared for them at the first council. The debt of gratitude due
Lawyer is incalculable. Spotted Eagle ought to be recorded, too, as of
similar devotion and watchfulness. Governor Stevens afterward declared
that a speech by him in favor of the whites was equal in feeling,
truth, and courage to any speech that he ever heard from any orator
whatever.

But in spite of oratory, zeal, and argument, nothing could overcome
the influence of Kamiakin, Owhi, Quelchen, Five Crows and others of
the Yakimas and Cayuses. Nothing was gained. They stood just where
they were a year before. The fatal results of divided counsels between
regulars and volunteers were apparent.

The baffled Governor now started on his way down the river, but not
without another battle. For, as he was marching a short distance south
of what is now Walla Walla City, the Indians burst upon his small force
with the evident intention of ending all scores then and there. But
Colonel Steptoe established a rude stockade fort on Mill Creek in what
is now the heart of the present Walla Walla City, and went into winter
quarters there in 1856-57. Governor Stevens returned to Olympia and
launched forth a bitter arraignment against Wool. The latter, however,
was in a position of vantage and issued a proclamation commanding all
whites in the upper country to go down the river and leave the Cascade
Mountains as the eastern limit of the white settlement. Thus ended for
a time this unsatisfactory and distressing war. To all appearances
Kamiakin and his adherents had accomplished all they wanted.

But this was not the end. Gold had been discovered in Eastern
Washington. Vast possibilities of cattle raising were evident on those
endless bunch-grass hills. Although there was as yet little conception
of the future developments of the Inland Empire in agriculture and
gardening, yet the keen-eyed immigrants and volunteers had scanned the
pleasant vales and abounding streams of the Walla Walla and Umatilla
and Palouse, and had decided in their own minds that, Wool or no Wool,
this land most be opened. In 1857 the Government, as already noted,
decided on a change of policy and sent Gen. N. S. Clarke to take
Wool's place. General Clarke opened the gates, and the impatient army
of land hunters and gold hunters began to move in. Meanwhile, Colonel
Wright and Colonel Steptoe, though formerly they had closely followed
Wool's policy, now began to experience a change of heart. Out of these
conditions the third Indian war, in 1858, quickly succeeded the second,
being indeed its inevitable sequence.

Three campaigns marked this third war. The first was conducted by
Colonel Steptoe against the Spokanes and Coeur d'Alenes, and ended in
his humiliating and disastrous defeat. The second was directed by Major
Garnett against the Yakimas, resulting in their permanent overthrow.
The third was conducted by Colonel Wright against the Spokanes and
other northern tribes who had defeated Steptoe. This was the Waterloo
of the Indians, and it ushered in the occupation and settlement of the
upper Columbia country.

The Steptoe expedition, the first of that series of campaigns, was
one of the most disastrous in the history of Indian warfare. When the
command had reached a point near Four Lakes, probably the group of
which Silver Lake is largest, a formidable array of Indians met them,
all the hosts of the Spokanes, Pend Oreilles, and allied tribes. Seeing
the dangerous situation into which they were running, Steptoe gave the
word to retreat.

The force turned back and that night all seemed well. But at 9 o'clock
the next morning, while the soldiers were descending a cañon to Pine
Creek, near the present site of Rosalia, a large force of Indians burst
upon them like a cyclone. As the battle began to wax hot the terrible
consequences of the error of lack of ammunition began to become
manifest. Man after man had to cease firing. Capt. O. H. P. Taylor and
Lieutenant Gaston commanded the rear-guard. With extraordinary skill
and devotion they held the line intact and foiled the efforts of the
savages to burst through. Meanwhile the whole force was moving as
rapidly as consistent with formation on their way southward. Taylor and
Gaston sent a messenger forward, begging Steptoe to halt the line and
give them a chance to load. But the commander felt that the safety of
the whole force depended on pressing on. Soon a fierce rush of Indians
followed, and, when the surge had passed, the gallant rear-guard was
buried under it. One notable figure in the death-grapple was De May, a
Frenchman, trained in the Crimea and Algeria, and an expert fencer. For
some time he used his gun barrel as a sword and swept the Indians down
by dozens with his terrific sweeps. But at last he fell before numbers
and one of his surviving comrades relates that he heard him shouting
his last words, "O my God, my God, for a sabre!"

But the lost rear-guard saved the rest. For they managed to hold
back the swarm of foes until nightfall, when they reached a somewhat
defensible position a few miles from the towering cone of what is now
known as Steptoe Butte. There they spent part of a dark, rainy, and
dismal night, anticipating a savage attack. But the Indians, sure of
their prey, waited till morning. Surely the first light would have
revealed a massacre equal to the Custer massacre of later date, had not
the unexpected happened. And the unexpected was that old Timothy, the
Nez Percé guide, knew a trail through a rough cañon, the only possible
exit without discovery. In the darkness of midnight the shattered
command mounted and followed at a gallop the faithful Timothy, on
whose keen eyes and mind their satiation rested. The wounded and a few
footmen were dropped at intervals along the trail. After an eighty-mile
gallop during the day and night following, the yellow flood of Snake
River suddenly broke before them between its desolate banks. Saved! The
unwearied Timothy threw out his own warriors as a screen against the
pursuing foe, and set his women to ferrying the soldiers across the
turbulent stream.

Thus the larger part of the command reached Fort Walla Walla alive.

With the defeat of Steptoe, the Indians may well have felt that they
were invincible. But their exultation was short-lived. As already
noted, Garnett crushed the Yakimas at one blow, and Wright a little
later repeated Steptoe's march to Spokane, but did not repeat his
retreat. For in the battle of Four Lakes, on September 1st, and that
of Spokane Plains on September 5th, Wright broke forever the power and
spirits of the northern Indians.

The treaties were thus established at last by war. The reservations,
embracing the finest parts of the Umatilla, Yakima, Clearwater, and
Coeur d'Alene regions, were set apart, and to them after considerable
delay and difficulty the tribes were gathered.

With the end of this third great Indian war and the public announcement
by General Clarke that the country might now be considered open to
settlement, immigration began to pour in, and on ranch and river, in
mine and forest, the well-known labors of the American state-builders
and home-builders were displayed. The ever-new West was repeating
itself. Almost immediately upon the tidings of General Clarke's
proclamation, a motley throng of prospective miners, cowboys, pioneer
merchants, promoters and adventurers of all kinds began to pour into
the "Upper Country." The fur-traders, foreign missionaries, scouts, and
advance guard of pioneers were passing off the stage and the modern
builders were coming. The varied activities and enterprises of these
builders of the foundations during the decades of the '60s and '70s,
which may be styled the first division of the era of modern times will
compose Part Two of this volume.



PART II

SETTLEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT



CHAPTER I

THE PERMANENT ORGANIZATION OF WALLA WALLA COUNTY AND FOUNDING OF THE
CITY


In an earlier chapter we have narrated the first attempts by the first
Legislature of Washington Territory, in 1854, to establish Walla
Walla County. It consisted of the entire territory east of a line
running north from a point on the Columbia River opposite the mouth
of the Des Chutes River, practically at the present Fallbridge. Thus
the county included all of the present Eastern Washington, with the
entire present State of Idaho and about a fourth of Montana. The only
settlement in that vast area was around Waiilatpu and Frenchtown.
Though officers for the proposed county ware appointed, they did not
qualify and the proposed county never completed its organization. Then
came on the Indian wars, lasting till Colonel Wright's decisive victory
at Spokane in August and September, 1858, closed that era. Following
that event General Clarke's proclamation opened the "Upper Country" to
settlement. Not till the spring of 1859, however, did Congress ratify
the treaties for the three reservations, Nez Percé, Umatilla, and
Yakima. But almost immediately upon General Clarke's proclamation the
impatient immigration began to enter the Walla Walla Valley. We may
consider the immigrants of 1858 and 1859 as the vanguard of permanent
settlement. Yet, it should not be forgotten that several names of
permanent importance are found in the annals of 1851-55, during the
period between the Cayuse war and the Great War of 1855-58. Those names
appeared in the chapter on the Indian Wars.

A number of the pioneers of 1858-59 had been connected with those
wars, either as members of the United States army or as volunteers.
Others came from Oregon and California, full of the restless spirit
of the country and time, eager for the possibilities of a new land.
Those first locations were mainly in the near vicinity of the present
City of Walla Walla, with a few on the Touchet. While it is hardly
possible to avoid some omissions, we will endeavor to present a list
of those who, most of them with families, settled in the years named,
a few coming even prior to 1858. Some of them, it may be stated, came
and "looked" and then returned for family or equipment and came back
in a year for a permanence. A few here given left the country after
a few years, and others were simply transients. But in general they
with their families became essential factors in the upbuilding life
of the region. Among them were business men and professional men,
but the majority were stockmen. It was not realized that the general
body of upland was adapted to grain production. The first settlers
generally sought locations convenient to water, with bottom land where
they thought grain and vegetables might flourish, but with the range
of luxuriant bunch-grass as the essential consideration. Apparently
the first to become actually established in permanent locations were
Thomas Page, James Foster, Charles Russell, J. C. Smith, Christian
Maier, John Singleton, and Joseph McEvoy, all in the near vicinity of
Fort Walla Walla. That fort, it should be understood, was the one of
the present location, laid out in 1857, following the first American
fort of the name in the city limits of Walla Walla on Mill Creek near
the American Theater of today. Among the pioneer business men of the
same time were three worthy of special note whose coming inaugurated
the business history of Walla Walla. These were Dorsey S. Baker, Almos
H. Reynolds, and William Stephens. Worthy of special mention in this
connection is Mrs. Almos H. Reynolds, the first white woman to reside
in the Walla Walla Valley, after the period of the Whitman Mission.
Mrs. Reynolds, nee Lettice Millican, was a member of the immigration
of 1843, lived during childhood and youth in Oregon, was married to
Ransom Clark and came with him in 1855 to a donation land claim on
Yellowhawk Creek. Driven from their home by the Indian War of 1855, Mr.
and Mrs. Clark returned to Oregon, and there Mr. Clark died in 1859.
With remarkable fortitude and courage, Mrs. Clark returned at once to
complete residence and make proof on the valuable claim, the Government
having cancelled the lapse of time covered by the wars. In 1861 Mrs.
Clark was married to Mr. Reynolds and the remainder of the lives of
both was spent in the city which they did so much to advance.

In connection with the reference to the Ransom Clark donation land
claim, it is of interest to record the fact that there were five such
claims established in the Walla Walla Valley. To those not familiar
with the early history of Oregon it may be well to explain that the
Provisional Government in 1843 provided that each American citizen in
Oregon might locate 320 acres of land, or each married couple might
have double that amount. That offer was one of the great incentives
to immigration, though it would, of course, have been nugatory if the
United States had not got the country. When Oregon was acquired by the
United States that law was confirmed by Congress. The law lasted but
ten years after the acquisition of Oregon, and almost all the locations
under it were in the Willamette and Umpqua valleys. There were a few,
however, in the Cowlitz Valley and on the north side of the Columbia
and on streams entering Puget Sound. Mr. and Mrs. Clark were the
only locators who came here from the Willamette Valley purposely to
locate a donation claim. There were, however, three former members of
the Hudson's Bay Company who located donation claims in the vicinity
of Frenchtown. These were Louis Dauney, Narcisse Remond (or Raymond
it appears on the Land Office map), and William McBean. In addition
to those four donation claims, the United States Government allowed
the American Foreign Missionary Society a square mile of land at the
Whitman Mission, and in 1859 Cushing Eells purchased their right and
established himself upon the claim. The St. Rose Mission also had a
filing at Frenchtown, but did not complete proof.

[Illustration: THE ORIGINAL RANSOM CLARK CABIN

Built in 1859, and occupied by Mrs. Clark, then a widow, and her three
children, who are now living in Walla Walla and who appear in the
picture; Charles W. Clark, Lizzie Clark (Mrs. B. L. Baker), and William
S. Clark]

A number of names of the "advance guard" will be found in this chapter
under the heads of county and city officials. In order, however, to
present all in one view, we are giving here as complete a list as
possible of the settlers of 1857-58-59. It is derived in part from the
record in "Historic Sketches" by Col. F. F. Gilbert, and in part from
the records of the Inland Empire Pioneer Association, supplemented by
personal inquiry by the author. It is inevitable that a name here and
there should be omitted and the author and publishers will appreciate
any further information from pioneer sources.

PIONEERS PRIOR TO 1860

  John F. Abbott
  H. C. Actor
  Charles Albright
  Milton Aldrich
  Newton Aldrich
  C. R. Allen
  F. M. Archer
  Wm. H. Babcock
  Chester N. Babcock
  D. S. Baker
  S. D. Baldwin
  W. A. Ball
  Joseph Bauer
  Charles Bellman
  Wm. Bingham
  A. A. Blanchard
  Mrs. Elizabeth J. Blanchard
  P. J. Boltrie
  E. Bonner
  D. D. Brannan
  E. H. Brown
  H. N. Bruning
  James Buckley
  John Bush
  John Cain
  J. M. Canaday
  C. H. Case
  J. Clark
  Ransom Clark and sons
  Charles and William
  Mrs. Ransom Clark
  George E. Cole
  J. M. Craigie
  Louis Dauney
  George Delaney
  W. S. Davis
  N. B. Denny
  J. M. Dewar
  James Dobson
  Jesse Drumheller
  N. B. Dutro
  N. Eastman
  R. A. Eddy
  Cushing Eells
  W. L. Elroy
  S. H. Erwin
  Edward Evarts
  J. H. Fairchild
  Wm. Fink
  J. Foresythe
  James W. Foster
  J. Freedman
  James Fudge
  James Galbreath
  S. S. Gilbreath
  Thomas Gilkerson
  W. S. Gilliam
  Braziel Grounds
  Ralph Guichard
  W. R. Hammond
  Joseph W. Harbert
  Solomon Hardman
  Martin H. Hauber
  Daniel Hayes
  Samuel E. Hearn
  Joseph Hellmuth
  H. H. Hill
  Henry Howard
  Thomas Hughes
  Lycurgus Jackson
  Samuel Johnson
  James Johnston
  Wm. B. Kelly
  Robert Kennedy
  Michael Kenny
  James Kibler
  L. L. Kinney
  Wm. Kohlhauff
  J. M. Lamb
  Samuel Legart
  A. G. Lloyd
  J. C. Lloyd
  Francis F. Loehr
  James McAuliffe
  Wm. McBean
  M. C. McBride
  Robert McCool
  Thomas McCoy
  Joseph McEvoy
  J. W. McGhee
  Neil McGlinchy
  Wm. McKinney
  Lewis McMorris
  Wm. McWhirk
  Christian Maier
  John Mahan
  John Makin
  John Manion
  Pat Markey
  S. R. Maxson
  John May
  Wm. Millican
  R. G. Moffit
  Louis A. Mullan
  Lewis Neace
  James O'Donnell
  John O'Donnell
  Robert Oldham
  Frank Orselli
  Thomas P. Page
  A. D. Pambrun
  Edward D. Pearce
  Jonathan Pettyjohn
  John Picard
  Francis Pierrie
  George T. Pollard
  P. Powel
  I. T. Reese
  Mrs. C. Regan
  R. H. Reighart
  A. H. Reynolds
  R. A. Rice
  Thomas Riley
  A. B. Roberts
  A. H. Robie
  J. J. Rohn
  Charles Russell
  Mrs. Louisa Saunders
  Louis Scholl
  Mrs. Elizabeth Fulton Scholl
  Marshall Seeke
  J. M. Sickler
  John M. Silcott
  J. A. Sims
  Charles Silverman
  John Singleton
  J. C. Smith
  S. D. Smith
  H. H. Spalding
  Wm. Stephens
  B. F. Stone
  Frank Stone
  Christian Sturm
  T. J. Sweazea
  W. J. Terry
  John Tempany
  Augustus Von Hinkle
  W. W. Walter
  A. G. P. Wardle
  R. Warmack
  John Welch
  E. B. Whitman
  Jonas Whitney
  Mrs. M. A. Wightman
  W. W. Wiseman
  Thomas Wolf
  F. L. Worden

As it was becoming evident that Walla Walla possessed the resources and
attractions for drawing and sustaining a large population of the best
American citizenship, the Legislature of the territory passed an act
on January 19, 1859, to provide a government for Walla Walla County.
Meanwhile, however, the limits of the county had been greatly reduced,
for in 1858 Spokane County had been laid out and this embraced the
larger part of the vast area covered by the first Walla Walla County.
In 1859, Klickitat County (spelled Clikatat in the Act), embracing
the area between the Columbia River and the Cascades, was erected.
By these two acts Walla Walla County was reduced to the area south
of Snake River and east of the Columbia. Or it would have been so
reduced, if the organization of Spokane County had been practically
accomplished. But it was not, and in 1863, the new Territory of Idaho
was established by act of Congress, and at about the same time Stevens
County in Washington was laid out, covering Eastern Washington east
of the Columbia and north of Snake River, and including the abortive
County of Spokane. Not till 1879 did Spokane become a separate county.
It is interesting to note also that with Stevens the County of Ferguson
was created, including what now composes the counties of Kittitas,
Yakima, and Benton. In the general shuffle of time and fate the name
of Ferguson has disappeared, but Stevens still remains to perpetuate
geographically (there is little need historically) the name of the
doughty and invincible first Governor of Washington Territory, though
the land area covered by the name has been greatly reduced by the
successive subtractions of Whitman, Spokane, Adams, Franklin, Grant,
Lincoln, Okanogan, Chelan, and Ferry counties.

By the act of 1859 referred to, the necessary officers of Old Walla
Walla County were established as follows: County Commissioners, John
Mahan, Walter R. Davis, and John C. Smith (better known as Sergeant
Smith); Sheriff, Edward D. Pearce; Auditor, R. H. Reighart; Probate
Judge, Samuel D. Smith; Justice of the Peace, J. A. Sims. Commissioners
Mahan and Davis met at Walla Walla on March 15, 1859, and to fill
vacancies left by the non-acceptance of the auditor and sheriff,
appointed James Galbreath for the former and Lycurgus Jackson for
the latter position. At a meeting of the commissioners on March 26,
1859, they found it necessary to make changes again in the personnel
of county officers. As a result the following assumed office in their
respective places: E. H. Brown, probate judge; Lycurgus Jackson,
assessor; Neil McGlinchy county treasurer; and William B. Kelly,
superintendent of schools.

The next stage in the political evolution of the county was the
appointment of a date for general election. This was set for the
following July. The county was divided into two voting precincts,
Steptoeville, and Dry Creek. The former seems to have included the
region centering around the United States Fort Walla Walla, and
thence down Mill Creek to the Walla Walla. There was a general habit
of designating the region around the fort as Steptoeville, a clumsy
and illogical name, for it is not euphonious nor would it seem that
it would have been popular, for certainly the officer who met such
disastrous defeat at the hands of the Spokane Indians did not bring
great glory to the Stars and Stripes nor great security to possible
settlement. Fortunately the name was not preserved. The election place
in "Steptoeville" was appointed at the house of W. J. Terry but that
was subsequently changed to "The Church at Steptoeville." The only
church here at that time seems to have been a Catholic church built at
some time in 1859 on the location of the subsequent McGillivray house,
afterward occupied by Jacob Betz, near the present home of George
Welch. The "church," we may say in passing, consisted of poles stuck
in the ground and covered with shakes. It had no floor and its only
seating facilities consisted of one bench. J. A. Sims, Wm. B. Kelly,
and Wm. McWhirk were the judges and Thomas Hughes the clerk for the
election in "Steptoeville" precinct. In Dry Creek precinct, which seems
to have included all the rest of the county to the east and north, the
election board consisted of E. Bonner, J. M. Craigie, and Wm. Fink.
The clerk was W. W. Wiseman. The polling place was at the residence
of J. C. Smith. That was the first real election in Walla Walla
County or anywhere in Eastern Washington, though there had been "kind
of" an election in 1855 among the few settlers around Waiilatpu and
Frenchtown. It is worth noting that the retiring board of commissioners
had two meetings prior to the election. One of these was on June 6th,
and at that meeting it was voted to pay $20.00 per month for the rent
of a building for a courthouse and to impose a tax of seven mills. At a
meeting on July 2d the resignation of James Galbreath was presented and
Augustus Von Hinkle was appointed for the vacancy. At the same meeting
the name of Waiilatpu was substituted for Steptoeville.

The election of July seems to have duly occurred, but apparently the
records have been lost. That officers were duly chosen appears from
the fact that on September 5th the new board of commissioners met and
determined their terms of service: Charles Russell, one year; John
Mahan two years and Wm. McWhirk three years. The following incumbents
of county offices were elected: I. T. Reese, auditor; Lycurgus Jackson,
sheriff; Neil McGlinchy, treasurer; Thomas P. Page, assessor; C. H.
Case, surveyor; J. M. Canaday, justice of the peace. I. T. Reese was
granted $40.00 per month for the building used as the courthouse,
and that building was nearly opposite the present courthouse. The
county hired the upper story, the lower being a saloon. On November
17, 1859, the board of commissioners voted to locate the county seat
at the point first named "Steptoeville," then Waiilatpu, but now by
their vote duly christened Walla Walla. Thus, on November 17, 1859,
the "Garden City" officially entered the world under the name by which
the Indians at the junction of the Big Rivers introduced themselves
to Lewis and Clark, the first white explorers, and preserved, though
with many changes of spelling, through the era of the Hudson's Bay
Company, and by that company applied to the fort on the Columbia. Now
by the action of the first elected board of county commissioners the
musical name was attached to the newly established town of 1859. It
is worthy of notice that the name is commonly supposed to mean the
"Valley of Waters," referring to the numerous springs in the vicinity
of the city. The author has been told by "Old Bones," an Indian of the
Cayuse tribe who lived for many years near Lyons' Ferry on Snake River
and was known to all old-timers, that the name was understood by the
natives to signify that section of country below Waiilatpu, "where the
four creeks meet;" viz., the Walla Walla, Touchet, Mill Creek, and
Dry Creek. The Walla Walla above that point was commonly known to the
Indians as "Tum-a-lum." The sound "Wall" is common in Indian words
all over the Northwest as Willamette, Wallula, Wallowa, Waiilatpu,
or, as some got it, Wallatpu. Many poetical and some prosaic accounts
have been given of the origin of the name. Among others, Joaquin
Miller, "Poet of the Sierras," insisted that when the French voyageurs
first looked down from the Blue Mountains ("Les Montagnes Bleues" in
their Gallic speech) upon the fair fertile valley, they exclaimed:
"Voila, Voila!" (Behold, behold!) and thus the name became fixed. This
fantastic idea is, however, easily disproved by the fact that Lewis and
Clark, who entered the country by Snake River, got the name from the
Indians on the Columbia near the mouth of the Walla Walla. In the same
connection, while speaking of the local names used by the aborigines,
it is of interest to observe that the commonplace appellation of Mill
Creek for the beautiful stream which flows through Walla Walla City has
supplanted a far more fit and attractive native name. It is somewhat
variously pronounced and hence spelled. Rev. Henry Spalding gives it as
Pasha. Thomas Beall of Lewiston gives it as Pashki. Others have gotten
the sound as Paskau, or Pashkee. It seems to signify "sunflower."
Mr. Beall regards the name as applying rather to the tract of land
extending a mile or two above Walla Walla where the sunflower is very
frequent than to the creek itself. Another mellifluous name said to
be used by some of the natives is "Imchaha." It is truly regrettable
that so common a name as Mill Creek should have become fastened upon so
attractive a feature of the city.

As indicated above, the location of the United States Fort Walla Walla
was largely determinative of the location of the city. The first
business of the region arose for the purpose of providing supplies for
the fort. Several of those whom we have named in the "Advance Guard"
were directly connected with that business. An example is found in
Charles Russell who was connected with the quartermaster's department
of the fort, and seeing the heavy burden of transporting supplies from
the Willamette Valley determined to test the valley land. Accordingly
he sowed eighty acres to barley at a point north of the fort on what
later became the Drumheller place. It yielded fifty bushels to the
acre. In the same season Mr. Russell raised a hundred acres of oats
on the place which he soon after took up on the creek which bears his
name. That might be regarded as the inauguration of agriculture in this
vicinity though it should be remembered that Dr. Whitman twenty years
before had raised prolific crops of all kinds at Waiilatpu. Wm. McWhirk
was the first merchant in Walla Walla. He erected a tent for a store
in the spring of 1857 at a point near what is now the corner of Main
and Second streets. During the fall of the same year, Charles Bellman
set up another tent store at the point occupied by the Jack Daniels
saloon for many years at the site of the present "Togs." Apparently the
old-timers are at variance as to the builder and location of the first
actual building. Some have asserted that Wm. McWhirk erected, in the
summer of 1857, a cabin on the north side of Main Street, nearly where
the Farmers' Savings Bank now stands, and that in the fall of the same
year Charles Bellman put up a structure a little east of that at about
the point of the Young and Lester florist location. In April, 1858,
Lewis McMorris erected a slab and shakes structure for Neil McGlinchy
on about the present southwest corner of Main and Third. Various rude
buildings appeared in 1858, some for residences, some for saloons
(which we regret to record seems to have been a very active line of
business at that time). These were constructed by James Galbreath, W.
A. Ball, Harry Howard, Michael Kenny, William Terry, John Mahan, James
Buckley, and Thomas Riley. The first building with floor, doors, and
glass windows was erected by Ralph Guichard and Wm. Kohlhauff at the
point now occupied by the White House Clothing Store at the northwest
corner of Main and Third.

At that time there were two rival locations: one at the point started
by McWhirk, McGlinchy, and Bellman, and the other at a cabin built by
Henry Howard, known as the "half-way house;" i.e., half-way to the
fort. Spirituous refreshment seems to have been much appreciated by
the gallant defenders of their country at the Fort Walla Walla of that
time, and a half-way house was quite a desirable accessory of a trip
to "town." As we have already noted, there was a difference of opinion
as to the name of the town, but that of Walla Walla finally prevailed
over all rivals. On November 17, 1859, the commissioners laid out the
town with the following boundaries: Commencing in the center of Main
Street at Mill Creek, thence running north 440 yards, thence running
west one-half mile to a stake, thence running south one-half mile to
a stake, thence running east one-half mile to a stake, thence running
north to the place of commencement; 160 acres in all.

The town government was organized by the appointment of a recorder,
I. T. Reese, and three trustees, F. C. Worden, Samuel Baldwin, and
Neil McGlinchy. The town was surveyed by C. H. Case, providing streets
eighty feet wide running north and south, and one hundred feet wide
running east and west. The lots were laid out with a sixty-foot front
and a depth of 120 feet. They were to be sold for $5.00 each, with the
addition of $1.00 for recording, and no one person could buy more than
two of them. Ten acres also were set aside for a town square and the
erection of public buildings, but this was reduced to one acre.

The first lots sold were those taken by I. T. Reese and Edward Evarts,
both in block 13, the sale being recorded November 30, 1859. On
December 22d, of the same year, 150 acres of land was surveyed into
town property for Thomas Wolf and L. C. Kinney, the former soon selling
his interest to the latter.

The original plat of the town is not now in existence, having been
destroyed, probably by the fire of 1865. The earliest survey on record
is a plat made in October, 1861, by W. W. Johnson, which purports to be
a correction of the work of C. H. Case.

On November 5, 1861, the board declared the survey made by W. W.
Johnson to be official, and W. A. George was employed as an attorney
to secure for the county a preemption title to the land on which Walla
Walla was built. W. W. Johnson was appointed to take steps to secure
the title at the Vancouver land office, but he did not do so, and thus
the effort of the county to secure the site failed. This ended what
might be called the embryonic stage in the municipal life of Walla
Walla, and we find the next stage to be actual incorporation.

The City of Walla Walla was originally incorporated by an act of the
Territorial Legislature, passed on January 11, 1862. By the provisions
of said act the city embraced within its limits the south half of the
southwest quarter of section 20, township 7 north, range 36 east,
of the Willamette meridian. The charter made provision also for the
election, on the first Tuesday in April of each year, of a mayor,
recorder, five councilmen, marshal, assessor, treasurer and surveyor,
all vacancies, save in the offices of mayor and recorder, to be
filled by appointment by the council, which was also given the power
of appointing a clerk and city attorney. No salary was to attach to
the offices of mayor or councilman until the population of the city
had reached one thousand individuals, when the stipend awarded these
officers was to be fixed by an ordinance enacted by the council. The
charter designated the following officers to serve until the first
regular election under said charter: Mayor, B. P. Standefer; recorder,
James Galbreath; councilmen, H. C. Coulson, B. F. Stone, E. B. Whitman,
D. S. Baker, and M. Schwabacher; marshal, George H. Porter. The council
assembled on the 1st of March to perfect its organization, when it
developed that Mr. Schwabacher was ineligible for office, as was also
Mr. Coulson, who proved to be a non-resident. Mr. Stone presiding, the
council proceeded to fill the two vacancies by balloting, and James
McAuliff and George E. Cole thus became members of the council, S.
F. Ledyard being appointed clerk. The council again met, pursuant to
adjournment, on the 4th of the same month, when Mr. Cole was chosen
chairman; Edward Nugent, city attorney; and Messrs. McAuliff, Whitman
and Stone were appointed to prepare a code of rules for the government
of the council.

Four hundred and twenty-two votes were cast at the first election, held
April 1, 1862, the following being the result: Mayor, E. B. Whitman;
councilmen, J. F. Abbott, R. Jacobs, I. T. Reese, B. F. Stone and B.
Sheideman; recorder, W. P. Horton; marshal, George H. Porter; attorney,
Edward Nugent; assessor, L. W. Greenwell; treasurer, E. E. Kelly;
surveyor, A. I. Chapman; clerk, S. F. Ledyard. On the 11th of April,
W. Phillips was appointed councilman in place of J. F. Abbott, while
in the succeeding year it appears that H. Hellmuth had been appointed
in the place of B. F. Stone. The recorder resigned in January, 1863,
his successor, J. W. Barry, being chosen at a special election held
on the last day of that month. H. B. Lane succeeded Mr. Greenwell as
assessor; on April 11, 1862, Henry Howard was appointed treasurer, and
W. W. DeLacy, surveyor, while in January, 1863, H. B. Lane was noted as
clerk. The city revenue for the first six months aggregated $4,283.25,
of which sum liquor and gaming licenses contributed $1,875. When it is
remembered that this was at the height of the gold excitement, this
last item may be well understood.

During the last quarter of the year the revenue of the new city was
$2,714.19, but so large were the expenditures that the opening of the
year 1863 found in the treasury a balance of less than five dollars.
The value of property in the city was assessed in 1862 at $300,000, the
succeeding year witnessing the increase of the same to $500,000.

Such may be regarded as the establishment of Walla Walla City up to
the time of incorporation. During the period from January 19, 1859,
the appointment by the Legislature of the Territory of officers for
the county, down to the date of the incorporation of the city, the
county organization had been launched after the typical American
fashion. The two only absolutely sure things in this world--death and
taxes--were established. It is certain that there were deaths in that
time, and at the meeting of the county commissioners on May 7, 1860, a
tax levy of seven mills was voted. At the same meeting the county was
redivided into voting precincts for the coming election in July. It
gives some conception of the points of the beginnings of settlements to
note that the precincts were as follows: Walla Walla, Dry Creek, Snake
River, East Touchet, and West Touchet. Coppei Creek was the dividing
line between the two last-named precincts. The following extract from
Colonel Gilbert's "Historic Sketches" will give a view of conditions:

"At this election the question of whether a tax for building a
courthouse and jail should be levied, was submitted to the people, and
though, as before stated, no returns are on file, a negative vote is
indicated from the fact that neither were built at that time, prisoners
being sent to Fort Vancouver for incarceration. From their official
bonds it appears that the following named were the successful aspirants
for office at the election of July, 1860:

  Auditor and Recorder--James Galbreath.
  Sheriff--James A. Buckley.
  Surveyor--M. J. Noyse.
  Assessor--C. Langley.
  Coroner--Almiron Dagget.
  Justice of Peace, Walla Walla--William J. Horton.
  Justice of Peace, Dry Creek--John Sheets.
  Justice of Peace, East Touchet--Horace Strong.
  Justice of Peace, West Touchet--Elisha Everetts.
  Justice of Peace, ---- ---- --William B. Kelly.

"No footprint of transactions coming under supervision of the board
while this set of officers were acting, prior to October 12, 1861,
remains, and we are forced to skip the intervening time, and commence
again with the latter date. A county election had occurred in July,
1861, and W. H. Patton, S. Maxson and John Sheets appear at this time
as the board of commissioners. November 5th, Sheriff James Buckley, who
was ex officio tax collector, was appointed county assessor in place of
S. Owens, who, having been elected in 1861, failed to qualify. On the
8th of the same month a contract was given Charles Russell to build a
county jail at a cost of $3,350. He finished the work in 1862, was paid
$6,700 in script for it, and in 1881 re-purchased the same building
from the county for $120, and, tearing it down, moved it out to his
ranch.


CONDITION OF THE COUNTY IN 1860

"Up to 1861, there had been nothing of special moment, calculated for
inducing emigration to settle in the vicinity of the Blue Mountains.
There was unoccupied land enough in various parts of the United States
to prevent its soil from being much of an inducement, and, at that
time the agricultural portion of Eastern Washington was supposed to
exist in limited quantities. There was, practically, no market for
farm products, as they would not pay the expense of shipment, and,
outside of the garrison, its employes and dependents, there was no
one to purchase them; still a few people had found their way into the
country from Oregon, in 1859 and 1860, with stock, and had taken up
ranches along the various streams. Very few came to locate with a view
of establishing a home here, their purpose being to graze stock for
a few years and then abandon the country, raising some grain in the
meantime for their own use, and possibly a little to sell, if anybody
should wish to buy. Had the military post been abandoned in 1860, but
few whites would have remained east of the Cascades, and stock raising
would have been the only inducement for any one to remain there."

Perhaps in no other way can we give so perfect a view of the Walla
Walla of 1861 as by extracts from the first issue of the _Washington
Statesman_. The beginning of the paper was itself one of the most
notable events of the time. It was not only the first newspaper in
Walla Walla, but the first in the whole vast region between the
Missouri and the Cascade Mountains. We are indebted to Dr. Frank Rees
for the opportunity to use the priceless treasure of a complete file
of the paper for the period from the first number, November 29, 1861,
through the remainder of that year and those following. We find at
the heading of this paper that it was issued every Friday morning and
that N. Northrop, R. D. Smith and R. R. Rees were the editors and
proprietors, and that the office was on Main Street, Walla Walla, W. T.
The rates of subscription were $5.00 per year, $2.50 for six months,
and 25 cents for a single copy.

We quote here several paragraphs from the opening editorial:

"We send forth this morning, with our congratulations, the first number
of the _Washington Statesman_, and respectfully solicit the attention
of the people of Walla Walla and county to its pages. From a careful
consideration of the demands of the people to whom we shall look
for support in sustaining a weekly newspaper at this point, we feel
warranted in the conviction that we are inaugurating an enterprise
which will be a means of vastly enhancing the development, prosperity,
and permanent interests of this most favorable section of the upper
country, and which, conducted with prudence and economy, will be
reasonably remunerative to its projectors.* * *

"That a weekly publication, devoted to the various interests of the
country, containing all the news which may be gathered from different
quarters, is essentially needed in the Walla Walla Valley, we premise
no permanent resident will deny; this admitted, we have no misgivings
as to the disposition of the people to come forward and promptly
sustain an enterprise so materially calculated to further their own
interests as a community. Hence, we expect at least that every man who
is fortunate enough to possess a home in this beautiful valley will at
once subscribe for the _Statesman_, and pay for it in advance. Home
pride will prompt every man to do thus much for the benefit of the
vicinity in which he has chosen his residence, even if he already has
more papers than he finds time to read."

Following this introduction the editorial points out the special need
of the farmer, the stockraiser, the merchant, and the mechanic in the
existence and support of such a paper.

The editorial then proceeds to indicate its policy as follows:

"As indicated in our prospectus, the _Statesman_ will be independent
on all subjects. By independent we do not mean neutral; but, when
occasion requires, we shall express our views fearlessly upon all
subjects legitimate for newspaper discussion; and in doing this, we
shall be our own advisers and regulate our own business in our own
way. The _Statesman_ will not be devoted to the interests or claims of
any political party; but ignoring partisan measures, will adhere to
and support those measures which in our judgment are best calculated
to preserve and perpetuate the bonds of our national union, under
whose yet waving and revered flag alone we hope for success. * * *
Arrangements will soon be completed for obtaining all the items of news
from the different leading points in the mines, and from various places
within this territory and Oregon bearing relations to us commercially
or otherwise. * * *

"The coming season with us at home will be an auspicious one. Adding to
the importance of the developments which must immediately follow in the
train of an immigration to the upper country in extent unparalleled,
the course and progress of which our people should all be made aware
of--adding to this the mighty results developing in the East, it can
readily be seen that material is afforded for making up a paper which
will be indispensable to the people of this section, as well as those
of the territory at large.

"We shall liberally distribute copies of this number in the different
sections where we desire the paper to circulate; and we take the
present occasion to request the people generally of this valley and
the upper country to call and furnish themselves with copies for
distribution in their several neighborhoods, thereby lending us a hand
in obtaining a subscription list as early as possible."

We find most of the news items in this first number of the _Statesman_
to pertain to the mines in Idaho. There is a correspondence between
Henry M. Chase and Capt. E. D. Pearce in regard to certain captive
children in the hands of the Indians. The tone of this correspondence
shows something of the strenuous conditions of those days of war and
pioneer settlement.

The most notable local event apparently was the Firemen's ball, given
by the members of the Union Hook and Ladder Company at the Walla Walla
Hotel. This news item declares that the ball was a successful and
brilliant affair and that the smiling faces and social congratulations
of the large number of ladies and gentlemen present well attested how
eminently successful had been the efforts of the firemen to render the
occasion in every respect a pleasant one. The mottoes displayed in
the room were quite interesting as showing what the ambitious firemen
of that first period wanted to set forth as guiding them. The motto
of the Union Hook and Ladder Company was "We Destroy to Save." There
were several mottoes from Portland and The Dalles fire companies, as
follows: "Willamette No. 1, Conquer We Must;" "Multnomah No. 2, On
Hand;" "Columbian No. 3, Always Willing;" "Young America No. 4, Small,
but Around;" "Vigilance Hook and Ladder Company, We Climb;" "Dalles
Hook and Ladder Company, We Raze to Save."

Another local item of some interest is to the effect that the Robinson
Theatrical Troupe had been performing in the city for several weeks,
almost every night having crowded houses and appreciative audiences.
A little description is given of the new theater, which it states is
situated in the lower part of town, but a short walk from the business
part of the city. The city editor exhorts all the people in town to
patronize this theater for the sake of spending a pleasant evening.

Another item of historic interest is the statement that orders have
been forwarded to Lieutenant Mullan instructing him to send back his
escort of one hundred United States soldiers, who had been laying out
the great road known as the "Mullan Road." The party at that time was
in the Bitter Root Mountains, and it was considered impracticable for
them to cross those mountains in the winter season.

Although, as will be seen from the date of this paper, the time was the
opening of the Civil war, yet it is noticeable that there was a great
scarcity of information in regard to that great event. The latest news
of any kind from the East is dated November 15th, just two weeks before
the date of publication of the paper.

Another news item is to the effect that on account of an unpardonable
delay in the arrival of material, press, and fixtures, from The Dalles,
the publication of the first issue was delayed beyond expectation. The
proprietors seem to feel very bad over this delay.

The advertisements in this first number of the _Statesman_ are of
great interest. Among a number beyond our space to quote here we
find an entire column devoted to the wholesale and retail business
of Kyger & Reese. They seem to have been prepared to deal in almost
every conceivable object of need in the way of clothing, groceries,
hardware, crockery, drugs, medicines, books and stationery, as well as
some supply of the spirituous refreshments which were so much desired
at that time. We find several advertisements of stage companies; among
others the Walla Walla and Dalles Stage Company, which advertises to
make the run between the two places in two days. Miller and Blackmore
were the proprietors. We find also the advertisement of Abbott's
Livery, Sale and Exchange Stables on Main Street. The Oregon Steam
Navigation Company advertises the steamers Julia, Idaho, and Tenino,
running between Portland and the Nez Percé mines with portages at
the Cascades and The Dalles. The fare from Portland to The Dalles
was $8.00, with an extra charge for portage at the Cascades. Animals
from Portland to The Dalles were $5.00. The fare from Des Chutes to
Wallula was $15.00. A number of names prominent later on in the legal
and medical history of Walla Walla, appear in the advertising columns.
Among the physicians we find L. C. Kinney, L. Terry, R. Bernhard, J.
A. Mullan, L. Danforth, and I. H. Harris. Among the lawyers we find W.
A. George and I. N. Smith. We find a very small advertisement by D. S.
Baker, in which the strong point is of a fire-proof, brick building.
That was the only fire-proof, brick building in Walla Walla at that
time.

By way of comparison with the present cost of living, it is of some
interest to give the Walla Walla prices current as appearing in that
issue of the _Statesman_. The following are the items:

  Bacon--Per lb., 25c.
  Flour--Per hundred, $5 to $6.
  Beans--Per lb., 12c to 15c.
  Sugar--China, 18c to 20c; New Orleans, 23c to 25c; Island 20c to 22c;
    crushed, 26c.
  Rice--Per lb., 18c to 20c.
  Dried Apples--Per lb., 20c to 25c.
  Yeast Powders--Per doz., $4 to $6.
  Candles--Per lb., 60c.
  Soap--Hill's, per lb. 17-1/2c; Fay's, 16c.
  Tobacco--Per lb., 60c to $1.
  Nails--Per lb., 16-2/3c.
  Butter--Fresh Rolls, per lb., 75c; Oregon, 50c.
  Eggs--Per doz., $1.
  Oats--Per lb., 2-1/2c to 3c.
  Wheat--Per bushel, $1.25 to $1.50.

The reader of that first issue of the _Statesman_ would readily arrive
at the conclusion that business was booming in Walla Walla and that
there was a demand for almost all of the commodities common in any new
and active community. The philanthropist is somewhat pained indeed to
observe the large amount of attention paid to the liquor business in
its various forms. The Nez Percé mines and the various stage lines
seemed to demand a large share of attention, both in advertising and in
news items. After all, people are very much the same from generation to
generation and we can readily infer that what the people of Walla Walla
were in the '60s, their children and grandchildren are largely the same
in this year of grace, 1917.

In the early history of the territory before government was organized
to protect life and punish criminals, the miners organized courts of
their own to try those who committed any crime within the camp, but
there were no courts to try the criminals whose work was outside of the
miner's camp. As a result crime flourished in the towns that supplied
the camps and on the road between the town and the camp.

There were organized bands of criminals who plundered the merchant
in the town, the packer and the stage on the road, and the miners to
and from the different camps. The members of these organizations had
pass words by which they could make themselves known to each other,
routes along which they operated, stations where members of the gang
were located. They also had members in every camp and town engaged
in various occupations, trades and callings. Stage stand tenders
and sometimes the drivers themselves were members of the gang, and
when organized government was established they succeeded in getting
themselves elected to the office of sheriff, marshal, etc. These men
knew when every pack train started, what it had, where it went and how
much gold dust it brought back on its return; watched every stranger
and learned his business; took notice of every good horse; knew of the
departure of every stage, the number of passengers and the probable
treasure carried. The lone traveler was robbed of his horse by a false
bill of sale. The returning packers were held up, robbed and sometimes
murdered. The stage was stopped, the passengers ordered out and
relieved of all their money and other valuables. Frequently the Wells
Fargo box containing thousands of dollars would be among the prizes
taken from the stage.

One of the most noted of these road agents was Henry Plummer. He came
of a good family, was gentlemanly in bearing, dignified in deportment,
of strong executive ability and a fine judge of human nature. While a
young man he drifted west, became a successful gambler and acquainted
with various phases of a criminal's life. In the spring of 1861 he
came to Lewiston, Idaho. This town was then the head of navigation on
the Snake River, had a population of several hundred, among whom were
thieves, gamblers, escaped convicts and criminals of all kinds. These
he organized into a band of highwaymen, to operate on the road between
Walla Walla, Washington, and Orofino, Idaho, directing the operations
from Lewiston which was a midway ground. Two sub-stations were located,
one at the foot of Craig Mountain, east of Lewiston, and the other
west, at the junction of Alpowai and Pataha creeks. These were called
"shebangs" and were the rendezvous of a band of robbers. Soon robberies
and murders on this road were common, but the respectable, law abiding
citizens were in the majority and they soon organized themselves into
a law and order body, which made the operations of the robber gang
dangerous and unprofitable.

The mines at Orofino were soon worked out. This, together with the
citizen's organizations and the fear on the part of Plummer of being
exposed for crimes committed by him while in California, caused him to
flee from Idaho and go to Montana. Upon his arrival there he apparently
desired to reform and live the life of a law abiding citizen. He
married a nice young woman and entered upon an honorable means of
earning a living. But he was a criminal by nature, environment and
practice and not strong enough, had he desired it, to break with his
old associates and habits and like all criminals was haunted by fear of
detection.

When he left Idaho a companion by the name of Cleveland went with him.
They were together when Plummer was married near Fort Benton and they
both a little later went to Bannack. He and Cleveland had a bitter
quarrel over the young lady who married Plummer. This, together with
his fear of his associates in crime, made him suspicious and in a
saloon brawl a short time later he shot Cleveland. This started him
again on a carnival of crime that has no parallel in the history of the
Northwest, and just as he had organized the criminals when in Idaho, he
again organized them in Montana on a much larger scale. These men were
bound by an oath to be true to each other and were required to perform
such service as came within the defined meaning of their separate
positions in the band. The penalty of disobedience was death. If any
one of them, under any circumstances, divulged any of the secrets or
guilty purposes of the band, he was to be followed and shot down at
sight. The same doom was prescribed for any outsider who attempted an
exposure of their criminal designs, or arrested any of them. Their
great object was declared to be plunder in all cases, without taking
life if possible, but if murder was necessary, it was to be committed.
Their password was "innocent." Their neckties were fastened with a
sailor's knot, and they wore mustaches and chin whiskers. Plummer
himself was a member of the band.

The duties of these men may be gained from the work assigned them
as revealed by one of their number. Henry Plummer was chief of the
band; Bill Burton, stool pigeon and second in command; George Brown,
secretary; Sam Burton, roadster; Cyrus Skinner, fence, spy and
roadster; George Shears, horse-thief and roadster; Frank Parrish,
horse-thief and roadster; Hayes Lyons, telegraph man and roadster; Bill
Hunter, telegraph man and roadster; Ned Ray, council-room keeper at
Bannock City; George Ives, Stephen Marshland, Dutch John (Wagner), Alex
Carter, Johnny Cooper, Buck Stinson, Mexican Frank, Bob Zachary, Boone
Helm, Clubfoot George (Lane), Billy Terwiliger, Gad Moore, roadsters.

But Plummer soon ran his course. He was captured and had to pay the
penalty for his crimes. "Red" Yager, a member of Plummer's gang,
was hanged by a vigilance committee. Before his execution he made
a confession, giving the names of all the members of the band and
stating that Plummer was the leader. Plummer, with two others of the
organization, were at Bannock. No trouble was experienced in arresting
the other two, one being captured in a cabin, the other stretched out
on a gambling table in a saloon. But great care had to be exercised
in the arrest of the leader of the band, who was cool-headed and a
quick shot. Those detailed to capture him went to his cabin and found
him in the act of washing his face. When informed that he was wanted
he manifested no concern but quietly wiped his face and hands. He
announced that he would be ready to go within a short time, threw down
the towel and smoothed out his shirt sleeves, then advanced toward a
chair to get his coat, but one of the party, by great good fortune,
saw a pistol in the pocket and replied, "I will hand you your coat,"
at the same time taking possession of the pistol. Otherwise Plummer
would likely have killed one or all of those attempting to capture
him. He, with the other two criminals arrested were escorted in the
bright moonlight night to the gallows which Plummer himself had
erected the year before and used in the hanging of a man, he being at
that time sheriff. As they appeared in sight of the gallows the other
criminals cursed and swore, but Plummer was begging for his life. "It
is useless," said one of the vigilantes, "for you to request us to
spare your life, for it has already been settled that you are to be
hung." Plummer then replied, "Cut off my ears, cut out my tongue, strip
me naked, let me go. I beg you to spare my life. I want to live for
my wife, my poor absent wife. I want to settle my business affairs.
Oh, God." Then falling upon his knees, the tears streaming from his
eyes, and with his utterance choked with sobs, he continued: "I am
too wicked to die. I cannot go bloodstained and unforgiven into the
presence of the Eternal. Only spare me and I will leave the country."
But all this was to no purpose. His time had come and the leader's
stern order, "Bring him up," was obeyed. Plummer, standing under the
gallows, took off his necktie, threw it to a young man who had boarded
with him, saying, "Keep that to remember me by," and then turning to
the vigilantes, he said, "Now, men, as a last favor, let me beg that
you will give me a good drop." The favor was granted and Plummer, one
of the most noted outlaws ever known to the Northwest, was no more.



CHAPTER II

TIMES OF COWBOYS, MINERS, AND VIGILANTES


The two essentials of a city seem to be: first, a location in a
region of such resources as to attract and provide industries for the
maintenance of an incoming and ever increasing population; and, second,
such a location as will be a natural point of exchange of commodities
with more or less distant centers of production, and as a corollary of
this, feasible facilities of transportation. Four towns were started
in the "Upper Country" in the early sixties, which were to stand these
tests of a city location. They were: Walla Walla, Umatilla, Wallula,
and Lewiston. The obvious disadvantage of the first was that it was
not on navigable water, and water carriage was then the cheap and
convenient way of conveying any large amounts of freight or passengers.
Its countervailing advantage, and the reason why by common consent
settlers sought it in preference to the river towns was that it was
right in the center of resources. While the first settlers had no
conception of the future of agriculture and horticulture, it was clear
that a region near enough the mountains to be easily accessible to
timber, and abounding in streams of the purest water, with infinite
grazing resources, was a paradise to the stockman. And while with the
first influx of settlers in 1858, 1859, and 1860, there was not yet
any knowledge of the event which within a few months was to transform
the entire history of the Inland Empire, i. e., the discovery of gold
in Idaho, yet the minds of the people of the time were quivering with
the feverish anticipations of fortune engendered by the California
mining history. Hence the settlers in Walla Walla in 1860 were right
on the qui vive for "big things." Such reasons, together with the very
important fact that the United States Fort Walla Walla was located
there (for the same reasons of grass, water, and timber) were potent
in determining the growth of the largest town. Umatilla and Wallula
had the very marked advantage of water transportation to a limitless
degree, but on the other hand, the arid climate and the barren soil
(barren without irrigation, of which nothing was conceived at that
time), and distance from the timber counter-balanced the advantage.
If it had then been fully realized, what we now know, that Lewiston
combined nearly all advantages, with no disadvantages, the site at
the junction of the Snake and Clearwater would have seemed to possess
unequalled attractions. But Lewiston was at that time so far up Snake
River and so remote from general apprehension as a center of production
that Walla Walla had an easy lead in attracting incoming settlers.

In 1859 and 1860 the chief lines of business, as already indicated,
were cattle-raising and supplying the Fort. The suitability of this
country to stock-raising was obvious to the fur-traders of the Hudson's
Bay Company regime, and they had quite a number of cattle at Fort Walla
Walla (Wallula), at "Hudson's Bay," near the present Umapine, and at
the near vicinity of what is now Touchet. Doctor Whitman brought with
him several head of cattle and even two calves across the plains in
1836 and afterwards secured more from Doctor McLoughlin at Vancouver.
In the early '50s, Messrs. Brooke, Bumford, and Noble located at
Waiilatpu for the same business, while H. M. Chase and W. C. McKay
on the Umatilla in 1851 started in the same kind of enterprise. From
these various sources the idea had become disseminated that Walla Walla
was the place for the cowboy. That was inaugurated the first movement
which, interrupted for a period by gold excitement, was resumed with
even greater energy as the demands of the mines for provisions became
known, and for a number of years was the dominating interest of Old
Walla Walla County.

The stock business was, however, interwoven in a curious and
interesting way with all the other lines of enterprise. Especially was
this true of the mining and transportation interests. The three were
dovetailed together by reason of the fact that food and pack trains
were vital necessities of the mines.

The mining history of the "Upper Country" began in the spectacular way
usual with discoveries of the precious metals. Colonel Gilbert tells
a fantastic tale of the train of circumstances which led to the first
prospecting tour into what became the great gold field of Central
Idaho. This tale involves E. D. Pearce, who, as we have seen, was one
of the early office-holders of Walla Walla County. He is described as
a man of somewhat imaginative and enthusiastic character, quick to
respond to the calls of opportunity. He had been in the gold mines of
California before coming to Walla Walla, and while there had become
acquainted with a Nez Percé Indian who in some way had drifted into
that region. This Indian impressed Mr. Pearce with his dignity and
intelligence and excited his interest in a romantic story of his home
in the mountain fastnesses of Idaho. He declared that he, with two
companions, while encamped in the mountains had seen in the night a
light of surpassing brilliance, like a refulgent star. The Indians
regarded the distant glow with awe, deeming it the eye of the Great
Spirit. In the morning, however, plucking up sufficient courage to
investigate, they discovered a glittering ball like glass embedded in
the rock. They could not dislodge it from its setting and left it,
thinking it a "great tomanowas." Pearce became impressed with the
thought that the Indians had found an enormous diamond of incalculable
value, and he determined that, if ever the opportunity was afforded,
he would seek its hiding place. Accordingly, having reached Walla
Walla after many wanderings, he bethought himself of the diamond and
organized a company of seven men, whose names with the exception of
that of W. F. Bassett, do not seem to be recorded in the account. They
made their way in 1860 into the wild tangle of mountains on the sources
of the Clearwater. The party were looking for gold, but Pearce had
the diamond in mind. Indians coming in contact with the party became
suspicious and ordered them out. Pearce, however, pretending to obey
orders, induced a Nez Percé squaw to guide the party into the heart
of the mountains of the north fork of the Clearwater. There, Bassett,
while prodding around in the soil of a small creek, discovered shining
particles. Gold! It was only a few cents worth, but it was enough.
That was the first discovery of gold in Idaho. The place was the site
of the Oro Fino mines. Extracts from a former account written by the
author, in which are incorporated items from the _Washington Statesman_
will indicate the progress of the discovery and the effects on the
newly-started town of Walla Walla.

"After washing out about eighty dollars in gold, the party returned
to Walla Walla, making their headquarters at the home of J. C. Smith
on Dry Creek, and finally so thoroughly enlisting his interest
and co-operation that he fitted out a party of about fifteen men,
largely at his own expense, to return to the new gold fields for the
winter. Sergeant Smith's party reached the mines in November, 1860,
arousing the antipathy and distrust of the Indians, who appealed to
the Government officers for the protection of their reserve from
such encroachments. A body of soldiers from Fort Walla Walla started
out for the mines, with the intention of removing the interlopers,
but the heavy snowfall in the mountains rendered the little party of
miners inaccessible, so they were not molested. During the winter the
isolated miners devoted their time to building five log cabins, the
first habitations erected in Oro Fino, sawing the lumber by hand.
They also continued to work for gold under the snow, and about the
first of January, 1861, two of the men made a successful trip to the
settlements, by the utilizing of snow-shoes, while in March Sergeant
Smith made a similar trip, taking with him $800 in gold dust. From this
reserve he was able to pay Kyger & Reese of Walla Walla the balance
due them on the prospecting outfit which had been supplied to the
adventurous little party in the snowy mountains. The gold dust was sent
to Portland, Ore., and soon the new mines were the subject of maximum
interest, the ultimate result being a "gold excitement" quite equal to
that of California in 1849, and within a few months the rush to the new
diggings was on in earnest, thousands starting forth for the favored
region."

The budding City of Walla Walla profited materially by the influx of
gold-seekers, who made their way up the Columbia River and thence moved
forward to Walla Walla, which became the great outfitting headquarters
for those en route to the gold country. At this point were purchased
provisions, tools, camp accoutrements and the horses or mules required
to pack the outfits to the mines. Through this unforeseen circumstance
there was now a distinctive local market afforded for the products of
the Walla Walla country, and the farmer who had produce of any sort
to sell might esteem himself fortunate, for good prices were freely
offered. Nearly all the grain that had been produced in the country was
held, in the spring of 1861, in the mill owned and operated by Simms,
Reynolds & Dent, the total amount being less than twenty thousand
bushels. This surplus commanded a high price, the farmers receiving
$2.50 per bushel for their wheat, while at the mines the operators
were compelled to pay $1 a pound for flour manufactured therefrom.
The inadequacy of the local supply of food products was such that,
had not additional provender been transported from Oregon, starvation
would have stared the miners in the face. This fact gave rise to the
almost unprecedented prices demanded for the products essential to the
maintenance of life. New mining districts were discovered by the eager
prospectors and all was hustle and activity in the mining region until
the fall of 1861. In November of that year many of the miners came to
Walla Walla for the winter, bringing their hard-earned treasure with
them and often spending it with the prodigality so typical of the
mining fraternity in the early days.

Although many of the diggings yielded from six to ten dollars per day,
many of the operators feared the ravages of a severe winter and fully
realized the animus of the merchants at Oro Fino, who refused to sell
their goods, believing that starvation would ultimately face the miners
and that they could then secure any price they might see fit to demand.
In November of the year noted, the prices at Oro Fino were quoted as
follows on certain of the necessaries of life: flour, $25 per 100
pounds; beef, 30 cents per pound; coffee, not to be had; candles, not
for sale; and bacon and beans, exceedingly scarce. That the prospectors
and miners should seek to hibernate nearer civilization and take refuge
in Walla Walla was but natural under the circumstances.

During the rush to the mining districts, both in 1861 and 1862, Walla
Walla was the scene of the greatest activity; streets were crowded; the
merchants were doing a thriving business, and pack trains moved in a
seemingly endless procession toward the gold fields. The excitement was
fed by the glowing reports that came from the mining districts, and the
natural result was to augment the flood of gold-seekers pouring into
the mining districts in the spring of 1862, as will be noted later on.
As an example of the alluring reports circulated in the latter part
of 1861, we may appropriately quote from the _Washington Statesman_
of that period. From an editorial in said publication we make the
following extract:

"S. F. Ledyard arrived last evening from the Salmon River mines, and
from him it is learned that some six hundred miners would winter
there; that some two hundred had gone to the south side of the river,
where two streams head that empty into the Salmon, some thirty miles
southeast of present mining camp. Coarse gold is found, and as high
as one hundred dollars per day to the man has been taken out. The big
mining claim of the old locality belongs to Mr. Weiser, of Oregon,
from where $2,680 were taken on the 20th, with two rockers. On the
21st, $3,360 were taken out with the same machines. Other claims were
paying from two to five pounds per day. Flour has fallen to 50 cents
per pound, and beef, at from 15 to 25 cents, is to be had in abundance.
Most of the mines supplied until first of June. Mr. L. met between
Slate Creek and Walla Walla, en route for the mines, 394 packs and 250
head of beef cattle."

In the issue of the _Statesman_ for December 13, 1861, appears the
following interesting information concerning the mines and the
inducements there offered:

"The tide of emigration to Salmon River flows steadily onward. During
the week past, not less than two hundred and twenty-five pack animals,
heavily laden with provisions, have left this city for the mines. If
the mines are one-half so rich as they are said to be, we may safely
calculate that many of these trains will return as heavily laden with
gold dust as they now are with provisions.

"The late news from Salmon River seems to have given the gold fever
to everybody in this immediate neighborhood. A number of persons from
Florence City have arrived in this place during the week, and all bring
the most extravagant reports as to the richness of the mines. A report,
in relation to a rich strike made by Mr. Bridges of Oregon City, seems
to come well authenticated. The first day he worked on his claim (near
Baboon gulch) he took out fifty-seven ounces; the second day he took
out 157 ounces; third day, 214 ounces, and the fourth day, 200 ounces
in two hours. One gentleman informs us that diggings have been found
on the bars of Salmon River which yield from twenty-five cents to two
dollars and fifty cents to the pan, and that on claims in the Salmon
River, diggings have been found where "ounces" won't describe them,
and where they say the gulches are full of gold. The discoverer of
Baboon gulch arrived in this city yesterday, bringing with him sixty
pounds of gold dust, and Mr. Jacob Weiser is on his way with a mule
loaded with gold dust."

Within the year more than one and one-half millions of dollars in gold
dust had been shipped from the mining districts--a circumstance which
of itself was enough to create a widespread and infectious gold-fever.
Anticipating the rush for the mines in the year 1862, a great deal of
livestock had been brought to the Walla Walla country in the latter
part of 1861, while the demands for food products led many ranchers to
make provisions for raising greatly increased crops of grain and other
produce to meet the demands of the coming season.

The winter of 1861-2 was one of utmost severity, and its rigors
entailed a gigantic loss to residents throughout the eastern portion
of Washington Territory--a section practically isolated from all other
portions of the world for many weeks. It has been said that this "was
the severest winter known to the whites on the Pacific Coast." The
stock in the Walla Walla country perished by the thousands, the animals
being unable to secure feed and thus absolutely starving to death.
From December to March the entire country here was effectually hedged
in by the vast quantities of snow and the severely cold weather. Not
until March 22d do we find the statement in the local newspaper that
warm rains had set in and that the snow had commenced to disappear. One
result is shown in the further remark that "Occasionally the sun shines
out, when the sunny side of the street is lined with men." The loss of
stock in this section during that memorable winter was estimated at
fully one million dollars, hay having reached the phenomenal price of
$125 per ton, while flour commanded $25 per barrel in Walla Walla. It
may not be malapropos to quote a list of prices which obtained in the
Oro Fino mining region in December, 1861: bacon, fifty to sixty cents
per pound; flour, twenty-five to thirty dollars per 100 weight; beans,
twenty-five to thirty cents per pound; rice, forty to fifty cents per
pound; butter, seventy-five cents to one dollar; sugar, forty to fifty
cents; candles, eighty cents to one dollar per pound; tea, one dollar
and a quarter to one and a half per pound; tobacco, one dollar to one
and a half; coffee, 50 cents.

In view of subsequent gold excitements in Alaska, how familiarly will
read the following statements from the _Washington Statesman_ of
March 22, 1862: "From persons who have arrived here from The Dalles
during the week, we learn that there were some four thousand miners
in Portland fifteen days ago, awaiting the opening of navigation to
the upper country. Hundreds were arriving by every steamer, and the
town was literally filled to overflowing." Under date of April 5th,
the same paper gives the following pertinent information: "From one
hundred and thirty to one hundred and forty passengers, on their way
to the mines, come up to Wallula on every steamer, and the majority of
them foot it through to this place (Walla Walla)." By the last of May
it was estimated by some that between twenty-five and thirty thousand
persons had reached or were en route to the mining regions east of the
Cascades, but conservative men now in Walla Walla regard that a great
overestimate. The merchants of Walla Walla profited largely through the
patronage of the ever advancing column of prospectors and miners, but
the farmers did not fare so well, owing to the extreme devastations of
the severe winter just passed. Enough has been said to indicate the
causes which led to the rapid settlement and development of Eastern
Washington and Oregon--an advancement that might have taken many years
to accomplish had it not been for the discovery of gold in so romantic
a manner. The yield of gold reported through regular channels for the
year 1862 aggregated fully seven million dollars, and it is certain
that several millions were also sent out through mediums which gave no
record.

[Illustration: MULKEY APARTMENTS, WALLA WALLA]

In February, 1862, food products and merchandise commanded the
following prices at Florence: flour, $1 per pound; bacon, $1.25;
butter, $3; cheese, $1.50; lard, $1.25; sugar, $1.25; coffee, $2.00;
tea, $2.50; gum boots per pair, $30; shovels, from twelve to sixteen
dollars.

That year of 1861 was a great year in the annals of Walla Walla County.
Cattle drives, gold discovery, hard winter, Civil war! The last named
stupendous event was shared by the pioneer communities on the Walla
Walla and its tributary streams, but it affected them in a unique
manner. This was nothing less than the period of the Vigilantes. While
this organization was due to a variety of conditions, the state of
affairs which led to its existence grew out of the conflict of opinions
about the war. Yet it must be said that the character of population
that flowed into Walla Walla after the gold discoveries and the
establishment of the town as the leading outfitting place for the mines
was a suitable seed-bed for the growth of conditions which at sundry
times and places in the West have produced vigilance committees. This
peaceful and law-abiding "Garden City" of 1917, a center of homes and
educational institutions, conspicuous for morality, intelligence, and
comfort, was in the '60s about as "tough" a collection of human beings
as could be found. It was indeed a motley throng that poured in as
the mining excitement grew and spread. The best and the worst jostled
each other on the dusty and unsightly streets with their shacks and
tents and saloons and dance halls. Philanthropists and missionaries
and educators were represented by Revs. Eells, Spalding, Chamberlain,
Berry and Flinn, Father Wilbur, Bishop Scott, Father Yunger, and Bishop
Brouillet. Some of the noblest and most liberal-minded and honest of
business men, some of whom continue to this day, gave character and
standing to the commnunity and laid foundations upon which the goodly
superstructure of the present has been reared. We have but to call up
the names of Baker, Rees, Moore, Paine, O'Donnell, Whitman, Guichard,
Reynolds, Stone, Jacobs, Johnson, Isaacs, Sharpstein, Abbott, Reese,
Boyer, McMorris, Stine, Thomas, Drumheller, Painter, Ritz, Kyger,
Cole, and others too numerous to mention, among the business men of
that time, to know that the best was then in existence. Old timers
delight to tell how John F. Boyer was intrusted by miners with sacks
of gold-dust while they were gathering supplies and packing for new
ventures, with never a receipt or stroke of pen to bind him, yet never
a dream that he would fail to restore every ounce just as he received
it. But the men of this type, some with wives of the same high type
(though most of them were young men without families), were daily and
nightly jostled by the miscellaneous throng of gamblers, pickpockets,
highway robbers, hold-ups, and prostitutes who ordinarily fatten on the
gold-dust bags and belts of the miners assembled at their yearly supply
stations. Strange stories are told about the number and variety and
unique names and characters of the various "joints" in the Walla Walla
of the decade of the '60s. In some newspaper a few years ago appeared
an alleged reminiscence of a visitor to Walla Walla, in which he tells
of going to a saloon, in which the floor was covered with sawdust. That
was usual enough, but the odd thing was that each patron received with
his drink a whiskbroom. Puzzled as to the purpose of the latter, the
visitor waited for developments. He soon discovered that the whiskey
was so strenuous as to be pretty sure to induce a fit, and the use of
the broom was to sweep off a place on the dirty floor to have a fit on,
after which the refreshed and enlightened (?) patron of the place would
return the broom and proceed on his way.

Such were the mongrel conditions of life during the first years of the
Civil war. It is not surprising therefore, that such a juxtaposition
of forces should have caused a perfect carnival of crime, and that out
of it as a defence by the decent elements of the community should have
arisen the organization of the Vigilance Committee.

Two incidents prior to the formation of the Vigilantes indicate the
uneasy condition induced by the presence of the soldiers at the fort
and the considerable number of southern sympathizers in the community.
In the _Washington Statesman_ of April 19, 1862, we find an account
of a riot at the theater out of which a correspondence arose between
Mayor E. D. Whitman of Walla Walla and Col. Henry Lee, commander of the
post. This is also made the subject of editorial comment and from this
comment we glean the following paragraphs as showing the state of mind
at that time.

"We publish today an interesting correspondence between Mayor Whitman
and Lieut. Colonel Lee, growing out of the recent unfortunate affray at
the theater and the conduct of some of the soldiery since that event.
* * * On the part of the citizens who were engaged in the affray,
notwithstanding the fact that officers of the law had been suffered
to be stricken down and their authority contemned and boldly set at
defiance, we are satisfied they cherished no disposition to aggravate
the difficulty either by word or deed. Remaining within the limits of
the city, they have peaceably and quietly pursued their accustomed
business. Not so the soldiers. Cherishing unjustifiably an excited and
hostile disposition, they imitated the unwarrantable conduct of their
fellows on the night in question, by parading our streets with an armed
force, thus exhibiting a total and wanton disregard for law and civil
authorities. The mildest terms that can be applied to this procedure
must characterize it as a high-handed outrage upon the rights of the
people of this city, and a gross insult to the dignity and authority of
their laws."

The editorial proceeds to score Colonel Lee severely for his answer to
the protestations of Mayor Whitman. It appears in brief that a group
of soldiers had gone to the theater and made so much disturbance as to
nearly break up the program and in an attempt to put them out one of
the soldiers was killed. The next morning a band of from seventy-five
to one hundred soldiers came armed into the town and seized the sheriff
and took possession of the street. Colonel Lee, in his statement of
the case, disclaimed all responsibility and declared that the man who
killed the soldier was a notorious criminal named "Cherokee Bob." The
colonel sarcastically expresses surprise that the citizens of Walla
Walla did not take interest enough in the matter to have Cherokee Bob
arrested, and he states that he himself would heartily co-operate in
any attempt to enforce law and order. He says that he will answer
for the good conduct of the men under his command if the mayor will
do the same for the citizens of the town. He declares that his men
will not disturb the citizens if they are let alone. Mayor Whitman,
in responding to this, declares that the soldiers initiated all the
trouble by their incivility at the theater and that when an attempt was
made by the proper peace officers to enforce order the fracas ensued
in which three citizens, including two peace officers, were wounded,
one mortally, and one soldier was killed and one wounded. This seems
to have been the most serious affray in that part of the history of
the old town. It, like other events of the kind, seems to have been
mixed up somewhat with the war conditions of the country, a good many
of the people of the town being southern sympathizers and regarding the
soldiers as representatives of the National Government.

About a month later, another affray took place which is described as
follows in the columns of the _Statesman_:

"On last Saturday afternoon, while the convention for the nomination
for county officers was in session in this city, an affray occurred
between a soldier belonging to the garrison and a citizen named
Anderson residing some miles from this place in Oregon. Offensive words
were passed between them, when Anderson seized a stone and threw it
violently at the soldier, striking him on the head and felling him
prostrate to the ground. Citizens who witnessed the act denounce it
as unjustifiable and cowardly. The city marshal was present but for
reasons best known to himself did not arrest the offender. Anderson
was intoxicated and quarrelsome and should have been arrested. Another
officer of the law immediately issued a warrant, but in the meantime
Anderson had escaped. There was quite a gathering of soldiers present
who were aware of the above facts, some of whom even saw and read the
warrant. On the same evening an armed company of soldiers marched
through our streets, took possession of our city, and surrounded the
jail building in which the marshal was at the time attending to his
duties. They demanded his arrest and threatened to effect it before
they left the city. Shouts of "hang him," "He's a damn secessionist"
and other mob-like expressions were used. It was to all intents and
purposes a mob and the crowd were becoming excited and boisterous,
when Captain Curry approached the spot and succeeded, after a short
controversy, in getting them into line and marched them back to their
quarters. We understand Anderson has left for Salmon River. On Monday
morning the marshal tendered his resignation to the council, a meeting
of which body was immediately held and another officer appointed."

The editor proceeds to comment upon the fact that while the marshal
seems to have been grossly derelict in his duty, there was no reason
to charge the officers or the citizens of the town with being
secessionists and that the idea of conspiring against the garrison was
"all bosh." He charges that the soldiers were frequently drunk and
objects of danger to the people of the town.

It is interesting to notice that in the same issue of the _Statesman_,
June 28th, the regular Union ticket for the election to take place on
July 14th appears and has for its motto, "The Union Must and Shall be
Preserved."

It is evident from the _Statesman_ as well as from the recollections
of old-timers that there was a very strong secessionist influence in
Walla Walla at that time. The general attitude of the _Statesman_ is
interesting to the historian because it represents so large a class
of the citizens of the United States at that time. While the paper is
uncompromisingly for the Union, it is mortally afraid of the question
of emancipation and of anything like "nigger equality." Its tone toward
President Lincoln is rather critical and in several cases it charges
him with being swayed by abolitionists. As time went on the Union
sentiment became more and more pronounced. Mr. F. W. Paine gives us an
anecdote which shows the tension in the year 1863, as follows:

In 1863 Delazon Smith and Dave Logan were candidates respectively on
the democratic and republican tickets in Oregon for representative to
Congress. They met to speak in the vicinity of Milton, a commnunity
which at that time was intensely democratic. A number of Walla Walla
republicans, among whom were Mr. Paine and Charles Painter (and all
who knew Mr. Painter will recall that although one of the kindest of
men and best of neighbors, he was an intense republican and not at
all averse to fighting for his opinions) went to Milton to lend their
encouragement to the republican side. Reaching a sort of public house
in the vicinity, they waved a flag which they had taken along and
finally put it up on a corner of the building. The proprietor coming
out and discovering it, inquired of Mr. Paine if it were his, to which
Mr. Paine made answer that although the flag was not his, it had come
with the company of which he was a member, and he presumed it was the
intention to let it remain where they had put it until they were ready
to take it down themselves. The proprietor then demanded that it should
be taken down. The republicans replied that that flag would not go down
as long as there was a man left who had put it there. A fracas seemed
imminent and in fact began when the proprietor of the house, whose
valor seems to have been considerably of a spirituous nature, backed
out and the flag remained.

Besides the influence of divided politics, and the friction between
the soldiers and the citizens, besides all the general lawlessness
of that period of miners, cowboys, and Indians, there was a special
feature of the times which aided in leading to the formation of the
Vigilance Committee. This was the existence of organized bands of
thieves and cattle-rustlers all over the Northwest. The ramifications
of these groups of law-breakers extended from California to Montana and
Idaho. The recently published book by Ex-Governor W. J. McConnell of
Idaho, in regard to early times in the mines of Northern Idaho and the
Boise Basin, the Magruder murder, and the operations of the Vigilantes
in those sections, with many other similar incidents, gives a vivid
picture of the times of horse-thieves, cattle-thieves, and gold-dust
thieves. In fact, as it was an era of thieves and highwaymen of all
sorts, so it was also an era of vigilance committees over the same era
as a necessary defense against desperadoes. Judge Thomas H. Brents, as
his friends well knew, had a fund of hair-raising stories of his own
experiences as an express rider during that period. Another man well
known around Walla Walla and throughout Eastern Oregon as an express
rider during the same time was no less a person than Joaquin Miller,
"The Poet of the Sierras."

A number of incidents scattered through the columns of the _Statesman_
in 1863, 1864, 1865, indicate the kind of events which led directly to
the formation of the Vigilantes. For instance, in the issue of May 2,
1863, is an account of the discovery of about a hundred horses which
were cached away in a mountain valley at the head of the Grande Ronde
River. It was believed by those who discovered them that they had been
driven there by a bunch of "road agents" who had been hung at Lewiston
a few months before. In the issue of the _Statesman_ of June 20th of
the same year, there is an item about the recovery of seventeen stolen
horses on Coppei Creek near Waitsburg by a vigilance committee. In the
next number is an item to the effect that the same men that had stolen
the seventeen horses came back and ran away six more, and sent word
back that they had the horses on the north side of Snake River and they
dared the owners to come over for them. They said that there were seven
of them and they had three revolvers each and they would be glad to see
company. The farmers of Coppei organized a well armed force and crossed
the river. They discovered the horses and took possession of them, but
the vainglorious road agents were nowhere in sight.

In the _Statesman_ of April 14, 1865, we find the first definite
account of the operations of the Vigilantes. It appears that a certain
individual called "Dutch Louie" had been taken, according to his
account, from his bed by Vigilantes at the hour of midnight, and hanged
until he was nearly dead, in order to make him testify against someone
whom he did not want to name. It appears at the same time that there
was an anti-Vigilantes organization which took possession of another
man who was in the habit of coming to town and getting "d. d.," and
tried to compel him to give evidence against the Vigilantes. In the
next issue of the _Statesman_ there is an account of the pursuit of
cattle thieves who had run away sixty cattle from the Wild Horse Creek,
and had come to a halt on Mill Creek three miles above Walla Walla.
Mr. Jeffries followed them with a posse of citizens and found some of
the cattle, and according to the story one of the thieves was hung by
the Vigilantes, although the paper intimates that the story of the
hanging was without foundation. In the same issue there is an account
of Mr. Samuel Johnson (and he was well known for many years as one of
the prominent citizens of the Walla Walla country) having lost sixty
head of cattle out of his band and following them by a trail from the
Touchet to a point on the Columbia River sixty miles above Priest
Rapids. The same paper also has an item about the "skeedaddling" of
thieves, and it gives a suggestion that there is a point beyond which
endurance ceases to be a virtue, and that the farther these worthies
"skeedaddle" the less chance there will be of their being found some
morning dangling at a rope's end.

The _Statesman_ of April 21, 1865, contains an account of some regular
"hangings" by the vigilance committee. It seems that on the Sunday
morning previous, a man named McKenzie was found hanging to a limb near
the racetrack, which at that time was a short distance below town. It
appeared from reliable testimony that he was implicated in the theft
of the cattle stolen from Mr. Jeffries. During the same week, two men
named Isaac Reed and William Wills, were caught at Wallula, charged
with stealing horses, and they traveled the same road as McKenzie.
Before taking their final jump-off, they acknowledged that they were
members of a regular band who had a large number of stolen horses on
the Columbia somewhere above Wallula, and that there had just been a
fight among the members of the band, in which one had been killed.
During the same week the famous hanging of "Slim Jim" was consummated
from a tree which still stands in the southern part of town. He was
charged with having assisted "Six-toed Pete" and Waddingham to escape
from the county jail. The author of this work derived much of his
information in regard to the period of the Vigilantes from Richard
Bogle and Marshall Seeke, both well known for many years in Walla
Walla, now deceased, but all who were residents of the town during 1864
and 1865 are sufficiently familiar with the events of the time. They
do not, however, seem to be inclined to talk very much about it. The
general supposition is that the most prominent citizens of Walla Walla
were either actively or by their support concerned in the organization.
They had secret meetings and passed upon cases brought before them
with great promptness, but with every attempt to get at the essential
facts. In case they decided that the community would be better without
some given individual, that individual would receive an intimation to
that effect. In case he failed to act upon the suggestion within a few
hours, he was likely to be found adorning some tree in the vicinity
of the town the next morning. Although to modern ideas the Vigilantes
seem rather frightful members of the judiciary, yet it is doubtless
true that that swift and summary method of disposing of criminals was
necessary at that time and that as a result of it there was a new reign
of law and order.

The most famous of all the cases during that period, was that of Ferd
Patterson. This famous "bad man" had begun his career in Portland by
killing a captain in the Union army, as a result of an encounter which
took place in one of the principal saloons of that city. This man,
Captain Staple, lifted his glass and cried out, "I drink to the success
of the Union and the flag!" Patterson was a southerner and when all
the men about him lifted their glasses he threw his down exclaiming,
"The Union and the flag be damned!" The other men cried out to Captain
Staple, "Bring him back and make him drink!" The captain turned to
follow Patterson, who was upon the stairs, and at the instant a
revolver shot rang out and the captain fell with a bullet in his heart.
Patterson, however, was acquitted on the ground of self-defense. In
fact, like other professional "bad men," he was skilled in getting his
opponent to draw first and then with his great quickness he would send
a deadly shot before the opponent could pull his trigger. After several
similar instances, Patterson came to Walla Walla and was located for a
time at what is now called Bingham Springs. It was a station at that
time on the main stage line between The Dalles and Boise, and had a
good hotel, bath-house, and other conveniences for travelers. On a
certain day there appeared at Bingham Springs the sheriff of Boise,
whose name was Pinkham. Pinkham was a strong Union man and Patterson,
as we have seen, just the reverse; and the two parties at that time
were so well balanced that it was just a turn of the hand which would
hold supremacy. Meeting Patterson one day, as he was just emerging
from the bathing pool, Pinkham slapped him in the face. Patterson
said, "I am alone today without my gun, but one of these days I will
be fixed for you and settle this matter." Pinkham replied, "The sooner
the better." A few days after this, Patterson walked up and slapped
Pinkham. Both men drew their revolvers, but Patterson's shot took
effect first, and another man was added to his long score. The brief
item in respect to this Pinkham affray appears in the Walla Walla
_Statesman_ of July 28, 1865.

Some weeks passed by and Patterson came to Walla Walla where he was
supported mainly by various light-fingered arts and gambling games
in which he was an adept. It was considered by many that he was too
dangerous a man to have in the community, but it was a very difficult
matter to get any evidence against him. Very few dared to incur his
enmity. Finally, a man named Donnehue, who was a night watchman in
the town, took upon himself to try, convict, and execute the famous
gambler all in one set of operations. It appears from the account given
by Richard Bogle that between eight and nine o'clock on February 15,
1866, Patterson had entered his barber shop, which was then situated on
Main Street, between Third and Fourth, as it would be at the present
time. While the barber was engaged upon the countenance of the gambler,
Donnehue entered and stood for some little time watching the operation,
and just at the moment of completion of the combing of his hair, about
which the gambler was very particular, Donnehue suddenly stepped up and
shouted, "You kill me or I'll kill you." And at the same moment he let
fly a bullet from his revolver. Patterson, who was a man of magnificent
physique, although mortally wounded, did not fall but endeavored to
reach his own gun; and while doing so, and in fact having gotten out
upon the street, Donnehue emptied the revolver into the staggering form
of his antagonist. Patterson died within a few minutes and Donnehue was
arrested at once without resistance upon his part, and taken to jail.
He was never tried, but soon after left town, with his pockets lined
with gold dust, according to reports. It was generally supposed for
many years that the Vigilantes had passed upon Patterson's case and had
appointed Donnehue to execute their sentence in the only way that could
be done without loss of somebody else's life. We are informed, however,
by one of the most reliable old-timers in Walla Walla, a man still
living, that the Vigilantes did not pass upon Patterson's case and that
his death was pure murder on the part of Donnehue. However that may be,
there is no question but that the community drew a long sigh of relief
when it was known that Ferd Patterson had been retired from active
participation in its affairs. With the death of Patterson, and the
close of the Civil war, and still more as a result of the beginnings of
farming, it may be said that the era of the Vigilantes came to an end.
They gradually disbanded without anyone knowing exactly how or why, and
by degrees there came to be established an ever-growing reign of law
and order in Old Walla Walla.

As constituting a vivid narrative in the history of the Vigilantes,
we include here a historic sketch by Prof. Henry L. Tolkington of the
State Normal School of Idaho. It appeared in the _Lewiston Tribune_ of
August 19, 1917. It will constitute a part of a book now in preparation
by Professor Tolkington entitled "Heroes and Heroic Deeds of the
Pacific Northwest."

While the conclusion does not occur within the limits of Old Walla
Walla County, it is a part of the same story and is intensely
characteristic of those times.



CHAPTER III

POLITICAL HISTORY TO TIME OF COUNTY DIVISION


In previous chapters we have presented the facts in relation to the
first attempt at organization of Walla Walla County in 1854, prior to
the period of great Indian wars. We took up again the reorganization
and development in 1859 with the incoming of permanent population. We
also mentioned the first charter and the inauguration of permanent city
government. In the chapter dealing with the beginnings of industries we
showed the first locations at the different points which have become
the centers of population in the four counties.

It remains in this chapter to take up the thread with the growing
communities and the government over them which composed the old county
down to 1875, when Columbia County was created, embracing what are now
the three counties of Columbia, Garfield and Asotin, and thus reducing
Walla Walla County to its present limits. After that we shall trace the
story of the successive subtractions of Garfield from Columbia and then
Asotin from Garfield.

The authorities to which we have had recourse are first the county
records, so far as available; second, the files of the newspapers
covering the periods; third, Col. F. F. Gilbert's Historic Sketches,
published in 1882, to which frequent reference has been made and
which seems in general to be very reliable; and fourth, the memory
of pioneers still living or from whom data were secured prior to
their death. In respect to the public records it may be said that a
destructive fire on August 3, 1865, of which an account is given in
the _Statesman_ of the 4th, destroyed the records, though the more
important ordinances and other acts of city and county government had
appeared in the _Statesman_ and from that source were replaced.

The most important events in the political history were connected with,
first, the county, its legislative and local officers, and the chain of
circumstances going on to county divisions; second, the city government
and the movement of laws and policies through various reorganizations
to the present; and third, the place occupied by the old county in
relation to state and national affairs.

In the way of a general view of political conditions in the period from
the creation of county offices by the Legislature of the Territory on
January 19, 1859, through the period of war, it may be said that the
prevailing sentiment was at first strongly democratic. The majority of
the settlers in Old Oregon, from which had come a large proportion of
the earlier comers to Walla Walla, were from Missouri, Illinois, Iowa,
with quite a sprinkling from Tennessee and Kentucky and democratic
views preponderated in the sections from which the majority came. With
that strange inconsistency which has made American political history a
chaos for the philosopher and historian, that early democratic element
here and elsewhere was in general bitterly opposed to "abolitionists
and black republicans." While a great majority of them did not favor
slavery and to a considerable extent had left slave states to get
rid of it, yet they were mortally afraid of "nigger equality." When
the war broke out there was a considerable element that were carried
so far by their hatred of abolitionists that they even became rank
"Secesh." That, however, was a temporary sentiment. The feeling of
union and the preservation of an undivided nation gradually asserted
itself, and by the time the war was half through democrats as well as
republicans stood firmly on the platform of the maintenance of the
Union. One of the best expressions of that sentiment is found in the
resolutions of the democratic convention on May 23, 1863, reported
in the _Statesman_ of the 30th. We had these expressions: "That the
democracy are unalterably attached to the union of these states."
"That the right of secession is not reserved to the States." "That the
Federal Government has a right to maintain the constitution and enforce
the laws, if need be, by force of arms, and so far as the acts of the
present administration tend to these desirable ends, it has our cordial
support and no further." Then as an offset, the fourth resolution
declares: "That the democracy of Washington Territory view the declared
intention of such men as Horace Greeley and Charles Sumner--who desire
the prosecution of the present civil war for the abolition of slavery,
and who utterly scout the idea of any peace which is not founded on
the condition that the social fabric of the insurgent states is to be
totally uprooted--with abhorrence."

A good evidence of this is the inability of men brought up with certain
views and prejudices to grasp the logic of events. Then as since,
"there are none so blind as those that won't see." That sentiment was
also well shown in the continuance of the campaign of 1863, in which
Geo. E. Cole of Walla Walla was democratic candidate for Territorial
Delegate. An editorial in the _Statesman_ of June 5, 1863, commends
Mr. Cole as a Union man and a democrat. In the same issue appears the
resolutions of the Clarke County Democratic Convention which had been
adopted in substance by the territorial convention which nominated Mr.
Cole, and to which the democrats of Walla Walla pledged themselves at
a ratification meeting on July 11th. As showing the stamp of thought
prevailing at that time in the party, it is of interest to read these
resolutions:

"Resolved, That the democracy (of Clarke County) are for the Union,
and the whole Union, and in favor of the vigorous prosecution of the
efforts of the Government in crushing the present unholy and wicked
rebellion, when such efforts are not actuated by any other motives
than a single desire to maintain the honor and dignity of the nation
and enforcement of the laws. That we are opposed to the conclusion of
any peace involving in its terms the acknowledgment of the so-called
Southern Confederacy, and that we hereby pledge ourselves, come weal
or woe, in life and death, now and forever, to stand by and defend the
flag of our country in its hour of peril."

It is indeed one of the most significant evolutions in American
history; that of the gradual passing over from a support of slavery
by the larger part of the democratic party to a stage where they no
longer supported that "sum of all villainies" and yet had a profound
hatred of "abolitionists," to the point where they perceived that the
maintenance of the Union was the great essential, whether slavery
was lost or saved, and yet further to the point, which many reached,
of an unflinching support of Abraham Lincoln in his abolition as
well as Union policies. It is all an exhibition of the evolution of
nationalism, to which free labor is essential. And in that evolution,
the West has borne the larger part. The sentiment of state pride, the
local prejudices and narrow vision common in the older states and which
in the South became intertwined with slavery and produced economic and
political deformity and arrested development, was shuffled off when
people of East and North and South and Europe all joined to lay the
foundations of genuine American states in new regions unhampered and
undistorted by caste and prejudice. This state of affairs in the West
prepared the way for a new democracy, a national democracy, a genuine
democracy for all men. The transformation of Walla Walla politics
was simply a sample of a movement taking place all over the country.
As a result, during the decades of the sixties and seventies, many
former democrats, notably some who had been brought up in Missouri and
other slave states, finding the democratic party, as they thought,
still a laggard on progressive issues developed by the war and
reconstruction, left the party and joined the republicans. Doubtless
the _Statesman_ may be taken as a good exponent of the prevailing
democratic views in Walla Walla. It was strong for the Union, but was
horribly afraid of "abolitionists." When W. H. Newell acquired the
paper in November, 1865, he adopted the policy of supporting President
Johnson against Congress. The republican party steadily gained, and
in subsequent decades Walla Walla County, as all other parts of the
states of Washington and Oregon, became overwhelmingly republican. By
the progress of the same evolution, progressive politics have had a
powerful hold upon the people of these states, as well as of the entire
Pacific Coast, and the support given to democratic candidates, state
and national, in 1916, is a thoroughly logical development. The people
have been consistent, though party names have not.

One of the interesting facts not generally realized is that Walla Walla
County in the sixties contained so large a part of the population of
the territory. In the _Statesman_ of December 30, 1864, we find a
report from Edwin Eells, enrolling officer of the county, in which it
appears that the draft enrollment in Walla Walla County was 1,133,
while in the entire territory it was 4,143.

A few figures at various times in the sixties will be found of interest.

The vote for Territorial Delegate in 1863 by counties was as follows,
as given in the _Statesman_ of August 22:

           GEORGE E. COLE,  J. O. RAYNOR,
              DEMOCRAT       REPUBLICAN

  Chehalis            22               21
  Clallam             45               27
  Clarke             173              100
  Clickitat           25               37
  Cowlitz             39               57
  Island              72               31
  Jefferson          148              120
  King                68               93
  Kitsap             130               99
  Lewis               63               77
  Pacific             11               90
  Pierce              95              106
  Sawamish            36               19
  Skamania            48               35
  Snohomish           35               30
  Spokane             56               12
  Thurston           132              171
  Wakiakum           ...               12
  Walla Walla        398              140
  Whatcom             32               56
                    ----             ----
  Total            1,628            1,333

A few figures at various times in the sixties will be found of
interest. In the county election of June, 1864, we find the following
vote by precincts:

  PRECINCT  DEMOCRATIC  REPUBLICAN

  Walla Walla          287              149
  Lower Touchet         11               33
  Upper Touchet         41               49
  Snake River            2                7
  Wallula                1               12
  Pataha                 2               10
                      ----             ----
  Total                344              260

The _Statesman_ of September 9, 1864, says that nine-tenths of the
immigrants coming in at that time were Democrats.

That claim was not quite realized, however, in the election of June 5,
1865, for the republican candidate for Territorial Delegate, Arthur A.
Denny, received 336, while the democrat, James Tilton, had 406.

Though the population was small and scattered there were many
intricacies involving county and city politics. Into those details we
cannot go. Doubtless some of them would best rest in oblivion.

We incorporate here, as valuable for reference, the list of legislative
choices and of the chief county officers beginning with 1863 and
extending through all elections prior to county division in 1875.

1863

Daniel Stewart, joint councilman; S. W. Babcock, F. P. Dugan, L. S.
Rogers, representatives; W. S. Gilliam, sheriff; L. J. Rector, auditor;
C. Leyde, assessor.

1864

J. H. Lasater, attorney; Alvin Flanders, joint representative; A. L.
Brown, F. P. Dugan, E. L. Bridges, representatives; W. G. Langford,
councilman; J. H. Blewett, probate judge; James McAuliff, treasurer;
W. H. Patton, assessor; Charles White, surveyor; H. D. O'Bryant,
commissioner; A. J. Theboda, coroner.

1866

B. L. Sharpstein, councilman; D. M. Jessee, R. Jacobs, R. R. Rees, H.
D. O'Bryant, T. P. Page, representatives; James McAuliff, treasurer; H.
M. Hodgis, assessor; W. G. Langford, superintendent of schools; T. G.
Lee and H. A. Livingston, commissioners.

1868

W. H. Newell, councilman; J. M. Vansycle, joint councilman; W.
P. Horton, E. Ping, J. M. Lamb, P. B. Johnson, B. F. Regan,
representatives; H. M. Chase, probate judge; A. Seitel, sheriff; J.
H. Blewett, auditor; J. D. Cook, treasurer; C. Ireland, assessor; C.
Eells, superintendent of schools; S. M. Wait, W. T. Barnes, and A. H.
Reynolds, commissioners.

1870

Daniel Stewart, councilman; N. T. Bryant, joint councilman; D.
Ashpaugh, J. H. Lasater, John Scott, A. G. Lloyd, E. Ping, T. W.
Whetstone, representatives; N. T. Caton, attorney; R. Guichard, probate
judge; James McAuliff, sheriff; H. M. Chase, auditor; A. Kyger,
treasurer; A. C. Wellman, assessor; J. L. Reser, superintendent of
schools; C. C. Cram, Francis Lowden, I. T. Reese, commissioners.

1872

Fred Stine, councilman; C. H. Montgomery, joint councilman; N. T.
Caton, O. P. Lacy, E. Ping, C. L. Bush, John Bryant, and H. M. Hodgis,
representatives; I. Hargrove, probate judge; B. W. Griffin, sheriff; R.
Jacobs, auditor; R. R. Rees, treasurer; W. F. Gwynn, assessor; A. W.
Sweeney, superintendent of schools; D. M. Jessee, W. P. Bruce, and S.
L. King, commissioners.

1874

E. Ping, councilman; W. W. Boon, joint councilman; R. G. Newland, J.
B. Shrum, P. M. Lynch, John Scott, A. G. Lloyd, and H. M. Hodgis,
representatives; T. J. Anders, attorney; R. Guichard, probate judge;
G. F. Thomas, sheriff; R. Jacobs, auditor; R. R. Rees, treasurer; S.
Jacobs, assessor; A. W. Sweeney, superintendent of schools; Charles
White, C. S. Bush, C. C. Cram, commissioners.

This was the last election prior to county division. The elections
after that event will appear in chapter one of part three.

In the early times they seem to have had a frank and outspoken and
energetic manner of writing about each other, and the inference is
plain that they talked in a similar way. Each man had ready access to
his hip pocket, and was commonly qualified to support his views by
force of arms when necessary. We find as a sample a discussion between
Sheriff E. B. Whitman and certain critics in the _Statesman_ of May 30
and June 13, 1863. It pertains to the arrest of one Bunton. An address
signed by sixty-nine residents of the Coppei appears in the earlier
issue. In it is charged that a flagrant and wilful murder had been
committed by William Bunton on the person of Daniel S. Cogsdill and
that Sheriff Whitman made no effort to arrest Bunton, and when, at the
instance of citizens, Deputy Hodgis arrested Bunton, and delivered him
to Whitman that the latter was too merciful to the prisoner to put him
in jail; "but at the request of Bunton put him in charge of a lame or
a crippled man, with, as we believe, the intention of his escape."
They therefore declare that they have no protection when the high and
responsible office of sheriff is filled by the friends of murderers and
thieves. They therefore recommend that the commissioners should remove
said Whitman and appoint "Deputy Hodgis or some other good man."

Sheriff Whitman makes in reply a lengthy and moderate explanation, the
main point of which was that the county jail was so insecure that by
the advice of Judge Wyche he put Bunton in the hands of J. O. Putman,
one of the signers of the above statement, and that after some trouble
Bunton got away. In the issue of June 13, the citizens returned to
the attack with renewed energy, and this brought from Mr. Whitman a
vitriolic response. He begins: "Editor _Statesman_: As your columns
seem to be at the disposal of parties who may wish to belch forth
personal slander, persecution, malignity, and falsehood, it is but
just that the party vilified should have the opportunity of replying
through the same medium. Upon reading the article, dated at Coppei, I
thought I would let the matter rest upon its own merits, as the style
and manner in which it is written shows that it originated from a
vindictive, mischievous, and depraved appetite for notoriety, which at
times controls men of depraved tastes." Among the sixty-nine signers of
the document were some who were, as also Sheriff Whitman himself was,
among the most worthy of the foundation builders, and who now all rest
in honored graves. We are giving the incidents here as a historical
curiosity, and as showing how men's minds were keyed up in those days
of war and vigilantes to a high pitch.


EFFORT TO ANNEX WALLA WALLA COUNTY TO OREGON

One of the most exciting political questions of the sixties was that of
annexation of Walla Walla County to Oregon. We find in the _Statesman_
of October 20, 1865, a report of a mass meeting of October 18, at
which resolutions were passed advocating the annexation and inviting
the people of Oregon, through their Legislature, to unite in the
movement, and also calling on the representatives and senators from
Oregon and the Territorial Delegate, A. A. Denny, to use all honorable
means to induce Congress to take that action. They mention, which is
historically interesting, that the people of Oregon in accepting their
Constitution had done so with the understanding that the line should
follow the natural boundary of the Columbia and Snake rivers. The
convention also censured Judge J. E. Wyche, judge of the First Judicial
District of Washington Territory, located at Walla Walla. The committee
composing the resolutions consisted of J. H. Lasater, A. Kyger, and
Drury Davis. J. H. Blewett introduced a resolution calling on President
Johnson to remove Judge Wyche. The resolution was lost. A committee
consisting of A. J. Cain, A. L. Brown, and H. P. Isaacs was appointed
to draft petitions, one to Congress and the other to the Oregon
Legislature, looking to the execution of the plan.

In the same issue of the _Statesman_ a call appears for a meeting to
"take such steps as they may deem proper to frustrate the designs of
those who would saddle upon the people of this county a proportion
of the debt of the bankrupt State of Oregon, with her peculiar
institutions."

It is asserted that Anderson Cox was the prime mover in the
annexation project, though his name does not appear in the report
in the _Statesman_. The Oregon Legislature was nothing loth to add
this desirable section to the limits of the mother state and duly
memorialized Congress to that effect. Years passed by, and in 1875,
just after county division had been effected, Senator J. K. Kelly of
Oregon introduced a bill providing for the submission of the question
to the people of Walla Walla and Columbia counties. This bill failed,
as did also one to the same effect in the House by Representative
LaFayette Lane of Oregon. The failure of the annexation plan produced
additional activity in projects looking to statehood. There was during
that period (and it has not entirely ceased to this day) a good deal of
friction between the Walla Walla section and the Puget Sound section.
The former had early commercial and political relations with Portland
of a far more intimate nature than with the Sound. The majority of the
leading business men were from Oregon. The common feeling was that the
Sound was very selfish and narrow in its dealings with the eastern
section, desiring its connection mainly for taxation purposes. It was
largely from that feeling that annexation projects arose. The Sound, on
the other hand, had accused the Walla Walla section of being disloyal
to the state and seeking local advantage. Opposition in the territory
therefore delayed action. According to statements made by Hollon Parker
to the author a number of years ago, he himself made a special trip to
Washington to head off the movement. At any rate, it was never carried.
Walla Walla County had at the time of the presidential election of 1876
a sufficient majority of Democrats to have toppled the slight scale by
which Hayes held the presidency over Tilden, and if the county had been
in Oregon Tilden would have had a majority and the Electoral Commission
would never have been created, and quite a section of national history
would have had another version.

In 1865 the Territorial Delegate was Arthur Denny of Seattle. The
Statesman refers to him as the "Abolition Candidate." Passing on to
1867 we find national, state, and local affairs of a very strenuous
nature. Perhaps the insertion here of extracts from a book written
by the author sometime ago will convey a clear view of the course of
events in the elections of 1867 and 1869.


POLITICAL REVIEW

A review of the political situation in 1867 shows that there was an
extraordinary interest and activity in the ranks of both the democrats
and the republicans. The principal point of contest and interest was
in the selection of a delegate to Congress, each party having a number
of aspirants for the important office. The people east of the Cascades
felt that they were entitled to have a candidate selected from their
section of the territory, inasmuch as the honor had hitherto gone
to a resident of the Sound country. From the eastern section of the
territory were five democrats and two republicans whose names were
prominently mentioned in this connection, and while the republican
convention for Walla Walla County sent an uninstructed delegate to the
territorial convention, a vigorous effort had been made in favor of
the candidacy of Judge J. E. Wyche. At the county democratic convention
the delegates chosen were instructed to give their support to W. G.
Langford, of Walla Walla, so long as seemed expedient. They were also
instructed to deny their support to any candidate who endorsed in
any degree the project of annexing Walla Walla County to Oregon. In
the territorial convention Frank Clark of Pierce County received the
nomination of the democracy for the office of congressional delegate,
the balloting in the convention having been close and spirited.
The republican territorial convention succeeded in running in the
proverbial "dark horse," in the person of Alvin Flanders, a Walla
Walla merchant, who was made the nominee, defeating three very strong
candidates.

Owing to the agitation of the Vigilance question, referring to
diverging opinions of the citizens as to the proper method of
administering justice, the politics of the county were in a peculiarly
disrupted and disorganized condition, and the Vigilance issue had
an unmistakable influence on the election, as was shown by the many
peculiarities which were brought to light when the returns were
fully in. The democrats of the county were particularly desirous of
electing certain of their county candidates, and it is stated that
the republicans were able to divert many democratic votes to their
candidate for delegate to Congress by trading votes with democrats
and pledging their support to local democratic candidates. The fact
that such bartering took place is assured, for while the returns gave
a democratic majority of about two hundred and fifty in Walla Walla
County for all other officers, the delegate received a majority of only
124. This action on the part of the Walla Walla democrats secured the
election of the republican candidate, whose majority in the territory
was only ninety-six.

The result of the election in the county, held on the 3d of June,
was as follows: Frank Clark, the democratic candidate for delegate,
received 606 votes, and Alvin Flanders, republican, 482 votes. The
other officers elected were as follows: Prosecuting attorney, F. P.
Dugan; councilman, W. H. Newell; joint councilman (Walla Walla and
Stevens counties), J. M. Vansycle; representatives, W. P. Horton, E.
Ping, J. M. Lamb, P. B. Johnson and B. F. Regan; probate judge, H. M.
Chase; sheriff, A. Seitel; auditor, J. H. Blewett; treasurer, J. D.
Cook; assessor, C. Ireland; surveyor, W. L. Gaston; superintendent of
schools, C. Eells; coroner, L. H. Goodwin; county commissioners, S. M.
Wait, D. M. Jessee (evidently an error in returns, as W. T. Barnes, a
democrat, was elected), and A. H. Reynolds.

The sheriff resigned on November 7, 1868, and on the same day James
McAuliff was appointed to fill the vacancy. A. H. Reynolds resigned
as commissioner, in May, 1869, Dr. D. S. Baker being appointed as his
successor. Of the successful candidates noted in the above list, all
were democrats except P. B. Johnson, J. D. Cook, C. Eells, S. M. Wait
and A. H. Reynolds.

Again in this year was there to be chosen a delegate to Congress, and
the democracy of Walla Walla County instructed their delegates to the
territorial convention to insist upon the nomination of a candidate
resident east of the Cascade Range--the same desideratum that had been
sought at the last preceding election. In the convention F. P. Dugan,
J. D. Mix, B. L. Sharsptein and W. H. Newell, of Walla Walla, were
balloted for, but the nomination went to Marshall F. Moore, ex-governor
of the territory.

The republican nomination was secured by Selucius Garfielde,
surveyor-general of the territory. The names of two of Walla Walla
County's citizens were presented before the convention, Dr. D. S. Baker
and Anderson Cox. The nomination of Garfielde proved unsatisfactory
to many of the party adherents and dissention was rampant. The
disaffection became so intense in nature that a number of the most
prominent men in the party ranks did not hesitate to append their
signatures to a circular addressed to the "downfallen republican
party," said document bearing fifty signatures in all. On the list
appeared the name of the delegate in Congress and the chief justice
of the territory. The circular called for a radical reorganization of
the party, charged fraudulent action in the convention and made many
sweeping assertions. This action provoked a strong protest, and the
disaffected contingent did not nominate a ticket of their own, and Mr.
Garfielde was elected by a majority of 132. He received in Walla Walla
County 384 votes, while his opponent, Mr. Moore, received 740.

According to all data available, the political pot boiled furiously
throughout the territory as the hour of election approached. Lack
of harmony was manifest in both parties, and, as before, the chief
interest centered in the election of a delegate to represent the
territory in the Federal Congress. Those office-holders who were most
vigorously protestant and visibly disaffected were summarily removed
from office in January of this year by the President of the United
States, this action having been recommended by the congressional
delegate, Mr. Garfielde, who thus drew upon himself still greater
dislike and opposition. A change in the existing laws made it necessary
to elect a delegate again this year, and a strong attempt was made
to defeat Mr. Garfielde, who was confident of being returned to
office. There could be no reconciliation of the warring elements in
the republican party. The republican territorial convention of 1869
had appointed an executive committee, whose personnel was as follows:
Edward Eldridge, M. S. Drew, L. Farnsworth, P. D. Moore, B. F. Stone,
Henry Cook and J. D. Cook. In February a circular was issued by Messrs.
S. D. Howe, A. A. Manning, Ezra Meeker, G. A. Meigs, A. A. Denny and
John E. Burns, who claimed to have constituted the executive committee.
The convention as called by the regular committee met in April and
renominated Mr. Garfielde. The recalcitrant faction presented the name
of Marshall Blinn in the convention, the bolters not being strong
enough to hold a separate convention, but hoping to gain sufficient
votes to prevent the nomination of Garfielde.

The democratic convention was far more harmonious, the nomination
going to Judge J. D. Mix, one of the most honored citizens of Walla
Walla, and one enjoying a wide acquaintance throughout the territory.
The campaign developed considerable acrimony between the factions of
the republican party, but the results of the election showed that the
disaffected wing gained but slight popular endorsement. Six thousand
three hundred and fifty-seven votes were cast in this election,
representing a gain of 1,300 over the preceding year. Garfielde was
elected, securing a majority of 736 over Mix, the total vote for
Blinn being only 155. Upon the question of holding a constitutional
convention there were 1,109 votes cast in opposition, and 974 in favor.

[Illustration: RESIDENCE OF FATHER VAN DE VEN, WALLA WALLA]

[Illustration: ST. MARY'S HOSPITAL, WALLA WALLA]

By reason of the change in the law the county election also was held
a year earlier than usual, occurring June 6, 1870. The democracy
was victorious in the county, electing their entire ticket with the
exception of superintendent of schools. For delegate James D. Mix
received in his home county 670 votes, while Selucius Garfielde
had 527. The officers elected in the county were as follows:
Prosecuting attorney, N. T. Caton; councilman, Daniel Stewart; joint
councilman (Walla Walla, Stevens and Yakima counties), N. T. Bryant;
representatives, David Aspaugh, James H. Lasater, John Scott, A. G.
Lloyd, Elisha Ping and T. W. Whetstone; probate judge, R. Guichard;
sheriff, James McAuliff; auditor, H. M. Chase; treasurer, A. Kyger;
assessor, A. C. Wellman; surveyor, A. H. Simmons (he was succeeded
by Charles A. White, who was appointed to the office May 1, 1871);
school superintendent, J. L. Reser; coroner, L. H. Goodwin; county
commissioners, C. C. Cram, F. Louden and I. T. Rees.

The officials elected in the county this year did not assume their
respective positions until the succeeding year. The officers elected
in the preceding year had been chosen for a term of two years, and
they contended that the change in the law of the territory which made
it necessary to hold the election in 1870, instead of 1871, did not
invalidate their right to hold office until the expiration of their
regular term. The matter was brought into the courts for adjudication,
in a test case, the prosecuting attorney-elect against the incumbent
of the office at the time of the last election. In July James W.
Kennedy, judge of the first district, rendered a decision in favor of
the defendant, holding that officers elected in 1869 retained their
positions until 1871, thus reducing the term of the officials last
elected to one year.


COUNTY COURTHOUSE

One of the burning questions at all times in political life has been
the County Courthouse. As the county dedicated its first courthouse
in the year 1867, it is incumbent that we make a brief reference to
the same at this juncture. As early as 1864, the grand jury had made
a report on this matter, and from said document we make the following
pertinent extracts: "We, the grand jury, find that it is the duty of
the county commissioners to furnish offices for the different county
officers. This we find they have not done. Today the offices of the
officers are in one place, tomorrow in another, and we hope at the
next meeting of the board of county commissioners that they will, for
the sake of the integrity of Walla Walla County, furnish the different
county officers with good offices." Notwithstanding this merited
reproof, no action of a definite character was taken by the board of
commissioners until a meeting of March 11, 1867, when it was voted to
purchase of S. Linkton a building on the corner of Alder and Third
streets, the same to be paid for in thirty monthly installments of $100
each. A further expenditure of $500 was made in fitting up the building
for the use of the county, and thus Walla Walla County was able to
hold up a dignified head and note with approval her first courthouse.
That the structure was altogether unpretentious and devoid of all
architectural beauty it is perhaps needless to say. The executives of
the county were at least provided with a local habitation.

Though the housing of the county was a lame affair a number of years
passed before there was any permanent action. During nearly all
elections from 1869 on we find a vote on two general questions: a
constitutional convention and a courthouse. In 1869 there was a vote of
24 for, and 286 against a constitutional convention.

The interval of elections was changed following the election of 1869,
so that the next occurred on June 6, 1870. That of 1872 took place on
November 5th.

In August, 1870, the City Council deeded to the county the block of
land on Main Street on which the permanent courthouse was built. In the
election of 1872 the vote in favor of building a courthouse was 815 to
603. A vote, as usual, was taken on constitutional convention, with the
result of 57 affirmative and 809 negative.

Since the majority had expressed their desire for a courthouse the
commissioners in February, 1873, set on foot the arrangements for
plans, and those presented by T. P. Allen were accepted. These called
for a brick structure with stone foundation, two stories, dome,
main part with an ell. Meanwhile various schemes for inducing the
commissioners to locate farther from the center of town by offering
land, with a view to enhancing the values of land adjoining, were
under consideration. After having turned down several such plans and
pronounced in favor of the block donated by the city, the commissioners
rather suddenly changed their decision and accepted four blocks between
Second and Fourth streets, a quarter mile north of Main Street. A
first-class ruction arose over this decision. Changes were made in the
plans also, by which the building was reduced in size and dignity.
Finally, as Gilbert says, with some degree of keenness, "the last act,
and under the circumstances, the most judicious one, was not to erect
the building at all."

After this the courthouse plans rested awhile, and no action was taken
until after county division. The question of constitutional convention,
however, kept pegging away, and in the election of 1874, the result was
similar to that of previous elections, 24 for, and 236 against.

It will be found of value to incorporate here the list of Territorial
Delegates and Governors. Walla Walla was well represented in the list,
both before and after county division, as also both before and after
statehood.


TERRITORIAL DELEGATES

  1857--I. I. Stevens, democrat.
  1859--I. I. Stevens, democrat.
  1861--W. H. Wallace, republican.
  1863--George E. Cole, democrat--from Walla Walla.
  1865--A. A. Denny, union.
  1867--Alvin Flanders, union--from Walla Walla.
  1869--Selucius Garfielde, republican; J. D. Mix, of Walla Walla,
    democratic candidate.
  1870--Selucius Garfielde, republican.
  1872--O. B. McFadden, democrat.
  1874--Orange Jacobs, republican; B. L. Sharpstein, democratic
    candidate, Walla Walla.

The next election came in 1876 and there was a considerable falling
off in the vote on account of county division in the previous year. It
may be worth noting that the total vote of Walla Walla County in each
election was as follows: 1857, 39; 1859, 164; 1861, 361; 1863, 590;
1865, 742; 1867, 1,088; 1869, 1,124; 1870, 1,201; 1872, 1,555; 1874,
1,549.

In the election of 1876, the total vote was 938. It is also interesting
to note that in every single election up to the time of county
division and in fact to 1878, when T. H. Brents of Walla Walla was the
candidate, the county went democratic, and that, as we shall see later,
the republicans carried most elections after that date to the present
time.


TERRITORIAL GOVERNORS

  1853-6--I. I. Stevens.
  1857-8--Fayette McMullan.
  1859-60--W. H. Wallace.
  1862-5--William Pickering.
  1866-7--George E. Cole.
  1867-8--Marshall F. Moore.
  1869-70--Alvin Flanders.
  1870-2--E. S. Salamon.
  1873-9--E. P. Ferry.

Three of the above incumbents of the gubernatorial chair were Walla
Walla men: Cole, Flanders, and Salamon.

In 1869 Philip Ritz of Walla Walla was United States Marshal. S. C.
Wingard, for many years one of the most honored of the citizens of
Walla Walla, was United States attorney in 1873, and associate justice
in 1875-82. After his long service under the Federal Government he made
his home in Walla Walla until his death at an advanced age.


WALLA WALLA CITY

Turning now from the county and its relations to the territorial and
national Government, to Walla Walla City, we may for the sake of
topical clearness repeat a little of what was given in earlier chapters.

By act of the Legislature of January 11, 1862, Walla Walla became an
incorporated city, with the limits of the south half of the southwest
quarter of section 20, township 7 north, range 36 east. The charter
provided for the election, on the first Tuesday of each April, of a
mayor, recorder, five councilmen, marshal, assessor, treasurer and
surveyor. All vacancies were to be filled by appointment of councilmen,
except mayor and recorder. The council also had the power to appoint a
clerk and attorney.

The first election under the charter occurred on the first day
of April, 1862, at which election the total vote was 422. In the
_Statesman_ of April 5 there is a criticism in rather mild and
apologetic terms for the loose and careless manner in which the judges
allowed voting. The assertion is made that men who were well known
to reside miles out of the city were allowed to vote. Not over three
hundred voters, according to the paper, were bona fide residents. A
well considered warning is made that such a beginning of city elections
will result in a general illegal voting and ballot-box stuffing. In the
_Statesma_n of April 12 is a report of the first council meeting on
April 4. At this first meeting the votes of the election of the first
were canvassed, showing that out of the 422 votes, E. B. Whitman had
received 416. The recorder chosen was W. P. Horton, whose vote was 239
against 173 for W. W. Lacy. The councilmen chosen, whose votes ran from
400 to 415, were I. T. Rees, J. F. Abbott, R. Jacobs, B. F. Stone and
B. Sheideman.

George H. Porter was chosen marshal by a vote of 269, with 136 for A.
Seitel and 17 for A. J. Miner. E. E. Kelly was the choice for treasurer
by the small margin of 219 to 200 for D. S. Baker. The assessor was L.
W. Greenwell by 413 votes. A. L. Chapman was chosen surveyor by 305
against 119 for W. W. Johnson. S. F. Ledyard was appointed clerk by the
council, B. F. Stone was chosen president of the council at the meeting
of April 10.

One of the first questions which the council had to wrestle with, as it
has been most of the time since, was revenue and the sources thereof.
The saloon business being apparently the most active of any at that
time became very naturally the foundation of the revenue system. People
supposed then, as many have since, that they could lift themselves by
their boot straps and that a traffic which cost a dollar for every
dime that it brought into the treasury was essential to the life of
the town. However, a "dry town" at that day and age and in a place
whose chief business was outfitting for the mines and serving as a
home for miners off duty, would have been so amazing that the very
thought would have been sufficient to warrant an immediate commitment
for lunacy. If the spirits of the city authorities and citizens of
that date could return and see the Walla Walla of 1917, with not a
legal drop of intoxicating fluid, it is safe to say that "amazement"
would but feebly express their mental state. According to the revenue
ordinance of that first council, a tax was to produce about a third,
and licenses and fines the remainder of the city income. During the
first six months the total revenue was $4,283.25, and the licensing of
liquor sales and gambling tables amounted to $1,875. Tax amounted to
about $1,430. The rest of the revenue was from fines. We may note here
by way of comparison that in 1866 the city revenue was $15,358.97, of
which $9,135.13 was from licenses.

The year of 1862 was one of great activity. A. J. Cain laid out
his addition, though the plat was not recorded till the next year.
The _Statesman_ of October 18th gives a glowing account of the
improvements, stating that fifty buildings had been completed during
the summer and that thirty more were in progress of construction. Most
of these were no doubt flimsy wooden structures, but it is mentioned
that the buildings of Schwabacher Brothers and Brown Brothers & Co.
had been nearly completed. At the head of Second Street A. J. Miner
was erecting a planing mill, and a sash and door factory. Beyond the
city limits Mr. Meyer had put up a brewery (this afterwards developed
into the Stahl brewery on Second Street). In Cain's addition, where
there had been only eight houses, the number was more than doubled.
As a matter of fact, though there was much improvement at that time,
our fair City of Walla Walla of the present, with its elegant homes
and trees and flowers and broad verdant lawns, with paved streets and
bountiful water supply, would not recognize the ragged, dusty, dirty,
little shack of a town of which the _Statesman_ was so proud in 1862.
The ease with which the people of that time have adjusted themselves to
all the conveniences and elegancies of the present day, shows something
of the infinite adaptability of human nature, and still more it shows
that the foundation builders of the pioneer days had it in them to
create all the improvements of later days. Raw as Walla Walla must have
looked in the '60s, the essential conditions were there which have made
our later age; rich soil, water, good surrounding country, industry,
taste, brains, home spirit, good citizenship--and a certain reasonable
amount of time. There we have all the elements that wrought between the
Walla Walla of 1862 and that of 1917.

[Illustration: Courtesy of F. W. Paine

WALLA WALLA IN 1866]

Early Walla Walla had the usual experience with fires, such occurring
on June 11, 1862; May 8, 1864; August 3, 1865; and July 4, 1866. As
a result of the first, Joseph Hellmuth undertook to organize a fire
department. His public spirit was not very cordially supported, but
subscriptions to the amount of $1,600 were received, and by advancing
$500 himself, he secured an old Hunneman "tub" engine.

The most destructive of these early fires was that of August 3, 1865.
The _Statesman_ of August 4th gives a full account of it, estimating
the loss so far as obtained at that time at $164,500. The paper adds
$20,000 for loss not then reported. The heaviest losses were sustained
by the Dry Goods Company of S. Elias & Brother, by the store and
warehouse of C. Jacobs & Co., and by the Bank Exchange Saloon and
dwelling house of W. J. Ferry. The building used for courthouse, with
the county and city records, was destroyed. In 1863, a fire company was
organized, Fred Stine being the leader in the enterprise.

Perhaps the most vital feature of a growing city is pure and abundant
water supply. Walla Walla was fortunate in early days in the presence
of a number of springs of pure cold water. But though that supply was
abundant for a small place, increasing demands made some system of
distribution imperative. There was also need for sufficient pressure
for fire defense.

While the water system was at first a private enterprise, it became
public property in due course of time, and hence it is suitable to
begin the story in this chapter.

In 1866 and 1867 four of the most energetic citizens of the town took
the initial steps in providing a system of water distribution. H. P.
Isaacs, J. C. Isaacs, A. Kyger and J. D. Cook obtained a charter in
1866 and the next year established at a point near the present Armory
Hall a plant consisting of a pump, a large tank, and a supply of wooden
pipe. It almost makes one's bones ache in these effete days to think
of the amount of labor which the pipes for that pioneer water system
demanded. The pipe consisted of logs bored lengthwise with augurs by
hand. It would not comport with the dignity of a historical work to
suggest that the whole proceeding was a "great bore," but it was duly
accomplished and the pipes laid. Water was derived from Mill Creek,
but the system seems to have been somewhat unsatisfactory to the
projectors, and Mr. Isaacs entered upon a much larger undertaking, that
of establishing reservoirs in the upper part of town. It was not until
after the date of county division that the reservoir system was fully
installed. In 1877 the reservoirs were built on both sides of Mill
Creek, one on what is now the property of the Odd Fellows Home and the
other in the City Park. These reservoirs were filled from the large
springs and for some years supplied the needs of the town. Mr. Isaacs
is deserving of great praise for his unflagging energy in endeavoring
to meet that primary need of the town. The corporate name of Mr.
Isaacs' enterprise was the Walla Walla Water Company. The controlling
ownership was ultimately acquired by the interests represented by the
Baker-Boyer Bank, and Mr. H. H. Turner became secretary and manager.
That, however, was long subsequent to county division and the further
history of the water system belongs to another chapter.

We perhaps should interject at this point the explanation that although
chapters preceding this have been carried to the present date, we are
bringing the political history of the city to the stage of county
division only in order to harmonize with that of the county, and that
point in case of the county constitutes a natural stage by reason
of the marked change in all political connections occasioned by the
division.

Among miscellaneous events having political connections may be
mentioned that omnipresent and usually disturbing question of the
fort. We have earlier spoken of its first location at the point now
occupied by the American Theater, right in the heart of the city,
and its removal in 1857 to the present location. It was maintained
at full strength until the close of the Indian wars and then during
the period of the Civil war there was a full supply of men and
equipment. At times, as already narrated in an earlier chapter, there
was much friction between civilians and the military. The merchants
and saloon-keepers, however, considered the presence of the Fort very
desirable from a pecuniary standpoint. There were in those early days,
as there have been more recently, an element in the city that attached
an exaggerated importance to the presence of the soldiers as a business
matter, while there was also another sentiment which became the most
persistent and inherited one in the history of the town; that is, the
sentiment that while the officers and their families composed the
social elite, the common soldiers were taboo. This was perhaps the
nearest to a caste system ever known in the free and unconventional
society of Old Walla Walla. Between those two viewpoints, the business
and the social, there was the larger body of citizens who shrugged
their shoulders over the whole question, deeming it unimportant either
way. But when by order of Colonel Curry the Fort was abandoned, save
for a small detachment, in the winter of 1865-6, there went up a great
protest, and all the machinery, congressional and otherwise, was set
in motion, as has been so familiar since down to the present date, to
secure orders for the maintenance of the post.

No results were attained, however, and the Fort remained abandoned,
until 1873.

Congress had, in fact, passed a law in 1872, for the sale of the
military reservation, authorizing the Secretary of the Interior to cut
it up into blocks and lots and dispose of it as his judgment warranted.
The tract was surveyed and laid out by instructions from Washington.
But as a result of the famous Modoc war in Southern Oregon, the view
prevailed at headquarters that the rehabilitation and reoccupation
of Fort Walla Walla would be wise. Accordingly, in August, 1873, six
companies were established at the Fort, and from that date for nearly
forty years the military was a constant factor in the life of this
section.

The expenditures were very considerable. It is estimated in Gilbert's
Historic Sketches of 1882 that the Fort was then purchasing annually
about 10,000 bushels of oats, 5,000 bushels of barley, 500 tons of
hay, 200 tons of straw, 500 barrels of flour, besides large quantities
of meat, wood, and other supplies. Perhaps the most excited and
acrimonious discussions, public and private, in newspapers and
otherwise, have dealt with the retention of the Fort, or with some
phase of its life. Most of the features of the story came at a date
long after county division.

Another event of that period, not strictly political, yet belonging to
the public life of the community, was the completion on June 1, 1870,
of the telegraph line between Portland and Walla Walla, via Wallula.
This line was built by the O. S. N. Company. The office was at the
southwest corner of Third and Main streets, and James Henderson was
first operator. Mayor Stone sent this message to Mayor Goldsmith: "To
the Mayor of Portland: Greeting. Allow me to congratulate you upon the
completion of the telegraph that places the first city of Washington
Territory in direct communication with the first city of Oregon, and
to express the hope that it is but the precursor of the iron rail that
is to unite us still more indissolubly in the bonds of interest and
affection."

A prompt response in like spirit came from Mayor Goldsmith of Portland.

Another event of importance, which also prepared the way for infinite
political maneuvers and back-room deals was the establishment in 1871
of the Walla Walla Land District. As first constituted, the district
embraced all of the territory east of the Cascade Mountains. Some
appointees came from the East to fill the various positions, though the
majority of them were local men, usually of the highest character. In
this, as in other departments of government depending to some degree on
the favor or otherwise of members of Congress, there has been a certain
proportion of pie-counter politicians who have kept up a regular
procession toward the land office.

William Stephens, registrar, and Anderson Cox, receiver, were the
first in the office, opening the doors on July 17, 1871. P. B. Johnson
followed Mr. Stephens in 1875 and J. F. Boyer became receiver in 1872.
Better men could not have been found in the Inland Empire.

Such may be regarded as the essential events to the limits of our space
in the history of Walla Walla County and City to the time of county
division. We have already given the tabulation of county officials,
as well as that of those of the Territorial Delegates and Governors,
together with such others as especially belonged to this region. We
incorporate here a list of city officials to the same date.


CITY OFFICERS AND COUNCIL OF WALLA WALLA


1865

  Mayor--George Thomas.
  Council--W. A. Ball, I. T. Rees, Fred Stine, B. Sheideman,
    Wm. Kohlhauff, O. P. Lacy.
  City Clerk--A. L. Brown.

1866

  Mayor--C. B. Whiteman.
  Recorder--W. P. Horton.
  Marshal--W. J. Tompkins.
  Treasurer--H. E. Johnson.
  Assessor--O. P. Lacy.
  Council--Fred Stine, I. W. McKee, Cal P. Winesett, Geo. Baggs,
    John J. Ryan.

1867

  Mayor--James McAuliff.
  Recorder--O. P. Lacy.
  Marshal--E. Delaney.
  Assessor--M. Leider.
  Treasurer--H. E. Johnson.
  Surveyor--W. L. Gaston.
  Council--C. P. Winesett, I. T. Rees, Wm. Kohlhauff, J. F. Abbott,
    W. Brown.

1868

  Mayor--James McAuliff.
  Recorder--Lewis Day.
  Treasurer--H. M. Chase.
  Council--J. F. Abbott, Fred Stine, H. Howard, Wm. Kohlhauff, A. Kyger.

1869

  Mayor--Frank Stone.
  Recorder--O. P. Lacy.
  Marshal--E. Delaney.
  Treasurer--H. E. Johnson.
  Assessor--J. E. Brown.
  Surveyor--A. H. Simmons.
  Council--James Jones, W. S. Miner, Thos. Tierney, P. M. Lynch,
    Thos. Quinn.

1870

  Mayor--Dr. E. Shiel.
  Recorder--W. P. Horton.
  Marshal--E. Delaney.
  Treasurer--H. E. Johnson.
  Assessor--J. M. Rittenhouse.
  Surveyor--A. H. Simmons.
  Council--J. F. Abbott, H. M. Chase, G. P. Foor, Wm. Kohlhauff,
    N. T. Caton.

1871

  Mayor--E. B. Whitman.
  Recorder--W. P. Horton.
  Marshal--E. Delaney.
  Treasurer--H. E. Johnson.
  Assessor--M. W. Davis.
  Surveyor--A. L. Knowlton.
  Council--R. Jacobs, P. M. Lynch, N. T. Caton, G. P. Foor, Frank Orselli.

1872

  Mayor--E. B. Whitman.
  Recorder--O. P. Lacy.
  Marshal--John P. Justice.
  Treasurer--H. E. Johnson.
  Assessor--M. W. Davis.
  Surveyor--A. L. Knowlton.
  Council--Sig. Schwabacher, N. T. Caton, M. C. Moore, I. H. Foster,
    John Stahl.

[Illustration:
Courtesy of W. P. Winans
WALLA WALLA IN 1876]

1873

  Mayor--E. B. Whitman.
  Recorder--I. D. Sarman.
  Marshal--John P. Justice.
  Treasurer--H. E. Johnson.
  Assessor--M. W. Davis.
  Surveyor--A. L. Knowlton.
  Council--M. C. Moore, N. T. Caton, I. H. Foster, Wm. Neal, John Fall.

1874

  Mayor--James McAuliff.
  Marshal--John P. Justice.
  Recorder--O. P. Lacy.
  Treasurer--C. T. Thompson.
  Assessor--J. B. Thompson.
  Council--F. G. Allen, Z. K. Straight, Wm. Kohlhauff, Ed C. Ross.

1875

  Mayor--James McAuliff.
  Marshal--John P. Justice.
  Recorder--J. D. Laman.
  Treasurer--F. Kennedy.
  Assessor--S. Jacobs.
  Council--O. P. Lacy, Ed C. Ross, M. Belcher, J. D. Laman, Wm. Kohlhauff.

1876

  Mayor--Jas. McAuliff.
  Marshal--John P. Justice.
  Treasurer--H. E. Holmes.
  Assessor--S. Jacobs.
  Council--G. P. Foor, Wm. Kohlhauff, A. H. Reynolds, O. P. Lacy, M.
  Belcher.

It remains in this chapter to speak of the events leading to the
division of Old Walla Walla County. The first movement in that
direction originated at Waitsburg. That active place, in the center of
one of the fairest and most fertile tracts in all this fertile region,
had come into existence in 1865. We find an item in the _Statesman_
of June 30, 1865, to this effect: "Waitsburg is the name of a town
just beginning to grow up at Wait's Mill on the Touchet. The people
of that vicinity have resolved to celebrate the coming 4th, and are
making arrangements accordingly. W. S. Langford of this city has
accepted an invitations to deliver the oration. "In 1869 a sentiment
developed that the large area south of Snake River, 3,420 square miles,
was too large for a single county, and that it was only a question
of time when there must be another county. Not seeming to realize
that if such event occurred the natural center must be farther east
than Waitsburg, the citizens of the "Mill Town" pushed vigorously for
their project of division, with their own town as the seat of a new
county. A petition signed by 150 citizens was conveyed to Olympia by
a delegation who presented it to the Legislature. Though their effort
failed it served to keep the plan of division alive, and with a rapid
flow of immigration into the high region of the Upper Touchet, the
movement for a new county constantly grew. We have already spoken of
the early locations on the Touchet and Patit. In 1871 and 1872, there
became a concentration of interests which made it clear that a town
would develop. It became known as Dayton from Jesse N. Day. Here was
a location more suitable geographically than Waitsburg, and sentiment
rapidly gathered around Dayton as the natural vantage point for a new
county. Elisha Ping was chosen to the Territorial Council in 1874 to
represent Walla Walla County, and as a citizen and prominent land owner
of Dayton he became the center of the movement.

The first boundary proposed called for a line running directly south
from the Palouse ferry on Snake River to the state line, thus putting
Waitsburg just within the new county. This was not acceptable to that
place. If it could not be the county seat, it preferred to play second
fiddle to Walla Walla rather than to Dayton. Mr. Preston went to Walla
Walla to represent the Waitsburg sentiment. As a result a remonstrance
against county division was prepared and forwarded to the Legislature.
Representatives Hodgis, Lloyd, Lynch and Scott took positions in
opposition to division. A. J. Cain and Elisha Ping conducted the
campaign from the standpoint of Dayton. It became a three cornered
combat in the Legislature. The Walla Walla people, as almost always
is the case in a growing county, though it is very poor and selfish
policy, opposed any division. The Waitsburg influence was for division
provided it could have the county seat but otherwise opposed, and
the Dayton influence was entirely for division with the expectation
that Dayton would become the county seat. Like most county division
and county seat fights, this was based mainly on motives of transient
local gain and personal advantage, rather than on broad public policy
for the future. But so long as human nature is at such a rudimentary
stage of evolution it would be too idealistic to expect otherwise. But
whether with large motives or small, the final outcome, as well as the
subsequent divisions by which Garfield and Asotin were laid out, was
for progress and efficiency. Walla Walla interests were overpowered in
the Legislature and a bill creating Ping County was duly passed. This,
however, encountered a snag, for Governor Ferry vetoed it. Another
bill, avoiding his objections, naming the new county Columbia, was
finally passed and on Nov. 11, 1875, Columbia County duly came into
existence, embracing about two-thirds of Old Walla Walla County, being
bounded by Snake River and the state line on the north, east and south,
and by Walla Walla County on the west.

The history of the erection of Garfield and Asotin counties will belong
properly to a later chapter, and with this final view of old Walla
Walla County as it had existed from 1859 to 1878, we pass on.



CHAPTER IV

THE EARLY TRANSPORTATION AGE


It is but trite and commonplace to say (yet these commonplace
sayings embody the accumulated experience of the human race) that
transportation is the very A. B. C. of economic science. There can be
no wealth without exchange. There is no assignable value either to
commodities or labor without markets.

New communities have always had to struggle with these fundamental
problems of transportation. Until there can be at least some exchange
of products there can be no real commercial life and men's labor
is spent simply on producing the articles needful for daily bread,
clothing and shelter. Most of the successive "Wests" of America have
gone through that stage of simple existence. Some have gotten out of
it very rapidly, usually by the discovery of the precious metals or
the production of some great staple like furs so much in demand and so
scarce in distant countries as to justify expensive and even dangerous
expeditions and costly transportation systems. During nearly all the
first half of the nineteenth century the fur trade was that agency
which created exchange and compelled transportation.

After the acquisition of Oregon and California by the United States
there was a lull, during which there was scarcely any commercial life
because there was nothing exchangeable or transportable.

Then suddenly came the dramatic discovery of gold in California which
inaugurated there a new era of commercial life and hence demanded
extensive transportation, and that was for many years necessarily by
the ocean. The similar discovery in Oregon came ten years later. As we
saw in Chapter Two of this part there came on suddenly in the early
'60s a rushing together in old Walla Walla of a confused mass of eager
seekers for gold, cattle ranges, and every species of the opportunities
which were thought to exist in the "upper country." As men began to get
the measure of the country and each other and to see something of what
this land was going to become, the demand for some regular system of
transportation became imperative.

The first resource was naturally by the water. It was obvious that
teaming from the Willamette Valley (the only productive region in the
'50s and the first year or two of the '60s) was too limited a means
to amount to anything. Bateaux after the fashion of the Hudson's Bay
Company would not do for the new era. Men could indeed drive stock over
the mountains and across the plains and did so to considerable degree.
But as the full measure of the problem was taken it became clear to the
active ambitious men who flocked into the Walla Walla country in 1858,
1859, and 1860, and particularly when the discovery of gold became
known in 1861, that nothing but the establishment of steamboats on the
Columbia and Snake rivers would answer the demand for a real system of
transportation commensurate with the situation.

To fully appreciate the era of steamboating and to revive the memories
of the pioneers of this region in those halcyon days of river traffic,
it is fitting that we trace briefly the essential stages from the first
appearance of steamers on the Columbia River and its tributaries. To
accomplish this section of the story we are incorporating here several
paragraphs from "The Columbia River," by the author: The first river
steamer of any size to ply upon the Willamette and Columbia was the
Lot Whitcomb. This steamer was built by Whitcomb and Jennings. J. C.
Ainsworth was the first captain, and Jacob Kamm was the first engineer.
Both of these men became leaders in every species of steamboating
enterprise. In 1851 Dan Bradford and B. B. Bishop inaugurated a
movement to connect the up-river region with the lower river by getting
a small iron propeller called the Jason P. Flint from the East and
putting her together at the Cascades, whence she made the run to
Portland. The Flint has been named as first to run above the Cascades,
but the author has the authority of Mr. Bishop for stating that the
first steamer to run above the Cascades was the Eagle. That steamer
was brought in sections by Allen McKinley to the Upper Cascades in
1853, there put together, and set to plying on the part of the river
between the Cascades and The Dalles. In 1854 the Mary was built and
launched above the Cascades, the next year the Wasco followed, and in
1856 the Hassalo began to toot her jubilant horn at the precipices of
the mid-Columbia. In 1859 R. R. Thompson and Lawrence Coe built the
Colonel Wright, the first steamer on the upper section of the river. In
the same year the same men built at the Upper Cascades a steamer called
the Venture. This craft met with a curious catastrophe. For on her very
first trip she swung too far into the channel and was carried over the
Upper Cascades, at the point where the Cascade Locks are now located.
She was subsequently raised and rebuilt, and rechristened the Umatilla.

This part of the period of steamboat building was contemporary with the
Indian wars of 1855 and 1856. The steamers Wasco, Mary, and Eagle were
of much service in rescuing victims of the murderous assault on the
Cascades by the Klickitats.

While the enterprising steamboat builders were thus making their
way up-river in the very teeth of Indian warfare steamboats were in
course of construction on the Willamette. The Jennie Clark in 1854 and
the Carrie Ladd in 1858 were built for the firm of Abernethy, Clark
and Company. These both, the latter especially, were really elegant
steamers for the time.

The close of the Indian wars in 1859 saw a quite well-organized steamer
service between Portland and The Dalles, and the great rush into the
upper country was just beginning. The Senorita, the Belle, and the
Multnomah, under the management of Benjamin Stark, were on the run from
Portland to the Cascades. A rival steamer, the Mountain Buck, owned by
Ruckle and Olmstead, was on the same route. These steamers connected
with boats on the Cascades-Dalles section by means of portages five
miles long around the rapids. There was a portage on each side of the
river. That on the north side was operated by Bradford & Company, and
their steamers were the Hassalo and the Mary. Ruckle and Olmstead owned
the portage on the south side of the river, and their steamer was the
Wasco. Sharp competition arose between the Bradford and Stark interests
on one side and Ruckle and Olmstead on the other. The Stark Company was
known as the Columbia River Navigation Company, and the rival was the
Oregon Transportation Company. J. C. Ainsworth now joined the Stark
party with the Carrie Ladd. So efficient did this reinforcement prove
to be that the transportation company proposed to them a combination.
This was effected in April, 1859, and the new organization became
known as the Union Transportation Company. This was soon found to be
too loose a consolidation to accomplish the desired ends, and the
parties interested set about a new combination to embrace all the steam
boat men from Celilo to Astoria. The result was the formation of the
Oregon Steam Navigation Company, which came into legal existence on
December 20, 1860. Its stock in steamboats, sailboats, wharfboats, and
miscellaneous property was stated at $172,500.

Such was the genesis of the "O. S. N. Co." In a valuable article by
Irene Lincoln Poppleton in the _Oregon Historical Quarterly_ for
September, 1908, to which we here make acknowledgments, it is said
that no assessment was ever levied on the stock of this company, but
that from the proceeds of the business the management expended in gold
nearly three million dollars in developing their property, besides
paying to the stockholders in dividends over two million and a half
dollars. Never perhaps was there such a record of money-making on such
capitalization.

The source of the enormous business of the Oregon Steam Navigation
Company was the rush into Idaho, Montana, and Eastern Oregon and
Washington by the miners, cowboys, speculators, and adventurers of
the early '60s. The up-river country, as described more at length in
another chapter, wakened suddenly from the lethargy of centuries, and
the wildness teemed with life. That was the great steamboat age. Money
flowed in streams. Fortunes were made and lost in a day.

When first organized in 1860, the Oregon Steam Navigation Company had a
nondescript lot of steamers, mainly small and weak. The two portages,
one of five miles around the Cascades and the other of fourteen miles
from The Dalles to Celilo Falls, were unequal to their task. The
portages at the Cascades on both sides of the river were made by very
inadequate wooden tramways. That at The Dalles was made by teams. Such
quantities of freight were discharged from the steamers that sometimes
the whole portage was lined with freight from end to end. The portages
were not acquired by the company with the steamboat property, and as
a result the portage owners reaped the larger share of the profits.
During high water the portage on the Oregon side at the Cascades had
a monopoly of the business and it took one-half the freight income
from Portland to The Dalles. This was holding the whip-hand with a
vengeance, and the vigorous directors of the steamboat company could
not endure it. Accordingly, they absorbed the rights of the portage
owners, built a railroad from Celilo to The Dalles on the Oregon side,
and one around the Cascades on the Washington side. The company was
reorganized under the laws of Oregon in October, 1863, with a declared
capitalization of $2,000,000.

Business on the river in 1863 was something enormous. Hardly ever did
a steamer make a trip with less than two hundred passengers. Freight
was offered in such quantities at Portland that trucks had to stand in
line for blocks, waiting to deliver and receive their loads. New boats
were built of a much better class. Two rival companies, the Independent
Line and the People's Transportation Line, made a vigorous struggle to
secure a share of the business, but they were eventually overpowered.
Some conception of the amount of business may be gained from the fact
that the steamers transported passengers to an amount of fares running
from $1,000 to $6,000 a trip. On April 29, 1862, the Tenino, leaving
Celilo for the Lewiston trip, had a load amounting to $10,945 for
freight, passengers, meals, and berths. The steamships sailing from
Portland to San Francisco showed equally remarkable records. On June
25, 1861, the Sierra Nevada conveyed a treasure shipment of $228,000;
July 14th, $110,000; August 24th, $195,558; December 5th, $750,000. The
number of passengers carried on The Dalles-Lewiston route in 1864 was
36,000 and the tons of freight were 21,834.

It was a magnificent steamboat ride in those days from Portland to
Lewiston. The fare was $60; meals and berths, $1 each. A traveler
would leave Portland at 5 A. M. on, perhaps, the Wilson G. Hunt, reach
the Cascades sixty-five miles distant at 11 A. M., proceed by rail
five miles to the Upper Cascades, there transfer to the Oneonta or
Idaho for The Dalles, passing in that run from the humid, low-lying,
heavily timbered West-of-the-mountains, to the dry, breezy, hilly
East-of-the-mountains. Reaching The Dalles, fifty miles farther east,
he would be conveyed by another portage railroad, fourteen miles more,
to Celilo. There the Tenino, Yakima, Nez Percé Chief, or Owyhee was
waiting. With the earliest light of the morning the steamer would head
right into the impetuous current of the river, bound for Lewiston, 280
miles farther yet, taking two days, sometimes three, though only one
to return. Those steamers were mainly of light-draught, stern-wheel
structure, which still characterizes the Columbia River boats. They
were swift and roomy and well adapted to the turbulent waters of the
upper river.

[Illustration: STEAMERS ASOTIN, SPOKANE AND LEWISTON IN PORT AT
LEWISTON]

The captains, pilots, and pursers of that period were as fine a set of
men as ever turned a wheel. Bold, bluff, genial, hearty, and obliging
they were, even though given to occasional outbursts of expletives
and possessing voluminous repertoires of "cusswords" such as would
startle the effete East. Any old Oregonian who may chance to cast his
eyes upon these pages will recall, as with the pangs of childhood
homesickness, the forms and features of steamboat men of that day;
the polite yet determined Ainsworth, the brusque and rotund Reed,
the bluff and hearty Knaggs, the frolicsome and never disconcerted
Ingalls, the dark, powerful, and nonchalant Coe, the patriarchal beard
of Stump, the loquacious "Commodore" Wolf, who used to point out to
astonished tourists the "diabolical strata" on the banks of the river,
the massive and good-natured Strang, the genial and elegant O'Neil, the
suave and witty Snow, the tall and handsome Sampson, the rich Scotch
brogue of McNulty, and dozens of others, whose combined adventures
would fill a volume. One of the most experienced pilots of the upper
river was Captain "Eph" Baughman, who ran steamers on the Snake and
Columbia rivers over fifty years, and is yet living at the date of
this publication. W. H. Gray, who came to Waiilatpu with Whitman as
secular agent of the mission, became a river man of much skill. He gave
four sons, John, William, Alfred, and James, to the service of the
river, all four of them being skilled captains. A story narrated to the
author by Capt. William Gray, now of Pasco, Wash., well illustrates
the character of the old Columbia River navigators. W. H. Gray was
the first man to run a sailboat of much size with regular freight up
Snake River. That was in 1860 before any steamers were running on that
stream. Mr. Gray built his boat, a fifty ton sloop, on Oosooyoos Lake
on the Okanogan River. In it he descended that river to its entrance
into the Columbia. Thence he descended the Columbia, running down the
Entiat, Rock Island, Cabinet, and Priest Rapids, no mean undertaking of
itself. Reaching the mouth of the Snake he took on a load of freight
and started up the swift stream. At Five-mile Rapids he found that his
sail was insufficient to carry the sloop up. Men had said that it was
impossible. The crew all prophesied disaster. The stubborn captain
merely declared, "There is no such word as fail in my dictionary." He
directed his son and another of the crew to take the small boat, load
her with a long coil of rope, make their way up the stream until they
got above the rapid, there to land on an islet of rock, fasten the rope
to that rock, then pay it out till it was swept down the rapid. They
were then to descend the rapid in the small boat. "Very likely you may
be upset," added the skipper encouragingly, "but if you are, you know
how to swim." They were upset, sure enough, but they did know how to
swim. They righted their boat, picked up the end of the floating rope,
and reached the sloop with it. The rope was attached to the capstan,
and the sloop was wound up by it above the swiftest part of the
rapid to a point where the sail was sufficient to carry, and on they
went rejoicing. Any account of steamboating on the Columbia would be
incomplete without reference to Capt. James Troup, who was born on the
Columbia, and almost from early boyhood ran steamers upon it and its
tributaries. He made a specialty of running steamers down The Dalles
and the Cascades, an undertaking sometimes rendered necessary by the
fact that more boats were built in proportion to demand on the upper
than the lower river. These were taken down The Dalles, and sometimes
down the Cascades. Once down, they could not return. The first steamer
to run down the Tumwater Falls was the Okanogan, on May 22, 1866,
piloted by Capt. T. J. Stump.

The author enjoyed the great privilege of descending The Dalles in the
D. S. Baker in the year 1888, Captain Troup being in command. At that
strange point in the river, the whole vast volume is compressed into
a channel but 160 feet wide at low water and much deeper than wide.
Like a huge mill-race this channel continues nearly straight for two
miles, when it is hurled with frightful force against a massive bluff.
Deflected from the bluff, it turns at a sharp angle to be split in
sunder by a low reef of rock. When the Baker was drawn into the current
at the head of the "chute" she swept down the channel, which was almost
black, with streaks of foam, to the bluff, two miles in four minutes.
There feeling the tremendous refluent wave, she went careening over and
over toward the sunken reef. The skilled captain had her perfectly in
hand, and precisely at the right moment, rang the signal bell, "Ahead,
full speed," and ahead she went, just barely scratching her side on
the rock. Thus close was it necessary to calculate distance. If the
steamer had struck the tooth-like point of the reef broadside on, she
would have been broken in two and carried in fragments on either side.
Having passed this danger point, she glided into the beautiful calm bay
below and the feat was accomplished. Capt. J. C. Ainsworth and Capt.
James Troup were the two captains above all others to whom the company
entrusted the critical task of running steamers over the rapids.

In the _Overland Monthly_ of June, 1886, there is a valuable account
by Capt. Lawrence Coe of the maiden journey of the Colonel Wright from
Celilo up what they then termed the upper Columbia.

This first journey on that section of the river was made in April,
1859. The pilot was Capt. Lew White. The highest point reached was
Wallula, the site of the old Hudson's Bay Fort. The current was a
powerful one to withstand, no soundings had ever been made, and no
boats except canoes, bateaus, flatboats, and a few small sailboats,
had ever made the trip. No one had any conception of the location of a
channel adapted to a steamboat. No difficulty was experienced, however,
except at the Umatilla Rapids. This is a most singular obstruction.
Three separate reefs, at intervals of half a mile, extend right across
the river. There are narrow breaks in these reefs, but not in line with
each other. Through them the water pours with tremendous velocity, and
on account of their irregular locations a steamer must zigzag across
the river at imminent risk of being borne broadside on to the reef. The
passage of the Umatilla Rapids is not difficult at high water, for then
the steamer glides over the rocks in a straight course.

In the August _Overland_ of the same year, Captain Coe narrates the
first steamboat trip up Snake River. This was in June, 1860, just at
the time of the beginning of the gold excitement. The Colonel Wright
was loaded with picks, rockers, and other mining implements, as well as
provisions and passengers. Most of the freight and passengers were put
off at Wallula, to go thence overland. Part continued on to test the
experiment of making way against the wicked-looking current of Snake
River. After three days and a half from the starting point a few miles
above Celilo, the Colonel Wright halted at a place which was called
Slaterville, thirty-seven miles up the Clearwater from its junction
with the Snake. There the remainder of the cargo was discharged, to be
hauled in wagons to the Oro Fino mines. The steamer Okanogan followed
the Colonel Wright within a few weeks, and navigation on the Snake
may be said to have fairly begun. During that same time the City of
Lewiston, named in honor of Meriwether Lewis, the explorer, was founded
at the junction of the Snake and Clearwater rivers.


THE PIONEER STAGE LINES

While the river traffic under the ordinary control of the O. S. N.
Company, though with frequent periods of opposition boats, was thus
promoting the movements of commercial life along the great central
artery, the need of reaching interior points was vital. The only way of
doing this and providing feeders for the boats was by stage lines and
prairie schooners. As a result of this need there developed along with
the steamboats a system of roads from certain points on the Columbia
and Snake rivers. Umatilla, Wallula, and Lewiston became the chief of
these. And in the stage lines we have another era of utmost interest
and importance in the old time days.

J. F. Abbott was the pioneer stage manager of old Walla Walla. It
is very interesting to note his advertisements as they appear in
the earliest issues of the _Washington Statesman_. But he began
before there was any _Statesman_ or paper of any kind between the
Cascade Mountains and the Missouri River. For in 1859 he started the
first stages between Wallula and Walla Walla. In 1860 he entered a
partnership with Rickey and Thatcher on the same route. In 1861 a new
line was laid out by Miller and Blackmore from The Dalles to Walla
Walla. The stage business went right on by leaps and bounds. In 1862
two companies started new lines, Rickey and Thatcher from Walla Walla
to Lewiston through the present Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield and
Asotin counties, and Blackmore and Chase between Wallula and Walla
Walla. During the next two decades the stage business became one of
the great factors in the growth of the whole vast region from Umatilla
eastward into the mining regions of Oro Fino, Florence, Boise Basin,
and ultimately into Wyoming and Utah.

The most prominent manager on the longer routes and one of the most
prominent and useful of all the business men of early Walla Walla, was
George F. Thomas. He laid out a route from Wallula to Boise by way of
Walla Walla and the Woodward Toll Gate Road over the Blue Mountains.

In 1864 there came into operation the first of the great stage
systems having transcontinental aims and policies. This was the
Holladay system. That period was the palmy time for hold-ups, Indians,
prairie-schooners, and all the other interesting and extravagant
features of life, ordinarily supposed to be typical of the Far-West
and so dominating in their effect on the imagination as to furnish the
seed-bed for a genuine literature of the Pacific Coast, most prominent
in California with the illustrious names of Bret Harte and Mark Twain
in the van, and with Jack London, Rex Beach, and many more in later
times pursuing the same general tenor of delineation. The Northwest has
not yet had a literature comparable with California's, but the material
is here and there will yet be in due sequence a line of story writers,
poets and artists of the incomparable scenery and the tragic, humorous
and pathetic human associations of the Columbia and its tributaries,
which will place this northern region of the Pacific in the same rank
as the more forward southern sister. Indeed we may remark incidentally
that the two most prominent California poets, Joaquin Miller and Edwin
Markham, belonged to Oregon, the latter being a native of the "Webfoot
State."

The amount of business done by those pioneer stage lines was
surprising. In the issue of the _Statesman_ of December 20, 1862, it is
estimated that the amount of freight landed by the steamers at Wallula
to be distributed thence by wheel averaged about a hundred and fifty
tons weekly, and that the number of passengers, very variable, ran from
fifty to six hundred weekly. As time went on rival lines became more
and more active and rates were lowered as competition grew more keen.
The author recalls vividly his first trip from Wallula to Walla Walla
in his boyhood in the summer of 1870.

The steamer was jammed with passengers who disembarked and made a rush
for something to eat in the old adobe hotel on the river bank at the
site of the old Fort Walla Walla. There were a dozen or so stages, the
driver of each vociferating that on that day passengers were carried
free to Walla Walla. It is asserted that on some occasions competition
became so hot that the rival stage managers offered not only free
transportation, but free meals as a bonus. Whenever one line succeeded
in running off competitors the rates were plumped right back to the
ordinary figure. In view of the wagon traffic of that period it is not
surprising that sections of the road are yet worn several feet deep and
that for years there were four or five tracks. They never worked the
roads, but depended purely on nature, Providence, and the movement of
teams to effect any changes. With the somewhat strenuous west winds
which even yet are sometimes noticed to prevail on the lower Walla
Walla it is not wonderful that a good part of the top dressing of that
country has been distributed at various points around Walla Walla,
Waitsburg, Dayton, "and all points east." How regular teamsters got
enough air to maintain life out of the clouds of dust which enveloped
most of their active moments is one of the unexplained mysteries of
human existence.

The closing scene of the stage line drama may be said to have been the
establishment in 1871 of the Northwestern Stage Company. It connected
the Central Pacific Railroad at Kelton, Utah, with The Dalles,
Pendleton, Walla Walla, Colfax, Dayton, Lewiston, Pomeroy, and "all
points north and west." During the decade of the '70s that stage line
was a connecting link not only between the railroads and the regions as
yet without them, but was also a link between two epochs, that of the
stage and that of the railroad.

It did an extensive passenger business, employing regularly twenty-two
stages and 300 horses, which used annually 365 tons of grain and 412
tons of hay. There were 150 drivers and hostlers regularly employed for
that branch of the business.


THE RAILROAD AGE

But a new order was coming rapidly. As the decades of the '60s and
'70s belonged especially to the steamboat and the stage, so the
decade of the '80s belonged to the railroad. It is one of the most
curious and interesting facts in American history that during the
period between about 1835, the coming of the missionaries and the
period of the discoveries of gold in Idaho in 1861 and onward, there
was an obstinate insistence in Congress, especially the Senate--a
great body indeed, but at times the very apotheosis of conservative
imbecility--that Oregon could never be practically connected with the
older parts of the country, but must remain a wilderness. But there
were some Progressives. When Isaac I. Stevens was appointed governor of
Washington Territory in 1853 he had charge of a survey with a view of
determining a practical route for a northern railroad.

It is very interesting to read his instructions to George B. McClellan,
then one of his assistants. "The route is from St. Paul, Minn., to
Puget Sound by the great bend of the Mississippi River, through a
pass in the mountains near the forty-ninth parallel. A strong party
will operate westward from St. Paul; a second but smaller party will
go up the Missouri to the Yellowstone, and there make arrangements,
reconnoiter the country, etc., and on the junction of the main party
they will push through the Blackfoot country, and reaching the Rocky
Mountains will keep at work there during the summer months. The third
party, under your command, will be organized in the Puget Sound
region, you and your scientific corps going over the Isthmus, and will
operate in the Cascade range and meet the party coming from the Rocky
Mountains. The amount of work in the Cascade range and eastward, say
to the probable junction of the parties at the great bend of the north
fork of the Columbia River, will be immense. Recollect, the main object
is a railroad survey from the headwaters of the Mississippi River to
Puget Sound. We must not be frightened by long tunnels or enormous
snows, but must set ourselves to work to overcome them."

Growing out of the abundant agitation going on for twenty years after
the start given it by Governor Stevens, the movement for a Northern
Pacific Railroad focalized in 1870 by a contract made between the
promoters and Jay Cooke & Company to sell bonds. It is interesting to
recall that Philip Ritz of Walla Walla, one of the noblest of men and
most useful of pioneers, was one of the strong forces in conveying
information about the field and inducing the promoters to turn their
attention to it. In fact Messrs. Ogden and Cass, two of the strongest
men connected with the enterprise, afterwards stated that it was
a letter from Mr. Ritz that drew their favorable attention to the
possibilities of this country. Work was begun on the section of the
Northern Pacific Railroad between Kalama on the Columbia and Puget
Sound in 1870, but the financial panic of 1873 crippled and even ruined
many great business houses, among others Jay Cooke & Co., and for
several years construction was at a stand still. In 1879 the Northern
Pacific Railroad Co. was reorganized, work was resumed and never
ceased till the iron horse had drunk both out of Lake Superior and the
Columbia River.

One of the most spectacular chapters in the history of railroading in
the Northwest was that of the "blind pool" by which Henry Villard,
president of the Oregon Railway and Navigation Co., obtained in 1881
the control of a majority of the stock of the N. P. and became its
president. The essential aim of this series of occult finances was to
divert the northern road from its proposed terminus on Puget Sound and
annex it to the interests centering in Portland.

In 1883 the road was pushed on from Duluth to Wallula and thence
by union with the O. R. & N. was carried on down the Columbia. The
feverish haste, reckless outlay, and in places dangerous construction
of that section along the crags and through shaded glens and in front
of the waterfalls on the banks of the great river, constitute one of
the dramas of building. Even more spectacularly came the gorgeous
pageantry of the Villard excursion in October, 1883, in which Grant,
Evarts, and others of the most distinguished of Americans participated,
and in which Oregon and the Northwest in general were entertained in
Portland with lavish hospitality, and in which Villard rode upon the
crest of the greatest wave of power and popularity that had been seen
in the history of the Northwest. But in the very moment of his triumph
he fell with a "dull, sickening thud." In fact even while being lauded
and feted as the great railroad builder he must have known of the
impending crash. For skillful manipulations of the stock market by the
Wright interests had dispossessed Villard of his majority control, a
general collapse in Portland followed, and the Puget Sound terminal was
established at the "City of Destiny," Tacoma. Not till 1888, however,
was the great tunnel at Stampede pass completed and the Northern
Pacific fairly established upon its great route.

Since the completion of the main line of the N. P. R. R. it has
sprouted out feeders in many directions. The most interesting and
important of these to the Walla Walla Valley is the Washington and
Columbia River Railroad, commonly known in earlier times as the Hunt
Road. That road was started as the Oregon and Washington Territory
R. R. by Pendleton interests in 1887. Mr. G. W. Hunt, a man of great
energy and ability, and possessed of many peculiar and original views
on religion and social conditions as well as railroads, came to the
Inland Empire at that time and perceiving the great possibilities in
this region, made a contract to construct the line. Finding within a
year that the projectors were not succeeding in raising funds Mr.
Hunt took over the enterprise. In 1888-90 he carried out a series of
lines from Hunt's Junction, a short distance from Wallula, to Helix and
Athena and finally to Pendleton in Umatilla County, Ore., and to Walla
Walla, Waitsburg and Dayton, with a separate branch up Eureka Flat,
that great wheat belt of Northern Walla Walla County. The hard times of
the next year so affected Mr. Hunt's resources that he felt obliged to
place his fine enterprise in the hands of N. P. R. R. interests. But
it still retained the name of Washington and Columbia River Railroad
and was operated as a distinct road. The first president following Mr.
Hunt was W. D. Tyler, a man of so genial nature and brilliant mind as
to be one of the conspicuous figures in Walla Walla circles during his
residence in this region and to be remembered with warm friendship by
people in all sorts of connections, afterward living in Tacoma until
his lamented death. He was followed by Joseph McCabe who was a railroad
builder and manager of conspicuous ability and who continued at the
head of the line until he was drawn to important railroad work in New
England. The third president of the road was J. G. Cutler who ably
continued the work so well begun. In 1907 the line was absorbed by the
Northern Pacific and has since that date been managed as a section of
that line. Mr. Cutler continued for a time as the general manager until
failing health compelled his retirement and to the deep regret of a
large circle of friends and business associates he died within a few
months of his retirement. S. B. Calderhead, who had been during the
presidencies of Mr. McCabe and Mr. Cutler the traffic manager of the
original road, became the general freight and passenger agent of the
division in 1907 and continues to hold the position at this time. The
road has been extended to Turner in the heart of the barley belt of
Columbia County. It does an extraordinary business for the amount of
mileage and population. Within the year of the completion of the lines
to Dayton, Pendleton, and the Eureka Flat branch, a total mileage of
162.73 miles and with a scanty population at that date of 1890, the
road conveyed about forty thousand tons of freight into the regions
covered and carried out about a hundred and thirty thousand tons of
grain and 20,000 tons of other freight.

The other transcontinental line in which the Walla Walla country is
especially interested is the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company's
line. This acquired the Walla Walla and Columbia River line in 1878 and
the property of the O. S. N. Co. in 1879. Henry Villard was the great
organizer of the O. R. and N. line, which was a portion of the Union
Pacific system, covering the territory between Huntington and Portland.
Of Villard's operations in this connection with the N. P. R. R. we have
already spoken. Although the attempt to divert that system down the
Columbia proved a failure, the O. R. and N. R. R. has become one of
the great systems of the United States, and as a part of the present
Oregon and Washington system it performs a vast commercial service in
the regions covered by its lines. By the acquisition of the Walla Walla
and Columbia River R. R. (Dr. Baker's road) and the O. S. N. Co. lines
and steamboats (for that was mainly a river system) the O. R. and N.
R. R. succeeded practically to the whole pioneer system of steamboats
and stage lines of the previous era. It has become a vast factor in the
commercial life of the Columbia River region and by its branches north
and west has become a competitor with the Northern Pacific and Great
Northern systems throughout the state. Its chief lines in the counties
covered by this work are that from Pendleton to Spokane, going right
through the heart of the region, with branches from Bolles Junction
to Dayton and Starbuck to Pomeroy. It joins with the N. P. R. R. in a
line from Riparia on the north side of the Snake River to Lewiston,
by which the splendid country centering around that city is reached
and by which the equally beautiful and productive region of Asotin and
Garfield counties on the west and south of Snake River are indirectly
touched. To reach that highly productive region the company maintains
several steamers which ply during the proper stage of water and convey
millions of bushels of grain from Asotin and other points down the
river to railroad connections. One of the important developments of
the line is the Yakima branch, extending from Walla Walla to that city
and projected, as is supposed, to ultimate connections on Puget Sound
and possibly through the Klickitat country about the base of Mount
Adams to Portland, tapping an entirely new country of great and varied
resources. In 1914 the main line between Portland and Spokane was
constructed down the Snake from Riparia to Wallula.

The Northern Pacific and Oregon-Washington railroads have not far from
the same mileage in these counties, the latter somewhat larger, and do
approximately the same amount of local business. A general estimate
by one of the best informed railroad men of Walla Walla is that the
combined receipts for freight in Walla Walla County alone--the present
county--for the last year was about one million dollars for outgoing
and about six hundred thousand dollars for incoming freight.


WALLA WALLA AND COLUMBIA RIVER RAILROAD

We have reserved for special consideration the most interesting and
from the historical standpoint the most important of all the railroads
of Walla Walla, the Walla Walla and Columbia River, Doctor Baker's
road. The history of this enterprise is most intimately connected with
the development of this region. It is not only a rare example of the
growth of a local demand and need, but constitutes a tribute to the
genius of its builder, one of the most unique and powerful of all the
capable and original builders of the "Upper Country."

To trace the movements leading to the creation of this vital step in
the commercial evolution of Walla Walla, we must turn to the files of
the _Washington Statesman_. In the issue of May 3, 1862, we find the
leading editorial devoted to urging the need of a railroad. It notes
the fact that Lewiston and Wallula are endeavoring to divert the trade
from Walla Walla and that with $500,000 invested in the city, as much
more in the country, and with crops yielding $250,000, besides stock,
the people of Walla Walla cannot rest content with the exorbitant
expense of freighting by teams to and from the river. It says bitterly
that those engaged in freighting have thought it a fine thing to get
from twenty dollars to one hundred dollars per ton for carrying freight
in from Wallula. It urges people to bestir themselves and provide a
railroad, which, it declares, if it cost $750,000 or even $1,000,000 to
build, will save that amount in the next ten years.

The issue of June 7 returns to the charge, dealing in more specific
figures, estimating the probable expense of the thirty miles of road
not to exceed $600,000. It appeared from this article that the
Legislature of the previous year had granted a charter for the purpose,
and as the editor urges, the people have but to take advantage of the
opportunity open to them to secure the results.

The _Statesman_ of August 23, 1862, gives the provisions of that
charter with the list of those named in it. The names of these men are
worthy of preservation, as showing the personnel of the most active
business forces of that date. They are as follows: A. J. Cain, E. B.
Whitman, L. A. Mullan, W. J. Terry, C. H. Armstrong, J. F. Abbott, I.
T. Reese, S. M. Baldwin, E. L. Bonner, W. A. Mix, Charles Russell, J.
A. Sims, Jesse Drumheller, James Reynolds, D. S. Baker, G. E. Cole, S.
D. Smith, J. J. Goodwin, Neil McGlinchy, J. S. Sparks, W. A. George,
J. M. Vansycle, W. W. DeLacy, A. Seitel, W. A. Ball, B. F. Stone, J.
Schwabacher, B. P. Standifer, S. W. Tatem, W. W. Johnson and "such
others as they shall associate with them in the project."

It is worth noting that in the issue of September 6th, an item is made
of the fact that fares to The Dalles have been lowered, being $10 to
The Dalles and only 50 cents from there to Portland. It is declared in
the item that that is a scheme of the Navigation Company to crush out
opposition. The opposition line of that year was in control of Doctor
Baker, who was associated in the enterprise with Captain Ankeny, H. W.
Corbett, and Captain Baughman. Their steamer on the lower river was
the E. D. Baker and on the upper river the Spray. Doctor Baker had
previously undertaken a portage railroad at the Cascades, but had been
compelled to retire before the O. S. N. Co. So for the new undertaking
they were obliged to use stages over the five miles of portage between
the lower and the upper Cascades. The Spray and the Baker, it may
be said, carried on a lively opposition but in the _Statesman_ of
March 21, 1863, we find that the O. S. N. Co. had bought out the
line and once more monopolized the traffic. Affairs and time were
both moving on and we find valuable data in three successive issues
of the _Statesman_, December 20 and 27, 1862, and January 3, 1863.
That of December 20th repeats the names given in the charter and some
further provisions of that document. Among other requirements was that
forbidding the railroad to charge passengers over 10 cents per mile or
over 40 cents per ton per mile for freight. Comparison shows how the
world has changed. Railroads in this state at present cannot charge
more than three cents a mile for passengers, and as for freight, when
we remember how we "kick" now at exorbitant freight rates, and yet
remind ourselves that the rate on wheat from Walla Walla to Portland
is $2.85 per ton, or less than twelve mills per ton mile, we realize
the change. But it must be remembered that building a railroad in 1863
in the Walla Walla country was a very different proposition from the
present. The _Statesman_ figures that even if traffic did not increase
there would be a weekly income for the road of $2,400 or about one
hundred and thirty thousand dollars a year. Allowing the cost to be
$700,000, with interest at 10 per cent or $70,000 a year, there would
be a margin of $65,000 per annum for operating and contingencies. "Who
is there," demands the _Statesman_, "amongst our settled residents that
cannot afford to subscribe for from one to ten shares of stock at $100
per share?"

In the paper of December 27th, another editorial urges citizens to
attend a meeting the next week to consider the vital subject.

The meeting duly occurred on the last day of December, 1862, and is
reported in the _Statesman_ of January 3, 1863. The meeting was called
to order by E. B. Whitman and W. W. Johnson acted as secretary. Mention
is made of a letter from Capt. John Mullan stating that there was a
prospect of securing from two hundred and fifty thousand dollars to
three hundred thousand dollars worth of stock in New York. A group
of men at money centers was appointed to act as commissioners for
receiving subscriptions for stock. A committee consisting of W. W.
Johnson, W. A. Mix, and R. R. Rees was appointed to draw up articles of
association and by-laws for the company. On March 14th a meeting was
held to listen to the report of the committee.

It appears from the issue of April 11, 1863, that a new opposition
steamer, the Kius, had made her first trip from Celilo to Wallula,
beating the Spray by an hour. Fares had been cut again, being only
$3.50 from Celilo to Wallula. The following number of the _Statesman_
notes the interesting item that the Kius had made a trip the previous
week to the mouth of the Salmon River on the Snake, and proposed to
continue investigations with a view to determining the practicability
of a regular route. In the paper of April 25th is an editorial
deprecating the "cut-throat competition" on the river, pointing out
the fact that heavy stocks of goods had been imported under previous
rates and that the carrying in of freight at ruinous rates will
embarrass the regular merchants under the old rates. In the same issue
announcement is made of the important fact that the railroad portages
of the O. S. N. Co. at both the Cascades and The Dalles had just come
into operation. By May 9th, it appeared that another rapid change in
freight rates had taken place, both lines receipting freight from
Portland to Lewiston at $25 per ton. For some time the rate from The
Dalles to Wallula had been $3 per ton. But a little time passed and the
omnipresent O. S. N. Co. bought out the opposition boats Iris and Kius,
and up the rates went with another jump. The figures were:

  Freight--Portland to The Dalles       $15.00 per ton
           Portland to Wallula           50.00 per ton
           Portland to Lewiston          90.00 per ton
  Passage--Portland to The Dalles         6.00
           Portland to Wallula           18.00
           Portland to Lewiston          28.00

Meanwhile development in the mines and on the stock ranges and
farms and even in horticulture was going on apace. But the railroad
enterprise hung fire and several years passed by without results. The
community seems to have been waiting for the man with the brains,
nerve, resolution, and resources to lead and take the risk. The man was
there and he had all the requisites from his first entrance to Walla
Walla in 1839 except the resources. This was no less a man than Dr.
D. S. Baker. During the years of agitation he had been prospering in
business and by 1868 was coming into a position where he could see his
way to take the initiative in what he had recognized all the time as
the great next step in the growth of the Walla Walla country, as well
as one in the advancement of his own personal fortunes. The thought of
a sort of community ownership had never left the minds of the original
promoters although they had failed to come to a focus. On March 23,
1868, there was a meeting which was the outcome of a second era of
popular discussion. That meeting eventuated in the actual incorporation
of the Walla Walla and Columbia River Railroad. The incorporators were
D. S. Baker, A. H. Reynolds, I. T. Reese, A. Kyger, J. H. Lasater, J.
D. Mix, B. Scheideman, and W. H. Newell. They planned to place $50,000
of stock in the city, $200,000 in the county, and $100,000 with the O.
S. N. Co. An act of Congress of March 3, 1869, granted a right of way
and authorized the county commissioners to grant $300,000 in aid of
the road, subject to approval of the people by special election. The
election was set for June 21, 1871. Expressions of public opinion made
it so clear that the proposal would be defeated at the polls that the
order for election was revoked. The incorporators of the road now made
a proposition that in case the people of the county would authorize an
issue of $300,000 in bonds, they would build a strap-iron road within
a year, would place the money from down freights in the hands of the
county commissioners as a sinking fund, allow the commissioners to fix
freight rates, provided they were not less than $2 per ton nor so high
as to discourage shipping, and secure the county by first mortgage on
the road. An election was held on September 18, 1871. A two-thirds
majority was required out of a total vote of 935, and the proposition
was lost by eighteen. Thus the second attempt at a publicly promoted
railroad for Walla Walla went glimmering.

Doctor Baker now felt that the time had arrived for pushing the
enterprise to a conclusion by private capital. A new organization with
the same name was effected, of which the directors were D. S. Baker,
Wm. Stephens, I. T. Reese, Lewis McMorris, H. M. Chase, H. P. Isaacs,
B. L. Sharpstein, Orley Hull, and J. F. Boyer. Grading was begun at
Wallula in March, 1872.

Meanwhile many rumors and proposals as to railroad building were
in the air. In 1872 the Grande Ronde and Walla Walla R. R. Co. was
incorporated, and a survey made thirty-six miles to the Umatilla River.
But there the movement ceased. A very interesting project came into
existence in 1873 for the Seattle and Walla Walla R. R., and in the
prosecution of plans for this, A. A. Denny and J. J. McGilvra visited
this region and held public meetings in Walla Walla, Waitsburg, and
Dayton. Five directors, S. Schwabacher, W. F. Kimball, Jesse N. Day, W.
P. Bruce, and W. M. Shelton were appointed to represent this section.
Great enthusiasm was created, but the project, feasible though it
seemed and backed though it was by reliable men, never got beyond the
stage of agitation. Another enterprise which occasioned great public
interest was the Portland, Dalles, and Salt Lake R. R. designed as a
rival to the O. R. & N. system. That never got beyond the promotion
era. The most interesting locally of these incipient railroads was
the Dayton and Columbia River R. R. incorporated in August, 1874.
Its proposal was to build a narrow gauge from Dayton to Wallula via
Waitsburg and Walla Walla. The plans contemplated a boat line to
Astoria with railroad portages at Celilo and the Cascades. That would
have been a great enterprise, but it was beyond the resources of its
promoters, and it died "a-bornin'."

While these gauzy visions were flitting before the minds of the people
of old Walla Walla County, Doctor Baker was going right on with his
own road, in the peculiarly taciturn, quiet and unremitting manner
characteristic of him. In March, 1874, the road was completed from
Wallula to the Touchet, the first eight miles with wooden rails,
capped with strap-iron. Maj. Sewall Truax was the engineer in charge.
Strap-iron rails were laid on the "straightaway" sections as far as
Touchet, with T-iron on the curves and heavier grades. The expense of
getting ties and iron was very great and the execution of the work was
costly and harassing. Nothing but Doctor Baker's pertinacity in the
face of many obstacles carried the work to a successful conclusion.
An attempt to run tie timber down the Grande Ronde River to the Snake
and thence to Wallula proving unsuccessful, the doctor turned to the
Yakima. That effort proved the winning card, but the cost was great.
The ties cost over a dollar apiece at Wallula.

But from the first the road justified its cost and demonstrated its
utility. In the year that it was completed to Touchet over four
thousand tons of wheat was carried out and 1,126 tons of merchandise
was brought in. In January, 1875, Doctor Baker proposed to the people
of the county that he would complete the road to the city if $75,000
were subscribed to the capital stock. A meeting was held at which it
was decided impossible to raise that sum. The company returned with
another proposition; i. e., that they would complete the road if the
people would secure a tract of three acres for depot grounds and right
of way for nine miles west of town, and subscribe $25,000 as a subsidy.
After much wrestling and striving this proposal was accepted. On
October 23, 1875, the rails were laid into Walla Walla and during the
remainder of that year 9,155 tons of wheat were hauled over them to the
river.

Thus that monumental work (monumental considering the times and
resources available, though of course of small extent compared with the
railways of the present) was brought to a triumphant conclusion.

A peculiar condition arose in the next year after completion which has
historical bearings of much interest. According to the account as given
by Col. F. T. Gilbert the advance of rates from $5 per ton to Wallula
to $5.50 caused a revolt on the part of shippers, although the haul
by team before was more than twice as much. Shippers urged the county
commissioners to put the wagon road in good condition as a weapon to
curb railway monopoly. As the directors of the road did not reduce
rates, a movement ensued in the Grange Council looking to boycotting
the railroad. The feasibility of a canal from Waiilatpu to Wallula was
considered. Some wheat and some merchandise were transported by teams
at $5 per ton. A movement was started at Dayton to haul freight to the
mouth of the Tucanon, where the O. S. N. steamers might pick it up and
carry to Portland for $8 per ton. It cost $4.50 to reach the boats.
That was the state of affairs which produced Grange City at the point
where the Walla Walla-Pendleton branch of the O. W. R. R. now leaves
the main line between Spokane and Portland. It was thought at one time
that Grange City might become quite a place. One interesting feature of
that period was the construction of a steamer named the Northwest at
Columbus by the firm of Paine Brothers and Moore and its operation on
the Snake River for about two years. The Northwest did a fine business,
but like its predecessors was absorbed by the O. S. N. Co.

It was discovered after sufficient experience that teams could
not compete with the railroad and the attempts at that method of
transportation were abandoned.

In the year 1876, the O. S. N. Co. received at Wallula 16,766 tons of
freight, of which 15,266 came by rail and 1,500 by teams. It delivered
for conveyance to Walla Walla 4,054 tons, of which all but 513 was
conveyed by rail. Doctor Baker's ownership and management of the Walla
Walla and Columbia River R. R. was brief but profitable, for in 1878
he sold out a six-seventh interest to the O. R. & N. Co. The remaining
seventh was sold to Villard when he bought the O. R. and N. properties.

The pioneer chapter of railroading in Walla Walla was ended. Whatever
the personal idiosyncracies of Doctor Baker and whatever may have
been thought as to his aggressiveness in business, it becomes evident
with the retrospect of history that he was a far seeing, sagacious,
energetic, and successful business man and that his career in Walla
Walla was one of its greatest constructive forces.


NEW ERA OF WATER TRANSPORTATION

It remains in this chapter only to take a glance at the next great
stage in transportation. We have spoken of the old steamer lines as
composing the first of those stages, the stage lines the second, and
the railroads the third. The fourth may be called the new era of water
transportation. This era is as yet only dawning, but it is obvious
that the opening of the Columbia and Snake rivers to traffic by means
of canals and locks and improvement of channels will create a new
development of production and commerce. As far back as 1872 Senator
Mitchell of Oregon brought before Congress the subject of canal and
locks at the Cascades. The matter was urged in Congress and in the
press, and as a result of ceaseless efforts the people of the Northwest
were rewarded in 1896 with the completion of the canal at the Cascades.
While that was indeed a great work, it did not, after all, affect the
greater part of the Inland Empire.

Its benefits were felt only as far as The Dalles. The much greater
obstructions between that city and the upper river forbade continuous
traffic above The Dalles. Hence the next great endeavor was to secure a
canal between navigable water at Big Eddy, four miles above The Dalles,
and Celilo, eight and a half miles above Big Eddy. It is of great
historic interest to call up in this connection the unceasing efforts
of Dr. N. G. Blalock of Walla Walla to promote public interest in this
vast undertaking and to so focalize that interest backed by insistent
demands of the people upon Congress as to secure appropriations and
to direct the speedy accomplishment of the engineering work necessary
to the result. Like all such important public matters, this had its
alternating advances and retreats, its encouragements and its reverses,
but patience and perseverance and the strong force of genuine public
benefit triumphed at last over all obstacles. It is indeed melancholy
to remember that Doctor Blalock, of whose good deeds and public
benefactions this was but one, passed on before the improvements were
completed. But it is a satisfaction to remember, too, that before his
death, in April, 1913, he knew that the appropriations and instructions
necessary to insure the work had been made. In fact, the work continued
from that time with no pause or loss.

The Celilo Canal was completed and thrown open to navigation in
April, 1915. In the early part of May the entire river region joined
in a week's demonstration which began at Lewiston, Idaho, and ended
at Astoria, Oregon. Nearly all the senators, representatives and
governors in the northwest attended. Schools and colleges had a
holiday, business was largely suspended, and the entire river region
joined a great jubilee. A fleet of steamers traversed the entire course
from Lewiston down, 500 miles. Lewiston, Asotin, and Clarkston were
hostesses on May 3; Pasco, Kenewick, Wallula and Umatilla on May 4;
Celilo, where the formal ceremonies of dedication occurred, and The
Dalles, May 5; Vancouver and Portland May 6; Kalama and Kelso May 7;
and Astoria May 8, and there the pageant ended with a great excursion
to the Ocean Beach.

As expressing better in the judgment of the author than he could
otherwise do, the profound significance of that great step in the
history of the commercial development of this section and as giving
a view of the historic sequences of old Walla Walla County, he is
venturing to incorporate here an address delivered by himself on May 4
at Wallula in connection with that celebration:


 Officials and Representatives of the National and State Governments,
 and Fellow Citizens of the Northwest:

It is my honor to welcome you to this historic spot in the name of
the people of the Walla Walla Valley; the valley of many waters, the
location of the first American home west of the Rocky Mountains and the
mother of all the communities of the Inland Empire. On the spot where
we stand the past, the present and the future join hands. Here passed
unknown generations of aborigines on the way from the Walla Walla
Valley to ascend or descend the Great River, to pass in to the Yakima
country, or to move in either direction to the berry patches or hunting
grounds of the great mountains; here the exploring expedition of Lewis
and Clark paused to view the vast expanse of prairie before committing
themselves to what they supposed to be the lower river; here flotillas
of trappers made their rendezvous for scattering into their trapping
fields and for making up their bateau loads of furs for sending down
the river. On this very spot was built the old Hudson's Bay fort,
first known as Nez Percé, then as Walla Walla; here immigrants of
'43 gathered to build their rude boats on which a part of them cast
themselves loose upon the impetuous current of the Columbia, while
others re-equipped their wagon trains to drive along the banks to The
Dalles. Each age that followed, the mining period, the cowboy period,
the farming period, entered or left the Walla Walla Valley at this very
point. Here the first steamboats blew their jubilant blasts to echo
from these basaltic ramparts, and here the toot of the first railway
in the Inland Empire started the coyotes and jackrabbits from their
coverts of sagebrush. Wheresoever we turn history sits enthroned. Every
piece of rock from yonder cliffs to the pebbles on the beach, fairly
quivers with the breath of the past, and even the sagebrush moved by
the gentle Wallula zephyr, exhales the fragrance of the dead leaves of
history.

But if the past is in evidence here, much more the present stalks
triumphant. Look at the cities by which this series of celebrations
will be marshalled and the welcome that will be given to the flotilla
of steamers all the way from Lewiston to Astoria. Consider the
population of the lands upon the river and its affluents, nearly a
million people, where during the days of old Fort Walla Walla the only
white people were the officers and trappers of the Hudson's Bay Company.

But if the present reigns here proudly triumphant over the past, what
must we say of the future? How does that future tower! Where now are
the hundreds, there will be thousands. Where now are the villages,
will be stately cities. We would not for a moment speak disrespectfully
of the splendid steamers that will compose this fleet by the time it
reaches Portland; but we may expect that after all they will be a mere
bunch of scows in comparison with the floating palaces that will move
in the future up and down the majestic stream.

Therefore, fellow citizens of the Northwest and representatives of
the National Government, I bid you a threefold welcome in the name
of the past, present and future. And I welcome you also in the name
of the commingling of waters now passing by us. While this is indeed
Washington land on either side of the river, this is not Washington's
river. This shore on which we stand is washed by the turbid water of
Snake River, rising in Wyoming and flowing hundreds of miles through
Idaho and then forming the boundary between Idaho and Oregon before
it surrenders itself to the State of Washington. And, as many of you
have seen, half way across this flood of waters we pass from the
turbid coloring of the Snake to the clear blue of the great northern
branch, issuing from the glaciers of the Selkirks and the Canadian
Rockies nearly a thousand miles away, augmented by the torrents of the
Kootenai, the Pend Oreille, the Coeur d'Alene and Spokane, draining the
lakes, the snow banks, the valleys and the mountains of Montana and
Idaho. And two or three miles below us this edge of river touches the
soil of Oregon, to follow it henceforth to the Pacific. This is surely
a joint ownership proposition. And, moreover, this very occasion which
draws us together, this great event of the opening of the Celilo Canal,
is made possible because Uncle Sam devoted five millions of dollars to
blasting a channel through those rocky barriers down there on the river
bank. It is a national, not simply a Northwest affair.

But while we are thus welcoming and celebrating and felicitating
and anticipating we may well ask ourselves what is, after all, the
large and permanent significance of this event. I find two special
meanings in it: one commercial and industrial, the other patriotic
and political. First, it is the establishment of water transportation
and water power in the Columbia Basin on a scale never before known.
Do we yet comprehend what this may mean to us and our descendants in
this vast and productive land? It has been proved over and over again
in both Europe and the United States that the cost of freightage
by water is but a fraction, a fifth, a tenth, or sometimes even a
fifteenth of that by land--but, note this is under certain conditions.
What are those conditions? They are that the waterways be deep
enough for a large boat and long enough for continuous long runs.
The average freight rate by rail in the United States is 7.32 mills
per ton mile. By the Great Lakes or the Mississippi River it is but
one-tenth as much. Freight has in fact been transported from Pittsburgh
to New Orleans for half a mill a ton a mile, or only a fifteenth.
Hitherto, on account of the break in continuity in the Columbia at
Celilo, we have not been able to realize the benefits of waterway
transportation. The great event which we are now celebrating confers
upon us at one stroke those benefits. Not only are the possibilities
of transportation tremendous upon our river, but parallel with them
run the possibilities of water power. It has been estimated that a
fourth of all the water power of the United States is found upon the
Columbia and its tributaries. By one stroke the canalization of rivers
creates the potentialities of navigation, irrigation and mechanical
power to a degree beyond computation. Our next great step must be the
canalization of Snake River, and that process at another great stroke
will open the river to continuous navigation from a point a hundred
miles above Lewiston to the ocean, over five hundred miles away. Then
in logical sequence will follow the opening of the Columbia to the
British line, and the Canadian Government stands ready to complete that
work above the boundary until we may anticipate a thousand miles of
unbroken navigation down our "Achilles of rivers" to the Pacific. Until
this great work at Celilo was accomplished we could not feel confidence
that the ultimate end of continuous navigation was in sight. Now we
feel that it is assured, the most necessary stage is accomplished. It
is only a question of time now till the river will be completely opened
from Windemere to the ocean. We welcome you, therefore, again on this
occasion in the name of an assured accomplishment.

The second phase of this great accomplishment which especially appeals
to me now is the character of nationality which belongs to it. While
this is a work that peculiarly interests us of the Northwestern States,
yet it has been performed by the National Government. Uncle Sam is the
owner of the Celilo Canal. It belongs to the American people. Each of
us owns about a ninety millionth of it and has the same right to use it
that every other has. This suggests the unity, the interstate sympathy
and interdependence, which is one of the great growing facts of our
American system. In this time of crime and insanity in Europe, due
primarily to the mutual petty jealousies of races and boundaries, it
is consolation to see vision and rationality enough in our own country
to disregard petty lines and join in enterprises which encourage us
in the hope of a rational future for humanity. It is a lesson in the
get-together spirit. Every farm, every community, every town, every
city from the top of the Rocky Mountains and from the northern boundary
to Astoria shakes hands with every other this day. And not only so
but every state in the Union joins in the glad tribute to something
of common national interest. But while we recognize the significance
of this event in connection with interstate unity we must note also
that the Columbia is an international river. It is, in fact, the only
river of large size which we possess in common with our sister country,
Canada. About half of it is in each country. Its navigability through
the Canadian section has already been taken up energetically by the
Canadian Government. Think of the unique and splendid scenic route that
will sometime be offered when great steamboats go from Revelstoke to
Astoria, a thousand miles. Scenically and commercially our river will
be in a class by itself.

Such are some of the glowing visions which rise before our eyes in the
welcome with which we of the Walla Walla Valley greet you. I began by
a threefold welcome in the name of the past, present and future. I
venture to close in the name of the native sons and daughters of Old
Oregon. There are many of these within the sound of my voice. Perhaps
to such sons and daughters a few lines of "Our Mother Oregon" may
come with the touch of sacred memory. Let me explain that Old Oregon
includes Washington and Idaho, and in composing these lines I used the
name "Our Mother Oregon" to include our entire Northwest:

  Where is the land of rivers and fountains,
  Of deep-shadowed valleys and sky-scaling mountains?
        'Tis Oregon, our Oregon.
  Where is the home of the apple and rose,
  Where the wild currant blooms and the hazel-nut grows?
        'Tis Oregon, bright Oregon.
  Where are the crags whence the glaciers flow,
  And the forests of fir where the south winds blow?
        In Oregon, grand Oregon.
  Where sleep the old heroes who liberty sought,
  And where live their free sons whom they liberty taught?
        In Oregon, free Oregon.
  What is the lure of this far western land,
  When she beckons to all with her welcoming hand?
        It is the hand of Oregon.
  Oh, Oregon, blest Oregon,
  Dear Mother of the heart;
  At touch of thee all troubles flee
  And tears of gladness start.
  Take thou thy children to thy breast,
  True keeper of our ways,
  And let thy starry eyes still shine
  On all our coming days,
        Our Mother Oregon.


ERA OF GOOD ROADS

In closing this chapter we may express the conviction that while this
fourth era of transportation--a new period of steamboat traffic--is
surely coming, though yet but in its dawn, there is now taking
shape still a fifth era of transportation. This is to be nothing
less than an era of good roads and transportation by auto trucks as
feeders to steamboat lines. The most conspicuous fact at the time of
publication of this work in this section as in the country at large is
the movement in the direction of good roads as the logical sequence
of the development of automobiles. This movement will inevitably
become coupled with that of improvement of rivers as of cheap water
transportation. With this improvement of rivers will be another
sequence, that is, the creation of cheap electric power.

We are at the dawn of a day in which the two most vital needs of
mankind, after production, that is, transportation and power, are to
be provided at a low degree of cost not hitherto conceived of. As a
backward glance in our own section it is well nigh incredible to call
up that the cost of transporting a ton of freight by steamer with
portages at certain points from Portland to Wallula has run from $10.00
to $60.00, and from Wallula to Walla Walla, by wagon, from $8.00 to
$20.00 or $30.00, and by the first railroad from $4.00 to $5.50, while
at the present time the railroad rate (which we think is high) on
wheat from Walla Walla to Portland is $2.85 per ton, and only $1.65 by
steamer from Wallula to Portland. Our imaginations are strained almost
to the breaking point when we recall that experience on improved rivers
in Europe and the older America shows that by continuous improved
rivers, supplemented by good roads, it may cost not to exceed a dollar,
possibly not more than half a dollar from Walla Walla to Portland. That
new era is near at hand.

[Illustration: GARDENING IN OLD WALLA WALLA COUNTY]



CHAPTER V

THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY IN OLD WALLA WALLA COUNTY TO THE PERIOD OF
COUNTY DIVISION AND AFTERWARDS IN THE PRESENT WALLA WALLA


We have given in the first chapter of this volume a view of the
physical features, geological formation, and climate of this region. It
was obvious from that description that the Walla Walla country, like
most of Eastern Washington, Northeastern Oregon, and even Northwestern
Idaho, would be thought of at first inspection as a stock country.
The army of early immigrants that passed through on their way to the
Willamette Valley saw the upper country only at the end of the long,
hot, dry summers, when everything was parched and wilted. It did not
seem to them that any part would be adapted to agriculture except the
small creek bottoms. They could, however, see in the oceans of bunch
grass, withered though it was by drought, ample indications that stock
to almost limitless extent could find subsistence.

Hence with the opening of the country in 1859 the first thought of
incoming settlers was to find locations along the creeks where a few
acres for garden and home purposes might be found, and then a wide
expanse of grazing land adjoining where the real business might be
conducted. The first locations from 1859 and until about 1870 denote
the dominance of that idea. We have already noted the beginnings of
stock raising during the Hudson's Bay Company regime and the period
of the Whitman mission. We have seen that Messrs. Brooke, Bumford and
Noble started the same industry at Waiilatpu in 1851 and later on
the Touchet and maintained it until expelled by Indians in 1855. H.
M. Chase laid the foundations of the same on the Umatilla in 1851 in
conjunction with W. C. McKay, and later upon the Touchet near where
Dayton is now located. J. C. Smith on Dry Creek in 1857 had the same
plans.

The incoming of settlers in 1859 and 1860 and the location of the Fort
induced a mercantile class to gather in the vicinity of that market.
When gold discoveries set every one agog with excitement, the first
effect was to create a line of business almost entirely adapted to
supply miners' needs. The second effect speedily following was to
lead thoughtful men to consider the region as a suitable location for
producing first hand the objects of demand. Stock was foremost among
those demands. The Indians already had immense droves of "cayuse"
horses, and considerable herds of cattle. Many cattle were driven in in
1861. The hard winter of 1861-2 caused severe loss to cattle raisers,
but so well were the losses repaired that it was reported in 1863 that
there were in the valley, including the Touchet region, 1,455 horses,
438 mules, 1,864 sheep, 3,957 cattle, and 712 hogs. According to the
_Statesman_ 15,000 pounds of wool were shipped out in that year. Sheep
increased with extraordinary rapidity. The valley became a winter
feeding ground and the sheep were driven in from the entire Inland
Empire. The _Statesman_ asserts that in the winter of 1855-6 there were
200,000 head in the valley. They were worth at that time only a dollar
a head. From that time on the stock business in its various branches
became more definitely organized and shipments to the East and to
California went on apace. It was not, however, for some years that the
importation of blooded stock for scientific betterment was carried on
to any considerable degree. It would be impossible within our limits
to give any complete view of the leading promoters in the different
lines. Practically every settler in the country had some stock. Those
who may be said to have been leaders during the decade of the '60s in
introducing stock into the various pivotal points of the old county may
be grouped under some half dozen territories, which have later become
the centers of farming sections and in several instances the sites of
the existing towns.

This list cannot in the nature of the case be exhaustive, for, as
already noted, every settler had more or less stock. In naming some
rather than others, we would not wish to be making any invidious
comparisons, but rather selecting a few in each pivotal place, who came
in earliest and had the greatest continuity of residence and the most
constructive connection with the business. Naturally first in order may
be named the vicinity of Walla Walla City as it has become, and the
region adjoining it on the south into Oregon.

Perhaps typical of the larger stockmen of the earliest period were
Jesse Drumheller and Daniel M. Drumheller. The former of the brothers
came first to Walla Walla from The Dalles with the United States
troops in the War of 1855-6, as manager of transportation. When the
wars were ended he settled on the place now owned by Charles Whitney.
Subsequently he made his home for many years on the place west of
town known to all inhabitants of the region. The younger brother came
to the region in 1861 and located at what is still known as Hudson's
Bay, and from that time on the two were among the foremost in driving
stock in from the Willamette Valley and in extending their ranges
in all directions. Like so many others they were wiped out in the
hard winter of 1861-2, but nothing daunted, recognizing the superior
adaptability of the region they renewed their drives and within a few
years had stock, at first horses and cattle and then sheep, ranging
from Couse Creek in Umatilla County to the Snake River. One of their
greatest ranges was just north of the present Freewater and westward
to the present Umapine and Hudson's Bay. Besides the Drumhellers
some of the most prominent stockmen in that region ranging along the
state line were John Bigham, W. S. Goodman, the Fruits, Girards,
Shumways, Ingalls, and Fords. Nineveh Ford was one of the most noted
of early Oregon pioneers and coming in that early day into the upper
country became one of the permanent builders of Umatilla County. The
Berry and Cummings families were a little farther north. Among the
leaders in introducing a high grade of horses and cattle and later on
in farming on a large scale, as well as connected with every public
interest of importance, were the Resers, of whom the second and third
generations are present-day leaders in all phases of the life of
their communities. Their places were in the fertile foothill belt
southeast of Walla Walla. In the same general section were many others
whose main dependence at first was cattle, but who entered into the
raising of grain earlier than those in other sections, by reason of
the manifest advantages in soil and rainfall. Among such may be named
Daniel Stewart, Christian Meier, Stephen Maxson, Thomas McCoy, S. W.
Swezea, Orley Hull, Philip Yenney, Brewster Ferrel, James M. Dewar,
the McGuires, Sheltons, Copelands, Barnetts, and Fergusons. Two of the
prominent business men living in town might be mentioned as interested
in stock raising and doing much to promote it, Dr. D. S. Baker and John
Green. Among the most prominent pioneers in the section on Mill Creek,
who afterwards were leaders in grain raising, but like all others
turned their first attention to stock, were Robert Kennedy, W. S.
Gilliam, James Cornwell, J. M. Lamb, Joseph Harbert, E. G. Riffle, W.
J. Cantonwine, David Wooten, Thomas Gilkerson, J. Kibler and a little
later several leading families, those of Evans, Thomas, Kershaw, Lyons,
and Aldrich.

Another great section of the cattle ranges was on Dry Creek and
northward over the hills to and beyond the Touchet. Among the earliest
settlers in that region whose first business was stock raising, but who
afterward became pioneers a second time by entering into grain raising
were Jonathan Pettyjohn, W. W. Walter, John Marion, J. C. Smith, S. H.
Erwin, A. A. Blanchard and the Lamars. At a somewhat later date, but
among the most important of all the cattle men of the valley, now known
and honored by all in his advanced age, is Francis Lowden, whose ranges
were in the middle and lower valley, and whose son, Francis, Jr., has
become one of the leading meat market men in the Inland Empire. Mr.
Lowden imported the first high-grade cattle, Shorthorns, and that was
in 1864. Another growing center, at first for stock, then for farming,
then for fruit, and finally for towns, was the upper Touchet, of which
Waitsburg, Dayton, and Huntsville have become centers. As we have
stated earlier, some of the first locations were made on the Touchet.
The first settler at the junction of the Touchet and Coppei was Robert
Kennedy in 1859, but the next year he moved to his permanent place
near Walla Walla. During 1859 and the few years following there were
located, at first engaged in cattle raising, but soon to branch out
into farming, A. T. Lloyd, J. C. Lloyd, A. G. Lloyd, G. W. Loundagin,
George Pollard, James Woodruff, Isaac Levens, Joseph Starr, Luke
Henshaw, Martin Hober, Jefferson Paine, Philip Cox, W. P. Bruce and
Dennis Willard.

Farther up the Touchet, going on to the Patit and beyond in the
vicinity of the present Dayton, Henri M. Chase and P. M. La Fontain had
located before the great Indian wars, as already related. In the second
stage of settlement, beginning in 1859, F. D. Schneble and Richard
Learn upon the present location of Dayton, and near by Elisha Ping, J.
C. Wells, Thomas and Israel Davis, S. L. Gilbreath (Mrs. Gilbreath was
the first white woman to live in Columbia County), Jesse N. Day, Joseph
Ruark, Joseph Boise, G. W. Miller, John and James Fudge, and John and
Garrett Long, may be regarded as most distinctively the pioneers in the
stock business, proceeding on within a few years to the usual evolution
into farming and other branches of growing communities.

The region of what is now Garfield and Asotin counties had an early
history similar to that of the Walla Walla, Mill Creek, Touchet,
Coppei, and Patit regions, though not so complete. Settlers entered
during that same stage of the '60s and sought stations on the creeks
from which desirable cattle ranges extended. One of the earliest of all
settlers of the old Walla Walla County was Louis Raboin at the point
on the Tucanon now known as Marengo. Raboin might justly be called a
pioneer of the pioneers, not only in stock raising, but in everything.
Governor I. I. Stevens, in his report of railroad explorations,
mentions him as located with his Indian wife and six children on the
Tucanon, and the possessor of fifty horses and many cattle, and as
having four acres of land in which potatoes and wheat were growing.
The governor calls him Louis "Moragne'." According to Gilbert that
name, from which Marengo was derived, had a curious origin. It seems
that Raboin had been, like almost all the early French settlers of
the Inland Empire, engaged in the trapping business. He was of a
lively, active disposition and known by his comrades as "Maringouin"
(mosquito). This cognomen became corrupted by the English-speaking
people and finally became "Marengo."

Incoming settlers, seeking water courses for homes and bunch-grass
hills and prairies for stock ranges after the usual fashion, were not
long in discovering the best locations on the Pataha, Tucanon, Alpowa,
and Asotin, and small spring branches, and cabins and cattle began to
diversify that broad expanse through which Lewis and Clark had wandered
in 1806, and with which Bonneville and other fur hunters of the '30s
were delighted.

It was fully equal to the Touchet, Walla Walla, and Umatilla, with
their tributaries toward the west. The advance guard upon the Pataha
and the vicinity where Pomeroy now stands were Thomas Riley, James
Rafferty, James Bowers, Parson Quinn, J. M. Pomeroy, from whom the town
was named, Daniel McGreevy, and the brothers James and Walter Rigsby,
Joseph S. Milan, Henry Owsley, Charles Ward, and Newton Estes.

Among the streams on which early settlements were made was the Alpowa,
the pleasant sounding name of which signified in Nez Percé "Spring
Creek." H. M. Spalding, the missionary, made a station there among
the natives of the band of Red Wolf and in 1837 or 1838 planted apple
seeds from which some trees still exist. Timothy, famous in the
Steptoe campaign, in which he saved the command from destruction and
was afterwards rewarded after the usual fashion of the white race in
dealing with Indians by being deprived of a country, was located on the
Alpowa. His daughter was the wife of John Silcott of Lewiston, one of
the most noted of early settlers.

Asotin Creek, with its tributaries, at the eastern limit of the region
of which this history treats, is another section with a distinctive
life of its own. It is one of the most beautiful and productive
sections of this entire area, but being a little to one side of the
sweep of travel and settlement, having no railroads to this day, was
later of settlement than the other sections. Jerry McGuire is named as
the first permanent settler on the Asotin, though there were several
transients whom we will name later.

We will emphasize again that we are not trying here to name all the
settlers of these sections, but rather those who from continuity of
residence and subsequent connections become most illustrative of that
first stage of settlement.

[Illustration: CABIN BUILT BY M. PETTIJOHN IN 1858 Jonathan Pettijohn
is the man shown in the picture.]

A great impetus was given to the systematic development of the various
branches of the stock business by the entrance of certain firms of
dealers during the decade of the '70s. In Colonel Gilbert's history of
Walla Walla and other counties he presents valuable data secured from
the foremost of these dealers, as also one of the foremost of all the
citizens of Walla Walla, William K. Kirkman. After having been engaged
in Idaho and California in the cattle business, in the course of which
time he operated more or less in and out of Walla Walla, Mr. Kirkman
took up his permanent residence here in 1871. He formed a partnership
with John Dooley and from that time until the lamented death of the
two members of the firm they were one of the great forces in the
organization of the industry of marketing both livestock and dressed
meat. From the valuable data secured by Colonel Gilbert from Mr.
Kirkman and from Mr. M. Ryan, Jr., another prominent dealer, we gather
the estimate of 259,500 cattle driven out of the Inland Empire during
the period from 1875 to 1880. Prices were variable, ranging from $9 to
$25 per head, usually $10. W. H. Kirkman, son of W. K., relates this
interesting incident. He was, as a boy, riding with his father on the
range, when they encountered a number of extra fine fat cattle, and the
father, looking over them with delight said, "Look there, my boy, every
one of them is a $20 gold piece!" It might be added that those same
cattle now would be worth $100 apiece. It is surprising to see from the
exhibit given in the figures the large number of dealers operating in
the country at that time. There were no less than forty-five firms or
individuals engaged in shipping, mainly to Eastern markets, though a
considerable amount went to California, Portland, or Puget Sound.

It is of interest to see the enumeration by the assessor of the
quantity of stock given at two different dates following 1863, for
which the figures have already been given. In 1870 the assessment rolls
show the following: Horses, 5,787; mules, 1,727; cattle, 14,114; sheep,
8,767; hogs, 5,067. In 1875 a great change occurred of which we shall
speak at length, that is the division of the county, by which Walla
Walla County was reduced to its present limits. We may, therefore,
take that year as the proper one for final figures on the old county.
The year 1875, according to the assessor, had the following livestock
population: Horses, 8,862; mules, 401; cattle, 17,756 (there were
22,960 the previous year); sheep, 32,986; hogs, 8,150.

We find various local items strewn through the files of the _Statesman_
dealing with stock which are worthy of preservation. In issue of
January 10, 1862, mention is made of a steer handled by Lazarus and
brother, which weighed, dressed, 1,700 pounds.

A few weeks later it is stated that a cow and calf were sold for
$100. That will be remembered as the winter of the extreme cold
weather. There are numerous items speaking of suffering and loss of
stock. It was well nigh exterminated in some quarters. But it did not
take long to change appearances, at least in the cattle that lived
through the winter, for an item in the number of June 14 speaks of the
fattest cattle and best beef that the editor had ever seen, and of
the fact that large herds of cattle were going to the mining regions
of Salmon River and South Fork. It is estimated in the issue of
October 25, 1862, that 40,000 head of cattle had been brought into the
East-of-the-mountain country during the year.


PIONEER RACE TRACK

It appears that during the summer of 1862 a race track was laid out by
Mr. Porter at a point on the Wallula Road three miles west of town,
known as the Pioneer Race Course. A race is reported in the _Statesman_
of September 27, in which a roan mare won a purse of $100 from a cream
horse. That perhaps may be considered the beginning of the Walla Walla
Fair.

The sheep business seems to have moved on apace during those early
years, for in the paper of May 23, 1803, we learn that A. Frank & Co.
had just shipped 10,000 pounds of wool to Portland, and expected to
ship 7,000 more in a short time. Among the most prominent sheep men
whose operations have covered a field in many directions from Walla
Walla is Nathaniel Webb, one of the honored pioneers. In recent times,
operating especially in the Snake River region, leading sheep raisers
have been Davin Brothers, Adrian Magallon, and Leon Jaussaud, all
Frenchmen.


THE FARMING INDUSTRY

From stock we turn to farming as the next great fundamental industry
to take shape. We have already noted the fact that there was little
comprehension of the great upland region, rolling prairies and swelling
hills, as adapted to raising grain. Yet we know that Doctor Whitman
had demonstrated the practicability of producing all standard crops
during the ten years of his residence at Waiilatpu. Joseph Drayton of
the Wilkes Expedition speaks with surprise of his observations there
in 1841, seeing "wheat in the field seven feet high and nearly ripe,
and corn nine feet in the tassel." He also saw vegetables and melons in
great variety. The Hudson's Bay people had fine gardens near Wallula,
at the time of the arrival of the Whitmans in 1836, and later on at the
Touchet and on Hudson's Bay, as it is now known, southeast of Walla
Walla. They had abundant provision also for dairy and poultry purposes.

Hence farming and gardening and fruit raising had been abundantly
tested in the more favorably situated locations long prior to the
founding of Walla Walla. With the establishment of the Fort at its
present location, Capt. W. R. Kirkwood laid out a garden, the success
of which showed the utility of that location. The next year Charles
Russell, then the wagon master at the fort, tested the land north of
the post, afterwards owned by Mr. Drumheller, with eighty acres of
barley, securing a yield of fifty bushels to the acre. He raised 100
acres of oats on the place which he afterwards took up on Russell
Creek. The location must have been on the land now owned by O. M.
Richmond, and there is remarkable evidence of the productiveness of
that land in that it has produced nearly every year to the present. It
is worth relating that after Mr. Russell had sowed the oats the Indians
were so threatening that he abandoned the place, and cattle ate the
growing grain so closely that there seemed no hope of a crop. But in
June, the Indians having withdrawn, Mr. Russell went out and fenced
the field, the oats sprung up anew and yielded fifty bushels to the
acre. In the same year of 1858, Walter Davis seeded 150 acres to oats
at a place on Dry Creek. The Indians warned him to leave, but a squad
of soldiers went out and cut the oats for hay. In 1860 Stephen Maxson
raised a fine crop of wheat on the place on Russell Creek still owned
by his descendants.

Perhaps the operations of Messrs. Russell, Davis, and Maxson may be
considered the initiation of the grain production in the Inland Empire.
Probably there would have been but a slow development had not the
discovery of gold stimulated the demand for all sorts of agricultural
products.

In 1863 a few experiments on the higher land began. Milton Evans has
told the author that in that year he tried a small piece of wheat a few
miles northeast of Walla Walla, but that it was a complete failure,
and hence the impression already common was confirmed that the upland
was useless, except for grazing. In 1867, however, John Montague raised
a crop of oats, over fifty bushels to the acre, on land apparently
afterwards part of the Delaney place northeast of town. Even that was
not generally accepted as any proof of the use of the uplands. Some of
the old-timers have said to the author that they seemed determined that
grain should not grow on those lands.

But with the rapid influx of settlers and the flattering returns from
the trade in provisions with the mines, the more desirable places in
the foothill belt, and then on the benches and plains and then on the
hills, were taken up, and by 1875 it was generally understood that a
great wheat belt extended along the flanks of the Blue Mountains all
the way from Pendleton to Lewiston, with a somewhat variable width upon
the plains. Not until another decade was it understood that the grain
belt covered the major part of what now composes the four counties of
our story.

We find in the valuable history of Colonel Gilbert, to which we have
made frequent reference, so good a summary of certain essential data
in respect to the development to date of publication in 1882 of that
great fundamental business of wheat raising, in which are included also
certain allied data of importance, that we insert it at this point in
our narrative.

"An agricultural society was organized in July of this year, 1866,
by an assemblage of citizens at the courthouse, on the 9th of that
month, when laws and regulations were adopted, and the following
officers chosen: H. P. Isaacs, president; A. Cox and W. H. Newell, vice
presidents; J. D. Cook, treasurer; E. E. Rees, secretary; and Charles
Russell, T. G. Lee, A. A. Blanchard, executive committee. For the fair
to be held on the 4th, 5th and 6th of the ensuing October, the last
three gentlemen became managers and the following executive committee:
H. P. Isaacs, J. D. Cook, J. H. Blewett and W. H. Newell.

In 1867 the grain yield of the Blue Mountain region exceeded the
demand, and prices that had been falling for several years left
that crop a drug. It was sought to prevent an entire stagnation of
agricultural industries, by shipping the surplus down the Columbia
River to the seaboard. Freights on flour at that time were: From
Wallula per ton to Lewiston, $15; to The Dalles, $6; to Portland, $6;
and the following amounts were shipped:

To Portland, between May 27 and June 13, 4,156 barrels; to The Dalles,
between April 19 and June 2, 578 barrels; to Lewiston, between April 18
and May 14, 577 barrels; total to June 13 by O. S. N. Company, 5,311
barrels.

The same year Frank & Wertheimer shipped from Walla Walla 15,000
bushels of wheat down the Columbia, thus starting the great outflow of
bread products from the interior.

In 1868 Philip Ritz shipped fifty barrels of flour from the Phoenix
mills in Walla Walla to New York, with the following result: (It was
the first of Washington Territory products seen in the East.)

First cost of flour, $187.50; sacks for same, $27.00; transportation to
San Francisco, $100.00; freight thence to New York, $107.80; total cost
in gold, $422.30; profit realized on the transaction, $77.46, or $1.55
per barrel.

Wheat had fallen to 40 cents per bushel in Walla Walla because of the
following scale of expenses of shipping to San Francisco:

Freight per ton to Wallula, $6.00; thence to Portland, $6.00; thence
to San Francisco, $7.00; drayage, $1.50; commission, $2.00, $3.50;
primage and leakage, $1.00; bagging, $4.50, $5.50; total expense to San
Francisco, $28.00.

In 1869 there was a short crop, due to the drought and want of
encouragement for farmers to raise grain. June 14, a storm occurred of
tropical fierceness, during which a waterspout burst in the mountains,
and sent a flood down Cottonwood Cañon that washed away houses in the
valley. In consequence of the short crop, wheat rose to 80 cents per
bushel in Walla Walla, and flour to $5.50 per barrel. In November hay
brought $17 per ton, oats and barley 2 cents per pound, and butter
37-1/2 cents.

Having traced agricultural development from its start and through its
years of encouragement, till quantity exceeding the home demand had
rendered it a profitless industry in 1868 and 1869, let us glance at
the causes leading to a revival of inducements for tilling the soil in
the Walla Walla country. It should be borne in mind that the farmers in
the valley and along creeks nearer the mines than this locality, were
supplying the principal mountain demand, and the only hope left was
to send produce to tide water and thus to the world's market. What it
cost to do this had been tried with practical failure as a result. This
shipping to the seaboard was an experimental enterprise, and there was
not sufficient assurance of its paying to justify farmers in producing
quantities for that purpose, consequently not freight enough of this
kind to warrant the Oregon Steam Navigation Company in putting extra
steamers or facilities on the river to encourage it. The outlook was,
therefore, gloomy. This was a state of things which caused an agitation
of the railway question, resulting in the construction of what is more
familiarly known as Baker's Railroad, connecting Walla Walla with
navigable waters. The building of this road encouraged the farmers to
raise a surplus, it encouraged the Oregon Steam Navigation Company to
increase the facilities for grain shipment, it caused a reduction of
freight tariffs all along the line and made it possible for a farmer
to cultivate the soil at a profit. Something of an idea of the result
may be gathered from an inspection of the following exhibit of increase
from year to year, of freights shipped on Baker's Road to Wallula
en route for Portland. Between 1870 and 1874, down freights shipped
yearly at Wallula did not exceed 2,500 tons. In 1874 Baker's Road had
been completed to the Touchet, and carried freight from that point to
Wallula at $1.50 per ton. In 1875 it was completed to Frenchtown and
charged $2.50. Walla Walla rates averaged $4.50.

Freight tonnage from Touchet in 1874 to Wallula aggregated 4,021 tons;
in back freight, 1,126 tons; from Frenchtown in 1875 to Wallula, 9,155
tons; back freight, 2,192 tons; from Walla Walla in 1876 to Wallula,
15,266; back freight, 4,043; from Walla Walla in 1877 to Wallula,
28,806 tons; back freight, 8,368 tons; from Walla Walla in 1878 to
Wallula, 35,014 tons; back freight, 10,454." Such are Colonel Gilbert's
statements.

The estimated wheat production in the entire upper country in 1866
was half a million bushels, of which half was credited to the Walla
Walla Valley. From that time on to the present there has been a steady
development of wheat raising throughout the region south of Snake
River, as well as north and throughout the Inland Empire.

[Illustration: WHEAT HARVESTING IN WALLA WALLA COUNTY

Thirty-two horses. Combined harvesting and threshing. Ground too hilly
for tractors.]

In the decade of the '70s there came to Walla Walla a man destined to
leave upon the entire region the impress of one of the most remarkable
characters in far vision, noble aims, and philanthropic disposition
that ever lived within the State of Washington. We refer to Dr. N.
G. Blalock. Eminent in his profession, his ceaseless industry and
progressive aims did more perhaps than any other single life to broaden
and advance all phases of the section in which he lived and wrought.
He was the pioneer in wheat raising on large scale, as well as in many
other lines of activity and experiment. Making, though not retaining,
several fortunes, his life work was to mark out the way for others
less venturesome, to follow to success not alone in the acquirement
of wealth, but in the nobler and more enduring products of education,
philanthropy, patriotism, public service, and genuine piety. Coming
to Walla Walla in 1872 and entering at once upon an extensive medical
practice, Doctor Blalock had a vision of the future as well as the
capacity to utilize at once the varied opportunities offered by the
soil, the climate, and the location. He saw the splendid wild acres of
land by the thousands lying in all directions and determined to make
a thorough test of its adaptability to raise wheat on a large scale.
He made a bargain for a tract of 2,200 acres six miles south of Walla
Walla for a price of ten bushels of wheat per acre, to be paid from the
first crop. The expense of breaking so large a body of land was great,
but the first crop yielded thirty-one bushels per acre, a sufficient
demonstration of the capacity of the land.

In 1881 the crop on the tract averaged thirty-five and one-fourth
bushels, while 1,000 acres of it yielded 51,000 bushels. The acreage
and the yield, very carefully ascertained, was reported to the
Government and stood then, and probably does yet, as the largest yield
from that amount of land ever reported. Even more remarkable yields,
but on smaller areas, have been known. Milton Aldrich produced on his
Dry Creek ranch, on 400 acres, an average of sixty-six bushels of
wheat and the next year there was a volunteer crop of forty bushels.
Recently in the same vicinity Arthur Cornwell obtained an average of
seventy-three bushels per acre. A hundred and ten bushels of barley per
acre have been grown on the Gilkerson ranch on Mill Creek.

An item of historic interest may be found in an estimate of cost made
for a special number of the _Union_ during the first years of the
industry by Joseph Harbert, one of the most prominent pioneers and
successful farmers in the valley. The crop was on 400 acres, which
yielded 10,000 bushels of blue-stem wheat. At fifty cents per bushel
for the crop, this will be seen to represent a profit of about two
thousand three hundred dollars from land worth $12,000, or nearly
twenty per cent. from which, however, should come wages of management.

The land was summer fallowed in 1894 and valued at thirty dollars
per acre. The estimate is in a locality where water and material to
work with are reasonably convenient. The land is not very hilly and
comparatively easy to work. The report is as follows:

                                                    Mos.
  Itemized Expenses                          Crop  In. Pd.  Inst.    Total
  Planting, 90c per acre                  $ 360.00   20   $ 60.00  $ 420.00
  Harrowing, 11c per acre                    44.00   ..      7.83     51.83
  Plowing, second time, June, 1894          360.00   18     54.00    414.00
  Harrowing before sowing                    44.00   16      5.87     49.87
  500 bu. seed wheat, highest market price  250.00   ..      ....    250.00
  Cleaning seed wheat                         9.00   15      1.12     10.12
  125 lbs. vitriol at 6c                      7.50   ..       .94      8.44
  Using vitriol on wheat                      8.00   ..      1.00      9.00
  Sowing, October, 1894, 15c per acre        60.00   14      7.00     67.00
  Harrowing after sowing, 11c                44.00   ..      5.14     49.14
  Cutting, $1.00 per acre                   400.00    4     13.33    413.33
  4,400 sacks, $49.00 per M                 215.60   ..      7.18    222.78
  Thirty pounds of twine, 33-1/3c            10.00   ..       .33     10.33
  Threshing 10,000 bushels, 4-1/2c          450.00   ..     15.00    465.00
  Hauling to railroad, 2-1/2c per sack      110.00   ..      3.66    113.66
  Warehouse charges to Jan. 1, 1896         120.00   ..      ....    120.00
                                          --------   --  --------  --------
  Total cost                             $2,492.10   ..   $182.40 $2,674.50

It may be added that estimates of cost by a number of prominent farmers
in the period of 1890 and thereabouts, indicated that the expense of
sowing, seeding, harvesting, and putting into the warehouse, ran from
twenty-one to forty cents a bushel, varying according to locality,
yield, and other conditions.

At a usual price of fifty or sixty cents a bushel, there was not a
large margin above the interest on investment, maintenance of stock,
machinery, improvements, and taxes. Nevertheless the farmers of this
section felt every encouragement to continue, unless it were in the
evil harvest year of 1893-4, when the price ran about twenty-five
to thirty-five cents a bushel, and when rains, floods, strikes, and
general calamity threatened to engulf, and did actually engulf some
of the best farms. It is a historical fact that had it not been for
the liberality of the banks in the four counties south of Snake River,
which held obligations from a large number of the best-known farmers,
there would have been widespread disaster. Thanks to the banks, as
well as to the persistence and fortitude of the farmers and the solid
resources of the country, these counties emerged from those years of
depression with less injury and repaired their losses more quickly than
any other section of the entire Northwest, or perhaps of the whole
country.

It may be added in connection with cost of wheat raising, that within
the years since the opening of the present century there has been an
enormous outlay by farmers in all kinds of farm machinery, the combines
having become the usual means of harvesting, and traction engines for
the combines and to some degree for plowing having superseded horse
power. But cost of labor and general rise of prices have pushed up
expenses, until now the most of farmers would estimate the cost of a
bushel of wheat at fifty cents or more, some say even a dollar. As
an offset to this there has come a great advance in price, insomuch
that the farmers of Walla Walla and its sister counties have become
the lords of the land. One of the most pleasing results of this new
order of things is that the farmers, being almost entirely free from
debt, have begun to build comfortable and even elegant homes, both
on the farms and in the cities and to surround themselves with the
conveniences of life, as automobiles, and to spend money in travel
and luxuries which make some of the old-timers, accustomed to the
deprivations of pioneer days, open their eyes with wonder, and possibly
even disapproval. It is not observable, however, that the young folks
on the farms have any backwardness in utilizing the good things of life
which are the logical consummation of the foresight and industry of
parents and grandparents. It is probable that no people in the United
States have more reliable and steady incomes and greater sources for
all the needs and enjoyments of life than do the farmers of old Walla
Walla County.

The experience of other sections was similar to that of the region
immediately around Walla Walla. The first thought was of stock ranges,
with such small patches of farming land adjacent to the creeks as
might supply the family needs. It is stated that Elisha Ping and G. W.
Miller raised crops of wheat and oats on the present site of Dayton in
1860. For the oats they received seven cents a pound and for the wheat
two dollars a bushel. The location of the subsequent Dayton became a
regular station on the stage line from Walla Walla to Lewiston, and
that fact led J. M. Pomeroy, a little later the founder of the town
named for him, to raise a crop of barley for horse feed. That was in
1863. As time passed on, and especially after the founding of flouring
mills by S. M. Wait, there came a general movement to raise grain crops
on the hills and plains and it was discovered, as a little earlier
around Walla Walla, that the entire region was the very home land for
grain. Within a few years it was found that barley of especially fine
quality and heavy yield was one of the best crops, and Columbia County
has become the center of barley production. Almost the entire county,
with the exception of the timbered mountain belt, has become a grain
field. Within recent years the region around and particularly east of
Dayton has become the leading center of corn production.

Garfield and Asotin counties repeated the experience of Walla Walla
and Columbia; first stock ranges, then a few acres along the creeks as
an experiment, soon the breaking up of the rich sod on the high plains
and flats; and within a few years, a perfect ocean of waving grain over
the greater part of the area. The first settlers already named in the
section of this chapter on stock raising were the pioneers also in the
wheat business, as the Rigsby brothers, J. M. Pomeroy, James Bowers,
Parson Quinn, and others. Garfield and Asotin counties are in general
more elevated than Walla Walla and Columbia, and their frontage on
Snake River is more abrupt. This has given rise, first to a margin of
ideal fruit and garden land between the river and the bluffs, which in
case of Asotin is of considerable breadth, and in case of both of them
has raised the question of conveying grain from the high plateaus to
the river. In some places this has given rise to contrivances which are
a great curiosity to strangers, the "grain-chutes" and "bucket lines,"
as devices to lower the grain from warehouses on the precipitous
bank, sometimes eighteen hundred feet above the steamer landing.
There is not yet a railroad on the south bank of Snake River, and
water transportation is the only available means of getting the vast
quantities of grain from those high prairies near the river to market.

Items appear in the various issues of the _Statesman_ during the first
years of its existence in regard to grain raising which possess great
historical interest. An editorial appears in the issue of February 1,
1862, urging farmers to go into grain raising extensively and declaring
that all the indications point to a demand from the mines for all kinds
of farm products.

An advertisement for supplies at the Fort on July 19 calls for 375 tons
of oats, 100 tons of oat straw, and 1,200 cords of wood. Mention is
also made in the paper of the farm of J. W. Shoemaker a short distance
below the garrison, where grain to the value of $3,000, and garden
produce to the value of $1,500, was raised.


FLOUR MILLING

One of the most important features of industry allied to grain
production was flour milling. The first flour mill was erected in
1859 by A. H. Reynolds in partnership with J. A. Sims and Capt. F. T.
Dent, the latter being a brother of Mrs. U. S. Grant. It was located
on the land then owned by Jesse Drumheller, now part of the Whitney
place. In the issue of March 29, 1862, is an advertisement of the Pasca
Mills by Sims and Mix, which must have been the same mill built by Mr.
Reynolds. In 1862 Mr. Reynolds built another mill, known as the Star
Mill, on the Yellowhawk, near the present residence of his son, H. A.
Reynolds. This was subsequently acquired by W. H. Gilbert. Mention is
made in the _Statesman_ of August 2, 1862, of the flour mill of J. C.
Isaacs. Apparently this is a confusion in name of the brothers, as the
author is credibly informed that the mill opened at that time was the
Excelsior mill built by H. P. Isaacs, subsequently the leading mill
man of the Walla Walla country and one of the leaders in all forms of
enterprise. The name Excelsior was later replaced by North Pacific. It
was located on the mill race, whose remains still cross Division Street
and was actively employed until about 1895. There is an advertisement
in the _Statesman_ of March 21, 1863, to the effect that Graham flour
and corn meal were being turned out at Mr. Reynolds' mill. In the
number of March 31, 1865, is the announcement that Kyger and Reese,
who were among the most extensive general merchants in Walla Walla,
had leased the water power and site of E. H. Barron just below town on
Mill Creek and were making ready to install a first-class mill, having
three run of four-foot burrs and a capacity of 150 barrels a day. The
firm were also establishing a distillery. It would seem that the latter
manufactory was in larger demand than the former, for it was completed
sooner. The mill, however, began grinding in October of that year.
That mill became the property of Andrew McCalley in 1873, and after
his death in 1891 was maintained by his sons until the property was
lost by fire in 1897. One of the most important mills of the valley
was that built by Messrs. Ritz and Schnebly about a quarter of a mile
below the McCalley mill, known first as the Agate and then as the
Eureka, conducted for some time by W. C. Painter, then sold to Welch
and Schwabacher, and in turn disposed of by them in 1880 to Dement
Brothers, and managed up to the present time by F. S. Dement. The mill
is now known as Dement Brothers' mill and is one of the most extensive
in the Inland Empire, making a specialty of choice breakfast cereals
and through them as well as its high-grade flour carrying the name of
Walla Walla, Wash., around the globe.

The mills on the Touchet speedily followed those on Mill Creek. S.
M. Wait, from whom the beautiful little city at the junction of the
Touchet and the Coppei took its name, was the pioneer mill man as well
as the founder of the town. The _Statesman_ of June 2, 1865, mentions
the fact that Mr. Wait's mill was just open and that it was one of the
best equipped in the country and produced a grade of flour equal to
the best from Oregon. A town soon began to grow at the location of the
mill. Mr. Wait sold the mill to Preston Brothers and the stock to Paine
Brothers and Moore of Walla Walla. The latter firm acquired an interest
in the mill, but subsequently disposed of all their holdings to Preston
Brothers, under whom the mill became one of the largest mill properties
in the Northwest, being connected with large mills at Athena, Ore., and
elsewhere, and under the more recent management of Messrs. Shaffer,
Harper, and Leonard, conducting one of the most extensive milling lines
in the country.

[Illustration: NORTH PACIFIC MILLS (ISAAC'S MILL) WALLA WALLA

First rolling mill on the Pacific coast. Erected in 1862. Capacity
two hundred and fifty barrels. Many mills were erected before this,
but this was the first to introduce rollers instead of the old mill
stone.]

Mr. Wait inaugurated also the milling business in what is now Columbia
County. Going to that region in 1871 where Jesse N. Day, from whom
Dayton was named, had been endeavoring since 1864 to launch a town
with but scanty success, Mr. Wait proposed to build a mill, provided
inducements were offered. Mr. Day accordingly agreed to give five acres
of land as a site, with a block of land for residences, and upon that
Mr. Wait and William Metzger proceeded to launch the milling business
at Dayton. In building that mill, with a brick building for a store
and a planing mill, Messrs. Wait and Metzger laid out about $25,000, a
large amount for those days. At the same time the Dayton Woolen Mill
was undertaken, A. H. Reynolds being chief owner, F. S. Frary the
secretary and manager and Mr. Wait the president of the company. The
woolen mill had a land site of seven acres donated by John Mustard and
a building was erected at a cost of $40,000. The new town of Dayton
was booming in consequence of these investments. The flour mill proved
a great success and with various changes of ownership is now one of
the great mill properties of the country, but the woolen mill, from
which so much was expected, did not prove a financial success and was
closed in 1880. It is rather a curious fact that no one of the woolen
enterprises in the Inland Empire has met with large success except that
at Pendleton, Ore., the success of which has been so great that it is a
puzzle that others have mainly failed.

The great development of wheat raising in what is now Garfield County
led, as elsewhere in the region, to flouring mills. The pioneer mill at
Pomeroy was started in 1877 by W. C. Potter and completed the following
year by Mr. Pomeroy.

Three miles above Pomeroy and for some years a rival to the lower town
was Pataha City. It was on land taken up at first by James Bowers in
1861 and acquired in 1868 by A. J. Favor, who undertook a few years
later to start a town. In pursuance of his plans he offered land for
mill sites, and as a result J. N. Bowman and George Snyder constructed
a mill in 1878. Subsequently John Houser became the great mill man of
that entire section and his mill became one of the most widely known
in the Inland Empire. He made a specialty of shipping flour to San
Francisco for the manufacture of macaroni, the large percentage of
gluten in the wheat of that region fitting it especially for that use.
The son of Mr. Houser, Max Houser, going to Portland in about 1908,
has become known the world over as the most daring and extensive wheat
buyer on the Pacific Coast and has acquired a fortune estimated at six
millions. The pioneer flouring mill of Asotin was built in 1881 at the
town of that name by Frank Curtis and L. A. Stimson. The town itself
upon one of the most beautiful of locations on Snake River, with the
magnificent wheat fields of the Anatone flats on the high lands to
the south and west, and a superb belt of fruit land extending down the
river and broadening out at Clarkston, was laid out in 1878.

Other mills were established at later dates, of which the most
extensive were the mill at Prescott, erected by H. P. Isaacs in 1883,
the City mill on Palouse Street in Walla Walla, built in 1898 by Scholl
Brothers; Long's mill, a few miles below Dayton; the Corbett mill at
Huntsville.

In summarizing grain raising as the leading industry of old Walla
Walla County it may be said that for several years past the total
production for the four counties has been about 12,000,000 bushels
per year. The value has, of course, varied much according to price.
It is conservatively estimated that the value of the grain crops,
including flour and feed in various manufactured forms for 1916, was
approximately $15,000,000.


GARDENS AND ORCHARDS

As grain raising put a finer point upon industry than its predecessor,
stock raising, so in turn the gardens and orchards have yet more
refined and differentiated the forms of industry and the developments
of life in the growing communities of our story. As already related
these lines of production had been tested by the Hudson's Bay Company
and by the missionaries, Whitman and Spalding. It was, therefore, to
be expected that even in the first years of settlement some attempts
would be made to start orchards and gardens. The first nursery in
Walla Walla seems to have been laid out in 1859 on the Ransom Clark
donation claim on the Yellowhawk. In 1859 trees were set out on the J.
W. Foster place. It is said that Mr. Foster brought his trees here on
muleback over the Cascade Mountains. We are informed by Charles Clark
of Walla Walla that most of Mr. Foster's trees were secured from Ransom
Clark. In 1860 A. B. Roberts set out an orchard within the present
city limits of Walla Walla on what later became the Ward place. In
1861 a notable step in fruit raising was taken by the coming of one
of the most important of all the great pioneers of the Inland Empire.
This was Philip Ritz. We find in the _Statesman_ of December 5, 1861,
announcement that Mr. Ritz had arrived with a supply of trees from his
nursery at Glen Dale near Corvallis, Ore., and that the trees were for
sale at the store of John Wright. Subsequent items in the _Statesman_
furnish an interesting exposition of the progress of both gardens and
orchards. The _Statesman_ was wide awake as usual to the needs of
the country and did not fail to exhort the citizens of Walla Walla
to prepare for the demand which it was sure would come. On March 29,
1862, mention was made of the fact that green fruit, presumably apples,
from the Willamette Valley, was selling for from twenty to fifty cents
per pound. The paper expresses surprise that farmers are so slow
about setting out trees. On June 21, 1862, it was announced with much
satisfaction that scarcely had the snow from that extremely cold winter
melted before there were radishes, lettuce, onions, and rutabagas
brought in from foot hill gardens, and that there were new potatoes in
the market by June 14th. The issue of July 26th notes the fact of green
corn in abundance and that of August 2d declares that the corn was
equal to that of the Middle Western States, and that fine watermelons
were in the market. August 16th is marked by thanks to G. W. Shoemaker
for a fine watermelon and the statement that there were others to come
that would weigh forty pounds. In the number of August 30th it appears
that Mr. Shoemaker brought to the office a muskmelon weighing eighteen
pounds, and in the same issue is an item about a 103-pound squash
raised by S. D. Smith. John Hancock is credited on September 6th with a
watermelon of thirty-three pounds. Complaint is made, however, in the
same number, of the fact that there is a meager supply of apples, plums
and pears from the Willamette, and that the apples sell for twenty-five
cents apiece, or fifty cents a pound. The _Statesman_ of September 27th
has the story of Walter Davis of Dry Creek sending a squash of a weight
of 134-1/2 pounds and twelve potatoes of a weight of twenty-nine pounds
to the Oregon State Fair at Salem. Lamentable to narrate it appears
later that these specimens of Walla Walla gardening disappeared. The
_Statesman_ indulges in some bitter scorn over the kind of people on
the other side who would steal such objects. In an October number
mention is made that James Fudge of Touchet had brought in three
potatoes weighing eight pounds. In the _Statesman_ of December 20th is
an item to the effect that Philip Ritz has a large assortment of trees
and shrubs at the late residence of J. S. Sparks. It is also stated
that Mr. Ritz is going to try sweet potatoes. In the issue of January
17, 1863, is the statement that Mr. Ritz had purchased land of Mr.
Roberts for a nursery. In successive numbers, beginning February 28th,
is Mr. Ritz's advertisement of the Columbia Valley nursery, the value
of the stock of which is stated at $10,000. It seems to have been an
extraordinary stock for the times, and the enterprise and industry of
Mr. Ritz became a great factor in the development of the fruit business
as well as many other things. There are several interesting items later
on in 1863, showing that gardening, particularly the raising of onions,
was advancing rapidly. In the spring of 1865 A. Frank & Co. shipped
40,000 pounds of onions to Portland. In the _Statesman_ of July 4,
1863, it is stated that John Hancock had corn fifteen feet high. During
1863 and 1864 there was much experimenting with sorghum. T. P. Denny is
mentioned as having brought a bottle of fine sorghum syrup, and it is
stated that Mr. Ritz was experimenting with Chinese and Imphee sugar
cane. Mr. Ritz was succeeding well with sweet potatoes, and a fine
quality of tobacco was being produced. The biggest potato story was
of a Mechannock potato from Mr. Kimball's garden on Dry Creek, which
weighed four and one-half pounds. In several numbers in September,
1863, mention is made of delicious peaches brought in by A. H. Reynolds.

In short, it was well demonstrated that conditions were such that it
might be expected that Walla Walla would become, and it has for some
years been known as, the "Garden City."

In the '60s and '70s a considerable amount of land south and west
of Walla Walla was brought into use for gardening, and in various
directions orchards were set out. One of the finest was that of W.
S. Gilliam on Dry Creek. Everything looked encouraging for fruit
raising at that early day, but in 1883 there came a bitter cold day,
twenty-nine degrees below zero, far colder than ever known at any other
time in Walla Walla, a most disastrous dispensation of nature, for many
orchards, especially peaches and apricots, perished.


FIVE REGIONS

Broadly speaking, it may be said that there are five regions in Old
Walla Walla County which have become important centers of fruit raising
and intensive farming in general, since fruit raising, gardening,
dairying, and poultry raising have to varying degrees gone right along
together. The first in age and extent is the region immediately around
Walla Walla; the second that of Clarkston and down the Snake River to
Burbank; the third that on the Touchet from Dayton to Prescott; the
fourth the long narrow valley of the Tucanon; and the fifth that on the
lower Walla Walla from Touchet and Gardena to the Columbia and thence
through Attalia and Two Rivers to Burbank at the mouth of Snake River.
There are, of course, some excellent orchards and gardens in portions
not covered in this enumeration, and it is also proper to say that the
most productive and compact single body of country is that portion of
the Walla Walla Valley south of the state line extending to Milton, Ore.

It is impossible within our limits to describe these different areas
in detail. Each has some distinctive features. The youngest and least
developed is that of the lower Walla Walla and the Columbia River. By
reason of great heat and aridity and long growing season, that region
is peculiarly adapted to grape culture and melon raising. Alfalfa
produces four and five cuttings and the prospect for successful
dairying is flattering. The expense of reclaiming the land and
maintaining irrigating systems is high, but when fairly established
it may be expected to be one of the most attractive and productive
sections.

The Walla Walla section has had the advantage of time and population
and in the nature of the case has become most highly developed. In
garden products Walla Walla asparagus, onions, and rhubarb may be said
to be champions in the markets of the country. One of the important
features of Walla Walla gardening is the Walla Walla hothouse vegetable
enterprise on the river, five miles west of the city, conducted by F.
E. Mojonnier. This is the largest hothouse in the Inland Empire and,
with one exception, in the entire Northwest. It has two and a half
acres under glass and does a business of thousands of dollars with the
chief markets north and east.

In orchards Walla Walla, while not in general in the same class
for quantity with Yakima and Wenatchee, has the distinction of
possessing two of the largest and perhaps most scientifically planted
and cultivated orchards in the entire state; the Blalock and the
Baker-Langdon orchards. The latter contains 680 acres of apples, is on
sub-irrigated land of the best quality, and may be considered the last
word in orchard culture. The manager, John Langdon, reports for 1917,
200,000 boxes, or about three hundred car loads, worth on cars at Walla
Walla, at present prices, about three hundred thousand dollars. It is
anticipated that when in full bearing at the age of twelve to fourteen
years, the yield will be 1,000,000 boxes. Doctor Blalock was the great
pioneer in fruit raising, as in grain-raising, on a large scale. The
story of his carrying on the gigantic enterprise with inadequate
resources to a triumphant conclusion, though not himself being able to
retain possession, is one of the greatest stories in the Inland Empire.

The Touchet belt may be said to be distinguished by its special
adaptability to high grade apples of the Rome Beauty and Spitzenberg
varieties as well as by the extraordinary and profitable production.
In that belt are two orchards which while not remarkable for size have
had about the most remarkable history of any in the state. These are
the Pomona orchard of J. L. Dumas and that of J. D. Taggard between
Waitsburg and Dayton. There are a number of other orchards of high
grade in the Touchet Valley, and it may be anticipated that within a
few years that rich and beautiful expanse will be a continuous orchard.
Conditions of soil and climate make it ideal for apple-raising.

[Illustration: VIEW OF A WALLA WALLA COUNTY ORCHARD]

[Illustration: PICKING FRUIT IN OLD WALLA WALLA COUNTY]

The valley of the Tucanon, a ribbon of fertile soil deep down in the
timbered heights of the Blue Mountains and lower down its course
surrounded by the wide flats and benches of Garfield and Columbia
counties, is the natural home for berries and "truck" of all sorts. The
strawberries and melons are of the finest. The sparkling stream--one of
the finest fishing streams by the way affords limitless opportunity for
easy and economical irrigating and the soil is of the best, even in a
region where good soil is no curiosity.

The Snake River section, extending down the western and southern
bank of the river from Asotin, with frequent breaks on account of
the bluffy shores, its largest expansion being at Clarkston, with
considerable areas at Alpowa, Kelly's Bar, Ilia and other points, is
a unique region. We shall speak at greater length of the Clarkston
and Asotin regions, but it may be said in general terms that the
long narrow belt of land bordering the river, having its counterpart
on the opposite side in Whitman County, has long been recognized as
the very homeland of the peach, apricot, nectarine, grape, berries
of all sorts, and melons. It is of low elevation, from seven hundred
and fifty feet at Asotin to about four hundred at Page. It is almost
semi-tropical in climate, its products getting into market nearly as
early as those from Central California. Injurious frosts in blossom
time are almost unknown. The soil is a soft warm friable volcanic ash
with loam surface. Though there is no railroad and not even continuous
wagon roads on the river bank, there are numerous points of approach
down the valleys and coulees entering the river, and the stream itself
affords water navigation for large steamers about half the year, and
for small boats at all times. With the system of canalization now in
contemplation by the Government the river will become continuously
navigable throughout the year and will possess infinite possibilities
both for power and navigation. It should also be stated here that
Asotin County has a larger acreage in fruit trees than any other of the
four counties.


SUMMARY OF RECENT PRODUCTION

While we shall speak of certain special features of each section in our
descriptive chapter covering the present time, we may properly give
here a summary of recent production for the four counties.

The reader is asked to recall the earlier figures in order that he
may form a proper conception of the change wrought. We present here
the figures preserved in the office of the Commercial Club of Walla
Walla for the year 1916. They are given in round numbers, but may be
considered reliable and conservative.

      Production, 1916                                  Value to Growers
  Wheat--11,000,000 bushels                                  $12,100,000
  Barley--1,300,000 bushels                                      910,000
  Corn--250,000 bushels                                          200,000
  Alfalfa--140,000 tons                                        1,800,000
  Apples--1,000,000 boxes                                      1,000,000
  Prunes--5,000 tons                                             200,000
  Cherries--800 tons                                              80,000
  Onions--260,000 sacks                                          322,500
  Asparagus--500 tons                                             50,000
  Miscellaneous, including hay other than alfalfa, vegetables
    other than onions and asparagus                               600,000
  Livestock, dairy products, poultry, wool, flour and chop       8,000,000
  Total agricultural, horticultural, and stock products         25,262,500

The United Staten census report for 1910 gives a population for the
four counties of 49,003. H we allow for 10 per cent increase in 1916,
we shall have approximately fifty-four thousand people in Old Walla
Walla County. The year 1916 represents, therefore, a gross income
of nearly $468 for each man, woman, and child in the area. This, it
most of course be observed, is the income from the soil, and takes no
account of the earnings of the manufacturing, mercantile, professional,
and laboring classes. It is safe to say that few regions in the United
States or the world can match such an income representing the absolute
increase in wealth taken right from the earth. It is no wonder that the
farmers of our four counties have automobiles and household luxuries
galore, and when harvest time is over take trips to California,
Honolulu, or "back East," or, before the war, to Europe. It is of
interest to add here the approximate areas in cultivation in the four
counties. It was reported in 1916 as follows:

  Grain lands, in hearing and in summer-fallow--
    Walla Walla County                               500,000 acres
    The other counties                               500,000 acres
  Fruit lands--
    Asotin County                                      3,500 acres
        (Note: An underestimate of Asotin County.)
    Walla Walla County                                  2,690 acres
    Columbia County                                     1,045 acres
    Garfield County                                       525 acres


MANUFACTURING

We have confined our attention thus far to what might be regarded as
the natural fundamental industries of stock raising, farming, and
horticulture.

But along with those essential industries to which the country was
naturally adapted, there went of necessity some mercantile and
manufacturing enterprises. Later on the professional classes became
interrelated to all the others. While the region covered by our four
counties is not naturally a manufacturing country, yet from the first
there have been those whose tastes and interests have lead them to
mechanical pursuits. In a growing community where the foundation
products are those of the soil and yet where the building arts are in
constant demand there must necessarily be some manufacturing. Most of
the enterprises of that nature in this section have been connected
either with building materials or with agricultural implements.
Saw-mills came in almost with the dawn of civilized life. Hence we are
not surprised to find that the first pioneer in Walla Walla, Dr. Marcus
Whitman, built a sawmill. That mill was on Mill Creek, apparently
nearly where the present Shemwell place is located. As is not known to
many there was a small saw-mill on the grounds of the United States
Fort. The flume ran nearly along the present course of Main Street and
the mill was on the northern edge of the military reservation opposite
Jesse Drumheller's residence. Doubtless it was those mills which
gave our beautiful creek its unfortunate name, in place of the more
attractive native name of Pasca or Pashki, "sunflower."

The _Statesman_ of December 13, 1861, notices the building of a
saw-mill on the Coppei by Anderson Cox, one of the foremost of the
early citizens of Walla Walla, who also had large interests in and
around Waitsburg. Another prominent old-timer, W. H. Babcock, is
reported in the issue of June 2, 1865, as having purchased a saw-mill
on the Walla Walla. One of the earliest sawmills, built at the close of
1862, was on Mill Creek in Asotin. There were various little mills in
the timber land of the Blue Mountains. In the '80s Dr. N. G. Blalock
and a little later Dr. D. S. Baker inaugurated the business of fluming
from the mountains to Walla Walla. In the case of the former this was
a calamitous business venture, but the latter with his usual sound
judgment made a great success of the enterprise.

The most extensive lumbering business of Walla Walla in the
earlier days was that still known by the corporate name of the
Whitehouse-Crawford Co. This company was founded in 1880 by Messrs.
Cooper and Smuck. In 1888 G. W. Whitehouse and D. J. Crimmins became
chief owners, though Mr. Cooper retained his connection with the
business. In 1905 J. M. Crawford acquired the business, being joined
by his brother J. T. Crawford, in 1909. The business has become very
extensive, having numerous branches, with the general name Tum-a-Lum
Lumbering Co. There have been established in more recent years the
Walla Walla Lumber Co., the Oregon Lumber Co., and the Bridal Veil
Lumber Co., all doing large lines of business.

A large amount of capital has been invested in the manufacturing of
agricultural machinery. The most extensive establishment in these
lines in Walla Walla was the Hunt Threshing Factory founded in 1888
by Gilbert Hunt and Christopher Ennis, who purchased the machine shop
of Byron Jackson, which became the property of Mr. Hunt in 1891. The
special output of the factory was the "Pride of Washington Separator,"
but subsequently iron work and belting and wind mills and other lines
were added. Owing to financial difficulties precipitated by the hard
times beginning in 1907 this great establishment, which employed from
seventy-five to a hundred men, was obliged to close its doors.

For a number of years the northwestern branch of the Holt Harvester
Works, of which Benjamin Holt was manager, was located in Walla Walla.
It conducted an immense business, particularly in the "side-hill"
harvester and in tractors. The main northern house is now located in
Spokane, while the Walla Walla branch is managed by E. L. Smith and Co.

Among the other manufacturing enterprises worthy of larger notice
than our space permits may be named the Brown-Lewis Corporation, the
Ringhoffer Brothers Saddle-tree Factory, the Webber Tannery, the
Washington Weeder Works, the Walla Walla Iron Works, and the Cox-Bailey
Manufacturing Co., now succeeded by separate enterprises of the two
partners. From a historical point of view the iron foundry conducted
by J. L. Roberts during the decade of the '90s was one of the most
conspicuous industries. The foundry business was later conducted by the
Hunt Company.

It will give a view of the distribution of business houses and
industries to insert here the tabulation of these on file in the
Commercial Club office.


TRADES, PROFESSIONS AND MISCELLANEOUS CALLINGS

  Accountants (public)                       4
  Apartment houses                           8
  Architects                                 3
  Banks                                      5
  Bakeries                                   6
  Barber shops                              20
  Bowling alleys                             2
  Blacksmith shops                          10
  Bottling works                             2
  Coal and wood yards                        7
  Contractors and builders (all kinds)      33
  Dentists                                  20
  Doctors--a--physicians and surgeons       27
      b--Osteopaths                          6
      c--Chiropractors                       3
  Dressmakers and fitters                   24
  Electricians                               5
  Electric light plants                      1
  Garages                                   14
  Gas plants                                 1
  Hospitals and sanatoriums                  3
  Hotels                                     4
  Lawyers                                   24
  Liveries--a--horse                         3
      b--Auto                                3
  Machine shops                              5
  Moving picture theaters                    4
  Newspapers                                 4
  Painter and paper hangers                  4
  Plumbing shops                             4
  Pool and billiard halls                    6
  Photograph galleries                       4
  Printing offices                           4
  Real estate dealers                       31
  Restaurants                               22
  Rooming houses
  Shoe repair shops                          6
  Tailor shops                              12

  Tin shops                                  3
  Undertakers                                3
  Veterinarians                              4

[Illustration: KING DAVID TREES, THREE YEARS OLD, TRAVIS]

WHOLESALE HOUSES

  Commission (fruit and produce)             4
  Grain dealers                             19
  Groceries                                  2
  Alfalfa mills                              2
  Brick yards                                1
  Broom factories                            1
  Candy factories                            4
  Cement or concrete stone manufacturing     1
  Cereal mills                               2
  Cigar factories                            4
  Cold storage plants                        1
  Creameries                                 2
  Cheese factories                           2
  Feed mills                                 2
  Flour mills                                3
  Foundries                                  3
  Fruit drying plants                        2
  Ice manufacturers                          1
  Laundries                                  3
  Lumber yards                               9
  Monument manufacturers                     2
  Green houses                               3
  Packing Houses--Meat                       1
  Fruit                                      3
  Pickle works                               1
  Sash and door factories and planing mills  3
  Stone quarries                             1
  Tile factories                             1
  Vinegar manufacturers                      2
  Wagon and vehicle manufacturers            2
  Warehouses (grain)                         4
  Saddle tree factory                        1
  Self Oiling Wheel & Bearing Co.            1

RETAIL STORES

  Automobile                                12
  Book and stationery                        3
  Cigar                                     21
  Clothing                                   7
  Confectionery                              3
  Department                                 3
  Drug                                       8
  Dry goods                                  8
  Electrical  supply                         3
  Flour and feed                             3
  Furniture                                  4
  General                                    2
  Grocery                                   35
  Hardware                                   6
  Harness and saddlery                       6
  Implement                                  5
  Jewelry                                    5
  Meat                                       5
  Millinery                                  8
  Shoe                                       8
  Variety--5 and 10 cent                     2
  Ladies' suits and cloaks                   2

Perhaps no one business fact is so good a commentary on the financial
condition of a community as the bank deposits.

The banks of Walla Walla have had during the year 1917 an average of
seven million dollars deposits. On January 1, 1918, deposits exceeded
eight millions.

As we shall see, the banks of the other cities of the district have
similar or even greater amounts in proportion to population. It would
doubtless be safe to estimate the bank deposits of the four counties at
eleven million dollars, or over two hundred dollars per capita.

As a means of indicating the financial status of Walla Walla, with
Garfield and Columbia counties, the following clipping from a local
paper of October 16, 1917, will be of permanent value:

"Announcement of the official allotment of Liberty loan bonds to each
bank in the Walla Walla district comprising Garfield, Columbia and
Walla Walla counties, was made for the first time last evening by P.
M. Winans, chairman of the executive committee, following receipt of
a telegram from the Federal Reserve Bank at San Francisco, giving the
total minimum and maximum allotments for this district. As soon as
these figures were learned the allotments for each of the fourteen
banks in the district were figured on a basis of deposits at the last
federal call.

"The minimum allotment for the district was placed by the Federal
Reserve Bank at $1,483,000 and the maximum allotment at $2,457,842.
From the way the campaign has been going it will require every energy
to raise the minimum, which is 50 per cent more than the allotment for
the district for the first Liberty bond issue.

"This time Walla Walla County alone must subscribe $1,044,000 or as
much as the entire district subscribed for the first loan. The City
of Walla Walla must subscribe $874,000 to report the minimum desired.
Columbia County must subscribe $240,000 and Garfield County $199,000."


BANK ALLOTMENTS

The official allotment which each of the fourteen banks of the district
was expected to subscribe among its customers, follows:

  Walla Walla--
    First National Bank           $235,000
    Baker-Boyer National Bank      243,000
    Third National Bank            109,000
    Peoples State Bank             135,000
    Farmers Savings Bank           152,000
  Touchet State Bank, Touchet        7,000
  First State Bank, Prescott        12,000
  First National Bank, Waitsburg   121,000
  Exchange Bank, Waitsburg          30,000
  Columbia National Bank, Dayton   146,000
  Broughton National Bank, Dayton   85,000
  Bank of Starbuck, Starbuck         9,000
  Pomeroy State Bank, Pomeroy      132,000
  Knettle State Bank, Pomeroy       67,000
                                ----------
                                $1,483,000

It may be added that the amount actually subscribed exceeded the
maximum, being $2,647,000.


ANNUAL COUNTY FAIR

One feature of constant interest in any growing American community is
the annual county fair. As a yearly jubilee, a display of products,
and a general "get-together" agency, this characteristic feature of
American rural life is entitled to a large place. It co-ordinates
industries, creates enterprise, kindles ambition, and promotes
the spirit of mutual helpfulness in pre-eminent degree. The Walla
Walla fairs have had essentially the familiar features of all such
institutions; i. e., the exposition of agricultural, horticultural, and
other products. Since the fairs have been held at the present grounds
south of the city, the exhibition of livestock and the horse racing
features, and in the three prior years to the date of this work, the
"Pioneer Days," have become leading events and have drawn thousands of
visitors from all parts of the country.

The first fairs were somewhat broken and irregular.

Apparently the germ of our county fairs was the establishment of a race
course on the flat west of town running around the hill adjoining what
is now the Coyle place, by George H. Porter. In the _Statesman_ of
October 18, 1862, is quite a flaming advertisement of the races. They
were to last four days, October 30th to November 2d. There were to be
purses of $100, $50 and $150 for winners, with 20 per cent for entries.
Buckley's Saloon was to be headquarters for making entries. Admission
was to be 50 cents. The proprietor seems to have been somewhat on the
order of a "bad man," as he later became involved in a murder case.

On July 9, 1866, an agricultural society was organized, of which the
officers were: President, H. P. Isaacs; vice presidents, Anderson
Cox, and W. H. Newell; treasurer, J. D. Cook; secretary, R. R. Rees;
executive committee, Charles Russell, T. S. Lee and A. A. Blanchard.
Under the management of this society the first county fair was held on
October 4, 5 and 6, 1866.

Another organization, known as the Washington Territory Agricultural,
Mining, and Art Fostering Society, undertook the maintenance of fairs
in 1870. In September of that year the first of a series was held until
1873. Finding that the grounds were too far from the city they were
sold and the fairs discontinued.

In 1875 C. S. Bush laid out a racetrack at the place where Watertown
now exists, and there a fair was held in October of that year. That
place was for many years the location of races and fairs and public
gatherings of all sorts.

During that same year of 1875 the first definite organization looking
to promoting immigration was organized, and a thirty-page pamphlet was
published setting forth the attractions of the Walla Walla Valley for
business and residence.

As years passed increasing interest in the annual meets led to an
attempt to give them a permanent character, and in 1897 the Fruit
Growers Association, of which Dr. N. G. Blalock was president,
undertook to finance and manage the fairs with a degree of system
which had not hitherto prevailed. The first fair under the auspices of
the Fruit Growers was held in the courthouse. The two succeeding were
held in Armory hall. In 1900 a pavilion was erected on Second Street
and for several years the annual fairs were held at that place. As an
illustration of the character of the fairs of that stage of history we
are incorporating here an account of the fair of 1900, taken from the
October number of the _Inland Empire_ magazine:

"The Fourth Annual Fruit Fair of the Walla Walla Valley was held in
the City of Walla Walla October 1 to 7 inclusive, and was in every
way the most successful and satisfactory exposition ever attempted
in Southeastern Washington. This was true as to the financial aspect
of the fair, as to the attendance and as to the quality of fruit on
display.

"Nature was responsible for the latter feature of the success of the
fair, as she is responsible for much that goes to make up the category
of the virtues of the Walla Walla Valley. Give our agriculturists and
horticulturists a year with a well regulated rainfall, and frost which
considerately stays away when not wanted, and they will with diligence
and careful culture produce grapes, pears, apples and most every kind
of fruits and vegetables of such quality and size as are seen in no
other part of the Union.

"In 1899 the fair continued six days, but this year a full week was
given, and the attendance exceeded that of previous years by over
three thousand paid admissions. The visitors were not restricted to
Walla Walla and the immediate vicinity; fully one thousand came from
Waitsburg, Dayton and other neighboring towns, and 500 from Pendleton,
Milton, Athena, and various points in our sister state. The scope of
the fruit fair is broadening and exhibits are received from an ever
increasing extent of territory.

"From a financial point of view, the officers of the exposition have
every reason to be congratulated. The gross proceeds of the fair were
something over seven thousand dollars, and about eleven hundred dollars
of this is profit, and is deposited as a nest egg for the fair of 1901.
This is the first year in the history of the fairs that any material
profit has resulted in dollars and cents. Last year $80 was taken in
over and above expenses, and the year before nothing. Better management
is responsible for this result, and a more thorough appreciation of the
requirements of the fair.

[Illustration: HEAVILY LOADED LIMB OF JONATHAN APPLES, CLARKSTON]

[Illustration: APPLE TREE ON THE PROPERTY OF WHITE BROTHERS AND CRUM,
WAWAWAI, SNAKE RIVER]

"T. H. Wagner's military band, of Seattle, furnished music for the
fair, giving concerts every afternoon and evening.

"Mrs. Jennie Houghton Edmunds was the vocal soloist, and Herr
Rodenkirchen, who is known to fame in the East and West, was their
cornet soloist.

"One of the special features of the programme of the fair was an Indian
war dance. A score of bucks and half dozen squaws from the Umatilla
Reservation were the performers, and their presence recalled to many of
the visitors the days when the proximity of redskins was a consummation
devoutly to be dreaded.

"The woman's department was this year under the direction of Mrs. John
B. Catron, and formed the most interesting and tasteful display at the
fair. A part was devoted to collections of Indian curios and relics,
and this department was always crowded with visitors. Lee Moorehouse
of Pendleton has on exhibition many of his photographs of Indians and
scenes on the Umatilla Reservation, pictures which even now are of
interest, and which fifty years hence, when the development of the
country has crowded the redskins further to the wall, will be of great
historical value.

"More than ever before have the people of this valley appreciated the
value of fruit fairs and industrial expositions. Here the farmers and
those interested in the various lines of agriculture and horticulture
have an opportunity to see the results of each others' labors and
profit by their experience. They are encouraged by the success of
others, and obtain suggestions which are invaluable in their work.
They learn in what direction the efforts of their neighbors are
being exerted, and keep in touch with the development of the various
agricultural pursuits.

"The Belgian hare exhibit, prepared by S. C. Wingard and E. A. Coull,
was a feature not before seen at these fairs. This exhibition, with its
hundreds of dollars' worth of valuable imported specimens of Belgian
hares and fancy stock, was perhaps the most valuable at the fair, and
of the greatest interest because of its novelty. Belgian hare culture
is yet in its infancy, and the gentle long-eared creature was the
center of attraction for those who wished to know more of these animals
which are monopolizing so much attention among breeders of pet stock.

"The railroads doing business in Walla Walla took a most active
interest in the fair. Two pretty and unique booths were erected and
they proved among the attractive features of the event.

"The Northern Pacific and Washington & Columbia River railways took
the cue of the Boxers and a pretty pagoda was designed. The structure
was erected near the band pavilion and was provided with seats and
accommodations for the ladies and children. The pagoda was built
of native woods and finished with moss brought from Tacoma for the
purpose. The work was artistically done. At night a number of colored
electric lights gave a finishing touch to the scene. The design was
largely the idea of Manager McCabe and Passenger Agent Calderhead, of
the Washington & Columbia River Railway.

"The booth of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company was located
near the main entrance and it was neatly planned. A commodious square
booth was finished and trimmed with grains and fruits taken from the
company's experimental farm near the city. The ceiling was made of
a variety of handsomely colored wools in the unwoven state, blended
together with artistic effect. The walls of the booth were hung with
pictures, and chairs and reading offered rest and entertainment to all.
The booth was in charge of General Agent Burns and C. F. Van De Water."

The officers of the association for 1900 were as follows: W. A. Ritz,
president; C. F. Van De Water, secretary; O. R. Ballou, superintendent;
Mrs. J. B. Catron, superintendent of the woman's department.


VARIED ASPECTS OF THE FAIR

The Fair assumed different aspects in different years, sometimes taking
on as the predominant interest the exhibition of fruit and vegetables,
and at other times stock and machinery. At still other times the "horse
race" was the dominant feature.

In 1903 a new organization was effected known as the Walla Walla Race
Track Association. At a meeting of a number of the leading men of
the city and county, of which Judge T. H. Brents was chairman, the
following were elected trustees of the association: W. S. Offner,
Joseph McCabe, R. B. Caswell, James Kidwell, Wm. Hogoboom, John
McFeeley, Chris Ennis, W. G. Preston and Frank Singleton. Under the
auspices of the association the first of a new series of fairs was
held in the autumn of 1903 at the present location upon the land
known as the "Henderson" tract, purchased by the association. The
name of the association became changed to the Walla Walla County Fair
Association. In 1906 the pavilion still used was erected. In 1907
the dominant interest was the "Harvest Festival," the chief features
of which were carried out within the city. This will be remembered
as quite a gorgeous pageant. J. J. Kauffman was duly crowned as King
Rex, and Hattie Stine became queen of the carnival as Queen Harriet.
Both coronations were signalized by spectacular parades and general
hilarity which made that celebration the most memorable of the series.
In 1908, August 8th, a greet disaster occurred at the Race Track,
the destruction by fire of the barns, together with several valuable
horses, entailing severe loss both to the association and to several
individuals, especially Wm. Hogoboom. In the same year the street
railway line was extended from the city to the grounds. As indicating
the personnel of the association of that period, it will be valuable
to present here the names of the officers and trustees: T. H. Brents,
president; Grant Copeland, vice president; R. E. Guichard, secretary;
trustees, E. Tausick, M. Toner, W. A. Ritz, Sam Drumheller, Mordo
McDonald, J. H. Morrow, J. G. Kidwell, Frank Singleton, Wm. Hogoboom,
C. L. Whitney, B. F. Simpson, Ben C. Holt, J. P. Kent, J. Smith, and
Wm. Kirkman. Throughout the period to the present the association has
been an incorporated organization, with the stock distributed widely
among the farmers and business men of the community. Judge Brents
continued as president until 1914, when bodily infirmity forbade
further continuance, and his lamented death soon followed. Robert
Johnson became secretary in 1907 and in 1909 W. A. Ritz became manager,
being chosen president in 1914 upon retirement of Judge Brents. Messrs.
Ritz and Johnson became so closely identified from that time on as
to be associated with every feature of the history of the Fair. The
woman's department was conducted with equal efficiency during the same
period by Mesdames J. B. Catron, W. A. Ritz, and W. D. Lyman.


FRONTIER DAYS

In 1913, feeling that the common routine had rather palled, the
managers decided to inaugurate a new order of things, and as a
result the "Frontier Days" came into existence, with its spectacular
displays of "bulldogging," relay races, stage-coach races, cowboys,
cow-girls, Indians, etc., one of the last stands of the Wild West. In
spite of the great success of these exhibitions as a means of drawing
crowds and creating interest, the frontier days were not a financial
success. After the meeting of 1915, the Fair Association decided not
to continue, and hence there was no fair of any kind upon the grounds
in 1916. There was conducted, however, a Merchants' Carnival upon the
streets which while perhaps tame in comparison with its predecessors
served to signalize the autumn season and to create a period of good
fellowship and community enjoyment. During 1915 and 1916 the question
of purchase of the Fair Grounds by the county became one of the
especial subjects of local politics. A general spirit of caution and
economy prevailed, and the proposition failed of a sufficient vote in
the election of 1916. The grounds remain, therefore, in possession
of the County Fair Association, and it is just to the members of the
association to say that the thanks of the entire community are due them
for their patriotism and genuine life in maintaining at a financial
loss this important feature of community progress.

With the cessation of the regular Fair there was a lively demand in
every direction for something that would keep the Queen Mother of the
Inland Empire upon the map as an autumn amusement center. In response
to this public call, George Drumheller, the greatest wheat farmer
of the Inland Empire (and for that matter doubtless the greatest
individual wheat farmer in the world, having about twenty thousand
acres of wheat land), rose to the occasion and prepared a program for a
new exhibition, "The Pioneer Pow-wow." The personnel of the management
was as follows: George Drumheller, managing director; O. C. Soots,
secretary; Tom Drumheller, arena director; Bill Switzler, assistant
arena director; John Neace, Jim McManamon, and George Marckum, judges;
A. G. Busbee, chief announcer; Ben Corbett, assistant announcer.

As a permanent record of the Pow-wow we are incorporating here the
summary of it as given in the _Walla Walla Bulletin_ at the close of
the events:

"After three days of some of the finest riding, roping and feature
cowboy work ever in the West, the first annual Pioneer Pow-wow came to
a close last night. The Pow-wow was a success from every standpoint; so
successful, in fact, that plans will be made for a second and greater
Pow-wow next year, probably to be put on under management of a new
county fair association, for which the event this year was a benefit.

"Yesterday's great show in the arena and on the track at the fair
grounds eclipsed, if possible the performances of the two preceding
days, and the large crowd which filled the grand stand until there was
not a reserved seat left and overflowed the north bleachers was brought
to its feet time and again with excitement.

"All in all the Pow-wow program for the three days was voted by nearly
all who saw it the finest Wild West show ever staged here, and the
success of the enterprise reflects great credit upon George Drumheller,
well known farmer and stockraiser of the valley, who managed the show,
and upon Sec. O. C. Soots, secretary of the Commercial Club, who acted
as secretary for the enterprise, as well as upon each one of the other
officials.

"A feature of the program yesterday afternoon was the cowboys' relay
race, in which the crowd was probably more interested than in any other
event. Nep Lynch was the winner and by defeating Drumheller can lay
claim to the championship of the world in this event.

"When Drumheller's horse got away from him for an instant on the second
change yesterday the race was changed from a neck and neck contest
between Drumheller and Lynch to an easy victory for the latter. On
Friday Lynch was also victor, while on Thursday Drumheller came in
ahead by a length.

"The cowboys' bucking contest for the Pow-wow went to Yakima Canute,
and the choice of the judges after the finals yesterday proved popular
with the crowd who gave the clever rider a big hand. The prize $250
saddle and $2.50 cash goes to the winner of this event.

"The three riders who were chosen for the finals yesterday were Leonard
Stroud, Yakima Canute and Dave White, and they drew as mounts for the
final bucking events Sundance, Culdesac and Speedball, respectively.
The three animals are probably the toughest buckers in the world.
Sundance tossed a rider over his head Thursday, while Culdesac had a
record of two down for the Pow-wow. Speedball also had proved one of
the hardest to ride. All three riders showed great skill, although
White was forced to pull leather when the halter rope was jerked out of
his hand.

"Another relay feature that was popular with the crowd during the
entire Pow-wow was the cow-girls' relay race. Mabel De Long was the
winner, with Donna Card and Josephine Sherry second and third. Miss De
Long proved unusually skillful on the change and frequently jumped from
one horse to another without touching the ground.

"Both the steer-roping and bulldogging was the greatest ever seen here.
Tommy Grimes was the first with a total time of 63-3/4 seconds for two
throws, while Jim Lynch took the bulldogging contest with a total time
of 63-3/4 seconds for two throws. Lynch's time yesterday afternoon,
twenty-one seconds, is one of the fastest records ever made for this
event.

"One pleasing feature of the Pow-wow this year was that not a single
cowboy or animal was seriously hurt during the entire three days.
This was not because the show was more tame than before, because such
was not the case, but was due partly to good fortune and more to the
skillful management throughout.

[Illustration: W. P. WINANS AND THE IMMIGRANT WAGON, SHOWN AT THE
FRONTIER DAYS OF 1915]

"A feature of yesterday's program was the drill given by Maj. Paul H.
Weyrauch's battalion of field artillery. The battalion, about three
hundred strong, executed a review in the arena, passing in front of
Major Weyrauch, reviewing officer. The boys made a great showing for
the short time that they have been in training, going through their
maneuvers like clock work. Major Weyrauch and his men were given a
great hand by the audience and the most impressive moment of the day
came during the drill, when the band played "The Star Spangled Banner,"
the soldiers stood at attention, and the great crowd rose to its feet
as one man, with the men standing bare-headed until the last strains of
the national anthem had died away.

"A. G. Busbee, who had been the efficient chief announcer at the
Pow-wow for the three days, gave the spectators yesterday a thrilling
exhibition of bulldogging at the close of yesterday afternoon's
bulldogging contest. Busbee, clad in his full Indian regalia, downed
one of the steers in front of the grandstand. He declared afterwards
that he could have won the event if he had been allowed to enter.
Officials of the Pow-wow needed Busbee as announcer and refused to run
any risks of his being laid out.

"George Drumheller, managing director of the Pow-wow, said last night
that he was not yet in a position to say how successful the Pow-wow
had been financially, but that he hoped to at least break even, and
possibly clear a little for the benefit of the fair association.

"'It's play with us.' he said. 'The boys like it and it gives them
something to talk about during the winter. The people supported the
show well, and I hope something of the kind can he arranged again next
year.'"

One of the most pleasing features of the Pioneer Pow-wow, as well
as of the Frontier Days preceding was the prominence given to the
pioneers. In 1915 a log-cabin was erected on the fair grounds as a
typical pioneer rest home during the period of the fairs. This was the
rallying place of the gray haired sires and mothers of the valley,
and significant and beautiful were the reunions of the "Builders" of
old Walla Walla at that point. At the Pioneer Pow-wow the address
to the pioneers was given by Governor M. C. Moore, last territorial
governor and one of the most honored of the pioneers. His address at
the gathering of 1917 was so fitting and constitutes so complete a
retrospect of the history of the region that we believe it will be seen
with deep regard by the pioneers in this history.

We therefore take from the columns of the _Walla Walla Union_ the
report, as follows:

"These pioneer meetings are significant events; they afford opportunity
for meeting old friends. They are occasions for retrospection and
reminiscence. We live over again in memory, 'the brave days of old.'
We recount the courage, the lofty purpose, the sacrifices of the early
settlers, not only of those still living, but of those who have crossed
the Great Divide."

These words, taken from the speech of ex-Governor Miles C. Moore,
delivered at the Pioneers' barbecue meeting at the fair grounds
yesterday noon, explain the significance of the Pioneer Pow-wow to
the early settlers of this country, to whose memory the big fall
celebration is dedicated. That the sturdy old plainsmen appreciated
the honor was evident by their numbers and the hearty manner in which
they participated in this event. Hundreds of them were present and all
pronounced the juicy beefsteaks served by the Royal Chef Harry Kidwell,
to be near-perfect.

The pioneers' program was short but filled with interest and the social
time that followed was hugely enjoyed. Judge E. C. Mills made a short
address and vocal solos were rendered by Mrs. F. B. Thompson and A. R.
Slimmons and a reading by Mrs. Thomas Duff. Mrs. A. G. Baumeister was
chairman of the committees in charge.

Ex-Governor Moore's address, coming from one of the most prominent
northwest pioneers, was the feature of the program, and was most
interesting to the early settlers. It is given in full as follows:

"Walla Walla is proud to act as host today to the pioneers and feels
she is entertaining old friends.

"Many of you came here long years ago and saw the city in its earliest
beginnings; saw it when it was only a frontier trading post--an
outfitting point for miners bound to the mines of Pierce City, Orofino
and Florence in Northern Idaho and to Boise in Southern Idaho--all new
camps. A little later Kootenai in British Columbia, and the mining
camps of Western Montana became the Mecca of the gold seeker.

"Many of them outfitted here and were followed by pack trains laden
with supplies. Many of you will remember the tinkle of the mule bell
which the pack mules followed in blind obedience.

"All day long these pack trains filed in constant procession through
the streets of the busy little city, bound on long journeys through the
mountains to the various mining camps.

"Indians, gaudy with paint and feathers, rode their spotted,
picturesque cayuse in gay cavalcades along the trails leading to town
to trade for fire water and other less important articles of barter.

"Covered ox wagons laden with dust begrimed children and household
goods 'all the way from old Missouri,' ranchmen, and cowboys in all
their pristine swagger and splendor helped to make up the motley throng
that filled the streets. The cow-girl who rides a horse astride had not
then materialized.

"The packers and many of the miners came here to 'winter' as they
expressed it in those days. They spent their money prodigally and
unstintingly in the saloons, in the gambling and hurdy-gurdy houses,
and in the spring would return to the source for fresh supplies of gold.

"Some of the more successful would return to the States and all
expected to when they had 'made their pile.' None of us had any idea of
making this a permanent place of residence or of being found here fifty
years later. As youngsters we sang with lusty voices:

  'We'll all go home in the spring, boys,
  We'll all go home in the spring.'

Later as the years went by and we did not go, there was added by the
unsentimental, this refrain:

  'Yes, in a horn;
  Yes, in a horn.'

"This describes conditions existing in old Walla Walla fifty years ago,
or in the decade between 1860 and 1870, and are some of the moving
pictures painted on the film of my brain when in the fall of 1863 I
wandered, a forlorn and homesick lad, into this beautiful valley.
Friends and acquaintances I had none, except the two young men who came
with me from Montana.

"My resources were exceedingly slender, and the question of how meal
tickets were to be obtained was much on my mind. That was fifty-four
years ago--and like many of you present here today I watched the years
go by with gradually increasing faith in the country's resources; a
faith that ripened into love for the beautiful valley, its people and
its magnificent surroundings. Walla Walla all these years has been my
home, her people became my people, her interests were my interests. It
is hoped you will pardon these personal allusions but after all history
is defined as 'the essence of innumerable biographies.'

"It is a goodly land--a fit abode for a superior race of people, a race
to match its mountains, worthy of its magnificent surroundings.

"Along in the early '60s, stockmen from the Willamette Valley,
attracted by the bunch grass that grew in wild luxuriance over all
the hills and valleys of this inter-mountain region, brought horses
and cattle and established stock ranches along the streams. Later it
was discovered that grain would grow on the foothills, and that the
yield was surprisingly large. The wheat area was gradually widened and
land supposed worthless grew enormous crops. Now wheat has everywhere
supplanted the bunch grass and the Inland Empire sends annually about
sixty-five million bushels to feed a hungry world.

"Walla Walla in the early '60s was a town of about two thousand
inhabitants and the only town between The Dalles and Lewiston. Now
this region is filled with cities and towns and villages, dotted all
over with the happy homes of a brave, enterprising, peace-loving,
law-abiding people.

"Many of us have seen the country in its making, have helped to lay
the foundations of the commonwealth, have seen the territory 'put on
the robes of state sovereignty,' have seen it become an important unit
in the great federation of states, have recently seen its young men
pour forth by thousands to engage in a war not of our making but in
the language of President Wilson, 'that the world may be made safe for
democracy.'

"These pioneer meetings are significant events; they afford opportunity
for meeting old friends. They are occasions for retrospection and
reminiscence. We live over again in memory 'the brave days of old.' We
recount the courage, the lofty purpose, the sacrifices of the early
settlers not only of those still living, but of those who have crossed
the Great Divide.

"They were a sturdy race; they braved the perils of pioneer life,
and 'pushed back the frontiers in the teeth of savage foes.' We are
old enough now to begin to have a history. In fact, this Walla Walla
country is rich in historic interest, and inspiring history it is.
Lewis and Clark passed through it on their way to and from the coast.
Whitman established his mission here in 1836 and eleven years later
gave up his life as the last full measure of his devotion to the cause
he loved so well. Other missionaries and explorers saw it and were
impressed with its fertility and the mildness of its climate. Indian
wars raged here, and it was here, almost on this spot, that Governor
Stevens held the council and made treaties with 5,500 Indians.

"No other part of the northwest has such a historic background. All
this will continue to be an inspiration to the people who are to reside
here.

"Wherever the early settler built his cabin, or took his claim, he
left the impress of his personality. These personal experiences
should be woven into history and it is hoped that Professor Lyman in
his forthcoming history of old Walla Walla County will include many of
these personal memorials.

"The restless impulse, the wanderlust implanted in the race, the
impulse that carried the first wave of emigration over Cumberland
Gap in the Alleghenies and down the Ohio to Kentucky, 'the dark and
bloody ground,' swept over the prairies of Illinois and Iowa, across
the Mississippi and Missouri. Here it halted on the edge of the Great
American Desert, until the gold discovery in California in '49 gave
it new impetus and it swept on again. These indefatigable Americans
crossed the Great Plains, they climbed the Rocky Mountains, they opened
mines, they felled forests, tilled the land, developed water powers,
built mills and manufactories, filling all the wide domain with 'the
shining towers of civilization.'

"The liberal land laws of the Government--giving a homestead to each
man brave enough and enterprising enough to go out and occupy it, the
mines it offered to the prospectors were the powerful factors that gave
us population and led to the development of the country.

      'All honor to the pioneers--
  'They have made this beautiful land of ours
  To blossom in grain and fruit and flowers.'

"Many of them have passed to a well earned rest. May the living long
remain to enjoy the fruit of their labors.

"Walla Walla has been pleased to have you here today and hopes to see
you all again at future Pow-wows. Her good wishes go with you wherever
you may be."

There have been various interesting and valuable exhibitions in Walla
Walla in recent years which are entitled to extended mention, but
the limits of our space compel us to forego details. One of the most
conspicuous of these has been the "corn-show," maintained by the O.-W.
R. R. management. "Farmer" Smith has been conspicuous in these shows,
other experts in corn production, as well as in the allied arts of the
use of corn in cookery and otherwise, have been in attendance, banquets
have been held attended by some of the chief officials of the railroad
company, and a public interest has been created already bearing fruit,
and sure to be a great factor in agriculture in the future. A hearty
tribute is due the O.-W. R. R. for the broad and intelligent policy
which has led to this contribution to the productive energies of this
region.


WALLA WALLA PAGEANT

To those who were in Walla Walla at the "Pageant of May" in 1914,
that spectacle must ever remain as incomparably the most beautiful
and poetical exhibition ever given in Walla Walla. Indeed it may well
claim precedence over any spectacle ever presented in the Inland
Empire. It was in all respects in a class by itself. It was conducted
under the auspices of the Woman's Park Club. The Pageant consisted of
two movements, diverse in their origin and nature and yet interwoven
with such artistic skill as to demonstrate rare poetical ability and
inventive genius on the part of the author, Mr. Porter Garnett of
Berkeley, Cal.

[Illustration: GATHERING TOKAY GRAPES, CLARKSTON]

[Illustration: PICKING PEACHES, ADAMS' PLACE, CLARKSTON]

This event was of such entirely exceptional character and so well set a
pattern for possible future occasions and created such interest in the
minds of all who witnessed its beautiful scenes in the park, that the
author feels confident that the readers of this volume will be glad to
read the Foreword and the Introduction as given in the book prepared by
Mr. Garnett and inscribed by him with this graceful dedication:

  TO THE WOMEN OF
  THE WOMAN'S PARK CLUB
  WHOSE
  CIVIC PRIDE
  AND
  CONSTRUCTIVE IDEALISM
  HAVE ENABLED THEM
  TO DARE AND TO ACHIEVE

The foreword is as follows:


 FOREWORD

 The history of "A Pageant of May" is briefly told.

 In November, 1913, the Woman's Park Club, which, in 1911, inaugurated
 an annual May Festival, conceived the idea of holding a pageant in
 our city.

 Correspondence with the American Pageant Association led to the
 inviting of Mr. Porter Garnett of Berkeley, California (one of
 the directors of the association), to come to Walla Walla for a
 conference. Mr. Garnett arrived on March 26th. On the 30th, having
 in the meantime selected City Park as the most suitable site, he
 submitted the outline of "A Pageant of May." It was officially
 approved on March 31st, and the work of preparation was begun.

 Since the construction of a pageant is usually a matter of many
 months it seems proper, in this case, to call attention to the fact
 that within a period of seven weeks Mr. Garnett has written the text
 of "A Pageant of May," designed the costumes and properties, invented
 the dances, selected the music and rehearsed a cast of over three
 hundred.

 Grateful acknowledgment is made of the assistance of the Commercial
 Club and of the many citizens of Walla Walla who have given so
 generously of their time and talent, insuring the success of the
 "introduction of pageantry in the Northwest."

      GRACE G. ISAACS,
      MABEL BAKER ANDERSON,
      LYDIA P. SUTHERLAND,
      MARY SHIPMAN PENROSE,
      MARIE A. CATRON,
  _Executive Committee for the Pageant_,
      _Woman's Park Club_.

Mr. Garnett's Introduction, interpreting the Pageant, is presented in
these words:


 INTRODUCTION

 Although May festivals are held in almost every community, it is in
 the agricultural community, such as this of Walla Walla with its
 vicinage of fertile acres, that the celebration of spring--the season
 of renewal--is most appropriate.

 A Pageant of May is a May festival and something more. In it, instead
 of restricting the ceremonies of the more or less hackneyed forms,
 an effort has been made to utilize the traditional material and to
 import into it certain elements of freshness and fancy.

 The intention has been not so much to give an exhibition as to afford
 the community an opportunity for self-expression. The real purpose of
 the pageant is to remind the people of Walla Walla that since they
 owe their existence to the soil, spring should be for them a season
 of sincere and spontaneous rejoicing. It should not be necessary to
 cajole them into celebrating this season which brings in bud and
 blossom an earnest of the harvest to come. They should not only be
 willing but eager to make merry on the Green and to dance around
 the May-poles. They should remember that the earth which gives them
 sustenance is not their servant but their mistress and that without
 her generous gifts they would be poor indeed. A pageant of May offers
 them an opportunity to pay their homage to Earth the Giver whom the
 Greeks personified and worshipped as the goddess Demeter (Ceres).

 In the Masque of Proserpine, which forms the first part of the
 pageant, the return of spring is treated symbolically. The myth
 upon which the masque is built has, on account of its peculiar
 appropriateness, been used at various times and in various ways to
 celebrate the season of rebirth, but the present adaptation with its
 free use of comedy is entirely original. It has been necessary, of
 course, to take many liberties with the accepted versions, notably
 the excision of that part of the myth which deals with Ceres'
 wanderings in search of Proserpine. Those who may be desirous of
 reading the myth in its most charming form are referred to the
 translation of an Homeric hymn which Walter Pater incorporated in his
 essay, Demeter and Persephone, contained in his volume "The Greek
 Spirit."

 The second part of the pageant is based upon the traditional English
 May Day celebrations. The traditions, however, are by no means
 strictly followed for there seems to be no justification for a rigid
 adherence in America to customs which are essentially English. I have
 used Robin Hood and his Merrie Men because, through literature, they
 have been made the heritage of all English-speaking people; I have,
 however, omitted the Morris-dance because, in America, it has no
 significance whatever.

 Since it is hoped that the pageant will be interpreted throughout
 in a spirit of gaiety; since the participants will be expected to
 forget (as far as possible) that there are any spectators, the
 spontaneity which is difficult to attain rather than the expertness
 which is comparatively easy, will be looked for in the May-pole and
 other dances. To Mrs. E. R. Ormsbee's able direction is due whatever
 measure of success may be achieved in this regard. The Dance of the
 Seeds and the Dance of the Fruits and Flowers owe the charm of their
 form and detail to the inventive fancy and skill of Miss Rachel Drum.

 In both the Masque and the Revels realism has been scrupulously
 avoided because in the author's opinion realism on the stage is
 inartistic and futile. There is no reason why a pageant--whether of
 the historical or festival type--should not be consistently expressed
 in terms of beauty.

 To this end the masque feature has been employed as affording the
 best possible means by which the note of beauty may be introduced. I
 believe that the introduction of the masque feature in all pageants,
 by increasing the gap which already exists between formal and
 creative pageantry and the familiar tawdriness of the street-fair and
 carnival, would do more to raise the standard of pageantry than any
 other single thing.

 The text of A Pageant of May has been reduced to the simplest
 possible terms. It contains no were lines than were necessary to
 unfold the plot and deliver the message. The lines, moreover, have
 been uniformly written with the fact in view that they were to be
 delivered and delivered in the open air. Syllables that open the
 mouth have been more important therefore than poetic embellishments.
 As far as possible pantomime has been used to reveal the story. A
 Pageant of May is not intended for closet reading, and if the reader
 who did not see its realizement in action on the four-acre stage in
 Walla Walla's city park finds it somewhat jejune he is asked to bear
 that fact in mind.

 I cannot leave unexpressed my grateful acknowledgments to the members
 of the Costume Committee who have worked most efficiently under the
 direction of Mrs. A. J. Gillis, the designing of the children's
 costumes being admirably done by Miss Helen Burr and Mrs. W. E.
 Most. To the chairman and members of the other committees, and to
 the organizers and chaperones of the various groups I am indebted
 for the invaluable assistance which they have rendered. Finally, I
 would take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the women of
 the Executive Committee who, putting aside every consideration of
 personal convenience, have labored indefatigably for the success of
 the pageant and the benefit of the community.

  P. G.

 Walla Walla, Washington. May 14, 1914.



CHAPTER VI

INTELLECTUAL AND RELIGIOUS FORCES OF WALLA WALLA COUNTY; EDUCATIONAL
INSTITUTIONS OF WALLA WALLA


While the eastern parts of the United States and pre-eminently New
England, above all the State of Massachusetts, have assumed, and to
considerable degree justly, that they hold priority in education,
yet the people of the Far-West may rightfully claim that within the
past dozen or twenty years they have made such gains in educational
processes and results as to place them in the front rank. The report
of the Russell Sage Foundation a few years ago that for all 'round
efficiency the schools of Washington State were entitled to first place
in the United States, was not surprising, though gratifying to those
familiar with the extraordinary growth in equipment and teaching force
during the last decade. As is well known, several western and Pacific
Coast states outrun all others in freedom from illiteracy, having
practically no permanent residents of proper age and normal faculties
unable to read and write. It is one of the glories of American
democracy, and in fact the logical consequence of self-government in
this or in any country, that the craving for knowledge and power and
advancement exists in the masses. Thus and thus only can democracy
justify its existence. In the West, and perhaps even most intensely
in the Pacific Coast states, the ambition to succeed, the spirit of
personal initiative, the feelings of independence and equality, were
the legitimate product of the pioneer era.

[Illustration:
  Jefferson School
  Green Park School
  Washington School
  Lincoln School
  Sharpstein School
SCHOOLS OF WALLA WALLA]

The state builders, the offspring of the immigrant train, the
homesteaders of the Walla Walla country, were, like other westerners,
anxious to bequeath to their children better opportunities for
education than they in their primitive surroundings could command.
Hence they had hardly more than satisfied the fundamental necessities
of location, shelter, and some means of income than they began to raise
the question of schools. In the earliest numbers of the _Washington
Statesman_ the pioneer newspaper of the Inland Empire, beginning in
1861, we find the question of suitable school buildings raised. But
that was not the beginning. It is interesting to recall that Doctor
and Mrs. Whitman were constantly active in maintaining a school at
Waiilatpu, not only as a missionary enterprise for the Indians, but, as
time went on, for the children of the immigrants, who gradually formed
a little group around the mission. Then after the long period of Indian
wars and the establishment of the United States garrison in its present
location, there was provision made in 1857 for teaching the children of
the garrison together with a few stray children in the community. The
teacher of that little group was Harry Freeman of the first dragoons,
Troup E. The building used was on the garrison grounds. Among the
children were several well known later in Walla Walla and the state, as
James and Hugh McCool and their sister Maggie, afterwards Mrs. James
Monaghan, mother of the gallant Lieutenant Monaghan, who lost his life
heroically in the Samoan Islands and for whom a commemorative monument
stands at the southern end of the Monroe Street bridge in Spokane. In
that first little company of school children were Robert Smith, Mrs.
Michael Kenny, and the Sickler girls, one of whom is now Mrs. Kyger.
The first school within the limits of Walla Walla was conducted in
1861-2 by Mrs. A. J. Miner in a private house at about what would now
be Alder and Palouse streets. Another pioneer teacher was J. H. Blewett.


PUBLIC SCHOOLS

Prior to 1862 there had been no public school organization. The
scholastic needs of the children had been recognized, however, in
the first permanent organization of the county on March 26, 1859,
by the appointment of Wm. B. Kelly as superintendent of schools. At
the election of July 14, 1862, J. F. Wood was chosen superintendent,
and District Number 1 was organized, a room rented, and a teacher
appointed. Progress seems to have lagged, however, until the fall of
1864, in which year the census showed a school population of 203,
though of that number only ninety-three were enrolled. A meeting on
December 12th of that year voted to levy a tax of 2-1/2 mills for the
erection of a building. Dr. D. S. Baker donated the land now occupied
by the Baker School and a building was erected at a cost of $2,000, the
first public school building in the Inland Empire. In 1868 a second
district numbered 34 was organized in the southwestern part of town
at the corner of Willow and Eighth streets. That building with some
additions served its purpose till 1879, and in that year the Park
Street building, in use for a number of years, was put up at a cost of
$2,000. Districts number 1 and 34 were consolidated by the Legislature
in 1881 and the board of directors consisted of the directors of the
two districts. As a matter of record it is worth while to preserve the
names of that board: H. E. Johnson, D. M. Jessee, B. L. Sharpstein, N.
T. Caton, Wm. O'Donnell, and F. W. Paine. E. B. Whitman was clerk.

By vote of the district on April 29, 1882, a much more ambitious plan
of building was adopted, one commensurate with the progress of the
intervening years, and a tax of $17,000 was levied for the purpose
of erecting a brick building. That building accordingly was realized
on the Baker School ground, in which many of the present "grave and
reverend seigniors" of Walla Walla had their first schooling. Not until
1889 was there any high school work in Walla Walla. In that year Prof.
R. C. Kerr, who was city superintendent, met the few pupils of high
school grade in the Baker School building. In the following year those
pupils were transferred to the Paine School, now known as the Lincoln
School, which had been erected in 1888.


FIRST HIGH SCHOOL CLASS

The first high school class was graduated in 1893. Up to 1900 there
was a total number of high school graduates of eighty. New buildings
have been added from time to time and new courses established, with
suitable equipment and teaching force. Perhaps we can in no way better
indicate the growth of the schools of Walla Walla County and city, than
by incorporating here a report prepared by County Supt. G. S. Bond
in 1900 for a history of Walla Walla by the author of this work, and
contrast with it the last report of City Supt. W. M. Kern. While Walla
Walla and adjoining communities have not been considered as of rapid
growth, compared with some other parts of the state, a perusal of these
reports, seventeen years apart, will give the present citizen some
conception of the changes in that short period.

Professor Bond's report follows: "It is the primary object of the
writer, in preparing this statement, to present to the public a brief
recital of the present condition of the educational facilities of Walla
Walla County, rather than attempt to give any account of the history
and growth of those facilities. Were it even desirable to do so, it
would, for two reasons, prove a somewhat difficult undertaking. The
records compiled by the earlier school officers are quite incomplete,
if compared with present requirements, and the subdivision of the
original county into the present counties of Columbia, Garfield,
Asotin and Walla Walla occasioned many changes in the various school
districts, and led to a complete re-districting and re-numbering.
This, the records in the county superintendent's office show, was done
between the years 1879 and 1886.

"In 1891, the county superintendent, by order of the county
commissioners, brought together in one book the plats and boundaries of
the various districts, numbered consecutively from one to fifty-three.
Since that date, to meet the requirements of the constant increase in
population, many changes in boundaries have been made and thirteen new
districts have been formed, making a total of sixty-six. Six of these
are joint with Columbia County.

"The subdivision of the county into sixty-six school districts brings
nearly every section within easy range of school facilities. Especially
is this true of the eastern and southern portions where the county is
most densely populated. With but few exceptions these districts have
good, comfortable schoolhouses, furnished with modern patent desks, and
fairly well supplied with apparatus. Six new schoolhouses were built,
and a considerable amount of furniture was purchased last year.

"A movement which is receiving considerable attention and which is
proving of great service to the county is the establishment by private
enterprise, entertainment or subscription of district libraries. About
twenty have received their books which are eagerly read by both pupils
and parents. Others are preparing entertainments to raise a library
fund. It is greatly to be hoped that our Legislature may pass some law
at this session to encourage the district library. It is one of the
measures most needed to improve our rural schools.

"Another feature that is proving of benefit to the country schools
is common school graduation. An opportunity to take an examination
for graduation is given at various time, to eighth grade pupils in
any of the schools. The diplomas admit to high school without further
examination. Many take pride in having finished the common school
course, and are inducted to remain in school much longer than they
otherwise would.

"Eight districts are at present maintaining graded schools. There
seems to be a growing sentiment in some of the more densely populated
sections to gather together their pupils for the superior advantages
of the graded schools. Walla Walla (No. 1) provides an excellent
four-year high school course. No. 3 (Waitsburg), also has a high school
department.

"Were all the schools in session at the same time there would be
required a force of 116 teachers. The districts employing more than one
teacher are: Walla Walla--30, Waitsburg--7, Prescott--3, Seeber--3 and
Dixie, Wallula, Harrer and Touchet--2 each. Of those employed at this
time, 7 hold life diplomas or state certificates, 18 normal diplomas,
25 first grade certificates, 21 second grade, and 15 third grade.
Twenty applicants failed last year. If the present crowded condition
of the Walla Walla and Waitsburg schools continues next year it will
necessitate an increase in the teaching force of five or six at the
former place and of one at the latter.

"The Teachers' Reading Circle was reorganized in January, and meetings
have been arranged for the more central points throughout the county.
The sessions are well attended, the exercises carefully prepared. About
fifty teachers have purchased one or more of the books and enrolled
as members. All teachers have free access to a library of about
seventy-five volumes, treating principally on theory and practice, or
the history and philosophy of education.

"Our school districts never began a year on a more solid financial
basis than they did the present one. Fifty-one of the sixty-six had a
good balance to their credit in the hands of the county treasurer. A
comparison of the last financial statement with that of previous years
is given to mark the increase.

        Receipts                             1897       1898        1900
  Balance in hands of county treasurer     $9,521.43  $9,279.24  $25,838.81
  Amount apportioned to districts by county
    supt.                                  32,104.54  56,210.31   58,574.66
  Amount received from special tax         11,761.62  26,346.81   26,503.99
  Amount from sale of school bonds            500.00   1,410.00      500.00
  Amount transferred from other districts   ........   ........    ........
  Amounts from other sources                  131.54      82.69    2,212.15
                                          ---------- ----------  ----------
      Total                               $54,019.13 $93,347.05 $113,629.61

        Expenditures                         1897       1898        1900
  Amount paid for teachers' wages          ........  $47,278.95  $38,691.71
  Amount paid for rents, fuel, etc.       $38,027.39  10,697.78   13,653.06
  Amount paid for interest on bonds         2,578.00   2,645.55    4,301.00
  Amount paid for sites, buildings, etc.   ........    2,902.68   32,152.61
  Amount paid for interest on warrants      4,113.75   5,649.78    1,650.94
  Amount reverting to general school fund       2.75   ........    ........
  Amount for other districts                ........   ........       12.86
                                          ---------- ----------  ----------
      Total                               $44,721.89 $69,173.94  $90,962.18
      Balance on hand                       9,297.24  24,173.11   22,667.43

"The hard times experienced two or three years ago materially affected
teachers' wages in this county. The average amount paid male teachers,
according to the annual report of the county superintendent in 1898,
was $56.57; for female teachers, $39.54. For 1900, male teachers,
$62.50; female teachers, $52.40. There seems however, to be dawning a
brighter future for the conscientious teacher. Rigid examinations for
two years have lessened the competition from those who entered the work
only because they had no other employment; the districts are able to
hold longer terms and pay larger salaries now. The minimum salary this
year is $40, other rural districts pay $45 and $50. Salaries in the
graded schools are from fifty-five to one hundred dollars per month.
The average length of term in 1898 was 6-1/2 months; the average from
1900 is 7-3/4 months.

"The estimate in the county superintendent's annual report for 1898
places the total value of schoolhouses and grounds at $162,080; of
school furniture; $15,317; of apparatus, etc., $3,871; of libraries,
$1,690. Amount of insurance on school property, $79,605; of bonds
outstanding, $45,300; warrants outstanding, $41,274. The last
enumeration of children of school age shows 4,275 resided in the county
on June 1st; of these 3,621 were enrolled in the public schools, and
made an average daily attendance of 2,076.

"For 1900, schoolhouses and grounds, $194,060; furniture, $16,350;
apparatus, $4,000; libraries, $2,450; insurance, $100,650; bonds
outstanding, $75,300; warrants outstanding, $82,721.16; children of
school age, 4,767; children enrolled, 4,102; average daily attendance,
2,322. Such was the report of the county superintendent in 1900. Now we
present the report of city superintendent, W. M. Kern, for year ending
in 1917:

    Enrollment                             Boys   Girls  Total
  Elementary schools                       1,280  1,234  2,514
  High school                                428    393    821
  Night school                                46     81    127
                                          ------ ------ ------
      Total                                1,754  1,708  3,462
  Transfers to high school                    17     26     43
                                          ------ ------ ------
    Total actual enrollment                1,737  1,682  3,419
  Deduct night school                         46     81    127
                                          ------ ------ ------
  Actual enrollment, grade and high school 1,691  1,601  3,292

Teachers in city schools, 101; valuation of property of city schools,
grounds and buildings, $790,000; equipment, $72,000.

"Over seven thousand children of school age reside in Walla Walla
County, according to the 1917 school census, completed yesterday. The
census shows a total population of school children of 7,331. Of this
number 3,928 live in the city school districts and the rest in the
other districts of the county.

[Illustration: HIGH SCHOOL, WALLA WALLA]

"The number of children in the county this year is almost identical
with that of last year, 1917 showing a decline of two. Last year's
figures showed 7,333, as against 7,331 this year. In the city there was
a decline in the number of children, the census this year being 3,982
as against 4,000 last year. The county districts, however, showed a
gain of sixteen.

"The city school census of 1917 shows the following:

Number of pupils receiving diplomas--

                  Boys  Girls Total
  Green Park       21    12    33
  Baker            12    11    23
  Sharpstein       17    40    57
  Jefferson        17    17    34
  Washington        8     6    14
                   --    --   ---
    Total, grades  75    86   161
    High school    44    55    99
    Per cent of attendance--
  Grades                      98.17
  High school                 98.10"

As will have been seen, Professor Kern's report gives a view of the
buildings and other successive additions to the facilities of the
public schools of Walla Walla City. Similar development has taken place
in Waitsburg, Prescott and Touchet, as will be seen from the following.
It may be added that the smaller places, and the country districts
also, have experienced a like improvement.


WAITSBURG

Waitsburg has maintained excellent schools for many years. We have
presented some facts in regard to the earlier schools of the place, and
are giving here a view of present organization and equipment.

At this date the board of education consists of Messrs. N. B. Atkinson,
J. A. Danielson, and W. J. Taylor. Miss Mary Dixon is clerk. The
faculty consists of the following: Superintendent, James H. Adams; high
school, principal and instructor in science and athletics, B. B. Brown;
instructor in English, Edna McCroskey; instructor in Latin and German,
Freda Paulson; instructor in mathematics, Ione Fenton; instructor in
history, Elizabeth Nelson; instructor in domestic science and art,
Gladys Persels; instructor in manual training and mechanical drawing,
Earl Frazier.

The Central School contains the grades, eight in number, Anna Goff
being principal.

Waitsburg is provided with three excellent buildings valued as follows:
high school, $20,000; Central School, $25,000; Preston Hall, $35,000.
The last named is the pride of the Waitsburg School system. It is, in
fact, a structure and an instrumentality of unique interest. It was
the gift of W. G. Preston, one of the most conspicuous of the pioneers
of Walla Walla County. It was the result of the philanthropic impulse
as well as the practical good judgment of its donor, for Mr. Preston
had formed the impression during his busy and successful career that
a knowledge of the manual arts was vital to the average boy and girl.
The building was completed in 1913 and was provided with the most
perfect equipment for manual instruction which the space would allow.
During the past year there were enrolled in the manual training course,
thirty-four boys, in the sewing course thirty-five girls, and in the
cooking course, thirteen girls. There is also a well-equipped gymnasium
in the building. The campus on which the high school and Preston Hall
stand contains five acres of land, about half of which is covered with
a grove, while the athletic field occupies the remainder of the open
space.

Some other valuable data we derive from the information kindly supplied
by Superintendent Adams. We find, as an interesting point worthy of
preservation for future comparison, that the average salary during the
past year paid the male teachers was $1,308.75, and that of the female
teachers was $746.25. Included in these averages are the superintendent
and principals. The total enrollment during 1916-17 was: boys, 216,
girls, 208. Percentage of daily attendance was 95.1 for the boys and
95.3 for the girls. The number in the high school was: First year, 48;
second year, 30; third year, 28; fourth year, 18; a total of 124. The
school library contains the following number of volumes: high school,
700; grades, 400.


PRESCOTT

Prescott, while not a large town, is an ideal home town in the midst
of a magnificent and extensive farming country, and conducts an amount
of business quite beyond the ordinary volume for its population. The
county tributary to Prescott produces about seven hundred thousand
bushels of grain annually, and here is grown the famous blue-stem
wheat, the highest grade milling wheat produced in the Northwest. The
land here yields from twenty-five to forty bushels of wheat per acre.
Crop failures are quite unknown. The laudable pride and ambition of the
people has led them to the construction of so fine a school building
as to be a source of wonder and admiration to all visitors. In this
elegant building there is sustained a high school department of four
years curriculum, with four teachers and, during the past year, forty
pupils. Part of the building is occupied by the grades. The value of
the school property is estimated at fifty-four thousand dollars, the
most of which is included in the high school building. Situated upon a
slight eminence overlooking the fertile and beautiful Touchet Valley,
with the vast sweep of the wheat covered hills closing it in, this
Prescott school building presents an appearance which many large towns
might envy. During a number of years past a succession of peculiarly
well qualified teachers have devoted themselves to the progress of the
Prescott schools, and as a result have lifted them to a status which
has been indicated in the high grades which the pupils have attained
in higher institutions and the efficiency which they have shown in
business engagements upon which they may have entered. Prescott obtains
its water supply from the snow-capped Blue Mountains, lying twenty
miles to the east. Thus being assured of a perpetual supply of pure
water. Prescott is noted for its healthfulness.

[Illustration: MAIN STREET, PRESCOTT]

[Illustration: KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS BUILDING, PRESCOTT]

Descending the Touchet about twenty miles we reach its junction with
the Walla Walla, and there we find another of the fine little towns
which border that beautiful and historic stream.


TOUCHET

The Town of Touchet is at a lower level, only 450 feet above sea level,
and by reason of that and of its more westerly situation it has higher
temperature and less rainfall than any other of the Touchet towns. It
is consequently an irrigated fruit and alfalfa section. The splendid
Gardena District on the south and the productive lands in the Touchet
and Walla Walla bottoms north and east and at their junction, give
the town a commanding location. It is accordingly an active business
center, with several well stocked stores, a bank, an attractive church
of the Congregational order, and a number of pleasant homes.

The pride of the place, however, like that of Prescott is the school
building. This is a singularly attractive building, built for the
future, though well utilized in the present. The valuation of
school property in the Touchet District is $27,500, practically all
represented in the high school building with its equipment. There is
a total enrollment of 203 pupils with eight teachers. There are forty
pupils in the high school, and a four year course is provided.


GENERAL SCHOOL STATISTICS

The following statistics from the report of the state superintendent
for 1917 will indicate the general condition of the schools of Walla
Walla County. These figures are for the school year 1915-16.

                                                  Male    Female     Total
  Number of census children, June 1, 1916         3,646    3,706     7,352
  Number of pupils enrolled in public schools     3,122    2,838     5,960
  Average daily attendance                        2,466    2,237     4,703

  Total number of teachers employed                                    218
  Average salary paid high school teachers                        $ 990.10
  Average salary paid grade teachers                                788.45
  Average salary of superintendents, principals, and supervisors  1,328.00
  Number of children over six years of age not attending school        600
  Number of children between the ages of five and fifteen years
     not attending school                                               32

From every point of view it may be said that the schools of Walla Walla
County (as will be seen in later chapters the same is true of Columbia,
Garfield, and Asotin counties) have kept pace with the general progress
of the regions in which they are located.


PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS

From the public schools we turn to the various private institutions.
Foremost of these, and indeed in many respects the most unique and
distinctive feature of Southeastern Washington, both from a historical
and existing viewpoint, is Whitman College. This institution grew out
of the mission at Waiilatpu, with its brave and patriotic life and
tragic end. After the period of Indian wars, beginning with the Whitman
Massacre in 1847 and continuing, with some interruptions, till 1858,
there occurred a return to Waiilatpu, one of the constructive events in
our history. In 1859 Father Cushing Eells came from Forest Grove, Ore.,
where he had spent some years as a teacher, to the Walla Walla country,
with a view to a new enterprise of a very different sort from that
which had led Whitman, Spalding, and Gray in 1836, and Eells, Walker,
Smith, and Rogers in 1838 to come to Oregon. The first aim was purely
missionary. The twenty and more following years had demonstrated the
fact that this country was to be a home missionary field, instead of
foreign. It was clear to Father Eells that the educational needs of the
boys and girls of the new era must be regarded as of first importance.
Standing on the little hill at Waiilatpu and viewing the seemingly
forsaken grave where Whitman and his associates had been hurriedly
interred twelve years before, Father Eells made a vow to himself and
his God, feeling as he afterwards said, "The spirit of the Lord upon
him," to found a school of higher learning for both sexes, a memorial
which he was sure the martyrs of Waiilatpu, if they could speak, would
prefer to any other. That vow was the germination of Whitman Seminary,
which grew into Whitman College.

In pursuance of his plans, Father Eells acquired from the foreign
missionary board the square mile of land at Waiilatpu allowed them
as a donation claim and there he made his home for several years. It
was his first intention to locate the seminary at the mission ground,
but as it became obvious that the "city" would grow up near the fort
six miles east, he decided that there was the proper place for his
cherished enterprise. The years that followed were years of heroic
self-denial and unflagging labor by Father and Mrs. Eells and their two
sons, Edwin and Myron. They cut wood, raised chickens, made butter,
sold vegetables, exercised the most rigid economy, and by thus raking
and scraping and turning every energy and resource to the one aim, they
slowly accumulated about four thousand dollars for their unselfish
purpose. On October 13, 1866, the first building was dedicated. It
was on the location of the present Whitman Conservatory of Music. The
building was removed to make way for the conservatory and now composes
part of Prentiss Hall, a dormitory for young men. The land on which
Whitman Seminary and subsequently the college was located was the gift
of Dr. D. S. Baker.

Space does not allow us to enter into the history of the seminary, but
the names of those longest and most efficient in its service should
be recorded here. Aside from Father Eells and his family, Rev. P. B.
Chamberlain, first pastor of the Congregational Church, with Mrs.
Chamberlain and Miss Mary A. Hodgden, were the chief teachers during
the time of beginning. Later Prof. Wm. Marriner and Capt. W. K. Grim
were the chief principals. Associated with the latter was Mr. Samuel
Sweeney, still well known as a business man and farmer, and the only
one of the seminary teachers still living in Walla Walla, aside from
the author of this work, who was for a short time in charge of it in
1878-9. In 1883 the second great step was taken by the coming of Dr.
A. J. Anderson, who had been for several years president of the State
University at Seattle. The history of Doctor Anderson's connection
with Whitman College and the general educational interests of Walla
Walla and surrounding country constitutes a history by itself worthy
of extended notice. He was ably assisted by his wife, one of the
finest spirits of early days in Walla Walla, and by his sons Louis
and George, the former of whom became later one of the foremost
teachers in the expanded college and is now its vice president. With
the coming of Doctor Anderson the seminary was raised to college rank
with new courses and added teaching force. In the same year of 1883
a new building was erected which served as the main building for
nearly twenty years. For the purpose of raising money for further
development Father Eells made a journey to the East at that time.
Although he was becoming advanced in years and the work was trying and
laborious, he succeeded nobly in his aims, securing $16,000 and laying
the foundations of friendships which resulted later in largely added
amounts. During the eight years of Doctor Anderson's presidency Whitman
College, though cramped for funds and inadequately provided with needed
equipment, performed a noble service for the region, laying broad and
deep the foundations upon which the enlarged structure of later years
was reared. Some of the men and women now holding foremost places in
every branch of life in the Northwest, as well as in distant regions,
were students at the Whitman College of that period.

After the resignation of Doctor Anderson in 1891 there was a period of
loss and uncertainty which was happily ended in 1894 by what might be
considered the third great step in the history of the college. This was
the election to the presidency of Rev. S. B. L. Penrose, a member of
the "Yale Band" of 1890 and during the three years after his arrival
the pastor of the Congregational Church at Dayton. Of the monumental
work accomplished by Doctor Penrose during the twenty-three years of
his presidency, we cannot here speak adequately. Suffice it to say that
while Whitman is still a small college in comparison with the state
institutions of the Northwest, the increase in buildings, endowment,
equipment, courses and instructors has been such as to constitute a
chapter of achievements hard to match among the privately endowed
colleges of the United States. We have spoken of three great events
in the history of the college, the founding of the seminary by Father
Eells, the establishment of the college by Doctor Anderson, and the
assumption of the presidency by Doctor Penrose. It remains to add a
fourth of the great events. This was the raising by Walla Walla and
vicinity of the accumulated debts of a series of years caused by the
heroic efforts to keep pace with necessary improvements while resources
were still scanty. Due to those conditions the college was heavily
encumbered and much handicapped as a result. In 1911 an offer of large
additions to the endowment was made by the General Education Society
of New York, on condition that all debts be raised. This led to a
campaign in 1912 for the funds needed for that purpose. This may truly
be called a monumental event, both for the permanent establishment
of the college upon a secure foundation, as well as a remarkable
achievement for Walla Walla. For though the city and county are
wealthy and productive, yet to lay right down on the counter the sum
of $213,140.30 was notable and the gift was rendered more remarkable
in view of the fact that about eighty thousand dollars had just been
raised for the Young Men's Christian Association, that churches were
raising contributions for expensive buildings, that costly school
buildings had just been erected, and that the need of a new high school
and a new courthouse building was becoming agitated. It may be added
that within a year the burning of St. Mary's Hospital precipitated a
call for large contributions to replace it. This was duly accomplished
in the erection of one of the best hospitals in the Northwest. It
is probably safe to say that the amount put into public buildings,
together with contributions to the Young Men's Christian Association,
the college, and the hospital, during a period of about three years,
exceeded a million dollars--a noteworthy achievement even for a wealthy
community, and one demonstrating both the liberality and resources of
Walla Walla. From the standpoint of Whitman College it may be said
that aside from the indispensable aid which this large contribution
afforded, there was another result of the campaign equally valuable.
This was the commensurate interest felt by the community in the college
and all its works. Up to that debt-raising campaign there had been
an indifference and in some quarters even a certain prejudice which
crippled the efforts of the college management. With the raising of the
debt there was a new sense of harmony and community interest which will
bring immeasurable advantage to the future both of the college and the
community.

As a matter of permanent historic interest it is well to incorporate
here the names of trustees and faculty, as given in the catalog for
1917.


THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES

The president of the college, ex-officio, William Hutchinson Cowles, A.
B., Spokane, 1919; Allen Holbrook Reynolds, A. M., Walla Walla, 1919;
Louis Francis Anderson, A. M., Walla Walla, 1918; Park Weed Willis, M.
D., Seattle, 1920; John Warren Langdon, Walla Walla, 1917; Miles Conway
Moore, LL. D., Walla Walla, 1918; Oscar Drumheller, B. S., Walla Walla,
1917; Edwin Alonzo Reser, Walla Walla, 1920.

Numbers indicate the years in which terms of trustees expire. The
election takes place at the annual meeting in June.


OFFICERS OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES

President, Miles Conway Moore, LL. D.; treasurer, Allen Holbrook
Reynolds, A. M.; secretary, Dorsey Marion Hill, Ph. B.


FACULTY

Stephen Beasley Linnard Penrose, D. D., president and Cushing Eells
professor of philosophy; Louis Francis Anderson, A. M., vice president
and professor of Greek; William Denison Lyman, A. M., Nelson Gales
Blalock professor of history; Helen Abby Pepoon, A. B., professor of
Latin; Benjamin Harrison Brown, A. M., Nathaniel Shipman professor of
physics; Walter Andrew Bratton, A. B., dean of the science group and
Alexander Jay Anderson professor of mathematics; James Walton Cooper,
A. M., professor of Romance languages; Howard Stidham Brode, Ph. D.,
Spencer F. Baird professor of biology; Edward Ernest Ruby, A. M., dean
of the language group and Clement Biddle Penrose professor of Latin;
Helen Louise Burr, A. B., dean of women; Elias Blum, professor of the
theory of music; William Hudson Bleakney, Ph. D., professor of Greek;
William Rees Davis, A. M., Mary A. Denny professor of English; Walter
Crosby Eells, A. M., professor of applied mathematics and drawing;
Raymond Vincent Borleske, A. B., director of physical education;
Charles Gourlay Goodrich, M. S., professor of German; Frank Loyal
Haigh, Ph. D., professor of chemistry; Arthur Chester Millspaugh,
Ph. D., professor of political science; Thomas Franklin Day, Ph. D.,
acting dean of the philosophy group and acting professor of philosophy;
Frances Rebecca Gardner, A. B., acting dean of women; William Ezekiel
Leonard, A. M., acting professor of economics and business; Walter
Cooke Lee, A. B., associate librarian; Milton Simpson, A. M., acting
associate professor of English; Harriet Lulu Carstensen, A. M.,
assistant librarian; Alice Popper, instructor in French and German;
Margaret Lucille Leyda, A. B., instructor in English and physical
training for women.

[Illustration: Billings Hall, Department of Science

The Gymnasium

Whitman Memorial Building

Reynold's Hall, Young Ladies Dormitory

McDowell Hall, Conservatory of Music

GROUP OF WHITMAN COLLEGE BUILDINGS, WALLA WALLA]

The catalog shows also that at the present date the college owns
equipment, buildings, and grounds to the value of $466,091.40 and
endowment funds to the amount of $684,247. The expenses for the session
of 1915-16 were $88,892.92. The enrollment of students in the literary
departments for 1916-17 was 312, and in the conservatory of music 289.

The graduates of the college who have received bachelor's degrees
during the years 1886-1917 aggregate about four hundred and
twenty-five. The large majority of these have received their degrees
during the seven years ending with the latter date. Classes were very
small up to about 1910. Since that time the number of seniors has been
from twenty-five to forty. Besides those who have graduated with the
regular college literary and scientific degrees, a large number have
graduated from academic, normal and conservatory courses.

We are indebted to Mr. W. L. Stirling of the board of trustees of St.
Paul's School for Girls for the sketch here subjoined.


HISTORY OF SAINT PAUL'S SCHOOL, WALLA WALLA

Saint Paul's School was opened in September, 1872, as a day school
for girls by the Rev. Lemuel H. Wells, a missionary of the Protestant
Episcopal Church, who had come to Walla Walla the previous year and
organized Saint Paul's Church.

Seeing the need of a girls' school, a board of trustees was selected
consisting of the Rev. Lemuel H. Wells, John S. Boyer, Philip Ritz, B.
L. Sharpstein, A. B. Elmer, Judge J. D. Mix and John Abbott. Funds were
obtained in the East and a frame building was erected near the corner
of Third and Poplar streets.

The school prospered, and it was decided to make it a boarding school.
More money was raised in the East and in Walla Walla, more land was
purchased and a dormitory was built.

In September, 1873, it was opened as Saint Paul's Boarding and Day
School for Girls, with Mrs. George Browne as principal. Mrs. Browne was
succeeded by Miss Henrietta B. Garretson (who later became Mrs. Lemuel
H. Wells) and the Rev. J. D. Lathrop, D. D.

In the earlier days of the school, pupils from Idaho, Montana and
Eastern Oregon frequently paid their tuitions in gold dust, and there
were a few cases where payment was even made in produce, such as flour,
and potatoes. One parent paid in cattle, which remained on the ranch
and multiplied until they paid for an addition to one of the school
buildings.

The school was successfully maintained until the year 1885, when it was
closed. It was reopened in 1897 under Miss Imogen Boyer, as principal.
It was incorporated September 14, 1897, by E. B. Whitman, Rev. Francis
L. Palmer, B. L. Sharpstein, W. H. Upton, and J. H. Marshall, Rev. F.
L. Palmer being chosen its first president.

In 1899 a new site was purchased on Catherine Street, and a new three
story building erected named "Appleton Hall." The trustees at that
time were Bishop Wells, The Rev. Andreas Bard, B. L. Sharpstein, Levi
Ankeny, R. F. Smitten and W. H. Upton. Miss Imogen Boyer was principal,
and so continued until her resignation in 1903. Under Miss Boyer's
administration the school increased substantially in prestige and in
the number of pupils in attendance.

In 1903 Miss Caroline F. Buck was elected principal, and by formal
agreement between Bishop Wells and the board of trustees the school
was thenceforth to be conducted as a diocesan school of the Protestant
Episcopal Church.

In 1904 Miss Buck was succeeded by Rev. Andreas Bard, as principal.

In 1906 funds were secured by Bishop Wells for the erection of a new
three story brick dormitory named "Ewing Hall" which greatly increased
the accommodations for boarders and materially assisted in the growth
of the school.

In 1907 Rev. Andreas Bard resigned and was succeeded by Miss Anna E.
Plympton, who remained until 1910. Miss Nettie M. Galbraith was then
elected principal, and under her able administration, assisted by Miss
Mary E. Atkinson, as vice principal, the school has grown rapidly year
by year until it is now the largest, as well as the oldest school for
girls in the State of Washington, and probably in the entire Northwest.

In 1911 Bishop Wells secured additional funds for the purchase of the
Sharpstein property adjoining the school grounds to allow for expansion
in the near future. The acquisition of this fine property 200 feet by
200 feet gave the school a frontage of 543 feet on Catherine Street,
one of the finest pieces of property in the city.

In 1916, Bishop Herman Page, of Spokane, succeeded Bishop Wells as
president of the board of trustees; the other members of the board at
that time being Rev. C. E. Tuke, George A. Evans, W. A. Ritz, Dr. F.
W. Rees, H. G. Thompson, Dr. H. R. Keylor, J. W. Langdon and W. L.
Stirling.

The need of increased accommodation for boarders being imperative,
Bishop Page undertook to raise the sum of $10,000 to $12,000 for a new
building provided $5,000 additional should be subscribed by the people
of Walla Walla. This was done and a new fire proof brick building was
erected in 1917, containing assembly hall, gymnasium and dormitories,
and named "Wells Hall" in honor of Bishop Wells, who had founded the
school in 1872 and had ever since been its most constant and devoted
supporter. Even with its new equipment the school at once became
crowded to its capacity, there being fifty boarders, as well as a large
number of day scholars, and plans are being considered for another new
building.

Although the school now has an annual budget of nearly twenty thousand
dollars, it has never been entirely self-supporting, being without
endowment, and always having given the greatest possible service at
a very moderate charge. The raising of an adequate endowment fund is
contemplated as soon as circumstances will permit.

The school offers a systematic and liberal course of study, maintaining
kindergarten, primary, intermediate, grammar, grade, academic and
music departments, also special post graduate, business, and finishing
courses. The course includes eight years in the elementary school,
completed in six or seven years when possible, and four years in the
academic department. There is also an advanced course offered for
irregular students and for those graduated from the high schools and
academies.

The instructors are Christian women, and it is the aim of the school
to administer to the individual needs of girls; to aid in their moral,
intellectual and physical development by offering them the advantages
of a well ordered school and the wholesome influence of a refined
home. The scholarship of Saint Paul's is attested by the fact that
Eastern and Western examiners of leading educational institutions
have expressed their willingness to accept its graduates without
examination. Saint Paul's covers a wide field, having had among its
boarders in recent years scholars from Washington, Oregon, Idaho,
Montana, Wyoming, Panama and Alaska.

The location of the school is exceptionally fine, the grounds
extensive, well laid out and shaded, and the buildings, four in number,
are spacious, well constructed and conveniently arranged and equipped.


THE CATHOLIC ACADEMIES

The Catholic Church has maintained two academies, one for boys and
one for girls, for a number of years. These were founded early in the
history of Walla Walla. In 1864 the Sisters of Providence opened the
doors of a school for girls on the location where St. Mary's Hospital
now stands. Rev. J. B. A. Brouillet was at that time at the head of
the local church and the school was officially under his oversight. In
1865 St. Patrick's Academy for boys was opened. This was on the site of
the present Catholic Church, and the first teacher was H. H. Lamarche.
He acted as principal for fifteen years. In 1899 notable changes
occurred in the academy. In that year fine and noteworthy exercises
in its dedication occurred under charge of Rev. Father M. Flohr. The
presence of Bishop E. J. O'Dea added to the interest of the occasion.
In August following three brothers from San Francisco arrived to take
charge of the academy. In honor of St. J. B. De La Salle, founder of
the congregation to which those brothers belonged, the name of the
academy was changed to De La Salle Institute. It opened in September,
1899, with 100 pupils. The numbers and influence of this institute have
steadily increased. The teachers at the present are: Brother Luke,
director; Brothers Damien and Daniel, teachers. The number of boys
enrolled is eighty.

The school for girls, founded in 1864, as stated, developed into St.
Vincent Academy, and as such it has occupied a position of great
influence and usefulness ever since its foundation. Every facility for
academic study, with special attention to the varied accomplishments
of music, drawing, painting, and decorative work, as well as the
practical branches in needle work, in stenography, and in typewriting,
is afforded by St. Vincent's Academy. Extracts from the current reports
indicate the present conditions.

The Sister Superior in charge of the academy is Sister Mary Mount
Carmel. There are six teachers employed at the present time. The
enrollment consists of 164 girls and fourteen small boys.


WALLA WALLA COLLEGE

Walla Walla has become known as an educational center, and in addition
to the public schools, and private institutions within the city, there
is still another outside the city limits entitled to interest. This is
Walla Walla College at College Place, a flourishing suburb of the city.
The college is under the direction of the Seventh Day Adventists. It
was founded by that denomination in 1892 upon land donated by Dr. N. G.
Blalock and has been maintained by contributions from the membership of
the church and tuitions from the students. In connection with it there
is a well conducted hospital. There is a beautiful and commodious main
building, besides the other buildings needful to provide for the large
number of students who come from elsewhere and make their home at the
college. From the current catalog we derive the following exhibit of
the managers and faculty.


PRESIDENTS OF WALLA WALLA COLLEGE

William W. Prescott, 1892-94; Edward A. Sutherland, 1894-97; Emmett
J. Hibbard,1897-98; Walter B. Sutherland, 1898-1900; E. L. Stewart
1900-02; Charles C. Lewis, 1902-04; Joseph L. Kay, 1904-05; M. E. Cady,
1905-11; Ernest C. Kellogg, 1911-17; Walter I. Smith, 1917-.


BOARD OF TRUSTEES

C. W. Flaiz, College Place, Wash.; H. W. Decker, College Place, Wash.;
F. S. Bunch, College Place, Wash.; H. W. Cottrell, Portland, Ore.; J.
J. Nethery, College Place, Wash.; J. F. Piper, Seattle, Wash.; G. F.
Watson, Bozeman Mont.; F. W. Peterson, College Place, Wash.; E. C.
Kellogg, College Place, Wash.


OFFICERS OF THE BOARD

C. W. Flaiz, chairman; E. C. Kellogg, secretary; F. W. Peterson,
treasurer.

[Illustration: PRESTON HALL, WAITSBURG]

[Illustration: PUBLIC SCHOOL, WAITSBURG]


FACULTY

Walter Irvine Smith, president, mathematics and astronomy; Elder O.
A. Johnson, Bible and ecclesiastical history; Elder F. S. Bunch,
Bible and pastoral training; George W. Rine, history and public
speaking; Winifred Lucile Holmden, ancient and modern languages;
J. Alvin Renninger, English and Biblical literature; Clara Edna
Rogers, rhetoric; Bert Bryan Davis, normal director, psychology and
education; William Miller Heidenreich, German; Arthur C. Christensen,
chemistry and biology; George Kretschmar, physics and mathematics; A.
Wilmar Oakes, director of music, violin, orchestra and chorus; Grace
Wood-Reith, pianoforte and voice; Estella Winona Kiehnhoff, pianoforte,
voice and harmony; ----, stenography and typewriting; William Carey
Raley, bookkeeping and accountancy; Win S. Osborne, art.


NORMAL CRITIC TEACHERS

Charles Oscar Smith, grades seven and eight; Grace Robison-Rine, grades
five and six, intermediate methods; Rosella A. Snyder-Davis, grades
three and four, manual arts; Anna Aurelia Pierce, grades one and two,
primary methods.


INDUSTRIAL DEPARTMENTS

Frank W. Peterson, superintendent; Glen R. Holden, printing; Wm. B.
Ammundsen, carpentry; Philip A. Bothwell, baking; Mrs. R. D. Bolter,
dressmaking; Mrs. F. W. Vesey, cooking.

The catalog shows an enrollment of 293 pupils.

From a historical and educational standpoint there is no more
interesting institution under private control than the

FORMER WAITSBURG ACADEMY

That community of beautiful homes and intelligent citizens, of which
much more will be said in other parts of this work, has always
recognized the value of education, and it is not surprising to find
a demand in the early days for a more advanced type of education
than that afforded by the common schools. During the first part of
the decade of the '80s that demand eventuated in the appointment by
the United Presbyterian Church of Rev. Joseph Alter in 1884 to go
to Eastern Washington as a general organizer of home missionary and
educational work. The church founded by Mr. Alter secured Rev. W. G. M.
Hays as its pastor in 1886. Being filled with the spirit of the need of
higher education and encouraged by ample evidence of probable support
of a first-class academy, Doctor Hays became a steadfast advocate of
such an undertaking and on September 14, 1886, the church building was
opened for the meeting of the first classes, Prof. J. G. Thompson being
placed in charge of the work. At that time the academy had no corporate
existence and no board of trustees. But in 1887 the infant institution
was adopted by the synod of Columbia of the United Presbyterian Church
of North America and became regularly incorporated with its first board
of trustees consisting of the Revs. Hugh F. Wallace, W. G. Irvine,
W. A. Spalding, W. G. M. Hays, and J. H. Niblock, and Messrs. A. W.
Philips, David Roberts, E. F. Cox, T. J. Hollowell, and J. E. Vans.
In May, 1887, in pursuance of the plans of the board, a joint stock
company was organized to conduct the academy. Six thousand dollars was
raised, of which $4,000 was devoted to a building and the remainder
to supplementing tuition as a means of maintenance. During the ten
years following the founding, Doctor Hays, Rev. W. R. Stevenson, and
Miss Ina F. Robertson made journeys east for the purpose of securing
funds for building and endowment. As a result of the last campaign of
Miss Robertson, funds were secured for an excellent building which was
erected in 1896. During the entire term of its existence Waitsburg
Academy received the respect and support of the community, and its
teachers were men and women of the highest type.

The principals with their terms of service were these: J. G. Thompson,
1886-9; T. M. McKinney, 1889-90; W. G. M. Hays, 1890-1; Ina F.
Robertson, 1891-4; and Rev. J. A. Keener, 1894, to the termination
of the life of the institution. For rather sad to relate Waitsburg
Academy, in spite of all its excellent work and a growing body of
alumni enthusiastic in its support, found itself in the situation which
has confronted practically all such educational institutions in the
West. When high school instruction was undertaken at Waitsburg it was
found that the interest and desire to support that public system was so
general that the support of the academy fell off, and though the people
of the community had no sentiment other than of commendation, yet
their first interest was in the public school system. As an inevitable
sequence the academy found it wise to disband. Its building was sold
to the district and there the public school work of part of the city
is conducted. The academy, though disbanded, had performed a great
mission, and the present excellent high school, as well as the general
culture and intelligence apparent in the beautiful little City of
Waitsburg, may be attributed in large degree to the noble work of the
academy.

We have elsewhere given a general view of the public school systems of
the county, and in that the schools of Waitsburg appear. But there is
one feature of the schools of Waitsburg already named so unique and
interesting as to call for further special mention. This is Preston
Hall, connected with the high school. This beautiful and well-equipped
building was the gift of one of the noblest and most philanthropic
citizens of the Inland Empire, a man of whom old Walla Walla County,
and particularly Waitsburg, may well be proud. This was W. G. Preston.
This big-souled and big-brained builder of the large affairs of his
community, had a deep sense of the value of practical industrial
training for the growing youth of the land. Carrying out his favorite
idea he gave about twenty-six thousand dollars for the creation of
a building, with suitable equipment for the best type of industrial
education, as well as gymnastic training. While this was but one of
the many contributions to the advancement of the community in which
the Preston family lived so long and so well, it is perhaps the one
which will be most wide-reaching in influence and the one which will
perpetuate most effectively the influence of its donor.

Before leaving the subject of the schools it may be suitable to note
the fact that the schools in what was old Walla Walla County, as well
as the narrower limits which now retain the name, have during the past
ten or fifteen years shown a great tendency to build more beautiful
and better equipped houses. This has been due partly to the increase
in wealth and culture and to the general recognition that the old
bare unlovely and forsaken-looking schoolhouses of the earlier times
are an affront to the progressive spirit of a time which is demanding
the best for the boys and girls, but much of the motive power of this
great improvement must be attributed, in Walla Walla County, to the
last two superintendents of schools, Mrs. Josephine Preston and Paul
Johnson. During the eight years of service of these two efficient
public officials the idea of the rural school as a community center and
a focus of social life has gained a hold on public interest and support
truly wonderful. A debt of gratitude is due these and other incumbents
of the same office in the other counties covered by this work in
inaugurating a new era in school architecture and beautification of
grounds. The influence of this on coming generations for character,
patriotism, and efficiency, as well as artistic taste and general
culture, will be incalculable. It is fitting that special note be made
here of the fact that in the smaller towns of Walla Walla County,
Prescott, Touchet, Dixie and Attalia, the school buildings represent
large outlay and contain the best modern features. If there is one
thing more than another in which the people of this section may take
satisfaction, it is the school system, both town and rural.

There is another institution in Walla Walla of rare interest, which
while not educational is allied with that branch of social progress.
We refer to the Stubblefield Home. From Mr. C. M. Rader, one of the
trustees, we derive the following account of this noble institution.


STUBBLEFIELD HOME

To Joseph Loney Stubblefield and his good wife Anna, are indebted the
children and widows who in the past have been, or in the future may
become members of this home. In early life Mr. and Mrs. Stubblefield
experienced the hardships incident to poverty. They emigrated from
Missouri in the early '60s and settled about seven miles southeast
of Walla Walla, where by most frugal habits and great industry they
accumulated, for the early days, a considerable fortune. The wife died
in 1874 without issue. She and her husband often talked of the great
need of a home for caring for aged widows and orphan children and the
wife said she wanted her money to be used for such purpose. She left no
will, except as it was impressed in the heart of her husband.

On November 16, 1902, six months after making his will, Joseph
L. Stubblefield died at the age of seventy-eight years. By the
thirty-first clause of this will he left about one hundred and thirty
thousand dollars, the bulk of his accumulations, for the purpose of
establishing and maintaining a home for "fatherless or motherless and
indigent children, and worthy elderly indigent widows, residents of
Washington and Oregon." This fund was willed to R. M. Dorothy, E. A.
Reser and Cary M. Rader, who were named as trustees to manage the fund
and the home to be established. These trustees were appointed to serve
for life, unless any should resign or be removed. The successors of
these trustees under the terms of the will are to be appointed by
the county commissioners of Walla Walla and Umatilla counties, acting
jointly but by and with the consent of the two trustees remaining on
the board. A second wife, whom Mr. Stubblefield had amply provided for,
attempted to break the will by proceedings in court, but the will was
fully sustained both in the Superior and Supreme courts of Washington.

Numerous citizens interested themselves in an attempt to secure
the location of the home near Walla Walla and raised a donation of
something more than ten thousand dollars to assist in purchasing a
suitable site. The trustees purchased the present grounds consisting
of forty acres about one mile southeast of the City of Walla Walla and
there on November 16, 1904, exactly two years after the death of Mr.
Stubblefield, with appropriate ceremonies, the home was formally opened
with Alphonso R. Olds as superintendent and his wife Etta C. Olds as
matron.

The home remained under the very efficient management of these good
people for eight years. On their resignation, occasioned by ill
health, Luther J. Campbell and wife Maggie were appointed respectively
as superintendent and matron, and have since been in charge of the
institution. R. M. Dorothy, in 1912, resigned as trustee and was
succeeded on the board by Francis M. Stubblefield, a nephew of Joseph
L. Stubblefield. These are the only changes of officials connected with
the institution.

The home rapidly filled after the opening and there has since rarely
been a vacancy for any considerable time. The number of members in the
home is usually close to twenty-five and of these most are children.
There have never been more than three widows in the home at one time.
The children are taught to work and soon become quite expert for
children--the boys as gardeners and the girls at household duties. In
1915 a team of three girls from the home won a prize at the Walla Walla
County Fair and also at the State Fair as experts in canning fruits and
vegetables. The children attend school at the Berney Graded School.

The fund left by Mr. Stubblefield, by judicious handling, has about
doubled and is at present mostly invested in wheat lands, which furnish
sufficient income to defray all expenses.


THE CHURCHES OF WALLA WALLA COUNTY

As elsewhere in this work we speak first of the institutions located
in Walla Walla City itself. By reason of priority of settlement the
institutions of all sorts growing around that point were representative
of the entire region and hence belong as truly to the parts which
subsequently were set aside for other counties. We shall elsewhere
endeavor to give similar brief views of the churches of the other parts
of the region covered by our story. As will be obvious to the reader,
the limitations of space compel us to consider the churches as a whole,
important as they are in the life of the community, without dwelling
upon details, significant and inspiring as they often are. Practically
all the leading Christian denominations have been represented in Old
Walla Walla. The Methodist seems to have been the pioneer among the
Protestant denominations, though the Catholic was first to provide
a place of worship. It was in 1859 that a structure of piles driven
into the ground and covered with shakes was prepared for worship by
the Catholics of the little community on Mill Creek. The location
was near the present lumber yard on Third Street and Poplar. In 1860
the Methodists built the first regular building on the corner of the
present Fifth and Alder. That church had various vicissitudes, for it
subsequently moved to Second and Alder and was used for a time as a
house for the hosecart of the fire department. Later on it received
a second story and became the "Blue Front," still later burned.

[Illustration:
  Congregational Church
  White Temple Baptist Church
  Central Christian Church
  Presbyterian Church
CHURCHES OF WALLA WALLA]

We give here a sketch of the early history of the Methodist Church,
not with the desire to overemphasize that denomination at the expense
of others, but that by reason of its pioneer nature it was peculiarly
typical of the first days. We take this from a historical report
prepared by J. M. Hill and E. Smith and presented at the conference
at Walla Walla on February 7, 1900. This report contains so much
interlocking matter of different kinds as to give it a permanent value:

"On page seventy-four of Rev. H. K. Hines' Missionary History of the
Pacific Northwest, we find that the first sermon preached west of
the Rocky Mountains was delivered by Rev. Jason Lee at Fort Hall, on
Sunday, July 27, 1834. And in a book entitled Wild Life in Oregon, on
pages 176-7, we will find that the first Methodist sermon preached at
or near Walla Walla was by the Rev. Gustavus Hines, on May 21, 1843, at
Doctor Whitman's mission, six miles west of this city. Rev. Gustavus
Hines also preached at Rev. H. H. Spalding's Lapwai mission, on Sunday,
May 14, 1843.

We find that the first Methodist Episcopal Church organization that
was perfected in Walla Walla, or in that part of the country known as
Eastern Oregon or Eastern Washington, was in 1859, and at that time
the Walla Walla Valley was just commencing to be settled up with stock
raisers and traders. The Town of Walla Walla was the principal or most
important point, the United States military post being located here,
and this place having become the wintering place for miners, packers
and freighters from the mines north and east of this country.

The Oregon conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, having
jurisdiction over the church work in this section, took up the matter
of supplying it with the gospel, and at the annual conference held at
Albany in August, 1859, appointed Rev. J. H. Wilber as presiding elder
of this field, calling it the Walla Walla circuit, which took in most
of that part of the country east of The Dalles, Oregon, comprising
the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, Snake River and Columbia River valleys
as far north as the British line and east to the Rocky Mountains, and
appointed Rev. G. M. Berry as pastor for Walla Walla circuit.

Brother Wilber and Brother Berry at once started for their field of
labor. They came to Walla Walla and commenced the work by holding
meetings at different places, at the homes of some of the people and
at times in the old log courthouse at the corner of Main and Fifth
streets. Soon after taking up the work Brother Wilber and Brother Berry
decided to organize a class at Walla Walla, and on Monday, October
11, 1859, met and organized the first class in the district; also
held their first quarterly conference. The quarterly conference was
called to order by the presiding elder, Rev. J. H. Wilber, and opened
with singing and prayer. The pastor, Rev. G. M. Berry, was appointed
secretary of the meeting. The following named brothers were elected
as the first board of stewards: S. M. Titus, William B. Kelly, John
Moar, A. B. Roberts and T. P. Denney. A. B. Roberts was elected as the
recording steward.

In January, 1860, the class decided to build a church in the Town of
Walla Walla, and appointed a building committee to undertake the work,
consisting of the pastor, Rev. G. M. Berry, Brother Thomas Martin and
Brother John Moar. At a meeting held in April, 1860, the committee
reported that they had selected for a church site lots 6 and 7, block
10, at the corner of Alder and Fifth streets, and that Rev. G. M. Berry
had made application to the Board of County Commissioners asking them
to donate the lots to the church. At a meeting held on May 21, 1860,
the first board of trustees of the church of Walla Walla was appointed,
being Brothers T. P. Denney, S. M. Titus, John Moar, Thomas Martin and
William B. Kelly, and on May 22, 1860, lots 6 and 7 of block 10 of
the original Town of Walla Walla were transferred to the above named
trustees for the church by the Board of County Commissioners of Walla
Walla County.

The building committee--the pastor, Rev. G. M. Berry, as its
chairman--with the few members, at once took up the work of building
the church, which was completed in the fall of 1860. It was the first
church of any denomination built in Walla Walla, and was built at a
cost of $1,046.52, with unpaid bills to the amount of $131.02. These
items are taken from the report of the auditor of accounts of the
building committee as reported at the third quarterly conference, held
at Walla Walla on June 24, 1861, by Andrew Keys, auditor. The pastor,
Rev. G. M. Berry, had practically been Sunday-school superintendent
as well as pastor ever since the organisation of the class until the
church was completed. We fail to find any record of the dedication of
this church.

The Oregon annual conference of 1861 created the Walla Walla district
and appointed Rev. John Flinn as presiding elder and pastor of Walla
Walla. At the Oregon annual conference, held in 1867, the Walla Walla
district was divided into one station and four circuits, viz.: Walla
Walla Station, Walla Walla, Waitsburg, Grande Ronde and Umatilla
circuits.

In 1868, the class having become strong, and desiring a new location
for their church building, the board of trustees procured lots on the
corner of Poplar and Second streets, bought on May 30, 1868, from W.
J. and Abell Arner for $250.00, and deeded to the following named
trustees: H. Parker, T. P. Denney, J. L. Reser, Joseph Paul and John
W. McGhee. The old church was moved to the new location, repaired and
enlarged, and a parsonage was fitted up just east of the church, facing
on Popular Street.

At the Oregon annual conference, held at Eugene, August 5 to 9, 1869,
all of the membership and appointments formally denominated Walla
Walla Station, Walla Walla Circuit and Dry Creek were formed as one
charge and called Walla Walla Circuit, to which Rev. John T. Wolfe was
appointed as pastor and Rev. Charles H. Hoxie as assistant pastor.

Rev. James B. Calloway was presiding elder of the district, and
on September 18, 1869, called together at Walla Walla all of the
official members of the new circuit and organised the first quarterly
conference, electing the following board of trustees: Charles Moore, T.
P. Denney, D. M. Jessee, M. Emerick, Benjamin Hayward, A. H. Simmons,
M. McEverly, William Holbrook and Oliver Gallaher. At the Oregon annual
conference, held at Vancouver, on August 25, 1870, Walla Walla City
was again made a station, separating it from the Walla Walla Circuit,
and Rev. H. C. Jenkins was appointed as pastor.

Early in the spring of 1878, under the leadership of the pastor,
Rev. D. G. Strong, the class undertook the erection of a new church
building. The old church was sold to Mr. J. F. Abbott for $250.00 and
moved off the lots, and through the efforts of the pastor and his board
of trustees, consisting of B. F. Burch, J. E. Berryman, M. Middaugh,
John Berry and O. P. Lacy, together with the faithful members and
friends, the new church was completed at a cost of about $10,000,
receiving from the church extension society of the church a donation of
$1,000 and a loan of $500. The loan in due time was paid back. After
the completion of the new church, Rev. W. G. Simpson was the first
pastor and Brother E. Smith was the first Sunday-school superintendent.
For some reason not on record the church was not dedicated until
August, 1879. The collection and services at the dedication were in
charge of Bishop Haven, he being the bishop of the annual conference
held at Walla Walla August 7 to 12, 1879.

It having been discovered in 1883 that the board of trustees had never
been incorporated under the laws of the Territory of Washington, the
quarterly conference directed that articles of incorporation should
be prepared. B. L. and J. L. Sharpstein, attorneys, were employed to
prepare incorporation papers, and on February 9, 1883, they were signed
and acknowledged by the following board of trustees: Donald Ross, C.
P. Headley, S. F. Henderson, J. M. Hill, H. C. Sniff, H. C. Chew, E.
Smith and G. H. Randall, and filed with the territorial auditor and the
auditor of Walla Walla County. At the first meeting of this board of
trustees they elected the following officers: J. M. Hill, president;
Donald Ross, secretary; C. P. Headley, treasurer.

During the summer of 1887, the class, under the leadership of the
pastor, Rev. Henry Brown, with the ladies of the church and the
trustees, consisting of J. H. Parker, C. P. Headley, S. F. Henderson,
J. M. Hill, H. C. Sniff, H. C. Chew, G. H. Randall and E. Smith,
undertook the building of a new parsonage, and with the bequest of $500
from the estate of our departed brother, E. Sherman, designated by him
to be used for a new parsonage, and $596.47 raised principally by the
efforts of the ladies' parsonage committee, a two-story, seven-room
parsonage was erected on the grounds of the old parsonage, facing
Poplar Street, and this was turned over to the board of trustees free
of debt and fairly well furnished.

During 1887, through the efforts of Rev. J. H. Wilber, a small church
was built in the eastern part of the city and called Wilber Chapel.
Brother W. J. White donated a lot for that purpose, $300 being
received from the Church Extension Society, part of the balance being
subscriptions from friends, but the greater part being given by Rev.
J. H. Wilber himself. The church cost $1,500 and was deeded to the
trustees of the First Methodist Episcopal Church of Walla Walla, viz.:
J. H. Parker, J. M. Hill, C. P. Headley, S. F. Henderson, H. C. Sniff,
H. C. Chew, G. H. Randall and E. Smith. The church was sold to the
German Lutheran Society for the sum of $1,600 on September 5, 1892,
returning to the board of the church extension about $400 due them in
principal and interest. The dedication of Wilber Chapel was by Rev. N.
E. Parsons, presiding elder, assisted by Rev. J. H. Wilber and Rev.
Henry Brown. During 1894 the church, under the leadership of Rev. V. C.
Evers, the pastor, with the trustees, enlarged the present church by
extending it to the north line of the property, increasing the seating
capacity of the church with lecture room to 525 persons.

Our church property at this time is free from debt and consists of:

One church building and lot, value $11,500.00; one parsonage and
fraction of lot, value $2,000.00; total $13,500.00.

The following are the names of the pastors of Walla Walla and time
of service: 1859 to 1861, Rev. George M. Berry; 1861 to 1863, Rev.
John Flinn; 1863 to 1865, Rev. William Franklin; 1865 to 1866, Rev.
James Deardoff; 1866 to 1867, Rev. John L. Reser; 1867 to 1869, Rev.
John T. Wolfe; 1869 to 1870, Rev. C. H. Hoxie; 1870 to 1872, Rev. H.
C. Jenkins; 1872 to 1873, Rev. J. W. Miller; 1873 to 1874, Rev. S.
G. Havermale; 1874 to 1875, Rev. G. W. Grannis; 1875 to 1876, Rev.
S. B. Burrell; 1876 to 1878, Rev. D. G. Strong; 1878 to 1880, Rev.
W. G. Simpson; 1880 to 1882, Rev. G. M. Irwin; 1882 to 1883, Rev. A.
J. Joslyn; 1883 to 1884, Rev. W. C. Gray; 1884 to 1885, Rev. J. D.
Flenner; 1885 to 1886, Rev. D. G. Strong; 1886 to 1889, Rev. Henry
Brown; 1889 to 1892, Rev. W. W. Van Dusen; 1892 to 1896, Rev. V. C.
Evers; 1896 to 1899, Rev. W. C. Reuter; 1899 to 1900, Rev. Lee A.
Johnson.

The following are the names of the presiding elders of Walla Walla
district and time of service: 1859 to 1861, Rev. J. H. Wilber; 1861 to
1864, Rev. John Flinn; 1864 to 1866, Rev. Isaac Dillon; 1866 to 1869,
Rev. J. B. Calloway; 1860 to 1870, Rev. W. H. Lewis; 1870 to 1874,
Rev. H. K. Hines; 1874 to 1878, Rev. S. G. Havermale; 1878 to 1882,
Rev. D. G. Strong; 1882 to 1885, Rev. W. S. Turner; 1885 to 1886, Rev.
Levi L. Tarr; 1886 to 1888, Rev. N. E. Parsons; 1888 to 1892, Rev. D.
G. Strong; 1892 to 1898, Rev. T. A. Towner; 1898 to 1900, Rev. M. H.
Marvin."[5]

[5] In article quoted the name Wilber appears a number of
times but it should be noted that the correct spelling is Wilbur.


CATHOLIC CHURCH

In 1861 the Catholics built their first permanent house near the
present site of St. Vincent's Academy. Bishop Blanchet was present
during that period and Father Yunger became pastor. He was succeeded by
Rev. J. B. Brouillet, who first came to the Walla Walla country as a
missionary to the Indians in 1847.

Connected with the Catholic Church are St. Vincent's Academy and De
La Salle Institute, described elsewhere, besides St. Mary's Hospital,
founded in 1870 and now established in one of the most perfect
buildings in the Northwest.

While our limits do not permit details in regard to each of the
churches of Walla Walla, we wish to incorporate a sketch of the early
Episcopal Church, for the reason that it casts such as vivid light upon
the early days as to give it a special historic value. This sketch was
prepared by Edgar Johnson, one of the Whitman College class of 1917,
as a research study in his history course and in the judgment of the
author is worthy of a place in this volume.


THE EARLY HISTORY OF ST. PAUL'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH

According to the old adage, "Well begun is half done," this church
completed half its work in its earliest period. The history of all
churches when finally established in a civilized community is much the
same. But what was the history of this church before Walla Walla became
civilized?

[Illustration: PIONEER METHODIST CHURCH, WALLA WALLA
Completed January 1, 1918.]

This is the atmosphere I have to picture; the condition of the times
as it reflected on the growth of the church, and the condition of the
church as it reflected on the growth of civilization in this city.

From the historical data accompanying this review, it will seem that
St. Paul's Church was first begun by services held by a traveling
missionary, Bishop Morris. The church did not take on definite unity,
however, until 1871, when it was placed under the care of Rev. L. H.
Wells, a comparatively young missionary from the East. In September,
1871, the first services were held in the building (now gone) on Third
Street, between Poplar and Alder streets. This building served as a
combined courthouse, hall, church; and the basement housed Stahl's
Brewery.

At the time of Bishop Wells' arrival in Walla Walla, this city boasted
of one thousand inhabitants, while Eastern Washington had seven
thousand settlers. At this date, it would strike us that the little
city of one thousand would band itself together to protect themselves
from the Indians. But fifteen years or more had passed since the last
of the Indian wars, and the wealth of the mines of Idaho and Washington
found its way into the city and aided in the carousals of its
"short-time" owners. For the uninitiated, the center of the street, or
open doorways were the safest stops in the city. The Vigilantes ruled
as a secret power behind the throne. Suspicion was fixed upon every
law-abiding citizen by those who lived to break the law, as a member of
this band.

The wives of several saloon-keepers were members of the church; and
one wife succeeded in converting her husband. But inability or lack of
desire to learn a new trade, always drove the new convert back into
his old business. After efficiently illustrating back-sliding methods
thrice over, this particular saloon man never appeared upon the church
rolls again. He furnished, however, the material for a story which
emphasizes the uncouthness of the times. He maintained a flourishing
saloon on the corner of Third and Main streets, and one evening a
miner from the Florence District showed up with his nuggets and gold
dust. After treating the house several times, he began searching for
more amusement. Finally, thinking that the mirror behind the bar might
prove a worthy object at which to pelt gold nuggets, he began firing.
Needless to say, he smashed it into bits and then careening up to the
bar, he simply asked: "How much do I owe?" The saloon-keeper recovered
several hundred dollars' worth of nuggets from the floor and after
removing the board floor from the saloon succeeded in washing out $200
more from the gold dust which had been lost throughout the previous
period. This became an annual event and never failed in bringing a
hundred dollars or so.

In 1872 the bishop started his day school, following this in 1873
with a boarding school for girls. In this year a fire burned them out
entirely and a larger building was constructed. The life of the bishop
was not an easy one. He lived in his little cabin next to the church
and whenever a new girl came to the boarding school, he would be forced
to give up some of his furniture for the new girl. He was finally
reduced to sleeping on a cot, with his overcoat for a coverlet. It was
very difficult to keep the coat from falling away during the night;
and when another girl came and the couch was needed for her room, the
bishop having received no new furniture, built himself a box and filled
it with straw, in which he slept and in which he had no difficulty in
retaining his overcoat as a comforter.

Gold dust and nuggets were the medium of exchange and the church and
school both had gold-weighing scales. Many people carried little scales
with them in morocco cases. Gold dust was generally carried in buckskin
sacks about a foot in depth and about three inches wide, and many
people left them lying about the front porch in disguised covering, as
the safest place to keep them from thieves and renegade Indians. Three
grades of gold found its way into Walla Walla. These were the Eldorado,
Florence and Eagle Creek, so named from the district in which they were
mined. Merchants kept on hand small round stones with streaks of all
three grades in them, by which to measure the dust, as the three grades
were worth different amounts of money.

It was in this atmosphere that the church began, truly, in a missionary
district. Yet it grew, and mainly through the spirit of co-operation
of the other churches in the territory. At this time there were also
the Methodist, Congregational, Presbyterian and the United Brethren
churches. Bishop Wells recently told me of the kindness of the United
Brethren minister. One day while walking down the street, he was
hailed by this minister who was on horseback. The old minister opened
the conversation: "Young man, I've been watching you, and so have my
congregation. It strikes us that you've seen city life and I'm only a
country preacher. If you will take care of my congregation, you may
have the church and I'll go into the country, where I can do some
good." Naturally, the offer was accepted.

In 1877 the new church was erected, and it still stands. This was
built on the corner of Third and Poplar streets. The lumber for it was
hauled from Touchet, where there was a mill. One difficulty presented
itself, however, and that was that the lumber obtainable from there was
very short. But the long haul from Wallula made better lumber almost
prohibitive, and the church was built from lumber cut in this vicinity
and planed at Touchet.

Even at this date, forty years ago, Walla Walla was little more than a
frontier town. The Joseph wars broke out as result of the white man's
raid on their land. A few years previous to this the Government had
sent out men to see what could be done for the Indians. The white men
were open in their statements that they intended to get the Indians'
lands. The Joseph war was followed by the Bannock war. In the latter,
Walla Walla was seriously threatened, the Indians coming up through
Pendleton and striking near the foothills of this city. A very pretty
tale is told regarding a Pendleton sheep man and his dog Bob. The
Indians murdered the herders, killed many of the sheep and went on
their way. The owner stayed in Pendleton fearing to go to his flocks,
and did not go near them until a week or two had elapsed. When he did
find them, he discovered that the dog Bob had not only gathered all his
own sheep into the flock, but had collected more stray sheep from other
flocks that had become lost, than the Indians themselves had killed.
Furthermore, he had only killed two small lambs for his own sustenance.

Recitation of early events, and incidents could go on forever. And also
it is hard to shape a series of stories, and a few simple historical
facts, into an interesting history. But the foregoing gives the reader
an idea of the times into which the missionary was forced to introduce
the Christian teachings. A glance at Walla Walla today, called often
the City of Churches, and then the retrospective glance into the '70s,
shows the results of the influence which began work at that early
date and by its everwidening influence succeeded in civilizing this
Northwest.


WORTHY AND POWERFUL PREACHERS

Of the many worthy and powerful preachers of early Walla Walla it may
be said that four seem to stand out beyond all others in the minds
of pioneers. These are Cushing Eells, missionary, educator, school
builder, and all-round saint; John Flinn, a man of somewhat similar
type, patient, tireless in good deeds, saintly and unselfish; J. H.
Wilbur, one of the big figures of early days; and P. B. Chamberlain,
first pastor of the Congregational Church and first principal of
Whitman Seminary. Each of these men had his peculiarities, some
amusing, some pathetic, all interesting and inspiring. Old-timers,
even those not at all given to walking the straight and narrow way,
had profound regard for those militant exponents of the gospel.
Father Wilbur had worked at the blacksmith's trade before entering
the ministry and had muscles of iron and a heart as tender and
gentle as ever beat. He was of giant strength and not at all times
a non-resistent. It is related that once in Oregon before he came
to Walla Walla, some rowdies persisted in disturbing a camp meeting
which he was conducting. After warning them a time or two in vain he
suddenly descended from the platform, keeping right on with the hymn in
stentorian voice, swooped down on the two rowdies, seized them in his
brawny hands, knocked their heads together a few times and almost shook
the breath out of them, singing all the time, until it was plain that
they would interrupt no more services, then returned to the pulpit,
going right on as though nothing had happened.

Mr. Chamberlain was a man of very different appearance, small,
delicate, refined in tone and speech. At first meeting one had little
conception of his tremendous energy and iron will. He was a man of
electric oratory and swayed pioneer audiences in his little church
or in the groves at public gatherings as few men in Walla Walla
ever have. He was, however, a genuine Calvinist in his theology, an
intense Sabbatarian, and felt called on to attack secret societies
and supposedly unorthodox churches with conscientious severity. Thus,
though he was admired and respected by all, he could not maintain a
working church. As showing something of the character of the man, we
include brief extracts from entries made by him in the records of
his church, pertaining to his first church building. The building
was completed in 1866 at a cost of $3,500, most of which was Mr.
Chamberlain's own money. Of it he says: "So it now stands consecrated
to God, as all property should be. I leave it with Him, to be refunded
or not as He may, at some future time, move the hearts of the children
of men to desire to do." On July 13, 1868, two days after the fire,
he writes: "God has put His own final construction upon the last part
of the foregoing record. Last Saturday, between twelve and two, our
pleasant church was entirely destroyed by fire, the fire originating in
a neighbor's barn, situated within a few feet of the church. Thy will,
not mine, be done." It is gratifying to record that the Methodists
at once offered to share their house with their stricken neighbors
and that within a few months the generous contributions of the people
of Walla Walla enabled Mr. Chamberlain to gather his congregation
again on the same place, corner of Second and Rose, and there the
Congregationalists continued to worship under several pastorates until
during that of Rev. Austin Rice in 1900 the present building on Palouse
and Alder streets was erected.

During the past few years a number of fine church buildings have been
erected, of which the Christian, the Presbyterian, the Baptist, the
Marvin Methodist, and the First Methodist, may be especially named.

A distinguishing feature of present church life may be said to be the
degree to which it has taken hold of municipal and political questions,
reforms, and problems of practical life. In that respect the present
churches of Walla Walla are essentially modern. Besides the churches
named above, the United Brethren, Lutheran, German Methodist, German
Congregational and Christian Science Churches, maintain influential
organizations, and the Salvation Army is active and useful.


FRATERNAL ORDERS

Somewhat similar to the churches in philanthropic aims and to
considerable degree composed of the same type of members are the
fraternal orders.

If Walla Walla and its kindred communities may be regarded as the homes
of schools and churches, they may in equal degree be regarded as the
homes of lodges. Almost all the fraternal orders usual in American
cities are found here. As in case of the churches we find ourselves
compelled by the limitations of space to accord too brief attention to
these important and popular organizations.

The Masonic order has been for many years represented by an active
membership, having two lodges, one chapter, a commandery, and a chapter
of the Order of the Eastern Star. The first lodge was Walla Walla No.
7, which came into being October 19, 1859. At that date a dispensation
was granted to C. R. Allen, Braziel Grounds, A. B. Roberts, H. N.
Bruning, T. P. Page, Jonas Whitney, Charles Silverman, J. Freedman, and
R. H. Reigert. Not till September 3, 1860, was the lodge organized.
A. B. Roberts was the first Worshipful Master; J. M. Kennedy, senior
warden; B. Scheideman, junior warden; T. P. Page, treasurer; W. B.
Kelly, secretary; C. A. Brooks, senior deacon; J. Caughran, junior
deacon; W. H. Babcock, tyler. In the summer of 1864 the lodge built
a home at the corner of Third and Alder streets. But this building
was destroyed by fire in 1866, and for many years following the lodge
held its sessions in the Knights Templar hall in the Dooley Block. For
several years past the upper story of the Motett Building on Alder
Street has been used as a Masonic lodge room.

The Odd Fellows have been represented in Walla Walla since 1863, and it
is a matter of historic interest to record that the first dispensation
to organize a lodge of Odd Fellows in Walla Walla was granted in that
year to A. H. Purdy, James McAuliff, W. B. Kelly, L. A. Burthy, and
Meyer Lazarus. With additions from time to time there have come into
existence three lodges, one encampment, one canton, and two lodges
of the Daughters of Rebekah. One of the notable institutions of the
Odd Fellows is the Home on Boyer Avenue. This is an institution
covering the state and now is housed in two commodious and attractive
buildings with accommodations for a large number of old people and
orphan children. The home is located upon five acres of fertile and
wholesome land secured from H. P. Isaacs. The first building of wood
was constructed in 1897 and opened for use in December of that year.
The second building of brick was constructed in 1914. There are many
shade and fruit trees upon the grounds of the home, and it is truly
an attractive and beneficent place. The order has also a fine hall on
Alder Street.

[Illustration: REV. CUSHING EELLS
The "St. Paul of the Northwest." Missionary to the Indians, 1838-47.
Afterward teacher and preacher, and founder of Whitman College.]

Perhaps most rapid in growth of all the orders in Walla Walla has been
the Elks. The Walla Walla lodge of Elks No. 287 was organized August
10, 1894, with fifteen members. The first member to fill the place of
Exalted Ruler was Judge W. H. Upton, known for many years as one of the
most scholarly, intellectual and capable of the lawyers and jurists of
the Inland Empire. His death in 1906 was a great loss, deeply deplored
by many circles, not alone in fraternity organizations, in which he
was conspicuous, but in all lines of social and professional life.
After a slow growth of a number of years the fraternity took on swift
development and at the date of this publication the membership exceeds
six hundred. The lodge possesses one of the most beautiful buildings
in the city, dedicated with a series of appropriate ceremonies and
entertainments on May 23, 24, and 25, 1913. The Elks have led many
movements for public betterment, as the municipal Christmas trees,
park benefits and other benefits, Red Cross campaigns, and other
endeavors of philanthropic and patriotic service. One of the recent
enterprises of the lodge was the establishment in 1916 of Kooskooskie
Park on Mill Creek, fourteen miles above Walla Walla. There in the
beautiful shade along the flashing crystal waters of our creek
(Pashki the stream ought to be called), the Elks and their friends
are wont to disport themselves at intervals in the hot season, as
their four-footed prototypes their "totem" of prehistoric times, were
accustomed to do. The present Exalted Ruler is C. S. Walters. There is
regular publication called _The Lariat_, issued every new moon by the
secretary, Fred S. Hull.

Of what may be called the great standard fraternities the next to be
noted is the Knights of Pythias. It is an interesting historical fact
that Walla Walla was the first location of a lodge of that order on
the Pacific Coast north of San Francisco. That pioneer lodge was known
as Ivanhoe Lodge No. 1. Its early records are not available, but it
continued in existence till 1882, in which year it surrendered its
charter and went out of existence, to be succeeded by Columbia Lodge
No. 8, instituted on October 23d of that year. Of the new lodge the
first Past Chancellor was S. A. Deckard, and Chancellor Commander W. N.
Gedders. The lodge has been maintained with vigor and success to the
present date.

Of what may be considered the more specialized and limited
organizations there have been and are a number: The Young Men's
Institute and Knights of Columbus, Catholic organizations; Woodmen
of the World, Modern Woodmen of America, Royal Arcanum, Women of
Woodcraft, and National Union, insurance fraternities; and of more
miscellaneous character the United Artisans, the Pioneers of the
Pacific, the Degree of Honor, Ancient Order of Hibernians, American
Yeomen, the Foresters of America, the Rathbone Sisters, Ladies of the
Maccabees, Ancient Order United Workmen, Loyal Order of Moose, Improved
Order of Red Men, Degree of Pocahontas, Good Templars, Sons of Hermann,
Fraternal Order of Eagles, and Order of Washington.

Here as elsewhere throughout our country, and worthy here as everywhere
of profound respect, is a post of the Grand Army of the Republic. This
was chartered March 12, 1881, and the names appearing upon the charter
are these: John H. Smith, J. F. McLean, P. B. Johnson, J. M. Coolidge,
R. P. Reynolds, Abram Ellis, James Howe, J. A. Neill, O. F. Wilson,
H. O. Simonds, Samuel Nulph, Charles Heim, Isaac Chilberg, A. D.
Rockafellow, William Leislie, F. F. Adams, F. B. Morse, R. M. Comstock,
and Ambrose Oldaker. The first commander of the post, known as Abraham
Lincoln Post, No. 4, G. A. R., was John H. Smith. In April, 1886, the
A. Lincoln Relief Corps, No. 5, was established, with twenty-five
charter members, Mrs. Jane Erickson being president. Fittingly included
with the two previously named posts are the United Spanish War Veterans
and the Sons of Veterans.

There are found in Walla Walla also, of more recent date, the Park
Association, one of the most important and influential of all in the
beautification and sanitation of the city, the Gun Club, Isaac Walton
Club, Golf Club, Anti-Tuberculosis League, and several Reading and
Art clubs which have played important parts in ministering to the
recreation, the health, the intellectual life, and the artistic taste
of the people of Walla Walla and the region adjoining. It is to be
regretted that the limitations of space forbid including here the many
interesting details of these various organizations.

The Walla Walla Commercial Club occupies so commanding a place in the
business life of this entire region and has such connections with
similar organizations throughout the entire Northwest and even in the
nation at large as to be worthy of a history of its own.


COMMERCIAL CLUB

The Commercial Club came into existence in 1885. It was represented
in that year by delegates to an Open River meeting in The Dalles. For
a number of years it was suggestive and mutually stimulating to its
small membership, rather than possessing any regular organization.
It met irregularly both in time and place. In 1904 John H. McDonald
became secretary, but the organization was not such as to provide for
a secretary who could devote his entire time to it, and hence there
was not then a real commercial club in the modern sense. But a new era
began with the appointment in 1906 of A. C. Moore as the first regular
and exclusive secretary. Mr. Moore had come to Walla Walla in 1888 and
had been up to 1906 engaged in the O. R. & N. R. R. office. With his
entrance into the secretaryship of the club new and broader plans for
publicity and expansion by new memberships were begun. In 1908 the
first of a series of regular publicity campaigns was begun. That was
a time signalized by the seaboard cities of California, Oregon, and
Washington--Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, Portland, Seattle,
Tacoma, Astoria, Everett and Bellingham--with special efforts to
attract immigration and new enterprise. It was the publicity era _par
excellence_.

Tom Richardson and C. C. Chapman of Portland accomplished wonderful
things in that city and in Oregon. Both became well known in Walla
Walla, where they were greatly admired and where their enthusiasm
imparted such an impulse to the Commercial Club as to lead to a
new organization with the special aim of advertisement and general
publicity. It may be said that the real history of the club as a
definite organization begins at that time, 1908.

The articles of incorporation are as follows:


 ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION


 ARTICLE I

 The name of this corporation, and by which it shall be known, is
 "Walla Walla Commercial Club."


 ARTICLE II

 The time of existence of this corporation shall be fifty years from
 the date hereof.


 ARTICLE III

 The purposes for which this corporation is formed shall be to
 establish, equip, acquire, keep and maintain club rooms with the
 usual and convenient appliances of a social club; to engage in
 literary, educational and social pursuits and to provide ways
 and means therefor, and for the development of the physical and
 mental capacities of its members, and others, and for their social
 advantage, improvement and enjoyment in connection therewith; to
 advance the prosperity and growth of the City of Walla Walla and
 of the State of Washington, to encourage the establishment of
 manufactories and other industries; to seek remunerative markets
 for home products, and to foster capital and protect labor mutually
 interested in each others welfare; to collect and disseminate
 valuable agricultural, manufacturing and commercial information; to
 extend and develop trade agriculture, merchandise, banking and other
 lawful business pursuits, and to do any and all things necessary for
 the accomplishment of these purposes.


 ARTICLE IV

 The principal place of business of said corporation shall be at Walla
 Walla, Walla Walla County, State of Washington.


 ARTICLE V

 The members of this corporation may be individuals, co-partnerships
 or corporations. It shall have no capital stock, and shares therein
 shall not be issued. The interest of each member shall be equal to
 that of any other, and no member can acquire any interest which
 will entitle him to any greater voice, vote, authority or interest
 in the corporation than any other member. The corporation may issue
 membership certificates, which certificates shall be assignable under
 such provisions, rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the
 by-laws of the corporation. Memberships in the corporation may be
 terminated by voluntary withdrawal, by expulsion and by death, and
 the loss of membership through any such causes and the incidents
 thereto shall be governed by the by-laws of the corporation.


 ARTICLE VI

 The number of trustees of this corporation shall be nine, and the
 names of the trustees who shall manage the affairs of the corporation
 until the second Thursday in April, 1909, are F. W. Kaser, H. H.
 Turner, F. S. Dement, W. H. Kirkman, J. M. Crawford, B. C. Holt, J.
 C. Scott, C. F. Nosler and J. P. Kent, all of whom reside at Walla
 Walla, Washington.

The first election provided for in the foregoing articles occurred on
the second Thursday of April, 1909, and resulted in the election of the
following officers and trustees: J. C. Scott, president; J. H. Morrow,
vice president; George E. Kellough, treasurer; A. C. Moore, secretary;
L. M. Brown, assistant secretary (publicity). Trustees: J. C. Scott,
J. H. Morrow, George E. Kellough, O. Drumheller, J. M. Crawford, F. S.
Dement, R. H. Johnson, F. W. Kaser and E. C. Burlingame.

Standing Committees: Freight and Transportation--B. C Holt, H. B.
Strong, Oscar Drumheller, Fred Glafke and John Smith.

House Committee: T. M. McKinney. Geo. Struthers, H. A. Gardner, F. S.
Dement and J. P. Kent.

Membership: W. H. Meyer, A. C. Van Dewater, J. M. Crawford, W. H.
Paxton and O. M. Beatty.

Reception and Entertainment: T. M. Hanger, P. M. Winans, H. H. Turner,
R. E. Allen and W. A. Ritz.

Auditing: C. S. Buffum, J. G. Anderson, R. H. Johnson, E. C. Mills.

Library and Property: J. W. Langdon, J. J. Kaufman, J. H. Morrow, J. G.
Frankland and C. M. Rader.

Manufactories and New Industries: F. W. Kaser, H. H. Turner, J. M.
Crawford, W. B. Foshay and L. M. Brown.

The membership given in the handbook of 1910-11 includes 377
individuals and firms. The club had been, up to 1908 housed in
the Ransom Building, now the Grand Hotel, but in that year of
reorganization, made arrangements with the city for the present
quarters in the City Hall. Large sums of money were raised during the
"Publicity Era," about $20,000 each year. Mr. A. C. Moore continued to
act as secretary until 1912, but in 1908 L. E. Meacham became publicity
manager, which post he retained until 1910, when he was succeeded by L.
M. Brown. Mr. Brown became secretary in 1912, upon the resignation of
Mr. Moore, and he in turn was, succeeded in 1914 by Mr. O. C. Soots,
the present secretary.

The next epoch of the history of the Commercial Club may be said to
have begun with the adoption of the bureau system at a special election
in April 8, 1915. The essential provisions of the new system may be
found in excerpts which follow from the amended by-laws of the club:


 BUREAU ORGANIZATION

 Section 1. The membership of this organization shall be also formed
 into three main divisions, according to the expressed preference of
 each member, for the purpose of dividing the work of the organization
 into departments or bureaus, these bureaus to be designated as
 follows:

  1. Civic and Publicity.
  2. Commercial and Industrial.
  3. Horticultural and Agricultural.

 All members who fail or neglect, within a reasonable time, to express
 their preference as to bureau affiliation, shall be assigned to the
 several bureaus by the President in such proportion as may most
 nearly equalize the total membership of the several bureaus.

 Section 2. After a member of the Club shall have expressed his
 preference as to bureau affiliation, or shall have been assigned
 to bureau affiliation by the President, his affiliation shall be
 conditional upon his election to such bureaus by an affirmative vote
 of a majority of those present at any meeting of the Bureau Committee.

 Section 3. Subject to these By-Laws, each bureau shall have general
 charge of all matters relating to the general lines of work included
 in such bureau.

 Section 4. The work of each bureau shall be under the immediate
 direction of a Bureau Committee of not less than five, consisting of
 the Chairman, who shall have been designated Vice-President in charge
 of the Board of Trustees, and not less than four others selected from
 the membership represented in that bureau by him in conjunction with
 the President and from nominees of double the required number made by
 the membership of the bureau.

 Section 5. The standing and special committees of the Club shall be
 classified under the several bureaus according to the nature of their
 duties by the Board of Trustees upon the advice of the President and
 Secretary. Until other assignments are made by the Board of Trustees,
 the committees shall be classified under the several bureaus as
 follows:

[Illustration: WAITSBURG'S FIFTH ANNUAL HORSE SHOW, MAY 1, 1909]

 Civic and Publicity Bureau--Municipal and County Affairs; Publicity;
 Conventions; Expositions.

 Commercial and Industrial Bureau--Entertainment; Good Roads;
 Investigation and Endorsement; Manufacturers; Frontier Days; Freight
 and Transportation.

 Horticultural and Agricultural Bureau--Horticulture; Agriculture;
 Live Stock; By-Products; General Farming; Fruit Growers.

 Section 6. The President, with the advice of the Vice-Presidents
 of the respective bureaus, shall appoint annually the standing
 committees of the Club included within the several bureaus. He shall
 appoint standing committees on Membership, Finance, House, and such
 special committees as may be found necessary. Each bureau shall have
 at least one member on the Finance Committee.


 ARTICLE VI

 BOARD OF TRUSTEES

 Section 1. The authority of this organization shall be vested in a
 Board of Trustees numbering nine (9).

 Section 2. There shall be elected in every year of even numbers four
 Trustees, one from each bureau and one from the Membership Council.
 There shall be elected in every year of odd numbers five Trustees,
 one from each Bureau, and two from the Membership Council, these
 Trustees to serve for two years each. Provided, that at the first
 election there shall be elected nine Trustees, two from each Bureau
 and three from the Membership Council, of whom five, three from the
 Bureaus and two from the Membership Council receiving the highest
 votes shall serve until the election in 1917 and four, one from
 each bureau and one from the Membership Council receiving the next
 highest vote shall serve until the annual meeting of 1916. All of the
 provisions of Article VI shall apply to the special election held on
 the 8th day of April, 1915, to be known as the first annual meeting
 under these By-Laws.

The first president under the bureau system was a man whom all people
of the city delight to honor and whose appointment as commander, with
rank of Major of the First Battalion of Field Artillery, N. G. W., is
recognized by hosts of friends throughout the state as an eminently fit
employment of ability, patriotism and energy. This first president was
Maj. Paul H. Weyrauch. Mr. O. C. Soots has continued to fulfill his
functions as secretary with conspicuous ability.

The present personnel of officers and trustees is thus: E. L. Smalley,
president; K. Falkenberg, vice president, Civic and Publicity Bureau;
O. M. Beatty, vice president, Commercial and Industrial Bureau; John W.
Langdon, vice president, Agricultural and Horticultural Bureau; F. S.
Dement, treasurer; O. C. Soots, managing secretary. Directors: E. L.
Smalley, F. S. Dement, J. A. McLean, J. W. Langdon, O. M. Beatty, K.
Falkenberg, Fred Glafke, Louis Sutherland, O. T. Cornwell.


WALLA WALLA LABOR UNION

This is one of the largest and most influential organizations in the
city. As compared with its brother organizations in the seaboard cities
or in Spokane, it was late in formation. A community like Walla Walla,
a rich agricultural region, does not seem to be the natural home for
labor unions. The commercial and manufacturing and mining cities are
the natural locations for these organizations. But in process of time
the skilled laborers of Walla Walla were drawn by natural evolution
into the great circle of organized labor.

The Cigar-makers', the Carpenters' and the Painters' unions were the
first in the field. They came into existence in 1900.

Other groups rapidly followed and at the present time there are
seventeen unions. The meeting places and times and the officers of each
union are indicated by their published directory:


LABOR UNION DIRECTORY

Trades and Labor Council--Meets every Friday evening in Labor Temple.
S. S. Stovall, president; L. F. Clarke, secretary.

Carpenters & Joiners. Local 1214--Meets in Labor Temple every Wednesday
night. A. V. Murphy, president; O. D. Keen, financial secretary; C. R.
Nelson, recording secretary; C. A. Tompkins, treasurer.

Printing Pressmen, Local 217--Meets second Wednesday of each month in
Labor Temple. William Potgether, president; A. L. Anger, secretary.

Journeymen Plumbers--Meets in Labor Temple every second and fourth
Thursday of each month. Harry Harter, president; W. G. Collins,
recording secretary; Fred Bowman, financial secretary.

Painters, Paperhangers and Decorators--Meets first and third Monday
evening of each month at Labor Temple. H. R. McCoy, president; O. K.
Sweeney, recording secretary; H. J. Burke, financial secretary; Charles
Hazlewood, treasurer.

Bricklayers' Union--Meets in Labor Temple first and third Tuesdays
of each month. Louis Hermish, president; Wm. F. Taylor, financial
secretary; Russell Taylor, corresponding secretary; George Root,
treasurer.

Meat Cutters' Local--Meets first Monday of month in Labor Temple. H.
N. Kettleson, vice president; A. McLeod, financial secretary; Theodore
Maskeyleny, treasurer.

Musicians' Protective Union--Meets in Germania Hall second Sunday of
each month. M. A. Power, president; H. S. Buffum, secretary.

Teamsters--Meets at Labor Temple second and fourth Mondays. Walter
Elliott, president; Frank Dunnigan, financial secretary; Frank Lansing,
corresponding secretary.

Building Trades Council--Meets every Friday night at Labor Temple. F.
J. Myers, president; James Grindle, secretary.

Allied Printing Trades Council--Meets in Labor Temple second Wednesday
of each month. R. C. McCracken, president; Charles Francke, secretary.

Typographical Union No. 388--Meets last Sunday of each month in Labor
Temple. H. F. Heimenz, president; J. M. Baldwin, financial secretary;
Al Berg, recording secretary.

Electrical Workers--Meets first and third Wednesdays at Labor Temple.
E. M. Cruzen, president; Mitchell Anderson, secretary-treasurer.

Journeymen Barbers--Meets first Thursday of every month in Labor
Temple. N. J. Nicholson, president; H. S. Graves, secretary.

Woman's Union Card and Label League--Meets in Labor Temple the first
Tuesday of each month, at 2.30 P. M. Mrs. L. F. Clarke, president; Mrs.
J. A. Lyons, secretary, Mrs. O. K. Sweeney, treasurer.

Culinary Alliance, Local 626--Meet first and third Wednesdays in Labor
Temple. Will Williams, president; Charles Miller, financial secretary;
Fred Kenworthy, recording secretary; William Bowden, treasurer.

Theatrical Stage Employes and Moving Picture Operators--Meets at Labor
Temple first and third Sundays. J. A. Duggar, president; Frank Wright,
vice president; Carl Crews, secretary; Blain Geer, treasurer.

Sheet Metal Workers--Meets at Labor Temple second and fourth Mondays
each month. O. L. Demory, president; C. C. Shafer, secretary.

Hod Carriers, Building Laborers--Meets at Labor Temple every Thursday.
Conrad Knopp, president; Fred Breit, financial secretary.

Cigar-makers' Union--C. M. Golden, president; George Surbeck, secretary.

The general management of these unions is delegated to the Trades
and Labor council, in which each union is entitled to three
representatives. The comparatively quiet and comfortable conditions in
Walla Walla have not induced radical action by the unions and they have
been a regularizing and balancing force of efficacy in their own lines
and usually an influence for harmony in industrial life.

The organ of the unions is the _Garden City Monitor_, published by L.
F. Clarke and Jesse Ferney. A special number of the _Monitor_ appears
annually on each Labor Day. It is worthy of all praise, both from the
editorial and the typographical standpoints.

The membership of the Walla Walla unions now is about five hundred.


FARMERS' UNION

The largest and in many respects most important organization in the
four counties is the Farmers' Union. This great organization is
national in its aims and membership. Washington and Northern Idaho
constitute one unit of the National, and in turn it is divided into
county units, either single counties, as the large ones of the state
like Yakima or Whitman, or by grouping, as in the smaller. Our counties
belong in the latter category, and we find the Tri-County Union of
Walla Walla, Columbia, and Garfield. Of this union G. M. Thompson of
Dayton is at this date president, and A. C. Moore of Walla Walla is
secretary. In the Tri-County Union there are eight local unions. They
appear, with the secretary of each in this enumeration: Waitsburg No.
1, W. D. Wallace; Prescott, No. 2, O. V. Crow; Dayton, No. 3, Roy Ream;
Mayview, No. 4, C. W. Cotton; Pomeroy, No. 10, W. J. Schmidt; Walla
Walla, No. 27, W. J. McLean; Starbuck, No. 119, E. W. Powers; Central,
No. 145, J. E. Tueth. As will be seen, Waitsburg has the distinction
of being the premier union in point of time. It was organized in
May, 1907, the first president being N. B. Atkinson, and the first
secretary. J. A. Enochs.

The total membership of the Tri-Sate Union is about six hundred. That
of the Walla Walla Local is about one hundred and fifty.

Intimately related to the Farmers' Union is the Farmers' Agency. While
the officers are entirely distinct, the membership is practically
identical, since the provisions of membership require any who own
stock in the agency to belong to the union. Any farmer, however, may
market his grain with the agency. At the present day Hon. Oliver
Cornwell is president of the Agency, and the secretary is Eugene
Kelly. As first organized and conducted for several years under the
presidency of Hector McLean, the Agency was an information bureau
only. But when Mr. Cornwell became president he entered upon the
large task of creating out of it a genuine co-operative grain buying
organization. After some years of experiment and adjusting, at times
with very strenuous conditions, the effort was wholly successful and
the Agency became a coherent organization, backed by the united force
of the Farmers' Union and by the main weight of the farming community
of Walla Walla. The primary object of the Agency is to co-operate to
advantage in the marketing of crops. The local Walla Walla Agency has
come to be a tremendous factor in the wheat market. Its existence has
been abundantly justified by its success during these recent years in
maintaining steady markets and in securing to its members all possible
advantages.

Aside from the immediate business aim of marketing crops through the
Agency, the Farmer' Unions, both in their local capacity and in the
Tri-County organization, have come to be one of the great forces
in the political and social life of the region. Questions of roads
and bridges, taxes, public buildings, state educational and penal
institutions, problems affecting transportation and the labor market
and labor union questions, have been subjects of discussion and
recommendation at the regular weekly meetings. Lectures from time to
time by recognized experts in the various problems involved have been
presented and public men in state and county positions have been glad
to consider with the unions the subjects relating to their functions.

[Illustration: PUBLIC SCHOOL, PRESCOTT]

[Illustration: FRONTIER DAY IN WALLA WALLA--SCENE ON MAIN STREET]

It is safe to say that any measures agreed upon by the Farmers' Unions
are pretty certain to become the action of the body politic in the
different counties. Once each quarter, and sometimes oftener, there are
meetings of the Tri-County Union, at which the larger problems of farm
life are considered, and in connection with which appetizing banquets
prepared by the skillful hands and fine artistic taste of the wives and
daughters bring joy and gayety and good fellowship to all concerned.

       *       *       *       *       *

To many of the readers of this volume, and in years to come to their
children and grandchildren, the most significant of all the organized
associations of their home country is the


INLAND EMPIRE PIONEER ASSOCIATION

This association was formed in 1900, largely under the initiative of
Dr. N. G. Blalock. While there has been little machinery or formality
about it, its yearly meetings for renewing the old ties have been among
the most anticipated and cherished of all in the minds of many of the
builders, the fathers and mothers of the Inland Empire. While the main
membership has been in Walla Walla County or her daughter counties,
it is not confined to that county, and a number of members live in
Umatilla County, Oregon, and in Whitman, Adams and Franklin counties on
the north side of Snake River.

The officers of the association chosen at the first meeting were: Dr.
N. G. Blalock, president; W. P. Winans, A. G. Lloyd and Ben Burgunder,
vice presidents; Marvin Evans, secretary; Levi Ankeny, treasurer; W.
D. Lyman, historian. These officers were almost constantly re-elected,
until the lamented deaths of Doctor Blalock, Mr. Winans, and Mr. Lloyd.
Ben Burgunder was chosen president to succeed Doctor Blalock, and at
the present time F. M. Lowden, Joseph Harbert and W. D. Wallace are
vice presidents.

With the feeling that the members of the association and many others
will be glad to read some of the proceedings and to see the list of
members as a matter of permanent reference, we close this chapter with
the excellent accounts given in the _Walla Walla Union_ of October 15,
1904, and June 2, 1911, of the annual meetings of those years.


ANNUAL PIONEER MEETING OF 1904

About one hundred and fifty of the pioneers of Southeastern Washington
and Northeastern Oregon, sturdy men and women, who have seen the
country grow from a desolate looking waste of sagebrush and sand to
one of the beauty spots of the Northwest--men and women who had not
only seen this take place, but had helped, and are still, many of them,
helping in this wonderful evolution--people who thirty or forty years
ago were neighbors, though living many miles apart, met yesterday and
sat down to the festive board loaded with the good cheer provided by
the devoted pioneer women of this city in honor of the occasion.


OLD NEIGHBORS MEET

The crowd assembled in the Goodman Building and there registered and
received their badges, after which they marched to the banqueting
rooms. There were many hearty handshakes as these old neighbors met,
and the scene was one of glad reunion. There were the more elderly who
had come here in the prime of life and whose gray hairs and wrinkled
cheeks recalled the energy and vitality that had been spent in building
up a new country. There were the younger men. those whose memories of
older lands are but indistinct visions, and who have grown up with the
country. But all had the common bond of acquaintance dating far back, a
friendship tried and found worthy in the strife of many years.


A FESTAL BOARD

Flowers in profusion in the banquet hall told of the interest and
devoted preparation of the pioneer ladies for this great annual event.
The long tables in the room were laden with an abundance of every
delicacy of the season. Before beginning the feast all stood with bowed
heads while Rev. J. W. McGhee returned thanks, after which the edibles
were enjoyed by the happy throng, reminiscences adding much pleasure to
the occasion.

Dr. N. G. Blalock, as toastmaster, at the close of the banquet, made a
short address of welcome to the pioneers and spoke with much feeling
in commemoration of people who had blazed the way to the present
civilization and offered a tribute to their noble heroism and the deeds
of courage and self-sacrifice.


HARDSHIPS OF INDIAN WARS

The toastmaster introduced as the "Pioneer Indian War Veteran" of
the association, Hon. A. G. Lloyd of Waitsburg. Mr. Lloyd gave a
brief account of campaigning in 1855 in the Yakima Indian war. In one
instance the volunteers were caught in a snowstorm and were cut off
from supplies at The Dalles and were reduced to a small amount of flour
and some tobacco. They furnished their own clothes and horses and could
not draw on the Government supplies as there were none to draw on. Mr.
Lloyd closed with the patriotic remark, "But we only did our duty and
no more."


FIRST NEWSPAPER

Capt. P. B. Johnson responded to "The Pioneer Newspaper Business." He
related the anecdote of the adopted child which replied to the boasts
of other children that it had no papa and mamma, that "Your papa and
mamma are yours because they have to be, mine are mine because they
want to be." He referred to the younger pioneers being pioneers because
they had to be.

Captain Johnson said that when he had an opportunity to come here from
Arizona he looked up the location on the map and expected to find
fruits and fields similar to those in the same latitude east, but
when in 1864 he arrived at Wallula, by steamer, he saw a vast extent
of sagebrush and nothing more. He then read from Bancroft's history
some interesting items showing the contrast of forty years. A weekly
mail had been established between Walla Walla and Portland. The town
contained 800 inhabitants. The only reference to the agricultural
possibilities of this valley was the fact that some man had succeeded
in raising a fine quality of sorghum which produced an excellent
quality of syrup.

Of the county officers that year the following are still alive and
citizens of this city: Councilman, Daniel Stewart; sheriff, W. S.
Gilliam; treasurer, James McAuliffe.


A COMPARISON WITH THE PRESENT

Captain Johnson compared the advanced conditions of the present
civilization, with the start of the country newspaper and the paper of
today. "The news item at the early stage was the local news, births,
marriages, deaths and the few other happenings; the editorials were
devoted to national and territorial affairs and to my contemporary, the
_Statesman_, across the street. I am out of the business, but I believe
that the little four-page paper of those days had more influence than
the large papers of today. My happiest days were when I was running a
little country newspaper."


PIONEERS IN BUSINESS

"The Pioneer Business Man," was responded to by Benjamin Burgunder, a
retired merchant of Colfax. "The work of the pioneer merchant was not
all glory. Our patrons all claimed that we sold our goods too high. In
the early days we had to go to San Francisco to buy our goods, then
they came by water to Portland, by steamer from Portland to the lower
Cascades, thence to the upper Cascades by rail, then again by steamer
to The Dalles, from The Dalles to Celilo by rail and again by steamer
to Wallula. From there they were brought by ox teams and pack horses
to the interior. In some instances in the mines goods were carried on
the backs of men. In one case it cost me just 60 cents per pound to
deliver my goods at their destination. But those were times when we got
dollar prices. I lost $25,000 once in developing the interests of the
Northwest by trusting mining men."

Mr. Burgunder paid a high tribute to Rev. H. H. Spalding, pioneer
missionary, as one who had done more than any other for the development
of the Northwest.


PIONEER FARMING

J. F. Brewer responded to "Pioneer Farming." "Farming in the Willamette
Valley was first done by the crudest methods. I remember raking the
grain that my father cradled. Later the mowers and reapers came and the
header evolved from these. I came to Walla Walla in 1862. All south of
the place was a barren sagebrush plain, and only one house, a stage
station, in this region as far as I knew. In other parts of the valley
there were a few farmers, all on the creeks. I remember the remark of
Mr. Swezea, a prominent pioneer farmer, 'Your sons and mine may see
railroads here but we never shall.'"

Miss Nettie Galbreath recited "The Pioneers," a poem, which was
received with hearty applause.


PIONEER RELIGION

Rev. Henry Brown responded to the "Pioneer Minister." "I came to Walla
Walla in 1886, by way of Pasco. There had been a fire and about all
there was left was safe which I was told belonged to the county, Pasco
being a county seat. Several men with loaded guns were guarding the
safe. At night I rented a wood shed, put my family in it and loaded two
guns that I had and prepared to guard my family, thinking I had reached
a land of ruffians and toughs. Father Wilbur, the pioneer missionary of
the Methodist Episcopal Church, happened to be there; he asked what I
was doing with my guns."


IN THE COLVILLE VALLEY

"Colville Reminiscences," was responded to by W. P. Winans. "One of
the interesting features of that time was the social courtesies. A
dance was given at the cantonment, to which every person in the valley,
at least 400, was invited. The large hall was decorated with flags,
banners and sabers. Immense chandeliers were formed of sabers, a candle
being placed on the point of each saber. The effect was very unique.
The guests were refreshed with all they could eat and drink. On New
Year's Day we Americans drove to Angus McDonald's to make a call. He
insisted on us staying to dinner. He entertained at that time in all
130 persons. We had no salads, but we had a good dinner."

"In 1870 I heard the first Protestant sermon; it was preached by
Rev. Cushing Eells. I took up the first collection in the Colville
Valley, with which Father Eells bought a Bible, which is now in the
Congregational Church at Chewelah."


WOMEN OF EARLY DAYS

Harry Reynolds responded to the "Pioneer Women." "The sublime sacrifice
on the part of woman made by the pioneer women is unique in history.
Those women were not fleeing from persecution or punishment, but were
sacrificing the comforts of civilization for their devotion to duty
and home. They represent the purest home life of America; the best
womanhood. The pioneer women are the builders of the Inland Empire."


PIONEERS BECAUSE THEY HAD TO BE

"If we are not pioneers because we wanted to be and wear different
colored ribbons, we have one advantage, we came at a tender age," said
W. H. Kirkman, responding to "Pioneer Sons." "I came when I was two
years old and brought my father and mother along with me. This valley
was a barren waste of land then; now it is the finest valley the sun
shines on; all honor to the pioneers."

"I remember when the Village of Seattle boasted of being as large as
Walla Walla; now, Seattle is the third city of the coast. Again all
honor to the pioneers who have wrought such changes."


EARLY SCHOOL WORK

"Pioneer Education" was responded to by Professor Lyman. "I could draw
contrasting pictures of the privations, rude homes and dangers on one
side and the triumph of civilization on the other side of the line of
pioneers, the log schoolhouse with the puncheon floor of the early
days, with the well-equipped buildings of today. But is there more
heart, soul and energy now than then?"

[Illustration: BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF WALLA WALLA]

[Illustration: THE CITY HALL, WALLA WALLA]

TWENTY-SEVEN OFFICERS RE-ELECTED

The old officers were re-elected to serve for 1904-05: President, Dr.
N. G. Blalock; first vice president, James McAuliffe; second vice
president, Milton Evans; third vice president, A. G. Lloyd; secretary,
Marvin Evans; treasurer, Senator Levi Ankeny; historian, Prof. W. D.
Lyman.

A committee on necrology was appointed, consisting of Professor Lyman
and Marvin Evans.

The third Thursday of September was appointed as the permanent day for
holding the annual meeting of the Inland Empire Pioneer Association.
The limit of eligibility was extended from 1875 to 1880.

The following were among those present:

Pioneers of 1843--Daniel Stewart.

1845--Mrs. N. A. Jacobs, George Delaney, A. C. Lloyd, W. W. Walker.

1846--Charles Clark.

1847--Mrs. W. C. Painter, Elizabeth J. Scholl.

1849--J. Pettyjohn, F. M. Lowden, J. M. Gose.

1850--Samuel Kees, Lizzie Kees, Mark A. Evans, John McGhee.

1851--E. T. McNall.

1852--Eva Coston, Charles Lampman, Mrs. Jackson Nelson, C. C. Cram,
Solomon Cummings, Hollon Parker, Peter Meads, Rebecca J. Meads, Nat
Webb, John F. Kirby, Jennie Lasater, A. Wooton, Mrs. A. J. Colvin, Mrs.
S. M. Cram.

1853--J. N. McCaw, Angeline Merchant, W. D. Lyman, Mrs. Catherine Ritz,
J. F. Brewer, A. McAlister, Catherine McAlister, Evaly Fleetch, Jacob
Kibler, Mrs. M. H. Kirby, C. R. Frazier and wife.

1854--Nellie Gilliam Day, James McEvoy, Mrs. Nat Webb, D. Wooton.

1855--Alice E. Chamberlain, L. L. Hunt, John Rohn.

1857--William Clark, Clare E. Cantonwine.

1858--George W. Brown, E. H. Massam, William Coston.

1859--W. P. Winans.

1860--Philip Yenney, H. C. Chew, Thomas Gilkerson, C. F. Buck.

1861--Charles H. Gregory, Mrs. N. E. Rice, A. J. Evans, Mrs. Araminta
J. Evans, M. Evans, J. L. Hawley, Mrs. Mary Ernest.

1862--Mrs. E. E. Kellogg, Christine Winans, William Glasford, Ben
Burgunder.

1863--H. A. Reynolds, Isabella Kirkman, W. J. Cantonwine.

1864--Anna Stanfield, P. B. Johnson, William Stanfield, Sallie
Stanfield, Hettie Malone, W. D. Paul, M. A. Caris and wife, George
Dehaven, Caroline Ferrel.

1865--Daniel Garrecht, James McInroe, S. F. Bucholz, J. A. Beard, Mrs.
George Dehaven, John Sanders.

1867--Louis Scholl.

1868--Maggie Clark, W. H. Kirkman, J. W. Frazier, Marvin Evans.

1869--Charles Painter, Mrs. W. C. Prather, D. C. Ingraham, Mina Evans.

1870--Joseph Merchant, F. A. Garrecht, Z. K. Straight and wife.

1871--Alice McEvans, George H. Starrett, Mrs. S. J. Pettyjohn, B. A.
Herrold.

1872--N. G. Blalock.

1873--F. S. Gowan, Mrs. F. S. Gowan.

1874--Julia Brown, Mrs. N. W. Dunnington.

1875--D. D. Earp, Chris Seibert, Victor Schaffer.

1876--J. F. Bucholz, George Whitehouse.

1880--M. G. Parr.

Unknown date--Mr. and Mrs. W. P. Nuttall, G. W. Loundagin and wife,
Theodore Wolf and wife, Joseph Braden.


PIONEER MEETING OF 1911

(From _Walla Walla Union_ of June 2, 1911).

Though Father Time's blade has cut with remorseless sweep, and though
the pioneers of the Walla Walla Valley have fallen before its swing,
the attendance at the annual reunion of the pioneers yesterday was
greater than has ever been known.

More than two hundred people who came to the Northwest before railroads
were built attended the annual meeting of the Inland Empire Pioneer
Association at Whitman College yesterday.

Honoring for the twelfth time Dr. N. G. Blalock, the Pioneer
Association yesterday re-elected him its president. Marvin Evans was
also chosen to fill the office of secretary for the twelfth successive
time. Doctor Blalock and Mr. Evans both sought to refuse, but the
overwhelming sentiment forced them to accept the positions.

"I feel that I shall not be with you again," said Doctor Blalock,
"but if I can do any good while I am living, I am willing to do so.
My health is such that I can do but little; but while life lasts I am
ready to serve you, if you desire it. I had hoped to retire, but being
an American, I must sacrifice my personal desires to the will of the
majority."

Hotly scoring the features of the meeting a year ago, Solomon Rader
made the first address of the day.

"Political whitewash, the seeking of coal mines and the passing of
two-gallon demijohns are out of place at a pioneers' reunion. Last year
we had all three, this year I trust we will have none. I believed last
year, when I made my farewell address, that I would not live to be
present at this meeting, but I am here, and I feel twenty years younger
than a year ago."

Mr. Rader carried his remarks into a prohibition talk, and reviewed
the focal situation, stating he believed that the votes of women might
change affairs. Doctor Blalock then stated that he believed it the duty
of all women to vote and that the pioneer woman should be first of all
to cast her ballot. He introduced Mrs. Lulu Crandall of The Dalles, who
spoke on "How We Preserve History at The Dalles."

She told of the acquisition of the old surgeons' quarters of the old
Fort Dalles, how they had been furnished, and how the relics of pioneer
days were preserved there. An historical society has been organized,
which is supported by three classes of members: Active, who are
members of the state historical society; associate, who are not members
of the state organization; and honorary, those who made history in
early days. The first two classes of members pay annual dues of $2. The
plan, stated Mrs. Crandall, is working nicely.

C. R. Frazier of Dixie was called upon, and his address, read by the
secretary, follows:

"Fellow members and friends of the Walla Walla County Pioneer
Association:

"As a member of the Walla Walla Pioneer Association I appreciate very
much the fact that I again have the privilege to attend another one
of this society's annual meetings and to meet with fellow members and
friends of our association. To meet old pioneer friends and to talk
over old times with them is something that affords me genuine pleasure.
Certainly as long as I am able to get about you'll always find me in
attendance at the annual meetings of this association.

"The few brief things I wish to say at this gathering I have had
written out for when I attempt to talk at such gatherings as this one I
find that my memory is not as good as it used to be and it is hard for
me to say anything in a connected way.

"For forty-seven years I have been a resident of the Walla Walla
Valley. As I have expressed myself many times before I think our
valley, its climate and resources considered, is one of the greatest
countries in the world. For years on my farm at Dixie I have been a
producer of a varied line of farm products, not the least of which
was much choice fruit and also several varieties of nuts. My orchards
were not purchased ready made and I might say that I was the original
planter of every tree on my place. During late years a picture of
one of my apple trees has appeared in many newspapers and magazines
throughout the world because it is a tree that holds a record for
producing in one season as much as 126 boxes of fine apples. I will
admit that I am proud of that old apple tree.

"While I have always been a hard worker I feel that the Walla Walla
Valley has been kind to me and mine. I first made the trip across the
plains from the east in 1853. This time, as a boy driving cattle, I
made California. After spending a short time in California I returned
east to my old home in Sullivan County, Mo. In 1863, with my earthly
possessions consisting of my young wife and two children, a team of
oxen and a somewhat delapidated vehicle that might be called a wagon I
left Nebraska for the old Oregon country. Travelling over the old well
known trails it was a long journey before we reached the Walla Walla
Valley. On the trip across one of my children was born; other mishaps,
more or less the result of fording streams and hitting the rough spots
on the trail, also fell to our lot, but with us all such accidents were
accepted as a matter of course and we didn't waste much time grieving
about them. Our little caravan on its journey west was headed for
Vancouver, but when it hit Meacham Mountains one fine fall day in the
year 1864 and we had an opportunity to see the beautiful Walla Walla
Valley I decided right there and then that I would travel no farther
and that the Walla Walla Valley would be quite good enough for me.

"Reaching Walla Walla we found a town of some eight hundred people;
I moved on up to the Dayton country and soon had located a claim near
Dixie. I'll never forget such families as Longs, Lambs and Locks whom
we came up with in our new home. Right from the start they were kind
to us and helped us to get started in a country that was new to us.
After we once got a start with a cow and some chickens the rest was
comparatively easy. In the old pioneer days in this valley neighbors
were very kind to one another.

"But perhaps I have said enough. I do not wish to tire you. In
concluding I will say that this gathering is one that I esteem a great
occasion; as it affords me an opportunity to meet many of my old
friends and a chance to talk over old times with them it is a gathering
I would not miss for anything. Thanking you very kindly for listening
to my few brief remarks, I remain,

  "Yours truly,

  "C. R. FRAZIER."


LYMAN MAKES TALK

In an interesting and instructive talk, Prof. W. D. Lyman told of the
introduction of apples and cattle into the Northwest. He stated that
the first apple trees known to have been planted in the Northwest were
grown from the seeds planted by Doctor Whitman and Reverend Spalding
at Waiilatpu and Alpowa. "The first trees of any consequence, however,
were planted in the Willamette Valley in 1847 by Henderson Llewellan,
who brought 700 small trees from Ohio in a crude wagon that had been
fitted out to carry the trees. The wagon in which the trees were
packed, in boxes, was heavy and time and again Llewellan was urged
by his comrades to abandon the wagon, but he had an idea that fruit
would grow well in the new Northwest country and he would not give up
his travelling nursery. The trees, which were apple, pear, peach and
cherry, were planted and it is recorded that most of them grew, and
from this first small orchard grew the great fruit industry of the
Northwest.

"The introduction of cattle into the Inland Empire, while as important
in the results created, is more picturesque historically. The Hudson's
Bay Company had a few cattle here as early as 1830, but they were very
scarce, so scarce that Doctor McLoughlin made a rule against killing
them. Marcus Whitman brought sixteen head of cattle with him when he
first came to this country, while in 1838 Doctor Eells brought in
fourteen head. These were only the small beginnings and were confined
mostly to this immediate vicinity.

"The general cattle business of the Northwest was developed largely by
the efforts of W. A. Slacum, who was sent to this country in 1836 by
the United States Government to ascertain some of its resources and
size it up generally. While in this country Mr. Slacum talked with
the different American settlers and came to the conclusion that the
introduction of cattle would do more toward securing a foothold for the
United States than anything else. The hard part of it was to secure
cattle. The Hudson's Bay Company would not sell their stock, even to
their own people, but rented it out. In 1843 Ewing Young came to the
Northwest from California, where he was known as a cattle rustler, and
finding that his reputation had come along with him, settled in the
Chehalem Valley, where it was his intention to make liquor and sell it
to the Indians and wandering white men. He was, however, persuaded by
Slacum and Doctor McLoughlin, who also saw the importance of securing
cattle for this country, to go to California and bring a drove of
cattle to Oregon. This drive took place in the years of 1837 and 1838.
Young started from California with 700 head of cattle and arrived in
the Willamette Valley with 800 head.

[Illustration: THE BAKER-BOYER NATIONAL BANK IN 1910]

[Illustration: THE BAKER-BOYER NATIONAL BANK, WALLA WALLA, IN 1890]

"The second great cattle drive started in 1839 with a group of
Americans, eager to develop their own interests and the interests of
the United States in this section of the country. Under the leadership
of John Gale they built a small schooner called "The Star of Oregon,"
in which after many difficulties, they arrived where San Francisco
is now located and after trading their schooner for 300 cows, took
what money they had and purchased 1,200 cattle, 3,000 sheep and 600
horses. The sheep were purchased by the dozen, while the horses brought
from three to six dollars a head. Consider the hardship these few men
went through, bringing these animals that long distance under those
conditions.

"The introduction of fruit and cattle into the Inland Empire meant
much to the early settlers and meant vastly much more to the present
generation."


BURGUNDER SPEAKS

Following this address, Vice President Ben Burgunder called attention
to the fact that Kettle Falls, on June 23d, would celebrate the
anniversary of its discovery by David Thompson. Delegates from the
association were asked; and Pres. N. G. Blalock was authorized to
appoint whoever he saw fit. Ben Burgunder volunteered to act as a
delegate, and any others who can go, will be made delegates.

Election of officers was then taken up, and despite his protests,
Doctor Blalock was re-elected. The other officers elected are: first
vice president, Ben Burgunder of Colfax; second vice president, A. G.
Lloyd of Waitsburg; third vice president, Natt Webb; secretary, Marvin
Evans; treasurer, Levi Ankeny; historian, W. D. Lyman.

The association then adjourned to Reynolds Hall, where a dinner was
served by Miss Burr, and the tables were presided over by young ladies
of the dormitory. The banquet was most successful, about two hundred
sitting down to the repast.

A number of short talks then followed, President Blalock calling upon
the members of the association for brief addresses.

"I came here thirty-two years ago," said Rev. John LeCornu, "and at
that time I knew nearly everyone. Now I know hardly anyone. I used to
go where I pleased across corners, but it's all fenced now. Where there
were formerly stables on Main and Alder streets, are now big buildings;
and where we then drove through dust or mud, we now have pavements.
Schoolhouses, everything, have grown in numbers. We have grown, and we
will continue to grow."

A. G. Lloyd of Waitsburg, second vice president of the association,
expressed his pleasure of being present. He had been in the valley for
more than fifty years.

W. P. Winans, who has been in the northwest for fifty-two years, made
a brief talk, stating that fifty-two years ago yesterday he was on the
Arkansas River, headed for this country.

"These reunions are the pleasantest times in life. Not only for the
present, but the future reminiscences of them, bring us pleasure, and I
trust they will continue as long as we have pioneers."


ACCEPT INVITATION

Pres. S. B. L. Penrose of Whitman College, was then called upon for an
address, and extended an invitation for the association to make its
permanent meeting place at Whitman College. By rising vote, this was
accepted.

"The college is a pioneer, it was founded by pioneers, and its
existence will be fresh a thousand years hence, when we are all
forgotten. The association cannot, I think, do better than to link
its existence with this institution, whose life will be endless; and
I extend to you an invitation to hold your future meetings at the
college."

Cal Lloyd was the next speaker, and he expressed his pleasure at being
present, and his hope that he would see every member at the next
meeting.

H. A. Reynolds expressed a desire to have the word pioneer defined, and
to have an organization, separate from the present one, for the sons
and the daughters of pioneers.

"You cannot make a man a pioneer by legislation, any more than you can
make a Grand Army of the Republic man. I was born here, but do not
claim to be a true pioneer."

"I am not that kind of a pioneer," stated W. H. Kirkman, "for when I
was two years old, without a quaver or misgiving, I took my father by
one hand and my mother by the other, and faced boldly to the west,
leading them to Walla Walla.

"The pioneers have laid here the foundation for the greatest
civilization the world has ever known; and it is for them to enjoy, as
fully as possible, the fruits of their labors."

"I too, used to know the country and every man in it," said William
Rinehart, formerly of Union, Oregon, but now of Walla Walla. "At Union
I was secretary of the Pioneers' Association; and we had enjoyable
reunions, much like this one. I enjoy them, and trust I will be able to
attend many yet."

Following the reading of the resolutions, which were unanimously
adopted, members of the association were given an hour's ride about the
city in automobiles.

The attendance was more than two hundred, the largest in the history
of the organization, according to old timers who have been in constant
attendance.


RESOLUTIONS

Following is the report of the resolutions committee, composed of Prof.
W. D. Lyman, A. G. Lloyd and W. S. Clarke:

"Resolutions of the Inland Empire Pioneer Association, June 1, 1911.

"Resolved: That we recognize with deep gratitude to Providence
this opportunity which our gathering gives us for renewing the old
friendships and making new ones.

"Resolved: That the hearty thanks of the association be extended to
President Penrose and to the officers of Whitman College for the use
of Memorial Hall; and to Miss Burr, manager of Reynolds Hall, for the
delicious banquet provided; and to the young ladies for their service
upon the tables.

"Resolved: That we heartily thank the members of the Whitman College
Glee Club for the beautiful vocal selections which added so pleasant a
feature to the occasion.

"We also thank the staff of the local newspapers for their presence
and interest in this meeting; and we recognize in their reports an
indispensable means of bringing the aims and work of the society before
the public.

"We thank the president, other officers and committee of arrangements
for the preparations and completion of this meeting, which will occupy
so attractive a place in our memories.

"Resolved, in conclusion: That we would urge upon the members of this
association the desirability of preparing and giving to the historian
biographical data to the end of fulfilling one of the great aims of the
association, the preservation of matter otherwise liable to be lost.

"We incorporate herewith our heartfelt recognition of those of our
members who have passed on since our last meeting."

Death has been active in the list of pioneers during this brief period.

The association recognizes the loss of these valued friends and members
of the ranks the inevitable movement of time and the fulfillment of
lives nobly spent and of influences which have done much to make this
country what it is.

The association extends its condolence to the members of the families
bereaved through these deaths, and joins with them in the sentiments
of joy and pride which their good deeds most impart to all whom their
lives have reached.

The following is a list of those included in the number: Mrs. Kate
L. Butz, Amos Cummings, William Coston, Mrs. M. E. Ernst, Mrs. Chas.
Lampman, Mrs. E. H. Massam, L. P. Mulkey, Mrs. Lydia Olds, Mrs. Martha
A. Payne, Dale Preston, William Stanfield, James J. Gallaher, Mrs.
Hollon Parker, Joseph McCoy, Mrs. Martha Lovell, Jesse Cummings.

Members of the Inland Empire Pioneer Association are: Mr. and Mrs. A.
L. Ring, Dollie Auker, Harry Gilbert, John A. Taylor, William Glasford,
G. A. Evans, C. H. Kaseberg, A. G. Murphy, Thomas Gilkerson, Henry
Chew, America DeWitt, Oliver DeWitt, J. J. Rohn, Mrs. Chris Sturm,
Henry Ingalls, D. Wertheimer, D. H. Irvin, Mrs. Mary Irwin, John
McCausland, Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Hungate, Mr. and Mrs. R. C. Dunlap,
Ben Burgunder, John Tempany, G. W. Bowers, Mrs. Isabella Kirkman,
Levi Malone, Robert Kennedy, Mrs. J. C. Smith, Mrs. C. W. Reser, Miss
Reser, Mrs. R. R. Rees, Fannie Hall, Mrs. J. W. Foster, N. G. Blalock,
Mrs. E. A. Edwards, T. J. Hickman, Mr. and Mrs. Joe Harbert, Mrs.
Alexander Johnson, Mrs. E. Lewis, Mrs. Mary Jett, S. W. Smith, Mrs.
Esther Smith, Mr. and Mrs. W. Thomas, Mrs. J. L. Robinson, Mrs. J. J.
Morrison, George Dehaven, Mrs. Mehala Dehaven, Joseph McEvoy, Mrs. J.
W. Cookerly, Mrs. Kate Henderson, John Braden, Joe Braden, Mrs. J. F.
Brewer, Mrs. S. A. Stanfield, Mrs. Lucy Buff, Mrs. Dora Walker, Mrs. D.
H. Coffin, Mrs. Mary McCoy, Natt Webb, Eliza Jane Webb, Mr. and Mrs.
Frank Harbert, Mrs. A. T. Bedell, Mr. and Mrs. Oliver Cornwell, Mr.
and Mrs. Ernest Cantonwine, C. R. Frazier, P. Lightle, Mr. and Mrs.
R. J. Weidick, Mrs. Jessie Jones, Mrs. B. L. Sharpstein, Mrs. Frank
Sharpstein, Mrs. Addie Upton, Mrs. Charles Painter, J. C. Painter, Mr.
and Mrs. L. L. Hunt, L. F. Anderson, Mrs. D. S. Baker, Charles McEvoy,
Mr. and Mrs. H. S. Hart, Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Evans, Mrs. Margaret
Dovell, Mr. and Mrs. Woodson Cummings, Agnes L. LeVine, Mrs. Kominsky,
Peter Meads, John Hodges, Mr. and Mrs. James Cummins, Hampton Huff,
Mr. and Mrs. W. S. Malloy, Mr. and Mrs. H. L. Cauvel, Robert Cummings,
J. A. Ross, F. A. Ross, Mrs. Rose Winans, Lulu Crandall, Mr. and Mrs.
William Hardese, Mr. and Mrs. R. C. McCaw, Doctor and Mrs. Probst, Mr.
and Mrs. W. S. Clark, William Preston, D. G. Ingraham, Mr. and Mrs. A.
G. Lloyd, W. Manning, S. E. Manning, J. A. Beard, Agnes Beard, Mrs. J.
P. Denn, J. C. Lloyd, J. H. Pettyjohn, Mrs. Kate Pettyjohn, Mr. and
Mrs. Henry Rinehart, Caroline Ferrel, W. D. Lyman, A. M. McAllister,
Dorsey Hill, Marvin Evans, Mr. and Mrs. B. F. Halter, W. P. Winans, Mr.
and Mrs. C. L. Whitney, Thomas Mosgrove, Perry J. Lyons, W. S. Offner,
Sidney Coyle, Mrs. Sarah Coyle, C. B. Lane, Frances E. Lane, Mr. and
Mrs. John LeCornu, Mr. and Mrs. A. M. McLellan, H. V. Grubb, Mr. and
Mrs. A. H. Reynolds, W. H. Kirkman.



CHAPTER VII

THE PRESS OF WALLA WALLA COUNTY


The newspapers of any region must always be given prominence in any
history of it as being one of the great constructive forces as well
as constituting the indispensable record of events. Besides these
fundamental functions, there is usually found in connection with
the press of a new region a group of men alive to the needs and
opportunities and hence concerned in those varied interests which
always take shape in new places. Add to this the fact that generally
there are found among newspaper men odd, unique, and entertaining
characters, and we evidently have all the material for one of the most
interesting sections of any history. Walla Walla has had, even more
than most places, several unique and marked personalities among her
"knights of the quill." In dealing with them, as with other parts of
this work, we feel regretfully the pressure of the inexorable limits of
space and are compelled thereby to omit the portrayal of some of those
amusing, odd, and racy characters and events which might enliven the
sober pages of history.

We have had occasion to refer many times to the _Statesman_ as
authority for early events and have also said something of its
first appearance and early management. Appearing under the names of
_Washington Statesman_ and _Walla Walla Statesman_, it continued for
many years to fulfill its mission in the Walla Walla country and more
than any other may be considered as the historic paper of this section.
The _Statesman_ had a kind of a double origin. For in September, 1861,
two brothers, W. N. and R. B. Smith, set on foot an enterprise through
the acquisition of an old press from the _Oregon Statesman_ and sent it
to Walla Walla. Rather curiously, apparently without knowledge of the
other design, N. Northrop and R. R. Rees started a similar enterprise
only two days later. They had obtained a press of the _Oregonian_,
and it was doubtless the first press in the Inland Empire, after that
used by Rev. H. M. Spalding at Lapwai. Discovering each other's plans
the two parties speedily coalesced and began the publication of the
_Washington Statesman_. The first issue appeared on November 29, 1861.
The editors and proprietors are announced as N. Northrop, R. B. Smith
and R. R. Rees. We have given in an earlier chapter copious extracts
from the first number. Several numbers in April, 1862, were on brown
and yellow paper, for which profuse apologies are offered. On May 10,
the editor has the following quaint "kick": "Our patrons, in sending us
gold dust on subscriptions, or otherwise, will confer an especial favor
by making a proper allowance for the weight of the sand. We can't make
those who buy the dust of us believe that the sand is as valuable as
the gold; nor do we believe it, either. Besides, in disposing of the
dust, we are compelled to see it 'blowed' and 'magnetized' until it is
properly cleaned, and the result is that that which we receive for $5
sometimes dwindles down to $2.50."

By the retirement of Mr. Smith in January, 1862, and by the death of
Mr. Northrop in February, 1863, the _Statesman_ became the property of
R. R. Rees, but in association with his brother, S. G. Rees, whose name
appeared for the first time in the issue of October 11, 1862. In the
number of May 9, 1863, the firm name appears as R. R. and S. G. Rees.
In the number of September 2, 1864, the name _Walla Walla Statesman_
was substituted for _Washington Statesman_, but without comment.

The firm name of R. R. and S. G. Rees was continued till November 10,
1865, when a notable change occurred. Wm. H. Newell became proprietor.
In the paper of that date he makes his debut in an editorial which
indicates his strong personality and his fine command of good English.
It is a just tribute to Major Rees to say that his management of
the _Statesman_, like that of the many other enterprises which made
him one of the conspicuous figures in early Walla Walla, was broad,
intelligent, and patriotic.

Mr. Newell was a character, bold, energetic, caustic, and as a writer,
incisive and forceful. It is related that once having a joint debate
with Judge Caton, he began by saying: "Fellow citizens, it is a
disagreeable task to skin a skunk, but sometimes it has to be done. I
am going to skin N. J. Caton." Judge Caton reached for his hip-pocket
and the meeting broke up in a general row, though it does not appear
that any one was seriously hurt. The _Statesman_ under Mr. Newell was
democratic in politics and during the embroglio between President
Johnson and Congress it was an active supporter of the former. It
is said by some that its attainment of the place of United States
official paper in the territory was due to that support. In 1878, the
_Statesman_ became a daily, the first in the Inland Empire. But on
November 13th, the active, scheming mind of the editor was stilled
by death. After a month's interval, Frank J. Parker, a son-in-law of
Newell, and himself as unique a character as the former editor, began
his long career as a journalist. The daily was somewhat in advance of
the times and was discontinued within a short period but in February,
1880, was again undertaken, not to be discontinued so long as the
_Statesman_ was a separate paper. Colonel Parker owned the _Statesman_
till June, 1900, in which year it went into the hands of the Statesman
Publishing Co., Dr. E. E. Fall being the leading member of the company.

During a large part of that portion of the career of the _Statesman_
Walter Lingenfelder was editor in chief. He was a man of much
journalistic ability, and later entered upon a brilliant literary
career in New York.

The _Walla Walla Union_ was the next newspaper to attain a permanent
standing in Walla Walla. This was the uncompromising radical republican
organ and was the natural counterpart of the _Statesman_. It was
founded in 1868 by a group of strong supporters of Congress in the
great reconstruction struggle then in progress.

The first number appeared on April 17, 1869. H. M. Judson was the
editor, but the policy of the paper was under the control of a
committee consisting of P. B. Johnson, E. C. Ross, and J. D. Cook.
Within a short time R. M. Smith and E. L. Heriff became the owners of
the paper and E. C. Ross became editor. In 1878 Capt. P. B. Johnson
succeeded Mr. Ross as editor, and with his entrance into the field of
journalism there began one of the most forceful and influential careers
in the journalism of Walla Walla. Captain Johnson was a man of intense
and dominating personality and possessed much ability with the pen. His
politics were those of the stalwart republicans. He had been a soldier
and officer of the Civil war, and the great conflict had so burned its
traces upon his mind that it was difficult for him to think in terms of
patience of any other policies than those which had saved the Union and
freed the slave. He acquired the property control of the _Union_ and
until 1890 was sole owner and proprietor. In that year he disposed of
his interest to Charles Besserer, who had for some time been publishing
the _Walla Walla Journal_. And as soon as we name Charles Besserer
old-timers will at once recognize the fact that we have arrived at
the uniquest of the uniques. Nature broke her mold at that point and
never made another of the same kind. German by birth, though as he once
told the author, of Spanish origin, well educated in his home land, a
soldier in the Crimea, in the Civil war in this country, and in various
Indian wars, fulfilling at various times the functions of manager of
a bakery, a distillery, and a hotel, a postmaster, a justice of the
peace, a sheep man, a farmer, and finally an editor, Mr. Besserer
maintained under all circumstances his characteristic self. He wielded
a trenchant pen and though his obituaries were sometimes of a type to
add pangs to the thought of approaching death on the part of citizens
of old Walla Walla, he had a high conception of the responsibilities of
journalism and of the requisites of a well managed newspaper. In 1896
the ownership of the _Union_ passed from Mr. Besserer to Herbert Gregg
and Harry Kelso. It was conducted by them as a bed-rock republican
paper and disposed of three years later to J. G. Frankland, Lloyd
Armstrong and Bert La Due. After conducting the paper with success for
a year the firm disposed of it to a group of leading republicans, among
whom was D. B. Crocker. J. Howard Watson, well known over the state
as a brilliant writer, for some time a correspondent of the _Seattle
Post-Intelligencer_, was installed as editor in 1900 and held his place
with conspicuous editorial ability until failing health compelled him
to retire. He made his home for a time on a beautiful place on Lake
Chelan, but finally succumbed to an untimely death from tuberculosis.
Mr. Watson was succeeded in 1902 by A. F. Statter, a man of many
accomplishments, who conducted the _Union_ with great ability for
several years and then became private secretary to Sen. Levi Ankeny,
from which post he attained a national position, becoming assistant
secretary of the treasury in 1907. Eugene Lorton followed Mr. Statter
as managing editor in September, 1903. In 1907 a marked change occurred
in the status of Walla Walla newspapers, for in that year the _Union_
and _Statesman_ were brought under the one control and ownership of the
Washington Printing and Book Publishing Co., with Percy C. Holland,
who had been for some time connected with the _Union_, as manager. For
sometime after the merger, Carl Roe acted as editor of the _Union_,
which continued as a morning paper, while the _Statesman_, still
an evening paper, was edited by Seth Maxwell. During several years
following Dr. E. E. Fall became one of the chief owners and the manager
of the _Union_, and there were a number of editorial writers and city
editors of variable and some of them of transient careers. Among them
was Walter Lingenfelder already mentioned in connection with the
_Statesman_, who has become prominent in the East; Scott Henderson,
who subsequently became assistant attorney-general of the state; Wm.
Guion, who was known as a capable editor and brilliant writer, and
Harold Ellis, now city editor of the _Bulletin_. While those changes
were in progress, a new afternoon daily, destined to be a great factor
in subsequent journalistic history, had been launched by Eugene Lorton.
This was the _Walla Walla Bulletin_, and its first number appeared on
February 12, 1906. Another stage of importance occurred in 1910. In
that year the publication of the _Statesman_ was discontinued. That
pioneer paper, a monument to the enterprise and capacity of Major Rees,
and later of W. H. Newell and Colonel Parker, having had many ups and
downs, but entitled to the leading place among the journals of the
Inland Empire, thus closed its career after forty-nine years of active
participation in the foundation period of Walla Walla.

Dr. E. E. Fall still continued as manager of the _Union_, but in
December, 1912, he disposed of his interests to Berton La Due and D,
W. Ift, while John H. McDonald acquired the ownership of Mr. Ankeny's
share of the paper. In 1916 Mr. McDonald disposed of his share in the
company to E. G. Robb. At the date of this publication the _Union_
is therefore the property of Messrs. La Due, Ift, and Robb. Of the
many who have been connected with the _Union_ it may be said that
Mr. La Due is the dean in service, having been connected with it
for eighteen years. Most of the others have had brief tenures. The
Washington Printing and Book Publishing Company are not only providing
a first-class newspaper in the _Union_, but do an immense printing
business of the best grade.

The _Walla Walla Bulletin_, founded, as we have seen, by Eugene Lorton
in 1906, was acquired by John G. Kelly, formerly of Omaha, Neb., on
February 1, 1910. Under his management the _Bulletin_ has become one of
the successful and influential daily newspapers of the Northwest. It is
an independent newspaper. It has always stood for definite purposes and
for the advancement of the general good as against special interests.
It has been the leader in many movements for public betterment, notably
the commission form of city government for Walla Walla, adopted in
1911, and for state-wide prohibition, which attained a sweeping triumph
in both 1914 and 1916. The _Bulletin_ appears every afternoon except
Sunday and has the full leased wire reports of the Associated Press.
The Sunday morning edition has the full leased wire report of the
United Press Association. The independent policy of the _Bulletin_
backed up by its superior news including telegraph, local news and
correspondence from nearby towns, together with a splendid distribution
service, has brought to it the largest circulation of any publication
in Southeastern Washington and Northeastern Oregon. The _Bulletin_ has
a strictly modern mechanical plant. A site for a permanent home has
been secured at the northwest corner of First and Poplar streets and
there a first class modern newspaper building will soon be erected.

The _Statesman_, the _Union_, and the _Bulletin_ may be regarded as the
leading general newspapers of Walla Walla. But a number of others have
been founded with more specialized aims which have played important
parts for comparatively limited time, yet are well worthy of a place in
a historical record. A brief item about each of these is due to history.

The _Spirit of the West_ was founded by J. M. Ragsdale in 1872. Charles
Humphries assisted as editorial writer. He was succeeded in turn by
L. K. Grimm and Charles Besserer. Mr. Besserer becoming owner in 1877
changed the name. to _Walla Walla Watchman_, to be changed in turn
to _Walla Walla Journal_. The _Journal_ in time, as already noted,
became merged with the _Union_, and for a time the paper, known as the
_Union-Journal_, was under the ownership of Mr. Besserer.

Mr. M. C. Harris was for a time concerned in newspaper ventures,
publishing the _Morning Journal_ in 1881 and the _Daily Events_ in
1882. In the latter year also appeared the _Washingtonian_, published
by W. L. Black, an accomplished writer, who also conducted _Town Talk_.

In April, 1894, W. F. Brock started the _Garden City Gazette_ and
in the next year J. J. Schick brought out the _Watchman_. In the
_Garden City Gazette_ Mr. Brock undertook the establishment of a
distinctively local and social department, which Mr. Schick carried
on into the _Watchman_. In 1900 the owners of the _Union_, Messrs. La
Due, Frankland, and Armstrong, acquired the plant of the _Gazette_ and
the _Watchman_ and continued the publication under the name of the
_Saturday Record_.

In 1898 Walter Lingenfelder and C. H. Goddard started the _Argus_. This
paper had the avowed aim of exposing abuses and humbugs and grafts, and
fulfilled its mission by causing cold chills on the part of many who
were conscious of belonging in those categories. It became ultimately
the sole property of Mr. Lingenfelder, but he left it to become
associated with Doctor Fall in the _Union_.

In 1900 A. H. Harris brought out an excellent monthly, maintained for
several years, known as the _Inland Empire_.

In 1916 there was founded at Walla Walla, as a democratic campaign
advocate for the re-election of President Wilson and Governor Lister,
the _Walla Walla Democrat_. The managers were Charles Hill and Ernest
W. Lanier. Russell Blankenship and W. D. Lyman were regular editorial
contributors during the campaign. The triumph of the cause in the
election of both the democratic President and democratic governor was a
sufficient encouragement to Mr. Lanier to maintain the publication, and
it is accordingly continued with vigor and success. At the present date
Mr. Fred H. Butcher is associated with Mr. Lanier in the ownership and
management of the _Democrat_. They maintain a well equipped printing
establishment, in which they make a specialty of embossed printing.

The first issue of the _Garden City Monitor_ (weekly) was dated October
10, 1908. This paper was established by Jesse Ferney to represent the
interests of union labor in Walla Walla and Southeastern Washington. It
has been the official organ of the Walla Walla Trades and Labor Council
since its inception. In 1910 L. F. Clarke purchased a half interest
in the paper. Ferney & Clarke, the publishers, have endeavored to
make the paper progressive yet represent the conservative rather than
the radical forces of union labor. A feature of the publication is an
illustrated annual edition appearing on Friday before Labor Day each
year.

One of the notable publications of Walla Walla, filling a field not
occupied by any other, is the monthly _Up-To-The Times Magazine_. This
valuable publication was founded in November, 1906, by R. C. MacLeod,
and he has been editor and manager to the present date. Mr. MacLeod
is entitled to great credit for his faith in the appreciation of a
community which ordinarily would hardly be regarded as possessing
sufficient population to justify a monthly magazine.

The aim of the magazine is to secure greater efficiency in education,
agriculture, commercial, and industrial life. It also maintains a
department devoted to historical and pioneer subjects. Today, the
magazine, independent of any subsidy from any source, is the only
publication of its kind in the interior Northwest. Its success has been
due to the steady maintainance of high literary as well as business
ideals.

The importance of _Up-To-The-Times_ as a publication may be inferred
from the fact that it has paid for printing to one firm of Walla
Walla printers the sum of $40,000, and that its half tone cuts of
local scenes and industrial and agricultural life have called for
an expenditure with a Spokane engraving house of $5,000. The cuts
accumulated during the years of its existence constitute by far the
most extensive and valuable collection of pictorial matter in this
section of the state.

The field of _Up-To-The Times_ is some eight counties of Washington and
Oregon, but it may be noted that it has subscribers and readers in many
other parts of the United States and Europe. The staff of the magazine
at the present date consists of Mr. MacLeod as editor and manager, and
A. F. Alexander, as secretary and circulation manager. There are a
number of regular correspondents and contributors in Walla Walla and
elsewhere.

In addition to the publications in Walla Walla City, this is the proper
place to name the pioneer papers of the other towns of the old county.
We turn first of all to Waitsburg in respect to its leading paper.


WAITSBURG TIMES

This has been the leading paper and most of the time the only paper
of Waitsburg for a period of thirty-nine years. This paper originated
in a joint-stock company formed in 1878, a number of local business
men feeling that the little community should have a weekly spokesman.
The first editor was B. L. Land and the first issue appeared in March,
1878. A few months later the plant was leased to D. G. Edwards, and
later to J. C. Swash. The following year C. W. Wheeler was induced
to lease the plant and he liked the work so well that the next
year--1880--he purchased the property from the stockholders. Under
the influence of C. W. Wheeler the _Times_ became an influence in the
community and in Walla Walla and Columbia counties. The paper continued
under the management of Mr. Wheeler until 1900 when he leased the plant
to two of his sons--E. L. and Guy Wheeler--so that he might enjoy a
well-earned rest from the grind of newspaper work and take up the work
of traveling lecturer for the Woodmen of the World fraternity, that he
might be able to fulfill his desire to travel in the West extensively.
These two sons having been practically raised in a printing office,
were able to take entire charge of the paper. A couple of years later
E. L. Wheeler, the older son, purchased the paper and plant from his
father, and has been sole editor and proprietor since.

The _Times_ boasts of one of the finest country plants in the state at
the present time, owning its brick building and being equipped with
modern presses, two magazine intertype type-casting machines, electric
and water power and all other conveniences of present day journalism.

Not since the day that C. W. Wheeler took charge of the paper has the
_Times_ missed an issue.

In politics the _Times_ is republican.

There was published for a short time in Waitsburg a democratic
weekly, the _Gazette_. Its first issue appeared on June 29, 1899. R.
V. Hutchins was proprietor and editor. In the next year C. W. McCoy
acquired the _Gazette_, but in less than a year he in turn sold out to
J. E. Houtchins, by whom the paper was conducted for some years, to be
discontinued in 1905.

The pioneer newspaper of Dayton, while it was still in Walla Walla
County, was the _Dayton News_, founded in September, 1874, by A. J.
Cain. In April, 1878, county division having come in the meantime, E.
R. Burk began publication of the _Chronicle_, still one of the leading
papers of Columbia County. H. H. Gale was first editor. In 1879 O. C.
White became owner of the _Chronicle_. In 1882 T. O. Abbott started
the publication of the _Democratic State Journal_. It was designed to
maintain the banner of democracy in Columbia County which had been lost
when the _Dayton News_ plant was destroyed by fire in 1882.

The first newspaper in what is now Garfield County was established at
Pomeroy on April 12, 1880, by F. W. D. Mays, and named the _Washington
Independent_. The _Pomeroy Republican_ came into existence March 4,
1882, founded by Eugene T. Wilson, who admitted F. M. McCully to an
equal partnership two months later. The ambitious little Town of Pataha
became also the home of a newspaper, the _Pataha Spirit_. Its founder
was G. C. W. Hammond and its first issue was in January, 1881. The next
year it came into the hands of Dr. J. S. Denison and Charles Wilkins.
Both the _Pomeroy Republican_ and the _Pataha Spirit_ were republican
in politics, the _Independent_ being generally true to its name, though
inclining to democratic and populistic views.

The publications named may be regarded as the pioneers in the parts
of the old county now comprising the three counties outside of Walla
Walla. During the years following county division a number of others
came into existence and now represent the press of their respective
towns, and of them we shall make mention under the different counties.

       *       *       *       *       *

The quest for journalistic history in the present Walla Walla County
outside of Walla Walla City and Waitsburg leads us to the editorial
sanctum of the _Walla Walla Spectator_ of Prescott, presided over
by Charles H. O'Neil, a native son of the "Valley of Waters," and
a leading spirit among the pioneers and "Boosters" as well as the
newspapermen of this section. The _Spectator_ was established November
22, 1902. Mr. O'Neil has followed the occupation of printer during
almost his entire business life, having spent a number of years in
the printing establishments of Walla Walla before entering upon his
independent venture. The _Spectator_ has performed a service of
conspicuous importance for the rich farming region in which it is
located by helping organize public sentiment in the direction of
community enterprise and civic advancement. As a result of these
enlarged ideals through the schools, church, business men, and homes
of the town, as well as the part borne in the same direction by the
_Spectator_, Prescott has become somewhat remarkable, for a town of its
population, for its high community spirit.

The veteran journalist of the west end of Walla Walla County is R.
C. Julian of Attalia. Mr. Julian has been connected with several
newspaper enterprises and at the present time is the owner and manager
of the _Wallula Gateway_, the _Attalia News-Tribune_, and the _Helix
Advocate_, at Helix, Ore. The _Wallula Gateway_ was launched on
December 25, 1905, by Harter and Julian. After a few months Mr. Julian
bought out his partner and has since conducted the paper alone. On
May 11, 1907, he started the _Touchet Pioneer_, selling it after a
year to A. M. Cummins. After sundry ownerships, the _Pioneer_ became
the _Touchet-Gardena Empire_, and is at the present time published by
Ferney and Clarke of Walla Walla. The _Attalia News-Tribune_ was the
successor of the short-lived _Two Rivers Tribune_, which was started
in 1908 by A. B. Frame to "boom" the land project at Two Rivers. The
plant of the latter paper was secured by D. D. Swanson, formerly of
Minneapolis, and in May, 1909, he entered upon the publication of the
_News-Tribune_ at Attalia. After three months Mr. Swanson retired,
disposing of his establishment to Messrs. Cummins and Julian. Within
another short period Mr. Julian became the sole owner and has so
continued to this day. Looking still further, Mr. Julian started yet
another weekly journal at Helix, Ore., the _Helix Advocate_. Having
disposed of it in 1915 to J. J. Lewis, Mr. Julian reacquired possession
in August, 1917, and thus is now the sole proprietor of the three
weeklies.



CHAPTER VIII

WITH THE LAWYERS, JUDGES AND DOCTORS


A special interest always attaches to the legal, judicial and medical
representatives of any country, and especially a new country. The
lawyers and judges necessarily play so large a part in the creation of
laws and the founding of institutions that their history is well nigh
co-extensive with the development of their country. The physicians are
so vital an element in the home life and the general conditions of
their communities, that their history also comes near being a history
of these communities.

We are presenting here several special contributions from
representatives of these classes of citizens. We have had occasion
at many points in the progress of this history to name prominent
representatives of the bench and bar, and of the medical profession.

We present first a sketch of the early Walla Walla bench and bar by one
of the foremost lawyers of the city, who is himself also a member of a
family which has, perhaps, been more closely identified with the bench
and bar of this section of the state than any other. We refer to the
Sharpstein family, and we have the privilege of here presenting this
article by John L. Sharpstein:

 The intention is not to make this matter relating to the first
 judicial district of the Territory of Washington such a complete
 history as would be demanded if it were written more exclusively
 for the use and information of attorneys. The judicial system which
 existed in the Territory of Washington prior to its admission as
 state possessed some characteristics which in the present time would
 be regarded as peculiar. There were originally three district courts
 established under the acts of the Congress of the United States, and
 which were known as territorial district courts. These courts had
 jurisdiction of all matters, both civil and criminal, other than
 probate causes and each county in the territory had its own probate
 judge who was not necessarily a lawyer. The peculiarity referred to
 above was the fact that the Supreme Court was composed of the judges
 who were the district judges, so that the same judge who presided in
 the trial of a case in the lower court also participated in its final
 decision in the territorial Supreme Court.

 As originally constituted there were three judicial districts in the
 Territory of Washington. The first judicial district consisted of all
 of Eastern Washington. Subsequently Eastern Washington was divided
 and a new district was created which was known as the Fourth Judicial
 District, with its presiding judge resident at the City of Spokane.
 The District Court in the First Judicial District was organized at
 Walla Walla on June 4, 1860. Judge William Strong, who afterwards
 became a practicing attorney at Portland, Ore., was the presiding
 judge. The first attorneys admitted to practice in this court were
 Edward S. Bridges and Otis S. Bridges. They were admitted on June 4,
 1860. John G. Sparks was the next attorney admitted to practice, and
 the date of his admission was June 5, 1860. W. A. George was admitted
 on April 15, 1861, and his practice at the bar in Eastern Washington
 probably covered more years than that of any other attorney who has
 ever practiced in this jurisdiction.

 At the organization of the court a grand jury was impanelled and
 included in the members of that grand jury were W. S. Gilliam and
 Milton Aldrich, both of whom afterwards became prominent in both
 business and political affairs in Walla Walla County, and were among
 the most useful and respected citizens of that community.

 As originally constituted the territorial District Court comprised
 all of Eastern Washington, but by division the territorial
 jurisdiction was gradually reduced so that the southern half of
 Eastern Washington practically constituted the first district at the
 time of the admission of the territory as a state. After the first
 organization of the court and the appointment of Judge Strong, among
 the presiding judges were E. P. Oliphant, James A. Wyche, James K.
 Kennedy, J. R. Lewis, S. C. Wingard and William G. Langford. William
 G. Langford was the last judge prior to the admission of the state.
 Judge Wyche, Judge Kennedy and Judge Wingard after their retirement
 from the bench made their homes in Walla Walla City, and were useful
 and respected members of that community until the dates of their
 respective deaths.

 While the systems prevailing prior to the admission of the state
 in the territorial courts permitting the judge who tried the case
 to be a member of the Supreme Court on the hearing of the case on
 appeal would seem to be peculiar, it was not so unsatisfactory in its
 results as one would be inclined to think it might have been.

  J. L. SHARPSTEIN.

We next present a contribution from Judge Chester F. Miller, of Dayton,
long and intimately identified with the legal practice and with the
court decisions of this section. We have had occasion to refer to
Judge Miller many times in the course of this history, and we have had
the privilege of enrolling him among the advisory board for the work.
Anything from his pen is of exceptional value. His contribution follows
here:


LAWYERS AND JUDGES OF COLUMBIA AND GARFIELD COUNTIES

The district court of Walla Walla County, with jurisdiction over all of
the eastern part of the territory, was created by the Legislature in
1860, and made a part of the First Judicial District of the territory.
Judge William Strong of Vancouver then presided over this court, and
held his first term at Walla Walla on June 4, 1860. In 1861, James
E. Wyche was appointed judge of the district, took up his residence
in Walla Walla and thereafter held regular terms in that place. The
territorial judges succeeding him were James K. Kennedy in 1870, J. R.
Lewis in 1873, Samuel C. Wingard in 1875, and William G. Langford in
1886.

[Illustration: COUNTY COURTHOUSE, WALLA WALLA]

The only resident attorneys appearing of record at the first term of
court held in Walla Walla were Andrew J. Cain and Col. Wyatt A. George.
There may have been other mining camp lawyers in Walla Walla at that
time, but they did not remain long enough to become identified with
the courts or the early history of this section. William G. Langford,
James H. Lasater and James D. Mix came in 1863, Benjamin L. Sharpstein
in 1865, Nathan T. Caton in 1867, Thomas H. Brents in 1870, Thomas J.
Anders in 1871, John B. Allen and Charles B. Upton in 1878 and Daniel
J. Crowley in 1880. Although these lawyers resided in Walla Walla, and
were more closely identified with the history of that county, yet they
should be mentioned here, for the reason that they followed the judge
around the circuit of the old first judicial district, and practiced in
the district courts of Eastern Washington, as fast as they were created
by the Legislature. The court practice in those days was very different
from what it is now. When Judge Wingard was appointed in 1875, he
held court in Walla Walla, Yakima and Colville. Afterwards Dayton,
Colfax and Pomeroy were added to the court towns. Court was held two
or three times each year in each town, and usually lasted for two or
three weeks. The judge was followed around the circuit by the members
of the bar above mentioned. They took their chances of picking up some
business at each term, and on account of their experience and ability
were usually associated with local counsel on one side or the other
of each case. There was no preliminary law day, and the attorneys had
to be ready on a moment's notice to argue the motions and demurrers,
and get their cases ready for immediate trial. Stenographers and
typewriters were unknown, and the lawyer prepared his amended pleadings
at night with pen and ink, and in the morning proceeded with the trial
of his case. Law books were few and far between; a good working library
consisted of the session laws, "Bancroft's Forms," "Estee's Pleadings,"
and a few good text books. Supreme Court reports were unknown in this
section of the country, and the case lawyer had not yet come into
existence. In the argument of legal questions, decisions of the courts
were seldom mentioned, but the lawyers depended upon their knowledge of
the principles of the law, and their ability to apply those principles
to the facts of the case on trial. There were no specialists in
different branches of the law in those days and the successful lawyer
was able to take up in rapid succession, with only one night for
preparation, first an important criminal case, then a complicated civil
jury case, and then an intricate equity case. There may be at this time
abler lawyers in some one branch of their profession, than were this
pioneer bar, but for a general knowledge of all the branches of the
law, and readiness in applying the fundamental principles of the law to
their particular case, without having reference to the court reports,
the pioneer lawyer was far in the lead of the modern practitioner. This
method of practice made big, broad and ready men; the little lawyer
drifted in and soon drifted out; only the big ones remained, and they
made their mark both in law and in politics. In those days, when there
were no railroads, no daily newspapers, no moving picture shows, or
other places of amusement, the people from far and near came to town
during court week and regularly attended its session, enjoying the
funny incidents coming up during the trials, and listening attentively
to the eloquent speeches of the able lawyers.

The District Court for Columbia County was created in 1878, and in June
of that year, Judge Wingard held his first term in Dayton. In addition
to the Walla Walla lawyers above mentioned, the following members of
the local bar were in attendance at that time: Andrew J. Cain, Robert
F. Sturdevant, Wyatt A. George, Morgan A. Baker, Mathew W. Mitchell,
Thomas H. Crawford, John T. Ford, William Ewing and John D. McCabe, of
Dayton and William C. Potter and Joseph H. Lister of Pomeroy.

Judge Wingard was red headed, a little dyspeptic, somewhat irritable at
times and usually wore a shawl around his shoulders, while occupying
the bench. He was much given to imposing fines on lawyers, jurors and
witnesses who came in late, but generally remitted them after he had
cooled off. He was always kind to the young, inexperienced lawyer,
giving him good advice, and extending a helping hand when the young
fellow was lost in his case and grasping for a straw. He was more
exacting with the older lawyer and quickly became impatient when one of
them tried to mislead him as to the law. However, he was a good judge,
honored and respected by all, and administered the law as it appeared
to him, without fear of being recalled.

Andrew J. Cain was probably the pioneer lawyer of Southeastern
Washington, and made his first appearance as a clerk in the
quartermaster's department, at the time the treaty was concluded by
General Wright with the Indians, at Walla Walla in 1858, and assisted
in preparing the terms of this treaty. He practiced in Walla Walla from
1860 until 1873, when he came to Dayton and soon afterwards founded the
_Dayton News_, Dayton's pioneer newspaper. He had full charge in the
Legislature of the bills creating the present County of Columbia, is
frequently mentioned as the father of that county, and was its first
county auditor. He was always considered an able and well equipped
lawyer, not particularly eloquent, but very forcible in his speech, and
was quite successful while engaged in the practice. He died in 1879.

Col. Wyatt A. George was born in Indiana in 1819, and after serving
in the Mexican war, came to the coast during the gold excitement of
1849. He followed the mining camps until 1860, when he settled in Walla
Walla, practicing there until the District Court was established in
Dayton in 1878, when he removed to that town. He practiced in Dayton
for ten years and then went to Pomeroy for a short time, then to
Colfax, and afterwards returned to Walla Walla, where he died without
means, his last wants being administered by the members of the bar,
with whom he had practiced for so many years. His knowledge of the law
was wonderful, and he was often referred to as a walking law library,
and by many as "Old Equity." He seldom referred to a law book, yet his
knowledge of the principles and reasons of the law, and his familiarity
with the technical system of pleadings then in vogue, was such that he
seldom entered a case, without interposing a demurrer or motion against
the pleading of his adversary, and always demanded and collected terms
before allowing them to plead over. He was perhaps the ablest common
lawyer in the territory, and was very successful in his practice. The
old colonel with his tall, slender form, his white beard, his stove
pipe hat and cane, was noticeable in any gathering, and he always
believed in maintaining the dignity of his profession in the manner of
his dress and his bearing on the street. The colonel wasn't much of a
joker, but had a sense of dry humor about him, which sometimes cropped
out, and was much appreciated by his associates. There was a drayman in
Dayton in those days, known as "Old Jake," who drove a pair of mules
to his dray. His mules were attached and he employed Colonel George
to claim them as exempt. The previous Legislature in describing the
property exempt to a teamster, had unintentionally omitted the word
"mules," and Judge Wingard held against the colonel. After studying
the statute for a moment, the colonel remarked to the judge that the
members of the late lamented Legislature had evidently overlooked
mules, but that it was the first time in the history of the world that
a mule had been overlooked by a set of jackasses.

Judge Sturdevant came to Dayton in 1874, and was soon elected
prosecuting attorney of the first judicial district. He was the first
probate judge of Columbia County and its prosecuting attorney for
many years. He was a member of the constitutional convention, and the
first judge of this judicial district after we became a state. He
practiced law in Columbia County until a few years ago, when he removed
to Olympia, but occasionally comes back for the trial of some case
and recalls old memories. The judge was of a very genial disposition,
always ready to lay aside his work and tell a good story, yet withal
he was a splendid lawyer, trying his cases closely and generally with
success, and even yet in his old age, he retains his knowledge of the
law, his cunning and his ready wit, and bids fair to practice law for
many years to come.

Morgan A. Baker was a young man when he came to Dayton from Albany,
Ore., in 1877. He was a good office lawyer and a safe adviser. He was
somewhat diffident in court, but usually tried his cases well. As a
politician and manager of the old democratic party in this county, he
was in a class by himself. He practiced here for thirteen years and was
very successful in his profession and in a financial way. He removed
from here to Seattle and afterwards returned to his first home at
McMinville, Ore., where he died a few years ago.

The other local lawyers who were present at the first term of court,
did not remain here long. M. W. Mitchell is still living at Weiser,
Idaho. Tom Crawford located at Union, Ore., and attained considerable
political prominence in that state.

In 1879, David Higgins and James Knox Rutherford came to Dayton.
Higgins was an elderly man, and somewhat hard of hearing; he never had
to amend his pleadings, because no one could read his writing; he had
a very good knowledge of the law, and is principally remembered as the
man who broke the first city charter. He afterwards located at Sprague
where he died many years ago.

Rutherford was prosecuting attorney for several years and assisted John
B. Allen in the prosecution of Owenby, McPherson and Snodderly, the
most celebrated murder trials of this part of the state. Rutherford
went from here to Whatcom, and when last heard from was working at his
old trade as a paper maker at Lowell, Wash.

In 1880, Melvin M. Godman and John Y. Ostrander located in Dayton.
Judge Godman was then a young lawyer, from Santa Clara, Cal., but was
very successful from the start, and soon attained prominence in his
profession. He was acknowledged by all, as one of the greatest trial
lawyers in Eastern Washington. He was an eloquent advocate, with a
good knowledge of the law, forcibly presenting the strong points of
his own case, and quick to discover the weak points in his opponent's
case, and turn them to his own advantage. He was twice a member of the
Legislature, a member of the constitutional convention, the second
superior judge of this district, an unsuccessful candidate for supreme
judge, congressman and governor of the state, and at the time of his
death was chairman of the Public Service Commission. He was one of the
great men of the state. John Y. Ostrander was the son of Dr. Ostrander,
and born in Cowlitz County, but came to Dayton from Olympia. He was
a good lawyer for a young man; was red headed and a natural fighter,
and even when he lost his case, he gave his opponent good reason to
remember that he had been in a lawsuit.

In 1881, Elmon Scott was admitted to practice in the courts of this
district, at Dayton, and located at Pomeroy, where he became prominent
in his profession, and when we became a state, he was elected to the
Supreme Court, doing honorable service for twelve years. He then
retired from practice and is now living quietly at Bellingham, enjoying
a well earned competency. In 1883, Mack F. Gose took his examination
at Dayton and also located at Pomeroy, where he developed into one of
the most successful lawyers in Eastern Washington. He served for six
years on our supreme bench, where he justly earned the reputation of
being one of the greatest judges our state has yet produced. Judge
Gose delved deeply into the law and his thorough knowledge of its
fundamental principles was responsible for his great success upon the
bench. The judge is admired by his acquaintances and worshiped by his
friends in Garfield County, where he spends his summers on his ranch at
Mayview.

In 1884, Samuel G. Cosgrove located at Dayton and was admitted to
practice in the courts of the territory, but soon removed to Pomeroy.
He was a veteran of the Civil war, an orator and an excellent trial
lawyer. His predominant characteristics were ambition and perseverance,
never losing sight of his goal until by persistent efforts he had
reached it. He was a member of the constitutional convention and
finally achieved his life long ambition to be governor of Washington.
It is to be regretted that he did not live to enjoy the fruits of his
life long work.

Much might be said of these three men, but their history is a part of
the history of the state; they put Pomeroy on the map, and gave it the
reputation of having produced more prominent men than any small town in
our state.

During the year 1886, Charles R. Dorr and James Ewen Edmiston, both of
whom had read law in Dayton, took the examination and were admitted to
practice. Charlie Dorr was an orator and a student and quickly took
his place among the leading lawyers, and it was often said that he was
the most brilliant young lawyer in this part of the state. With him
ambition reigned supreme, and this coupled with natural industry and
backed by that drive power which causes men to do things worth while,
would have made him a power in this state, had he lived a few years
longer. He was prosecuting attorney for two years, and took his place
among the campaign orators of the state. His death in 1892, after six
years of practice, was the cause of much regret.

James E. Edmiston in private life was a quiet unassuming gentleman,
loved and respected by everyone. As a lawyer he was successful from the
start, and soon built up a large practice. His knowledge of men and
his ability to judge them as they are, gained from his experience as
a teacher, a minister and a business man, prior to his taking up the
law, made him a dangerous opponent in the trial of cases in court. He
was well founded in the principles of the law, was a convincing speaker
and had great weight with a jury. He filled the office of prosecuting
attorney for two years, with credit to himself. His death in 1900,
while yet in the prime of life and the midst of his usefulness, was
a great loss to the community. It can be truly said, that a better,
kinderhearted man than J. E. Edmiston, never lived.

[Illustration: WINTER NELLIS PEARS, CLARKSTON]

[Illustration: APPLES GROWN IN CLARKSTON]

The history of this state cannot be written without referring many
times to the lawyers mentioned in this paper. A senator, a congressman,
a governor, many judges of the Supreme and Superior courts, and all
have made good in the positions to which they were called. Southeastern
Washington has been the training ground for many great men.

The present bar of Columbia, Garfield and Asotin counties are mostly
home products, but they are good lawyers, upholding the honor of their
profession, and full of promise, and will undoubtedly follow in the
footsteps of their predecessors, and help write the future history of
our great state.

       *       *       *       *       *

The representative of bench and bar in old Walla Walla County who has
attained the most distinguished rank in office, having been a member
of the State Supreme Court of Washington, as well as possessing high
rank in the regard of multitudes of his fellow-citizens, is Judge Mack
F. Gose of Pomeroy. He also, like the other contributors, belongs to a
prominent pioneer family, and also a family of lawyers. He too is on
our advisory board.

We have the pleasure of presenting here a special sketch by Judge
Gose, including a narration by him of a case of peculiar interest and
importance, the case of old Timothy, the Nez Percé hero of the Alpowa:


TIMOTHY OF ALPOWA AND HIS LAND CASE

On a broad fertile plain on the Snake River near the mouth of the
Alpowa Creek, about 1800, there were born two Nez Percé children of
the full blood, a boy and a girl, named Timothy and Tima, who, upon
attaining the age of manhood and womanhood, became husband and wife
and remained such until the death of the wife which occurred in 1889.
Timothy, the subject of this sketch, passed on about a year later. He
was a chief of the Nez Percé tribe and, from the time of his birth
until his decease, dwelt at the place where he was born.

He was converted to Christianity by the Reverend Spalding, and became a
licensed preacher. There was born to Timothy and Tima as issue of their
marriage four children, three sons and a daughter: He-yune-ilp-ilp,
or Edward Timothy, Jane Timoochin, Estip-ee-nim-tse-lot, or Young
Timothy, and Amos Timothy who died during childhood. Edward was twice
married. There was born to his first wife a daughter Pah-pah-tin, who
married Wat-tse-tse-kowwen. To them was born a daughter Pitts-teen.
The issue of his second marriage was daughter Nancy Tse-wit-too-e,
who was married to Rev. George Waters, an Indian of the Yakima tribe.
The issue of this marriage was two daughters, Ellen and Nora. Jane
Timoochin was twice married. To her was born a son, William, the issue
of her first marriage. To William was born a daughter named Cora. To
Young Timothy was born a daughter Amelia, who had a son named Abraham.
The living issue of Timothy and Tima at the time of the death of the
latter was Jane Timoochin, Pitts-teen, Ellen, Nora, Cora and Abraham.
The second husband of Jane Timoochin was John Silcott, a prominent and
much respected citizen of the State of Idaho, with whom she lived until
her death in 1895. In 1877 Timothy filed his declaration of intention
to become a citizen of the United States. A year later he filed a
homestead entry on the tract of land upon which he was born, and had
continued to reside. In 1883 he made final proof as a naturalized
citizen of the United States, and a year later received his letters
patent. No record evidence of his naturalization has been found, but
there is abundant evidence that he voted at least once and that he was
a taxpayer.

A reference to the dates given will show that Timothy was a lad four or
five, perhaps six, years of age when the Lewis and Clark party made its
memorable voyage down the Snake River in 1805 and stopped at the Indian
village where he resided. The writer has heard it stated by a friend
of Timothy that he claimed to remember seeing these white men. There
can be but little doubt that he was old enough to have an occurrence so
strange to him indelibly stamped upon his memory. From early manhood
until his death Timothy was a good man, whether measured by the white
skin or the red skin standard. He early adopted the habits of civilized
life, and was a friend of the white race. History records that he was
instrumental in saving the lives of General Steptoe and his command.
Gen. Hazard Stevens in the life of his father, the eminent Gen. Isaac
J. Stevens, relates that Timothy attended the great Indian council held
at Walla Walla between Governor Stevens and many Indian tribes in 1853,
at which time and place a treaty was concluded, and that "the morning
after the council, being Sunday, he (Timothy) preached a sermon for
the times and held up to indignation of the tribe and the retribution
of the Almighty those who would coalesce with the Cayuses and break
the faith of the Nez Perces." Like Lawyer, the head chief of the Nez
Percé tribe at the time this council was held and the treaty was made,
Timothy loved to dwell in peace. They alone among all the chiefs there
assembled saw the folly of fighting the white man.

The remains of Timothy rest in an unmarked grave on the banks of Snake
River--the spot of his birth, his life and his death. Efforts have been
made to secure Congressional recognition of his worth to the white man
when he was struggling to make a settlement in the Northwest in the
heart of a country peopled by thousands of Indians, many of whom were
hostile to our race. So far the effort has been unavailing. It is said
that there were but two pictures in Timothy's simple cabin home--one of
George Washington, the other of himself. This may excite the derision
of those who know nothing of the simple, honest, Christian, loyal
character of Timothy; but to those who know his history it seems not
an improper linking of two names: one great and loyal to all that was
right and just; the other, obscure as measured by white skin standards,
but also loyal to right and justice as he understood the Christian
teaching.

With this sketch of Timothy and a proper understanding of the prominent
part that he played in several of the momentous events of history in
this section, the reader will see the interest which gathers around a
noted law case connected with the land upon which he filed near the
junction of Alpowa Creek with Snake River.

A summary of the case is as follows:

The patent through which Timothy acquired the legal title to his
homestead recites that the land shall not be sold or incumbered for
a period of twenty years. Despite this limitation, Timothy and Tima,
in June, 1884, about two months after the patent had been issued,
executed an unacknowledged lease of the land to John M. Silcott for a
term of ninety-nine years. The expressed consideration for the lease
was a nominal sum, payable yearly. In April, 1890, Silcott assigned an
undivided one-half interest in the lease to L. A. Porter. In March,
1892, he assigned the remainder of the lease to Richard Ireland. In
March, 1902, Silcott conveyed his interest in the land to Ireland by a
deed of quitclaim. In October, 1903, Ireland and wife conveyed their
interest in both the land and lease to William A. White and Edward A.
White. In March, 1904, Porter assigned his interest in the lease to W.
J. Houser and Ross R. Brattain, and at the same time conveyed to them
certain fee interests in the land which he had purchased from certain
of the heirs of Timothy and Tima.

In May, 1904, Houser and Brattain entered into a contract with White
Brothers, above mentioned, whereby they agreed to convey to them the
Porter interests, both fee and leasehold.

About 1903 or 1904 Charles L. McDonald, a lawyer residing and
practicing his profession at Lewiston, in the State of Idaho, purchased
the inheritances of Cora, the granddaughter of Jane, and Abraham, the
grandson of young Timothy, and of Noah, the father of Abraham. The
other interests were claimed by White Brothers. They also claimed the
one-sixth interest inherited by Cora.

As an outgrowth of the facts stated, intricate and prolonged litigation
followed. Mr. McDonald commenced a suit against White Brothers,
alleging that the lease was invalid on two grounds: First, because the
lease was unacknowledged, and second, because the patent to Timothy
should have contained a five-year non-alienation clause in accordance
with the act of Congress of March 3, 1875. He also asserted title to
the entire fee in the land acquired as he claimed through conveyances
from all the heirs of Timothy and Tima. He did not claim to have
acquired the inheritances of Silcott or of the heirs of Edward, but his
contention was that Silcott and Jane had not been legally married and
that Edward had not married.

At the trial it was established that in early times living together in
the manner usual between husband and wife constituted a legal marriage,
according to the Nez Percé tribal custom. It was also established that,
according to the same custom, either spouse was at liberty to separate
from the other and at once take a new mate; thus giving legality to
both the divorce and second marriage. From the evidence offered the
court found that Edward was twice married; that there was living issue
of both marriages, and that Silcott and Jane were legally married. It
was shown that Rev. James Hines, an Indian preacher, licensed but not
ordained, performed the marriage ceremony between Silcott and Jane
about the year 1882, at some place on the Alpowai Creek, in the then
Territory of Washington. Mr. McDonald's contention that only ordained
ministers could perform the marriage ceremony and that a ceremonial
marriage without proof that a marriage license had been procured was
invalid, was held to be without merit.

The evidence showed that the actual consideration for the lease was
that Silcott should support Timothy and Tima during their natural
lives; that he did so, and that he gave them a decent burial was amply
proven. Under the laws of Washington an unacknowledged lease of real
property for more than a year is not valid. The Whites relied upon
permanent and valuable improvements and the long continued possession
of their predecessors under the lease as constituting both laches and
estoppel against the right to assert the invalidity of the lease.
Touching this aspect of the case it was shown that the land was
unfenced and covered with sage brush, except about one acre which had
been used as an Indian garden when the lease was made; that the land
then had a value of five dollars per acre; that in the fall of 1890
Silcott and Porter plowed, cleared and leveled about sixty acres and
planted it to fruit trees; that the next spring they planted about
twenty acres to alfalfa; that in the fall of 1903 White Brothers
planted about twenty acres additional to orchard; that water had been
carried to the land for irrigation by those claiming under the lease,
and that at the time of the trial (about 1906) the orchard was in good
condition and the land of the value of $20,000.

Both the trial court and the supreme court took the view that the
heirs were guilty of laches, which precluded setting aside the lease,
they having permitted those claiming under it to have the undisturbed
possession of the land for more than twenty years. It was also held
that, in view of the valuable improvements placed on the land by those
who in good faith believed the lease to be valid, it would be doing
violence to the plainest rules of equity to permit those who have
remained passive when it was their duty to speak, to be rewarded for
their inattention to their legal rights. Upon these principles the
lease was sustained. Mr. McDonald was adjudged to be the owner of
the one-sixth interest inherited by Cora and the one-third interest
inherited by Abraham and his father, Noah, making an undivided
one-half of the fee simple title. White Brothers were adjudged to be
the owners of the remaining fee interest composed of the inheritances
through Edward and of John Silcott, all, however, subject to the
ninety-nine-year lease. The marriages and heirships were proven by the
testimony of Indian witnesses.

The case was tried at Asotin. One old Indian testified that he was born
there and that he owned the town and adjoining land. In testifying to
the first marriage of Edward, he caused some merriment by saying that
he was busy as usual when it happened and gave little attention to an
incident so trivial in his busy life. Edward Reboin, whose father was
a Frenchman and whose mother was a Nez Percé Indian, was used as an
interpreter. He testified to the customs of marriage and divorce among
the Nez Percé Indians. He said in early times two marriage customs were
recognized and followed. The simplest one has been stated. The other
was to have a wedding feast, attended by the relatives and friends of
the young couple; following which the happy pair betook themselves to
the tepee of the husband and they twain became husband and wife.

The trial of the case consumed several days. The court permitted wide
latitude in the presentation of the evidence. Several white men and
many Indians gave testimony on the various phases of the case. Among
others, Mr. R. P. Reynolds, now a resident of the City of Walla Walla,
made oath that he was well acquainted with Timothy; that he explained
the lease to him before he signed; that the actual consideration for
the lease was that Silcott should support Timothy and Tima during the
natural life of each thereof; that he did so and that he gave each of
them a decent burial. The examination of an Indian witness through
an interpreter is an interesting experience. The Indian carries his
traditional stoicism to the witness stand. There he is as impassive as
a piece of marble. Neither by sign nor act does he give any indication
of the working of his mind to the examiner. His answer to one question
rarely suggests another question. The examiner works his way in
the dark as best he may. This experience is particularly true of
cross-examination. It has been said that cross-examination is an art.
Some artist may have seen the light in cross-examining an Indian, but
to the writer the Indian has been a man of mystery.


THE PHYSICIANS

From the bench and bar we turn to the medical profession. It is hard to
express the debt of gratitude which these pioneer communities owe to
their physicians. Among those who have completed their work and passed
on, the minds of all people of old Walla Walla would turn with profound
respect and veneration to Dr. N. G. Blalock as justly entitled to be
called the foremost citizen of this section, and among the foremost of
the State of Washington. Conspicuous among the great physicians who
have passed away, Dr. John E. Bingham would be called up by all the
old-timers as a man of extraordinary ability, great attainments in
general knowledge, and a skillful and successful practitioner. Many
others, gone and still living, have made noble contributions to the
upbuilding of the region covered by our story, but limits of space
forbid special mention.

Among the living representatives of the medical profession undoubtedly
the man whose name would come at once to the minds of all in his
section of our field is Dr. G. B. Kuykendall of Pomeroy. We have had
occasion frequently in these pages to refer to this foremost of the
physicians of his section of the state. Prominent both by reason of his
medical ability and his peculiarly genial and attractive personality,
Dr. Kuykendall has also been one of the leading historical students,
and one of the especially gifted writers in this section of our
field. In this chapter we give a contribution by this well-known and
well-loved physician of Garfield County:


REMINISCENCES OF MEDICAL PRACTICE IN GARFIELD COUNTY, WASHINGTON, IN
PIONEER TIMES

Forty years as a measure of the earth's geological changes, or of the
history of the world, are as but a moment--as the lightning's flash
or the fall of a meteor. The same lapse of time in the life of a
physician, during the early settlement of the Inland Empire, seems long
when viewed in retrospection. A sketch of those forty years would be a
vitagraph of the most active period of his life and also the panorama
of the building of an empire.

Four decades ago, the larger part of all this country was a
wilderness--a typical western frontier.

In those days, when the physician started out in the country to visit
his patients, he rode over a region covered with tall grass, swept into
wavy undulations by the western winds. As far as the eye could see
there were but few human habitations; and seldom a fence to mar the
landscape or obstruct the way.

The doctor's mode of travel then, on medical trips, was usually on the
"hurricane deck of a cayuse horse," and his armamentarium was carried
in the old-time saddle or pill bags. Often the jolting and jostling of
the bottles therein caused the effluvium of ether, valerian and other
odoriferous medicaments to exude and make the air redolent with their
perfume. We had to carry our medicines with us, and a pretty good
supply of them, too; for we never knew what we should find or how many
sick we might meet before our return.

In the pioneer days of this country, the "settlers" had small houses
and but few conveniences as we now know them. Mostly they lived in
domiciles of one room, and there were few indeed that had more. When
sickness came it always found them unprepared.

Dust, flies and impure water were the curse of the sick, and made it
impossible to give then proper sanitary environments. Dust in those
days was much worse than now, as roads were then in the making by the
easiest and quickest route. They passed up and down the bunch-grass
hills and across the sage plains, the soft, ashy soil being ground
into dust of prodigious depth by "single-track" summer travel. Freight
wagons, incoming settlers and caravan trains kept the roads so dusty
that the traveler was greatly inconvenienced.

Homesteaders at first procured water from the little gulches near their
homes or from shallow wells of seepage water. In either case, it was
nearly always impregnated more or less with alkali and loaded with
organic matter. The result was that every year, after the country had a
considerable population, typhoid (then called mountain fever) appeared,
and every summer and fall there were numerous cases. People, then, had
not been educated to the necessity of proper care of the body and knew
scarcely anything of disease germs, antiseptics or sanitation. Bath
rooms, hot and cold water in the home, existed only in memories of the
past or dreams of the future.

Many times when I was called to a country home to see a patient, to
dress a wound or reduce and dress a fracture, I frequently went out to
a hole in the ground dignified by the name of well, to wash the dust
from my face and hands. We got along almost "any old way" those days,
and did not seem to mind so very much the inconveniences either.

In those days we did not have telephone lines running everywhere over
the country and to nearly every home, as now. When a member of a
pioneer family suddenly became sick, or when someone had been "bucked"
from a horse and got a leg or arm broken, or the baby had a collection
of wind crosswise in its stomach and was howling "loud enough to raise
the rafters," then there was a sudden demand for someone to go, from
three to twenty-five miles, for the doctor. They could not step to a
phone and call him up and ask advice, or request him to start at once.
The program was to rout out the hired man or one of the boys, or send
to a neighbor, and have him saddle a horse and start to town for the
physician.

It is remarkable how much worse green plums and cucumbers affect the
internal apparatus of a "kid" in bad weather, and what a predilection
colic has for attacking the "in'ards" of a baby on dark, stormy
nights. It always seemed to me that the children of the early settlers
passed by the "moonshiny" nights and selected the very worst possible
weather for their birthdays. This seems to be one of the inscrutable
arrangements of providence, and bears indisputable testimony to the
early age at which human perversity begins.

In those days the time required to get word to the doctor and secure
his attendance was so great that the patient sometimes died or
recovered before the physician could possibly reach him. During all
this time the patient and friends were kept in an agony of uncertainty
and suspense.

In retrospection, some of my long, hard night drives through darkness,
freezing cold, snowdrifts, rain, slush or mud, are still like memories
of a horrible nightmare.

There have been several epidemics that swept over the country since
the beginning of its settlement. The first was smallpox. It is
a remarkable fact that many physicians diagnosed the disease as
chickenpox, until it began to slay many of its victims. There was at
that time quite a controversy among the physicians and a part of the
people in regard to the nature of the disease.

In the spring of 1888, epidemic cerebro-spinal meningitis appeared in
Garfield County and the surrounding country. It came suddenly and the
symptoms were so violent, and the results in many cases were so rapidly
fatal that it created consternation among the people. The physicians
over the country generally had not previously met the disease nor had
any experience with it, and were puzzled both as to diagnosis and
treatment. The writer had, during the epidemic, an experience that was
enough for a lifetime. The disease prevailed more or less for about two
years. In Garfield County there were a large number of cases on the
upper and lower Deadman Creek, Meadow Gulch, Mayview, Ping, along the
Snake River and in Pomeroy and Pataha. It is probable that Garfield
County, in proportion to its population, had more cases than any county
in the state.

The attacks of the malady were of all shades of severity and the
symptoms of the greatest diversity. It attacked, for the most part,
young persons from the age of three to twenty years, but there were
numerous cases older and younger. In some instances the person was
taken instantly, while apparently in ordinary health, with agonizing
pains in the head and spine, with or without vomiting, and in a
few minutes he became wildly delirious, with convulsions, muscular
contractions, rigidity of the neck, head drawn far back, and was soon
unconscious; and in some cases, died within a few hours. In other
cases, the patient lingered on for many weeks or even months, halting
between life and death, with excruciating agony, only at last to die,
worn out and reduced to a skeleton. Others slowly emerged from their
desperate condition to regain complete health, while others were left
partially paralyzed, with distorted and shrivelled limbs or impaired
mental powers.

I witnessed many harrowing scenes among my meningitis cases, and when
the epidemic was past, I fervently thanked God and wished I might never
again have to pass through a similar experience.

Following up the meningitis scourge, there came along soon afterwards
a notable epidemic of influenza or la grippe. The symptoms it produced
were very characteristic of and came near to answering the description
of epidemic "Russian influenza," graphically pictured in old medical
works. Whole communities were prostrated in a few hours. It seemed
to spread through the medium of the atmosphere, and was also very
contagious, passing from person to person. Many were stricken and
overpowered almost or quite as suddenly as the meningitis cases, while
some exhibited meningeal tendencies that made the diagnosis doubtful at
first.

I remember of going to Ilia to see a patient with the disease, and
before getting back home I had been called to prescribe for seventeen
persons; and a few days later I took the disease myself.

The effects of this epidemic were manifest for years, there being left
in its wake a multitude of cases of enlarged and suppurating cervical
glands, otitis media (suppuration of the middle ear), weakened lungs,
bronchitis, and a number of cases of tuberculosis.

Before the country was fenced up, when the roads were few and
settlements sparse, the doctor's trips were occasionally very lonely.
When going out into remote parts after nightfall, traveling an
unfamiliar road and uncertain as to where it led, without a house,
fence or sign of human habitation in sight, I have been startled by the
weird, doleful howlings of the coyote or the melancholy hootings of the
prairie owl. At such times there came over me an undefined feeling of
loneliness, not real fear, but perhaps it was that instinctive dread of
darkness and danger at night that has come down to us from savage and
superstitious ancestors of past ages. Be that as it may, the sight of a
candle or lamp gleaming across the prairie, from some settler's window,
had a most welcome and cheering effect. Even the barking of a dog or
the noise of domestic fowls, or any sound indicating the proximity of
human beings tended to enliven the gloom and make home seem nearer.

Thirty or forty years ago we never dreamed that we should ever drive
over the country in an automobile. We considered ourselves pretty "well
fixed" when we had a good top buggy and a nimble team with which we
could make eight or nine miles an hour. In the fine weather of spring
and early summer, if there happened to be no need of special haste, it
was often a real pleasure to drive out through the country. When the
air was redolent with the perfume of flowers and growing vegetation, or
sweet with the perfume of new mown hay, the blue sky above, the distant
pine-covered mountains, the rolling, grass-covered hills and prairies,
all formed a combination well calculated to exhilarate and give delight.

But night visits in the winter time, during cold, stormy weather, were
altogether different, when, with darkness there was snow and mud, or
strong wind and hard freezing, and the physician had to plod his way
slowly along, sitting chilled through and through, feet almost frozen,
hands and fingers so benumbed they could hardly clasp the lines--no
play of the imagination could make it seem a pleasure trip. It was far
worse, however, when there were added to these conditions the feelings
and emotions caused by the consciousness that off in a little pioneer
cabin on the prairie, or in some gulch, or up in the mountains, there
was a patient that was lying at the point of death, with wild delirium
or low muttering and stupid mental wandering, or some woman shrieking
in agony and praying to God to send her relief from the suffering
she was enduring to give life to another, while friends distracted
were waiting and wishing the doctor would come. Spurred by these
reflections I have often plied the whip and automatically pushed on
the lines, to help my horses, my mind running ahead to my destination.
As disagreeable as were the outward circumstances, often the state of
mental torture and suspense were worse than the physical discomfort.

In those days, the physician had ample time to think while on his long
trips in the country, particularly when patients presented no serious
symptoms, or when returning home. Often on such occasions, I have
looked up at the starlit sky and the myriads of scintillating worlds
therein, and thought of the vastness of the universe, and of the aeons
of ages since all these blazing worlds were set floating in space. Then
came the thought of the immensity of the distance to even the nearest
fixed star, and of the vast stretches of the illimitable universe
beyond; and of the worlds in the outer confines of space beyond the
Milky Way or the Pleiades, whose light took thousands of years to
reach the earth. Then would come the thought, "Why all this stupendous
illimitable, incomprehensible aggregation of worlds?" "Are any of
the planets of these glowing orbs inhabited by intelligent beings?"
"If not, why do they exist at all?" Thus my thoughts have run on and
on, until cold, darkness, discomfort and almost everything else have
been forgotten and lost in my contemplations, and time passed almost
unperceived as I traversed the miles in solitude. At other times my
thoughts would run upon the problems of human existence, the connection
between mind and matter, the mystery of life and death.

Traveling on a moonlit night along the breaks of Snake River, Tucanon
or Alpowa, watching the silvery lights and dark shadow along the
escarpments and basaltic walls that border these streams and make
such grand and beautiful scenery, I pictured to my mind this country
when fresh from the hands of the fire gods, a seething, sizzling mass
of molten basalt. Then I thought of the long years of its cooling,
the gradual crumbling of the rock and the formation of the soil,
the appearance of plant and animal life, and of the tropical and
semi-tropical climate that must have existed; and of the wonderful
extinct animals that once inhabited our hills and valleys; of the hairy
mammoth, the three-toed horse and the other strange beings that roamed
through the forests that one time were here.

As I looked far down into the wonderful gorge through which Snake River
flows, and contemplated the many centuries it must have taken to cut
the great channel, it gave me a more comprehensive conception of how
the author of the universe operated in creation.

Back in the days when we drove buggies or rode horseback, we had
time on the road to do a lot of thinking, as well as of freezing and
scorching, or plodding through snow, mud or dust.

A physician trained in thought is sure to thresh out in his mind while
on the road, during the day or night, many knotty problems in the isms,
ologies and pathies of medical practice; and when serious sickness
claims his attention, and is pressing for his best endeavors, he will
search all the treasure houses of his memory for everything that he has
ever read or heard of in relation to similar cases. Often the time was
wearisome, roads were long, and waiting for pay for services was long,
and all this longness tended to make a shortness of the pocket-book.

When in the midst of weary night vigils, or when nearly worn out and
exhausted by loss of sleep, or when chilled to the bone by cold and
exposure, I have thought that if ever any one was justified in taking a
stimulant to "brace up," it is the overworked physician. While I never
took any kind of stimulant or narcotic, I have felt like making some
allowance for the hard driven doctor who occasionally took something to
brace him up and deaden his sensibility to cold and fatigue.

One of the worst combinations a doctor had to meet was a deep snow,
dense fog and unbroken roads. If added to this there was intense cold,
the trip was to be dreaded. One would be about as well off in the
middle of the Pacific Ocean, without a compass, as in such a snow and
fog. Whether one looked up, down or any other direction, the appearance
was all the same--it was one blank, impenetrable, misty-white. If a
man turned around and once missed his bearings, he was lost indeed.
There were instances, those days, where persons were caught out in the
darkness and wandered around all night on a forty-acre tract, utterly
bewildered. One who has been lost in one of those foggy snows will
never forget his sensations and feelings.

Time has wrought many changes since the days of the early settlement of
the country. Places that were reached only with the greatest difficulty
and sometimes with peril, we now drive up to on smooth roads of easy
grades. Where we could scarcely get to a cabin on horseback, one now
drives up with ease in an automobile to a beautiful modern home.

Where it used to take many hours or a whole day to make a visit, the
same distance can now be made in an hour or even in minutes. The
telephone, good roads, automobiles and new discoveries and advances
in medical science, surgery and pharmacy, have revolutionized medical
practice.

Riding out today, over on Snake River, out in the Deadman country, up
on the Pataha Prairie, up to Peola or the Blue Mountains, over on the
Tucanon or toward Lewiston or Dayton, one still sees here and there the
reminders of "old times" and "old timers." Here are the relics of old
cabins, where the pioneers first had their homes.

Memory goes back to a desperate case of typhoid fever here, or of
pneumonia or other disease over there. There come up memory pictures
of scenes of anxiety, suffering and suspense and then of recovery, or
possibly death.

Over yonder stood the home of an early pioneer. In that house was born
a son or daughter that today is leading in business and society; the
father and mother are sleeping in one of the cemeteries of the county.
A few are still lingering, old and feeble, waiting for the final
summons. Back in the mountains, where today we go gliding along in
automobiles on summer outings, there are still seen the fading sites of
the sawmills, pole and shingle mills that were operated there in early
days. These remind me of broken legs and arms, of wounds and accidents,
and of serious sickness that happened between thirty and forty years
ago. The places where the old mills stood are marked by little
clearings now overgrown with weeds and brush, with here and there a few
slabs, dim in piles of sawdust, and scattering stumps. The old mills
are gone and the people who owned and ran them have died or left the
country.

As I write these hasty reminiscences, I wonder if thirty-five or forty
years from now will bring as many changes to this country as the same
length of time in the past.

What wonderful improvements the science of medicine the past forty
years have brought! What additions to our knowledge of the cause of
disease, of disease germs and how to combat them, of serums, opsonins,
vaccines and of physiological chemistry! What advances have been made
in the knowledge of antiseptics and preventative medicine, and what
great strides in surgery and the treatment of wounds! What a vast field
has been opened up in the study of internal secretions of the ductless
glands and their relation to the well-being of the human physical
system.

What will be the state of medical science forty or fifty years from
now? Will physicians make their country calls in airplanes, soaring
over hills and plains high in air? In pioneer days anxious ears
strained for the sound of the gallop of the doctor's horse; later
the patter of horses' feet and the rattle of the buggy denoted the
approach of medical aid; now the gleam of the motor car lights announce
that relief is near. A few years hence, mayhap, anxious ones awaiting
awaiting the doctor will be made aware of his coming by the whir of
the airplane motor and anxiously view his approach through powerful
binoculars. Even now the most rosy dreams of our trail-making fathers
have been far surpassed. That vast expanse of sage and sand that formed
a large part of the Columbia River Valley will have become the garden
and granary of Northwestern America.

But the beautiful homes, fertile fields, green expanses of alfalfa,
the fruit-laden orchards, the cities and towns, schools, churches,
factories, mills and marts of industry, will, to those who never saw
the country in its original wildness, have little to tell of the toils,
struggles, waiting and weariness that were the cost of this marvelous
transformation.



PART III

PERIOD OF COUNTY DIVISIONS



CHAPTER I

POLITICAL HISTORY OF WALLA WALLA COUNTY SINCE COUNTY DIVISION


Beginning in 1876 with reduced area, but with rapid growth and with
encouraging outlook in all lines, Walla Walla County entered upon what
might be described as the third stage of her growth, that from county
division to statehood in 1889.

It is of interest to note a few statistics of the period of transition.
In 1870 the population of the Old County was 5,102. In 1877, the
reduced county showed a population, according to the assessor, of
5,056, while Columbia County had, by the assessor's report of the same
year, 3,618. By the report of 1875, still the Old County, the assessed
valuation was $2,792,065. In 1876, the valuation of the reduced county
was $2,296,870. There were reported at the same time 5,281 horses, 239
mules, 11,147 cattle, 13,233 sheep, 4,000 hogs, 1,774 acres of timothy,
700 acres of corn, 2,600 acres of oats, 6,000 acres of barley, 21,000
acres of wheat and 700 acres of fruit trees.


STATEHOOD AND CONSTITUTION

The political subject of greatest general interest was Statehood and a
Constitutional Convention leading thereto. The project of annexation to
Oregon was by no means dead. Senator Mitchell of Oregon continued the
efforts made by Senator Kelly. A considerable local interest, supported
by the _Walla Walla Union_, and its able editor, P. B. Johnson, still
urged annexation. One favorite idea, which has taken shape from time to
time since, was to join Eastern Oregon with Northern Idaho into a new
state. In the Congressional session of 1877-8, Delegate Orange Jacobs
requested a bill for introducing Washington to statehood with the three
counties of Northern Idaho added. But no action was taken by Congress.
In spite of that the Territorial Legislature in November, 1877, passed
a law providing for an election to be held April 9, 1878, to choose
delegates to a convention to meet at Walla Walla on June 11, 1878. Up
to that time, as we have seen, repeated attempts to secure a vote for
a convention had failed in Walla Walla. The act of the Legislature
provided that the convention should consist of fifteen members from
Washington, with one, having no vote, from Idaho.

In pursuance of the announcement the election was duly held, though
with the scanty vote of 4,223, not half the number of voters in the
territory. The convention duly met at Science Hall in Walla Walla, and
W. A. George of that city, one of the leading lawyers as well as one
of the most unique characters of the Inland Empire, acted as temporary
chairman.

The permanent organization consisted of A. S. Abernethy of Cowlitz
County as president, W. B. Daniels and William Clark as secretaries,
and H. D. Cook as sergeant-at-arms. After a lengthy session the
convention submitted a constitution which was voted upon at the next
general election in November. Though a considerable majority was
secured, exactly two-thirds, the total vote of 9,693 fell considerably
short of the vote cast for delegate, and it seems to have been
generally interpreted in Congress as evidence that the people of the
territory did not consider the time ripe for statehood. The whole
matter was, therefore, indefinitely postponed.

That same election of 1878 was notable for Walla Walla in several
respects. Two citizens of the city were rival nominees for the position
of congressional delegate, Thomas H. Brents for the republicans and
Nathan T. Caton for the democrats. It was the first election in which
the republicans won in Walla Walla County. Mr. Brents had a majority of
146 in the county and 1,301 in the territory. The political tide had
turned and from that time to the present the republicans have been,
on any ordinary issue, overwhelmingly in the majority. In 1880 Mr.
Brents was again chosen delegate, this time against Thomas Burke, the
democratic candidate, and by a majority of 1,797. During the first term
Mr. Brent endeavored to induce Congress to confer statehood upon the
territory but unavailingly. Still again in 1882 Mr. Brents was honored,
and with him also Walla Walla, and in fact the territory honored itself
in the re-election of one of its most useful and popular citizens,
by another term as delegate. During the six years of Mr. Brents'
incumbency the territory was making tremendous strides. The projection
of the Northern Pacific and Oregon Short Line Railroads, the sale of
Doctor Baker's railroad in 1879 to the O. R. & N. R. R., the Villard
coup d'état in 1883 made the decade of the '80s the great building
period for the territory and for Walla Walla. It was evident that
there was abundant justification for the creation of a new state. Mr.
Brents kept the subject alive in Congress up to and through 1885, when
his term expired, and he was succeeded by one of the most brilliant
and popular politicians and lawyers ever in the territory, C. S.
Voorhees. Mr. Voorhees, son of the "Tall Sycamore of the Wabash," was,
of course, a democrat, and though at that time quite young, exercised
a large influence both at home and at the capital. He was twice chosen
Delegate, in 1884 and 1886. In 1888 the office returned to Walla Walla
and to the republican party. In that year John B. Allen began his
distinguished career at the national capital. He had held the position
of United States attorney, succeeding Judge Wingard, from 1875 to 1886.
In the latter year he removed to Walla Walla, and his career from that
time on was a part of the history of his home city and of the territory
and state.

As we have seen, E. P. Ferry was governor at the time of county
division in 1875. He held the office until 1880. W. A. Newell was
the next governor holding the position for four years, when Watson
C. Squire received the appointment, retaining the place till 1887.
Following came Eugene Semple for two years. The period of statehood was
now near at hand, and it may well be a matter of pride and interest
to Walla Walla that by appointment of President Harrison the last
territorial governor was a citizen of this place, Miles C. Moore.
Governor Moore had left his home in Ohio in 1860 hardly more than a
boy, and after some adventures in Montana, had reached Walla Walla in
1862, to become from that time onward one of the most eminent citizens
as well as one of the foremost business men of the community and of
the Northwest. It was recognized throughout the territory that the
appointment was exceedingly fitting from the standpoint of capacity to
fulfill the duties of the office, and was also a suitable compliment to
the historic city and mother county of Walla Walla. Although Governor
Moore's term was short, it possessed the unique interest of covering
the transition from territoryhood to statehood of what in general
judgment is destined to become one of the most important commonwealths
of the Union, and hence it cannot in the nature of the case be
duplicated by any other term.

[Illustration: HOMES ON PALOUSE STREET, WALLA WALLA]

[Illustration: VIEW OF WALLA WALLA HOMES ON BIRCH STREET]


ENABLING ACT

The Enabling Act of Congress, approved by President Harrison on
February 22, 1889, had the unique distinction of being the only
one providing for the erection of four states at once. These were
Washington, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Montana. As indicating the
fundamental basis on which the four states rest, the reader will be
interested in the following provisions of the Enabling Act:

"And said conventions shall provide by ordinances irrevocable without
the consent of the United States and the people of said states:

_First._ That perfect toleration of religious sentiment shall be
secured, and that no inhabitant of said states shall ever be molested
in person or property on account of his or her mode of religious
worship.

_Second._ That the people inhabiting said proposed states do agree
and declare that they forever disclaim all right and title to the
unappropriated public lands lying within the boundaries thereof, and
to all lands lying within said limits owned or held by any Indian
or Indian tribes; and that until the title thereto shall have been
extinguished by the United States, the same shall be and remain subject
to the disposition of the United States, and said Indian lands shall
remain under the absolute jurisdiction and control of the congress of
the United States; that the lands belonging to citizens of the United
States residing without the said state shall never be taxed at a higher
rate than the lands belonging to residents thereof; that no taxes shall
be imposed by the states on lands or property therein belonging to
or which may hereafter be purchased by the United States or reserved
for its use. But nothing herein, or in the ordinances herein provided
for, shall preclude the said states from taxing as other lands are
taxed, any lands owned or held by any Indian who has severed his tribal
relations, and has obtained from the United States or from any person a
title thereto by patent or other grant, save and except such lands as
have been or may be granted to any Indian or Indians under any act of
Congress containing a provision exempting the lands thus granted from
taxation; but said ordinances shall provide that all such lands shall
be exempt from taxation by said states so long and to such extent as
such act of Congress may prescribe.

_Third._ That the debts and liabilities of said territories shall be
assumed and paid by said states respectively.

_Fourth._ That provision shall be made for the establishment and
maintenance of systems of public schools, which shall be open to all
the children of said states and free from sectarian control."

In accordance with the Enabling Act, the Constitutional Convention of
Washington Territory met at Olympia, July 4, 1889. The constitution
prepared during the fifty-day session was ratified at the polls on
October 1, 1889. Of the seventy-five members of the convention three
represented Walla Walla, two were from Dayton, and one from Pomeroy.
It may be safely said that every one was a man in whose knowledge
and judgment his fellow citizens could repose confidence, while the
personal character of each was such as to secure the hearty affection
of his community. The entire convention, in fact, was a body of whom
the state has always been proud, and being to a peculiar degree the
result of popular choice the election of such men is a convincing
evidence of the worth and capacity of democratic institutions. Not the
least of the counties to be congratulated on their choices were those
composing Old Walla Walla.

The members of the convention from Walla Walla included two of the
foremost lawyers of the territory, Judge B. L. Sharpstein, whose long
life left a legacy of good deeds to his city and state and whose
foremost position at the bar has been maintained by his sons, and
D. J. Crowley, one of the most brilliant lawyers ever known in the
state, whose residence in Walla Walla was short, though his influence
was great. His early death was a great loss to the state. Dr. N. G.
Blalock, the "Good Doctor," honored and loved perhaps beyond any other
man in the history of Walla Walla, was the other representative of his
county. It was a source of just pride to Doctor Blalock that he was the
author of the provision forbidding the sale of school land at less than
ten dollars per acre. By this and other allied provisions the school
lands have been handled in such a way as to provide a great sum for
the actual use of the children of the commonwealth, instead of being
shamefully squandered by culpable officials, as has been the experience
in some states, notably our sister state of Oregon. Judge Sharpstein
and Doctor Blalock were democrats in political faith, but neither was a
partisan. Mr. Crowley was a republican.

S. G. Cosgrove of Pomeroy was the representative of Garfield and
Asotin counties, one of the best of men and one of the ablest lawyers
of his section, later elected governor of the state, but dying almost
immediately after his inauguration, to the profound regret of men of
all parties. He was an independent republican in politics. He had been
a college classmate and intimate friend of Vice President Fairbanks.
The delegates from Columbia County were M. M. Godman, a democrat,
one of the leading lawyers and foremost politicians of the state,
subsequently a member of the Public Service Commission of the State,
and R. F. Sturdevant, a republican, also a lawyer of high ability and
well proven integrity, afterwards the superior judge of this district.

By the twenty-second article of the Constitution the legislature was
so apportioned that Asotin and Garfield counties constituted the Sixth
Senatorial District entitled to one senator and each was entitled
to one representative in the House; Columbia became the Seventh
District, having one senator and two representatives; and Walla Walla
composed the Eighth District with two senators, and in the House three
representatives.

The first legislature of 1889-90 had in its senate, from our four
counties, C. G. Austin of Pomeroy for Garfield and Asotin; H. H.
Wolfe of Dayton for Columbia; Platt Preston of Waitsburg and George
T. Thompson of Walla Walla for Walla Walla. The representatives were:
William Farrish of Asotin City for Asotin and Garfield; H. B. Day of
Dayton and A. H. Weatherford of Dayton for Columbia; and J. M. Cornwell
of Dixie, J. C. Painter of Estes, and Z. K. Straight of Walla Walla for
Walla Walla County.

That first legislature enacted that the senate should henceforth
consist of thirty-four members, and the house of seventy-eight; that
the counties of Garfield, Asotin, and Columbia should constitute the
Eighth Senatorial District, entitled to one senator; that the counties
of Franklin and Adams, and the Third and Fourth wards of the City of
Walla Walla, and the precincts of Wallula, Frenchtown, Lower Touchet,
Prescott, Hadley, Eureka, Hill and Baker, of Walla Walla County, should
constitute the Ninth Senatorial District, entitled to one senator;
that the First and Second wards of the City of Walla Walla, and the
precincts of Waitsburg, Coppei, Dry Creek, Russell Creek, Mill Creek,
Washington, and Small, should compose the Tenth Senatorial District,
entitled to one senator; that Asotin should constitute the Eighth
Representative District with one representative; Garfield, the Ninth
with one representative; Columbia, the Tenth with one; the First and
Second wards of Walla Walla City, with the precincts of Waitsburg,
Coppei, Dry Creek, Russell Creek, Mill Creek, Washington, and Small,
the Eleventh District with one representative; and the Third and Fourth
wards of Walla Walla City, with the precincts of Wallula, Frenchtown,
Lower Touchet, Prescott, Hadley, Eureka, Hill, and Baker, the Twelfth
District with one representative.

Such was the induction of the State of Washington into the Union, and
the representation of our four counties in the first Legislature. We
shall give later the delegations to subsequent legislatures, with the
lists of county officers.

Politics in the new state bubbled vigorously at once and during the
twenty-seven years of statehood Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield, and
Asotin have played their full parts in state affairs. To enter into an
extended account of state politics is beyond the scope of this work. We
can speak of it only at its points of contact with our county history.

In the first election of United States senators November, 1889, John
B. Allen of Walla Walla, and Watson C. Squire were chosen, the former
drawing the four-year term, which entitled him to the place until
March 4, 1893. The senatorial election of 1893 was one of the most
extraordinary in the history of such elections and involved a number
of distinguished men in this section of the state. The fundamental
struggle was between the adherents of John B. Allen of Walla Walla
and George Turner of Spokane, both republicans. It became a factional
fight of the bitterest type. One hundred and one ballots were taken
unavailingly and then the Legislature adjourned sine die, with no
choice. The last ballot records the names of two citizens of Walla
Walla, one of Dayton, and one now, although not then, a citizen of
Walla Walla. The Walla Walla candidates were John B. Allen with fifty
votes, lacking seven of a majority, and Judge B. L. Sharpstein. The
Dayton name was that of J. C. Van Patten, and the name of the present
citizen of Walla Walla was Henry Drum, now warden of the penitentiary.

Upon the failure of the Legislature to elect, Governor McGraw appointed
John B. Allen to fill the vacancy. Proceeding to Washington Mr. Allen
presented his case to the Senate, but in that case, as in others, that
body decided and very properly, that the state must go unrepresented
until the Legislature could perform its constitutional duties. It
is safe to say that that experience, with similar ones in other
states, was one of the great influences in causing the amendment to
the Constitution providing for direct election by the people. The
spectacle of the Legislature neglecting its law-making functions to
wrangle over the opposing ambitions of senatorial aspirants, fatally
impaired the confidence of the people in the wisdom of the old method
of choice. That amendment may be regarded also as one of the striking
manifestations of American political evolution, in which there has
come a recognition of the danger of legislative bodies, chosen by
popular suffrage, becoming the tools of personal or corporate interests
instead of the servants of the people who chose them, and by which,
in consequence, the evils of popular government are being remedied by
being made more popular.

Two other citizens of Walla Walla have represented the state in the
National Congress, and several others have been willing to. These are
Levi Ankeny and Miles Poindexter, the latter having begun his political
career at Walla Walla, but having removed to Spokane and become
superior judge there before entering upon his term as congressman in
1909 and senator in 1911, to be re-elected in 1916. Senator Ankeny,
one of the most prominent of the permanent citizens of Walla Walla,
and one of the greatest bankers in the Northwest, being president of
eleven banks in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, was elected senator in
1903 and served until 1909. He was deservedly popular throughout the
section in which he lived, for his broad and generous business methods
as well as for his general character. During the hard times of the
'90s, in which many of the farmers of Walla Walla and Columbia counties
were next door to ruin, it is remembered that Mr. Ankeny could have
acquired by foreclosure of his immense loans lands whose value is now
tenfold the amount of the mortgages of those hard times. But by aiding
and encouraging the struggling farmers of that time and neglecting
the advantage which he himself might have gained he kept them upon
their feet and thus conferred an immeasurable benefit not only upon
individuals, but upon the country as a whole. During Mr. Ankeny's term
in the Senate extensive improvements were made in the buildings at Fort
Walla Walla.


THE PENITENTIARY

Another of the leading political connections of Walla Walla County
with the state was the penitentiary. This institution was removed from
Seatco to Walla Walla in 1887. The county commissioners at that time
were F. W. Paine, Francis Lowden, and Platt Preston. These men, and
particularly Mr. Paine, felt that not only from the standpoint of the
state, for desirability of location and economy of subsistence, but
from the fact that constructive works might be operated which could be
of benefit to the farmers of the region, this change of place would
be wise. The most distinctive features of labor have been the brick
yards, which did a very large and profitable work for many years and
were discontinued in 1900 to allow the management to put the main
force upon the jute mills, for the making of grain bags and rugs and
other fabrics. This system of constructive labor by the inmates of the
penitentiary is to be attributed largely to the intelligent business
conceptions as well as philanthropic interest in the men by Mr. F.
W. Paine and Mr. W. K. Kirkman. They had formed the impression that
for the sake of health of mind and body in the prisoners systematic
labor was a necessity, and also that the products of that labor might
go for to lighten the burdens of tax payers. Their theory has been
triumphantly vindicated by the history of the penitentiary. Not at all
times in the thirty years of its existence has the institution been
conducted in the interest either of reclamation of criminals or of
saving expense to the state. As in all such cases there have been times
when the main aims were political rather than penal or economic, and
there have been still more times when the other party said they were,
even when governors, boards, and wardens were doing their best in the
public interest.

[Illustration:

  Warden's Residence
  Work Shops
  Administration Building
  The Hospital
  The Jute Mill

BUILDINGS OF THE WASHINGTON STATE PENITENTIARY]

The wardens in order of service, several of them being citizens of
Walla Walla, and about an equal number coming from other parts of the
state, have been John Justice, F. L. Edmiston, John McClees, J. H.
Coblentz, Thomas Mosgrove, J. B. Catron, Frank Kees, F. A. Dryden,
Charles Reed and Henry Drum.

There have been a number of tragic events in the history of the
penitentiary of which perhaps the most thrilling was the attempted
escape of a large number of prisoners during the wardenship of Mr.
McClees in 1891. At that time it was the practice to run a train of
flat cars to Dixie to get clay for the brick yards. Two desperadoes
conceived the idea of capturing a train as it went through the gate,
loading a number of prisoners on it, running to Dixie, there turning
loose on the farms, getting horses and provisions, and striking out
for the mountains. It was a bold, well-conceived project and came
near execution. A number of prisoners were "in" on the scheme, and at
the given signal, several who were experienced engineers and firemen
performed their part of the plot by seizing the locomotive. At the same
instant the two ringleaders by a bold dash seized Warden McClees and
walked him toward the gate, commanding him on pain of instant death to
order the opening of the gates and the clearing of the track for the
passage of the train. The warden preserved most extraordinary nerve,
even while the two ruffians were holding over his head knives which
they had snatched up from the kitchen. In the instant he called out to
Phil Berry, one of the guards on the wall, whom he knew to be a dead
shot, "Be cool, Phil, take your time!" Even while the two knives were
in the very act to strike, Berry's rifle cracked twice in succession,
and the leaders fell on either side of the warden, each with a bullet
in his heart. About the quickest work of the kind ever known here or
elsewhere. The fall of the leaders disconcerted the whole program, and
after a few moments of intense excitement the guards got control of the
situation, and the affair was all over.

Another of the desperate events was the case of Warden J. H. Coblentz.
He was an appointee of Governor McGraw and was the most conspicuous
example of a purely political appointment. After a slashing career in
which he endeavored to dictate the politics of the county purely in
the interest of himself and his clique he found himself on the verge
of exposure for irregularities in his accounts. Governor McGraw with
other state officers came to Walla Walla to investigate, and while they
were in the penitentiary office conducting the investigation, Coblentz,
seeing that conviction was inevitable and knowing that if he himself
became an innate of the penitentiary along with the prisoners whom he
had abused, his life was not worth a nickel, anticipated the verdict,
and snatching up a pistol, put it to his head and fell dead in the
presence of the governor.

It is no disparagement to the earlier wardens--for the conditions
probably did not make earlier action feasible--to say that Mr. Reed
and Mr. Drum have represented a new order in the history of the
penitentiary. Both have been students of criminology, are thinkers
and philanthropists, and have inaugurated advanced methods which have
placed the Washington penitentiary in the front rank of well conducted
institutions of its class.


LOCAL POLITICAL HISTORY

Turning now from state connections to matters local to Walla Walla
County it may be said that there was during the period of 1875-89
a marked tendency to that political conservatism which is apt to
characterize a growing agricultural community. Walla Walla, like
Portland, has been since its first era more of the Eastern type
than of the characteristically Western. The general tendency has
been, in politics as in business, to play safe and not make reckless
experiments. This attitude is denominated wisdom or moss-backism
by different parties very much according to their viewpoint, and
especially whether they are "in" or "out." The great "isms" which swept
the country in the '80s and '90s, populistic movements as represented
by Bryan and other great leaders, in general received the cold shoulder
from Walla Walla. That statement should be qualified to considerable
degree, however, by the fact that the combination of democrats,
populists, and silver republicans, carried several elections, and that
even the republican leaders very largely accepted the doctrine of "16
to 1."

There were also, even in conservative Walla Walla, many enthusiastic
followers of Governor John R. Rogers, "Wheat Chart" Jones, Judge
Ronald, and that most brilliant and spectacular of all the politicians
of the period, the "pink-whiskered" James Hamilton Lewis, whose
great abilities, even under the outward guise of certain "airs" and
"fopperies," have been conceded by his critics and detractors down
to the present date of his distinguished service as senator from
Illinois. It is remembered, however, by men of both parties that at
a certain historic joint debate in Walla Walla on October 22, 1898,
even the brilliant "Dude Lewis" was somewhat seriously "beaten up,"
metaphorically speaking, by Wesley L. Jones, and that the former
somewhat lost prestige as a result, and that the latter was launched by
that event upon what has proved to be a continuous service in Congress
as representative and senator from 1899 to the present date.

A few figures of elections during that period will be found of
interest. In 1889, Ferry, republican candidate for governor, the first
under statehood, received in Walla Walla County 1,433 votes to 1,186
for Semple, the democratic candidate. In 1892 McGraw, republican, had
1,211 to 1,322 for Snively, democrat. There were a few votes for Greene
and Young in the latter election, so that the total vote in 1892 was
2,897, as against 2,619 in 1889.

The presidential vote of 1892 shows that Walla Walla County cast
for the highest republican elector 1,362 ballots and for the
highest democratic 1,313, with a few for the people's party and
prohibitionists, a total of 2,889. In the presidential election of
1896, the republican vote was 1,596, the people's party (fusion of
democrats, populists and silver republicans) had a vote of 1,652, while
there were a few prohibitionists and gold democrats, a total of 3,349.
Comparing these figures with those of 1908 and 1916, the following
interesting results appear: in 1908. Bryan, 1,660; Taft, 2,843; a few
for others, so that the total was 4,676; for governor, Pattison,
democrat, 1,881; Cosgrove, republican, 2,670--total vote, 4,551. In
1916, results were: Wilson, 4,421; Hughes, 4,403; total, 8,824; for
senator, Turner, democrat, 3,328; Poindexter, progressive republican,
5,454; for governor, Lister, democrat, 4,991; McBride, republican,
4,040. The great increase in the last election is due to woman suffrage.

Analysis of the above and of other election returns plainly signifies
that while Walla Walla County may in general terms be considered
conservative, there is a healthy balance of parties, and that no
particular group of politicians can count with any certainty on
"delivering the goods." The result of the last election in these
counties of Old Walla Walla, as well as the state at large and indeed
the West as a whole, may be considered as a demonstration of the
progressive and independent spirit of this new country, which resents
"bossism" and "back-room" politics and moves ever steadily toward
genuine democratic government. While on general views of historic
questions, particularly those concerned with slavery and secession and
those bearing upon nationalism as against state rights, these sections
are overwhelmingly republican, after the historic views of Clay,
Webster, Lincoln, Seward, Blaine, and other national leaders, yet upon
the newer issues of economics, government control of railroads and
other public utilities, and foreign relations, they may be counted on
to do their own thinking and to make decisions very disconcerting to
the old-time bosses.

In connection with the figures which we gave it is interesting as a
side light on population and the shiftings of growth to give here
certain figures of comparison between Old Walla Walla and other parts
of the state in early days and now. In 1880 the largest urban center
was Walla Walla, with 3,588 people, Seattle was next with 3,533.
Spokane had 350. In 1890, Walla Walla had 4,709; Seattle 42,837;
Spokane, 19,922. In 1910, Walla Walla, 19,364; Seattle, 237,194;
Spokane, 104,402. In 1917, estimated: Walla Walla, 25,000; Seattle,
330,843; Spokane, 125,000. The enormous increase in population upon
the Sound as commercial center, and at Spokane as a prospective
manufacturing and an actual railroad center, is simply an indication
of the natural tendencies of trade and industry characteristic of the
world's growth. A purely agricultural region cannot expect to keep pace
with those marked out by nature for commerce and manufacturing.

It is, however, an interesting point in the history of Walla Walla
whether, if it had "taken the tide at the flood," it might not have
maintained its leadership as an inland city. It is a favorite idea
with some of the best observers among the old-timers that Walla
Walla, instead of Spokane, might have been the manufacturing and
transportation center for the Inland Empire, if certain conditions
had been fulfilled. The first of those was location. The true spot
for the large city in the Walla Walla Valley was where Touchet is now
located. While Walla Walla is an admirable location for a large town,
the Touchet region is better. The great point, however, is elevation.
Walla Walla is 920 feet above sea level, Touchet is 447. Walla Walla is
thirty-two miles from the Columbia River, Touchet is sixteen. It would
have been quite feasible to make a canal from Touchet to the Columbia.
That question was agitated and if the town had been there instead of on
Mill Creek, it would no doubt have been made. If that had been done, or
even if not, the railroad and wagon haul to Touchet was so much easier
and shorter, as to represent a great saving in cost of transportation.
If that condition of location had been realized, and if inducements
had been offered to the Northern Pacific Railroad builders, it is
asserted by those who know that that railroad would have preferred
Walla Walla (or Touchet) as its chief point in interior Washington.
The difference between 920 and 447 feet would have been determinative
of grades. The Northern Pacific officials were really desirous--so
it is claimed--to take a more southern route, following the Mullan
Road through the Bitter Roots, then down the Clearwater and the Snake
to a point on the Lower Walla Walla. Finding no local encouragement
or inducements, they finally undertook the more northern route, and
Spokane is the result. However, all that is matter of conjecture,
rather than demonstration.


WOMAN SUFFRAGE AND PROHIBITION

One of the questions of Walla Webs politics, as of the rest of the
state and indeed of the country, was woman suffrage. As the logical
evolution of democracy that view of suffrage appealed to the Western
man, and the conventional objections had little weight with him.
Pressure was brought from all sides upon the legislative delegations to
submit the proposition to a popular election--and when that occurred in
1908, it carried in the county and the state by a heavy vote. It has
seemed to the voters of both sexes so natural a condition that they can
now hardly conceive of any other. The woman suffrage amendment came
with a remarkable quietude and almost as a matter of course.

Far more vigorously contested was the question of prohibition. For many
years Waitsburg and almost all the farming country had been strongly
in favor of prohibition. Waitsburg had under the local option law
excluded saloons. But the saloon influences were strong in Walla Walla
City, and underground agencies of sundry kinds had maintained a tight
grip on municipal politics. At various times somewhat spasmodic waves
of moral reform swept over the city, as in the organization of the
Municipal League in 1896 and in other similar movements at later times.
But in general both city and county politics, as in most parts of the
United States, were seemingly dominated by the liquor interests. Yet
all through those years there was in progress one of those elemental
popular movements going down to the very foundations of society which
when finally directed toward a definite end become irresistible. Moral,
economic, sanitary, educational, religious, domestic influences,
were for a generation moulding the opinions of an army of voters and
the combined effect began to be manifest from about 1900 onward to a
degree that even the blindest could not fail to see. In 1908, 1910
and 1912, a determined and growing effort by the farmers who had seen
the economic loss through laborers and even their own sons going to
town and carousing and so losing a day or more every week, started a
corresponding movement in town. At first not successful, the campaign
kept gaining. Councilmen in the city and commissioners in the county
were chosen more and more in the direction of reform. The churches,
Young Men's Christian Association, schools, women's organizations,
Salvation Army, Good Templars, and especially the Anti-Saloon League,
each contributed its push. A city election under the local option law
occurred in 1912. The conservative business interests opposed the
proposition and even imported distinguished speakers from the East,
particularly from the beer center, Milwaukee, and on election day the
liquor traffic (styled "Personal Liberty") was still in the saddle.
But it was clear that the vote of the city, combined with that of the
county, would come back with greater strength in another election, and
some of the more far-seeing liquor dealers began arrangements to enter
other business. In the great historical election of 1914, the State of
Washington secured a definite prohibition law by referendum, though
with the "permit" system of personal importation of limited amounts of
liquor. Walla Walla County was one of the strong counties in support
of the law, being surpassed only by Yakima and Whitman in majority for
the measure. It was to a degree an "East Side" victory, for the East
Side gave over 25,000 affirmative while the West Side, due to the heavy
negative vote of Seattle, gave 10,000 negative. None who was in Walla
Walla during the strenuous campaign in October of 1914 will forget the
powerful addresses in favor of the law by H. S. Blandford, one of the
most eloquent speakers known in this section. His thrilling appeals
and incontrovertible arguments brought many voters to the standard of
prohibition. His lamented death in 1915 robbed the Walla Walla bar of
one of its brightest ornaments.

[Illustration: HOME OF B. P. O. ELKS NO. 287, WALLA WALLA]

Old John Barleycorn died hard, and in the election of 1916 the battle
was fought over again by a vote on several initiative and referendum
measures, as a result of which the "permit" system was replaced by a
"bone-dry" law, and the liquor propositions were buried so deep that no
resurrection now seems possible. In Walla Walla the gloomy predictions
as to unused buildings and ruined business and overwhelming taxation
have failed of fulfillment to a degree to make them absurd.

The most prominent questions of local improvement during recent years
in Walla Walla County have been the new courthouse and the paving
and other improvement of roads. Several elections of commissioners
turned upon the first question. There were three propositions ardently
advocated from 1910 to 1914. One was to repair the old building,
though it had been condemned by experts; another was to make a costly
structure at a maximum outlay of $300,000; the third proposal was for
a substantial, but plain and modest building, of approximately a cost
of $150,000. The latter proposition commended itself to the general
judgment, and the commissioners of 1912 and 1914, H. A. Reynolds, E. D.
Eldridge, and J. L. Reavis, interpreted their election as a commission
to proceed with such a plan. The result has been realized in one of the
most fitting and dignified and altogether attractive, though not showy,
courthouses in the state, a just pride to the county and an object of
admiration to visitors.

Of the road question it may only be said that it is in a formative
state. Much money has been wasted in both city and country by
ill-constructed pavements, and it can only be hoped that the next
decade will see more definite progress than has characterized the
experimental stage of the last.

We have given in a preceding chapter the tabulation of county officials
to the time of county division in 1875. We now present the legislative
delegations and the chief county officials from that date to the
present:


LEGISLATIVE DELEGATIONS AND THE CHIEF COUNTY OFFICIALS

In 1876, Walla Walla County was represented in the Legislature by
Daniel Stewart, councilman, and W. T. Barnes, William Martin, A. J.
Gregory, and H. A. Vansycle, representatives. The county officers
were: T. J. Anders, attorney; G. F. Thomas, sheriff; T. P. Page,
auditor; W. O'Donnell, treasurer; Samuel Jacobs, assessor; P. Zahner,
surveyor; A. W. Sweeney, superintendent of schools; L. H. Goodwin,
coroner; D. J. Storms, James Braden, and Dion Keefe, commissioners.

The election in 1878 resulted thus: J. H. Day, councilman; J. A.
Taylor, D. J. Storms, J. M. Dewar, and M. F. Colt, representatives; R.
F. Sturdevant, attorney; R. Guichard, probate judge; J. B. Thompson,
sheriff; W. C. Painter, auditor; J. F. Boyer, treasurer; S. Jacobs,
assessor; P. Zahner, surveyor; C. W. Wheeler, superintendent of
schools; J. M. Boyd, coroner; M. B. Ward, Amos Cummings and S. H.
Erwin, commissioners.

In 1880, election results were these: B. L. Sharpstein, councilman;
Jacob Hoover, joint councilman; R. R. Rees and W. G. Preston,
representatives; J. M. Cornwell, joint representative; R. Guichard,
probate judge; G. T. Thompson, attorney; W. C. Painter, auditor; J.
B. Thompson, sheriff; J. F. Boyer, treasurer; S. Jacobs, assessor;
F. H. Loehr, surveyor; C. W. Wheeler, superintendent of schools;
H. G. Mauzey, coroner; M. B. Ward, Amos Cummings and S. H. Erwin,
commissioners; A. S. LeGrow, sheep commissioner. As may be seen from
the above, nearly all the incumbents of 1878 were re-elected for
another term. That policy became common in subsequent elections.

In 1882 we find the following choices: H. H. Hungate, A. G. Lloyd,
and Milton Evans, representatives; G. T. Thompson, attorney; W. C.
Painter, auditor; J. B. Thompson, sheriff; J. F. Boyer, treasurer;
William Harkness, assessor; F. H. Loehr, surveyor; J. W. Brock, school
superintendent; R. Guichard, probate judge; M. B. Ward, Amos Cummings,
and S. H. Erwin, commissioners; W. B. Wells, coroner; A. S. LeGrow,
sheep commissioner.

The choices in 1884 were these: J. F. Brewer, William Fudge, and J. M.
Dewar, representatives; E. K. Hanna, attorney; W. C. Painter, auditor;
A. S. Bowles, sheriff; J. F. Boyer, treasurer; L. H. Bowman, assessor;
J. B. Wilson, surveyor; J. W. Morgan, superintendent of schools;
R. Guichard, probate judge; H. R. Keylor, coroner; Amos Cummings,
W. P. Reser, and W. G. Babcock, commissioners; A. S. LeGrow, sheep
commissioner.

In 1886, results were as follows: Platt Preston and W. M. Clark,
representatives; L. R. Hawley, auditor; A. S. Bowles, sheriff; J. F.
Boyer, treasurer; M. H. Paxton, assessor; J. M. Allen, surveyor; Ellen
Gilliam, superintendent of schools; T. C. Taylor, Joseph Paul, and
Edwin Weary, commissioners; H. R. Keylor, coroner; Timothy Barry, sheep
commissioner.

The election of 1888 brought these results: J. M. Dewar, councilman;
E. L. Powell, W. H. Upton, and L. T. Parker, representatives; T. J.
Anders, attorney; L. R. Hawley, auditor; J. M. McFarland, sheriff; M.
McManamon, Edwin Weary, and J. W. Morgan, commissioners; H. W. Eagan,
probate judge; J. F. Boyer, treasurer; M. H. Paxton, assessor; J. B.
Gehr, school superintendent; L. W. Loehr, surveyor; Y. C. Blalock,
coroner.

In 1889 came entrance to statehood, and of that we have already spoken.
The election of October 1st, of that year provided for the choice of
congressmen, state officers, legislators, judge of Superior Court, and
county clerk. Of the first two we have given the ranks earlier.

The following were chosen members of that first State Legislature:
George T. Thompson and Platt Preston, senators; J. C. Painter, J. M.
Cornwell and Z. K. Straight, representatives.

All the above were republicans.

William H. Upton became superior judge for the district, including
Walla Walla and Franklin counties. E. B. Whitman was chosen county
clerk. Both were republicans. One strange thing was that Walla Walla,
like the other counties of the group, voted against the Constitution.

The year 1890 saw the following members of the Legislature and local
officers chosen: J. L. Sharpstein, dem., and J. C. Painter, rep.,
representatives; H. S. Blandford, dem., attorney; H. W. Eagan, dem.,
clerk; W. B. Hawley, rep., auditor; J. M. McFarland, rep., sheriff; R.
Guichard, dem., treasurer; J. M. Hill, rep., Milton Aldrich, rep., and
Francis Lowden, dem., commissioners; J. B. Gehr, rep., superintendent
of schools; M. H. Paxton, rep., assessor; Y. C. Blalock, rep., coroner;
L. W. Loehr, rep., surveyor.

Of the interesting national and state choices of 1892, we have
already given the figures. The legislative and local results were
these: A. Cameron, rep., Joseph Merchant, rep., and David Miller,
dem., representatives; J. L. Roberts, rep., senator; W. H. Upton,
rep., superior judge; H. W. Eagan, dem., clerk; Miles Poindexter,
dem., attorney; W. B. Hawley, rep., and J. J. Huffman, dem., had a
tie for auditor, and by mutual agreement the office was divided, each
serving as principal one year and as deputy one year; C. C. Gose,
dem., sheriff; H. H. Hungate, dem., treasurer; Edward McDonnell, J.
B. Caldwell, and F. M. Lowden, all democrats, commissioners; E. L.
Brunton, rep., superintendent of schools; T. H. Jessup, dem., assessor;
J. B. Wilson, rep., surveyor; C. B. Stewart, dem., coroner.

As will be seen, that was a democratic year, eleven to seven.

The election of 1894, the "calamity year," reversed conditions, two
democrats, Ellingsworth for sheriff and Nalder for commissioner, being
the only successful democratic candidates. The outcome was thus:
Joseph Merchant and J. W. Morgan, representatives; Mr. Morgan having
but two the lead of Francis Garracht, his democratic competitor; R.
H. Ormsbee, attorney; Le F. A. Shaw, clerk; A. H. Crocker, auditor;
Wm. Ellingsworth, sheriff; M. H. Paxton, treasurer; E. L. Brunton,
superintendent of schools; J. B. Wilson, assessor; E. S. Clark,
surveyor; S. M. White, coroner; Frank Nalder and Amos Cummings,
commissioners.

The year 1896 brings us to the great "16 to 1" campaign, Bryan and
the "cross of gold," populists, and general upset of all political
programs. In local, as in the national votes, the "Pp." appears with
somewhat startling frequency.

Results appear as follows: John I. Yeend, Pp., state senator, ninth
district; David Miller, Pp., state senator, tenth district; A.
Matthoit, Pp., representative, eleventh district; J. H. Marshall, rep.,
representative, twelfth district; T. H. Brents, rep., judge Superior
Court; Frank Sharpstein, Pp., attorney; A. H. Crocker, rep., auditor;
J. E. Mullinix; Pp., clerk; Wm. Ellingsworth, Pp., sheriff; M. H.
Paxton, rep., treasurer; E. S. Clark, rep., surveyor; Wm. Gholson,
Pp., assessor; G. S. Bond, rep., superintendent of schools; W. D.
Smith, rep., coroner; Milton Evans, Pp., and Oscar Drumheller, Pp.,
commissioners. Nine "Pps." and seven "Repubs."

In 1898 the normal dominance of the republicans was re-established.
The democrats succeeded in electing the treasurer only, of all their
candidates. Results were as follows: C. C. Gose, representative,
twelfth district; Grant Copeland, representative, eleventh district;
Frank Kees, sheriff; Schuyler Arnold, clerk; C. N. McLean, auditor; J.
W. McGhee, Jr., treasurer, the solitary democrat; Oscar Cain, attorney;
Walter Cadman, assessor; G. S. Bond, school superintendent; W. G.
Sayles, surveyor; Y. C. Blalock, coroner; Delos Coffin and D. C. Eaton,
commissioners.

Beginning with 1900 the results of elections placed the following in
their respective positions:

1900--Superior judge, Thos. H. Brents; county auditor, Clark N.
McLean; county sheriff, A. Frank Kees; county clerk, Schuyler Arnold;
county treasurer, Wm. B. Hawley; county attorney, Oscar Cain; county
surveyor, Willis G. Sayles; superintendent of schools, E. Elmer Myers;
county coroner, Samuel A. Owens; commissioner first district, Delos
Coffin (hold over); commissioner second district, Edward Cornwell;
commissioner third district, Amos Cummings; justice of peace, Wm.
Glasford; constable, J. C. Hillman.

1902--County sheriff, Charles S. Painter; county clerk, Arthur A.
Hauerbach; county auditor, James Z. Smith; county treasurer, William B.
Hawley; county prosecuting attorney, Lester S. Wilson; county assessor,
Richard J. Berryman; superintendent of schools, J. Elmer Myers; county
surveyor, Lewis W. Loehr; county coroner, Winfield D. Smith; county
commissioner first district, Frank E. Smith; commissioner third
district, J. N. McCaw; commissioner second district, Edward Cornwell
(hold over); justice of peace, James J. Huffman; county constable, L.
C. Goodwin.

1904--Superior judge, Thos. H. Brents; county sheriff, Charles S.
Painter; county clerk, Dorsey M. Hill; county auditor, W. J. Honeycutt;
county treasurer, Philip B. Hawley; county prosecuting attorney, Lester
S. Wilson; county assessor, Richard J. Berryman; county superintendent
of schools, Grant S. Bond; county surveyor, Lewis W. Loehr; county
coroner, Winfield D. Smith; commissioner first district, Geo.
Struthers; commissioner second district, John H. Morrow; commissioner
third district, J. N. McCaw (hold over); justice of peace, James J.
Huffman; constable, Nels O. Peterson.

1906--County sheriff, James S. Haviland; county clerk, Dorsey M. Hill;
county auditor, J. N. McCaw; county treasurer, Wm. J. Honeycutt; county
prosecuting attorney, Otto B. Rupp; county assessor, Michael Toner;
county superintendent of schools, Grant S. Bond; county surveyor,
Geo. Winkle; county coroner, Geo. MacMartin; commissioner second
district, J. L. Harper; commissioner third district, Wm. G. Cordiner;
commissioner first district, Geo. Struthers (hold over); justice of
peace, J. J. Huffman; constable, N. O. Peterson.

1908--Superior judge, Thos. H. Brents; county sheriff, J. S. Haviland;
county clerk, James Williams; county auditor, J. N. McCaw; county
treasurer, J. Carter Smith; county prosecuting attorney, Everett J.
Smith; county assessor, Mike Toner; county superintendent of schools,
Josephine Preston; county engineer, G. W. Winkle; county coroner, Geo.
MacMartin; commissioner first district, Fred Greenville; commissioner
third district, Chas. F. Cummings; commissioner second district, J. L.
Harper (hold over); justice of peace, T. M. McKinney; constable, N. O.
Peterson.

1910--County sheriff, Michael Toner; county clerk, E. L. Casey; county
auditor, Jack W. Sweazy; county treasurer, J. Carter Smith; county
assessor, L. R. Hawley; county superintendent of schools, Josephine
Preston; county prosecuting attorney, E. J. Smith; county engineer,
L. W. Loehr; county coroner, Emmett Hennessey; commissioner first
district, J. N. McCaw; commissioner second district, Marcus Zuger, Jr.;
commissioner third district, Chas. F. Cummings (hold over).

1912--Superior judge, Thos. H. Brents; county sheriff, M. Toner;
county clerk, E. L. Casey; county auditor, J. W. Sweazy; county
treasurer, Alex Mackay; county prosecuting attorney, M. A. Stafford;
county assessor, L. R. Hawley; commissioner second district, H. D.
Eldridge; commissioner third district, Jim L. Reavis; commissioner
first district, J. N. McCaw (hold over); justice of peace, T. M.
McKinney; constable, N. O. Peterson; county superintendent of schools,
Paul Johnson; county engineer, E. B. Shifley; county coroner, Emmett
Hennessey.

1914--County sheriff, Lee Barnes; county auditor, C. F. Dement; county
engineer, G. C. Cookerly; county assessor, Rolla Proudfoot; county
prosecuting attorney, Earl W. Benson (J. W. Cookerly was chosen
coroner, but on account of irregularity of law, the attorney performed
duties of office); county clerk, Ed Buffum; county treasurer, Guy Allen
Turner; county superintendent of schools, Paul Johnson; county justice
of peace, T. M. McKinney; county constable, N. O. Peterson; superior
judge, Ed C. Mills; commissioners, H. D. Eldridge, H. A. Reynolds and
J. L. Reavis.

1916--County sheriff, Lee Barnes; county auditor, Chas. F. Dement;
county clerk, Ed F. Buffum; county assessor, H. S. Buffum; county
engineer, Grova C. Cookerly; county treasurer, Guy Allen Turner; county
superintendent of schools, Paul Johnson; county prosecuting attorney,
M. A. Stafford; county coroner, Geo. MacMartin; justice of peace, J. M.
Douglass; county constable, Jack McKinzie; superior judge, Ed C. Mills;
commissioners, A. C. Moore, J. L. Reavis and D. C. Eaton.


POLITICAL HISTORY OF THE CITY

Municipal politics demand our attention in the remainder of this
chapter. Containing over two-thirds of the population of the county,
as Walla Walla City does, it would be expected that it would control
county affairs to a great degree. But it has usually happened, very
fortunately, that the smaller towns, with the country precincts, have
held the balance of power between contending factions in the city.
Hence, there has been general harmony of action in the political
development of the two units. The city has had its life and the county
has had its life.

We have already considered or will consider so many of the important
phases of the life of the city under topical subjects, schools,
churches, newspapers, lodges and industries, that relatively little
remains under the more distinctive heading of municipal politics. After
the initial organization already described in earlier chapters we may
perhaps say that the next marked state was the new charter granted by
the Legislature in 1883. That was a special charter, the only one of
the kind in the state. Under its provisions the council on February 22,
1884, passed an ordinance, No. 185, which divided the city into wards
and provided for a number of councilmen. As a matter of historical
reference, we deem it worth while to incorporate that ordinance here:

Ordinance No. 185 passed the council of the City of Walla Walla
February 22, 1884, receiving the approval of the mayor on the same day,
and being entitled as follows: "An ordinance to divide the City of
Walla Walla into wards, and apportionment of councilmen." The text of
the ordinance is as follows:

Section 1. The City of Walla Walla shall be and is hereby divided into
four wards, to be known as the first, second, third, and fourth wards.

Sec. 2. The first ward shall be bounded as follows: Commencing at a
point where the center of Main Street intersects the center of Third
Street, thence southerly along the center of Third Street to the center
of Birch Street, thence easterly along the center of Birch Street to
the center of Second Street, thence southerly along the center of
Second Street to the south boundary of the city; thence along the south
boundary of the city easterly to the southeast corner of the city;
thence northerly along the east boundary of the city to the center of
Mill Creek; thence down Mill Creek to the center of East Main Street;
thence along the center of East Main and Main streets in a westerly
direction to the place of beginning.

Sec. 3. The second ward shall be bounded as follows: Beginning at the
intersection of Main and Third streets; thence southwesterly along the
center of Main Street to the west boundary line of the city; thence
south along the west boundary line of the city to the southwest corner
of the city; thence easterly along the south boundary of the city to
the center of Second Street; thence northerly along the center of
Second Street to the center of Birch Street; thence west along the
center of Birch Street to the center of Third Street; thence northerly
along Third Street to the place of beginning.

Sec. 4. The third ward shall be bounded as follows: Beginning at the
center of Main and North Third streets where they intersect, thence
running northerly on the center line of North Third Street to the
center of Elm Street; thence northeasterly on the center line of Elm
Street to the center line of North Second Street; thence northerly on
the center line of North Second Street to the northern boundary line of
the city; thence east along said northern boundary line of said city to
the northeast corner of the northwest quarter of the northeast quarter
of section twenty (20), in township seven (7) north, range thirty-six
(36) east; thence south to the northeast corner of the southwest
quarter of the northeast quarter of said section twenty (20); thence
east to the northeast corner of the city; thence south to the center of
Mill Creek; thence down the center of Mill Creek to the center of East
Main Street; thence westerly along the center of East Main and Main
streets to the place of beginning.

Sec. 5. The fourth ward shall be bounded as follows: Commencing at the
center of Main and North Third streets where they intersect, thence
running northerly on the center line of said North Third Street to the
center of Elm Street, thence northeasterly on the center line of Elm
Street to the center of North Second Street; thence northerly on the
center line of North Second Street to the northern boundary line of
the city; thence west on said northern boundary line to the northwest
corner of said city; thence south along said west boundary line to the
United States Military Reservation; thence easterly and then southerly
on the line of said military reservation to the center of Main Street;
thence easterly on the center line of Main Street to the place of
beginning.

[Illustration: ARTESIAN WELL, WALLA WALLA COUNTY]

Sec. 6. The number of councilmen to which each ward is entitled shall
be as follows: First ward, two councilmen; second ward, two councilmen;
third ward, two councilmen; fourth ward, one councilman. And they shall
be elected as is provided in section 7 of this ordinance.

Sec. 7. There shall be elected from the first, second and third wards
each at the next general election and at every general election
thereafter, one councilman, and in the fourth ward at the next general
election and thereafter biennially, one councilman.

Sec. 8. All ordinances and parts of ordinances, so far as they conflict
herewith, are hereby repealed.


ELECTION PRECINCTS

The city is divided into eight election precincts, designated as
follows: Lewis, Clarke, Whitman, Steptoe, Mullan, Fremont, Stevens and
Sims.


COMMISSION GOVERNMENT

Yet another change of great importance occurred by which in a special
election of July 10, 1911, the commission form of government was
adopted, 1,943 for and 1,049 against. This went into effect September
11, 1911, with A. J. Gillis as mayor. This step was one of the
manifestations of that interesting evolution of political ideas common
over the United States, perhaps especially in the West consisting
of two working propositions which seem antagonistic and yet are not
really so, but are rather parts of one movement under two different
phases. The first has been the initiative and referendum and recall,
by which in legislative matters a larger exercise of popular knowledge
and oversight of laws is sought. That idea has a permanent place in
Washington and most western states. The other idea is that of the
commission form of city government, apparently just the reverse,
by which executive authority is centralized and responsibility is
localized in the hands of experts. If these two working forces may be
harmonized in practical action, we may justly claim to have solved the
fundamental questions of democracy and efficiency.


MUNICIPAL OWNERSHIP OF WATER WORKS

Municipal ownership of water works and the creation of a system of
sewerage have been two of the most important of all questions in the
city. We have already described the water system inaugurated by J. D.
Cook, J. P. Isaacs and H. P. Isaacs and subsequently acquired by the
Baker-Boyer Bank. On July 11, 1881, the first election on municipal
ownership occurred, and the proposal was defeated by an adverse
majority of sixty-five. But the natural evolution of a city calls for
the public ownership of the water system, and the agitation continued.
In 1887 the Walla Walla Water Company had made a contract with the
council by which, upon the fulfillment of certain improvements, they
were to have exclusive right to furnish water for twenty-five years.
But in spite of the contract, an ordinance providing for a public
system was presented to the voters in 1893 under the mayoralty of John
L. Roberts. By an overwhelming vote the ordinance carried. The water
company brought suit to restrain the city from installing its system,
pleading its contract. After a tedious course of litigation the suit
at last reached the Supreme Court of the United States. There it was
decided in favor of the Water Company. The city was thus left in a
hole, after much expense. But popular opinion had become thoroughly
committed to the policy of public ownership and by a special election
on June 20, 1899, an ordinance was passed for the purchase of the
entire property of the Water Company for the sum of $250,000. With
the purchase of the water system went also the adoption of a sewerage
system. Many improvements and extensions have been made of both. In
April, 1907, the headworks and intake on Mill Creek were installed.
Extracts from the last report of Water Supt. R. F. McLean are here
inserted and from them can be derived a view of the present condition
of the water and sewerage systems:

The present mileage of the pipes in the water system is approximately
seventy miles, of which something more than twelve is in the conduits
extending from the intake to the city, and something more than
fifty-seven is in the distribution pipes. The number of fire hydrants
is 300. There are 524 gate valves for isolating different districts as
desired. On December 31, 1916, the date of the report, there were 3,961
water services, and of these about eighteen per cent, or 789 are on
meters. The meter rate runs on a sliding scale from twenty cents per
1,000 gallons to eight cents per 1,000 above 100,000 gallons. The flat
rate is $1 monthly for each kitchen, with 25 cents for each bath and
toilet, and $1 for each lot irrigated.

The financial exhibit is in the highest degree encouraging to believers
in the municipally owned system. The earnings of the system for the
year 1916 were $87,852.26.

The mileage in the sewerage system in the last report is thirty-eight
miles and 4,632 feet.

The report of the city clerk for the water department assets and
liabilities is as follows:

    Assets:
  Water system property and plant      $635,762.85
  Sewerage system                       210,411.91
  Water system sinking fund              42,091.18
                                      ------------
    Total                              $888,265.94

    Liabilities:
  Bonds due November, 1919             $133,000.00
  Warrants outstanding                    1,257.72
                                      ------------
    Total                              $134,257.72

During the past ten years street paving has been steadily continued,
until at the present time there are twenty-three miles of paved
streets. While some of this work was very poorly done and the city
has been compelled to repair the work of incompetent or dishonest
contractors at a large expense, the paving system in general has been
satisfactory, and is one of the great improvements of recent years.

One of the most important of all the features of municipal life is the
parks. This topic will find place in the last chapter in a special
article by Miss Grace Isaacs, who has been intimately connected with
the establishment of a park system from the beginning.


CITY LIBRARY

Another valuable instrumentality of municipal life, which while not
political in the common use of the term is under municipal control, is
the city library. The last report of the librarian, Miss Ellen Smith,
will give a view of present conditions.

Walla Walla Public Library, Walla Walla, Wash.: Annual report--January,
1917.

The Board of Trustees--Dr. E. E. Shaw, president; T. C. Elliott,
secretary; Rev. C. E. Tuke, Rowland Smith and H. W. Jones.

The Library Staff--Ellen Garfield Smith, librarian; Dorothy Drum, first
assistant; Nell M. Thompson, assistant; Ethel Jamieson, assistant.

Library Hours--Week days, 9 A. M. to 9 P. M.; Sundays and holidays, 2
to 6 P. M.

There are 4,962 active readers enrolled, or about one-fourth of the
population of Walla Walla. Of this number 1,082 adults and 498 children
were added the last year, making a total of 1,580 new registrations.

The readers took home 59,580 books, periodicals and pamphlets. Fiction
reading is not so important a part of the circulation as many people
think, as 55 per cent of the books read were of an instructive and
informing character, an increase of 3 per cent over last year. The most
popular classes of books of non-fiction in order of circulation are
literature, useful arts, travel and sociology.

We have added 1,305 new books at a cost of $742.64.

Gifts have numbered 253.

There were 206 volumes worn out and withdrawn and fifty-six missing at
inventory so the number in the library is 12,060.

Whoever you are, you must need to ask questions sometimes. There must
be some things you do not know that you want to know. Librarians are
paid to find the answers to your questions. These are a few samples of
the questions that we have answered during the last year:

The number of grain bags used in the United States.

The design of the Christian flag for Sunday schools.

Directions for glazing of pottery.

Statistics of water-power plants.

Where is Matzos?

What is the high jump record of a horse?

How to pickle olives?

You have more than twelve hundred reference books, and hundreds of
pamphlets which we are taking care of for you, waiting for you to
come and ask your question. There are 106 current periodicals and
five newspapers in the reading room, the back numbers of which may
be borrowed for home reading. The current numbers of _Atlantic_,
_Century_, _Delineator_, _Good Housekeeping_, _Harper's Monthly_,
_Ladies' Home Journal_ and _Literary Digest_ may be borrowed because
the library subscribes for an extra copy.

The story hour is conducted during the winter months on Wednesday
afternoons at 4 o'clock. The average attendance is twenty.

The children borrowed 18,345 books during the year.

The children's room contains more than two thousand books including the
best books written for children. The greatest care has been used in the
selection.

Help is given to schools in selecting books for purchase. The smaller
the sum to spend, the more important the selection.

One hundred and nineteen teachers have special teachers' cards for
school use, including forty county teachers. City teachers may have ten
books at a time; county teachers may have five.

The Art Club, Women's Reading Club, Educational Club and Sketch Club
meet regularly in the club room at the public library. In addition to
this the Good Government League, debating teams and clubs of college
and high school, committees of the Woman's Park Club and Young Women's
Club have appreciated the use of the room.

The day of largest circulation was February 12th, when 388 books and
periodicals were loaned for home reading.

Twelve hours every week day your public library is "at your service."
Sunday afternoon the library is open for reading only--often every
chair is taken.

Useful arts, next to literature, was the most popular class of
non-fiction circulated last year. Are you one of those who has profited
by the helpful books on salesmanship, bees, advertising, poultry, etc.?

When you go on your vacation next summer take ten library books with
you--loaned for three months. Three hundred and ten volumes circulated
on vacation cards last year.

You own more than twelve thousand volumes. The one you've been looking
for, the one that will tell you something new about your business or a
new way of advertising it, is among them.

Six hundred and seventy-four books were washed with ammonia and water
and then shellacked.


WHAT WE HAVE DONE WITH YOUR MONEY

MAINTENANCE FUND--RECEIPTS

  Balance on hand January 1, 1916                 $ 102.97
  City warrants                                   4,900.00
  Refunds on lights and books                        39.11   $5,042.08
                                                  --------

[Illustration: THE I. O. O. F. HOME, WALLA WALLA]

MAINTENANCE FUND--DISBURSEMENTS

  Salaries                                 $3,038.40
  Books                                       665.61
  Binding                                     166.91
  Periodicals                                 228.00
  Printing and stationery                      21.00
  Furniture and fixtures                      175.15
  Freight and drayage                          41.68
  Light                                       185.95
  Fuel                                        226.25
  Repairs                                      98.59
  Incidentals                                  37.45
  Balance on hand December 31, 1916           157.09  $5,042.08
                                            --------


LIBRARIAN'S FUND--RECEIPTS

  Balance from 1915, fine collections          $9.07
  Balance from 1915, 5c pay collections         7.80
  Fines collected in 1916                     472.73
  Circulation of pay books at 5c each          23.65
  Donation from art club                       14.80
  Miscellaneous sources                         3.00    $531.05
                                            --------


LIBRARIAN'S FUND--DISBURSEMENTS

  Books purchased from fines                  $57.88
  Books purchased from 5c pay collections      29.15
  Periodicals                                  31.12
  Book binding                                  6.28
  Extra help, librarians                      141.40
  Extra janitor service                         4.75
  Supplies and incidentals                    254.70
  Balance on hand, fines              $3.47
  Balance on hand, 5c pay collections  2.30     5.77    $531.05
                                       ----   ------   --------

There are many other features of the life of the city under political
authority which would be worthy of mention, did space allow.

In one of the early chapters dealing with the founding of the city and
its first incorporation, 1862, we gave the officers chosen in the first
election of April 1st of that year. We now incorporate here the list
of city officers from 1877 to the present. This is subdivided by the
different forms of government under which the city has operated.


MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS

1877

  Mayor--M. C. Moore.
  Marshal--John G. Justice.
  Recorder--J. D. Laman.
  Treasurer--H. E. Holmes.
  Assessor--S. Jacobs.
  Council--W. P. Winans, W. P. Adams, Wm. Kohlhauff, A. H. Reynolds
    and J. G. Justice.


1878

  Mayor--James McAuliffe.
  Justice--J. D. Laman.
  Marshal--J. G. Justice.
  Treasurer--H. E. Holmes.
  Health Officer--J. M. Boyd.
  Assessor--S. Jacobs.
  Council--W. P. Winans, Wm. Kohlhauff, Z. K. Straight, M. F. Colt,
    F. W. Paine and J. A. Taylor.


1879

  Mayor--James McAuliffe.
  Marshal--J. A. McNeil.
  Treasurer--H. E. Holmes.
  Assessor--S. Jacobs.
  Health Officer--J. M. Boyd.
  Justice--J. D. Laman.
  Council--A. S. Legrow, H. M. Chase, J. M. Welsh, R. Jacobs,
    Wm. Harkness, Wm. Kohlhauff, Geo. F. Thomas.


1880

  Mayor--James McAuliffe.
  Marshal--J. G. Justice.
  City Attorney--J. T. Anders.
  Treasurer--H. E. Holmes.
  Assessor--
  Council--S. Jacobs, H. M. Chase, W. T. Dovell, Wm. Kohlhauff, Geo.
    F. Thomas, J. M. Welsh.


1881

  Mayor--James McAuliffe.
  City Attorney--J. T. Anders.
  Marshal--J. G. Justice.
  Treasurer--H. E. Holmes.
  Assessor--S. Jacobs.
  Health Officer--Dr. A. N. Marion.
  Council--Wm. Glasford, Ed Baumeister, A. H. Reynolds, S. Jacobs,
    W. T. Dovell, Levi Ankeny and Wm. Kohlhauff.


1882

  Mayor--James McAuliffe.
  City Attorney--W. G. Glasford.
  Clerk--Le F. A. Shaw.
  Treasurer--Richard Jacobs.
  Health Officer--Dr. T. W. Sloan.
  City Surveyor--J. B. Wilson.
  City Assessor--Samuel Jacobs.
  Council--W. P. Winans, T. J. Fletcher, John Dovell, N. T. Caton,
    A. H. Reynolds and Ed Baumeister.


1883

  Mayor--T. R. Tannatt.
  City Clerk--Le F. A. Shaw.
  Treasurer--F. W. Paine.
  Attorney--W. G. Langford.
  Health Officer--Dr. A. N. Marion.
  Surveyor--J. B. Wilson,
  Council--W. P. Winans, Wm. Glasford, T. J. Fletcher, H. Wintler,
    John Dovell, N. T. Caton, A. G. Bowles.


1884

  Mayor--T. R. Tannatt, resigned and F. W. Paine elected.
  Marshal--T. J. Robinson.
  City Clerk--Le F. A. Shaw.
  Attorney--W. G. Langford.
  Treasurer--O. P. Lacy.
  Health Officer--Dr. W. G. Alban.
  Surveyor--J. B. Wilson.
  Council--H. M. Porter, W. O'Donnell, John Dovell, J. P. Kent,
    Thos. Quinn.


1885

  Mayor--J. M. Boyd.
  Marshal--T. J. Robinson.
  Justice--J. D. Laman.
  Treasurer--J. Chitwood.
  Health Officer--Dr. W. G. Alban.
  City Attorney--W. W. Newlin.
  Clerk--Le F. A. Shaw.
  Assessor--J. B. Wilson.
  Council--J. W. Esteb, J. Picard, L. H. Bowman, H. M. Porter,
    W. O'Donnell, W. H. Kent and John Dovell.


1886

  Mayor--J. M. Boyd.
  Marshal--T. J. Robinson.
  City Clerk--Henry Kelling.
  Treasurer--R. G. Parks.
  Attorney--J. L. Sharpstein.
  Surveyor--L. A. Wilson.
  Justice--J. D. Laman.
  Health Officer--Dr. H. R. Keylor.
  Assessor--Wm. Harkness.
  Council--Wm. Stine, John Marion, John M. Hill, W. G. Tobin,
    J. Picard, L. H. Bowman, J. W. Esteb.


1887

  Mayor--Jas. McAuliffe.
  Marshal--T. J. Robinson.
  Clerk--Henry Kelling.
  Attorney--J. L. Sharpstein.
  Treasurer--R. G. Parks.
  Justice--A. J. Gregory.
  Health Officer--Dr. H. R. Keylor.
  Assessor--M. H. Paxton.
  Surveyor--J. B. Wilson.
  Council--D. W. Small, John Picard, Geo. Dacres, John M. Hill,
    John Marion, W. G. Tobin and Wm. Stine.


1888

  Mayor--Geo. T. Thompson.
  Marshal--T. J. Robinson.
  Attorney--J. L. Sharpstein.
  Clerk--Henry Kelling.
  Treasurer--R. G. Parks.
  Justice--A. G. Gregory.
  Health Officer--Dr. Y. C. Blalock.
  Assessor--M. H. Paxton.
  Surveyor--A. J. Anderson.
  Council--W. H. Upton, John Marion, J. M. Hill, R. M. McCalley,
    D. W. Small, John Picard and Geo. Dacres.


1889

  Mayor--Dr. N. G. Blalock.
  Marshal--T. J. Robinson.
  Treasurer--R. G. Parks.
  Clerk--Henry Kelling.
  Attorney--J. L. Sharpstein.
  Health Officer--Dr. Y. C Blalock.
  Justice--John A. Taylor.
  Surveyor--W. G. Sayles.
  Assessor--M. H. Paxton.
  Council--D. W. Small, Z. K. Straight, J. L. Roberts, J. F. Brewer,
    John H. Stockwell, John Marion and R. M. McCalley.

[Illustration: CARD AND BILLIARD ROOMS. ELKS' CLUB, WALLA WALLA]


1890

  Mayor--N. G. Blalock.
  Marshal--T. J. Robinson.
  Attorney--J. L. Sharpstein.
  Clerk--Henry Kelling.
  Treasurer--R. G. Parks.
  Justice--V. D. Lambert.
  Health Officer--Dr. Y. C. Blalock.
  Assessor--M. H. Paxton.
  Surveyor--L. A. Wilson.
  Council--J. H. Stockwell, John Picard, H. A. Reynolds, R. M. McCalley,
    T. J. Robinson, Z. K. Straight and D. W. Small.


1891

  Mayor--J. L. Roberts.
  Clerk--Henry Kelling.
  Marshal--T. J. Robinson.
  Treasurer--R. G. Parks.
  Attorney--W. T. Dovell.
  Justice--John A. Taylor.
  Health Officer--Dr. Y. C. Blalock.
  Assessor--M. H. Paxton.
  Surveyor--Lew W. Loehr.
  Council--H. S. Young, Jacob Betz, A. J. Evans, J. H. Stockwell,
    John Picard, H. A. Reynolds and J. L. Jones.


1892

  Mayor--John L. Roberts.
  Clerk--Henry Kelling.
  Attorney--W. T. Dovell.
  Treasurer--R. G. Parks.
  Marshal--T. J. Robinson.
  Justice--Timothy T. Burgess.
  Health Officer--W. G. Alban.
  Assessor--M. H. Paxton.
  Surveyor--Lew W. Loehr.
  Council--B. D. Crocker, John G. Muntinga, E. H. Massam, J. L. Jones,
    H. S. Young, Jacob Betz and A. J. Evans.


1893

  Mayor--J. L. Roberts.
  Clerk--Henry Kelling.
  Attorney--W. T. Dovell.
  Treasurer--R. G. Parks.
  Marshal--F. J. Robinson.
  Justice--W. T. Arberry.
  Health Officer--Wm. G. Alban.
  Assessor--J. B. Wilson.
  Surveyor--Edwin S. Clark.
  Council--Daniel Stewart, Jacob Betz, Norman F. Butler. B. D. Crocker,
    John G. Muntinga, E. H. Massam and J. L. Jones.


1894

  Mayor--John L. Roberts.
  Clerk--Henry Kelling.
  Attorney--Wm. T. Dovell.
  Treasurer--R. G. Parks.
  Marshal--Winfield S. Halley.
  Justice--W. T. Arberry.
  Health Officer--W. G. Alban.
  Assessor--T. H. Jessup.
  Surveyor--Edward Clark.
  Council--Milton Evans, Marshall Martin, E. H. Massam, Stephen
    Ringhoffer, Daniel Stewart, Jacob Betz, and Norman F. Butler.


1895

  Mayor--John L. Roberts.
  City Clerk--Alexander McKay.
  Attorney--R. G. Parks.
  Marshal--M. Ames.
  Justice--Harrison W. Eagan.
  Health Officer--Wm. G. Alban.
  Surveyor--E. S. Clark.
  Council--A. K. Dice, Jacob Betz, John D. Lamb, Milton Evans,
    Marshall Martin, E. H. Massam, Daniel Stewart and V. D. Lambert.


1896

  Mayor--Jacob Betz.
  Clerk--John E. Williams.
  Attorney--C. M. Rader.
  Treasurer--John W. McGhee.
  Marshal--M. Ames.
  Justice--E. H. Nixon.
  Health Officer--Wm. G. Alban.
  Surveyor--E. S. Clark.
  Council--M. Evans, J. P. Kent, E. H. Massam, John Lamb and A. K. Dice.


1897

  Mayor--Jacob Betz.
  Clerk--Clark N. McLean.
  Attorney--H. S. Blandford.
  Treasurer--John McGee.
  Marshal--J. J. Kauffman.
  Health Officer--W. G. Alban.
  Surveyor--E. S. Clark.
  Council--continued.


1898

  Mayor--Jacob Betz.
  Clerk--C. N. McLean.
  Attorney--H. S. Blandford.
  Treasurer--J. W. McGhee.
  Justice of the Peace--J. J. Huffman.
  Marshal--J. J. Kauffman.
  Assessor--Fred A. Colt.
  Health Officer--W. G. Alban.
  Surveyor--E. S. Clark.
  Street Commissioner--D. A. McLeod.
  Council--E. H. Nixon, Marshall Martin, J. F. Brewer, Albert Niebergall.


1899

  Mayor--Jacob Betz.
  Clerk--R. P. Reynolds.
  Marshal--J. J. Kauffman.
  Attorney--H. S. Blandford.
  Treasurer--Le F. A. Shaw.
  Justice of the Peace--Wm. Glasford.
  Assessor--W. L. Cadman.
  Street Commissioner--W. H. Brown.
  Surveyor--E. S. Clark.
  Health Officer--W. G. Alban.
  Council--G. W. Babcock, F. M. Pauly, E. S. Isaacs.


1900

  Mayor--Jacob Betz.
  Marshal--J. J. Kauffman.
  Clerk--R. P. Reynolds.
  Treasurer--Le F. A. Shaw.
  Attorney--H. S. Blandford.
  Justice of the Peace--Wm. Glasford.
  Assessor--W. L. Cadman.
  Surveyor--E. S. Clark.
  Street Commissioner--H. H. Crampton.
  Health Officer--W. E. Russell.
  Council--J. F. McLean, Marshall Martin, J. F. Brewer, Albert Niebergall.


1901

  Mayor--G. W. Babcock.
  Clerk--R. P. Reynolds.
  Attorney--H. S. Blandford.
  Treasurer--Le F. A. Shaw.
  Marshal--J. J. Kauffman.
  Street Commissioner--H. H. Crampton.
  Justice of the Peace--Wm. Glasford.
  Health Officer--W. G. Alban.
  Surveyor--E. S. Clark.
  Council--J. F. McLean, W. A. Williams, Marshall Martin, J. Z. Smith,
    J. F. Brewer, John Kirkman and Albert Niebergall.


1902

  Mayor--Gilbert Hunt.
  Clerk--R. P. Reynolds.
  Attorney--H. S. Blandford.
  Treasurer--Le F. A. Shaw.
  Marshal--J. J. Kauffman.
  Justice of the Peace--Wm. Glasford.
  Street Commissioner--H. H. Crampton.
  Health Officer--W. G. Alban.
  Surveyor--E. S. Clark.
  Council--J. F. McLean, J. Z. Smith, W. P. McKean, J. F. Brewer,
    John Kirkman, F. W. Martin.


1903

  Mayor--Gilbert Hunt.
  Treasurer--Le F. A. Shaw.
  Justice--J. J. Huffman.
  Marshal--Alvah Brown.
  Street Commissioner--H. H. Crampton.
  City Attorney--H. S. Blandford.
  Surveyor--E. S. Clark.
  Assessor--W. F. Merchant.
  Clerk--R. P. Reynolds
  Health Officer--C. P. Gammon.
  Council--Henry Osterman, Wm. Glasford, J. Z. Smith, J. C. Scott,
    A. J. Gillis, Eugene Boyer, W. P. McKean.


1904

  Mayor--Gilbert Hunt.
  Treasurer--R. G. Parks.
  Justice--J. J. Huffman.
  Marshal--Alvah Brown.
  Street Commissioner--H. H. Crampton.
  City Attorney--H. S. Blandford.
  City Surveyor--W. G. Sayles.
  Assessor--R. J. Berryman.
  Health Officer--J. W. Ingram.
  Council--J. G. Bridges, W. P. McKean, J. B. Brewer, Fred W. Martin,
    Wm. Glasford.


1905

  Mayor--Gilbert Hunt.
  Treasurer--R. G. Parks.
  Justice--J. J. Huffman.
  Marshal--Alvah Brown.
  Street Commissioner--H. H. Crampton.
  Surveyor--J. B. Wilson.
  Clerk--R. P. Reynolds.
  Assessor--R. J. Berryman.
  Health Officer--J. W. Ingram.
  Council--Wm. Glasford, W. P. McLean, W. H. Kirkman, J. Z. Smith,
    Fred W. Martin, J. P. Bridges.


1906

  Mayor--Geo. E. Kellough.
  Treasurer--R. G. Parks.
  Marshal--Alvah Brown.
  Street Commissioner--H. H. Crampton.
  Surveyor--J. B. Wilson.
  Assessor--W. S. Cadman.
  Clerk--T. D. S. Hart.
  Health Officer--Dr. A. E. Braden.
  Council--J. P. Kent, R. H. Johnson, Eugene Tausick, Wm. Glasford,
    John Bachtold, W. P. McKean.


1907

  Mayor--Geo. E. Kellough.
  Clerk--T. D. S. Hart.
  Marshal--Mike Davis.
  Treasurer--R. G. Parks.
  Attorney--Oscar Cain.
  Health Officer--A. E. Braden.
  Street Commissioner--H. H. Crampton.
  Council--J. P. Bridges, W. P. McKean, C. H. Whiteman, John Bachtold,
    Eugene Tausick, J. F. Stack, J. A. Dunham.


1908

  Mayor--Eugene Tausick.
  Clerk--T. D. S. Hart.
  Treasurer--R. G. Parks.
  Attorney--Oscar Cain.
  Marshal--M. Davis.
  Surveyor--Lew Loehr.
  Street Commissioner--H. H. Crampton.
  Health Officer--A. E. Braden.
  Assessor--M. Toner.
  Council--Fred Hull, Fritz Lehn, C. H. Cummings, Albert Niebergall,
    J. B. Stack, C. H. Whiteman, Alfred Bachtold.


1909

  Mayor--Eugene Tausick.
  Clerk--T. D. S. Hart.
  Attorney--Oscar Cain.
  Marshal--Michael Davis.
  Street Commissioner--H. H. Crampton.
  Assessor--M. Toner.
  Health Officer--E. E. Shaw.
  Surveyor--Lew Loehr.
  Council--C. H. Whiteman, Alfred Bachtold, Fred Hull, Albert
    Niebergall, J. F. Stack, Fritz Lehn.


1910

  Mayor--Eugene Tausick.
  Clerk--T. D. S. Hart.
  Attorney--J. W. Brooks.
  Treasurer--Perry Lyons.
  Marshal--Michael Davis.
  Chief of Fire Department--Wm. Metz.
  Street Commissioner--H. H. Crampton.
  Assessor--A. R. Dorwin.
  Surveyor--W. R. Rehorn.
  Council--C. H. Whiteman, Harvey McDonald, Alfred Bachtold, J. F.
    Stack, Robert Breeze, C. H. Cummings, Albert Niebergall.


COMMISSION FORM OF GOVERNMENT

1911, 1912, 1913

  Mayor--A. J. Gillis.
  Commissioner--A. K. Dice, Geo. Struthers.
  Attorney--J. F. Watson.
  Building Inspector--Wm. Metz.
  Clerk--C. Arthur Jones.
  Engineer--W. R. Rehorn.
  Fire Chief--Wm. Metz.
  Health Officer--C. E. Montgomery.
  Justice--T. M. McKinney.
  Librarian--Ellen Garfield Smith.
  Marshal and Chief of Police--Michael Davis.
  Registrar Water Works--R. C. Stack.
  Street Commissioner--R. A. Stockdale.
  Superintendent of Schools--O. S. Jones.
  Superintendent of Water Works--R. F. McLean.
  Treasurer--John McGhee.


1914, 1915, 1916

  Mayor--M. Toner.
  Commissioners--A. K. Dice, H. H. Crampton.
  Clerk--1914, 1915, M. A. Powers--1916, Fred G. Wills.
  Treasurer--John McGhee.
  Attorney--J. P. Neal.
  Water Superintendent--R. F. McLean.
  Police Judge--T. M. McKinney.
  Water Registrar--E. T. Churchman.
  Fire Chief--Geo. Guthridge.
  Chief of Police--James Martin.
  City Engineer--W. R. Rehorn.
  Health Officer--C. E. Montgomery.

As the last glance at the political history of the City of Walla Walla
we insert here the report of the financial condition of the City of
Walla Walla June 30, 1917, as compiled by the Commissioner of Finance
and Accounting, A. K. Dice:

Assessed valuation of the City of Walla Walla this year is $9,411,099,
according to the report of the county assessor's office, filed this
morning with the city commission. The assessment of the city this year
shows an increase in valuation of approximately $100,000, last year's
assessment having been $9,310,655. The report of the county assessor is
as follows:


Assessed valuation of the City of Walla Walla, 1917:

  Old city limits                                     $8,738,839
  First addition                                         254,366
  Second addition                                         94,460
  Third addition                                           3,890
  Fourth addition                                        250,260
  Fifth addition                                          19,200
  Sixth addition                                          46,084
                                                      ----------
  Total                                               $9,411,099

The total includes valuation of public service corporation properties
within the city limits, taken from the 1916 tax rolls.

The semi-annual report of the city clerk was also filed by Clerk Fred
Wills this morning, the report showing the city's financial condition
on July 1, 1917, and showing the receipts and disbursements from
January 1, 1917, to June 30, 1917, inclusive. A summary of the report
is as follows:


Receipts, January 1 to June 30, 1917:

  Licenses                               $  3,108.00
  Fees, fines, etc.                         5,574.70
  Water department receipts                38,985.85
  Cemetery department                       2,761.72
  Cemetery perpetual care                   4,343.69
  Cemetery trust                            8,421.64
  Interest on cemetery trust                  211.40
  General taxes                           110,979.81
  Road and bridge tax                       2,578.48
  Water works sinking fund                 28,228.33
  Interest on above                           483.69
  Firemen's relief and pension                201.41
  Transfers                                   549.19
  Local improvement district taxes         85,913.76
                                         -----------
      Total                              $292,341.67

Disbursements, January 1 to June 30, 1917, by the various city
departments:

  Administration                         $  3,272.60
  Streets                                  18,218.73
  Water                                    29,180.86
  Fire                                     15,316.26
  Police                                    6,722.74
  Treasury                                    797.79
  Clerical                                    836.87
  Bridge and creek                          1,047.20
  Engineering                               1,578.18
  Library                                   2,000.00
  Park                                      5,901.06
  Mounted police                              399.70
  Cemetery                                  1,790.11
  Health                                    3,294.82
  General expenses                            970.63
  Public buildings                            859.93
  Legal department                            763.70
  Firemen's relief and pension                278.75
  Judicial                                    252.00
  Electrical                                  302.80
  General bond interest and redemption      3,403.40
  Cemetery trust                           12,067.46
  Special assessments on city property        515.05
  Water sinking fund                       38,491.03
                                         -----------
      Total                              $148,311.57

[Illustration: THE DENNY BUILDING, WALLA WALLA]

[Illustration: THE DRUMHELLER BUILDING, WALLA WALLA]

The operation of the municipal warrants and the local improvement
district bonds and warrants during that period was as follows:


Municipal warrants:

  Outstanding January 1                              $73,356.69
  Issued                                             148,311.57
                                                    -----------
  Total                                             $221,668.26

  Redeemed                                           187,472.45
  Outstanding June 30                                 34,195.81
                                                    -----------
  Total                                             $221,668.26
  L. I. D. bonds and warrants outstanding January 1  317,523.49
  Issued                                              48,186.80
                                                    -----------
  Total                                             $365,710.29
  Redeemed                                            85,732.37
                                                    -----------
  Outstanding June 30                               $279,977.92

The cash balance is given as follows:

  Total cash on hand January 1                       $24,961.57
  Total receipts  292,341.67
  Municipal warrants outstanding June 30              34,195.81
  L. I. D. bonds and warrants outstanding June 30    279,977.92
                                                    -----------
  Total                                             $631,476.97

  Cash on hand June 30                                34,516.31
  Disbursements                                      206,080.48
  Municipal warrants outstanding January 1            73,356.69
  L. I. D. bonds and warrants outstanding January 1  317,523.49
                                                    -----------
  Total                                             $631,476.97


ELECTIONS IN WAITSBURG

A summary of the municipal elections in the history of the second city
in size in the county may properly appear at this point.

The town at the junction of the Touchet and the Coppei, first known
as Delta, became Waitsburg in 1868 by vote of the inhabitants. On
February 23, 1869, W. P. Bruce plotted the first townsite. On February
8, 1881, the town was incorporated. An election on February 28 resulted
in the choice of G. W. Kellicut, William Fudge, Alfred Brouillet, M.
J. Harkness and E. L. Powell as trustees, with the first named as
chairman. Later in that year a decision by Judge Wingard invalidated
the incorporation of all the cities in the territory, except Seattle
and Walla Walla. By reason of this Waitsburg was reincorporated by
charter from the Legislature. Under this new charter an election took
place on May 1, 1882, in which the city officials chosen were these:
G. W. Kellicut, mayor; William Fudge, A. L. Kinnear, P. A. Preston, D.
W. Kaup and M. J. Harkness, councilmen.

The mayors of the city in order, beginning in 1883 and extending
annually to 1905, were as follows: W. N. Smith, W. S. Mineer, E. L.
Powell, P. A. Preston, re-elected in 1887 and 1888, C. N. Babcock
in 1889, S. W. Smith in 1890 and 1891, Frank Parton in 1892, J. H.
Morrow in 1893 (and during this year the important step in municipal
development was taken of a city water system), J. W. Morgan in 1894 and
1895, T. L. Hollowell in 1896, D. V. Wood in 1897, E. W. McCann in 1898
and 1899, J. H. Morrow in 1900, T. M. McKinney in 1901 and 1902, E. L.
Wheeler in 1903, C. W. Preston in 1904.

Beginning with 1905 and extending to 1917 the mayors and councilmen
have been these:

1905--Mayor, D. V. Wood. Councilmen--E. M. Denton, W. J. Earnest, T. J.
Hollowell, M. H. Keiser, Frank McCown.

1906--Mayor, J. B. Caldwell. Councilmen--E. M. Denton, H. D. Conover,
W. S. Guntle, J. B. Loundagin, P. C. Perkins.

1907--Mayor, Geo. M. Lloyd. Councilmen--Dr. R. E. Butler, L. H.
Macomber, H. D. Conover, J. B. Loundagin, W. F. Pool.

1908--Mayor, R. M. Breeze. Councilmen--L. H. Macomber, H. D. Conover,
J. B. Loundagin, H. E. Boynton, George Kruchek.

1909--Mayor, R. M. Breeze. Councilmen--J. W. Taylor, L. H. Macomber, J.
C. McAninch, H. E. Boynton, E. M. Denton.

1910--Mayor, M. O. Pickett. Councilmen--H. P. Petersen, Dr. R. E.
Butler, W. J. Earnest, W. G. Shuham, Geo. M. Lloyd.

1911--Mayor, E. L. Wheeler. Councilmen--H. P. Petersen, W. G. Shuham,
D. P. Hayes, R. G. Eichelberger, L. R. Perrine.

1912--Mayor, E. L. Wheeler. Councilmen--L. R. Perrine, D. P. Hayes, R.
G. Eichelberger, Geo. M. Lloyd, A. G. Loundagin.

1913--Mayor, E. L. Wheeler. Councilmen--W. D. Wallace, A. J. Woodworth,
Roland Allen, Forrest Carpenter, D. P. Bailey.

1914--Mayor, W. D. Wallace. Councilmen--D. P. Bailey, A. J. Woodworth,
W. S. Guntle, D. B. Stimmel, J. W. Taylor.

1915--Mayor, E. L. Wheeler. Councilmen--W. D. Wallace, A. J. Woodworth,
J. W. Taylor, O. B. Smith, E. J. Call.

1916--Mayor, E. L. Wheeler. Councilmen--E. J. Call, W. D. Wallace, A.
C. Macomber, A. C. Spafford, A. J. Woodworth.

1917--Mayor, E. L. Wheeler. Councilmen--W. D. Wallace, E. J. Call, A.
J. Woodworth, A. C. Macomber, A. C. Spafford.



CHAPTER II

DISTINCTIVE FEATURES IN HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY


We have already given a general view of the first settlement on the
Touchet, in what is now Columbia County. But a valuable paper by Judge
Chester F. Miller of Dayton, prepared for a club at that city and
published in the _Chronicle_ of April 8, 1916, offers some material so
fitting for an introduction that we avail ourselves of it here. Judge
Miller discusses the meaning of the names of the local streams as
follows:

"It is rather unfortunate that the original Indian name Kinnooenim was
not retained instead of the rather harsh sounding name of Tucanon. Many
people have the idea that Tucanon derived its name from the tradition
that some early expedition buried two cannon on its banks when pressed
by the Indians, but the early expeditions, both explorers and Indian
fighters, did not carry cannon, they did well if they got over the
country with their muskets. The first cannon in this section that we
read about were at Fort Taylor, at the mouth of the Tucanon, built
by Colonel Wright in 1858, which was some time after the creek had
received its present name. I am inclined to adopt the theory that the
name is derived from 'tukanin,' the Nez Percé name for cowse or Indian
bread root, which was generally used by the Indians in making bread. I
have some early recollections of trying to eat some Indian bread made
from crushed cowse, flavored with grasshopper legs.

"The name Patit, called by the Indians Pat-ti-ta, is somewhat in doubt,
one Indian having told me that it was a Nez Percé word meaning small
creek. The word Touchet has never been properly identified, but Ed
Raboin thought it was from the French, and came from the exclamation
'touche' used in fencing with foils, when one of the fencers touched
the other over a vital spot."

The second extract deals with the expulsion of the settlers in the
Indian war of 1855:

"Nathan Olney, the Indian agent at The Dalles, made a trip to the
Walla Walla country seeking to pacify Peupeumoxmox, but this chief
refused the presents offered and repudiated the treaty. Mr. Olney at
once ordered all settlers to leave the country. At this time Chase,
LaFontain and Brooke left their cabins on the Touchet in Columbia
County on their way to The Dalles for supplies; on arriving at the
mouth of the Umatilla, they were informed of the Indian uprising,
and returned to Whitman mission, where a conference was had, and all
the whites agreed to convert the house of Mr. Brooke, just below the
present Huntsville, into a fort and stay with the country. Chase and
LaFontain returned to their ranches at Dayton and on the day agreed on
for the meeting at the Brooke cabin, LaFontain went down to confer with
them, and learned that all the others, who had agreed to stay and fight
it out, had concluded to abandon their places and leave the country.
Chase and LaFontain concluded to stay, and commenced to fortify
the Chase house, which was located in the vicinity of the present
Pietrzycki residence. They had three transient hired men, who at first
agreed to stay, but on the following day the hired men concluded that
they had not lost any Indians, and took their departure. Chase and
LaFontain completed their stockade, ran a bucketful of bullets, stocked
the cabin with provisions, and dug a tunnel to the banks of the Touchet
for water in case of siege, and waited for the Indians.

"They remained for ten days longer, when the constant standing guard
and waiting for the Indians, who had not appeared, began to wear on
their nerves, and they started for the country of the friendly Nez
Perces, picking up Louis Raboin on the Tucanon, and at that time not a
white man remained in Southeastern Washington. On the next day after
they had left the Indians came and burned the Brooke and Chase houses."

Still another interesting extract tells of the controverted point as to
the rights and wrongs of the tragic death of Peupeumoxmox, of which we
have spoken in the chapter on Indian wars:

"During this Indian war no fighting was done in Columbia County and
I will not mention it further than to say that on December 9, 1855,
the battle of the Walla Walla was fought, in which Peupeumoxmox was
killed by the guards while held as a hostage. Some 1,500 Indians were
engaged in this battle against 350 volunteers. The results were twenty
volunteers killed and wounded and 100 dead Indians.

"Some writers, particularly Colonel Gilbert, claim that this chief was
murdered, and his body mutilated by the guards, but I don't believe
it. My father was one of the guards, and he has told me that when the
battle commenced this chief began waving his hands and shouting to his
warriors, giving them directions in regard to the battle, and that
Colonel Kelley rode up and said, 'Tie them or kill them, I don't give a
damn which,' and that when the guards proceeded to tie them the Indians
began to struggle, and one by the name of Wolfskin broke away and
stabbed Sergt. Maj. Isaac Miller in the arm, and that the guards then
began to see red, and the whole thing was off."

In Judge Miller's paper there is also a most valuable view of the
permanent settlements on the Touchet following the close of the wars:

"In 1859 the Indian troubles having ended, the Touchet country was
declared safe for settlers. The first to arrive were Indian traders,
usually squaw-men, who settled at the different crossings of the old
Indian trails and engaged in the business of trading bad whiskey to
the Indians for their cayuse ponies. Some of these probably slipped in
during the fall of '58, as they were here in the spring of '59 when the
first homes