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Title: Mechanical Devices in the Home
Author: Allen, Edith Louise
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                          MECHANICAL DEVICES
                              IN THE HOME


                          EDITH ALLEN, M. A.
          _Assistant Editor, U. S. Department of Agriculture
       Specialist in Home Economics in Kansas State Agricultural
              College, University of Texas, and Oklahoma
                 Agricultural and Mechanical College_

[Illustration: LOGO]

                         THE MANUAL ARTS PRESS
                           PEORIA, ILLINOIS

                            Copyright 1922
                              Edith Allen

               _Printed in the United States of America_


In writing this book, my aim has been (1) to give information which
will guide householders in selecting and installing the best cooking
and heating devices, and in using them with the greatest economy of
fuel and safety against accidents; (2) to explain the construction of
lighting fixtures and how to determine the amount of light for health
needed in various places; (3) to explain the principles of cooling;
(4) to show how to make small repairs which save plumbers' bills; (5)
to guide in the choice and care of laundry appliances and cooking
utensils; (6) to familiarize women with the construction of electric,
acetylene and gas plants and engines, and (7) to furnish tables of
measure often needed for reference.

There is a lack of material of this type which is non-technical enough
for the use of home economics students and housewives. The material
which I have organized applies directly to the appliances with which
women work and is of a nature to fill their need in this field.

The book is designed as a text for senior-high school and
junior-college classes, as well as for the needs of home-demonstration
agents, housewives and other women.

                                              EDITH ALLEN


The author is particularly indebted in the preparation of this book to
John G. Thompson, professor of economics, University of Illinois; J. K.
T. Ekblaw, instructor of farm mechanics, University of Illinois, and
editor of _Farm Power_; Andrey A. Potter, professor of steam and gas
engineering, Kansas State Agricultural College; J. M. Bryant, professor
of electrical engineering, University of Texas; Harrison E. Howe,
National Council of Research; Miss Minna C. Denton, home economics
specialist, United States Department of Agriculture; Miss Marie Dallas,
Washington, D. C.; F. F. Good, instructor in applied physics, Teachers'
College, Columbia University, New York.

The following is a list of companies furnishing illustrations, data and
other information:

  American Blower Company.
  American Ironing Machine Co.
  American Lava Co.
  American Radiator Co.
  American Stove Co.
  Automatic Electric Washer Co.
  Baltimore Gas Appliance Co.
  Bates & Edmonds Motor Co.
  Bissel's Carpet Sweeper Co.
  Blake Mfg. Co.
  C. Brown Mfg. Co.
  B. Bryan Co.
  Central Construction & Supply Co.
  Central Oil & Gas Stove Co.
  Chambers Fireless Cooker Stove Co.
  Geo. M. Clark & Co.
  Cleveland Metal Products Co.
  Coleman Lamp Co.
  Consolidated Gas, Electric Light
  and Power Co.
  Cyphers Incubator Co.
  Dangler Stove Co.
  Davis Acetylene Co.
  The DeLaval Separator Co.
  Delco Motor Co.
  The Deming Co.
  Detroit Heating & Lighting Co.
  Detroit Stove Works.
  Detroit Vapor Stove Co.
  A. B. Dick Co.
  W. S. Dickey Clay Mfg. Co.
  The Durham Mfg. Co.
  Eagle Generator Co.
  Fuller, Warren & Co.
  General Electric Co.
  Hammond Typewriter Co.
  Hart & Crouse Co.
  Herrick Refrigerator Co.
  Huenfield Co.
  Humphrey Co.
  Hurley Machine Co.
  Kalamazoo Stove Co.
  Kewanee Water Supply Co.
  Klau-Van Pietersom-Dunlap.
  Landers, Frary, Clark & Co.
  Laundryette Mfg. Co.
  Manning, Bowman & Co.
  Mantle Lamp Co. of America.
  H. G. McFadden & Co.
  The Monitor Stove Co.
  National Electric Supply Co.
  Northwestern Steel & Iron Works.
  Pacific Flush Tank Co.
  Potomac Power & Lighting Co.
  Rathbone, Sard & Co.
  Reliable Stove Co.
  Remnert Mfg. Co.
  Rhinelander Refrigerator Co.
  Ringen Stove Co.
  Rochester Rotary Washer Co.
  Rochester Stamping Co.
  Sears, Roebuck & Co.
  Sharples Separator Co.
  Singer Sewing Machine Co.
  L. C. Smith & Bros. Typewriting Company.
  Standard Oil Co.
  Edward L. Stock.
  Thatcher Furnace Co.
  The Torrington Co.
  Toledo Cooker Co.
  Trenton Potteries Co.
  United Electric Co.
  United Pump & Power Co.
  United States Dept. of Agriculture.
  United States Radiator Co.
  Voss Bros. Mfg. Co.
  Walker Bros. Co.
  Welsbach Co.
  Western Electric Co.
  White Frost Refrigerator Co.
  White Mop and Wringer Co.
  Wilcox & Gibbs Sewing Machine Co.
  The Yale & Towne Mfg. Co.

                           TABLE OF CONTENTS


  CHAPTER I. WOOD AND COAL STOVES                                     15

  1. Air supply of fire. 2. The grate. 3. Drafts or dampers. 4.
  Starting the fire. 5. Keeping a fire. 6. Heating the oven. 7.
  Ashes. 8. Ash chutes.

  CHAPTER II. GAS STOVES                                              23

  9. Burners. 10. Simmerers. 11. Air mixer. 12. Regulating the
  gas. 13. Lighting the stove. 14. Cleaning the stove. 15. Accidents
  with gas stove. 16. Pilot light. 17. Pilot for top burners.
  18. Gas-stove lighter. 19. Amount of gas used. 20. Cold-process
  gasoline gas stoves. 21. Acetylene stoves.

  CHAPTER III. OIL STOVES                                             31

  22. Purpose of oil stoves. 23. Mechanical parts of kerosene stove.
  24. The burner. 25. The chimney. 26. Lighting the stove. 27.
  Management of the flame. 28. Adjustment and care of the stove.
  29. When the stoves gives trouble. 30. Construction of gasoline
  stoves. 31. To light the stove. 32. Filling the gasoline stove.
  33. When a burner blazes and cannot be controlled. 34. Changing
  fuel in vapor stoves. 35. Operation of vapor stoves.

  CHAPTER IV. ELECTRIC STOVES                                         42

  36. Heating unit of electric stove. 37. Wiring of stoves. 38.
  Operation of electric stoves. 39. Care of electric stoves. 40.
  Utensils for electric stoves. 41. Detachable cooking devices.


  42. Alcohol stoves. 43. Vapor stoves. 44. Wickless stoves. 45.
  Canned heat. 46. Acetylene gas stoves.

  CHAPTER VI. FIRELESS AND STEAM COOKERS                              50

  47. The fireless cooker. 48. The stones of fireless cookers. 49.
  Heating the stones. 50. Care of the cooker. 51. Other devices
  belonging to cookers. 52. Directions for using the cooker. 53.
  Time of cooking food. 54. Gas cookers. 55. Steam cookers.


  CHAPTER VII. WARM-AIR FURNACES                                      57

  56. Principle upon which a furnace works. 57. The stove part.
  58. The cold-air shaft. 59. Hot-air pipes. 60. Location of the
  furnace. 61. Air. 62. Pipeless furnaces.

  CHAPTER VIII. HOT-WATER SYSTEM OF HEATING                           64

  63. Equipment for hot-water heat. 64. Heating unit. 65. The
  management of the fire. 66. The pipes. 67. Expansion tank.
  68. Water. 69. Radiators.

  CHAPTER IX. STEAM-HEATING SYSTEMS                                   69

  70. Equipment for steam heat. 71. Steam gages. 72. Safety

  CHAPTER X. FIREPLACES AND HEATING STOVES                            74

  73. Construction of fireplace. 74. Management of fireplace.
  75. Operating heating stoves. 76. Care of the stove.


  77. Kinds of gas heaters. 78. Bunsen burner and asbestos-back
  heater. 79. Lighting gas stoves. 80. Care of gas stoves.
  81. Illuminating flame and bright metal reflector heaters.
  82. Gas radiator heaters. 83. Management of gas radiator.
  84. Kerosene heaters. 85. Electric heaters. 86. Acetylene heaters.


  CHAPTER XII. ELECTRIC LIGHTS                                        82

  87. Kinds of electric lamps in use. 88. Electrical measurements.
  89. Carbon lamps. 90. Mazda or tungsten lamps. 91. Selecting
  lamps for a room. 92. Effect of color schemes upon illumination.
  93. Distribution of light.

  CHAPTER XIII. GAS LIGHT                                             88

  94. Construction of mantles. 95. Care of mantles. 96. Fixtures
  for burning gas. 97. Adjustment. 98. Care of lamps. 99. Lighting
  a gas light. 100. Cold-process gasoline gas. 101. Acetylene
  lamps. 102. Care of burners of acetylene lamps.

  CHAPTER XIV. KEROSENE LAMPS                                         93

  103. Construction of kerosene lamps. 104. Management of kerosene
  lamps. 105. Lighting a kerosene lamp. 106. To extinguish
  a lamp. 107. Care of lamps. 108. Kerosene mantle lamps.

  CHAPTER XV. ALCOHOL AND GASOLINE LAMPS                              96

  109. Classification of lamps. 110. Gravity lamps. 111. Lighting
  the gravity lamp. 112. Pressure lamps. 113. Gasoline lamps
  with wicks. 114. Alcohol lamps with wicks. 115. Lighting alcohol
  or gasoline lamps.


  CHAPTER XVI. REFRIGERATORS                                         100

  116. Principles of refrigeration. 117. The construction of
  refrigerators. 118. Lining refrigerators. 119. Insulation
  of refrigerators. 120. Circulation in refrigerators.
  121. Drip from melting ice. 122. Arrangement of food in the
  ice box. 123. Filling and care of the ice box.


  124. Comparative efficiency of iceless refrigerators. 125. Iceless
  refrigerator. 126. Small cooler. 127. Covered pail. 128. Unglazed
  earthenware. 129. Cooling with running water. 130. Refrigerating
  plants. 131. Water coolers. 132. Care of water coolers.

  CHAPTER XVIII. FANS AND VENTILATORS                                110

  133. Selecting a fan. 134. The construction of the fan in common
  use. 135. Ventilator.


  CHAPTER XIX. PUMPS AND WATER FILTERS                               112

  136. Suction pumps. 137. Care of pumps. 138. Force pumps.
  139. Compressed-air pumps. 140. Water filters.


  141. Pressure tanks. 142. Construction of the pressure tank.
  143. Care of pressure tanks. 144. Hot-water kitchen tank.
  145. Instantaneous water heaters. 146. Heaters for tanks. 147.
  The elevated water tank. 148. Faucets. 149. Valves.
  150. Overflows. 151. Traps for bath tubs and basins.


  152. Releative value of cesspool and septic tank.
  153. Construction of the septic tank. 154. The size of tank.
  155. Disposal of waste in cities.

  CHAPTER XXII. WATER CLOSETS                                        128

  156. Construction of water closets. 157. Siphoning the trap.
  158. The flushing tank. 159. Repairing the flushing tank.


  CHAPTER XXIII. WASHING MACHINES                                    132

  160. Kinds of washing machines. 161. Suction machines. 162.
  Cylinder washers. 163. Rotary washers. 164. Machine with
  an oscillating washing device. 165. Oscillating washers. 166.
  Locomotive washer. 167. Centrifugal washer. 168. Care of

  CHAPTER XXIV. WRINGERS                                             138

  169. Roller wringer. 170. Care of wringers. 171. Centrifugal
  wringer or drier. 172. Care of the machine. 173. Combination
  washer and wringer.

  CHAPTER XXV. MANGLES AND IRONS                                     141

  174. Construction of mangles. 175. Cold mangles. 176. Heated
  mangles. 177. Care and use of mangles. 178. Flat, or sadirons.
  179. Charcoal irons. 180. Electric irons. 181. Gas irons. 182.
  Acetylene irons. 183. Alcohol irons. 184. Gasoline irons.



  185. Principle upon which vacuum cleaners work. 186. Different
  kinds of vacuum cleaners. 187. Nozzle of vacuum cleaner. 188.
  Cautions in using vacuum cleaners. 189. Difference between hand
  and power cleaners. 190. Carpet sweeper. 191. Mop wringers.


  CHAPTER XXVII. POTS, PANS AND OTHER DEVICES                        155

  192. Materials from which Utensils are made. 193. Aluminum
  alloy. 194. Cast-iron utensils. 195. Earthenware. 196. Aluminum
  and graniteware. 197. Mixing spoons.


  198. Fruit and vegetable parers and knives. 199. Parers which
  grate off skins. 200. Seeders and Stoners. 201. Cherry stoner.
  202. Grinders. 203. Choppers or meat grinders. 204. Choppers.
  205. Slicers. 206. Lard and fruit presses, sausage stuffers.


  207. Use of mixers, beaters and churns. 208. Care of these
  devices. 209. Freezers. 210. Care of freezers. 211. Churns.
  212. Drip coffee pots. 213. Percolator coffee pots.


  214. Dish dryer. 215. Cleaning silver. 216. Canners. 217.
  Water seal. 218. Pressure canners. 219. Use of the canner.
  220. Dryers. 221. Care of dryers.

  CHAPTER XXXI. SEPARATORS AND EMULSIFIERS                           178

  222. Cream separators. 223. Different types of separators. 224.
  Washing the machine. 225. Oiling. 226. Whey separator. 227.



  228. Dumbwaiters and window adjustments.  229. Check valves.
  230. Door fastener. 231. Window shades.  232. Hinges. 233.
  Sliding doors.

  CHAPTER XXXIII. SEWING MACHINES                                    186

  234. Different types of sewing machines. 235. Lock-stitch sewing
  machine. 236. Feed plate. 237. Bobbins. 238. Shuttle bobbins.
  239. Chain-stitch machine. 240. Cautions for all machines.
  241. General instructions.

  CHAPTER XXXIV. AUTOMOBILES                                         192

  242. Starting the motor. 243. Driving the automobile. 244.
  Care of car.

  CHAPTER XXXV. LAWN MOWERS; INCUBATORS                              195

  245. Operation and care of lawn mowers. 246. Storing mowers.
  247. Scissors and shears. 248. Principles upon which incubator
  works. 249. The body of the incubator. 250. Incubators heated
  by a lamp. 251. The wick. 252. Thermostat. 253. The thermometer.
  254. Operation of incubator. 255. Egg tester.

  CHAPTER XXXVI. TYPEWRITERS                                         202

  256. Construction of typewriter. 257. Special features of
  typewriter. 258. Interchangeable-type typewriters. 259. Care
  of typewriters. 260. The hectograph. 261. Mimeograph and


  CHAPTER XXXVII. TREADLES AND WATER MOTORS                          209

  262. Definition of motor. 263. The treadle. 264. Water motors.
  265. Selecting a water motor. 266. Two types of water


  267. Gasoline engines. 268. Figuring speed of pulleys. 269.
  Operating the engine. 270. Points in caring for engine. 271.
  Generating electricity for homes. 272. Batteries. 273. Liquid
  batteries. 274. A dry-cell battery. 275. Storage batteries. 276.
  Some uses for electric motors. 277. Definition tables.

  CHAPTER XXXIX. GAS PLANTS                                          220

  278. Gasoline gas plants. 279. Acetylene-gas plant. 280.
  Directions for operating acetylene plant. 281. Cautions to be
  observed in using acetylene gas. 282. Compressed gases and oils.


  CHAPTER XL. SCALES FOR WEIGHING                                    225

  283. Equal-arm balances. 284. Unequal-arm balances. 285. Spring

  CHAPTER XLI. DEVICES FOR MEASURING VOLUME                          227

  286. Graduate and measuring cup. 287. Tablespoons. 288. Teaspoons.
  289. Standard measuring spoons. 290. Liquid and cooking
  measures. 291. Dry measures. 292. Cubic, square and linear

  CHAPTER XLII. GAS, WATER AND ELECTRIC METERS                       230

  293. Different kinds of meters. 294. Construction of a gas meter.
  295. Reading the gas meter. 296. Water meters. 297. Prepayment
  meters. 298. The electric meter.


  299. Mercury thermometers. 300. Oven thermometer. 301. Maximum
  thermometers. 302. Thermostats.

  CHAPTER XLIV. HYDROMETERS AND BAROMETERS                           237

  303. Hydrometer. 304. Hygroscopes. 305. Barometers.





A brief explanation of stoves is given in this chapter to help the
woman with a new stove or with an old one which she does not understand
so that she may manage it without wasting fuel and nervous energy.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. Cross-section of cooking stove.]

Cooking stoves (Fig. 1) were invented as a convenient means for holding
pots and pans in close proximity to the fire. They include a device for
regulating the supply of air to the burning fuel.

=1. Air Supply for Fire.= A proper amount of air must be supplied to
the fuel to produce a hot fire. A smoky or yellow flame indicates a
lack of sufficient air to produce complete combustion of the fuel.
Smoke is unburnt fuel. A smoky fire does not produce as much heat as
one which burns with a blue or almost colorless flame. It is usually
not the fault of the fuel, but the way it is being used that causes a
smoky fire.

=2. The Grate.= Cooking stoves may be constructed for burning either
wood or coal. In both cases, the operation is similar, except that more
air should be passing thru the stove while wood is being burnt. For
burning coal, the grate should be less open in order to prevent the
coal from falling thru. Some modern stoves are made with double grates.
These may be turned so that the more open part of them is used for
supporting the wood, and the less open part for coal.

[Illustration: FIG. 1-_a_. Grate.]

These grates are usually reversed by a stove shaker. (Fig. 1-_a_ shows
a detailed drawing of a grate.) The housekeeper must understand how
this is done in order to avoid reversing them when she shakes down the
ashes. Two difficulties arise in reversing the grate when the stove
is filled with fuel. The coal may be wasted by falling thru the part
intended for wood, or pieces of fuel may fall between the parts so that
they cannot be moved. When this happens, it is best to let the fire go
out, take out the fuel, adjust the grates as they should be and rebuild
the fire.

=3. Drafts or Dampers.= There are from three to six dampers on a stove
(Figs. 1 and 2), as follows:

1) The draft below the fire box, found on all stoves, is to let in air
to the burning fire.

2) The draft above the fire box, not found on all stoves, when slightly
opened, lets in air which completes the combustion of the gases arising
from the top of the fire. When opened too wide, it checks the burning
of the fire.

3) The oven damper, found on all cook stoves, is placed at the point
where the flame naturally enters the stove pipe. When this damper is
closed, the flame must go around the oven instead of directly up the

To see the oven damper, take off the lid nearest the stove pipe and
watch the direction of the flame. The handle to the oven damper may
be at the side of the pipe on top of the stove or at the front of the
stove under the top near the reservoir. Closing this damper causes
the hot gases from the fire to go back over the top of the stove down
behind the oven, turn under the oven and come up the chimney. Good
stoves are constructed so that the hot gases come in contact with every
part of the oven. This makes a longer journey for the gases, but, if
the drafts in the front of the stove and chimney are properly adjusted,
the gases will make the circuit without forming soot.

[Illustration: FIG. 2. Drafts and dampers in stove-pipe.]

4) A damper in the stove pipe (Fig. 2) for letting air from the room
into the pipe serves to check the burning of the fire by taking the
place of the draft thru the stove.

5) A damper, or shutter, found in the pipe or chimney of most stoves,
when closed, checks the draft up the chimney, and, when open, lets it
pass freely.

6) The reservoir damper, found on some stoves having reservoirs, lets
the hot gases pass next to the reservoir when open and prevents this
when closed.

=4. Starting the Fire.= If the stove has a reversible grate, see that
it is adjusted to suit the fuel before building the fire; then adjust
the drafts. Open the draft below the fire box, the oven damper, and the
shutter in the chimney; close the draft above the fire box, and the
draft which lets air from the room into the pipe, so that the air may
pass up thru the fire box and directly up the chimney. Some chimneys
produce such strong drafts that the shutter in the chimney has to be
kept closed most of the time, even when starting the fire. After the
fuel has become ignited, the draft below the fire may be partly closed
so that it burns less rapidly. If the fire is to be used for heating
water or food on top of the stove, it is now ready for use. If it is
still burning too rapidly, the draft may be entirely closed, or the
shutter in the chimney partly closed. If at any time the stove smokes,
the shutter or drafts above the fire may be closed too much and should
be opened enough to let all the smoke pass. Adding too much fuel at one
time and not spreading it in a thin layer over the entire surface of
the fire may cause the stove to smoke.

=5. Keeping a Fire.= If, after a fire has been used, it is wanted for
use later, close the draft below the fire box, open the one above the
fire box, or, if there chances to be no draft here, tilt the lids on
the stove to let in the air; close the shutter in the chimney and open
the draft in the pipe that lets in air from the room. With the drafts
so adjusted, the fire should keep a long time, as it will burn very

=6. Heating the Oven.= When baking is to be done, wait until the fire
is well started; then close the oven damper. The eveness of heat in the
oven depends upon the even distribution of the hot gases below and on
the sides of it. This is provided for in the manufacture of the stove
itself. The heat in the oven may be regulated by the intensity of the
heat from the fire as well as by the damper. Whenever a cooler oven
is wanted, the flame may be permitted to go directly up the chimney.
Since hot air is always seeking a higher level than cold air, opening
the oven door cools the oven, but it will not prevent food set on the
bottom of the oven from burning on the bottom. In a closed oven, the
greatest degree of heat is at the top, excepting sometimes the surface
of the bottom of the oven. Many stoves require the placing of a thin
grating on the bottom of the oven to prevent food from burning on the
bottom. If food does not brown sufficiently on the bottom, remove the
grating so that the dish comes in closer contact with the heating unit.

The insulation of the oven door helps to hold heat in the oven, but
the amount lost here is so small that many housekeepers prefer the
convenience of the glass door, which, in turn, saves heat by doing away
with the necessity of opening the oven door to watch the cooking food.

Some housewives adjust the dampers for heating the oven and then never
change them. They heat the kitchen in summer more than is necessary
and use more fuel than they need for cooking. It has been estimated
that where the careful manager of a stove uses one pound of fuel, the
careless manager uses three and a half pounds.

One experiment station estimated that the household coal range is used
on an average of six hours a day, and, if used carefully, seven pounds
of coal is consumed. Careless management, then, makes the waste of coal
quite an item in the course of a year, as it is not unusual for the
careless manager to use twenty-four pounds of coal per six-hour day.

There is always some soot formed, even in the best-managed stoves, and
the flame often carries ashes with it. These in time fill the narrow
space about the oven and cut off or check the passage of the hot gases
about the oven. When this happens and the oven damper is closed, the
stove will smoke and not bake well. No stove should be allowed to get
in this condition. The housewife can watch the accumulation of ashes
in the stove and remove them before they become one-fourth inch thick.
If this is not done, the oven will not heat well and some parts may be
considerably cooler than others.

=7. Ashes.= Ashes allowed to accumulate in the fire box will cause the
lining of the stove to burn out. Ashes will also interfere with the
heating of the rest of the stove. To lengthen the life of a stove, keep
the ash pan empty. If a full pan of ashes becomes hot, it will keep the
grate of the stove so hot that it will warp and burn out, and sometimes
cause the oven to warp.

If a housewife tries to build a fresh fire in a stove with a full
ash pan, she will have to wait for the ashes to become heated thru
before she can get satisfactory use of the oven. She will be unable to
regulate the temperature of the oven if it becomes too hot. It is a
great waste of fuel to heat a large pan full of ashes.

[Illustration: FIG. 3. Ash chute.]

=8. Ash Chutes.= In some modern houses, there are ash chutes which
carry the ashes directly from the kitchen stove to a receptacle in
the basement (Fig. 3). These have to be installed with care. If there
is a draft of air which cannot be regulated from the basement up thru
the fire box, the fire will burn too fast. There should be a damper to
regulate drafts here. An ash chute saves much dirt in the kitchen.



The gas stove is the simplest stove made. It consists of a burner or
burners of different shapes mounted on a suitable frame. The best
example of a gas burner is a pipe with holes punched in it, where the
gas flows out and is set on fire. This pipe may be coiled into a circle
and make a round burner, or the holes may all come at the end, which is
arranged to spread the gas into a disc shape.

=9. Burners.= Stoves are usually made with different sizes of burners.
One manufacturer states that the gas stoves made by his firm consume
per top burner per hour fourteen to eighteen feet of gas, and the oven
burners consume eighteen to twenty feet when the gas is turned on full.
Simmerers consume much less than this.

=10. Simmerers.= Every gas range should have a simmerer on it. This
is a small burner, usually about an inch in diameter. After a large
kettle full of food has been heated to boiling, this burner may keep it
simmering for hours, using very little gas. This burner will keep small
kettles of food boiling.

=11. Air Mixer.= Gas escaping from any pipe will burn, but it will burn
with a yellow flame. To make gas burn with a blue flame--that is, to
secure complete combustion--air must be mixed with it. This is done in
the air mixer (Fig. 4). The blue flame is desirable for cooking because
it is hotter than the yellow flame and does not blacken the cooking

Gas passes thru the air mixer before entering the burner. Sometimes the
air inlet is only a hole put in the under side of the pipe. The opening
for entrance of air is shielded so that the gas will not escape from
the mixer, but will go on into the burner. A gas pipe looks about half
an inch in diameter, but the stream of gas which is allowed to flow
into the burner is very small, in some cases being about the diameter
of a darning needle. The opening for air is so large, that a person's
finger may be put into it.

Too much air interferes with the burning of the gas; in fact, there
can be so much air mixed with gas that it will not burn. The air mixer
regulates the amount of air which flows into the pipe. Once this is
adjusted for the kind of gas to be used, it seldom needs to be changed.
The air shutter has to be changed, however, if the gas pressure varies
markedly from time to time. Readjustment may be required if the stove
is moved and connected with a different supply of gas. When adjusting
the mixer for high pressure, artificial or natural gas, close the
shutter until the flame will not blow away from the cone, but will burn
with a blue, almost colorless, flame.

[Illustration: FIG. 4. Part of gas stove showing air mixers.]

=12. Regulating the Gas.= The amount of gas which passes into the
stove is also regulated, first, by adjustment of the size of the small
opening thru which the gas must flow. Once this is adjusted, it does
not need to be changed so long as the gas comes from the same source.
Second, the flow of gas is regulated by the lever valve. As the valve
is turned, the flow of gas is restricted so that it flows less swiftly.
The size of the stream of gas going into the stove always looks the
same regardless of its speed. When the rate is not so fast, the fire
burns lower because less gas comes to it during every unit of time.

=13. Lighting the Stove.= Light the top burners by first striking
a match, and then turning on the burner so that there will be an
unrestricted flow of gas. Count three before applying the match. This
gives time for the burner to fill with gas. If the match goes out, shut
off the gas and try again. If it burns back into the air hole, also
turn off the gas and begin again. Probably the match was applied too
soon. Gas stoves get out of order because of carelessness in lighting
them. The force of the explosions caused in burning back loosens
connections and may disturb the adjustment of the mixer and valve.

[Illustration: FIG. 5. Cleaning gas stove.]

=14. Cleaning the Stove.= Housekeepers should keep their gas stoves
clean. Dirt interferes with the passage of the gas thru the burners.
Gas stoves should be cleaned thoroly once a month. Scrub the burners
with a stiff brush (Fig. 5), and wash all greasy parts with soap and
water. If the holes should be clogged, remove the stoppage with a wire
hair-pin (Fig. 6). Clean the drip sheet every day, or as often as it
becomes soiled. (Fig. 4.)

=15. Accidents with Gas Stove.= Accidents with gas stoves are the
result of mismanagement. The odor of gas in a room indicates a leak
in the gas fixtures, such as stoves or pipes. When such an odor is
noticed, open windows and extinguish all fires in the room or building.
Next search for the leak. It may be due to an open valve. See that
these are all shut tight. If no valves are open, send for a plumber
who looks after gas fixtures. Leave the windows open and do not carry
lighted matches or lamps into the room until the leak has been stopped.

[Illustration: FIG. 6. Cleaning burner of gas stove.]

Many accidents happen at the time the oven is being lighted. Sometimes
gas escapes into a closed oven, so that its odor is not noticed in
the kitchen. This gas catches fire or explodes when the oven burner
is lighted, blowing the oven door open or off the hinges, flashing
out of the oven, and burning any person near the stove. To avoid such
accidents, always open the oven and broiler doors a few minutes before
lighting the oven. Fig. 7 shows construction of gas-stove oven. If any
odor of gas is noticed on opening the doors, fan this out. Leave the
oven and broiler doors open a while after extinguishing the fire and
removing the cooked food. Gas may get into the oven at the time the
flame is extinguished.

[Illustration: FIG. 7. Gas ovens.]

=16. Pilot Light.= Most stoves are constructed so that there is a pilot
light for the oven. Always use it when lighting the oven. It is put
there for the safety of those using the stove. There is no need for
alarm when a pilot burns back, no matter how much noise it makes, since
so little gas flows thru the opening. One of the functions of a pilot
light is to prevent people from being burnt in case of an explosion in
the oven. For this reason, they should be at the side of the stove.

If the pilot burns back, close it; wait a minute, and then try lighting
it again. The regular burners of the stove should not burn back if
properly lighted by the pilot. Be careful to see that every part of the
oven burner becomes lighted. Turn the burners on full while lighting
them. After they are once lighted, turn them as low as desired.

[Illustration: FIG. 8. Pilot light for gas stove.]

=17. Pilot for Top Burners.= A pilot made for top burners (Fig. 8)
burns continuously with a very tiny flame. Its purpose is to save gas,
patience, dirt and matches. The saving comes because the housekeeper
can so easily re-light the burners that she will turn them out whenever
she is not needing the fire. Sometimes when the gas pressure is low,
the pilot light will go out. It can be re-lighted by pressing the valve
as for lighting the burners and touching a match to it. If the pilot
goes out, the odor of gas will be noticed in the kitchen until it is

[Illustration: FIG. 9. Top view of gas stove, showing lighter.]

=18. Gas-Stove Lighter.= There are two kinds of gas-stove lighters.
These differ from the pilot in that they do not burn constantly. One
of these is so constructed that it is first necessary to apply a match
to any one of the top burners. The other burners can then be lighted
by opening the valve in the regular manner and pressing down on the
lighter knob. As soon as pressure on the lighter knob is removed, the
gas supply to the lighter is automatically cut off (Fig. 9). The other
lighter is made of metal which gives sparks easily when subjected to
friction. The lighter is held over the stove, the gas turned on and the
friction produced by rubbing one part of the lighter across the other,
making a spark which ignites the gas.

=19. Amount of Gas Used.= It is claimed that 1,000 feet of illuminating
gas produce as much heat as 50 or 60 pounds of anthracite coal or 4-1/2
gallons of kerosene oil. (See table on page 219.)

The difference in gas bills, due to management of gas stoves, is
considerable. It is very easy for one woman to use three times as much
gas as another in doing the same amount of work. Some women do not
realize when they are wasting gas.

Water boils in an uncovered vessel at 212 degrees Fahrenheit, and
no amount of heat applied to it will make it any hotter. When a pot
of food has reached the boiling point, a smaller flame will keep it
boiling. Turn the gas as low as it may be safely turned and still keep
the pot boiling, and the food will cook as rapidly as when the gas is
turned on full.

[Illustration: FIG. 10. Single top burner and valve.]

Gas is a safe fuel in most hands; it saves the housekeeper much labor
because it makes so little dirt. When properly managed, it is the
cheapest fuel to be had at the present time.

=20. Cold-Process Gasoline Gas Stoves.= Cold-process gasoline stoves
require a burner fitted with valves in which the gas orifice can be
enlarged or diminished. The best of these for using cold-process
gasoline gas can be adjusted by a turn of the finger.

[Illustration: FIG. 10-_a_. Oven burner.]

The adjustment of the valve is to compensate for the neglect upon
the part of users of these plants. Very frequently they will allow
the supply of gasoline in the carburetor to run nearly out before
they replenish it, in which case the gas comes to the burners in a
thinner quality, and in order to provide the same volume of heat, it
is necessary to adjust the burner valves and throw a larger stream of
gas into the burner. They are sometimes fitted with burners having
side-sawed caps (Figs. 10 and 10-_a_). These seem to expose the burning
gas to the air in a way to make it burn better than in other burners
built for gas forced into them by greater pressure than is this gas.
The opening for air must be adjusted from time to time so as to keep
the proportion of gas and air such that it will produce a blue flame.

=21. Acetylene Stoves.= Stoves for the burning of acetylene are similar
in construction to gas stoves. The acetylene furnishes a satisfactory
and economical light, it is not an economical fuel when compared with
kerosene, gas, wood or coal. For this reason, it is not much used. It
requires two and three-tenths units of acetylene gas to equal one unit
of natural gas for heating.



[Illustration: FIG. 11. Parts of oil stove burner.]

=22. Purpose of Oil Stoves.= Oil stoves are designed for the comfort
of the woman who cannot have a gas or an electric stove. They consist
of tank, feed pipe and burners (Figs. 11-_a_ and 11-_b_). As they are
portable, they can be moved to a summer kitchen or sheltered back porch
on hot summer days.

Oil stoves are not fool-proof and should never be used by those who are
afraid of them and who do not understand them. Manufacturers have done
much to make accidents avoidable, and they send detailed instructions
with each stove. These should be followed exactly.

=23. Mechanical Parts of Kerosene Stove.= The kerosene oil stove
consists of a tank of oil with a pipe leading to a hollow ring-like
cup below the burner (_A_, Fig. 11). When the burner is lighted, the
oil passes down this pipe into the ring, where it becomes heated and
is vaporized. As the vapor rises, it is mixed with air and burns with
a blue flame. The small holes in the chimney of the burner and at the
base of the burner are to admit air. They must be kept open.

[Illustration: FIG. 11-_a_. Large oil stove with oven.]

If the burner is dirty or not properly adjusted, the right amount of
air may not reach the vaporized oil to mix with it and the stove will
burn with a yellow flame, making soot and smoke.

=24. The Burner.= The burner consists of a chimney, a wick or ring
of asbestos, a valve or a lever, and a ring-like cup at the base of
the burner. There are three distinct types of burners known as long
chimney, short chimney and wickless. The wickless stoves are equipped
with a ring of asbestos which serves the purpose of a wick.

[Illustration: FIG. 11-_b_. Oil stove without oven.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12. Oil stove burner, showing fire close to

The burners on one oil stove are usually all alike. The burners on
various makes differ. Those in which the flame comes nearest the kettle
or cooking food produce the most heat for cooking (Fig. 12). Those
with the blaze farther away from the food seem to be easier for the
excitable woman to manage (Fig. 13).

=25. The Chimney.= Kerosene stoves are furnished with metal chimneys.
A device for mixing air with the burning fuel forms a part of short
chimneys (_B_, Fig. 11). The chimney must set on the burner properly,
or the stove will not burn with a blue flame. After lighting a burner,
give the chimney a turn or two to make sure that it is in place. There
is usually a groove into which it fits.

[Illustration: FIG. 13. Burner for oil stove.]

=26. Lighting the Stove.= When lighting a stove, turn the valve which
permits the oil to flow (_C_, Fig. 11) into the cup below the burner,
or lower the lighter into the oil. Wait a moment, if need be, for the
wick or ring to become saturated with oil. Raise the chimney and touch
the lighted match to the ring or wick at several places. (Fig. 14, and
Fig. 11, also, show the position of the chimney and wick for lighting.)
Lower the chimney, seeing that it fits back into place. Adjust the wick
to the proper height to get a blue flame (Fig. 15). Do not turn very
high at first, for, while the stove is becoming heated, the flame burns
higher and higher, and may begin to smoke.

[Illustration: FIG. 14. Lighting oil stove.]

=27. Management of the Flame.= Turn the flame no higher than is needed
to keep the pot boiling. Some stoves do not burn well when turned very
low. Do not have the flame so high or so low that it gives off smoke or
gas. When turning out the fire, be sure to turn the wick clear down,
or turn the valve or lever (Fig. 12) to the point indicated as _out_
on stoves which lift the ring above the oil. If this precaution is not
taken, most stoves leak oil when not in use, because the wick or rings
carry oil to the upper part of the burner where it spreads over the

=28. Adjustment and Care of the Stove.= To prevent trouble with uneven
flames, set the stove perfectly level, particularly the wickless one.
Keep the tank filled, but not too full. Stoves are made so that it is
difficult to fill them too full. An oil stove cannot explode unless gas
has formed in some part, like the tank, and becomes ignited by heat or
a spark. Gas is more likely to collect in the tank when it is almost

[Illustration: FIG. 15. Different types of flames.]

When the tank is removed for filling, any gas forming passes out into
the room and mixes with so much air that it is harmless. If it is
filled before the oil burns out of the pipe above the level of the
burners, no gas will be formed.

Stoves must be kept clean. A clean stove means one with a clean
framework, clean burners, clean chimney, clean oil and a clean wick or

If a stove has not been in use for some time, replace the old wick with
a fresh one (Fig. 16). Clean the stove by wiping off all the parts with
a cloth. Keep the charred edges of the wick trimmed level. The wick
with a crust of char on top does not burn well. Use a match or small
stick in removing the char. Light the wick to see if it is even. If any
point burns with a yellow flame, trim this place until the wick burns
even. The tank can easily and quickly be lifted off modern oil stoves.
Do not refill near a lighted stove.

=29. When the Stove Gives Trouble.= In case the stove begins to blaze
and cannot be controlled by the valves, remove the tank and carry it
to some safe place where the kerosene in it cannot catch fire. When
this is done, there is less than a pint of oil left in most stoves, and
this will soon burn out without doing much harm, if clothing and water
are kept away from the blaze. Open windows and doors to let out gases
and smoke. If necessary, move the stove away from walls or furniture.
Do not attempt to smother out the flame. There is too much danger
of clothing catching fire when this is done. It is far safer to let
the small amount of oil left in the stove burn up. Oil stoves cannot
explode when the tank is removed.

[Illustration: FIG. 16. Inserting new wick.]

As soon as the oil has burnt out of the pipes and the wicks are burning
with a dull glow, extinguish the smoldering fire on the wicks by
patting them with the blade of a knife or a piece of woolen cloth.

If a burner has been blazing beyond control, remove the chimney. Brush
out any soot which has formed. Examine the burner, taking it apart,
if possible. Blazing may come from wicks not fitting, or from their
getting so short that the screw on the lever fails to move them up or
down. The ring in wickless stoves may not be thick enough, or they may
have slipped out of place, or become broken. Replace with new wicks or

Notice if any part of the burner shows evidence of melting. If it does,
do not use this burner until inspected and mended by an expert. If the
lever has become worn so that it fails to work, it must be replaced or
a new burner put on the stove.

=30. Construction of Gasoline Stoves.= The gasoline stoves consist of
a burner and an oil tank connected by a pipe (Fig. 17). The tank is
elevated for the purpose of forcing the gasoline into the burner. The
pipe may be any length. The danger from a gasoline stove comes from
the fact that gasoline vaporizes at a low temperature. If the tank
becomes heated, producing gas, and then becomes mixed with the proper
proportion of air, it may explode if it comes in contact with a spark.
(Fig. 17-_a_ is an illustration of the cross-section of the Red Star
gasoline or vapor stove. See page 38.)

[Illustration: FIG. 17. Simple gasoline burner.]

From the pipe to the burner is a very small opening, so that a stream
of gasoline little larger than the diameter of a needle flows into the
burner proper, when the valve is open. The valve may be partly closed
so that the stream will not flow so fast.

Below the burner is a small cup. When the stove is cold, the gasoline
flowing into the burner collects here.

=31. To Light the Stove.= The way to light the stove is to turn on the
gasoline until it fills the cup below the burner. When this is full,
close the valve. Set this gasoline on fire. As it burns, it will heat
the burner.

The burner is heated so that when more gasoline is turned on, this heat
will change the gasoline to gas. If the burner is not hot enough to do
this, the gasoline flowing from the pipe will flow down into the cup
and the stove will burn with a smoky flame which becomes higher and
higher and looks very alarming.

When this happens, the valve should be closed, and the fire permitted
to burn all the gasoline which has collected in the cup. This may be
sufficient to heat the burner. Test after the fire has gone out, by
lighting a match, turning on the gasoline and touching the lighted
match to the burner. If all right, it will burn with a blue flame; if
not, it will burn with a yellow flame. If the yellow flame is noticed,
turn out the fire by closing the valve, and let the burner get cold
before attempting again to light it. See that the burner has not become
clogged with soot or dirt. Then proceed to re-light the stove.

[Illustration: FIG. 17-_a_. Cross-section of gasoline stove showing

Air must be mixed with the gasoline to make it burn with a blue flame.
The air enters the burner through the same tube that the gasoline flows
into the cups when the burner is cold. In the burner are small holes
for the escape of the gas mixed with air, and here the blue flame
should appear, and nowhere else. If it appears elsewhere, the burner is
not working properly. Sometimes the gas ignites at the point where the
air is mixed with it. The fire should then be turned out and the stove
re-lighted immediately.

If the little holes where the flames should be, or if any other part of
the stove is clogged with soot, it will not burn as it should. It must
be cleaned. _A dirty gasoline stove is dangerous._

=32. Filling the Gasoline Stove.= Never get oil on the tank or any part
of the stove while filling it. If oil is spilled, wipe it up before
igniting the stove. Do not fill the tank when the stove is lighted
or when there is a fire anywhere near the tank. If the fire has been
burning, close all the valves and wait until it goes out before opening
the tank. Close the valve from tank to pipe before filling. Fill the
tank and cover it before lighting the stove again.

Keep the tank filled. As soon as the indicator, which is attached to
a cork which floats on top of the gasoline, shows that the oil is
low, turn out the fire and refill the tank. Do not fill the tank to
overflowing. Gases from the stove can only get into the tank when it
is empty and while there is gasoline in the pipe to feed the stove.
Gasoline gas is very inflammable and will cause an explosion if it
becomes ignited. The tanks from gasoline stoves cannot be removed, as
all the joints must be tight to prevent the escape of gasoline fumes
as well as the oil itself. The opening to the tank must never be left
uncovered, except for the few minutes while the tank is being filled.
The greatest care is required in using a gasoline stove; in fact,
they are so dangerous, that they should not be highly recommended for
household use. The description and care of them are given here because
some persons persist in using them when they desire a quick, hot fire
in cases where fuel gas is not available.

=33. When a Burner Blazes and Cannot Be Controlled.= When a gasoline
stove burner blazes and cannot be controlled, first close the valve
leading from the tank into the pipe. There will then be little gasoline
to burn, and no gases can get back into the tank.

_Keep clothing and water away from the blaze._ Remember that the stove
is set on a metal frame which is not inflammable. Shield walls and
other objects so that the burner may blaze high without doing damage.
Clothing catches fire easily, but the metal stove will not be consumed.

If the valves are shut, the blaze will cease when the gasoline has
burnt out of the burner and pipe. If the gasoline continues to flow
out of the burner in spite of turning the valve and there is a danger
of its spreading to the floor or table, set a shallow pan under the
stove to catch the gasoline. It can burn in this way with considerable
safety. Do not attempt to carry a burning stove. Simply protect floor,
walls and furniture from catching fire, and let the gasoline burn.

=34. Changing Fuel in Vapor Stoves.= There are some stoves which
are interchangeable, in that they may be adjusted to burn kerosene,
gasoline or distillate. These are of the type called "vapor" because
they change the oil to gas before it is ignited. A change from one kind
of fuel to another should never be made without thoroly cleaning the
stove and adjusting it to the fuel that is to be used.

=35. Operation of Vapor Stoves.= It is safest to use kerosene in these
stoves. Distillate is a name given to a different mineral oil product
from kerosene or gasoline. To work well, these burners must be kept
clean. (Fig. 17-_a_.)

The operation of the stove is simple. Put enough fuel, such as alcohol,
into a burner to heat it hot enough to change the oil to be used to gas
and ignite it.

After the burner has heated for three or four minutes, turn on the
fuel valve in the pipe which leads from the tank to the burner. The
fuel will light from the burning alcohol already in the burner. Adjust
the height of the flame by valve, which regulates the amount of fuel
flowing into the burner.

If anything boils over, put out the fire. Close the valve. Remove the
parts of the burner. Clean and wipe them dry. Replace the parts of the
burner, and, if not cool, turn on the fuel and light. If cool, heat as
for first lighting, and turn on the fuel.

Extinguish the fire by closing the valve which stops the flow of oil to
the burner.



Electric stoves consist of frame, heating unit and switches to regulate
the flow of current. Some are equipped with oven, thermometers and
special utensils (Fig. 18).

[Illustration: FIG. 18. Stove equipped with utensils.]

=36. Heating Unit of Electric Stove.= The heating unit consists of
coils of wire or a plate of metal thru which the current flows, meeting
resistance and producing heat. If the current flowed freely thru the
wires, little heat would be generated (Figs. 19 and 20).

[Illustration: FIG. 19. Heating unit of electric stove.]

=37. Wiring of Stoves.= It is advocated that a separate circuit of
heavy wire be put into all houses where current is used for purposes
other than lighting, to provide for cooking and power connections.

Too heavy loading of wires with electric appliances causes the burning
of fuses and sometimes damages the electric system. Find out how
much current the wiring of the house will carry before attaching new
devices. There is danger of fire if too much current is allowed to pass
over a wire of too small size.

=38. Operation of Electric Stoves.= Many stoves are equipped with a
switch which permits different amounts of current to pass thru the
stove according to the way the device is set. At one point it gives low
heat; another, medium, and a third, high heat, and, lastly, no heat.

[Illustration: FIG. 20. Heating unit of electric stove.]

The cooking of food on an open burner should be started with high heat
turned on so that the food may cook quickly. If a large amount of food
is cooking, there will be so much radiation from the vessel that it
may require all the current to keep it cooking. After food has started
cooking, the switch can be turned to medium, and, later, to low,
depending upon the amount of food and the temperature desired. Low will
keep an ordinary pan of water boiling, once it has started.

A few minutes before the food is to be removed from the open burner,
the current should be turned off, as the heat in the stove will
continue the cooking for several minutes. From tests of electric
stoves, it appears that in most of them the food will continue to cook
after the switch is turned off for about the same number of minutes
that it requires to raise the heating unit to a temperature sufficient
to boil water in a small shallow pan. A housekeeper who is using
electricity for cooking can soon learn how long the open burners and
oven of her stove will keep food cooking after the current is turned
off, and by putting this information to use, she can save many dollars
in a year.

=39. Care of Electric Stoves.= When thru with a stove, always turn off
the current. Great care should be taken that the stoves do not become
overheated. This shortens the life of the stove.

Sudden cooling of the coils of wire caused by liquids spilling on them,
and corrosion of the wires caused by dampness, wear out stoves faster
than need be. Do not wash or brush dirt from burners having open coils
of wire. Burn all dirt from the burners.

=40. Utensils for Electric Stoves.= The most economical use of
electricity can be secured with utensils built around the heating
units (Figs. 20 and 21), and the next most economical use with utensils
built especially to fit the heating units. This means that there would
be a heating unit for each utensil, or size of utensil, and the expense
of equipment would be considerable. Also, more care would be needed
in washing the utensils and in preventing them from becoming bent.
Such facts must be considered in choosing between stoves with special
devices and those on which any pan may be set. After installing an
electric stove, start with new utensils because they will not blacken
on an electric stove, and so can be washed with the other dishes.

[Illustration: FIG. 21. Utensil with heating unit.]

When ordinary household utensils are used, they should be of such shape
that they stand flat, as they also should on a coal range. The most
economical use of heat is secured when the area of heat is smaller
than the area of the bottom of the kettle and is concentrated on the
utensil. Care should be taken when stoves are installed, that they are
properly grounded so that they cannot burn any one. A light bulb is
attached to some stoves so that when the current is on the light burns,
and when it is off, the light goes out. Such a light should be on all
large stoves.

=41. Detachable Cooking Devices.= Cooking and heating devices should
have larger wires than those for lighting alone. Consequently, the
attachment of a heating device in a common light socket may cause
burning out of fuses or other damage.

One danger in using detachable electric devices occurs in not turning
off the current when the stove is not in use, thus permitting it to
become overheated. This shortens the life of the stove.

Any tendency of a stove or other electric device to give people a
shock when being used should be taken as a warning to have the device
examined by an expert and the trouble corrected. Have the wires
repaired as soon as the insulation breaks or burns off. Uninsulated
wires, such as cables and cords, are unsafe.



=42. Alcohol Stoves.= Alcohol stoves are made only in small sizes for
light housekeeping. There are three general types of these--those which
burn with a wick, those which generate gas, and those which permit the
alcohol to burn off of the top surface of the container.

Alcohol does not produce much smoke in burning, even when no provision
is made for mixing air with it. The ordinary alcohol lamp, having
a wick, may be used as a heating stove. Stoves with wicks draw the
alcohol up by capillary attraction to the point of ignition, and the
metal jacket about the wick prevents the fire burning back into the
bowl containing the alcohol. The char from the top of the wick must be
brushed off from time to time. No other care is needed for these stoves
or lamps. Some of them are provided with devices for checking the
burning of the alcohol in order to regulate the heat. This is desirable
since a small flame of alcohol produces much heat.

Extinguish the fire by covering the wick with a metal cup.

=43. Vapor Stoves.= Alcohol vapor stoves which generate gas hold the
alcohol in a tank slightly raised above the level of the burner. A
pipe leads from this to the burner, where a small stream of alcohol is
permitted to enter when the valve is open.

When starting these stoves, the valve is first opened and enough
alcohol allowed to flow out to fill a cup which is below the burner.
This generally holds about a tablespoonful of alcohol. When the cup is
full, the valve is closed and the alcohol in the cup ignited.

This heats the burner enough to vaporize the alcohol. When the burner
is heated, open the valve and ignite the gas. If all the alcohol is not
vaporized, the burner has not been heated hot enough. Close the valve
until all the alcohol in the cup is burnt.

=44. Wickless Stoves.= Wickless alcohol stoves are used commonly on
chafing dishes. The burner of one type consists of a metal dish packed
with a porous material which is non-inflammable, but a good conductor
of liquids by capillary attraction, and the top is covered over by
a wire screen. The alcohol is poured into the dish. The packing and
screen prevent air from entering the bowl with sufficient rapidity to
let the fire burn below the screen so the flame stays above it, burning
off any alcohol which is conducted to the surface.

The only possible way to control these stoves is by a device which can
cut off air. One of these is a plate-like device with a handle. This
fits over the stove and only that portion of the top burns which is
exposed to air through the hole in the plate. Making the hole larger or
smaller makes the burning surface larger or smaller.

To extinguish the fire, cover the entire top with a solid plate to cut
off all air.

=45. Canned Heat.= Canned heat is alcohol combined with other
substances into a cake about the consistency of hard soap. The cover
to the can is used to extinguish the fire. It should not be fitted
into the top of the can until the flame has been extinguished for two
or three seconds. Then it should be fitted on as tight as possible to
prevent waste alcohol by vaporization.

=46. Acetylene Gas Stoves.= By adjustment of the amount of air that
enters the burner, acetylene may be burnt in a gas stove. Usually a cap
is placed over the air hole while the gas is being ignited. This is
removed as soon as the gas is lighted, so that it will burn with a blue
flame. The use of the cap prevents burning back. It is best, however,
to use stoves especially designed for burning acetylene.



=47. The Fireless Cooker.= The fireless cooker is a box or can having a
diameter somewhat larger than that of the largest vessel to be placed
in it. The space left around the vessel is packed with some insulating
material to keep in the heat (Fig. 22). In home-made cookers, this
material may be hay, feathers, pillows, shredded newspapers, wood
shavings or sawdust. In commercially-made cookers, it is felt, asbestos
wool, cork, or other insulating material. Because most insulating
material will not stay in place and readily absorbs moisture and
odors, some kind of lining is put between it and the vessel holding
the food. This makes a little nest, into which the vessel fits. In the
better made cookers, this lining is made of metal, and the seams are

The steam from the cooking food is absorbed by the insulating material
if this lining is not impervious to water. Enameled or earthen linings,
if well glazed, would also serve this purpose as long as they did not
chip or crack.

The cover, as well as the sides, of the fireless cooker has to be
padded with the insulating material. The cover must also fit well so
that the steam and heat will not escape thru cracks between it and the
body of the cooker.

=48. The Stones of Fireless Cookers.= The stones for fireless cookers
are usually made of soapstone or some composite which will absorb
considerable heat. They should be slightly smaller in diameter than
the nest. They can only be used with safety in cookers which are
metal-lined and insulated with material which will not ignite at a low
temperature. Stones should not be put in home-made cookers which are
not insulated with asbestos or other fireproof material. Hot stones can
be used with safety in any of the commercial cookers which come fitted
with them.

[Illustration: FIG. 22. Section of fireless cooker.]

The temperature in a fireless cooker is below boiling most of the time.
It is, therefore, a device for simmering food, and should be used for
cooking meats, fruits, vegetables and cereal dishes which require or
are improved by long, slow cooking.

Since the food has to be shut in a fireless cooker to keep in the heat,
fireless cookery is a method of steaming of food. For this reason, it
has a slightly different flavor from food baked in the oven, much as
fried food differs from roasted food. Hot stones (Fig. 22) are put in
most fireless cookers. The heat from these brown the food and give
to the otherwise steamed food a flavor similar to that developed in
baking, roasting and frying.

=49. Heating the Stones.= Moisture given off by the cooking food is
absorbed by the stones. They must be dried or heated very slowly to
prevent this moisture from cracking them. When the stones have been
removed from the cooker, wash them, because they absorb odors from the
food. Keep them in some warm, dry place while they are not in use, such
as in the warming oven of the cook stove or on a radiator. When wanted
for use, they will then be dry enough to be placed over the gas-stove
burner if it is not turned too high at first. Drying thus saves time
when the stones are needed.

=50. Care of the Cooker.= The cooker should be left open to air while
not in use. As soon as the food and stones are removed from it, the
moisture should be wiped out and the inside washed with soap and water,
wiped dry and left to air. Such care is needed to prevent the cooker
from taking on the odor of dishes previously cooked and transmitting
some of them to those cooked later.

=51. Other Devices Belonging to Cookers.= In most commercial cookers
there are wire devices to raise the dishes of food from the stone (Fig.
23). This prevents scorching and boiling over when the stones are
heated very hot. These devices are also used to hold a hot stone above
the food to make a brown crust on it. Some cookers are furnished with
valves, permitting the escape of steam when it becomes too abundant.
The pressure of the steam automatically opens the valve. This device
insures the cooking of certain vegetables, cereals or doughs without
their becoming too soggy to be palatable (_A_, Fig. 23).

=52. Directions for Using the Cooker.= Put the stones on to heat.
Prepare the food as for cooking in any other way. Then heat it, either
in the oven or on top of the stove. It is preferable to heat the food
in the same vessel in which it is to be cooked in the fireless cooker.
Transferring food to a cold vessel entails a loss of heat, since the
first vessel is already heated.

[Illustration: FIG. 23. Devices for fireless cooker.]

When the stones and food are hot, place the stone in the bottom of the
cooker. Put in any asbestos mats or other devices which are needed
to protect the food. The stone should be hot enough to respond to the
test for flat irons. It should make the snappy noise of a good hot iron
when the finger is moistened and touched to it. Place the food in the
cooker. Place another stone above the utensil if it is desirable to
have the food brown on top. Close the fireless cooker, and let it stand
until ready for use.

[Illustration: FIG. 24. Gas cookers.]

=53. Time of Cooking Food.= Six hours or over night should be allowed
for the cooking of cereals. Stews should be given two to three hours'
time for cooking.

Large roasts and hams require five to six hours. It is sometimes
necessary, when they are large, to remove them and heat the food and
the stones on the stove once during the process of cooking. Dumplings
and angel cakes cook well in a fireless cooker. So do all dried peas
and beans.

[Illustration: FIG. 25. Steam cooker.]

It is profitable to cook foods requiring more than forty minutes'
heating in a fireless cooker. The heating unit is a part of some

Electric cookers, instead of being furnished with stones to be put
inside the nest, have a heating unit and plate for holding heat in the
cooker. Cold food may be put into this cooker, the current turned on,
and the heating and cooking all be done inside the cooker. The electric
oven which is well insulated answers the purpose of a fireless cooker
when the current is disconnected. Either a thermometer, which the
housewife may watch, or thermostat, which controls the current, must be
attached to electric cookers to prevent burning the food or injuring
the cooker with too much heat.

=54. Gas Cookers.= Since heated air rises, special cookers in the form
of insulated caps are made to put over dishes of food heated on gas
burners (Fig. 24).

The inside of the cap must be kept clean. Get the dishes hot with the
cap suspended over the food, but leaving about an inch space for the
escape of gases from the heating unit. As soon as the food and cap have
been sufficiently heated over the fire, turn off the gas and lower the
cap so that it will retain the heat. After the cooker has been used, it
should be wiped out clean; otherwise it will retain some of the odors
of the cooked food.

=55. Steam Cookers.= There are several steam cookers in use in homes.
The simplest of these is a covered pan which has a perforated bottom,
which is set over another pan (_A_, Fig. 25), in which water is placed
for forming steam. One of the difficulties of this cooker is that the
water in the lower pan cannot be watched and may boil dry. On the more
improved cookers a whistling device (_B_, Fig. 25) is attached to the
pan, and when the water becomes low and steam ceases to flow through
it, air begins to come in, and the device makes a whistling noise.


 1. What is smoke? Under what conditions is the greatest amount of
 heat for cooking or other household purposes produced from fuel?

 2. How is an oven made to heat evenly?

 3. Explain the purpose of each draft and damper on a stove.

 4. Observe the amount of fuel used in a coal stove from day to day.
 Make the same kind of observation for a gas or electric stove. How
 was the stove managed when the least fuel was used?

 5. Describe the construction of a gas stove. Find the vent thru which
 the gas enters the burner. Is this large or small?

 6. Where is the air regulator? For what is it used?

 7. What has happened when the gas in a burner "burns back"?

 8. How should a kerosene stove be regulated? How should it be cared

 9. What precautions should you take against fire from kerosene and
 gasoline stoves?

 10. Describe the heating unit of an electric stove.

 11. How may electric current be saved in the operation of an electric

 12. How does a fireless cooker cook food?

 13. How may one determine when it is economical to use a fireless





=56. Principle Upon Which a Furnace Works.= The success of warm-air
heating depends on a natural circulation of air thruout all the rooms
which are to be heated. The air is the vehicle of transmission of the
heat from the fire to the rooms to be warmed.

A warm-air furnace is simply a large stove encased in a sheet-metal
jacket (Figs. 26 and 27). The jacket is usually insulated with
asbestos, since the stove is set in the basement where radiation of
heat is not desired. The air entering the casing is warmed by the
stove. As the air is warmed, it expands and becomes lighter, so rises
to the top of the furnace; from here it is conducted to the rooms
above. The warm air which has passed upward must be replaced by cooler
air entering at the bottom of the jacket. In the rooms above, there
must be outlets for the cold air, already in them, so that it may be
replaced by the incoming warm air. Cold-air shafts from the floor
leading downward serve as outlets. Sometimes they return the cooled air
to the base of the furnace jacket.

[Illustration: FIG. 26. Warm-air furnace.]

=57. The Stove Part.= The stove part of the hot-air furnace consists
of a fire pot supported above a place where the ashes may fall and a
chimney to carry off smoke. The draft below the grate in the fire pot
lets in air which is essential to the proper burning of the fuel. In
this respect, it is similar to a cook stove. A draft above the fire
when opened a little lets in air which aids in the complete combustion
of the gases given off by the fuel. Burning these gases adds to the
amount of heat secured from the fuel. Opening the draft wider checks
the burning of the fire. There should be a damper in the smoke pipe.
When this is closed, it checks the draft up the chimney. This is
needed because some chimneys often draw up air too fast to make the
fire burn well. When checking the fire, close the draft below, open the
one above the fire box, and close the one in the pipe. To make the fire
burn fast, open the draft below, close the one above the fire box, and
open the one in the pipe. Remember that a fire will not burn well if
there is too much draft. Adjust the drafts until the fire burns with a
clear, bright flame without giving off smoke. After a fire is built,
the manner of adding fuel makes a difference in the efficiency of the
furnace. When using coal, add it in rather small amounts, spreading
it in a layer over the entire fire. Do not make this layer so thick
that the fire smokes. The fuel will not burn with a clear flame if the
fire is being smothered. Much fuel is wasted by ignorant and careless
management of furnaces.

[Illustration: FIG. 27. Circulation of warm air.]

=58. The Cold-Air Shaft.= It is through a cold-air shaft that the
cooler air comes into the furnace. Some furnaces have this built so
that it draws the cooling air from the rooms above down into the
furnace to be heated again. This is an economical arrangement. Some
others draw fresh air from out of doors into the furnace, letting the
cold air from the rooms above drain into the cellar and out of doors.
This is more expensive, as the air to be heated is usually colder,
but it has the advantage of helping ventilate the rooms by bringing a
constant supply of fresh air.

The cold-air shaft leading from out of doors should have the outer end
covered with wire mesh, and a cloth which should be washed or renewed

Never sweep dirt down a register or cold-air shaft. It comes back into
the room in time. Dust the registers occasionally.

In older heating systems, there was but one large cold-air shaft to
drain the cold air from the rooms above. In more modern houses, a
cold-air shaft is placed in every room that may be shut off from the
others. This does away with the old difficulty of heating a closed
room, for it is as important that the colder air gets out as that the
warm air gets in.

=59. Hot-Air Pipes.= The hot-air pipes lead from the top of the jacket
about the furnace to the floor above. In most houses, one pipe goes to
each room. This is unnecessary if the rooms are not closed off, but if
they are, they need the pipe entering the room. To economize with heat
and regulate the amount of air passing up these pipes, there must be
a shutter in them, near the furnace, as well as in the register. This
shutter is placed near the furnace so that no heat passes into the
pipe when not wanted in the room to which it leads. This saves waste in
radiation from the pipe in the cellar. When a room is not in use, close
this damper.

[Illustration: FIG. 28. Pipeless furnace.]

Since warmed air will continue to travel upward so long as it stays
warmer than the air above, it is important that the pipes have a
continuous rise thruout their entire length, the in some parts the rise
may have to be only very slight. The shorter the pipes, the better,
for there will be less loss of heat from radiation on the way to the

[Illustration: FIG. 29. One-room, hot-air heater.]

=60. Location of the Furnace.= A central location for the furnace
is best because the pipes may be shorter, and this makes possible a
greater elevation per foot of each pipe, so that the air can flow thru
it faster. A central location also permits a uniform distribution of
pipes about the furnace, which, in turn, produces a more even flow of
air to all the rooms.

The air from the hot register rises to the top of the room, or, if the
way is open, to the top of the house. Here it spreads over the upper
area. As it cools or is displaced by still hotter air, it falls. When
it reaches the floor, it flows down the cold-air shaft in the floor. If
the cold-air shaft is not in the floor, there may be a layer of colder
air there so the room will not be comfortable.

=61. Air.= There is a constant change of air in all houses, due to
opening of doors and the fact that walls are not air-tight. This may
not be enough for comfort. If a room is not heating well, it has been
found that opening the window to change the air in the room, even when
the outside air is very cold, helps in the circulation of air in the
room, and so with the warming of it. It is difficult to warm a room
filled with stagnant air.

=62. Pipeless Furnaces.= The pipeless furnace works on the same
principle as the one with pipes (Fig. 28). One large opening above
the furnace lets the heat in to some central room, and from here it
circulates into all other rooms not closed off from the central room.
The cold-air shaft may be around the opening for heated air.

Stoves encased in a metal jacket that operate like hot-air furnaces
(Fig. 29) are used in heating one-room schoolhouses and other small
public buildings.



=63. Equipment for Hot-Water Heat.= The hot-water system of heating a
house consists of a boiler in the basement or below the level of the
lowest radiator. This boiler is designed to heat water as it circulates
through coils over the fire (Fig. 30). From the boiler, pipes lead to
radiators and an expansion tank, and return pipes bring the cold water
back to the bottom of the boiler (Fig. 31).

[Illustration: FIG. 30. Garland furnace with hot-water boiler.]

The heat from the furnace fire causes the water to circulate through
this system of boiler, pipes, radiators and tank, due to the fact that
hot water is lighter than cold water.

[Illustration: FIG. 31. Hot-water heating system.]

=64. Heating Unit.= The heating unit of a hot-water system is like any
stove consisting of a fire pot and grate. Some are adjustable so that
different kinds of fuel may be used. A gas burner is sometimes placed
in the fire pot and used for heating a furnace, but this is one of
the most wasteful ways of using gas. A real gas furnace is much more
economical. The fire and heat from the fire circulate around the coils
containing the water. If the coils are not constantly kept full of
water, they will be injured by the heat.

=65. The Management of the Fire.= When burning coal, spread the coal
all over the surface of the fire in a thin layer so as not to smother
it and thus make it burn with a smoky flame. Keep the ashes cleaned out
from underneath the fire and around the fire pot. Clean the flues every
forty-eight hours. Soot on the coils is more effective than asbestos
would be in keeping heat from penetrating to the water. Regulate the
fire with the drafts. Open the one below the fire box to let in air to
aid combustion. Open the one found in most furnace doors a very little.
This aids in the combustion of gases, thus making more economical use
of the fuel, while opening it wider checks the burning of the fire.
Broken and warped doors and drafts let in too much air and destroy the
efficiency of the heater. Open the chimney damper, shown in Fig. 2,
Sec. 3, admitting air to check the draft. Close the chimney or pipe
damper of the type of cook stove shown in Fig. 2, Sec. 3, to check the
draft up the chimney.

=66. The Pipes.= The pipe carrying the hot water from the boiler out
to the heating system leads to the expansion tank, the sometimes
separate pipes lead from the boiler to a radiator. Insulate each pipe,
except the part in the room to be heated, with asbestos or some other
covering, to keep the heat in it. Keep the pipes full of water. When
they are installed, see that they are put in so that they gradually
rise upward. If they dip downward at any point, air will collect at
these places and check the circulation of hot water thru pipes.

[Illustration: FIG. 32. Expansion tank.]

=67. Expansion Tank.= The expansion tank (_A_, Fig. 31, and Fig.
32), placed somewhat higher than the top of the highest radiator, is
fitted with an overflow, for water expands as it is heated. If the
expansion tank is closed so that the overflow pipe will not open except
under pressure after the air in the tank has become compressed by
the expansion of the water, a higher temperature in the pipes may be
reached, but such a furnace must be given more careful attention than
one with an open expansion tank. Learn to know the parts of a heating
system and how they operate before trying to manage it.

=68. Water.= Fill the boiler and radiators full of water, and add
enough more to partly fill the expansion tank. From time to time, note
the height of water in the tank, to know if more must be added. Do not
add water when unnecessary, as fresh water tends to rust pipes faster
than water from which the carbon dioxide and air have been exhausted.
To note the height of water, read the gage.

[Illustration: FIG. 33. Vents for radiators.]

If there is much sediment in the water used, this must be drawn off
from the bottom of the boiler to prevent its accumulating there. When
this is done, fresh water must be added to replace the water drawn off.
Loss of water from evaporation must also be replaced. No water should
be put into the system except to replace such loss. Do not draw the
water out of the system, and refill it from time to time. The practice
of changing the water in the furnace rusts it more than keeping the
same water in it all the time.

=69. Radiators.= Radiators (_B_, Fig. 31) are made of rather
complicated coils of pipe, so often an accumulation of air lodges
in them. This interferes with the circulation of the water and the
radiator does not get hot. There usually is a vent (_A_ and _B_, Fig.
33) attached to each radiator to let out air which collects there. If a
radiator does not heat well, open the air vent until the air ceases to
flow from it and water comes; then close it. Valves should be placed at
places where cold water collects in bad plumbing.

[Illustration: FIG. 34. Radiators under floor.]

In very cold weather, do not entirely shut off the valve of the pipe
leading to any radiator, as the circulation of a little warm water is
needed to keep it from freezing. Radiators may be placed under the
floor (Fig. 34) when so desired.



[Illustration: FIG. 35. Steam furnace.]

=70. Equipment for Steam Heat.= A steam-heating system consists of a
boiler, a fire pot, pipes from the boiler leading to the radiators,
and radiators (Fig. 35). On some systems, return pipes are provided to
carry condensed steam or water back to the lower part of the boiler.
A safety valve (Fig. 36) is attached to steam-heating systems instead
of an expansion tank. This keeps the pressure of the steam in the
boiler from becoming too great, and thereby prevents an explosion. The
pressure gage (_B_, Fig. 35) must be set, and, when set, should only be
changed by a person understanding it. Build and manage the fire for a
steam boiler the same as for any stove or furnace. Keep water in the
boiler at 212 degrees Fahrenheit, so steam may form, for without it,
the radiators will not be heated. Small valves are attached to most
steam radiators. Their purpose is to let out air, which accumulates in
the radiator. As soon as the steam begins to come into the radiator, it
forces the air out of the valve. When it reaches the valve, the heat
in the steam causes part of the valve to expand and close the outlet,
which is small. When the radiator is hot, steam should not escape,
provided the valves are in good working order. There is a gage (Fig.
37) furnished with each boiler which shows how much water is in it.

[Illustration: FIG. 36. Safety valve.]

Keep enough water in the boiler to come within certain lines on the
indicator. The top of one of these lines is usually six or eight
inches from the top of the boiler. There is always some variation in
the amount of water in steam furnaces on account of the formation and
condensation of the steam in pipes and radiators. See that the boiler
is never empty, but do not put in fresh water except when necessary.

[Illustration: FIG. 37. Water gage for steam plant.]

The space above the water in the boiler is left for steam. The loss of
water from a boiler in good working order is thru the air valves in the
radiators. If the furnace is properly managed, very little water should
be lost during the course of a year, so there is little need for adding

Some furnaces have two pipes to the radiators. When steam is shut off
from a radiator, the valve leading to the pipe which carries off
the water from condensed steam must be closed, also, to prevent the
pressure of the steam in the boiler from forcing water from the boiler
up this pipe. This may happen because the pipe draining the water from
the radiators enters the furnace near the bottom of the boiler. The
steam being retained in the furnace presses down on the water and so
may force water up the drain pipe, if it is not closed, instead of
raising the safety valve.

Carelessness of this kind may work much damage, for by this means all
the water from the furnace can be forced up into the radiators, leaving
the boiler empty. This makes it important that every woman should
understand the steam-heating system in her home.

Some steam-heating systems have a check valve in the pipe which returns
water to the boiler. This valve permits water to flow thru it in but
one direction; that is, toward the boiler. This prevents a rush of
water from the boiler to the radiators.

Steam furnaces, also, are often equipped with another safety-valve
device, which is a plug of metal which melts at a rather low
temperature and is placed in the boiler directly over the fire. If the
water line in the boiler falls low, this plug melts and steam from the
boiler puts out the fire, thus saving the furnace from damage.

However, melting out the plug makes much work both in replacing the
plug and in cleaning the fire box to rebuild the fire, so that it
should not be depended upon to regulate the heat in the boiler.

Knocking in steam radiators occurs most often in those systems using
the inlet steam pipe for the return of the water which has formed as
a result of condensation. It is caused by water accumulating at some
point and the steam coming up the pipe, violently forcing it back into
the radiator. This only reaches a danger point in systems which do not
have pipes of the proper size, or when the pipes do not slope gradually
downward, so that all the water may flow back to the furnace. On cold
days, there will be some knocking in a steam radiator when it is being
heated in the morning. A two-pipe system, while it is somewhat more
expensive, is less subject to this trouble.

=71. Steam Gages.= Steam gages (_B_, Fig. 35) are devices for
indicating the pressure of steam within an inclosure. They are a kind
of spring balance. When the pressure of the steam increases, it pushes
up on the spring, and this turns the hand of the indicator, which shows
the number of pounds of pressure that the steam is exerting on the
inside of the boiler or container.

=72. Safety Valve.= A safety valve (Fig. 36 and _A_, Fig. 38) consists
of a small opening to a boiler over which is a weight. When steam is
developed until it makes enough pressure on the inside of the valve
to raise this weight, some of the steam escapes, thus lowering the
pressure on the inside until the weight falls back into place. Never
let anything interfere with the action of safety valves.

[Illustration: FIG. 38. Heating plant showing safety valve.]

Most safety valves have the weight attached to a lever which has a
movable weight on it so that the position of the weight on the lever
makes a difference in the number of pounds of pressure required to open
the valve. By means of this device, the temperature of the inside of
the boiler can be kept at one heat or another as desired, since this
temperature increases or decreases with the pressure under which the
steam is held.

Thus, fifteen pounds pressure means a different temperature from ten
pounds pressure. Be sure to adjust the weight for the temperature
desired. Pushing the weight toward the valve lessens the amount of
pressure needed to open the valve. There is usually a steam gage on
boilers to indicate the temperature and pounds of pressure inside. When
the indicator reaches the point desired, the safety valve may be set so
that all steam in excess of the desired amount will escape. When this
is done, the temperature will be held constant in the boiler so long as
a good fire under it is maintained.



=73. Construction of Fireplace.= Fireplaces are an enlargement in the
base of a chimney where fire is built. The upper part of the fireplace
is sloped forward, and, in some cases, a damper is placed in the
chimney to regulate the flow of air upward. The damper should not be
so constructed that it will close entirely, for if it did, the smoke
would come into the room. The fire in the fireplace burns best when the
fuel is put in a grate or on andirons so that air can get under it and
be drawn thru it by the draft of the chimney. A steady draft makes the
combustion of the fuel complete and thus prevents smoking.

The hearth is made of fireproof material and should be wide enough to
catch all sparks flying from the fire. A screen is often needed for
safety from fire. Do not pile reserved fuel or put rugs on the hearth.

Fireplaces and chimneys should be built of fireproof brick, stone or
concrete. Have them examined once a year for cracks, as these make them
unsafe. The walls of the chimney and the fireplace should be thick
enough to prevent danger from fire.

=74. Management of Fireplace.= The management of a fireplace is very
simple. The draft up the chimney should be properly regulated so that
the fire does not smoke. Sparks and bits of fuel should not be drawn up
the chimney. The fire should be built so that it is not smothered. Air
should circulate thru the fuel. Keep the ashes cleared away.

There are some fireplaces which are intended to heat rooms after the
manner of hot-air furnaces. The heat and smoke from the fire pass
upward thru a metal heater, encased by an air chamber. Much of the heat
passes thru the metal, warming the air in the chamber. This warmed air
passes thru pipes and registers into the rooms, while the smoke finds
its way to the chimney. To complete the circulation of air, the cold
air from the floor passes into the air chamber near the floor at the
sides of the fireplace. Sometimes fresh air from the outside of the
building is mixed with the air in the chamber.

If there is an opening in the floor of the fireplace, a damper should
be put in this opening to regulate the flow of air. The heater in
a fireplace must be kept free from soot and ashes. If the metal is
covered with soot, heat will not readily pass thru it, and the soot
will collect moisture and cause rusting.

One way to keep the heater clean is to regulate the draft up the
chimney so that ashes and bits of burning fuel are not drawn into it.
Also, the fire should be kept burning with a clear (not smoky) blaze.
Soot is unburnt fuel.

=75. Operating Heating Stoves.= A stove is a device for holding the
fuel and for permitting the heat to pass readily into the room. In the
stove there is space below the fire for collecting ashes. There is an
opening for fresh air to enter below the fuel, to aid combustion, and a
damper above to act as a check draft when open, a chimney to carry off
smoke, and one or two dampers in the chimney to regulate the draft.

When a fire is being built, close the draft over the fire box and open
the one below; open the damper in the chimney--this allows the free
passage of the air up the chimney.

=76. Care of the Stove.= Do not permit a large bed of ashes to
accumulate in the bottom of a stove. A thin layer of ashes must be kept
in the bottom of some wood stoves to keep the fire away from the metal

The polish or finish of the stove is a matter of taste. Some stoves
are made of iron, which does not need blacking; some must be blacked.
Blacking keeps them from rusting. All must be kept free from dust and
dirt, as this accumulates moisture and causes the stove to rust.

Letting the stove get red hot warps it. It should not be permitted to
get so hot.

The grate (Fig. 3) in stoves holds the fuel so that air can flow up
thru it. If the grate is clogged with ashes, this cannot happen. The
grate should be shaken to make the ashes drop thru. A clean grate is
important to the complete combustion of the fuel. Shaking after glowing
coals begin to fall is a waste of fuel.

When an attempt to shake the grate is made, it may suddenly refuse to
move. In this case, something may have lodged between its parts, or it
may have been shaken from its proper position. Shaking the stove too
hard may displace the grate. The common remedy for a displaced grate is
to let the fire go out, remove all ashes and cinders, and readjust the

Some kinds of soft coal form "clinkers," and these catch in the grate.
In burning fuel that makes clinkers, shake the ashes from the fire
several times a day. Remove all accumulations in the fire box daily.
Clinkers are made from substances which melt and recombine, forming
a different material which is quite hard and does not burn. Constant
attention to the fire prevents clinkers from forming in large masses.



=77. Kinds of Gas Heaters.= There are several types of gas
heaters--those using an illuminating flame and reflector, those fitted
with a Bunsen burner and an asbestos back, and those heating water in
a device like a radiator. The last two burn with a blue flame. All gas
stoves ought to be fitted with a flue for discharging the products of

[Illustration: FIG. 39. Gas heater showing air mixer.]

=78. Bunsen Burner and Asbestos-Back Heater.= The burner is a long pipe
punctured with holes extending across the stove. There is an opening
for mixing of air with the gas at the point where this pipe enters the
stove, and a valve to regulate the flow of gas (Fig. 39).

=79. Lighting Gas Stoves.= To light the stove, open the valve, count
three, and apply a lighted match to the burner. Counting three gives
time for the pipe to fill with gas, so that the fire will not flash
back and burn in the air mixer.

=80. Care of Gas Stoves.= The only care that this stove needs is to
keep it polished so that it will not rust. Keep the burner clean of
dust and soot. Be sure that the valve is entirely closed when the gas
is turned off, and that the pipes fit tight at all connections so that
gas cannot leak into the room.

[Illustration: FIG. 40. Reflector gas heater.]

=81. Illuminating Flame and Bright Metal Reflector Heaters.= These
heaters are used with manufactured gas. They burn with an illuminating
flame since there is no device for mixing air with the gas as it enters
the stove. The bright metal reflector not only makes an attractive
stove, but reflects the heat out into the room. Some stoves are made
with tips of aluminum or other non-corrosive metal over the openings
in the burner (Fig. 40). Gas logs are a type of gas heaters used in
fireplaces (Fig. 41).

=82. Gas Radiator Heaters.= Gas radiators (Fig. 42) are another type of
gas heater. The radiator is a coil of pipe. The heating unit is below
the coil and works like any other Bunsen burner. A small amount of
water is kept in the pipes. There is a device attached to the radiator
to automatically adjust the height of the gas fire (_A_, Fig. 42).

[Illustration: FIG. 41. Gas logs.]

=83. Management of Gas Radiator.= Put enough water in the radiator or
coil of pipe to fill it to the depth of one inch. Keep this amount of
water in it at all times.

Light a match, turn on the valve which lets gas flow into the burner,
wait for it to fill with gas, and touch the match to the burner.

Most of these heaters are fitted with thermostats.

[Illustration: FIG. 42. Gas radiators.]

In about thirty minutes after lighting the gas, the water will have
formed enough steam inside the radiator to automatically turn the valve
lowering the gas flame. If the steam pressure falls low, the thermostat
will permit more gas to flow into the radiator by automatically opening
the valve.

There is a safety valve attached to the side of the radiator which
opens if the automatic device fails to close off the gas before the
steam pressure inside becomes too great.

=84. Kerosene Heaters.= Kerosene heating stoves have burners like those
used on kerosene cook stoves. (See Chapter III.) Surrounding, or about,
the burner is a jacketed air space. Here air is heated and rises to the
upper part of the room while fresh air from the lower part of the room
is drawn thru the jacket. Some heat is also given off by radiation.
Fig. 43 shows a picture of an oil heater.

[Illustration: FIG. 43. Oil heater.]

The burners of these stoves should be cared for the same way as the
ones on cooking stoves. The stove should be kept polished and free from
dust. This prevents it from rusting. Wipe off any kerosene which may
accumulate on the outside, for it makes an unpleasant odor.

Take care in moving kerosene stoves not to jar the chimney or other
parts of the burner out of place; otherwise the stove will smoke.

When the stove is lighted, turn the burner quite low. The flame will
become higher as the parts of the stove become heated.

[Illustration: FIG. 44. Electric heater.]

=85. Electric Heaters.= The electric heaters (Fig. 44) are composed of
one or more coils of wire thru which the electric current flows with
difficulty. This heats the coils so hot that they glow. A reflector
throws the heat out into the room. The coil and reflector are attached
to a pedestal. They are desirable for use in rooms which are not quite
warm enough. Care must be taken to avoid getting an electric shock
from electric heaters, as from any other electrical appliances. If the
stove seems to be out of order, have it put in order before using.
Take care not to touch a water pipe or gas pipe at the same time when
touching the heater in the bathroom, as there is a possibility of
getting a shock.

=86. Acetylene Heaters.= Acetylene heaters are similar to the Bunsen
burner and asbestos-back gas heaters. They are provided also with
copper side reflectors. They are used only in localities where gas or
electricity cannot be had.


 1. What are the essentials in heating a house with a hot-air furnace?

 2. How does the "pipeless" furnace differ from the other types?

 3. Explain the circulation of water thru a hot-water heating system.

 4. What is the purpose of the expansion tank? Where should it be

 5. Describe a steam-heating system.

 6. What care should be taken in managing a steam-heating system?

 7. What precautions should be taken when using an electric heater?





=87. Kinds of Electric Lamps in Use.= The electric lamps on the market
now are either tungsten (also called Mazda) or metallized carbon
(called gem carbon) lamps. Of all lighting appliances, electric lamps
and systems are most easily cared for. If properly selected, they make
an excellent light from the standpoint of hygiene. It is important for
every one to know enough about lighting to be able to select proper
kinds and sizes of lamps.

=88. Electrical Measurements.= A volt is the unit of electric pressure
which compares with the pound as the unit of water pressure.

An ampere is the unit of electricity flowing thru a wire which compares
to the gallon as the unit of water per minute flowing thru a pipe.

A watt is the unit of electrical power. It is determined by multiplying
the volts by the amperes.

A kilowatt equals 1000 watts.

A kilowatt hour equals 1000 watt-hours.

A watt-hour is the amount of energy needed by a device which uses one
watt and is operated for one hour. For example, a 25-watt lamp uses
25 watts, and if it is operated one hour, it uses 25-watt hours of

The cost of burning an electric lamp is the number of watts marked
on the lamp multiplied by the hours the lamp is burned, and then
translated into kilowatt hours and multiplied by the price per kilowatt

[Illustration: FIG. 45. Direct light.]

=89. Carbon Lamps.= Few carbon lamps are being made now, but they may
still be obtained in some stores. The carbon lamp can be distinguished
from Mazda lamps (Fig. 45) by the appearance of the filament. The
carbon lamp gives about 0.40 candles of light per watt of electricity
consumed. Carbon lamps burn, making a yellow or reddish light, and
consume fully twice as much current as Mazda lamps of the same candle

=90. Mazda or Tungsten Lamps.= Tungsten lamps are the ones in common
use. They give 0.80 to 1.00 candle of light to one watt of electricity
used. They have a filament of tungsten and may now be used in any
position. Less electricity is required to bring tungsten to a glowing
white heat than other materials used in lamps.

To compare the brightness of two lamps, do not look at the filament,
but hold pieces of white material like paper at an equal distance from
each lamp and compare the brightness of the surfaces; or put an opaque
object in front of the light and let a shadow be cast on another
object. The brighter light will cast a heavier shadow.

When substituting a new tungsten lamp for a carbon lamp, select one
about one-half the number of watts, unless more light is wanted. In
houses, it is a common practice to substitute a 40-watt Mazda for a
50-watt gem carbon lamp, thus saving ten watts per hour and getting
more light.

=91. Selecting Lamps for a Room.= There are so many possibilities for
the use of electricity in lighting a house, that it becomes a fine
art. When buying lights for a room, consider (1) the size of the room,
(2) the use of the room, and (3) the color of walls, floors, ceilings,
furnishings and decorations. For lighting purposes, lamps may be
obtained ranging from 10 or less to more than 100-candle power.

There are colored, transparent and frosted globes. There are reflectors
and shades of various colors and patterns. To obtain the same degree
of illumination, smaller lamps are needed in small rooms than in large

=92. Effect of Color Schemes Upon Illumination.= The color of the walls
and furnishings makes a difference in the candle power required to give
a certain amount of light. Those colors which absorb the most light
require the higher candle power, and those reflecting the highest per
cent of light require the lower candle power.

The frosted globes absorb some light, they diffuse the rest of it. They
dispense with the annoyance of glare from lamps, and are useful in
places where the full intensity of the lamps is not required.

The light absorbed by different colors varies considerably, as shown by
the accompanying table:


                         OF LIGHT
      COLOR              ABSORBED

  White                     30
  Chrome yellow             38
  Orange                    50
  Clean pine wood           55
  Yellow paper              60
  Yellow paint (clean)      60
  Light pink paper          64
  Dirty pine wood           80
  Dirty yellow paint        80
  Emerald green paper       82
  Dark brown paper          87
  Vermilion paper           88
  Blue green paper          88
  Cobalt green paper        88
  Deep chocolate paper      96

=93. Distribution of Light.= Light in rooms for general use should
be distributed as evenly as possible thruout the entire room. Avoid
excessive contrasts of brightness and darkness. Have the lamps shaded
to diffuse the light so that no one need look directly at the filament.
When working by a light, do not put the lamp very close to the
material, as this produces too strong contrasts of light and dark, or,
when reading, it produces too much reflection from the white parts of
the paper, which is trying on the eyes.

Direct lighting means that the rays from the lamp go directly into the
room (Fig. 45). Indirect lighting means that the rays are all directed
toward a reflecting surface such as the ceiling (Fig. 46). From here
they are reflected, giving an even amount of light to other parts of
the room. When directed toward the ceiling, they make it the brightest
part of the room.

A semi-indirect light avoids this difficulty (Fig. 47).

In diffused lighting, the lamp is covered, as by frosting, so that the
rays of light are broken up and so scattered that no direct ray shines
into the eyes, and there is no bright spot of light in the room.

[Illustration: FIG. 46. Indirect light.]

When costs must be limited, certain decorative effects must be weighed
for their value, some being more expensive than others.

City lighting plants can provide current for any number of lamps in
a house if it is properly wired. If more lamps are attached than the
wiring will carry, and all are turned on, the fuses will burn out.

Electric plants for private homes (see Sec. 271) usually furnish
current of a different voltage from city electric plants, so special
equipment and lamps must be used with small plants.

Inquire of the company who installed the wiring or electric system, how
many lights and other devices can be attached and for what voltage they
should be made.

[Illustration: FIG. 47. Semi-indirect light.]



[Illustration: FIG. 48. Mantles.]

=94. Construction of Mantles.= A mantle is a device made of thread
saturated with some fireproof material like a mixture of thorium and
cerium which will glow, giving off a white light when heated hot. The
mantle (_A_ and _B_, Fig. 48) is placed over the burners of lamps using
liquid or gaseous fuel. The gas is mixed with air so that it burns with
a blue flame. The blue flame gives off little light, but it does not
smoke and is much hotter than a yellow flame. When a mantle is placed
over the blue flame, it is heated with less fuel consumption than is
required to make a yellow illuminating flame. The light from the glow
of the mantle is steadier and whiter than the light from an open flame,
so that it is more hygienic.

Mantles are made in different patterns so that they may be used on
upright and inverted burners. The inverted mantle throws more light
downward than an upright mantle. This is advantageous in lighting a
room, for most of the light is wanted in the lower part of the room.
Mantles can be used on lamps burning gas, kerosene, gasoline, alcohol
and acetylene if the burners are made to produce a blue flame. (See
Figs. 48 and 52.)

[Illustration: FIG. 48-_a_. Adjusting gas light.]

=95. Care of Mantles.= Strong jars and drafts will break mantles, for
they are very fragile. The explosion caused by burning back when the
lamp is being lighted is most destructive to mantles. To save mantles,
wait until the lamp has filled with gas before touching the lighted
match to it.

=96. Fixtures for Burning Gas.= Gas will burn just as it escapes from a
pipe. The flame of burning gas is yellow and makes considerable light.
In order to secure more light for the amount of gas burned, put a tip
on the end of the pipe, with a long, narrow slit in the top to spread
the flame. These are usually lava tips. Natural gas gives very little
light when burned in an open flame. Always burn it in mantle lamps.
Its heating value is 1000 B.T.U. per cubic foot. When burned in a
well-adjusted mantle lamp, natural gas will give about 15 candle hours
per cubic foot. The heating value of manufactured gas is rated at 600
B.T.U. per cubic foot. It makes a fair light when used in an open flame
burner. The yellow flame of burning gas makes considerable smoke, even
when carefully adjusted. It gives four times as much light and no smoke
when it is burned in a good mantle lamp.

[Illustration: FIG. 49. Bunsen burner for gas light.]

In the special burner of the mantle lamp, the gas is mixed with air so
that it will burn with a blue flame (Fig. 49). A blue flame is not good
for lighting, but when a mantle is placed over the flame, it becomes
heated, glowing hot. Since the mantle is made of a material which gives
off a white glow, it lights the room with a steady light which is far
better than the flickering light of the open flame (Fig. 48-_a_).

=97. Adjustment.= See that the ports thru which air is drawn into
the lamp are open as wide as needed to give a clear, smokeless flame
without firing back. Some lamps are fitted with a screw beside the
cocks to regulate the amount of gas flowing into the lamp. It should
be adjusted so that no more gas flows into the lamp than is needed to
get as bright a glow as possible from the mantle. Regulate the gas flow
by closing the valve attached to this screw until the mantle decreases
perceptibly in brightness, and then slowly opening it until the mantle
becomes bright. Gas companies often adjust lamps for their customers.

=98. Care of Lamps.= Clean the burners if they become sooted. Replace
mantles if they are broken.

[Illustration: FIG. 50. Open-flame acetylene burner.]

=99. Lighting a Gas Light.= When lighting a lamp, turn on the gas,
count three, and then light the lamp. Counting three gives time for the
burner to fill with gas and prevents burning back with an explosion.
Mantles are very delicate and easily broken by jars or strong drafts.
Burning back may break the mantle.

Burning back means that the gas ignites at the opening where it should
be mixing with the air instead of at the tip of the burner. This
happens when the lamp is lighted before it becomes filled with gas, or
when there is too much air mixed with the gas.

=100. Cold-Process Gasoline Gas.= It is more economical to use
cold-process gasoline gas with a mantle lamp than an open-flame burner
for lighting. Be sure to use the burners made especially for this kind
of gas. The lamps are managed like all others.

=101. Acetylene Lamps.= Open-flame burners are used for acetylene
gas because no mantle burner has been constructed which will operate
reliably with this rich gas.

Acetylene gas gives about ten times as much light per cubic foot as
manufactured gas burned in an open flame. The burners require little
care. Sometimes the holes in burners become stopped, and they should be
cleaned out with a fine pointed instrument like a needle. When they do
not work well, it pays to replace the old tips with new ones.

[Illustration: FIG. 50-_a_. Showing electric lighting device for
acetylene burner.]

Acetylene gas burners are constructed so that a very fine spray of gas
strikes another fine spray, which, when ignited, makes a broad flame.
This flame, which is almost white, gives off light. The burners appear
as illustrated in Fig. 50.

=102. Care of Burners of Acetylene Lamps.= Keep the two holes open.
Clean them with a large needle. See that there are no leaks about the
burners or pipes. If these are found, fill with white lead or some
similar substance, and tighten connections. If this does not suffice,
the trouble should be referred to a plumber. Fig. 50-_a_ shows an
acetylene burner.

Acetylene lamp mantles can be used only with acetylene which is under
high pressure. Therefore, they cannot be used with all plants. The
special burner for mixing air with the acetylene to make it burn with a
blue flame must be used with the mantle.



=103. Construction of Kerosene Lamps.= A kerosene lamp consists of a
bowl, a burner, a wick and a chimney.

In the ordinary lamp, the bowl for holding the oil is placed below
the burner (Fig. 51). The wick carries the oil from the bowl into the
burner by capillary attraction--one end being in the oil and the other
in the burner.

[Illustration: FIG. 51. Lamps and lamp chimneys.]

The burner, which has holes in it to let in air, holds the wick so
that only the oil reaching the top burns. The area and shape of the
flame depends upon the form of the top surface of the wick. The glass
chimney is used to cause an air current thru the burner and to protect
the flame from outside drafts. A screw moves the wick thru the burner.
If the wick is too small, the fire may burn back thru the burner and
ignite the oil in the bowl. It is important that a wick fit the burner.
If the chimney is too short or broken, the lamp will smoke _(A_, _B_,
Fig. 51).

=104. Management of Kerosene Lamps.= When the lamp smokes, it is
wasting fuel. Smoke is incompletely burnt fuel. The oil in the lamp
should be clean. It should never be mixed with gasoline or other more
explosive oils.

Fill the bowl each day the lamp is used to within one-half inch of the
top. A full bowl helps to make a safe lamp.

Put the chimney on the lamp so that it fits in its holder. Keep it
clean and bright. Keep the wick clean and trimmed evenly. See that it
entirely fills the opening thru the burner. This prevents the fire from
burning back down the burner and igniting the oil in the bowl.

Oil will not pass up a wick which fits too tight. Do not cut a wick to
trim it, but keep the charred part scraped or brushed off even with the
top of the slit in the burner. A burnt match is useful for this purpose.

[Illustration: FIG. 52. Mantle for kerosene lamp.]

=105. Lighting a Kerosene Lamp.= When lighting a lamp, be sure it is in
order and that any openings to the bowl are closed. Lift the chimney,
turn the screw to raise the wick about one-eighth inch above the slit.
Touch a lighted match to the wick, adjust the chimney, and, lastly,
move the wick up or down until it burns clear and bright without
smoking. After the burner becomes warm, the flame may grow higher and
smoke. Do not leave a newly-lighted lamp unwatched. After the lamp is
heated and adjusted, it should burn with a flame of even height.

=106. To Extinguish a Lamp.= Turn the wick down until it is slightly
below the top of the slit. Do not turn too far. It will then go out of
itself, or a slight puff of air will extinguish it. This is safer and
will smoke the chimney less than attempting to blow out the full flame.

=107. Care of Lamps.= Keep the inside and outside of bowl and chimney
clean. Wipe all soot from the burners. Trim the wick each day the lamp
is used. Fill the bowl with oil to within one-half inch of the top. Get
new wicks when the old ones become dirty.

=108. Kerosene Mantle Lamps.= Kerosene mantle lamps (Fig. 52) give
three to four times as much light per unit of oil as the ordinary
kerosene lamp. Many mantle lamps on the market are unreliable. Care,
therefore, should be taken to give the lamp a trial before investing so
as to be sure to get a good one.

The care and lighting of mantle lamps differ so much that the
directions must be furnished by the manufacturer and should be followed
with exactness.



=109. Classification of Lamps.= Since the principle of operation is
the same for most alcohol and gasoline lamps, they will be considered

[Illustration: FIG. 53. Gasoline or alcohol lamp.]

These lamps may be divided into two classes--gravity lamps and
pneumatic, or pressure, lamps.

=110. Gravity Lamps.= Gravity lamps have the tank elevated above the
burner so that the force of gravity brings the fluid to the burner. It
is usually a little to one side of the burner so that it cannot become
heated by it. A pipe from the tank leads downward and either over the
chimney or under the burner, where it will be heated by the flame of
the lamp. When heated, it changes the gasoline or the alcohol to gas.
The pipe carries the gas on to a point where it is mixed with air
before it flows into the burner (Fig. 53).

=111. Lighting the Gravity Lamp.= In order to light these lamps, the
generator must first be heated so as to make the gas. After this has
once been done, the heat of the lamp keeps the generator hot. As soon
as the gas is formed, light the lamp.

These lamps are furnished with mantles. The flame is blue and,
consequently, gives out very little light, but much heat. The mantle
covering the flame is heated to glowing white heat and gives off much
light of a white color.

=112. Pressure Lamps.= Pressure lamps (Figs. 54 and 55) have a strong
tank which holds air and fuel, whether alcohol or gasoline. Air is
pumped into the tank so that it presses on the fuel with force enough
to push the fuel up the pipe leading from the bottom of the tank to the
generator. The air cannot get into the pipe so long as there is fuel
which is heavier than air in the tank, because the pipe which leads to
the burner starts from the bottom of the tank.

[Illustration: FIG. 54. Details of gasoline lamp.]

[Illustration: FIG. 55. Pneumatic gasoline lamp.]

The generator for changing the liquid fuel to gas is placed between
the burners of the lamp, of which there are usually two. After the
generator has been heated, the lighted lamps keep the generator hot.
The gas being very light, continues to rise. It passes thru a place
where it is mixed with air, and goes on into the burner, where it
is ignited. If the lamp burns low, more air must be pumped into the
tank to force up the gasoline or alcohol. When all the fluid has been
burned, the lamp will go out, since, then, only the air which is under
pressure in the tank will be coming into the burner.

Extinguish the lamp by turning off the supply of fuel to the generator.
To light these lamps, first heat the generator, as directed for the
particular lamp in use, and then light the burners. Detailed directions
cannot be given here, as they differ with different lamps.

=113. Gasoline Lamps with Wicks.= There are some gasoline lamps made
with wicks which help conduct the oil into the burner, where it is
changed to gas by the heat from the lamp, mixed with air and burned in
a mantle. The flame, from a mixture of alcohol or gasoline and air,
is blue and gives off little light, but much heat. It is used with a

=114. Alcohol Lamps with Wicks.= The wick of one type of alcohol lamp
conducts the alcohol up thru a round tube which it completely fills.
The tube prevents the fire from burning down into the bowl of the lamp.
Alcohol makes a very hot and almost smokeless flame, even when little
air is present. The mantle is put over the flame, and, when heated,
gives a good light. Other ordinary fuels cannot be used on so simple a
lamp because they would smoke the mantle.

=115. Lighting Alcohol or Gasoline Lamps.= Heat the conducting pipe at
the point where the fuel is to be changed to gas. (Directions for this
come with each lamp, and they differ considerably.) After being heated
sufficiently, the valve leading to the burner is opened and the burner
lighted with a match or torch. Use clean gasoline for these lamps,
unmixed with water or other substances.


 1. Are there any differences in the electric light globes on the
 market? If so, in what ways do they differ? How do these differences
 affect the lighting power of the globes?

 2. What influence has the size and decoration of the room on the
 brilliancy of light from a given lamp?

 3. How should the light in a living-room be distributed?

 4. What are the differences in direct, semi-direct and indirect

 5. What is the purpose of a mantle for a gas or kerosene lamp?

 6. What is the difference in burners to be used with and without

 7. How is the light from a lamp measured?

 8. Which lamp gives the greatest candle power of light for the amount
 of fuel used--the one with or the one without a mantle?





=116. Principles of Refrigeration.= Refrigerators (Fig. 56) are
designed to prevent the rapid spoiling of food by keeping it too cool
for the rapid growth of bacteria. They vary considerably in their
efficiency, according to their construction and to the way in which
they are managed. To preserve food and to save ice, the housewife must
understand her refrigerator, and she must choose a good one. There is
as much difference in the efficiency with which housewives manage their
refrigerators as there are differences in refrigerators.

[Illustration: FIG. 56. Refrigerator.]

A series of experiments were conducted with a number of different makes
of refrigerators. When the outside temperature was between 80 and 90
degrees Fahrenheit, and when the refrigerators were kept full of ice,
it was found that the temperatures in different refrigerators varied
between 45 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. When the refrigerators were only
partly full of ice, their temperatures rose several degrees.

The refrigerators which held a temperature of 45 degrees when filled
with ice, or with 100 pounds, used 25 pounds of ice each in three days,
while in the same three days, the ones which could maintain only a
temperature as low as 65 degrees, used 50 pounds each. The warmer the
inside of a refrigerator, the faster the ice melts.

In general, a refrigerator which maintains a low temperature is
cheapest to operate. The refrigerator should be kept full of ice
exposed so that it comes in contact with the air circulating within the
refrigerator. The refrigerator which does not hold a low temperature
will not only use more ice, but be less efficient in keeping food.

=117. The Construction of Refrigerators.= The construction of a
refrigerator should be such that it may be kept clean. There should be
no cracks and corners to catch dirt and make breeding places for molds
and bacteria.

=118. Lining Refrigerators.= The best linings for refrigerators are
porcelain, porcelain enamel, or glass for the more expensive ones,
and galvanized iron or zinc for the less expensive ones. The shelves
are usually made of heavy wire or of bent metal. The latter should be
constructed so that they can be thoroly cleaned.

[Illustration: FIG. 57. Diagram showing circulation in a refrigerator.]

=119. Insulation of Refrigerators.= The more complete the insulation
of a refrigerator, the more efficient it will be. Different kinds of
material, as well as dead-air spaces, are used for this purpose. The
top, as well as the bottom, must be insulated. Materials which are
likely to crack or settle down and leave uninsulated spaces should not
be used. Because sawdust settles, it is not satisfactory. There are
felts, papers and other materials which are good. If the refrigerator
is not water-tight and the insulating material absorbs water, it will
lose its efficiency for insulation.

=120. Circulation in Refrigerators.= The better the circulation
in a refrigerator, the more efficient it will be. The air in the
refrigerator must be free to circulate over the ice. As it cools, it
should drop to the bottom of the ice box. When it warms, it will rise
and be displaced by fresh falling cold air. It should be free to rise
to the top of the refrigerator and from there pass into the ice chamber
and over the ice to be cooled again (Fig. 57). When the ice always
melts unevenly and in the same relative place--that is, more on the
side or bottom--it indicates poor circulation in the refrigerator.

=121. Drip from Melting Ice.= There should be a pan under the ice to
catch the drip from the melting ice, and a drip pipe to carry it out
of the refrigerator (Fig. 57). If the drip pipe passes into a pan set
under the refrigerator, the pan should be emptied so that it will not
overflow. The water in the pan should not be allowed to become stagnant.

If this pipe passes to a drain, it should not be attached to the drain,
but drip into it. The small amount of fresh air passing up the drip
pipe from the room is advantageous. Because some air does flow thru
here, the drip pipe and the drain pipe must be clean and free from
gases and odors.

The drip pipe should be straight and free from places in which dirt may
collect. It must be removable, so that it can be cleaned. The doors of
the refrigerator must shut so tightly that frost or dew will not form
about their edges on a hot day.

=122. Arrangement of Food in the Ice Box.= Ice boxes are usually cooler
at the bottom than at the top. Do not put food in the ice chamber
because this necessitates opening the door and wastes ice. Do not put
papers or flat boxes on the shelves which will interfere with the
circulation of air in the refrigerator.

=123. Filling and Care of the Ice Box.= The housewife must open the
doors of the ice box as seldom as possible, and close them quickly. Do
not cut off the circulation of air from the ice by wrapping it in a
blanket or newspapers. It cannot do its work then. The ice box is kept
cold by the gradual melting of the ice. The ice melts fastest as the
temperature of the ice box rises. Covering the ice may keep it from
melting, but it will also allow the refrigerator to get warm, and so,
whatever is gained in saving ice at first, will be lost at the higher
temperature and in cooling the box again. Steady melting does the most

The shelves and drain pipe should be removable, and these and the
refrigerator should be washed and thoroly scalded once in every two

There is a saving in planning to open the refrigerator as little as
possible. The filling of the ice box with a large piece of ice two or
three times a week, rather than with a small piece every day, is more



=124. Comparative Efficiency of Iceless Refrigerators.= In some
localities, where it is difficult to get ice often enough to pay for
having a refrigerator, other devices have to be depended upon for
keeping food cool. Except when cold running water can be used in
coolers, they do not take the place of refrigerators, because they
cannot maintain the low temperature of a good refrigerator. As a
rule, the best of the makeshifts are about on a par with the poorer
refrigerators. They are very useful in emergencies.

[Illustration: FIG. 58. Iceless refrigerator.]

=125. Iceless Refrigerator.= One of these devices is called the iceless
refrigerator (Fig. 58). It depends upon the evaporation of water
to make it cool. Water will evaporate sufficiently fast to cool a
refrigerator enough to be of value only in a dry, hot, breezy place.
Under the most ideal condition, an iceless refrigerator may hold as
low a temperature as 65 degrees Fahrenheit, when the thermometer is
registering above 90 degrees.

This refrigerator consists of a cloth-covered frame and a device for
keeping the cloth moistened with fresh water. Since wind or a good
circulation of air helps in the evaporation of water, the iceless
refrigerator must be placed where breezes may reach it, and it should
be anchored so that it will not blow away.

An iceless refrigerator may be made from a rectangular frame of wood,
to which heavy canton flannel is buttoned or tacked. On the top of this
should be placed a pan of water with strips of cloth extending from
the water to the covering of the frame. This will conduct the water
from the pan out onto the cloth. The number of strips of cloth regulate
the rapidity with which the water is carried to the sides of the
refrigerator. The food is set inside (Fig. 58.) The refrigerator should
be placed in a shady spot where the breezes can strike it. Iceless
refrigerators must be kept clean, and the covering of cloth should be
washed occasionally.

[Illustration: FIG. 59. Device for cooling food.]

Some iceless refrigerators are enclosed in a chimney-like closet built
on the house, the cold air coming in at the bottom and being drawn
upward by the natural draft of the chimney-like structures. This draft
hastens the evaporation of the water. Such refrigerators are expensive
and less satisfactory than ice ones.

=126. Small Cooler.= A few things may be kept cool, like a bottle of
milk and a small dish of butter, by setting them in a shallow pan of
water and covering them with a flannel cloth which comes down into the
water and so remains moist (Fig. 59). The evaporation of the water
from the flannel cools the food somewhat below the temperature of the
surrounding air.

=127. Covered Pail.= Another device is a metal pail (Fig. 60) covered
with a heavy layer of cloth and a pan set on top of the cover. Into the
pan is put some water and strips of cloth to conduct out the water.
This may be hung in the kitchen window if it is shaded. The cover and
the strips must be secured so that they will not blow off.

[Illustration: FIG. 60. Covered pail for cooling food.]

=128. Unglazed Earthenware.= Unglazed earthenware pitchers and jugs
make excellent water coolers. The water is put in them, and, as the
container is porous, a small amount filters thru the earthenware, and,
as it reaches the surface and air, it evaporates, cooling the remaining

=129. Cooling with Running Water.= A very little stream of water from a
faucet will cool the baby's milk and keep it from souring. The bottle
should be set in a pan of water which is constantly renewed by the
small stream running from the faucet. (Fig. 61.) This method of cooling
should be used only in homes supplied with water from a spring or in
an emergency. Under most circumstances, it is too extravagant a method
of keeping food to be recommended. In cities it should be prohibited
because it might cause too great a drain on the city water supply.

[Illustration: FIG. 61. Cooling with running water.]

A larger device used for cooling milk is a tank of running water (Figs.
61-_a_-_b_). The water flowing thru this tank commonly flows into
another tank used for the watering of stock. Cans with inverted covers
like those illustrated are waterproof, because the air is caught inside
them so that it cannot get out for the water to replace it. It does
not require a large stream of water to renew that in the tank and keep
it cool. The efficiency of this device depends entirely upon having a
supply of cold water available.

[Illustration: FIG. 61-_a_. Cross-section of cooling tank.]

=130. Refrigerating Plants.= Refrigerating plants are sometimes
installed in private dwellings. These consist of a motor and a machine
for compressing gas, a chamber which is to be cooled, and sometimes
coils of pipe containing brine.

When the gas--for example, ammonia or carbon dioxide--is compressed,
it heats the pump which compresses it. That is, when a liquid or gas
is being compressed, it gives up heat. When a liquid or gas expands,
it takes heat from somewhere. In refrigerating plants, the expanding
gas is made to take the heat either directly from the refrigerator
or storeroom, or from brine which is then used for cooling the
refrigerator or room. Refrigerating plants require the same care as
pumps, motors and refrigerators.

[Illustration: FIG. 61-_b_. Cooling tank.]

=131. Water Coolers.= Since ice is not always pure, it is necessary to
use cooling devices which do not permit it to come into direct contact
with the water. One type of water cooler consists of a can set in an
ice box with a pipe leading to the outside so that the box does not
have to be opened every time that water is wanted (Fig. 62). This can
should be made so that it may be removed, washed and scalded.

Another cooler consists of a tank or water bottle placed on the
outside of a refrigerator or box of ice with a pipe leading thru the
refrigerator or box of ice (Fig. 63). The water flowing thru the pipe
is cooled. The pipe ends at the outside of the ice box with a faucet to
let out the water. This cooler cools only the water flowing into the
pipe instead of the entire tank of water.

[Illustration: FIG. 62. Water cooler containing water tank.]

[Illustration: FIG. 63. Sectional view of water cooler.]

=132. Care of Water Coolers.= Put only clean, pure water into the
coolers, and keep them clean by flushing them out occasionally with
boiling water.



=133. Selecting a Fan.= With the coming of electricity into the home,
fans have become practical home devices. Do not buy a fan or other
electrical device without ascertaining whether the current is direct or
alternating, and what voltage is needed to run it. Most city homes are
now supplied with current ranging between 105 and 115 volts, so most
fans are made for that. Fans will run on a small wire like that used
for lighting.

[Illustration: FIG. 64. Blower.]

[Illustration: FIG. 65. Stationary fan.]

=134. The Construction of the Fan in Common Use.= A motor turns the
fan. There is a regulator on some fans, so that they can be run at
different rates of speed. Oil cups are important parts of fans. When
a new fan is purchased, these cups are full of oil. The oil will last
for many months, but if an old fan heats and sparks while being run,
have an electrician examine it to see if all the parts are in order and
there is a supply of oil. Figs. 64, 65 and 66 show types of fans in
common use.

[Illustration: FIG. 66. Movable electric fan.]

[Illustration: FIG. 67. Stove ventilator.]

=135. Ventilator.= A hood (Fig. 67) with a pipe leading into the
chimney, placed over a cook stove, will conduct hot air and steam up
the chimney. This is due to the fact that warm air rises and cold air
comes in to take its place. An open skylight over a cook stove, also,
makes an excellent ventilator and cooling device for kitchens.


 1. How may refrigerators be judged for efficiency?

 2. What are the essentials of a good refrigerator?

 3. How is an iceless refrigerator cooled? Under what conditions is it

 4. What may be the matter with an electric fan when it heats and





=136. Suction Pumps.= A pump is a device for lifting water. The pumps
in common use work on the principle that water which is under the
pressure of air will rise to fill a vacuum or a partial vacuum. The
pump is composed of a combination of valves and a piston for forcing
the air out of the pipe to allow the water from below to be forced into
it. A valve catches the water as it starts to flow back. The weight of
the water holds the valve closed.

An outlet above the piston permits the water to flow into a tank or
sink when the piston is again lifted to make a new vacuum and draw more
water (Fig. 68).

=137. Care of Pumps.= The leather or material forming the piston must
be kept moist, or it will shrink and leak. When it becomes worn and
old, it must be renewed. It is not a difficult task to put new packing
on a small suction pump. To do this, remove the pin attaching the
piston to the handle. Lift out the piston, unscrew the bolt which holds
the leather packing in place; put on the new packing, and replace the
bolt, piston and pin.

Always pump with a regular, even stroke--a jerky one tends to wear the
working parts of the pump.

The cylinder and pipe containing water must not be allowed to freeze.
There is usually a plug in the pipe which may be removed to let out
the water when there is danger of freezing. A cracked cylinder or pipe
will leak air and not raise water.

[Illustration: FIG. 68. Suction pump.]

[Illustration: FIG. 69. Force pump.]

Keep the bearings for the handle well oiled. When the pump gets old,
the cylinder becomes worn and leaks. It can sometimes be replaced with
a new cylinder, or more packing must be put on the piston.

=138. Force Pumps.= Force pumps are used on deep wells and in forcing
water into storage tanks. They should be kept oiled; they should
be operated with an even stroke, and the packing in them should be
renewed if they leak air. In force pumps, the valves differ in their
arrangement from suction pumps (Fig. 69).

=139. Compressed-Air Pumps.= Compressed-air pumps consist of a tank
for storing the compressed air--a pump to force air into the tank and
cylinders equipped with valves. These act automatically. Whenever an
outlet pipe is opened, the extra pressure of air from the storage tank
raises the water from the well or cistern (Fig. 70). Air should be kept
in the pressure tank.

[Illustration: FIG. 70. Compressed-air pump system.]

When this arrangement is used, open and close faucets slowly, not with
a jerk. Fig. 70-_a_ shows plumbing where such a system is used.

=140. Water Filters.= Water filters are devices for straining minute
particles out of water. They are made of sand, charcoal or porcelain,
kisselguhr and other materials. They are without value unless they are
kept clean. A dirty filter is worse than none. Almost the only way to
clean them is to sterilize them or put new material in them. Only with
expert care can filters be made effective for removing disease germs.
A dirty filter may prove a menace. Filters are valuable for removing
coarse dirt from the water.

[Illustration: FIG. 70-_a_. System of plumbing with compressed-air

Filters on faucets should be cleaned or renewed every day. Large
filters for rain water should be renewed every few months.



=141. Pressure Tanks.= A pressure tank is a device for storing water
under pressure. It is usually placed in the basement of dwelling houses.

=142. Construction of the Pressure Tank.= The tank is tight and strong,
so that it will hold air and water under pressure. The tank originally
has some air in it. When the water is pumped in, the air not being
able to escape, is compressed. When there is a chance for water to
escape from the tank which is connected to water pipes, the pressure
of the compressed air on the water forces it to upstairs rooms and
other points. To this tank is attached a pressure gage which indicates
the amount of pressure; or, in other words, the amount of water in the
tank, for when the water gets low, the pressure is reduced unless the
air has escaped. A glass gage shows the height of water. Provision is
made to let some air into the tank, for otherwise it may in time be
all forced out of the tank or absorbed by the water. The water in a
pressure tank may be used to pump water from a cistern into another

=143. Care of Pressure Tanks.= A pressure tank must not be pumped up to
the extent that the pressure becomes greater than the strength of the
tank. A safety valve is used in controlling the pressure.

=144. Hot-Water Kitchen Tank.= A force pump is generally used for
pumping water into kitchen tanks, except when water from another tank,
such as a city reservoir, flows into it.

[Illustration: FIG. 71. Instantaneous water heater.]

=145. Instantaneous Water Heaters.= The instantaneous water heater
(Fig. 71) is a device which heats water on its way to the outlet. It is
composed of a heating unit and piping connected to the outlet pipes. In
this type of heater, the pipes must always be kept full of water, and
some device should be attached (Fig. 72) to the heater which will lower
the heat as soon as, or before, the water reaches boiling temperature.
This will prevent steam from forming, which might injure the system.

[Illustration: FIG. 72. Device for heating water automatically.]

=146. Heaters for Tanks.= Hot water is lighter than cold. A pipe from
the bottom of the tank leads into the heater, passes thru the heating
coils and up into the top of the tank (Figs. 73 and 74). Water from
the tank circulates thru this pipe as the hot water rises and the cold
water falls in the tank. As the heater is located on a level with the
bottom of the tank, cold water seeking this level flows into the pipe
and becomes heated (Fig. 76).

[Illustration: FIG. 73. Force pump and boiler.]

A booster is a device which keeps the water hot up to the faucet (Fig.
75). If there is a pilot on a gas water heater, be sure to use it.
The burners should be cared for in the same way as on other heaters
using the same fuel. Keep the tank full of water and the water free
to circulate thru the pipes. Air-tight tanks may become so hot that
steam is formed in large amounts. Tanks which are not connected with
city water pipes may be fitted with safety valves which open when the
pressure of steam inside the tank reaches a certain point, which is
below the danger point.

Should the pipes or tank freeze, do not start the fire in the heater,
but thaw the pipes with applications of hot water or other means until
the water can circulate in them.

Electric heaters are usually incased in a waterproof covering and
put in the center of the tank. Small electric heaters are in use for
heating a glass or other small amount of water. These are called
immersion heaters.

=147. The Elevated Water Tank.= In rural homes, water is sometimes
stored in an elevated tank. This is usually placed in the attic. It is
frequently filled by means of a force pump connected with a windmill
or gasoline engine. If there is no overflow to this tank, which there
should be, it must be watched when being filled to prevent it from
overflowing. It may be fitted with an automatic device similar to those
used on the expansion tanks of hot-water furnaces or tanks to water
closets for regulating the inflow of water.

[Illustration: FIG. 74. Water heater and tank.]

[Illustration: FIG. 75. Booster for hot water.]

=148. Faucets.= Faucets are made in different patterns, but they need
practically the same care (Fig. 77). The leather, or rubber, washer
in a faucet must be renewed when it leaks. To renew the washer,
unscrew the cap from the faucet. Remove the valve. Take off the ring
of packing. Replace with a new ring, and put the faucet together
again. The only tools needed for this repair work are a wrench and a
screwdriver. Shut off the water from the pipe to the faucet before
beginning to repair a leaking faucet.

[Illustration: FIG. 76. Water tank and heater.]

=149. Valves.= Valves are constructed much like faucets.

They, too, sometimes need repacking. Follow the directions for
repacking of faucet (Fig. 78).

[Illustration: FIG. 77. Faucet showing parts.]

[Illustration: FIG. 78. Radiator valve.]

=150. Overflows.= Keep overflows clean. When the plug and overflow are
combined, as they sometimes are, lift out the cylinder forming the
plug and overflow and wash it. When it fails to hold water in the tub
or basin, it may need a new washer on the lower part. This may be
replaced very easily. Fig. 79 shows one type of overflow.

[Illustration: FIG. 79. Cross-section of overflow on bath-tub.]

[Illustration: FIG. 80. Plumber's pump.]

It is more difficult to keep other overflows clean. They may be flushed
or cleaned with a brush attached to a wire.

=151. Traps for Bath Tubs and Basins.= Dirt and slime collects in
traps. Clean them frequently. Always leave clean water in the traps
of bathroom fixtures and sinks. Only matter quickly soluble in water
should pass into drain pipes. Keep matches, hair, sweepings, rags,
fruit skins and stones out of the fixtures.

If the drain from a basin, sink or tub fails to carry away the water,
the stoppage may be removed with a small plumber's pump (Fig. 80). This
is a small rubber cone-like device which is placed over the outlet
to the drain and moved up and down so that it sucks air, water and
whatever may be movable up the pipe.



=152. Relative Value of Cesspool and Septic Tank.= Sewer pipes for
private water systems usually drain into cesspools or septic tanks
(Figs. 81, and 81-_a_). The waste goes thru a process of decomposition
before passing out into the soil. Sewage should both liquify and
oxidize before entering into the soil. Oxidation purifies liquid sewage
so that it is not contaminating. If oxidation is not brought about in
the cesspool or septic tank, sewage, which is fresh, should be run onto
the surface of the ground where the air and bacteria for oxidation can
be found. Cesspools are not as good as septic tanks because there is
not the surety of sewage being oxidized in them, as there is in the
septic tank. They lack oxidizing chambers.

[Illustration: FIG. 81. Septic tank and tile.]

Unoxidized liquid sewage being in a condition to flow readily thru the
earth, is more dangerous than fresh sewage because it is more likely to
seep into wells.

[Illustration: FIG. 81-_a_. Septic tank.]

=153. Construction of the Septic Tank.= The septic tank is composed of
two chambers--one the liquefying chamber and the other the oxidizing
chamber. Both are water-tight (Fig. 82). The fresh sewage comes into
the liquefying chamber thru a pipe placed near the top of the tank.
Here it stands and liquefies, which is a process of decomposition.
The solids fall to the bottom as they come into this chamber, and the
liquid formed rises to the top and flows into the oxidizing chamber
(_B_, Fig. 82), when it reaches a point a little below the height of
the inlet pipe. It either does this by flowing over a partition or thru
a pipe leading from one compartment to the other.

The second compartment is usually slightly smaller than the first.
Here the sewage is held until the process of oxidation takes place,
which renders it less dangerous. When the sewage in the second chamber
reaches a certain height, it siphons out into a tile which distributes
it over a plot of ground (Fig. 81).

Various kinds of siphons are used, the important feature of them being
that they are constructed so that they drain the tank often enough to
remove the oxidized sewage and not so often as to remove it before it
has become oxidized.

=154. The Size of Tank.= Because the liquid must be drained from the
tank at certain intervals, it is important that the size of the tank be
adapted to the amount of waste it will receive.

[Illustration: FIG. 82. Details of septic tank.]

Septic tanks are kept warm by the heat generated in the oxidizing
process, which is simply slow burning of the waste, so that they rarely
freeze in winter.

Run waste water from the kitchen sink and laundry tubs into a catch
basin to collect the grease from the water, as grease or oil on the
surface of the sewage of a tank will stop the action of the microbes in
the tank by smothering them.

When too much grease does get into it, the tank must be thoroly cleaned.

Do not use lye, chloride of lime, carbolic acid and other chemicals in
drains and septic tanks. Disinfectants of this type put into pipes
leading to a septic tank will kill the useful bacteria which decompose
the sewage.

Use clear boiling water to clean the pipes. This will be cooled by the
time it reaches the tank so that it will not kill the useful bacteria.

Insoluble mineral matter gradually accumulates in septic tanks, so that
they must be cleaned once every few years. Care will postpone the times
for cleaning.

Do not wash vegetables with much earth adhering to them in sinks
leading to cesspools or septic tanks. Shake or rinse off the dirt
before washing them.

=155. Disposal of Waste in Cities.= In some cities, householders are
required by law to have catch basins connected to their sewer systems
to remove leaves and dirt from storm water and grease from kitchen
sinks and laundry tubs. The laws of other cities forbid the use of
catch basins, but urge householders to help care for the city sewer
system by not putting grease into sewer pipes.

Strong chemicals should not be put into the pipes. Use only boiling
water in cleaning pipes. Do not wash vegetables on which there is much
loose dirt in sinks.



=156. Construction of Water Closets.= The water closet is a device for
the disposal of excrement. The closet includes a tank of water for
flushing the waste from the bowl to the sewer or waste pipe. Between
the bowl and the waste pipe is a device called a trap which holds water
and seals the end of the waste pipe so that gases from the sewer or the
septic tank cannot come into the house. (Fig. 83-_a_.)

The bowl of the newer models of water closets have the trap as a part
of the bowl, which saves joints and connections likely to catch dirt
and stop up the trap (Fig. 83). The water coming from the flushing
tank is carried around the bowl so that it is flushed clean by the
swift-flowing water. When the water reaches the bottom of the bowl, it
rushes upward a few inches before it can turn downward to the waste
pipe. This it does while flowing rapidly and cleansing the bowl; when
the tank empties, water collects in the bowl to the level, where it can
flow down the waste pipe (Fig. 83). As soon as all the water above this
level has gone down the pipe, the remainder stays in the bowl, forming
the seal until the next time the bowl is flushed. Fig. 83-_a_ shows two
kinds of traps.

If water flows at too rapid a rate thru the trap of the bowl, as in
cases when there is too much pressure on the water or the tank is set
too high so that gravity gives it too much force, or if an excessive
suction is produced in the drain pipe, all the water may run out of the
bowl, leaving the trap unsealed. The remedy for this is a change in
the flushing tank or in its position.

[Illustration: FIG. 83. Section of water closet.]

=157. Siphoning the Trap.= If rags or shreds of material are dropped
into the bowl and lodge in the trap, only a part of them going over
into the waste pipe, they may siphon the water, sealing the trap, over
into the waste pipe. There was more difficulty of this sort with traps
of older models than with the newer types. Always leave clean water in
the trap.

[Illustration: FIG. 83-_a_. Types of traps.]

=158. The Flushing Tank.= The flushing tank (Fig. 84) is a reservoir to
hold sufficient water to cleanse the bowl. In one type of tank, water
is retained in the tank by a plug held in place by the weight of the
water in the tank. By a lever on the outside of the tank, this plug is
lifted when the bowl is to be flushed, and it stays open until all the
water flows out of the tank. When the water has all left the tank, the
plug falls back into the hole and fresh water flowing into the tank
holds it in place, as there is nothing in the pipe below to make it
float upward.

Working at the same time with the plug is a valve in the water supply
pipe, attached to a large hollow float. The valve opens as the water
flows out of the tank, and closes as the tank is filled. This valve
is operated by the float floating on the surface of the water. As the
water flows out of the tank, the float falls, opening the valve and
letting in water. As the tank fills, the float rises to the top of the
tank and shuts off the valve. If the float catches so that it fails
to rise and fall, or becomes disconnected from the valve, it will not
operate the valve. There is an overflow pipe in the tank which carries
off all water rising above a certain level in the tank. This prevents
the tank from overflowing when the valve fails to turn.

[Illustration: FIG. 84. Diagram of flushing tank.]

=159. Repairing the Flushing Tank.= When the water continues to flow
into the tank, take off the cover of the tank and examine the valve
and ball to see why they are not working properly. If disconnected or
caught, remedy the trouble. If the plug fails to stop the flow of water
out of the tank, water will also continue to flow into the tank. To
remedy this temporarily, push the plug down over the outlet and also
note the reason why it has not fallen back automatically. If worn, it
may have to be replaced with a new one.

There should be a valve to close the pipe to the tank. With this valve,
much water can be saved in time of trouble, and greater convenience may
be had in remedying difficulties with the devices inside the tank.


 1. How does a pump lift water from a well?

 2. How do pumps differ in construction?

 3. What care should be given a pump?

 4. When is a water filter useful? When dangerous?

 5. What is a pressure tank? How does it operate?

 6. Describe two kinds of water heaters. What precautions should be
 taken with each kind of heater?

 7. Describe a water faucet. Try to replace an old washer with a new

 8. Have you ever cleaned the overflow to a tub or basin? Should they
 be cleaned?

 9. What are traps? What may cause them to fail to work?

 10. How would you select a good trap? How would you clean it?

 11. Describe the construction of a septic tank. What is the action
 that takes place in a septic tank? What care should be given to it?

 12. Examine the tank to a water closet. How does it operate?





=160. Kinds of Washing Machines.= Washing machines are tools to help
remove dirt from clothes either by friction or by forcing water thru
them. They are known by such names as suction, cylinder, rotary,
oscillating, locomotive and centrifugal machines. These names are used
differently by various authorities.

[Illustration: FIG. 85. Washer to place in boiler.]

[Illustration: FIG. 86. Another type of washer for boiler.]

Washing machines may be attached to any kind of motor, or they may be
manipulated by hand.

=161. Suction Machines.= The suction machines are made to force water
thru the clothes (Figs. 85 and 86). Some are operated by hand, some by
mechanical power, and some are funnel-shaped devices to be placed in

Hand or mechanical suction machines have cones or funnels which are
pushed down onto the clothes and then suddenly lifted, causing suction
which draws out the dirt previously loosened by the moisture and
pressure. Mechanical devices attached to the top are sometimes used to
raise and lower the funnels (Figs. 87 and 87-_a_).

[Illustration: FIG. 87. Suction washer.]

The suction washers for use in boilers are placed funnel side down. By
means of these, the steam forming in the bottom of the boiler forces
the water thru the clothes. Distribute the clothes evenly about the
washer. Fill the boiler with water and add shaved soap. When set over
a fire, the steam forming at the bottom raises the water in the funnel
to the top and pushes it out thru the clothes, or raises the funnel and
makes it beat upon the clothes.

[Illustration: FIG. 87-_a_. Washing machine.]

Other machines combine the two methods of washing--forcing water thru
clothes and rubbing them at the same time.

=162. Cylinder Washers.= Cylinder washers contain a perforated
barrel-like device, into which the clothes are placed (Fig. 88). This
cylinder has cleats on the inside to raise the clothes as the cylinder
turns and drop them when they reach the highest point in it, back into
the water, thus pounding water thru them and rubbing them against the
side of the cylinder as they are raised. This is the type used in most
laundries. A cylinder turned by an electric motor is made which can be
placed in the stationary wash tub in small apartments. The tub then
serves as the outer part of the washing machine.

[Illustration: FIG. 88. Cylinder washer.]

=163. Rotary Washers.= In the rotary, or milk-stool, type of washer,
sometimes called "Dolly" (Fig. 89), the stool-like contrivance which
presses against the clothes must be turned half-way around in one
direction, and then back the other way, to prevent twisting, tearing or
otherwise injuring the clothes. The clothes are thus rubbed against the
corrugated sides and bottom of the machine, and thru the water. Never
put too many clothes in this type of machine because too tight packing
causes the machine to tear them.

[Illustration: FIG. 89. Rotary washer.]

=164. Machine with an Oscillating Washing Device.= This washer contains
an oscillating device for rubbing the clothes over the corrugated
bottom. The rubbing device is also corrugated and is put on top of the
clothes and moved backward and forward, thus rubbing them between two
wash-boards (Fig. 90).

[Illustration: FIG. 90. Oscillating washing machine.]

=165. Oscillating Washers.= Oscillating washers have corrugated
bottoms. The clothes are put into the machine with the wash water. The
washer rocks, throwing the clothes backward and forward thru the water,
loosening and squeezing out the dirt. This washer works easiest when
the machine is well filled with water.

=166. Locomotive Washer.= The locomotive washer (Fig. 91) slides
backward and forward, thus churning the water and clothes. It is
operated only by power. A heating unit, usually gas, in the base of the
machine keeps the water hot.

[Illustration: FIG. 91. Locomotive washing machine.]

=167. Centrifugal Washer.= A centrifugal washer (Fig. 91-_a_) contains
a perforated basket which whirls in the water contained in the machine.
The clothes are placed in the basket, rolled into bundles. The rapid
whirling thru the water removes the dirt from the clothes.

[Illustration: FIG. 91-_a_. Centrifugal washing machine.]

=168. Care of Washers.= The bearings and other motor parts of a washing
machine should be kept oiled. Keep belts tight. Run the machine about
ten minutes each while the clothes are in the first wash water and the
two sudsy waters, and five minutes each for the hot and the cold rinse
waters. Blueing had better be done in a tub.

Wooden machines must dry out occasionally, or else they get slimy. Do
not let them get dry enough to crack. Air the machines after use. Cover
them when not in use to keep them clean.

When a gasoline engine is used in operating a washing machine, it
must be set so that the belt will pull straight on the pulley wheel
of the machine. The belt should be tight enough to prevent slipping.
Stationary washers are set to avoid such troubles, but those which are
moved from place to place must be adjusted by the operator.

The pulleys must be adjusted to turn at the number of revolutions per
minute directed for the washer used. This usually does not exceed 150
revolutions of the motor wheel per minute.

Water motors must receive more than 25 pounds of water pressure to
operate a washing machine.



=169. Roller Wringer.= The kind of wringer in most general use is the
one made of two rollers rotating in opposite directions, the clothes
being drawn in between the two by friction, and the water pressed out.
(See Fig. 88.)

The rollers in modern wringers are made of a composition of rubber.
They are adjusted so that they may be brought close together or moved
apart. When wringing thin articles, the rollers should be set close
together, and when wringing heavy articles, they should be set far
apart. This adjustment of the wringer helps to do better work and save
wear and tear on clothing and wringer.

=170. Care of Wringers.= The bearings should be kept oiled, but oil
must be kept off the rollers, as it rots them. Keep the rollers washed
clean. Soap and water will remove the dirt which collects on them.
If this does not clean them, wipe the rollers in a weak solution of

If the rollers get badly stained, wipe them with a cloth dipped in
kerosene. Wash this off immediately, as kerosene dissolves the rubber
as well as the dirt.

Never leave a wringer with the pressure on the rollers when not in use.
The pressure is either adjusted by thumb-screws or by a clamp. Loosen
these when thru with the wringer.

=171. Centrifugal Wringer, or Dryer.= The centrifugal wringer, or
dryer, consists of a tub, inside of which is a smaller tub with
perforated sides. There is a drain at the bottom of the outside tub.
The wringer is attached to a device for making the inside tub turn
rapidly. The power used is either hand or machine (Fig. 92).

[Illustration: FIG. 92. Washer and dryer.]

The rapid turning of the inner tub for three minutes throws the
clothing and water in them to the outside of the revolving center. This
tub being perforated, lets the water thru while retaining the clothing.
Thus, the clothes are wrung as dry as in a wringer of the roller type.
If the machine is turned a longer time, the clothes can be wrung
entirely dry.

=172. Care of the Machine.= When loading centrifugal wringers, put the
heavy pieces at the bottom of the basket. Put articles in basket in
bunches, and pack fairly tight. Do not have loose ends hanging out.
Fold sleeves into garments. Load the basket full if there are clothes
enough. A cover helps to hold the clothes in place. Load so that it
runs even and does not wobble.

Never hold your hand on the extractor after it has started.

=173. Combination Washer and Wringer.= The centrifugal washer and
wringer combined is built so that the basket can be lowered into a
tub of water. The clothes rotating in water are washed. After this is
accomplished, the cylinder is raised, and, when rotated, serves as a
wringer of the centrifugal type.

Load the washer with fewer clothes than for wringing. Roll each garment
into a bunch before putting it into the washer.

Centrifugal wringers are used also as dry-cleaning machines. For this
use, they should be operated out of doors and at a slower speed than
when water is used. Friction heats gasoline, causing it to evaporate
rapidly. The friction between clothing, tub and gasoline when turned at
a high speed may produce a spark which will ignite the gasoline.



=174. Construction of Mangles.= Mangles are made of rollers rotating
in the same direction, one moving faster than the other, set close
together so that they press the clothes smooth, or they consist of one
roller rotating over a stationary surface called a shoe (Fig. 93).

[Illustration: FIG. 93. Mangle.]

=175. Cold Mangles.= When no heater is attached to the shoe or one
roller, the mangle is a cold mangle. It smoothes clothes, but does
not do as good work as a heated mangle. There is almost nothing about
mangles to get out of order. The only caution necessary is to keep
the bearings oiled, have guards so as not to catch hands in the power
machines, and loosen the roller so that it is not pressed onto any
surface when not in use.

=176. Heated Mangles.= The heated mangles have the heat applied to one
of the rollers or to the shoe. They may be used cold. The heat may come
from gasoline, gas, electricity or kerosene. The management of the
heating unit is the same as for a stove using any of these fuels. The
same care should be taken of the burners as of stove burners.

=177. Care and Use of Mangles.= (1) Have the clothes damp before
putting them thru the mangle. (2) Protect the mangle from dust at all
times. (3) See that belts are properly adjusted on mangles. (4) The
covering put on mangle rollers must be of even thickness, or they
will not do good work. (5) Do not mangle starched garments, or those
on which are many or large buttons. (6) Wax the steel roller while it
is warm, and wipe it clean with a cloth (Fig. 94). (7) Always remove
pressure when not using mangles.

[Illustration: FIG. 94. Waxing roller of mangle.]

=178. Flat, or Sadirons.= Irons are of two kinds--those which must be
heated on a stove, and the self-heating ones. The weight of the iron
governs the amount of heat it will absorb, and this is the amount that
it will give up in ironing. Heat is needed to dry clothes, and as the
cloth can be smoothed best when damp, but will wrinkle again unless
dried while smooth, heat is essential to the ironing process.

The weight of the iron helps in the smoothing process. The heavy irons
do the best grade of work, but are harder to manipulate. The most
satisfactory iron for a woman of average strength to manage weighs six
to eight pounds.

The following points should be remembered in using the iron: (1) Rub
rusty irons with bees'-wax or paraffine and wipe with a cloth. (2) Wash
irons frequently, and rub with sand soap, Dutch cleanser, ashes or salt
to polish them. (3) Rinse in boiling water and wipe dry. Warm on the
stove and rub with bees'-wax, and set away. (4) Before using, wipe with
a cloth. (5) Do not wash electric irons--rub with wax or paraffine.
Wipe off with a clean cloth. (6) It has been found by tests that the
time required in heating the self-heating iron usually equals the time
required for the iron to cool after the heating has been stopped, but
that an iron cools faster on wet, heavy cloth than on thin, dry cloth.

[Illustration: FIG. 95. Parts of electric iron.]

=179. Charcoal Irons.= Charcoal is no longer used for heating irons.
It makes too much dirt. Difficulty is found, also, in keeping charcoal
irons at a constant temperature.

=180. Electric Irons.= An electric iron (Fig. 95) is made up of a heavy
nickel-plated base, a block of iron which holds the heat, and a heating
unit of small wires, or a plate, thru which the current passes, meeting
resistance. Since resistance against the flow of an electric current
produces heat, the iron is heated. It has a handle and shell covering
the heating unit to protect the hand and prevent loss of heat thru the

Getting electric irons too hot injures the heating unit, as electricity
can heat metals so hot that they melt. Excessive heat may disconnect
the circuit by burning the wires in the iron, or it may melt the metal
so as to form a short circuit.

Always follow exactly the directions for connecting and disconnecting
the iron with the current. Some say disconnect at the plug between iron
and cord, or others the plug placed near the socket (Fig. 95-_a_). The
weakest part in irons is likely to be in the attachment plug. When
connecting the plug to the iron, be sure to get it back in place each
time. A plug that does not fit well into place may cause sparking and
develop sufficient heat to burn off the insulation from the cord, if
not the fuses of the system to which the iron is attached.

Never attach an iron to a lighting system without making sure that the
iron is made to be operated on the voltage of the current to which is
is connected. If it is not the same, attaching the iron may either burn
out the fuses of the lighting system, or ruin the iron.

[Illustration: FIG. 95-_a_. Connecting plug for electric attachment.]

Operate the iron at a good temperature for ironing, and take care to
keep it from getting hotter than is required.

=181. Gas Irons.= Gas irons are attached to a tube leading from a gas
pipe. There is a burner inside the iron which is generally a straight
rod with perforations in it for the escape of the mixture of gas and
air. The air mixes with the gas at a point near where the gas pipe
enters the iron. The principle of heating an iron is the same as the
heating of a gas stove (Fig. 96).

The burner in the iron is lighted, and as soon as it has heated the
iron, the ironing can proceed. The only difficulties encountered in
using this kind of an iron are that a quick, jerky stroke may blow out
the flame, and if the work is being done in a drafty place, the iron
may not heat evenly. These difficulties can be overcome, however. The
person using the iron can learn to use a stroke which will be rapid and
still not put out the flame. The ironing board may be protected from
drafts. A gas iron is safe and practical. It is easily controlled by
the valve admitting the gas.

=182. Acetylene Irons.= Acetylene irons are similar to gas irons, the
difference in them being in the construction of the burner.

=183. Alcohol Irons.= Alcohol irons have a tank attached to them
which holds about a half pint of alcohol. This iron is similar to the
gasoline iron shown in Fig. 97. Some alcohol is turned into the iron,
and then the valve is closed. This alcohol is lighted with a match and
used to heat the generator in the iron so that it will be hot enough to
change the alcohol into vapor. As soon as this is done, the alcohol is
again turned on and lighted. The burners in these irons should be kept
free from dirt. Like gas irons, they should be used with a stroke which
will not put out the fire. They cannot be operated in a strong draft.
The heat in them can be regulated by the valve which controls the flow
of alcohol.

[Illustration: FIG. 96. Gas iron.]

[Illustration: FIG. 97. Alcohol iron.]

=184. Gasoline Irons.= There are two kinds of gasoline irons. In one
the tank is a part of the iron (Fig. 97), and in the other the tank is
many feet away, where the gasoline is changed to gas by a cold-process
gasoline gas machine and connected with the iron by a flexible tube.
These latter operate like other gas irons.

Gasoline irons with the tank attached are operated the same as
alcohol irons. The danger in these irons comes in the tanks becoming
overheated. Alcohol is used first to heat the generator because it will
not smoke the iron. The gasoline, when lighted, should burn with a blue

The tank should be one which has been tested to stand a high gas
pressure, as the gasoline in the tank may become heated and vaporize.
The gas so formed must not escape into the room, where it might be
ignited by a spark. If not allowed to escape, it exerts considerable
pressure inside the tank. If the pressure becomes too great, it will
break the tank, escape and ignite from the flame in the iron. The
opening for filling must always be kept closed when the iron is in use.


 1. Explain the construction of various types of washing machines.
 What are the advantages of each?

 2. What care should a roller wringer receive?

 3. How does a centrifugal wringer dry clothes?

 4. How does a mangle differ from a wringer?

 5. What is the difference in care that should be given to a plain
 flat iron and an electric iron?





=185. Principle Upon Which Vacuum Cleaner Works.= The principle of a
vacuum cleaner is that, thru suction, dust and dirt are drawn from
the floor or other surfaces into some container. If the power of the
cleaner is sufficient, it may pick up anything--but cleaners having a
moderate amount of power are somewhat more discriminating. They do,
however, remove the fine, greasy dirt that brooms, brushes and carpet
sweepers fail to get. The coarser dirt and ravelings may be taken up
by a carpet sweeper, with a brush, or picked up by hand. The brush is
combined with the cleaner in many machines (Fig. 98).

[Illustration: FIG. 98. Brush and vacuum cleaner combined.]

=186. Different Kinds of Vacuum Cleaners.= There are cleaners with
bellows, pumps or fans to draw in air and dirt. The ones with bellows
in them work on the principle of a bellows which is reversed so that
when the air is drawn in, it brings the dirt with it. The other kind
works with a fan which draws or sucks air from the floor thru a nozzle
into the machine. In the machine, the dust is filtered out of the air
and collected in a pan.

The machines with fans in them are mostly power machines, as the fan
must revolve very rapidly. The hand machines are mostly of the pump
and bellows types. Some are combined with the carpet sweeper, making
two machines in one. With this device once going over the floor is
sufficient for removing both coarse and fine dirt. The hand machines do
not have as much power of suction as the power machines, but they do
very satisfactory work. They are more effective than a carpet sweeper
in removing dirt, but they do not get as much of it as the stationary
cleaner. Removing the sharp grit from rugs and carpets lengthens the
life of them so that the more grit a cleaner can remove without tearing
the carpet, the more valuable it is.

When the pump type is being used, the piston is drawn up, drawing with
it air and the dirt which is present at the point from which the air
comes. A cloth filters out the dust. The air escapes from the machine
before the piston is lowered to draw in more air and dirt. If this were
not true, the dust would be forced back as the piston was lowered.

=187. Nozzle of Vacuum Cleaner.= The nozzle, or point of entry of air
into the machine, is an important part of a vacuum cleaner. This is
constructed so that it fits the surface from which the dirt is to be
drawn, insuring the drawing up of dust as well as air.

The dirt is drawn from only a few square inches of surface at one time.
The thoroness and rapidity with which the dirt is removed depends upon
the strength of the suction or the power of the machine. Thus, hand
machines may have to be moved over a surface several times if it is
very dirty in order to get all the dirt.

Plain solid nozzles work best on carpets and other surfaces of similar
kind. They are not effective on hard floors, but this is not essential,
as dirt can easily be removed from smooth surfaces with a brush.

=188. Cautions in Using Vacuum Cleaners.= The difficulties to be met
with in vacuum cleaners are leaks. First of all, the machine must be
fitted together perfectly; if not, the dust drawn into the machine
escapes into the air of the room instead of into the collection pan or

Machines are made air-tight, but to be cleaned, they must be taken
apart. In putting them together, the housekeeper must take pains to fit
them together perfectly.

Never neglect to empty the dust chamber. Keep the machine properly
oiled. A punctured bellows or a leaky dust strainer will cause dust to
escape after being drawn into the machine. These have to be remedied
with new parts. Some machines leak because of improper manipulation,
such as a too-fast or too-jerky motion in operating them. The
directions for each machine tell how to use it--such directions cannot
be given here because they differ so much.

When the pan has become over-full of dirt, the machine will necessarily
throw out dust as well as air. Letting the machine get over-full of
dust may ruin the machine by making some part leak continuously.

[Illustration: FIG. 99. Electric vacuum cleaner.]

=189. Difference Between Hand and Power Cleaners.= Power machines
differ from hand ones in that they are run by motor power (Figs. 99 and
99-a). They may have larger collecting chambers and may be stationary
in the cellar and connected to the rooms by long pipes (Fig. 100). They
must likewise not be over-full of dust. They must be kept properly
adjusted. As the operation of the mechanism shakes the machine, it may
loosen screws and nuts, so they must be kept tightened. The motor must
also be kept in order. The motors used for vacuum cleaners are the
same as those used on other power devices. They may be small electric
motors, forming a part of the machine, or large motors which operate
several machines.

In any case, they must be given the same care as any other motor of the
same type. (See Chapter XXXVIII.) If they become overheated, they will
not work well. They must be kept lubricated to avoid friction, and they
must be kept properly adjusted. Fig. 100-a shows a number of different
attachments for vacuum cleaners.

[Illustration: FIG. 99-_a_. Electric vacuum cleaner, showing parts.]

=190. Carpet Sweeper.= A carpet sweeper is a combination of brush and
dust pan. The advantage of this device is that the dust is gathered
into the machine as the brush rotates, due to the action of the wheels
on which the machine moves. The dust is collected into pans at each
side of the brush; these are covered so that the dust does not fly into
the air as much as otherwise would be the case (Fig. 101).

[Illustration: FIG. 100. Stationary vacuum cleaner.]

[Illustration: FIG. 100-_a_. Nozzles for vacuum cleaner.]

[Illustration: FIG. 101. Section of carpet sweeper.]

Oil the sweeper regularly about once a month by putting one drop of oil
on the ball bearing on the hub of each wheel. Failure to oil carpet
sweepers causes them to wear out quickly, to squeak, and to run hard.
More oil than is needed only gathers dust and gums the sweeper.

Empty the sweeper (Fig. 102) each time it is used, even during the
sweeping if necessary. Don't fill it to overflowing. Always open the
pans by pressing on the dump levers, not by taking hold of the pans.
Don't let the brush get tangled with hair, ravelings, etc. Take it out
occasionally and clean it (Figs. 103 and 103-_a_). Cut along between
the spiral rows of bristles with a sharp knife or shears, and the
ravelings and hairs can be picked or combed out easily without injuring
the brush (Fig. 104). Never try to pull them off whole. Also remove
any accumulation of dirt or ravelings which catch in the wheels or
bearings. Don't let dirt collect in any part of the machine. Keep it
clean. Good sweepers work best without extreme pressure on the handle.
Never put oil, water or any liquid on the bristles. Don't keep a
sweeper on a warm-air register--it takes the life out of the bristles.

[Illustration: FIG. 102. Emptying sweeper.]

[Illustration: FIG. 103. Releasing brush in sweeper.]

[Illustration: FIG. 103-_a_. Details of construction of carpet sweeper.]

[Illustration: FIG. 104. Cut ravelings from brush.]

[Illustration: FIG. 105. Mop wringer.]

[Illustration: FIG. 106. Another type of mop wringer.]

=191. Mop Wringers.= There are two kinds of mop wringers to attach to
pails. One is made of two flat surfaces which, when pressed together
with the mop between (Fig. 105), squeeze the water out of it, and the
other is made of two wringer rollers which, when brought together by a
lever after the mop is put between them, rotate as the mop is pulled
upward and wring out the water (Fig. 106).


 1. How do vacuum cleaners pick up dust?

 2. Describe some type of vacuum cleaner.

 3. What care should be given a vacuum cleaner?

 4. Tell how to clean a carpet sweeper.





=192. Materials from Which Utensils Are Made.= Since there is
considerable choice in utensils made from different materials, the
housekeeper may like to know something about these materials and about
their care, and the effect of acids and alkalis upon them.

Russia iron is one of the older materials for pots and pans, and it
still holds a place in cookery, for it makes bread, loaf cake and cooky
pans, which give to the food a thin, brown crust, due, undoubtedly, to
the way in which it conducts heat. (See tables on page 158.)

Tinned metal, which is well tempered, also, gives a thin, brown crust
to layer cakes and pies. It makes good bread, loaf cake and cooky pans.
Most of the cheap tin of today is iron-coated with very little tin. It
does good work, but utensils made of it cannot be kept as well polished
and as attractive in appearance as more heavily-tinned ones.

Sheet iron, heavy steel and cast iron make the most popular frying
pans. The heavy iron, holding heat as it does, makes a desirable brown
coating on most foods without the danger of burning experienced with
frying pans of other materials. This is due to specific heat and
conductivity of the metal. Sheet-iron frying pans are useful in cooking
foods which are wanted on short notice. The small-sized ones are most
in use.

=193. Aluminum Alloy.= Satisfactory frying pans are made from aluminum
alloyed with other metal and cast. Real aluminum frying pans warp.
They do not brown the food as well as materials that conduct heat less

=194. Cast-Iron Utensils.= Heavy cast iron finds special favor in the
making of pot roasts, bread sticks and popovers. It browns the roast
and makes a thick crust on bread sticks and popovers.

All iron or tin utensils give better service as they become tempered
with use. They must be kept dry in order to prevent rust. Do not use
them for cooking acid foods.

Granite, cast aluminum and Russia iron are the popular and satisfactory
materials for roasting pans.

=195. Earthenware.= For casseroles and bean pots, earthenware is a
favorite material, the heavy glass gives equally good results. These
materials are fitted for long, slow baking of food. They hold heat and
conduct it to the food in such a way as to produce results which are
difficult to duplicate with utensils of other materials.

=196. Aluminum and Graniteware.= Stew pans are proving satisfactory
when made of aluminum and of high-grade graniteware. An assortment of
pans and double boilers containing utensils of each material gives
the best results, as the granite is most desirable for cooking some
acid and very salty food, while aluminum is light and satisfactory for
preparing other dishes. Never let food stand in aluminum or granite
dishes after being cooked. High-grade graniteware is not as readily
affected by acids as the low, cheap grade. Enameled ware, which is
roughened by a dilute solution of vinegar, is likely to contain
substances injurious to health. Ink will not stain good enameled ware.
Graniteware, like glass and earthenware, makes a heavy crust on the
dishes being baked in them. Graniteware is metal, coated with a sort
of glass. It must be treated like glass. It cracks when dropped. Never
set it on a hot stove when empty or cold, as the heat of the stove will
crack it as it will glass. When hot, do not set it on a cold marble or
a metal table top, as sudden changes in temperature will crack it. With
proper care, granite and enameled ware give good service.

Graniteware is proving desirable for making utensils for use on
electric stoves, the conductivity of the glass coating being so low,
that it conducts the heat to the top of the pan slowly so the food in
it gets to cooking quicker than in utensils made of most of the other

Aluminum is easily dented and warped by extreme heat. It is attacked by
some strong acids and strong solutions of salt, soda and fruit juices.
Aluminum may be hardened by the addition of six to seven per cent of
copper so that it can be cast into utensils. Great care must be used
not to use cleaning powders which contain strong alkalis for cleaning
aluminum ware. It has light weight, and, when polished, is very
attractive. With proper handling, it gives good service.

=197. Mixing Spoons.= The wooden mixing spoon gives best results, as
it does not mar the utensils, and the handle does not become as hot
as metal. Hard maple or orange wood cut in a plain design makes the
best spoon. Acids do not attack it. Plated silver or solid nickel
spoons come next in usefulness. Softer metals wear off too fast to be

Nickel is a most desirable material for household utensils, but is very
expensive. It is not in common use in this country.


         METAL        |     CONDUCTIVITY   |    SPECIFIC HEAT
  Silver              |       1.00         |     0.0559
  Copper              |        .74         |      .0923
  Aluminum            |        .48         |      .2022
  Tin                 |        .15         |      .0509
  Iron                |        .12         |      .1098
  Glass               |        .0017       |
  Silicon             |                    |      .159  at  10° C.
                      |                    |      .2029 at 232° C.
  Nickel              |                    |      .1084
  Tungsten            |                    |      .035



=198. Fruit and Vegetable Parers with Knives.= Parers of the type with
a knife have a fork-like device on which the fruit or vegetable is
held while a knife blade, attached to a shaft governed by a spring, is
pressed against the fruit or vegetable so that it cuts off a thin layer
of the surface. Both the fruit and the knife are caused to rotate so
that the whole surface of the sphere-like object will be covered by the
blade of the knife during one or more revolutions of the wheel which
operates them (Fig. 107). The knife is guarded so that it cuts only a
thin layer from the outer surface of the fruit or vegetable. After the
knife has made the complete journey over the surface, a device attached
to the machine pushes the object from the fork so that a new one may be
put in its place. Parers are quite complicated devices, but they have
been perfected so that they are not clumsy, and some can core apples,
stone peaches and slice the fruit.

[Illustration: FIG. 107. Parer.]

Keep this type of machine dry so that it will not rust. Do not put it
into water. Wipe off the blade of the knife and the fork when thru
paring, so that the acid of the fruit will not discolor them and dull
the knife. Keep the other parts dry and oiled. In time the spring
governing the knife becomes weak and the machine will not do good
work. This spring can be replaced on some machines. Parers are usually
made of cheap material so that a new machine costs less than the

=199. Parers Which Grate Off Skins.= Another type of parer is a
grater-like device. This is used in larger establishments than the
ordinary home, but is useful where there is much canning of hard fruits
or vegetables to be done at home. It consists of a container, the
inside of which is rough like a grater. The vegetables or apples are
put into the container with water enough to float and separate them,
and the whole is agitated so that the vegetables coming against the
sides have the outer surface removed or grated off. The water acts as
the medium for moving the vegetables and for removing the bits of skin
from the sides of the parer.

[Illustration: FIG. 108. Cherry stoner.]

[Illustration: FIG. 109. Grinder.]

Keep this parer clean by scrubbing the inside with a stiff brush and
rinsing well with water after using. Keep in a dry place.

=200. Seeders and Stoners.= Seeders and stoners are constructed to
punch out the seeds which are contained in cherries, grapes, raisins,

[Illustration: FIG. 110. Parts of Corona grinder.]

=201. Cherry Stoner.= A simple cherry stoner (Fig. 108) consists of a
small platform with a rod slightly smaller in diameter than a cherry
stone. The cherry is put on an inclined plane so that it rolls over the
hole. The cherry usually stays on the rod until this rod is lifted;
then it passes between two guards which pushes the cherry off on
another incline, where it rolls into a pan (Fig. 108).

There are several makes of stoners, but most of them work on this
principle, whether the rod is lifted by hand or moved by a crank.

[Illustration: FIG. 111. Parts of Universal grinder.]

[Illustration: FIG. 112. Vegetable slicer.]

=202. Grinders.= Grinders are of two principal types--the roller and
the burr. Coffee and other hand mills are of the burr type (Figs. 109
and 110). The food passing between these rough surfaces is ground to a
fine powder as one is turned on the other.

=203. Choppers or Meat Grinders.= Choppers or meat grinders, as they
are sometimes called, consist of a spiral channel, thru which the food
is pushed along. Knives are placed in the sides of some machines to
chop the food as it passes, while in others the knives are only at the
outlet. Keep the fingers out of the hopper when the chopper is being
operated. Keep the machine clean and dry when not in use (Fig. 111).

[Illustration: FIG. 113. Universal vegetable slicer.]

=204. Choppers.= Choppers have been made which really chop the food
without crushing it, but these machines are so clumsy and noisy, that
they have not come into common household use. They consist of chopping
knives which are raised and lowered by levers and a crank.

=205. Slicers.= Slicers vary in design. The following illustrations
(Figs. 112 and 113) show two different types. Care must be taken to
guard the fingers when using slicers. Wash the knives and keep them dry
when not in use. A soiled knife gets dull faster than a clean, dry one.

=206. Lard and Fruit Presses; Sausage Stuffers.= Presses and stuffers
are of two types--the one which depends on the weight exerted on a long
lever, and the other which depends on a screw to press the substances.
The screw forces a flat board or surface down upon the food as it is
turned. More pressure for the size of the device can be secured with
the screw than is practical with a weight on the long arm of a lever
(Fig. 114). The stuffer is like a press, except that the food is forced
out one hole.

[Illustration: FIG. 114. Lard and fruit press.]



=207. Use of Mixers, Beaters and Churns.= Mixers, beaters and churns
are all devices for agitating or stirring food.

[Illustration: FIG. 115. Parts of bread mixer.]

The simpler ones of these devices depend upon the motion of the hand
(Fig. 115), while others have their velocity increased by means of cog

The turning of the large wheel turns the small wheel as many times as
number of cogs on the small wheel is contained in the number on the
large wheel (see Fig. 116). To get even more speed or to apply the
power at a different angle, a series of wheels are sometimes used. A
few mixers, like the bread mixer, are simply machines which take the
hands out of the food, thus tending to a higher degree of sanitation,
and a change in the motion which may not be so tiring as kneading. They
do not increase the speed of mixing.

Bread made in a mixer has a somewhat different texture than bread
kneaded by hand, but this does not change its nutritive value.

=208. Care of These Devices.= The principal care needed by these
devices is that they be kept clean and the cog wheels dry. Very little
oil should be used, as it would tend to get it into the food. Sometimes
the rivet holding a wheel needs to be tightened, as, for example, when
one becomes so loose that the wheel slips cogs. If it is too tight, the
wheel may bind and work hard.

[Illustration: FIG. 116. View showing internal arrangement of cake

=209. Freezers.= The freezer is a mixer in a can which is in turn set
in a freezing mixture of ice and salt.

Freezing can be done without stirring the cream. This makes a cream
filled with crystals, while if stirred, it will be smooth and velvety
because it freezes more evenly. The rapidity of freezing and the
proportion of the ice and salt affect the fineness of the grain of the
frozen dish.

A freezer is designed not only to stir the food, but to scrape it from
the sides of the can. That which freezes first must be stirred into
the middle of the can; otherwise, it would form a hard frozen layer of
cream on the sides, leaving the middle unfrozen, and interfere with the
turning of the paddle or beater.

In the bottom of the outside bucket, holding the ice and salt, is a
socket into which the pivot on the bottom of the can fits. The can
turns on this pivot in the direction opposite to which the paddle is
turning. Some freezers are made so that the can stays stationary. The
function of the pivot is then to hold the can in the center of the pail
so that the paddle will be in the proper position to turn easily.

=210. Care of Freezers.= The pail of wood should not be stored in a
very dry place when not in use. The can and paddle must be kept clean
and dry so that they will not rust. The bearings and wheels which turn
the paddle and can must be kept dry and oiled.

There is a hole in the upper part of the tub or pail in which the can
sets, and this should be kept open as it is placed slightly below the
level of the top of the can so as to drain off any water from the
melting ice which otherwise might get into the can and make the food

Some freezers have another hole at the bottom of the tub. This should
be kept closed while food is being frozen. It is useful to drain off
the water from the tub when the freezer is to be repacked or emptied.
It should not be opened at any other time.

=211. Churns.= Churning can be done with almost any device which
agitates the cream, but the churns which are simplest are most easily
cleaned and least wasteful of butter. They are barrels or other
containers which revolve or swing backward and forward.

Keep churns clean and well aired so they will not give up odors and
flavors to the butter. After a churn has been used, rinse it with cold
water and then wash it in hot water, to which washing soda has been
added. Lastly, rinse with scalding water. Leave open to air when not in
use, but protect from dust and dirt.

=212. Drip Coffee Pots.= Drip coffee is made in a funnel or a
cup-shaped device which is suspended in a coffee pot (Fig. 117). This
is made either of cloth or perforated metal. The coffee is pulverized
and packed into the funnel. Cold water is poured on top of the coffee
and slowly filters thru it, extracting flavoring substances. The water
is heated after it has filtered thru the coffee.

[Illustration: FIG. 117. Drip funnel in percolator.]

=213. Percolator Coffee Pots.= A coffee percolator is a device put in a
coffee pot to hold the ground coffee above the water and pump some of
the water to the top of the pot so that it can seep back down thru the
ground coffee (Fig. 118).

A perforated cup with a perforated cover holds the coffee. Thru the
center of this cup passes a small tube to the top of the pot. At the
bottom of the tube is a flat plate with turned-down edges or other
device which supports the pipe and rests on the bottom of the pot. A
small amount of water gets under this and into the pipe. The heat in
the stove turns the water next the bottom to steam, and this steam,
in escaping, forces the water in the pipe to the top of the pot, and
raises the device slightly so that more water flows under it and into
the pipe, and again steam is formed and more water forced to the top of
the pot. (See Sec. 161, Suction Washers.) After being forced out of the
top of the pipe, the water falls in a spray on the cover of the cup and
seeps down thru the coffee back into the main part of the coffee pot.
The pumping devices in percolators may differ somewhat in design, but
the working principle is the same--that steam is lighter than water and
can be generated in amounts which will force water up thru the central

[Illustration: FIG. 118. Percolator.]

Coffee grounds must not be allowed to get into the small tube, for they
will hinder the flow of the water. The holes in the cup and cover must
be kept open. There is less waste in using finely-ground coffee than
the coarsely-ground in percolators. A small tube brush is needed for
cleaning percolators. The coffee must not be ground so fine that it
will sift thru the perforations in the cup.



The dish-washers (Fig. 119) have found a place in hotels and large
establishments, they are still in the experimental stage for general
household use.

Small machines on the market, patterned after the hotel type, are
giving good results for home use. When using these machines, place
the dishes in them in the manner directed and use as much water as is
called for.

[Illustration: FIG. 119. Dish-washer.]

Some dish washers work on the plan of revolving the dishes in the
water, some in forcing the water over the dishes, and others by
agitation of both dishes and water.

[Illustration: FIG. 119-_a_. Small dish-washer for household use.]

Keep the pan washed clean. Keep all bearings properly oiled. Have the
machine dry when not in use. There is least breakage in the washers
which hold the dishes stationary (Figs. 119,-_a_,-_b_ and-_c_).

One type of dish-washer has no motor; the force of the running water
washes the dishes. This can only be used where the water supply is
abundant and under considerable pressure. The washers equipped with
paddles for throwing the water over the dishes use about a dishpanful
of water for washing the dishes, and as much more for scalding and
rinsing them. When well scalded in the dish-washer, the dishes will dry
if the cover to the washer is left open.

[Illustration: FIG. 119-_b_. Walker dish-washer.]

=214. Dish Dryer.= There is a number of dish dryers on the market which
hold the dishes separate from each other. Into these dryers, boiling
hot water is poured, over the dishes. There is provision for the water
being drained away immediately, and the heat it imparts to the dishes
dries them. (Fig. 119-_c_.)

=215. Cleaning Silver.= Silver can be cleaned in an aluminum pan
filled with water and soda. There are silver cleaners which are merely
aluminum pans with which come directions for proportioning the soda
and the water. A mixture of salt and baking soda is sometimes used,
combined with a piece of zinc in an aluminum pan. The salt, soda, zinc
and silver are put into the aluminum pan and set on the stove. The
action of the salt and soda on the metals produces an electrolytic
action which brightens the silver.

Do not use this method of cleaning on gray or colored silver.

[Illustration: FIG. 119-_c_. Tray for holding dishes.]

[Illustration: FIG. 120. Water bath canner.]

=216. Canners.= Canners are devices for sterilizing fruit and other
food which is being canned. The wash-boiler type consists of a boiler
or kettle with a rack in the bottom to raise the jars an inch or so
from its bottom to prevent the cracking of the jars. It has a cover
to keep the heat uniform. The water in the canner must entirely cover
the jar. This is usually called a water bath, as the jars must be
completely submerged in the water (Figs. 120 and 120-_a_).

[Illustration: FIG. 120-_a_. Small canning outfit.]

=217. Water Seal.= Water-seal canners are like the water-bath canners,
except that the cover has a flange on it, the depth of the boiler, and
about two inches from the sides of it. This makes a jacket of water
between the flange and sides of the canner. This causes the temperature
inside to rise about two degrees above the ordinary temperature of
boiling water. Food can be sterilized in a little shorter time in this
canner than in the ordinary water bath. It is as important that the
water entirely cover the jar in this canner as in the water bath.

=218. Pressure Canners.= Pressure canners are made very strong and have
covers which fit tight, making it possible to raise the temperature in
them considerably above the boiling temperature of water, so the food
may be sterilized in a very short time.

[Illustration: FIG. 121. Pressure canner showing pet cock.]

The pressure canner has either a rack or a perforated pail on the
inside to raise the jars from the bottom as in other canners. It is
also fitted with a steam gage which registers the pounds of pressure
in the canner. Five to fifteen pounds pressure is used for canning.
The amount of pressure needed and the time of sterilizing depends on
the organism present. A higher pressure is an indication of a higher
temperature in the canner. After the jars are filled and put in the
canner, the cover is fastened down tight by thumb-screws. There is a
pet cock which is kept open when the canner is first heating, to let
the air be forced out by the first steam which forms. As soon as the
steam begins to escape, the pet cock is closed and the temperature
inside of the canner begins to rise above the temperature of boiling
water (Fig. 121).

On the canner is a safety valve which is set so that the instant a
certain number of pounds of pressure is reached, it is lifted up by the
steam. Some of the steam then escapes, thus preventing the pressure in
the canner becoming so great that there is danger of its exploding.

=219. Use of the Canner.= Water is put into the canner to reach to the
bottom of the rack. The jars are filled according to canning directions
and are set in the canner. When the jars are in, the cover is adjusted
to the canner and screwed on tight so that no steam will escape between
the cover and the canner. The pet cock is left open until steam begins
to escape thru it as the canner is heating on the stove. When steam
begins to come, the pet cock should be closed, and the steam-gage hand
then begins to turn, indicating that the pressure in the canner is

When the steam-gage reaches the point desired, the safety valve is
adjusted so that the steam will escape should the pressure continue to
rise. Until the operator knows where to set the weight to the safety
valve, leave it well out to the end of the rod until the pressure in
the canner has reached the desired point. Then move the weight to the
point on the arm of the valve which will just keep in the steam.

[Illustration: FIG. 122. Device for sealing tin can.]

Be sure the cover is properly adjusted. Be sure to exhaust the air
from the canner before closing the pet cock. Keep the fire so that the
desired pressure will be maintained without the escape of steam from
the safety valve. When steam escapes from the canner thru the pet cock
at a rapid rate, it may cause liquid to flow out of the jars.

Be certain to let the canner cool until the indicator on the steam-gage
has reached zero before opening the canner. When the indicator points
to zero, open the pet cock. If a heavy stream of steam starts to escape
from it, close it again and wait a few minutes longer. Test again by
opening the pet cock; if a very little stream of steam escapes, leave
the pet cock open and wait until steam has stopped escaping from it.
Now loosen the screws holding the cover in place. Partially loosen each
screw. When this is done, fully loosen all and lift off the cover.
These precautions are taken to prevent the operator from being burned
by steam or getting hurt by the cover being lifted by the steam. It
also prevents the breaking of glass jars due to sudden pressure changes.

Never let the canner cool so long before the pet cock is opened that
air will rush into it, due to the vacuum which is sure to form when the
steam is cooled if the pet cock is not opened. Such a condition may
break the jars.

[Illustration: FIG. 123. Dryer.]

Tin cans are sealed with a device (Fig. 122) which folds the edge of
the cover over the top of the can so tightly it will not leak.

=220. Dryers.= Dryers are devices to hold the food being dried in a
thin layer so that the air can be circulated thru it freely. Sometimes
they are devised to direct currents of air thru the drying material. If
the air is heated, the drying is hastened (Fig. 123).

A sieve on which food is spread hung above the stove is a simple drying
device and one of the most practical for home use. The heat currents
rising from the stove pass thru this and dry the food.

Many dryers are constructed on this same principle, having a heating
unit below and trays of food above. These trays have to be shifted from
time to time, as the moisture from the lower ones rises with the heat
to the upper trays, thus retarding their drying. The top trays, if too
numerous, are useless on this account. Two or three seem to be all
that can be used with advantage at one time in home dryers, the some
machines are made with many more.

Another type of dryer has a fan device in it which forces the air thru
at a faster rate than would be accomplished by heat alone. Such air
should pass thru a strainer. Ordinary air, even when drawn from a clean
room, carries much dust with it, and if the dust is not strained out
previously, it is strained out by the food. This injures the quality of
the product. Large commercial dryers provide such a strainer.

=221. Care of Dryers.= Dryers should be kept clean. They should not be
heated enough to cook the food. Set them in a dry, airy place.



=222. Cream Separators.= A cream separator is a device for separating
cream from milk. Separation can be done best while the milk is still
warm (Fig. 124).

Separators should be set in a bright, dry, airy place free from dust
and dirt. Near the separator should be a convenient place for airing
and sunning the tin parts which come in contact with the milk.

The base for the separator should be solid enough so that it will not
shake while the machine is being operated. If set on a wooden floor,
see that the boards are nailed in place, and if the floor is thin,
put heavy strips to cover several boards across it. Fasten the strips
firmly to the floor and set the separator on them. When the machine is
set up, be sure that it is set level.

=223. Different Types of Separators.= There are two types of
separators--one which contains discs of metal (Fig. 125), and the other
which depends upon a cylinder in which the milk rotates (Fig. 124)
for the separation of the cream from the skim milk. Fig. 126 shows a
sectional view of the DeLaval separator.

Cream is lighter than milk, and when milk and cream are whirled
rapidly, the milk, being heavier, flies to the outside of the
container, and the cream stays near the center. Two pails whirled
rapidly made the first separator ever used, but that was clumsy and

Modern separators consist of a pan which holds the milk, and which lets
it flow in a stream into the portion of the machine which is being
whirled rapidly by the turning of the wheel at the side. There is a
place in the rotating part which lets the cream flow from the center
into one container, and the milk flow from the outside to another.

[Illustration: FIG. 124. Cream separator.]

The parts of the machine must be fitted together properly; otherwise,
it will fail to do good work.

Always turn the wheel at the speed indicated for the machine with
discs. If there is no speed indicated, turn as fast as needed for good
separation of milk and cream. Take care not to drop and dent any of the
tin parts. Adjust for the density desired for the cream.

[Illustration: FIG. 125. Discs in DeLaval cream separator.]

=224. Washing the Machine.= As soon as milk has been skimmed with the
separator, pour some water into the bowl and run it thru the separator
the same as the milk.

Wash the bowl and other parts in hot water in which washing soda has
been dissolved. Rinse in clear water, and then scald with boiling
water. Once a week give it a more thoro washing, scrubbing all parts
with a brush. Sun the parts when not in use.

=225. Oiling.= The mechanical parts which whirl the separator should
be kept oiled. In oiling, follow the directions which come with the
machine. Use a good grade of oil.

=226. Whey Separator.= A whey separator is a machine very much similar
to a milk and cream separator. It is used in homes where much cheese
is manufactured. It should be given the same care as other separators.

An homogenizer is a device used to give whole milk a consistency which
is much like cream.

[Illustration: FIG. 126. Sectional view of separator.]

=227. Emulsifier.= The emulsifier is a device for combining dried whole
milk with water, or dried skim milk with water and butter fat so that
they make a reconstructed milk of almost the same composition as new
milk. An emulsifier is of interest to the woman who lives in the city.
Emulsifiers are used in large institutions. Some have been installed
in settlement houses and public schools. They might be owned by
communities where people might use a large amount of dried milk. In the
emulsifier, the milk, water and sweet butter are warmed. After this,
they pass thru a device looking much like a separator, but which mixes
the ingredients together instead of separating them. From the mixer the
milk passes over a cooling device, and is ready for use. This machine
should be kept clean, and the parts which come in contact with the milk
scalded out with hot water after being rinsed with cold water.


 1. What metals would you select for a pan to use when a thin crust is
 wanted? What materials produce thick crusts?

 2. For what purposes would you choose aluminum? Granite? Cast
 iron? Glass? Earthenware? On what basis would you make a choice of
 utensils? Why wouldn't glass make a good ice-cream freezer?

 3. What are the essentials of good parers, slicers and corers?

 4. What kind of dish washers are proving the most helpful?

 5. Describe a silver-cleaning device. Does the use of such devices
 harm the silverware?

 6. What is a water-bath canner? How would you make one?

 7. What may cause glass jars in pressure cookers to break?

 8. How may the breakage be prevented?

 9. Explain the ways in which cream may be separated from milk.

 10. How do separators help?





=228. Dumbwaiters and Window Adjustments.= Dumbwaiters and elevators
are used in homes where the kitchen is on a different floor from the

[Illustration: FIG. 127. Spring pulley for windows.]

The simplest ones are a set of shelves counterbalanced by weights. When
the elevator is raised, the weights drop down, and when it is lowered,
the weights rise.

Window weights hung over a pulley in the top of the window sash work
on the same principle as dumbwaiters--the weights help in raising the
window. The only care needed is to replace the rope when worn.

Another window pulley is made of metal like that in a clock spring
(Fig. 127). The spring is drawn out when the window is lowered, and the
weight of the window is just enough to hold it, so very little force is
needed to raise the window, as the spring is pulling on it, too.

=229. Check Valves.= Check valves are made to prevent doors from
slamming. They are used in offices and public buildings, and,
occasionally, in homes (Fig. 128). One kind contains glycerine and
castor oil, which move from one compartment to another as the door is
opened and slowly flow back as a spring pulls the door shut.

[Illustration: FIG. 128. Check valve.]

The other kind is operated by compressed air and a spring. The air
causes the steady action of the door stop. Another type of pneumatic
hinge is attached to a door which is hung so that it would naturally
swing shut. When the door is opened, the air is exhausted from part
of the hinge. After it has been opened, the slow equalization of the
air inside the door stop and outside allows the door to close slowly
without slamming.

[Illustration: FIG. 129. Door holder.]

=230. Door Fastener.= A door fastener (Fig. 129) is a small device
which has a strong spring on the inside. When the spring is released,
it pushes down on a rod which is capped with rubber. When down, this
comes in contact with the floor and holds the door in place. To change
the position of the door, a small lever is used to lift the rod and
compress the spring, thus releasing the door stop from contact with the

=231. Window Shades.= Window shades are equipped with a spring in one
end of the roller to aid in raising it. At the end of the spring is a
flat bar which is held in position by the bracket on which the shade
is hung. Small catches hold the curtain when it is at the desired
position (Fig. 130). If the spring becomes weak, draw the curtain down.
This compresses the spring. Stop so that the clamps always fall into
place to hold it. Then remove the curtain from the brackets and roll
it up by hand. Place it back on the brackets. It can then be raised or
lowered as wanted, and will work with more power. Take care when doing
this not to wind the spring so tight that it will draw the curtain
clear around the roller, thus letting the spring unwind or breaking the

[Illustration: FIG. 130. Spring in curtain roller.]

[Illustration: FIG. 131. Hinge.]

=232. Hinges.= There are some hinges which should be of interest to
women. These are the ones for doors which swing only one way, and for
those which swing both out and in (Fig. 131).

=233. Sliding Doors.= When sliding doors slip off the slide, they may
be replaced. They are hung like a barn door. There is a metal track
above the door between the walls. The door is hung on this track by
pulleys which slide along the track. Sometimes, by accident, these
pulleys are slipped from the track. The door then must be lifted so
that the pulley can be set back on the track. Usually the door needs
to be lifted but a fraction of an inch and then pushed a little to one
side or the other to get the pulley into place.



[Illustration: FIG. 132. Lock-stitch machine.

  1. Bed Slide
  2. Presser Foot
  3. Presser Foot Thumb Screw
  4. Needle Clamp
  5. Needle Clamp Thumb Screw
  6. Needle Bar Thread Guide
  7. Needle Bar Bushing
  8. Thread Cutter
  9. Face Plate Thumb Screw
  10. Slack Thread Regulator
  11. Tension Spring
  12. Tension Regulating Thumb Nut
  13. Tension Discs
  14. Thread Take-up Spring
  15. Thread Guide
  16. Presser Bar Lifter
  17. Face Plate
  18. Pressure Regulating Thumb Screw
  19. Presser Bar
  20. Thread Take-up Lever
  21. Thread Guide
  22. Arm
  23. Spool Pin
  24. Bobbin Winder Stop Latch
  25. Belt Cover
  26. Bobbin Winder Thread Guide
  27. Balance Wheel
  28. Bobbin Winder Pulley
  29. Bobbin Winder Spindle
  30. Bobbin Winder Worm Wheel
  31. Stitch Regulating Thumb Screw
  32. Bed
  33. Throat Plate
  34. Feed Plate

=234. Different Types of Sewing Machines.= There are two types of
sewing machines in use--the chain-stitch and the lock-stitch. Sewing
machines are made to run by hand, foot or mechanical motor power. This
makes no difference in design or care of the stitching part of the
machine. Motor and foot power run the machine faster than hand power.

The treadle of the foot-power machines swings on pivots. These should
be kept oiled and clean from lint and thread. The large and the small
wheels for the belt should be oiled at the axle.

=235. Lock-Stitch Sewing Machine.= A lock-stitch sewing machine (Figs.
132 and 133) consists of shafts and wheels which move the needle, feed
plate and bobbin. The top thread is guided from spool to needle thru
a tension so that only the needed amount passes forward each time the
needle is raised after the thread has caught in the cloth.

When there is a difference in the size of the thread used on the
machine, the tension must be adjusted to fit the thread, unless the
tension is automatic. If the tension is not properly adjusted or the
machine threaded properly, the thread will either break, tangle at the
needle point, or draw the top thread tighter than the bottom one (Fig.

A longer stitch is needed for coarse thread than for fine thread.

=236. Feed Plate.= A device below the needle called the feed plate
(No. 34, Fig. 132) shoves the cloth faster or slower under the needle,
according to its adjustment, thus making a longer or shorter stitch.
This device is a rough plate which moves backward each time the needle
is raised, and forward again when the needle comes down. While moving
backward, the rough surface moves the cloth, but it drops slightly
below the level of the table as it moves back into place, so does not
affect the cloth. For short stitches, it moves with a short stroke,
and for long stitches, with a long stroke. If the feed plate becomes
gummed with lint and oil, the machine will not make even stitches and
may fail to move the cloth. Sometimes it will fail to stitch. Improper
threading may break the needle thread. Too tight a tension may break
it. Too coarse thread for the size of the needle may break the needle.
A bent, blunt pointed or incorrectly set needle may break.

[Illustration: FIG. 133. Under part of machine using a vibrating

[Illustration: FIG. 134. Diagrams showing proper tension.]

=237. Bobbins.= There are two styles of bobbins used on lock-stitch
sewing machines--the shuttle bobbin (Fig. 135) and the round bobbin
(Fig. 136), depending on the particular type of machine used.

[Illustration: FIG. 135. Shuttle bobbin.]

=238. Shuttle Bobbins.= In shuttle bobbins, there is a long iron spool
on which the thread is wound. This is put into the bobbin with the
twist in the direction indicated in the book of directions for the
machine being used, and the thread is drawn thru the slits and holes in
the bobbin which govern the tension of the lower thread (see Fig. 135).

Put the shuttle into place and draw the thread up over the feed plate
(Fig. 137). The machine moves the shuttle backward and forward, and
as this happens, the needle is timed to drop down, leaving a loop of
thread in such a position that the bobbin passes thru it. In rising,
the needle pulls the loop up tight, and as it has passed thru the
cloth, this cloth comes in between the thread from the bobbin on the
under side and the thread from the spool on the upper side, which have
been interlocked by the bobbin having passed thru the loop of thread
from the spool as the needle carried it down below the cloth. This is
called the lock-stitch (Fig. 134). The spool bobbins also pass thru the
loop left after the needle has passed downward.

[Illustration: FIG. 136. Spool bobbin.]

[Illustration: FIG. 137. Pulling up bobbin thread.]

=239. Chain-Stitch Machine.= In the chain-stitch machine (Fig. 138),
the shaft turns a device which draws a loop of thread thru each
foregoing loop, thus making a stitch similar to crocheting, but having
the cloth interlocked with the stitch. The needle carries the thread
and makes it tight or loose as needed. The feed plate carries the cloth
under the needle.

There is a tension to govern the thread. As a single thread is used in
making this stitch, no bobbin is used. The tension must be tight enough
to draw the loop of thread about the cloth, or else the thread will

=240. Cautions for All Machines.= Machines should be kept well oiled,
and they must be kept free from thread and lint, for these are the
things which give trouble in machines. Never try to draw the cloth
under the needle any faster than it is pushed along by the feed plate
under the presser foot. Pulling on the cloth bends the needle from the
exact path which it should follow.

Move the treadle with a smooth, even motion--a jerky motion wears out
operator and machine. Use only the best sewing-machine oil. Poor oil
gums the parts of the machine. Clean the machine every day it is in
use. Take care to set the needle in its proper position, and fasten it
firmly in place.

=241. General Instructions.= Thread the machine exactly according to
instructions. If not properly threaded, it will fail to stitch--the
thread will tangle. If the bobbin is not properly threaded, it will not
have the proper tension, and the machine cannot sew as it should. The
bobbin thread will break if it is not properly threaded thru the bobbin
case. It will also break if the bobbin tension is too tight (No. 14,
Fig. 138).

[Illustration: FIG. 138. Chain-stitch machine.

  1. Cloth Plate
  2. Presser Foot
  3. Needle-Bar Nut
  4. Needle-Bar
  5. Needle-Bar Screw
  6. Foot Bar
  7. Lever
  8. Liftee
  9. Take Up
  10. Embroidery Spring
  11. Pull Off
  12. Spool-Pin
  13. Spool-Pin Holder
  14. Automatic Tension
  15. Tension Rod
  16. Ball Stud
  17. Lever Stud
  18. Connecting Rod
  19. Small Wheel
  20. Belt
  21. Shaft
  22. Frame
  23. Stitch Regulator
  24. Cap
  25. Looper
  26. Link
  27. Feed Bar
  28. Feed Surface

Always regulate the stitch and the size of needle for each size and
kind of thread used. A table for this usually comes with each machine,
or is often stamped on the machine. Select the thread suitable to the
material. The number of a needle is marked on the shank. Needles made
for one kind of machine will not always work on another.

An automatic tension should not be changed or meddled with. Some
tensions must be adjusted to the thread. Follow directions coming with
the machine for adjusting tensions. Remove any thread which has become
entangled in the mechanism of the machine.

Never use a bent needle. A bent needle drops stitches on a chain-stitch
machine. Soaping the needle helps it to go thru goods difficult to

When a machine runs hard, it needs oil or has become gummed up with
poor oil. When gummed, clean with kerosene oil. Thread or ravelings
wound about the axles of the wheels also makes the machine run hard.
Learn to use the attachments of your machine--take care that they do
not become bent.

The lock-stitch does not rip easily.

The ends of the thread of chain stitches should be carefully fastened.
If started from the end where the seam was completed, the loop stitch
may be easily unraveled and thus save time when mistakes are made in
sewing or when garments are being made over.



No lengthy treatise on automobiles can be given here, but a few facts
of general information are well in order.

Each car has its special features, but the basic principles of
operation and control are the same for all makes. Let us consider,
first, the control of the machine on the road.

=242. Starting the Motor.= Open the throttle from one-fourth to
one-third way, to permit entry of plenty of gas into the motor. Set the
time control about as far down as the throttle. Turn on the ignition
switch and turn the motor with the starter.

A cold motor may demand use of the choker before starting, but,
again, too free use of the choker floods the carburetor with a rich,
non-explosive mixture which can be removed only by use of the starter.
Should the motor flood too easily, or should it take too much choking,
have the carburetor readjusted. Common mistakes in starting the motor
are (1) too free use of the starter, which is injurious to the battery;
(2) starting with the timer set too far down, causing back-fire.
Occasionally, a novice attempts to start a car with the gears set and
the brakes on. With the motor started and running smoothly, shift the
gears into low and take off the brake. Let the clutch back gently to
prevent the car from starting with a jerk. In shifting gears, the
throttle should be kept down to prevent the motor from racing upon
releasing the clutch. (3) A common mistake is the attempt to shift
gears with the clutch not entirely released. (4) Still another
error is the failure to release the brake on starting, resulting in
everything from a stalled motor to a stripped gear.

A difficult place to start a car is when stalled on a hill. This is
done by holding the machine with the foot brake, throttling the motor
with the hand lever, and slowly releasing brake and engaging clutch

=243. Driving the Automobile.= In driving, many things should be
observed. The oil pressure gauge or indicator should be noted from time
to time to see that the motor bearings are getting proper lubrication.
The speed of the motor should be such that the battery is being charged
rather than discharged, as is likewise shown by an indicator on the
dash. This is especially important when using lights at night. Keep
timer lever in correct place to prevent overheating.

The general rule for driving is--keep to the right side of the road,
the only possible exception being when passing a vehicle going in the
same direction; then go around on the left.

Stop before crossing railroad tracks, and drive slowly when approaching
cross roads. In turning corners to the left, make the turn beyond the
center of the cross road. Do not use brakes against the motor--release
the clutch. Do not use the brake too forcibly; it will cause injury
to rear tires and skidding. On slippery roads, make it a rule to use
chains and drive slowly.

=244. Care of Car.= Under this heading, a few general rules may be
given. Do not persist in running a machine when out of order. Never
drive when the lubrication system is working imperfectly. Lack of
cylinder oil will ruin a motor in a short time. Make it a rule to look
at oil gauge before starting. Care of the battery consists largely in
keeping it charged and filled to the proper level with distilled water.
Tires should be kept inflated at all times. In case of trouble, never
run on a flat tire, as it will soon be worthless under such treatment.
Never drive a machine while out of order--stop and have repairs or
adjustments made.



=245. Operation and Care of Lawn Mowers.= The wheels of the lawn mower
permit it both to move easily over the ground and turn the knives which
cut the grass (Fig. 139).

[Illustration: FIG. 139. Lawn mower.]

This means that they must be kept well oiled to work easily--that the
shaft of the wheel must not become wrapped with grass, weeds, string
or wire. Most machines are made adjustable, and the knives are set to
allow them to pass close enough to the plate at the bottom of the mower
to clip the grass as if the machine were a pair of scissors. Keep the
knives properly adjusted in relation to this plate. Do not let them
come so close that they touch the plate but very lightly, nor be so
uneven that one end cuts grass, while the other misses the plate so far
that it will not cut.

If the knives are kept properly adjusted and the mower is not abused by
trying to cut wires, stones, or by being stored where it becomes rusty,
it will seldom need sharpening.

Keep all bolts tight.

=246. Storing Mowers.= When storing for the winter, grease the knives
with a heavy coat of unsalted lard, or cover them with some other
protective material.

=247. Scissors and Shears.= In popular language, there is no
distinction made between scissors and shears. Technically defined,
scissors are less than six inches in length. Any similar cutting device
of greater length is called shears. Both are devices used for cutting
cloth, paper, pruning trees, and many other purposes. They consist of
two knives riveted together at some point between the handle and the
point of the blade. The two blades are so adjusted that as the open
scissors are closed, they touch lightly as they pass each other until
the tip is reached. When the scissors are closed, the blades should
touch only at rivet and tip. Scissors not so adjusted will not cut
well, even the the blades are very sharp. Dropping scissors often bends
the blades. Blades may be straightened as well as sharpened, and thus
make good metal scissors like new.

=248. Principles Upon Which Incubator Works.= A device for hatching
chickens is called an incubator. In order to hatch chickens, the
incubator must keep an average temperature of 102-1/2 degrees
Fahrenheit. The thermometer should be placed in the center of the tray
and on a level with the top of the eggs. The temperature of 102-1/2
degrees Fahrenheit must not vary greatly during the incubation of eggs.

The incubator must also permit of suitable ventilation and control of
the moisture in the eggs.

There are incubators heated with hot water and others with hot air. The
air or water in those commonly used in homes is heated with a kerosene

The device consists of a heating unit, a regulator or thermostat which,
acting upon a valve or damper, regulates the admission of heat into
the insulated box containing the trays of eggs, ventilators and a
thermometer (Fig. 140).

=249. The Body of the Incubator.= The box-like body of a good incubator
is set on strong legs which raise it to a convenient height. The trays
slide into the box on cleats about two or three inches from the bottom
of the body. They fit so that a slit about two inches wide is left
between for the chickens to drop down under the tray as they hatch.
Usually this is near the door. If the door is furnished with a glass to
admit light, the chickens are attracted toward light and fall thru the

[Illustration: FIG. 140. Incubator.]

The walls of the incubator are usually double so that air can be let in
without making a draft. Dampers in the side of the machine regulate
the admission of air. Ventilation both regulates the amount of air
circulating in the incubator and the amount of moisture. Air from a
damp room keeps the eggs moist. Air from a dry room dries them.

=250. Incubators Heated by a Lamp.= Choose a lamp which holds enough
oil to last for twenty-four hours. Good lamps are usually made of metal
and as plain as possible (Fig. 141).

[Illustration: FIG. 141. Incubator lamp.]

The burner furnished with them is an ordinary lamp burner carrying a
straight, flat wick. Metal chimneys are used, there being enough mica
in one side to permit the flame to be seen. The chimney extends into
a metal chamber containing the hot-water pipes, or into a chamber
thru which air is taken and heated by the chimney. The fumes from
the burning oil pass out into the room and not into the incubator.
The heated air passes thru ducts into the incubator. These are often
constructed of wood.

=251. The Wick.= The wick most generally found practical is the cotton
wick, such as is used in ordinary lamps. It should be kept clean and
renewed often. The lamp should be kept filled regularly. The wick must
always be kept trimmed even, to prevent smoking.

Incubators heated by electricity have the heating unit placed either
above or below the trays of eggs. The current is controlled by a

=252. Thermostat.= The thermostat also raises the damper over the top
of the lamp and air heater (Fig. 142), when the incubator reaches the
temperature for which it is set, and lowers it when the temperature
falls. When the damper is lifted, the heated air passes out into the
room and not into the incubator. As soon as the incubator cools below
this temperature, the thermostat contracts, letting the damper drop
in place to retain the heat and direct it into the incubator. The
thermostat works the same when a gas flame is used instead of a lamp.
In electrical machines, the thermostat operates the switch, admitting
much, little or no current, as is needed to maintain 102½ degrees

[Illustration: FIG. 142. Thermostat for incubator.]

=253. The Thermometer.= A thermometer is placed in the incubator to
guide the operator in regulating the temperature. It guides him in
adjusting the thermostat and the heating device; that is, it shows him
when to turn the wick of the lamp up or down.

Lamps should never be turned high enough to smoke. Smoke and gas in the
room are likely to get into the incubator and harm the growing chicks.

=254. Operation of Incubator.= Set the incubator level; it is
constructed to work on the level. Heated air rises--if the incubator
is not level, the highest point will get most of the heat. It should
be set in a dry room or dry cellar, which is well ventilated and well
lighted. There should be no artificial heat in the room which is not
regular. An uneven temperature gives difficulty in managing the heating
of the incubator. The room should be free from dust.

Adjust the incubator and run it for two or three days to see that it is
operating at a constant temperature before putting in the eggs.

Use only the best grade of oil, and use the same kind of oil all thru
one hatch. Change in oil may necessitate a change in regulators which
is not safe while the eggs are in the incubators.

Start the incubator with a good, clear, high flame in the lamp, so
that it can be turned lower as the germs in the eggs begin to grow and
generate heat.

Start the incubator at 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and by the second day,
it will reach the temperature of 102 degrees.

[Illustration: FIG. 143. Egg tester.]

Violent fluctuations of temperature in the incubator are dangerous and
should be avoided.

Accuracy in reading temperatures and in adjusting the thermostat and
ventilators is essential. Fill the lamp and turn the eggs regularly.
Cleanliness is important. Disinfect the incubator between hatches,
and air it well. Cresol soap and water make a good disinfectant for
incubators. Turn and handle eggs with clean hands.

To know whether the incubator has the proper amount of moisture
supplied, weigh the trays before filling, weigh after filling. At the
end of the fifth day, weigh tray and eggs again, subtract the tray
weight, which is constant, from the weight of the whole, and note the
difference between this weight and the original weight of the eggs. If
100 eggs have lost 8.38 ounces, or 4.17 per cent of their weight, the
moisture is correct.

[Illustration: FIG. 144. Appearance of eggs when put in egg tester.]

If they have lost too much weight, give more moisture or less
ventilation, but, remember, that pure air is essential to incubators,
so do not shut off ventilation entirely.

If not enough weight is lost, open the ventilators, and, if necessary,
for the next hatch, place the incubator in a drier place.

=255. Egg Tester.= An egg tester is a device for looking thru eggs to
ascertain whether or not they are good. It consists of some device
to keep all bright light away from the eyes except a few bright rays
shining thru the egg. The hole should be about an inch long and
three-fourths of an inch wide. A metal chimney with one such opening in
the side used in a darkened room serves as an egg tester. A large piece
of cardboard tacked over a sunny basement window is sometimes used, the
hole being cut in the cardboard (Fig. 143).

Hold the egg between the finger and thumb before the opening. Look at
the egg as the light shines thru it. Fig. 144 shows how good and bad
eggs look when viewed in egg tester.



[Illustration: FIG. 145. Typewriter, L. C. Smith.]

=256. Construction of Typewriter.= The typewriter is a machine for
printing letters (Fig. 145). The letters making the imprint are
attached to shafts which can each swing to one point. Care should be
taken to strike one key at a time, as they are all made to reach the
same point, and contact with each other may cause bent shafts. If a
shaft becomes bent, the letter attached to it will not swing to the
desired point, so will be out of alignment, or will fail to leave a
mark, since the imprint is made on a roller and the letter hits only
the nearest part of the surface. The shaft may have one, two or three
letters on it. This is made possible by the use of the shift key
which raises or lowers the framework to which the roller is attached,
so that when the machine is in normal position, one set of type on
the keys will be imprinted, and, upon the holding down of a shift key
and simultaneously striking a letter, another set of type will make
the imprint. On some typewriters there are two shift keys, allowing
three sets of characters to be used. The motion of the keys turns a
small wheel which shoves the roller from right to left, and, also,
turns the spools of ribbons so that a new bit of ribbon comes under
the letter each time a key is struck. If the ribbon did not move, the
letters would soon cut a hole thru it. This ribbon carries the ink
which reproduces the imprint of the letter. When the end of a ribbon
is reached, most machines reverse its direction so that it again winds
onto the spool from which it has just unwound. On other machines, it is
necessary to release the bar which controls the spools to reverse the
winding of the ribbon.

=257. Special Features of Typewriter.= Learn how to use the attachments
on the typewriter to get the greatest service from it. If a machine is
equipped with tabulating keys, much time is saved by using them for the
indentations instead of working the space bar until the desired place
is reached, or by using both hands to release the carriage and move
it to its desired place. Some machines are equipped with a key marked
"ribbon" key. This key, when pressed, lowers the ribbon so that no
impression from it is made on the paper. When the ribbon is removed,
stencils may be cut with the letters for mimeographic work. These
are only two examples. There are many automatic aids on each make of

=258. Interchangeable-Type Typewriters.= On these machines, the type is
not placed at the end of a shaft, but the complete set of letters is
put on a semi-circular plate which is attached to a wheel which brings
the desired letter to the point wanted when the key is pressed (Fig.

[Illustration: FIG. 146. Hammond interchangeable typewriter.]

The change of type can be made very easily so that with the proper
semi-circular plate any one of several languages may be written on this
kind of typewriter regardless of the characters used to represent the

Charts of the keyboard are furnished with each set of letters to guide
the operator in writing. This machine requires the same general care as
other typewriters.

=259. Care of Typewriters.=

1) Read the directions for cleaning and oiling the machine. Keep them
for future reference.

2) Do not attempt to take the machine apart. Only readjust parts for
which such directions are given.

3) Use only the best grade of typewriter oil, and oil only where
indicated. The average machine does not require oiling oftener than
from ten to fourteen days.

4) Brush the entire machine each day before using. This prevents the
accumulation of oil and dust, which retards the free action of the
machine, and rusts or clogs the bearings and other parts.

5) Use a stiff brush to clean the type. If the type has become gummed
with ink from lack of care, moisten the brush with alcohol or gasoline,
and brush it until clean. Avoid cleaning the type with a sharp
instrument, if possible, as it mars the edges. However, in case of the
letters having an enclosed parts, such as _c_, _d_, _e_, _b_, _g_, _p_,
_a_, _s_, _c_, _q_, it may require the careful removal of the deposit
with a pin. After this treatment, the type should be well brushed. Keep
machine covered when not in use. With proper care, a machine should
stay in good order indefinitely. If, in any way, any part of a machine
is out of adjustment, have an expert readjust it.

=260. The Hectograph.= The hectograph is one of the simplest devices
for obtaining duplicate copies of written work (Fig. 147). It is a
sheet like heavy paper or pad of jelly-like substance on which a
reversed copy of the writing can be made and from which copies can
be taken. The original copy is written with hectograph ink on smooth
paper by hand, or on a typewriter, and allowed to dry. This copy is
placed face downward on the hectograph pad, which has been moistened
and rubbed to insure the contact at all places. It is allowed to remain
here for three or four minutes. More time is required in cold weather,
as the absorption of ink by the pad is slower. The paper is then
removed, leaving a reversed impression on the hectograph plate. Copies
are then made by placing dry paper on the impression and removing them
instantly. Twenty copies may be taken. The plate should be washed in
lukewarm water immediately after use. The hectograph plate should be
about the temperature of an ordinary room; chilled plates produce faint
prints. Never use cold water on the plate. Keep pen flowing freely when
writing the original copy, by wiping it frequently. Keep the hectograph
covered when not in use.

[Illustration: _Fig. 147._ Hectograph.]

=261. Mimeograph and Multigraph.= The mimeograph (Fig. 148) is a more
complicated device for reproducing duplicates than the hectograph,
but more copies may be made at faster speed on this machine and the
stencils may be saved for making more copies later. A stencil (tissue
paper, usually blue, fastened to a sheet of equal size waxed cardboard)
is cut by a typewriter. This is done by removing the ribbon and
allowing only the outline of the type to cut thru the tissue which has
been saturated with "Dermax," a liquid wax which is brushed over the
surface of the waxed paper, and the tissue paper carefully smoothed
out upon it. Some stencil paper or waxed sheets do not require this
treatment of "Dermax"; instead a tissue or silk sheet is placed under
the stencil paper. When the desired wording is cut, the cardboard is
torn off at the perforated line, leaving the four holes which attach
the stencil to the roller of the mimeograph machine. First see that the
pad on the machine is well inked, and then fasten the stencil to the
pins at the top of the roller and with bar at the bottom, seeing that
it is smooth.

[Illustration: FIG. 148. Mimeograph.]

Set the adjustment which indicates the number of copies turned out, so
that it is not necessary to count them while printing. (Full directions
are printed on this adjustment.) Place the paper on the feed board, far
enough down for the sheets to come in contact with the rollers which
feed them in, and turn the handle. If the proportion of space at top
is greater or less than desired, set the attachment for regulating the
space. Full directions are printed on each attachment of most machines.
See that the ink tank which is located inside the cylinder is kept
full of the best ink. Ink the pad by pushing the brush across the
inside of the perforated cylinder.

Multigraphs differ from mimeographs in that they print the copy from
type instead of thru a stencil. The type is set in a cylinder that is
covered by an inked ribbon. Manuscripts printed by a multigraph look
more like typewriting than those printed by a mimeograph. When turning
out less than a thousand copies, the mimeograph will be found more
economical on account of the small amount of time required in preparing
the stencil.


 1. By what means are dumbwaiters operated?

 2. Can you see any relation between the construction of door stops
 and force pumps?

 3. What is the power for rolling up a window shade?

 4. What does lock-stitch look like? How does chain-stitch differ from

 5. In what way do lock-stitch machines differ from chain-stitch

 6. What are the advantages of each? What are the disadvantages?

 7. What is the tension? How is it adjusted? How is the length of
 stitch adjusted?

 9. In what ways is an automobile engine like the gasoline engine
 and the electric motor used in rural homes for operating household

 10. What is the shape of the knives on a lawn mower that makes it cut
 the same as a pair of scissors?

 11. What may be the reasons for scissors not cutting as they should?

 12. What are the essential features of a good incubator?

 13. What is a thermostat? How does it work? Are thermostats of any
 use to the housewife on any other device than the incubator?

 14. What mechanical factors are embodied in a typewriter? Find the
 pulley, the levers, the springs, etc.

 15. What are the differences in a hectograph, a mimeograph and





=262. Definition of Motor.= A motor is a device for utilizing the power
stored in gasoline, electricity or elevated water for doing work. The
structure of the motor depends upon the source of its power, as does
its name. Besides the motor, there is a treadle, or foot-power motor,
used in the home.

[Illustration: FIG. 149. Water motor.]

=263. The Treadle.= The treadle is a small platform, which rocks on two
pivots. As the treadle is rocked, it moves a rod attached to its outer
edge, upward and downward. This rod is then attached to a wheel a short
distance from the hub, so that the upward and downward motion of the
shaft turns the wheel. When a belt is attached to the wheel, it will
run a sewing machine or other small device.

=264. Water Motors.= Water motors are commonly used in the household
on washing machines and pumps (Figs. 149 and 149-_a_.) At least
twenty-five pounds of water pressure is required to run an average-size
washer. More pressure is advantageous. The motor may be, and often is,
attached to tanks in which water is held under pressure, and used to
pump water from a cistern or well.

[Illustration: FIG. 149-_a_. "Reliable" water motor.]

=265. Selecting a Water Motor.= Before purchasing any device to be
operated by a water motor, ascertain how much water pressure you have
available. Under enough pressure, the water from a faucet will give
power enough to a small-sized water motor to run a washing machine,
sewing machine or small feed grinders. These motors are usually less
than one-half horse power.

[Illustration: FIG. 150. Sectional view of water motor.]

[Illustration: FIG. 150-_a_. Water motor assembled and in parts.]

=266. Two Types of Water Motors.= One type of water motor is made up
of a piston and valves in a cylinder (Fig. 150). The water pushes the
piston to a certain point when a valve opens and lets out the water.
The piston then moves backward until it automatically opens another
valve, letting in more water, which, in turn, pushes the piston forward
and again to the point where the first valve opens. The motion of
the piston must be strong enough to do the work. About twenty-five
pounds of water pressure is required in moving the piston forward when
attached to a machine which might be operated by hand by a woman.

Another type of water motor consists of cups or fans on the rim of a
wheel. As the water flows over the wheel, it pushes it around, thus
giving it power to do work provided there is enough pressure behind the
water (Fig. 150-_a_).



=267. Gasoline Engines.= A gasoline engine (Fig. 151) should be
operated out of doors or in a well-ventilated room, except in cases
where the exhaust pipe is carried thru the wall of the building to the
outside. The fumes may cause illness, or even death, to any one staying
in the room.

A gasoline engine should be mounted on a substantial base of concrete
or heavy timbers, or on a well-built truck, and should be put in good
order before the woman or girl begins to use it. The engine must be
level. If more than one device is attached to it, be sure to use the
right pulleys on the engine and the machine to be operated. An engine
is usually equipped with pulleys of two or more sizes. The size of the
wheel on the washing machine or vacuum cleaner must be of a size to
make the desired number of revolutions per minute.

=268. Figuring Speed of Pulleys.= For example, if the speed of the
engine is 425 revolutions per minute and the diameter of the pulley
on the engine is 12 inches, and the machine is to be run at 150
revolutions per minute, have a pulley on the machine of a diameter
which equals 425 times 12, or 5,100 divided by 150, or 34 inches.

It would be more convenient to have a smaller pulley on this machine.
Since there is a smaller wheel on the engine which, we will say, is 6
inches in diameter, put the belt on the smaller wheel, and then a wheel
only 17 inches in diameter will be needed on the machine.

[Illustration: FIG. 151. Sectional view of gasoline engine.]

=269. Operating the Engine.= One person should be responsible for the
care of an engine. Starting the engine is usually too heavy work for
most women. Since a man usually starts a gas engine which the women
are to use, it is more important that they know how to stop the engine
and to recognize when it is not running properly. A cold engine can be
started easier if warmed with hot water.

Running an engine which is out of order may damage it seriously. Have
some one show you how to operate your engine. Stop it when not running

=270. Points in Caring for Engine.= The following are points to keep in
mind when operating an internal combustion engine:

1) Black smoke issuing from the exhaust pipe means there is not enough
air in proportion to fuel.

2) When an engine misses more explosions than it should, or backfires,
the cause is likely to be too much air in the fuel.

3) If the mixture of fuel and air is in the proper proportion, but
there is too little of it, the engine will have no power.

4) Premature ignition may be caused by deposition of carbon or soot
on the walls of the cylinder; the compression being too high for the
fuel used; overheating of the piston, or exhaust valve, or of some
poorly-jacketed part.

5) Using too much or a poor quality of lubricating oil, or a mixture
too rich in fuel, causes deposition of carbon on the cylinder.

6) The use of too much cylinder oil is indicated by a blue smoke
issuing from the exhaust.

7) Pre-ignition, or a bearing out of order, or the engine not being
securely fastened to its foundation, causes pounding.

8) Too much water in the oil used for fuel causes white smoke to issue
from the exhaust pipe. This may be caused by a leaky jacket on gasoline

9) Stop the engine by shutting off the supply of fuel. Open the switch
to the ignition system. Close the lubricators and oil cups, and turn
off the jacket water.

10) In cold weather, drain off the jacket water to prevent freezing.

11) Always leave the engine clean and in order to start again.

12) For safety, belts and wheels should be boxed in wherever possible.

Fig. 151 should be studied closely for a better understanding of the

=271. Generating Electricity for Homes.= Water motors, kerosene, gas
and gasoline engines are the sources of power commonly used to generate
electricity for private homes. A device for generating electricity
is called a dynamo (Fig. 152). The electricity generated is either
used directly while the engine is running, or it is stored in storage
batteries. From here it is conducted thru wires and used for lighting,
heating and turning motors to do work.

=272. Batteries.= Batteries are used mainly where a small amount of
current is needed, as on oil or gasoline engines, to make the spark to
ignite the gasoline or oil, and in lighting gas and acetylene lamps,
and for some door bells.

There are several kinds of batteries, as liquid, dry-cell and storage.

=273. Liquid Batteries.= In liquid batteries, electric current is
generated by means of direct chemical action between an acid and two
other substances, one more easily attacked by the acid than the other
(Fig. 153), such as zinc and copper. This forms a simple cell, one form
of primary battery. When the chemicals and metals in a primary battery
are exhausted, they can be replaced with new metal or solution.

[Illustration: FIG. 152. Electric generator.]

=274. A Dry-Cell Battery.= A dry-cell is another form of battery. In
these, the moisture of the acid substance is absorbed by some material
like plaster-of-Paris flour or blotting paper, so that it can act
on the metals or carbon in the cell and still make a cell easily
transportable. The absorbed moisture in dry cells slowly evaporates,
and then they become worthless. These batteries are usually thrown away
after they have been used and have ceased to generate electricity.

=275. Storage Batteries.= Storage batteries differ from primary
batteries in that current must be supplied to them from some outside
source, such as a dynamo. They can be recharged again after the current
in them has been used (Fig. 154).

[Illustration: FIG. 153. Primary battery.]

[Illustration: FIG. 154. Storage battery.]

The engines for private homes where a light plant is used are adjusted
to charge batteries at the proper rate--but the owner should charge
these batteries at regular intervals. They can be charged only by
direct current.

Never allow the storage battery to run down to a voltage lower than
1.15 per cell. This reading is taken from the voltmeter supplied with
the plant.

Storage batteries should be tested by a hydrometer for the specific
gravity of the electrolyte or liquids in them. Instructions for this
and for correcting the specific gravity accompany the plant. Take care
to preserve them.

Dynamos for home use are almost automatic. Run the dynamo to renew the
batteries when using electric irons or other devices calling for more
current than the lighting fixtures. Each plant is designed to carry a
certain load of equipment. Exceeding this, damages the plant.

Place electric motors and dynamos in a dry, cool, clean place.

=276. Some Uses for Electric Motors.= Motors are now used on sewing
machines, washing machines, dish washers, vacuum cleaners, wringers,
fans, refrigerating systems, pumps, grinders, freezers, churns and
separators. They are made either for direct or alternating current.
When purchasing a motor, be sure to designate the type of current with
which it is to be used. Select motors of the right size to operate the
machine. It costs more to operate a large motor on a small device than
a small motor.

=277. Definition Tables.= A British thermal unit is the amount of heat
required to warm one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.

The flash point of an oil is that temperature at which it will form
an inflammable vapor. The accompanying table shows amount of heat
generated from a number of sources.

The total heat in a gallon of kerosene is greater than that in a gallon
of gasoline because the kerosene is heavier than the gasoline. A gallon
of gasoline will give on an average but about five-sixths as much total
heat as a gallon of kerosene. This is approximately true, whether the
heaviest grades of kerosene are compared with the heaviest grades
of gasoline, or the lightest grade of kerosene is compared with the
lightest grade of gasoline.

Distillate is the refuse left from the distillation of petroleum.

The flash point of kerosene may be between 70 and 150 degrees
Fahrenheit, depending upon the grade. For illuminating purposes, do not
use kerosene with the flash point lower than 120 degrees Fahrenheit.

The flash point of gasoline is 10 to 20 degrees Fahrenheit; that is,
gasoline will form an imflammable vapor at temperatures as low as this.

Between 60 and 70 per cent of the common fuels are utilized in the
generation of steam for heating purposes.


  AMOUNT     |        FUEL        |    B. T. U.
  1 lb.      |  Anthracite coal   |  13,200-13,900
  1 lb.      |  Bituminous coal   |  12,000-15,000
  1 lb.      |  Lignite coal      |   8,500-11,400
  1 lb.      |  Wood              |   8,200- 9,200
  1 cu. ft.  |  Natural gas       |     900- 1,000
  1 cu. ft.  |  Illuminating gas  |     500-   600
  1 lb.      |  Kerosene          |  18,000
  1 lb.      |  Alcohol           |  12,000
  1 lb.      |  Gasoline          |  19,000
  1 K.W.-hr. |  Electricity       |   3,400

  One pound ice in being melted will absorb 144 B. T. U.



=278. Gasoline-Gas Plants.= Gasoline-gas plants are devices for
generating gas from gasoline. The gas is a mixture of air and gasoline
vapor. It is made by air being forced thru gasoline. There are small
plants which can be installed in private homes (Fig. 155). Gasoline
vaporizes at ordinary temperature. The vapor or gas produced can be
used for heating, lighting and running gas engines.

[Illustration: FIG. 155. Gasoline gas plant.]

One gallon of gasoline, when entirely vaporized, produces about
thirty-two cubic feet of gas. Its heating power depends upon the
character of the gasoline utilized and the temperature at which it is
kept during vaporization.

The plant is a device for forcing air thru the gasoline to make it
vaporize as fast as wanted. Combined with the carburetor is a storage
tank for the gas. A weight, or water motor, furnishes the power most
commonly used in forcing the air thru the gasoline and forms a part
of the plant. Air cannot flow thru the gasoline when the storage tank
is full of gas so that the power is only in operation when the gas is
being used or the tank is not quite full.

=279. Acetylene-Gas Plant.= Acetylene is often used in rural homes when
gas or electricity are not available. The operation of the plant often
has to be attended to by a member of the family. A capable woman can
do this, but she must be careful and must thoroly understand the plant
(Fig. 156).

[Illustration: FIG. 156. Acetylene gas plant.]

The materials used in making acetylene are calcium carbide and water.
Calcium carbide (_A_, Fig. 156) is made from lime and coke fused
together in an electrical furnace. It must be kept stored in a dry

The plants for making acetylene are inexpensive enough to be installed
in individual homes of moderate means. Calcium carbide for making the
gas can be transported without difficulty.

There are two types of machines. In one the water drips on the carbide;
in the other, the more common type, the carbide is dropped into the
water. As soon as the carbide touches the water, it gives off acetylene
gas. The gas is caught in and fills a bell above the water. As it fills
the bell, it raises it, and when the bell reaches a certain height, it
trips a lever to the door which lets in the carbide and closes it. When
the gas is used, the bell goes down and, passing the lever, opens the
door to let in a small amount of carbide.

Improvements have been made in the plants and in installing them until
there is less danger from explosions than formerly. Great care should
be taken in operating them to avoid accidents. Since the gas is highly
explosive, fire, lighted lamps and cigars must be kept away from the
vicinity of all acetylene plants. Only one person should take the care
of the plant, the others should understand how.

=280. Directions for Operating Acetylene Plant.=

1) Charge by daylight--remove all residuum, and fill with fresh water
before adding any carbide.

2) Follow exact directions for the machine used in the order directed.

=281. Cautions to Be Observed in Using Acetylene Gas.=

1) Do not apply a light to any opening that is not equipped with a
regular acetylene burner tip.

2) See that any workman repairing a generator first removes carbide and
drains all water out, and disconnects it from piping and removes it to
the open air, where he then fills all compartments with water to force
out gas before using soldering irons.

3) An open light should never be permitted nearer than ten feet from
the generator. The generator should never be nearer than fifteen to
twenty feet from furnace or stove. Do not hunt for gas leaks with a
flame or light.

[Illustration: FIG. 157. Pressure tank for gas.]

4) Do not use any artificial light except electric light when cleaning
or repairing generator, or carry a lighted pipe or other fire about it,
even when empty.

5) If water in any chamber should freeze, do not attempt to thaw it
with anything but hot water.

6) Keep the motor oiled. Oil once in six months.

=282. Compressed Gases and Oils.= Gases, such as Blau gas, Pintsch gas,
and prestolite gas which is compressed acetylene gas, are compressed
in strong tanks and sold for use in lighting and light housekeeping.
Gasoline and alcohol also are occasionally stored in very strong tanks
under enough pressure to make them flow thru very small pipes to the
point where they are wanted for use. These are frequently used for
lighting isolated public buildings, such as rural schoolhouses.

As the gas or oil is used, the pressure diminishes. There is usually
a pump attached to the tank to pump in air in order to keep up the
pressure. The pump is similar to a bicycle pump (Fig. 157).


 1. What is the difference between the treadle and a motor-power

 2. How is power secured from water in a water motor? Or what is the
 source of power utilized by a water motor?

 3. How do you determine the size of pulleys to use on the gasoline
 engine and on the device it is to operate?

 4. What are some indications that a gasoline engine or automobile
 motor is not running properly?

 5. What are the kinds of batteries, and to what uses is each best

 6. Do batteries need care? If so, what care?

 7. How is acetylene gas made? Describe the device for making it.

 8. How is gas for household use made from gasoline?





=283. Equal-Arm Balances.= Scales are devices for determining the
weight of objects. Balances--one form of scales--are made of two arms
of equal lengths and supplied with discs of metal of a known weight to
be placed on one arm of the balance while the material to be weighed
is put on the other. When the two arms are in equilibrium, the weight
of the material is equal to the weight of the metal. Since the weight
of the metal is known, or can be determined, by adding together the
weights of the discs used, the weight of the material is known to be
the same.

=284. Unequal-Arm Balances.= Equal-arm balances are not convenient for
weighing large objects. For this reason, scales are made with one arm
of the balance much longer than the other. The metal discs are then
marked with the weight of the material on the short arm which they can
balance when placed on the long arm. This is the usual form of counter
and household balances. On these scales is also a weight which slides
along the arm and is used to determine weights smaller than five or ten
pounds. The arm of the balance is, therefore, marked at the point where
this weight will balance certain amounts of material, such as half
ounces, ounces and pounds.

=285. Spring Scales.= Spring scales depend on the action of a spring,
to which an indicating pointer is attached. When there is no weight on
the spring, the place to which the indicator points is marked zero.
When these scales are manufactured, a pound weight is placed so that it
pulls on the spring and the indicator is pulled down to another place,
and this is marked one. Scales are thus marked for the number of pounds
they are to weigh. The spaces between the pounds marked are divided
into equal divisions, such as sixteenths which indicates ounces. These
scales cannot be relied on for accuracy, for springs stretch or become
weaker as they are used. Avoirdupois is the weight in common use for
marketing, while many tables for calculating dietaries are in the
metric system.

The housewife can have her balances corrected for weighing by the city
or county sealer of weights and measures so that she can ascertain
whether or not her food purchases are correctly weighed.


  AVOIRDUPOIS                          METRIC

  16 oz.--1 pound                      1 milligram--1/1000  .001 gram
  100 lb.--1 hundred-weight            1 centigram--1/100  .01 gram
  2000 lbs.--1 ton                     1 decigram--1/10   .1 gram
  0.035 oz.--1 gram (Metric system)    Gram--1 gram
                                       Dekagram--10 grams
  APOTHECARIES                         Hectogram--100 grams
  27-11/32 grams--1 dram               Kilogram--1000 grams
  16 drams--1 oz.



=286. Graduate and Measuring Cup.= Graduate holding up to four fluid
ounces is helpful to use to check up liquids bought in bottles. The
standard measuring cup referred to in modern cook books holds half a
pint of liquid. It also holds about sixteen level tablespoonfuls of dry
material such as sugar. The divisions on glass cups are less likely
to be accurate than on metal ones, as the bottom may be thick or thin
unless carefully made. In selecting a cup, see that the bottom section
is equal to the other sections.

 1 cup = 2 gills = 1/2 pint = 16 tablespoons = 48 teaspoons = 8 fluid

 1 cup is also 1/4 of a quart and about 4/17 of a liter.

=287. Tablespoons.= Tablespoons vary in size. The size chosen for
measuring is the one in most common use and holds about three level
teaspoonfuls of material like sugar or flour.

 1 tablespoon = 4 drams of liquid = 3 teaspoons.

 4 tablespoons = 1/4 cup = 2 fluid ounces.

=288. Teaspoons.= Teaspoons vary in size, but the spoon in common use
is the one understood as the measure in cookery. It holds about one and
one-third fluid drams.

=289. Standard Measuring Spoons.= Standard measuring spoons in sets can
be purchased at a very moderate price. They are particularly valuable
for checking the capacity of the spoons more commonly used.

=290. Liquid and Cooking Measures.=

  1  teaspoonful = 1-1/3 fluid drams
  3  teaspoonfuls = 1 tablespoonful= 4 drams
  2  tablespoonfuls = 1 fluid ounce
  1/2 cup = 1 gill
  2 gills = 1 cupful = 8 fluid ounces
  16 tablespoonfuls = 1 cupful
  2 cupfuls = 1 pint
  2 pints = 1 quart = 4 cupfuls
  4 quarts = 1 gallon
  4.23 cupfuls = 1 liter
  1000 cubic centimeters = 1 liter
  1.06 liquid quarts = liter
  31-1/2 gallons = 1 barrel
  1 milliliter = one-thousandth (.001) liter
  1 centiliter = one-hundredth (.01) liter
  1 deciliter = one-tenth (.1) liter
  Liter = 1 liter
  1 dekaliter = ten (10) liters
  1 hectoliter = one hundred (100) liters
  1 kiloliter = 1 thousand (1000) liters

=291. Dry Measures.= It is wise for a housewife to have a set of dry
measures, consisting of a pint, quart, gallon, peck and half-bushel
measure. A quart or gallon liquid measure is not equal to the dry one.
It holds less. The diameter of dry measures should be as follows:


  1 pint      4 inches
  1 quart     5-3/8 inches
  2 quarts    6-5/8 inches
  1/2 peck    8-1/2 inches
  1 peck      10-7/8 inches
  1 bushel    13-3/4 inches

  *These diameters allow for proper heaping.


   2 pints = 1 quart
   8 quarts = 1 peck
   4 pecks = 1 bushel
   1 sack of flour = 24-1/2, 49 or 98 pounds
   4 49-pound sacks of flour = 1 barrel
   1 barrel of flour = usually 196 pounds
  60 pounds of potatoes = usually 1 bushel

  *State laws differ somewhat regarding the number of pounds
  in a bushel of various fruits and vegetables.

=292. Cubic, Square and Linear Measure.=


  1728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot
    27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard
   128 cubic feet = 1 cord


  144 square inches = 1 square foot
  9 square feet = 1 square yard
  30-1/4 square yards = 1 square rod
  160 square rods = 1 acre
  640 acres = 1 square mile


  12 inches = 1 foot
   3 feet = 1 yard
  5280 feet = 1 mile
  39.27 inches = 1 meter


  Millimeter = one-thousandth (.001) meter
  Centimeter = one-hundredth (.01) meter
  Decimeter = one-tenth (.1) meter
  Unitemeter = 1 meter
  Dekameter = ten (10) meters
  Hectometer = one hundred (100) meters
  Kilometer = 1 thousand (1000) meters



=293. Different Kinds of Meters.= The housewife has need to be familiar
with three kinds of meters--water, gas and electric. These are devices
for measuring water, gas or electric current.

=294. Construction of a Gas Meter.= The interior of one type of gas
meter (Fig. 158) is somewhat like a water wheel--the pressure of the
gas pushes the wheel around. Every time a compartment full of gas
passes a certain point, the gas flows out and the flange on the wheel
trips a lever which moves the hand of the dial ahead, thus counting the
emptying of the compartment. The gas in the compartment back of this
then moves to this place. The emptied compartment is filled with more
gas as it passes the inlet.

[Illustration: FIG. 158. Gas meter.]

[Illustration: FIG. 159. Water meter.]

=295. Reading the Gas Meter.= A gas meter is a device for measuring
the number of cubic feet of gas which flows thru a pipe. Small dials
with the numbers from one to ten and a hand for an indicator show the
number of single feet, tens of feet, and thousands of feet, which have
passed thru the meter. The reading on any date is the total amount of
gas which has passed thru. To tell how much has passed thru the meter
during any period of time, take the reading of the meter on the first
date, as indicated in Fig. 158, and then take the reading on the later
date and subtract reading one from reading two--the resulting figure is
the amount of gas passing thru the meter between these two dates. When
buying gas, always keep the readings of meters at the time when the
gas man takes them. Gas meters often register more or less gas than is
actually consumed. Gas companies are allowed a variation or tolerance
of one per cent fast or slow, to two per cent fast or slow. Gas is paid
for at a stated rate per thousand feet in most places.

=296. Water Meters.= The water meter (Fig. 159) is a device for
measuring the number of gallons or cubic feet of water which pass thru
a pipe. The reading of the meter indicates the total amount of water
which has passed thru the pipe since the meter was installed. Water is
paid for, unless purchased at a flat rate, at so many cents a thousand
gallons or thousand cubic feet. One cubic foot is called in commercial
transactions 7-1/2 gallons.

[Illustration: FIG. 160. Electric meter.]

=297. Prepayment Meters.= Prepayment meters are devices which will
permit a certain amount of gas or water, as the case may be, to
pass thru a pipe, and after this amount is used up, the pipe is
automatically closed so that no more flows until more money is put into
the meter. The weight of the coin works the valve.

[Illustration: FIG. 160-_a_. Electric meter showing different

=298. The Electric Meter.= Electricity is usually purchased by the
kilowatt hour, and measured by the watt-hour meter (Fig. 160). This
measures the current passing thru it, and the number of kilowatt-hours
is shown by the indicators on the little dials. Start from left and
read the number on the dial, such as in the illustration, 3 hundreds
4 tens 9 units, making 349 kilowatt-hours; the total kilowatt-hours
used since the meter was installed. To find the number used between two
dates, take the reading of the meter on the first date and subtract it
from the reading on the second date. The difference is the amount used
during the period. Good business women keep records of the readings of
their meters. Care must be taken to read the meter correctly. The hand
next higher than the one below may read too high. The higher hand may,
if out of alignment, pass the figure when the lower hand approaches the
ninth point in its dial, this causing the person to read the figures
one, ten, hundred or thousand units too much. (Fig. 160-_a_.)



=299. Mercury Thermometers.= There are two kinds of thermometers in
use--the Fahrenheit and the Centigrade. Since the thermometer is
used now in cooking, the housewife often has to meet the problem of
translating temperatures from one to the other.

The centigrade thermometer is marked on the assumption that the
temperatures of boiling water and freezing water are constantly the
same. The boiling point is marked 100, and the freezing point 0. The
space in between is marked into even divisions and numbered 1 to 99.

The Fahrenheit thermometer was made on the assumption that a mixture of
ice and salt was the coldest temperature that could be reached, so this
temperature of a certain proportion of ice and salt was marked zero.

The hundred point was given to what was supposed to be the normal body
temperature. The intervening spaces were marked into equal divisions,
and these divisions were carried below 0 degree and above 100 degrees.
The boiling temperature of water came at 212 degrees Fahrenheit, and
the freezing point at 32 degrees. This makes 180 degrees difference
between thawing and freezing and boiling. So 100 degrees Centigrade
equal 180 degrees Fahrenheit. Therefore, 1 degree Centigrade equals
9/5 degrees Fahrenheit, and 1 degree Fahrenheit equals 5/9 degree

For example, if 40 degrees Centigrade is to be translated into
Fahrenheit degrees, first multiply 40 by 9 = 360, then divide by
5 = 72, and add 32, because 0 degree Centigrade is the same as 32
degrees Fahrenheit, and the result is 104 degrees Fahrenheit equal 40
degrees Centigrade. If 41 degrees Fahrenheit is to be translated into
Centigrade degrees, first subtract 32 from 41 = 9, then multiply by
5 = 45, and divide by 9, and the result is 5 degrees Centigrade = 41
degrees Fahrenheit. Fig. 161 is a diagram showing relative readings of
Fahrenheit and Centigrade thermometers.

[Illustration: FIG. 161. Comparison of Centigrade and Fahrenheit.]

=300. Oven Thermometer.= Some oven thermometers depend on the expansion
of metal to indicate the temperature. A hand on the clock-like face of
these indicators shows the degree of heat. Few of these give the actual
temperature, but they do indicate a slow, a moderate and a hot oven.

=301. Maximum Thermometers.= A maximum thermometer is one in which the
mercury rises to register the maximum amount of heat to which it has
been subjected. It stays at this height when the temperature falls,
until it is shaken back.

It is sometimes used in ovens to ascertain the temperature they have
reached before the oven door is opened.


                                         |   FAH.  | CENT.
  Slow oven                              | 250-350 | 121-177
                                         |         |
  Moderate                               | 350-400 | 177-204
                                         |         |
  Hot or quick                           | 400-450 | 204-232
                                         |         |
  Very hot                               | 450-550 | 232-287
                                         |   FAH.  | CENT.
  Thin                                   | 219-    | 104-
                                         |         |
  Medium--fondant                        | 236-240 | 113-115
                                         |         |
  Thick--fudge                           |    -240 | 115-
                                         |         |
  Heavy--taffy                           |    -300 | 149-
                                         |         |
  Clear brittle                          |    -310 | 150-
                                         |         |
  Carmel almond and nut brittle          |    -315 | 157-
                                         |   FAH.  | CENT.
  Incubators                             |     103 | 39.4
                                         |         |
  Body temperature                       |  98-99  | 37
                                         |         |
  Room temperature                       |    -86  | 20-30
                                         |         |
  Refrigerator temperature               |  44-59  |  5-15
                                         |         |
  Churning                               |  52-62  | 11-17
                                         |         |
  Growth of bacteria retarded            |  35-70  |
                                         |         |
  Growth of bacteria most rapid          |  70-100 |
                                         |         |
  Most bacteria are killed               |  212    |
                                         |         |
  Downward, markedly. Growth of bacteria |         |
    retarded                             |  45     |

=302. Thermostats.= Thermostats are devices which open or close valves
or dampers in order to keep rooms, boilers, ovens, incubators, etc., at
an even temperature. All metals expand on being heated, and contract
on being cooled. Some expand more than others. Two materials which
expand at different rates are frequently used in making thermostats.
Any certain temperature causes a given piece of metal to expand to
a certain size, or to contract on cooling to a different size. Some
thermostats are made of a straight rod of metal like copper which
expands more than iron when heated. The rod is so placed that when
cool it will allow fuel like gas or oil to pass thru a pipe, and when
heated, it will expand enough to close the pipe, shutting off the fuel.
They are placed so that they close the pipe at the temperature desired
for an oven or supply of hot water.

Other thermostats are more complicated, as the expanding metal moves
a series of levers. These thermostats are used to regulate dampers on
coal and wood furnaces, when they are placed in the rooms to be heated.
They are often used on other devices, such as incubators.

Still others control an electric current. When the metal expands, it
closes the circuit, causing the electricity to do the work desired.
When it contracts, it opens the circuit. Thermostats can be set to do
work at different temperatures.

These are sometimes attached to clocks which, with a device similar to
the alarm, will change the indicator of the thermostat so as to set it
from one temperature to another at a stated time for which the clock is
set and turn it back at another hour.



=303. Hydrometer=. A hydrometer is used in gaging the density of
liquid. This instrument consists of a closed glass tube which is
enlarged at the lower end and filled with some heavy material like
mercury or shot, to keep it in an upright position when in liquids.

The tube or stem contains a paper on which divisions called degrees
are marked. The _0_ mark is usually the point reached by the surface
of distilled water when the hydrometer is placed in this liquid. The
less the density of the liquid, the lower the hydrometer sinks, for
it displaces an amount of liquid equal to its own weight. The density
of the liquid then can be determined by observing the mark to which
it sinks. Specific-gravity hydrometers used in the household show
the ratio of the weight of a given volume of liquid to the weight of
the same volume of water at a definite temperature. Arbitrary scale
hydrometers are used to indicate the concentration or strength of
syrup, brines or milk. These are defined as lactometers and Baume
hydrometers. A brine hydrometer is called a saltometer, and a syrup
gage a sacchrometer. A jellometer, especially for making jelly, is
sometimes used instead of a sacchrometer. The scale on this tells
how much sugar to use in proportion to the amount of solids in the
fruit juice without having to refer to a table. Some hydrometers are
constant-volume hydrometers, and on these weights are placed always, to
sink the hydrometer to the same depth in the liquid.


                    |  SUGAR TO A QUART OF FRUIT JUICE TO MAKE
    READING ON THE  |                   JELLY
      HYDROMETER    +---------------------+-------------------
        Degrees     |        Pounds       |       Ounces
          5.        |                     |         8.
          5.5       |                     |         9.
          6.0       |                     |         9.6
          6.5       |                     |        10.7
          7.0       |                     |        11.6
          7.5       |                     |        12.4
          8.0       |                     |        13.2
          8.5       |                     |        14.1
          9.0       |                     |        15.0
          9.5       |                     |        15.8
         10.0       |           1.        |         7.0

  *When the reading for the fruit juice is determined the table shows how
  much sugar is used for juice of that specific gravity.


      HYDROMETER    +---------------------+-------------------
        Degrees     |        Pounds       |      Ounces
          0.        |                     |        0.0
          5.        |                     |        7.0
         10.        |                     |       14.8
         15.        |          1.         |        7.5
         20.        |          1.         |       14.75
         25.        |          2.         |       12.5
         30.        |          3.         |        9.0
         35.        |          4.         |        7.75
         40.        |          5.         |        8.75
         45.        |          6.         |       13.00
         50.        |          8.         |        5.25
         55.        |         10.         |        4.00
         60.        |         12.         |        8.0

In the second table the readings show the specific gravity of the
syrup, and from that may be ascertained the proportion of sugar to a
gallon of water in it.

A 250 cc. cylinder, or other tall vessel deep enough to float the
sacchrometer, is suitable for making the measurements. Be sure to have
the eye on the level of the liquid when making the readings. If no
sugar is in the water, the reading on the hydrometer will be near zero.
If there is sugar in the proportion of seven ounces to a gallon of
water, the reading will be at the line marked 5.


  Berries       --30 degrees, or 3-1/2 pounds of sugar to 1 gallon of water

  Sweet cherries--30 degrees

  Sour cherries --40 degrees

  Peaches       --30 to 40 degrees

  Pears         --20 to 30 degrees

  Plums         --40 degrees

[Illustration: FIG. 162. Barometer.]

=304. Hygroscopes.= Hygroscopes are devices for measuring humidity.
Forty-five to sixty per cent humidity is desirable in a house. This
means forty-five to sixty per cent as much water as the air is capable
of taking up at room temperature. Cold air is usually dryer than warmer
air because cold air cannot take up as much humidity as warm air. This
is analogous to the fact that warm water will dissolve more of some
salts or of sugar than cold water.

=305. Barometers.= Barometers (Fig. 162) are devices which show changes
in pressure and currents of air. Changes in the barometer usually
indicate changes in the weather, and thus they are of interest to all
persons. A decided fall in the mercury of a barometer usually precedes
foul weather, while a rise indicates the approach of fair weather. When
the pressure is low in any locality, air begins to rush toward that
point as it would to fill a vacuum. So a fall in the barometer precedes
the coming of a high wind or a rainstorm. A rise in the barometer
precedes a calm, and since most rain is accompanied with wind, the calm
is a time of fair weather.



  Absorption of heat and light, 84, 85, 108

  Acetylene, 30, 49, 81, 91, 92, 145, 221, 222, 223

  Acids, 155, 156, 157, 159, 216

  Acre, 229

  Adjustment of burners, stove, 24, 29, 30, 32, 34, 41, 49, 78, 79, 80

  Air, for circulation, 57, 76, 101, 102, 103, 111, 198
    dead or stagnant, 63, 102
    for combustion, 16, 29, 31, 38, 39, 48, 66, 88, 93, 214
    for evaporation, 105, 176, 220, 221
    for heating, 19, 55, 60, 61, 62, 63, 73, 75, 79
    in radiator, 67, 68, 70
    mixer, 23, 24, 25, 33, 77, 96, 144
    moisture, 239
    for pressure, 97, 112, 113, 114, 175, 176, 184
    shaft, 57
    whistling, 56

  Alcohol, 47, 48, 89, 96, 97, 98, 145, 223

  Alkalies, 155, 157

  Alternating current, 110

  Aluminum, 78, 156, 157, 158, 171, 172

  Ammonia, 108, 138

  Ampere, 82

  Andiron, 74

  Anthracite coal, 219

  Asbestos, 32, 66, 77, 81

  Ash chute, 22

  Ashes, 20, 57, 66, 74, 75, 76

  Automobile, 192


  Back-fire, 192, 214

  Bacteria, 100, 101, 127

  Balances, 225

  Balling hydrometer, 238

  Barometer, 239, 240

  Barrel, 167, 228, 229

  Basin, catch, 127

  Battery, 192, 193, 194, 215, 216

  Baume hydrometer, 237

  Bearing, 152

  Beater, 165

  Bell for storing gases, 222

  Bellows, 148, 149

  Belts, 136, 137, 141, 186, 215

  Bituminous coal, 219

  Blau gas, 223

  Bobbin, 187, 188, 189

  Boiler, 64, 69, 71, 73, 132, 133, 156

  Booster, 119

  Bracket, curtain, 185

  Brine for cooling, 108

  British thermal unit, 218, 219

  Brix hydrometer, 238

  Broiler, 26

  Brush, 147, 149, 150, 152

  Bunsen burner, 77, 78, 81

  Burner, 48, 96, 119, 141, 145, 198
    gas, 23, 25, 27, 29, 77, 78, 88, 91, 144
    kerosene, 32, 33, 36, 37, 40, 80, 94

  Burning back, 27, 89, 90, 91

  Burr grinder, 162

  Bushel, 228, 229


  Calcium carbide, 221, 222, 223

  Candle power, 84, 89, 91, 95

  Canned heat, 48

  Canner, 172, 173

  Can sealer, 175

  Capillary attraction, 47, 48, 93, 106

  Carbolic acid, 126

  Carbon, 82, 83, 84, 214

  Carbon dioxide, 67, 108

  Carburetor, 29, 192, 220

  Carpet sweeper, 147, 148, 150

  Cast aluminum, 156

  Cast iron, 155, 156

  Catch basin, 127

  Centigrade thermometer, 233, 234

  Centigram, 226

  Centimeter, 228, 229

  Centiliter, 228

  Centrifugal dryer, 138, 139, 140
    force, 139
    washer, 135, 136

  Cerium, 88

  Cesspool, 124

  Charcoal filter, 114

  Chain stitch, 186

  Cherry stoner, 161, 162

  Check valve, 71, 183

  Chimney, 18, 31, 33, 57, 59, 74, 75, 80, 93, 94, 111

  Chloride of lime, 126

  Choker, 192

  Chopper, 162, 163

  Churns, 165, 167, 235

  Cistern, 114

  Clamp, 138

  Cleaning, 25, 35, 127, 172

  Cleaning equipment, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152, 153

  Clinkers, 76

  Clock, 236

  Clutch, 192

  Coal, 20, 28, 66, 76

  Coffee mill, 162
    pot, 167, 168

  Cog wheels, 165

  Coils, 64, 78, 80

  Coke, 222

  Cold-process gasoline-gas, 29, 91, 145

  Color and illumination, 84

  Compressed-air pump, 113, 115, 117

  Combustion, 16, 17, 23, 24, 58, 66, 74, 76, 77

  Conductivity of materials, 156, 157, 158

  Contraction of materials, 235

  Cookers, 50, 51, 55, 56

  Coolers, 105, 106, 108, 109

  Copper, 158, 216, 236

  Crank, 163

  Cream separator, 178, 179

  Cubic measure, 229

  Cup, measuring, 227, 228

  Current, electric, 42, 46, 80, 83, 86, 110, 143, 144, 215, 218, 232

  Curtain roller, 185

  Cylinder, 112, 113, 211
    washer, 133


  Dampers, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 58, 61, 66, 74, 75, 197, 198, 235, 236

  Decomposition of sewage, 124, 125, 127

  Degree, 233, 234

  Dekagram, 226

  Dekaliter, 228

  Dekameter, 229

  Dermax, 206

  Density of liquids, 237

  Direct current, 110

  Direct lighting, 85

  Dish-washer, 170, 171

  Disinfectant, 126, 200

  Distillate, 40, 218

  Dolly washer, 134

  Doors, 103, 183, 184, 185, 215

  Drafts, 16, 17, 18, 19, 57, 58, 59, 74

  Drain, 103, 104, 122, 138

  Dram, 226, 228

  Drip pipe, 102, 103

  Drip sheet, 25

  Dryer, 171, 176

  Dry-cleaning equipment, 140

  Dry-cell battery, 215, 216

  Dulling of edges, 159, 163

  Dumbwaiters, 183

  Dust, 76, 78, 80, 148, 150

  Dynamo, 215, 216


  Earthenware, 107, 156

  Egg tester, 201

  Electric appliances, 42, 44, 46, 81
    heating, 42, 43, 80, 119
    measurements, 43, 82, 230, 232

  Electric motors, 217

  Electricity, 215, 219

  Electrolyte, 217

  Enameled ware, 157

  Engine, gasoline, 137, 212

  Evaporation, 67, 105, 106, 140

  Exhaust pipe, 212, 214

  Expansion of materials, 108, 234, 235
    tank, 66, 67, 120
    valve, 70

  Explosions, prevented, 25, 35, 37, 39, 69
    utilized, 192, 214, 222

  Extractor, 139


  Fahrenheit thermometer, 233, 234

  Fan, 110, 148, 177

  Fastener, door, 184

  Faucet, 109, 114, 116, 119, 120, 122

  Feed plate, 187, 188, 189, 207

  Filament for lamp, 83

  Filter, water, 114, 116, 168

  Fire, 18, 19, 34, 41, 66, 75

  Fireless cooker, 50, 51

  Fireplace, 74, 75

  Fire-pot, 20, 57, 58, 65, 76

  Flame, 23, 35, 38

  Flame, blue, 31, 38, 49, 96
    illuminating, 77, 78, 88, 89, 93, 94

  Flash point, 218

  Flat-iron, 142

  Float for flushing tank, 129, 130

  Flue, 66, 77

  Force pump, 113, 117, 119

  Freezer, 166, 167

  Freezing, 68, 112, 126, 166, 233

  Friction, danger from, 140

  Fuel, 16, 58, 65, 76, 88, 119
    economical use of, 19, 20, 28, 59, 66

  Funnel, 133, 167, 168

  Furnace, 57, 62, 63, 64, 75, 222

  Fuses, 43, 46, 86, 144


  Gage, 67, 69, 70, 73, 117

  Gage, steam, 72, 173

  Gallon, 228

  Gas, 26, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 58, 88, 108, 192, 199, 214, 215,
       219, 221, 230
    burners, 77, 79, 90, 144
    consumption, 23, 28, 29, 66
    formation, 96, 97, 98
    kinds of, 29, 91, 220, 222, 223

  Gasoline, 89, 97, 99, 140, 219, 223
    burner, 37, 96
    engine, 119, 137, 212, 215

  Gasoline-gas, 29, 37, 91, 220

  Gears, 192

  Generation of heat and gas, 219, 220

  Generator, 96, 97, 145, 223

  Gill, 227, 228

  Glass utensils, 156, 157, 158

  Graduate, 227

  Gram, 226

  Granite ware, 156, 157

  Grate, 16, 58, 65, 74, 76

  Grater, 160

  Gravity lamp, 96

  Gravity, specific, 217, 237, 239

  Grinder, 159, 162


  Heat, 29, 48, 89, 156, 158, 218
    production of, 42, 140, 143, 200, 219
    use of, 45, 50, 57, 69, 78, 80, 140, 143, 176

  Heater, 65, 77, 79, 80, 81, 118, 119, 135, 141, 143, 196, 197

  Hectograph, 205, 206

  Hectoliter, 228

  Hectometer, 229

  Hinge, 184, 185

  Homogenizer, 180

  Horse power, 210

  Hot-water furnace, 64

  Hot-water tank, 117

  Humidity, 239

  Hundred-weight, 226

  Hydrometer, 217, 237, 238, 239

  Hygroscope, 239


  Ice, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 166, 219

  Iceless refrigerator, 105, 106

  Incubator, 196, 201, 235
    adjustment of, 199

  Ignition of gas, 140, 214, 215

  Illumination, 28, 77, 78, 82, 84, 85, 88, 218, 219

  Inch, 228, 229

  Ink, 205, 208

  Insulation, 19, 46, 50, 55, 57, 66, 102

  Iron, 155, 156, 158, 236

  Ironing board, 144

  Irons, 142, 144, 145, 146


  Jars, fruit, 176

  Jellometer, 237

  Jugs, 107


  Kerosene lamps, 93, 95
    oil, 28, 138, 219
    stoves, 31, 79, 80

  Kisselguhr filter, 114

  Keyboard, 202, 204

  Kilogram, 226

  Kiloliter, 228

  Kilometer, 229

  Kilowatt, 82, 232

  Kneading machine, 165

  Knives, 159, 163, 196

  Knocking, cause of, 71, 214


  Lard press, 163

  Lamp, adjusting burners, 89, 90, 93, 94
    electric, 82, 83, 84, 87
    gas or oil, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 196, 198, 199, 215

  Laundry tubs, 127

  Lawn mower, 195

  Lava tip, 89

  Leather, preventing shrinking of, 112

  Lever, 72, 154, 163, 190, 236

  Light, 83, 84, 85, 86, 98

  Lights, 82, 88, 98

  Lighters, 28, 91, 215

  Lighting, lamps, 89, 90, 94, 95
    stoves, 25, 27, 33, 34, 37, 38, 78, 79, 80

  Lighting plants, 86, 114

  Lime, 221

  Lining refrigerator, 101

  Lignite coal, 219

  Liquify, sewage, 124, 125

  Liquids, 237

  Liter, 227, 228

  Locomotive washer, 135

  Logs, gas, 78

  Lock-stitch, 186, 188

  Lubrication, 193


  Mangles, 141

  Mantles for lamps, 88, 89, 90, 91, 95, 98

  Manufactured gas, 78, 89, 91

  Maximum thermometers, 234

  Mazda lamps, 82, 83, 84

  Measurements, 225

  Melting ice, 103

  Metal, conductivity of, 156, 158

  Meter, 229, 230, 231, 232

  Microbes, septic, 126

  Mile, 229

  Milligram, 226

  Milliliter, 228

  Millimeter, 226

  Mimeograph, 206

  Mixer, 165

  Moisture, 200, 239

  Mop wringer, 154

  Motor, 108, 110, 133, 150, 186, 192, 209
    care of, 214, 217
    water, 137, 209, 210, 211, 220

  Mower, 196

  Multigraph, 206, 208


  Natural gas, 30, 89, 219

  Needle, 187, 188, 191

  Nickel, 158

  Nozzle, 148, 149


  Oil, 31, 93, 110, 200, 214, 218, 223

  Oil cups, 33, 35

  Oscillating washer, 134, 135

  Ounce, 226, 228

  Oven, 19, 20, 26, 27, 42, 235

  Overflow, 67, 119, 120, 122, 130


  Packing, 112, 122

  Pans, 155, 156

  Parers, 159, 160

  Peck, 228, 229

  Percolator, 168

  Pet cock, 174, 175

  Pilot light, 26, 27, 119

  Pint, 227, 228, 229

  Pintsch gas, 223

  Pipe, stove, 58, 60, 61, 62
    water or steam, 64, 66, 69, 70, 72

  Pipes, 67, 78, 102, 103

  Pipeless furnace, 63

  Piston, 112, 148, 211, 214

  Pivot, 166, 167, 209

  Plate, mower, 195

  Plug, electric, 143, 144

  Plumber's pump, 123

  Plumbing system, 115, 117

  Pneumatic hinge, 184
    lamp, 96

  Porcelain filter, 114

  Pots, 155, 156, 167, 168

  Pound, 72, 226

  Power, 82, 209, 210, 214

  Prepayment meter, 231

  Press, 163

  Pressure, 72, 73, 78, 79, 82, 117, 137, 138, 146, 164, 171, 173, 209, 223

  Pressure, air, 96, 97, 176
    gage, 69, 117

  Prestolite gas, 223

  Pulley, 137, 185, 212

  Pump, 108, 112, 113, 117, 123, 148, 168, 169, 209, 223


  Quart, 227, 228


  Rack for canner, 172

  Radiation of heat, 57, 61, 62, 79

  Radiator, 64, 68, 69, 70, 71

  Radiator, gas, 77, 78, 79

  Reading meters, 231, 232, 238, 239

  Reflector, 77, 78, 80, 81

  Refrigerating plant, 108

  Refrigeration, principles of, 100

  Refrigerator, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105

  Register, 60, 62, 75

  Regulation, heat and pressure, 20, 60, 66, 70, 72, 73

  Regulation of stoves, 24, 43, 44, 48

  Regulator, temperature, 198, 199

  Reservoir, 18

  Resistance produces heat, 143

  Revolutions of motor wheels, 137

  Ribbon, typewriter, 203, 208

  Roller, 138, 141, 142, 154, 162

  Rotary washer, 134


  Saccrometer, 237, 239

  Sack, flour, 229

  Sadirons, 142

  Safety devices, 45, 56, 71

  Safety valve, 72, 79, 117, 119, 174, 175

  Salt, 157, 166

  Saltometer, 237

  Scales, 226

  Scissors, 196

  Screw, 163

  Seal for sewer pipe, 128

  Seeder, 159, 161

  Semi-indirect light, 86

  Separators, cream, 178

  Septic tank, 124, 125, 127

  Sewage, 124, 125, 126

  Sewer, 124, 127, 128

  Sewing machine, 186, 191, 209

  Shaft, 159, 186, 187, 202, 204, 209
    cold-air, 57, 60, 63

  Shears, 196

  Sheet iron, 155, 156

  Shutter, furnace pipe, 60

  Shuttle, sewing machine, 188

  Silicon, 158

  Silver, 158, 171

  Simmerer, 30

  Siphon, 125, 129

  Slicer, 159, 163

  Smoke, 16, 20, 32, 34, 36, 57, 59, 66, 73, 74, 80, 89, 146, 214, 215, 246

  Socket, electrical, 143

  Soot, 17, 20, 32, 39, 66, 75, 78, 214

  Sparks, electric, 110, 144

  Specific gravity, 217, 237, 239
    heat, 156, 158

  Speed by use of wheels, 165, 212

  Spiral, 163

  Spoons, 157, 158, 227, 228

  Spring, 59, 184, 185, 226
    pulley, 183

  Steam, 71, 79, 111, 133, 175, 219
    pressure, 69, 70, 72, 73, 174, 175

    cooker, 56
    valves and gages, 70, 72, 73, 173

  Steel for cooking, 155

  Stencil, 206

  Stitch, 187, 188, 189, 191

  Stones, fireless cooker, 50, 54

  Stoner, 161

  Storage tank, 113, 220

  Storage battery, 215, 216, 217

  Stove, 37, 47, 48, 49, 57, 58, 63, 65, 70
    electric, 42, 44, 157
    gas, 23 to 30, 144
    heating, 75, 76, 78, 80, 141

  Stove, wood and coal, 15, 22

  Stoves, care of, 31, 34, 41, 44, 76, 78

  Stuffer, 163, 164

  Suction pump, 112, 113
    washer, 132, 133, 169

  Sweeper, carpet, 147, 148, 150

  Switch, ignition, 192

  Syrup, temperatures of, 235


  Tables, 85, 158, 219, 226, 227, 228, 229, 235, 238

  Tablespoons, 227, 228

  Tank, 30, 31, 35, 37, 39, 40, 64, 67, 96, 146, 220, 223
    septic, 124, 125, 126, 127
    water, 107, 109, 113, 117, 119, 128, 129, 130

  Teaspoon, 227, 228

  Temperature, 20, 51, 73, 101, 103, 105, 173, 196, 198, 200, 206, 220,
               233, 236

  Tempering of metal, 156

  Tension, 187, 188, 189

  Tester, egg, 201

  Thawing, 233

  Thermal unit, 218

  Thermometer, 197, 199, 233, 234

  Thermostat, 197, 198, 199, 200, 235, 236

  Thorium, 88

  Thread, 187, 188

  Throttle, 192

  Thumb-screw, 138, 174

  Time for cooking food, 54

  Timer, 193

  Tin, 155, 156, 158

  Ton, 226

  Trap, 122, 128

  Trays, 176, 197, 200

  Treadle, 186, 209

  Tungsten, 82, 83, 158

  Type, 203, 204, 208

  Typewriter, 202, 203, 206


  Utensils for cooking, 44, 155, 156


  Vacuum, 112, 176, 240
    cleaner, 147, 148

  Valve, 25, 26, 29, 33, 37, 52, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 90, 112, 113, 119,
         120, 122, 129, 130, 145, 174, 183, 197, 211, 232, 235

  Vapor, 40, 41, 145

  Vent, radiator, 68

  Ventilators, 110, 111, 197, 198, 200

  Volt, 82

  Voltage, 86, 110, 144, 217


  Warping, 76

  Washboard, 134

  Wash boiler, 172

  Washers for valves, etc., 120

  Washing equipment, care of, 136, 138, 139, 141, 142

  Washing machines, 132, 133, 135, 136, 209

  Waste, 76, 124

  Water, 67, 102, 106
    closets, 128
    coolers, 105, 108
    filters, 114
    for cooling, 107, 215
    for furnaces, 64, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 81
    heater, 118, 119
    meter, 230
    motors, 137, 209, 210, 211, 220
    tanks, 119
      -bath canner, 173
      -seal canner, 173

  Watt, 82, 84

  Weight, 220, 226

  Wells, 113, 125

  Wheels, 137, 165, 211, 230

  Whey separator, 180

  Whistle, 56

  Wick, 32, 35, 93, 94, 95, 98, 198

  Wickless burner, 32, 33

  Window, adjustment of, 63, 183
    shades, 184

  Wire, 43, 46, 110

  Wood, 157, 219

  Wringer, clothes, 138
    mop, 154


  Yard, 229


  Zero, 233



  Acetylene burner, 90
    gas plant, 221

  Adjusting gas light, 89

  Air mixer, 24, 77

  Alcohol iron, 145

  Ash chute, 21

  Automatic devices for heating water, 118
    tension, 190


  Balance wheel, 186

  Ball bearings, 152

  Barometer, 239

  Bath-tub overflow, 122

  Battery, 217

  Blower, 110

  Bobbin shuttle, 188
    spool, 188
    thread, 188
    winder, 186
    worm wheel, 186

  Boiler, washer for, 132

  Booster, 120

  Bread mixer, 165

  Brush, electric cleaner, 151
    carpet sweeper, 153

  Bunsen burner, 89

  Burner, acetylene, 90
    Bunsen, 89
    cleaning, 26
    gasoline, 37, 38
    gasoline-gas, 29
    oil stove, 31, 34


  Cam, 213

  Canner, pressure, 173
    water-bath, 172

  Can sealer, 175

  Cap, sewing machine, 190

  Carpet sweeper, 152, 153

  Centigrade thermometer, 234

  Centrifugal washer, 136

  Chambers' fireless cooker range, 54

  Check valve for door, 184

  Cherry stoner, 160

  Chimneys, lamp, 93

  Circulation in refrigerator, 102

  Cleaner, vacuum, 147, 150, 151, 152

  Clean-out for cook stove, 15

  Cloth plate, sewing machine, 190

  Compressed-air pump, 114

  Cooker, gas, 54
    steam, 55

  Cooking stove, 15, 25

  Cooler for food, 106, 108

  Crank shaft, 213

  Cream separator, 179, 180

  Curtain roller, 185

  Cylinder washer, 134


  Dampers, 15, 17

  Direct light, 83

  Discs in separator, 180

  Dish dryer, 172
    washer, 170, 171

  Door holder, 184
    check valve, 184

  Draft, 17

  Dryer, 139, 176


  Egg tester, 200

  Egg, appearance when tested, 201

  Electric fan, 111
    generator, 216
    heater, 80
    heating unit, 43
    iron, 143
    lighter, 91
    meter, 232
    plug, 144
    stove, 42, 80
    vacuum cleaner, 150, 151

  Embroidery spring, 190

  Engine, gasoline, 213

  Expansion tank, 67

  Exhaust valve, 213


  Fahrenheit thermometer, 234

  Fan, 110, 111

  Faucet showing parts, 122

  Feed bar, sewing machine, 190
    pipe, 31, 32, 33

  Fireless cooker, 51, 53

  Flames, clear and smoky, 35

  Flushing tank, 130

  Flywheel, 213

  Force pump, 113, 119

  Fruit press, 164

  Fuel box, 21

  Furnace, Garland hot-water, 64, 65, 67
    pipeless, 61
    steam, 69, 73
    warm-air, 58, 59

  Fuse on electric heating unit, 43


  Gage, water, 70

  Gas, acetylene plant, 221
    air mixer for, 24, 77
    burner, 26
    cooker, 54
    heater, 77, 78
    iron, 145
    light, 89
    logs, 79
    meter, 230
    oven, 27
    radiator, 79
    stove, 25, 77, 78
    tank, 223

  Gasoline burner, 37
    engine, 213
      -gas lamp, 97
      -gas plant, 220
      -stove, 38

  Generator, 216

  Governor, 213

  Grate, 16, 21

  Grinder, 160, 161, 162


  Heater, electric, 80
    gas, 77, 78
    hot-air, 62
    hot-water, 65
    oil, 80
    reflector, 78
    water, 118, 120, 121

  Heating unit, 45
    for electric stove, 43

  Hectograph, 206

  Holder, door, 184

  Hinge, door, 185

  Humidifier, 58


  Iceless refrigerator, 105

  Ignitor, 213

  Incubator, 197
    lamps, 196

  Indirect light, 86

  Instantaneous water heater, 118

  Insulation in cooker, 51

  Iron, alcohol, 155
    electric, 143
    gas, 145


  Kerosene lamp, 94
    oil heater, 80

  Knives, mower, 195


  Lamp, 35, 93
    electric, 83
    gasoline, 97
    incubator, 196
    mantle for, 94

  Lard press, 164

  Lawn mower, 195

  Lifter for fireless cooker stones, 53

  Light, adjusting gas, 89
    direct, 83
    indirect, 86
    pilot, 27
    semi-indirect, 87

  Lighter, gas stove, 28
    electric, 91

  Lining of fire box, 21

  Lock-stitch machine, 186

  Locomotive washer, 135

  Logs, gas, 79

  Looper, sewing machine, 190


  Mangle, 141, 142

  Mantle lamp, 88, 94

  Meters, 230, 231, 232

  Mimeograph machine, 207

  Mixer, bread and cake, 165, 166

  Mop wringer, 154

  Motor, water, 209, 210, 211

  Mower, lawn, 195


  Needle bar, 186, 190
    clamp, 186

  Nozzles, 152


  Oil heater, 80
    stove, 32
      burner, 31, 32
      lighting, 34

  Oscillating washer, 135

  Oven burner, gas, 29

  Overflow, 123


  Pail for cooking food, 107

  Parer, 159

  Pet cock, 173

  Pilot light, 27

  Pipes, hot-water, 65
    steam, 69

  Piston, 213

  Plant, acetylene-gas, 221
    gasoline-gas, 220

  Plug, electric, 144

  Pneumatic gasoline lamp, 97

  Press, lard and fruit, 164

  Presser foot, sewing machine, 186, 190

  Pressure canners, 173
    thumb-screw for, 186
    tank, 223

  Pump, compressed-air, 114
    force, 113, 119
    plumber's, 122
    suction, 113

  Pulley wheel, 213

  Pulley, window, 183


  Rack for canner, 173

  Radiator, 65, 68, 79
    valve, 122
    vents, 68

  Reflector gas heater, 78

  Refrigerator, 100
    circulation of air in, 102
    iceless, 105

  Roller, mangle, 142
    wringer, 133, 134, 135

  Rotary washer, 134


  Safety valve, 69

  Sealer, fruit-can, 175

  Semi-indirect light, 87

  Separator, disc, 180

    DeLaval, 181
    Sharpless, 179

  Septic tank, 124, 125, 126

  Sewing machine, chain-stitch, 190
    bobbin, 188
    lock-stitch, 186
    under part, 187
    shaft, 213

  Shaft, crank, 213

  Shaker, stove, 21, 64

  Shuttle, 187, 188

  Siphon, 126

  Slicer, 163

  Spool holder, 186, 190
    for bobbin, 188

  Spring in curtain roller, 185

  Steam cooker, 55
    furnace, 69, 73

  Stoner, 160

  Stones, fireless cooker, 51, 53

  Storage battery, 217

  Stove, coal, 15
    electric, 42, 43, 80
    gas, 24, 25, 26, 27, 77, 78
    gasoline, 37, 38
    grate, 21
    heating, 62, 77, 78, 80
    oil, 31, 32, 33, 34, 80
    pipe, 17
    shaker, 21, 64
    ventilator, 111
    wood, 15

  Suction pump, 113
    washer, 133

  Sweeper, carpet, 153


  Tank, 65, 121
    cooling, 108
    expansion, 67
    flushing, 130
    gas, 223
    septic, 124, 125, 126

  Tension, sewing machine, 186, 187, 190

  Thermometer, Fahrenheit, 234
    Centigrade, 234

  Thermostat, 199

  Thread, bobbin, 188
    cutter, 186
    guide, 186

    take-up, 186, 190

  Traps, 129

  Tray for dishes, 172

  Typewriter, Hammond, 204
    L. C. Smith, 202


  Universal grinder, 162

  Utensils for electric stove, 45
    for fireless cooker, 51, 53


  Vacuum cleaner, 147, 150, 151, 152
    nozzles, 152

  Valve, cooker, 51
    door check, 184
    safety, 69
    radiator, 122

  Vegetable slicer, 163

  Vents, 68, 122

  Ventilator, 111


  Washer, centrifugal, 136, 139
    cylinder, 134
    for boiler, 132
    locomotive, 135
    oscillating, 135
    rotary, 134
    suction, 133

  Water-bath canner, 172

  Water closet, 129
    cooler, 109
    heater, 120
    meter, 231
    motor, 209, 210, 211
    tank, 121
    for cooling, 107

  Wheel, 186, 190

  Wick, 36

  Window pulley, 183

  Wringer, centrifugal, 139
    mop, 154
    roller, 133, 134, 135

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Mechanical Devices in the Home" ***

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