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Title: The City of Auckland - New Zealand, 1840-1920
Author: Barr, John
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The City of Auckland - New Zealand, 1840-1920" ***

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    Transcriber's Note:

    Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as
    possible including some inconsistent hyphenation. The corrections
    listed before the table of contents have been made. Some other
    changes have been made. They are listed at the end of the text.

    Italic text has been marked with _underscores_.
    OE ligatures have been expanded.



THE CITY OF AUCKLAND NEW ZEALAND _A HISTORY_


[Illustration: Coat of Arms of Auckland]

[Illustration: Captain William Hobson, R.N. (1792-1842)

First Lieut-Governor and Governor of New Zealand

Founder of the City of Auckland

_From a copy of a painting by Collins of Bristol in the Old Colonists'
Museum_]



                                  The
                            City of Auckland
                         New Zealand, 1840-1920

                                  _by_

                               JOHN BARR
                            Chief Librarian

                             _preceded by_

                    A Maori History of the Auckland
                        Isthmus by George Graham

             and a Foreword by J. H. Gunson, C.M.G., C.B.E.
                           Mayor of Auckland


                                MCMXXII
                       WHITCOMBE & TOMBS LIMITED
          AUCKLAND . CHRISTCHURCH . DUNEDIN . WELLINGTON . N.Z.
                          MELBOURNE AND LONDON



                               W.&T.LTD.

                                PRESS OF
                       WHITCOMBE & TOMBS LIMITED
                             AUCKLAND, N.Z.



                               DEDICATED
                    TO THE PIONEERS, MEN AND WOMEN,
                       WHO BY THEIR INDUSTRY AND
                            SELF-ABNEGATION
                              ESTABLISHED
                          THE CITY OF AUCKLAND



_THE CITY OF AUCKLAND_



Foreword


This History of the City of Auckland is issued by the City Council in
the confident expectation that the wonderful progress recorded in the
following pages will not only afford pleasure and information to a wide
circle of readers, both in New Zealand and abroad, but that the work
will prove to be an inspiration to good citizenship for the further
advancement of Auckland.

                                                          _J. H. GUNSON,
                                                                 Mayor._

 MAYOR'S ROOM,
   TOWN HALL,
     _Auckland, N.Z._,
       _February, 1922_.



Preface


This book is the first attempt which has been made to write a
connected history of the City of Auckland. Although in years the city
is comparatively young, many of the events which have marked its
progress have already been forgotten. With the exception, perhaps, of
the principal incidents associated with the foundation of the city,
and a most interesting account of the state of Auckland in the early
'fifties, written by Mr. W. Swainson, no period of Auckland's history
has been adequately dealt with. The lack of information has made the
task of writing a history a difficult one, and may account for the fact
that none has hitherto been essayed. The need for such a book has been
felt for a long time, and it is only to be regretted that the work was
not taken in hand before, by someone who had been a spectator or a
participant in the events described. To a writer who has not had these
advantages, his work must lack that element of the personal which adds
to the interest of the reader, and helps in the re-presentation of the
events.

The author's intention in writing this sketch has been to group into
periods the principal events and incidents of the city's history. He
has concentrated his efforts to make these--the groundwork of any
history--as full and correct as possible. In a pioneer effort it is
only natural to expect some omissions, and the writer hopes that
his readers will acquaint him upon any matters which he may have
inadvertently overlooked. He also hopes that the appearance of the book
will stimulate some of the older residents of the city to record their
recollections, so that those of the younger school who are interested
in the city's past may have fuller information about Auckland of the
early days.

The writer wishes to acknowledge the assistance which has been
uniformly extended to him when prosecuting his inquiries, especially to
the officers of city institutions whose histories have not so far been
made public, and to other individuals who have assisted him in a more
personal way. To all of these he offers his thanks. Especially must he
thank Mr. George Graham, who, at his request, prepared the sketch of
the Maori history of the Isthmus, which forms a prologue to the later
history of Auckland. Without this contribution, this history would only
have been partial; as now presented it is a complete outline of the
city's history from earliest known times to the present.



Correction


P. 231, line 5, for "Peace Treaty" read "Armistice".

P. 227, lines 1 and 2, for "Mr. James Carroll" read "Hon. Sir James
Carroll, K.C.M.G."



Contents


                                                                PAGE

 A Maori History of the Auckland Isthmus, by George Graham         1

 The City of Auckland, a History: 1840-1920, by J. Barr           33

 Foundation and Settlement, 1840-1850                             35

 Development, 1851-1870                                           77

 Progress and a Slump, 1871-1900                                 141

 Prosperity and Expansion, 1901-1920                             182

 Appendix I--The Name of Auckland                                236

 Appendix II--Population of the City of Auckland, 1840-1921      239

 Appendix III--Table showing Imports and Exports at the
     Port of Auckland, 1853-1920                                 240

 Index      243



List of Illustrations


 FACING PAGE

 Captain William Hobson, R.N.      Frontispiece

 Plan of Auckland, 1840

 "He Taua! He Taua!" A War Party! Sounding the Alarm of an
     Approaching War Party                                             1

 Interior of Maori Pa, about the year 1840                            16

 Auckland, 1840, showing the Tents of First Settlers                  33

 Facsimile of the original Deed of Purchase of the Site of the
     City of Auckland                                                 40

 Translation of original Deed of Purchase                             41

 Plan of Auckland, 1842                                               48

 Queen Street in 1843, showing Stocks in front of Gaol                53

 Commercial Bay, 1844                                                 60

 Auckland, Circa 1852                                                 65

 Auckland, 1852, from Hobson Street                                   69

 Auckland, 1852, from Smale's Point                                   71

 Auckland, 1852, from Britomart Barracks                              74

 Auckland, 1852, from Queen Street Wharf                              76

 Mayors of the City of Auckland                                       80

 Sir George Grey, K.C.B.                                              85

 Auckland, 1862, Maori War Canoe Race in progress                     92

 New Zealand's First Parliament Building                              97

 Auckland, 1876, showing Fort Britomart in course of demolition      112

 Auckland in 1884. View taken from Hobson and Wellesley Streets      128

 Calliope Dock                                                       145

 Auckland Public Library, 1880                                       149

 Public Library, Art Gallery and Old Colonists' Museum, To-day       149

 Queen Street Wharf, 1887                                            156

 View of Auckland from Rangitoto                                     165

 Plan of Auckland Waterfront To-day                                  172

 Queen Street To-day                                                 181

 View of Auckland's Harbour Frontage taken from a Seaplane           188

 Albert Park, formerly the Site of Albert Barracks                   197

 Auckland from the North Shore                                  200, 201

 Auckland from the Ferry Buildings, looking Eastward            200, 201

 The Town Hall with the Sir George Grey Statue                       204

 Photograph of Auckland taken from a Seaplane                        216

 H.R.H. The Prince of Wales at the Town Hall                         232

 Map of the City of Auckland at End of Book.

    The Coat of Arms of Auckland, printed in facsimile colours, has
    been inserted on the half-title preceding the frontispiece.

[Illustration: Plan of Auckland, 1840, by Felton Mathew, Surveyor
General

Note proposed reclamations and dock accommodation]



THE MAORI HISTORY OF THE AUCKLAND ISTHMUS

(Tamaki-Makau-Rau)

_by_ GEORGE GRAHAM


[Illustration: "He Taua! He Taua!"--A War Party! Sounding the Alarm of
an Approaching War Party

_After the original by J. McDonald, Wellington_]


I

_Introduction_

In compiling this history, I desire to narrate in as brief and clear
a manner as possible the doings of the ancient Tamaki tribes, as
recounted in the folk-lore of their descendants.

I have, as far as possible, confined the history to the tribes of the
Auckland Isthmus itself--referring to the history and peoples of other
parts only so far as is necessary to the clearness of the general
narrative.

There may be some doubt as to the chronological sequence and to many of
the details of incidents herein related--such is inseparable from the
legendary history of all races who did not possess written records.

However, the narrative as I now present it is in the form accepted
by the people--as related to me by that generation of chieftains now
almost passed away.


THE EARLIEST INHABITANTS OF TAMAKI

Ancient Maori culture did not embrace the knowledge of letters. We
therefore possess no written records of the pre-European times. Our
information is confined to the tribal folk-lore and folk-songs of the
people.

We do know, however, that from a very remote past the Pacific had been
peopled by races of a more or less Polynesian type, and that branches
of these had also reached New Zealand.

Legend tells us that the earliest settlers in Ao-tea-roa were a race
of giants--the "Kahui-tipua." Of that ilk was one Mata-aho, who had
no doubt arrived from lands of a more genial temperature. He called
upon his Fire-Goddess (Mahu-ika) to produce subterranean fires to warm
his limbs. Hence the volcanic outbursts which have left evidence of
the efficiency of that ancient invocation in the form of the extinct
volcanic cones and lava flows of the Tamaki Isthmus.

Then, again, there was an equally ancient, but more human-like people
resident hereabouts--the "Patu-paiarehe"--so-called "Fairies," from
whom, indeed, many of the leading chieftains of to-day proudly claim
descent. Concerning these people we are told of their industry in the
arts of peace, fishing, hunting, weaving, etc.; nor were they, it would
seem, deficient in the sterner art of war, for they were involved in
much inter-tribal strife. One of these struggles resulted in a weaker
faction deciding to emigrate across the Waitemata. In order to do so
they began to erect a stone causeway. However, the sun arose on their
uncompleted toil, and dried them all up! The ruin of this ancient
attempt to bridge the Waitemata remains to this day in the form of
that long reef "Te Toka-roa," off Point Chevalier. The unsentimental
geologist will tell you it is actually an old lava flow from Mount
Albert.

Despite the mists of legendary lore which surround the doings of these
ancient people, both "Giants" and "Fairies," it is probable that they
had actually existed here. They were, perhaps, the earliest of the
immigratory races which were continually arriving. Over the Pacific
Ocean canoe voyages were taking place in all directions. The motive
which impelled these undertakings was doubtless that stated in the
legends--overpopulation involving warfare, causing the weaker factions
to seek safer homes over the water to live in. No doubt the food
supplies of over-populated islands also necessitated sections of the
people to swarm off; the mere spirit of adventure, ever in the human
heart, was probably an important contributory cause.

Whoever these ancient people were--and the probability is that they
were Polynesians similar to the immigrants of a later time--they
were a numerous people who "covered the land like ants"; such is the
proverbial description of them.


II

_Toi-te-huatahi_[1]

Some time about 1150 A.D. there arrived in New Zealand a chief named
Toi-te-huatahi, the leader of a large immigration, who settled at
Whakatane, and his people, known as Te Tini-o-Toi, rapidly spread
throughout the land, conquering or merging with their predecessors.
Tamaki was soon populated by them. Oho-mai-Rangi, said to be a son of
Toi, lived at the Waikato Heads, and to him is generally attributed the
tribal name "Nga-Oho"--a people of Toi who occupied a wide area in the
south, Waikato and Tamaki. A great-grandson of Toi was one Kauea, who
carried the conquests of his people into the Kaipara and the far north.

By the middle of the fourteenth century we find the Nga-Oho dominant
over all this area, having various sub-tribal names, such as the
Nga-riki, Wai-o-hua, etc.


III

_The Arrival of the Fleet_--_1350 A.D._

About 1350 A.D. came another wave of immigrants from Polynesia--for
then arrived the historic fleet of canoes, the Arawa, Tainui, Matatua,
and others.

It may be remarked here that this was the last of the great Polynesian
immigrations. From very remote times expeditions had been arriving in
New Zealand, and many return voyages were likewise made to the Pacific
groups. Why these voyages eventually ceased, at a time when among the
Polynesians the arts of navigation had been brought to perfection,
remains an unsolved problem.

The fact remains that this immigration of about 1350 A.D. was an
epoch-making affair, and from this time on Maori history assumes a
definite form. We now reach an era of which we possess more definite
detail as to the doings of the Tamaki tribes down to European times.
From 1350 A.D. the next century or so is mainly a record of the
settlement of the immigrants, involving much inter-tribal warfare.


IV

_The Tainui Canoe_

Of these canoes, the one which most directly affected local history was
the Tainui canoe. This canoe, like most of the others, arrived on the
East Coast. Coasting northwards (some say as far as the North Cape)
she arrived at last in the Hauraki Gulf, and entered the Waitemata.
Resting for some time at Te Kurae-o-Tura (Devonport Beach), the canoe
continued its journey to Tamaki (Otaiki). At Taurere (Tamaki Heads) a
chief named Te Kete-ana-taua remained with the local people, and became
the ancestor of Ngai-tai of those parts; they were owners of all the
Takapuna district as far north as probably Mahurangi, and included in
their territorial areas the Kawau, Great Barrier and other islands of
the Gulf.

Arriving at Otahuhu, the people awaited the re-arrival of an important
lady of their party, by name Marama. This lady, having landed at
Hauraki, was doing "the overland trip." On her ladyship's arrival, the
canoe was taken into the Manukau, whence they voyaged southwards to
Mokau, eventually settling at Kawhia. From there they spread inland to
Waikato, Hauraki, and eventually to Tamaki. Marama, with other members
of the Tainui crew, also settled here, her descendants being known as
the Nga-Marama people. Hence the Tamaki Isthmus became a Tainui tribal
area at a very early period.


V

_The Arawa Canoe_

The Arawa people at an early date also contributed its quota to
the population of Tamaki. Arriving on the East Coast (at the same
time and place as the Tainui) this canoe likewise made a coastal
exploration. Eventually its people settled down at Maketu (Bay of
Plenty), Tamatekapua, their leader, having remained at Moehau (Cape
Colville), where he died. From there his children spread throughout
the Coromandel peninsula and the islands of the Gulf, and were known
as Ngati-huarere (Huarere being Tamatekapua's grandson). We are told
that Ihenga, a brother of Huarere, lived at Tamaki for some time, and
at Kaipara. These early Arawas left descendants here, and through them
the Tamaki chiefs thus claimed an Arawa lineage. The Ngati-Huarere are
said to have occupied fortified villages at Orakei, Fort Britomart,
Queen Street, Three Kings and other places, until the final conquest
of the Tamaki Isthmus, as hereinafter related. Kahumatamomoe, another
son of Tamatekapua, having quarrelled with his brothers and relatives
at Maketu, came to Tamaki, and is said to have lived at Orakei with
other relatives already settled there, hence the name of the village at
Orakei--"Okahu." Going on to Kaipara, he permanently resided there.


VI

_The Matatua Canoe_

This immigrant canoe was also an important factor in populating
the Tamaki Isthmus. Its people had settled at Whakatane, and were
remarkable for their restlessness. Parties of this tribe, known under
the general name of Ngati-Awa, were always on the move. They are
reputed to have formed an important element of the One Tree Hill
(Maungakiekie, lofty hill) people. The Owairaka (Mount Albert) pa
belonged to this people. The Ngati-Awa chief Titahi, who lived in
Tamaki and Kaipara for some time, is said to have instructed the local
people how to perfect their fortifications. Hence one name for the
terracing and earthworks (so conspicuous a feature of the hills of
Tamaki) was "Nga-whaka-iro-a Titahi"--"The decorations of Titahi."

The intrusion of these various immigrant parties no doubt was not
peacefully accomplished, and almost continuous warfare marks the
history of the next few centuries, as the direct result of the jealousy
between rival chieftains and the struggles of the respective tribes to
maintain and extend their territories.


VII

_The Aotea Canoe_

This important canoe, commanded by the famous Turi, also visited the
Tamaki, the crew eventually settling at Patea, in the South, but Turi's
son, Turanga-i-mua, became dissatisfied with that place, and about
1400 A.D. he came to Tamaki with a war-party, moving on to Hauraki
and other places, finally returning to Tamaki. Tu' soon came into
conflict with the local people, whom he defeated in the battle at
Waitaramoa (the creek at the head of Hobson Bay), and then occupied the
pa at Onepuwhakatakataka (the headland at Orakei, opposite Parnell).
There he lived for some time, and again left for the South, leaving a
large number of his people in possession of this locality, where they
occupied several villages. By intermarriage, the Aotea people appear to
have soon lost their tribal unity, and from them the Tamaki chiefs of a
later time were proud to claim an ancestral descent.


VIII

_Ancient Maori Society--A Retrospect_

Before going any further, a brief outline of the daily life of the
Maori community should be of interest.

The tribes of Tamaki lived in village communities, each hapu, or
community, consisting of a group of families, more or less closely
inter-related, and governed according to various customary usages by
their hereditary chiefs. These communities collectively acknowledged
the superior prestige of an Ariki, or hereditary high chief.

The religious side of life was the province of their "tohungas," or
priests, the priesthood being also hereditary within certain families
of chiefs.

Each village was a fortress--palisaded and parapeted, with deep
trenches and draw-bridges. Every hill-top, headland or locality lending
itself to defence was utilised for that purpose.

The aristocratic families lived in elaborately built houses (similar
to "Rangitihi," the great carved house in our Museum). The chieftains
had their residential quarters in the citadel of the villages; whilst
the great mass of the tribesmen lived in mere thatched sheds, or in
pit-dwellings. The remains of the latter are numerous throughout the
Isthmus.

The plantations were on the easy cultivated flats or slopes surrounding
the villages, and were usually so located as to be easily defended
against marauders.

Large stores of dried fish and preserved food of all kinds, from
forest, stream and sea, were kept in store-houses within each village.
To become "short of supplies" was a reflection upon the industry of
such a village, which would go to great lengths to conceal such a
predicament.

The crops grown were the "taro," "hue" (gourd), "uwhi" (yam), and
"kumara." This latter was indeed the "staff of life," and its
cultivation occupied much of the time and industry of the people. At
harvest time these crops were gathered into the store-houses and pits
for winter use.

At early dawn the people were astir and about their daily duties.
After the morning meal, the cultivators went forth to the plantations,
the fishers to the sea, and the hunters to the forest. Other men were
engaged in the building of houses or canoes, in which the art of the
carver was utilised, or in the making of stone implements or weapons,
whilst the women of rank directed and actively took part in the
domestic arts--garment weaving, mat and kit plaiting, etc.

No individual was idle; to be so was a reproach, and a failing not
tolerated. The whole idea pervading the community was the public weal,
and each individual did his or her "bit," not for individual profit,
but _pro bono publico_.

At sundown the people withdrew to their villages for the night. The
gateways were closed, and sentries were posted on the parapets. By
their watch-songs and calls throughout the night, the sentries answered
one another from village to village.

Within doors the communities, by night, amused themselves and their
visitors with dancing, songs and folk-tales of ancestral doings. Such
relaxation is, indeed, the feature of Maori village life at the present
day.

The burial-places of the people were the caverns of the Isthmus,
each sub-tribe and family having its own place of sepulchre. In some
cases these were in remote places of the forests of Waitakerei, or
other secluded localities. Of the many other aspects of ancient Maori
social economy, religious rites, etc., and, above all, of the customs
connected with war, I must refer those interested to the many excellent
books dealing with the subject.

The above sketch will, however, give an idea of the social status
of the people in those ancient times, when the events hereinafter
described were enacted.


IX

_The Wars of Tamaki_

It is hard to ascertain the actual causes and the chronological
sequence of the wars which followed the arrival of the fleet, and only
an outline is attempted here.


MAKI'S INVASION FROM WAIKATO

This chief, Maki, came from Ngati-Awa of Taranaki. Coming northward
with his people he seemed to have gradually worked his way _via_
Kawhia and Waikato to Tamaki, capturing the Rarotonga (Mount Smart)
pa, where for a time he dwelt. Here he was visited by the chiefs of
Kaipara, descendants of Titahi. They requested his assistance in
warfare against the Kawerau, an ancient aboriginal people, who had
become intermixed with the Tini-o-Toi. Responding to this invitation,
and reinforced by a large section of Tamaki people, he invaded Kaipara
with great success, attacking ultimately, like Strongbow of old, the
people whom he had come to assist. He then turned his attention to the
Waitakerei and Mahurangi districts, with like results, and extended his
doings to the outlying islands--Tiritiri, Kawau and Waiheke, finishing
up at Maraetai. Afterwards he departed as he came, returning, it is
said, to the southern districts of Taranaki.


KAWHARU'S INVASION FROM KAIPARA

This affair resulted from some tribal differences in the
Waitakerei-Kaipara borderland, about 1680. Kawharu (who was a chief
connected with the Northern Ngati-Whatua) attacked the tribes in those
districts, driving all before him. He assaulted also many of the
Tamaki villages, continuing his campaign until he reached as far as
the Paparoa headland, east of Howick. Capturing and destroying the pa
there, he returned to Kaipara.

[Illustration: Interior of a Maori Pa, about the year 1840

_After a painting shown at the Colonial Indian Exhibition, London_]


WARS WITH HAURAKI GULF TRIBES

To the south-east were the powerful Hauraki coastal tribes, who, like
those of Tamaki, had gone through much the same history. Also descended
from the Patu-paiarehe, they had gradually incorporated their pedigrees
with those of the Tainui, Arawa and other people. The earliest warfare
on record of Tamaki with these people originated (so says the legend)
when the Tamaki tribes slew the pet seal belonging to the Hauraki
people. Strange to say, this animal (named "Ureia") was on a visit to
Manukau Harbour, at the invitation of the Tamaki people, and there it
met its untimely end. Surely the most unusual of Maori _casus belli_.
Maru-tuahu, as the tribes of the Hauraki district were called, then
invaded Tamaki. They attacked among other places the Maunga-whau (Mount
Eden) pa. After various other successes they returned homewards.


THE MURDER OF KAHURAUTAO

Subsequent to this affair was the warfare resulting from the murder of
Kahurautao, his son Kiwi, and other Maru-tuahu chiefs. These people
were returning from Waikato by canoe _via_ Manukau and Tamaki. They
had visited the Tamaki chiefs at Mount Eden and other places, and on
their return to their canoes at the Tamaki River they were waylaid
and murdered near where St. John's College now stands, hence the name
of that place, "Paru-tahi"--killed together. The Maru-tuahu tribes,
under Kahu's son Rau-tao, thereupon invaded Tamaki. They attacked with
success the riverside pas at Tamaki, also those at Mount Eden, One Tree
Hill and Orakei. Crossing to Takapuna, they scoured along the coast as
far as Mahurangi. Apparently all those people, being Ngai-Tai, were of
one tribal identity. This was not the last time these coastal tribes
suffered in this way.


KAPETAWA'S INVASION

Thereafter occurred the affair of Kapetawa. When a mere lad, this
chief, while on a visit from Waiheke to his sister, who had married
Taramokomoko, a chieftain of Kohimarama, got into several scrapes,
as boys were much the same then as ever, but when he, as the
ringleader with kindred spirits, plundered the kumara store of his
brother-in-law, he got into disfavour with Taramokomoko, who marooned
him on the Bean Rock off the shore. Being rescued by his sister, he
returned home, where he grew to manhood among his own people, the
Ngati-Paoa, at Waiheke. He then organised a war party to avenge the
long-remembered insult. Surprising the pas at Kohimarama, Orakei, etc.,
he crossed to Takapuna, destroying several villages there and along
the outer coast, where the erring brother-in-law, the cause of all
this trouble, was caught and killed at Raho-para--a pa on the northern
headland of the Wairau Creek (Milford).


X

_Kiwi Tamaki (1720-1750)_

We now come to the era of Kiwi Tamaki, the last, and undoubtedly
the most notorious, of the olden Tamaki chiefs. He was so called to
distinguish him from other men of that name.

His parents, Te Ikamaupoho and Te Tahuri, united in their ancestry
all that was aristocratic in lineal descent from the ancient
Patu-paiarehe, Nga-Oho (People of Toi), Ngati-Awa, Arawa, Tainui, etc.
Despite the many repeated invasions and incessant warfare within their
territories, the Tamaki people at this time were apparently in their
"golden age."

The family home was the citadel of One Tree Hill. The mother, Te
Tahuri, was renowned for her hospitality and industry. The resources
of the district and the extent of the fortifications and cultivation
were famous far and near. On the Manukau and Waitemata, large fleets of
canoes for fishing and war purposes were maintained. Hence the proverb
"Te pai me te whai-rawa o Tamaki"--the luxury and wealth of Tamaki.

The many previously described wars had ere this earned for the Isthmus
the appropriate motto "Tamaki-makau-Rau" (_i.e._, The spouse contested
for us by a hundred lovers).

Surrounded by all this Maori opulence, Kiwi grew to manhood. He early
developed an arrogant and turbulent disposition. When on a visit
to Ngati-Whatua to attend a funeral feast held near Helensville,
Kiwi treacherously slew several of the local chiefs and a prominent
chieftainess, named Tahataha. Following this up with other murders on
his homeward journey, he reached the supposed safety of his tribal
domains. The Ngati-Whatua promptly retaliated, and before Kiwi realised
their intentions, they arrived in canoes from Pitoitoi (Brigham's
Creek, near Riverhead) and successfully attacked the Waitemata
foreshore villages. Kiwi then advanced, and met a Kaipara war party
coming overland, at Titirangi. After some skirmishing, they defeated
Kiwi, who returned to One Tree Hill. The Ngati-Whatua then advanced
to the Tamaki Heads, where they captured the Taurere pa, and again
returned to Kaipara, losing some of their chiefs in ambush near Remuera.

Returning, however, in greater force, one party crossed the Manukau and
attacked the Tipitai (Awhitu) and other villages.

Kiwi had meanwhile organised his tribesmen, and, reinforced from the
southern districts, he advanced against the Kaipara. The forces met
again at Titirangi. After much skirmishing, ending in a feigned
retreat, the Ngati-Whatua advanced rapidly. The retreat became a
"debacle," only ending on the shores of the Manukau, where at Paruroa
(Big Muddy Creek) Kiwi fell. All the important Tamaki chieftains
fell that day, hence the name of this Maori Bannockburn, "Te
Rangi-hinganga-tahi" (The day when all fell together).

This battle took place about 1750. Tamaki was now at the mercy of
Ngati-Whatua, who advanced, easily disposing of such defenders as
remained to dispute their progress.

Having depopulated Tamaki, Ngati-Whatua then returned to Kaipara.
On their departure, some of the Tamaki refugees again returned to
the Waitemata and re-occupied several villages on the harbour side.
Ngati-Whatua, hearing of this, sent another expedition, which attacked
and finally drove these people away. Tuperiri, the Ngati-Whatua leader,
and his tribesmen, then returned to Tamaki and made their home at One
Tree Hill and other places. After capturing the last remaining forts at
Mangere, they held undisputed sway over this land. Most of the Tamaki
people had been slain. Some were enslaved, and a remnant fled into
Waikato and Hauraki.

Thus ends the story of the ancient tribes of Tamaki.


XI

_The Ngati-Whatua Era in Tamaki_

Ngati-Whatua were now installed in possession of Tamaki. They soon
found that might was the only right to their new territory. To the
south were the powerful Waikato and Marutuahu tribes, who by sea and
land were a continual anxiety to the new lords of Tamaki. They were
closely related to the late victims of Ngati-Whatua. Many of the
refugees, indeed, had gone to those districts to live, and no doubt
instigated many a surprise attack. Ngati-Paoa appear to have always
maintained several fortified villages on the Tamaki River unmolested by
Ngati-Whatua down to European times.

Quarrels arose with Ngati-Paoa at last as the result of a marriage of
a Waikato chieftainess to Te Putu, a Ngati-Paoa chief. Land on the
Tamaki River had been given to cement a tribal peace and in honour of
the union. Shortly thereafter, at a fishing expedition off Mahurangi,
Ngati-Paoa and Ngati-Whatua quarrelled. The former attacked the latter
and killed Tara-hawaiki, son of Tuperiri. Ngati-Paoa followed this up
by invading Tamaki, having in alliance with them the other Hauraki
tribes. The invaders were defeated by Ngati-Whatua at Pu-ponga on the
Manukau Harbour and again at Rangi-mata-rau (Point Chevalier Beach).

On a later occasion a party of Ngati-Paoa were surprised whilst
shark-fishing at Kauri Point,[2] the survivors being left on the
pinnacle rock (Niho-Kiore) off there to drown.

Thereafter Ngati-Whatua, now in alliance with Waikato and Manukau
tribes, attacked Ngati-Paoa at Putiki (Waiheke). In a final battle at
Tamaki West Heads, Ngati-Paoa were defeated, and thus was ended that
warfare. This event is placed about 1793, and permanently established
Ngati-Whatua's prestige and their possession of Tamaki.

At this time, Tamaki had become a rather unsafe place of residence, and
does not appear to have been extensively occupied. In fact, Mount Eden
and many of the large hill forts had long been abandoned, and their
elaborate defences were already in ruin and overgrown with scrub and
fern.

About this period, also, came a great epidemic remembered as the
"Rewharewha." It was probably an influenza outbreak, and swept
throughout the land. No doubt this visitation further reduced the
Tamaki population, and therein lies the reason why many of the old-time
villages were abandoned and passed out of history. The remnants of
the people, though still numerous, were unable to hold the large hill
fortresses against an enemy. Smaller and easier defended positions only
were maintained.

Tuperiri continued, however, to live at One Tree Hill, and died there
in the latter part of the eighteenth century. Ngati-Paoa still resided
in various Tamaki River pas, but nothing remarkable appears to have
happened in Tamaki itself. About this year (1793) there came the first
of the Ngapuhi raids, the precursor of many such subsequent affairs,
which ultimately involved the Ngati-Whatua of Tamaki. The cause of the
first invasion by Ngapuhi of these parts is not certain. The Ngapuhi
war party, after attacking the Hauraki people, appeared to have come
to the Tamaki Heads, and there, at the West Head again, a battle was
fought. Ngapuhi were defeated at the hands of the local people, only
two canoe parties of their fleet escaping.

The event was followed up by a Hauraki invasion of the northern
districts _via_ Kaipara, in which Ngati-Whatua also took part. They
returned after many successes in the north, and thus closed the Tamaki
history of the Eighteenth Century.


XII

_The Nineteenth Century (1800-1840)_

Of this, the final epoch in the Maori history of Tamaki, I will give
but a brief sketch.

Of the years from 1800 to 1810 we know little. In the latter year a
second great epidemic swept over these districts. This no doubt brought
about a further depopulation of the Isthmus. About 1810, Ngati-Paoa
again began to reside on the Tamaki shores, and erected fortresses at
Mauinaina and Mokoia (Panmure).


MARSDEN'S VISIT

In 1820, Marsden passed through the district on his way northward.
Going by Ngati-Paoa canoe to Riverhead, he met the Ngati-Whatua
chieftain Kawau, who escorted him safely to Kaipara. Returning to
Tamaki with Kawau, he visited the Ngati-Paoa villages at Tamaki, and
met their chieftain Te Hinaki, between whom and the Hauraki chiefs
Marsden succeeded in arranging a meeting, the result being a tribal
peace between these people.

This peacemaking occurred aboard the ship _Coromandel_, in the Waiheke
Passage. After again visiting the Mokoia pa at Panmure, Marsden finally
left for the north overland.


CRUISE'S VISIT TO TAMAKI, 1820

In the same year (1820), the Waitemata was visited by Major Cruise
aboard the ship _Prince Regent_, ten days after Marsden's departure.
He was invited to the Tamaki settlements, and there met the chief Te
Hinaki. Cruise gives much detail in his Journal of the local natives
and their homes.

Now began in earnest the dreadful era of the Ngapuhi raids. Their
war parties were now armed with the destructive firearms obtained by
bartering with the early traders to these coasts.


TE KOPERU'S INVASION

A Ngapuhi chief had arrived at Tamaki in 1820, apparently to attack
Ngati-Paoa and Hauraki generally. Ngati-Whatua came to assist
Ngati-Paoa, and the Ngapuhi attack on Mauinaina was repulsed. Then
Te Koperu was invited into the fortress to make peace. There he was
treacherously murdered by Te Paraoa-rahi, a Ngati-Paoa chief.

This event was followed almost immediately by Te Koperu's brother, Te
Morenga, attacking the Tamaki pas, and he severely punished Ngati-Paoa,
amply revenging Te Koperu's death.


HONGI'S INVASION

The following year (1821) saw yet another attack on the people of
Tamaki. Hongi Ika himself first then came on the scene. He had just
returned from England, and had met Te Hinaki in Sydney, whence they
both returned to New Zealand. Te Hinaki had been warned in Sydney by
Hongi as to his intentions; he therefore prepared his fortifications
at Mokoia and Mauinaina for the storm about to break upon his people.
The Ngapuhi duly arrived and began a blockade of the Tamaki forts.
After a long siege, accompanied by much skirmishing, the Mokoia fort
was captured. Te Hinaki himself was slain, with a great number of
his people. After the incidents usual to such affairs had been fully
enacted, the Ngapuhi departed, to carry on the war in the districts of
Hauraki and the south.

For some years after the Ngapuhi invasion, the Tamaki Isthmus appears
to have been altogether abandoned as a permanent residential area. It
was during this time a kind of "no man's land." Ngati-Whatua retreated
to the forest wilderness of Waitakerei and Kaipara, or into the
recesses of the Waikato.


D'URVILLE'S VISIT

In 1827 D'Urville visited the Waitemata. He ascended Takarunga (Mount
Victoria, Devonport). Looking westward towards the Tamaki, he says
there were no signs whatever of any inhabitants. Crossing the harbour,
he found a deserted village (perhaps Orakei). He also attempted to
ascend what was probably Mount Eden, but had to abandon the attempt.
The denseness of growth of fern and scrub since the time of the
Ngati-Whatua conquest of the last century had obliterated all the old
native tracks. The greater area of the Isthmus had become little better
than a jungle of vegetation.

D'Urville also describes his visit to the villages at Tamaki, where a
namesake of the late ill-fated Hinaki was then head man.


NGAPUHI DEFEATED AT TAMAKI HEADS

In this year (1827) was fought the last tribal battle in Tamaki. The
Manukau and Ngati-Whatua people in alliance came in canoes down the
Tamaki River to give combat to Ngapuhi. That people, crossing from
Waiheke, "captured" the apparently abandoned canoes of the local people
at the West Tamaki Head. While Ngapuhi were quarrelling over the
supposed "spoils of war," the allies returned and surprised them, with
such success that only one small Ngapuhi party of twenty men returned
home to tell the tale.


THE COMING OF CHRISTIANITY

Christianity was now beginning to show its influence among the
war-weary tribes of New Zealand, and from now on until 1835 much
inter-tribal peacemaking was the order of the day.

In that year Ngati-Whatua began to return to the Isthmus, but none of
the old hill forts were re-occupied. The decrease in population, the
introduction of firearms, and the general change in the modes of life
had made those elevated places of abode impracticable under the new
conditions which arose.

Okahu (Orakei Bay) became the headquarters of the Ngati-Whatua; they
had also a large village at Mangere, where also lived Kati, younger
brother of Te Wherowhero,[3] the paramount Waikato chief. His
wife--Matere Toha--was a Ngapuhi chieftainess of high rank, being
a niece of the great Hongi Ika.[4] Apihai Te Kawau, head chief of
Ngati-Whatua, took up his residence at Orakei, and other villages were
established and occupied on the shores of the Waitemata and Manukau.

This was the position in 1840.

The days of local inter-tribal warfare had now passed away for ever. In
this year the purchase of the site of Auckland City took place, and the
British Flag was unfurled at Fort Britomart. Thus closed the long and
troublous history of Tamaki-Makau-Rau.

[Illustration: Auckland, 1840, showing the Tents of First Settlers

All the bays have been reclaimed and the Point demolished]



THE CITY OF AUCKLAND NEW ZEALAND 1840-1920

_by_ JOHN BARR



Chapter I

_Foundation and Settlement (1840-1850)_


The City of Auckland was founded on the 18th September, 1840, by
Captain William Hobson, R.N., Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand.
Captain Hobson, on his arrival in New Zealand, made his headquarters
at the Bay of Islands, at that time the most populous place in
the colony, as far as white people were concerned, for here both
missionaries and traders had settled in greatest numbers, and here,
also, Mr. Busby, British Resident, was located. The Bay of Islands did
not meet with the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor, and, in his
first conversation with the Rev. Henry Williams,[5] he asked for his
opinion as to the most suitable place to erect the capital of the young
colony. The Archdeacon recommended the Tamaki or the Waitemata. The
Surveyor-General, Mr. Felton Mathew, visited both these localities,
and favoured Tamaki, which, if his recommendation had been adopted,
would have placed the seat of Government where Panmure now stands.
Captain Hobson, however, decided to investigate the sites himself, and
in company with Mr. G. Clarke, Protector of Aborigines, and Captain
David Rough, who was appointed "Harbour Master at Waitemata" in August
of this year, he sailed in the Revenue cutter _Ranger_, commanded by
Captain Carkeek, from the Bay of Islands at the end of June, 1840.
After inspecting the channel at the Tamaki, the Lieutenant-Governor
decided against that site. He then visited the upper reaches of the
Waitemata Harbour, and was again dissatisfied with the channel.
However, as Captain Rough had left the vessel to take soundings near
the Ponsonby shore, and on the report of these being satisfactory,
Captain Hobson expressed his approval of the Waitemata as the site
of the capital, but did not commit himself to a particular spot, and
returned to the Bay of Islands. In a despatch to the Secretary of
State for the Colonies, dated 15th October, 1840, Captain Hobson gives
his reasons for "forming the seat of government on the south shore
of the Waitemata," and continues: "In the choice I have thus made, I
have been influenced by a combination of circumstances: First, by its
central position; secondly, by the great facility of internal water
communication by the Kaipara and its branches to the northward, and the
Manakou [sic] and Waikato to the southward; thirdly, from the facility
and safety of its port, and the proximity of several smaller ports
abounding with the most valuable timber; and finally, by the fertility
of the soil, which is stated by persons capable of appreciating it, to
be available for every agricultural purpose...." In a later despatch,
dated 10th November, 1840, the Lieutenant-Governor states that he had
"lately returned from a visit to the Waitemata, where I found the
officers of the Government, and the mechanics and labourers under their
orders, proceeding with the necessary works for establishing the town
which I contemplate being the future seat of Government, and which I
purpose distinguishing by the name of 'Auckland.'"[6]

Hobson's choice of the capital was strenuously opposed by the New
Zealand Company, and its agents endeavoured to have Wellington made
the seat of Government. The controversy between the Governor and the
Company lasted until 1842, when Queen Victoria signified her approval
of the Governor's selection, notification of which appeared in the "New
Zealand Government Gazette" of November 26th, 1842. Auckland remained
the capital until February, 1865.

In September a move was made to occupy the new site, the ship _Anna
Watson_ (Captain Stewart) conveying the Government officers from the
Bay of Islands to the Waitemata, where they arrived on the 15th. The
vessel anchored off Freeman's Bay, moving on the following day to an
anchorage near Point Britomart, where the deepest water was found, and
which was afterwards named Commercial Bay. East of Point Britomart the
officers of the expedition took up their location in a pretty little
bay, which was named Official Bay, and in the next bay, which received
the name Mechanics Bay, the tradesmen found accommodation. Here the
making of the city began.

The following extract from _The New Zealand Advertiser and Bay of
Islands Gazette_ of September 24th, 1840, sets forth in detail the
ceremony attending the establishment of the city:--"The barque _Anna
Watson_, having on board several officers of the Government, mechanics,
labourers, etc., anchored in the Harbour of Waitemata on Tuesday, the
15th instant, and the site for the intended Settlement on its shores
having been selected by the Surveyor-General, on Friday, the 18th
September, at 1 p.m., the ceremony of taking formal possession in the
name of Her Majesty was duly performed. The whole party having landed,
the British Flag was hoisted on a staff, erected on a bold promontory
commanding a view of the entire harbour. The Flag was immediately
saluted by twenty-one guns from the _Anna Watson_, followed by a salute
of fifteen guns from the barque _Platina_, after which Her Majesty's
health was drunk at the foot of the flagstaff, and greeted by three
times three hearty cheers. The _Anna Watson_ then fired a salute
of seven guns in honour of His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor,
which was responded to by three hearty cheers, and 'one cheer more'
from those on shore. The party then returned to the _Anna Watson_,
and, after partaking of luncheon, a regatta took place between a
five-oared gig belonging to the Surveyor-General and a six-oared gig
belonging to the _Anna Watson_, both pulled in excellent style by
amateurs. This was followed by a match for a purse of five pounds
between two whale-boats pulled by sailors, and by another between
two large canoes paddled by Natives. And thus concluded the ceremony
of founding the first British Settlement established under the
auspices of the Government in this part of New Zealand; a ceremony
the more interesting, as this settlement is intended for the future
Capital of what we may venture to predict will one day become a mighty
empire. The Officers of the Government present on the occasion
consisted of the [7]Police Magistrate, the [8] Colonial Surgeon,
the [9]Harbour-master, the [10]Superintendent of Works, the
[11]Sub-Protector of Aborigines, and the [12]Surveyor-General and his
lady."

[Illustration: Facsimile of the original Deed of Purchase of the site
of the City of Auckland]


TRANSLATION

    Listen all people to this Book written by Kawau, Tinana, Reweti
    Tamaki and other Chiefs of the (tribe) Ngatiwhatua on the one
    side by George Clarke Protector of the Aborigines for the Queen
    of England on the other side they have consented to give up to
    sell a portion of land to the Queen of England for ever and ever
    (for whatever purposes Her Majesty may deem right). The Boundary
    of the said piece of land we have now sold is this--The Boundary
    to the North is the River of the Waitemata from the River named
    Mataharehare[A] reaching the River called Opou[B] and from the
    extremity of Opou[B] in a straight line to Maunga Wau[C] up to
    the rise of extremity of Mataharehare[A] and from the extremity
    of Mataharehare[A] up to the River of Waitemata the extent of
    this piece of land is this Three Thousand acres more or less. The
    payment for the said Land is this Fifty Blankets Fifty Pounds of
    Money Twenty trousers Twenty shirts Ten waistcoats Ten caps Four
    Casks of Tobacco One box of pipes One hundred yards of gown pieces
    Ten iron pots One bag of sugar One bag of Flour Twenty Hatchets.
    This writing with our signatures in this book is true signed by
    us on the Twentieth day of October in the Year One Thousand Eight
    Hundred and Forty of our Lord.

                       (Signed) _G. Clarke, P.A._

    (Signed  _The Mark of X Kawau_         _Ko Te Reweti Tamaki_
             _The Mark of X Tinana_        _The Mark of X Horo_

    Witnesses:--
              _Thomas Ryan, J.P., Major, 50th Regt._
              _Wm. C. Symonds, P.M., Capt., 96th Regt._

    I have received Six Pounds in Money (£6) in addition to the money
    (named above) from Captain Symonds.

                        (Signed) _Na Te Reweti_

    Witnesses:--
              _Edward Shortland_
             _J. Coates_

    29th July, 1841

    [A] MATAHAREHARE, Bay at the foot of Brighton Road, Hobson Bay.

    [B] OPOU, Cox's Creek.

    [C] MAUNGA WAU, Mount Eden.

Auckland City had now begun its career. On the 17th October, Captain
Hobson again visited Auckland, but did not make an official landing
until 14th March, 1841, when he was received with such honours as
the small community could furnish. There was a guard of honour in
attendance. A procession was formed, and the Lieutenant-Governor was
escorted to the newly-erected official residence. Shortly after the
Lieutenant-Governor had taken up his residence in Auckland, New Zealand
was proclaimed, on 3rd May, 1841, to be independent of New South Wales,
and Captain Hobson continued in office, becoming Governor instead of
Lieutenant-Governor.

Captain Hobson did not long survive the foundation of Auckland.
He died on September 10th, 1842. His remains were interred in the
burial-ground at Symonds Street, all the officers of the Government,
as well as the civilian population, being present at the funeral.
In a political sense we have no interest in Captain Hobson, but
the question of the choice of the Waitemata as the capital has an
interest for us. We feel constrained therefore to pay tribute to the
man who chose, with the instinct of a city-maker, the site upon which
Auckland now stands. He discarded the Tamaki, for its obvious defects;
he rejected the upper reaches of the Waitemata, and he chose the
situation which has proved to be the most natural and effective for a
new and constantly-increasing city. Other men, such as the late Sir
John Logan Campbell, may have more substantial claims in actual work
for the community and in precedence of time to the title of "Father
of Auckland"; for Logan Campbell had settled in the Waitemata before
Captain Hobson had fixed upon Auckland as the site of the city, but
in actually making the choice, Hobson is, I claim, entitled without
opposition to be called the father of Auckland.

Auckland in the early 'forties had a very different appearance from the
city of to-day. Indeed, it is one of the fascinations in writing about
Auckland to follow its growth from untamed natural country to a city
state; it is also one of its drawbacks, for changes have been so rapid
and thorough that the original condition is completely obliterated.

The boundaries of the original town (see Land Deed of the City of
Auckland, _f._ p. 40) were as follows:--It commenced at Cox's Creek
and followed the coast until Hobson's Bay was reached at a point where
Brighton Road now meets the waterfront, thence inland in an irregular
line to Mount Eden, and from there back to Cox's Creek. The waterfront
naturally shows the greatest alteration. Commercial Bay was the
principal part of the waterfront. At that time the sea came right up
to the foot of Shortland Crescent. Commercial Bay then swept eastward
to a headland, which was first called Flagstaff Hill, but was renamed
Point Britomart, after H.M. brig _Britomart_. Later still, when the
promontory was utilised as a military station, the "Point" was changed
to "Fort." Continuing in the same direction were Official and Mechanics
Bays. On the western side the most prominent bay in proximity to the
city was Freeman's Bay. The appearance of the waterfront at this period
was more picturesque than at the present time; the bays were prettier,
and the vegetation covered the land right to the water's edge.

Sir John Logan Campbell, in the interesting account[13] of his pioneer
experiences, gives a graphic picture of Auckland a few weeks after the
Lieutenant-Governor's visit, when he settled the site of the capital.
"The capital!" he writes--"a few boats and canoes on the beach, a few
tents and break-wind huts along the margin of the bay, and then--a sea
of fern stretching away as far as the eye could reach."

The first consideration of the Government officials and mechanics was
to provide housing for themselves and then to make buildings for the
requirements of the young community. The eastern side of the town was
the first to show growth. In 1842 (see map _f._ p. 48), there were a
considerable number of houses along the waterfront as far as Mechanics
Bay. Both sides of Shortland Crescent (_now_ street) had houses built
on it. Queen Street also had a number of buildings, which diminished
in number as the street continued southward, and practically finished
at Victoria Street, with an isolated dwelling here and there beyond.
The sketch of Auckland in 1843 (_f._ p. 53), reputed to have been made
by Captain D. Rough, conveys a good impression of the town at that
date. It is the earliest existing picture we have of Queen Street, and
depicts the condition of living in those days. The roads are unformed,
the houses are all built of wood, and there is no wharf. Outside the
Court House are to be seen stocks, in which wrong-doers did penance for
their evil deeds.

Sir John Logan Campbell provides us with a picture of the social and
economic conditions of the early days in the book[14] from which I
have already quoted. "My large establishment, representing not only
the firm's business premises, but the resident partner's place of
abode, consisted as of old, of the historical tent. It had been pitched
where a little trickling thread of water ran past, and I had dug a
little well, which gave me a plentiful supply, and got hold of an old
flour-barrel to put in the hole. I had also fenced myself off from the
gaze of passengers, as the great thoroughfare from Store [Commercial]
to Exclusion [nickname of Official] Bay passed in front of my tent.
I had stuck up some poles and clothed them with ti-tree, so that I
might have a screen behind which I could carry on all my domestic
duties.... I used to get up at sunrise, often before it, and go away
foraging for wood, which I brought home from a not far-distant patch of
brushwood.... At the back of my fence I had rigged up a triangle, from
which hung a hook on which to suspend my gipsy-pot, and the fireplace
was backed round with large blocks of scoria stone, to prevent my fence
from being burned down. Here I did my modest cooking to the oft-told
MENU, pork and potatoes--not a sheep or herd of oxen had yet reached
the capital, neither butcher nor baker had yet appeared on the scene.
We all were still our own cooks and drawers of water, and jolly and
well and happy every one of us looked.... Very primitive were our
ways, as I have already stated. We had parsons without churches, and
magistrates without courts; but we scrambled through our divinity and
our law somehow or other.... For instance, here is an entry of date
15th May [1841]. 'To-day saw Mr. ---- sitting in front of his _whare_
administering justice under the canopy of heaven.'"

Another interesting description of Auckland in its cradle days is given
in the Diary of Mr. Robert Graham, one of the immigrants by the _Jane
Gifford_, which arrived in Auckland on October 9th, 1842. Under the
date October 12th, he records:--

"The town of Auckland lies in a hollow, and the houses are built close
down to the beach. Some of them are very 'natty'. Shortland Street
appears to be the principal street. In the meantime, the first shop
is a grog shop; the next is Mr. McLennan's; the third a shoemaker's;
the fourth a baker's; then a grog shop; next a pork stand; and then
another grog shop. There seems to be a grog shop for every three of all
the other trades put together. Shortland Crescent is a pretty steep
hill. On the top of it is the church, the Customs-house, bank and the
public buildings, and adjacent the barracks. A road leads to Manukau,
a distance of ten miles, where a coach can run the whole way. Mr. Gould
and I went out this road four miles to a place called Epsom. There is
a little cultivation going on there, but none nearer the town. Saw
some nice cottages and fine gardens, and two farms of about ten acres,
each under cultivation in wheat and barley. There were also two herds
of cattle with bells on their necks to indicate their whereabouts
when in the fern, which is everywhere around. Observed one plough at
work, drawn by two bullocks. The Maoris to be seen about are seemingly
quite happy, fond of smoking; and appear to have pork, fish and
potatoes in abundance. They are intelligent looking, have most pleasant
countenances, and are all mostly tatooed, the chiefs in particular
being elaborately so."

[Illustration: Plan of Auckland, 1842

At this date the waters of the Waitemata Harbour reached Lower Queen
Street at a point opposite Shortland Street where a streamlet known as
the Ligar Canal ran into the Bay.

_After the original in the Old Colonists' Museum_]

The following tables, taken from Charles Terry's "New Zealand; Its
Advantages and Prospects as a British Colony" (pp. 60-61), show the
cost of living at that time, and make an interesting comparison with
the cost of living at the present time:--


_Price of Provisions at Auckland, July, 1841_

                           s. d.
    Beef           per lb  1  4
    Mutton           "     1  0
    Pork             "     0  7
    Flour            "     0  5
    Bread            "     0  7
    Cheese, English  "     2  0
    Butter, Irish    "     2  6
    Tea              "    10  0
    Coffee           "     2  6
    Sugar, brown     "     0  6
      "    refined   "     1  0
    Rice             "     0  4
    Potatoes, per cwt.     8  0


_Rents and Lodging_

    Wooden Houses, unfurnished   Two small rooms and kitchen,
                                   £60 to £80 per annum

    Lodgings, unfurnished        One small room, £1 per week

    Board and Lodging            Board, being without malt or spirituous
                                   liquors, and Lodging, a bed in a room
                                   with others, £2 per week


_Wages_

    Carpenters               16s. to 20s. per day
    Brickmakers              10s. per day
    Labourers                8s. per day
    Men Servants             £4 per month, and board
    Maid Servants            £36 per annum, and board
    Boys                     10s. per week, and board

After the Government had established itself at Auckland, one of the
first duties which it undertook was to provide settlers with land. On
April 19-20, 1841, the first sale of town lots by auction was held,
and the figures realised were stupendous, due to jobbing, which land
sharks from Sydney and other parts of Australia had fostered. According
to the official "Gazette," only 116 allotments were sold, the total
area comprising 38 acres 1 rood 28 perches, realising £21,299 9s. In
addition, twelve allotments measuring 5 acres 3 roods 2½ perches were
reserved for Government officers, and realised £2,976 8s. 9d.

Among the names of the purchasers will be found some of Auckland's most
respected citizens, who had the confidence, even in those early days,
that Auckland was destined to be a big city.

The size of the town allotments varied from approximately a quarter to
half an acre. The plan of the town was the work of Mr. Felton Mathew,
Surveyor-General, its principal features being a circus where Albert
Park now stands, balanced on the western side of Queen Street by a
square, into which Hobson Street and Victoria Street now intersect.
The sections were designed so that they had a double front, one to
the main street, the other to a lane. Some of these lanes survive to
the present, for example, High Street. The principal streets were 66
feet wide, the secondary streets 33 feet, and the lanes somewhat less.
Unfortunately for the city's future, the owners of sections subdivided
their lots, and the lanes automatically became important thoroughfares.
To-day these narrow streets are completely congested with the traffic,
and widening operations must inevitably take place. O'Connell Street,
one of those lanes (where the first wooden house[15] erected in
Auckland stood for some eighty years), has just undergone this process
of widening, and others must follow.

Following upon the sale of town lots, selections of Government land
comprising suburban allotments, cultivation allotments and sections
suitable for small farms were offered for sale on September 1st of
the same year. The first group of sections was situated eastward of
Mechanics Bay proceeding towards Hobson's Bay, which approximates
roughly to the Parnell district of to-day. These allotments were each
about four acres in size. Of the twenty-five lots offered, eighteen
were sold, and realised £2910, the average price per acre being £45
14s. 3d. The ten cultivation sections were intended for market gardens,
and were situated "about one mile to the southward of Mechanics Bay,
on low, swampy ground under Mount Eden." Of these, ten were put up and
eight sold, the total revenue being £318, or an average of £13 5s.
an acre. The farm sections were situated on the flat between Mount
St. John, One Tree Hill and the Three Kings, and varied from four to
twenty-three acres in extent. Thirty-eight sections were sold, those
fronting the proposed Manukau Road selling readiest and realised £1598,
the average price per acre being £3 8s.

One of the consequences of this series of sales was the subdivision
and reselling by buyers of their sections, with the idea of opening
suburban districts. Two of the places were named Parnell and Epsom,
which names still survive; but two others, named Anna and Windsor
Terrace, have passed from local knowledge. Charles Terry, author of
"New Zealand: Its Advantages and Prospects as a British Colony,"[16]
published in 1842, caustically remarks: "The towns of 'Anna,' 'Epsom,'
etc., with reserves for churches, market places, hippodromes, with
crescents, terraces and streets named after heroes and statesmen, were
then advertised with all the technical jargon with which colonial
advertisements are characterised."

[Illustration: Queen Street in 1843, showing Stocks in front of Gaol

_After an original water colour in the Old Colonists' Museum_]

The population of Auckland in 1841 was estimated by the Colonial
Secretary of the day, Mr. Andrew Sinclair, to be 1500 persons. In 1842
it had grown to 2895, due to the influx of settlers following upon the
foundation of the capital, and also to the arrival of 500 immigrants
by the ship _Duchess of Argyle_ (667 tons, R. G. Tait, captain) and
the barque _Jane Gifford_ (558 tons, Captain Paul). These vessels
arrived in the harbour on the same date, October 9th, 1842. They were
the first ships to bring British immigrants direct to Auckland. Their
port of departure was Greenock, and, naturally, the Scottish element
predominated among the new arrivals. The Scottish sentiment, which is
quite a feature of Auckland, may be traced back to those immigrants.
The passengers of these two ships held reunions every tenth year from
1852 to 1892 on the anniversary--10th October--of their landing in
Auckland. Out of these gatherings has developed the Old Colonists'
Association, membership of which is confined to colonists of fifty
years' standing and their descendants. The meetings have been held
annually since 1898.

The Government was not prepared for such a large influx of immigrants
as these two ships had brought. The domestic servants and some of
the men were able to obtain employment, but the families were not so
fortunate, and they had to be content with the rough accommodation
which hastily-built whares could give them. The ship _St. George_[17]
arrived soon after, with over ninety boys from Parkhurst Prison on
board. They were placed under the care of Captain Rough, in his
capacity of Immigration Agent; but he found them less agreeable
subjects to deal with than the earlier immigrants. On the 31st March,
1843, the ship _Westminster_ brought to Auckland a very good class of
immigrants, mostly English, and on this occasion the Immigration Agent
was better able to provide for their reception than formerly.

The conditions of the young city in its earliest years were not
enviable. The work of pioneering was exceedingly strenuous. Employment
was difficult to obtain, for none of the settlers had much capital
to work upon, and the Government had little enough in the Treasury,
and none to spend on public works. Despite discouragements and
disappointments, the settlers were patient, endured the hardships--and
hoped. By 1844, with the advent of Governor Fitzroy (December 23),
steps were taken to absorb those, who had not received private
employment, upon road formation. Captain Rough, whose name we have
already mentioned as Harbour Master and as Immigration Officer, might
as well have borne the name of Pooh Bah, for to him was given charge
of this work. In his reminiscences, he says: "As there was at that
time no superintendent of works, I was asked to take the business [of
road making] in hand, and though little acquainted with such matters,
yet, by getting an intelligent and practical foreman, and letting out
divisions of the work to be done by contract to parties of immigrants,
we managed in the course of eight or ten months to cut down the upper
part and fill up the lower part of Shortland Street, to form and
metal Princes Street and Queen Street, which previously were almost
impassable in wet weather; and also to clear and make the roads to the
Tamaki and Onehunga districts, as well as to blast and to cut through
a spur of Mount Eden, filling up an almost insatiable swamp, and thus
opening and forming the road to Newmarket called the Khyber Pass,
the terrible massacre of British troops in Afghanistan being much in
mind at that time. The improvements executed in the course of twelve
months found employment for the immigrants and were very cheering and
satisfactory to the town people and to country settlers. To myself the
superintendence was a somewhat arduous addition to my duties afloat,
but still I look back at it as having been one of the most interesting
and useful occupations of my life in New Zealand."

In 1843, the first conflict with the Maoris took place at Wairau,
and in the following year Hone Heke's rebellion began. These events
are outside the scope of this sketch, except in so far as they react
upon the city's history. The destruction of Kororareka by Heke's
followers caused many of the settlers to come to Auckland, and created
consternation and panic in the town itself. It was feared that
the rebels would follow up their success in the Bay of Islands by
attacking the capital. The defences of the barracks were improved, and
entrenchments made, while the citizens were prepared for eventualities
by being drilled. As it happened, the tide of war swept northward, and
did not reach the city. The consequence, however, as far as the capital
was concerned, was to retard its progress. We do not need to enter into
the details of the war, except to anticipate its results. Governor
Fitzroy's conduct of the crisis was unsatisfactory. He was recalled,
and his successor, Captain George Grey,[18] arrived in Auckland on
14th November, 1845, and took steps which speedily ended the war in the
north. As Governor of New Zealand and citizen of Auckland, he did much
for both. He was twice Governor (1845-53 and 1861-68), Superintendent
of the Auckland Province, 1875, and he is the only Governor who
subsequently became a member of Parliament and Premier of the Colony
over which he formerly governed. The greater part of his official and
private life is associated with this city. On his retirement from the
governorship, at the expiration of his second term, he acquired the
island of Kawau, and there made his home. From then until 1894 he was
closely identified with Auckland's development, and it may be taken
for granted that he held the former capital in high esteem when he
chose to bequeath to it his collection of rare and valuable books and
manuscripts, as well as his pictures and an ethnological collection of
no little value. He is to be ranked as one of Auckland's makers and
benefactors. A statue erected to perpetuate his memory stands near the
Town Hall. It was unveiled on December 21st, 1904, by the Governor,
Lord Plunket. Mr. W. J. Speight, who was chairman of the Memorial
Committee, presided at the ceremony.

The Maori Festival which took place in May, 1844, on the outskirts of
the city, near Mount St. John, forms a contrast to the troubles which
the Government was having with the natives in the North. This was a
gathering of some two or three thousand Maoris collected "from various
remote districts of the Island ... for the purpose of still more
cementing that friendship and good feeling which their now superior
knowledge teaches to be essential to their comfort and happiness."
The Governor (Captain Fitzroy) visited, on May 11th, the ground where
the festival was held, and was well received by the natives, who
danced hakas in his honour. The following note on the feeding of these
thousands is taken from _The Southern Cross_ of May 18th, 1844. "The
preparations made for the feast were enormous. A wall of potatoes in
baskets extended nearly for a quarter of a mile, covered on the top
with several thousand dried sharks and dog fishes. Opposite to this
potato wall was a shade of the same length, covered over with blankets,
which were intended as presents to their guests. The number of the
blankets could not be short of five hundred." The correspondent adds:
"Some of our English manufacturers would have relished such a sight."
From what we have learned from our investigations into those early
days, almost any of the settlers would have relished the sight still
more. At the time the population of Auckland was only 2754 persons, and
such a gathering, while the native war in the North still continued,
must have caused no little concern both to the authorities and the
settlers.

A year after the capture of Ruapekapeka, on January 11th, 1846,
which ended the war in the North, an attempt was made by Hone Heke
to instigate an attack on Auckland, and for this purpose invited the
Kaipara and Waikato chiefs to join him. He sent messengers to Mangere,
where they met the Waikato chiefs, including Potatau (Te Wherowhero),
Kati, Te Wherepu, Taka-anini, Tutere, Ngapora, and others. After
conveying the presents which Hone Heke had sent, and having stated
the object of their mission, Potatau consulted with the assembled
chiefs, and on the following day returned a bag of bullets, which had
formed part of the gift Hone Heke had sent to him, and declined to take
part in the suggested attack upon the Pakeha, stating that the chief of
Ngapuhi would have to dispose of his shadows first. Tuhaere agreed with
Potatau, saying, "My word is one with thine, O Potatau." The messengers
returned home, but Heke did not venture to attack with the other tribes
hostile, and so the project failed.

[Illustration: Commercial Bay, 1844

Showing Shortland Street and St. Paul's Church

_After a drawing by Lieut. Godfrey, R.N., M.R.C.S. (H.M.S. Urgent) in
the Old Colonists' Museum_]

Among the earliest events of a domestic character in the development
of the city, the newspaper must take a prominent place. The first
newspaper was born on 10th July, 1841, and was named the _New Zealand
Herald and Auckland Gazette_. It consisted of four pages of very
much smaller size than a newspaper of to-day, and cost a shilling
a copy. Its circulation was 250 copies. Its career was brief, the
last issue being April 2nd, 1842. The editors of the _Herald_ were
successively Charles Terry, William Corbett, and Dr. Samuel McDonald
Martin, a fiery Highlander, whose trenchant articles brought about
the demise of the paper. It was succeeded in a week's time by the
_Auckland Standard_, which had even a shorter career, four months
(April to August) being the extent of its vitality. Its editor was
William Swainson, who had come to New Zealand to fill the position of
Attorney-General. _The Auckland Chronicle and New Zealand Colonist_
made its initial appearance on 8th November, 1841, but after a month's
run it was suspended. It revived in November of the following year,
and continued to appear until July, 1843. After another suspension of
two months it again appeared and survived until 1845, when it finally
disappeared. Messrs. Kitchen and Barrow were the editors, and Mr. John
Moore was the printer. On September 5th, 1842, the _Auckland Times_
made its _début_. On its first appearance it was printed by Mr. Moore
from type which had been used by the printer of the _New Zealand Herald
and Auckland Gazette_. This type had been purchased by the Government
on the winding-up of that paper. For some reason the Government forbade
the use of the type to Mr. Henry Falwasser, the editor and proprietor
of the _Times_. Mr. Falwasser was not deterred by this refusal, and
collecting all sorts and sizes of types, and with the aid of a mangle,
he continued to bring out his paper under such unique conditions for
about thirty successive issues. Dr. T. M. Hocken, whose researches in
the byways of New Zealand bibliography are of such value to students,
and to whom I am indebted for much information, remarks that if
the production was "not a confusion of tongues, it was certainly a
confusion of letters." The last of these curious issues appeared on
the 13th April, 1843. It reappeared on November 7th in conventional
form, and continued until its one hundred and fifty-ninth number, 17th
January, 1846.

With the _Southern Cross_ and the _New Zealander_ we arrive at
something like stability. The promoter and first editor of the former
was Dr. Martin, whose association with the first Auckland paper has
been mentioned. The proprietors were Messrs. Brown and Campbell, who as
business men were pre-eminent, being interested in practically every
local commercial venture. _The Southern Cross, New Zealand Guardian,
and Auckland, Thames, and Bay of Islands Advertiser_, to give the paper
its full title, appeared on April 22nd, 1843, and continued regularly
until its one hundred and sixth number (April 26th, 1845), when it was
suspended because it proved unprofitable. It resumed publication in
July, 1847, with the title shortened to _The Southern Cross and New
Zealand Guardian_. In June, 1851 (No. 415), it was enlarged, and in
May, 1862, it appeared daily. Shortly after its change to a daily it
was sold to Mr. (afterwards Sir) Julius Vogel, and again resold, in
1876, to Mr. Horton, who amalgamated it with the _New Zealand Herald_,
which had been founded in 1863.

[Illustration: Auckland, Circa 1852

_P. J. Hogan, delt._]

_The New Zealander_ commenced its career on 7th June, 1845, during
the suspension of the _Southern Cross_. It was owned by Mr. John
Williamson, for many years Superintendent of the Auckland Province and
the Government printer of the day. Shortly after the advent of the
paper, Mr. Williamson was joined by Mr. W. C. Wilson, and they became
partners in its publication. The partnership lasted until 1863, when
Mr. Wilson retired, owing to his dislike of his partner's philo-Maori
policy at the outbreak of the Taranaki campaign. Mr. Wilson then
started the _New Zealand Herald_. The _Herald_ immediately gained an
ascendancy over the _New Zealander_, which ceased publication on the
destruction by fire of its premises in 1866.

The new paper continued to enlarge its hold and influence, and in 1876,
when Mr. Wilson died, it was firmly established. He was succeeded by
his sons, and they were joined in partnership by Mr. Horton, who had
become the owner of the _Southern Cross_, and ever since the name of
Wilson and Horton has been on the _Herald's_ imprint. The _Auckland
Weekly News_, which was commenced just two weeks after the _Herald_,
holds the record in New Zealand for a weekly paper, and has attained a
high place among the weekly journals. Many men of outstanding ability
have been editors of the _Herald_, and contributions have been made to
it by the best writers the Dominion has produced.

The _Herald_ was first printed in temporary premises in Queen Street,
near Durham Street East. Nine months later it was removed to Wyndham
Street, and from then (1863) until 1912 extensive additions have been
made at different times to meet the increasing business which the firm
has to handle.

Between the 'forties and the present day many other papers have been
launched, and after brief careers, have passed out of existence, but
beside the _New Zealand Herald_ only the _Auckland Star_ (originally
the _Evening Star_) needs mention, and may be most fittingly dealt
with here. The suggestion for the commencing of the paper came from
Mr. William Tyrone Ferrar, who enlisted the interest of Mr. George
McCullagh Reed, and on the 8th January, 1870, the first issue appeared.
Two months later they were joined in partnership by Mr. Henry M. Brett,
who became, in 1876, sole proprietor and later managing director. In
1872 the paper was so firmly established that the _Evening News_ and
_Morning News_ gave up business, and were purchased by the proprietors
of the _Star_. Mr. G. M. Reed retired from the editorship in 1876, and
was succeeded by the present editor, Dr. Thomson W. Leys. The _Star_
commenced operations in Wyndham Street in the building now occupied by
the _Observer_; in 1884 it removed to Shortland Street, and in 1916 was
enlarged by the addition of a nine-storey building in Fort Street.

Among the earliest institutions to be founded in the town's history
were the churches. Auckland's first church was St. Paul's Anglican
church, the foundation stone of which was laid by Captain Hobson on
July 28th, 1841, the consecration taking place two years later, on
March 17th, 1843, at which Bishop Selwyn, who arrived in Auckland on
May 30th of the previous year, officiated. This building was situated
in Emily Place, and is easily located to-day by the monument erected
in memory of its first minister, the Reverend John Frederick Churton,
which stands in the reserve where the church formerly stood. In the
'sixties this building was demolished, except for the front gable and
tower, and was replaced by another structure in the Gothic style of
architecture. Colonel Mould, of the Royal Engineers, was the architect
of this church, which was a pleasing structure, both externally and
internally, but the commercial expansion of the city spelt its doom.
After having served as a place of worship and a landmark for more than
fifty years, it was completely demolished in 1895, and the present
church at the corner of Symonds Street and Wellesley Street was opened
on November 1st of that year. Mr. W. H. Skinner was the designer of the
new building, and Mr. McLean was the contractor.

The first Roman Catholic church was St. Patrick's Cathedral, the
foundation stone of which was laid by Bishop Pompallier in 1846. The
building was located in Wyndham Street, and was completed in 1848. It
was dedicated on the Feast of St. Joseph by the Reverend Dr. Viard,
Coadjutor-Bishop. Additions were made to the structure in 1884,
amounting almost to a new building, and again in 1908.

[Illustration: Auckland, 1852, from Hobson Street

Showing the Harbour, North Shore and islands. The Albert Barracks and
the principal buildings of the city are also shown

_P. J. Hogan, delt._]

The Presbyterian Church had no church building until 1850. Prior to
this it held its services in buildings designed for less spiritual
purposes. In 1843 the adherents of this Church used the Supreme Court,
Queen Street, where, it is said, the ruling elders sat in the dock as
their bench of honour! The first church--St. Andrew's--was commenced in
1847, and opened for divine service on April 7th, 1850. It cost £3500.
Originally it was a very plain building, but with later additions,
including the tower, which was erected in 1882, it has now quite a
commanding appearance. The additions and alterations were made from
the plans of Mr. Matthew Henderson, and cost £3000. Mr. J. J. Holland
was the contractor. The Rev. A. G. Panton was the first minister. The
Presbytery of Auckland was formed six years later, on October 14, 1856,
the Rev. John Mackay being appointed first Moderator.

The Wesleyan denomination commenced its ministration early in the
'forties, and, in 1843, a small weatherboard church was erected in High
Street, on a site granted by the Government. The building was a modest
one, costing £246. It was superseded by a brick church, which was
erected and opened in 1848.

Commercial development rendered a banking concern a necessity. The
first bank to be opened in Auckland was the New Zealand Banking
Company, which had commenced its career at Kororareka. In July, 1841,
a branch was instituted at Auckland in premises which were situated in
Princes Street, near the site occupied by the Grand Hotel of to-day.
Mr. Alex. Kennedy was the manager. Beyond these meagre details, the
writer has not been able to obtain satisfactory information about this
bank's subsequent history.

[Illustration: Auckland, 1852, from Smale's Point

Showing Commercial Bay, Fort Street, Fort Britomart, Shortland Street
and old St. Paul's Church

_P. J. Hogan, delt._]

The Auckland Savings Bank commenced its career on June 5th, 1847. The
trustees transferred their property to the Government in 1848, and
under its auspices continued to operate, an office in the Union Bank
of Australia being used, and here it remained until 1854, when a room
adjoining the Colonial Bank of Issue was granted by the Government for
the use of the Savings Bank. In 1859 a site in Queen Street, being
part of the site upon which the bank still stands, was acquired from
the Provincial Council, and obtaining additional land by purchase, the
trustees decided, in 1860, to erect a building of their own. The
year 1876 saw the inauguration of the Penny Savings Bank. The present
premises were opened in 1884 by the Governor, Sir William Drummond
Jervois. The architect and contractor were respectively Mr. Edward
Bartley and Mr. J. Heron.

The establishment of a branch of the Union Bank of Australia in 1848 in
Auckland was an indication of the commercial progress of the city. The
building in Princes Street, used at the foundation of the bank, still
stands next to the Northern Club. Later the business was removed to
offices at the corner of Shortland Crescent and O'Connell Street. In
1864 the present building in Queen Street was occupied. The architect
was Mr. Leonard Terry, and the contractor Mr. Charles Brown, both of
Melbourne. The contract price was £9000, but with extras the building
cost approximately £10,000.

Early in 1842 (January 5th) the first race meeting held in New Zealand
took place at Epsom. At what exact location this event was held the
writer has not ascertained, nor can he give any information about the
event itself. Despite this, it is of interest to record the beginning
of a sport which has grown to such enormous dimensions.

The Supreme Court was opened on 28th February of this year (1842), and
occupied a site at the corner of Queen and Victoria Streets. Here,
a week later, the first execution which took place in Auckland was
carried out on March 7th. The victim of the law was a native, by name
Maketu, who was found guilty on a charge of murder. It is related that
a Government land sale was postponed for an hour so that purchasers
could witness the event. The Court House was used until the present
building in Waterloo Quadrant was finished in 1867. This building was
commenced in 1863 by Messrs. Amos and Taylor, and completed by Messrs.
Mathews and Bartley. Mr. Edward Rumsey was the architect.

The Auckland Hospital, reputed to be the first hospital opened in the
Dominion, was erected on the site of the present Costley wards about
1845. Dr. F. M. Philson was the first regularly appointed medical
officer. Up to the year 1883 the Hospital was under the control of the
Provincial and General Governments. In this year the management was
delegated to a local committee, which administered the institution
until the passing of "The Hospitals and Charitable Institutions Act,
1885," when it vacated office to the newly-constituted authority,
consisting of representatives of local bodies of the district, to which
the financial responsibility and management of the institution was
transferred.

The main block of the present Hospital was erected in 1875-76. Mr. P.
Herepath was the architect and Mr. John Taylor the contractor. The
contract price was £19,249. The next notable addition to the Hospital
was made in 1898, when the Costley wards were erected, at a cost of
£5600. The chief operating theatre, attached to the Costley block, was
built in 1905, and cost £2753. Subsequently a surgical wing was added
to the Costley block. The Princess Mary Hospital for Children was
erected in 1917. The furniture of the Children's Hospital was provided
by the Auckland Vaudeville Employees' Association as a war memorial,
the association collecting a sum of £3152 for the purpose. The typhoid
wards, erected as a temporary building in 1887 to cope with the severe
typhoid outbreak which occurred in that year, and the Nurses' Home are
the other principal buildings of the Hospital.

The Costley Home, One Tree Hill, which was erected from funds
bequeathed by the late E. Costley, was opened by the Governor, the Earl
of Onslow, on April 23rd, 1890, and cost £8650 to erect. The infirmary,
adjoining the home, which cost £5000, was opened on December 9th, 1907.
An addition to the latter building, which was made in 1916, cost about
£6300. The home is administered by the Hospital Board.

During the war the Hospital had to meet heavy demands made by the
return of sick and wounded soldiers. One of the Exhibition buildings,
which had been kept intact, was formed into an annexe, while a house in
Domett Avenue, Epsom, and the residence of the late A. R. D. Watson at
North Head, were utilised as convalescent homes. The Point Chevalier
Hospital was also used for military purposes in 1915.

[Illustration: Auckland, 1852, from Britomart Barracks

Showing Commercial Bay, Lower Queen Street, and new Queen Street
Wharf, Wyndham Street, St. Patrick's Cathedral and Smale's Point. (The
steamboat in the foreground is the _Governor Wynyard_)

_P. J. Hogan, delt._]

Another institution which came into being during the first decade of
the city's history was the Auckland Mechanics' Institute and Library,
which was opened on 30th September, 1842. In addition to a hall, which
for many years was the only place for meetings the town possessed,
there was a library, a reading room and official's residence. In this
humble building practically all the important meetings of the town were
held, and in it many of the city's institutions and societies were
born. The building was situated in Chancery Street.

The first ship propelled by steam to arrive in Auckland was H.M.S.
_Driver_. She steamed into the Waitemata on January 20th, 1846, the
vessel being in charge of Commander C. O. Hayes. Her tonnage was 1058,
and her horse-power 280. She mounted four large guns, and carried a
complement, including marines, of 175. The first merchant steamer to
visit Auckland was the _Juno_, from Sydney, which reached the Waitemata
on July 7th, 1847.

The earliest fire of importance recorded in Auckland was that which
destroyed Government House in June, 1848. The building was constructed
of wood, which was brought out in sections from England, and in
appearance resembled an ordinary cottage. Fortunately, a sketch by
Baron de Thierry survives, and is preserved in the Auckland Old
Colonists' Museum. The destroyed building occupied a site within the
grounds of the present Government House property.

[Illustration: Auckland, 1852, from Queen Street Wharf

Showing Queen Street and corner of Shortland Street, the Wesleyan
College (now the People's Palace) and the Windmill, Karangahape Road,
still a city landmark. (The two uniformed men in the foreground are
native policemen)

_P. J. Hogan, delt._]



Chapter II

_Development: 1851-1870_


The advent of the second decade of Auckland's history finds the town
passing from the cradle stage to one of more independence. Until the
year 1851 Auckland had been variously described as "the town," "the
seat of government," or "the capital." In other words, it had been
fostered by the Government. Now, by a Proclamation of the Governor,
Sir George Grey, it was elevated to the position of a borough, with a
corporation--the first to be created in New Zealand--to which was given
the powers of self-government on all matters of local interest. The
elections were held on November 18th, and resulted in the return of
the following gentlemen:--Messrs. Edwin Davy, Archibald Clark, Patrick
Dignan, F. W. Merriman, A. B. Abraham, James O'Neill, S. Norman, T. M.
Haultain, J. A. Hickson, A. Macdonald, Joseph Newman, William Powditch,
William I. Taylor, and W. Mason. On November 25th the councillors
were sworn in, the event taking place at the Court House, Auckland,
before the Chief Justice (Sir William Martin), and in the presence of
Lieutenant-Governor Wynyard and the naval, military and civil officers
of the Government, as well as the officers of the 58th Regiment, the
clergy, a numerous assemblage of ladies and a great concourse of
burgesses, the day being observed as a special public holiday in honour
of the occasion. To the accompaniment of a flourish of bugles the names
of the gentlemen chosen to be first Mayor and aldermen of Auckland were
announced as follows:--Mayor, Mr. Clark; aldermen, Messrs. Dignan,
O'Neill, Powditch and Mason. Thereafter the Charter of Incorporation
was read, and the Lieutenant-Governor delivered an address, in which
he stated to the councillors that "it cannot fail to be a matter of
gratifying personal distinction to yourselves to be selected from
upwards of fourteen hundred burgesses to fill the office and discharge
the duties of the first Council of the first Corporation established
in this country, under the immediate sanction of the Royal authority."
The ceremony ended with the guard of honour presenting arms, while the
band played the National Anthem, and a salute of twelve guns from the
battery at Fort Britomart was fired. The first meeting of the Council
took place a week later in the Legislative Council Chamber, which had
been placed at the disposal of the Corporation by the Government.

The Borough Council did not last long, owing to the disallowance
in England of the "Land Fund Appropriation Act," upon which the
Corporation depended chiefly for its revenue, and on the passing of the
Constitution Act of 1852, its existence terminated. Despite its short
life, it is worthy of record as an historic fact.

Auckland's municipal history during the remainder of this period is
not of much interest. In 1854 "An Act to Provide for the Municipal
Government of the City of Auckland" was passed by the Provincial
Council. This Act was repealed in 1856, and the powers contained
therein transferred to the Superintendent of the Province. The next
attempt to develop local government was made in 1862, when the "Town
Boards Act" was passed by the Provincial Council; it was repealed the
next year, and was superseded by the "City Board Act, 1863." Finally,
"The Municipal Corporations Act, 1867," was passed, and under this
Act the city was constituted by Proclamation on April 24th, 1871. It
has continued to be governed by that Act and its amendments up to the
present time.

[Illustration: MAYORS OF THE CITY OF AUCKLAND.

FIRST ROW:--Arch. Clark (1851-52); P. A. Philips (1872-74); H. H.
Isaacs (1874); F. L. Prime (1874-75); B. Tonks (1875-76).

SECOND ROW:--W. J. Hurst (1876-77); H. Brett (1877-78); T. Peacock
(1878-80); J. M. Clark (1880-83); W. R. Waddel (1883-86).

THIRD ROW:--A. E. T. Devore (1886-89); J. H. Upton (1889-91); J. H.
Gunson, C.M.G., C.B.E. (1915--); W. Crowther (1891-93); J. J. Holland
(1893-96).

FOURTH ROW:--A. Boardman (1896-97); P. Dignan (1897-98); D. Goldie
(1898-1901); Sir J. Logan Campbell (1901); Alf. Kidd (1901-03).

FIFTH ROW:--Hon. (afterwards Sir) E. Mitchelson (1903-05); Hon. A. M.
Myers (1905-09); C. D. Grey (1909-10); L. J. Bagnall (1910-11); Hon. C.
J. Parr (1911-15).]

The boundaries of the Borough of Auckland, as originally proclaimed,
were wider than they are now, and stretched across the Isthmus from the
Waitemata to the Manukau, and from the Whau Creek to the Tamaki, an
area of about 58,000 acres. The population of the borough was between
seven and eight thousand persons. W. Swainson[19] gives an interesting
account of the state of the city at this time. "The principal streets
are Princes Street, Shortland Crescent, Queen Street and Wakefield
Street. The first is a broad, straight, spacious, well-made street
on a gentle slope; St. Paul's Church, the Treasury and the Bank, and
the Masonic Hotel, are its principal buildings. Shortland Crescent,
which connects Princes Street with Queen Street, is built on a rather
steep ascent. It is less broad than Princes Street, but much longer. On
one side [the right hand side going up from Queen Street] it is almost
wholly built upon; shops and stores are here to be found of every
description and of various forms and style ... with few exceptions,
all are of wood. The roadway of the street is an even macadamised
surface, but no attempt has yet been made to form footpaths on a
general level. Some of the shops would not disgrace a small provincial
town in England; though, taken altogether as a street, Shortland Street
is irregular and unfinished. Queen Street is the least built upon;
but in other respects, it is the best and most considerable street
in Auckland. It is about half a mile long, nearly level, and almost
straight, and terminates at its northern extremity at a pier or quay
which runs into the harbour, and alongside of which small craft can
land their cargoes. At its southern extremity it is overlooked by the
Wesleyan Seminary [now the People's Palace] ... a spacious brick-built
and substantial structure. The gaol[20] is badly situated, and is by no
means a conspicuous building; but by a diligent search it may be found
on the west side of Queen Street [at the corner of Victoria Street],
partly screened from view by the Court House and Police Office,
which abut immediately upon the street. Several shops of superior
description, two and three storeys high, have recently been erected,
and Queen Street, besides being the longest, is certainly just now one
of the most improving streets in Auckland. Wakefield Street ascends
from its southern extremity until it joins Cemetery Road, and is the
newest and most increasing street in the town. Many of the houses are
built of brick, and it already bears a considerable resemblance to a
new street in the outskirts of a modern English town." The same writer
continues (p. 31):--"The most considerable public buildings are the
Britomart and Albert Barracks, having together accommodation for
nearly 1000 men. The former are built on the extremity of the headland
dividing Official from Commercial Bay, and form a conspicuous but by no
means an ornamental feature. The buildings are solid and substantial,
mostly of scoria--a dark, grey, sombre-coloured stone--square,
heavy-looking and unsightly. The Albert Barracks,[21] the larger of
the two, are built upon the same ridge, but about a quarter of a mile
inland. The Stores, Hospital, Magazine and Commissariat Offices are
built of scoria. The rest of the buildings are of wood, plain in style,
and of a sombre colour. The various buildings, together with the parade
ground, occupy several acres,[22] the whole of which is surrounded by
a strong scoria wall, about ten or twelve feet high, loop-holed and
with flanking angles ... the site, in a military point of view, is not
happily chosen."

From the same informative book (p. 64 _et seq._) we obtain an
interesting description of the social life of the town, in which,
of course, the military element predominated. The author found that
Auckland resembled an English watering-place. The houses were small
and inconvenient, and many of the people felt that they were only
temporary residents. The military part, with their families, were
always on the move. There was little formality, little extravagance,
and no ostentation; intercourse was freer; originality more obvious
than in English towns; gossip more pronounced, but less harmful than in
the Old Country; political animosities and religious bickerings were
practically non-existent; and, except that the dress of the people was
somewhat behind the fashion, one could not believe that the English
watering-place was so very far away. As to amusements--"Once a week,
during the summer, a regimental band plays for a couple of hours on
the well-kept lawn in the Government grounds; and with the lovers of
music and those who are fond of 'seeing and being seen,' 'the band' is
a favourite lounge. Three or four balls in the course of the year,
a concert or two, an occasional picnic or water party, a visit to the
goldfield or to the Island of Kawau, a trip to the Waikato or the lakes
of Rotorua, are among the few amusements which aid in beguiling the
lives of the Auckland fashionable circle; while dissipation in the
milder form of temperance and tea-meetings, school feasts, stitcheries
and lectures suffices for the greater portion of the Auckland
community. To sportsmen the place offers few attractions; the annual
race meeting is the great event of the year. Of hunting there is none;
and wild ducks, pigeons and curlew afford but indifferent sport for the
gun. Riding, boating, cricket and bush excursions are the favourite
outdoor amusements. Once in the year nearly the whole of the ball-going
portion of the community are brought together at a ball given by the
Queen's representative on the anniversary of Her Majesty's birthday."

[Illustration: Sir George Grey, K.C.B. (1812-1898)

Governor of New Zealand, 1845-53 and 1861-67. Superintendent of
Auckland, 1875. Premier of New Zealand, 1877-79.]

The cost of living is also dealt with. "Almost everything necessary
to comfort and convenience may now be procured in Auckland. Although
cheaper than Wellington, Auckland is by no means a cheap place of
residence; certainly not more so than an English town of the same size.
House rent and servants' wages are at least double what they are in
England; but there are no taxes, rates or dues of any kind. Clothing of
all kinds is also, of course, dearer in New Zealand than in England.
Wine, spirits and groceries are, for the most part, cheaper. Bread
and butcher meat are about the same. The fish caught near Auckland,
although of but moderate quality, is plentiful and cheap. Vegetables
are also abundant; during the summer of 1852 there were brought into
market by the natives, in canoes alone, upwards of 1100 kits of onions
(about twenty tons), upwards of 4000 kits of potatoes (more than one
hundred tons), besides corn, cabbages and kumeras. Peaches grown by the
natives and sufficiently good for culinary purposes are very abundant
and cheap; during the present summer upwards of 1200 kits were brought
into Auckland by canoes alone. Those who cultivate a garden are well
supplied with peaches, strawberries, apples, figs, and melons; while
plums, pears, gooseberries and cherries are by no means uncommon,
although less abundant than the former."

The economic conditions existing in Auckland at the beginning of
the 'fifties is stated and reflected in a most succinct form in
a [23]Memorial sent to the Governor (Sir George Grey) by members of
the Provincial Council of Auckland, setting forth the reasons why
they consider it a matter of justice to Auckland that meetings of the
General Legislature of New Zealand should for the present be held here.
The memorandum is couched in the following terms:--

    "That of the population of these islands, native and European,
    estimated to amount to 130,000, about 80,000, or three-fifths
    of the whole, reside within the limits of the newly-constituted
    Province of Auckland; and that of the European population of the
    Colony upwards of one-third of the whole number are settled within
    a radius of ten miles of the City of Auckland.

    "That since the foundation of the Colony, nearly the whole of the
    proceeds of the land sales paid into the Colonial Treasury have
    arisen from the sale of lands within the Province of Auckland,
    the proceeds of land sales in other provinces having been paid
    to absentee companies, and expended by them independently of any
    control or audit on the part of the Colony.

    "That during the last twelve months upwards of £19,000 have
    been realised by the sale of Crown lands in Auckland and its
    neighbourhood alone.

    "That the shipping frequenting the ports of the Province of
    Auckland exceeds the aggregate amount of the shipping of the other
    five provinces into which New Zealand is divided; and, without
    taking into consideration the shipping resorting to the Bay of
    Islands, Mongonui, Hokianga, and the other harbours of the northern
    province, upwards of 740 vessels, foreign and coastwise, entered
    the single port of Auckland in the course of the past year.

    "That of the shipping belonging to the various ports of New
    Zealand, upwards of 100 vessels are registered as belonging to the
    port of Auckland alone, besides an equal number of licensed smaller
    vessels under fifteen tons.

    "That exports of the value of upwards of £78,000 were shipped from
    the port of Auckland alone during the last year ended January, 1852.

    "That the revenue arising within this province is nearly equal
    to the revenue collected within the whole of the provinces of
    Taranaki, Wellington, Nelson, Canterbury and Otago; that of
    Auckland for the year ending June 30, 1852, amounting to £35,318,
    and of the five other provinces to £37,915.

    "That, without reckoning the very extensive native and other
    cultivations in various parts of the province, there are, within
    fifteen miles of Auckland, upwards of 20,000 acres of land,
    substantially fenced, in high cultivation.

    "That, in addition to the various other valuable resources of the
    province, gold in its natural state of deposit has recently been
    discovered over an extensive district within forty miles of the
    capital, on and near the shores of a large, safe and commodious
    harbour,[24] and in other districts in an opposite direction, even
    much nearer to the town.

    "That the large native population of the province are rapidly
    increasing in wealth, and advancing in the arts and usages of
    civilised life; that they are producers of the greater part of the
    wheat grown in the province; the owners of a large number of mills,
    worked by water power, and of numerous small vessels engaged in the
    coasting trade, navigated by themselves, and employed in carrying
    native produce.

    "That, in short, in shipping, commerce, agriculture, revenue,
    population and wealth, the single Government Province of Auckland
    nearly equals in all respects, and surpasses in most, the aggregate
    of the numerous settlements planted in New Zealand by the New
    Zealand Company and the Canterbury Association, both of which
    bodies have now altogether ceased their colonising operations, if
    not wholly ceased to exist."

In 1851 there occurred an incident, which, ending happily, might
have had serious consequences. The beginning of the affair was the
apprehension of a native named Ngawiki, of the Ngati-Tamatera (Thames)
by the police for the theft of a shirt. An attempt was made by the
chief of the Ngati-Paoa and some others to rescue the criminal, and a
street row ensued, in the course of which a native constable struck
the chief with his staff several blows on the head, and succeeded in
holding the prisoner. The _fracas_ resulted in a native expedition from
Waiheke on April 17th against the town. This force, which consisted
of 250 armed men, was led by a chief named Ngakapa. They landed at
Mechanics Bay, where they danced hakas and used threatening language.
With reinforcements, which they expected, they hoped to number from
600 to 800 men. As the military and naval forces within the capital
did not amount to 400 men, the situation looked serious, and Governor
Sir George Grey at once took steps to ward off the danger. He sent a
message by the Commissioner of Police (Captain Beckham) to the natives,
"informing them that they must either return to their homes within
the space of two hours, or give up their arms, and that in the event
of their non-compliance with these terms measures would be taken to
disarm them at the expiration of the time specified." This ultimatum
proved effective, and the party retired to Okahu (Orakei). There the
war party met with some reinforcements, but the failure of the invading
force, combined with the efforts of the Ngati-Whatua chiefs of Orakei,
who advised the newcomers not to take part in the insurrection,
resulted in the reinforcements deciding not to participate further
in the affair. Instead, they ridiculed the men who had taken part in
the expedition "for having been compelled at low water to drag their
canoes over the extensive mud flats in the vicinity of this town." The
incident ended with an expression of regret by the principal chiefs
of the war party, and the voluntary surrender of their greenstone
meres to the Governor. The preparations for the defence of the town
were made by Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, in co-operation with Captain
Oliver, commanding H.M.S. _Fly_. The pensioners in their several
villages placed themselves under arms. Sir George Grey, in a special
despatch, gives "especial credit to Major Kenny, of the first battalion
of pensioners, who arrived in Auckland with a reinforcement of 200
pensioners in a shorter period of time than I believed it possible for
them to have assembled and to have performed a march of about six and a
half miles."

The pensioners mentioned above were a body of time-expired regulars,
who had been brought to New Zealand, the pioneers of the force
having arrived in Auckland on August 5th, 1847, under the command of
Lieutenant-Colonel Bolton, R.E., and Captain Kenny, named in the above
despatch.

[Illustration: Auckland, 1862

Maori War Canoe Race (Annual Regatta) in progress

_F. R. Stack, delt._]

The native constables who took part in this incident did not long
survive the event. It may, in fact, come as a surprise to many that
there ever were native policemen, and it may be interesting to
describe the appearance of these officers of the law. Their attire
was a semi-military, blue uniform, resplendent with buttons, white
facings and side stripes. They carried substantial bludgeons, which, as
shown, they knew how to use, and did not scruple to do so. Two of these
defenders of the peace are depicted in one of Hogan's views (_f._ p.
77).

The discovery of gold at Coromandel, in 1852, was an important event
in the history of Auckland and in the development of the resources
of the province. The gold finds in Victoria gave the impetus to New
Zealand, and prospecting parties began to work. But it was not until
a "Reward Committee" was formed at Auckland, with Mr. Frederick
Whitaker as chairman, that any steps were taken to prove the rumours
that gold was available in New Zealand. In October, 1852, a reward
of £500 was "offered to the first person who should discover and
make known to the 'Reward Committee' 'a valuable gold find' in the
northern district of New Zealand. Within less than a week the reward
was claimed by Mr. Charles Ring, a New Zealand settler, recently
returned from California, who asserted that he had discovered
gold in the neighbourhood of Coromandel Harbour."[25] Mr. Ring's
claim was thereupon investigated, and a sub-committee visited the
locality (Driving Creek). On their return, the committee was able
to announce that the sub-committee's report "is satisfactory, in so
far as the existence of gold is concerned, but that the question of
its being sufficiently abundant to be profitably worked is yet in
abeyance."[26] As native rights were involved in connection with the
land, negotiations had to be entered upon before the gold could be
worked. The Government therefore stepped in, and were successful in
their efforts with the natives, of whom the chief was Taniwha, an old
man, who in his boyhood had met Captain Cook, and on November 30th
an agreement was signed regulating the management of the goldfield.
On 11th December the first sale of gold was held by Messrs. Connell
and Ridings, Auckland, and realised £32 1s. In a short time a 'rush'
to Coromandel took place, and about 3000 miners were at work on the
diggings. Between 1857 and 1860 a slump took place, but a revival was
experienced in 1861. During the Maori war another slack period was
felt, but after hostilities had ceased, work was resumed, and has
continued ever since.

Although Coromandel never produced the gold expected from it, it
opened up a new industry, which has grown to a considerable extent,
and has been the means of attracting population to the province, and
has indirectly affected the growth of Auckland, the chief city of the
province.

1853 stands forth a memorable year in the history of New Zealand; for
on the 17th January Governor Grey proclaimed the Constitution Act of
1852, passed by the Imperial Parliament, by which the Dominion obtained
representative institutions. The Act provided for a General Assembly
for the whole Colony, consisting of a Legislative Council and a House
of Representatives. It also abolished the Provinces of New Ulster and
New Munster, which had been set up under the Charter of 1847, and
replaced them by six new provinces, _viz_, Auckland, New Plymouth,
Wellington, Nelson, Canterbury and Otago. The Councils were elective
and were presided over by a superintendent; they had legislative powers
within certain limits. The Provincial Councils lasted until 1876, when
they were abolished by an Act of the General Assembly.

The first session of the Auckland Provincial Council, under the
superintendence of Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, was held on June 30th,
1853, Mr. Thomas Houghton Bartley being appointed Speaker. The maiden
session of the Legislative Council and the House of Representatives
took place simultaneously, on May 24th, 1854, the Queen's Birthday,
in the newly-erected Parliament Building. As befitted the day and the
occasion, the ships in the harbour were decorated. At mid-day a salute
of twenty-one guns was fired at Fort Britomart, and was followed by a
_feu de joie_ delivered by the 58th Regiment in the square of Albert
Barracks. The Speaker of the Upper House was Mr. William Swainson,
and of the Representative chamber, Mr. (_afterwards_ Sir) Charles
Clifford.

[Illustration: New Zealand's First Parliament Building, Erected 1854

The front portion (first gable) was the parliament building. It was
afterwards extended and used by the Auckland University College.]

It is outside the limits of this work to attempt anything like a
parliamentary history, but it may be interesting to remark that the
first Parliament Building erected in New Zealand was situated at the
corner of Eden and Parliament Streets, and that it served Parliament
as a meeting place from the beginning of its career until the removal
of the capital to Wellington. The building continued to be used by
the Provincial Council until the abolition of the provinces, in 1876.
It was afterwards acquired by the Council of the Auckland University
College, by which body it was enlarged, and it served its purpose in
the educational work of the city until 1918, when the buildings were
taken over by the City Council in connection with the proposed new
city outlet from Customs Street. Upon examination, with a view to
re-erecting this historic building on another site, it was found that
the condition was so bad that demolition was the only course. The city
trams now run over the site of New Zealand's first Parliament Building.

Notwithstanding the prosperity which Auckland and the Colony were
experiencing at the opening of the 'sixties, there was serious trouble
threatening with the Maoris. The origin of the dispute, which ended
in warfare, was the land question, some natives refusing to sell land
to the settlers. One result of this dissatisfaction between the Maori
and the pakeha was the conference, which was held at Kohimarama in
July and August, 1860. On the first day of the conference, 112 chiefs
took their seats, and all the principal tribes were represented, with
the exception of the Taranaki tribes, owing to the unsettled state of
that province. Prior to this conference, it had been found necessary
to make arrangements for the defence of Auckland "against any possible
contingency." In a despatch to the Duke of Newcastle, the Governor,
Sir Thomas Gore-Browne, outlined the steps which he had taken with
this object in view. "The town," he states, "is divided into five
districts, each of which is to furnish a company of militia. Those who
have arms of their own will form an inlying picket, and the remainder
will be required to ballot for such arms as the Government is able to
supply. At the present we can furnish sixty stand of arms to each
company.... In addition to the militia, a volunteer force of nearly
400 men, a mounted volunteer troop of about 43 men, 110 [men] of the
65th Regiment and 40 marines will form the garrison of the town.
Blockhouses, or houses rendered musket-proof, will be established round
the town ... and H.M. frigate _Iris_ is now anchored in the harbour.
The outer defences are as follow:--H.M. steam frigate _Niger_, attended
by a gunboat furnished by the local government, is anchored in the
Manukau. Lieutenant-Colonel Kenny ... has been placed in command of
the settlement of Onehunga, and has been directed to protect the Whau
portage and river.... At the portage itself a blockhouse is in course
of erection.... Lieutenant-Colonel Nixon ... has been placed in command
of the pensioner settlement of Otahuhu, Panmure and Howick, and has
been directed to protect the line of the Tamaki from the Waitemata
to the Manukau. A blockhouse is in course of erection on the narrow
neck of land leading to the village of Otahuhu. Five hundred stand of
arms ... have been supplied to this outpost and three hundred to the
outpost on the west...."

The Taranaki campaign, which arose out of the dispute over the Waitara
Block, lasted from March, 1860, to April, 1861. The trouble moved
eastward, the Waikato campaign breaking out in July, 1863, and only
ended with the magnificent defence by the Maoris of Orakau on April 2,
1864. Finally the war was concluded at Tauranga with the engagement at
Te Renga, and on October 25th a proclamation of the Governor officially
closed these wars.

At no time did the scene of hostilities reach the town of Auckland,
but in July, 1863, Mr. Meredith and his son were murdered in barbarous
fashion, and on October 26th of the same year two sons of Mr. Trust
were killed near Howick, about fifteen miles from Auckland.

During the years 1863-64 the entire adult male population of Auckland
was enlisted for compulsory service either in the militia, volunteers
or fire brigade, and had to undergo military training. Some of the
conscripts remained in the barracks both day and night, while others
did duty at the various blockhouses placed on points of vantage
overlooking the district. The blockhouses were situated where the
Auckland Hospital now stands, and at Domain Hill, Parnell, Newmarket,
Karangahape Road, Great North Road, and Freeman's Bay. The coast-line
was also guarded. On July 22nd, 1863, the Auckland First Class Militia
and Volunteers joined the field force, and did duty on the Wairoa
River. In February, 1864, the Second Class of Militia, comprising
business and tradespeople, were ordered on active service, and a
contemporary newspaper feared that, if the enlistments continued, the
shops of the town would have to close and put up notices: "Gone to the
front."

The electric telegraph was introduced into the Auckland Province during
the war of 1863, when a line was erected under great difficulties
between the important military stations at Drury and Queen's Redoubt.
Covering parties were engaged to protect the workers, who were also
armed, in case of emergencies. The first telegraph office erected in
Auckland was a wooden hut, located in the Albert Barracks, just inside
the barracks wall, Symonds Street. This was the terminal of a single
wire which General Cameron had from his office to the Otahuhu Military
Camp near Anne's Bridge. The first operator was Mr. Alex. Brodie, of
the Royal Engineers. About 1866, this office was removed to the Post
Office, Princes Street. By October, 1864, there were 160 miles of
telegraph lines in the province, but communication with Wellington
and the South Island was not established until 1872. Four years later
Australia and Great Britain were brought into telegraphic connection
with New Zealand.

One of the happy results of the war in the Waikato was the discovery
of coal on the banks of the Waikato River, in July, 1863, which
was immediately used on the river-boats engaged in the war. After
hostilities had ceased, the coal fields were exploited, and the
beginning of the successful coal-mining industry at Huntly established.
In March of the following year coal was discovered at Kawakawa, and
from these sources were obtained supplies for the domestic use of
Auckland residents and for the commercial needs of the town and
province.

Another direct result of the war was the inauguration of the railway
system of the North Island, although such a step would have taken place
in due course. The initial movement was made by the Provincial Council
in 1863, when a report was adopted recommending the construction of a
railway between Auckland and Drury, with a branch line to Onehunga.
Tenders were accordingly invited in the following year, the offer
of Messrs. Brogden and Sons, an English firm, being accepted. The
work commenced on 17th February, 1865. Parnell Hill was pierced by a
tunnel on July 31st, 1872, and the Auckland-Onehunga portion of the
line was opened on December 24th, 1873. The Auckland station was then
situated on the harbour at the eastern side of Point Britomart, near
the end of Custom-House Street [now Customs Street]. The growth of the
railway system of the province was slow, and by the end of 1877 only 93
miles had been completed. With the demolition of Point Britomart the
railway station was removed to its present location, being completed
on October 26th, 1885. It would be interesting to trace step by step
the extension of the railway system, as, obviously, it is part of the
history of Auckland, but, in so brief a sketch as this, detail is
impossible. It is worth mentioning, however, that the first Main Trunk
train from Wellington to Auckland arrived on November 6th, 1908, and
that the daily express between here and the capital was inaugurated on
February 14th, 1909.

Travelling overland prior to the introduction of railways, and for many
years after, was conducted by coaches. In the earliest days this means
of locomotion was restricted, but increased with the opening up of the
province and the development of the roads. Thus, in 1867, there was
established a daily service of coaches to Hamilton. The coaches were
of the type known as "Cobb & Co.", an exceedingly picturesque vehicle,
with dickys for the driver and for passengers at the rear. The most
extensive and famous line of coaches were those owned by Messrs. Quick
Bros.

The city and suburban conveyances were at first busses, and, later,
horse-drawn Albert cars. As early as 1864 there was a half-hourly
service of busses to Onehunga.

Early in the 'sixties a regular service of communication was
inaugurated with the North Shore, which has been maintained and
developed until the present time. The first name associated with this
service is Mr. A. Alison, the present manager of the Devonport Steam
Ferry Company, who, in 1861, inaugurated a ferry in open boats, making
two trips a day, which obtained until superseded by a three-trip
service introduced by Messrs. Holmes Bros., who owned the hotel at
Devonport, and subsequently formed a company to run the steamer
_Waitemata_ in 1864. The following year the _Enterprise_ was launched.
This boat, small in size as compared with a modern ferry, was capable
of carrying 200 passengers, and had accommodation in her two saloons
for fifty persons. She did the trip from Auckland to the Shore in
twenty minutes, and kept up a regular service between 7.30 a.m. and
8 p.m. The earlier boat, _Waitemata_, was enlarged by having her bow
and stern cut off and replaced, and was then put into commission as
_Enterprise No. 2_. Soon afterwards she was sold to a Thames company
for work in connection with the gold discovery. Holmes Bros., in turn,
met with opposition from a company styled the Auckland and North Shore
Ferry Company, which built and ran the _Takapuna_ and other boats,
ousting them and acquiring their plant. There were also other rivals,
who did not, however, last long. In 1881, Messrs. Quick and Alison
formed an opposition company, and commenced building the _Victoria_.
They also invited tenders for a second vessel, but before the tenders
were received the Auckland and North Shore Company sold out. Messrs.
Alison and Quick did not remain long in partnership, and in the same
year the Devonport Steam Ferry Company was formed, and has carried on
the ferry services ever since, which now include practically all parts
of the harbour.

The effects of the war were felt in Auckland in various ways. At first
there was confusion and consternation among the inhabitants, which
feelings were allayed by the arrival of troops and the passing of the
danger of invasion. Notwithstanding the business and commerce of the
city continued to increase. At the conclusion of the war a reaction
set in, and distress through unemployment became acute, especially
among newly-arrived immigrants. The population of the city at the
census taken in December, 1861, was 7989 persons, and three years
later had grown to 12,423, a very large increase in so short a time.
The rush to the Otago goldfields, however, began to draw numbers of
the population south, and the removal of the seat of Government, in
1865, was responsible for the loss of the Government officers and civil
servants. During the two following years, 1866 and 1867, most of the
Imperial regiments which had taken part in the Maori wars returned to
England, taking with them their wives and families, further reducing
the population. The last of the troops to leave Auckland was the 18th
(Royal Irish) Regiment, which departed at the beginning of 1870. The
survivors of this regiment hold a reunion annually in Auckland on
July 4th, the anniversary of their arrival in New Zealand. By 1867
the inhabitants had decreased to 11,153. Auckland was passing through
a bad period, while its rival on the Cook Straits, and Dunedin and
Christchurch were progressing rapidly.

The record of the banks which opened business in this period shows
clearly the progress which the city was making. In 1861 two new banks
began operations. The Bank of New South Wales was opened in Shortland
Street on 11th June, and continued to carry on the business of the
branch of the Oriental Bank Corporation, which had been established in
the city some years previously. On February 21st, 1884, the building in
Queen Street was opened, where the business is still carried on. The
architects were Messrs. Armson, Collins and Lloyd, of Christchurch, and
the contractor Mr. Philcox, of Auckland. The building cost £11,500.
The Bank of New Zealand, an entirely local concern, commenced business
on 16th October. A contemporary newspaper emphasised this aspect, and
stated that the business was being conducted "with colonial capital,
with colonial shareholders ... and with colonial customers in every
city and province of New Zealand vitally interested in its success."
The initial capital was £500,000. Mr. A. Kennedy, formerly manager of
the New Zealand Banking Company and of the Union Bank of Australia, was
its first manager. The original premises were in Queen Street, near
Durham Street East, formerly occupied by T. S. Forsaith. The building
now used was opened towards the end of 1867, and ranks as one of the
finest examples of architecture in the city. The architect was Mr.
Leonard Terry, of Melbourne, and the builder was Mr. R. Dickson. Mr.
Richard Keals was supervising architect. The first twenty-five years
of the bank's history were years of prosperity. A strained situation
was revealed in 1887, and for the next seven years the bank underwent a
series of reverses, ending in the loss of the whole of the capital and
reserves and one-third of the reserve liability. In 1894 the Government
came to the rescue of the bank, and since then its progress has been
well maintained, and it now occupies an assured position. The head
office is now in Wellington; there is, of course, a London office, and,
in addition to branches everywhere in New Zealand, there are offices
in Australia, Fiji and Samoa. Three years later, 1864, two other banks
made their advent. One of them, the Bank of Auckland, was another local
undertaking, which did not meet with the success that the Bank of New
Zealand was to experience. It was opened for business in the premises
formerly occupied by the Union Bank in Shortland Street, but collapsed
at the end of March, 1867. The other was an Australian company, the
Bank of Australasia, which opened its head branch in New Zealand here,
occupying premises in Shortland Street adjoining the Post Office. Later
it removed to Queen Street, where it still carries on business.

Another indication of the growing business prosperity of Auckland was
shown in the establishment of the New Zealand Fire and Marine Insurance
Company, which came into existence on May 26th, 1859, as the result of
the enterprise of some of Auckland's leading business men. The original
capital was £100,000, which was guaranteed by the first shareholders,
in sums of from £2000 to £5000. To detail the history of this concern,
which has grown to world-wide dimensions, would necessitate more space
than could be afforded; but it is worth relating that its first office
was located at the corner of Shortland and Queen Streets in premises
known as Fraser's Buildings. From 1871 till 1915 the business of the
company was carried on in a two-storeyed building, over which was
erected a clock tower, which became quite a feature of Queen Street.
In the latter year this building was demolished, and upon its site
was erected the present handsome edifice of seven storeys. Mr. W. H.
Gummer, A.R.I.B.A., was the architect, and Messrs. Grevatt and Sons the
contractors. The building cost £110,000.

The shipbuilding industry of Auckland appears to have commenced
somewhere in the late 'forties, but the records of this interesting
subject are either negligible or non-existent. Amongst the earliest
boatbuilders mention must be made of Messrs. Henry Niccol, Holmes
Bros., Alex. Duthie, Wm. J. Brown, Captain McCoy, and Mr. Stone, whose
yards seem to have been kept busy. To the latter belongs the credit
of building the first steamboat in New Zealand, which was launched
at Freeman's Bay on December 24th, 1851. She was named (contrary to
her sex) _Governor Wynyard_. Her dimensions were as follows: Length
over all, 60 feet; beam, 13 feet 6 inches; depth of hold, 6 feet;
burthen, 43 tons; draught of water with engines and fuel, 2 feet 6
inches. She was propelled by two steeple engines of 4 horse-power
each. The designers were Messrs. Stone and Gardiner, the engine being
constructed by Mr. Bourne. The steamer made her first trip to Panmure
on January 19th, 1852, in very trying weather, and acquitted herself
satisfactorily to all concerned. She developed a speed of eight knots.
From a commercial point of view the boat was not a success, and was
sold later in that year to a Melbourne firm. On the Yarra she proved a
great "moneymaker," as she earned as much as £80 in a day.

[Illustration: Auckland, 1876

Showing Fort Britomart in course of demolition

_W. C. Wilson, delt._]

At what date Mr. Niccol commenced his business the writer has not
been able to find out, but he was engaged on shipbuilding in the
'fifties, during which period he built a vessel named the _Moa_. He
also constructed a number of vessels for Australian owners and for the
proprietors of the Circular Saw Line. One of the boats belonging to
the latter, of which we have knowledge, was the barque _Novelty_, which
was launched from Mr. Niccol's yard, Mechanics Bay, on 11th October,
1862. She was the largest vessel built in Auckland up to that time--a
record which still holds in local shipbuilding, as far as the writer's
knowledge obtains. Her dimensions were: Length over all, 147 feet;
beam, 27 feet 6 inches; depth of hold, 14 feet 9 inches; registered
tonnage, 376 tons. The christening of the vessel was performed by Miss
Macfarlane, daughter of one of the owners, in traditional fashion, and
the event, as befitted its importance, was celebrated by a banquet. The
_Novelty_ was a well-designed and faithfully-built vessel, and did good
service for her owners. She did the voyage from Auckland to Sydney in
five days.

No sketch of Auckland's shipping history would be complete without
some reference, however brief, to the Circular Saw Line, which was
established by Messrs. Henderson and Macfarlane, two of Auckland's
pioneers. Mr. Henderson arrived in New Zealand in 1842, and some years
later he was joined by Mr. Macfarlane. About 1846 they established a
timber business at Henderson, and later erected a mill there. Among the
places to which they exported kauri was Mauritius, the vessels which
took the timber returning with cargoes of sugar. It may have been this
enterprise which encouraged them to establish the fleet some time in
the 'fifties. Commencing with the brig _Spenser_, Mr. Henderson made
the first trip to Melbourne. While there he purchased the schooner
_Will o' the Wisp_, and established the inter-colonial trade. The
brigs (of which class of vessel he owned six) and barques (of which no
fewer than fifteen flew the flag of this line) were employed in the
inter-colonial and 'Frisco services. The schooners, numbering fourteen,
did the Island trade. Before the dissolution of the line in 1875, four
steamers were added to the fleet, which were bought from the Panama
Company. These vessels were placed in the New Zealand coastal service,
plying from Onehunga.

In the 'fifties and 'sixties there were a number of cutters and
schooners, owned and manned by Maoris, which traded between Auckland
and various ports on the East Coast, sailing as far south as the Bay of
Plenty. White traders also participated in the coastal trade, amongst
whom was Mr. H. J. Wadham, stevedore, of Auckland, who owned a number
of fine vessels, drawings of which have recently been presented to the
Old Colonists' Museum.

During the first two or three decades of the port's history, most of
the shipping was by sail, and as the movements of these sailers were
erratic, a continuous record is a rather difficult matter. With the
advent of steam in the 'fifties, and its development in the following
years, a more satisfactory account is possible.

Besides the Circular Saw Line we have records of other ships.[27] The
_Wonga Wonga_, a steamer of 67 tons, was owned by a number of Auckland
merchants, who placed the vessel on the Whangarei service in 1857.
After a few months running she was sold to the Wellington Steamship
Company and placed in the Wellington-Nelson service; later, during
the Taranaki war, she was chartered at £60 a day to carry despatches
between Onehunga and Taranaki. Her career ended on 22nd May, 1866, when
she was wrecked off Greymouth. Early in the 'sixties the _Rangatira_
arrived in Auckland, having been built at Home for local owners.
Shortly afterwards the steamers _Corio_ and _Ahuriri_ entered the
Auckland-Napier trade. In 1864 services were opened to Coromandel,
North Auckland, and the Waikato (_via_ Onehunga). Altogether, there
were in 1868 fourteen steamers trading from Auckland. The opening
of the Thames goldfield in 1867 gave an impetus to the trade of the
port, and Mr. S. Hague Smith placed a number of steamers on this run,
including the _Duke of Edinburgh_ (Captain W. Farquhar) and _Royal
Albert_ (Captain Alex. Farquhar), the latter vessel having been built
at Niccol's yard, North Shore, her engines being taken from the _Prince
Alfred_, and her boiler manufactured at Sydney, from plans prepared by
Mr. James Stewart, of Auckland, civil engineer. Other boats engaged on
this service were the _Favourite_, the _Williams_ (218 tons), and the
_Golden Crown_. In 1873 Mr. Smith sold his fleet to the Auckland Steam
Packet Company.

The first regular inter-colonial service between New South Wales and
New Zealand was inaugurated by the _William Denny_ (595 tons), in
1854. She was wrecked at North Cape, March 3rd, 1857. In 1859 the
Inter-Colonial Royal Mail Steamship Company took up the Australian run,
the _Prince Alfred_ (1100 tons) being one of the fleet engaged. This
company maintained the service until 1866, when the Panama, New Zealand
and Australian Line superseded it, absorbing its fleet. The object of
the new company, which held a monopoly of the mails, was to connect
Australia and New Zealand with the continent of Europe, _via_ Panama. A
rearrangement of the inter-colonial service was made, so as to connect
with the trans-Pacific steamers. This arrangement lasted till 1869. The
year following a temporary service between Sydney and San Francisco was
inaugurated, Auckland being the port of call, the following ships being
engaged in it, _viz_, _Rangatira_ and _Balclutha_, which were soon
replaced by the _City of Melbourne_ and _Wonga Wonga_.

The year 1854 also saw the establishment of a regular inter-provincial
steamer service. The _Nelson_ (330 tons, Captain Martin) was the
pioneer vessel, Dunedin and Onehunga being the terminal ports, and New
Plymouth, Nelson, Wellington and Lyttelton ports of call. In 1855 the
_Zingari_ (150 tons, Captain Milltown) replaced the _Nelson_. Other
steamers engaged during this period on the coastal routes were the
_Claud Hamilton_ and the _White Swan_, which was wrecked on June 29th,
1862, a number of public records belonging to the Government being lost.

The Inter-Colonial R.M.S. Company met with opposition in the coastal
service from the New Zealand Steam Navigation Company, which had been
formed upon the liquidation of the Wellington Steamship Company, in
1863, the following steamers being used in the running of the service,
_viz_, _Stormbird_, _Wellington_ and _Queen_.

Another line which traded between Dunedin and Auckland was the
Adelaide, Melbourne and Otago S.N. Company, which placed the
_Alhambra_ (642 tons) and _Aldinga_ (446 tons) on this run.

The wreck of H.M.S. _Orpheus_ on the Manukau Bar on February 7th, 1863,
was the most appalling disaster associated with Auckland's shipping
annals. The _Orpheus_ (Commodore W. F. Burnett) was a corvette of 1706
tons, which had been detailed for service on the New Zealand station.
She sailed from Sydney on January 31st, and reached the Manukau Heads
on 7th February. In attempting to cross the bar the vessel "struck
hard, and orders were given to back astern full speed. The engines
never moved; the ship fell off broadside to the rollers, the sea
knocking away her stern post, port bulwarks and boats, and making a
clean sweep over all." A cutter containing the ship's records, and a
pinnace got safely away. After the pinnace had left the ship, "the
launch was got over the side with forty men to lay out anchors, in the
hope of making grapplings to haul into smooth water. The ebb-tide,
unhappily, swept her under the bows, where she was stove, and nearly
all on board drowned." The pinnace, however, was able to get into
touch with the steamer _Wonga Wonga_, and later with H.M.S. _Harrier_,
and the few survivors from the wreck were picked up by the former
vessel. About 6.30 p.m. the masts went, and the ship parted in halves.
A contemporary account of the disaster states that the officers and men
underwent the terrible ordeal in heroic fashion, and "when the masts
went the crew gave three cheers, as if taking farewell of life." Out
of a ship's company of 256 officers, seamen, boys and marines, only 71
survived. The remains of some of the crew, including the commodore,
which were washed ashore, were interred in Symonds Street cemetery. The
disaster created consternation in the city, and a day of mourning was
observed in memory of those who lost their lives.

Auckland buildings of the 'fifties and 'sixties were, with few
exceptions, constructed of wood, and fires were of constant occurrence.
In those days, fire-fighting appliances were of a most elementary
character, consisting of buckets, and, later, of reels and what would
now be considered very primitive fire engines. There was a volunteer
fire brigade, and water could only be procured from wells or from
the sea. Under such circumstances, it is not surprising that fires
were common events; indeed, had the town been completely wiped out
by fire it would not have been too great a surprise, considering the
conditions. What is remarkable is that no fatalities attended the
outbreaks.

The most serious fire which had occurred up to this time was that which
broke out at two o'clock on the morning of the 7th of July, 1858. It
originated at the Osprey Inn, High Street, and, fanned by a strong
north-easterly gale, the fire soon covered an area bounded by Chancery,
High, Shortland and O'Connell Streets. But for a providential change
in the direction of the wind and the coming of rain, which soaked the
adjacent buildings, the fire might have caused even greater damage.
As it was the conflagration was only arrested in Shortland Street by
the voluntary blowing up of Mr. Keesing's house, thus making a gap in
the direction the fire was taking. Before dawn the flames had consumed
fifty houses, mostly belonging to tradespeople, rendering their plight
deplorable. So rapid was the progress of the fire that the inhabitants
had merely time to save themselves, in many cases clothed only in night
attire. Although the damage was so considerable, the Volunteer Fire
Brigade and the officers and men of the 58th Regiment earned credit for
their expeditious and willing help. The fire-fighters carried out their
work wrapped in blankets, over which water was constantly poured to
save them from the heat of the flames.

The second large fire experienced in Auckland took place in the early
hours of January 17th, 1863. Commencing in the premises occupied by
Messrs. Morrin & Co., at the corner of Queen Street and Durham Street
East, it spread rapidly, and soon stretched to Victoria Street and High
Street. In its course it destroyed the Thistle Hotel, the Greyhound,
Y.M.C.A., the old theatre, and other buildings. It even threatened
the buildings on the opposite sides of Queen and High Streets. The
Volunteer Fire Brigade was assisted by military from the barracks, and
the sailors from the French warship _Bonite_ earned well-deserved
credit for their services and daring deeds. Fortunately, a light wind
was blowing, or the losses, which were serious enough--amounting,
it was estimated, to £60,000--would have been greater. Many of the
sufferers by the fire were succoured and accommodated in the barracks
for a time.

Two years later (January 18th, 1865) another big fire broke out in
Queen Street, in premises occupied by Mr. J. S. Macfarlane, known
as Henderson and Macfarlane's Buildings. Luckily, the outbreak was
confined to the two upper storeys, which were, however, completely
gutted. The fire was both brilliant and spectacular, and attracted
enormous crowds, which had to be kept back from the building by
soldiers with fixed bayonets.

Queen Street was again the scene of a fire which fills the annals of
1866. This conflagration commenced about 10 p.m. on August 28th in
Lower Queen Street, on the western side, almost on the waterfront,
and in less than fifteen minutes from the alarm being given twelve
buildings were in flames. The fire was noticed first in the premises
occupied by Messrs. Malcolm, sail makers, but so swift was its progress
that in the short period mentioned it had obtained a hold of so many
buildings. The flames ignited the buildings on the eastern side of
Queen Street, but this incipient outbreak was rapidly suppressed. The
damage was estimated at £20,000. The newspapers of the time give praise
to the Volunteer Fire Brigade, whose engines and equipment had become
improved.

On 31st March of the same year a gale, accompanied by heavy rains,
which caused floods, did a very great amount of damage, estimated also
at £20,000. It was the severest gale which the town of Auckland had
experienced. Nine vessels and a coal hulk were sunk in the harbour, and
many others were severely damaged, or caused injury to the wharves.
The heavy seas which broke on the waterfront destroyed property,
particularly at Mr. Stone's shipbuilding yard at the Strand. The town
suffered from the rain, which, gaining entrance to stores and cellars,
damaged merchandise and stores.

On April 15th, 1865, lighting by gas was introduced into Auckland.
It was an event of great importance to the citizens of the time. The
_New Zealand Herald_ describes how the innovation was received:--"A
large proportion of the city population had assembled in the streets
to welcome the advent of the 'New Light,' and the _début_ of the
much-longed-for novelty may be considered to have been quite as
_brilliant_ as that of any star that has appeared among us for a long
time. In fact, Queen Street was thronged until an advanced hour of
the evening with moving crowds of gazers, who seemed never to weary
of staring at the unwonted spectacle presented to them, while there
were occasional 'rushes' into some of the other streets, as the
report spread of some particularly effective illumination or of some
establishment whose meter had come to grief, and left it in sudden and
ignoble obscurity."

Previous to the introduction of gas for lighting, oil and candles had
been used. In the Old Colonists' Museum there may be seen an apparatus
for making candles. Every household had one of these.

The first Royal visit to Auckland took place in 1869, when Prince
Alfred, the second son of Queen Victoria, better known as the Duke
of Edinburgh, arrived in the Waitemata, on May 8th, on board H.M.S.
_Galatea_. He was even more popularly known as the Sailor Prince. The
_Galatea_ was the largest ship which had visited the harbour, her
tonnage being 3227 tons. She employed both sail and steam. The visit
naturally created excitement amongst the population of the city and
district. As became the occasion, the city was beflagged and decorated
with bunting, greenery, triumphal arches, and with illuminations
known as transparencies. The harbour, too, presented a picturesque
appearance. The fleet in port numbered 92 vessels, totalling 9252 tons,
exclusive of H.M.Ss. _Challenger_, _Galatea_ and _Virago_, and small
sailing craft. All were gaily decorated.

On Monday, the 10th, the official landing took place. Military
detachments, both regulars and volunteers, were present from various
parts of the province and from the city. Conspicuous among the people
congregated on the wharf were a large number of Maoris from the West
Coast, who had assisted the Imperial troops in the recent wars. The
18th (Royal Irish) Regiment, with its band, formed the guard of honour.

Owing to a disturbing wind, a marine demonstration which had been
projected was abandoned. The weather, however, did not deter the
Maoris, in native costume, from embarking in their canoes and welcoming
the Duke in traditional fashion.

A Royal salute of twenty-one guns announced the departure of His Royal
Highness from the _Galatea_, and in a short time he reached the wharf,
where he was welcomed to Auckland by the Governor, Sir George Ferguson
Bowen, who was attended by the naval and military officers, members of
Parliament, officials, the clergy, citizens, and natives. An address of
welcome was read by Mr. John Williamson, Superintendent, on behalf of
the Province of Auckland, which was followed by an address of welcome
by the Chief Paul on behalf of the natives. As the Duke walked along
the wharf, a contingent of between 500 and 600 Maoris danced a haka in
honour of the Royal visitor.

At Custom-House Street the City Commissioners presented, through
their chairman, an address of welcome on behalf of the citizens. The
formalities having been thus observed, a procession was formed, and the
distinguished visitor drove through streets gaily decorated, to receive
a popular welcome. At Government House, where the cavalcade came to its
destination, members of friendly societies and other organisations were
drawn up to welcome the Prince. Here, also, some 1500 school children
sang the National Anthem. Later in the day a _levée_ was held.

Only one incident occurred to mar the rejoicings. During the firing
of the salute on the _Galatea_ a sailor was blown overboard.
Sub-lieutenant O'Connor jumped into the water and rescued the
unfortunate man, who was found to have had his right arm so injured
as to necessitate amputation. His left hand was entirely blown away,
except one finger.

The Duke remained in Auckland until June 1st, delaying his departure
in the hope of being able to assist in settling the native trouble.
However, he had to leave without any result accruing from his
well-intentioned purpose. He was _fêted_ in the usual way, but the most
important public function with which his name is connected was the
opening of the Auckland Grammar School.[28]

[Illustration: Auckland in 1884

View taken from Hobson and Wellesley Streets]

The Auckland Grammar School, which was a most unpretentious affair, was
opened by the Duke of Edinburgh on May 17th, 1869. The building, which
was situated in Howe Street, off Karangahape Road, had been used as
an Emigrants' Home. The staff consisted of the Head Master, the Rev.
Robert Kidd, B.A., LL.D., and five other masters. On May 1st, 1871
the school was transferred to the Albert Barracks, into the building
subsequently used as Police Barracks. At this transfer Mr. Farquhar
Macrae became Head Master, with Dr. Kidd as Classical Master, the total
staff being increased to nine. Here the school remained till June,
1878. On July 8th of this year the school was removed to the District
Court, Eden Street, now demolished, but the building proved inadequate,
and extra accommodation had to be found in an old Maori Chapel in
Parliament Street, and in St. Andrew's School, Symonds Street. During
Sir George Grey's premiership a grant of £5000 was made for erecting
a new building, which was supplemented by £3000 from Grammar School
funds. With these combined sums the Symonds Street building was
erected in 1879, and was opened by Sir George Grey on 5th February,
1880. In 1882 Mr. C. F. Bourne succeeded Mr. Macrae as Head Master,
which position he held until 1892. The following year the present Head
Master of the school, Mr. James William Tibbs, M.A., was appointed.
In 1888 the Girls' College, founded by Mr. Neil Heath, and carried on
by him for some years in the old Wesley College, Queen Street, was
united to the Grammar School, and the girls were transferred to the
Symonds Street building. Here the girls remained under Mr. Tibbs until
1906, when the Board of Governors decided to place them under a Head
Mistress, and to erect a building for their sole use. Miss Whitelaw
was appointed to the position, and on April 8th, 1909, the new school
in Howe Street, known as the Girls' Grammar School, was opened by the
Hon. George Fowlds, Minister of Education. Miss Whitelaw retired from
the Head Mistressship in 1910, and was succeeded by Miss Butler in the
following year. Miss Butler held the position until 1920. Miss Picken
is the present Head Mistress. The increase in the number of students
attending the school was so large that another school was opened at
Epsom in 1917. Miss Morrison is in charge of this school.

The Boys' Grammar School also continued to increase, and about 1910
steps were taken to obtain a larger site and a modern building. In 1915
the Government granted a site occupying 15 acres in Mountain Road, on
which the present building was erected. It was officially opened on
26th April, 1916, by the Governor, the Earl of Liverpool. In addition
to class rooms, etc., designed to accommodate about 800 boys, it has
ample playing grounds. Messrs. Arnold and Abbott were the architects,
and Mr. W. E. Hutchison the contractor for the building, which cost
£31,450 to erect. Although only five years have elapsed since the
opening of the new school, the accommodation is inadequate for the
number of boys desiring secondary education, and a new school is under
construction at Mount Albert to meet the demand.

Another institution of an educational character began its career in
this period. This was the Auckland Museum, which was opened on October
24th, 1852, in a small four-roomed cottage in Grafton Road. Dr.
Andrew Sinclair was the moving spirit in the young museum, and upon
his death its activity languished. In 1859 Dr. Hochstetter renovated
the collection, but it again fell into neglect. Captain F. W. Hutton
resuscitated the museum, and under his supervision it was removed, in
1867, to the Provincial Government Offices (where the Northern Club
now stands). The following year it was amalgamated with the Auckland
Institute, which had been established in 1867. Through the influence
of Mr. Justice Gillies a site at the corner of Princes Street and Eden
Crescent, with the buildings which had been used as a Post Office, was
secured, and to these inadequate premises the collection was removed.
In 1876 the present building was opened. The increase of the collection
has rendered this building unequal to the development of the museum,
and a new building, which will combine the purpose of a War Memorial
and Museum, is to be erected in the Domain.

Church development was a feature of this period. St. Matthew's Church
was constituted a parish in 1853, the school which stood on the site of
the present church being used for the purpose. Later a wooden building
was erected, which was superseded in 1905, when the new church was
opened on March 7th of that year. This building, which occupies one
of the most commanding positions in the city, was designed by Mr. F.
L. Pearson, F.R.I.B.A., and cost £27,000 to erect. The foundation
stone was laid on the 23rd of April, 1902, with full Masonic honours.
Messrs. Malcolm and Ferguson were the contractors, and Mr. E. Bartley
supervising architect. The stone used in the construction came from the
Oamaru and Mount Somers quarries. The principal dimensions are: length,
151 feet; width (transept), 100 feet; height from floor to ceiling, 70
feet; height of tower, 147 feet.

St. Mary's pro-Cathedral, Parnell, was dedicated by Bishop Selwyn
on October 14th, 1860, Archdeacon G. S. Kissling being the first
incumbent. The foundation stone of the present building was laid by the
Primate (Bishop Harper) on February 6th, 1886. The building was not
completed until 1898, when it was dedicated by Bishop Cowie, Archdeacon
Macmurray being the vicar. The church was designed by Mr. B. W.
Mountfoot, and was built by Mr. R. R. Ross.

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was established in 1865 in a temporary
building on land adjoining the Auckland cemetery. In 1881 the present
building in Khyber Pass Road was opened, on 29th June, by Bishop Cowie.
It cost over £5000. Messrs. Mahoney and Sons were the architects, and
Mr. James the contractor.

All Saints, Ponsonby, was opened on December 21st, 1866, by Bishop
Selwyn, who was responsible for the services for some time afterwards.
The building has been enlarged since the original structure was erected.

After the erection of St. Patrick's Cathedral, no additions to the
Roman Catholic churches were made until 1866, when Bishop Pompallier
built the Church of S. Francis de Sales in the cemetery, near the
corner of Symonds and East Streets. This old church was replaced by St.
Benedinct's Church, which was opened on July 23, 1882, Dr. Redwood,
Bishop of Wellington, officiating at the consecration. The building,
which was constructed of kauri, was built by Mr. T. Colebrook, from
the plans of Messrs. Mahoney and Sons, and cost over £6000. It was
destroyed by fire on 18th December, 1886. In a little over a year the
present brick church was completed, and was opened by Bishop Luck, in
the presence of Dr. Redwood, on 22nd April, 1888. Messrs. Mahoney and
Sons were again the architects, and Mr. J. J. Holland the builder. The
interior decorations in both buildings were the work of Father Luck.
The cost of the land upon which the church is built was £1150, and the
building, excluding furniture, £5950.

For ten years after the opening of St. Andrew's, the Presbyterians
did not add to their number of churches. The first outgrowth of St.
Andrew's was St. James's, Wellington Street, which was erected to a
charge in 1860, the services being carried on in the school house. The
present building was opened on March 26th, 1865. It was designed by Mr.
T. B. Cameron, and was built by Mr. Andrew Clow, the contract price
being £2500.

St. David's Church has had an interesting history. In 1864 the session
of St. Andrew's erected a preaching station at the junction of Khyber
Pass Road and Symonds Street, and named it St. David's Church. Rev.
James Wallis was the first minister, and under his care the church
flourished until 1867, when a division arose in the congregation,
leading to its abandonment. After a lapse of ten years it was
re-established and re-opened on 10th March, 1878. Shortly afterwards
St. David's was elevated to a session. In 1880 the present church was
erected in Symonds Street, in the allotment at the front of the old
building, by Mr. James Heron, from the plans of Mr. E. Bartley. It was
removed to its present location in 1902.

The first Baptist Church in Auckland was formed in 1855. A chapel
and schoolroom were erected in Wellesley Street at the corner of
Chapel Street. About 1880 Mr. Thomas Spurgeon, a son of the famous
evangelical preacher, became pastor. The congregation had now grown
to such dimensions that the Choral Hall was requisitioned for the
Sunday evening service, and proved too small. It was thereupon decided
to build the Tabernacle. This building was opened on May 12th, 1885.
The building, which is Corinthian in style, was designed by Mr.
Edmund Bell, the contractor being Mr. J. J. Holland. It cost £14,000,
including furnishings.

The Wesleyan denomination erected two churches during this period,
one in Pitt Street, the other in Grafton Road. The former was opened
for worship on the 4th of October, 1866. Wesley Hall, adjoining the
church, was erected in 1877, and is used as a schoolroom. Including
the parsonage, the buildings belonging to this church cost £20,000 to
erect. The Grafton Road Church was erected in 1866, and was replaced by
a new building, which was dedicated to public worship in July, 1885.
The Helping Hand Mission was instituted in the early 'eighties, and in
1885 the hall in Drake Street was opened.

The Congregational Church was founded in 1851, and the first church was
situated in High Street, and existed till 1876. The premier church,
however, is Beresford Street Church, which was established in March
of the following year, the services being held in Shamrock Cottage,
Albert Street. A church was erected close to this cottage in 1854, and
was called the Albert Street Congregational Church. The present church
was erected in 1876, and is reputed to be the first concrete building
erected in Auckland. The Newton Church, Edinburgh Street, was founded
in 1864.

The first Primitive Methodist Church was built in Alexandra Street in
1851, on a site given by Governor Sir George Grey. Prior to union with
the Wesleyan denomination there were two circuits in connection with
this Church, of which the Alexandra Street Church was the chief centre;
the other centre was the Franklin Road Church. Upon the union taking
place the Church became The Methodist Church of New Zealand.

The Jewish community opened its first church in Emily Place in 1858.
Rabbi Elkin was the first minister. He was succeeded in 1881 by the
present minister, Rabbi Goldstein. The Synagogue in Princes Street was
opened in 1885.

The Auckland Y.M.C.A. was founded by Mr. R. B. Shalders, and its first
building--a mere four walls--was erected in the founder's garden,
Chapel Street, in 1855. Next year the association procured larger
premises in Durham Street, which were destroyed by the fire of January
17th, 1863. The third building was erected in 1868 at the corner of
Albert and Wellesley Streets, and occupied two floors. On the same site
the fourth building (a four-storeyed one) was erected in 1886. Mr. P.
F. M. Burrows was the architect. The present building was opened by
the Governor, the Earl of Liverpool, on April 30th, 1913. Mr. Alex.
Wiseman was the architect, and Messrs Grevatt and Sons the contractors.
The sister institution--the Y.W.C.A.--was not founded until 1878.
From that date until 1903 the association used rented premises. In
1903 a building, originally designed for a warehouse, was acquired in
Wellesley Street East, where it carried on its activities until the
present premises in Upper Queen Street, designed by Mr. W. H. Gummer,
A.R.I.B.A., were opened in 1918.



Chapter III

_Progress and a Slump_: 1871-1900


The three decades from the 'seventies to the 'nineties are characterised
by distinct features. At the opening period the city, which was just
recovering from the effects of the Maori War, was making steady
progress. This advance culminated in a boom in the 'eighties, which
brought forth the usual sequel in the following decade--a financial
crisis, from which it recovered before the opening of the new century.
The official census reflects these features. The population of the city
in 1871 was 12,937, an increase of 4948 over the figures of 1861. In
1881 the number had risen to 16,664, an increase in ten years of 3727.
Five years later the residents of Auckland City totalled 33,161, an
accession to the population of a hundred per cent. In 1891 the number
had diminished to 28,613, but was again on the up-grade in 1896, the
population at that date being 31,424, and before the end of the
'nineties it had approximated to the number of people which the city
contained in 1886, fourteen years previously.

The phenomenal increase in the population of New Zealand in the
mid-'seventies was due largely to the control of immigration passing
from the provincial councils to the general government, and the
vigorous policy inaugurated by it. In 1874 and 1875 no fewer than
50,000 immigrants arrived in the Dominion. Judging by the census
returns, the city did not gain largely by this influx of immigrants,
although the provincial figures show that the country profited by it.
The South Island was the greater gainer during these years, due mainly
to the prosperity following upon the discovery of gold and to the
better social and economic conditions which existed there. The South
Island had no Maori War to unsettle it.

The first half of the 'eighties, however, found the Auckland Province
booming, and in this prosperity the city shared. The progress, however,
was too rapid to be healthy; it was not built upon steady work, but
was in the nature of speculation, particularly in land, which could
not be characterised as wise. The inevitable happened; financial
undertakings, great and small, became involved, and many succumbed.
Amongst such institutions, the Bank of New Zealand, with its New
Zealand shareholders, was numbered. Its failure would have brought
ruin or serious hardship to many people, and the manner in which the
Government of the day came to the rescue has already been indicated (p.
109). During the depression many residents sold out and emigrated to
Australia, or elsewhere, some permanently, others temporarily. Houses
and shops everywhere became vacant, and rents became absurdly low. In
some cases people shut up their houses, boarded over doors and windows,
and went away. The young city was experiencing the most serious
reverse in its history, but the speed with which it recovered itself
demonstrated its vitality.

       *       *       *       *       *

With the advent of the 'seventies, Auckland may be said to have arrived
at the modern period; the previous thirty years being now looked
upon as the colonising era. In 1871 the city was constituted by
Proclamation under "The Municipal Corporations Act, 1867," and in the
same year the Auckland Harbour Board, to which the administration of
the port was delegated by an Act of Parliament of the previous year,
held its first meeting.

The boundaries of the city had been defined in "The City Board Act,
1863," and were confirmed in the Proclamation of 1871. They were as
follows:--Stanley Street, Symonds Street, Karangahape Road, Ponsonby
Road, and Franklin Road. From this small area--some 623 acres--it has
grown by the amalgamation of adjacent districts. The first addition
was made in 1882, when the highway districts of Ponsonby (755 acres),
Karangahape (139 acres) and Grafton (88 acres) were annexed to the
city. Until 1913 the boundaries remained stationary, but from that date
the following districts have joined the city:--Arch Hill, 1st January,
1913 (154 acres); Parnell, 15th February, 1913 (490 acres); Grey Lynn,
1st July, 1914 (900 acres); Remuera, 1st March, 1915 (2520 acres);
Eden Terrace, 1st October, 1915 (95 acres); Epsom, 1st February, 1917,
(860 acres), and Point Chevalier, 1st April, 1921 (1220 acres). The
city now extends over 7844 acres.

[Illustration: Calliope Dock, opened 16th February, 1888

H.M.Ss. Calliope and Diamond in the dock]

The urgency and necessity of a satisfactory system of local government
may be estimated by the unhappy condition of the city with regard to
its water supply. The only water obtainable prior to 1869 (apart from
rain-water stored in barrels, etc., by householders) was drawn from the
various wells, fed by springs. In January, 1872, owing to a drought,
water was sold in the streets by hawkers. This state of affairs
resulted in the Corporation arranging to pump 30,000 gallons of water
daily from Seccombe's Well, Khyber Pass Road. The water was stored in
a small reservoir, situated on the top of the Domain Hill, the remains
of which are still visible. Later, in 1875, the City Council purchased,
for £20,000, Western Springs, from which source the city's water supply
was obtained for many years. At this period the Council did not embrace
the same wide field of activity which it does now; road formation,
water and sewerage being the principal undertakings.

New City Markets were opened on June 20th, 1873, the foundation stone
having been laid on November 11th of the preceding year. The Mayor (Mr.
P. A. Philips) performed both ceremonies. The building cost £10,000,
and was used until the present markets were completed in 1917 and 1918.

Auckland's first trams, which were horse-drawn, and were conducted by a
company, commenced running on August 11, 1884. The route traversed was
from the Waitemata Hotel by Queen Street to the Ponsonby reservoir, and
the fare was threepence.

The building of the Public Library and Art Gallery was an event in the
history of the city, and was indicative of the desire for knowledge and
advancement which was a feature of the time. The Mechanics' Institute
had fallen on evil days, and the City Council acquired the premises,
stock and freehold in 1880. The building, part of which was then some
38 years old, was not in good repair, nor was it large enough for the
purposes of an up-to-date library. Two years after the founding of the
Public Library, Sir George Grey offered to present his books, pictures
and curios to the city. The City Council thereupon decided to erect
a building which would suitably house these and other collections.
Designs for a library and art gallery building were invited, and
that of Messrs. Grainger and D'Ebro, of Melbourne, was accepted. The
foundation stone was laid on 4th June, 1885, by the Mayor (Mr. William
Richard Waddel), and the Library was opened on March 26th, 1887, Mr. A.
E. T. Devore, Mayor, presiding. Messrs. James Malcolm and William Price
were the contractors. The contract was let for £21,851. The Art Gallery
was opened a year later, on February 17th.

The growth of the Public Library and Art Gallery has been both rapid
and interesting. At its inception the stock consisted of some 6000
volumes, the majority of which were acquired from the Provincial
Council Library. At the opening of the new building the collection
numbered 15,000 volumes, the increase being largely due to the
accession of Sir George Grey's library. From 1887 until 1898, Sir
George kept adding to the library, enriching it to such an extent
that the Auckland Library obtained what is, perhaps, an unique
position among municipal libraries throughout the world. Among the
15,000 volumes which he presented are many rare and interesting early
manuscripts, some being illuminated, a valuable array of incunabula,
including three Caxtons, and a number of literary treasures, amongst
which the first, second and fourth folios of Shakespeare, as well
as the "Poems" of Shakespeare, 1640, are worthy of special mention.
The Grey collection also contains an interesting series of autograph
letters.

Later bequests to the Library include the J. T. Mackelvie collection,
the McKechnie collection, the Fred Shaw collection and the Henry Shaw
collection. The last-mentioned runs on somewhat similar lines to the
Grey collection, and contains many Oriental and other manuscripts, a
large number of Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century printed books, and a
splendid collection of works in general literature in best copies.
The section dealing with arts and crafts is especially noteworthy.
There are also a number of grangerised books, the "Edinburgh Folio
Shakespeare," which has over 3000 illustrations added to it, being
the most important. Further particularisation of these collections is
impossible here, but these brief remarks may give some slight idea
of their literary, artistic and bibliographical value. Of monetary
bequests, mention should be made of Mr. Edward Costley's gift of
£12,150.

[Illustration: Auckland Public Library, 1880

Formerly the Mechanics' Institute and Library, established 1842]

[Illustration: Public Library, Art Gallery and Old Colonists' Museum,
to-day

The progress illustrated in these pictures may be taken as typical of
the growth of the City's Institutions in general]

The Art Gallery has been equally fortunate. The nucleus of the gallery,
consisting mainly of old masters and other pictures, was given by
Sir George Grey, and other public spirited citizens have followed
his example. The most notable bequest, however, was that of the late
James Tannock Mackelvie, who bequeathed, in 1885, his valuable art
collection, along with a large sum of money, in trust, to establish
and maintain a Museum of Fine Art for the people of Auckland. By an
arrangement between the trustees and the Corporation, an addition
was made to the Art Gallery building, and the collection deposited
there. It now contains a well chosen selection of modern British and
Continental pictures and _objets d'art_. Altogether, the Auckland Art
Gallery takes the premier position among institutions of its kind in
New Zealand. To provide accommodation for the rapidly increasing number
of pictures, a further addition was made to the Gallery in 1916, and
was opened by Mr. J. H. Gunson, Mayor, on December 6th, but already the
room has proved insufficient for the growth of the collections. The
city authorities have specialised in New Zealand art, and this section
contains an interesting group of paintings by local artists.

The Old Colonists' Museum, which is housed in the Library and Art
Gallery building, was opened on March 22, 1916, by the Mayor (Mr. J. H.
Gunson). It contains an extensive collection of pictures, maps, plans
and mementoes illustrating the early days of New Zealand, especially
North Auckland and the city.

The Elam School of Art, which was established by the will of the late
Dr. J. E. Elam, who bequeathed a sum of £6500 for the purpose, was
located in the Public Library building from 1890 until 1915; in this
year the school was moved to a new building which had been erected in
Rutland Street.

The work of the Harbour Board, as far as the city is concerned, has
been devoted principally to reclamation and wharves. Prior to the
constitution of the Harbour Board, the port was under the control of
the Provincial Council. Some reclamation had been carried out by that
body, for at the time of the transference of the control from the
Provincial Council to the Board considerable alteration had taken place
on the foreshores. In the 'forties, Commercial Bay swept round from
Britomart Point along a beach, which subsequently became Fort Street,
to a headland known successively as Stanley Point and Smales Point.
This promontory stood in the vicinity of Albert Street and Customs
Street West. By 1870 the foreshore had been reclaimed, and Customs
Street East added to the city's highways. At that date Customs Street
ended at the foot of a cliff, and a long flight of steps, known as
"Jacob's Ladder," led up to Emily Place. On the western side of Queen
Street, Customs Street finished at the waterfront opposite Albert
Street.

The wharf accommodation in 1870 was very small indeed. The first
Auckland wharf was the Wynyard Pier, which was built in the 'forties,
and was situated in Official Bay in a direct line from Short Street.
Commercial Bay had from the first been selected as the shipping centre
of Auckland, and by 1852, one can gather from Hogan's engraving (p. 72)
that considerable work has been expended upon the improvement of the
facilities for loading and unloading vessels. The Queen Street Wharf
has always been the principal wharf, but in 1852 there was a small pier
leading from the lane which ran from the Victoria Hotel to Shortland
Street, and east of Graham's Bond (a stone building which still stands
in Fort Street, but at that time was right on the waterfront) there
was a landing stage. Between 1852 and 1870 a new wooden wharf replaced
the Queen Street one, another was erected opposite Gore Street, and a
breakwater had been built from Britomart Point.

This was the state of the waterfront when the Harbour Board undertook
the management of the port.

One of the earliest tasks the Board undertook was the demolition of
Point Britomart, which occupied several years to accomplish. The spoil
was used for reclamation between that point and Queen Street, and on
this area the railway yards, electric power station, cold stores, and
other establishments have been built, adding Quay Street to the number
of city thoroughfares.

To the west of Queen Street the reclaimed area can be easily
distinguished on account of the regular low-lying nature of the streets
comprised within it. If one follows a route from Queen Street along
Customs, Sturdee, Fanshawe, Halsey, Patteson and Beaumont Streets,
where the last named street junctions with Fanshawe Street, this would
give roughly the foreshore as it existed in 1870. The reclamations,
which include the area now occupied by Victoria Park, were completed
about 1900.

The Harbour Board is still engaged upon reclamation work, adding
considerably to the city and port's facilities.

The wharves did not alter much during the first thirty years of the
Board's control. In this period the Queen Street Wharf was practically
rebuilt and considerably enlarged, and the Railway Wharf erected. At
a later date, Hobson Street Wharf, the Quay Street Jetty and other
jetties were built. In the 'eighties Gore Street Wharf was demolished
in connection with the Quay Street reclamations, and extra wharf
provision was made parallel to this street. All these wharves were
constructed of wood. In 1900 the comprehensive scheme of wharves in
concrete was commenced, and has been steadily pushed forward. At the
present time the port's wharves are a credit to the authorities, alike
in size, number and equipment, and, although the accommodation for
ships has been greatly increased, the Board is occupied with further
extensions, to enable it to keep pace with the growth of the port's
shipping.

Docking accommodation for the repair of vessels was also put in hand by
the Harbour Board. On May 1st, 1876, the Auckland Graving Dock, which
was situated opposite Hobson Street, was commenced, and was opened
on August 20th, 1878. This dock was used for small vessels. It was
abandoned in 1913 and the site filled in.

The Calliope Dock, on the North Shore, was opened by the Governor (Sir
William F. D. Jervois) on February 16th, 1888, in the presence of
Admiral Fairfax, commander of the fleet on the Australasian station.
The day was made the occasion of a public holiday. Bunting was to be
seen everywhere: in the city, at Devonport, and on the vessels in
the harbour. Two of her Majesty's ships of war, the _Calliope_ and
_Diamond_, steamed into the new dock, the former cutting the ribbon
stretched across. The dock was, when opened, the largest graving dock
possessed by any colony, and had cost up to that date £135,000. It
required an additional expenditure of £20,000 to make it as complete as
possible. Mr. Pierce Lanigan was the contractor, Mr. W. Errington the
engineer, and Mr. Swainson clerk of works.

H.M.S. _Calliope_, which, as has been mentioned, was the first vessel
to enter the dock, became famous in the annals of seamanship only a
month later, when, during the great storm of 16th March, 1888, which
struck Samoa, she sailed out from Apia under the command of Captain
Kane. All the vessels which remained in the harbour were wrecked.

[Illustration: Queen Street Wharf, 1887

_After the painting by A. E. Gifford, in the Old Colonists' Museum_]

A hoax perpetrated by Mr. D. M. Luckie, editor of the _Southern Cross_,
which for the time being created consternation and serious excitement
in the city and district, occurred on the morning of February 17th,
1873, when the _Daily Southern Cross_ printed a report purporting to
be a description of the capture of Auckland by the Russian man-of-war
_Kaskowiski_. The article described in detail the capture "of the
British warship lying in the waters of the Waitemata," the seizure "of
our principal citizens as hostages," the demand of "a heavy ransom for
the city," and the emptying of "the coffers of the banks of all the
gold and specie they contained." Although the report had a foot-note
stating that it was taken "from the _Daily Southern Cross_ of Monday,
the 15th May, 1873," quite a large number of people were deceived by
it. One woman, the _New Zealand Herald_ stated, became hysterical on
reading the account, while a gentleman made preparations for the flight
of himself, his wife and family to their farm at the Hot Springs. A
Queen Street shopkeeper, after reading the report, put up his shutters
and reappeared, fully armed, "ready for the fray."

The trouble Great Britain was having in India, in which Russia was
implicated, gave a semblance of probability to the report. At the
same time, it is surprising that such a palpable hoax could have
misled anyone. The purpose which the newspaper had in producing the
article was stated in the next issue to be to "direct attention to the
necessity of these colonies being properly protected."

Eight years later, on 12th December, 1881, the Russian cruiser _Africa_
visited Auckland without causing consternation among the citizens.
Better relations now obtained between the two nations, and Admiral
Aslanbexoff, who was in command, was welcomed to the city by the civic
authorities, and dined with the Mayor and Mayoress (Mr. and Mrs. J.
McCosh Clark) on the evening of the ship's arrival.

Educational matters received long-delayed attention in this period.
As we have already mentioned, the Grammar School commenced its career
in the last year of the 'sixties, but, until the passing of "The
Education Act" of 1877, elementary education had been carried on by
private and denominational schools, the latter system being introduced
in 1847 by Sir George Grey, who realised that the only organisations
fit to undertake the work of education were the churches. When the
education system passed into the care of the Provincial Council, that
body passed, in 1857, an Act for the better regulation of education,
but the Council was too hard pressed financially to be able to do
much. The Act of 1877, however, placed the education of children on
a stable basis, providing for free, compulsory and secular teaching.
Following the passing of this Act, a number of private schools came
under the national authority. Since then the system has developed, and
at the present time there are eighteen primary schools within the city
boundaries which supply instruction to over 11,000 children.

Apart from the primary and secondary education systems, Auckland was
noticeably deficient in the higher branches of education and in the
educational facilities provided for the working man. In fact, except
for the Mechanics' Institute, there was no provision for general or
technical education available. Much credit is due to this Institute for
what it did in the thirty-eight years of its existence to stimulate
interest among, and provide opportunities of self-improvement to,
the youth of the community. In glancing through the early files
of newspapers, the Institute would seem to have been the Mecca of
all things intellectual. During these years it carried on series
of lectures by the best lecturers available, and in 1873 classes
of instruction were founded, to which sixty men were joined. Among
the subjects taught were arithmetic, mathematics, architectural and
mechanical drawing, and, more interesting still, there was a class for
the study of Maori. These classes were successful, and the Committee
of the Institute arranged an exhibition of Fine and Useful Arts, which
was opened by the Superintendent of the Province, on Boxing Day, 1873.
A few years after this exhibition, the Mechanics' Institute began to
experience difficulties, which ultimately led to its extinction. During
the 'seventies and 'eighties the Y.M.C.A. carried out courses of
lectures in the winter months, which were popular and well patronised.

After the closing of the classes at the Mechanics' Institute, technical
education in Auckland seems to have fallen into neglect until 1896,
when the Auckland Technical School was founded, and carried on its
work in Rutland Street. In 1900 "The Manual and Technical Instruction
Act" was passed, and the following year the Education Board took over
the control of the school, and appointed Mr. G. George director. So
rapidly did the school develop that a new building became essential,
and the promise of a contribution of £10,000 towards its erection
having been made by the Auckland Savings Bank in 1905, steps were taken
to carry out the proposal. On August 17th, 1909, the foundation stone
of the present college was laid by the Governor, Lord Plunket, and the
building was opened in 1913 by Sir James Allen, Minister for Education
and Defence. Mr. John Mitchell was the architect, and Mr. Stanley
Jeffreys the builder; but, owing to the lack of funds, the building
as planned was not finished. Additions to meet requirements are now in
course of erection. The progress of the college may be estimated by the
figures of attendance. In 1902 the number of pupils was thirty. At the
opening of the new school (1913) there were 1627 individual students in
attendance at day or night classes.

In 1872 Sir George Maurice O'Rorke, whose whole life was associated
with the Auckland University College, and who was Chairman of the
Council from its inception until his death on 24th August, 1916,
made an unsuccessful effort to institute a university in the city.
Five years later another agitation was set in being, and resulted in
the appointment of a Royal Commission on University and Secondary
Education, which reported in July, 1879. Its recommendations were
embodied in the "Auckland University College Act, 1882." The Bill was
introduced by Mr. J. A. Tole in 1881, when it was shelved, but received
legislative sanction in the following year. To accelerate the opening
of the college, the Premier sent instructions to the Agent-General
in London to appoint professors, and upon the arrival of the staff
the college was opened by the Governor, Sir William F. D. Jervois, on
May 21st, 1883, in the buildings in Eden Street, formerly used as a
District Court House, and the old Admiralty House, Short Street.

Shortly afterwards the Council came into possession of the Parliament
buildings, which had latterly been used by the Provincial Council, and,
with additions along Eden Street, these premises, rich in historic
association, but wholly inadequate and unsuitable for a college, had
perforce to serve their purpose until 1917, when the buildings were
taken over by the City Council in connection with the Anzac Avenue
roadway, forcing the College Council to find other quarters. These
were found in the old Grammar School buildings, Symonds Street, where
provision was made for the Arts, Law, Commerce and Music faculties; the
Science departments were accommodated on a site adjoining Government
House grounds, which belonged to the College, and here a two-storey
building was erected, in the design of which the architects, Messrs.
Goldsbro' and Cumming utilised the old Choral Hall. The building
was officially opened on June 7th, 1919, by the Acting-Premier, Sir
James Allen. The contract for the building and alterations was let for
£14,767. Fittings and scientific equipment absorbed another £10,000.

The one thing which has stood in the path of the progress of the
college has been local disruption with regard to the site. This
question has been discussed time after time. The dispute is now
settled, and the ground adjoining the Science block was secured in
1919. Competitive designs were invited for a modern building, and
the plan of Messrs. Lippincott and Billson, Melbourne, which it is
estimated will cost £97,000, was accepted. The building is expected to
be completed in 1925.

Much credit is due to Mr. T. W. Leys, who succeeded Sir Maurice O'Rorke
as Chairman of the College Council, for the position which now obtains
in local university affairs, for it is largely due to his energy that
the site question has been settled and the future of the college placed
on a satisfactory basis. In recognition of his services to university
education, the McGill University of Toronto, in 1920, conferred on him
the degree of LL.D.

The most important among the few endowments which the college has
received was the gift of £3000 made by Mr. Thomas Bannatyne Gillies, a
Judge of the Supreme Court, for the purpose of endowing two scientific
scholarships, to be named respectively the Sinclair and Gillies
Scholarships.

[Illustration: View of Auckland from Rangitoto Island (960 feet high)

Showing North Head, Devonport, in the middle distance and the City and
Waitakere Ranges in the background ]

Fires between '71 and '90 were numerous, despite the fact that the
early wooden buildings were being replaced by bricks and mortar, but
only those representing damages of not less than £10,000 are noticed
here. A serious outbreak happened a few minutes before midnight on the
19th November, 1872. It was supposed to have originated in Mr. Frank
Scherff's store, on the northern side of Fort Street, and developed
first on the western side of that building, involving the Pacific Fire
Insurance premises and another; it then spread in an easterly direction
to the buildings occupied by the Waikato Transport Company, Messrs.
Bucholz and Messrs. Webb, and although these were divided by brick
walls, they were soon ablaze. The fire then crossed the thoroughfare
and attacked the Government buildings, including the Post Office,
the Telegraph Office, the Customs House and the offices of the
Provincial Council. The Fire Brigades, which were early on the scene,
were blamed for allowing the Post Office to become ignited, but it is
only just to state that the hoses were in a very bad condition, and
handicapped the firemen in their work. The damage amounted to £50,000.
The postal buildings, which were destroyed, cost some £30,000 to erect,
and were not insured.

The most calamitous fire which had so far overtaken the city took place
on September the 6th, 1873, causing the destruction of fifty-four
buildings, mostly shops, business premises, and some dwellings, the
damages being assessed at £70,000. The outbreak was reported to have
commenced in Mrs. Powley's millinery establishment in Queen Street,
which occupied the site where Darby Street stands to-day, and so
rapidly did the fire spread that in less than an hour the whole of
the west side of the street, up to the United Service Hotel, at the
corner of Wellesley Street, was ablaze; the fire then crossed Wellesley
Street and its progress up Queen Street to the Anchor Hotel was as
rapid as in the other block. Before it ran its course it involved an
area bounded by Victoria Street, the old markets site, Queen Street
and Elliott Street. While the fire was at its height there was a mild
panic, owing to the fear that the conflagration would burn down the
city. A large amount of damage was caused by over zealous helpers, who,
in their endeavours to save property from the flames, threw household
furniture, including pianos even, out of doors and windows, where many
of the articles were smashed against the pavement.

Later in the same year another fire occurred, on October the 14th.
Commencing either in the back store of Mr. J. Macfarlane or in Messrs.
Henderson and Macfarlane, which were adjacent, the flames completely
destroyed both premises, and extended to the buildings occupied by
Messrs. Stone, Leaning, Bucholz (who had been burned out in the fire of
1872) and Ellingham. The damage amounted to £40,000.

A row of the few remaining wooden buildings which still survived in
Queen Street, situated at the south-east corner of Victoria Street,
were burned down in an hour and a half on May 10th, 1876. The fire
extended as far back as Lorne Street, and caused damage estimated at
£10,000.

Two timber mills were responsible for large fires, involving losses
amounting to £10,000 each. The first of these occurred at the Union
Sash and Door Company, Mechanics Bay, on July 25th, 1883; the other
took place on January 10th, 1885, at the Auckland Timber Company's
mill, Customs Street, where half a million feet of timber was set on
fire, creating a magnificent spectacle. The gas works, which were
located near by, were carefully watched, in case of danger. At this
fire the crew of the U.S. ship _Iroquois_ rendered valuable help.

The last fire to occur within this period took place at the Phoenix
Foundry, the business of Messrs. George Fraser and Sons, Stanley
Street, on October 19th, 1893, causing damage amounting to five figures.

The weather was also the means of bringing about losses to the
community, and the gale which struck Auckland on February 7th, 1874,
caused the death of seven persons by drowning, and damage to shipping
and harbour works amounting to over £12,000. No fewer than twenty-five
vessels were either damaged or sunk during the storm. On the waterfront
the embankments were breached at several places, and sheds injured or
destroyed. The owners of small craft sustained extremely serious loss.
In comparison with the havoc done in the harbour the damage inland was
negligible.

In the previous section the shipping of the port was sketched up to the
temporary service that took the place of the Panama Company's service,
which ceased in 1869. In 1871 an agreement was made by the Government
with Messrs. Webb and Holladay, owners of the California Line, to
run a fleet of four paddle steamers, _viz_, _Nevada_ (2145 tons),
_Nebraska_ (2143 tons), _Dacotah_ (2145 tons)--all of which were fitted
with beam engines--and _Moses Taylor_ (1354 tons), from Sydney to San
Francisco. Auckland was again the port of call, but for a few trips at
the commencement of the service Port Chalmers was made the New Zealand
port of call alternately with Auckland, on which occasions Napier,
Wellington and Lyttelton were visited _en route_. In 1873 the United
States withdrew the subsidy, and, as the line had become unpopular with
the Australian and New Zealand Governments, the service was ended.
Another temporary service was run by Mr. Hall, first by the steamers
_Tartar_ and _Mongol_, and later by the _Cyphrenes_ and _Mikado_; a few
trips were made by the _City of Melbourne_. The route followed was by
Fiji (Kandavu). An offer of the Pacific Mail Company, in conjunction
with the Fairfield Shipbuilding Company of Glasgow, was accepted, and
inaugurated in 1875, the Fiji route being followed until 1877, when
the Honolulu course was adopted. The ships engaged in this service
were _Vasco de Gama_, _Colima_, _City of San Francisco_, _City of New
York_, _City of Sydney_, _Zealandia_, and _Australia_. The contract
expired in 1885. The next contract was divided between the Oceanic
Company of America and the Union Steam Ship Company of New Zealand.
The Oceanic Company put into commission the _Alameda_ and _Mariposa_
(3158 tons), and the Union Company the _Mararoa_ (2598 tons). The
latter was withdrawn, and was replaced in 1890 by the same company's
new liner _Monowai_ (3433 tons). The _Arawa_ substituted the _Monowai_
in this service for a time, but in 1897 the _Moana_ finally took up the
run. In 1900, owing to the legislative enactment of the United States
precluding any but American ships from plying between American ports,
the _Moana_ was transferred to the Vancouver service. The _Alameda_
and _Mariposa_ were also withdrawn, and were replaced by the _Sierra_,
which inaugurated a three-weekly service from 'Frisco. She was followed
by the _Sonoma_ and _Ventura_. This service lasted till 1909, when the
New Zealand Government followed the example of the United States, and
withdrew the subsidy.

The New Zealand Shipping Company, a Dominion concern, was established
in 1873, and ten years later a direct line of steam communication was
inaugurated by the company's steamer _British King_, which began the
Government mail contract on January 26th, 1883, when the steamer left
London, travelling _via_ Cape Horn. Five steamers were built for this
direct service. Since the Panama Canal was opened, this company has
used that route.

The Shaw, Savill and Albion Line about this time placed steamers in the
New Zealand run, and the service has continued up to the present. Other
lines, including the Tyser and White Star lines, have been engaged upon
the New Zealand trade.

In the 'seventies, trade with the Islands attracted Auckland business
men, and the _Star of the South_ (Captain W. Farquhar) commenced a
monthly service between New Zealand and Fiji.

The coastal services from Auckland developed rapidly in this period,
and culminated in the formation of the Northern Steamship Company on
May 11th, 1881. The company was formed to take over the steamers and
trade of the Auckland Steam Packet Company, and other local steamers.
It continued to absorb the other steamer services, including the
Coromandel Steamship Company, and, in 1906, the Manukau Steamship
Company. The Northern Steamship Company has now forty vessels in its
fleet, trading to every part of the province.

A most serious shipping calamity took place on October 28th, 1894,
when the Union Steamship Company's steamer _Wairarapa_ (1786 tons)
was wrecked at Miner's Head, Great Barrier, on her voyage from Sydney
to Auckland. She left Port Jackson with 230 souls on board. Rounding
Cape Maria van Diemen on Sunday morning, the ship ran into a fog.
In the fog she mistook her course, and when she crashed on the reef
she was twenty-five miles out of it. The death-roll was enormous,
127 passengers and crew, including Captain McIntosh, being drowned.
The boats on the port side got away safely, but the starboard boats
capsized, owing to the list, and the passengers were precipitated into
the water, some of them being drowned. The survivors on the ship spent
many miserable hours until dawn. As soon as daylight appeared efforts
were made by the survivors to get off the ship. Mr. Leighton climbed to
the mast-head and detached the signal halyard, with which the second
engineer essayed to swim ashore, but failed. One of the stewards took
up the heroic task. He succeeded, and along this thin line of life all
passed in safety, save two. The first person, a lady, who reached
safety by this means, did so by moving hand over hand, but afterwards
an endless line was fixed, on which the remainder of those on board
made their escape.

[Illustration: Plan of Auckland Waterfront to-day

The heavy black line represents the waterfront in 1841]

Three years later the Huddart-Parker Company's inter-colonial steamer
_Tasmania_ was wrecked, on July 29th, 1897, while on a voyage from
Auckland to Napier. The weather at the time was dirty and thick, and
after sheltering for some time off Gisborne, Captain McGee decided to
make for Napier. In the dark the vessel struck a rock off Table Cape,
and the captain ordered the passengers and crew to take to the boats.
Fortunately, everybody on board got away, and all the boats but two
reached land safely. One of these, the carpenter's boat, capsized off
Kawakawa, and a passenger and one of the crew were drowned. The other
boat contained eight members of the crew, all of whom were drowned.

A disaster connected with the coastal shipping occurred on March 31st,
1893, when the steamer _Ruby_ was wrecked on Managawai Bar, 50 miles
from Auckland, two lives being lost.

The commercial progress of the city was continued in the 'seventies,
and is illustrated by the appearance of another insurance company of
Auckland origin. The new concern was the South British Fire and Marine
Insurance Company, which commenced operations in August, 1872, with
an initial capital of half a million. Like its elder brother, the New
Zealand Insurance Company, it soon extended its field of activity
beyond the confines of the Dominion, but did not meet with the same
success, and in 1890 a thorough reorganisation of the business took
place, since when the advancement of the company has been uniformly
consistent.

The advent of a new banking concern was another indication of the
commercial prosperity of Auckland. The National Bank of New Zealand
opened up business in 1874 in temporary premises on the eastern side
of Queen Street, but later in the year it was removed to the present
building, at the corner of Queen and Wyndham Streets. Messrs. R. W.
Keals and Son were the architects.

The mercantile and industrial development which Auckland had made
since the financial crisis in the 'eighties was remarkable, and
culminated in the Mining and Industrial Exhibition of 1898-99, the
first modern exhibition that the city had undertaken. The object of the
exhibition was to promote and develop local manufactures, mining and
productive industries. Mr. Bartholomew Kent was the originator of the
exhibition, and, on his suggestion, the Chamber of Commerce, of which
he was president at the time, convened a meeting on June 3rd, 1897,
for the purpose of forming a committee to carry out the proposal. Mr.
Kent was appointed president of the executive, with Mr. W. R. Holmes,
secretary. The work of planning and laying out the exhibition was
entrusted to Mr. R. W. de Montalk and Mr. H. D. Griffiths, who were
respectively architect and engineer to the exhibition. The buildings,
which occupied five acres adjoining Government House grounds, were
simple but tasteful in design, and cost about £5000 to erect. On the
Symonds Street frontage of the grounds a sports area was located, which
had cycle and running tracks, and accommodation for 6000 spectators.
The Choral Hall adjoining was utilised for the musical events. Mr. F.
N. Meadows was the Director of the Exhibition.

The Exhibition was opened by the Governor, the Earl of Ranfurly, on 1st
December, 1898, and continued until February of the following year. It
was estimated that it was visited by a quarter of a million persons
in that time. Financially and socially the Exhibition was completely
successful.

Labour and union questions began to interest tradesmen about this
period, and in 1872 the Trades and Labour Council was founded. Whatever
disputes arose during these years appear to have been easily adjusted,
for no strike of any importance is recorded to have taken place in New
Zealand until the maritime strike of August, 1890, which involved the
New Zealand members of these unions. The strike lasted until November,
when conditions again became normal.

Auckland's first Eight Hours' Demonstration took place on April 19th,
1882. Like its successor, the Labour Day Demonstration, it took the
form of a procession of unionists, some 500 in number, who marshalled
in the city and travelled to the Domain, where sports were indulged in.
At night the festivities were continued with a supper and dance.

Auckland has always been a fortunate city in respect to benefactors,
some of whom have been already noticed. Two others must be
mentioned here. Mr. Edward Costley, who died on April 18th, 1883,
bequeathed the sum of £84,700 in equal shares to the following city
institutions:--Institute and Museum, Public Library, Hospital, Orphan
Home, Costley Home for the Aged Poor, Sailors' Home, and Boys'
Institute. Mr. James Dilworth, the other benefactor, died on December
23rd, 1894, leaving estate valued at £100,000, to be applied to the
maintenance and education of orphans or of children of persons of good
character and in straitened circumstances, the education to extend to
secondary schools and the university if the children show fitness for
such.

The Jubilee Institute for the Blind was founded on July 9th, 1890.
The present site was purchased in 1891, and a dwelling which stood on
it was renovated and opened as a school. As the pupils increased,
additions were made, including a workshop for blind men. Early in the
history of the Institute a building fund had been inaugurated, with the
view of erecting a permanent building. The bequest of £10,000 of Mr.
Wm. Mason, who died in 1905, and the energy of Mr. John Abbott, enabled
the trustees to realise their hopes earlier than otherwise would have
been possible. The foundation stone of the new building was laid by the
Hon. Geo. Fowlds, Minister for Education, in May, 1907, and on the 21st
May, 1909, the building was officially opened by the Governor, Lord
Plunket. Mr. E. Bartley was the architect, and Messrs. Philcox and Son
the contractors, the cost of the building being £13,735.

The Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria was celebrated in Auckland on
June 22nd, 1897, and during the following week. For the occasion the
city was elaborately decorated, every building and vantage point being
utilised, and at night, illuminations, bonfires and fireworks were
to be seen everywhere. Both decorations and illuminations surpassed
anything of the kind ever previously attempted in Auckland. The formal
celebrations comprised a magnificent procession, in which the navy, the
army, the corporations of the city and suburban districts, the Harbour
Board and other institutions took part, as well as the children of the
public schools. The vehicles taking part were gaily decorated, and
banners were conspicuous. The procession travelled from Queen Street to
the Domain, where 20,000 people were congregated. Mr. P. Dignan, Mayor,
delivered an address, and concluded by asking the school children,
numbering about 2,000, to sing the National Anthem. The military part
of the proceedings consisted of the firing of a Royal salute, a review
and a march past, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Banks, in
which all the regiments of the city, cadets and veterans took part. The
review was followed by a military tournament, which was witnessed by
over 15,000 people.

In connection with the celebrations a committee, with the Mayor as
chairman, was appointed to take steps to commemorate the sixty years'
reign of the Queen. The committee decided to erect a statue. On
the 80th anniversary of the Queen's birthday (24th May, 1899) this
monument--the first statue of the Queen erected in New Zealand--which
stands in Albert Park, was unveiled by the Governor, the Earl of
Ranfurly. It was designed by Mr. Williamson.

[Illustration: Queen Street To-day]

The closing years of Victoria's reign were darkened by the outbreak
of hostilities in South Africa, in 1899. The war was not at first
considered to be a serious affair, but the Colonial Governments
nevertheless at once offered their assistance to the Imperial
authorities. Opinions differed then, as now, as to the wisdom of the
war, and it is in no controversial spirit that mention is made here
to the subject. It would, however, be impossible to pass over the
event without referring to it as a matter of history. New Zealand sent
ten contingents to South Africa, the first sailing on 21st October,
1899, and the last at the beginning of 1902. The total number of men
despatched was upwards of 6000 of all ranks, and an equal number of
horses. Auckland was well represented in these forces, some of which
sailed direct from the Waitemata.

The Veterans' Home, Mount Roskill, which was opened by the Governor,
the Earl of Ranfurly, on 10th December, 1903, was established as a
national war memorial to the New Zealanders who died in the South
African War, and to provide a home for aged veterans. The successful
accomplishment of the project was due in a large measure to the energy
of the Governor. The home has now passed into the control of the
Auckland Patriotic and War Relief Association.



Chapter IV

_Prosperity and Expansion: 1901-1920_


The last twenty years of Auckland's history have continued the
prosperity which commenced in the late 'nineties, with the recovery
from the slump. The rise in the population illustrates this clearly.
The increase was slow, but steady, in the first decade; in the next
it reached almost a record rate. At the 1901 census the population
of the city was 34,213, a small increase of 2789 over the figures of
1896. Ten years later the numbers had risen to 40,536, and in 1916 to
64,951. At the recent enumeration, taken at the opening of the present
year (1921), the city's population totalled 83,467, an increase in the
last ten years exceeding 100 per cent. The recent increase is partly
attributable to the amalgamation of contiguous local bodies with the
city, the details of which are given on p. 239, but the main cause of
the city's prosperity is due to the position which Auckland holds as
the principal city of the large and wealthy pastoral districts which
surround it. The agricultural industry has made wonderful progress in
these years, and the city, being the natural medium of exchange between
the producer and the oversea markets, advanced rapidly as an important
commercial centre. Auckland's prosperity has been built upon its
advantageous commercial position, and the present ratio of progress is
a happy augury of the future.

The Twentieth Century opened auspiciously with the visit of the Duke
and Duchess of Cornwall and York, who arrived in Auckland--their
first port of call in New Zealand--on the 10th of June, and remained
here until the 12th. The heir to the throne and his princess were
welcomed to the Dominion and the city by the Governor, the Earl of
Ranfurly, the Rt. Hon. R. J. Seddon, Prime Minister, other ministers
and members of Parliament, Dr. (afterwards Sir) John Logan Campbell,
Mayor, and members of the City Council, the Chairman (Mr. Alfred Kidd)
and members of the Harbour Board. The city was lavishly decorated,
the illuminations at night being a feature. On their journey from the
wharf to Government House Their Royal Highnesses received a welcome,
characterised by unparalleled enthusiasm, from the citizens, which
included some 2500 school children, who formed a living Union Jack in
Wellesley Street East. During his stay in Auckland the Duke was present
at a military review at Potter's Paddock, where he distributed medals
to men who had served in the Boer War.

Two interesting events were associated with the Royal visit, the
principal one being the presentation by Dr. John Logan Campbell of a
park of 230 acres, which the donor invited His Royal Highness to accept
on behalf of the people of New Zealand, and requested him to name it
Cornwall Park, in commemoration of the visit; the other was the laying
of the foundation stone of the Queen Victoria School for Maori Girls,
Parnell, which the Duke performed on behalf of the Duchess.

The gift of Cornwall Park by the venerable doctor was the "crowning
glory of his life," as the donor himself said. Logan Campbell arrived
in New Zealand in 1839, and, pending the choice of the capital on the
Waitemata, he settled temporarily on Motu Korea (Brown's Island). As
soon as the site had been fixed he moved over to the mainland, and was
amongst the original buyers of land at the first Auckland land sale.
He became Superintendent of the Auckland Provincial Council, 1855-56,
and at different times represented Auckland and Parnell in the House of
Representatives. He was associated with practically every movement to
develop Auckland's commercial interests, and every organisation which
had for its object the social advancement of the city obtained his
willing assistance. In 1901, prior to the Royal visit, he was appointed
Mayor of Auckland, and no more suitable person could have been found
than this pioneer, who had helped to build the city from its inception.
The following year he was knighted. He died June 22nd, 1912, and was
buried on the summit of Maungakiekie (One Tree Hill), the funeral being
the most largely attended in the history of the city. Business was
suspended, and thousands of persons lined the route as the funeral
_cortége_ passed, bearing the mortal remains of the aged pioneer to its
last resting place.

His benefactions during his life included the Kindergarten, the Crèche
and the Nursery, all of which bear his name, and at his death he
bequeathed to public institutions a total of £76,000.

Cornwall Park was formally opened on August 26th, 1903, the donor
leading a procession of carriages, containing the public men and women
of the city and district, through the new drive from Manukau road to
the Huia Lodge. The Drive to the hilltop was completed and opened on
January 29th, 1907, and the park was vested in a domain board. With
a view to commemorating the gift of Cornwall Park and Sir John Logan
Campbell's other services to the community, it was decided to erect a
statue of him at the entrance to the park. The work was entrusted to
Mr. Fred Pegram, an English sculptor. The unveiling was performed by
the Governor, Lord Plunket, on May 24th, 1906, Sir John himself taking
part in the ceremony.

Later in the same year (1901) the distinguished Scottish general, Sir
Hector Macdonald, who had risen from the ranks, visited Auckland on
November 8th, and remained in the city until the 11th. He was welcomed
by the Mayor, Mr. Alfred Kidd, and citizens, the Scottish community
in particular showering hospitality upon him. He spent a busy time
in Auckland, and, amongst other things, inspected the cadets at the
Domain. As a memorial of his visit, the Scotsmen of the city endowed a
cot at the Hospital, which bears the name of this famous soldier, whose
career closed a few years later under tragic circumstances.

Eleven years later two other famous generals, Earl Kitchener and
Lieutenant-General Sir Robert S. S. Baden-Powell, visited Auckland. The
former reached the city on March 1st, 1912. The object of his visit
was of a military character, as he had been invited by the Government
to prepare a scheme of defence for the Dominion. Lord Kitchener was
received with enthusiasm, and during his brief sojourn he inspected the
harbour defences, and reviewed 4000 cadets in the Domain.

Sir Robert Baden-Powell, founder and Chief of the Boy Scouts, came to
Auckland in connection with this movement. He arrived on May 28th,
1912, and received a civic welcome from the citizens, the Mayor, Mr.
C. J. Parr, presiding. The hero of Mafeking spent a busy day, which
included a review of 2500 cadets and 500 boy scouts at the Domain, the
Governor, Baron Islington, taking the salute. In the evening Sir Robert
delivered a lecture at the Town Hall.

Two years later Sir Ian Hamilton, Inspector-General of the Overseas
Forces, came to New Zealand in an official capacity. He arrived in
Auckland on May 12th, 1914, for the purpose of inspecting the military
stations in the district, and the day following reviewed 4000 senior
cadets at the Domain. He was accorded a civic reception, Mr. A. J.
Entrican, Acting-Mayor, officiating.

During the same year two Australian statesmen visited the Dominion
on official business. Mr. W. A. Holman, Premier of New South Wales,
arrived in Auckland on February 9th, and Mr. Andrew Fisher, Premier of
the Commonwealth of Australia, on December 28th, 1914.

[Illustration: View of Auckland's Harbour Frontage taken from a
sea-plane, showing the wharves]

In the last twenty years the Waitemata has received a number
of visits from various navies, the first of which was made by the
Australian Squadron, which arrived in the harbour on February 28th,
1903, under the command of Vice-Admiral Arthur Dalrymple Fanshawe. The
warships comprising the squadron were the _Royal Arthur_ (flagship),
_Ringarooma_, _Wallaroo_, _Phoebe_, _Archer_, _Karrakatta_, _Sparrow_,
_Lizard_ and _Penguin_. The fleet remained for a week in the harbour,
and during its stay the annual fleet regatta took place. While on this
visit, Admiral Fanshawe declined the offer of the use of Admiralty
House, which had been erected by the Harbour Board at a cost of over
£8500, including land.

The visit of the United States Navy, in 1908, was one of the gayest and
most spectacular events in the history of Auckland. The fleet reached
Auckland on Sunday morning, August 9th, and the Admiral and his men
were welcomed by crowds estimated at 100,000 persons, who utilised
every vantage point on the harbour front. The city and harbour were
decorated in a most extensive manner, the illuminations, in which
electricity was used for the first time, being particularly elaborate.
The official landing of Rear-Admiral Sperry and his officers took
place on Monday, when they were received by the Prime Minister, the
Rt. Hon. J. G. Ward; members of the Legislature; the Mayor (Mr. Arthur
M. Myers), and members of the City Council; the chairman (Hon. E.
Mitchelson), and members of the Harbour Board, and others.

Thereafter a week of festivities, the like of which the city had never
previously indulged in, took place, including banquets, receptions on
land and aboard the ships of the fleet, reviews, race meetings and
sports, both general and aquatic. Public and private organisations
vied with each other in the entertainment of both officers and men.
The population joined in all these proceedings, and made the occasion
memorable for the visitors and a pleasure to themselves. "Fleet Week,"
the name by which the event is now generally referred to, ended on
August 15th, on which date the fleet steamed out of the harbour.

H.M.S. _New Zealand_, a battle cruiser of 18,800 tons, which was
presented by the Government of New Zealand to the Home Government,
arrived, on a visit, in Auckland Harbour on April 29th, 1913, with
Captain Lionel Halsey in command. The vessel and its crew received a
great welcome from the citizens, and while in port she was visited
by 94,616 persons. In the Great War the ship took part in the sea
fights of Heligoland, Dogger Bank and Jutland. After the close of the
war the battle cruiser revisited Auckland, on September 23rd, 1919,
with Admiral Lord Jellicoe, who was engaged upon a report on Empire
defence, in command. Another great welcome was accorded both ship
and the distinguished sailor, who the year following returned to New
Zealand as Governor-General. He made his first visit to Auckland in a
gubernatorial capacity on October 30th, 1920.

During the war period two Japanese warships, _Iwate_ and _Azuma_
visited New Zealand, arriving here on July 9th, 1916. Admiral
Matsumura, his officers, and the cadets who manned the ships, were
received by the civic authorities, and were entertained during their
stay in port. Both ships had seen service in the Great War, but were
now being used as training ships.

Fires are the commonplace events of a city's history, and every city's
records are full of these occurrences. During the twenty years under
review large fires alone, _i.e._, those causing damage to the extent
of £10,000, destroyed property to the value of over half a million
sterling. The first of these took place on January 13th, 1901, and
completely destroyed three large buildings in Commerce and Customs
Streets, and damaged two others. The principal losers by the fire
were Messrs. Bond and Bell, L. D. Nathan and Co. (bond store), and G.
W. Owen and Co. The origin of the fire was unknown, but owing to the
inflammable nature of the goods in stock, the flames soon obtained a
firm hold of the buildings, and in three hours had entirely consumed
them. The loss sustained in the fire amounted to £90,000 (estimated).
The Fire Brigades were unfit to cope with so large a conflagration,
on account of the inadequacy of their appliances, although the water
pressure was all that was required.

A characteristic of the fires which had occurred in Auckland up to
this time was that, with one exception, no lives had been lost. The
Grand Hotel fire of May 31st, 1901, was unfortunately responsible for
the death of five persons--three children and two adults. The building
was burned out, only the walls remaining. The damage was approximately
£12,000.

A disastrous outbreak of fire took place on 4th May, 1904, in the
warehouse belonging to Messrs. T. and S. Morrin, High Street,
practically gutting the building and destroying a valuable stock of
ironmongery. The damage was estimated to be in excess of £50,000. A
number of firemen were injured by the collapse of a wall. After this
fire had been brought under control, another outbreak in the retail
premises of the same firm, which stood on the other side of High
Street. Fortunately, it was confined to the roof.

The City Chambers, situated at the corner of Queen and Victoria
Streets, was destroyed by fire in the early part of the evening of
June 21st, 1906. All the storeys except the first were destroyed. The
damage to the building amounted to considerably over £10,000, and the
loss on stock was also considerable, but difficult to ascertain, as the
Chambers were rented as offices and occupied by many people.

Another serious fire, causing damage estimated at £100,000, destroyed
the four-storeyed building in Queen Street, known as the Strand Arcade,
on August 16th, 1909. So intense were the flames that in two hours
the building, which had only been erected eight years, was reduced
to a heap of ruins. It was due to the energies of the Fire Brigades
that the hotels on either side of the Arcade were not involved in the
conflagration.

One of the biggest fires ever experienced in Auckland broke out a few
minutes before eleven o'clock on November 16th, 1911, in the premises
of Messrs. Macky, Logan, Caldwell and Co., Elliott Street. The outbreak
was first observed at the Darby Street end of the building, but in a
very short time the whole front, from Darby Street to Victoria Street,
was in flames. As a spectacle, it was one of the grandest fires seen
in the city. It burned so fiercely that fears were entertained that
the whole block, which is bounded by Queen Street, would be involved. A
right-of-way in Darby Street, combined with the efforts of the firemen,
however, stayed the course of the fire, and in less than three hours
the outbreak was under control, but not before damage estimated at
£150,000 had been caused.

On 29th March, 1913, Endean's Buildings, at the corner of Queen and
Quay Streets, were destroyed by fire. The damage was estimated at
£35,000.

A fire which took place on October 23rd, 1915, at the stables of
Messrs. J. J. Craig Ltd., Parnell, totally destroyed the building, and
caused the death of more than two hundred horses. So speedily did the
fire spread that only two animals escaped alive.

The fire on February 6th, 1917, which occurred in Gleeson's Buildings,
High Street, was peculiar in respect of the amount of damage to goods
in relation to the damage which the building sustained. Cinematograph
films, stated to be worth £28,000, belonging to the Amalgamated Film
Exchange of Australia (whose representatives occupied floors in this
building), were destroyed. The damage to the building did not exceed
£1000.

Two outbreaks of fire took place at Messrs. Bycroft Ltd., Shortland
Street within a month of one another. The first occurred on February
6th, 1919, gutting the part of the building fronting Shortland Street,
and causing damage estimated at £15,000. The second fire broke out
on March 8th in the rear portion of the building, destroying it and
causing injury to the machinery. The damage on this occasion was about
£12,000.

Another fire, which had fatal results, was the Thames Hotel blaze of
February 19th, 1919. Two storeys were gutted, and one of the guests
was burned to death. Others received injuries while escaping from the
burning building.

[Illustration: Albert Park, formerly the site of Albert Barracks

_J. H. Kinnear, Photo._]

The most serious wreck of this period connected with the Port of
Auckland was the disaster which overtook the Huddart-Parker steamer
_Elingamite_ (2585 tons), which was totally wrecked on the Three Kings,
while on a voyage from Sydney to Auckland, on November 9th, 1902. The
vessel, which was travelling slowly on account of a very thick fog,
had no warning of her danger, and when she struck, the engines were
reversed without delay, but she had stuck fast. The boats and rafts
were immediately launched, and all aboard, except the captain and chief
steward, were taken off. Only one boat, however, reached the mainland,
while others managed to make the Big King and the Middle King. The
survivors on these islands underwent some hardships, until rescued by
the steamer _Zealandia_, which had been intercepted by the master of
a whaling boat, who conveyed the news of the disaster to the captain
of that vessel. Later a raft was picked up by H.M.S. _Penguin_, but
only eight out of sixteen found on it were alive. The survivors had
undergone four days of terrible sufferings. One boat load of passengers
was completely lost without trace. The total number of lives lost
through the wreck was forty-nine.

A shipwreck of a more local character was the disaster which overtook
the _Kapanui_ inside the Heads on December 23rd, 1905. About nine
o'clock in the evening the coastal steamer _Kapanui_, on its homeward
voyage from Waiwera, was rammed by another coaster, the _Claymore_,
outward bound, between Devonport wharf and North Head. The _Kapanui_
sunk in a few minutes, five persons being drowned. The collision was
due primarily to the _Kapanui's_ port light becoming extinguished, but
the Court of Inquiry also found fault with the captain's handling of
the vessel.

Another coastal steamer, the _Kia-Ora_, while voyaging to Onehunga, was
wrecked at Kawhia, on June 13th, 1907. Captain J. C. Blacklock and two
passengers were drowned.

An unusual shipping accident occurred in the Calliope Dock on November
27th, 1906, during the docking of the Shaw, Savill and Albion Company's
steamer _Mamari_ (7062 tons), which resulted in the death of two men by
drowning, and the injuring of thirty others. The accident was caused by
the vessel lurching suddenly while there was still six feet of water in
the dock. This unexpected movement of the ship sent the water swirling
in the dock, taking men and loose timber with it, and causing the
casualties stated. The ship had to be refloated without delay, as the
position she had got into was extremely dangerous.

Another Huddart-Parker liner, the _Wimmera_ (3021 tons), was sunk on
June 26th, 1918, off North Cape, after striking a submerged mine. At
the time of the disaster she was on a voyage from Auckland to Sydney.
After the explosion the life-boats were lowered, and five of them got
safely away. One of the boats (No. 4) was stoved in against the ship,
and most of its complement perished. Altogether, ten passengers and
sixteen of the crew, including Captain R. J. Kell, were drowned.

The city's municipal progress in the last twenty years has been most
marked. The Corporation's motto, "Advance," appears to have been kept
in mind and lived up to, and in no direction was this activity more
noticeable than in the city's streets. In 1902 Auckland possessed
only one paved street; there are now thirty-three streets laid in
either asphalt, wood blocks, or concrete, as well as a large number
of macadamised roads. The failure of a supply of good road metal
retarded Auckland's progress in road making, but the substitution
of concrete has had successful results, and the Council has given
authority for a large number of streets to be laid in this material,
and the work is now being proceeded with. Another project which has
engaged the attention of the Corporation was the widening of narrow
streets, in order to carry the increased traffic which now passes over
them. The improvements are most apparent on the waterfront, where the
co-operation of the Harbour Board was obtained, and the largest and
most costly undertaking of this class of work was the scheme known
as the eastern outlet. This work necessitated the purchase of all
properties between Beach Road and Jermyn Street, the widening of the
first named from 66 feet to 110 feet, and the laying down of a new
thoroughfare, named Anzac Avenue, 84 feet wide, from Beach Road to
Lower Symonds Street. The making of this new highway was commenced in
1915, and the trams commenced running on it in February, 1921.

[Illustration: Auckland, from the North Shore]

[Illustration: Auckland from the Ferry Buildings looking Eastward

Showing the wharves, Quay Street and Kings Drive (recently reclaimed).
Devonport and Rangitoto on the left]

The opening, in 1910, of the Grafton Bridge, which is constructed in
ferro-concrete, and is notable as having the longest three-hinged arch
in the world, was another important undertaking, which provided
easy access to the Hospital and Domain, and linked up Parnell and
Newmarket with the western districts of the city.

The provision of parks in, and adjacent to, the city was another
feature of this time. At the beginning of the period the only parks
in the city were the Domain (194 acres), Albert Park (14 acres), and
Western Park (6 acres). In 1901, on completion of the reclamations,
Victoria Park (18 acres) was leased from the Harbour Board, and has
been formed into an excellent sports and recreation ground, containing
a children's playing area, which has recently been equipped by Mr. John
Court. Point Erin Park, Ponsonby (12 acres) was acquired ten years
later, and soon after the amalgamation of Parnell with the city, the
Corporation acquired the Gillies property and "Kilbryde," formerly the
residence of the late Sir John Logan Campbell, which adjoined. These
two properties united were opened in 1915 and named Parnell Park (9
acres). In the same year Myers Park (6 acres) was opened. This park,
which was presented by Mr. (afterwards the Hon.) A. M. Myers in 1913,
was originally an unsightly gully, overgrown with weeds; it has been
transformed into a delightful and useful reserve, where one was much
needed. At a later date Mr. Myers erected in the park (which has been
equipped especially for children's play) a free kindergarten. The
building, which was designed by Messrs. Chilwell and Trevithick, and
built by Messrs. Johns and Sons, was formally opened by the Governor,
Lord Liverpool, on November 15th, 1916. Its cost, exclusive of
equipment, was £5666. Three other parks, which lie outside the city
boundary, on the shores of the Manukau Harbour, were also added to the
city's reserves by the generosity of various donors. Cornwallis Park
(1927 acres) was bequeathed under the will of the late J. Mitchell
McLachlan in 1911; Atkinson Park (30 acres) was the gift of the late
H. W. Atkinson, two years later; and Kaiterakihe Park (761 acres) was
presented by Mr. Wesley Spragg in 1918. Waiatarua Park (156 acres)
is another large reserve, undeveloped at present, which the Council
acquired by purchase, with a view to the future needs of the city.

Another form of recreation which the city has made provision for is
swimming, and up-to-date outdoor baths have been erected at Shelly
Beach (150ft. × 60ft.), and at Point Resolution, Parnell (194ft. ×
149ft.). The former was opened in 1912 and the latter in 1914. The
Hobson Street Tepid Baths, which are indoor baths, were constructed at
a cost of £10,673 by Messrs. J. T. Julian and Sons, and were opened on
December 17th, 1914. There are two ponds (100ft. × 50ft. and 60ft. ×
30ft.), as well as private baths, dressing rooms, laundry, etc.

Some large engineering works have also been carried out during these
years. The Waitakere dam, which stores 220,000,000 gallons of water,
was finished in 1906. Two other reservoirs are under construction at
Nihotupu, the upper designed to contain 69,000,000 gallons of water,
and the main dam 540,000,000 gallons. The smaller dam is expected to be
completed shortly, and the large one in 1923. A comprehensive scheme
of drainage and sewerage for the city and suburbs was started on 25th
October, 1909, and the main outfall works were opened on March 25th,
1914. The work of linking up other districts has proceeded during the
following years. Electrical supply for power and lighting was taken
in hand by the Corporation in 1906, and the first supply was given
from Freeman's Bay in 1908. Since that date the department has grown
considerably, although the war interfered with the supply of material
and delayed the development of the scheme. An idea of the present
extent of the undertaking may be formed from the fact that for the year
ending 31st March, 1921, 10,496,060 units were sold, the revenue being
£108,734. The electric tramway system was inaugurated on 24th November,
1902, powers having been given to a company for this purpose. The City
Council took over the concern on July 1st, 1919. There are at present
twenty-seven miles of lines and 154 cars in commission. For the year
ending 31st March, 1921, the cars carried 45,820,939 persons.

Other activities which engaged the attention of the Council were the
erection of new abattoirs at Westfield (opened in 1909), and large new
city markets, which were completed in 1917 and 1918. The Corporation
also entered the fish trade, opening markets and providing trawlers to
catch fish, and, besides supplying the trade, it retails this food at
its own shop. The figures of last year's working indicate the extent of
this business. The total weight of fish received from all sources was
1040 tons, the sales amounting to £49,758.

The provision of houses by the municipality was commenced in 1915, when
six houses were erected in Ponsonby. A larger scheme of dwellings, to
be erected on the old abattoir site at Grey Lynn, was proposed in 1918,
but, owing to financial difficulties, it could not be carried out. As
an instalment of the proposal, ten cottages have been built on this
site up to the present.

[Illustration: The Town Hall, with the Sir George Grey Statue]

The erection of the Town Hall, which commenced in 1908, was significant
of the position which the municipality had now attained. The question
of a Town Hall had been under consideration from 1880, but until this
time the Council had not been in a position to do anything. Prior
to the opening of the Town Hall, the Council's staff had no settled
headquarters, the first Council offices under the present constitution
being located in rooms over Messrs. Upton and Co.'s book shop, Queen
Street. As the Council's affairs increased, further accommodation was
found necessary, and the old Magistrate's Court, at the corner of High
and Chancery Streets, was obtained to meet the requirements. After the
opening of the Public Library and Art Gallery, the Council utilised
some of the rooms in this building as municipal chambers, and here
the Council's work was carried on until the Town Hall was ready for
occupation.

The foundation stone of the Town Hall was laid by the Mayor, Mr. A.
M. Myers, on the 24th February, 1909, and the building was opened by
the Governor, Baron Islington, on the 14th December, 1911, Mr. C. J.
Parr, Mayor, presiding at the ceremony which took place in the large
hall. The festivities connected with the opening continued for a week,
concerts, organ recitals, oratorios, and the annual reunion of the
Old Colonists' Association being held in the new hall. The building
was designed by Messrs. J. J. and E. J. Clark, of Melbourne, and the
contractors were Messrs. Ferguson and Malcolm, of Auckland, whose
contract for the work was £87,565.

The building is divided into two portions, one being devoted to
administrative purposes, including the Council Chamber, and the other
comprising the halls, of which there are two, with a supper room and
ante-rooms. The large hall has seating accommodation for 2700, and the
orchestral platform and chorus galleries can seat 350 performers. The
Concert Chamber has seating capacity for 880 persons.

At the opening ceremony the Mayor formally acknowledged two splendid
gifts, which had been made to the citizens and erected in the Town
Hall. These were the pipe organ, the gift of Mr. Henry Brett, and the
clock, which was presented by Mr. A. M. Myers.

The finances of the city show clearly the present position of municipal
affairs, and the development which has been made in the last two
decades. The city's annual valuation in 1901 was £349,765; to-day
it stands at £1,497,095. The Council's revenue at the same date was
£1,077,047, compared with £82,657 twenty years ago.

The spirit of civic progress was not confined to the municipal
authority for the Harbour Board also embarked upon a huge programme of
work, which is still going on, and which has completely transformed the
waterfront, making it one of the most up-to-date ports in Australasia.
It even permeated to individuals, as the record of benefactions amply
demonstrates. Some of these benefactions have already been mentioned,
but others remain to be described.

Mrs. E. A. Mackechnie, who died on November 7th, 1902, bequeathed by
direction of her deceased husband, to the Auckland Institute and Museum
the sum of £2500, of which £2000 was to endow a library and £500 to
purchase cases of animals. A similar amount, £2500 was left to the
Auckland Society of Arts to erect a gallery. The Institute received
also by this bequest the late Mr. Mackechnie's library.

The Leys Institute was founded by the will of the late William Leys,
who died on the 5th October, 1899. The funds available being inadequate
for the early realisation of the testator's benevolent purpose, Mr.
Thomson W. Leys, a brother of the deceased, and one of his trustees,
offered to defray one-half of the entire cost of erecting and equipping
a building, and to furnish the institution with a library, on condition
that the Corporation provided a suitable site. This condition was
readily agreed to by the City Council, and on the 29th March, 1905,
the institution was officially opened by the Mayor, the Hon. E.
Mitchelson. Mr. R. M. Watts was the architect, and the cost of erecting
and equipping the building, exclusive of books, was £3234. The Leys
Institute consists of a reference library and reading room, a lending
department, boys' room and recreation rooms. The course of winter
lectures and entertainments has been a feature of its work since the
commencement. The gymnasium has recently been converted into a large
boys' hall, probably the largest boys' institute in the Dominion. Mr.
T. W. Leys has been president of the institute since its inception, and
its success is due mainly to his personal interest and benefactions.

Charitable institutions were also fortunate in the assistance they
received from benefactors. By the will of the late William Arrowsmith,
who died in 1902, a sum of about £23,000 was bequeathed, in equal
parts, to the Orphans' Home and Mrs. Cowie's Women's Home.

Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Smith presented in March, 1907 to the Hospital Board
a property at Russell Crescent, Ellerslie, containing over three acres
and a two-storey dwelling, formerly the home of the donors, for the
purpose of founding a convalescent home for women and children, which
was named the Alexandra Convalescent Home. At the time the gift was
made the estate was valued at about £5000.

A number of Auckland institutions benefited by the will of Mrs. Knox,
widow of the late Charles Knox, both pioneers, who arrived in New
Zealand in the 'forties. Mrs. Knox died on the 19th October, 1908,
bequeathing £70,000 to charities, including £20,000 for the erection of
a building for the treatment of poor people suffering from incurable
diseases. This institution, which bears the donor's name, is situated
at Tamaki.

The Leslie Presbyterian Orphanage was opened on the 21st October, 1911,
although the bequest of £3485 of Mr. James Leslie, the founder of the
institution, was made known at his death on 15th November, 1888. For
some years after the date of the bequest the trustees did not feel
justified in erecting a building, on account of the small sum at their
disposal, but with the addition of £1000 bequeathed by Mrs. Birrell,
and the bequest of Mrs. Knox of £500, they decided to carry out the
original testator's will. The home, which is situated on the harbour at
Meadow Bank, was designed by the late E. Bartley, the builder being Mr.
O. E. Farrow.

The Auckland Exhibition of 1913, which was officially opened on 1st
December, 1913, by the Governor, the Earl of Liverpool, was a striking
proof of the commercial and industrial advancement of the city and
province. The opening ceremony was attended by a most representative
gathering, including the Prime Minister (Rt. Hon. W. F. Massey),
members of Parliament, and mayors and municipal representatives from
the whole Dominion. On the Governor's arrival at the Exhibition
grounds, he was received by Mr. George Elliot, chairman, and members
of the Exhibition Executive, the Mayor of Auckland (Mr. C. J. Parr),
and others. In the evening the Corporation gave a banquet to the
distinguished visitors, at which the Mayor presided. In this manner the
exhibition was inaugurated. The exhibition grounds occupied an area
of 48 acres of the Domain, and the cost of erecting the buildings and
laying out the grounds was £30,000.

Generally, the exhibition was run on conventional lines, being
principally of an industrial and commercial character. Special features
were introduced as far as Auckland was concerned, the principal one
being the engagement of the Band of the Royal Regiment of Artillery
of 45 performers, under the command of Captain N. P. R. Preston, with
Mr. C. E. Stretton, musical director, this being the first occasion on
which one of the great regimental bands of the British Army had visited
New Zealand. The enterprise shown in bringing out the Royal Artillery
Band was repaid by the financial success which resulted, due in great
measure to this attraction. The amusements provided in the exhibition,
while not new to Auckland, were on a larger scale than had hitherto
been attempted, and occupied 15 acres, named Wonderland Park. The art
section contained a collection of 600 paintings, etc., collected and
brought out to New Zealand from London by Mr. John Baillie, formerly
of Wellington. The illumination by electricity of the buildings and
grounds by night was another interesting and beautiful feature.

The exhibition remained open till April 18th, 1914, and during the four
and a half months of its life it was estimated that 870,000 people
visited it. From the social and business aspects the exhibition was
a great success, and after expenses had been met a sum of £21,758
remained as profit. It had previously been decided that any surplus
accruing from the exhibition should be used in beautifying the Domain,
and this sum of money has since been expended on improvements carried
out on the outer Domain, including the laying-out of paths, flower
beds, playing areas, and the erection of the winter-garden, which
stands on the site of one of the exhibition buildings. The tea kiosk
and the bandstand, near the main drive, are permanent survivals of the
exhibition.

The principal officials were: Mr. George Elliot, chairman of executive;
Messrs. Bamford and Pierce, architects; Mr. E. A. Pearce, supervisor
of buildings, etc.; and Mr. W. R. Holmes, manager. Mr. Holmes, it is
interesting to note, had filled the same position in the exhibition of
1898-9.

Another banking establishment was added to the number of these
institutions in 1913, the Commercial Bank of Australia opening a branch
in Shortland Street in October of that year, but later the business was
removed to premises in Queen Street.

The principal overseas shipping of the port was brought up to 1909 in
the previous section. For the two following years Auckland did not
receive much consideration as a port of call for the trans-Pacific
steamers, but in 1911 the Union Company reinstated Auckland as the way
port in the Sydney-Vancouver service, the _Marama_ (6437 tons) taking
up the run, and arriving at Auckland on August 5th. The _Makura_ (8200
tons) and the _Zealandia_ (now the _Paloona_, 2771 tons) were also
commissioned for this service. In April, 1913 the _Niagara_ (13,415
tons) replaced the _Zealandia_, and the _Marama_ was withdrawn in July,
1914, since when the _Niagara_ and _Makura_ have maintained the running
between Australia and Canada.

The P. & O. Company established a service to New Zealand _via_ Suez
Canal in 1910, the Mongolia arriving in Auckland on November 23rd. With
the sailing of the _Macedonia_, on April 12th, 1913, the service was
discontinued.

The latest line of steamers to inaugurate a New Zealand service is the
Canadian Government Merchant Marine, Ltd., the first steamer of this
line to reach Auckland being the _Canadian Raider_, which arrived on
3rd April, 1920. The undertaking is interesting, having been created by
the Canadian Government with the purpose of extending the commerce of
that dominion. The steamers, which are designed to carry general and
refrigerated cargo, number seventy, and trade to all parts of the world
_via_ the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, monthly calls being made at
Auckland, where the head office for Australasia is situated. The marine
service is worked in conjunction with the Canadian National and Grand
Trunk railway systems.

The inter-colonial service has been carried on regularly by the
Huddart-Parker and the Union lines, while the latter has practically
gained a monopoly of the inter-provincial and the Island services.

[Illustration: Photograph of Auckland taken from a seaplane, showing
the City's position between the two harbours, the Waitemata in the
front and the Manukau in the background

_W. A. Waters, Photo._]

An industrial disturbance, which ended in a general strike, paralysing
the trade of the Dominion, occurred at the end of 1913. The trouble
began with the miners in 1912, but the strikes of the Wellington
shipwrights and the Huntly miners, which took place simultaneously
in October, 1913, brought out other trades, including the waterside
workers, and for some weeks the commerce and industry of the Dominion
were at a standstill. Even the city trams ceased running. After a
fortnight, free labour became available and rapidly grew in extent.
Within a month the city became normal. One of the features of the
strike was the introduction of special police, who were enlisted to
protect the free labourers. The Auckland special police included
over 800 mounted men, who camped in the Domain. Although feeling
between the unionists and the strike-breakers ran high, there was no
conflict at any time.

During the following years there were a number of industrial disputes,
but in the war period strikes were not resorted to. The "go-slow"
policy was, however, introduced during the later stages of the war, and
caused considerable inconvenience. In 1919 the strike reappeared and
coal supplies became so short that public conveniences, such as gas
and electricity, were affected, and their curtailment became frequent.
The railway services were also affected, only the briefest time-tables
being carried out. In 1920 complete suspension of both trams and gas
supplies occurred, owing to lack of fuel. On two occasions the trams
ceased running--from January 31st to February 13th, and from September
25th to October 11th. Almost simultaneously with the second suspension
of the trams the gas supply was entirely stopped, the period being from
September 30th until October 14th.

Another strike, which was not appreciated by the public, was the
butchers' strike, which lasted from November 15th to December 6th, 1919.

The jockeys' strike, which took place at the Avondale races on April
10th, 1920, was a small affair in itself, and would not merit mention
if it were not for the events which followed it. On June 3rd the
tramwaymen detailed for duty on the race cars refused to run the "race
specials" and were suspended. The other tramwaymen, out of sympathy
with these men, ran their cars into the depôts. The City Council, which
had taken over the system from the Auckland Tramway Company, considered
that the men had struck, and the service was not resumed until June
8th, when the dispute was settled.

Between the jockeys' strike and its sequel--the tramways dispute--the
railwaymen came out, on account of dissatisfaction with their
conditions. The strike commenced on April 27th, and the dispute
threatened to be a most serious affair. It lasted for less than a week,
the men returning to duty on May 2nd. If the dispute had not been thus
speedily settled, the results, both economic and commercial, would
have been disastrous to the community. This event took place when the
Prince of Wales had just commenced his tour of New Zealand. He was then
at Rotorua, but the men on the train agreed to bring the Royal visitor
back to Auckland. This unscheduled hold-up of the tour was taken in a
philosophic spirit by His Royal Highness.

The European War, which fell on the world with such suddenness,
soon became felt on this side of the globe. The report at first
brought consternation to New Zealanders, with which was mingled the
usual display of patriotic ardour. Bands of youths and young men
paraded Queen Street, singing patriotic songs and demonstrating. To
many business people the idea of war spelt ruin, and many of them
immediately curtailed their staffs. Within a very short time--a
fortnight at most--these extreme expressions of the public mind settled
down, and the true feelings of the community found vent. The New
Zealand Government at once offered Great Britain its assistance, which
was as speedily accepted. On August 10th the first portion of Auckland
volunteers for overseas service left for Wellington, to join the other
units which formed the advance party of the N.Z.E.F. for the Samoan
expedition. From this onwards there were regular concentrations of men
for the forces, and at intervals the troops left for the seat of war.

The embarkations were usually made from Wellington, but in the earlier
days of the war the troops sometimes left from other ports, including
Auckland. One of the most memorable send-offs to outgoing troops took
place on September 23rd, 1914, when 2000 soldiers paraded at the
Auckland Domain, and were ceremonially farewelled by the citizens,
the Prime Minister (the Rt. Hon. W. F. Massey) and the Mayor (Mr. C.
J. Parr, C.M.G.) addressing the men. A similar event took place on
the occasion of the embarkation of the Second Maori Reinforcements,
on 17th September, 1915. This departure was an impressive spectacle,
as the older Maoris and their women-folk carried out the ceremony in
traditional manner. The Mayor (Mr. J. H. Gunson) presided at the
ceremony, which took place outside the Town Hall.

In the first months of the war a training camp for local recruits
was located at Epsom, but as the Dominion's military organisation
developed, this camp was abandoned, and the Auckland recruits went
direct to Trentham or one of the other concentration camps. The only
permanent camp in the Auckland district was at Narrow Neck, Devonport,
where the Maoris and recruits from the South Seas underwent their
course of training.

Apart from the unusual number of men in khaki, and the economic
conditions brought into being by the war, New Zealand was scarcely
disturbed. The economic factors have been mentioned in another part of
this narrative, and, although serious while they lasted, they could not
be described as hardships, such as were experienced by people living
nearer the war zones.

The most exciting event which occurred near Auckland during the war
was the escape of Commander von Luckner and ten other German prisoners
of war on December 13th, 1917, from internment at Motuihi. They
seized the motor launch belonging to the camp commandant, and then
commandeered the scow _Moa_ at sea. They were recaptured near the
Kermadec Islands on December 21st and brought back to Auckland on
Boxing Day, on board the cable ship _Iris_.

The discovery of a submarine minefield between North Cape and Cape
Maria van Diemen was another incident, which was followed by fatal
results. Shipping was notified on June 11th, 1918, to avoid the
locality. Unfortunately, the steamer _Wimmera_ neglected to observe the
instructions, and became a victim, as related elsewhere in this section.

Apart from the number of soldiers which New Zealand sent to the war,
the people of the Dominion entered with enthusiasm into the work
arising out of the war and the relief of the sufferers thereby.
Associations, in which both young and old laboured with good results,
were formed. The dull days of war were enlivened from time to time by
carnivals and special days for the Red Cross, Blue Cross, the Servian
and Belgian relief funds, and other patriotic purposes. In connection
with the Belgian fund, Mr. H. E. Partridge presented, in March 1915,
the collection of Maori paintings by Mr. G. Lindauer, to the Auckland
Art Gallery, on condition that the people of Auckland district
subscribed £10,000. The condition was fulfilled within a very short
period. On October 14th of the same year the Auckland Queen Carnival,
organised by the Auckland Patriotic and War Relief Association, was
started. The respective supporters of the twelve queens worked with
great assiduity, and by November 29th, when the coronation of Mrs.
Bollard (Queen of the South), the winner, took place, the proceeds from
this effort totalled £264,547.

The Auckland Patriotic League, which afterwards became the Auckland
Provincial Patriotic and War Relief Association, was formed in the
first month of the war, the Mayor of Auckland being chairman _ex
officio_. Mr. C. J. Parr was the first chairman, occupying the position
from August, 1914, to April, 1915, when he was succeeded by Mr. J. H.
Gunson, who has held the position up to the present. In recognition of
his services to this and other patriotic endeavours, including the
work which he did on the National Efficiency Board[29] he was made an
officer of the Order of the British Empire (O.B.E.) in 1918, and in the
following year was elevated to the commandership of the Order (C.B.E.).
The Mayoress (Mrs. Gunson) was also made an officer of the same Order,
in acknowledgement of her patriotic work.

The total funds collected by the Patriotic and War Relief Association
from the 10th August, 1914, until the end of September, 1921, including
interest, amounted to over half a million sterling.

The official peace celebrations were held on July 19th, 1919. A
universal holiday was observed, and the city wore a gala appearance,
bunting and decorations being everywhere in evidence. The official part
of the proceedings commenced with a procession, which formed at the
foot of Queen Street, and travelled to the Domain. In the procession
the men who had served in the war took pride of place. The official,
consular and civil life of the city was also represented. Next to the
soldiers, in point of interest, were the various local organisations
which had taken part in the work connected with the war and patriotic
endeavour. Many of these associations were represented by members
who wore symbolic costumes and were conveyed in tastefully decorated
vehicles, adding a picturesque touch to the procession.

At the Domain the troops, of which some 5500 were on parade, marched
past the saluting base, Colonel H. R. Potter, C.M.G., officer
commanding the district, taking the salute. At the conclusion of the
military function the Deputy-Mayor (Mr. A. J. Entrican) read the
King's message, after which a salute of twenty-one guns was fired.
The returned soldiers were then entertained to lunch by the Peace
Celebrations Committee.

At night the city was transformed into a carnival. Bonfires were lit,
and the spirit of revelry was abroad, but owing to the coal shortage
only limited illuminations were permitted.

The welcome accorded to the soldiers returning to New Zealand after
hostilities had ceased was usually of a private character, being
confined to relatives. The civic heads and other officials were
present, and on behalf of the citizens welcomed the soldiers home.
An exception to this, however, was made on the return of the Maori
Battalion, numbering 1000 strong, on April 6th, 1919. The occasion was
made a great festival by the natives, and representatives from every
tribe in New Zealand were congregated at Auckland to take part in the
welcome, which was conducted in accordance with Maori custom. The
gathering was held in the Auckland Domain, and the day being a Sunday
a great assemblage of the public collected there to take part in the
welcome home. It was the greatest Maori ceremonial gathering which had
been held in New Zealand since the Maori ceremonies attending the visit
to Rotorua of the Duke and Duchess of York, in 1901. Native dances
were performed, and speeches of welcome made by the chiefs of the
various tribes. On behalf of the white people of New Zealand, the Maori
soldiers were welcomed home by Sir James Allen, Minister for Defence,
Mr. J. H. Gunson, Mayor of Auckland, Hon. Sir James Carroll, K.C.M.G.,
M.P., and others. After the formal reception, the Maoris partook of a
feast in native fashion.

Shortly after the conclusion of hostilities a French mission,
representative of the national, economic and commercial interests
of France, with General Pau, the famous soldier, who had served in
the war, at its head, visited New Zealand, and arrived at Auckland
on December 27th, 1918. The object of the visit was to thank the
Government and people for the services rendered by New Zealand in the
war, and to study how inter-commercial relations could be extended.
On the mission's return to Auckland from the South, the members were
accorded a civic reception on January 24th, the Mayor (Mr. J. H.
Gunson) presiding.

During 1919 and 1920 two distinguished soldiers, who were intimately
connected with the New Zealand forces which had served overseas, were
given cordial welcome to Auckland. The first to arrive in the city
was Brigadier-General G. S. Richardson, who had held the position of
Commandant of the New Zealand Forces in England, during the period
that the New Zealanders served in France. He reached Auckland on May
5th, 1919, and his reception was in the nature of a welcome home, as he
had been connected with the New Zealand Forces for many years before
the outbreak of hostilities.

General Sir William Riddell Birdwood, who commanded the Australian
and New Zealand Division on Gallipoli, and gained a great reputation
among the troops under his care, arrived in Auckland on July 6th, 1920.
He was given an enthusiastic reception by returned soldiers and the
general public. The city tendered him a reception at the Town Hall, at
which the Mayor (Mr. J. H. Gunson) again presided.

The Soldiers' Club was opened on September 13th, 1915, in rooms of the
Y.M.C.A., which were loaned by the directors. As larger numbers of
repatriated soldiers came back to Auckland, the accommodation at the
Y.M.C.A. became insufficient, and new premises for the club were found
in Albert Street, which were opened on 20th October, 1920.

The most serious epidemic of disease ever experienced in Auckland
was the outbreak of influenza, which occurred in October, 1918.
The account of the epidemic given in the "Auckland and Charitable
Aid Board: a History" is the best account the writer has seen, and
he therefore makes no apology for quoting from it. "Influenza in a
somewhat unusual form was prevalent in the city from the early part
of October ... but the worst phases dated from a fortnight after the
arrival of the R.M.S. _Niagara_ from Vancouver, on the 12th of the
month.... On the berthing of the vessel in Auckland, twenty-eight men
were removed to the Hospital and placed in an isolation ward. Within
a few days the disease was communicated to members of the Hospital
staff. Simultaneously it spread to the community.... The insufficiency
of the ordinary hospital accommodation to meet the demands of such
an extraordinary emergency were early apparent. Temporary hospitals
were accordingly established at the Seddon Memorial Technical College,
"Kilbryde" (Point Resolution), the Sailors' Home, the Avondale
racecourse buildings, Myers Kindergarten, the Y.W.C.A. hostel, Vermont
Street schools, and St. Joseph's schoolroom, Grey Lynn. The Auckland
Racing Club's buildings at Ellerslie were converted into a temporary
convalescent home.... Rigorous measures were taken at the beginning of
November to limit the spread of the disease. Business in the city was
brought almost to a standstill. Places of amusement and worship, banks,
schools, hotel bars, and many warehouses were closed; public meetings
... were forbidden; such facilities as the telegraphic, telephonic,
railway and shipping services were curtailed, and all classes of
the community united in the supreme work of meeting [combating] the
scourge.... The visitation was at its height in the first two weeks of
November.... By the middle of November it was evident that the progress
of the disease had been stayed, and from that time onward it gradually
diminished in severity until by the end of the month only isolated
cases remained."

The official statistics of the deaths for the Auckland registration
district during the period of the epidemic was 1013, or 7.57 per
thousand of the population. The largest number of deaths recorded in
one day was 56.

On November 8th an announcement of the signing of the Armistice was
received in Auckland, which later proved to have been premature.
Despite the epidemic, which was then at its height, the city went wild
with joy, and never were such scenes enacted as on that morning. When
the official intimation was received, four days later, there was no
demonstration.

Sporting events have not found much space in these pages, as it would
have been difficult to know where to draw a line on such a subject.
Such an international event as the Davis Cup Challenge Round, which
commenced on December 30th, 1920, is of such an exceptional nature as
to justify its mention. The choice of New Zealand as the scene of the
final round was in the nature of a compliment to the brilliant New
Zealand exponent of the game, Anthony Wilding, who lost his life in the
Great War. The games were contested on special courts prepared in the
Auckland Domain.

The year 1918 was remarkable for the weather. There were three severe
gales, the first occurring on February 14th, the next on March 18th,
and the last on June 20th. In the latter the wind blew at the rate
of 440 miles in 24 hours; in the two former the velocity reached 520
miles. The temperature during July was extremely low, and in the last
week of the month it dropped to 30 degrees, which was the lowest
temperature recorded for over thirty years. The severe frost which
covered the ground was an unusual sight for Aucklanders. June, 1920,
was another cold month, and on July 1st the thermometer at Albert Park
registered 29 degrees.

[Illustration: Reception of H.R.H. The Prince of Wales at the Town
Hall, April 24th, 1920]

The event which opened this section of Auckland's annals was the visit
of the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York, who are now the reigning
sovereigns. It is fitting, therefore, to close it with the visit of
their son and heir, H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, in 1920. The visit was
the outcome of a promise made by His Majesty the King that the Prince
would visit the Dominions as a token of appreciation of the spirit of
loyalty and unity displayed by the whole Empire during the war.
H.M.S. _Renown_ (26,500 tons) conveyed the Royal visitor on his tour,
and arrived in the Waitemata Harbour on April 24th. The voyage from
North Head was a wonderful water pageant, craft of every sort and
size taking part in it. The Prince first set foot on New Zealand at
Auckland, and was welcomed by the Governor-General (Admiral Lord
Jellicoe), the Prime Minister (the Rt. Hon. W. F. Massey, P.C.), the
Mayor (Mr. J. H. Gunson), and the Chairman of the Harbour Board (Mr.
H. D. Heather). He then paid an official call on the Governor-General,
and later made a triumphal journey along Queen Street to the Town Hall,
where the Mayor and citizens formally welcomed His Royal Highness to
the city and delivered to him a loyal address. In the afternoon a
military review was held in the Domain in the presence of the Prince.
The following day was Anzac Day, and the 1920 commemoration will be
long remembered on account of the Prince joining in the service to
honour the heroes of the Gallipoli expedition.

On Monday His Royal Highness attended the Auckland Domain, where the
school children of the city were marshalled into groups, forming the
word "Welcome" and a living Union Jack, and as the Prince passed among
the children the enthusiasm was unprecedented. In the afternoon the
Royal visitor attended a race meeting at Ellerslie, specially arranged
in honour of his visit, and at night he was present at an "At Home" in
the Town Hall, where he was again received with enthusiasm. Thus ended
the official part of the Prince's visit, but owing to the railwaymen's
strike he spent a few days privately in the city.



_Postscript_


The task which the writer undertook has now been accomplished. Its
imperfections are such as inevitably accompany a first attempt to write
a local history. Other hands, he hopes, will repair what omissions
he has made. In spite of its shortcomings, he feels some little
satisfaction in having had the opportunity of contributing a stone to
the building of Auckland's history.

Looking back over the brief period which comprehends the city's career,
no citizen of Auckland but should be proud of the progress--social,
economic and commercial, which has been made; it is a record of
difficulties successfully overcome, and of advancement, despite many
handicaps.



Appendix I

_The Name of Auckland_


The City of Auckland is generally stated to have been named after
Lord Auckland by Governor Hobson, but, as a rule, no authority for
the statement appears in any of the books relating to the subject. As
already shown from Hobson's despatch, dated 10th November, 1840, the
Governor chose the name himself. So far, so good. What was his reason
for doing so? I exhausted every possible source of information at my
command, and failed to obtain any satisfaction. Learning from Mr.
Horace Fildes, of Wellington, that Dr. Guy H. Scholefield had, while in
England, been given access by the Hobson family to the late Governor's
papers, and from these had written a biography (which, unfortunately,
is still in manuscript), I communicated with him on the question of
the naming of the city, and specifically inquired if he had seen any
document or paper giving in Hobson's own words his reasons for the name
which he bestowed upon the capital. Dr. Scholefield courteously looked
through his MS. and replied as follows:--

"I have come across the volume and looked carefully through it for what
you want. Here it is, roughly. Having been idle for some years after
returning from the West Indies, Hobson applied to the First Lord (Sir
James Graham), recounting his services and asking for employment. This
was shelved, but in June, 1834, Lord Auckland came to the Admiralty,
and in December he gave Hobson command of the _Rattlesnake_, with
orders to proceed to the East Indies (the cruise which brought
him first to New Zealand). Hobson wrote thanking Auckland for his
patronage, and Auckland replied a few days later:--

"'I am glad to know from you that your appointment to the _Rattlesnake_
is so satisfactory to you, and can assure you that it was highly
pleasing to me to give the service the advantage of having you again in
active employment.' (_Private letter in possession of Hobson's family_).

"While Hobson was on the East Indies station Auckland was himself
appointed Governor-General of India. Troubles with Burma for months,
and even for years, made it seem that an expedition would be necessary,
and both before and after the Australian cruise, Hobson had been
instructed to be ready for this, as he would be senior naval officer
on the station. Finally, Hobson's time came to return to England, and
the instructions were handed over to another captain. In his letters to
his wife at this period, which I have copied, but cannot find just now,
Hobson frequently refers in terms of gratitude to Auckland's kindly
interest. At one time he expected a naval appointment at Bombay worth
£2000 a year, which he compared with a 'factorship' in New Zealand or
a governorship of Port Philip, which he surveyed. His conclusion was
rather in favour of the latter.

"In my chapter on Hobson's character, I refer to his frequent
acknowledgments of the kindly interest of three men, Sir Lawrence
Halsted, Lord Auckland and the Duke of Clarence. He has commemorated
them and others in the nomenclature of Australia and New Zealand,
wherever he had a chance. 'Believe me,' he writes to his wife in 1836,
regarding the kindly interest of Lord Auckland, 'many a valuable
officer pines in obscurity merely because he has no friends to bring
his merits into notice.' The friendship of Lord Auckland was well
recognised, for an acquaintance once asked him to exert his influence
on behalf of his own son-in-law. 'It would gratify me beyond measure,'
he writes to Mrs. Hobson in reply 'to be the means of pushing his
son-in-law forward, but to write to Lord Auckland, as ---- wishes me to
do, to ask his Lordship's interest on behalf of another, merely because
he befriended me, is so absurd a thing that I cannot help wondering how
any rational man could propose it.'

"I hope that this may be sufficient to fix the responsibility for the
name of Auckland. There can be no historical doubt as to its origin,
and the reason for it."



Appendix II

_Population of the City of Auckland_


    YEAR.    POPULATION.
    1840         --
    1841       1,500 (estimated)
    1842       2,895
    1843       2,522
    1844       2,754
    1858       6,283
    1861       7,989
    1864      12,423
    1867      11,153
    1871      12,937
    1874      12,775
    1878      13,758
    1881      16,664
    1886      33,161
    1891      28,613
    1896      31,424
    1901      34,213
    1906      37,736
    1911      40,536
    1916      64,951
    1921      83,467

The population of the City and suburbs in 1921 was 158,000.



Appendix III

_Table Showing Imports and Exports at the Port of Auckland: 1853-1920_


    YEAR.        IMPORTS.           EXPORTS.
                 £     s. d.        £     s. d.
    1853       253,926 12  8      148,724 19  0
    1854       336,697 19  4      156,645  3 11
    1855       358,540 13 11      146,593 19  6
    1856       259,294  9  5      100,380  2  4
    1857       314,327  6  2       81,052 18  4
    1858       334,386  2  1       74,382  2  4¼
    1859       399,972  0  0       72,012  0  0
    1860       454,311  0  0       78,164  0  0
    1861       591,468  0  0       57,673  0  0
    1862       815,205  0  0       72,354  0  0
    1863       959,219  0  0      195,228  0  0
    1864     2,219,287  0  0      329,243  0  0
    1865     1,842,416  0  0      292,802  0  0
    1866     1,092,399  0  0      215,393  0  0
    1867       777,667  0  0      291,557  0  0
    1868       799,926  0  0      398,974  0  0
    1869     1,357,326  0  0      736,086  0  0
    1870     1,296,940  0  0      861,675  0  0
    1871       937,655  0  0    1,601,763  0  0
    1872     1,190,008  0  0      740,234  0  0
    1873     1,422,395  0  0      832,997  0  0
    1874     1,546,438  0  0      633,656  0  0
    1875     1,558,355  0  0      695,418  0  0
    1876     1,232,881  0  0      674,003  0  0
    1877     1,136,316  0  0      734,336  0  0
    1878     1,408,823  0  0      544,112  0  0
    1879     1,476,325  0  0      551,849  0  0
    1880     1,242,871  0  0      758,271  0  0
    1881     1,490,124  0  0      813,113  0  0
    1882     1,911,606  0  0      975,301  0  0
    1883     1,916,241  0  0    1,067,326  0  0
    1884     1,978,945  0  0      835,424  0  0
    1885     1,857,655  0  0    1,035,125  0  0
    1886     1,720,898  0  0      581,881  0  0
    1887     1,401,379  0  0      986,712  0  0
    1888     1,403,664  0  0      933,958  0  0
    1889     1,363,131  0  0    1,042,087  0  0
    1890     1,385,959  0  0    1,237,600  0  0
    1891     1,595,036  0  0    1,218,321  0  0
    1892     1,642,686  0  0    1,214,878  0  0
    1893     1,487,827  0  0    1,256,450  0  0
    1894     1,562,434  0  0    1,174,920  0  0
    1895     1,592,558  0  0    1,302,075  0  0
    1896     1,960,570  0  0    1,276,035  0  0
    1897     2,132,477  0  0    1,365,040  0  0
    1872     1,190,008  0  0      740,234  0  0
    1898     2,187,128  0  0    1,676,152  0  0
    1899     2,211,719  0  0    1,860,604  0  0
    1900     2,617,329  0  0    2,068,361  0  0
    1901     3,023,566  0  0    1,922,792  0  0
    1902     3,087,460  0  0    2,091,016  0  0
    1903     3,167,185  0  0    2,501,605  0  0
    1904     3,248,163  0  0    2,512,938  0  0
    1905     3,156,470  0  0    2,643,495  0  0
    1906     3,591,342  0  0    3,168,927  0  0
    1907     4,533,999  0  0    3,472,405  0  0
    1908     4,671,295  0  0    2,900,551  0  0
    1909     4,333,857  0  0    3,371,407  0  0
    1910     4,741,326  0  0    3,960,655  0  0
    1911     5,650,734  0  0    3,280,878  0  0
    1912     6,398,533  0  0    3,381,938  0  0
    1913     6,610,745  0  0    4,024,740  0  0
    1914     6,548,880  0  0    4,062,530  0  0
    1915     6,494,462  0  0    5,407,074  0  0
    1916     7,362,778  0  0    5,894,787  0  0
    1917     6,413,477  0  0    5,712,467  0  0
    1918     7,217,732  0  0    6,022,514  0  0
    1919     9,567,409  0  0    9,847,296  0  0
    1920    18,732,082  0  0    9,383,603  0  0



FOOTNOTES:


[1] Known also as Toi-Kai-rakau.

[2] One-taunga (Mooring's beach)

[3] Subsequently the first Maori king.

[4] The marriage of Kati with Matere Toha, brought about in accordance
with ancient Maori custom, was designed to perpetuate the peace made
between the Northern and the local tribes. The high rank of both Kati
and Matere Toha, and their personal influence and worth, made the union
a great success from the diplomatic standpoint. The marriage was one
of the epoch-making events of local Maori history, and was a happy
consummation to all the events that had gone before. Kati and his wife
lived and died at Mangere. At their death they were interred in the old
cemetery near by the venerable church which was erected by the Maoris
on the Mangere hillside in those far-off days as a token of the advent
of Christianity among their people.

[5] He was made an archdeacon in September, 1844.

[6] See Appendix I _re_ name of city.

[7] Captain William Cornwallis Symonds;

[8] John Johnston, M.D.;

[9] Captain David Rough;

[10] William Mason;

[11] George Clarke, jun.;

[12] Felton Mathew. (Captain Rough states in his
reminiscences--published in the Supplement to the _New Zealand
Herald_ of January 11, 18 and 25, 1896, that Mr. E. Williams, Native
Interpreter, was also of the company of officials).

[13] "Poenamo," p. 316.

[14] "Poenamo," pp. 337-40.

[15] This house, known as Acacia Cottage, was built by the late Sir
John Logan Campbell with his own hands, and was occupied by him for
many years. It has now been removed to Cornwall Park.

[16] P. 157.

[17] At the Old Colonists' Reunion, which takes place annually, the
oldest survivor of the passengers by this ship is presented with a gift
of five pounds.

[18] He was not made a knight until 1848.

[19] "Auckland, the Capital of New Zealand and the Country Adjacent,"
1853. Pp. 28-30.

[20] The gaol was moved to the Mount Eden location in 1856.

[21] Albert Barracks occupied the area bounded by Kitchener Street as
far as Victoria Street, then followed an irregular line to Symonds
Street at the point where Grafton Road now intersects, thence along
Symonds Street to O'Rorke Street, and back on a line bordering
Wellesley Street to the starting point at Kitchener Street. In 1871 the
Barracks were transferred from the Government to the City Corporation.

[22] The actual area was 21 acres 1 rood 27 perches.

[23] "Further Papers Relative to New Zealand," 1854. P. 243.

[24] Coromandel.

[25] "Auckland ... and the Country Adjacent" [Swainson], P. 87.

[26] _Ibid._ P. 89.

[27] I am indebted for much of the information in this section to Will
Lawson's "Steam in the Southern Pacific." 1909.

[28] Originally The Auckland College and Grammar School.

[29] The National Efficiency Board consisted of Messrs. W. Ferguson
(Wellington), Chairman, W. D. Hunt (Otago), James Frostick (Canterbury)
and J. H. Gunson (Auckland).



Index


 ABATTOIRS, 204

 ACACIA Cottage, 51

 ADELAIDE, Melbourne and Otago S.N. Co., 118

 ADMIRALTY House built by Harbour Board, 189

 ADMIRALTY House, old, used as University College 162

 AFRICA, _Russian Cruiser_, visited Auckland, 157

 AGRICULTURE, State of, in early '50s, 89;
   Progress of, 183

 AHURIRI, _steamer_, 116

 ALAMEDA, _steamer_, 169-70

 ALBERT Barracks, Description of, 82-3;
   Used as Grammar School, 129

 ALBERT Cars used for city and suburban travelling, 105

 ALBERT Street Congregational Church, 138

 ALDINGA, _steamer_, 119

 ALEXANDRA Convalescent Home, 210

 ALEXANDRA Street P.
   Methodist Church, 138

 ALFRED, Prince. _See_ Edinburgh, Duke of

 ALHAMBRA, _steamer_, 119

 ALL SAINTS Church, Ponsonby, 134

 AMALGAMATION of suburban districts with city, 182

 AMUSEMENTS in early 'fifties, 84-5

 ANNA, proposed township of, 53

 ANNA WATSON, _ship_, 38-9

 ARAWA, _steamer_, 170

 ARCHER, _H.M.S._, 189

 ARCH HILL amalgamated with city, 144

 ARMISTICE, 1918, 231

 ARROWSMITH, W., bequeathed £23,000 to Orphan Home and Mrs. Cowie's
   Women's Home 210

 ART Gallery. _See_ Public Library, Art Gallery, etc.

 ATKINSON, H. W., presented park to city, 202

 AUCKLAND Chronicle and N.Z. Colonist, _newspaper_, 62

 AUCKLAND (city), Founded by Captain Hobson, 35-42;
   Named by Captain Hobson, 37, 236-8;
   Boundaries, 1840, 43;
     1851, 80;
     1871, 144;
     1921, 145;
   In 1842, 47-8;
   First plan made by Felton Mathew, 50;
   Its features, 51;
   Threatened by Maoris, 57;
     In early '50s, 80-90;
   Threatened invasion by natives in 1851, 90-2;
   Takes defensive measures at outbreak of Maori trouble, 98;
   Adult male population conscripted, 100;
   Blockhouses for defence erected during Maori wars, 101;
   Militia ordered on active service, 101;
   Amalgamated with adjacent districts, 144-5;
   Population, 239.
   _See also_ City Council.

 AUCKLAND City Council. _See_ City Council; Municipal Government.

 AUCKLAND-ONEHUNGA Railway line opened, 103

 AUCKLAND Provincial Council, 96;
   Library transferred to Public Library, 147

 AUCKLAND Provincial Patriotic and War Relief Association, 223-4

 AUCKLAND Railway Station, 103

 AUCKLAND Standard, _newspaper_, 62

 AUCKLAND Star, _newspaper_, 66-7

 AUCKLAND Steam Packet Company, 117

 AUCKLAND Timber Company's mill burned, 167

 AUCKLAND Times, _newspaper_, 62-3

 AUCKLAND Vaudeville Employee's Association equip Children's Hospital
   as a War Memorial 73

 AUCKLAND Weekly News, _newspaper_, 65

 AUCKLAND-WELLINGTON railway inaugurated, 104

 AUSTRALIAN Squadron, Visit of, 189

 AUSTRALIA, _steamer_, 169

 AZUMA, _Japanese warship_, Visit of, 191


 BADEN-POWELL, Lt.-Gen., Sir R. S. S., Visit of, 187-8

 BALCLUTHA, _steamer_, 117

 BANK of Auckland, 109

 BANK of Australasia, 110

 BANK of New South Wales, 108

 BANK of New Zealand 108-9, 143

 BANKS, 70-1, 108-10, 174, 214

 BAPTIST Church, 136-7

 BATHS, 203

 BERESFORD Street Congregational Church, 138

 BIRDWOOD, Gen. Sir W. R., Visit of, 228

 BLOCKHOUSES erected around Auckland for defence, 101

 BOER War. _See_ South African War.

 BONITE, _French warship_, crew of, assist at fire, 1865, 121-2

 BOOM, 141

 BOROUGH of Auckland incorporated, 77-8

 BOUNDARIES of the city, 43, 80, 144-5

 BOWEN, Sir G. F., welcomed Duke of Edinburgh to Auckland, 127

 BOYS' Institute, 177

 BREAKWATER, 152

 BRETT, H. M. presented pipe organ to Town Hall, 207

 BRITISH KING, _steamer_, 170

 BRITOMART Barracks, 82-3

 BRITOMART, _H.M. Brig_, visited the Waitemata, 43

 BRITOMART Point, named after H.M. brig _Britomart_, 43;
   Demolition of, 153

 BUILDINGS, Early 44-5, 81-2, 120

 BUSSES used for city and suburban travelling, 105

 BUTCHERS' strike, 218

 BYCROFT'S fire, 196


 CALIFORNIA Line, 168

 CALLIOPE Dock opened, 155;
   Disaster in, 198

 CALLIOPE, _H.M.S._, 155

 CAMPBELL, Sir J. Logan settled on the Waitemata, 42;
   His pioneering experiences, 44;
   Describes the social and economic conditions of the '40s, 45-7;
   Welcomed Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York, 183;
   Presented Cornwall Park, 183;
   Resumé of his life 184-6

 CANADIAN Government Merchant Marine, 215

 CANADIAN Raider, _steamer_ 215

 CAPITAL, Auckland selected as site of, 35-42;
   N.Z. Company's opposition, 38;
   Removed to Wellington, 38, 107

 CENSUS. _See_ Population.

 CHALLENGER, _H.M.S._, 126

 CHORAL Hall, 176;
   Incorporated in University College, 161-2

 CHURCHES, 67-9, 133-40

 CHURCH of England 67-8, 133-4

 CHURCH of S. Francis de Sales, 135

 CHURCH of the Holy Sepulchre, 134

 CIRCULAR Saw Line, 113-4

 CITY Chambers burned, 193

 CITY COUNCIL. Auckland made first borough in N.Z., 77-8;
   Its history, 1851-70, 77-9;
   Its history, continued, 1900-20, 199-207;
   Constituted under Municipal Corporations Act, 144;
   Finances and valuation, 207

 CITY, of, Melbourne, _steamer_, 118, 169

 CITY of New York, _steamer_ 169

 CITY of San Francisco, _steamer_, 169

 CITY of Sydney, _steamer_, 169

 CLARK, A., elected first Mayor of Auckland, 78

 CLAUD Hamilton, _steamer_ 118

 CLAYMORE, _steamer_, rams _Kapanui_, 198

 COACHES, Travel by, 104

 COAL discovered in the Waikato and Kawakawa, 102

 COASTAL Steamer Service, 115-7

 COLIMA, _steamer_, 169

 COLONIAL Bank of Issue, 70

 COMMERCE, 70, 89, 174-6, 183

 COMMERCE Street Fire, 1901, 192

 COMMERCIAL Bank of Australia, 214

 COMPULSORY, military service of adult male population of Auckland, 100

 CONGREGATIONAL Church, 138

 CONSTITUTION Act passed, 95

 CORIO, _steamer_, 116

 CORNWALL and York, Visit of Duke and Duchess of, 183-4

 CORNWALL Park, 184, 186

 COROMANDEL Goldfields 93-5

 COROMANDEL Steamship Co., 171

 COSTLEY, E., Bequest of, 177

 COSTLEY Home, 74, 177

 COST of Living, 1841, 48-49;
   1851, 86-7

 COURT, J., equipped children's playground, 201

 CRAIG, J. J. (Ltd.), Stables burned, 195

 CUSTOMS Street Fire, 1901, 192

 CYPHRENES, _steamer_, 169


 DACOTAH, _steamer_, 168

 DAVIS Cup Contest, 1920, 231

 DEVONPORT Steam Ferry Co., 105

 DIAMOND, _H.M.S._, 155-6

 DILWORTH, J., Bequest of 177

 DISTRICT Court utilised by Grammar School, 129;
   Used as University College, 162

 DOMAIN improvements made from Exhibition funds, 213-4

 DRAINAGE, 203

 DRIVER, _H.M.S._, first steamer to arrive at Auckland, 75

 DUCHESS of Argyle, _ship_ 53-4

 DUKE of Edinburgh, _steamer_, 116


 EASTERN Outlet Scheme, 200

 ECONOMIC Conditions of the '40s described by Dr. J. Logan
     Campbell, 45-7;
   In the early '50s, 87-90

 EDEN Terrace amalgamated with city, 144

 EDINBURGH, Visit of Duke of, 125-9

 EDUCATION, 157-164

 EIGHT Hours' Demonstration, 176

 18TH (ROYAL IRISH) Regiment leaves Auckland for England, 107;
   Formed Guard of Honour to Duke of Edinburgh, 127

 ELAM, J. E., Bequest of, 150

 ELECTRICITY for lighting and power, 204

 ELINGAMITE, _steamer_, wrecked, 196-7

 ELLIOTT Street Fire, 1911, 194

 ENDEAN'S Buildings burned, 194

 ENTERPRISE, _ferry steamer_, 105

 ENTERPRISE No. 2, _ferry steamer_, 106

 EPSOM, Cultivation at, 48;
   Proposed township of, 52-3;
   First race meeting held at, 71;
   Amalgamated with city, 144;
   Military training camp located at, 221

 EPSOM Girls' Grammar School, 131

 EUROPEAN War, 1914-9, 219-26

 EVENING News, _newspaper_, 66

 EXECUTION, First, 72

 EXHIBITIONS, 1873, 159;
   1898-9, 175-6;
   1913, 211-4


 FAIRFIELD Shipbuilding Co., 169

 FAVOURITE, _steamer_, 117

 FERRIES, 105

 58TH REGIMENT, 96;
   Assisted at fire, 122

 FINANCES of City, 207

 FINANCIAL Crisis, 141-3

 FIRES, 75; 120-4; 135; 164-7; 192-6

 FISHER, A., Visit of, 189

 FITZROY, Governor R., absorbs unemployed on road making, 55;
   Visited Maori Festival, 59;
   Recalled, 57

 FLAGSTAFF Hill, original name of Point Britomart, 43

 FLEET Week, 189-90

 FLY, _H.M.S._, 92

 FORT Street Fire, 164-5

 FRANKLIN Road P. Methodist Church, 138

 FRENCH Mission, Visit of, 227


 GALATEA, _H.M.S._, 126

 GALES, 1866, 124;
   1874, 167-8;
   1918, 232

 GAOL, 82

 GAS Lighting introduced, 124-5

 GILLIES, Judge T. B., endowed two scholarships at University
   College, 164

 GIRLS' College united with Grammar School, 130

 GIRLS' Grammar School, 130-1

 GLEESON'S Buildings, Fire in, 195

 GOLD discovered in Auckland Province, 89, 93;
   First sale of, 94

 GOLDEN Crown, _steamer_, 117

 GORE-BROWN, Sir T., makes arrangements for defence of Auckland at
   outbreak of Maori dispute, 98

 GORE Street Wharf 152, 154

 GOVERNMENT Buildings destroyed by fire, 165

 GOVERNMENT House burned, 76

 GOVERNMENT Officers, First, 40-1

 GOVERNMENT Records lost by wreck of _White Swan_, 118

 GOVERNOR Wynyard, first steamer built in New Zealand, 112

 GRAFTON Bridge, 200-1

 GRAFTON district amalgamated with city, 144

 GRAFTON Road Wesleyan Church, 137

 GRAHAM, Robert, his description of Auckland in 1842, 47-8

 GRAMMAR School, 129-31

 GRAND Hotel Fire, 193

 GREY, Sir G., Resumé of his life, 58;
   Statue unveiled by Lord Plunket, 59;
   Suppressed threatened invasion of Auckland, 90;
   Opened new Grammar School, 130;
   Presented his collection of books, etc., to citizens, 145-6, 147;
   Introduced denominational schools, 158

 GREYHOUND Hotel burned, 1863, 122

 GREY Lynn amalgamated with city, 144

 GUNSON, J. H., opened additions to Art Gallery building and Old
     Colonists' Museum, 150;
   Received O.B.E. and C.B.E. 224

 GUNSON, Mrs. received O.B.E., 224


 HALL, Mr., runs steamer service, 169

 HAMILTON, Sir Ian, Visit of, 189

 HARBOUR Board 143, 151-5, 207

 HARRIER, _H.M.S._, 120

 HEKE, Hone, proposes to attack Auckland, 60

 HEKE'S Rebellion, 57

 HELPING Hand Mission 137

 HENDERSON and McFarlane's Fires, 1865, 123;
   1873, 166

 HIGH Street Fires, 1858, 121;
   1904, 193

 HOBSON, Captain W., founded City of Auckland, 35-42;
  Gave name to Auckland City, 37 and 236-8;
  Took up official residence in Auckland, 41;
  Became Governor, 41;
  Died and buried at Auckland, 41;
  Laid foundation stone of St. Paul's Church, 67

 HOBSON Street Wharf, 154

 HOLMAN, W. A., Visit of 189

 HOSPITAL, 72-4, 177, 187

 HOUSE, First wooden, built in Auckland, 51

 HOUSE of Representatives. _See_ Parliament.

 HOUSING, Municipal, 205

 HUDDART Parker Company, 215


 IMMIGRANTS and Immigration, 53, 54, 55, 142

 IMPERIAL Regiments leave Auckland, 107

 INDUSTRIAL Disputes, 216-9

 INFLUENZA Epidemic, 1918, 229-31

 INSTITUTE and Museum. _See_ Museum and Institute.

 INTER-COLONIAL R.M.S. Co., 117-8

 INTER-COLONIAL Steamer Services, 117

 INTER-PROVINCIAL Steamer Service, 118

 IRIS, _H.M.S._, 99

 IROQUOIS, _ship_, Crew of, render help at fire, 167

 ISLINGTON, Baron, opened Town Hall, 206

 IWATE, _Japanese warship_, Visit of, 191


 JACOB'S Ladder, 151

 JANE Gifford, _barque_, 53-4

 JELLICOE, Lord, 191

 JERVOIS, Sir W. F. D., opened Savings Bank's new premises, 71;
   Opened Calliope Dock, 155;
   Opened University College, 162

 JOCKEYS' Strike, 218

 JUBILEE Institute for the Blind, 177-8

 JUNO, first merchant _steamer_ to reach Auckland, 75


 KAPANUI, _steamer_, wrecked 198

 KARANGAHAPE Highway District amalgamated with the city, 144

 KARRAKATTA, _H.M.S._, 189

 KENNY, Lieut.-Col., mentioned in Governor's despatch in connection
     with Maori invasion, 1851, 92;
   Placed in command of settlement at Onehunga, 99

 KIA-ORA, _steamer_, wrecked, 198

 KITCHENER, Earl, Visit of 187

 KNOX, Mrs., bequeathed £70,000 to charities, 210, 211

 KOHIMARAMA Conference, 1860, 98

 KORORAREKA, Destruction of, 57


 LABOUR, 176

 LABOUR Day Demonstration, 176

 LAND Sales, 50-2, 88

 LAND, Speculation in, 142-3

 LEGISLATIVE Council. _See_ Parliament.

 LESLIE Presbyterian Orphanage, 211

 LEYS, T. W., and University College, 163;
   LL.D. conferred by McGill University, Toronto, 163-4

 LEYS Institute, 208-9

 LIVERPOOL, Earl of, opened new Grammar School, 131;
   Opened Myers Kindergarten, 202;
   Opened Exhibition, 1913, 212

 LIZARD, _H.M.S._., 189

 LUCKIE, D.M., printed a fictitious report describing the capture of
   Auckland by a Russian man-of-war, 156

 LUCKNER, Commander von, and other German prisoners escaped from
   Motuihi, 221-2


 MACDONALD, Sir Hector, Visit of, 186-7

 MACEDONIA, _steamer_, 215

 McKECHNIE, E. A., bequeathed books to Public Library, 148

 McKECHNIE, Mrs. E. A., Bequest of, 207

 MACKELVIE, J. T., presented books to Public Library, 148;
   Bequeathed his art collection and funds to establish a Museum of
     Fine Art, 149

 MACKY, Logan, Caldwell and Co.'s Fire, 194

 McLACHLAN, J. M., bequeathed Cornwallis Park to the city, 202

 MAKETU Hanged, 72

 MAKURA, _steamer_, 215

 MALCOLM, Messrs., Fire starts in premises of, 1866, 123-4

 MAMARI, _steamer_, Accident to, 198

 MANUKAU Steamship Co., 171

 MAORI Battalion welcomed home, 226-7

 MAORI Chapel utilised by Grammar School, 129

 MAORI Festival, Remuera, 59

 MAORI Police, 92

 MAORI Traders, 86, 89, 115

 MAORI Wars, 1860-64, 97-101

 MARAMA, _steamer_, 214-5

 MARAROA, _steamer_, 169

 MARIPOSA, _steamer_ 169, 170

 MARITIME Strike, 1890, 176

 MARKETS, 146, 204

 MASON, W., Bequest of, 178

 MATHEW, F., Surveyor-General favoured Tamaki for site of capital, 35-6;
   Selected site for settlement on the Waitemata, 39;
   Made first plan of city, 50

 MAYOR--A. Clark elected first, 73

 MECHANICS' Institute and Library, 75, 146;
   Conducted courses of lectures and classes, 159;
   Promoted an exhibition, 159

 MEREDITH, Mr., and his son murdered, 100

 METHODIST Church of New Zealand, 138

 MIKADO, _steamer_, 169

 MILITIA, Auckland, ordered on active service, 101

 MOA, _scow_, 222

 MOA, _ship_, 112

 MOANA, _steamer_, 170

 MONGOL, _steamer_, 169

 MONGOLIA, _steamer_, 215

 MONOWAI, _steamer_, 170

 MOORE, J., printer of early newspapers, 62

 MORNING News, _newspaper_, 66

 MORRIN & Co.'s fire, 1858, 122

 MORRIN, T. & S., Warehouse of, burned, 193

 MOSES Taylor, _steamer_, 168

 MUNICIPAL Government.
   Auckland made first borough in New Zealand, 77-8;
   Urgency of, 145.
   _See also_ City Council.

 MUSEUM and Institute 132-3, 208

 MYERS, Hon. A. M. presented park and kindergarten, 201-2;
   Presented clock to Town Hall, 207


 NATIONAL Bank of N.Z., 174

 NATIONAL Efficiency Board, 224

 NEBRASKA, _steamer_, 168

 NELSON, _steamer_, 118

 NEVADA, _steamer_, 168

 NEWSPAPERS, 61-7

 NEWTON Congregational Church, 138

 NEW Ulster, Province of, abolished, 95

 NEW Zealand Banking Co., 70

 NEW Zealand Company oppose choice of Auckland as capital, 38

 NEW Zealander, _newspaper_ 64

 NEW Zealand Herald, _newspaper_, 64-6

 NEW Zealand Herald and Auckland Gazette, _newspaper_, 61-2

 NEW ZEALAND, _H.M.S._, 190-1

 NEW Zealand Insurance Company, 110-1

 NEW Zealand proclaimed independent of New South Wales, 41

 NEW Zealand Shipping Company, 170-1

 NEW Zealand Steam Navigation Company, 118

 NGAKAPA, Threatened invasion of Auckland led by, 90

 NGAWIKI apprehended for theft, 90

 NIAGARA, _steamer_, 229

 NIGER, _H.M. steam frigate_ 99

 NIHOTUPU Dam, 203

 NIXON, Lieut.-Col., placed in command, Otahuhu, 99

 NORTHERN Steamship Co. 171

 NOVELTY, _barque_, built by Mr. Niccol, 113


 OCEANIC Company, 169

 OLD Colonists' Association 54

 OLD Colonists' Museum. _See_ Public Library, Art Gallery and Old
   Colonists' Museum.

 ONSLOW, Earl of, opened Costley Home, 74

 ORIENTAL Bank Corporation, 108

 O'RORKE, Sir G. M., and University College, 162

 ORPHAN Home bequeathed £12,150 by E. Costley, 177;
   Bequeathed £11,000 by W. Arrowsmith, 210

 ORPHEUS, _H.M.S._, wrecked on Manukau Bar, 119-20

 OSPREY Inn burned, 1858 121


 P. & O. Company, 215

 PACIFIC Mail Company, 169

 PALOONA, _steamer_, 215

 PANAMA, N.Z. and Australian Line, 114, 117

 PANMURE recommended as site of capital by Felton Mathew, 35

 PARKS, 201-2

 PARLIAMENT Building, 97;
   Acquired by University College, 162

 PARLIAMENT opens its maiden session at Auckland, 96

 PARNELL originally designed for suburban allotments, 51-2;
   Laid out as township, 52-3;
   Amalgamated with city, 144

 PARNELL Hill pierced by railway tunnel, 103

 PARTRIDGE, H. E., presented Lindauer Collection to Art Gallery, 223

 PAU, General, Visit of, 227

 PEACE Celebrations, 1919, 224-5

 PENGUIN, _H.M.S._, 189

 PENNY Savings Bank inaugurated, 71

 PENSIONERS, 91

 PHILSON, Dr. F. M., first medical officer of Auckland, 72

 PHOEBE, _H.M.S._, 189

 PHOENIX Foundry burned, 167

 PITT Street Wesleyan Church, 137

 PLATINA, _barque_, 39

 PLUNKET, Lord, unveiled statue of Sir Geo. Grey, 59;
   Laid foundation stone of Technical College, 160;
   Opened Jubilee Institute for the Blind, 178;
   Unveiled statue of Sir J. Logan Campbell, 186

 POINT Britomart. _See_ Britomart Point.

 POINT Chevalier amalgamated with city, 145

 PONSONBY amalgamated with city, 144

 POPULATION, 1841-2, 53;
   1851, 80;
   1853, 87;
   1861-67, 107-8;
   1871-96, 141-2;
   1901-21, 182;
   Table of, 239

 POST Office Fire, 165

 POTATAU (Te Wherowhero) and other Maori chiefs decline to join Hone
   Heke in attacking Auckland, 60-1

 PRESBYTERIAN Church, 68-9, 135-6

 PRESBYTERY of Auckland formed, 69

 PRIMITIVE Methodist Church, 138

 PRINCE Alfred, _steamer_ 116-7

 PRINCESS Mary Hospital for Children, 73

 PROVISIONS, 1841, 49;
   1851, 86

 PUBLIC Library, Art Gallery and Old Colonists' Museum, 115, 125;
   Description of, 146-50, 177, 223


 QUAY Street Jetty, 154

 QUEEN Carnival, 223

 QUEEN, _steamer_, 118

 QUEEN Street Fires, 1866, 123-4;
   1873, 165-6;
   1876, 166-7

 QUEEN Street Wharf 152, 153-4

 QUEEN Victoria School for Maori Girls, Foundation stone of, laid, 184


 RACE Meeting, First held in New Zealand, 71

 RAILWAY Strike, 218

 RAILWAYS, 103

 RANFURLY, Earl of, opened Exhibition, 1898-9, 176;
   Unveiled statue of Queen Victoria, 180;
   Opened Veterans' Home, 181

 RANGATIRA, _steamer_, 116, 117

 RANGER, _revenue cutter_, 36

 RECLAMATION of foreshores, 151, 152-3

 REGATTA, First held at Auckland, 40

 REMUERA, Maori Festival held at, 59;
   Amalgamated with city, 144

 RENOWN, _H.M.S._, 233

 RENTS and Lodgings, 1841, 49;
   1851, 86

 RICHARDSON, Brig.-Gen. G. S., welcomed home 227-8

 RING, C., discovers gold at Coromandel, 93-4

 RINGAROOMA, _H.M.S._, 189

 ROAD Making in the '40s 55-6

 ROADS, 199

 ROMAN Catholic Church 68, 134-5

 ROUGH, Capt. D., appointed Harbour Master at Waitemata, 36;
   Immigration Agent, 54;
   Superintendent of Works, 55-6

 ROYAL Albert, _steamer_, 116

 ROYAL Arthur, H.M.S., 189

 ROYAL Irish Regiment. _See_ 18th (Royal Irish) Regiment.

 ROYAL Regiment of Artillery Band, 213

 RUAPEKAPEKA, Capture of, 60

 RUBY, _steamer_, wrecked, 173


 SAILOR'S Home, 177

 ST. ANDREW'S Presbyterian Church, 69

 ST. ANDREW'S School used as Grammar School, 130

 ST. BENEDICT'S Church, 135

 ST. DAVID'S Presbyterian Church, 136

 ST. GEORGE, _ship_, 54

 ST. JAMES' Presbyterian Church, 136

 ST. MARY'S Pro-Cathedral, 133-4

 ST. MATTHEW'S Church, 133

 ST. PATRICK'S Cathedral, 68

 ST. PAUL'S Church, 67

 SAVINGS Bank, 70-1;
   Contributed £10,000 towards cost of Technical Col-building, 160

 SCHOOL of Art established by will of Dr. J. E. Elam, 150

 SCHOOLS, Primary, 158

 SCOTTISH Element in Auckland traceable to the immigrants by the
   _Duchess of Argyle_ and _Jane Gifford_, 54

 SECCOMBE'S Well supplied city with water, 145

 SEDDON Memorial Technical College. _See_ Technical College.

 SELWYN, Bishop, arrived in Auckland, 67;
   Consecrated St. Paul's Church, 67;
   Dedicated St. Mary's Pro-Cathedral, 134

 SEWERAGE, 203

 SHAW, F., presented collection of books to Public Library, 148

 SHAW, H., presented collection of books to Public Library, 148

 SHAW, Savill and Albion Line, 171

 SHIPBUILDING, 111-12

 SHIPPING 75, 88, 113-9, 168-71 214-6

 SHIPWRECKS and Disasters, 116, 118, 119, 120, 172-3, 196-9

 SHORTLAND Street Fire, 1919, 196

 SIERRA, _steamer_, 170

 SIXTY-FIFTH Regiment, 99

 SLUMP. _See_ Financial Crisis.

 SMITH, S. Hague, commenced a steamer service 116

 SMITH, Mr. and Mrs. W. H., presented Convalescent Home, 210

 SOCIAL Conditions described by Dr. J. Logan Campbell, 45-7

 SOCIAL Life in the early '50s, 84-5

 SOCIETY of Arts, Mrs. McKechnie bequeathed £2500 to erect a
   gallery, 207

 SOLDIERS' Club, 228

 SONOMA _steamer_, 170

 SOUTH African War, 180-1

 SOUTH British Insurance Co., 174

 SOUTHERN CROSS, _newspaper_, 63-4;
   Printed fictitious report describing the capture of Auckland by a
     Russian man-of-war 156

 SPARROW, _H.M.S._, 189

 SPECULATION precipitated financial crisis, 142-3

 SPENSER, _brig_, 114

 SPORT. _See also_ Amusements.

 SPRAGG, W., presented Kaiterakihe Park to the city, 202

 STAR of the South, _steamer_, 171

 STOCKS for petty criminals, 45

 STORMBIRD, _steamer_, 118

 STRAND Arcade Burned, 194

 STRIKES, 176, 216-9

 SUBMARINE Minefield discovered between North Cape and Cape Maria van
     Diemen, 222;
   Wrecked steamer _Wimmera_, 199

 SUPREME Court, 72

 SWIMMING Baths, 203

 SYMONDS Street Cemetery, 41

 SYNAGOGUE, 138-9


 TABERNACLE, 137

 TAKAPUNA, _ferry steamer_, 106

 TAMAKI suggested as site of capital by Rev. H. Williams, 35

 TARTAR, _steamer_, 169

 TASMANIA, _steamer_, wrecked, 173

 TECHNICAL College, 160-1

 TECHNICAL Education 159-61

 TECHNICAL School, 160

 TELEGRAPH, Electric, 101-2

 TERRY, Charles, _quoted_ 48-9

 TE WHEROWHERO. _See_ Potatau.

 THAMES Hotel Fire, 1919, 196

 THISTLE Hotel Burned, 1863, 122

 TOWN Hall, 205-7

 TRADES and Labour Council founded, 176

 TRADE Unions, 176

 TRAMS, Electric, 204

 TRAMS, Horse, 146

 TRAMWAYS Dispute, 218

 TRANSPORTATION, 103-6

 TRUST, Mr., Two sons of, murdered, 100

 TYSER Line, 171


 UNEMPLOYMENT, 55, 107

 UNION Bank of Australia 71

 UNIONISM, 176

 UNION Sash and Door Co.'s Fire, 167

 UNION Steamship Co. 169, 214-5, 216

 UNITED States Navy, Visit of, 189-90

 UNIVERSITY College acquired Old Parliament building, 97;
   Historical note, 161-4


 VALUATIONS, City, 207

 VASCO de Gama, _steamer_, 169

 VENTURA, _steamer_, 170

 VETERANS' Home, 181

 VICTORIA, _ferry steamer_, 106

 VICTORIA, Queen, Diamond Jubilee of, 178

 VIRAGO, _H.M.S._, 126


 WAGES, 1841, 49;
   1851, 86

 WAIRARAPA, _steamer_, wrecked, 172-3

 WAIRAU, Massacre at, 57

 WAITAKERE Dam, 203

 WAITEMATA, _ferry steamer_, 105

 WAITEMATA suggested as site of capital by Rev. H. Williams, 35

 WALES, Visit of Prince of, 219, 232-3

 WALLAROO, _H.M.S._, 189

 WATERFRONT, Original state of, 43-4

 WATER Supply, 145, 203

 WEATHER, 124, 167-8, 232

 WEBB and Holladay, Messrs., 168

 WELLESLEY Street Fire, 1873, 165-6

 WELLINGTON, _steamer_, 118

 WELLINGTON Steamship Co., 115

 WESLEYAN Church, 69, 137

 WESTERN Springs Purchased, 145

 WESTMINSTER, _ship_, 55

 WHARVES, 81, 151-4

 WHITE Star Line, 171

 WHITE Swan, _steamer_, 118

 WILLIAM Denny, _steamer_ 117

 WILLIAMS, Rev. H., recommended the Tamaki or Waitemata as site of
   capital, 35

 WILLIAMS, _steamer_, 117

 WILL o' the Wisp, _ship_, 114

 WIMMERA, _steamer_, wrecked, 199

 WINDSOR Terrace, proposed township of, 53

 WONGA WONGA, _coastal steamer_, 115-6, 120

 WONGA WONGA, _Pacific steamer_, 118

 WYNYARD Pier, 152


 Y.M.C.A. 122, 139, 160

 Y.W.C.A. 139-40


 ZEALANDIA, _steamer_, 169, 215

 ZINGARI, _steamer_, 118


[Illustration: Map of the City of Auckland 1921]



    Transcriber's notes:

    The following is a list of changes made to the original.
    The first line is the original line, the second the corrected one.

    collectively acknowledged the superior prestige of an Arika,
    collectively acknowledged the superior prestige of an Ariki,

    Hobsons' choice of the capital was strenuously
    Hobson's choice of the capital was strenuously

    According to the official "Gazette," only 116 allotmets were sold,
    According to the official "Gazette," only 116 allotments were sold,

    that of Auckand for the year ending June 30, 1852, amounting to
    that of Auckland for the year ending June 30, 1852, amounting to

    although such a step would have taken place in due cousre.
    although such a step would have taken place in due course.

    The Auckland Grammar School, which was a most unpretentions affair,
    The Auckland Grammar School, which was a most unpretentious affair,

    Miss Whitelaw retired from the the Head Mistressship in 1910,
    Miss Whitelaw retired from the Head Mistressship in 1910,





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