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Title: Botany for Ladies - or, A Popular Introduction to the Natural System of Plants, - According to the Classification of De Candolle.
Author: Loudon, Jane
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Botany for Ladies - or, A Popular Introduction to the Natural System of Plants, - According to the Classification of De Candolle." ***

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  Natural System of Plants,




  Author of “Instructions in Gardening for Ladies,” “Year-Book of
  Natural History,” &c. &c.






When I was a child, I never could learn Botany. There was something in
the Linnean system (the only one then taught) excessively repugnant
to me; I never could remember the different classes and orders, and
after several attempts the study was given up as one too difficult
for me to master. When I married, however, I soon found the necessity
of knowing something of Botany, as well as of Gardening. I always
accompanied my husband in his visits to different gardens; and when we
saw beautiful flowers, I was continually asking the names, though alas!
these names, when I heard them, conveyed no ideas to my mind, and I was
not any wiser than before. Still the natural wish to know something
of what we admire, impelled me to repeat my fruitless questions; till
at last, vexed at my ignorance, and ashamed of not being able to
answer the appeals which gardeners often made to me in doubtful cases,
(supposing that Mr. Loudon’s wife must know everything about plants,)
I determined to learn Botany if possible; and as my old repugnance
remained to the Linnean system, I resolved to study the Natural one.
Accordingly I began; but when I heard that plants were divided into the
two great classes, the Vasculares and the Cellulares, and again into
the Dicotyledons or Exogens, the Monocotyledons or Endogens, and the
Acotyledons or Acrogens, and that the Dicotyledons were re-divided into
the Dichlamydeæ and Monochlamydeæ, and again into three sub-classes,
Thalamifloræ, Calycifloræ, and Corollifloræ, I was in despair, for I
thought it quite impossible that I ever could remember all the hard
names that seemed to stand on the very threshold of the science, as if
to forbid the entrance of any but the initiated.

Some time afterwards, as I was walking through the gardens of the
Horticultural Society at Chiswick, my attention was attracted by a
mass of the beautiful crimson flowers of Malope grandiflora. I had
never seen the plant before, and I eagerly asked the name. “It is some
Malvaceous plant,” answered Mr. Loudon, carelessly; and immediately
afterwards he left me to look at some trees which he was about to have
drawn for his Arboretum Britannicum. “Some Malvaceous plant,” thought
I, as I continued looking at the splendid bed before me; and then I
remembered how much the form of these beautiful flowers resembled that
of the flowers of the crimson Mallow, the botanical name of which I
recollected was Malva. “I wish I could find out some other Malvaceous
plant,” I thought to myself; and when we soon afterwards walked through
the hothouses, I continued to ask if the Chinese Hibiscus, which I saw
in flower there, did not belong to Malvaceæ. I was answered in the
affirmative; and I was so pleased with my newly-acquired knowledge,
that I was not satisfied till I had discovered every Malvaceous
plant that was in flower in the garden. I next learned to know the
Cruciferous and Umbelliferous plants; and thus I acquired a general
knowledge of three extensive orders with very little trouble to
myself. My attention was more fairly aroused, and by learning one
order after another, I soon attained a sufficient knowledge of Botany
to answer all the purposes for which I wished to learn it, without
recurring to the hard words which had so much alarmed me at the
outset. One great obstacle to my advancement was the difficulty I had
in understanding botanical works. With the exception of Dr. Lindley’s
Ladies’ Botany, they were all sealed books to me; and even that did not
tell half I wanted to know, though it contained a great deal I could
not understand. It is so difficult for men whose knowledge has grown
with their growth, and strengthened with their strength, to imagine the
state of profound ignorance in which a beginner is, that even their
elementary books are like the old Eton Grammar when it was written in
Latin—they require a master to explain them. It is the want that I
have felt that has induced me to write the following pages; in which I
have endeavoured to meet the wants of those who may be now in the same
difficulties that I was in myself.

The course I pursued is also that which I shall point out to my
readers. I shall first endeavour to explain to them as clearly as I
can the botanical characteristics of the orders which contain plants
commonly grown in British gardens; and at the end of my work I shall
lay before them a slight outline of all the orders scientifically
arranged, which they may study or not as they like. Most ladies will,
however, probably be satisfied with knowing the orders containing
popular plants; and these, I am confident, they will never repent
having studied. Indeed, I do not think that I could form a kinder
wish for them, than to hope that they may find as much pleasure in
the pursuit as I have derived from it myself. Whenever I go into any
country I have formerly visited, I feel as though I were endowed with
a new sense. Even the very banks by the sides of the roads, which I
before thought dull and uninteresting, now appear fraught with beauty.
A new charm seems thrown over the face of nature, and a degree of
interest is given to even the commonest weeds. I have often heard that
knowledge is power, and I am quite sure that it contributes greatly
to enjoyment. A man knowing nothing of natural history, and of course
not caring for anything relating to it, may travel from one extremity
of a country to the other, without finding anything to interest, or
even amuse him; but the man of science, and particularly the Botanist,
cannot walk a dozen yards along a beaten turnpike-road without finding
something to excite his attention. A wild plant in a hedge, a tuft of
moss on a wall, and even the Lichens which discolour the stones, all
present objects of interest, and of admiration for that Almighty Power
whose care has provided the flower to shelter the infant germ, and has
laid up a stock of nourishment in the seed to supply the first wants
of the tender plant. It has been often said that the study of nature
has a tendency to elevate and ameliorate the mind; and there is perhaps
no branch of Natural History which more fully illustrates the truth of
this remark than Botany.



  INTRODUCTION                                                        1



  THE ORDER RANUNCULACEÆ: illustrated by the Garden Ranunculus;
  the Butter-cup; the Peony; the Anemone; the Hepatica; the
  Clematis; the Christmas Rose; the Winter Aconite; Monkshood;
  the Larkspur; and the Columbine                                      9

  The Genus Ranunculus, 10—The Genus Ficaria, 16—The Genus
  Pæonia, 18—The Genus Anemone, 19—The Genus Clematis, 23—The
  Genus Helleborus, &c. 25—The Genus Aconitum, 27—The
  Genus Delphinium, 29—The Genus Aquilegia, 31.


  THE ORDER LEGUMINOSÆ: illustrated by the Sweet Pea; the Red
  Clover; Acacia armata; the Sensitive Plant; the Barbadoes
  Flower-fence; the Carob-tree; the Tamarind; the Senna; the
  Gleditschia; the Logwood; the Judas-tree; and the Kentucky
  Coffee-tree                                                         35

    Tribe I. Papilionaceous Flowers, 36—II. Mimosæ, 41—III.
    Cæsalpineæ, 44.


  THE ORDER ROSACEÆ: illustrated by different kinds of Roses; the
  Potentilla; the Strawberry; the Raspberry; Spiræa; Kerria or
  Corchorus japonica; the Almond; the Peach and Nectarine;
  the Apricot; the Plum; the Cherry; the Apple; the Pear;
  The Mountain Ash; the White Beam Tree; the Quince; Pyrus
  or Cydonia japonica; the Hawthorn; the Indian Hawthorn;
  the Medlar; Photinia; Eriobotrya; Cotoneaster; Amelanchier;
  Burnet; and Alchemilla, or Ladies’ Mantle                           50

    Tribe I. Roseæ, 51—II. Potentilleæ or Dryadeæ, 54—III.
    Spiræeæ, 58—IV. Amygdaleæ, 60—V. Pomeæ, 65—VI. Sanguisorbeæ,


  THE ORDER ONAGRACEÆ: illustrated by the different kinds of
  Fuchsia; Œnothera, or the Evening Tree-Primrose; Godetia;
  Epilobium, or the French Willow-herb; and Clarkia                   75

    The Genus Fuchsia, 75—The Genus Œnothera, 79—The Genus
    Clarkia, 83.


  THE ORDER RUBIACEÆ: illustrated by the Cinchona, or Peruvian
  Bark; Luculia gratissima; Cape Jasmine; Rondeletia;
  Coffee; Ixora; Ipecacuanha; Madder; Galium; Woodruff;
  and Crucinella stylosa                                              85

    The Genus Cinchona and its allies, 86—The Genus Gardenia and
    its allies, 89—The Genus Rondeletia and its allies, 90—The
    Genus Coffea and its allies, 91—The Genus Galium and its
    allies, 94.


  THE ORDER COMPOSITÆ: illustrated by the Succory; the Sow-Thistle;
  the Dandelion; the Burdock; the Daisy; the Chrysanthemum;
  Feverfew; Pellitory of Spain; Wild Chamomile;
  True Chamomile; Yarrow; the Bur-Marigold; Groundsel;
  Ragwort; Bird’s Tongue; Purple Jacobæa; Cineraria; Sunflower;
  Mutisia; and Triptilion                                             98

    Tribe I. Cichoraceæ, 101—II. Cynarocephalæ, 103—III.
    Corymbiferæ, 104—IV. Labiatæfloræ, 107.


  THE ORDER ERICACEÆ: illustrated by the Common or Besom
  Heath; the Moor Heath; Cape Heaths; Ling or Heather;
  Andromeda; Lyonia; St. Dabæoc’s Heath; Arbutus; the
  Bearberry; Gaultheria; Clethra; Rhododendron; Indian or
  Chinese Azaleas; Yellow Azalea; American Azaleas; Rhodora;
  Kalmia; Menziesia; Loiseleuria; Ledum; Leiophyllum;
  the Bilberry; the Whortle-berry; the Cranberry;
  Pyrola; and Monotropa                                              109

    Tribe I. Ericeæ, 110—Sub-Tribe I. Ericeæ Normales, 111—II.
    Andromedeæ, 115—Tribe II. Rhodoreæ, 120—III. Vaccinieæ,
    130—IV. Pyroleæ, 132.


  THE ORDER OLEACEÆ, or Jasmineæ: illustrated by the Common
  White Jasmine; the Yellow Jasmine; the Privet; the Phillyrea;
  the Olive; the Fringe-tree (_Chionanthus virginica_);
  the Lilac; the Common Ash; and the Manna or Flowering
  Ash                                                                133

    Tribe I. Jasmineæ, 134—II. Oleineæ, 136.


  THE ORDER SOLANACEÆ: illustrated by the Bitter-Sweet; Garden
  Nightshade; Potato; Egg-Plant; Tomato; Capsicum; Winter
  Cherry; Cape Gooseberry; the Deadly Nightshade;
  Lycium, or Duke of Argyle’s Tea-tree; Cestrum; Vestia;
  Tobacco; Petunia; Nierembergia; Salpiglossis; Schizanthus;
  Henbane; Datura; Brugmansia; Solandra; Verbascum;
  Celsia; Nolana; &c.                                                141

    Tribe I. Solanaceæ, 142—II. Nicotianeæ, 147; III.
    Verbascineeæ, 153—IV. Nolaneæ, 155.


  THE ORDER URTICACEÆ: illustrated by the Common Nettle; the
  Hop; the Hemp; the Pellitory of the Wall; the Bread-Fruit
  Tree; the Jack-tree; the Cow-tree, or Palo de Vacca; the
  Upas or Poison-tree of Java; the Mulberry; the Paper Mulberry;
  the Osage Orange, or Maclura; the Common Fig;
  Ficus Sycamorus; the Banyan Tree; the Indian-Rubber
  Tree; and Ficus religiosa                                          157

    Tribe I. Urticaceæ, 158—II. Artocarpæ, 163.


  THE CATKIN-BEARING TREES: illustrated by the Walnut; the
  Hickory; the Willow; the Poplar; the Alder; the Birch;
  the Oak; the Beech; the Sweet Chesnut; the Hazel; the
  Hornbeam; the Hop Hornbeam; the Plane Trees; the Liquidambar;
  Myrica; Comptonia; Casuarina; and Garrya elliptica                 174

    Juglandaceæ, the Walnut Tribe, 176—the Genus Juglans,
    ib.—the Genus Carya, 180—Salicaceæ, the Willow Tribe,
    181—the Genus Salix, 182—the Genus Populus, 184—Betulaceæ,
    the Birch Tribe, 187—the Genus Betula, 188—the Genus Alnus,
    189—Cupuliferæ, the Cup-bearing Trees, 190—the Genus
    Quercus, 191—the Genus Fagus, 195—the Genus Castanea,
    198—the Genus Corylus, 200—the Genus Carpinus, 201—the Genus
    Ostrya, 202—the Order Platanaceæ, ib.—the Genus Platanus,
    ib.—the Genus Liquidambar, 203—the Order Myricaceæ, ib.—the
    Genus Myrica, 204—the Order Garryaceæ, ib.—the Genus Garrya,


  THE CONE-BEARING TREES: illustrated by the Scotch Pine; the
  Spruce Fir; the Silver Fir; the Larch; the Cedar; the Araucaria;
  the Arbor Vitæ; the Cypress; the Deciduous Cypress;
  the Juniper; the Yew; and the Cycadeæ                              205

    § I. The Abietineæ, the Pine and Fir Tribe, 206—the Genus
    Pinus, 209—the Genus Abies, the Spruce Fir, 212—the Genus
    Picea, the Silver Fir, 214—the Genus Larix, the Larch,
    216—the Genus Cedrus, the Cedar, 217—the Genus Araucaria,
    219—§ II. Cupressineæ, the Cypress Tribe, 220—the Genus
    Callitris, 222—the Genus Cupressus, the Cypress, 223—the
    Genus Taxodium, the Deciduous Cypress, 224—the Genus
    Juniperus, the Juniper, 225—§ III. Taxineæ, the Yew Tribe,
    228—the Genus Taxus, the Yew, ib.—the Order Cycadæ, 229.


  DECANDOLLE                                                         231

  INTRODUCTION                                                       ib.



  ORDER                                                             PAGE


  1. Ranunculaceæ                                                    239

  2. Dilleniaceæ                                                     240

  3. Magnoliaceæ                                                     241

  4. Anonaceæ—the Custard-apple Tribe                                245

  5. Menispermaceæ—the Cocculus Tribe                                246

  6. Berberideæ—the Berberry Tribe                                   247

  7. Podophyllaceæ—the May-apple Tribe                               253

  8. Hydropeltideæ                                                   254

  9. Nymphæaceæ—the Water-lily Tribe                                 ib.

  10. Sarracenieæ—the Side-saddle Plant                              259

  11. Papaveraceæ—the Poppy Tribe                                    ib.

  12. Fumariaceæ—the Fumitory Tribe                                  266

  13. Cruciferæ—Cruciferous Plants                                   ib.

  14. Resedaceæ—the Mignonette                                       271

  15. Datisceæ                                                       273

  16. Capparideæ—the Caper Tribe                                     274

  17. Flacourtianeæ                                                  275

  18. Bixineæ—the Arnotta Tribe                                      ib.

  19. Cistineæ—the Cistus Tribe                                      ib.

  20. Violaceæ—the Violet Tribe                                      279

  31. Droseraceæ—the Sun-dew Tribe                                   284

  22. Polygaleæ—the Milkwort Tribe                                   285

  23. Tremandreæ                                                     286

  24. Pittosporeæ—the Pittosporum Tribe                              287

  25. Frankeniaceæ—the Frankenia Tribe                               288

  26. Caryophyllaceæ—the Carnation Tribe                             289

  27. Linaceæ—the Flax Tribe                                         293

  28. Malvaceæ—the Mallow Tribe                                      296

  29. Bombaceæ—the Silk Cotton-tree Tribe                            299

  30. Byttneriaceæ                                                   300

  31. Tiliaceæ—the Linden Tribe                                      301

  32. Elæocarpæ—the Elæocarpus Tribe                                 302

  32*. Dipterocarpæ—the Camphor-tree Tribe                           303

  33. Chelonaceæ, or Hugoniaceæ                                      ib.

  34. Ternstrœmiaceæ                                                 ib.

  35. Camelliaceæ—the Camellia Tribe                                 304

  36. Olacineæ—the Olax Tribe                                        307

  37. Aurantiaceæ—the Orange Tribe                                   307

  38. Hypericineæ—the Hypericum Tribe                                312

  39. Guttiferæ—the Mangosteen Tribe                                 313

  40. Marcgraaviaceæ                                                 ib.

  41. Hippocrataceæ                                                  ib.

  42. Erythroxyleæ—the Red Wood Tribe                                314

  43. Malpighiaceæ—the Barbadoes Cherry Tribe                        314

  44. Acerineæ—the Maple Tribe                                       315

  45. Hippocastaneæ, or Æsculaceæ—the Horse-chestnut Tribe           322

  46. Rhizoboleæ—the Caryocar Tribe                                  327

  47. Sapindaceæ—the Soap-tree Tribe                                 ib.

  48. Meliaceæ—the Bead-tree Tribe                                   328

  48*. Cedreleæ—the Mahogany Tribe                                   329

  49. Ampelideæ—the Vine Tribe                                       ib.

  50. Geraniaceæ—the Geranium Tribe                                  332

  51. Tropæolaceæ—the Nasturtium Tribe                               337

  51*. Limnantheæ                                                    ib.

  52. Balsamineæ—the Balsam Tribe                                    338

  53. Oxalideæ—the Wood-sorrel Tribe                                 339

  54. Zygophylleæ—the Bean-caper Tribe                               340

  55. Rutaceæ—the Rue Tribe                                          ib.

  56. Simarubaceæ                                                    342

  57. Ochnaceæ                                                       ib.

  58. Coriareæ                                                       ib.


  59. Celastrineæ                                                    343

  60. Rhamnaceæ                                                      345

  61. Bruniaceæ                                                      346

  62. Samydeæ                                                        ib.

  63. Homalineæ                                                      ib.

  64. Chailletiaceæ                                                  347

  65. Aquilarineæ                                                    ib.

  66. Terebinthaceæ—the Turpentine Tribe                             ib.

  67. Leguminosæ—(See Chap. II. in p. 35)                            349

  68. Rosaceæ—(See Chap. III. in p. 50)                              350

  69. Calycanthaceæ                                                  351

  70. Granateæ                                                       352

  71. Memecyleæ                                                      353

  72. Combretaceæ                                                    ib.

  73. Vochysieæ                                                      ib.

  74. Rhizophoreæ                                                    ib.

  75. Lophireæ                                                       354

  76. Onagrariæ—(See Chap. IV. in p. 75)                             ib.

  77. Halorageæ, or Cercodianæ                                       355

  78. Ceratophylleæ                                                  ib.

  79. Lythrarieæ, or Salicariæ                                       356

  80. Tamariscineæ—the Tamarisk Tribe                                ib.

  81. Melastomaceæ                                                   357

  82. Alangieæ                                                       ib.

  83. Philadelpheæ—the Mock-orange Tribe                             358

  84. Myrtaceæ—the Myrtle Tribe                                      ib.

  85. Cucurbitaceæ—the Gourd Tribe                                   360

  86. Passifloreæ—the Passion-flower Tribe                           361

  86*. Malesherbiaceæ                                                362

  87. Loaseæ                                                         ib.

  88. Turneriaceæ                                                    363

  89. Portulaceæ—the Purslane Tribe                                  364

  90. Paronychieæ                                                    365

  91. Crassulaceæ—the House-leek Tribe                               ib.

  92. Ficoideæ—the Fig-marigold Tribe                                367

  93. Cactaceæ—the Cactus Tribe                                      368

  94. Grossularieæ—the Gooseberry Tribe                              372

  95. Escalloniaceæ                                                  376

  96. Saxifragaceæ                                                   377

  97. Cunoniaceæ                                                     378

  98. Umbelliferæ—Umbelliferous Plants, or the Parsley Tribe         ib.

  99. Araliaceæ                                                      379

  99*. Hamamelideæ                                                   380

  100. Caprifoliaceæ, or the Honeysuckle Tribe                       381

  101. Lorantheæ                                                     385

  102. Chlorantheæ                                                   386

  103. Rubiaceæ (See Chap. V. p. 85)                                 386

  104. Opercularieæ                                                  387

  105. Valerianeæ—the Valerian Tribe                                 ib.

  106. Dipsaceæ—the Teasel Tribe                                     389

  107. Calycereæ                                                     390

  108. Compositæ (See Chap. VI. p. 98)                               ib.

  109. Lobeliaceæ                                                    391

  110. Stylideæ                                                      393

  111. Goodenoviæ                                                    ib.

  112. Campanulaceæ—the Campanula Tribe                              394

  113. Gesnerieæ                                                     395

  114. Vaccineæ (See Chap. VII. p. 130)                              ib.

  115. Ericaceæ (See Chap. VII. p. 109)                              ib.

  116. Peneaceæ                                                      396


  117. Epacrideæ                                                     396

  118. Symplocineæ                                                   397

  119. Styracineæ                                                    398

  120. Myrsineæ                                                      399

  121. Sapoteæ                                                       ib.

  122. Ebenaceæ                                                      400

  123. Brexieæ                                                       ib.

  124. Oleinæ (See Chap. VIII. p. 136)                               401

  125. Jasmineæ (See Chap. VIII. p. 134)                             401

  126. Strychneæ                                                     ib.

  127. Apocyneæ                                                      403

  128. Asclepiadeæ                                                   ib.

  129. Gentianeæ—the Gentian Tribe                                   ib.

  130. Bignoniaceæ                                                   404

  131. Cobæaceæ                                                      405

  132. }
       } Pedalineæ and Sesameæ                                       ib.
  133. }

  134. Polemoniaceæ                                                  406

  135. Hydroleaceæ                                                   407

  136. Convolvulaceæ                                                 ib.

  137. Boragineæ                                                     409

  138. Cordiaceæ                                                     410

  139. Hydrophylleæ                                                  ib.

  140. Solanaceæ (See Chap. IX. p. 141)                              ib.

  141. Scrophularinæ                                                 411

  142. Labiatæ                                                       412

  143. Verbenaceæ—the Vervain Tribe                                  414

  144. Myoporinæ                                                     415

  145. Acanthaceæ                                                    ib.

  146. Orobancheæ                                                    416

  147. Lentibulariæ                                                  ib.

  148. Primulaceæ—the Primrose Tribe                                 ib.

  149. Globulariæ                                                    418

  150. Plumbagineæ                                                   ib.



  151. Plantagineæ                                                   419

  152. Nyctagineæ                                                    420

  153. Amaranthaceæ                                                  ib.

  154. Phytolaceæ                                                    421

  155. Chenopodeæ                                                    ib.

  156. Begoniaceæ                                                    422

  157. Polygoneæ—the Buckwheat Tribe                                 423

  158. Laurineæ—the Sweet-bay Tribe                                  424

  159. Myristiceæ                                                    425

  160. Proteaceæ                                                     ib.

  161. Thymelææ                                                      426

  162. Osyrideæ                                                      427

  163. Santalaceæ                                                    ib.

  164. Elæagneæ                                                      428

  165. Asarineæ, or Aristolochieæ                                    ib.

  166. Cytineæ                                                       429

  167. Euphorbiaceæ                                                  429

  168. Stackhouseæ                                                   431

  169. Antidesmeæ                                                    ib.

  170. Urticeæ (See Chap. X. p. 157)                                 ib.

  171. Ulmaceæ                                                       432

  172. Piperaceæ                                                     ib.

  173. Juglandaceæ (See Chap. XI. p. 176)                            ib.

  174. Amentaceæ (See Chap. XI. p. 174)                              433

  175. Hamamelideæ                                                   ib.

  176. Empetreæ                                                      ib.

  177. Coniferæ (See Chap. XII. p. 205)                              434

  178. Cycadeæ (See Chap. XII. p. 229)                               ib.


  PHANEROGAMOUS PLANTS—MONOCOTYLEDONEÆ                               435


  179. Hydrocharideæ—the Frog’s-bit Tribe                            435

  180. Alimaceæ—the Water-plantain Tribe                             436

  181. Butomeæ—the Flowering-rush Tribe                              437

  182. Juncagineæ—the Arrow-grass Tribe                              438

  183. Orchidaceæ                                                    ib.

  184. Scitamineæ                                                    441

  185. Canneæ                                                        442

  186. Musaceæ                                                       ib.

  187. Iridaceæ                                                      443

  188. Hæmodoraceæ                                                   445

  189. Hypoxideæ                                                     446

  190. Amaryllidaceæ                                                 ib.

  191. Hemerocallideæ                                                447

  192. Dioscoreæ                                                     ib.

  193. Tamaceæ                                                       448

  194. Smilaceæ                                                      ib.

  195. Asphodeleæ                                                    449

  196. Tulipaceæ                                                     450

  197. Melanthaceæ                                                   451

  198. Bromeliaceæ                                                   ib.

  199. Pontederaceæ                                                  452

  200. Commelineæ                                                    ib.

  201. Palmæ—the Palm Tribe                                          ib.

  202. Pandaneæ                                                      453

  203. Typhineæ—the Bulrush Tribe                                    ib.

  204. Aroideæ—the Arum Tribe                                        454

  205. Fluviales, or Naiades—the Pond-weed Tribe                     455

  206. Junceæ—the Rush Tribe                                         456

  207. Gillesieæ                                                     ib.

  208. Restiaceæ—the Pipewort Tribe                                  ib.


  209. Cyperaceæ—the Sedge Tribe                                     457

  210. Gramineæ—the Grass Tribe                                      458


  CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS                                                460


  211. Filices—the Fern Tribe                                        461

  212. Lycopodineæ—the Club-moss Tribe                               463

  213. Marsileaceæ                                                   464

  214. Equisetaceæ—the Horse-tail Tribe                              ib.

  215. Characeæ                                                      465

  216. Musci—the Moss Tribe                                          466

  217. Hepaticæ                                                      468


  218. Lichenes                                                      ib.

  219. Fungi                                                         470

  220. Algæ                                                          471




The following pages are intended to enable my readers to acquire a
knowledge of Botany with as little trouble to themselves as possible.

As, however, Botany is a “wide word,” I must here premise that I only
propose to treat of that part of the science which relates to the
classification of plants, according to the natural system of Jussieu,
as improved by the late Professor De Candolle; and that the grand
object I have in view is to enable my readers to find out the name of
a plant when they see it for the first time; or, if they hear or read
the name of a plant, to make that name intelligible to them. Nothing is
more natural than to ask the name of every pretty flower we see; but
unless the inquirer knows something of botany, the name, if it be a
scientific one, will seem only a collection of barbarous sounds, and
will convey no ideas to the mind. Half the interest of new greenhouse
plants is thus destroyed, as few of them have English names, and
strangers will soon cease to make any inquiries respecting them when
they find they can obtain no answers that they can understand. Now, a
very slight knowledge of botany will take away this mortifying feeling;
and the name of a new plant, and the ascertaining the order to which it
belongs, will recall a variety of recollections that will open up a new
source of interest and enjoyment even in such interesting and enjoyable
things as flowers—for we never can enjoy thoroughly anything that we do
not understand.

It now only remains for me to say why I have divided my work into two
parts. My reason is my belief that a student will always remember more
easily a few strongly marked divisions than a number of smaller ones,
the differences between which are only faintly perceptible. In a more
advanced state of knowledge, it is delightful to trace the minute
shades of difference by which the numerous orders are united, so as to
form one great whole; but these gentle gradations confuse a beginner.
On this account I have thought it best to devote the first part of my
work to a few of the more important orders, which differ most widely
from each other, and which I have described at a greater length than
my space will allow me to bestow upon the whole; and in the second part
of my work, I shall give a short account of the whole natural system,
introducing the orders described in the first part, in their proper
places, so that my readers may see how they are connected with the



In this first part I shall endeavour to familiarise my readers with
botanical details, as all the orders I shall describe contain a great
number of genera; and to begin at the beginning, I must first tell
them what is here meant by an order, and what by a genus of plants.
A genus then may be compared to a family of children, all the plants
in it being known by one common or generic name, in addition to their
particular or specific one. Thus, if Rosa alba be spoken of, _Rosa_
is the generic name which is common to all roses, but _alba_ is the
specific name which is only applied to the white rose.

An order includes many genera, and bears the same affinity to a nation
as a genus does to a family. In many cases the resemblance which the
plants in each order bear to each other is sufficiently strong to
enable the student to recognise them at first sight; in the same manner
as you may generally know a Frenchman or a German from an Englishman,
even before you hear him speak. But unfortunately this general outward
resemblance does not always exist, and it is necessary for the student
to become acquainted with the general construction of flowers before
the points of resemblance which have occasioned certain genera to be
linked together to form orders, can be understood.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.—STAMEN AND PISTIL.]

It is thus evident that the first step towards a knowledge of
systematic botany is to study flowers thoroughly, and few objects
of study can be more interesting, whether we regard the elegance of
their forms or the beauty and brilliancy of their colours. My readers
may perhaps, however, be as much surprised as I was, to learn that
the beautifully coloured parts of flowers are the least important;
and that, as they only serve as a covering to the stamens and pistil,
which are designed for the production of seed, they may be, and indeed
actually are, wanting in a great many of what are considered perfect
flowers. In examining a flower, therefore, it must be remembered that
the production of seed is the object, for which all the curious
contrivances we discover are designed. The germen or ovary (_a_ in
fig. 1) is protected by a thick fleshy substance (_b_), called the
receptacle or disk, which serves as a bed or foundation on which the
other parts of the flower rest, and which is thence frequently called
a thalamus or torus, both words signifying a bed. The ovary itself is
hollow, and it is sometimes divided into several cells, each enclosing
a number of ovules, which are afterwards to become seeds; but sometimes
there is only one cell, and sometimes only one seed in each cell. The
ovary is juicy and succulent when young, and very different from what
it afterwards becomes when the seeds are ripe. Rising from the ovary
in most flowers, is a long and slender stalk called the style (_c_),
which supports a kind of head, called the stigma (_d_). The ovary, the
style, and the stigma, constitute what is called the pistil; but the
style is not so essential as the other parts, and indeed it is wanting
in many flowers. Sometimes there are many styles, each with a stigma at
its summit, forming the pistil; and when this is the case, the ovary
will have as many cells as there are stigmas, or each stigma will have
a separate ovary to itself. There are generally several stamens in a
flower, each perfect stamen consisting of three parts,—the Filament,
the Anther, and the Pollen. The filament (_e_) is, however, often
wanting, and it is only the anther (_f_), and the powder called the
pollen which it contains, that are essential. The anther, when the
flower first expands, appears like a little oblong case with a deep
groove down the centre, or rather like two oblong cases stuck together.
When these cases become ripe, they burst and let out the pollen which
was enclosed within them. The pollen is generally very abundant, and it
is often seen in the form of yellow dust descending from the catkins of
the cedar of Lebanon, or the Scotch fir, or of orange powder, as on the
stamens of the orange lily, when it sticks to everything it touches.
About the time of the bursting of the anthers, the stigma becomes
covered with a glutinous moisture, which absorbs the pollen that falls
upon it. The pollen, when absorbed by the stigma, is conveyed down the
style to the ovary, where it falls upon and fertilises the ovules or
incipient seeds. Nothing can be more beautiful or more ingenious than
the mechanism by which this process is effected. It is necessary that
the grains of pollen should be separated before they reach the ovary,
and they are so in their passage down the style in a manner more fine
and delicate than could be done by any exertion of mere human skill.
We know that we ourselves are “fearfully and wonderfully made,” but how
few of us are aware that every flower we crush beneath our feet, or
gather only to destroy, displays as much of the Divine care and wisdom
in its construction, as the frame of the mightiest giant!

[Illustration: FIG. 2.—COROLLA OF A FLOWER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.—CALYX OF A FLOWER.]

I have already mentioned that the most conspicuous part of the flower
is merely a covering to protect the seed-producing organs from injury.
In most flowers there are two of these coverings, which form together
what is called the perianth; the inner one, when spoken of separately,
being called the corolla, and the outer one the calyx. The corolla is
generally of some brilliant colour, and in most cases it is divided
into several leaf-like parts called petals, (see _g_ in figs. 2 and
3); and the calyx, which is commonly green, is divided into similar
portions called sepals (see _h_). Sometimes there is only one of these
coverings, and when this is the case it is called by modern botanists
the calyx, though it may be coloured like a corolla; and sometimes the
calyx and corolla are of the same colour, and so mixed as hardly to be
distinguished from each other, as in the crocus and the tulip; in which
case the divisions are called the segments of the perianth.



Such of my readers who may have formed their first ideas of the
natural system from some order, the flowers of which bear a strong
resemblance to each other, will be surprised at reading the names of
the heterogeneous assemblage of plants at the head of this chapter;
for surely no flowers can bear less resemblance to each other than the
buttercup and the peony do to the columbine and the larkspur. There
are, however, striking points of resemblance which link these flowers
together; the principal of which are the number and disposition of the
ovaries, or carpels as they are called in this case, which, though they
grow close together, and sometimes even adhere to each other, are yet
perfectly distinct; in the number and position of the stamens, which
grow out of the receptacle from beneath the carpels; and in the leaves
and young stems, when cut or pressed, yielding a thin yellowish juice,
which is extremely acrid, and, in most cases, poisonous. The flowers
of the plants belonging to Ranunculaceæ differ widely in their shapes;
and all the incongruities that are only sparingly met with in other
orders, are here gathered together. Some of the flowers have only a
coloured calyx, as in the clematis; in others the calyx and corolla are
of the same colour, as in the globe-flower, or so intermingled as to
seem all one, as in the columbine; and in others the calyx forms the
most ornamental part of the flower, as in monkshood and the larkspurs.
In short, modern botanists seem to have placed this unfortunate order
first, as though to terrify students on the very threshold of the
science, and to prevent them from daring to advance any farther to
penetrate into its mysteries.


The word Ranunculus will doubtless conjure up in the minds of my
readers those very showy, double, brilliantly-coloured flowers, which
flower in spring, and are generally grown in beds like tulips. These
flowers form a species of the genus, under the name of _Ranunculus
asiaticus_; and having been introduced from Asia, they have retained
their botanic name from not having any English one. The honour of
giving a name to the genus does not, however, rest on them, but belongs
to a common English weed.

Every one who has travelled through England in the months of June
and July, must have remarked the almost innumerable buttercups which
glitter among the long grass of the meadows at that season; and those
who observe closely, will have noticed that these brilliant little
flowers are never found in poor soil, or in hilly situations, but in
rich valleys where the grass is rank and luxuriant from abundance of
moisture. It is this circumstance that has obtained for the buttercup
the botanical name of Ranunculus, the word being derived from Rana, a
frog, a creature that delights in moist places.

The buttercup being the type of the genus Ranunculus, and the order
Ranunculaceæ, a close examination of its flowers will show the
peculiarities which distinguish both the genus and the order. The
characteristics of the order, as far as regards the number and position
of the carpels and stamens, are shown in the section of the flower in
the lower part of _fig._ 4; and those of the genus are, a green calyx
of five sepals, and a bright coloured corolla of five petals (see _a_
in _fig._ 4); numerous stamens, the anthers of which are adnate, that
is, with the filament growing up the back (see _b_); and numerous
carpels (_c_) affixed to the upper part of the receptacle, which is
drawn up in the shape of a cone to receive them. The flower shown in
_fig._ 4, and the detached petal (_e_), given separately to show the
little scale at its base, are of the natural size; but the anther _b_
is magnified to show the curious manner in which it is affixed, for
its whole length, to the filament. The section of the flower is also
magnified to show the elevated receptacle, and the position of the
carpels _c_ and the stamens _d_ with regard to each other. The line _g_
shows the position of the corolla, and _f_ that of the calyx, while the
short line between the corolla and the stamens indicates the scale,
which, from its being supposed to serve as a receptacle for honey, is
sometimes called the nectary. The carpels, it will be observed, each
consists of a broad part swollen in the centre, which is the ovary,
with a curved part or beak at one end, terminating in a sharp point,
which is the stigma. Each ovary contains only one ovule, and when the
seed ripens, the carpel does not open to discharge it, but drops with
the seed. When the flower is fully expanded, the green carpels may
be seen in the centre, surrounded by the stamens, as shown at _h_ in
_fig._ 5; but after the petals drop, the stamens also disappear, and
the carpels increase in size, till they assume the appearance shown
at _i_, which shows the kind of head formed by the carpels on the
receptacle after the flower has faded.



The plant from which my drawings were made was a common buttercup,
_Ranunculus acris_, which my readers will easily recognise if they
should meet with it, by its erect flower-stem, deeply cut leaves,
and fibrous root. Another species (_Ranunculus bulbosus_) is, also,
sometimes called the buttercup; but it is easily distinguished by its
bulbous root. Both these, and several other species, have deeply cut
leaves, which somewhat resemble the feet of a bird, and hence the
name of crowfoot is often applied to them. Others, such as the greater
spearwort (_Ranunculus lingua_), have long tongue-shaped leaves. In
all, the footstalks of the leaves are somewhat folded round the stem at
their base.

Such of my readers as reside in the country will find it very amusing
to gather all the kinds of crowfoot, buttercup, goldilocks, and
spearwort, they can find in the fields and lanes; and after having
compared the flowers with the description I have given, to try to find
out the specific names, by comparing the other particulars with the
descriptions in Hookers or Lindley’s British Botany, or with the plates
and descriptions in the new edition of Sowerby’s English Botany. In
a short time they will not want these aids, but will be able to name
the plants at once, and to tell in what they differ from each other by
memory. I shall never forget the pleasure I once had in finding out the
name of a plant myself. I happened to be waiting for Mr. Loudon, (who
had gone to examine some new pines and firs,) in the pleasure-grounds
of a villa, just opposite a small pond, which was covered by some
white flowers that I did not know. The flowers were small, but very
beautiful, and as they shone with almost a metallic lustre in the sun,
they looked like a silvery mantle thrown over the water. I was curious
to know what they were, and having got one with some difficulty, and
by the help of my parasol, I began to examine it botanically. The
leaves at first told me nothing as to the genus, for the upper ones
were nearly round, and only slightly cut into three lobes, while the
lower ones were almost as much divided as fennel; but on examining them
closely, I found their stalks sheathed the stem at the base. This gave
me the first idea of the plant being a Ranunculus, for I remembered the
leaves of that genus were stem-clasping. I then looked at the plant
again, and wondered at my own stupidity in not having before observed
its resemblance to the genus. There was the cup-shaped flower of five
petals, the green calyx of five sepals, the numerous stamens and
carpels, the elevated receptacle, and even the fine texture and glossy
surface of the petals. Nothing was different but the colour; and yet
it was the want of the bright golden yellow of the common buttercup,
that prevented me from even thinking of that genus, when pondering on
the name of my water-plant. I should add, that I would not ask any help
from Mr. Loudon, but identified my plant myself on my return home;
when, by comparing it with the description in Hooker’s British Flora,
which happened to be the first botanical work I had at hand, I found
it was _Ranunculus aquatilis_, the water crowfoot.

In a similar manner my readers may amuse themselves, by identifying
the plants they meet with, and they will be surprised to find how easy
the task will soon become. I must warn them, however, that they will
not find double flowers quite so easy to recognise as single ones.
In double flowers the stamens and carpels are entirely or partially
changed into petals; as may be seen in the florists’ varieties of
Ranunculus, in the yellow bachelor’s buttons, which is a variety of the
common buttercup, and in the Fair Maid of France, which is a variety of
_Ranunculus platanifolius_, a species found wild on the mountains of


  Pansies, lilies, kingcups, daisies,
  Let them live upon their praises;
  Long as there’s a sun that sets,
    Primroses will have their glory;
  Long as there are violets,
    They will have a place in story.
  There’s a flower that shall be mine,
  ’Tis the little Celandine.
  Ill befall the yellow flowers,
  Children of the flaring hours,
  Buttercups that will be seen,
    Whether we will see or no;
  Others, too, of lofty mien,
    They have done as worldlings do,
  Stolen praise that should be thine,
  Little humble Celandine.

In these verses, and several others in the same strain, Wordsworth
sings the praises of the pretty little British plant called pilewort,
or the lesser celandine. This plant botanists formerly included in the
genus Ranunculus, but De Candolle, finding that instead of having five
sepals and five petals like all the kinds of Ranunculus, it has three
sepals, and nine petals, which are narrow and pointed, instead of being
broad and somewhat rounded, made it into a new genus under the name of
Ficaria ranunculoides—its old name having been Ranunculus Ficaria. Its
flowers are of a bright yellow, like those of the buttercup, and of the
same delicate texture and glossy surface; but they are distinguished,
not only as I have just observed, by having nine narrow pointed petals,
and only three sepals, but by the leaves, which are roundish and
shining, and not stem-clasping. These peculiarities are so striking,
that I knew the Ficaria the first time I saw it in a growing state,
merely from having read a description of it. Even when not in flower
it may be known, by its roundish smooth leaves, and by the petioles or
footstalks of its leaves being the same throughout; whereas those of
all the kinds of Ranunculus are dilated at the base, to enable them to
enfold the stem.



The flowers of the Peony bear considerable resemblance to those of
the buttercup, but every part is on an enlarged scale; and there are
some important differences—one of which is, that the Peony retains its
calyx till the seeds are ripe, while in all the kinds of Ranunculus
the calyx drops with the corolla. The carpels of the Peony are also
many-seeded, while those of the Ranunculus contain only one seed in
each. In the male Peony (_P. corallina_) there are five petals and
five sepals, (see _a_ in _fig._ 6,) with numerous stamens, forming
a ring round four large woolly carpels in the centre of the flower.
The stamens (_c_) are adnate, like those of the Ranunculus; and the
carpels (_b_) are each terminated by a thick, fleshy, hooked stigma.
These carpels open naturally on the side when ripe, to discharge their
seeds. The herbaceous Peonies with double flowers, now so common in our
gardens, have generally only two carpels, each containing about twenty
seeds, arranged in two rows; and the Chinese tree Peony (_P. Moutan_)
has from five to ten carpels, with only a few seeds in each. This last
species is distinguished by the receptacle being drawn out into a thin
membrane-like substance, which rises between the carpels like the
remains of withered leaves, and partially covers them.


I have already mentioned (p. 10) that some of the genera included in
the order Ranunculaceæ have only a coloured calyx and no corolla; and
the Anemone is an example of this peculiarity of construction. The
pasque-flower (_Anemone pulsatilla_) is divided into six dark purple
sepals, which are covered on the outside with long silky hairs. The
leaves are so much cut as almost to resemble those of parsley; and
at a short distance below the flowers there are three small floral
leaves, or bracts, which grow round the stem, and form what is called
an involucre. The carpels are small, oblong bodies, pressed close
together, and each is furnished with a long, feathery point, called
an awn. The carpels, though lying so close together, are perfectly
distinct, and part readily at the slightest touch; and each contains
only one seed.

It will be seen from this hasty sketch, that the principal point of
resemblance between the genera Anemone and Ranunculus, in a botanical
point of view, lies in the carpels, which are close together, and are
yet so distinct as to part at the slightest touch. There is, however,
a general resemblance in some of the flowers, from their five sepals,
and numerous stamens, that renders it difficult for a beginner to
distinguish an Anemone from a Ranunculus. In many of the British
species, also, the carpels are not awned, but slightly curved, very
like those of a buttercup. I remember being once very much puzzled with
a beautiful little bright yellow flower, that I found in a wood. At
first I thought it was a Ranunculus, but the petals were pointed and
not roundish; and it could not be a Ficaria, because it had only five
petals. At last I looked to see what kind of calyx it had, and found
none, that is, no green calyx; and then, observing the involucre of
three leaves growing in a whorl round the stem, at some distance below
the flower, I knew it was an Anemone; and on comparing it with the
plates in Sowerby’s English Botany, on my return home, I ascertained
that it was _Anemone ranunculoides._

My readers will therefore observe that Anemones may be always known
by their involucre, and by their having only one covering (a showy,
coloured calyx) to the flower. The number of sepals in this calyx
varies in the different species. The pasque-flower has six; the white
wood Anemone generally five; and the Blue Mountain Anemone from twelve
to twenty. The involucre also sometimes grows a long way from the
flower, as in this last-mentioned species; and sometimes so close to
it, as in the Garland, or Poppy Anemone (_A. coronaria_), as to look
almost like a green calyx to the flower. The awns, or feathery tails,
are also not found attached to the carpels of all the species; and this
distinction is considered so important, that some botanists make those
plants which have awned carpels into a separate genus, which they call
Pulsatilla, and of which the pasque-flower is considered the type. This
genus, however, has not, I believe, been generally adopted.

I have now only a few words to say on florists’ Anemones, the tuberous
roots of which most of my readers must have seen in the seed-shops.
Most of these are varieties of the Garland Anemone, already mentioned
as having its involucre close to the flower. The sepals of this species
are roundish, six in number, and when the flower is in a single state,
there are a great number of stamens, bearing dark purple anthers in
the centre of the flower. When the flower becomes double, the sepals,
which retain their form and number, only becoming somewhat more spread
out and flattened, are called by florists the guard-leaves; and the
stamens in the centre are metamorphosed into petals, which generally
retain their dark purple colour, or at any rate are much darker than
the sepals. The other florists’ Anemones spring from _A. stellata_, or
_hortensis_, and they are distinguished by having pointed sepals, and a
white spot at the base of each, so as to form a white circle inside the
cup of the flower. The involucre is a long way from the calyx, and when
the flowers become double, the sepals can scarcely be distinguished
from the metamorphosed stamens.

The hepatica or liverwort, the varieties of which look so pretty in
our gardens in spring, was formerly considered to be a species of
Anemone, and indeed the genus Hepatica appears to rest on very slight
grounds. It has, however, been adopted by most modern botanists, and
the _Anemone Hepatica_ of Linnæus is now generally called _Hepatica
triloba_. The normal form of the species is the single blue; and the
double blue, the single and double pink, and the single and double
white, are all only varieties of this. The hepatica agrees in all
points with the Anemone, except in the involucre, which is so very
like a green calyx, from the manner in which it enfolds the flower
in the bud, as scarcely to be distinguished. I could not, indeed, be
persuaded that this calyx-like covering was an involucre, till I turned
back the apparent sepals, and found that their glossy surface was
within: I also found that there was a very small portion of the stem
between them and the flower, a circumstance which always distinguishes
an involucre from a calyx, the latter forming part of the flower, and
being always in some manner attached to the receptacle.


This genus resembles the Anemone in having only one covering, an
ornamental calyx, to its seed-producing organs. It has not, however,
any distinct involucre; though in one species, _C. calycina_, there are
two bracts, or floral leaves, which bear some resemblance to one. The
flowers of the different species vary considerably in form, colour,
and the number of the sepals; _C. calycina_ and _C. viticella_ having
four, _C. florida_ six, _C. vitalba_ five, &c. All the species agree,
however, in the seeds, which are produced singly, each in a separate
awned carpel, which does not open, but drops with the seed, and is sown
with it. These carpels, which are common to the genera Ranunculus,
Anemone, Adonis, and many other kinds of Ranunculaceæ, are called
caryopsides, and seeds thus enclosed are always much longer in coming
up than any others. In some species of Clematis the awns of the carpels
are smooth; but in others they are bearded or feathered, as in those of
the traveller’s joy (_C. vitalba_), shown in _fig._ 7. The leaves of
the Clematis vary considerably in form and arrangement; but the stems
of the climbing species are furnished with tendrils, or slender twining
leafless stems, which some botanists suppose to be metamorphosed leaves.


The plants composing the genus Atragenè have been separated from
Clematis; because they are said to have petals, which the genus
Clematis has not. It must not, however, be supposed that the petals of
the Atragenè bear any resemblance to what is generally understood by
that word. On the contrary, the showy part of the Atragenè is still
only a coloured calyx; while the petals are oblong, leaf-like bodies
in the centre of the flower, which look like dilated stamens. In other
respects the two genera are scarcely to be distinguished from each


The Christmas rose (_Helleborus niger_) bears considerable resemblance
in the construction of its flowers to the Atragenè, for it has a showy
calyx, and narrow oblong petals, encircling the stamens in the centre
of the flower. The calyx of the Christmas rose is white, delicately
tinged with pink, and the petals are green. The carpels are erect and
long, swelling out at the base, and each ends in a curved style with
a pointed stigma. The Christmas rose takes its specific name of niger
(black) from the root, which is covered with a thick black skin. The
common Hellebore takes its name of _H. viridis_, from its flowers,
which are green. The carpels of this plant frequently grow slightly
together, and their styles curve inwardly.

The British species of Hellebore have no involucre, and the Christmas
rose has only two bracts or floral leaves, which form a calyx-like
covering to the bud; but the little yellow garden plant, called the
Winter Aconite, which was included by Linnæus in the genus Helleborus,
has a decided involucre, on which the little yellow, cup-shaped
flower reposes, like a fairy bowl upon a leafy plate. The conspicuous
part of this flower, like the others, is the calyx, which encloses a
number of short tubular petals. This little plant is now separated
from Helleborus, and formed into a distinct genus, under the name of
_Eranthus hyemalis_, from its carpels being each furnished with a very
short footstalk, by which they are attached to the receptacle, instead
of growing upon it as in the other genera. The root is tuberous,
or rather it forms a kind of underground stem, sending up tufts of
leaves and flowers from the different buds. Thus we often see several
tufts of the Winter Aconite growing so far from each other as to
appear distinct; but which, in fact, all spring from the same root.
The Globe-flower (_Trollius europæus_), which has a golden yellow,
globe-shaped calyx, enclosing a number of small oblong petals, is
nearly allied to the Winter Aconite; and the Fennel-flower, or Devil in
a Bush (_Nigella damascena_), agrees with the common Hellebore in the
adhesion of its carpels.



We are so accustomed to see in our gardens the tall showy perennial
called monkshood or wolfsbane (_Aconitum Napellus_), that few persons
think of examining the flowers in detail. They well deserve, however,
to be examined, as they are very curious in their construction. The
showy part of the flower is an ornamental calyx of six sepals, but the
upper two of these are larger than the others, and adhere together so
as to form a singular sort of covering, like a monk’s cowl or hood.
(See _a_ in _fig._ 8.) The stamens are numerous, and they encircle
three or five oval carpels, with thread-like styles, and pointed
stigmas, as shown at _b_; which when ripe burst open at the top (_c_)
to discharge the seed, without separating. Carpels of this kind are
called follicles. Under the hood, and entirely concealed by it, are the
petals (see _fig._ 9), which form what may certainly be considered the
most remarkable part of the flower, as they are so curiously folded
up that they look more like gigantic stamens than petals. The older
botanists described these petals as nectaries, with crested claws.
The leaves are divided into from three to five principal segments,
which are again deeply cut into several others. The stem of the common
Monkshood is thickened at the base, or collar, where it joins the root,
so as to give it somewhat the appearance of celery; and hence ignorant
persons have been poisoned by eating it. This knotted appearance of
the stem is not common to all the species, and it gives rise to the
specific name of Napellus, which signifies a little turnip.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.—PETALS OF THE MONKSHOOD.]



The plants belonging to the genus Delphinium, that is to say, the
Larkspurs, have their flowers constructed in nearly as curious a manner
as those of the different kinds of Monkshood; but they differ in the
sepals and petals both forming conspicuous parts of the flower, though
they are generally quite distinct both in form and colour, and may
be easily traced through all the different forms they assume in the
various species. They are, however, perhaps most easily distinguished
in the branching or autumnal Larkspur (_Delphinium consolida_). In the
flower of this plant the spur (_a_ in _fig._ 10) is the upper sepal of
the calyx, and it serves as a cover to part of the petals. There are
four other portions of the calyx (_b_), which assume the appearance of
ordinary sepals. The petals are four in number; and they are united at
the lower part, and drawn out into a sort of tail, as shown at _c_;
while the upper part of two of them stands up like asses’ ears (_d_) in
the centre of the flower; and the others are curiously folded, so as to
form a hood over the stamens and carpels, as shown at _e_. The anthers
of the stamens resemble those of the Ranunculus; but the filaments
are bent, as shown at _f_. The carpels (_g_) are upright, hairy, and
terminate in a blunt, fleshy stigma (_h_). When ripe, they open in
the same manner as those of the Monkshood. The branching Larkspur
has a fusiform or tap root, as shown in _fig._ 11, in which _a_ is
the collar, or as the Italians call it _la noda vitale_; and _b_ the
fibrous roots, through the points of which the plant takes up its food.


The flowers of the other kinds of Larkspur resemble this one in their
general appearance, though they differ in the minor details. Those of
the Rocket Larkspur (_D. Ajacis_) lose their spurs when they become
double; and those of the Bee Larkspurs have their petals nearly black,
and instead of standing up like ears, they are so curiously folded as
to resemble a bee nestling in the centre of the flower.


The common Columbine (_Aquilegia vulgaris_) differs from all the
flowers I have yet described in having the sepals and petals not
only of the same colour, but so intermingled as to be scarcely
distinguishable from each other. The flower (given on a reduced scale
at _a_ in _fig._ 12) is composed of five horn-shaped petals, which are
curved at the upper end, and form a kind of coronet round the stem;
and five oval sepals, which are placed alternately with them; all,
generally speaking, being of the same colour. The horn-shaped petal,
or nectary as it was called by Linnæus, is attached to the receptacle
at the thickened rim (_b_), while the sepal is attached at the point
(_c_); _d_ shows the disposition of the stamens; _e_ a separate
stamen, with its adnate anther; _f_ the inner row of stamens, which are
produced without anthers, and with their filaments growing together, so
as to form a thin membranaceous case for the carpels, which are shown
exposed at _g_. The carpels, when ripe, become follicles. The leaf
of the Columbine is bi-ternate; that is, it is cut into three large
divisions, each of which is cut into three smaller ones; so that it is
twice-ternate. The petiole or footstalk of the leaf sheaths the stem,
as shown at _h_, where the leaf is represented on a reduced scale to
suit the flower.


I would advise such of my readers as are anxious to turn the preceding
pages to account, to procure as many of the plants I have described
as possible, and to compare them with each other, and with any other
plants belonging to the order Ranunculaceæ that they can obtain.
Those who have access to a botanic garden will have no difficulty
in finding the names of the genera included in the order; and those
who have not this advantage, must consult Don’s edition of Sweet’s
Hortus Britannicus, or any other catalogue in which the plants are
arranged according to the Natural System. When a number of specimens
have been collected, the student will be surprised to see how many
points of resemblance exist between them. The stems of all, when cut,
will yield a watery juice; which is always acrid, though some of the
plants are more poisonous than others. The stamens will be found to
be always numerous, and always attached to the receptacle below the
carpels; and the anthers are generally adnate, that is attached to the
filaments from one end to the other (see p. 12). The carpels are in
most cases numerous, and either distinct, or adhering in such a manner
as to show plainly the line of junction between them; they are also
always one-celled, whether one or many-seeded, and generally either
caryopsides (see p. 24), or follicles (see p. 28). The leaves are
generally divided into three or five lobes, each of which is cut into
several smaller divisions; and the petioles or leaf-stalks are very
frequently dilated at the base, and sheathing the stem. In most cases,
the flowers are of brilliant colours, several of them being cup-shaped,
and many with the calyx more ornamental than the corolla. The seeds
will generally keep good for several years; and several of them,
particularly those of the kind called caryopsides, when sown, are often
a long time before they come up.



This order is a very numerous one, containing above three hundred
genera, and including several highly important plants, both for food
and commerce. As examples of the utility of the Leguminosæ for food,
I need only mention the pea and bean, and all their numerous allies;
and as examples of their importance in medicine and the arts, I may
enumerate senna, liquorice, the tamarind, gum-arabic, and logwood.
Among the ornamental plants belonging to this order are, the Laburnum,
the Furze or Gorse, the Robinia or False Acacia, the true Acacias,
the Sensitive Plant, and the Barbadoes Flower-fence. It will be seen
by this enumeration, that the flowers of the Leguminosæ differ from
each other nearly as much as those of Ranunculaceæ; but when in seed,
they are all easily recognised by their seed-vessels, which are always
legumes, that is, bearing more or less resemblance to the pod of
the common pea. To aid the memory in retaining the great number of
genera included in this order, various methods have been devised of
re-dividing it; and of these I shall adopt the newest, which is also
the simplest, by which they are arranged in three tribes, according to
their flowers.



[Illustration: FIG. 14.—STAMENS OF THE SWEET-PEA.]

The flowers of this tribe are called Papilionaceous; because Papilio is
the scientific name of a genus of butterflies, which they were supposed
to resemble. The type of this tribe may be considered the flower of
the sweet-pea (_Lathyrus odoratus_), which has a small green calyx,
cut into five deep notches, but not divided into regular sepals. (See
_a_ and _b_ in _fig._ 13.) The corolla is in five petals, the largest
of which (_c_) stands erect, and is called the vexillum or standard;
below this are two smaller petals (_d_), which are called the algæ or
wings; and below these are two petals, joined together so as to form
a kind of boat (_e_), which are called the carina or keel, and which
serve as a cradle for the stamens and pistil. There are ten stamens,
nine of which have the lower half of their filaments growing together,
so as to form a fleshy substance at the base, as shown in _fig._ 14
at _f_, and the other (_g_) is free. The ovary is oblong, terminating
in a filiform style, with a pointed stigma, as shown at _g_ in _fig._
13; and it is one-celled and many-seeded; the seeds being what we
call the peas. When the petals fall, the pod still retains the calyx
(_b_), and the style (_g_); and these remain on till the seeds are
ripe, when the pod divides naturally into two parts, or valves as they
are called, which curl back so as to discharge the seeds. If the pod
be examined before it bursts, it will be found that the valves are
composed of a fleshy substance, lined with a strong membrane or skin,
and that they are united by two seams, called the dorsal and ventral
sutures. Along the ventral suture (_h_) there runs a kind of nerve,
called the placenta, to which the peas are attached, each pea being
furnished with a little separate stalk, called a funicle. A cook would
be surprised, even in these enlightened times, to be told to take a
legume of _Pisum sativum_, and after separating the two valves at the
dorsal suture, to detach the funicles of the seeds from the placenta;
yet these scientific terms would merely describe the operation of
shelling the peas. It will be seen by this description that the pod
of the pea differs very materially from the seed-vessels of all the
other plants I have had occasion to describe; and that it thus forms
a very distinctive character for the order. The other parts vary in
the different genera: the calyx is sometimes tubular, and sometimes
inflated; sometimes it has only four notches, or teeth as they are
called, instead of five, and sometimes it has five distinct sepals
divided to the base. The parts of the corolla vary also in proportion
to each other, the keel in some of the Australian plants is as long as
the standard; as, for example, in _Kennedia Maryattæ_; and in others
the wings are so small as to be scarcely visible. The stamens of many
of the species are also free, that is, divided to the base; while in
others they resemble those of the sweet-pea, in having nine joined
together and one free; and in others the whole are joined together
at the base. The pods also vary very much in size and form; being
sometimes nearly round, and only one or two-seeded; and in others
long, and containing many seeds, as in the common bean or pea. The
seeds themselves are so different that the tribe has been divided, on
account of them, into two sections: the one consisting of those plants
which, like the common bean, have the seed dividing into two fleshy
seed-leaves or cotyledons, when it begins to germinate; and the other,
the seed-leaves of which are thin. The seeds of the papilionaceous
plants which have thin cotyledons are not eatable; but those with
fleshy cotyledons may be safely used as food. The fleshy cotyledons
do not always rise above the ground; but they do so decidedly in the
bean and the lupine; and if either of these seeds be laid in moist soil
with the hilum or scar downwards, the seed, as soon as it begins to
germinate, will divide into two parts (that is, into two cotyledons),
which will rise above the ground, and become green like leaves; though,
from still retaining their roundish form, they are easily distinguished
from the true leaves, which rise in the centre. Though my readers will
have no difficulty in recognising most of the Leguminosæ which have
papilionaceous flowers, there are some genera, respecting which they
may be interested to learn a few particulars. Thus, the Chorozema
is one of the kinds with thin cotyledons, and consequently its seeds
are not eatable. The legumes of this genus are roundish, and swelled
out, so as to bear but little outward resemblance to a pod. Sophora,
Edwardsia, Virgilia, Podolobium, Callistachys, Brachysema, Burtonia,
Dillwynia, Eutaxia, Pultenæa, Daviesia, and Mirbelia, have all thin
cotyledons, and their ten stamens all separate from each other; but
in Hovea, Platylobium, and Bossiæa, though the cotyledons are thin,
the stamens all grow together at the base. I mention these common
greenhouse shrubs, that my readers may have an opportunity of examining
their botanical construction, and thus verifying their names. The
common furze (_Ulex europæus_), the Spanish broom (_Spartium junceum_),
the Petty whin (_Genista Anglica_), the Laburnum (_Cytisus Laburnum_),
and the common broom, all belong to this division, and consequently
their seeds are not eatable; those of the Laburnum are indeed
poisonous. The distinctions between Spartium, Genista, and Cytisus, are
very slight, lying chiefly in the calyx; and as a proof of this the
common broom, which is now called _Cytisus scoparius_, was formerly
supposed to be a Spartium, and afterwards a Genista.

The common red clover (_Trifolium pratense_) has its flowers in such
dense heads that it is difficult at first sight to discover that they
are Papilionaceous. On examination, however, it will be found that each
separate flower has its standard, wings, and keel, though the wings
are so large as to hide the keel, and nearly to obscure the standard.
The calyx is tubular at the base, but divided above into five long,
awl-shaped teeth, that stand widely apart from each other. The legume
has only one or two seeds, and it is so small as generally to be hidden
by the calyx.



The second division of Leguminosæ comprises those plants which have
heads of flowers either in spikes or balls, like those shown in _fig._
15. This figure represents two heads of flowers of _Acacia armata_,
a well-known greenhouse shrub, of their natural size; and _fig._ 16
shows a head of similar flowers magnified. In the latter, _a_ shows
the calyx, which is five-toothed, and _b_ the petals, which are five
in number and quite regular in shape; _c_ are the stamens, which vary
from ten to two hundred in each flower, and which are raised so high
above the petals as to give a light and tuft-like appearance to the
whole flower. The legumes are very large in proportion to the flower;
and consequently, by a wise provision of nature, only a very few of the
flowers produce seed. The valves of the legumes are not fleshy like
those of the pea, but dry and hard, and when they open they do not curl


The flowers in the different kinds of Acacia, differ in the corolla,
which has sometimes only four petals, which are occasionally united at
the base, and in the calyx, which is sometimes only four-cleft. The
flowers also in many species are in spikes instead of balls.


The rest of the plant of _Acacia armata_ is very curious; what appear
to be the leaves (see _d_ in _fig._ 15) are, in fact, only the petioles
of the leaves dilated into what are called phyllodia; the true leaves,
which were of the kind called bi-pinnate, having fallen off, or
never unfolded. The true leaves, however, often appear on seedling
plants; and thus, when seeds are sown of several kinds of Acacia, it
is sometimes difficult to recognise them till they have attained a
considerable age. The stipules of the leaves, (which are to ordinary
leaves what bracts are to flowers,) are in _Acacia armata_, converted
into spines, as shown at _e_. In some kinds of Acacia the true leaves,
with the petioles in their natural state, (see _fig._ 17,) are retained
in the adult plants, as in _Acacia dealbàta_; and in others, the
bi-pinnate leaves are occasionally found attached to the phyllodia, as
in _A. melanoxylon_. The bi-pinnate leaves are composed of from six to
twenty pairs of pinnæ, or compound leaflets (see _f_ in _fig._ 17),
each of which consists of from eight to forty pairs of small leaflets
(_g_). The Gum Arabic tree, _Acacia vera_, has leaves with only two
pairs of pinnæ, but each has eight or ten pairs of small leaflets. The
branches and spines are red, and the heads of flowers are yellow.
There are above three hundred known species of Acacia.

The genus Mimosa differs from Acacia in the corolla being
funnel-shaped, and four or five cleft. There are seldom above fifteen
stamens, which are generally on longer filaments than those of the
Acacia; and the legume is compressed and jointed or articulated between
the seeds, so that the part which contains one seed may be broken off,
without tearing the rest. The Sensitive-plant (_Mimosa pudica_) is a
familiar example of this genus.

The cotyledons of the plants belonging to this tribe are generally
leafy; and the seeds are not eatable. The plants themselves are easily
recognised by their ball or tassel-shaped heads or spikes of flowers;
by the small cup-shape and inconspicuous corolla of each; by the great
number and length of the stamens; and by their bi-pinnate leaves,
or phyllodia supplying the place of leaves—though the phyllodia are
sometimes found in Australian plants with papilionaceous flowers, as,
for example, in _Bossiæa ensata_.



The flowers of the plants contained in this tribe have generally five
regular, widely spreading petals, which are never joined together;
and stamens of unequal length, which with few exceptions are also
perfectly free. The petals are generally of the same size and shape;
though sometimes, as in the Barbadoes Flower-fence (_Poinciana_, or
_Cæsalpinia pulcherrima_), four are of the same shape, and one deformed
(see _fig. 18_). The filaments of some of the stamens are very long and
curving over, but the others are much shorter and erect; the style is
long and slender, ending in a pointed stigma. The legume is flat, and
it looks almost many-celled, from the seeds being divided from each
other by a kind of spongy substance, frequently found in the pods of
plants belonging to this division. The leaves are bi-pinnate, and the
stem is spiny.

The Carob-tree, or St. John’s bread (_Ceratonia siliqua_), agrees with
the Barbadoes Flower-fence in the pulpy matter dividing the seeds,
though it differs widely in its flowers, which are without petals, and
do not possess any beauty. The pulp of the pods of the Carob tree is
eatable; but that of Poinciana is said to be injurious. The pod of the
Tamarind (_Tamarindus indica_) differs from the preceding species in
having the pulpy matter of its pods contained between the outer and
inner skin of each valve, like the fleshy substance in the pod of the
pea, instead of serving as a bed for the seeds. The flowers of the
tamarind have five equal petals of a brownish yellow, three of them
being streaked with pink; and the anthers are nearly rose-colour. The
stamens and the style both curve upwards. It is the pods prepared with
sugar that form what we call Tamarinds. In _Cassia lanceolata_, the
leaves of which furnish senna, the flowers have a bright yellow corolla
of five concave petals, three of which are somewhat larger than the
others. The stamens are also unequal in length; and the style curves
upwards. The legume is kidney-shaped, and the cells are divided from
each other by thin membraneous partitions. The Gleditschia or Honey
Locusts, now so frequently planted in our shrubberies on account of
the lightness and elegance of their foliage, belong to this division,
and some of them, particularly the Chinese Thorny Acacia (_Gleditschia
horrida_), are remarkable for their thorns proceeding from the trunk
and large branches, as well as from the axils of the leaves. The
Logwood (_Hæmatoxylon Campechianum_), has inconspicuous yellow flowers,
the petals being very little longer than the calyx; and the legume has
seldom more than two seeds. Though it is considered a tree, the stem
is seldom thicker than the arm of a man, and it is generally crooked;
chips of the wood are used for dyeing purple. The Judas-tree (_Cercis
siliquastrum_) is another species belonging to this division, as,
though the flowers appear of the papilionaceous kind, they are, in
fact, composed of five petals, nearly equal in size, but having the
wings the largest. There are ten stamens, free, and of unequal length.
The legume is oblong and many-seeded; and it opens only on the dorsal
suture, the other side to which the seeds are attached being slightly
winged. The flowers are each on a separate flower-stalk or pedicel, but
they rise from the trunk and branches in tufts or fascicles. The leaves
are simple and cordate; and they do not appear till the flowers have


The Kentucky Coffee-tree (_Gymnocladus canadensis_) is the last plant
belonging to this division that I shall attempt to describe. This
tree is called in Canada, Chicot, or the stump-tree, from its having
no visible buds, and thus appearing like a dead stump in winter. The
flowers of this plant are white, and they are produced in racemes, but
they bear no resemblance to the pea flowers, having rather a star-like
appearance, like those of the Jasmine (see _fig._ 19). The calyx (_a_)
is tubular; and the upper part or limb is divided into five parts
(_b_), which alternate with the petals of the corolla (_c_). There
are ten stamens, but they are completely enclosed in the tube of the
calyx. The pod is very large, the valves becoming hard and bony when
dry; and the seeds are like large beans, the pod being deeply indented
between the seeds. The leaves are bi-pinnate, with from four to seven
pairs of pinnæ; the lower having only one small leaflet, but the rest
bearing from six to eight pairs of leaflets each. This tree must not
be confounded with the true Coffee-tree, which belongs to Rubiaceæ,
and from which it is perfectly distinct in every respect; and it only
takes its American name from its beans having been used as a substitute
for coffee. The outer bark of this tree, when it becomes old, splits
off in narrow strips and rolls up; and its timber, like that of the
Robinia or False Acacia, having very little sap wood, is thus very
strong in quite young trees, though it is of little value when the tree
is full-grown.

The species contained in the first and second divisions of this order
will be easily recognised by botanical students; and though those of
the third division are much more difficult to find out, still there
is a kind of family likeness, particularly in the leaves, which will
enable the eye, with a little practice, to recognise them. The student
should visit the hothouses of botanic gardens and nurseries, and should
there endeavour to pick out plants belonging to this order.



All the numerous plants which compose this large order agree more or
less with the rose in the construction of their flowers, though they
differ widely in the appearance of their fruit. They all agree in
having the receptacle dilated, so as to form a lining to the lower part
of the calyx, and in the upper part of this lining the stamens and
petals are inserted above the ovary; and the anthers are innate, that
is, the filament is inserted only in the lower part. The leaves also
have generally large and conspicuous stipules; and they are frequently
compound, that is, composed of several pairs of leaflets, placed
exactly opposite to each other; though the leaves themselves are never
opposite to each other, but are placed alternately on the main stem.
These characters are common to the order; but the plants included in
it differ from each other so much in other respects, that it has been
found necessary to redivide Rosaceæ into tribes, of which the following
six contain plants common in British gardens.


[Illustration: FIG. 20.—ROSA FOSTERI.]



The flowers of the wild Rose have the lower part of the calyx tubular
and fleshy (from being lined with the dilated receptacle) and the upper
part divided into five leafy sepals, which enfold the bud, and remain
on after the expansion of the corolla. In _Rosa Fosteri_, (see _fig._
20,) and its near ally the Dog rose (_R. canina_), the sepals (_a_)
do not extend far beyond the petals of the bud; but in some species,
as in _Rosa cinnamonea_ and its allies, the sepals are so large and
long, that they assume the character of little leaves, The corolla is
cup-shaped, and it is composed of five equal petals, each of which is
more or less indented in the margin, as shown at _b_. In the centre
of the flower the receptacle forms a kind of disk which completely
fills the opening or throat of the calyx; in most species covering the
carpels and their styles and only leaving the stigmas free, though
in the Ayrshire rose (_R. arvensis_), and its allies, the styles are
united, so as to form a column, which projects considerably above the
disk (see _fig._ 21). The pitcher-shaped part of the calyx when the
corolla falls becomes the hip (_fig._ 20 _c_), and serves as a covering
or false pericarp to the numerous bony carpels or nuts which contain
the seed. These nuts are each enveloped in a hairy cover (see _fig._ 20
_d_, and _fig._ 21 _a_,) and each contains only one seed which it does
not open naturally to discharge: hence, the seeds of roses when sown
are a long time before they come up. _Fig._ 22 is the ripe fruit of
_Rosa cinnamonea_, cut in two to show the nuts. The leaves are pinnate,
consisting of two or more pairs of leaflets, and ending with an odd
one. The leaves are furnished with very large stipules (see _fig._ 20
_e_); and the stems have numerous prickles (_f_), which differ from
thorns in being articulated, that is, they may be taken off without
tearing the bark of the stem on which they grow, only leaving the scar
or mark, shown at _g_. The leaves of the sweet briar are full of small
glands or cells filled with fragrant oil, which may be distinctly seen
in the shape of little white dots, when held up to the light; and this
is the reason of their delightful perfume. When the leaf is rubbed
between the fingers, the thin skin that covers the cells is broken, and
the oil being permitted to escape, the fragrance is increased. There
are only two genera in this tribe, viz. _Rosa_ and _Lowea_, the latter
containing only what was formerly called _Rosa berberifolia_, and which
has been thought worthy of being made into a separate genus principally
on account of its having simple leaves without stipules, and branched


The plants belonging to this tribe agree more or less in the
construction of their flowers with the well-known showy plants called
Potentilla, but my readers will probably be surprised to hear that the
raspberry and the strawberry are included among them. If, however,
they compare the flower of the Potentilla with that of the strawberry,
they will find them very much alike. In both there is a calyx of ten
sepals, and a cup-shaped corolla of five petals; and in both the
stamens form a ring round an elevated receptacle, on which are placed
numerous carpels. Here, however, the resemblance ceases, for as the
seeds of Potentilla ripen, the receptacle withers up in proportion to
the swelling of the carpels, till it becomes hidden by them; while in
the strawberry the receptacle becomes gradually more and more dilated,
swelling out and separating the bony carpels still farther and farther
from each other, till at last it forms what we call the ripe fruit.
I have already had several times occasion to mention the receptacle,
which though seldom seen, or at least noticed, by persons who are not
botanists, is a most important part of the flower, and one that assumes
a greater variety of form than any other. Sometimes, as we have seen
in several of the Ranunculaceæ and Leguminosæ, it is a mere disk or
flat substance serving as a foundation to hold together the other
parts of the flower; and at other times we have found it drawn out
into a thin membrane and divided into a kind of leaves, as it is among
the carpels of the tree-peony; but in no plants that I have yet had
occasion to describe does it assume such strange forms as in Rosaceæ.

The flower of the strawberry (_Fragaria vesca_) has a green calyx of
ten sepals; five of which are much smaller than the others, and grow
a little behind them, the large and small ones occurring alternately.
The corolla is cup-shaped, and in five equal petals; the stamens are
numerous and arranged in a crowded ring round the carpels, which are
placed on a somewhat raised receptacle. The carpels or nuts resemble
those of the rose, but they have no hairy covering, and indeed look
hard and shining on the surface of the distended receptacle, or
polyphore as it is called in its metamorphosed state. The carpels
when ripe do not open to discharge the seed, and consequently as they
are sown with the seeds, the young plants are a long time before they
appear. The strawberry has what is called ternate leaves, that is,
leaves consisting of three leaflets; with large membranous stipules.
The calyx is persistent, that is, it remains on till the fruit is ripe.


The Raspberry (_Rubus Idæus_) differs widely from the strawberry in
many particulars, notwithstanding their being included not only in the
same natural order, but in the same tribe. The calyx has only five
sepals (_a_ in _figure_ 23); and though the corolla has five petals
(_b_), they do not form a cup-shaped flower. In the centre are the
carpels, the form of which is shown of the natural size at _c_, and
magnified at _d_, the latter showing that each has a separate style and
stigma. As the raspberry advances, the petals drop, and the receptacle
becomes elevated into what is called a torus, as shown of the natural
size at _e_; bearing the carpels upon it, which gradually swell out and
soften, till each becomes a little pulpy fruit, full of juice, and
having the stone or seed in the centre. While this change is taking
place, the stamens gradually wither and fall off, and the stigmas
disappear, the style shrivelling up to the appearance of a hair; the
pulpy carpels have also become so pressed against each other, as to
adhere together, and the whole, with the persistent calyx, now assumes
the appearance shown at _f_. As soon as the carpels become ripe they
cease to adhere to the torus, and they may be pulled off and eaten
(the torus, or core as it is called, being thrown away): each carpel
will be found to inclose a very hard seed or stone, as shown at _g_.
If the Raspberry, instead of being gathered, be suffered to remain on
the stalk, the juicy carpels dry up, and fall with the seed inclosed.
The stems of the Raspberry are biennial, that is, they do not bear
till they are two years old, after which they die; but the roots are
perennial, and they are always sending up fresh suckers, so that the
same plants will bear for many years in succession, though not on the
same stems. The stems are generally erect, and prickly like the rose;
and the leaves on the bearing stems have three leaflets, while those on
the barren stems have five; and in both cases the leaflets are covered
with white down on the under side. All the different kinds of Bramble,
such as the Dewberry, Blackberry, &c., agree with the Raspberry in
the construction of their fruit, though they differ in the number of
their leaflets, the size and colour of their flowers, and other minor

Several other genera belong to this tribe, among which may be mentioned
_Geum Avens_, or _Herb Bennet_, the carpels of which have each a
hooked style; _Sieversia_ separated from Geum, because the carpels end
in a straight feathery awn; and _Tormentilla_, the flowers of which
bear a general resemblance to those of Potentilla, but which have an
eight-parted calyx; a corolla of four petals; sixteen stamens, and dry
wrinkled carpels on a depressed receptacle. All these genera my readers
will find it interesting to procure flowers of, in order to compare
them with each other. This and the preceding tribe are considered by
some modern botanists to form the order Rosaceæ; the other tribes being
formed into separate orders.


The only genera in this tribe which contain well-known plants are
Spiræa and Kerria. In Spiræa the calyx is five-cleft (see _a_ in
_fig._ 24) and lined with the dilated receptacle, forming a shallow
tube or rather cup for the reception of the carpels. There are five
small roundish petals (_b_), and from twenty to fifty stamens (_c_),
which project very far beyond them. In the centre are from two to five
carpels (_d_), which are something like those of the raspberry when
young, but afterwards become of the kind called follicles; each carpel
contains from two to six seeds affixed to its inner suture, and they
are dehiscent—that is, they open naturally at the top to discharge the
seed (see _e_). The flowers are set very close together, and from this
circumstance, combined with their small size and projecting stamens,
they look like fine filigree work; hence the popular English names
given to _S. salicifolia_ or Bridewort, Queen’s needle-work, &c. The
flowers of this species are in spicate racemes, but others are in
corymbs, as in _S. bella_; or in panicles, as in _S. ariæfolia_.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.—FLOWER OF THE SPIRÆA.]

Kerria is a genus containing only one species, the plant which was
formerly called _Corchorus japonica_; the calyx is united at the base,
but divided in the upper part into five lobes; three of them obtuse,
and the other two tipped with a little point called a mucro. There
are about twenty stamens about the same length as the petals arising
from the calyx, and five roundish carpels containing one seed each.
The leaves are simple, and the stipules awl-shaped. Till lately only
a double-flowered variety was known in Britain; but about 1832, the
single-flowered plant was introduced from China. Corchorus, the genus
in which this plant was originally placed, is nearly allied to the


This tribe is distinguished by the fruit, which is what botanists call
a drupe, that is, a stone fruit. The principal genera included in this
tribe are _Amygdalus_, the Almond; _Persica_, the Peach and Nectarine;
_Armeniaca_, the Apricot; _Prunus_, the Plum; and _Cerasus_, the
Cherry. All these genera contain more or less of prussic acid, which
is found to exist principally in the leaves and kernels; and they all
yield gum when wounded.

The flowers of the common Almond (_Amygdalus communis_) appear, as is
well known, before the leaves, bursting from large scaly buds, which
when they open throw off the brown shining bracts in which they had
been enwrapped. The calyx is somewhat campanulate, with the upper part
cut into five teeth or lobes, and it is lined by the dilated disk.
There are five petals, and about twenty stamens, both inserted in the
lining of the calyx. The anthers are innate, and they differ from most
of the other plants yet described in being only one-celled. The ovary
is also only one-celled, and there are generally two ovules, though
the plant rarely ripens more than one seed. The leaves are simple, and
they have very small stipules. When the petals drop, the ovary appears
covered with a thick tough downy pericarp, within which is the hard
stone or nut, the kernel or almond of which is the seed.

The Peach (_Persica vulgaris_) was formerly included in the same genus
as the almond; and in fact there is but little botanical difference.
The flowers are the same both in construction and appearance; and the
leaves are simple like those of the almond, and, like them, they are
conduplicate (that is, folded together at the midrib) when young. The
only difference indeed is in the fruit; for, as everybody knows, the
stone of the peach has not a dry tough covering, like that of the
almond, but a soft and melting one full of juice, and the stone itself
is of a harder consistence, and deeply furrowed, instead of being only
slightly pitted. The fruit of the peach has thus a fleshy pericarp, the
pulp or sarcocarp of which is eatable, and a furrowed nut or stone,
inclosing the seed or kernel, which is wrapped up like that of the
almond, in a thick loose skin.

The Nectarine (_P. lævis_) only differs from the peach in the epicarp,
or outer covering of the pulpy part, being smooth instead of downy.
Of both fruits there are two kinds, one called free-stone, from their
parting freely with the stone; and the other cling-stone, from the
stone clinging to the fibres of the pulp.

The Apricot (_Armeniaca vulgaris_) agrees with the preceding genus in
its flowers; but it differs in its fruit, its stone being sharp at one
end and blunt at the other, with a furrow on each side, but the rest of
the surface smooth. Thus my readers will perceive that the Peach and
the Apricot, though so different from each other as to be recognised
at a glance, are yet botanically so very closely allied, as to be
distinguished only by the stone. The leaves indeed differ in form, but
in other respects they are exactly the same.

The Sloe (_Prunus spinosa_) is supposed by some botanists to be the
origin of our cultivated plum, though others make it a separate species
under the name of _Prunus domestica_. The flowers in both are solitary
(see _fig._ 25), and consist of a five-toothed calyx (_a_) which
is united at the base, and in the lining of which the stamens are
inserted as shown at (_b_). The ovary has a thick style and capitate
stigma (_c_), and the fruit is a drupe (_d_). In these particulars
therefore the plum agrees with the preceding genera; but it will be
found to differ in the skin of the pericarp, which is quite smooth and
covered with a fine bloom; this, indeed, and its stone being pointed
at both ends constitute the chief botanical distinctions between the
fruit of the plum and that of the apricot, as in other respects they
are alike. Both the plum and the apricot have footstalks, and in this
differ from the peach and the nectarine, which are without. The leaves
of the plum differ from those of the other genera in being convolute,
that is, rolled up, in the bud.


The Cherry (_Cerasus vulgaris_) differs from the plum in the skin of
the pericarp being destitute of bloom, and in several flowers springing
from each bud, in what botanists call a fascicled umbel (see _a_) in
_fig. 26_. The pedicels (_b_) are also much longer; the petals (_c_)
are indented in the margin; the style (_d_) is more slender; and the
stone (_e_) is smooth and much more globose. The number of the stamens,
and the manner in which they are inserted in the lining of the calyx,
is the same in both genera (see _f_); but the leaves are different, for
those of the Cherry are folded down the middle, when young, like those
of the peach and almond; while those of the plum are rolled up.


The genus Cerasus is divided into two sections, the first containing
those species which have their flowers in bunches, and on long
footstalks, as in the common Cherry; and the second those which have
their flowers in racemes on short footstalks, as in the Bird-cherry
(_Cerasus Padus_); the Mahaleb, or Bois de Sainte Lucie (_Cerasus
Mahaleb_); the common Laurel (_Cerasus Lauro-Cerasus_); and the
Portugal Laurel (_Cerasus lusitanicus_). These plants are so different
from the common Cherry both in flowers and fruit, as far as can be
judged from their general appearance, as scarcely to be recognised;
but when closely examined their botanical construction will be found
the same. Formerly only two genera were included in this tribe—viz.
Amygdalus, which comprised the Peach and Nectarine as well as the
Almond; and Prunus, which included the Apricot and the Cherry.


The common apple (_Pyrus Malus_) may be considered the type of
this tribe, which comprehends not only what we are accustomed to
call kerneled fruit, but also the Hawthorn, Cotoneaster, and other
ornamental shrubs and low trees. The flower of the apple bears
considerable resemblance to the flowers of the genera already
described, but the petals (see _a_ in fig. 27) are oblong, rather than


The calyx (_b_) is tubular in the lower part, and the limb is divided
into five lobes. The receptacle lines the lower part of the calyx,
and forms a disk, filling its throat, in which the stamens and petals
are inserted. There are five ovaries, the styles of which are for
half their length united, leaving the upper part and the stigmas
free; and the ovaries themselves, now become cells, are enclosed in a
cartilaginous endocarp, which forms what we call the core of the Apple,
and which adheres firmly to the tubular part of the calyx. There are
two ovules in each cell, placed side by side, but generally only one
seed in each becomes perfectly ripe. As the seeds advance, the fleshy
tube of the calyx swells out and becomes what we call the apple; while
the leafy part or lobes of the limb remain on, and form the eye. Fruit
of this kind are called pomes.


The Pear (_Pyrus communis_) differs from the apple in the shape of
the fruit (see _a_ in _fig_. 28), which tapers towards the footstalk,
instead of being umbilicate, that is, indented at the point of the
insertion of the footstalk, as is the case with the Apple. The
construction of the flowers in both species is the same, except that
the styles are quite free for their whole length in the Pear, and not
partially united into a column as in the Apple. This distinction,
and some others, have been thought, by some botanists, sufficient to
constitute the Apple and its allied species into a separate genus under
the name of _Malus_. The leaves of the Pear differ from those of the
Apple in being the same colour on both surfaces, whereas those of the
Apple are covered with a white down on the under side.

Besides the Apple and the Pear, and their respective allies, which form
two distinct sections of the genus Pyrus, that genus, being a very
extensive one, is divided into several other sections, all the plants
contained in which may be arranged under two heads: viz., those that
formerly constituted the genus Sorbus; and those that were once called


The Mountain Ash (_Pyrus aucuparia_) may be considered as a fair
specimen of most of the trees belonging to the Sorbus division. By the
details of the flowers of this species given in _fig._ 29, it will be
seen that the petals (_a_) are very small and concave; and the calyx
(_b_) is tubular, and five-cleft. There are three styles, as shown
at _c_; and the stamens (_d_), which project far beyond the petals,
are inserted in the disk. The fruit (_e_) is a pome with three seeds
(_f_) enclosed in a cartilaginous membrane, like the core of the apple
or pear. The leaves of the Mountain Ash are impari-pinnate, that is,
they consist of several pairs of leaflets, terminating in an odd one;
and the flowers are produced in corymbs. The White Beam-tree (_Pyrus
Aria_), the wild Service (_P. torminalis_), and several similar trees,
belong to this division and have the same kind of fruit as the Mountain
Ash. The true Service, however, differs in its fruit being generally
shaped like a pear, though there is a variety with apple-shaped fruit.
One species (_P. pinnatifida_) has the leaves lobed to the midrib,
instead of being cut into leaflets; and this gives the name to the
species, leaves of this description being called pinnatifid. The leaves
of the genus Pyrus often have their petioles dilated and somewhat
stem-clasping at the base; but they have generally only small stipules.

Among the other plants included in the genus Pyrus, may be mentioned
the beautiful shrub now called _Pyrus arbutifolia_, which has been
successively included in the genera Cratægus, Aronia, and Mespilus;
and _P. Chamæmespilus_, which has been successively called Cratægus,
Mespilus, and Sorbus. There are several beautiful low shrubs belonging
to this division of the genus Pyrus.

The genus Cydonia, the Quince, differs from Pyrus in having its seeds
arranged in longitudinal rows, instead of being placed side by side.
In the Chinese Quince there are thirty seeds in each row, arranged
lengthways of the fruit. The ovary of this genus consists of five
cells, each containing one row of seeds, the seeds being covered with a
kind of mucilaginous pulp. The well-known plant, formerly called _Pyrus
japonica_, has been removed to the genus Cydonia on account of its
ovary and the disposition of its seeds, which are decidedly those of
the Quince. It differs, however, from the common Quince in its seeds,
which are arranged in two rows in each cell.


The common Hawthorn (_Cratægus Oxyacantha_) has generally only two
styles (see _a_, _fig._ 30), but the number of styles varies in the
many different species included in the genus from one to five. The
corolla, calyx, and stamens are the same as in the other genera
included in this tribe, but the petals (_b_) are rounder and rather
more indented. The seeds vary from one to five, each being enclosed in
a bony covering, or stone, the whole being surrounded by the fleshy
part of the calyx, which forms the eatable part of the Haw. In some
of the species the haws are so large as to appear like little apples;
but they may be always easily distinguished by the ripe ovary, or case
which incloses the seed, being bony; whereas in all the varieties of
Pyrus, the outer part of the ovary is cartilaginous, like the core
of the apple. The seeds of the Hawthorn are a long time before they
come up, from the hardness of this bony covering, which does not open
naturally when ripe. The species composing the genus Raphiolepis, the
Indian Hawthorn, have been separated from Cratægus; chiefly on account
of the covering which encloses the seeds being of a paper-like texture,
instead of bony, and each cell containing two seeds. The limb of the
calyx also falls off before the fruit is ripe, instead of remaining
on to form what is called an eye, as it does in the common Hawthorn.
The leaves of the plants belonging to this genus vary in the different
species; but those of the common Hawthorn are wedge-shaped, and cut
deeply into three or five lobes.

The different species which compose the genus Cratægus were formerly
considered to belong to the genus Mespilus. This genus, which is now
almost confined to the common Medlar (_Mespilus germanica_), agrees
with Cratægus in having each seed enclosed in a bony covering, but it
differs in the limb of the calyx being in large leafy segments; and in
the disk being very large and visible even when the fruit is ripe, from
the tubular part of the calyx not closing over it.

Among the plants formerly included in the genus Mespilus, may be
mentioned _Photinia serrulata_, and _Eriobotrya japonica_, both natives
of Japan. The first of these was once called _Cratægus glabra_, and
it is remarkable for its beautiful glossy leaves, which are of a deep
green when old, and beautifully tinged with red when young; the flowers
are white, and they are produced in what botanists call corymbose
panicles. There are some other species of the genus Photinia, but only
two or three are common in British gardens. _Eriobotrya japonica_, the
Loquat-tree, was formerly called _Mespilus japonica_. It is remarkable
for its large and handsome leaves, which are woolly on the under side.
The flowers, which are small and white, are produced in large panicles,
and they are followed by large pendulous bunches of the yellow
pear-shaped fruit, which is covered with a woolly substance, and hence
the botanic name Eriobotrya, which signifies woolly grapes. The tree
will stand out in the open air in England, and it will flower freely in
a greenhouse, but it requires a stove to ripen its fruit.

Cotoneaster and Amelanchier were also formerly included in Mespilus,
and they are very closely allied to Photinia and Eriobotrya. The
species belonging to Photinia, however, are easily known by their
shining leaves, and the petals of their flowers being reflexed, that
is, curved back; and the species of Eriobotrya are distinguished by
their woolliness, which spreads over even the flowers and fruit. The
Cotoneasters are known by the small petals of their flowers, which
curve inwards, and remain a long time without falling. The leaves are
also thick, and woolly or clothed with rusty hair on the under side;
and the flowers, which are produced in cymes or panicles, with woolly
pedicels, are followed by bright red haws, resembling those of the
hawthorn. Lastly, the genus Amelanchier is known by its long narrow
petals, and its ovary having five or ten cells, with five styles united
at the base.


The plants included in this tribe agree more or less with the common
Burnet (_Sanguisorba officinalis_). This plant, which is found in
great abundance in rich meadows on calcareous soils, has its flowers
produced in a close terminal spike. The flowers have no petals, but the
calyx, which is four-cleft, is pink, and there are four glossy brown
bracts to each flower; so that, on the whole, the flowers are rather
ornamental, notwithstanding their want of petals. There are only four
stamens, and two carpels with slender styles and pointed stigmas. The
leaves are pinnate, consisting generally of nine leaflets, and each
pair of leaflets is furnished with two stipules. The Alchemilla, or
Ladies’ Mantle, is nearly allied to the Burnet; but the flowers are in
small corymbs, instead of spikes. The flowers have no petals; but the
limb of the calyx is coloured, and divided into eight unequal segments.
There are generally four stamens and only one style, though sometimes
there are two. The ovary contains one or two carpels, each containing a
single seed, and these when ripe are enclosed in a capsule, formed by
the tubular part of the calyx becoming hardened. The leaves are lobed,
plaited, and serrated at the margin; and those of the Alpine species
(_A. alpina_), which is often found wild on the Scotch mountains,
are covered with a beautiful silky substance of the most brilliant



The type of this order is considered to be the common evening
Tree-primrose (_Œnothera biennis_), and it takes its name from
_Onagra_, the name given by Tournefort to the genus. The Fuchsia seems
so unlike the Œnothera, that it appears difficult to any but a botanist
to trace the connexion between them; but, botanically, they agree in
the position of the ovary, which in both is so placed as to seem rather
to belong to the flower-stalk than to the flower; and this peculiarity
is found in all the genera included in the order. The parts of the
flowers are also always either two, four, eight, or twelve; as, for
example, there are four petals and eight stamens in both the Fuchsia
and the Œnothera.


Little more than fifty years ago, the first Fuchsia was introduced
into England; and we are told that small plants of it were sold at
a guinea each. Now more than twenty species, and innumerable hybrids
and varieties, are in common cultivation, and we find them not only in
greenhouses and windows, but planted in the open air as common border
shrubs. The first Fuchsia seen in England was _F. coccinea_, introduced
in 1788; and this species is still common in our gardens. It was
followed about 1796 by _F. lycoides_; and after that no other species
was introduced till 1821, since when a full tide of Fuchsias has kept
pouring in upon our gardens, from the different parts of Mexico, South
America, and New Zealand, to the present time.

All the Fuchsias were formerly divided into two sections; the plants
in one of which having the stamens and pistil concealed, and those in
the other having the stamens and style exserted, that is, projecting
beyond the other parts of the flower. The first division comprises
all the small-flowered kinds; such as _F. microphylla_, _thymifolia_,
_cylindracea_, and _bacillaris_, all which have the lobes of the calyx
short, and the petals partially concealed. _F. parviflora_ belongs to
this division, but it is distinguished by its glaucous leaves with an
entire margin; and _F. lycoides_ is also included in it; though this
last seems to form the connecting link between the two sections, as
both its petals and its style and stamens are partially exposed. The
second division comprises all the kinds which have long projecting

As the general arrangement of the parts of the flower is nearly the
same in both divisions, _fig._ 31, which represents the section of a
flower of _F. cylindracea_, from the _Botanical Register_, will give
my readers a clear idea of the botanical construction of the Fuchsia.
In this figure, _a_ shows two cells of the ovary (which when entire
is four-celled, opening when ripe into four valves), with the seeds
attached to a central placenta. This ovary is surrounded and protected
by the dilated disk, which also serves as a lining to the tubular part
of the calyx, _b_. The anthers, in this division, have very short
filaments, which are inserted in the lining of the calyx, as shown at
_c_; _d_ is the style, which, in fact, consists of four styles united
together, and which divides near the apex into four stigmas; _e e_ are
two of the four lobes of the calyx; and _f_ is one of the four petals.


[Illustration: FIG. 32.—FUCHSIA DISCOLOR.]

In the second division, of which _F. coccinea_ may be considered
the type, the calyx and the corolla are of different colours. In
_fig._ 32, which shows a flower of _F. discolor_, the Port Famine
Fuchsia, the calyx (_a_) is scarlet and the most ornamental part of
the flower, while the petals (_b_) are purple, and wrapped over each
other. The ovary (_c_) is green, and when the petals and calyx fall
off, it swells into a berry, which becomes of a dark purple when ripe.
_F. globosa_ differs from _F. coccinea_ in the flowers being shorter
and more globose, while the limb of the calyx curves inward. In _F.
macrostemma_, a well-known Fuchsia, the lobes of the limb of the
calyx are, on the contrary, recurved, that is, turned backwards. This
formation is common, more or less, to several other species. In _F.
excorticata_, the New Zealand Fuchsia, there is a large fleshy knot at
the base of the calyx, and strong ribs running up the lobes; the calyx
is green when young, but it afterwards becomes crimson; and the petals
are very small. This species is so different from the others, that it
was at first described as a new genus, under the name of Skinnera.
The calyx is green at first, but it afterwards becomes crimson. _F.
arborea_ has pale-purplish flowers, and, like _F. lycoides_, forms a
connecting link between the two sections, the stamens being only a
little exserted, and the petals hidden.

_F. radicans_, the only Fuchsia yet discovered with a creeping stem,
which was introduced in 1841, belongs to this division.

These sections include all the Fuchsias known in British gardens
previously to 1835; but since that period, two kinds have been
introduced, which belong to a third division. These are _F. fulgens_
and _F. corymbiflora_. In these plants the tube of the calyx is about
two inches long, and the lobes are very short. The petals are also
short, and scarlet or deep-rose colour, though not exactly of the same
hue as the calyx. The leaves are large, with the midribs and veins red;
and the branches and pedicels are also of a dark reddish purple.


In the description of the botanical construction of the Fuchsia, my
readers may have observed, that the ovary is placed below the calyx,
and quite distinct from it. The same construction is still more visible
in the Œnothera, as the tube of the calyx is very slender, and often
more than two inches long, while the ovary is often vase-shaped, and
of large size. The calyx of _Œnothera biennis_, the common Evening or
Tree Primrose, consists of four sepals growing together in the lower
part, so as to form a long tube (_a_ in _fig._ 33), and with the upper
part or limb generally in two segments (b), which are bent quite back
when the corolla expands, and which may be easily divided with a pin
into four. There are four petals in the corolla (_c_), and they are
placed so as to wrap over each other at the base. The calyx is lined
with the dilated receptacle, and in this lining are inserted the
filaments of the eight stamens (as shown at _d_); the stamens having
versatile anthers, that is, anthers attached to the filament by the
middle, so as to quiver at every breath. The pollen contained in the
cells of these anthers feels clammy when touched; and its particles,
when magnified, will be found to be triangular, and connected by
small threads, a form of construction peculiar to this genus and its
allies. The style is long, and the stigma is four-cleft. The ovary (_e
e_) is situated at the base of the calyx, and when ripe, it becomes
a four-celled dry capsule, which bursts into four valves, opening at
top to discharge the seed. The seeds, when young, are attached to the
central placenta, and they are quite free from hair or wool of any kind.

[Illustration: FIG. 33.—THE EVENING PRIMROSE (_Œnothera biennis_).]

The genus Œnothera being a very extensive one, it has been divided
by M. Spach, a German botanist residing in Paris, into fourteen new
genera; but only one, or at most two, of these genera have been
adopted by other botanists. One of these Godetia, which embraces all
the purple-flowered kinds, has been divided from Œnothera, on account
of a slight feathery appearance on the seeds; whereas the seeds of
the true yellow-flowered Œnotheras are naked, that is, without the
slightest appearance of any feathery substance or wing. The other
genus, Boisduvalia _Spach_, includes only two species, both with pink
flowers, which are very seldom seen in British gardens. The generic
mark of distinction consists in four of the stamens in these species
being shorter than the other four; whereas in the true Œnotheras all
the eight stamens are of equal length. As M. Spach’s other genera
have not been adopted by any British botanist, it is not worth while
troubling my readers with the distinctions between them. The flowers of
the yellow Œnotheras only open in the evening, or in cloudy weather;
but those of the purple kinds, or Godetias, remain open all day. The
leaves in both kinds are alternate.


[Illustration: FIG. 34.—EPILOBIUM ROSEUM.]

This genus is well known, by the showy plant often seen in shrubberies,
called the French Willow-Herb—(_Epilobium angustifolium_), and the
English weed called Codlings-and-Cream (_E. hirsutum_). In this
genus, the tubular part of the calyx which incloses the ovary,
is quadrangular, as shown at _a_ in _fig._ 34, which represents
seed-vessels of _Epilobium roseum_, a very common weed in the
neighbourhood of London. The limb of the calyx is four-cleft, and the
corolla has four petals; and when these fall off, the ovary assumes
the appearance shown at _a_. The quadrangular form is retained by the
capsule, which, when it ripens, bursts open into the four valves (_b_),
and discharges the seed which was attached to the central placenta
(_c_); each seed being furnished with a little feathery tuft resembling
pappus, as shown in _fig._ 35. The genus Epilobium is divided into
two sections; the plants in one of which have irregular petals, the
stamens bent, and the stigma divided into four lobes, as in the French
Willow-Herb, and the other showy species; and the plants in the other
section having small flowers with regular petals, erect stamens, and
the stigma undivided.

[Illustration: FIG. 35.—SEED OF EPILOBIUM.]


The calyx in this genus is tubular, with the limb in two or four lobes,
as in Œnothera. The corolla is, however, very different, the four
petals being unguiculate or clawed; that is, so much narrower in the
lower part as to stand widely apart from each other; they are also
three lobed. The stamens are very different, only four of them being
perfect, and the anthers of the other four being wasted and destitute
of pollen; and the stigma is divided into four leaf-like lobes, very
different from those of all the other genera included in the order. The
capsule is cylindrical in shape, and furrowed on the outside; it is
four-celled, and when ripe, it bursts open by four valves. The seeds
are quite naked.

Among the other genera belonging to this order, I may mention the
following: _Gaura_, the petals of which are somewhat unguiculate,
like those of Clarkia, but not three-lobed as in that genus; the
segments of the limb of the calyx often adhere two together, so as
to appear three instead of four; the ovary is one-celled, and the
seeds naked: _Lopezia_, which has apparently five irregular petals,
though, on examination, one will be found to be a metamorphosed
stamen, a four-cleft calyx, two stamens, including the one converted
into a petal, and a globular, four-celled capsule: and _Circæa_, or
Enchanter’s Nightshade, which has the limb of the calyx apparently in
only two segments, and only two petals and two stamens; the capsule
is globular like that of _Lopezia_, but it is covered with very small
hooked bristles, and it is divided into only two cells, each containing
only one seed.



This order contains more than two hundred genera; but by far the
greater part of these are composed of tropical plants, many of which
are not yet introduced into Britain. Several of the genera, on the
other hand, are British weeds; and this difference in habit, with
others in the qualities of the plants, &c., have occasioned some
botanists to divide the order into two: one of the new orders being
called Cinchonaceæ, and containing the plants most resembling Cinchona;
and the other Galiaceæ, containing the plants most nearly allied to
Galium or Bedstraw.

The characteristics of Rubiaceæ, in its most extended sense, are that
the ovary is surrounded by the calyx, and placed below the rest of the
flower; and that the corolla has a long tube, lined with the dilated
receptacle, in which the stamens are inserted. In most of the species,
the filaments are very short, and the anthers nearly or entirely hidden
in the corolla; and in many cases, the segments of the calyx remain on
the ripe fruit, as they do in the genus Pyrus in Rosaceæ, where they
form what is called the eye in the apple and pear.

The qualities of the Cinchona division of the Rubiaceæ are generally
tonic; but some of the plants, as for example the Ipecacuanha, are used
as emetics, and one (_Randia dumetorum_) is poisonous. The qualities of
the Galium division are not so decidedly marked; but the roots of some
of the plants are used for dyeing.



The well-known medicine called Peruvian bark is produced by three
species of the genus Cinchona; the pale bark, which is considered the
best, being that of _C. lanceolata_. The flowers of this species are
small, and of a very pale pink. The calyx (see _a_ in fig. 36) is
bell-shaped, and five-toothed; and the corolla (_b_) is tubular, with
the limb divided into five lobes, and silky within, as shown in the
magnified section at _c_. The stamens (_d_) have very short filaments,
which are inserted in the throat of the corolla. The ovary (_e_),
which is deeply furrowed when young, is inclosed in the calyx; it is
two-celled, with a single style, and a two-lobed stigma (_f_). The
capsules retain the lobes of the calyx as a sort of crown (_g_); and
they open naturally at the division between the two cells, as shown
at _h_, beginning at the base. The cells (_i_) each contain several
seeds. _C. oblongifolia_, which yields the red bark of the shops, has
cream-coloured flowers, as large as those of a Jasmine, which they
resemble in shape; and _C. cordifolia_, which produces the yellow
bark, has flowers like the first species, and heart-shaped leaves.
The singular plant called _Hillia longiflora_, is nearly allied to
Cinchona; as is also the beautiful and delightfully fragrant _Luculia
gratissima_. In this last plant the tube of the calyx is very short,
and pear-shaped, and the segments of the limb are short, and sharply
pointed. The corolla is salver-shaped, with a long tube, and a
spreading, five-parted limb. The anthers are nearly sessile, and the
short filaments to which they are attached are inserted in the throat
of the corolla, only the tips of the anthers being visible. The stigma
is divided into two fleshy lobes, and the capsule splits, not like that
of Cinchona, but from the apex to the base in the centre of each cell.
The seeds are very small, and each has a toothed, membranous wing. The
flowers of this beautiful plant are produced in a large head, and at
first sight greatly resemble those of a Hydrangea; but they are easily
distinguished by their delightful fragrance.

_Manettia cordifolia_, a very pretty stove-twiner often seen in
collections, is very nearly allied to Luculia, differing principally
in the shape of the flowers, which in Manettia have a long tube and
a very small limb. _Bouvardia triphylla_ and the other species of
Bouvardia, and _Pinckneya pubescens_, belong to this division; and
such of my readers as have the living plants to refer to, will find
it both interesting and instructive to dissect them and compare the
parts of their flowers with the description I have given of Luculia
and Cinchona, so as to discover the difference between the different
genera; afterwards reading the generic character of each given in
botanical works, that they may see how far they were right.


The Cape Jasmine (_Gardenia radicans_) is a well-known greenhouse
plant, remarkable for the heavy fragrance of its large white flowers,
which die off a pale yellow, or buff. The calyx has a ribbed tube,
and the limb is parted into long awl-shaped segments. The corolla is
salver-shaped, that is, it has a long tube and a spreading limb, the
limb being twisted in the bud. There are from five to nine anthers,
having very short filaments which are inserted in the throat of the
corolla. The stigma is divided into two erect fleshy lobes. The ovary
is one-celled, but there are some traces of membranes, which would, if
perfect, have divided it into from two to five cells. The seeds are
numerous and very small. _Gardenia radicans_ is a dwarf plant, which
flowers freely when of very small size, and is easily propagated from
the readiness with which its stem throws out roots; but _G. florida_ is
a shrub five or six feet high, and much more difficult to cultivate.
In both species the flowers are generally double, and the petals are
of a fleshy substance, which gives the corolla a peculiarly wax-like

There are many other species, but the two above-mentioned are the
most common in British gardens. _Burchellia capensis_ is generally
considered to belong to this division of Rubiaceæ, though its flowers
bear more resemblance to those of Cinchona; and the singular plant
called _Mussæuda pubescens_, the flowers of which are small and
yellow, but the bracts are so large and so brilliantly white as to
look like flowers; _Posoqueria versicolor_, an ornamental plant lately
introduced, belong to this division.



_Rondeletia odorata_, sometimes called _R. coccinea_, and sometimes
_R. speciosa_, is a very fragrant stove shrub, a native of Cuba. The
flowers are produced in corymbs, and their botanical construction is
shown in the magnified section _fig._ 37. In this _a_ is the ovary
inclosed in a hairy calyx; _b_ shows the limb of the calyx cut into
awl-shaped segments; _c_ shows the manner in which the very short
filaments of the anthers are inserted in the throat of the corolla; _d_
shows the termination of the dilated receptacle which lines the tube
of the corolla; and _e_ the segments of the limb. I have given the
section of this flower, that my readers may compare it with the section
of the flower of the Cinchona in _fig._ 36, in p. 87, and may see the
general resemblance which connects the two plants in the same order,
and the differences which mark them to be of different genera. _Fig._
38 is a tuft of flowers of _Rondeletia odorata_. _Wendlandia_ is nearly
allied to Rondeletia; as is the magnificent _Portlandia grandiflora_,
which somewhat resembles _Brugmansia lutea_ in shape though not in
colour, as its flowers are white.



The Coffee-tree (_Coffea arabica_) differs from the other Rubiaceæ in
the tube of its calyx being very short and disappearing when the ovary
begins to swell; and in the filaments of the stamens being sufficiently
long to allow the anthers to be seen above the throat of the corolla
(see _a_ in _fig._ 39). The limb of the corolla (_b_) is five-cleft,
and the style (_c_) bifid. Each ovary when its flower falls, becomes
distended into a berry (_d_) or rather drupe, containing the nut _e_,
in which are two seeds, flat on one side, and convex on the other,
which are placed with the flat sides together, as shown at _f_; each
seed having a deep longitudinal groove, as shown at _g_. These seeds
are our coffee.

[Illustration: FIG. 39.—COFFEE. (_Coffea Arabica._)]

The flowers of _Ixora coccinea_ have the same general construction as
those of the other plants of the order. The calyx has an ovate tube,
and a very small four-toothed limb; and the corolla is salver-shaped,
with a long and very slender tube, and a four-parted spreading limb.
There are four anthers inserted in the throat of the tube of the
corolla, and just appearing beyond it, and rising a little above them
is the point of the style with its two-cleft stigma. The berry is
two-celled, but it differs from that of the coffee in retaining the
lobes of the calyx, which form a sort of crown. There are many kinds
of Ixora, all stove shrubs, and all conspicuous for their large heads
or rather corymbs of showy flowers. The genus Pavetta has been divided
from Ixora, principally because the species composing it have the
style projecting considerably beyond the corolla, instead of only just
appearing above it.

The drug called Ipecacuanha is the produce of two plants belonging to
this order, _Cephælis Ipecacuanha_ and _Richardsonia scabra_; though
a spurious kind is made from the roots of three species of Viola, all
natives of South America, and a still inferior one from the roots of a
kind of Euphorbia, a native of Virginia and Carolina. It is important
to know this, as the best kinds possess tonic properties as well as
emetic ones, while the inferior kinds are only emetics, and they
are very injurious if taken frequently. The best brown Ipecacuanha
is the powdered root of _Cephælis Ipecacuanha_; a plant with small
white flowers collected into a globose head, which is shrouded in an
involucre closely resembling a common calyx. The true calyx to each
separate flower is small and roundish, with a very short five-toothed
limb. The corolla is funnel-shaped, with five small bluntish lobes.
The anthers are inclosed in the corolla, and the stigma, which is
two-cleft, projects only a little beyond them. The berries are
two-celled and two-seeded, and they retain the lobes of the calyx. The
root is fleshy and creeping. _Richardsonia scabra_, which produces the
white Ipecacuanha, has its flowers also in heads, but the calyx is
larger in proportion to the corolla, and the stamens and style are both
visible. The capsule contains three or four one-seeded nuts, crowned by
the calyx; which, however, becomes loosened at the base, and falls off,
before the seeds are quite ripe. Cephalanthus, Spermacoce, and Crusea,
are nearly allied to Richardsonia.

The above plants all agree, more or less, with Cinchona, in their
qualities, and they are all included by Dr. Lindley in the order


The common Bedstraw (_Galium vernum_) is a British weed, common in
dry fields and on little knolls, which produces its cluster of bright
yellow flowers in July and August. The flowers are so small that it is
difficult to examine them in detail, but, by the aid of a microscope,
the ovary will be found to be inclosed in the tube of the calyx as in
the other Rubiaceæ, though the calyx has hardly any limb. The corolla
is what is called rotate or wheel-shaped, and its limb is divided into
four segments. There are four short stamens, with their filaments
inserted in the throat of the corolla, and two very short styles. The
fruit is a dry capsule inclosing two seeds. Thus far the construction
of the plant agrees with the other Rubiaceæ, but the stem is square,
and the leaves are different, for they are without footstalks, and are
disposed in what is called a whorl (see _fig._ 40). The whorl, however,
according to Professor De Candolle, does not consist entirely of
leaves; but of two opposite leaves and two or more stipules, which are
so like the leaves as scarcely to be distinguished from them, though
upon close examination, it will be found that the leaves have buds in
their axils (that is between them and the stem), which the stipules
have not. This theory is not adopted by Dr. Lindley, who considers the
whorl to consist entirely of leaves, and to be one of the distinctive
marks of his order Galiaceæ.

[Illustration: FIG. 40.—WHORL OF LEAVES OF BEDSTRAW. (_Galium vernum._)]

All the plants in this division of Rubiaceæ agree with the common
Bedstraw (_Galium vernum_) in the formation of their leaves and stem;
but the species of Galium are distinguished by the margins of the
leaves and the principal veins, in nearly all the species, being
covered with prickles, which in some cases point forwards, and in
others are bent back, so as to catch everything they touch. This is
particularly the case with the leaves of the plant called Goose-grass,
or Cleavers (_Galium aparine_); and its fruit is covered with hooked
bristles, which take so firm a hold as to make it difficult to separate
them from anything they have caught hold of. The pretty little weed
called Field Madder (_Sherardia arvensis_), the fragrant Woodruff,
(_Asperula odorata_), and _Rubia peregrina_, the only British species
of Madder, all agree with Galium in its more important characters;
and as they are all common weeds, my readers will probably find it
interesting to trace the differences between them. Galium and Rubia
agree in having scarcely any limb to the calyx, and a rotate corolla;
but the limb, which is only four-parted, or even three-parted, in
Galium, has always five lobes in Rubia; there are also five stamens in
Rubia, and the fruit is a berry; whereas there are only four stamens in
Galium, and the fruit is dry. Sherardia agrees with Asperula in having
a funnel-shaped corolla with a four-cleft limb; but in Sherardia the
limb of the calyx remains on as a crown to the fruit, while in Asperula
it drops off. In Sherardia there is only one style with a two-lobed
stigma; and in Asperula there are two styles united at the base.

There is a very pretty plant called _Crucinella stylosa_, which has
lately been much cultivated in gardens, and which belongs to this
order. This plant has large heads of pretty pink flowers, each of
which has a funnel-shaped corolla, with a long tube concealing the
anthers, but beyond which the style projects so far as to give rise to
the specific name of _stylosa_. The stigma in this plant is clavate,
that is, club-shaped, and it is cleft in two, though the lobes are not



The plants composing the order Compositæ have all compound flowers,
which differ from other flowers as much as a compound leaf does from a
simple one. As the compound leaf is composed of a number of leaflets or
pinnæ united by a common petiole; so a compound flower is composed of a
number of florets, united by a common receptacle, which is surrounded
by a calyx-like involucre, so as to give the whole mass the appearance
of a simple flower. Each floret has a calyx, the tubular part of which
is rarely sufficiently distinct to be perceptible, but the limb is
generally cut into long feathery segments called pappus. The ovary of
each floret contains only one seed; and the fruit, which is called an
achenium, retains the pappus when ripe, and falls without opening.
There are five stamens, the filaments of which are distinct, but the
anthers grow together so as to form a kind of cylinder, through
which passes the style, ending in a two-lobed stigma (see _a_ in
_fig._ 41). Most of the corollas are of two kinds: viz. the ligulate,
as exemplified in the floret of the wild Lettuce (_Lactuca virosa_)
shown in _fig._ 41; and the tubular, as shown in a floret of the
Cotton-thistle (_Onopordium Acanthium_) see _fig._ 42. All the British
species of Compositæ have their florets either entirely of one of these
kinds, or of the two mixed together; but some foreign genera have
florets with two equal lips, cut into three or four lobes, as shown in
a floret of _Mutisia latifolia_, at (_e_), _fig._ 46, p. 108. These
florets are called bilabiate. It will be observed that in all these
examples, as indeed, in all the flowers belonging to the order, that
the pappus (_b_, in _figs._ 41 and 42), is always on the outside of the
corolla, thus plainly indicating its connexion with the calyx.



The order Compositæ is a very large one, above seven thousand species
having been named and described; and to assist the memory in retaining
the names of this great number of plants, various means have been
devised for dividing the order into sections and tribes. The principal
botanists who have proposed means of arranging this order, are Cassini,
Lessing, and lastly the late Professor De Candolle, in three volumes
of his _Prodromus_ published in 1840. But as the distinctions between
the divisions proposed, lie in the difference found in the stigmas and
pappus of the different genera, I have judged them too troublesome for
my readers, as I am sure they are for myself, and I have preferred
following the plan adopted by Dr. Lindley in his _Elements of Botany_,
published in 1841, and dividing the Compositæ into four tribes; viz.,
the three originally proposed by Jussieu, and a fourth added by
Professor De Candolle, containing the plants with bilabiate florets,
which were either not known, or overlooked, by Jussieu. It may perhaps
be necessary to add, that this arrangement forms the basis of the new
one proposed by De Candolle, and that the principal difference consists
in the subdivisions.


_Florets ligulate. Juice milky, narcotic._

The plants contained in this tribe bear more or less resemblance to the
common Succory (_Cichorium Intybus_). This beautiful plant, which is
found in great abundance wild in many of the sandy and chalky districts
of England, has large bright blue flowers, which when examined will
be found to consist of a number of florets, all of the kind called
ligulate, that is somewhat like a cornet of paper; the upper part being
broad and flat, and serrated at the edge. The pappus in this genus
is very short, and it is scaly rather than feathery. The leaves are
bitter, and when broken give out a milky juice; and the fleshy roots
when roasted are used to adulterate coffee. The Endive is a variety
of this species, or another species of the same genus. The Sowthistle
(_Sonchus oleraceus_) abounds in the same milky juice as the succory,
and has the same kind of fleshy root. The flower is composed of a
scaly involucre (shown at _a_ in _fig._ 43) and a number of ligulate
florets (see _b_), which when they fall show the pappus (_c_), forming
a feathery ball. The manner in which the pappus is attached to the
seed-vessel is shown at (_d_); and the receptacle after the florets
have been pulled out, but with the involucre still attached to it, at
(_e_). A detached floret is shown at (_f_). The Dandelion (_Leontodon
Taraxacum_) differs from the Sowthistle: in its florets, which are
flatter and looser; in its receptacle, which is globular; and above
all, in its pappus, which is what is called stipitate or stalked, that
is, the tubular part of its calyx rises to a considerable height above
the capsule, before it becomes divided into its feathery segments,
as shown in _fig._ 44. The leaves of this plant are what is called
runcinate, that is, the lobes into which they are cut point downwards
towards the root instead of upwards from it, and the root is also
fleshy. The Lettuce, Salsafy or Goat’s-beard, Ox-tongue, Hawkweed,
Cat’s-ear, Nipplewort or Swine’s Succory, and many other well-known
plants, belong to this tribe.

[Illustration: FIG. 43.—SOWTHISTLE. (_Sonchus oleraceus._)]

[Illustration: FIG. 44.—SEED OF THE DANDELION.]


_Florets tubular. Juice watery, tonic._


The plants in this division all bear more or less relation to the
common Artichoke (_Cynara Scolymus_). The scales of the involucre
are generally fleshy at the base, but terminate outwardly in a sharp
hard point. The florets are tubular, and intermixed with them in the
receptacle are frequently found the hardened bracts, which in this
state are called paleæ, and which appear to be of a chaffy substance,
as exemplified in the choke of the Artichoke, the fleshy receptacle
being in this plant what we call the Artichoke bottom. This peculiar
formation is shown more in detail in _fig._ 45, which represents part
of the flower of the common Bur or Burdock (_Arctium Lappa_), so
annoying from the strong hold it takes of any part of the dress which
it may chance to touch. In _fig._ 45 _a_ is the involucre, every scale
in which is hooked and turned inwards, so as to hold firmly whatever
it may catch; _b_ is a floret showing its tubular shape, and its style
proceeding through the united anthers; _c_ shows the hardened bracts
or paleæ, the other florets having been removed; and _d_ shows a fruit
with a palea attached, magnified. All the different kinds of thistle
belong to this division; and though many of the kinds have not the
hardened bracts, they have all a spiny involucre. The pappus of the
thistle is generally attached to a kind of disk, from which it becomes
loosened soon after the seed falls, and this thistle, down, as it is
called, being extremely light, is blown about by the winds. All the
thistles have fleshy roots, and take firm hold of the soil. The Corn
Blue-bottles (_Centaurea_), the Wild Saffron (_Carthamus tinctoria_),
and many other well-known plants, belong to this division.


  _Florets partly tubular and partly ligulate; juice watery; sometimes
  bitter and tonic, and sometimes acrid. The seeds of some of the
  species yield oil._

The plants included in this tribe all bear more or less resemblance to
the common Daisy. In this well-known flower, the white florets are all
ligulate, and compose what is called the ray, and the yellow flowers,
which are tubular, are called the disk. The involucre is simple and
leafy, and the receptacle is conical. The seeds are without pappus. The
Chrysanthemum is nearly allied to the Daisy, and its seeds also are
destitute of pappus; but it is easily distinguished by its involucre,
which is scaly, and by the flower forming a kind of depressed globe in
the bud. The scales of the involucre are strongly marked, from being
edged with a thin membrane, and the florets of the ray are much longer
in proportion to those of the disk than in the Daisy. The great Ox-eye
Daisy, which was formerly called _Chrysanthemum leucanthemum_, is now
placed in a new genus, and called _Leucanthemum vulgare_; and the
Chinese Chrysanthemums have been removed to the genus _Pyrethrum_. Both
plants, however, will no doubt long continue to be called by their old
names. The beautiful yellow-flowered plant often found growing among
corn (_Chrysanthemum segetum_), the three-coloured Chrysanthemum (_C.
tricolor_ or _carinatum_), and the yellow annual Chrysanthemum (_C.
coronarium_), with some others, have been left by Professor De Candolle
in their old genus. In the Feverfew (_Pyrethrum_), the receptacle
is elevated, and the fruit is crowned with a narrow membrane. The
Pellitory of Spain was formerly considered to belong to this genus,
and afterwards to the Chamomile, but it is now called _Anacyclus
Pyrethrum_. _Matricaria Chamomilla_, the wild Chamomile, has also no
pappus; and in this plant the receptacle is almost cylindrical. The
true Chamomile (_Anthemis nobilis_) greatly resembles the Chrysanthemum
in its flowers; but they are distinguished by having a chaffy
receptacle, and the fruit having a membranous margin. The smell of
the Chamomile is aromatic, and its qualities highly tonic. The Yarrow
(_Achillea millefolium_) is another plant destitute of pappus, but with
a chaffy receptacle; it is also remarkable for its leaves, which are
doubly pinnatifid.

It will be seen by the above enumeration, that in many plants belonging
to this division, the pappus is entirely wanting, and in others it
will be found to assume a different form to that which it bears in
the other tribes. Thus, in the Bur-Marigold (_Bidens_), the pappus
consists of from two to five erect awns, which are covered with very
small, bent bristles. The genus Senecio has soft, hairy pappus, as may
be seen in the common Groundsel (_S. vulgaris_); the leaves of this
weed are pinnatifid, and somewhat stem-clasping, and the flowers have
no ray florets. In other species of this division, however, the ray
florets are very conspicuous: as, for example, in the common yellow
Ragwort (_S. Jacobæa_), in the great fen Ragwort, or Bird’s tongue (_S.
paludosa_), and in the purple Jacobæa (_S. elegans_). Nearly allied
to Senecio, is the genus Cineraria, so much, indeed, that Professor
De Candolle, in his late arrangement of the Compositæ, has included
the greater part of the species in Senecio. The greenhouse species,
with purple flowers, are among those which have been changed; but
they will probably always retain the appellation of Cineraria, as an
arbitrary English name. The Asters, or Michaelmas Daisies, Golden
Rod, Elecampane, Leopard’s Bane, the Cape Marigold, (now called
Dimorphortheca, instead of being included in the genus Calendula),
Coltsfoot, Wormwood, Southern-wood, Tansy, and many other well-known
plants, belong to this division.

The Sunflower (_Helianthemum annuus_) is an example of one of the
plants belonging to this division which has seeds yielding oil. In this
plant the pappus is awl-shaped, and deciduous; and the receptacle,
which is broad and somewhat convex, is paleaceous. The seeds are large
and oblong, and when pressed, yield a considerable quantity of oil. The
Madia is another oil plant; and indeed the seeds of several in this
division yield oil.


_Florets bilabiate._

The plants belonging to this division are rarely seen in British
gardens; but when they do occur, they are well worth examining, from
the singularity of their formation. _Mutisialatifolia_ (see fig. 46)
has a large, woolly involucre, the scales of which are of two kinds,
the outer ones, (_a_), being pointed and leaf-like, and the inner ones,
(_b_), having the appearance of scaly bracts. The florets of the ray,
(_c_), are narrow, and spreading in the fully expanded flower; and
those of the disk, (_d_), are shorter, erect, divided into two lips,
which curl back, and the lower one of which is again divided into two
segments (as shown at _e_ in the detached floret). The leaves of this
plant are very curious; the midrib is lengthened and drawn out into a
tendril, as shown at _f_, and the petiole (_g_) is decurrent. There
are several other genera belonging to this tribe, but none of them are
particularly ornamental except _Triptilion spinosum_, which has flowers
of the most brilliant blue, that do not lose the intensity of their
colour in drying.




The name of Ericaceæ, which most people are aware signifies the Heath
family, conjures up immediately the image of a number of narrow-leaved
plants, with globular, ventricose, or bell-shaped flowers; and we
are apt at first to think that the family is so natural a one, as to
require very little explanation. Did the order include only the Heaths,
this would be the case, for all the Heaths, different as they are in
some particulars, may be recognised at a glance: but as the order
includes the Rhododendrons, Azaleas, and Kalmias, besides several other
plants which have not so strong a family likeness to each other as
the Heaths, it becomes necessary to say a few words on the botanical
resemblances which connect them together. The first, and most striking,
of these is the shape of the anthers, each of which appears like two
anthers stuck together, and the manner of their opening, which is
always by a pore or round hole, in the upper extremity of each cell.
The filaments, also, in all the genera, except Vaccinum and Oxycoccus,
grow from beneath the seed-vessel, being generally slightly attached
to the base of the corolla. There is always a single style with an
undivided stigma, though the capsule has generally four cells, each
containing several of the seeds, which are small and numerous. The
calyx is four or five cleft, and the corolla is tubular, with a larger
or smaller limb, which is also four or five cleft. The order has been
divided into four tribes, which I shall describe in this chapter,
though some of these are considered as separate orders by Dr. Lindley
and other botanists.


[Illustration: FIG. 47.—THE BESOM HEATH (_Erica Tetralix_).]

This tribe, which comprehends all the heath-like plants, has been
re-divided into two sub-tribes, one containing the genera most nearly
allied to the heaths, and the other those belonging to the Andromeda.
In both there is a honey-bearing disk under the ovary, and the leaves
are generally rolled in at the margin, as shown at a, in _fig._ 47.


All the genera in this sub-tribe, twenty-two in number, were formerly
included in the genus Erica; and some botanists still consider all the
species to belong to that genus, with the exception of those included
in Calluna, while others adopt about half the new genera. In this
uncertainty, I shall only describe two of the doubtful genera, partly
because the distinctions between them and the true heaths are strongly
marked, and partly because the species they contain are frequently
met with in British gardens and greenhouses, where they are sometimes
labelled with their old names and sometimes with their new ones.

In the genus Erica, one of the commonest species is the Besom Heath
(_E. tetralix_), which is found in great abundance on moorish or boggy
ground in every part of Britain. In this plant, the corollas of the
flowers appear each to consist of a single petal, forming an egg-shaped
tube (see _b_ in _fig._ 47), contracted at the mouth, but afterwards
spreading into a four-cleft limb, through which is seen projecting the
style, with its flat stigma. The corolla is, however, really in four
petals, which, though they adhere together, may be easily separated
with a pin. The stamens are concealed by the corolla, but the manner in
which they grow is shown at _c_; and _d_ is a single stamen, showing
the spurs or awns at the base of the anther, the position of which is
one of the characteristics of the genus Erica in its present restricted
form; _e_ is a capsule with the style and stigma attached; and _a_
is a leaf showing its revolute or curled back margin. The leaves of
this species are in whorls, four leaves in each whorl, and they are
ciliated, that is, bordered with a fringe of fine hairs.

[Illustration: FIG. 48.—BELL-SHAPED HEATH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 49.—CAPE HEATH. (_E. hispida._)]

All the true Heaths bear more or less resemblance to this plant. In
some, the corollas are bell-shaped, spreading out at the tip into five
teeth, which inclose the stamens, as shown in _fig._ 48; and in others
they are nearly globose swelling out near the calyx, and tapering to
a point, beyond which the stigma and anthers project; as in the Cape
Heath, called _Erica hispida_, a flower of which is shown in _fig._
49. The leaves also differ exceedingly, in the number contained in
each whorl; as in some species there are only three in a whorl,
while in others they are five or six. The general features of all the
Heaths are, however, the same—viz., there are eight stamens, which are
generally inclosed in the corolla, though they sometimes project beyond
it, as shown in _fig._ 49, and the anthers of which are two-cleft, and
awned or crested at the base, while the filaments are hair-like; one
style, which always projects beyond the corolla, and has a flattened
stigma; a four-parted calyx and corolla which is tubular, with a
four-parted limb. There are nearly two hundred species of this genus,
some of which are natives of Europe, and others of the Cape of Good

The moor Heaths (_Gypsocallis_) were separated from the genus Erica,
by Mr. Salisbury, principally on account of the corolla being
campanulate, or shortly tubular, with a dilated mouth; and the stamens
projecting beyond the corolla. The filaments are also generally flat;
the anthers are without awns, and distinctly in two parts; and the
stigma is simple, and scarcely to be distinguished from the style. The
common Cornish Heath (_G. vagans_), and the Mediterranean Heath (_G.
Mediterranea_), are examples of this genus, which appears strongly
marked, though, as I before mentioned, some botanists do not adopt it.

Callista is a genus established by the late Professor Don, which
appears very distinct, though it also has not been generally adopted.
It includes all those beautiful Cape Heaths which have a shining,
glutinous, ventricose, or cylindrical corolla with a spreading limb
(see _a_ in _fig._ 50), and a capitate stigma (_b_). _C. bucciniflora_
and _C. ventricosa_, are examples of this genus.


The Ling or Heather, which Linnæus called _Erica vulgaris_, is now
generally placed by all botanists in a separate genus called Calluna,
which was established by Mr. Salisbury. The calyx of this plant is
membranous, and coloured so as to resemble a corolla, and it is
furnished with four bracts at the base, which resemble a calyx. The
true corolla is bell-shaped, and shorter than the calyx. The stamens
are inclosed, and the anthers are of the very singular form shown in
_fig._ 51. The stigma is capitate, and the flowers are disposed in what
is called a racemose spike. The leaves are trigonal; they are very
short, and they are laid over each other like scales in four rows. The
Ling is the only species in the genus.

[Illustration: FIG. 51.—STAMEN OF THE LING.]


The plants in this sub-tribe differ decidedly from those of the
preceding division, in having ten stamens, while all the genera of
heaths have only eight. The calyx is also five-cleft instead of
four; and the corolla, which falls before the seeds are ripe, has a
five-lobed limb. The sub-tribe is divided into twenty genera, more than
half of which are perfectly distinct.

[Illustration: FIG. 52.—STAMEN OF ANDROMEDA.]

The genus Andromeda is distinguished by its globose corolla which has
a five-lobed limb; and its stamens which have their filaments bearded,
and their anthers short and two-awned. _Fig._ 52 shows a stamen of the
wild rosemary (_Andromeda polifolia_) with its bearded filament (_a_),
and its two-awned anther with its pore-like openings (_b_). The cells
of the capsule open in the middle, down the back, to discharge the
seeds. Professor Don has divided the genus Andromeda into six genera;
some of which contain only one or two species. Thus only _Andromeda
polifolia_ and _A. rosmarinifolia_ are left in the genus Andromeda;
Cassandra contains only _A. calyculata_, and _A. angustifolia_; and
Zenobia, only the beautiful _Andromeda speciosa_. In Cassandra the
anthers are long and mutic (see _a_ in _fig._ 53), and the leaves (_b_)
are without veins, and white and full of dots on the underside, the
edges being curled inwards; and in Zenobia the corolla is bell-shaped,
with the limb, which is in five lobes, curling back (see _a fig._ 54).
The stamens have the filaments (_b_) curiously dilated at the base;
and the point of each cell of the anther is cut into two erect awns
(_c_). The manner in which the stamens are arranged inside the corolla
is shown at (_d_). The cells of the capsule, when ripe, open down the
centre, and the seeds which are angular, are attached to a five-lobed



Lyonia is a genus established by the American botanist Nuttall, because
the plants it contains have the margins of the valves of their capsules
closed by five other narrow external valves. The plants are natives of
North America, and their flowers are generally small. _Lyonia Mariana_
may serve as an example of this genus, which is generally adopted by

It would be useless to enter into details of the other genera formed
out of Andromeda, as they are not generally adopted; but, perhaps, it
may be worth mentioning, that the well-known _Andromeda floribunda_ is
placed by Professor Don in a new genus which he calls Leucothoe.

St. Dabeoc’s Heath, or Irish Whorts, a little heath-like shrub, common
in Ireland, is one of those plants which have puzzled botanists
exceedingly. It has been called successively _Erica_, _Andromeda_,
and _Menziesia_, _Dabœcia_; then _Erica Hibernica_, next _Menziesia
polifolia_, then _Vaccinium Cantabrieum_ and lastly _Dabœcia
polifolia_. It is probable, however, that it may even yet be doomed to
undergo other changes; as, from the construction of its anthers, which
are linear, and arrow-shaped at the base, and which open lengthways,
instead of by pores, it does not appear even to belong to the Ericaceæ.

The other genera in this sub-tribe are quite distinct from each other,
and contain several well-known plants. The most popular of these genera
are Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Gaultheria, and Clethra.

[Illustration: FIG. 55.—FRUIT &C. OF ARBUTUS UNEDO.]

The Strawberry tree (_Arbutus Unedo_) has little bell-shaped flowers,
contracted at the mouth, and with a curling-back limb, which are easily
recognised as belonging to the Ericaceæ. They have ten stamens, the
filaments of which are hairy at the base (see _a_ in _fig._ 55) and
inserted in the disk; which in this genus is large, and rises up round
the ovary (see _b_). The calyx is permanent, and five-cleft; and the
flowers are produced in panicles, and each is furnished with a bract.
The fruit, which retains the calyx when ripe, is a granular berry,
covered with tubercles on the outside; and it has five cells (_c_)
containing the seeds. There are numerous varieties of this species
common in British gardens, besides a very beautiful hybrid between
it and _A. Andrachne_. The latter species is a native of Greece, and
rather more tender than the common kind; and it is very conspicuous in
shrubberies from its red stems and loose bark.

The Bearberry (_Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi_) was formerly considered to
belong to the genus Arbutus, but it differs in the filaments of the
stamens being smooth and dilated at the base, and the awns affixed to
the middle of the anthers. The berry is without tubercles, and the
cells are often only one-seeded.

There are two species of Gaultheria common in British gardens: viz.—_G.
procumbens_ and _G. Shallon_: both of which have flowers resembling
those of the Arbutus and furnished with bracts; but in the former
species the flowers are solitary and produced from the axils of the
leaves, and in the latter they are in racemes, of the kind called
secund, that is with the flowers growing all on one side. The berries
of both kinds are eatable, and those of _G. procumbens_ are called
Partridge berries in America, and the leaves Mountain tea. Both species
have ten stamens, the anthers of which are two-cleft, each cell being
furnished with two horns, as in _Zenobia speciosa_ (see _fig._ 54, in
page 116). The fruit is five-celled and the seeds are numerous.


The genus Clethra differs considerably from the preceding genera, as
the limb of the corolla is so large and so deeply cleft, as to make the
flower appear to have five petals (see _a_ in _fig._ 56). There are
ten stamens, with broad arrow-shaped anthers (_b_), and a three-cleft
stigma, (_c_). The capsule is dry, with three many-seeded cells. In _C.
alnifolia_, a native of North America, (of which _fig._ 56 represents
a magnified flower,) the flowers are erect, and produced in a spicate
raceme; but in _C. arborea_, a native of Madeira, the racemes are
panicled, and the flowers drooping and somewhat bell-shaped. Both
species are very ornamental.


The plants included in this tribe are all considered to bear more
or less resemblance to the Rhododendron, though in some of them the
family likeness is not very strong; and the genera I shall describe
to illustrate it are Rhododendron, Azalea, and Rhodora (the last two
being by some botanists included in Rhododendron); Kalmia, Menziesia,
and Ledum.



The species of the genus Rhododendron are easily distinguished by
their flower buds, which are disposed in the form of a strobile, or
pine-cone, each bud having its accompanying bract, which the flower
retains after its expansion, as shown in _fig._ 57 at _a_, in a flower
of _R. maximum_. There are five or ten stamens of unequal length, the
larger ones curling upwards (as shown at _b_ in _fig._ 58), as does the
style (_c_), which has a simple stigma. The flowers have a very small
calyx, (_d_ in _fig._ 57,) and a campanulate corolla which is deeply
five-cleft, the upper segment (_e_ in _fig._ 58) being somewhat larger
than the rest, and spotted in the inside. The capsule is five-celled
and five-valved, as shown in _fig._ 57 _f_. The leaves of nearly all
the species are evergreen; and the flowers are showy, and produced in
terminal corymbs. The principal species may be thus distinguished from
each other; _R. maximum_ has drooping leaves, covered with brown or
white down on the under surface, and a dense corymb of flowers, the
segments of the corollas of which are roundish, and the bracts leafy.
In _R. ponticum_, on the contrary, the corymbs of flowers are looser,
the segments more pointed, and the bracts more scale-like; and the
leaves are smooth on both surfaces. The seed-pods also differ: in
those of _R. maximum_ and the other American species, the valves are
smooth as shown at _f_ in _fig._ 57; and in those of _R. ponticum_, the
valves are somewhat crinkled as shown in _fig._ 59. This species, and
all its hybrids and varieties, are more tender than _R. maximum_, _R.
catawbiense_, and all the other American kinds and their offspring.
_R. catawbiense_ has the flower of a darker colour on the outside of
the corolla than within, and the upper segment is very faintly dotted.
It hybridises freely with _R. arboreum_, which _R. maximum_ does not,
and the hybrids thus produced are hardier than those raised from _R.
ponticum_, though the latter are by far the most numerous.


Most of the species have purple or whitish flowers, but some, such
as _R. chrysanthemum_, and _R. anthopogon_, have yellow flowers; _R.
ferrugineum_ and _R. hirsutum_, have bright pink or rose-coloured
flowers; and those of _R. arboreum_ the Nepaul tree Rhododendron, are
of a rich scarlet. The commonest small kinds are _R. ferrugineum_ and
_R. hirsutum_, both dwarf shrubs and natives of the north of Europe,
with funnel-shaped corollas, and leaves dotted on the under surface.
They are so much alike as scarcely to be distinguished at first sight,
but on examination the leaves of _R. ferrugineum_ will be found to have
brown dots, and to be plain on the margin; while those of _R. hirsutum_
have white dots and are fringed with fine hairs.

Of all the species of the genus, those which differ most widely
from the others are the Indian kinds. Of these _R. arboreum_ has
a ten-celled capsule, and the segments of the corolla two-lobed
with waved margins. The leaves are long and silvery beneath; and
the capsules, the peduncles, and the calyxes, are all woolly. In
_R. campanulatum_, a splendid species with very large flowers, the
capsule is six-celled, the leaves are somewhat cordate at the base,
and the bracts are fringed; and in _R. anthopogon_ the corolla has
a cylindrical tube, woolly inside, and a small but spreading limb,
cut into five lobes. There are eight stamens, and the capsule is

_R. Camtschaticum_, _R. Chamæcistus_, and _R. dauricum_ differ from
the preceding species in having their corollas rotate, that is,
wheel-shaped. The last of these kinds is a favourite greenhouse shrub,
from its flowering under shelter in winter. In the open ground it
flowers in March. The species has rose-coloured flowers which appear
before the leaves; and leaves which turn red in autumn before they
fall. The roots are knobbed and fibrous; and the stems are twisted and
knobbed in a wild state. There is a variety _R. d. atrovirens_ which
has purple flowers, and evergreen leaves, and which is hardier than the

The genus Azalea may be divided into three kinds, viz., _A. indica_
and its allied species; _A. pontica_ and its varieties and hybrids;
and the American Azaleas. These divisions are easily distinguished by
their flowers. Those of the Indian or Chinese Azaleas have all large
showy flowers, on short downy footstalks, and they are produced in
small clusters of only two or three flowers each, at the extremity
of the shoots. The corollas are bell-shaped and deeply cut, nearly
to the base, into broad spreading segments. The stamens are ten in
number, shorter than the corolla, and of unequal length. The leaves are
evergreen, and they are numerous, thickly set and downy. These Azaleas
are all very handsome, but the white Indian Azalea (_A. indica alba_,
or _A. ledifolia_) is particularly so, and very fragrant. The species
belonging to this division are mostly natives of China, and require
either a greenhouse or some slight protection during winter in England.

The yellow Azalea (_A. pontica_ or _Rhododendron flavum_) differs from
_A. indica_ in being quite hardy; in the flowers being produced in
umbels of from eight to twelve, at the ends of the branches, before the
leaves; and in the corollas being funnel-shaped instead of campanulate.
The tube of the funnel is, however, shorter than the limb, the segments
of which are broad and spreading, the upper three being larger and of
a darker yellow than the two below. There are usually five stamens,
projecting a little beyond the corolla, and curving upwards; the style
also curves upwards, and it is crowned by the stigma, which forms a
round green head.

The calyx is very small, and both it and the corolla feel clammy to the
touch. The flowers are fragrant. The leaves are deciduous, and they are
ovate, slightly hairy, and terminate in a mucro or stiff point. There
are many varieties of this species, and many hybrids between it and the
American kinds, all of which are quite hardy in British gardens.

The principal American Azaleas are _A. nudiflora_, _A. viscosa_, _A.
nitida_, and _A. speciosa_, all of which have the corollas of their
flowers funnel-shaped. Of these _A. nudiflora_ is easily known by its
stamens, which project a long way beyond the corolla, and by the tube
of the corolla being longer than the limb. The plant is deciduous; and
the flowers, which are produced in large terminal clusters, and which
are not clammy, appear before the leaves. The common English name for
this plant in some parts of the country is the American Honeysuckle,
and the flowers are of various shades of red, pink, white, and purple.
_A. calendulacea_, which some botanists make a variety of this species,
has much larger flowers, and the leaves pubescent on both surfaces,
whereas, in _A. nudiflora_ the leaves are nearly smooth and green, with
only a slight fringe of hairs round the margin. There are numerous
varieties of _A. calendulacea_, the flowers of which are always either
yellow, red, orange, or copper-coloured, and it is supposed to be the
parent of the beautiful Ghent Azaleas. _A. viscosa_ has the tube of
the corolla equal in length to the limb, and rather short stamens; the
flowers of this species are clammy. _A. hispidum_, which is generally
considered a variety of _A. viscosa_, is still more clammy, and the
tube of the corolla is wider and shorter; other probable varieties
are _A. nitida_, which has shining leaves, and _A. glauca_, which
has glaucous ones, as in both kinds the flowers are very clammy. _A.
speciosa_ has large flowers and leaves tapering at both ends. All the
species of Azalea have five stamens, but some of the varieties have ten.

_Rhodora canadensis_ is a little American shrub with pink flowers,
which appear before the leaves, and the corolla of which is bilabiate,
the upper lip being the broadest, and cut into two or three teeth, and
the lower only once cut. There are ten stamens, and the capsule is
five-celled and five-valved. The leaves are deciduous, and slightly
pubescent beneath; and the flowers are produced in small terminal
clusters. This plant, as well as all the Azaleas above described, are
now included by some botanists in the genus Rhododendron.

The genus Kalmia also belongs to this tribe. The flowers of this
well known shrub are very curiously constructed. The corolla is
salver-shaped, that is, nearly flat, and on the under side of the limb
are ten protuberances, producing as many hollows on the upper side,
in which lie half-buried the ten stamens. This singular construction
gives the corolla that wrinkled appearance which has procured for the
plant its American name of Calico flower; while, from the shape of
the leaves, it is also frequently called the Mountain laurel; it is
also called Sheep laurel from its being considered poisonous to those
animals when they feed on it. There are several species, which differ
from each other principally in the shape of their leaves and the size
of their flowers.

_Menziesia_ is a genus containing only three species, of which _M.
pilosa_ (_fig._ 60) may be taken as an example. The flowers are
small and bell-shaped, and the anthers (_a_) are without any awns or
bristles; there are eight stamens, and the curious manner in which they
are crowded round the style is shown at _b_. The capsule is four-celled.


_Loiseleuria_, or _Azalea procumbens_, is a small plant, having the
appearance of thyme, which is the only species left in the genus
Azalea by those botanists who include the true Azaleas in the genus

_Ledum_ is the last genus belonging to this tribe that I shall attempt
to describe. _Ledum palustre_, or wild Rosemary, the best-known
species, has a corolla in five regular petals, and ten stamens which
project beyond it; but _L. latifolium_, the Labrador Tea, has only five
stamens, which are not longer than the petals. _L. buxifolium_, a
little thyme-like shrub, is now called _Leiophyllum thymifolium_. All
the species have white flowers.


[Illustration: FIG. 61.—COMMON BILBERRY (_Vaccinium tenellum_).]

The plants comprised in this tribe, which is considered a separate
order by many botanists, all agree with the genus Vaccinium in having
the ovary entirely surrounded by the calyx, which forms a fleshy
berry-like fruit when ripe, and in the seeds being scaly. _Vaccinium
Myrtillus_, the common Bilberry or Blaeberry, is a familiar example
of the genus; and _fig._ 61 shows the shape of the flowers at _a_,
the manner in which the ovary is enveloped in the calyx at _b_, and
the curious shape of the anthers in the magnified representation of
them at _c_. The berry is five-celled and many-seeded; and there are
eight or ten stamens. Both the anthers and the flower vary in the
different species, but the calyx and the manner in which it surrounds
the ovary are nearly the same in all, as may be seen in _fig._ 62,
which represents a specimen of _V. tenellum_, the Pennsylvanian
Whortle-berry. In this figure _a_ is the flower, _b_ the anther, and
_c_ the ovary surrounded by the calyx.

[Illustration: FIG. 62.—AMERICAN WHORTLE-BERRY (_Vaccinium

There are many species, among which may be mentioned the American
Bluets (_V. angustifolium_); Deerberries (_V. stamineum_); Bluetangles
(_V. frondosum_); the Hungarian Whortle-berry (_V. Arctostaphylos_);
and the Cow-berry, or common British Whortle-berry (_V. Vitis-Idæa_).

[Illustration: FIG. 63.—CRANBERRY.]

The Cranberry (_Oxycoccus palustris_) differs from the genus Vaccinium
in the shape of its flowers (see _fig._ 63), and in its anthers being
without spurs; there are eight stamens, the filaments of which are
connivent, that is, growing close together. The American Cranberry (_O.
macrocarpus_) differs from the European kind, principally in having
larger fruit.


This tribe is also considered as a separate order by many botanists;
but the principal distinction is the long arillus or skin which
enfolds the seeds and gives them the appearance of being winged.
The most remarkable genera are _Pyrola_, the Winter Green, of which
there are several species common in moist woods in the north of
England and Scotland; and _Monotropa_, or Bird’s-nest, parasitic
plants which grow on the roots of pine and beech-trees, but are by
no means common in England. The species of Pyrola are pretty little
evergreen plants, with white flowers, the corollas consisting of five
distinct petals, and which have ten stamens, the anthers of which are
two-celled, each opening by a pore; the style is single, ending in a
capitate stigma cut into five lobes; and the capsule is five-celled.
The yellow Bird’s-nest, (_Monotropa Hypopitys_) has a coloured stem,
with drooping flowers, and numerous scales instead of leaves, of which
it is destitute. The flowers have a coloured calyx cut into four or
five segments, and the corolla is in four or five petals. There is an
American species with white flowers.


  THE FRINGE-TREE (_Chionanthus Virginica_); THE LILAC; THE COMMON ASH;

This order was established by Jussieu, who divided it into two
tribes—Jasmineæ and Oleineæ, which are now very generally considered
as distinct orders. I have, however, thought it best to keep them
together, as I wish to make as few divisions as possible, to avoid
burthening the memory of my readers. All the genera in both tribes
agree in their flowers having only two stamens, an ovary with two
cells, and two seeds in each cell; and anthers with two cells, which
open with a long slit lengthways.

The species of the Ash have no corolla; but in all the genera where
there is one, the filaments of the stamens, which are very short, are
inserted in it; and it is generally funnel-shaped—as, for example, the
corolla of the Jasmine. Though the ovary is two-celled, and the cells
two-seeded, each flower very often only produces one perfect seed. The
leaves are generally pinnate.



The genus Jasminum is the only one in this tribe which contains plants
common in British gardens; and of all the species contained in it, the
common white Jasmine (_J. officinale_) is perhaps the best known. The
flowers are produced in terminal clusters of four or six. The calyx is
tubular, with the limb cut into numerous narrow segments; (see _a_ in
_fig._ 64;) and the corolla is funnel-shaped, with a spreading limb
(_b_) divided into four or five pointed segments, which are folded
over each other, and somewhat twisted in the bud. The two stamens and
the style and stigma are enclosed in the corolla; and the fruit is
a berry divided into two cells, with one seed in each. There is no
albumen in the seeds. The leaves (_c_) are impari-pinnate, with the
single terminating leaflet larger than the others; and the petioles are
articulated. The common yellow Jasmine (_J. fruticans_) has flowers in
terminal clusters of three each, and its leaves are either ternate,
that is, with three leaflets, or simple. The branches are angular, and
the leaves quite smooth. The Nepaul yellow Jasmine, (_J. revolutum_)
has pinnate leaves of five or seven leaflets, which are smooth and
shining. The flowers are large and produced in compound corymbs. They
are a bright yellow, and very fragrant. The segments of the corolla are
obtuse, and the stigma club-shaped. There are above seventy species of
Jasmine, more than twenty of which have been introduced into Britain;
but they may be all easily recognised by their flowers, which bear a
strong family likeness to each other, and by the petioles of their
leaves, which are always articulated or jointed, that is, they will
break off the stem without tearing the bark. In other respects the
leaves vary exceedingly in this genus, some being simple and others
compound; and some being opposite, as in the common Jasmine, and others
alternate, as in _J. revolutum_.


This tribe contains numerous genera, among which the most common
are the Privet (_Ligustrum_), Phillyrea, the Olive (_Olea_),
the Fringe-tree (_Chionanthus_), the Lilac (_Syringa_), the Ash
(_Fraxinus_), and the Flowering or Manna Ash (_Ornus_). All these
genera agree in their general character with Jasminum, except as
regards their seeds, which abound in albumen.

In the common Privet (_Ligustrum vulgare_), the flowers, which are
produced in terminal compound racemes, have a very short calyx (see
_a_ in _fig._ 65), with a funnel-shaped corolla, having a wide tube in
proportion to the limb (_b_), which is very short and divided into four
segments. The anthers of the stamens and the stigma are seen in the
throat of the corolla. The berry is drupe-like, and generally contains
two one-seeded nuts. The leaves are simple and opposite. There are many
species of Privet, but the handsomest is _L. lucidum_, the leaves of
which are broad and shining, and the panicles of flowers spreading.
This tree yields a kind of waxy matter from its leaves and branches
when boiled, which is said to be used by the Chinese for candles.

[Illustration: FIG. 65.—FLOWER OF THE PRIVET.]

The Phillyrea is a handsome evergreen shrub, very useful in
shrubberies, from its forming a close compact bush of a deep green,
which makes a good background to Tree Roses, Almond-trees, _Magnolia
conspicua_, or any other flowering plant that would appear naked if
its flowers were not relieved by a background of green. The flowers of
the Phillyrea are small and of a greenish white. The fruit is a drupe,
containing a two-celled stone or nut, but with seldom more than one
perfect seed.

The Olive (_Olea sativa_) has small white flowers, resembling those of
the Privet, and a fleshy drupe like a Sloe, with a one or two celled
stone or nut. The oil is contained in the fleshy part of the fruit,
and the best oil is that which is obtained by crushing the pulp of the
fruit without breaking the stone or nut.

The Fringe-tree (_Chionanthus virginica_) differs from the preceding
genera in the length of the segments of the limb of its corolla, which
is cut into long slender shreds like fringe. In all other respects
except that the pulp of the fruit does not contain oil, this genus is
closely allied to the Olive.

The common Lilac (_Syringa vulgaris_) has its flowers disposed in a
kind of panicled raceme called a thyrsus. The calyx is very small, and
obscurely four-toothed (see _a_ in _fig._ 66), and the corolla (_b_)
is funnel-shaped, with a four-parted limb; the stigma is two-cleft, and
both the style and stamens are enclosed in the tube of the corolla.
The fruit is a dry two-celled and two-seeded capsule, which opens with
two valves, as shown at _c_, each valve having a narrow dissepiment
down the middle: the shape of the seed is shown at _d_. The leaves are
simple, opposite, and entire; and the branches are filled with pith,
which may easily be taken out and the branch left hollow like a pipe;
and hence the generic name of Syringa, from _Syrinx_ a pipe.


The Ash (_Fraxinus excelsior_) differs so much from the other genera as
to seem scarcely to belong to the same order. The flowers are without
any petals, and frequently without any calyx; and some of them, which
are called the female flowers, have no stamens, while others, which
are called the males, have no pistil. Some of them, however, have both
stamens and pistil. The fruit is what is called a samara or key;
that is, it is furnished with a membrane-like wing so as to resemble
a dry leaf. It is two-celled, but very frequently only one-seeded.
The shape of the keys, and the manner in which they grow, is shown at
_a_ in _fig._ 67; and the leaves, at _b_. The leaves are opposite and
generally pinnate, with five or six pairs of leaflets; but there is one
species with simple leaves (_Fr. simplicifolia_). The Weeping Ash is
only an accidental variety of the common kind. The leaves of the Ash
come out late and fall early; but the tree may easily be recognised
when quite bare by the greyness of its bark and its black buds. It will
grow in any soil; but it is injurious to arable land, from its roots
spreading widely near the surface.

[Illustration: FIG. 67.—AMERICAN ASH (_Fraxinus americana_).]

The Manna, or flowering Ash, (_Ornus europæus_), differs widely from
the common Ash in its flowers, which are white, with a corolla divided
into four long narrow segments. The two stamens have long filaments,
with a small pistil (_c_), the stigma of which is notched. The flowers
are produced in great profusion in loose panicles, and they are very
ornamental, the samaras and leaves closely resembling those of the
common ash. There are several species of this genus, which were all
formerly included in the genus Fraxinus. The Manna is the sap of the
tree, and it is procured by wounding the bark.



This large Order is one of those which appear to have been most
troublesome to botanists, as scarcely any two agree as to the plants to
be comprised in it. I have, however, taken it in its most comprehensive
sense, as far as popular plants are concerned; on the same principles
as those by which I have been guided throughout; viz. that it is
easier for a beginner to remember a few divisions than a great many;
and that when a student has once learnt what plants are nearly allied
to each other, and the general features that connect them, it will be
comparatively easy to learn the minor distinctions between them.

Taking these principles as my guide, I have given the Order Solanaceæ
as it was formed by Jussieu, adding those plants to it which evidently
belong to the several sections, but which have been discovered since
the time of that great naturalist; and I have divided the Order into
four tribes, viz. Solanaceæ, Nicotianeæ, Verbascineæ, and Nolaneæ. All
these plants agree in having the stamens, which are generally five,
inserted in the corolla, the calyx and corolla inclosing the ovary, and
the calyx remaining on the ripe fruit.


The plants included in this tribe are easily recognised by their
flowers, which bear a considerable resemblance to each other, and
by their berry-like fruit, which has always a persistent calyx. The
corolla is also always folded in the bud; and the folds, like those of
a country woman’s clean apron, are often so deeply impressed as to be
visible in the newly opened flowers. The genera included in this tribe
differ widely in their qualities.

The genus Solanum is easily recognised by a botanist through all its
numerous species by its anthers, which open by two pores like those of
the Ericaceæ, and which differ in this respect, from the anthers of all
the other plants contained in the Order, all of which open by a long
slit down each cell. The flowers of all the species of Solanum are of
the kind called rotate, or wheel-shaped; but they are generally cut
into five distinct segments: which are sometimes turned back, as in
the flower of the Bitter-sweet (_S. Dulcamara_), as shown in _fig._ 68
_a_; and sometimes nearly flat, as in the flower of the common garden
Nightshade (_S. nigrum_). The berries of the Bitter-sweet (_b_) are
red, and they have a very pretty effect in hedges and wild coppices,
where they are produced in great abundance during the latter part
of summer and autumn; and those of the Garden Nightshade are black.
Both these plants are poisonous; but this is by no means the case
with all the species of the genus, as the tubers of the potato (_S.
tuberosum_) are, as is well known, wholesome food, and the fruit or
apple is not decidedly poisonous; while the Aubergine, or Egg-plant
(_S. Melongena_), which is another species, has a fruit which is large,
smooth and shining, and which when boiled or stewed is good to eat. The
segments of the corolla of this species are often so deeply notched as
to appear to be six or nine, instead of five.

[Illustration: FIG. 68.—BITTER-SWEET (_Solanum Dulcamara_).]

There are many ornamental species of Solanum, many of which have
woolly, and some prickly leaves; but the flowers have all such a
likeness to each other, as seldom to require to be botanically examined
to be recognised.

The Tomato or Love-apple, (_Lycopersicum esculentum_,) has flowers
which bear a great resemblance to those of some of the species of
Solanum, but the anthers open longitudinally and are connected by a
membrane into a kind of cylinder. The seeds also are hairy; and the
berry is wrinkled, and not of so firm a texture as in Solanum. The
flowers of this plant are frequently united, so as to appear to have
double or treble the usual number of stamens, and two or three styles;
and when this is the case, the fruit appears deformed from two or three
of the ovaries having grown together. The fruit is very good to eat,
and wholesome either boiled or stewed, or as sauce. There are several
species, all of which were formerly included in the genus Solanum.

The plants belonging to the genus Capsicum have flowers which are very
much like those of the Tomato, and which have similar anthers; but
the fruit differs in being a dry, inflated, hollow berry, inclosing
numerous seeds, and in both the seeds and their cover having a fiery
biting heat to the taste. There are several species with fruit of
greater or less size, and different colours; generally red or yellow,
but sometimes white or green. The best Cayenne pepper is made from the
pods of _C. frutescens_, dried in an oven and then reduced to powder.
The annual species (_C. annuum_) has many varieties; one of which
produces the small pods called by the market-gardeners Chilies, and
which are eaten fresh by dyspeptic patients, to assist digestion.

The Winter Cherry (_Physalis Alkekengi_) has the same kind of flower as
the other genera of this tribe. The corolla is rotate, and obscurely
five-lobed; and the stamens, which are connivent, (that is, lying close
together), have very large anthers. When the corolla falls, the calyx
becomes inflated, and expands to a large size, completely enclosing the
little berry-like fruit in the centre. A very beautiful preparation
may be made by soaking this calyx in water till it becomes completely
macerated; that is, till all the pulp is decayed and only the fibrous
part left. The inflated calyx then appears like a beautiful network
covering, with the bright red berry in the centre. To macerate the
calyx properly, it should be left in the same water without changing,
for about six weeks. The Cape Gooseberry (_P. peruviana_) is another
species of the genus Physalis; but instead of being a native of Europe,
it is from Peru; and its flowers, instead of being white, are yellow,
with a dark red spot at the base of each lobe of the corolla: the
berry also is yellow. This species is called Cape Gooseberry, because
it is cultivated as a fruit at the Cape of Good Hope.

[Illustration: FIG. 69.—DEADLY NIGHTSHADE (_Atropa Belladonna_).]

The Deadly Nightshade (_Atropa Belladonna_) differs widely from all
the preceding genera in having a bell-shaped corolla, (see _a_ in
_fig._ 69,) and in the anthers (_b_) not lying close together. It has,
however, a permanent calyx and a two-celled berry, like the rest.

The Barbary Box-thorn, or Duke of Argyle’s Tea-tree, (_Lycium
barbarum_) has a somewhat rotate corolla, with a five-cleft limb, with
the stamens inserted between the segments in the same manner as shown
in the flower of the _Atropa Belladonna_, represented cut open at _b_
in _fig._ 69. The filaments are hairy at the base, and the anthers
are near together, but do not form a cone as in Solanum. The berry is
two-celled, and the calyx remains on when it is ripe, as in all the
other genera of this order. There are several species of Lycium, which
are all known by the English name of Box-thorn; but _L. barbarum_ is
also called the Duke of Argyle’s Tea-tree, from a story told of this
plant being sent to a Duke of Argyle early in the last century, instead
of the true Tea-tree. The story, however, is very doubtful; and the
more so, as in France, the dwarf Chinese Elm is called Thé de l’Abbé
Gallois, as it is said, from a similar cause.

_Cestrum Parqui_ is a very handsome half-hardy shrub, which may
be placed in this division from its berry-like fruit. It has a
funnel-shaped corolla, with a five-lobed limb, enclosing its five
stamens. The flowers are disposed in an upright raceme; they are
yellow, and very fragrant. The berries are of a very dark blue, and
almost black when ripe. _Vestia_ is another genus very nearly allied
to Cestrum, but the stamens project beyond the mouth of the corolla
instead of being enclosed within it; and the flowers, which are
produced singly, have a very disagreeable smell.


The plants included in this tribe agree with those of the preceding
division, in having the corolla generally folded in large plaits in
the bud; but they are distinguished by having all capsular fruit: that
is, in all the plants belonging to this tribe, the seed-vessel is dry
and hard when ripe, and not soft and pulpy like a berry. The species
have nearly all funnel-shaped flowers, with a long tube and a spreading
limb; the tube is generally very long in proportion to the limb, and it
is often inflated, so as to appear much wider in the upper part than
near the calyx.

[Illustration: FIG. 70.—VIRGINIAN TOBACCO.]

The Virginian Tobacco (_Nicotiana tabacum_) is an example of an
inflated tube to the corolla (see _fig._ 70, _a_); the limb is small
and divided into five pointed segments; and the capsule (_b_), which
opens at the point into four valves when ripe, contains numerous seeds.
The whole plant is covered with a clammy down, particularly the leaves,
which are large and flabby, and which have their footstalks dilated at
the base, so as partly to enfold the stem. There are many species of
Nicotiana, some of which are very ornamental. It is the dried leaves
that are used as tobacco, or ground into snuff.

The Petunias are so well known, that I need say very little of the
general form of their flowers, except to point out the connexion
between them and the Tobacco. The corolla is salver-shaped, with a
cylindrical tube, wider at the top than at the base, and a five-lobed
limb. There are five stamens of unequal length, which are hidden
in the tube of the corolla. The stigma has a broad head which is
slightly two-lobed; and the calyx remains on the ripe capsule, which
is two-celled, and opens in the upper part with two valves. The seeds
are numerous and very small, and the leaves are pubescent and slightly
clammy. If my readers will take the trouble to compare the Petunia
and the Tobacco, they will be surprised to find how much the flowers
are botanically alike. The differences are, that the calyx is more
leaf-like in the Petunia than in the Tobacco; and the corolla of the
Petunia is somewhat oblique, that is, two of the segments are smaller
than the others; the filaments, also, are thickened at the base. It
will appear extraordinary to every one acquainted with the flowers
of the purple and the white Petunias, to find that some botanists
have placed them in different genera. Such, however, is the case.
On cutting open the delicate little seed of the white Petunia (_P.
nyctaginiflora_), which it must have been very difficult to do, and
examining it in a very powerful microscope, the embryo or germ of the
future plant was found to be curved like that of most of the other
Solanaceæ; whereas when the seed of the purple Petunia (_P. phœnicea_
or _violacea_) was examined in the same manner, the embryo was
discovered to be straight. This purple Petunia has consequently puzzled
botanists as much as some of the other plants I have had occasion
to mention; and it has been called successively _Petunia violacea_,
_Salpiglossis integrifolia_, _Nierembergia phœnicea_, and _Petunia

_Nierembergia_ is a genus of ornamental greenhouse plants, easily
distinguished from the Petunias by the great length of the tube of
the corolla, and by the equal segments of the limb. The stamens also
project beyond the flower, being inserted in the throat of the corolla,
and the filaments grow together at the base; the stigma, is, likewise,
curiously dilated into a kind of crescent shape, and it is folded
in a very singular manner round the filaments, as if to support the
anthers. The most common species of this genus are _N. filicaulis_, _N.
calycina_, and _N. gracilis_.

The genus _Salpiglossis_ is now confined to one species, _S. sinuata_,
so called from its notched or scolloped leaves; all the different kinds
being now considered only varieties. The calyx in this species is
five-angled and five-cleft, and the corolla is funnel-shaped, the tube
being very narrow near the base, and spreading out wider towards the
mouth. The limb is five-cleft, and there are five stamens, one being
much smaller than the others. The stigma is transverse, with a channel
through the centre.

_Schizanthus_ is another genus nearly allied to the last, but it is
more difficult to give a just idea of it than of any other that I have
attempted to describe. All the parts of the flower are irregular. The
segments of the calyx are uneven; and the limb of the corolla is cut
into a number of irregular lobes. There are only two perfect stamens,
but there are two other small ones without any pollen in their anthers,
and the rudiments of a fifth. The two perfect stamens are very elastic,
springing upwards and discharging their pollen at the slightest touch.
The capsule is two-celled, the valves opening at top; and the leaves
are bi-pinnatifid.

The genera Salpiglossis and Schizanthus have been removed by Dr.
Lindley from Solanaceæ, and placed by him in the allied order
Scrophularinaceæ, or the Foxglove family.

The Henbane (_Hyoscyamus niger_) has the calyx ventricose at the base,
and the corolla campanulately funnel-shaped; the limb is five-cleft,
and one of the segments is larger than the rest; but the most
remarkable part of this plant is the capsule. When the corolla falls,
the capsule shrouded in the calyx presents the appearance shown at _a_
in _fig._ 71; and as the seeds ripen, the upper part (as shown at _b_)
becomes detached, and opens like a little cap. The leaves are sinuated
and semi-decurrent. There are several species of Henbane, one of which
(_H. aurea_) has the limb of the corolla deeply cut on only one side.

[Illustration: FIG. 71.—HENBANE.]

The genus _Datura_ is nearly allied to _Brugmansia_, but it may be
easily distinguished by its calyx, which divides when the ovary begins
to swell, and the upper part drops off, leaving only the lower part
to enfold the capsule. The corolla of all the species of Datura is
funnel-shaped, and the limb, in the large-flowered kinds, often shows
marks of the plaits in which it lay when it was folded in the bud.
There are five distinct stamens, which are generally enclosed in the
mouth of the corolla. The capsule is fleshy when young, and in most
of the species it is covered with spines. This is the case with _D.
Stramonium_ (the common Thorn-apple), _D. Tatula_, and _D. Metel_, all
of which have also their stamens enclosed; but in _D. ceratocaulon_
the capsule is smooth and the stamens exserted, that is, they project
beyond the tube of the corolla.

The genus Brugmansia is distinguished by its calyx being ventricose,
and only two or three cleft; it is also strongly ribbed. The corolla
is funnel-shaped, the tube being strongly ribbed; and the limb is
five-lobed, the lobes being cuspidate, that is, drawn out into abrupt
points. The flowers are drooping, and in _Brugmansia suaveolens_,
formerly _Datura arborea_, they are very fragrant. The anthers grow
together. The capsule is two-celled, smooth, and of a golden yellow,
and the seeds are each covered with a thick corky skin. In _Solandra_,
a nearly allied genus, the calyx bursts on one side, and the lobes of
the corolla are not cuspidate, but rounded and fringed. The stamens
also project beyond the mouth of the corolla, and the capsule is
four-celled. The species of Solandra are all stove-trees.


The plants included in this division differ from those in the preceding
ones, in not having the corolla plaited in the bud, and in having
the anthers only one-celled; distinctions which have been thought of
sufficient importance to induce many botanists to make this tribe a
separate order.

The British plant sometimes called the Shepherd’s Club, and sometimes
the common Mullein or Flannel flower (_Verbascum Thapsus_), is a
familiar example of this genus. In this plant the flower is rotate, or
wheel-shaped, and divided into five rather unequal lobes. The calyx
is five-cleft; and it possesses such a power of collapsing over the
ovary, that when the stem of the plant is struck sharply with a hard
substance, every open flower is forced off by the sudden closing of
its calyx. There are five stamens, the filaments of which are bearded,
and the anthers crescent-shaped; and a capsule, the two cells of which
frequently run into one, and which opens by two valves at the apex.
The flowers are crowded together in a thick spike-like raceme, which
bears no small resemblance to a club. This plant was formerly supposed
to be efficacious in driving away evil spirits; and hence it was
called Hag’s-taper, now corrupted to High-taper. The whole plant is
mucilaginous, and a decoction of it is often given to cattle when they
are suffering under pulmonary complaints; and hence is derived another
of its names, Cow’s Lungwort. The leaves are thick, and woolly on both
sides; and they are decurrent, that is, running down the stem, like
little wings on each side.

_Celsia_ differs from Verbascum botanically in having only four perfect
stamens, two of which are shorter than the others. The racemes are
also much more loose, from the flowers being on rather long pedicels.
Most of the species composing this genus were formerly included in
Verbascum. _Ramonda_ is another genus, which consists only of the
_Verbascum Myconi_ of Linnæus.


This tribe, which is now made a distinct order by Dr. Lindley, is
principally known by the genus Nolana; the species of which are
annual plants, natives of Chili and Peru, which have lately been much
cultivated in British gardens. The flowers of _Nolana atriplicifolia_,
one of the commonest kinds, very much resemble those of the common
_Convolvulus tricolor_, and the leaves are large and juicy like those
of spinach. On opening the corolla there will be found to be five
stamens, surrounding four or five ovaries, which are crowded together
on a fleshy ring-like disk. These ovaries, when ripe, become as many
drupes, enclosing each a three or four celled nut or bony putamen,
which is marked with three or more grooves on the outside, and has
three or more little holes beneath. All the species of Nolana have
the same peculiarities in their seed-vessels, though they differ in
many other respects. In the same tribe or order are included two
other genera, one of which, called Grabowskia, contains only the
singular shrub formerly called _Lycium boerhaviæfolium_, or _Ehretia
halimifolia_, the nuts of which resemble those of the Coffee.

Besides the plants contained in these four tribes, there are several
other genera which some botanists place in Solanaceæ, and others in
Scrophularineæ; and among these may be mentioned Franciscea, Browallia,
and Anthocercis. In the former of these genera the flowers are small,
the corolla is salver-shaped, and the calyx, which is permanent, is
inflated and smooth. In Browallia, the calyx is strongly ten-ribbed,
and the corolla has an oblique limb; and in both genera there are only
four stamens, two of which are longer than the others. In Anthocercis
there are four perfect stamens and the rudiments of a fifth. The
corolla is not folded in the bud, but has a regular, star-like limb.



This very large order is divided into two distinct tribes, which many
botanists make separate orders; the one embracing the herbaceous
species with watery juice, and the other the ligneous species, all of
which have their juice milky. The botanical construction of the flowers
is, however, strikingly alike in all, from the nettle and the humble
pellitory of the wall, to the fig and bread-fruit tree. In all the
genera, the male and female flowers are distinct, that is to say, some
of the flowers have only stamens, and the others only a pistil; the
latter, of course, being the only ones that produce seed. None of the
flowers have any corolla; and in all the male flowers, the stamens,
which are erect at first, spring back with elasticity to discharge
their pollen, and afterwards remain extended. The seeds of all are
enclosed in nuts: though the eatable part varies, being in some the
dilated receptacle, as in the Bread-fruit and the Fig, and in others
the metamorphosed calyx, as in the Mulberry. Many of the genera have
one or two species which produce eatable fruit, though the fruit of the
other species of the same genus is unwholesome; an anomaly rarely to
be met with in any other order except Solanaceæ; and though the milky
juice of most of the plants is poisonous, it affords in one species,
the Cow-tree, wholesome food.


All the plants contained in this tribe agree with the common Nettle
in yielding a watery juice when broken; in their flowers having no
corolla; in the male and female flowers being distinct; in the stamens
being first erect, but springing back when they discharge their pollen,
and remaining extended; and in their fruit being a nut. Most of them
also agree in having rough leaves and angular stalks, the fibres of
which are so tenacious as to be capable of being spun.

[Illustration: FIG. 72.—NETTLE (_Urtica dioica_).]

The common Nettle (_Urtica dioica_) is the type of this division;
and we are so accustomed to consider it a noxious weed, that few
persons are aware of the elegance of its flowers, which are disposed
in drooping panicles. The male flowers have their calyx divided into
four sepals; and they have four stamens, the anthers of which open
with elasticity, and when they spring back, the pollen, which is very
abundant, is discharged with such force that it may be seen on a fine
day in summer rising like a mist or light cloud over the plants. The
stamens, after they have discharged their pollen, lie extended and
curved back over the segments of the calyx, as shown at _a_ in _fig._
72. The female flowers have only two segments to the calyx. They have
no style, and the stigma, when highly magnified, will be found divided
into numerous segments, as shown at _b_; the seed-vessel is a nut,
which has a shell and kernel, the latter being the seed. The leaves are
simple, cordate, opposite to each other, and furnished with stipules.
They are rough on the surface, and covered with glandular hairs or
stings. These hairs are hollow, with a cell at the base filled with a
peculiarly acrid liquid, and tapering upwards so as to form a narrow
tube, ending in a sharp point. When the point of the sting enters the
skin, the pressure compresses the cell at its base, and the liquid it
contains is forced up the tube and injected into the wound. The stem
is quadrangular, and its fibres are so tough, that when separated from
the pulp by maceration, they may be spun into yarn. The young shoots
when boiled are very good to eat. The Roman Nettle (_U. pilulifera_)
differs from the common kind in having the male flowers in loose
panicles, and the female ones in compact pill-like heads, whence the
specific name. The sting of this nettle is worse than that of the
common kind.

[Illustration: FIG. 73.—HOP (_Humulus Lupulus_).]

The Hop (_Humulus Lupulus_) is a very interesting plant to a botanist,
from the peculiarity of its flowers. The male and female ones are
distinct, and generally on different plants. The male flowers are
produced in loose panicles; the calyx (_fig._ 73, _a_) consists of five
sepals, in the centre of which are five stamens, standing at first
erect, but springing back with elasticity, when they discharge their
pollen, and remaining extended as shown at _b_. The anthers open by
pores at the extremity of the cells, as in Ericaceæ. The female flowers
are produced in close heads (_c_). They have neither calyx nor corolla,
but the ovary of each is protected by a membranous scale. Each ovary
has two styles, though it produces only a single seed. As the fruit
ripens the styles disappear, and the scales enlarge, so as to give the
head of female flowers the form of a strobile or cone (_d_), the ripe
fruit or nut being placed at the base of each scale, as shown at _e_.
The surface of the scales is studded over with roundish glands, which
are filled with a substance resembling pollen, called lupuline, which
they give out on pressure, as shown at _f_; and this substance consists
of a number of cells filled with volatile oil, which occasion the
fragrance of the hop, and contain the bitter and astringent principles
which make the hop so useful in compounding malt liquor. The lupuline
is also somewhat narcotic; but though the fragrance of hops is said
to produce sleep when inhaled in small quantities, an excess of it
produces headache and vertigo, especially in nervous persons. The
leaves are opposite, and three or five lobed; they are serrated on
the edges, and rough on the surface. The stems are angular, covered
with small prickles, and twining from left to right. The fibres of the
stem when separated by soaking in water, are found to possess the same
kind of tenacity as those of the Nettle and the Hemp, and may be made
into cloth. The young shoots when boiled, are very good to eat as a
substitute for asparagus. The leaves are furnished with stipules, and
the flowers spring from the axils of the leaves.

[Illustration: FIG. 74.—HEMP. (_Cannabis sativa._)]

The Hemp (_Cannabis sativa_), is an annual. The male and female flowers
are on different plants as in the Hop and the Nettle. The male flowers
are produced in panicles, and the female ones in heads separated by
bracts, as shown in a magnified female flower at _a_ in _fig._ 74. The
ripe fruit or nut is enveloped in a scale as shown at _b_; and _c_ is a
highly magnified section of the nut. The male flower has five stamens,
and a calyx of five sepals. The leaves are opposite or alternate, and
digitate, that is cut into five long segments like fingers, though the
upper leaves have only three segments. They are serrated on the margin,
and rough on the surface. The fibres of the stem, when separated from
the pulpy part by maceration, are manufactured into cordage; and the
seeds are mucilaginous, and are used for feeding birds. The smell of
hemp when growing, produces the same effects as that of hops in excess;
and in hot countries it is followed by a kind of stupor, like that
which is the effect of opium.

The Pellitory of the wall (_Parietaria officinalis_), has the male and
female flowers on the same plant. The male flowers have four stamens,
which spring back in the same manner as those of the nettle; and the
female flowers have the same kind of stigma.


The plants included in this division differ so widely in their general
appearance from those of the former tribe, that it is necessary to be a
botanist to perceive the resemblance between them. When, however, they
are botanically examined, they will be found to agree in almost every
respect, except in their juice being milky and glutinous instead of
watery. The tribe takes its name from the Bread-fruit tree (_Artocarpus
incisa_). In this plant, the male flowers are densely crowded round
a spongy receptacle, so as to form a long, somewhat club-shaped cat
kin. Taken singly, each male flower consists of a calyx divided into
two sepals, and containing a single stamen, with a two-celled anther,
and a very broad filament. The female flowers are placed round a
globular receptacle, also of a spongy consistency; and each consists
of an undivided calyx, hollow at the base to contain the seed, and
terminating in two styles. The styles wither as the seeds gradually
ripen, but the peaks of the female flowers remain, and render the
surface of the fruit rough. The fruit itself is the spongy receptacle,
which gradually dilates and becomes more pulpy, till it attains a very
large size. The greater part of the ovules prove abortive, but those
that ripen retain their calyx, though they remain embedded in the
pulp. The proportion of ripe seeds is very small compared to the size
of the eatable part of the bread-fruit; frequently only four or six
seeds are found in a globe eight inches in diameter; and many fruits
produce no seeds at all. One variety, in particular, is always without
seeds. The fruit, when used, is generally put into an oven or before
a fire, and when the rind turns black, it is scraped off, and the
pulp is found to resemble the crumb of new bread. The seedless fruits
are considered the best to eat, and they are known by the smoothness
of their outer surface. It adds to the interest excited by this
singular tree, to recollect that the Bounty, rendered so celebrated
by the mutiny of Christian, was sent out, under Captain Bligh, to
convey a number of plants of this tree from Otaheite to the British
settlements in the West Indies; and that there actually were seven
hundred and seventy-four plants on board, at the very time the mutiny
broke out. The leaves of the Bread-fruit tree are very large, being
sometimes two or even three feet long, and a foot and a half broad;
they are leathery, and are cut into from three to nine deep lobes.
Their colour is a deep green, with yellowish veins. The petioles are
short and thick, and there are large stipules which wither and fall off
before the leaves. The whole plant abounds in milky juice, which flows
abundantly when the leaves or branches are wounded or broken.

The Jack tree (_Artocarpus integrifolia_), bears fruit of an oblong
form often seventy or eighty pounds in weight, the pulp of which is
seldom eaten; but the seeds, which are abundant, are considered very
good, and are said when roasted to have the flavour of sweet chestnuts.
The leaves are very thick and leathery, and much smaller than those
of the Bread-fruit, being seldom more than six or eight inches long.
They are also generally entire, but this is by no means a constant
character, notwithstanding the specific name, as those near the root
are sometimes found nearly as deeply lobed as those of _A. incisa_. The
Jack tree is a native of the East Indies, particularly of the Molucca
Isles, Amboyna, and Ceylon, and it also seems naturalised in the West
Indies, particularly in the Island of St. Vincent. The wood resembles
that of mahogany.

The Cow tree, or Palo de Vacca (_Galactodendron utile_), appears
nearly allied to the Bread-fruit tree, though its flowers are unknown.
The nut, however, which is covered with a husk apparently composed
of the hardened calyx, resembles those of the other plants belonging
to the Urticaceæ, and the bark when wounded gives out abundance of
milk, which is good to drink. Humboldt in his _Relation Historique_,
describes this tree as “growing on the sides of the rocks, its thick
roots scarcely penetrating the stony soil, and unmoistened during many
months of the year by a drop of rain or dew. But dry and dead as the
branches appear,” Humboldt continues, “if you pierce the trunk, a sweet
and nutritive milk flows forth, which is in the greatest profusion
at day-break. At this time the blacks, and other natives of the
neighbourhood, hasten from all quarters, furnished with large jugs to
catch the milk, which thickens and turns yellow on the surface. Some
drink it on the spot, others carry it home to their children; and you
might fancy you saw the family of a cowherd gathering around him, and
receiving from him the produce of his kine.” (_Humboldt, as quoted in
the Botanical Magazine_, vol. 66, t. 3724.)

[Illustration: FIG. 75.—UPAS TREE.]

The Upas, or Poison tree of Java (_Antiaris toxicaria_), about which so
many fabulous stories have been told, belongs to this tribe. The male
flowers are gathered together in small heads on a fleshy receptacle,
(see _fig._ 75 _a_;) and each consists of a calyx of four sepals (_b_),
bending over four stamens, with long anthers and very short filaments.
The female flowers have an undivided fleshy calyx with two styles,
and this fleshy covering forms the pericardium of the fruit, which
is a drupe. When ripe, the fruit represents a moderately sized plum,
inclosing the nut, or stone, which contains the kernel or seed. The
poison lies in the milky sap.

[Illustration: FIG. 76.—MULBERRY.]

The common black Mulberry (_Morus nigra_) has the general features of
the order. The male flowers grow together in a dense spike, as shown in
_fig._ 76 at _a_, and each flower consists of a calyx of four sepals,
and four stamens, which spring back and remain extended after they have
discharged their pollen (_b_). The female flowers also grow closely
together, in dense spikes, round a slender receptacle; each having
two elongated fringed stigmas (_c_), and a calyx of four sepals, and
being inclosed in an involucre, as shown at _d_. As the seeds ripen,
each female flower becomes a drupe, consisting of a fleshy and juicy
pericardium formed from the calyx, and the nut; and these drupes being
pressed closely together by the position of the female flowers, the
whole adhere together and form the fruit we call the mulberry. The
involucre withers when the calyx becomes juicy; but the remains of it
and of the style are often seen on the ripe fruit, as shown at _e_.
The receptacle also remains as a sort of core, which is thrown away
when the fruit is eaten, though it does not part from it so freely as
in the raspberry; and the little nuts, or seeds as they are called,
are found in the centre of each juicy globule. The leaves are simple,
entire, and rough on the surface.

The white Mulberry (_Morus alba_) differs from the common kind in the
fruit not being eatable; as the calyxes of the female flowers never
become juicy. The leaves are, however, much smoother and of finer
texture than those of the black mulberry, and they are principally used
for feeding silkworms, for which those of the black mulberry are not so

The red Mulberry (_M. rubra_) is an American species, with leaves
too rough to be good for silkworms, and very indifferent fruit. The
Constantinople and Tartarian Mulberries are supposed to be only
varieties of _M. alba_, though their fruit is good to eat, and the
latter has lobed leaves.

The Paper Mulberry (_Broussonetia papyrifera_) has the male and female
flowers on different plants. The male flowers are produced in pendulous
catkins, and the calyx has a short tube before it divides into four
segments; each flower is also furnished with a bract, but in other
respects their construction is the same as that of the other flowers of
the order. The female flowers have also a tubular calyx, and they are
disposed in globular heads on rather long peduncles; but they differ
from those of the other genera in having only a single stigma, and
in the ovary being inclosed in an integument within the calyx, which
becomes juicy as the seeds ripen, and not the calyx itself. The leaves
are very irregularly lobed, and hairy; and the liber or inner bark is
used for making what is called Indian paper.

The Osage Orange (_Maclura aurantiaca_), has the male and female
flowers on different plants, the male being borne in short close
panicles of ten or twelve flowers each, and not differing in
construction from those of the other genera. The female flowers are
borne on a large globular receptacle, like that of the bread-fruit;
and they resemble those of that plant in construction, except that
they are pitcher-shaped instead of being angular, and that they have
only one stigma instead of two. The receptacle also never becomes soft
and pulpy like that of the bread-fruit, but remains hard and stringy
and unfit to eat. The leaves are smooth and of delicate texture, and
as they abound in glutinous milk, they have been found very suitable
for silkworms. The wood is of a beautiful glossy texture, and very
fine and close-grained. The tree is found wild in the country of the
Osage Indians, near the Mississippi, and from the rough surface of its
fruit, and its golden-yellow colour, it has received the name of the
Osage Orange.

The common Fig (_Ficus Carica_) has its male and female flowers on the
same plant, and often within the same receptacle. The receptacle in
this plant instead of being surrounded by the flowers, incloses them,
and is, in fact, the fruit we call a fig. This receptacle is sometimes
roundish, but more generally pear-shaped; and it is not quite closed,
but has a little opening or eye at the upper end, which is fitted in
with several very small scales. The stalk of the fig is articulated on
the branch. The male flowers are generally in the upper part of the
fig, and they consist of a half tubular calyx, with a limb divided
into three segments, and three stamens. The female flowers have each
a calyx of five sepals, and a single style with two stigmas; and
they are succeeded by the seeds, or nuts as they are called, as each
contains a kernel which is the true seed. The leaves are very small
when they first expand, but they gradually increase in size, till
they become very large. They are generally lobed, and their petioles
are articulated. The figs are produced in the axils of the leaves. It
may be observed here, that Du Hamel mentions that the receptacle is
not closed in all the varieties of the fig, but that in some it opens
naturally, when the seeds are ripe, dividing at the orifice into four
equal parts, like the valves of a capsule; and even when this is not
the case, the figs, when the receptacle becomes pulpy and soft from
ripeness, crack and burst at the sides, so as to allow of the escape of
the seeds.

As the fig is not fit to eat till the seeds are ripe, various
expedients have been devised to transmit the pollen from the male
flowers which lie near the opening or eye, to the female flowers which
lie nearer the stalk. In Italy this is called caprification, and is
done by insects; but in the neighbourhood of Paris, a very small
quantity of oil is dropped on the eye of the fruit as soon as it has
nearly attained its full size.

There are several species of Ficus, though none of them will bear
the open air in England except the common kind; and only two produce
eatable fruit; viz., _F. Carica_, and _F. Sycamorus_,—the Sycamore tree
of Holy Writ, which produces its small roundish fruit in clusters on
the trunk and old branches, and not on the young wood, as is always the
case with the common fig.

The other most remarkable species are the Banyan tree (_F. indica_),
the figs of which grow in pairs, and are about the size and colour of
a cherry; and the branches of which send down roots, which soon become
equal in size to the parent trunk, so that one tree soon becomes like
a small forest; the Indian-rubber tree (_F. elastica_), the milky
juice of which hardens into Caoutchouc, though this substance is also
produced by other trees, particularly by the Brazilian tree _Siphonia
elastica_; and the Pippul tree (_F. religiosa_). The leaves of this
last tree are used in India for feeding silkworms, and it is said that
this is one cause of the strong and wiry nature of the Indian silk;
and the insect (_Coccus ficus_) feeds upon it and _F. elastica_, which
produces the substance called lac, of which sealing-wax is made. This
species takes its specific name of _religiosa_, from the legend that
the Hindoo god Vishnoo was born under its branches.



The plants contained in this chapter are placed by modern botanists in
six or seven different orders; but I have been induced to group them
together, both because they follow each other in regular succession,
and because there is a certain degree of general resemblance which
connects them together, and renders it easier to retain their names
when linked together by the association of ideas, than it would have
been if they had been each described separately.

The first order of catkin-bearing trees that I shall describe is
called Juglandaceæ, and it contains three genera, only two of which,
the Walnuts and the Hickories, are common in British gardens. The
second order, Salicaceæ, contains also two genera, the Willows and
the Poplars; the third, Betulaceæ, contains both the Alders and the
Birch trees; the fourth, Corylaceæ or Cupuliferæ, contains the Oak,
the Beech, the sweet Chestnut, the Hazel, and the Hornbeam; the fifth,
Platanaceæ, is generally considered to include two genera; viz.,
Platanus and Liquidambar, though this last is, by some botanists,
placed in a separate order called Balsamaceæ; and the sixth, Myricaceæ,
or the sweet Gale family. All the genera included in these orders,
with the exception of those belonging to Juglandaceæ, were formerly
comprised in one order, which was called Amentaceæ; from the word
Amentum, which signifies a catkin. The seventh and last order I have
mentioned in this chapter is called Garryaceæ, and consists of one
single genus, Garrya, only lately known in Europe. Of all these orders
the largest and most important is Cupuliferæ, as it includes, among
other valuable trees, the Oak and the Beech. All the plants mentioned
in this chapter have their male and female flowers distinct, many of
the genera having them on different plants; and the male flowers are
always in catkins, generally long and cylindrical, but sometimes round
and ball-shaped. The female flowers are sometimes in catkins also,
but sometimes they are produced singly or in pairs. The flowers of
both kinds are without petals, or with such as are inconspicuous; and
sometimes without even a calyx, but they are always furnished with
bracts, which grow so closely to the flower as almost to seem a part of
it. The ovaries are generally two-celled, but they rarely remain so,
as they become one-celled before the seed is ripe. The style is, in
most cases, very short, and the stigma generally two-lobed. The leaves
are always alternate, and generally simple, except in the case of the
Juglandaceæ. They are all hardy trees and shrubs.


The genera belonging to this order have compound leaves, and the male
flowers in long cylindrical catkins; the male and female flowers being
on the same plant.


This genus consists of only three species: the common Walnut (_J.
regia_); the black Walnut (_J. nigra_); and the Butter-nut (_J.
cinerea_ or _cathartica_). The male and female flowers are distinct,
but on the same plant: the male flowers being produced in long,
solitary, cylindrical catkins, and the female ones in pairs, or in
shorter catkins. The leaves are pinnate, with the leaflets not always
opposite, which is very rarely the case in other plants. In _Juglans
regia_ (the common walnut), the male flowers are produced in a very
thick catkin, each flower consisting of a calyx divided into five or
six scale-like lobes, and generally from twelve to twenty stamens,
with very long anthers and very short filaments; there is also a very
curious bract to each, as shown in the magnified flower at _a_ in
_fig._ 77; in which the anthers are seen at _b_. The female flowers are
in pairs, as shown at _c_; and they consist of a calyx, _d_, enclosing
the ovary, and toothed in the upper part, and four small petals
encircling two large thick leafy-looking stigmas, _e_.

[Illustration: FIG. 77—WALNUT (_Juglans regia_).]

The fruit is a fleshy husk in one piece, formed of the dilated calyx;
it generally retains the stigmas till it has nearly attained its full
size, and when it becomes ripe it does not separate into valves, but
bursts irregularly. The nut, on the contrary, is in two distinct
valves, which may be easily separated from each other; and it is
imperfectly divided into cells by four half dissepiments. The germ of
the future plant is what children call the heart, and it is in the
upper part of the kernel, with the root end uppermost, so that when a
walnut is sown the sharp end should be placed downwards. The kernel is
four-lobed, and deeply wrinkled; and when the young plant begins to
grow, it divides into two cotyledons or seed-leaves, which drop off
when the true leaves are fully developed. The kernel is covered with
a thick skin, which is very astringent; and the nut is covered with a
membranaceous network of strong veins, which are generally found in a
withered state on opening the ripe husk, having left their impression
deeply imprinted on the outside of the shell of the walnut. The leaves
are impari-pinnate, consisting of four pairs of leaflets and a terminal
single one; the lower pair of leaflets is much the smallest, and the
other leaflets are frequently not opposite; and they are sometimes
unequal at the base. The main petiole is dilated at the point where
it joins the stem; and the leaves are placed alternately. The tree is
large and widely spreading; and the timber is of a close grain, and
takes a fine polish.


(_Juglans nigra_).]

The Black Walnut (_J. nigra_) differs from the common kind, in the male
flowers being on a smaller and more slender catkin, and furnished with
a brown roundish bract at the back of the calyx. The female flowers are
also in a sort of catkin, and four or five together. The fruit (see
_a_ in _fig._ 78) is round, and the husk very thick at first, but
it gradually wastes away, when the seed is ripe, instead of opening.
The leaves have seven or more pairs of leaflets, which are generally
nearly opposite, and sometimes they are without the terminal single
leaflet, as shown at _b_. The shell of the nut is very hard, and the
dissepiments, which are also very hard, are generally perfect, and
divide the kernel into four parts. The nuts should be sown as soon as
possible after they are ripe, as they will not keep good above six
months. The tree grows above seventy feet high, and the wood is very
hard and black.

[Illustration: FIG. 79.—BUTTER-NUT

(_Juglans cathartica_).]

The Butter-nut (_J. cathartica_) resembles the Common Walnut in its
male catkins, except that they are produced upon the old wood instead
of being on the wood of the present year. The female flowers grow four
or five together in a short catkin, and they are distinguished by their
stigmas, which are rose-coloured. The fruit (_a_ in _fig._ 79) is
pear-shaped, ending in a rather long point; and the kernel of the nut
(_b_) resembles that of the Common Walnut, except in being more oily.
The leaves (_c_) are like those of the Black Walnut, except that the
leaflets are rather downy, and that there is a terminal one. The calyx
of the female flower is also covered with a viscid down, which remains
on the husk of the ripe fruit; and the shell of the nut is very hard
and very much furrowed. The tree is of much smaller size than that of
the Black Walnut, and it may be easily distinguished by the greyness
of the bark of its young shoots; it also comes into leaf earlier, and
the nuts are ripe about a fortnight sooner than the others. The wood is
light, of a reddish colour, and rather a coarse grain.


[Illustration: FIG. 80.—THICK-SHELL BARK HICKORY (_Carya lacinosa_).]

The genus Carya (the Hickory) consists of ten or twelve species, which
greatly resemble the Walnuts in their general appearance, but are
distinguished by the male catkins, instead of being solitary, being
produced in tufts or bunches, three or more on each peduncle. The
stigma is also frequently four-lobed, and the husk, when ripe, divides
into four equal valves, which in some of the species are very thick, as
in the Thick-shell bark Hickory (see _a_ in _fig._ 80). The nut (_b_)
is not valved, and it is either not furrowed, or very slightly so; but
it has four angles which are more or less distinct in the different
species: the shell and the dissepiments are both very hard, and the
latter, as in the Mocker nut, are sometimes entire, so as to render
it very difficult to extract the kernel. The leaves (_c_) resemble
those of the walnut; but they are generally of a thinner texture, and
somewhat downy, the down being disposed in little tufts, as may be seen
by a microscope. The trees vary much in size, but all of them have a
reticulated bark. The wood is of a coarse grain, and will not polish;
but it is very strong, and so remarkably tough that it is hardly
possible to break it.

There is only one other genus in the order Juglandaceæ, and that
consists of only a single species, _Pterocarya caucasica_. It has
pinnate leaves of nineteen leaflets each, placed as closely as possible
together; and the fruit, (that is, the husk,) is spread out on each
side into a thin membrane or wing. This plant is sometimes called
_Juglans fraxinifolia_.


The plants contained in this order have simple leaves, and the male
and female flowers on different plants, both in upright cylindrical


The genus Salix (the Willow) contains perhaps more species than any
other, above two hundred and fifty having been named and described,
besides innumerable varieties. The plants included in the genus may,
however, be all divided into three kinds—viz. the true Willows, which
have thin green leaves, and which include all the tree species, most
of which have brittle branches; the Osiers, the leaves of which
resemble those of the Willows, but which are low shrubs with very tough
branches; and the Sallows, the leaves of which are thick and woolly or
shaggy. The Osiers and the true Willows are often confounded together;
particularly when the former take, as they sometimes do, a tree-like
character; but the Sallows are always perfectly distinct. The rods of
the Osiers are used in basket-making.

All the species of the genus have their male and female flowers on
different plants, both kinds of flowers being placed on short catkins
which are either erect or spreading sideways. The male flowers have
each from one to five or more stamens, with no petals or calyx, but as
a substitute a bract or scale, which is entire and hairy, and which has
one or more glands at its base. The female flower has a similar bract
or scale, and it is also without either petals or calyx; there are two
stigmas, each of which is sometimes two-lobed. The capsule has only one
cell, but many seeds which are covered with down or longish hairs, and
which are very conspicuous from the capsule opening naturally into two
valves when ripe. The leaves of the Osiers and Willows are generally
lanceolate, and serrated at the margin, and they are always furnished
with stipules; but the leaves of the Sallows are generally much
broader, and sometimes roundish; and they are always of a thick velvety
texture. Though the number of the stamens varies in the different
species, two are by far the most common.

[Illustration: FIG. 81.—THE WILLOW (_Salix_).]

_Fig._ 81 shows the female flower of _Salix fragilis_ at _a_, _b_ is
the honey gland, _c_ the stigma, which is divided into four equal
parts, and _d_ the bract or scale with its hairy fringe; _e_ is the
male flower with its two stamens, two glands, and hairy scale. This
species is a tall, bushy-headed tree, with the branches crossing
each other frequently, being set on obliquely; and it is called the
Crack Willow, from the young branches separating from the trunk in
spring with the slightest blow or jerk, their bases being as brittle
as glass. The leaves are of a deep green. The White Willow (_Salix
alba_) differs from the preceding species in the branches being widely
spreading and somewhat drooping, the old bark cracked into deep
fissures, and the foliage of a silvery grey, owing to the silky hairs
with which the leaves are more or less covered. The wood of the Tree
Willows is soft and white, and very elastic; it is therefore used for
cricket-bats, mallets, and other purposes where wood is wanted to
resist a hard blow. _S. vitellina_, the Golden Osier, is so called from
its golden-coloured bark; and _S. purpurea_, the Purple Willow, is so
called from the colour of its branches. This last species has only one
stamen; but as the anther is four-celled, it is probably two stamens
grown together. All the species that have only one stamen have a
four-celled anther, as for example the Rose Willow (_S. Helix_), which
has the female catkins red. _Salix caprea_, the great round-leaved
Sallow or Palm Willow, is perhaps the handsomest species, from the
great abundance and golden hue of its flowers.


[Illustration: FIG. 82.—TREMBLING POPLAR OR ASPEN (_Populus tremula_).]

The genus Populus (the Poplar) is distinguished from Salix by the
bracts of the flowers being deeply cut instead of being entire; by
both the male and female flowers having a calyx; and by the male
flowers never having less than eight stamens. The leaf-buds are also
covered with numerous scales. _Fig._ 82, _a_, shows the stamens of
the Trembling Poplar or Aspen (_Populus tremula_) shrouded in their
cup-like calyx, and with their laciniated bract; _b_ shows the female
flower with its four stigmas and deeply-cut bract; and _c_, the pod
with its valves curling back, so as to show the downy covering of
the seeds. All these parts are magnified to show them distinctly, as
they are nearly the same in all the species. The following are the
distinctions between the principal species. In the White Poplar, or
Abele-tree (_P. alba_), the leaves are lobed, and covered with a white
down on the under side. In _P. canescens_, the Grey Poplar, the leaves
are also downy beneath; but they are roundish, and the female flower
has eight stigmas instead of four. The Aspen (_P. tremula_) has four
stigmas, with two leafy appendages at the base, which look like two
other stigmas; and the petioles of the leaves, which are very long,
are flattened, and so attached to the stem as to be twisted by the
weight of the leaf when acted upon by the wind, which gives them their
tremulous motion: these leaves are smooth on both sides. All these
species have spreading roots, and send up a great many suckers; and
their wood is used for butchers’ trays, pattens, bowls, milk-pails,
and various other purposes. _Populus nigra_, the Black English Poplar,
on the contrary, does not send up suckers, and its wood is of very
little use; it is, however, very ornamental from the large size and
great number of its male catkins, and the bracts of the flowers being
of a brownish red, which gives them, when fallen, the appearance
of the large brownish-red caterpillars of the Goat-moth. The Black
Italian Poplar (_P. monilifera_) is remarkable for the quickness of its
growth. The capsules of the female trees contain such a quantity of
down attached to the seeds, as to render it quite unpleasant to walk
under them when they are ripe. The Lombardy Poplar (_P. fastigiata_ or
_dilatata_) is remarkable for its upright and close habit of growth;
its leaves also are very peculiar in their shape, being broad at the
base and then tapering suddenly to a point. The seeds resemble those of
the Black Italian Poplar in the quantity of wool which they produce,
but luckily the female plants are extremely rare. There are many other
species, the most remarkable of which are the Carolina Poplar (_P.
angulata_), known by its square stem and very large leaves; the Balsam
Poplar, or Tacamahac tree (_P. balsamifera_), the buds of which are
covered with a resinous fragrant substance, and the leaves are of a
pale yellowish green, appearing very early in spring; and the Ontario
Poplar (_P. candicans_), which resembles the balsam Poplar, except in
its leaves, which are very large and whitish on the under surface, and
in the great rapidity of its growth, while that of the Balsam Poplar is
rather slow.


The plants included in this tribe have single leaves, which are
generally what is called feather-nerved; that is, the veins are marked
strongly and deeply from the mid rib to the margin. The flowers are
in cylindrical catkins, the male and female flowers being on the same


[Illustration: FIG. 83.—CATKINS OF THE BIRCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 84.—THE BIRCH (_Betula_).]

The common Birch (_Betula alba_) is an exceedingly graceful tree. The
male catkins are produced singly, or two or three together. They are
long, slender, loose, and gracefully drooping; (see _fig._ 83;) and
each consists of a great number of flowers, pressed close together, and
growing round a rachis or stem, as shown in the catkin _a_ in _fig._
84, from which some of the flowers have been removed. The male flowers
have each ten or twelve stamens enclosed in three or more scales or
bracts, as shown in a reversed flower at _b_. The female flowers are
produced in dense catkins, which are much shorter than the others, and
always solitary; the flowers, which are arranged round a very slender
axis, are furnished with lobed scales, and _c_ is a scale with three
female flowers in its lobes, each having two long spreading stigmas
(_d_). A ripe capsule is shown at _e_, with its membranaceous wings,
and the cell _f_ open to show the seed. The ovary when young has two
cells and two ovules (as shown at _g_); but the division between the
cells wastes away as the seeds ripen, and one of the ovules proves
abortive. There are several species of Birch natives of America, some
of which have upright oval female catkins like those of the Alder, but
they are always distinguished by being solitary.

The bark of the Birch is remarkable for its tenacity, and for the great
length of time that it will resist decay. In America they make canoes
of the bark of _B. papyracea_; and in Lapland huts are thatched with
that of _B. alba_. The Birch is remarkably hardy; and it grows nearer
the limits of perpetual snow both on mountains and near the pole than
any other tree.


The Common Alder (_Alnus glutinosa_), though so nearly allied to the
Birch botanically, differs widely in its habits; as it always grows
in low marshy situations, or near water, while the Birch prefers the
summits of the loftiest hills. In the Alder, the male catkins are long
and drooping, like those of the Birch; but they are generally produced
in clusters of three or more together. The male flowers are furnished
with three lobed bracts or scales, each containing three flowers,
each flower having a calyx of four scales united at the base, and
bearing four stamens. The female flowers are in close ovate catkins,
produced in clusters of four or five together, instead of being
cylindrical and solitary, as in the Birch; the scales of the catkins,
though three-lobed, are only two-flowered, and the flowers have two
long stigmas like those of the Birch. The ovary has two cells and two
ovules, but it only produces one seed. The ripe fruit is a nut without
wings, attached at the base to the scale of the cone-like catkin, the
scales of the catkin becoming rigid, and opening, like those of the
Scotch Pine, as the seed ripens. There are several species of Alder,
some of which bear considerable resemblance to the American species of
Birch; but they are easily distinguished by the female catkins of the
Birch being always solitary, while those of the Alder are produced in
clusters, and by the capsules of the Alder being without wings.


This order includes six genera of very important trees; all of which
have their ripe fruit shrouded in a cup-like involucre, which they
retain till ripe. The male and female flowers are on the same plant.


The fruit of all the species of Oak is an acorn, which is only partly
covered by a scaly involucre called the cup. The shape of the acorn,
and the height to which it is covered by the cup, differ in the
different species; but the general character of both is always the same.

[Illustration: FIG. 85.—THE OAK.]

[Illustration: FIG. 86.—GERMINATION OF THE ACORN.]

The male catkins of the common British Oak (_Quercus Robur
pedunculata_) are long and very few flowered; the flowers being small
and very far apart. The flowers themselves have six or eight stamens
and as many feathery bracts, which are united at the base. The female
flowers (_a_ in _fig._ 85) are produced on a long stalk at a distance
from each other, and each consists of an ovary closely covered with a
toothed calyx, as shown in the highly-magnified flower at (_c_), and
an involucre of several bracts or scales, (_d_); the style is short
and thick, and the stigma (_e_) is three-lobed. As the fruit ripens,
the style and stigma wither away, and the seed remains covered by
the adnate calyx (_b_), which has become hard and shining. There is
a circular mark or scar at the bottom of the acorn when taken out of
its cup, which is called the hilum; and when the acorn is planted,
this part should be kept upwards, as the foramen or part where the
germ lies is at the other end. When the acorn begins to germinate,
it opens at the foramen, cracking a little about half-way down, but
not dividing entirely (see _fig._ 86). The root (_a_) then begins to
protrude, and soon after the plumule, or young shoot (_b_), the leaves
of which gradually unfold themselves. A curious experiment may be tried
by suspending an acorn in a glass of water, or by placing it in one of
those glasses with a wide mouth and a narrow neck, used for nosegays;
when, if kept in a sitting-room, the acorn will gradually open, and the
root and leaves develop themselves; and thus may be watched the first
beginning of the monarch of the forest, the progress of which is so
strikingly depicted in the beautiful lines adapted by Cowper to the
hollow trunk of a gigantic oak in Yardley Chase near Castle Ashby:—

  Thou wert a bauble once, a cup and ball
  Which babes might play with; and the thievish jay,
  Seeking her food, with ease might have purloin’d
  The auburn nut that held thee, swallowing down
  Thy yet close folded latitude of boughs,
  And all thy embryo vastness, at a gulp.

  Time made thee what thou wert—King of the Woods!
  And time hath made thee what thou art—a cave
  For owls to roost in! Once thy spreading boughs
  O’erhung the champaign, and the numerous flock
  That grazed it, stood beneath that ample cope
  Uncrowded, yet safe shelter’d from the storm.

  Embowell’d now, and of thy ancient self
  Possessing nought but the scoop’d rind, that seems
  A huge throat calling to the clouds for drink,
  Which it would give in rivulets to thy roots;
  Thou temptest none, but rather much forbidd’st
  The feller’s toil, which thou wouldst ill requite.
  Yet is thy root sincere, sound as a rock:
  A quarry of stout spurs and knotted fangs,
  Which, crook’d into a thousand whimsies, clasp
  The stubborn soil, and hold thee still erect.
  Thine arms have left thee—winds have rent them off
  Long since; and rovers of the forest wild
  With bow and shaft have burnt them. Some have left
  A splinter’d stump, bleach’d to a snowy white;
  And some, memorial none where once they grew.
  Yet life still lingers in thee, and puts forth
  Proof not contemptible of what she can,
  Even when death predominates. The spring
  Finds thee not less alive to her sweet form,
  Than yonder upstarts of the neighbouring wood,
  So much thy juniors, who their birth received
  Half a millennium since the date of thine.

The leaves of the common Oak are deeply sinuated, and without
footstalks, but those of _Quercus Robur sessiliflora_, another British
Oak, are upon short footstalks, though the acorns are sessile. This
last species predominated in the oak forest which formerly surrounded
London; and many examples are still to be found at Lord Mansfield’s
beautiful seat at Hampstead, the name of which, Ken wood, alludes to
them, Ken being Saxon for an acorn. The wood of this tree was also used
for the roof of Westminster Hall, and many other ancient buildings
which till lately were supposed to be of Chestnut. Oak wood may always
easily be tested by wetting a knife and then cutting it, when the
astringent property in the Oak will turn the knife black, a result that
will not take place with Chestnut.

There are nearly fifty species of Oaks which may be obtained in the
British nurseries; the most remarkable of which are the Cork tree
(_Quercus Suber_), the cork being the bark; the Evergreen Oak (_Q.
Ilex_); the American Oaks, particularly the scarlet Oaks (_Q. coccinea_
and _Q. rubra_), the Live Oak (_Q. virens_), and the Willow Oak, with
long narrow entire leaves

(_Q. Phellos_); and the Turkey, Fulham, and Lucombe Oaks (_Q. Cerris_
and its varieties). All Oak trees are very liable to be attacked by a
species of gnat, and which produces excrescences on the branches. The
oak apples of the British Oak, and the galls of _Quercus infectoria_,
which are used in making ink, are of this nature. The Kermes, an
excrescence found on _Quercus coccifera_, is the work of a kind of
Coccus, similar to that which produces the cochineal on the Opuntia.

The timber of all the European Oaks is remarkably durable; but that
of nearly all the American Oaks, except _Quercus virens_, is coarse
grained, and so porous that it cannot be used for wine casks. The cork
trees are generally grown in Spain; and as the cork when taken off the
tree, curves round, it is laid upon the ground and kept flat with heavy
stones; while a fire is made upon it with the branches, so as to heat
it through, after which it remains flat when the stones are removed.


[Illustration: FIG. 87.—THE BEECH (_Fagus_).]

The Beech (_Fagus sylvatica_) bears very little resemblance to the
Oak. The male flowers are in globular catkins (see _a_ in _fig._ 87),
each flower consisting of a bell-shaped calyx (_b_), cleft into five
or six teeth, and containing eight or ten stamens, which project
beyond it. The female flowers also grow in globular heads (_c_) two
or three together, surrounded by a great number of linear bracts,
which gradually grow together, and form a four-lobed involucre shown
open at _d_. In the centre of this involucre are two or more female
flowers, each surrounded by a hairy calyx, cut into teeth at the tip
(_e_). Each flower has three styles (_f_); and the ovary, which is
sharply angular, has three cells, with two ovules in each. As the fruit
swells, the linear bracts diminish, till at last they have only the
appearance of small spines on the involucre (_g_), which opens when
ripe into four valves (_h_), and contains two or three angular nuts
(_i_), which are called the mast. The leaves of the Beech are of thin
and delicate texture, and they are strongly feather-nerved. The tree
is large and very handsome, and it is easily known, even in winter, by
the smooth shining white bark of the main trunk. There are only two
species of Fagus common in British gardens, and these are the common
Beech (_Fagus sylvatica_) which has numerous varieties, including one
with dark reddish purple leaves, generally called the Purple Beech;
and the American Beech (_F. ferruginea_), the leaves of which are

There are, however, two species from Terra del Fuego, which have
been introduced, but they are at present rare. One of these (_F.
betuloides_) is called the Myrtle tree in Van Dieman’s Land, where it
is also found wild, and it is remarkable for producing a fungus on its
trunk, which, when cut in slices and cooked, is said to be very good to


[Illustration: FIG. 88.—CHESTNUT (_Castanea vesca_).]


This is a very small genus, only containing two or three species, of
which only one, the Sweet Chestnut (_Castanea vesca_) is common in
England. This plant was included by Linnæus in the genus Fagus, but it
appears very distinct. The male flowers are produced round a central
axis, but so far apart as hardly to be like a catkin (see _a_ in
_fig._ 88). These flowers in the bud look like little knobs, but when
they open the stamens burst out, as shown at _b_. Each flower has a
large and a small bract, and from ten to fifteen stamens. The female
flowers are disposed in a tuft as shown at _c_, surrounded by a number
of bracts and scales, which afterwards grow together and form a spiny
involucre (see _fig._ 89 _a_,) which forms the husk of the ripe nuts
(_b_), and opens into four valves as shown at _c_. Each female flower
has a closely-fitting calyx, toothed at the tip, which afterwards
becomes the hard brown skin that envelops the kernel of the ripe nut;
and each flower is furnished with six styles, having as many cells
with two ovules in each, though generally all the cells unite into one,
and most of the ovules wither before the fruit ripens. There are three
female flowers in each involucre, which lie nestling together like
birds in a nest. When ripe the involucre or husk opens naturally into
four valves (as shown in _fig._ 89), and drops the one or two Chestnuts
which it contains. Each nut, when ripe, is enveloped in a brittle
shining skin formed of the metamorphosed calyx, and consists of only
one cell, in which are one, two, or at most three kernels, which are
the seeds.


[Illustration: FIG. 90.—THE HAZEL (_Corylus Avellana_.)]

[Illustration: FIG. 91.—MALE FLOWER OF THE HAZEL.]

The Hazel Nut (_Corylus Avellana_) has the male and female flowers on
the same tree; the male being in long catkins and the female ones in
little oval buds, something like those of the Oak, (see _a_ in _fig._
90,) which are so small that they would hardly be seen on the tree, if
it were not for their bright red stigmas. The male flowers (_fig._ 91)
have each three bracts, one behind the two others, to the inner ones
of which are attached eight stamens. As the buds containing the female
flowers expand, two or three small leaves make their appearance between
the scales (_b_ in _fig._ 90), so that gradually the bud becomes a
little branch, bearing the female flowers at its tip. Each flower has
two long stigmas, and the ovary is enclosed in a closely-fitting calyx
(_c_) toothed at the upper part, the whole being enveloped in a deeply
cut involucre (_d_), which afterwards becomes the husk of the ripe
nut. This involucre is not closed, as in Fagus and Castanea, but it
is open at top; the nut, as in all cupuliferæ, adhering to it, when
young, by the hilum or scar visible at its base. There are about seven
species of Corylus, of which the most remarkable is the Constantinople
Nut (_Corylus Colurna_.) The Filbert is only a variety of _Corylus


[Illustration: FIG. 92.—FRUIT OF THE HORNBEAM.]

Some botanists include this genus and that of Ostrya in the order
Betulaceæ, instead of placing them in Cupuliferæ, as the nut of the
Hornbeam is not surrounded by a cup or husk, but by a leaf-like
involucre as shown in _fig._ 92, at _a_, _b_ being the nut. Both the
male and the female flowers are produced in long catkins, which have an
exceedingly light and elegant appearance on the tree. The male flowers
consist each of one bract, with twelve or more stamens attached to its
base; and the female flowers have each two very long stigmas, and a
ribbed calyx, which adheres to the ripe nut and assumes the appearance
of a hard brown skin. The leaves are feather-nerved and persistent,
like those of the Beech, frequently remaining on the tree, though in a
withered state, till spring.

The nut appears ribbed when ripe, from the remains of the metamorphosed
calyx, and it contains only one seed; though, as in the other allied
genera, the ovary had two cells, with an ovule in each.


The Hop Hornbeam (_Ostrya vulgaris_) was included in the genus Carpinus
by Linnæus; and indeed the general construction of the flowers is the
same. The male catkins are, however, very much longer, and the female
catkins much shorter, and closely resembling those of the Hop.


This order formerly included the Plane trees and the Liquidambar; but
many botanists now put the latter tree in a separate order, which they
call Balsamaceæ.


In the Oriental Plane (_Platanus orientalis_) the male and female
flowers are both in globular catkins. The male flowers are composed
of very small, but rather fleshy bracts, which remain on after the
stamens fall; and the female flowers are each furnished with bracts,
and have two long stigmas. Both kinds of flowers are so small as not to
be seen without a microscope. The fruit is covered with fine hair. The
globular catkins retain the bracts, and these remain on after the seed
has fallen, giving the tree a very singular appearance even in winter.
The Occidental Plane (_P. occidentalis_) differs principally from the
preceding species in the leaves being more downy beneath; the buds are
also so downy that the tree in America is called the Cotton-tree. Both
kinds are remarkable for the manner in which the bark becomes detached
from the main trunk and peels off.


The common Liquidambar (_L. styraciflua_) is remarkable for the
beautiful crimson which its maple-like leaves take in autumn. The male
flowers are on an upright catkin, and the female ones in a globular
one, like the Planes. When the fruit is ripe, the numerous capsules
that surround the globular catkin burst, and the seeds, which are
winged, are scattered by the wind.


The principal genera are Myrica, the Sweet Gale; Comptonia, a curious
shrub with fernlike leaves; and Casuarineæ, a New Holland tree without
leaves, but with jointed leaf-like stems.


The male flowers are produced in rather long erect catkins, each having
only one scale, and four stamens. The female catkins are short, and
each flower has three scales or bracts; the ovary has two long stigmas,
and the fruit is a drupe, the scales becoming fleshy when ripe. The
bracts and leaves are covered with glands filled with aromatic oil; and
in _M. cerifera_, the fruit is covered with a waxy secretion, which is
used as wax.


This order consists of only one genus, Garrya.


_Garrya elliptica_ is an evergreen shrub remarkable for its long and
graceful male catkins, the flowers of which consist of four stamens
within a four-cleft calyx, enclosed within bracts united at the base.
The female flowers are on a different plant, and the fruit is a berry
not opening naturally.



The greater part of the trees included in this chapter are comprised
by Richard, De Candolle, and other foreign botanists, in the order
Coniferæ; which they have divided into three sections: viz., the
Abietineæ, or Pine and Fir tribe; the Cupressineæ, or Cypress tribe;
and the Taxineæ, or Yew tribe. The last tribe, however, Dr. Lindley has
formed into a separate order, which will probably be adopted. Most of
the genera have, what the Germans so graphically call needle leaves;
that is, their leaves are long and narrow, and terminate in a sharp
point. The flowers also are quite different from what is generally
understood by that name; being in fact nothing but scales: those of the
male flowers containing the pollen in the body of the scale, and those
of the female producing the ovules, or incipient seeds at the base.
The fruit of the Abietineæ is a cone, the scales of which open when
the seeds are ripe. That of the Cupressineæ is also called a cone by
botanists, but it is rounder, and has not so many scales. The fruit of
the Taxineæ is an open succulent cup, bearing the seed or nut in its

Linnæus placed nearly all the hardy Abietineæ in the genus Pinus,
and since his time botanists have disagreed exceedingly respecting
the generic names of the different plants; no less than twelve
different divisions of them having been published, by as many eminent
botanists, since the commencement of the present century. The best,
however, appears to be that of M. Richard, which was approved by De
Candolle, and which has been adopted with a slight alteration in Mr.
Loudon’s _Arboretum Britannicum._ According to this arrangement, the
hardy Abietineæ are divided into five genera; viz., Pinus, the Pine,
including all the resinous trees with long leaves, which grow two or
more together in a sheath; Abies, the Spruce Fir, the leaves of which
do not grow in a sheath, but are scattered round the branches, the
leaves themselves being short, flat, and the same on both sides; Picea,
the Silver Fir, the leaves of which resemble those of Abies, except
that the edges curl in, and the under surface is quite different from
the upper one, being marked with two white lines, one on each side the
midrib; the leaves are also placed nearly in two rows, one on each
side the branch; Larix, the Larch, the leaves of which are very slender
and produced in tufts, but which fall off every winter; and Cedrus,
the Cedar, the leaves of which resemble those of the Larch, but which
do not fall off every winter. The distinctions between these genera
in the leaves only are very clear, and easily remembered; and their
cones differ as decidedly: those of the Pines are hard and thick at
the tips of the scales, which remain on after the seed drops; those
of the Spruce Firs are thin at the tips of the scales, which also
remain on the cones after they have lost their seeds, and the cones
are drooping, and tapering at both ends; those of the Silver Firs are
erect, cylindrical, and of nearly the same diameter throughout, and the
scales fall with the seeds; those of the Larch are erect, but small
and conical, and the scales remain on after the seeds have fallen; and
those of the Cedar are erect, oval, and with deciduous scales. To the
hardy genera may now be added Araucaria, as one species of this genus
(_A. imbricata_) has been found quite hardy in Britain.

The Cupressineæ are divided into four or five genera; viz., _Thuja_,
the Arbor Vitæ, some of the species of which have been formed into
a new genus under the name of Callitris; _Cupressus_, the Cypress;
_Taxodium_, or _Schubertia_, the deciduous Cypress; and _Juniperus_,
the Juniper. The only needle-leaved trees belonging to Taxineæ belong
to the genus Taxus, the Yew, unless we separate from it the new genus


The plants included in this section, with the exception of the Larch,
are evergreens. They are all lofty trees, with straight erect stems,
and their branches growing in whorls or tiers, so as to produce a very
peculiar and striking effect. The male and female catkins are on the
same plant; the female one containing two seeds at the base of each
scale. The pollen of the male flowers is so abundant that any one
passing through a grove of these trees in May or June, might fancy it
was raining brimstone. Most of the species are timber trees, producing
the wood called deal; that used for the flooring and other parts of
houses, being principally the wood of the Scotch Pine, and the Norway
Spruce. Most of the species produce turpentine, which is the thin
part of the sap which flows from the tree when a notch is cut in the
trunk; the thick part of the sap when purified by boiling is the yellow
resin. Tar is produced by cutting the roots and wood of pine and fir
trees into pieces, and putting them into a sort of oven; when the tar
runs from the charred wood, and lamp-black is made from the soot which
collects on the roof of the oven. Pitch is boiled tar. Pyroligneous
acid is obtained by burning the wood into charcoal in an iron cylinder,
and condensing the vapour that arises from it.


[Illustration: FIG. 93.—BRANCH OF THE SCOTCH PINE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 94.—CONE OF THE SCOTCH PINE (_Pinus sylvestris_).]

This genus, according to Linnæus, was made to include all the Pines and
Firs, the Cedar and the Larch; and this arrangement has been followed
by the late A. B. Lambert, Esq., in his magnificent work on this tribe.
In its present restricted form, it contains only those plants that have
long slender leaves, which are produced in membranaceous sheaths, (see
_a_ in _fig._ 93) two, three, or five together. The male flowers are
produced in long upright catkins, (_m_) growing two or three together,
and they consist each of one scale, which is surmounted by a kind of
crest, (_b_). The pollen is contained in two cells formed in the body
of each scale, which open lengthways, as shown in the scale of the
Scotch Pine (_Pinus sylvestris_), at (_g_) in _fig._ 94. The female
scales or carpels when ripe form a strobile or cone (_d_), and in the
Scotch Pine they are thickened at the tip (_e_ in _fig._ 93); but when
young they appear as shown at (_f_). Each scale is furnished with a
thin membrane-like bract on the outside, which is conspicuous when
young, but which is hidden by the scales in the ripe cone; and each has
two seeds inside, which are each furnished with a long thin transparent
wing (_c_). When the seed is ripe, the cone opens as shown at (_d_),
and the seeds falling out are carried away by the wind. When the seed
is sown and begins to germinate, the young plant sends down a root, and
pushes through the ground its upright shoot, which has six cotyledons,
bearing the husk of the seed upon their tip. All the species of the
genus Pinus agree with the Scotch Pine in the construction of their
flowers, and they differ from each other principally in their cones,
and in the number of leaves which they have in a sheath. By far the
greater number have two leaves in a sheath, (see _a_ in _fig._ 93,)
and among these are the Scotch Pine (_P. sylvestris_), which has small
straight cones without prickles; _P. Banksiana_, which has crooked
cones; _P. pungens_ and other American Pines, which have prickly cones,
every scale being furnished with a sharp spine; the Corsican Pine (_P.
Laricio_), and several allied species, which have no spines on their
cones, but every scale curving outwards; the Pinaster (_P. Pinaster_)
which has large cones, with very short broad spines, and the Stone
Pine (_P. Pinea_), the cones of which are smooth and shining, and very
large, and the seeds of which are eaten. The pines that have three
leaves in a sheath, are chiefly natives of North America, and have
prickly cones; such as _Pinus Tæda_ and its allies, _P. ponderosa_,
remarkable for its heavy wood which sinks in water, and its large
spreading branches; and _P. Sabni_ and _P. macrocarpa_, which have
long, slender, drooping leaves, and very large hooked cones. The pines
which have five leaves in a sheath, include, among others, the Weymouth
Pine (_P. Strobus_), the cones of which are long, narrow, and drooping
(see _fig._ 95); _P. Lambertiana_, which has cones above a foot long;
and _P. Cembra_, which has an oval cone, the scales of which are
concave, and the seeds without wings.

[Illustration: FIG. 95.—WEYMOUTH PINE (_P. strobus_).]


[Illustration: FIG. 96.—SPRUCE FIR (_Abies excelsa_).]

This genus includes all the Spruce Firs, and they are readily
distinguished from the pines by their drooping cones (see _a_ in _fig._
96), the scales of which are not thickened at the tip, but drawn out
into a thin brittle membrane; and their leaves, which do not grow erect
in sheaths, but in rows standing out from the branches (_b_), and
which being the same on both sides, look as if two had grown together
to make one. The difference between the Pines and the Firs will be seen
clearly by comparing _fig._ 96, which represents a branch of the Spruce
Fir, with _fig._ 97, which represents a branch of _Pinus pumilio_, a
dwarf variety of the Scotch Pine.

[Illustration: FIG. 97.—_Pinus pumilio._]

[Illustration: FIG. 98.—THE SPRUCE FIR (_Abies excelsa_).]

The common Spruce Fir (_Abies excelsa_) is a tree of stately growth,
with an erect pyramidal form, and numerous tiers of drooping branches.
It is the loftiest of European trees, having been found in Norway 180
feet high. The crest of the male flower is larger than in the genus
Pinus, as shown at (_d_) _fig._ 98, in a magnified side view of one
of the cells of a male scale (_a_), from which the pollen has been
discharged, the empty case being shown at (_c_). The female scales
(_b_) have each a small bract at the back, and two seeds inside, (_e_)
the wings of which have each a little cavity at the lower part in
which the seed lies, so that it is naked on one side, and clothed by
the wing on the other. The Spruce Fir bears cones when the trees are
of a very small size; and these cones are very ornamental when young,
being of a rich purple, while the male catkins are yellow tinged with
red at the base. The sap from the Spruce Fir does not flow freely
when the bark is wounded, as it does from the Scotch Pine; but oozes
out gradually, and is what is called Burgundy pitch in the shops.
Spruce-beer is made from the young shoots of the American Black Spruce.
There are many species of Abies, but the most interesting are _Abies
Douglasii_, a very handsome tree only lately introduced, of very quick
growth; and the Hemlock Spruce (_Abies canadensis_). This genus is
called Pinus by the Linnean botanists, Picea by Professor Link and some
German botanists; and Dr. Lindley, who calls it Abies, includes in it
the Silver Fir, the Larch, and the Cedar.


This genus, which includes all the Silver Firs, is readily
distinguished from Abies by its leaves, which grow in two rows, one on
each side the branch; thus the branch lies quite flat when placed on a
table, or any other level surface. The leaves are also not the same on
both sides as in the Spruce Firs, but the under side is marked by two
distinct lines of silvery white, one on each side the midrib. The cones
stand erect, and the dorsal bract is frequently so large as to appear
above the tips of the scales; and the scales themselves are deciduous,
falling off when the seeds are ripe, leaving the central rachis bare.
This last peculiarity is very striking; as both the Pines and Spruce
Firs retain the scales of their cones after the seeds have fallen. The
seeds of the Silver Firs are much larger than those of the Spruces; and
they are not attached to the wing in the same manner. The Silver Fir is
a noble tree, and takes its name from the epidermis of its bark; which
in young trees is of a whitish grey, and smooth, though when the tree
is about fifty or sixty years old, it cracks and peels off, leaving
the dark brown rough bark beneath. The cones are produced two or more
together; they are upright and cylindrical, being nearly as large
at both ends as in the middle. The leaves all curve upwards at the
point, thus showing conspicuously the white lines on the under side. A
remarkable circumstance connected with this tree is, that when it is
cut down, the stump will remain alive for many years, and even increase
considerably in size, without producing any leaves or branches. One
in the forests of the Jura, which was ascertained to have lived
ninety-two years after the tree had been cut down, had completely
covered the section of the wood with bark. Strasburgh turpentine is
produced from this tree. There are several species of this genus, some
of which, as for example, _Picea Webbiana_, do not show the dorsal
bract; while others, as _P. nobilis_, and _P. bracteata_, have it so
large as to make the cone appear quite shaggy. All the species abound
in resin, which frequently exudes from the cones. This genus is called
Abies by Professor Link, and the German botanists.


This genus consists of only three species, which are easily
distinguished from the other Abietineæ by their losing their leaves
every winter. The common Larch (_Larix europæa_) is a very handsome
tree, with drooping branches, and foliage of a yellowish green, which
dies off of a red tinge in autumn. The leaves are linear, and they are
produced in tufts in a sort of woody sheath, some of them appearing in
the same sheath with the female catkins. The male catkins are smaller,
but appear in the same manner. The cones are small, and show the dorsal
bracts when young, but when ripe they are seldom visible. The seeds
are winged, and so very small, that it appears wonderful that a tree
frequently above a hundred feet high can spring from them. The cones
are of a bright red when young, but they become brown when ripe. The
Larch grows very rapidly, and in situations where no other tree would
thrive. Its wood is very valuable, and its bark is nearly as useful for
tanning as that of the oak. The trees, however, in some situations are
subject to a disease called pumping, by which the centre of the trunk
becomes as hollow as though it were intended for a pump. The sap of the
Larch produces the Venice turpentine; and in some parts of France a
kind of gum, called the Manne de Briançon, which is used medicinally,
is collected from the leaves.


There are only two species in this genus, the Cedar of Lebanon (_Cedrus
Libani_), and the Deodar (_C. Deodara_). The male catkins of the Cedar
of Lebanon are produced singly, and each scale has a large crest. The
cones are ovate, and the scales, which are very short and broad, fall
with the seeds, in the same manner as those of the Silver Fir. The
leaves resemble those of the Larch, but they are not deciduous. The
male and female catkins are very often on different plants; and the
trees attain a considerable age before they produce perfect seeds.
The Cedar is remarkable for the enormous size of its branches, and for
the shelf-like character they assume. The tree in a living state lasts
several centuries, but the wood is of a very coarse grain and not at
all durable; and though the resin appears so abundant in the cones as
to ooze through the scales, there is so little in the trunk that it is
never used for turpentine.

The Deodar Cedar (_C. Deodara_) closely resembles the common Cedar
in its catkins and cones, but the foliage is of a beautiful glaucous
green, and the leaves are so much longer as to give a peculiarly
graceful character to the tree. The wood is remarkably durable, very
fragrant, and of an extremely fine grain, taking so bright a polish,
that a table which Mr. Lambert had of it in his drawing-room has
been compared to a slab of brown agate. The trunk abounds in resin,
and it produces in India a great quantity of fluid turpentine, which
though it is of rather a coarse quality, is much used by the natives;
pitch and tar are also produced by charring the wood. The tree on the
Himalayas grows above 150 feet high, with a trunk 30 feet or more in
circumference, and it is said to live to a great age. It was only
introduced into Britain in 1822, but there are numerous specimens of it
in different parts of the kingdom, all of which appear quite hardy.


_Araucaria imbricata_, the only hardy species, is a very singular
tree. The trunk is quite straight, with a strong leading shoot, and
whorls of branches of great length, and far apart from each other,
covered closely with scale-like leaves. These large horizontal arms,
clothed with closely imbricated leaves, resemble, in the young trees,
snakes partly coiled round the trunk, and stretching out their long,
slender, flexible bodies in quest of prey. The male and female flowers
are on different trees. The male catkins are cone-shaped, the scales
serving as filaments to the anthers produced at their base. The cone
is round and very large, with numerous wedge-shaped scales, and large
eatable seeds or nuts, which have each a short, callous, marginal
wing. The trunk is covered with a very thick corky bark; the wood is
white, finely grained, and durable. The trees when wounded yield a
milky juice, which hardens into a fine yellow resin; and the kernel of
the nut, which is as large as an almond, is used by the Indians as an
important article of food. The tree is a native of the Andes of Peru,
and when first introduced it was called the Chilian Pine. It has now
become quite common in this country, and the Earl of Harrington has
planted an avenue with it at Elvaston Castle.

There are several species, but the other kinds are too tender to bear
British winters without protection. The Norfolk Island Pine (_A.
excelsa_) is a splendid tree, with light feathery foliage; as is the
Moreton Bay Pine (_A. Cunninghami_).


Most of the plants contained in this section are evergreen shrubs
or low trees, but some of them attain a considerable size. Only one
species, the deciduous Cypress, loses its leaves in winter. Many of the
species are only half-hardy in Britain, and none of them are grown in
this country for their timber. They all exude resin occasionally from
their leaves and branches, but none of them produce turpentine. The
catkins are but few flowered, and the cones are roundish. The leaves
are frequently imbricated, at least when young; though in many of the
species they vary considerably, even on the same tree.



There are several species of this genus, but only two are common
in British gardens. Of these the American Arbor Vitæ (_Thuja
occidentalis_) is the largest tree; though it seldom grows above
30 feet high, and it is a great many years before it even attains
that height. The male flowers and the female flowers are distinct,
but on the same tree. The male catkins are small cones, with the
pollen inclosed in four cases that are attached to the inside of
the scale, near its base. The female catkins consist of six scales,
with two ovules at the base of each; and the ripe cone has a sharp
point projecting from each scale. The seeds have scarcely any wing;
and when they germinate, they have only two cotyledons. The young
plants send down a very long tap root (see _fig._ 99), and have some
of their leaves imbricated and others loose. The Chinese Arbor Vitæ
(_T. orientalis_) seldom reaches the height of 20 feet, but it may be
also distinguished from the preceding species by its more dense habit
of growth, by its branches being turned upwards instead of spreading
horizontally, and by its leaves being smaller, closer together, and of
a lighter green.


Callitris is a genus separated from Thuja, of which only one
species is as yet common in British shrubberies. This is the Gum
Sandarach-tree, formerly called _Thuja articulata_, but now named
_Callitris quadrivalvis_. The branches of this tree are articulated,
that is, they may be broken off at the joints without lacerating the
bark. The leaves are very small, quite flat, and articulated like
the branches. The male catkins form a cone, in which the scales are
disposed in four rows, with three or four anthers at the base of each.
The female catkins are solitary, and they divide, when ripe, into four
woody valves or scales, only two of which bear seeds. The seeds are
small, and have a wing on one side. The tree is a native of Morocco and
Barbary, in which countries it produces the gum-sandarach, which exudes
like tears from every part of the plant. The wood is fragrant, very
finely grained, and extremely durable, as is shown in the roof of the
Cathedral of Cordova, built in the ninth century, which is of the wood
of this tree.


The evergreen cypress (_Cupressus sempervirens_) is a cone-like,
tapering tree, with its branches growing close to its trunk, and rarely
attaining the height of fifty feet even in its native country. The
male catkins are longer than those of the arbor vitæ, and the female
ones contain more ovules. The cone is buckler-shaped, and it divides,
when ripe, into eight or ten corky scales, each of which has four
nuts attached; the cone being partially divided into cells, which may
be seen, when the scales have been removed to show the interior. The
pollen of each male flower is contained in four cells, attached to the
lower part of the inside of the scales. The wood is remarkably hard and
fragrant, and it is of a fine close grain; it is also very durable.
It is supposed to have been the gopher-wood of Holy Writ, and the
citron-wood of the ancient Romans, the beauty of which in tables was so

The White Cedar (_Cupressus thyoides_) is a species of Cypress, having
imbricated leaves, and the same kind of cone; and the Cedar of Goa (_C.
lusitanica_) is another species of Cupressus, which appears from the
shape of its cones to be nearly allied to the Arbor vitæ. There are
some other species, but they are not common in British gardens.


The Deciduous Cypress (_Taxodium distichum_) has numerous leaves
arranged in two even rows, one on each side of the branch, which fall
off in autumn, assuming a reddish tinge before they drop. This genus
was separated from Cupressus, because the male catkins, instead of
being produced singly at the tips of the branches, are in clusters or
panicles, and the anther-like scales, have the pollen in five cells.
The cone, which is very small, has only two seeds to each scale,
instead of four; and the young plant has five or more cotyledons,
while the Cypress has only two. The deciduous Cypress was placed in the
genus Cupressus by Linnæus, and afterwards it was called _Schubertia
disticha_ by Mirbel. The tree, which grows 120 feet high and upwards
in America, with a trunk forty feet in circumference at the base, has
generally, when of this size, the lower part of its trunk hollow, often
to the height of five feet or six feet from the ground. The roots also
send up conical protuberances two feet high, and four feet or five
feet wide, which are always hollow. These curious knobs are called in
America “cypress knees;” and the negroes use them for bee-hives. The
wood of the deciduous Cypress is used in building in Virginia. There is
another species (_T. sempervirens_) which does not lose its leaves in
winter, a native of California, but it has not yet been introduced.


[Illustration: FIG. 100.—JUNIPER (_Juniperus communis_).]

The species of this genus are extremely variable in their leaves, which
differ exceedingly on the same plant, and in the size to which the
plants attain; as even the common Juniper, though generally a shrub
not above three feet high, sometimes becomes a tree. In the common
Juniper (_Juniperus communis_) the leaves are narrow and pointed, and
they are placed in whorls, three in each, round the branches. The male
and female flowers are generally on different plants, but sometimes
on the same. The male catkins are sometimes at the end of the shoots,
but generally they spring from the axils of the leaves. The pollen
cases vary from three to six, and they are attached to the back of each
scale, which may be called the stamen (see _a_ in _fig._ 100). The
female catkin, when young, resembles a very small bud, and consists of
three fleshy ovaries, almost hidden by the thick scales at their base.
These ovaries grow together, and soon present the appearance shown,
but magnified, at _c_. As they ripen, they rise out of the scales and
become the fleshy strobile, _b_; and finally the spongy berry shown of
its natural size at _d_, containing three seeds or nuts, each of which
is flat on one side, _f_, and angular on the other, _e_, with five
glandular indentations at its base. The berries are first green, but
they afterwards become of a dark purple, and are covered with a fine
bloom. The Juniper berries are very fragrant, and the glands in their
stones contain a kind of oil. These berries when crushed are used in
making gin and hollands.

There are a great many species of Juniperus, but one of the most
remarkable is the Red Cedar (_J. virginiana_). This is a tree forty
feet or forty-five feet high. The leaves, when young, are scale-like;
but when older they become loose and feathery, so that there are two
kinds of leaves on the same tree. The male and female flowers are very
small, and the berry is only two-seeded. The sap-wood of this tree is
quite white, but the heart-wood is red, and it is used occasionally for
making black-lead pencils, particularly those of the commoner kinds,
though the Bermuda Juniper is preferred for the superior ones. This
last species (_J. bermudiana_) is rather tender in England, and it is
seldom grown in this country. Its berries are of a dark red, and they
are produced at the ends of the branches; and the wood has so strong a
fragrance that shavings of it are put in drawers to keep away moths.
The Savin (_J. Sabina_), and several other species, have the old leaves
scale-like, as well as those on the young wood. All the species have
berry-like fruit, which is generally purple or dark red, and which
varies principally in the number of stones or nuts that it contains.
The fruit of all the Junipers is very slow in ripening, and in some of
the species it remains two years on the tree.


The only needle-leaved tree in this section is the Yew, and this is the
only one I shall describe; as though the Salisburia and some of the
New Zealand resinous trees are included in it by modern botanists, the
latter are at present very rare in this country; and the Salisburia,
though it has been introduced more than a hundred years, and is
frequently found in shrubberies, has not yet produced fruit in Britain.


[Illustration: FIG 101.—THE COMMON YEW (_Taxus baccata_).]

The common Yew (_Taxus baccata_) has the male and female flowers on
different plants. The catkins of the male flowers consist of a number
of scales, out of which the anthers grow like a cluster of primroses,
as shown, magnified, in _fig._ 101 at _a_. The female flowers somewhat
resemble those of the Juniper; the ovary being enveloped in scales
(_b_), from which it gradually emerges as it swells (_c_), till at
last, when ripe (_d_), it opens at the top, and displays the ripe nut
enveloped in a red juicy cup. The wood of the Yew is remarkably tough,
and the growth of the plant is very slow.

To these may be added the very singular plants comprised in the order
Cycadaceæ, which are on the debatable ground between the exogenous and
endogenous plants. They bear cones like the pines and firs, but in
their leaves, and the manner in which they unroll them, they resemble
the ferns, and in the outside of their stems the palms; while from
the wood being in concentric circles, they must be classed among the
Exogens. It would be unsuitable to a work like this to enter into any
of the discussions of botanists respecting these curious plants; it
may be sufficient here to say that they are considered to be trees,
the central cylindrical part being called the trunk; the soft pith in
which, in some of the kinds of Cycas, is manufactured into a spurious
sort of sago. The roughness on the stem arises from the remains of the
footstalks of old leaves. The leaves are pinnate, and unroll instead
of unfolding. The flowers are male and female, both of which are
produced in cones in Zamia; and the male flowers in cones in Cycas,
while the female ones appear on the margin, and in the notches of
abortive leaves, which spring in a mass from the centre.





All plants are by this system first divided into the Vasculares and
the Cellulares; and to explain the difference between these two great
divisions, it will be necessary to say a few words on the construction
of plants, though this subject belongs properly to vegetable
physiology. All plants are composed of two kinds of matter: viz.
Cellular Tissue, which may be compared to the flesh of animals; and
Vascular Tissue, which consists of spiral vessels and ducts, which may
be compared to the nerves and veins. If any one will take the leaf of
a hyacinth and break it by doubling it first on one side and then on
the other, and will then draw the parts gently a little way asunder,
the spiral vessels will be seen distinctly with the naked eye; as
though very fine, they are sufficiently strong to sustain the weight
of the lower part of the leaf for a short time. Now these vessels
are much more conspicuous in some plants than in others; and in some
of the inferior plants, such as lichens and fungi, they are wanting
altogether. Their presence or absence has therefore been chosen to mark
the two great divisions of the Natural System; the Vasculares being
those plants which have both vascular and cellular tissue, and the
Cellulares being those which have cellular tissue only.


The Vasculares are much more numerous than the Cellulares; and they
are re-divided into sub-classes, which it also requires the aid of
vegetable physiology to explain. All plants, when in a growing state,
require the moisture taken up by their roots to be elaborated, and
mixed with air in the leaves before it becomes sap; that is, before
it is fit to contribute to their nourishment. Now, when a seed begins
to germinate, its root descends into the ground and its plumule, or
ascending shoot, rises upwards; but the leaves folded up in the latter
are too weak and tender to elaborate the sap; and besides, they cannot
act till they are fully expanded, and they want nourishment to give
them strength to unfold; the roots are also not sufficiently developed
to absorb moisture. To supply the wants of the young plant while it
remains in this feeble and imperfect state, a quantity of albumen is
laid up in the seed; and it is evident that this substance must be
extremely nourishing, as it forms, when ground, what we call flour. The
young plant is thus provided with food, till its roots are sufficiently
developed to obtain it from the soil; and to enable it to elaborate
this food and to turn it into sap, it is, in most cases furnished
with one or more seed-leaves, or cotyledons, (see _c_ in _fig._ 102,)
which drop off as soon as the true leaves are sufficiently advanced to
be able to perform their proper functions. The cotyledons differ in
number, form, and substance in the different genera; but in all plants,
they are very different from the true leaves, being admirably contrived
for answering the end for which they are designed; and it having been
found that the plants having two or more cotyledons differ widely in
many other respects from those having only one cotyledon, the number
of the cotyledons has been chosen as the distinguishing mark of the
second great division of plants according to the Natural System.

The Vascular plants are therefore again divided into the Dicotyledonous
plants, which have two or more cotyledons; and the Monocotyledonous
plants, which have only one cotyledon: and to these modern botanists
add the Acotyledonous plants, which have no cotyledon, as some of
them have spiral vessels, or at least ducts, though most of the
Acotyledonous plants belong to the Cellulares. These divisions are not
only marked by their cotyledons, but they are so distinct in other
respects, that it is sufficient for a botanist to see a leaf, or even
a bit of wood without leaves, of any plant, to know at first sight to
which of these three divisions the plant belongs.

If the leaf of a Dicotyledonous plant be examined, it will be found to
have a strong vein up the centre, from which other veins proceed on
each side (as shown at _a_ in _fig._ 102); and if it be held up to the
light, the rest of the leaf will be found to be intersected by numerous
smaller veins, so as to appear like network, and hence these leaves
are said to be reticulated. The trunk and branches of trees belonging
to this division consist, when young, of pith, wood, and bark. At
first the substance within the bark is little more than pith, but as
the returning sap deposits every year a layer of wood just within the
bark, which presses against the previous layers so as to contract them,
they press in turn against the pith, which becomes smaller and smaller
every year, till at last, in old trees, it is scarcely perceptible. The
layers of wood are always perfectly distinct from each other, and they
are called concentric rings (_b_); while faint lines, with which they
are intersected, and which proceed like rays from the remains of the
pith in the centre, are called medullary rays. A layer of wood being
deposited every year, the age of the tree may be discovered by counting
the concentric rings; also if the tree has grown rapidly, the layers
will be thicker than if it has grown slowly; and if it has had one side
more exposed to the sun than the other, the remains of the pith will be
on one side instead of in the centre, and the layers will be thinner on
that side than on the other. The newest layer of wood, which is called
the alburnum or sap-wood, is of a paler colour and more porous texture
than the rest of the tree, and it is of less value as timber. It is
from the manner in which the successive layers of wood are deposited
that Dicotyledonous trees are called exogens, which signifies, to
increase from the outside.

If the leaf of a Monocotyledonous plant be held up to the light, the
principal veins will be found to form parallel lines of nearly equal
thickness, the central one being very little, if any, larger than the
others (see _a_ in _fig._ 103). The trees belonging to this division
are all natives of the tropics, and their softest and newest wood is
in the centre, where fresh deposits are made every year inside the old
wood; and hence, these trees are called endogens, which signifies, to
increase from within. The wood of these trees has neither medullary
rays nor concentric rings; and a section of it appears pierced with
numerous holes (_b_), as may be seen by cutting off a slice of bamboo.
The germination of a Monocotyledonous plant, with the cotyledon
remaining in the ground, is shown at _c_.


The Dicotyledones and the Monocotyledones have all visible flowers,
and are hence called Phanerogamæ; but the Acotyledones have no visible
flowers, and they are hence called Cryptogamæ, which signifies that
their flowers are hidden. The most remarkable of the Cryptogamous
plants are the ferns, some of which become lofty trees; the wood of
which is in curious wavy lines, as it appears to be formed by the
footstalks of the decayed leaves growing together and becoming woody.
The veins in the leaves or fronds of the ferns are forked.

Besides the great divisions already mentioned, the Dicotyledonous
plants have been divided into the Dichlamydeæ, or those having both
calyx and a corolla; and the Monochlamydeæ, or those having only a
calyx; but there are so many exceptions, as to render this division of
little value. The Monochlamydeæ are not subdivided, but the Dichlamydeæ
are again divided into the Thalamifloræ, in which the petals and
the stamens grow separately out of the thalamus or flat part of the
receptacle, and generally from below the pistil; the Calycifloræ, in
which the stamens and petals are either attached to the calyx, or to a
lining of it formed by the dilated receptacle; and the Corollifloræ,
in which the petals grow together, so as to form a cup for the pistil,
and which have the stamens attached to the corolla, but quite distinct
from the calyx. The Monocotyledones have also been re-divided into the
Petaloid, or those with regular flowers, like the bulbous plants, and
Orchidaceæ; and the Glumaceous plants, or those with scales or glumes
instead of petals, as in the sedges and the grasses. The Acotyledones
are divided into those with leaves, as the ferns; and those without
leaves, as the mosses, lichens, and fungi.

I have only to add that each sub-class is divided into numerous orders,
which are differently arranged by different botanists; the object being
to place those nearest together which are most alike. As no one of
these arrangements appears to be decidedly better than the others, I
have adopted that given in Mr. Loudon’s _Hortus Britannicus_; marking,
where, they occur, the new orders which have been formed, and the
alterations in the old ones that have been made since that work was




In all the plants contained in this chapter the receptacle is a fleshy
substance called the thalamus, or disk, which is surrounded by the
calyx, and out of which the carpels or seed-vessels, the stamens, and
the petals, all grow separately from each other. Sixty-five orders
are included in this division, but I shall only describe those which
contain plants which have been introduced into Britain, except where
the orders chance to contain plants well known in commerce.


The plants belonging to this order are known by their numerous stamens,
the anthers of which burst outwardly; by their carpels growing close
together without adhering, except in one or two instances; and by the
stem-clasping petioles of their leaves, which are generally deeply cut.
The flowers when regular have five petals and five sepals, but they
differ widely in shape, and the calyx of several of them is coloured so
as to resemble a corolla. The seeds are frequently cariopsides; and
the plants abound in a watery juice which is acrid, and in most cases


This order resembles Raminculaceæ in having five petals, five sepals,
and numerous stamens; but the anthers burst inwardly instead of
outwardly, and there are never more than five carpels, and seldom more
than two, which often grow into a berry-like fruit, as in the genus
Dillenia from which the order takes its name. One species of this genus
is occasionally seen in English hothouses, _Dillenia speciosa_. It has
yellow flowers with the five petals apart at the base, and the sepals
edged with white. The fruit consists of five carpels growing together
with a sort of crown formed by the spreading stigmas. Another genus,
some of the species of which are found in British greenhouses, is
_Hibbertia_. The species are generally climbing plants, with flowers
like those of Dillenia, but smaller, though _H. dentata_ has the petals
close together. The difference between the genera consists principally
in the carpels, which in Hibbertia are distinct with long filiform
styles curving inwards. All the plants contained in this order are
evergreen exotic shrubs and trees with simple alternate leaves, and,
with only two or three exceptions, the flowers are yellow.


This order was divided by De Candolle into two tribes: viz. _Illicieæ_,
the Aniseed tribe; and _Magnolieæ_, the Magnolia tribe. The first,
which is now made a distinct order, under the name of Winteraceæ,
contains three genera, only one of which, Illicium, is common in this
country. The only hardy species of this genus, _I. floridanum_, the
Florida Aniseed tree, has very dark purple flowers, which appear to
be double from the great number of the petals, which are from twenty
to thirty. The carpels are also numerous, and arranged so as to form
a star. All the plants in this tribe are highly aromatic, and one
species, _Drimys Winteri_, which has white fragrant flowers, produces
an aromatic bark that is used in medicine.

The tribe Magnolieæ is distinguished by the fruit consisting of a
number of carpels arranged so as to form a cone. There are six genera
in this order, the most remarkable of which are Magnolia, Liriodendron,
Talauma, and Michelia, the last genus consisting of stove trees, with
very fragrant flowers, which are generally of a pale yellow, and only
one species of which, _M. Champaca_, has been introduced.

Of these genera Magnolia is undoubtedly the best known; as nearly all
the species are common in British gardens. This genus is divided into
two sections, one containing the American Magnolias, and the other
those from Asia, which are principally from China and Japan.


The latter may be illustrated by _Magnolia conspicua_, sometimes called
_M. Yulan_. The flower-buds are inclosed in a brown hairy case formed
of two short bracts which become loose at the base, and are pushed
off by the expanding flower. The flower itself (see _fig._ 104) is
cup-shaped, and it is divided into six white fleshy petals. The calyx
consists of three sepals,—which fall off soon after the petals expand.
In the centre of the flower is the receptacle, drawn up into a fleshy
cone, with a great number of carpels attached to it, each of which has
one cell containing two ovules, and a curved stigma. Around this cone
grow the stamens, with very long anthers standing up like palisades,
and very short thick filaments. The fruit is oval, with the ovaries
somewhat distant from each other. The flowers appear before the leaves.
The other Asiatic species are _M. gracilis_ or _Kobus_, _M. discolor_,
_obovata_, or _purpurea_, and _M. fuscata_; the former two forming
handsome shrubs in the open ground, and having cup-shaped flowers which
are white within and purplish on the outside, and the latter being a
greenhouse plant, with brown very fragrant flowers.



The American species of Magnolia differ in having their flower-buds
enveloped in one long spathe-like bract, as shown in _fig._ 105. The
ovaries grow close together; and, when ripe, the carpels, which look
like the scales of a fir-cone (see _fig._ 106), burst by a slit down
the back; and the seeds, which are covered with a red juicy pulp, burst
out, and hang down by a long white thread, which in the course of a few
days withers away. The principal species of American Magnolias are the
evergreen Magnolia, or Big Laurel (_M. grandiflora_); the Umbrella Tree
(_M. tripetala_), which grows like a shrub with several stems rising
from the ground; the Cucumber-tree (_M. acuminata_), the flowers of
which are bluish and the leaves pointed; Beaver wood (_M. glauca_),
the flowers of which are small, and the leaves covered with a glaucous
bloom; _M. auriculata_, _M. pyramidata_ and _M. macrophylla_, which are
nearly allied to the Cucumber-tree; and _M. cordata_, the flowers of
which are yellowish. All these Magnolias produce their leaves before
their flowers; and in this also they differ from _M. conspicua_, the
flowers of which appear before the leaves.

The genus Liriodendron contains only two species differing slightly in
the leaves. Both are lofty trees, with cup-shaped flowers of six petals
curiously stained with red and yellow, and bent back at the tip. The
calyx consists of three sepals, which remain on as long as the petals.
The fruit is cone-shaped, but the carpels, which are each furnished
with a kind of wing, instead of opening when ripe, fall with the seed

The genus Talauma differs from Magnolia principally in the carpels,
which open irregularly by valves; and in the number of petals, which
vary from six to twelve. Only two species are common in British
hothouses, _T. Candolli_, commonly called _Magnolia odoratissima_; and
_T. pumila_, sometimes called _M. pumila_ and sometimes _Liriodendron
lilifera_: both are natives of Java, and both have cream-coloured, or
yellowish flowers, which are remarkably fragrant at night.


The hardy plants belonging to this order, that are well known in
Britain, were formerly included in the genus Anona; but now the only
species retained in that genus are stove plants, natives of the West
Indies, with yellowish brown or dark purple flowers, the calyx of
which is in three sepals, and the corolla in three or six thick fleshy
petals, and which have numerous stamens with large angular anthers,
and very short filaments. The carpels are numerous, but they grow
altogether into a fleshy eatable fruit, divided into many cells, each
containing one seed. This fruit is called the custard apple or sour sop
in the West Indies; and it differs in flavour in the different species,
but the most delicious kind is produced by _A. Cherimolia_, a native
of Peru. The hardy species included in Anona by Linnæus have been
separated from that genus, and formed into another under the name of
_Asimina_, the principal distinction between them being in the fruit;
which in the genus Asimina consists of two or three berry-like carpels
growing together, not eatable, and each containing many seeds. _A.
triloba_, the hardiest species, is a large shrub, with dark brownish
purple flowers. The plants in this order are all aromatic.


All the plants contained in this order are climbing exotic shrubs,
generally with drooping racemes of small delicate flowers, the male
and female flowers being on different plants. The number of sepals and
petals varies in the different genera, and sometimes the petals are
wanting. The stamens frequently grow together into a central column;
and the fruit is a drupe or one-seeded berry, generally scarlet, but
sometimes black. The principal plants in this order which are known
in England, are, _Menispermum canadensis_ (the Canadian Moon Seed), a
very ornamental hardy, climbing, shrub; _Cocculus palmatus_, the root
of which is a tonic drug, called Columba root; _Anamirta Cocculus_,
which produces the berries called _Cocculus indicus_ in the shops,
which are said to be used in porter to give it an intoxicating
property; _Schizandra coccinea_, a greenhouse climber with scarlet
flowers; and _Kadsura japonica_, a climbing shrub with white flowers
and red berries, which proves quite hardy in the open air. _Kadsura_,
_Schizandra_, and three other genera, little known in this country,
have been formed into a new order under the name of Schizandriaceæ. The
qualities of all these plants are tonic.



Each flower of the common Berberry (_Berberis vulgaris_) has on the
outside three little bracteal scales, which are reddish on the back,
and soon fall off. The flower itself consists of a corolla of six
petals, and a calyx of six sepals, though as these divisions are all of
the same size and shape, and of the same colour and texture, it is not
very easy to distinguish the calyx from the corolla. The petals will
however be found on examination to have each two little glands at the
base, as shown at _a_ in _fig._ 107, which the sepals are without. The
sepals are placed exactly behind the petals, so that the one appears a
lining of the other; and, being concave, the petals serve as a kind of
cradle to the stamens, as shown at _b_. There are six stamens, which
have broad filaments; and instead of anthers the filaments are widened
at the tip, and each contains two cases for the pollen (_c_); these
cases are each furnished with a valve-like lid (_d_), which opens and
curls back when the pollen is ripe. The pistil (_e_) is pitcher-shaped,
with a very thick style, and a flat stigma. It stands erect, while the
stamens are spread out so as to be a long way from it, but they are
so irritable that the slightest touch makes them spring forward and
discharge their pollen on the stigma, afterwards falling back into
their former places. The flowers are yellow, and they are produced in
long drooping racemes; and they are succeeded by red oblong berries
(_f_), each of which contains two seeds (_g_). The receptacle, with the
stamens growing out of it from beneath the pistil, is shown at _i_.
The common Berberries are all deciduous shrubs, with simple leaves,
which are produced in tufts, as shown in _fig._ 108, each leaf being
delicately fringed with hair-like teeth. Each tuft of leaves has two
or three sharply-pointed stipules, which are easily distinguished from
the leaves, by their margins being without teeth; and below these are
three spines, which, when young, are soft and look like folded leaves,
but which, when older, become hard, and sharply pointed. These spines
are considered by some botanists to be abortive branches. There are
many different kinds of Berberry, which differ principally in the size
of the flowers and in the colour of the fruit; but which also vary in
the size and shape of the leaves, and in the manner in which they are


The Ash-leaved Berberries were formed into a separate genus called
Mahonia by Nuttall; and this genus has been adopted by Professor de
Candolle, and other botanists. Dr. Lindley, however, includes all the
species in the genus Berberis, and he has been followed by Mr. George
Don in his new edition of Sweet’s _Hortus Britannicus_. Whether the
genus Mahonia be a good one or not, the plants composing it are very
distinct from the true Berberries. The leaves of the Mahonias are
evergreen, and pinnate; and the leaflets instead of being fringed
with fine hairs, are broadly serrated, the points being tipped by a
sharp prickle or mucro (see _a_ in _fig._ 109); and the petiole is
articulated, and somewhat stem-clasping at the base (_b_). The flowers
are in erect racemes, and smaller than those of the Berberry; they
are also more globular, being less widely opened, and the petals are
without any glands. The filaments of the stamens have two hair-like
teeth just below the lobes of the anthers; and the fruit has from
three to nine seeds in each berry; while the Berberries have only
one or two. There are many kinds of Magnolia, but the handsomest is
_M. Aquifolium_, a hardy shrub, with dark green shining leaves, like
the holly. All the species both of Berberis and Mahonia have yellow
flowers; and the Mahonias all flower very abundantly, and very early in


The principal other plants belonging to this order are, _Nandina
domestica_, a very pretty shrub with white flowers, from China, which
requires a greenhouse in England; several species of Epimedium, some
of which are from Japan, with purple and white flowers; a few species
of Leontice, pretty plants with yellow flowers; and a plant called
_Diphylleia cymosa_, with white flowers and blue berries, a native of
North America. All these plants are easily recognised by their broad
stamens, and the curling back of the valves of their anthers.


This order contains only two genera; viz., Podophyllum and Jeffersonia;
both of which have a calyx of three or four sepals, and a white corolla
of from six to nine petals. Podophyllum has numerous stamens, and a
fleshy berry with only one cell, which does not open when ripe; and
Jeffersonia has eight or nine stamens, and a capsule which opens all
round the apex. _Podophyllum peltatum_ is the May-apple, and its fruit
is eatable when ripe, though very acid; the leaves are very large,
and peltate, that is, with the footstalk attached to the centre; and
_Jeffersonia diphylla_ is a little plant, without any stem but that
which supports the flower. Both are natives of America, where they are
found in moist shady places.


This order, which many botanists combine with the preceding one, also
consists of only two genera; viz., _Cabomba_ and _Hydropeltis_; and of
these _Cabomba aquatica_ is a stove aquatic, and _Hydropeltis purpurea_
is a hardy water plant, with peltate leaves, and dull purple flowers.



The principal genera in this order are Nymphæa, Euryale, Victoria,
Nuphar, and Nelumbium. The flowers of the common White Water-lily
(_Nymphæa alba_) consist of numerous sepals, petals, and stamens, all
of which might be mistaken for petals, being principally distinguished
by their colour. The sepals, (_a_ in _fig_. 110,) are green on the
outside, but they are white within, and of the same fleshy substance
as the petals (_b_). The stamens (_c_) look like narrow yellow petals;
they are pointed, and bear the pollen in two lobes near the point,
which open longitudinally when ripe. The inner row of stamens are
without anthers, and form a kind of vandyke edging to the pistil, as
shown at _e_. The pistil consists generally of sixteen carpels, growing
together into a vase-like, many-celled berry, as shown at _d_; the
spreading stigmas, which have also grown together, forming a kind of
lid. The carpels are completely enclosed by the receptacle which rises
up round them, and forms a thick fleshy covering, as shown at _f_.
The seeds are numerous, and they are covered with a thick leathery
skin. The embryo is small, and it is surrounded by a great mass of
floury albumen. The leaves (_g_) are large and nearly round; and
the main root, which is called a rhizoma, is thick and fleshy, and
is, indeed, an underground stem. There are several kinds of Nymphæa,
the most remarkable of which is the Egyptian Lotos (_N. Lotos_), the
flowers of which are white tinged with pink; and both the roots and
seeds of which are eaten. _Euryale_ is a genus of South American
Water-lilies, generally with small flowers, and large rough leaves; and
_Victoria regina_, also a native of South America, is perhaps the most
magnificent Water-lily in the world; the leaf, which is peltate and
turned up at the brim, being of a deep crimson on its lower surface, is
upwards of six feet in diameter; and the flowers are more than a foot
in diameter, with a corolla of more than a hundred large white petals
tinged with pink.

The genus Nuphar consists of only three or four species, the most
common of which is _N. lutea_, the common yellow Water-lily, a native
of Britain. The flower has a cup-shaped calyx of five large yellow
sepals, the tips of which curve inwards. The petals are small,
truncate, and flat, with a small pore on the back of each; and the
stamens, which are very numerous, have broad petal-like filaments.
They differ, however, very much in appearance from those of the genus
Nymphæa, and they are differently placed, springing from the base
of the vase-like pistil, and not from the upper part. There are from
sixteen to twenty carpels enclosed in the dilated receptacle, to which
the stigmas form a ray-like cover; and each carpel contains several
seeds. The leaves are somewhat cordate, and rise rather above the
surface of the water, and the rhizoma, or root-stem, is very thick. The
common yellow Water-lily, or Brandy-bottle, as it is sometimes called
from the smell of its flowers, is common in every part of England, and
it is generally found in small ponds or ditches. The other species are
mostly natives of North America.

The Indian Lotos (_Nelumbium speciosum_) differs so much from both
the preceding genera, as to be considered by some botanists to form
a different natural order. The sepals and petals are so intermingled
in the flower as to be scarcely distinguishable; but the filaments of
the stamens are less broad and petal-like. The disk is still elevated,
but it has lost the vase-like form, and it appears as though the top
had been abruptly cut off; while the carpels are no longer joined
together, but are plunged each separately in the fleshy receptacle,
or torus, with their stigmas quite distinct. As the carpels are only
half immersed in the torus, and thus show their styles and stigmas,
they have a very singular and bottle-like appearance; and the torus,
when they are taken out of it, looks like a piece of honey-comb. The
rhizoma is white and fleshy. The stalks of the flowers and leaves
rise considerably above the water; and thus the flowers have not the
graceful appearance of those of the Nymphæa, which seem to repose on
the surface. The leaf is very large, being sometimes one or two feet
in diameter; and it is always peltate, with the stalk exactly in the
centre. There is only one seed in each carpel of the Nelumbium; and
this seed, which has no thick leathery skin, is of about the size
and shape of an acorn. It is very good to eat, having a sweet milky
flavour, and in botanical construction it resembles the common bean,
having no albumen, but a very large embryo. This is probably the reason
why it has been supposed to be the bean of Pythagoras, and why it is
called the Sacred Bean of India. One of the Hindoo fables represents
the god Bramah as first appearing in the form of a child, cradled on a
Lotos leaf, and floating on the waste of waters.

There are several kinds of Nelumbium, one of which, a native of
America, has double yellow flowers; and they all require a stove in


There is only one genus in this order, which can never be mistaken
for any other, from the pitcher-shaped petioles of its leaves, and
its singular flowers. It is a native of Canada, but it rarely flowers
without a stove in England. It is a dwarf plant, and it is thus easily
distinguished from the Chinese Pitcher plant, which grows eight or ten
feet high, and which belongs to quite a different order.


This tribe contains several genera, all of which have a thick glutinous
juice when broken, which poisons by stupifying. The genera most common
in British gardens are Papaver, the Poppy; Argemone, the Prickly Poppy;
Meconopsis, the Welsh Poppy; Sanguinaria, Blood-root; Eschscholtzia;
Hunnemania; Rœmeria; Glaucium, Horned Poppy; Chelidonium, Greater
Celandine or Swallow-wort; Hypecoum; Platystemon, and Platystigma. Most
of these plants are either annual, or last only two or three years, and
they have all very handsome flowers, which are generally large and of
showy colours.


The common Corn Poppy (_Papaver Rhœas_) has a showy flower, the corolla
of which consists of four very large scarlet petals, the outer two
much exceeding the others in size (see _a_ in _fig._ 111). The calyx
is green, and it is divided into only two sepals, (see _b_,) which
fall off soon after the expansion of the flower. The petals are all
curiously crumpled in the bud, and they present quite a wrinkled
appearance when the flowers are first opened. The stamens are very
numerous, and the anthers, which are black, are of the kind called
_innate_; that is, the filament is only attached to them at the lower
part (_c_). The seed-vessel of the Corn Poppy is, when ripe, a dry
leathery capsule (_d_) with numerous angles, each angle indicating a
carpel; for the capsule of the Poppy, though one-celled when ripe,
consists, in fact, of a number of carpels grown together. The remains
of these imperfect carpels are perceptible in the little valves shown
at _f_, which open at the top of each to discharge the seed when it is
ripe; and in the slightly-peaked cover (_e_), which consists of as many
stigmas grown together as there appear to have been carpels. When the
capsule is cut open (as shown in the capsule at _g_, from which the
fourth part has been removed), remains of the carpels will be found in
several projections from the sides, which partially divide the inside
of the capsule into several imperfect cells, in which the young seeds
are formed; though none of these portions reach the centre. The ovules,
when first formed in the ovary, are attached to these projections,
which are called parietal placentæ; but as the seeds ripen they become
loose, and if a dry Poppy-head be shaken, they will be found to rattle.
The leaves of the Corn Poppy are what is called pinnatifid, (see _h_
in _fig._ 111,) that is, they are so deeply cut as to appear almost
in separate leaflets; and the whole plant (except the petals and the
capsule) is covered with short bristly hairs (_i_), which stand out

The Opium Poppy (_Papaver somniferum_) differs from the Corn Poppy in
several respects. First, the whole plant is glabrous, that is, devoid
of either hairs or bristles; the capsule also is much larger and more
fleshy in an unripe state, and the crown-like lid is smoother, and
curved over like a plume of feathers, (see _a_ in _fig._ 112.)


The fleshiness of the unripe seed-vessel of the Poppy puzzled me
extremely at first, as I knew that the ripe capsule of this Poppy is
always dry and leathery; but it was soon explained to me, that this
fleshy substance is, in fact, an elongation of the receptacle or disk,
which rises up round the carpels, and envelops them, in the same way
as the disk of the Water-lily grows round the pistil and carpels of
that plant, but which dries up as the fruit ripens. The leaves of the
Opium Poppy (_b_) differ from those of the Corn Poppy, in being much
broader, and only slightly cut or notched; they are also glaucous, that
is, of a bluish or sea-green, and they are clasped round the stem at
their base (as shown at _c_). All the Papaveraceæ abound in a thick
glutinous juice, which in the Poppies has the colour and appearance
of milk, and which possesses stupifying properties; but in the Opium
Poppy this juice is particularly abundant. Opium is, in fact, procured
by wounding the fleshy capsule with a sharp knife, and suffering the
milky juice which exudes to dry in the sun; after which it is scraped
off with a blunt instrument, and pressed into cakes for sale. The opium
of commerce is produced in hot countries; but even in England, any one
who chooses may procure a small quantity of opium, by wounding the
fleshy capsule of the common White Poppy when it is about half ripe. A
milky juice will issue from the wound, which when dry becomes opium,
and would be poisonous if taken in excess. The capsule of the White or
Opium Poppy has, when ripe, a little window-like opening under each
stigma for the discharge of the seeds, which contain abundance of oil,
and may be safely eaten, though the rest of the plant is poisonous.

There are many different kinds of Poppy; but they all agree in the
corolla of their flowers being in four petals, or in some number
divisible by four; and in the calyx, which is generally in two sepals,
dropping off as soon as the flowers expand. All the species abound in
a milky juice, which poisons by stupifying; and they all agree in the
general construction of the capsule, with its fleshy envelop and its
stigma-formed lid. The petals are always crumpled in the bud, and they
fall very soon, so that the beauty of the flowers is very short-lived.
The flower-buds droop; but when the flowers expand, the stalk becomes
erect, and remains so while the capsule containing the seeds is
ripening; a wise provision, common to many plants, to prevent the seeds
from falling too soon. The calyx of most of the Poppies is in only two
sepals; but in the two showy perennial species, called _P. orientale_
and _P. bracteatum_, the calyx is in three sepals.

Among the other plants belonging to the order Papaveraceæ, may be
mentioned the Horned Poppy (_Glaucium luteum_), which, instead of an
obovate capsule, has a long horn-like pod, divided into two cells, the
valves opening from the top to the bottom. The whole plant is glaucous;
and the leaves, which are broad and notched, clasp the stem at their
base, like those of the Opium Poppy. The Prickly Poppy (_Argemone
mexicana_) has the whole plant covered with strong prickles; the leaves
are wrinkled and curved up at the margin; the calyx has three sepals;
and the capsules are in four or five valves, the stigmas forming a kind
of cross at the top. The stem and leaves when bruised give out a thick
glutinous juice, which, instead of being white like that of the Poppy,
is yellow.

The Eschscholtzia is the last genus of the order Papaveraceæ that I
shall mention here, and it deserves a particular description, both from
its popularity and the beauty of its flowers, and from the singularity
of its botanical construction. The bud when it first appears is
enfolded in a calyx, which is pointed at its upper extremity, and
appears to have a kind of rim near its base. When the flower is ready
to expand, the calyx detaches itself all round from the projecting
rim, and rises gradually without opening, till the flower actually
pushes it off. The detached calyx resembles an extinguisher, and hence
it is called calyptrate, which has that signification. The flower is
cup-shaped; there are four petals and four stigmas, two of which are
much longer than the others. The capsules are elongated like those
of the Horned Poppy, but they are distinguished by the projection
of the flat fleshy disk at their base; they are two-valved and
two-celled. The leaves are glaucous, and finely cut. There are three
species, or perhaps varieties, which differ principally in the degree
of enlargement of the receptacle or disk. They have all large fleshy
roots, which bleed copiously if wounded, and for this reason the plants
are difficult to remove unless when quite young.


The flowers of plants of this order are so peculiar in their shape, as
when once seen to be easily remembered. There are two small sepals,
which soon fall off, and four petals of an irregular shape, two of them
being drawn out into a kind of spur. There are six stamens, and the
fruit is silique-formed. The plants have somewhat of a smoky smell, and
when broken yield a watery juice. The principal genera are Fumaria,
Corydalis, and Diclytra.



[Illustration: FIG. 114.—A SILLICLE.]

The Cruciferous plants form so natural an order, that when one of them
has been described the others may be easily recognised. They have all
a separate calyx and corolla, each in four divisions; the four sepals
being placed alternately with the four petals, the latter forming a
cross (as shown at _a_ in _fig._ 113), whence the name of Cruciferous,
which signifies cross-bearing. There are six stamens (_b_), two of
which are much shorter than the others; and two carpels with one style,
and a capitate or divided stigma. The seed-vessel is a kind of pod,
either short and broad, like that of the Shepherd’s Purse (_fig._ 114),
where it is called a sillicle; or long and narrow, like that of the
Cabbage, which is called a silique. The two valves of the silique open
naturally when ripe, from the bottom curving upwards, (see _fig._ 115,)
and the seeds are deposited on a thin membrane between the cells, which
is the dissepiment. All the Cruciferæ, from abounding in nitrogen,
have an unpleasant smell when decaying, like putrid flesh; and when
cultivated, they even in a wild state require abundance of animal
manure; hence, they are generally found near human habitations, or
where cattle are kept. When wild, they have generally acrid properties;
and though these are in most cases softened by cultivation, yet they
are still perceptible in the roots of the Horse-Radish, and the common
Radish, and in the leaves and seeds of Mustard, and the different
kinds of Cress, &c. This acridity, however, is never so great as to
be injurious; and Cruciferous plants, particularly if their texture
be succulent and watery, may always be eaten with perfect safety.
Even those which, in a wild state, are tough and stringy, such as the
wild Cabbage and the root of the wild Turnip, become excellent by
cultivation; and all Cruciferous plants are so extremely nourishing as
to be considered next in this quality to animal food.

[Illustration: FIG. 115.—A SILIQUE.]

Among the many garden flowers which belong to this order, few are
more popular than the common Wallflower (_Cheiranthus Cheiri_). Its
hardiness, and the facility with which it is raised and cultivated—the
gaiety of its flowers, their profusion, and their delightful fragrance,
combine to make it a general favourite; and I think I cannot take
a flower to illustrate the order which is more generally known and
liked. The flowers of the Wallflower (see _fig._ 116, _a_) consist of
four petals, each of which is furnished with a long tapering point,
called the claw (_b_), and a broad flat part called the limb (_c_).
The claws of the petals are buried in a calyx of four sepals, placed
alternately to the petals, and somewhat swelled out at the base, (see
_d_). The stigma (_e_) is two-lobed, and forms a kind of notched head.
There are six stamens, which appear at first to be all nearly of the
same height, but on examination it will be found that two are somewhat
shorter than the others. The seed-vessel is of course the lower part
of the pistil; which, after the petals drop, becomes elongated into a
somewhat cylindrical silique, which contains several flattish seeds.
[Illustration: FIG. 116.—FLOWERS OF THE WALLFLOWER.]


The Brompton Stock (_Mathiola incana_), and the Ten-week Stock (_M.
annua_), differ from the Wallflower principally in the shape of the
stigma (see _fig._ 117, _a_). The petals have also rather longer claws,
and hang looser, as shown at _b_. The Virginian Stock (_Malcomia
maritima_) has a roundish silique, and only one stigma, which ends in
a long tapering point. The Candytuft (_Iberis umbellata_) has a short
pod or sillicle, which has the appearance of being cut off at the
point, and which contains only one seed in each cell; and the outer
two petals of the flower are somewhat larger than the inner ones. Many
other Cruciferous plants might be described, but I think my readers
will have pleasure in seeking them out themselves, and examining them,
to discover their points of agreement and of difference; particularly
as, though the order is such a very large one, the flowers of all the
plants are so much alike, that no one can be in doubt respecting their


The common Mignonette (_Reseda odorata_) was once included in the order
Capparideæ; but it is now made into a little order by itself, called
Resedaceæ. The flower, as is well known, is by no means remarkable
for its beauty, though it is for its fragrance; but when examined
botanically, it will be found well deserving of attention, from the
singularity of its construction. It has a green calyx of six sepals,
which are only remarkable for being what botanists call linear; that
is, long and narrow, and of equal width throughout—a very unusual
form for sepals. Within the calyx are the petals, six fleshy, green,
heart-shaped bodies; with a hair-like fringe round the lower part,
and with the upper part cut into a tuft of segments so different in
colour and texture from the lower part, that it is scarcely possible
to believe that they are one. This upper part of the petal is called
the crest, and it is pure white; the segments into which it is divided
appearing to be a great number of delicate little petals growing out of
a fleshy heart-shaped disk.

It is worth gathering a flower of Mignonette, and taking off one of the
petals to look at it in a microscope; and one of moderate size, which
may be bought for 12_s._ at the Bazaars, will be quite sufficient for
the purpose. It will then be found that the fleshy part of the petal
is as easily detached from the rest of the flower as petals usually
are, but that it is so firmly fixed to the crest as to be inseparable
without cutting. The disk is, however, dilated and curiously drawn out
between the stamens which are inserted in its base, and the petals, as
though to form a barrier between them. It will be quite visible when
the petals are removed, as it is as firmly attached to the stalk of
the flower as the petals are to their crests. Between this elevated
part of the disk and the calyx is a green substance which looks like
a part of the stalk, but which belongs to the disk. There are twelve
stamens, with large orange-coloured anthers, which are at first erect,
but afterwards bend forward horizontally; and in the middle of the
stamens is the ovary, an oblong hollow cell, with a three-lobed stigma,
forming three erect points. Inside the ovary from each stigma runs the
kind of nerve called the placenta, and to each nerve are attached three
rows of seeds. The substance of the ovary is always soft and leaf-like,
even when it becomes a ripe capsule; and though it is greatly swelled
out and bladdery, it retains the same leaf-like and somewhat wrinkled
appearance to the last. When the capsule is ripe, each of the pointed
lobes, which formed its upper extremity, opens down the middle, thus
forming a curious three-cornered mouth for the discharge of the seed.
The flowers form what is called an upright raceme, springing from a
succulent main stem, which is, however, somewhat woody at the base. The
plant indeed, though treated in England as an annual, is a shrub in the
plains of Barbary, of which it is a native; and even in this country
it may be made to assume the character of a small tree, by keeping it
during winter in a hothouse or greenhouse. I was very much surprised
to find that Mignonette has been introduced barely a century; and it
seems difficult to imagine how those of our ancestors who were fond
of flower-gardens contrived to do without it. I have only to add that
there are several species of Reseda, one of which (_R. luteola_) is a
British plant used in dyeing, and is called Dyer’s Weed, or Weld.


There is only one genus of three species, which are coarse hardy
perennials, having the appearance of hemp; and only grown in England in
botanic gardens.


This order is divided into two sections, viz., the true Capers, and
the Cleomes; both of which have very long and conspicuous stamens. The
common Caper (_Capparis spinosa_) has a large and handsome flower,
with a distinct calyx and corolla, both in four parts. The petals are
white, and so delicate in their texture as to fade in a few hours if
exposed to the sun; and the stamens, which are very numerous, have rich
purple filaments. In the centre is the pistil, with a very long stalk,
and the ovary at the point, instead of at the base, with no style, and
a very small stigma. In consequence of this curious construction, the
seed-pod, which is fleshy, and hangs downwards, appears to be on a much
longer stalk than the flower. The shrub is spiny, and in its natural
habitat it grows among stones and rocks. It is the unopened flower-buds
that are pickled. The genus Cleome consists principally of annuals,
with very handsome flowers, which have very long stamens, and a pistil
of the same construction as in Capparis, but the fruit is a dry
capsule. The anthers of the stamens are often enfolded in the flowers
before they are fully expanded, so that the filaments appear bent, till
at last they open fully and hang down. There are a few other genera in
the order, but they are little known in England.


The plants belonging to this order are mostly Indian plants, little
known in Europe.


_Bixa Orellana_ is a shrub, a native of South America, which requires
a bark stove in England. It has pink flowers with five petals, and a
green calyx of as many sepals. The stamens are numerous; but they are
on rather short filaments. The leaves are very large and heart-shaped.
The fruit is a berry, and the pulp in which the seeds are immersed,
when dry, is the Arnotta used in colouring cheese.


There are only four genera in this order, viz., Cistus, Helianthemum,
Hudsonia, and Lechea; and though there are almost innumerable plants
comprised in it, they nearly all belong to the first two.

All the plants belonging to the genera Cistus, the Rock-rose, and
Helianthemum, the Sun-rose, have showy flowers, each having five
petals, which are crumpled in the bud like those of the Poppy; they
also resemble the petals of the Poppy tribe in falling almost as soon
as they have expanded, as every one must have observed who has noticed
the flowers of a Gum-Cistus. The calyx in both Cistus and Helianthemum
generally consists of five sepals, two of which are larger and of a
paler green than the others, and grow a little below them; and this
calyx remains on after the petals have fallen, and, indeed, till the
seed is ripe. In the Gum-Cistus, however, and some other species, the
two outer sepals are wanting. There are a great many stamens, which are
rather short, and form a tuft in the centre of the flower, surrounding
the pistil, which has a round flat-headed stigma, a rather long style,
and an ovary divided into five cells. The seeds are numerous, and each
has a separate footstalk, by which it is attached to the placentas,
which, in the Cistus tribe, are in the centre of the ovary, and not
proceeding from its sides, as in the Mignonette. The capsule, which
remains covered with the calyx till it is quite ripe, divides into five
or ten concave valves, each having a placenta, to which the seeds were
attached, in its centre. The seed of any plant belonging to the order
Cistaceæ, is remarkable when cut open for the great size of the embryo
enclosed in it, and the curious manner in which it is curled up. The
embryo is the germ of the future plant, and it is usually buried in a
great mass of albumen, or floury matter intended for the nourishment of
the young plant, till its roots are in a fit state to supply it with
nourishment. In the seed of the Cistus, there is scarcely any albumen;
but in its stead a long narrow embryo, coiled up like a sleeping snake.

The Gum-Cistus is generally called, in the nurseries, Cistus
ladaniferus; but it differs materially from the plant so named by
Linnæus, as that has a ten-celled capsule, while the capsule of the
common Gum-Cistus (which botanists call _C. Cyperius_) has only five
cells. The leaves also differ, the under surface of those of the one
kind being woolly, and of the other smooth; the one is also a native
of Spain and Portugal, and the other, as the specific name imports, of
Cyprus. Both species, and also _C. Ledon_, exude from their stems and
leaves, a kind of gum or resin called Ladanum or Labdanum, which is
used in medicine. It is from this gum having been formerly always mixed
with opium when that drug was dissolved in spirits of wine, that the
name of laudanum is given to the tincture of opium.

The two genera, Cistus and Helianthemum, differ chiefly in the
capsule, which in the latter genus is triangular and one-celled,
opening into three valves, each of which has a narrow dissepiment down
its centre. To prevent any confusion arising from the use of these
terms, I may here observe that when a capsule is divided into several
cells, having no communication with each other, the membranes that
separate them are called dissepiments; while the nerve-like part of it
to which the seeds are attached is named the placenta. Sometimes the
placenta is merely a nerve running down the side of the capsule, when
the capsule is one-celled, without any dissepiment or division; and
sometimes the dissepiment does not spread across the capsule so as to
divide it into different cells, but only projects a little way from the
side towards the centre, as in the one-celled capsule of the Poppy,
(see p. 260,) and in that of the Helianthemum, when the seed-vessel
opens naturally into different parts, as in the Gum Cistus, these parts
are called valves, as are also the parts of pods, as shown in the
curled-up valves of the silique, _fig._ 115, in p. 268.

To return to the Helianthemum, the species of this genus are generally
used for rockwork, as they are all dwarf plants, though many of the
genus Cistus are large shrubs four or five feet high. The English name
of the Helianthemum, Sun-rose, is very appropriate, as the flowers
will only expand in sunshine, and will even decay in the bud without
opening at all, when gloomy weather lasts for several days.


The order Violaceæ, though not a large one, contains several genera,
but the most interesting is the genus Viola, which includes among many
other species the Sweet Violet (_Viola odorata_), and the Heartsease
(_V. tricolor_). The flowers of both species have many claims to
admiration, but they do not add the charm of regularity in construction
to their other attractions, as, in fact, few flowers are less
symmetrical. The flowers of both are nearly alike in their details;
but to avoid confusion, I will describe them separately. The calyx of
the Heartsease consists of five pointed distinct sepals, two of them
rather smaller than the others. These sepals are not attached, as in
most other plants, at their base; but so as to leave nearly a quarter
of their length standing up, far beyond the place where they are fixed
to the receptacle, so as to form a sort of border or cup round the
stem, and between it and the flower. The sepals are green, but they
are edged with a delicate whitish membrane at the margin, scarcely to
be seen without a microscope. There are five petals which are also
irregular in their construction, two of them being much larger than
the others, and generally of a different colour; and one even of the
other three being quite different in form to its companions. The two
large petals at the back of the flower, which in the common Heartsease
are generally dark purple, are laid over each other, and behind the
two below them. These two side-petals, which form the centre of the
flower, are both furred at the base; and the lower petal, which is
placed between them, has its claw drawn out behind into a spur, which
passes between two of the sepals; and which, when the flower is looked
at from behind, appears to be part of the calyx. The furred part of the
two side-petals forms a triangular, roof-like opening, peeping out of
which, is seen a small pale-green ball-like substance, which a fanciful
imagination might liken to a head looking through a dormer window;
and this is all that is to be seen in place of the usual apparatus of
stamens and pistils. As all seed-producing flowers must have stamens
and pistils, and as it is well known that Heartseases and Violets do
produce seed in abundance, it is clear that these important organs are
not wanting; but where are they? It is easy to guess, after being so
far initiated in the mysteries of botany, that the little globular body
is a part of the pistil; but where are the stamens? It is necessary
to pull the flower to pieces to discover them. Commencing this work of
destruction, which I always feel remorse at perpetrating, for I love
flowers too well not to feel pain at destroying them; commencing this
work, I repeat, the petals and the sepals must be carefully removed
from the stem; a task of some little difficulty, as both sepals and
petals are firmly attached to the receptacle, and the lower petal must
have its spur opened with a pin to avoid hurting the delicate organs
it contains. When the outer coverings of calyx and corolla are thus
both removed, the seed-producing organs will be discovered, and it
will be found that they consist of five very curiously-formed stamens,
with as singular a pistil, in their centre. The stamens have no
apparent filaments, and the anthers, which seem to be inserted in the
receptacle, look like seeds, each tipped with a bit of brown skin, and
having what appears to be a white rib in front. This rib is the anther;
and the broader part is the dilated filament, which is drawn out beyond
it, on both sides, and above, so as to form the brown tip above the
anther already mentioned. Two of the anthers have each, in addition to
these peculiarities, a long tail, which the spur of the lower petal
concealed, when the flower was in a perfect state. The pistil consists
of a large ovary, full of ovules, with a narrow style, which is drawn
out into the hollow globular termination which is seen through the
triangular opening in the flower. The globe has an opening in front,
under which is a kind of lip, which looks like a shutter let down to
show the opening; and though, from its thick fleshy nature, it looks
like a stigma, it is only the outer covering of that organ, for the
stigma lies within the opening. In this manner the stigma and anthers
are completely concealed; and thus it will be seen, that nothing can be
more complex and intricate than the construction of the flowers of the

Who could suppose that all these elaborate details would be necessary
to illustrate so simple a flower as that of the Violet? And yet the
construction of the flowers of the Violet and those of the Heartsease
are essentially the same. The sepals of the Violet are extended at
the base, like those of the Heartsease, and the corolla consists of
the same number of petals, which are equally irregular in their form,
though not in their colour; the lower petal is drawn out, in the same
manner, into a spur, which is much longer than that of the Heartsease,
though the rest of the flower is smaller. The stamens are formed with
the same regular irregularity, only the tails of the two irregular
ones are larger and stronger, in the same proportion as the spur is
larger which is intended to conceal them. The pistil is of the same
shape, with the same curiously constructed and perforated style, which
is bent in its narrow part and swelled out into a hollow globe at the
tip; and in both species, the ovary is one-celled with three parietal
placentas, that is, with three nerve-like projections from the sides of
the capsule, having four rows of seeds attached to each. The capsule
looks like a smooth shining berry, and it remains partially shrouded by
the calyx, till the seeds are ripe; when it bursts open with an elastic
spring, and divides into three valves, each of which has the placenta
bearing the seeds in its centre.

In all these points the Heartsease and the Violet are alike; but they
differ materially in the leaves, which in the Violet are broad and
heart-shaped, without stipules; but in the Heartsease are small and
ovate, with such very large and deeply-cut stipules, that they are
by most persons mistaken for the leaves. I may here be asked what
are stipules, and in what do they differ from leaves? In answer to
the first question, I can only inform my readers that stipules are
generally little leaf-like bodies, which seem to act as attendants upon
leaves, as bracts seem to wait upon flowers; but in what they differ
from leaves, except in size and shape, I have not been able to learn.
Even Dr. Lindley in the last edition of his Introduction to Botany,
says, “What stipules really are is not well made out.”

The Heartsease and the Violet differ also in their habit of growth.
The Violet is a creeping plant with no stalks but those supporting
the flowers, while the Heartsease stands erect, with a thick square
stem, so strong, that, notwithstanding its succulent nature, it may be
trained like a little tree.


There are three genera in this tribe that are well known: _Drosera_,
the Sun-dew; _Dionæa muscipula_, Venus’s Fly-trap; and _Parnassia
palustris_, the Grass of Parnassus; all bog plants. The species of the
genus Drosera are remarkable for the curious manner in which the leaves
and peduncles are coiled up when they first appear, and in which they
slowly unroll themselves as they grow. They are also beautifully edged
with a sort of fringe of glandular red hairs, and a fluid exudes from
these glands which makes them always appear as though covered with
dew. The common Sun-dew (_D. rotundifolia_) is a British plant, with
short roundish leaves; but other species are natives of New Holland
and North America; and several of them have long slender leaves like
threads. Venus’s Fly-trap (_Dionæa muscipula_) is a native of Carolina,
in North America; the leaves are curiously formed of two lobes, which
close and open as if hinged, and they are furnished with glandular
hairs, which are so extremely irritable as to make the leaves close at
the slightest touch, and thus to imprison any unfortunate insect that
may be within the lobes. The petiole is so much dilated as to look like
a leaf, but the real leaf consists of only the two roundish lobes edged
with teeth that form the Fly-trap. The flowers are white, and they are
produced in corymbs. The corolla has five petals, which do not fall
off when they wither, but roll up so as to look like the cocoon of an


The genus Polygala is well known from the very handsome greenhouse
plants which it contains. The flowers at first sight appear to resemble
those of the Sweet Pea, having two wings like a standard, and a sort of
keel; their construction is, however, very curious, and so complicated,
as to be very difficult either to describe or to understand. The calyx
is said by modern botanists to consist of five sepals, three of which
are green and two lilac, these last being the part that resembles
the standard of the Sweet Pea. The corolla is also said to consist
of five petals, two of which stand erect, and the other three grow
together to form the keel. The latter have their upper part cut into
a kind of crest, like that of the Mignonette. Below the crest, the
united petals form a kind of hood, under which are arranged the eight
stamens, four on each side. The stamens themselves are as remarkable
as the other parts of the flower; the filaments grow together into a
thin kind of leaf, and each anther has but one cell, and opens by a
pore at the apex. The pistil is also very curiously formed, as the
style and stigma have the appearance of a gaping monopetalous corolla.
The fruit is a flat two-celled capsule, which, when ripe, opens by two
lips, separating from each other, and showing a seed within each cell.
Even the seeds are not like other seeds, for each has a large white
protuberance at one end, called a corancula.


Slender New Holland shrubs, with the habit of Heaths, rarely met with
in British gardens.


The principal genera included in this order are Pittosporum,
Billardiera and Sollya, all resinous shrubs, with alternate leaves
without stipules, and the sepals and petals, each five in number, and
laid over each other like scales in the bud. The seeds are numerous,
and immersed in fibrous pulp. The commonest species of Pittosporum is
_P. Tobira_, a native of China, easily known by its thick leathery
leaves, the midribs of which are strongly marked, and whitish. The
flowers are erect, and produced in cymes or heads; and the petals are
united into a tube with a spreading limb. The capsule is one-celled,
and two or three valved, with an imperfect dissepiment in the centre
of each valve; and the seeds are numerous, and buried in a resinous
fibrous pulp. The Billardieras are generally climbing shrubs, with pale
greenish bell-shaped, and almost erect flowers, which are produced
singly or in pairs, and which have the tips of their petals turned
back. The fruit is a fleshy berry, with a shining skin of a deep blue,
and it is called the Apple Berry in Australia, of which country the
species are natives. This fruit is said to be eaten in Australia, but
it seems difficult to imagine how this can be the case; as though
the outer part of the berry is of a soft spongy nature, it is dry and
insipid; and there is no internal pulp, for the seeds lie loose in the
cells. In _Sollya heterophylla_ the flowers are drooping, on long and
very slender pedicels, and they are produced in cymes. The corolla is
campanulate, with the tips of the petals not recurved, and the anthers
are much shorter than in Billardiera. The fruit is a soft fleshy berry,
divided into two cells, each containing two rows of seeds immersed in
pulp, and when cut open, it smells strongly of turpentine. The plant
generally called _Sollya linearis_ has a dry and leathery pericardium;
and for this reason and on account of the spreading of its anthers,
it was placed by Mr. Cunningham in a new genus, which he called


The genus Frankenia consists principally of the British weeds called
Sea Heath; and the other genera included in the order are seldom seen
in British gardens, from the seeds which have been imported seldom
arriving in a state fit for vegetation.


The plants belonging to this order have so strong a family likeness to
each other as to be easily recognised; and they are all distinguished
botanically by the swollen joints of their stems, and their opposite
undivided leaves, which are generally connate, that is united, and
sheathing the stem. The order is divided into two sections, viz.:
Sileneæ, in which the sepals are united into a tube, and which
section includes the genera Silene, Dianthus, Saponaria, Lychnis, and
Agrostemma; and Alsineæ, in which the sepals are either quite distinct,
or only slightly cohering at the base, and which includes Stellaria,
Arenaria, Cerastium, Spergula, and several other British weeds. The
Chickweed was called by Linnæus _Alsine media_, but the genus Alsine is
now united to Stellaria.

[Illustration: FIG. 118.—THE CARNATION.]

The Wild or Clove Carnation (_Dianthus Caryophyllus_), which may be
considered the type of the order, has an erect stem, swollen at the
joints, with connate leaves, (see _a_ in _fig._ 118). The flower, when
single, consists of five petals, each with a very long narrow claw
(_b_), and a rather broad limb or blade (_c_) serrated at the edge.
The calyx (_f_) is tubular, with five vandyked teeth, which are in
fact the tips of five sepals, into which the tube of the calyx may be
easily divided with a pin. The tubular form of the calyx is admirably
contrived to support the long claws of the petals, and to keep them in
their proper places; particularly when the flowers are double, as the
weight of the petals in that case frequently bursts the tube of the
calyx. Every one fond of pinks and carnations must have observed the
miserable appearance of the flower when thus deprived of its natural
support; and to prevent the premature destruction of prize-flowers by
this misfortune, professed florists sometimes slip a curiously-cut
piece of card-board over the bud, which remains on after the expansion
of the flower, and prevents the petals from falling out of place. Some
florists tie the calyx round with thread, instead of using a pasteboard
ring, which answers the same purpose. At the base of the calyx are
two, four, or six leafy appendages (_g_), resembling bracts, which
are called the calycine scales. These imbricated scales are, however,
only found in the genus Dianthus. There are ten stamens (_d_) unequal
in height, but none of them longer than the ovary round which they
are placed. The ovary and the stamens are concealed in the cup of the
flower, but the former is furnished with two styles, terminating in two
long stigmas (_e_), which project beyond the flower, and which, when
magnified, appear delicately fringed.

The genus Dianthus includes the Carnation, the Pink (_Dianthus
plumarius_), the Chinese Pink (_D. sinensis_), the Sweet William (_D.
barbatus_), and many ornamental flowers. Of these the Sweet William has
the claws of its petals bearded; the flowers are produced in bundles
or fascicles; and the calycine scales are so numerous and awl-shaped,
that they give a bristly appearance to the flowers. The different
species of Soap-wort (_Saponaria_) differ from Dianthus, in having
no calycine scales; and this is also the case with the berry-bearing
Campion (_Cucubalus baccifer_), the fruit of which is a fleshy capsule
or berry, which finally becomes black, and has a singular appearance
in the centre of the cup-like calyx, which remains on till the fruit
is ripe. The flower of this plant is white, and the petals have a
two-cleft limb. All the numerous species of Catchfly (_Silene_) are
also without calycine scales, and the petals are generally deeply
two-cleft; but they are distinguished by having a crown of petal-like
scales in the throat of the corolla. There are also three styles
instead of two; and the capsules are three-celled at the base, ending
in six teeth at the top. The species have frequently a glutinous frothy
moisture on the stem, in which flies sometimes become entangled, and
hence the English name of the genus. One species, the Bladder Campion
(_S. inflata_), has been used as food, and its young shoots, when
boiled and sent to table like Asparagus, are said to have the flavour
of green peas. The different species of Lychnis and Agrostemma resemble
Silene closely in every respect, except in the styles, which are five,
instead of three; these two genera, Viscaria, and Githago, differ
very slightly from each other; and several of the species are known
by different names: thus Ragged Robin (_Lychnis flos cuculi_) is made
by some botanists an Agrostemma; the Corn-cockle is sometimes called
_Githago segetum_, and sometimes _Agrostemma Githago_; the common Rose
Campion is called sometimes Lychnis, and sometimes Agrostemma; and the
Rock Lychnis, or Red German Catchfly, sometimes _Lychnis Viscaria_, and
sometimes _Viscaria vulgaris_.


The order Linaceæ is a very small one; and, indeed, it consists
principally of the genus Linum. The Flax was formerly included in the
Caryophyllaceæ, which it resembles in having five petals, five sepals,
and five stamens; but it also resembles the Mallow in its capsules, and
in its stamens growing together at the base; and the Cistus in its
persistent calyx, and the disposition of its sepals. These links, which
connect one order with another, and make them appear alike but not the
same, form, I think, one of the most interesting parts of the Natural
System. We are led on from one gradation to another, by scarcely
perceptible shades of difference through the vegetable kingdom; and,
indeed, through the whole system of creation: the beautiful harmony,
and unity of design, visible throughout, bearing the strong impress of
the Divinity whose power has made the whole.

The common Flax (_Linum usitatissimum_), though in its appearance only
an insignificant weed, is a plant of great benefit to man. The fibres
of the stem are used to make linen, and the seeds (linseed) are crushed
for oil. The flowers are blue, and have five regularly-shaped petals,
which are twisted in the bud; and a distinct calyx of five pointed
sepals, two of which grow from a little below the others, as in the
Gum Cistus; and, as in that plant, the calyx remains on till the seeds
are ripe. There are five stamens, the filaments of which grow together
slightly at the base, and there are five little points like filaments
without anthers, rising between the stamens. The petals are connected
with the ring formed by the united filaments, and sometimes the petals
themselves grow slightly together at the base. The capsule consists of
five two-celled carpels, grown together; each cell containing one seed,
and each carpel terminating in a rather slender style, tipped with a
ball-like stigma. When ripe, the capsule opens naturally, by dividing
into ten valves, to discharge the seeds; which are flat and shining,
with a large embryo. These seeds are called Linseed in the shops, from
Linum, the botanical name of the plant; and, as is well known, they are
not only used for various purposes, but oil is expressed from them. The
stem of the common Flax, though it is only an annual, consists of woody
fibre, like that of a tree in its young state; and it is this fibrous
part that makes the yarn for thread, after it has been separated from
the fleshy part, by steeping the stems for a long time in water. The
perennial Flax (_Linum perenne_), which, as its name imports, lasts
several years, differs in little else from the common kind, except that
its sepals are obtuse, and its leaves are much smaller and narrower.
Both these are natives of Britain. There are many other species, some
of which have yellow flowers.



All the plants belonging to Malvaceæ bear so much resemblance to each
other, that this order may be considered a very natural one; and it
is one very remarkable for the botanical construction of its flowers.
In some respects it resembles Linaceæ, quite enough indeed to show
clearly the chain by which they are so beautifully linked together;
but in others, it differs so decidedly as to show how completely they
are distinct. _Fig._ 119, which represents the flower and seed-vessel
of the Althæa frutex (_Hibiscus syriacus_), will serve to show the
chief peculiarities of this order. The calyx consists of five sepals,
below which is an involucrum of six or seven leaflets, which have the
appearance of a second calyx. The corolla is cup-shaped, and consists
of five petals, which are close together at the base, and this is
peculiar to the genus Hibiscus. The capsule is round and somewhat
convex, being nearly in the shape of what is called a batch-cake,
as shown at _c_; it consists of five carpels grown together, each
containing many seeds; and when ripe, it bursts naturally into five
valves, each of which has a dissepiment down the centre. The filaments
grow together very curiously, inclosing the styles, and forming a
column in the centre of the flower, which is the distinguishing mark
of the Malvaceæ. Some of the stamens are shorter than others, and as
part of each filament is detached, the anthers form the fringe-like
border to the column, shown at _d_. The anthers are kidney-shaped
and one-celled, and this is another of the characteristics of the
order; but the styles are terminated by five ball-shaped stigmas, like
those of the Linum. There are many kinds of Hibiscus; but perhaps the
best known are: _H. rosa sinensis_, the species which is so often
represented in Chinese drawings, and the petals of which are so
astringent, that they are said to be used in China by the men to black
their shoes, and by the women to dye their hair; and the Bladder Ketmia
(_H. Trionum_), which takes its English name from its inflated capsule.
All the plants belonging to the order Malvaceæ have a central column,
round which are placed numerous carpels, which grow together and form
a many-celled capsule; and they all have kidney-shaped, one-celled
anthers. They have also always an involucrum below the calyx, but
this involucrum differs in the different genera. In the genus Malva,
the involucrum consists of three leaflets, which in the common Mallow
(_Malva sylvestris_) are oblong. The petals are wedge-shaped, and they
are what botanists call auricled; that is, they are set so far apart at
the base that light can be seen through them. The stamens are all of
nearly the same height, and they form a kind of bunch round the styles,
which are pointed. The capsule consists of a circle of woolly-looking
carpels growing close together, but so as to be easily detached with a
pin, and each fitting into a little groove in the receptacle, in which
they are placed. As the seeds ripen, the involucrum falls off, but the
large loose-looking calyx remains on. There is only one seed in each
carpel; but as there are generally eleven carpels in each capsule,
each seed-vessel contains this number of seeds. The leaves are lobed
and toothed; and the whole plant is covered with long hairs, which are
disposed in little star-like tufts.

The genus Malope closely resembles the Mallow; except that the petals
are not wedge-shaped, and that it has a still larger calyx, the long
sepals of which shroud the capsule as the involucre of the filbert
does the nut. The involucrum is composed of three broad, heart-shaped
leaflets, which remain on till the seed is ripe. The petals are also
not so even along the margin; and the carpels are so disposed as to
form a cone-shaped capsule, instead of a flat one.

The genus Lavatera has the leaflets of the involucre joined to the
middle, so as to form a kind of three-cornered saucer below the
capsule; and the capsule itself is completely covered with a part of
the receptacle, which is dilated, and curved down over it. Lastly, the
genus Althæa, the Marsh Mallow, has the involucrum cleft into six or
nine divisions, and the carpels united into a globular capsule. The
Hollyhock (_A. rosea_) belongs to this genus. Many other genera might
be mentioned, but these will suffice to give my readers a general idea
of the order, and of the points of difference which distinguish one
genus from another. Among the exotic plants belonging to the order is
the cotton tree (_Gossypium herbaceum_), the cotton being the woolly
matter which envelops the seeds in the capsule. All the Malvaceæ abound
in mucilage, and they all have woody fibre in their stems.


This order is closely allied to Malvaceæ, and it differs principally in
the tube formed by the stamens being divided into five bundles near the
top. It includes the Baobab, or Monkey-bread (_Adansonia digitata_),
said to be the largest tree in the world; the Screw tree (_Helicteres
Isora_), so named from its curiously-twisted fruit; _Carolinia
princeps_; the Silk Cotton tree (_Bombax Ceiba_); and the Hand-plant
(_Cheirostemon platanoides_),—this is the Hand-plant so named from the
lobes of its leaves resembling fingers,—all stove plants in Britain.


This order is divided into five sections, which some botanists make
distinct orders. It is very nearly allied to Malvaceæ, but the
anthers are two-celled. The principal genus in the first section
(_Sterculieæ_) is Sterculia, which has several carpels distinct and
arranged like a star: the species are trees with large handsome
leaves which are articulated at the base, and axillary panicles or
racemes of flowers. The second section (_Byttnerieæ_) contains among
other plants _Theobroma Cacao_, from the fruit and seeds of which
Cocoa and Chocolate are prepared. The third section (_Lasiopetaleæ_)
is well known in England, by the pretty Australian shrubs included
in the genera Thomasia and Lasiopetalum, the leaves of which have
their under surface downy, and generally brown. The fourth section
(_Hermannieæ_), and the sixth (_Wallichieæ_), contain no plant common
in English gardens; and the fifth (_Dombeyaceæ_) is best known by
_Astrapæa Wallichii_. The qualities of all the plants in this order are



The only genus belonging to the natural order Tiliaceæ which is easily
to be procured in Britain is that of Tilia, the Lime trees. The common
Lime (_Tilia europæa_) is generally a tall, well-formed tree, with
rather broad leaves, which are heart-shaped at the base, tapering at
the point, and serrated at the margin: they are also smooth on the
outer surface, thin, and of a light and delicate texture; below there
is a little tuft of hair at the angle of the veins. The flowers are
produced in cymes or compound umbels (see _fig._ 120); and their main
pedicel appears to spring from one long entire bract (_a_). The calyx
is in five sepals, and it falls off before the corolla, which is
composed of five pale yellow petals, which are very sweet-scented.

The stamens are numerous, and the filaments separate, bearing
two-celled anthers, which burst by long slits. The ovary has only one
style, the tip of which is cleft into five small stigmas; and it is
divided into five cells, each containing one or two ovules. The fruit
or capsule (_b_) is round, and has a leathery skin, covered with a soft
down; and when ripe, the cells often become united so as to form one,
with only one or two perfect seeds in the whole capsule, the other
ovules proving abortive. The whole plant abounds in mucilage, and the
sap when boiled affords sugar. The inner bark is so tough and fibrous,
that it is used for making what are called bast mats: it being first
rendered flexible by steeping it for a long time in water. The wood
is of very fine texture, but soft and white, and it is thus admirably
adapted for carving. The American Limes have a small scale at the base
of each petal of the flower; but the other differences between the
species are very slight.


East India shrubs and trees, little known in Britain. “The hard and
wrinkled seeds of Elæocarpus are made into necklaces in the East
Indies, and, set in gold, are sold in our shops.”—(_Hook._)


There are two kinds of Camphor, one produced by boiling the branches
of a kind of laurel, and the other (the Camphor of Sumatra) is found
in large pieces in the hollow parts of the branches of _Dryobalanops
Camphora_, one of the species included in this order. None of these
trees have been introduced into Britain.


Small trees and shrubs, natives of the East Indies and Madagascar; only
the genus Hugonia is known in Britain.


The principal plants in this order common in England are Gordonia,
Stuartia, and Malachodendron. _Gordonia Lasianthus_, the Loblolly Bay,
is a small evergreen tree, with white flowers, about the size of a
rose. It is a native of America; and Stuartia and Malachodendron are
beautiful low trees or shrubs, with large white flowers from the same
country. The flowers have five large petals; the stamens are numerous,
with the filaments growing together at the base, and attached to the
petals; and there are five carpels more or less connected. Gordonia has
its five sepals leathery, and covered with a silky down; its stamens
almost in five distinct bundles, a five-celled capsule, and its seeds
each furnished with a wing. Stuartia has a permanent calyx, five-cleft,
but not parted into distinct sepals, with two bracts at the base, and a
woody five-celled capsule, with seeds without wings; and Malachodendron
(which was formerly called _Stuartia pentagynia_) has a calyx similar
to that of Stuartia, but the edges of the petals are curiously
crenulated, and there are five distinct carpels, each containing only
one seed. Some botanists include the Camellia and the Tea in the order


There are two genera in this order, the Camellia and the Tea. The
flower-bud of the Camellia is inclosed in a calyx of five, seven, or
nine concave sepals, on the outside of which are several bracts, which
remain on till the flower has expanded, but which are distinguished
from the sepals by their dark brown colour. The sepals and the bracts
are laid over one another like scales, and thus the flower lies
encased in a complete coat of mail. The single flower is cup-shaped,
with five, seven, or nine petals, which are sometimes joined together
at the base. The stamens have long slender filaments, which either
grow together at the base, or are separated into several bundles. The
anthers are elliptical and versatile; that is, they are poised so
lightly on the filament as to quiver with the slightest breeze. The
ovary is of a conical shape, and it has three or five slender styles,
ending in as many pointed stigmas, and growing together at the base.
The capsule is three or five-celled; and when ripe it bursts into three
or five valves, in the middle of each of which is a dissepiment, which,
before the capsule opened, was attached to an axis or column in the
centre. The seeds are large and few, and they are fixed to the central
placenta. There is no albumen, but the embryo has two large, thick,
oily cotyledons, which look as if they were jointed at the base. The
leaves are leathery, dark-green and shining, and they are ovate in
form, ending in a long point, and sharply serrated. The flowers spring
from the axils of the leaves, and grow close to the stem without any
footstalk; and the leaf-bud for the ensuing shoot grows beside the

I have above described the _Camellia japonica_, from which nearly
all the Camellias in British gardens have sprung; but there are some
other species. The finest of these is _C. reticulata_, which has very
large, loose, widely-spreading flowers, of a remarkably rich crimson.
The leaves are oblong, flat, and reticulately veined, being of a
much finer texture than those of _C. japonica_. The ovary is two or
four-celled, and it is covered with fine silky hairs. _C. maliflora_
is a very beautiful species with small semi-double flowers, coloured
like an apple blossom. This Camellia is by some botanists thought to
be a variety of _C. Sasanqua_, an elegant species with white fragrant
flowers; but the ovary of the first is smooth, and that of the second
covered with hairs, which most botanists consider a specific difference.

The Tea tree (_Thea viridis_) is very nearly allied to the Camellia;
but there are many points of difference. The flower of the Tea tree
has a footstalk; the calyx has only five sepals; the filaments of the
stamens do not grow together; the capsules are three-seeded; and the
dissepiments are formed by the edges of the valves being bent inwards,
instead of being attached to a central axis. The leaves are also much
longer than they are broad, and they are of a thinner texture and
pale green; and the outside of the capsule, which is furrowed in the
Camellia, is quite smooth in the Tea tree. It is said that both the
green and the black Tea are made from the leaves of _Thea viridis_; but
there is another species called _Thea Bohea_, which has smaller leaves,
and is a more tender, and less vigorous-growing plant. The young leaves
of _Camellia Sasanqua_, and some of the other Camellias, are also
dried, and mixed with the tea. All these plants are natives of Japan
and China, and require a slight protection in England during winter.


Exotic trees from the East and West Indies, little known in Britain.
_Heistria coccinea_, a native of Martinique, is said to be the
Partridge wood of the cabinet-makers.


[Illustration: FIG. 121.—FLOWER AND SEED OF THE ORANGE.]

The natural order Aurantiaceæ contains fourteen genera; but the only
one I think my readers will feel an interest in is the genus Citrus.
This genus comprises, among several other species, _C. medica_, the
Citron; _C. Limetta_, the sweet Lime; _C. Limonum_, the Lemon; _C.
Paradisi_, the Forbidden fruit; _C. decumana_, the Shaddock; _C.
Aurantium_, the Sweet Orange; and _C. vulgaris_, the Bitter or Seville
Orange. to these may be added _C. nobilis_ the Mandarin Orange, the
fruit of which is reddish, and which parts naturally from its rind,
which is sweet, and may be eaten. All the species agree in having
a tube-like calyx, scalloped into five short teeth, and a flower
of generally five fleshy petals, (see _a_ in _fig._ 121), though
the number occasionally varies from four to nine. These petals are
elliptic in shape, concave, and always widely opened. In the centre
of the flower are the stamens, varying from twenty (which is the
ordinary number) to sixty; the anthers are two-lobed, and oblong, and
the filaments are somewhat thickened at the base, and united there
into several small bundles (_b_), but free above. The pistil has a
somewhat globular ovary, with a cylindrical style, terminating in a
stigma, which is slightly raised in the centre. The disk in which the
stamens are inserted, forms a ring round the ovary. The fruit (_fig._
122), which is considered by botanists to be a kind of berry, is in
fact a seed-vessel with numerous cells, divided by dissepiments and a
central placenta (_a_); the cells being the quarters of the Orange,
the dissepiments the divisions between them, and the placenta the
central pith. When the flower first expands, the ovary, if cut open
and examined, will be found to be divided into several cells, each
containing two rows of ovules. As in the preceding genera, however,
many of these ovules become abortive; and as the cells fill gradually
with cellular pulp, the seeds become detached from the placenta, and
buried in it. The seeds themselves are very interesting; they are
covered with a thick wrinkled skin, and they show distinctly the hilum
(_c_ in _fig._ 121), the chalaza (_d_) and the raphe or connecting cord
between them, parts which are seldom to be distinguished in seeds with
the naked eye.

[Illustration: FIG. 122.—LEAF AND FRUIT OF THE ORANGE.]

The leaves, calyx, and petals of the Orange, if held up to the light,
appear covered with little dots. These dots are cells, covered with
a transparent membrane, and filled with a kind of oil, which is
exceedingly fragrant. The rind of the fruit is covered with similar
cells, filled with a pungent oily liquid. The leaves are smooth and
shining; and they are articulated; that is, they can be separated from
the petiole or footstalk without lacerating them. In most of the
species, the petioles are winged; that is, they are dilated into little
leaves on each side (see _d_ in _fig._ 122). The different species vary
chiefly in the number of stamens, the thickness of the rind, the shape
of the fruit, and in the wings of the petioles. In the Citron these
wings are wanting entirely, and instead of them there are spines in the
axils of the leaves; there are generally forty stamens, and the rind of
the fruit is very thick. In the sweet Lime, the petioles are slightly
winged, and there are about thirty stamens; the fruit is small and
round, with a slight protuberance at one end like that of the Lemon,
and the pulp is sweet. In the Lemon the petioles are somewhat winged,
the flowers have about thirty stamens; the fruit is oblong, with an
acid pulp, and a thin rind. The Sweet Orange has winged petioles,
about twenty stamens, and a fruit with a thin rind and sweet pulp;
and the Seville Orange differs principally in having a thicker rind
and bitter pulp. The China, St. Michael, and Malta Oranges, with many
others, are all varieties of the Sweet Orange (_Citrus Aurantium_); and
there are many other species, which I have not thought it necessary to
describe.—All the species above-mentioned are natives of Asia, and most
of them of China, but they have been so long cultivated in Europe and
America, as to have become almost naturalised.


The genus Hypericum, or St. John’s Wort, agrees with the orange in
having its leaves full of transparent cells; but these cells are filled
with a yellow, resinous juice, resembling gamboge in its medicinal
properties, and having a very disagreeable smell. There are five
petals in the corolla; and the calyx consists of five sepals, which
are unequal in size and shape, and joined together for only a short
distance. Like the orange the filaments grow together at the base,
in separate clusters or bundles; but in the Hypericum these clusters
are so perfectly distinct, that the stamens may be readily separated
into three or five bundles (according to the species), by slightly
pulling them. The capsule is dry, and of a membrane-like texture, and
it consists of three or five carpels, containing many seeds, and each
having a separate style, and a pointed stigma. The flowers are very
showy, from their large golden yellow petals and numerous stamens. The
genus Androsæmum, the Tutsan, or Park-leaves, has been separated from
Hypericum on account of its fruit being one-celled and one-seeded,
with a fleshy covering, which yields a red juice when pressed. _H.
calycinum_, with large yellow flowers and five tufts of stamens, is
the handsomest species; but _H. perforatum_ is the true St. John’s
Wort, which the country people used formerly to gather on midsummer
eve, as a preservative against witchcraft.


The only genus in this order that contains plants interesting to the
English reader is Garcinia; and the most remarkable species are _G.
Mangostana_, the Mangosteen, said to be the most delicious fruit in the
world, and _G. Cambogia_, the tree producing the gamboge, which is a
kind of gum that oozes out from the stem. Both are natives of the East


Exotic shrubs, mostly natives of the West Indies, with spiked, or
umbellate flowers, and alternate leaves. Very seldom seen in Britain.


Exotic arborescent, or climbing shrubs, generally with inconspicuous
flowers. Natives of the East and West Indies.


Exotic shrubs, and low trees, remarkable from the redness of their
wood, but with small greenish flowers. The leaves of _Erythroxylon
Coca_ possess an intoxicating quality, and are chewed by the Peruvians,
in the same manner as the Turks take opium.


Several species of Malpighia, the Barbadoes Cherry, are found
occasionally in our stoves. The corolla of these plants, when closed,
bears considerable resemblance to that of a Kalmia; but the flower
when expanded is more like that of a Clarkia, from the long claws of
the five petals, and the distance they are placed apart. Several of
the species have their leaves and stems beset with stinging bristles,
which adhere to the hands when touched. The fruit, which is eatable,
but insipid, is a berry-like drupe, containing three one-seeded nuts.
The species are natives of the West Indies, and they require a stove
in England. The flowers are generally rose-coloured or purplish; but
they are sometimes yellow. The common Barbadoes Cherry is called _M.
glabra_, and its leaves are without stings. In Hiptage, another genus
of this order, four of the petals of the flowers are white, and one
yellow; and in Banisteria, the species are generally climbing shrubs,
always with yellow flowers. Some of the species of Banisteria are
occasionally found in stoves in this country, where their beautiful
feathery yellow flowers have very much the appearance of those of the
Canary bird flower (_Tropæolum peregrinum_).


[Illustration: 123.—FLOWER AND SAMARA OF THE SYCAMORE. (_Acer

The common Maple (_Acer campestre_) and the Sycamore (_A.
Pseudo-Platanus_) are the only plants belonging to this order, that
are natives of Britain; though so many kinds of ornamental Acers are
now found in our parks and pleasure-grounds. Few trees are indeed more
deserving of culture than the American Maples, both for their beauty
in early spring, and for the rich shades of yellow and brown which
their leaves assume in autumn. The Maple tribe is a very small one; it
consists indeed of only the genera Acer and Negundo, and an obscure
Nepal genus, of which there are no plants in Britain. Of all the Acers,
one of the handsomest is the Sycamore tree (_A._ _Pseudo-Platanus_);
the flower of this species (see _e_ in _fig._ 123) is of a yellowish
green; and as in early spring, when it appears, we are delighted at
the sight of any thing in the way of flowers, it really looks very
beautiful. Before I began to study botany, I had never noticed the
blossoms of the forest trees, and when I was shown the light-feathery
flowers of the Lime, and the gracefully-drooping ones of the Sycamore,
I was quite astonished. The flowers of the Sycamore grow in a drooping
raceme; the calyx is divided into five parts, but as it is scarcely
distinguishable from the petals, which are five in number, and placed
alternately with the sepals, it appears to be in ten divisions (see
_a_). These flowers are partly male and female (see _b_ and _c_), and
partly perfect. In the perfect flowers there are eight stamens, and two
stigmas; and the ovary when ripe expands into a curiously winged pod,
called a samara (_d_), but differently shaped to the samara of the Ash,
the thickened parts at the base of which contain the seeds. There is
no albumen in the seed, which, when put into the ground, expands into
two long thin cotyledons, (_a_ in _fig._ 124) which, if once pointed
out, will always be known again instantly. If a ripe seed be opened
when quite fresh, the cotyledons or seed leaves will be found within
it, fresh, green, and succulent; and these leaves (_a_ in _fig._ 124),
which rise above the ground as soon as the seed begins to germinate,
differ widely in shape from the true leaves (_b_) which are serrated,
and of a much thicker texture. The bracts of the Sycamore (_f_ in
_fig._ 123) are thick and leathery, and of a rich dark brown. The
leaves are serrated at the margin; and the lower ones are cut into
five lobes; but those near the flowers have generally only three lobes
(_e_), and in all the leaves, two of the lobes are not so deeply cut as
the others.

[Illustration: FIG. 124.—YOUNG SYCAMORE.]

There are many species of Acer, most of which are tall trees; and they
are chiefly distinguished from each other by the shape of the leaves
and of the samaras, or keys, the wings of which, in some species, are
near together, as shown at _d_ in _fig._ 123, and in others widely
apart, as in the common hedge Maple (_A. campestris_), and in the
Norway Maples, as shown at _a_ in _fig._ 125. This figure represents
the flowers of the Norway Maple (_Acer platanoides_), which are in what
botanists call a corymb, and stand erect, instead of drooping like
those of the sycamore. The leaves are deeply five-lobed, and the lobes
are so coarsely toothed, that the teeth have almost the appearance of
lobules. The buds of this plant in winter are large and red, and when
they open in spring, the bracts (_b_) curl back over the scales (_c_).
The leaves become of a clear yellowish red in autumn, and the whole
plant is very ornamental. When a leaf of this tree is broken off, a
milky sap issues from the broken petiole or leaf-stalk, which is of an
acrid nature; differing in this respect, materially from the sap of
the trunk, which is very sweet. Sugar indeed may be made from the sap
of the trunk of almost all the Maples; but particularly in America,
from that of the Sugar Maple (_Acer saccharinum_). The flowers of
the red American Maple (_Acer rubrum_) are red, and as from their
colour, and their appearing a fortnight before the leaves, they are
very conspicuous, I have given a magnified representation of them in
_fig._ 126, that my readers may have an opportunity of examining the
male and female flowers from a living tree. In _fig._ 126, _a a_ are
male flowers, having no stigmas; and _b b_ are female ones, having no


[Illustration: FIG. 126.—FLOWERS OF THE RED MAPLE (_Acer rubrum_).]

The leaves of _Acer rubrum_ become red in autumn. The Tatarian Maple
differs from the other species in having entire leaves, and the samaras
are red when young; but all the other kinds of Acer common in British
gardens bear a strong family likeness to each other. The Ash-leaved
Maple is now made into a separate genus, and is called _Negundo
fraxinifolia_. This tree is easily distinguished from the Maples by
its compound leaves, which resemble those of the Ash, and its long
pea-green shoots, which have very few buds. The male and female flowers
of the Negundo are on different trees, and they are so small as to be
seldom seen, though the racemes of samaras or keys which succeed the
flowers are very conspicuous. The Negundo is a native of America, and
its leaves turn yellow in autumn.



[Illustration: FIG. 128.—HORSE-CHESTNUT.]

This order contains only two genera; viz., Æsculus, the Horse-chestnut,
and Pavia, the Buckeye; both of which are generally called
Horse-chestnuts, though the genera are easily distinguished by their
fruit, the husk of which is smooth in the Pavias, but rough in the
true Horse-chestnuts. The buds of all the species of both genera are
covered with bracted scales, most of which fall off when the leaves
and flowers expand; and those of the common Horse-chestnut (_Æsculus
Hippocastanum_) are very large, and covered with a kind of gum. Four
large compound leaves, each consisting of five or seven leaflets, and
a raceme of sixty-eight flowers, have been unfolded on dissecting one
of these buds, before the leaves unfold in spring. The flowers of this
species are produced in large, upright panicled racemes (see _a_ in
_fig._ 127); and the leaves (_b_) are compound, consisting of five
or seven leaflets, disposed in a palmate manner. Two of the inner
bracts, which remain after the outer scales (which are very numerous)
have fallen, are shown at _c_. I mention this particularly, as these
remaining bracts have very much the appearance of stipules, and it
is one of the characters of the Horse-chestnuts that their leaves
are without stipules. The flowers consist of five petals, two of
which (_d_ in _fig._ 128) are somewhat smaller than the others. Each
petal consists of a broad blade or limb (_e_), and a very narrow claw
(_f_). There are seven stamens, three of which (_g_) are shorter than
the others. The filaments are inserted in the receptacle (_h_), and
surround the pistil, which is hairy, and has a long style and a curved
stigma (_i_). The ovary is two-celled, and each cell contains two
ovules, but seldom more than one seed ripens. The nut (_k_) is large,
and covered with a shining brown skin, which is strongly marked with
the hilum. When put into the ground, the cotyledons do not appear in
the shape of seed-leaves, but remain in the ground, and the plumule and
radicle are protruded as shown in _fig._ 129. The Acorn germinates in a
similar manner, as already shown in _fig._ 86 in p. 192.


[Illustration: FIG. 130.—SCARLET HORSE-CHESTNUT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 131.—YELLOW HORSE-CHESTNUT.]

The flowers of the different species of Æsculus vary considerably; as,
for example, in the Scarlet Horse-chestnut (_Æ. rubicunda_), the calyx
is tubular (see _a_ in _fig._ 130), and there are but four petals, the
upper two of which (_b_) are narrower than the lower ones (_c_), and
have bearded claws. This species has sometimes eight stamens. In the
Yellow Horse-chestnut, or yellow flowered American Buckeye, the upper
petals (_a_ in _fig._ 131) are very much smaller than the lower ones
(_b_), and both have very long claws. There are four petals, which
conceal the stamens, of which there are frequently only six. The seed
of Pavia has only a small hilum, which resembles the pupil of an eye
(see _fig._ 132); and hence the genus has received its American name of
Buckeye. In one species (_P. macrostachya_), the nut is eatable, and
very much resembles that of a Sweet Chestnut when boiled in milk. The
stamens in this species are much longer than the petals, and they give
a peculiarly light and elegant appearance to the flowers; which, unlike
those of the other species, do not appear till the latter end of summer
or autumn.

[Illustration: FIG. 132.—NUT OF THE BUCKEYE.]


Trees of large size, natives of tropical America. _Caryocar nuciferum_
produces the Suwarrow, or Butter-nut of the fruiterers’ shops.


The only plant in this order which will grow in the open air in
England is _Kölreuteria paniculata_, a beautiful tree, with very
elegant leaves, and panicles of yellow flowers, which are succeeded
by a bladdery capsule, which is divided into three cells in its lower
part, though it is only one-celled above. The rind and pulp of the
fruit of _Sapindus Saponaria_ are used as soap in those countries of
which it is a native. The nuts of this plant are round and hard, and of
such a shining black that they are made into buttons and beads by the
inhabitants of Spanish America. The whole plant, if thrown into ponds
containing fish, will intoxicate, and sometimes kill them. Another
interesting plant belonging to this order is the Chinese fruit called
Litchi (_Euphoria_ or _Nephelium Litchi_); which has its sweet eatable
pulp enclosed in a kind of nut, much wrinkled on the outside; so that
the fruit lies within the stone, instead of being on the outside of it.
These hard, stone-like berries grow in loose racemes.


_Melia Azederach_, the Pride of India, or Indian Lilac, or Bead-tree,
for it is known by all these names, is a native of Syria, which
has become almost naturalised in the South of Europe, particularly
near the Mediterranean. The leaves are bi-pinnate, the flowers are
violet-coloured, and the fruit, which resembles that of the cherry, is
of a pale yellow when ripe. The pulp is poisonous, and the stones are
used for making rosaries in the Roman Catholic countries.


This order was at first united to Meliaceæ by De Candolle, but it has
been separated on account of its winged seeds. It contains, among other
genera, the Mahogany tree (_Swietenia Mahagoni_), and the West Indian
Cedar (_Cedrela_). The leaves of these trees are alternate and pinnate,
with unequal-sided leaflets; and the flowers are in large spreading
panicles composed of numerous little cymes. The fruit is capsular, and
the seeds are winged. The genera contained in this order, all require a
stove in Great Britain.


[Illustration: FIG. 133.—FLOWERS OF THE VINE.]

The natural order Ampelideæ contains several genera, but of these
only the Vine and the five-leaved Ivy are common in British gardens.
It seems almost ridiculous to talk of the flowers of the Vine, as
the bunches, even when they first appear, seem to consist of only
very small grapes, which gradually become large ones. The flowers,
however, though small and insignificant, are perfect, and they have
each a distinct and regularly formed calyx and corolla. The calyx of
the common Grape (_Vitis vinifera_) is very small, and remains on
till the fruit is ripe; there are five petals (_a_ in _fig._ 133),
which never expand, but remain fastened together at the tip, detaching
themselves at the base, when it is necessary that they should give
room to the ripening stamens (_b_). The petals, which form a kind
of extinguisher, when they are raised by the five stamens, fall off
(_c_), and occasion the chaffy appearance observable in clusters of
Vine-flowers. The ovary is, when young, in two cells, each containing
two seeds; and it is crowned with a nearly flat, round stigma, without
any style. When the fruit begins to swell, the ovary becomes filled
with a pulp, which is solid, and not contained in bags like that of
the Orange; and the dissepiment that divided the two cells gradually
wastes away. Two, and sometimes three of the seeds also frequently
disappear, so that four seeds are rarely found in the ripe grape. The
seeds themselves are bony, and covered with a jelly-like matter; and
when they are cut open, they are found to consist of a large quantity
of hard albumen, with a very small embryo at the tip. The Vine is a
climbing shrub, with lobed leaves, which are frequently deeply cut;
the bunches in which the grapes are disposed are called branched or
thyrsoid racemes (see 137), and the tendrils, by which the plant
climbs, are supposed to be abortive peduncles, drawn out into these
long, flexible, curling bodies, instead of producing bunches of grapes.
The footstalks of the leaves are articulated, and will separate from
the branch without tearing them. The different species of vines differ
from each other chiefly in their leaves; but in the American grapes the
calyx is sometimes entire, and sometimes the stamens and pistils are in
different flowers.

The five-leaved Ivy, or Virginian Creeper (_Ampelopsis hederacea_),
differs very little from the Vine in the botanical construction of its
flowers. The calyx is, however, almost entire, and the five petals
separate in the same way as those of other flowers; but in other
respects they closely resemble those of the Vines. The berries are
small, and not palatable, though they might be eaten with perfect
safety. The leaves are palmate, and they are divided into three or five
stalked leaflets. The stems are climbing and rooting; and the leaves
take a beautiful deep red in autumn. The genus Cissus also belongs to
this order.


The order Geraniaceæ contains several genera of well-known plants, the
most popular of which are _Pelargonium_, _Erodium_, and _Geranium_,
signifying Stork’s-bill, Heron’s-bill, and Crane’s-bill, which differ
very slightly from each other. The greenhouse Geraniums, which are all
either natives of the Cape of Good Hope, or hybrids raised in Europe
from the species originally imported, were, till lately, all included
in the genus _Pelargonium_; but what were sections of that genus
have, by some botanists, been now made separate genera. As probably,
however, this rage for giving new and different names to divisions
and subdivisions will not be generally adopted, I will not trouble
my readers with any other distinctions than those between the three
leading genera; and even these, I think they will allow, appear very
trifling. The calyx of the Pelargonium is in five sepals, and two of
them end in a kind of spur; which is, however, not very perceptible, as
it runs down the peduncle or footstalk of the flower, and grows to it,
so as to seem only a part accidentally enlarged. The corolla is in five
petals, the upper two of which are generally larger, and differently
marked to the others. Sometimes there are only four, and sometimes
there are six petals; but these are exceptions to the general rule.
The perfect stamens vary in number from four to seven; but there are
always ten filaments, which are dilated, and grow together at the base;
and I was quite delighted with the sparkling gem-like appearance of the
membrane which they form when thus united, when I looked at it through
my little microscope. In the plant now before me (a hybrid called the
Duke of Sussex), the upper parts of some of the stamens have turned
into little petals, retaining the white membrane-like part at the base,
and thus curiously exemplifying the manner in which double flowers
are formed, which is always by the metamorphosis of the stamens, or
of the stamens and pistil, into petals. The pistil of the Pelargonium
appears, when young, to consist of a five-celled ovary, with a long
slender style, the tip of which is divided into five slender curved
stigmas. The cells of the ovary are, however, five one-seeded carpels,
each having a separate style; and though both the carpels and styles
appear firmly grown together when young, yet, in fact, they only adhere
to an elongation of the receptacle (see _a_ in _fig._ 134), which is
here called the central axis, and from which, when ripe, they part with
elasticity, and curl up, as shown at _b_; the styles, or awns, as they
are sometimes called, being hairy inside.


The shape of the unripe seed-vessel, with its persistent calyx, is
shown at _c_, and a detached seed at _d_. No plant hybridises more
freely than the Pelargonium; and thus, the number of new kinds raised
every year defies all description, and they have been so mixed and
intermixed with each other, that it is not easy to say to what species
the most splendid hybrids are allied. A few species, however, remain
nearly unchanged, and the best known of these are _P. zonale_, the
Horseshoe Geranium; _P. inquinans_, the common scarlet, the juice
of the leaves of which is said to stain the fingers brown; _P.
graveolens_, and _P. capitatum_, the rose-scented Geraniums, and _P.
tricolor_. All the Pelargoniums have their flowers in heads or umbels;
and the calyx in all of them remains on till the seeds are ripe. The
seed-vessel, or fruit, as it is called by botanists, is long and
pointed, forming some resemblance to the head of a stork; the ovary
shrouded in the persistent calyx, representing the head of the bird,
and the long styles the beak. The leaves vary in shape in the different
kinds: sometimes they are roundish, as in the Horseshoe Geranium, and
marked with a dark band or zone, whence the specific name _zonale_; and
sometimes they are deeply cut, as in the rose-scented kinds: some are
shrubby, and some herbaceous; and the stems of some species are warted,
and the roots of others tuberous.

The genus Erodium consists principally of European plants, three
of which are natives of England. The commonest of these (_Erodium
cicutarium_) is called in many parts of England the Wild Geranium; and
nearly allied to it, but less common, is _E. moschatum_. The principal
points in which this genus differs from Pelargonium are, that the
filaments of the stamens are very little united at the base; that
there are always five filaments which bear anthers, and five that are
sterile, and that the latter have each a gland at the base. The calyx
is also without the spur, and the seed-pod is thought to resemble a
heron’s head more than that of a stork. When it bursts, also, the
styles, which are hairy inside like those of the Pelargonium, do not
curl up in the same manner as in that genus, but spirally.

The genus Geranium differs from Erodium principally in having the
stamens all perfect; but the alternate ones are longer than the
others, and have a gland at the base of each. The seed-pod is said to
resemble the head of a crane, and when it bursts, the styles, which are
smooth inside, curl up round and round like the coil of a rope. The
seeds of many of the kinds are beautifully netted. Many of the species
are British weeds, and among the commonest of these may be mentioned
Herb Robert (_Geranium Robertianum_), and the Meadow Crane’s-bill (_G.
pratense_). Dr. Lindley, in his Ladies’ Botany, mentions a curious and
beautiful experiment which may be performed by pressing the petals of a
Geranium between two pieces of glass which have been previously wetted.
He says, that by pressing the two glasses firmly together, all the air
may be squeezed out of the petal, and it will become transparent. “You
may then,” he adds, “with a pretty good magnifying power, observe all
the air-vessels of the veins distinctly, looking like fine threads
of silver-wire twisted up like a spiral spring. It is on account of
this appearance that the air-vessels are called, technically, spiral
vessels.” The experiment appeared to me so easy, and at the same time
so interesting, that I tried it, but unfortunately without success;
probably owing to the want of power in my microscope.


This little order contains only one plant, _Limnanthes Douglassi_, a
pretty Californian annual, with yellow and white flowers. It resembles
Geraniaceæ in its botanical construction, but it does not discharge its
seeds with elasticity.


The well-known flowers called Nasturtium, or Indian Cress, give
their name to this order; which, in fact, consists only of the genus
Tropæolum, and an obscure genus not yet introduced. In the flowers of
the Nasturtium, the calyx and corolla are of nearly the same colour,
but they may be easily distinguished from each other. The calyx is
drawn out into a spur behind, and the petals, which are unguiculate,
or claw-shaped, are fringed at the base. The leaves and stem are
succulent, and have the taste of cress, and hence the plant has
received its popular name,—Nasturtium being the botanic name of the
water-cress. The Tropæolum has five petals, eight stamens, and three
carpels, which are joined together into a trigonal fruit, each carpel
containing one seed, which adheres to it. The embryo is large, and
fills the whole seed, which is without albumen. The unripe carpels are
sometimes pickled, and used as a substitute for capers. The whole plant
has not only the taste, but the properties, of cruciferous plants; and
even the caterpillars of the cabbage-butterflies feed upon it.


Nearly allied to the Geraniums, and resembling them, in the opening
of the seed-pods, are the beautiful plants contained in the order
Balsamineæ. The two genera best known in British gardens are Balsamina
and Impatiens. The common Balsam (_Balsamina hortensis_), has a small
green calyx of two sepals; there are four petals, one of which is drawn
out into a short spur at the base. There are five stamens, each bearing
a two-celled anther. The ovary is one-celled, but it separates into
five valves, when the seeds are ripe, bursting with elasticity, and
the valves curling inwardly from the apex to the base. There are five
stigmas, quite distinct from each other, and appearing just above the
ovary, without any style; and the peduncles are simple and one-flowered.

The genus Impatiens, which contains the common Noli-me-tangere,
or Touch-me-Not, and other similar plants, though it agrees with
Balsamina in having five anthers, has only three of them with two
cells, the others having one cell each. The stigmas also are joined
together at the base, and the capsule bursts at the slightest touch,
the valves coiling up spirally from the base to the apex, and detaching
themselves from the plant at the same time that they expel the seeds.
The peduncles grow from the axils of the leaves, and they are branched
and many-flowered. A separate order, called Hydrocereæ, has been made
of one of the species of Impatiens (_I. natans_). It is an aquatic
plant, a native of the East Indies.


The flowers of all the species of Oxalis, the Wood-sorrel, are very
pretty. The flowers have five regular petals, each furnished with a
claw; and the petals are spirally twisted in the bud. There are ten
stamens, and five styles. The capsule is five-celled, and five or ten
valved, the valves opening lengthways. Most of the species are natives
of South America, and greenhouse plants in England.


The flowers of the Bean-caper are usually yellow; and the five petals
are long, narrow, and placed widely apart. The botanic name of
Zygophyllum signifies “with the leaves in pairs,” and this is the case
to a remarkable degree. _Fagonia cretica_ is a very pretty plant, with
purple flowers very much like those of Clarkia; and _Guiacum_, the
Lignum Vitæ, is remarkable for the hardness of its wood and the gum it
produces. Melianthus belongs to this order.


This order has been divided into four sections; three of which
contain well-known plants, and have been divided into three orders by
many botanists. The Rue (_Ruta graveolens_) is well known from its
strong and disagreeable smell, which is produced by the oil secreted
in transparent cells in the leaves, which have the appearance of
dots, when the leaves are held up to the light. The leaves are of
a bluish green, and the flowers of a greenish yellow; the latter
growing in cymes at the end of the branches. There are four sepals,
four petals, and eight stamens. There are four carpels, seated on an
elevated receptacle, and each containing one cell, which grow into a
four-celled fruit. In Fraxinella (_Dictamnus_) the petals are unequal;
there are ten stamens, one style, and the carpels are two-seeded.
In Diosma there are only five stamens, the style is arched, and the
capsule consists of five-horned carpels. In Corræa the leaves are
opposite; there are eight stamens, and the four petals grow together
into a tube at the base; and in Crowea there are five sepals, five
petals, and ten stamens; the leaves are also alternate. The Diosmas
have as strong a scent as the Rue, and a perfume is made from them
called Bucku at the Cape of Good Hope, of which country they are

The section Zanthoxyleæ contains the Zanthoxylum, also called the
Toothache Tree, or Prickly Ash, a native of North America, the bark
of which is very fragrant, and is said to be a cure for toothache and
rheumatism; Ptelea or Shrubby Trefoil; and _Ailantus glandulosa_.
_Zanthoxylum fraxineum_ has very pretty pinnate leaves, and small
purple flowers; _Ptelea trifoliata_ has curiously winged fruit, which
resemble those of the elm; and the Ailantus has remarkably long
compound leaves, one leaf having been known to have fourteen pairs
of leaflets, and to be upwards of three feet long. The two following
orders are included in Rutaceæ by some botanists.


_Quassia amara_, the bark of which is sometimes used as a substitute
for hops, is perhaps the best known plant belonging to this order. All
the species are trees or shrubs, natives of tropical America, with
bitter bark, milky juice, and pinnated leaves.


Tropical shrubs with yellow flowers and shining leaves; seldom seen in
British hothouses.


Only one species of this order is common in British gardens, viz.
_Coriaria myrtifolia_; the leaves of which are astringent, and used in
dyeing black, and the berries are poisonous.

§ II.—Calycifloræ.

The plants comprised in this division have their petals and stamens
inserted in the calyx, or in a lining of it formed by the dilated


[Illustration: FIG. 135.—THE HOLLY.]

This order is divided into three sections, each containing well-known
plants. The first of these takes its name from _Staphylæa pinnata_,
the Bladder-nut. In the flowers of this plant the calyx is in
five divisions, and white tinged with pink, so as to be scarcely
distinguishable from the corolla. There are two or three carpels,
which are surrounded by the receptacle, and the styles of which adhere
slightly together. The capsule is bladdery, and consists of two or
three cells, each containing one smooth, brownish, bony seed, which
looks as though one end had been cut off at the hilum. The leaves are
compound, each having five leaflets. The second section contains, among
other plants, the Spindle-tree (_Euonymus europæus_), Cassine, and the
Staff tree (_Celastrus scandens_). The Euonymus has small whitish-green
inconspicuous flowers; but it is remarkable for the beauty of its
capsules, which are fleshy, and of a bright rose-colour, while the
seeds, which are of a bright orange, are enwrapped in a covering called
an aril, by which they remain attached to the capsule after the valves
have opened. Each capsule has five cells and five seeds, and each seed
has a little white stalk attached to its aril, like the funicle of a
pea. There are several species. The Celastrus is a climbing shrub,
remarkable for its clusters of flowers, but which has nothing else
to recommend it. The third section, Aquifoliaceæ, is made a separate
order, under the name of Ilicineæ, or Aquifoliaceæ, by many botanists;
some of whom place it in the sub-class Corollæfloræ, because the petals
are connected at the base. The most common plants that it contains
are included in the genera Ilex and Prinos. In _Ilex aquifolium_, the
Holly, the corolla (_a_ in _fig._ 135), is in four or five petals
connected at the base; there are four stamens, the cells of the anthers
of which adhere to the sides of the filament (_b_). The berry (_c_) is
four-celled, each cell containing a one-seeded nut. The leaves (_d_)
are simple, and smooth, shining and prickly at the edges, which are
curved upwards. Prinos, the Winter-berry, is a little evergreen shrub,
with red berries.


The most interesting genera in this order are Paliurus, Zizyphus,
Rhamnus, and Ceanothus. Christ’s Thorn (_Paliurus aculeatus_) is
easily known by its crooked prickly stem, and its singular fruit,
which, from its resembling a head with a broad flat hat on, the French
call, Porte-chapeau. The flowers are yellow, but they are too small
to be ornamental. _Zizyphus Jujuba_ differs from Paliurus chiefly in
its fruit, which resembles a small plum, and from the fruit of which
the Jujube lozenges are made. There are numerous species of Rhamnus,
some of which are trailing-shrubs, and others low trees. Some of the
species, such as _R. Alaternus_, are evergreen shrubs, very useful
in town-gardens, as they are not injured by smoke; others, such as
the Purging Buckthorn (_R. catharticus_), have deciduous, rough,
feather-nerved leaves, and the branchlets terminating in a thorn. The
berries of the plants in this division are sold for dyeing yellow,
under the name of French or Avignon berries. Another division includes
the species which are without thorns. All these plants have their male
and female flowers distinct. The last division of Rhamnus has perfect
flowers, and dark-purple berries, as for example, the Berry-bearing
Alder (_R. frangula_). The genus Ceanothus is well known from the
beautiful _C. azureus_. The other species have generally the same
kind of terminal, upright panicles of feathery flowers, but they are
very inferior in beauty. _C. americanus_, which has white flowers, is
sometimes called American Red-root, or New Jersey Tea.


Small heath-like shrubs, natives of the Cape of Good Hope.


Tropical shrubs or trees with dotted leaves, and inconspicuous flowers.


This order contains the handsome evergreen half-hardy shrub,
_Aristotelia Macqui_; the flowers are insignificant, but the berries
are black, acid, and eatable, and the leaves are smooth, shining, and
so abundant as to render the plant an excellent screen.


African plants, with panicles of small white flowers, and simple leaves.


Trees, natives of Asia, little known in England.


This order is divided by De Candolle into seven sections; viz.,
1. Anacardiaceæ, including the Cashew-nut (_Anacardium_), the
Mango (_Mangifera_), and the Turpentine trees (_Pistacia_); 2.
Sumachineæ, which contains _Rhus_, _Schinus_, and _Duvaua_: 3,
Spondiaceæ, containing the Hog-plum (_Spondias_); 4. Burseraceæ,
including the Jamaica Birch (_Bursera_), and the Balm of Gilead
tree (_Balsamodendron_); 5. Amyrideæ, the West Indian Balsam tree
(_Amyris_); 6. _Spatheliaceæ_, the West Indian Sumach (_Spathelia_);
and 7. Connaraceæ, containing Omphalobium, and other exotic genera. Of
these modern botanists make five distinct orders, viz., Anacardiaceæ,
including the first, second, and fifth sections; Amyrideæ, Spondiaceæ,
Burseraceæ, and Connaraceæ. Ptelea, which was originally included in
this order, is now generally placed in Xanthoxylaceæ.

The plants contained in this order have in some cases perfect flowers,
and in others, the male and female flowers on different plants. They
all abound in a resinous gum; that from the Mastic tree (_Pistacia
Lentiscum_), and several of the species of Rhus, is used for making
varnish; the gum of the Turpentine tree (_P. Terebinthus_) is the Chian
or Cyprus turpentine. The flowers are small, and generally produced in
panicles, the petals are sometimes wanting. The leaves are alternate,
without stipules, and often compound. The flowers have generally five
petals, and five or ten stamens; and the fruit is drupaceous, or
capsular, varying in the different genera. In Anacardium, the peduncle
which supports the Cashew-nut is fleshy and pear-shaped, so as to
resemble a fruit more than the nut itself. The Mango has a fleshy
drupe, with a woody, fibrous stone or nut. In Pistacia, the fruit is a
dry drupe inclosing a nut, which is eatable in _P. vera_. Both the male
and female flowers in this genus are handsome, though without petals,
from the anthers being yellow, and the stigmas crimson. The different
species of Sumach, or Rhus, are all poisonous; and the Venetian Sumach
(_Rhus cotinus_) is remarkable from the appearance presented by its
flower-stalks in autumn; as all the flower-stalks which do not bear
fruit dilate, after the flowers have dropped, and become covered with a
great quantity of white cottony hair, which makes each panicle resemble
a powdered wig; and hence, the French call the tree _Arbre à perruque_.


The plants belonging to this order have alternate leaves, which are
generally compound, and frequently have the common petiole tumid; they
have also two stipules at the base of the petiole, and frequently
two others to each leaflet. The pedicels are usually articulated,
and the flowers are furnished with small bracts. The flowers have
a five-parted calyx, and a corolla, sometimes papilionaceous, and
sometimes spreading, which has never more than five petals, though it
has frequently less. The fruit is a legume, though sometimes, when
there is only one seed, it has the appearance of a drupe. There are
eleven sections given in De Candolle’s Prodromus, viz., 1. _Sophoreæ_,
the Sophora tribe; 2. _Loteæ_, the Lotus tribe; 3. _Hedysareæ_, the
Sainfoin tribe; 4. _Vicieæ_, the Vetch tribe, (including the Pea and
Bean); 5. _Phaseoleæ_, the Kidney-bean tribe; 6. _Dalbergia_, the
Gum-dragon tribe; 7. _Swartzia_; 8, _Mimoseæ_, the Mimosa tribe; 9.
_Geoffrea_, the Earth-nut tribe, (including the Earth-nut _Arachis_,
and the Tonquin Bean, _Dipterix_); 10. _Cassieæ_, the Cassia tribe; and
11. _Detarieæ_. Some botanists include Moringa, the Horse-radish tree,
in Leguminosæ, but others make it a separate order under the name of


The flowers have five sepals, combined in their lower part into a tube,
but divided above into five lobes; and the corolla has generally five
petals. There are numerous carpels, which are usually inclosed in the
fleshy tube of the calyx. The ovary is one-celled, and there is seldom
more than one seed, and scarcely ever more than two. The leaves are
alternate, generally compound, and always furnished with stipules. De
Candolle divides the order into eight tribes, viz., 1. _Chrysobalaneæ_;
2. _Amygdalineæ_; 3. _Spiraceæ_; 4. _Neuradeæ_; 5. _Dryadæ_, or
_Potentilleæ_; 6. _Sanguisorbeæ_; 7. _Roseæ_; and 8. _Pomaceæ_. Of
these, the first, second, third, and eight, are made separate orders;
the fifth, sixth, and seventh are retained in Rosaceæ. Neuradeæ was
first removed to Ficoideaceæ, and afterwards made a separate order;
and another order has been made, called Quillageæ, including only the
genera Kageneckia and Quillaja.


There are only two genera in this order, both of which are remarkable
for the fragrance of their flowers. The American Allspice (_Calycanthus
floridus_) is a shrub, with very dark blackish purple flowers, which
botanists consider to be all calyx, the plants in this order having
no petals. The lobes of the calyx are somewhat leathery in texture,
and lanceolate in form; they are very numerous, and they are disposed
in several rows, like scales. The stamens are numerous, but only the
outer twelve are fertile, and they soon fall off. The peduncle is
thickened below the flower; and the receptacle is dilated, and drawn
out over the carpels, which are arranged in it like those of the rose,
which they closely resemble, but are much larger. The leaves are
opposite and feather-nerved. _Chimonanthus fragrans_, so well-known for
its beautiful yellowish flowers, which are produced about Christmas,
belongs to this order. In this plant the lobes of the calyx are oval,
and not nearly so numerous as in Calycanthus; the outer lobes look like
bracts. The stamens are less numerous, and not deciduous; and only five
are fertile, which are united at the base. This plant was formerly
called _Calycanthus præcox_.


This order has only one genus and two species. The Pomegranate (_Punica
Granatum_) has a tubular calyx, with a limb in five or seven divisions,
and the same number of petals as there are segments to the calyx. The
calyx and corolla are both of the same colour. When the petals fall,
the tube of the calyx swells, and becomes a many-celled berry, the limb
of the calyx remaining on, and forming a kind of crown to the fruit.
The cells are divided into two parts, and they contain a great number
of seeds which are plunged in a juicy pulp. The other species, _P.
nana_, only differs in being a dwarf plant, and in the leaves being
narrower. The Pomegranate was formerly included in Myrtaceæ.


Tropical trees and shrubs, with white or purplish flowers, and eatable


This order is well-known from the two beautiful climbing stove-plants,
_Combretum purpureum_, and _Quisqualis indica_. The flowers of the
former are disposed in racemes, which have a peculiarly light and
graceful appearance, from the great length of their stamens; and as
they are of a brilliant scarlet, the name of Purpureum is very ill
applied to the species. The flowers of _Quisqualis indica_ have a very
long slender tube to the calyx, and five velvet-like petals, which vary
in colour from a yellowish white to red, changing in the course of one


Brazilian trees and shrubs, with yellow flowers, and stipulate,
feather-nerved leaves.


The Mangroves (_Rhizophora_) are tropical trees, growing in the soft
mud of rivers, particularly in that of the Niger, so that, when the
rivers are full, they appear to grow out of the water. The seeds have
the singular property of germinating in the capsule, and sending down
long roots while yet hanging on the tree, the branches of which thus
appear, at a little distance, as if covered with long white strings.
All the genera belonging to this order require a stove in England.


The only plant contained in this order is a beautiful shrub from Sierra
Leone, with terminal corymbs of white flowers, and coriaceous leaves.


The tube of the calyx generally adheres to the ovary, and its limb is
usually two or four lobed, the lobes frequently adhering together. The
petals are either four, or equal in number to the lobes of the calyx;
they are inserted in the mouth of the tube, and are twisted in the bud.
The fruit is generally a capsule, or a berry, with two or four cells;
and there are numerous seeds. The leaves vary considerably, and are
sometimes alternate, and sometimes opposite, but never compound. De
Candolle divides this order into six sections: viz. 1. _Montinieæ_; 2.
_Fuchsieæ_; 3. _Onagreæ_, containing the Evening Primrose (_Œnothera_),
and the French Willow Herb (_Epilobium_); 4. _Jussieuæ_; 5. _Circææ_,
including the Enchanter’s Nightshade (_Circæa_), and _Lopezia_; and 6.
_Hydrocaryes_, containing the Water-caltrops (_Trapa natans_). This
last section is sometimes made a separate order.


Most of the plants in this order are British weeds; as for example, the
Water Milfoil (_Myriophyllum_), Water Starwort (_Callitriche_), and
Mare’s-tail (_Hippuris_); but some are natives of North America, China,
&c., and one genus has lately been discovered in Australia, which Dr.
Lindley has named _Loudonia aurea_, and which is a large shrub, with
corymbs of golden yellow flowers.


British weeds called Hornwort.


The principal plants in this order that are interesting to amateurs,
are included in the genera Lythrum, Cuphea, Heimia, Lawsonia, and
Lagerstrœmia. The genus Lythrum contains all those showy British plants
which are called the Willow Herbs. The flowers are purple, and the
petals, which are four or six in number, are crumpled in the bud. The
stamens are either the same number as the petals, or twice the number,
and the capsule is two-celled. The calyx, as in all the plants included
in this order, is tubular, with numerous lobes; and the petals soon
fall off. Cuphea is a genus principally of annual plants, with six or
seven dark purple petals, unequal in size, and curiously inserted in
the calyx. Heimia is a genus of South American shrubs, with yellow
flowers. Lawsonia inermis produces the Henna, which the ladies of the
East use to dye the palms of their hands pink; and Lagerstrœmia is
a beautiful conservatory tree, with handsome flowers. This plant is
sometimes called the pride of India.


There are very few plants in this order, and the only ones common in
British gardens are the French Tamarisk (_Tamarix Gallica_), and the
German Tamarisk (_Tamarix_, or _Myriacaria Germanica_); both of which
are easily recognized by their light airy branches, (which when young
are covered with closely imbricated leaves, though the leaves drop off
as the wood ripens,) and their terminal erect spikes of whitish or pink
flowers. The seeds are large, and are each furnished with a tuft of
hairs at the end of a kind of stalk. These plants are very suitable for
planting near the sea, as they are uninjured by the sea-breeze.


This order consists of showy exotic plants, most of which require a
stove in Britain, and which are easily known by their leaves being
marked with two or more deep lines running parallel to the midrib. They
are all free-growing plants, with very handsome flowers, which are
generally purple or white.


There are two genera, Alangium and Marlea, both handsome shrubs,
natives of India.


There are three genera in this order: viz., Philadelphus, the
Mock-Orange or Syringa; Decumaria and Deutzia, all which have white
flowers. There are many species of Philadelphus, all of which are
easily known by their large white flowers, and large coarse-looking
leaves. The flowers of the common species (_P. coronarius_) smell like
those of the Orange, and the leaves taste like cucumber. There is only
one species of Decumaria (_D. barbara_), which is a native of Virginia
and Carolina, and is a climbing shrub, with terminal corymbs of white,
sweet-scented flowers. _Deutzia scabra_, though only introduced in
1833, is already common in gardens; and it is a general favourite from
the great abundance of its flowers. Though it said to be not a true
climber, its stems are too weak to stand without support. It is a
native of Japan, and though generally kept in pots, it is supposed to
be quite hardy.


No plants are more easily recognized than those belonging to this
tribe; as they are easily distinguished by their entire leaves, which
have no stipules, and which, when held up to the light, appear to
be not only full of transparent dots, but to have a transparent line
round the margin. The flowers have also abundance of stamens on long
slender filaments which look like tufts of silk, and only four or five
petals. The whole of the plants are fragrant, and every part of them
seems full of an aromatic oil, which is particularly visible in the
flower-buds of _Caryophyllus aromaticus_, which when dried form what
are commonly called cloves; and in the leaves of some of the kinds of
Eucalyptus. The genera may be divided into two sections, viz., those
with a dry capsule for the fruit; in which are included _Melaleuca_
and its allied genera, _Eucalyptus, Callistemon, Metrosideros and
Leptospermum_; and those with berry-like fruit, the most interesting of
which are _Psidium_, the Guava; _Myrtus_, the Myrtle; _Caryophyllus_,
the Clove; _Eugenia or Myrtus pimenta_, Jamaica Allspice; and _Jambosa
Vulgaris or Eugenia Jambosa_, the Rose Apple. In some of the genera, as
for example in Eucalyptus, the sepals of the calyx become detached at
the base, and being united above form a sort of cap or calyptra, which
is pushed off by the stamens when the flower begins to expand. Besides
the plants already enumerated, some botanists add another section to
Myrtaceæ, which others consider a separate order; under the name of
_Lecythideæ_. This section contains three genera, the most remarkable
plants in which are the Cannon Ball-tree (_Lecythis Ollaria_), and
the Brazil Nut (_Bertholletia excelsa_). The fruit of this last plant
is fleshy, and as large as a child’s head, opening with a lid, and
containing sixteen or twenty triangular seeds, laid over each other in
a regular manner, which are the Brazil-nuts sold in the shops.


The plants included in this order have generally the male and female
flowers distinct. The calyx is tubular, and generally five-toothed;
there are five petals usually connected at the base, and which have
strongly marked reticulated veins. There are five stamens, four of
which are united so as to form two pairs, with the fifth one free.
The anthers are two-celled, and generally very long. There are three
or five two-lobed stigmas, which are thick and velvety. The fruit is
fleshy, with numerous flat seeds. The leaves are palmate, and very
rough; and the plants have succulent stems, and climb by means of their
tendrils. The principal genera are, Cucumis, which includes the Melon
(_C. melo_), the Cucumber (_C. sativus_), the Mandrake (_C. Dudaim_),
the Water Melon (_C. citrullus_), and the Colocynth (_C. colocynthis_);
Bryonia, best known by the White Bryony (_B. dioica_); Momordica,
including the Balsam Apple (_M. balsamea_), and the Squirting Cucumber
(_M. elaterium_); and Cucurbita, including all the kinds of Pumpkin
(_C. pepo_), and Vegetable Marrow (_C. ovifera_). To these may be added
Lagenaria, the Bottle Gourd; and Trichosanthes, the Snake Gourd, plants
far more curious than useful. Some botanists include the Papaw-tree
(_Carica Papaya_) in Cucurbitaceæ, but others make it into a separate
order under the name of Papayaceæ.


The plants belonging to this order may be instantly recognized by the
very singular arrangement of the pistil and stamens. The receptacle is
raised in the centre of the flower so as to form a long cylindrical
stipe, on which is placed the ovary, with its three styles, each
ending in a fleshy stigma; a little lower are five stamens, with their
filaments growing together round the stipe, and with large anthers
which are attached by the back. At the base of the stipe are two or
more rows of filaments without anthers, which are called the rays.
There are five petals and five sepals; but some botanists consider the
whole to be sepals, and that the petals are wanting. The fruit of some
of the species is eatable. It is about the size of a large egg, and
contains numerous seeds, which are enveloped in a kind of pulp.


This order consists entirely of the plants belonging to the genus
Malesherbia; which are mostly annuals, or biennials, with very showy
blue or white flowers, introduced from Chili in 1832. The genus was
formerly included in Passifloraceæ.


All the species contained in this genus are natives of North America,
and most of them are annuals, with very showy flowers. The genera
_Loasa_ and _Caiophora_ are covered with glandular hairs or bristles,
which sting much worse than those of the nettle. _Bartonia aurea_
is one of the most splendid annuals in cultivation, from its golden
yellow flowers; _Blumenbachia_ has the fruit roundish and spirally
twisted, and _Caiophora_ has the fruit horn-shaped, and twisted in a
similar manner. This curious construction of the fruit may be seen in
_C. punicea_, the well known showy climber, generally called _Loasa
aurantiaca_, or _lateritia_. The fruit of the true kinds of Loasa is
plain and not twisted, as may be seen in _L. nitida_, _L. Placei_, and
in short in all the other species of the genus. The flowers of most of
the plants in this order are very curiously constructed, there being
two sets of petals quite distinct in form and colour, and two sets of
stamens. The five outer petals are large and hooded, and in each is
cradled a bundle of four or more stamens. These petals and stamens
are turned back; but there is a second set of five petals which are
generally blotched with red, which stand erect, and enclose a second
set of stamens also erect, which surround the style.


The only genus in British gardens is Turnera, and the species are
hothouse and greenhouse herbaceous plants, with flowers very like those
of the Bladder Ketmia. On examination, however, it will be immediately
seen that they do not belong to the Mallow tribe, as their stamens are
distinct, whereas those of all the Malvaceæ are united into a central


The ornamental plants belonging to this order, are all included in
the genera Calandrinia, Portulaca, Talinum, and Claytonia; and those
belonging to the first two of these genera have very showy flowers. In
all the species the flowers have a distinct calyx, generally of only
two sepals, which remains on till the seeds are ripe; and a corolla
of five regular petals, which close in the absence of the sun. Each
flower has numerous stamens, and a single style with a broad-lobed
stigma which, is succeeded by a dry, one-celled capsule, with a central
placenta, to which are attached numerous seeds. The capsule opens
naturally when ripe by splitting into three or four valves. But the
most distinctive mark by which plants belonging to this order can be
distinguished from others with similarly shaped flowers, is their
remarkably thick fleshy leaves, an example of which may be seen in the
leaves of _Calandrinia discolor_; and these succulent leaves render all
the ornamental plants belonging to the order peculiarly liable to be
destroyed by frost or damp. Some botanists make a second order out of
the plants usually included in Portulaceæ, to which they give the name
of Fouquieraceæ.


Weedy plants, containing among other genera, Knot-grass (_Illecebrum_),
and Strapwort (_Corrigiola_). The new order Scleranthaceæ has been
separated from this; and it takes its name from the British weed,
Knawel (_Scleranthus_).


The common House-leek (_Sempervivum tectorum_) grows, as is well known,
on the tiles of houses, or on walls, where there does not appear a
single particle of earth to nourish its roots. The leaves are, however,
so contrived as to form a cluster of flat scaly circles, and thus
to shade and keep moist the roots beneath them. The flowers, which
are produced on a tall flower-stem rising from the leaves, are pink,
and usually consist of a green calyx, cut into twelve segments, and
a corolla of twelve petals, with twelve stamens and twelve carpels,
which spread out like a star in the middle of the flower. The number
of petals, &c., is by no means constant, as it varies from six to
twenty; but the other parts of the flower vary in the same manner,
and always agree with each other, except as regards the stamens,
which are sometimes twice the number of the petals, and arranged in
two series, those in one series being abortive. At the base of each
carpel is a kind of scale or gland, and this is the case with most
of the genera included in the order. There are several species of
Sempervivum, natives of the Canary Isles, which are very ornamental,
and which have yellow flowers; but this genus, and that of Sedum, the
Stone-crop, have been lately remodelled by Mr. Philip Barker Webb, and
some new genera formed out of them. The principal other genera in the
order are Crassula and Kalosanthes; the latter having been formed out
of the former, and including those species of Crassula which have a
tube-shaped corolla, with a spreading limb, divided into five segments,
while the flowers of those species which have been left in Crassula
have five distinct petals. All the plants belonging to the order have
succulent leaves; and in all of them the number of the petals, sepals,
and carpels, is the same, and of stamens either the same, or twice as
many. In the common Houseleek, the anthers sometimes produce seeds
instead of pollen.


The principal genus in this order is that of Mesembryanthemum, the
Fig-marigold. In the species of this genus, the leaves are always
thick and fleshy, and sometimes in very singular shapes; and sometimes
they are covered with a sort of blistery skin, which makes them look
as though covered with ice, as in the Ice-plant (_M. crystallinum_).
The leaves, when this is the case, are said to be papulose. Some of
the species are annuals, others shrubby, and others perennials; and
they are all natives of the Cape of Good Hope. The flowers, which are
generally showy, have a green, fleshy, tubular calyx, with a four or
five cleft limb, the tubular part of which encloses the ovary; and a
corolla of numerous very narrow petals, which are arranged in two or
more series. The stamens are very numerous; and the capsule has four or
more cells, each of which contains numerous seeds. The valves of the
capsule open when the seeds are ripe, if the weather should be dry; but
remain firmly closed, so long as the weather continues wet.

The genera Reaumuria and Nitraria, which were formerly included in
this order, have been removed from it, and made into separate orders,
the latter of which is introduced here; and the genus Grielum, which
was formerly included in Rosaceæ was first removed to Ficoideæ, and
afterwards made into a separate order, under the name of Neuradiaceæ,
which precedes Nitrariaceæ.


There is perhaps no order in the vegetable kingdom which embraces
plants so singular in their forms as those comprehended in this tribe.
All the genera, with the exception of Pereskia, are destitute of
leaves, but they have all succulent stems which answer the purposes of
leaves. The flowers of all the genera are extremely showy; the calyx
and corolla are coloured alike, and confounded together; the stamens
are numerous, with versatile anthers and very long filaments; the
style is generally long and slender, and the stigmas are numerous, and
either spreading or collected into a head. The ovary is in the tube of
the calyx, and it becomes an eatable fruit, very similar to that of
the gooseberry. The genera are all natives of tropical America. The
principal kinds are the following: viz. Mammillaria, the stems of which
are subcylindrical, and covered with tubercles, which are disposed
in a spiral manner; and each of which is crowned with a little tuft
of radiating spines mixed with down. The flowers are without stalks,
and they are disposed in a kind of zone round the plant. The Melon
Thistle or Turk’s-cap (_Melocactus communis_) has a globose stem with
deep furrows, the projecting ribs having tubercles bearing tufts of
spines. The stem is crowned with a woolly head, from which the flowers
are protruded, the flowers themselves resembling those of Mammillaria,
but being larger. The Hedgehog Thistles (_Echinocactus_) have stems
resembling those of the different species of Melocactus, but they
have not the woolly head; and the flowers rise from the fascicles or
tufts of spines on the projecting ribs. The Torch-Thistle (_Cereus_)
has generally an angular stem with a woody axis, and it has tufts of
spines on the projecting angles. It has not a woolly head, and the
flowers, which are very large and showy, either arise from the tufts of
spines, or from indentations in the angles. The limits of this genus
are very uncertain; and several plants which are included in it by some
botanists, are placed in other genera by others. The Old-man Cactus was
once called _Cereus senilis_, but it is found to have a woolly head of
great size, which has very much the appearance of a sable muff, and
as, consequently, it cannot belong to that genus, it has been called
Pilocereus. This plant is covered with long white hairs, and, when of
small size, it looks very much like an old man’s head. In its native
country, however, it grows to a great height, and specimens have been
imported fifteen feet long, and not more than a foot in circumference.
The Peruvian Torch-Thistles (_C. hexagonus_ and _peruvianus_), in their
native country, are upwards of forty feet high, though not thicker
than a man’s arm. They grow close together without a single branch,
and form a singular sort of prickly crest on the summit of some of the
mountains in South America. The creeping Cereus (_C. flagelliformis_)
has slender cylindrical trailing stems, which hang down on every side
when the plant is grown in a pot. The flowers, which are very numerous,
are pink. The night-flowering Cereus (_C. grandiflorus_) only opens
during the night, and fades before morning; the rays of the calyx
are of a bright yellow when open, and the petals are snow-white. The
stem is angular, branched, and climbing, throwing out roots at every
joint. The common Torch-thistle (_C. speciosissimus_) is an erect
plant, with a three or four angled stem, and very large bright crimson
flowers, which are purplish inside; and _C. speciosa_, sometimes called
_Epiphyllum phylanthoides_, has thin leaf-like stems with beautiful
pale rose-coloured flowers. _C. Jenkinsonii_ is a hybrid between
the last two species. _C. truncatus_ is another well-known species.
Opuntia has stems consisting of round, flat, leaf-like bodies, united
together by joints, and generally covered with tufts of spines. The
most remarkable species are _O. communis_, the Prickly Pear, grown to
a great extent in the South of Europe, and also in Brazil, as hedges,
the fruit of which is very good to eat; _O. Tuna_, the Indian Fig,
common in South America, and much cultivated there, both as a hedge
plant and for its fruit; and _O. cochinillifera_, the Nopal-tree, very
much cultivated in Mexico and South America, for the cochineal insect,
which feeds upon it. Rhipsalis has slender cylindrical jointed stems,
which look like samphire. All these genera have only leaves when quite
young, and as soon as the plants begin to grow, the leaves fall off.
Pereskia, however, is a genus belonging to this order which has leaves
like ordinary plants, which it retains during the whole period of its
existence. The principal species are _P. aculeata_, the Barbadoes
Gooseberry, and _P. Bleo_, which has beautiful rose-coloured flowers.


[Illustration: FIG. 136.—THE GOOSEBERRY. (_Ribes Grossularia_).]

This order consists of only one genus (_Ribes_), which includes all the
Gooseberries and Currants; the two kinds forming two distinct sections.
The first section, which embraces all the Gooseberries, has prickly
stems, and the flowers are produced singly, or in clusters of not more
than two or three together. The flower of the common Gooseberry (_Ribes
Grossularia_) consists principally of the calyx (_a_ in _fig._ 136),
the five segments of the limb of which are turned back, and coloured of
a reddish-brown. The petals (_b_) are white and erect, and bearded at
the throat; but they are so small and inconspicuous, that few people
would notice them if they were not pointed out. The stamens (_c_) are
five in number, and erect, and the anthers burst lengthways on the
inside. The ovary (_d_) is below the cup of the calyx, and the style,
which is cloven to the base (_e_), is always covered with hairs in the
common Gooseberry (_R. Grossularia_), and is more or less hairy in the
other species. There are two little bracteoles (_f_) on the pedicel;
and a large bract, deeply cut, at the point from which the pedicel
springs (_g_). The leaves, which are omitted in the engraving, also
grow from the same bud, and are three or five lobed, and hairy; and
there are three spines just below them. The fruit is a many-seeded
berry, with the seeds immersed in pulp; and on cutting open an unripe
fruit, it will be found that the seeds are each inclosed in an aril,
with a separate footstalk, by which they are attached to a membrane
lining the sides of the berry, and which is called a parietal placenta.
The segments of the calyx remain on the ripe fruit. Several of the
ornamental species of Ribes belong to this division, as, for example,
_R. triflorum_, which has white flowers; and _R. speciosum_, which has
crimson flowers, with the segments of the calyx not reflexed, and long
projecting stamens like those of the Fuchsia. The fruit and the whole
of the stems and branches of this species are covered with spines, and
thus the plant is easily distinguished from the common gooseberry, the
stem of which has no spines, except three just below each bud.

[Illustration: FIG. 137.—THE RED CURRANT.]

The Currants are distinguished by the stems being entirely without
spines, and the flowers being produced in racemes. The leaves are
cordate, and bluntly three or five lobed, a little downy beneath, but
smooth above. The flowers of the Red Currant (_Ribes rubrum_) are
numerous, and they are produced in drooping racemes, with a little
bracteole at the base of each footstalk (see _a_ in _fig._ 137).
The calyx is flattish, with the segments (_b_), which are of a pale
greenish colour, spreading widely, and not recurved. The anthers
(_c_) are loosely attached to the filaments, and they burst sideways
and across. The style (_d_) is short, and divided into two spreading
stigmas at the apex. The fruit is smooth and transparent, with many
seeds, and it retains the remains of the calyx (_e_) when ripe. The
white, and the striped or flesh-coloured Currants, are varieties of
_R. rubrum_. The Black Currant (_R. nigrum_) has a more compact, and
campanulate flower (see _a_ in _fig._ 138), with the segments of the
calyx reflexed; the anthers (_b_) are more firmly attached to the
filament; the style (_c_) is not cleft, and the stigma is two-lobed
and capitate. The fruit (_d_) has a thick opaque skin, and the eye of
the calyx is larger; the leaves are also covered on the under surface
with glands or cells, filled with a fragrant oil formed by the limb,
as shown at (_e_), which represents the appearance of the leaf when
held up to the light. There is often a solitary flower on a separate
pedicel, at the foot of the raceme; and there are frequently ten
stamens instead of five, and no petals, the petals having been changed
into stamens—a metamorphose the reverse of that which generally takes

[Illustration: FIG. 138.—THE BLACK CURRANT.]

The most ornamental kinds of Currant are _R. multiflorum_, with very
long drooping racemes of greenish flowers; _R. sanguineum_, the
flowers of which are crimson, and somewhat tubular; _R. aureum_, which
has the flowers of a golden yellow, and quite tubular; and _R. cereum_,
which has roundish leaves covered with white waxy dots on their upper
surface, and racemes with few flowers, which are rather large, and of
a pure white. A few species, such as _R. saxatile_ and _R. Diacantha_,
appear to be intermediate between the Currant and the Gooseberry, as
they have the racemes of fruit common to the one, with the spines and
habit of growth of the other. There is said to be another species
nearly allied to _R. sanguineum_, with dark-purple flowers, which has
not yet been introduced.


Of the genera included in this order (which were formerly included
in Saxifragaceæ), Escallonia is the most important, as it contains
several species of ornamental South American shrubs. The flowers of
the different species vary considerably: in _E. rubra_, they are
produced singly, and the corolla, which is pink, is tubular, with a
short, five-cleft limb; but in _E. montevidensis_ the flowers, which
are white, are produced in panicles, and have spread petals. The
flowers of both species have five stamens, and two carpels, the styles
of which are combined. The leaves are simple, alternate, and without
stipules. Of the other plants contained in the order, I may mention
that _Itea virginica_ is a North American shrub, with white flowers;
and _Anopteris glandulosa_, which is also a shrub with white flowers,
is a native of Van Diemen’s Land.


The genus Saxifraga of Linnæus has been divided so as to form several
genera; but they do not appear to be generally adopted. The flowers
of all the species are rather small, and they are generally racemose,
or panicled; and the corolla consists of five spreading petals with
short claws, and there are twice that number of stamens. Among the
most common species may be mentioned London Pride (_Saxifraga_ or
_Robertsonia umbrosa_), and the Meadow Saxifrage (_Saxifraga_ or
_Leiogyne granulata_), the flowers of the latter being large, and
produced singly. In the genus Hydrangea the flowers are disposed in
corymbs, and they have five petals, ten stamens, and from two to five
styles; but in the outer flowers of the corymb the stamens and pistil
are often wanting.

The genera Galax and Francoa, which were first included in Crassulaceæ,
and afterwards in Saxifragaceæ, are now made into a new order called
Galacineæ, or Francoaceæ, which is introduced here.


This order, which was separated from Saxifragaceæ by Dr. Brown,
contains principally hothouse plants with erect spicate racemes or
panicles of small flowers. Weinmannia, Bauera, and Cunonia are the
principal genera.


This is a very large order, but it is so natural that no person
who has seen Parsley in flower can ever be in any doubt as to an
umbelliferous plant. Most of the species are either culinary plants,
such as the Parsnep and Carrot, Celery, Parsley, Fennel, &c., or
poisonous weeds, such as Hemlock, and the Water Parsnep; and there are
very few ornamental plants included in the order: among these few may,
however, be mentioned _Didiscus_ or _Trachymena cærulea_, _Eryngium_,
and _Bupleurum_ or _Tenoria fruticosum_, _Angelica_, and _Heracleum_.
Some of the species of the latter, particularly the Gigantic Siberian
Cow Parsnep (_H. asperum_), are perfectly magnificent objects.
Notwithstanding the ease with which these plants may generally be
recognised, as in some of the allied orders the flowers grow in umbels
or cymes, it may be necessary to remark that Dr. Lindley defines
umbelliferous plants to consist of those which have their “flowers
growing in umbels, with inferior fruit, which, when ripe, separates,
or may be separated, into two grains.” Thus the common Dogwood is not
an umbelliferous plant, though its flowers grow in umbels, because its
fruit is a berry.


The most interesting plant in this order is _Hedera Helix_, the common
Ivy; a well-known climbing evergreen shrub, which throws out roots
from its branches at intervals, which it strikes into any substance to
which it can adhere. The flowers have all their parts in five or ten
divisions; even the lower leaves, which are smooth and leathery, are
five-lobed. The leaves on the flowering branches, which are always in
the upper part of the plant, are entire. The flowers are produced in
umbels, and they are succeeded by berries, which, in correspondence
with the parts of the flowers, are five or ten celled. The large-leaved
variety, called the Irish Ivy, is a native of the Canary Isles; and
the gold and silver leaved, and golden berried, are all varieties of
the common kind. There are, however, many exotic species, most of which
have not yet been introduced. The genus Aralia, known by its two garden
species, _A. spinosa_ and _A. japonica_, belongs to this order. The
first of these is called the Angelica Tree, and is an old inhabitant of
our gardens; but _A. japonica_ is of quite recent introduction.


The most interesting plants in this order are the Witch Hazel
(_Hamamelis virginica_), and _Fothergilla alnifolia_. In the first
of these plants, there are four long narrow petals, and the calyx is
four-lobed; and there are eight stamens, of which four are fertile,
and four barren. There are two styles, and the capsules are leathery
and two-celled, and two-valved, with one seed inclosed in an aril in
each cell. The Witch Hazel has the peculiarity of coming into flower
when it drops its leaves in autumn, remaining in flower all winter, and
forming its fruit in spring, just as it is opening its new leaves. The
flowers are yellow, and very pretty from their great abundance, and the
light feathery effect produced by the great length and narrowness of
the petals. The leaves are rough and feather-nerved, like those of the
Hazel. Fothergilla is a pretty little shrub with terminal spikes of
white flowers with yellow anthers, which are sweet-scented and appear
before the leaves.


This order, as originally constituted, may be divided into three
tribes, viz., _Corneæ_, containing _Cornus_, _Benthamia_, and,
according to some, _Aucuba_; _Sambuceæ_, containing _Sambucus_ and
_Viburnum_; and _Lonicereæ_, containing _Symphoria_, _Caprifolium_,
_Lonicera_, _Leycesteria_, _Linnæa_, &c. Cornus, Benthamia, and some
other genera, among which Dr. Lindley places Aucuba, are now formed
into a separate order, under the name of _Cornaceæ_. The different
species of Dogwood (_Cornus_) are known by the smooth bark of their
stems and branches, which is frequently red, or reddish brown; by their
white flowers, which are produced either in heads, or umbels, or in
corymbose panicles; by their red or blackish berries; and by their
coarse feather-nerved leaves. The principal species of Cornus are the
wild or female Cornel (_C. sanguinea_); the common Dogwood (_C. alba_);
the male Cornel, or Cornelian Cherry (_C. mas_); and American Dogwood
(_C. florida_). All these plants have a very small four-toothed calyx,
and a corolla of four petals. There are four stamens and one style. The
fruit is a berry-like drupe. Some of the species, as for example _C.
florida_, have a large involucre of four leaves, having the appearance
of petals. _Benthamia fragifera_, called by Dr. Wallich _C. capitata_,
has an involucre of four leaves of yellow, tinged with red, surrounding
a head of small greenish inconspicuous flowers. The fruit consists of
a number of drupes, grown together like a Mulberry, with six, eight,
or more seeds, surrounded with a viscid pulp. The leaves are long and
tapering, of a fine texture, and of a light green above, and silvery
white below.

The genus _Sambucus_, the Elder, is characterised by its pinnate leaves
and terminal cymes of flowers, which have a small five-lobed calyx, a
rotate corolla also five-lobed, five stamens about the length of the
corolla, no style, and three obtuse stigmas. The berries are globular,
pulpy, and one-celled; each containing three or five seeds, which
are convex on the outside, and angular within. The berries differ in
colour in the different species, those of the common kind being a
deep purplish black, and those of _S. racemosa_ being red. The stems
and branches are of a soft wood, having a white spongy pith. The
white-berried Elder is a variety of the common kind.

The genus _Viburnum_ contains several well-known plants, among which
may be mentioned the Laurestinus (_V. Tinus_), the Guelder Rose
(_V. Opulus_), and the Wayfaring Tree (_V. Lantana_). This genus
is very nearly allied to Sambucus in the flowers, but it is easily
distinguished, on examination, by its leaves, which are not pinnate,
and by its wood, which is hard and not spongy. The berries have also
only one seed, and they are not eatable,—those of the Laurestinus
are, indeed, injurious. The Laurestinus and some other species are
evergreen; but by far the greater number of species are deciduous.

The genus _Lonicera_ formerly included all the kinds of Honeysuckle;
but now only the upright species, or what are called the Fly
Honeysuckles, are comprised in it, and the climbing kinds are called
Caprifolium. One of the upright kinds, most common in gardens, is the
Tartarian Honeysuckle (_L. tartarica_), the flowers of which are in
twins. The corolla is tubular and funnel-shaped, with a five-cleft
limb. There are five stamens, a filiform style, and a capitate stigma.
The berries are distinct when young, but they afterwards grow together
at the base. The leaves are always distinct. The genus _Caprifolium_
embraces all the climbing species, the flowers of which are disposed
in whorls, and the upper leaves are connate, that is, growing together
at the base, so that two appear only one leaf, with the stem passing
through it. A single leaf of this kind is called perfoliate. The
flowers spring from the axils of the leaves, and are what are called
ringent, that is, they are composed of five petals, four of which
grow together, almost to the tip, while the fifth is only attached
to the others about half its length, and has the loose part hanging
down. Flowers of this kind, with their lower part forming a tube, and
their upper part widely open, are said to be gaping. In the Trumpet
Honeysuckle (_C. sempervirens_) the tube of the corolla is very long,
and the lobes of the limb nearly equal; and the flowers, instead of
springing from the axils of the leaves, form terminal spikes, each
consisting of three or more whorls of flowers.

The Snowberry (_Symphoria racemosa_) bears considerable resemblance to
the upright Honeysuckles. The flowers are funnel-shaped, and four or
five lobed. The berry has four cells, but two of the cells are empty,
and the others have only one seed in each. The leaves are oval, quite
entire, and not connate.

_Leycesteria_ is a very handsome shrub, with white flowers, and very
large and showy purple and reddish bracts. The berries are of a very
dark purple, and they are nearly as large as a gooseberry. _L. formosa_
is a native of Nepaul, but it appears tolerably hardy in British
gardens, and it stands the sea-breeze without injury.

_Linnæa borealis_ is a little for insignificant trailing plant, which
is included in this order, and which is only worth mentioning on
account of its being named in honour of Linnæus. It is a half-shrubby
evergreen, with small bell-shaped flesh-coloured flowers, which are
said to be fragrant at night.


Four genera are included in this order, all remarkable in different
ways. The first of these is the common Mistletoe (_Viscum album_), a
most remarkable parasite, a native of Britain, and generally found
on old apple-trees; and the second is _Loranthus europæus_, a native
of Germany, closely resembling the Mistletoe, but found generally on
the oak, where the true Mistletoe rarely grows. This plant is said
to have been introduced in 1824, but it is not now in the country.
There are other species of the genera, one a native of New Holland.
_Nuytsia floribunda_, also a native of New Holland, a very curious
plant, is also included in this order. It is a shrub about three feet
high, so covered with orange-coloured blossoms that the colonists call
it the Fire-tree. When the seed of this plant germinates, it is said
to have three cotyledons. The last plant generally included in this
order is _Aucuba japonica_, though it is probable this plant belongs
to Cornaceæ. Of this species we have probably only a variety, from the
variegation of the leaves; and it has never produced seeds, as only the
female plant has been introduced.


Inconspicuous plants with greenish flowers, which require a hothouse in


This order is divided into thirteen sections, most of which have been
already described. In all the species the tube of the calyx adheres to
the ovary, which is crowned with a fleshy cup, from which arises the
single style; and the petals are united at the base, and attached to
the upper part of the tube of the calyx.


Exotic weeds, formerly included in Rubiaceæ.


No person can ever have been in the neighbourhood of Greenhithe, in
Kent, without having observed the red Valerian, which grows in such
abundance on the steep banks of the chalk-pits in that neighbourhood;
and probably still more of my readers will be familiar with the
common wild Valerian, or All-heal, which is found in moist places,
generally among sedges, in every part of England. Another species of
the same genus is common in Scotland, so that the name of Valerian is
familiar to all persons who know anything of British plants. Common
as these plants are, however, probably most of my readers are unaware
of the very curious construction of their flowers; or of the very
great variety exhibited by the different species. The genus Valeriana
is, indeed, one which presents a remarkable instance of variety of
construction, united with a similarity of form which makes all the
species recognisable at a single glance. In all the species, the
corolla is funnel-shaped, with a long tube, and a five-lobed limb.
In the red Valerian (_V. rubra_), the lower part of the tube is drawn
out into a spur; and on this account the plant is sometimes called the
spurred Valerian, and it has been placed by De Candolle in a new genus,
which he called Centranthus. The other species of Valerian have the
tube of the flower gibbous, that is, much larger on one side than on
the other. In all the calyx is tubular, with the limb curiously rolled,
so as to form a rim or crown to the fruit, like that on the heads of
basket-women. When the flowers drop, the fruit, which is one-celled and
one-seeded, and which adheres closely to the tube of the calyx, begins
to swell, and as it does so the limb of the calyx gradually unrolls,
till at last, when the fruit is ripe, it forms a sort of feathery tuft
to waft it away. The leaves of plants of this genus vary exceedingly,
even on the same plant; but generally those of the red Valerian are
lanceolate; those of _V. dioica_ are pinnatifid; those of the wild
Valerian (_V. officinalis_), pinnate; and those of the garden Valerian,
the kind found in Scotland, (_V. pyrenaica_,) are cordate. The flowers
of _V. dioica_ are male and female, and are found on different plants.
The principal other genera in this order are Valerianella, the Corn
Salad or Lamb’s Lettuce; and Fedia, the Horn of Plenty.


The principal genera belonging to this order are Dipsacus, the
Teasel, and Scabiosa, the Scabious; to which may be added a pretty
little annual called Knautia. The plants belonging to this order bear
considerable resemblance to those included in Compositæ, as they
consist of a head of florets seated on a common receptacle, which is
chaffy, and surrounded by an involucre. The florets are also furnished
with what may be called a double calyx, the limb of the inner part
being cut into long teeth, and resembling the pappus of the Compositæ.
In the genus Dipsacus, the most important plant is the Fuller’s Teasel
(_Dipsacus fullonum_), in which the receptacle is raised in the form
of a cone, and the chaffy scales are hooked, and so strong, that the
flower-heads when dry are used for preparing broad-cloth. The leaves
of this plant are opposite, and united at the base. The florets have
a four-cleft corolla, and four distinct stamens; differing in this
respect decidedly from the Compositæ, which have five stamens, the
anthers of which are always united into a tube. _Dipsacus sylvestris_
might be easily mistaken for a kind of Thistle; but the difference
will be seen at once by examining the anthers of the florets. The
Devil’s-bit Scabious, which is so called from the root looking as
though a part had been bitten off, has the same kind of flower-head
as the Dipsacus, but the receptacle is flat, and the involucre much
smaller. In some of the species of Scabious, the florets of the outer
ring resemble those of the ray in flowers of the Compositæ. The leaves
of the genus Scabious are as variable as those of the genus Valeriana,
scarcely two species being alike.


Obscure American plants, nearly allied to Compositæ.


Plants with heads of florets on a common receptacle, surrounded by an
involucre. The florets are of three kinds, viz., ligulate, tubular,
and bilabiate; the heads consisting sometimes entirely of florets of
one kind, and sometimes with ligulate florets forming the outer ring,
called the ray, and tubular flowers forming the centre, called the
disk. The calyx continues on the ripe fruit, and its limb is frequently
cut into a kind of fringe called the pappus. The fruit is of the kind
called an achenium, that is, dry and bony, and continuing enveloped in
the persistent calyx, but without adhering to it.


The genus Lobelia is well known from the pretty little blue-and-white
flowering plants that are so common in pots for windows and balconies,
and that continue flowering so freely all the summer. There are two
or three species which are grown for this purpose, viz. _Lobelia
Erinus_, _L. bicolor_, and _L. gracilis_, all annuals, which require
to be raised on a hotbed by sowing in February, and which will then
flower all the summer, with no other care than regular watering. All
these flowers have the tube of the calyx united to the ovary, with
a five-parted limb. The corolla is irregular and tubular, with the
tube cleft on the upper side, and thickened at the base. The limb of
the corolla is divided into two parts; one of which, called the upper
lip, is cut into two narrow sharp-pointed segments, which stand erect;
while the lower lip, which is much the longer, and hangs down, is cut
into three rounded segments. There are five stamens, the anthers of
which grow together, and at least two of them are bearded. The capsule
is oval, two-celled, two-valved, and many-seeded, opening naturally
at the top when ripe. These general characters will be found in all
the numerous species of Lobelia, as the genus at present stands, as
they all have the two horn-like segments of the upper lip, and the
rounded lobes in the pendulous under lip; and many of the plants
formerly called Lobelia which differ in these particulars have been
placed in other genera. Thus Tupa, which contains several of the large
scarlet-flowered species, has the segments of the limb of the corolla
united at the tip; the filaments of the stamens cohering as well as the
anthers, and the stigma protruding. Siphocampylos has the tube of the
corolla ventricose in the middle, the segments of the upper lip long
and curving over each other, and the lower lip very slightly lobed,
with both the filaments and the anthers combined. In Dortmannia the
filaments are free, and only the anthers combined; in Parastronthus
(_L. unidentata_), there is scarcely any tube to the corolla, and in
Isotoma, the corolla is salver-shaped. The beautiful little _Clintonia
pulchella_ belongs to this order, and it differs from Lobelia in its
corolla having scarcely any tube, and also, but more decidedly, in
the very long tube of its calyx. This is so long and slender as to
look like a part of the flower-stalk; as does the capsule, which,
when ripe, is triangular, and is as long as the silique of a cabbage
or wall-flower, to which it bears considerable resemblance. All the
Lobeliaceæ have an acrid milky juice, which is poisonous.


This order contains three genera of New Holland plants, only one of
which has been introduced. The flowers are tubular, with a five-cleft
limb, and they are covered with hairs, terminating in capitate glands;
the stamens are united into a column, which is bent towards the fifth
or lower segment of the limb, which is much larger than the others. The
united stamens are so irritable as to start forward when touched with a


All the plants in this order are natives of New Holland, and they bear
considerable resemblance to those included in Lobeliaceæ, but they have
not a milky juice, and the stigma, which is very small, and without
any style, is surrounded by a curious cup called an indusium, which is
generally found full of pollen. This very remarkable organ is probably
rendered necessary by the very small size of the stigma, which can only
absorb the pollen very slowly. The most interesting genera contained in
this order are Lechenaultia and Euthales.


The plants in this order have a bell-shaped regular corolla, consisting
of five petals, usually grown together so as to form a monopetalous
corolla with five lobes, each lobe having a conspicuous central nerve
or vein. There are five or more stamens, which are generally distinct,
and which have broad bearded filaments bending over the ovary. The
style is at first short, but it gradually elongates itself, and both
it and the stigmas are furnished with tufts of stiff hairs, which, as
the style pushes itself through the stamens, brush off the pollen,
and retain it till the stigma is in a proper state to receive it. The
anthers burst as soon as the corolla opens. The capsules have generally
two, three, or five cells, and each cell contains many seeds.

In the genus Campanula, the capsule opens by little valves, which look
as though cut with scissors. The juice of the plants is milky, but not
poisonous. The principal genera are Campanula, Prismatocarpus (Venus’s
Looking-glass), Roellia, Phyteuma (the petals of which are distinct),
Trachelium, Wahlenbergia, and Adenophora. Lobeliaceæ and Goodenoviaceæ
were formerly included in this order.


The corolla is tubular and sub-bilabiate, with a five-cleft limb. There
are four stamens, two longer than the others, with the rudiments of a
fifth. The anthers generally adhere in pairs; the fruit is one-celled
and many-seeded; the leaves are thick and covered with a soft down; and
the roots are frequently tuberous. The qualities are excellent. The
species of the genus Gesneria are usually hothouse plants, with bright
scarlet flowers; and those of Gloxinia have generally purple flowers;
and of Sinningia the flowers are greenish.


This order includes the Whortle-berries, Bilberries, and Cranberries,
and it is very nearly allied to Ericaceæ, from which it is
distinguished by the disk, which lines the calyx, entirely surrounding
the ovary, which is thus placed below the rest of the flower, and is
called inferior. The fruit is a berry.


All the Heath tribe, including the Arbutus, Rhododendron, Azaleas, &c.,
are distinguished by their anthers, which have a little hole or pore
at the apex of each cell; each cell being also generally furnished with
a kind of spur at its base. The stamens in all these genera grow from
beneath the ovary, and the filaments are thick and fleshy. The fruit is
a dry capsule, or follicle.


Beautiful shrubs, natives of the Cape of Good Hope, with the habit of
Pimelea, and corymbs of pale pink flowers. The calyx is in two sepals,
the stigma four lobed, and the fruit four-valved, with two seeds in
each cell.


The plants comprised in this division are called monopetalous, as they
have their petals joined together, so as to form a cup for the stamens
and pistils quite distinct from the calyx; and the stamens are attached
to the corolla.


This order stands on debateable ground, being by many botanists
included in the last division; but it seems properly placed in this,
as the stamens are attached to the petals, which adhere together; and
if a flower of any species of Epacris be examined, it will be found
that the corolla, with the stamens attached to the lining of the tube,
parts readily from the calyx without losing its natural form. The
flowers are tubular or campanulate, with a five-cleft limb, and will
divide readily into five petals, each of which has the filament of a
stamen attached to it, leaving only the anthers free. The anthers are
one-celled and awnless, and this is the principal distinction between
this order and Ericaceæ. The calyx is five-cleft, coloured like the
corolla; and there are five scale-like bracts below it, which look
like a calyx. The capsule is dry, with the seeds attached to a central
column. The leaves are dry, hard, and prickly. The species are natives
of Australia, where they supply the place which the Heaths hold in
Europe and Africa; no Heath having been yet found in any part of


This order contains one genus, Symplocos, of greenhouse and stove
shrubs, from South America, with small white flowers, and serrated
leaves, which turn yellow in drying.


[Illustration: FIG. 139.—SNOWDROP TREE (_Halesia tetraptera_).]

The plants in this order best known in English gardens are _Styrax
officinale_, the Storax, and _Halesia tetraptera_, the Snowdrop-tree.
The flowers of both are white; those of Storax are funnel-shaped, with
a five-cleft limb; there are ten stamens, growing together at the base,
with short filaments, and very long anthers. The fruit is a drupe which
is nearly dry, containing a one-celled nut, enclosing from one to three
seeds. The seeds have two skins, the inner one like a cobweb, and
the outer one spongy. The bark, when wounded, affords the gum called
storax. Halesia has drooping bell-shaped white flowers, something like
those of the Snowdrop, (see _a_ in _fig._ 139,) with four petals and
twelve or sixteen stamens combined into a tube at the base. The fruit
is a dry, winged drupe, which has four angles in _H. tetraptera_ (_b_),
and two in _H. diptera_; and which contains a stone or putamen (_c_),
which has two or four cells, and as many seeds. Some botanists make
Halesiaceæ a separate order.


Showy shrubs, with evergreen leaves, and cymes of white or red flowers,
which require a stove or greenhouse in England. The plants belonging
to this order may be easily known on cutting open their flowers, as
they are the only monopetalous flowers among the stove plants that have
the stamens opposite the lobes of the corolla; the general position
of the stamens being between the lobes. The principal genera in this
order are Myrsine, the species of which are greenhouse shrubs; and
Ardisia, the latter being well-known stove shrubs, with white flowers
and red berries. Theophrasta, Clavija, and Jacquinia, were included in
this order; but they are now formed into a new one, under the name of


This order is best known by the genera _Argania_, _Sideroxylon_,
_Chrysophyllum_, and _Bumelia_, all of which are stove or greenhouse
plants. The seeds of _Achras Sapota_ contain abundance of oil, which
is so concrete as to have the appearance of butter; and hence the tree
is called the Butter-tree. _Sideroxylon_ has such hard wood as to be
called the Iron-tree. The juice of all these plants is milky, and the
milk is wholesome as food.


The principal genus is Diospyros; which contains the Ebony-tree (_D.
Ebenum_), the Date-plum or Lotus-tree (_D. Lotos_), both natives of
the East Indies; and the Persimon (_D. virginiana_), a native of North
America. The species are trees with hard dark wood; that of Ebony is
quite black when old, and remarkably heavy. The flowers are white and
inconspicuous, and the fruit, which is eatable, but insipid, is a
berry, placed in the centre of the calyx, which spreads round it like a
saucer. It is very harsh when first gathered, and must be kept till it
is half decayed, like the Medlar, before it is eaten.


Large stove trees, with axillary branches of white flowers.


This order comprises the common Ash, the Manna Ash, the Olive, the
Privet, the Fringe-tree, the Phillyrea, and the Lilac. The flowers
of all have only two stamens, and a roundish two-celled ovary,
without any disk. The flowers of the Ash have no corolla, and the
fruit is a samara. In the other genera, the flowers are more or less
funnel-shaped, and the fruit is a capsule. The leaves are generally
pinnate, and always opposite. The seeds have a dense albumen.


This order has been separated from the last, chiefly on account of the
seeds having no albumen. The principal genus is the Jasmine, which has
a funnel-shaped corolla, and pinnate leaves. Some botanists insert,
between Oleaceæ and Jasmineæ, the new order Columellieæ, which contains
only one plant, _Bolivaria trifida_.


Tropical trees. The principal genus _Strychnos_, the fruit of which
is the well-known poisonous nut, _Nux vomica_. The genera Theophrasta
and Fagræa were formerly included in this order; but the first is now
placed in the new order, Theophrasteæ (see p. 399); and the second is
placed in another new order introduced here, and called Potaliaceæ.


Very showy plants from various parts of the world, some of which
require a stove in Britain, while others are quite hardy. They also
vary in some of them being trees, others erect shrubs or climbers, and
others perennial; but they are all easily recognised by the twisted
direction of the segments of the corolla, which has been compared
to the rays of St. Catharine’s-wheel. The corolla is generally
salver-shaped as in the periwinkle (_Vinca major_), or funnel-shaped,
as in _Taberna montana_, and _Allamanda cathartica_, or divided into
equal segments as in _Nerium Oleander_. The flowers are often bearded
in the throat, and furnished with hypogynous scales; with the stamens
inclosed in the flower, and the anthers lying close together. The
seed is contained in two follicles, which are slender, and have their
seeds disposed in two rows. The species all abound in an injurious
milky juice; and two of the genera, Cerbera and Tanghina, are virulent


These plants are very nearly allied to the last, and they differ
chiefly in having the segments of their corollas straight, in their
stamens being united into a sort of crown, and in their pollen
being found in masses of a waxy substance. The seeds are also each
furnished with a tuft of fine long silky hair. The principal plants
are _Periploca græca_, a hardy, climbing, shrub, with rich, dark,
velvet-looking flowers, which are said to be poisonous to flies, and
_Hoya carnosa_, a stove or greenhouse climber, with waxen-looking,
clustered, odoriferous flowers, distilling honey; to these may be added
Pergularia, a stove climber, remarkable for its fragrance, Physianthus,
Gonolobus, Ceropegia, and Asclepias, all singular-looking climbing
plants; and besides these, I may mention Stapelia, the species of which
are dwarf plants, with their flowers hanging down below the pots in
which they grow, and the odour of which is so like that of carrion, as
to induce flesh-flies to lay their eggs upon them.


The best known genera are Gentiana, (the Gentian), Lisianthus, and
Menyanthes (the Buckbean). The flowers have a tubular calyx and
corolla, the latter plaited in the tube, and with an equally-parted
limb, which is generally five cleft; and an equal number of stamens
with broad filaments, and arrow-shaped anthers. The seeds are numerous,
and are usually in two follicles.

The orders Spigeliaceæ, Loganiaceæ, and Menyanthaceæ, have been
separated from Gentianeæ, and are adopted by some botanists.


The most interesting genera are—Bignonia; from which Tecoma has been
divided by some botanists, on account of a slight difference in
the seed-pod; Jacaranda, said to produce the rosewood of commerce;
Eccremocarpus, and Catalpa. All the plants included in this order
have winged seeds, and generally very long horn-like seed-pods. The
different species of Bignonia or Tecoma have trumpet-shaped flowers
with a five-toothed calyx, and four stamens of unequal length, with the
rudiments of a fifth. The capsule is very long and narrow, resembling a
silique in shape, but broad on the outside, and the leaves are pinnate.
_Eccremocarpus_, or _Calampelis scabra_, is a well-known climber,
with orange-coloured, bag-like flowers, which are produced in secund
racemes; large, roundish warted fruit, with winged seeds; and pinnate
leaves, with tendrils. In Catalpa the corolla has a very short tube,
and an unequal, five-lobed limb. There are five stamens (only two of
which are fertile); and an exceeding long, cylindrical, silique-shaped
seed-pod, which is sometimes two feet or more in length. The leaves
of the Catalpa are heart-shaped. In Jacaranda, the capsule is above
two feet long, and quite flat. _Crescentia cujète_, the calabash-tree,
belongs to this order.


This order is restricted to one genus Cobæa, of which one species
(_C. scandens_) is common in British gardens. This plant is an annual
climber, with showy bell-shaped flowers, which are first green, and
afterwards become purple. This plant has remarkably long tendrils,
which twist themselves round any thing that comes in their way.


These orders are now united into one, under the name of Pedalineæ; and
the most interesting genus is Martynia, consisting of half hardy annual
plants with bell-shaped flowers, and very curious seed-pods.


This is a very interesting order to the lovers of ornamental flowers,
from the beauty of those of some of the genera. The genus Polemonium,
the Greek Valerian, has one species (_P. cœruleum_) which is found wild
in many parts of England, and is known by the names of Charity and
Jacob’s Ladder. The corolla, which is of a deep blue, softening into
white in the centre, is rotate, with the stamens, which are bearded
at the base, inserted in the throat. The capsule is three-celled, and
many-seeded, as is generally the case with plants in this order, and
the leaves are pinnate. The Phloxes are well-known; all the species
are very handsome, but none are more so than the beautiful annual
(_P. Drummondi_). The corolla of these plants is salver-shaped, with
an elongated tube, the limb twisted in the bud, and wedge-shaped
segments. The stamens are inserted above the middle of the tube, and
the cells of the capsule are one-seeded. Leptosiphon has the corolla
funnel-shaped, with a very long slender tube, and a campanulate limb
with oval lobes; the corolla is covered with a great number of fine
glandular hairs, and the limb is twisted in the bud. The stamens, which
have very short filaments, are inserted in the throat of the corolla.
The calyx consists of five sharply-pointed hairy lobes, connected by
a very fine membrane. The flowers are surrounded by a great number of
sharply-pointed bracts. Similar bracts are very conspicuous in the
genus Collomia. Gilia and Ipomopsis, so well known for their splendid
flowers, also belong to this order.


Elegant little plants, distinguished from the preceding order by
the flowers having two styles, and a two-valved capsule. Retziaceæ,
an order containing only one Cape plant, is inserted here by some
botanists, who have separated it from Convolvulaceæ.


The principal genera are Convolvulus, Ipomœa and their allies. The
genus Convolvulus formerly included all the beautiful monopetalous
flowers with a folded limb, which are so common in gardens, but it is
now restricted to those which have a two-celled capsule, with the cells
two-seeded; the stamens are inclosed in the corolla, and the stigma
is divided into two narrow thread-like lobes. Ipomœa only differs in
having the lobes of the stigma capitate. In Quamoclit, the little
scarlet Ipomœa, the capsule is four-celled, and the cells one-seeded;
the corolla is tubular, and the stamens project beyond the throat.
Batatas, the Sweet-potato, resembles Quamoclit, but the corolla is
campanulate, and the stamens are inclosed. In Pharbitis (in which
genus the common Convolvulus major, and the beautiful Ipomœa Learii,
are both now included), the capsule is three-celled, and the cells are
three-seeded; and in Calystigia, in which is now placed the common
bindweed of the hedges, the capsule is one-celled and four-seeded;
and the flower, which in other respects agrees with that of the genus
Convolvulus, has two bracts which serve as a sort of involucre. All
these flowers have the lobes of the corolla marked with a decided fold
or plait, and they are climbing plants, generally annuals. Cuscuta is a
parasite belonging to Convolvulaceæ, which though it springs from the
ground, withers just above the root as soon as it has twined itself
round any plant within its reach; drawing its entire nourishment from
the unfortunate plant it has attacked, and which it soon kills. The
plants in this order produce an acrid milk; and the roots of a kind of
Convolvulus yield the drug called Jalap, which takes that name from the
Mexican city Xalapa, near which it is grown.


The fruit of the plants included in this order consists of four
distinct carpels, each containing a bony nut. These nuts frequently
appear as though a hole had been bored in them at the base, and they
are frequently striped or twisted. The flowers are generally secund, or
rather they are produced in spikes which appear to have flowers only on
one side, from the spikes being curiously rolled up before the flowers
expand, and uncoiling gradually as they open. The corolla is generally
salver or funnel shaped, with a five-lobed limb, and five little scales
just within the throat, which appear to be placed there to close up the
orifice. There are five anthers, which seem attached to the corolla,
without any stamens, and a slender style terminating in a two-lobed
stigma. The calyx is tubular, and remains on the fruit till ripe; the
teeth of the calyx contracting at the point, so as to cover the ripe
carpels. The principal genera are Pulmonaria (Lungwort), Symphytum
(Comfrey), Cerinthe (Honeywort), Lithospermum (Gromwell), Echium
(Viper’s Bugloss), Anchusa (Bugloss); Myosotis (Scorpion-grass or
Mouse-ear), one species of which, _M. palustris_, is the Forget-me-not;
Omphalodes (Venus’ Navelwort), Cynoglossum (Hound’s-tongue), and
Heliotropium (the Heliotrope).


East India trees and shrubs of which Ehretia is, perhaps, the best
known. Nearly allied to Boragineæ.


This order is interesting from its containing Phacelia, Eutoca, and
Nemophila, all well known Californian annuals.


The genera Verbascum and Celsia have been removed from this order, and
formed by some botanists into another called Verbascinæ, though by Dr.
Lindley they are included in Scrophularinæ. The plants left in the
order Solanaceæ have all a tubular calyx, which remains on the fruit
till it is ripe; and the fruit itself is generally round and fleshy,
with two or four cells and numerous seeds. In some of the genera, the
permanent calyx looks like a capsule, but on opening it, the little
berry-like fruit will be found inside. There are five stamens, the
anthers of which are two-celled like those of most other plants, and
the filaments are inserted in the corolla, which is generally partly
tubular with a spreading limb, the segments of which are plaited, that
is, each bears the crease of a fold in the middle, as may be seen in
the Petunia. In the order Verbascinæ, the corolla is rotate, and the
segments are not plaited; the anthers also are only one-celled. Most
of the plants belonging to Solanaceæ are poisonous in a raw state; but
they lose their deleterious qualities when cooked.


[Illustration: FIG. 140.—FOXGLOVE (_Digitalis_).]

The Foxglove is generally taken as the type of this order, and it has
a tubular corolla (see _a_ in fig. 140) with a short limb (_b_), and
a spreading calyx (_c_). There are four stamens of unequal length
inserted on the base of the corolla and hidden in its tube; and an
oblong ovary (_d_), with a long style, and a two-lobed stigma (_e_).
The fruit is a dry capsule with two cells, and numerous seeds. The
flowers of the other genera are very irregular. In the Snapdragon,
the corolla is what is called personate; and in the Calceolaria the
lower lip is curiously inflated. The stamens also differ. In most of
the genera there are four, but in Pentstemon there is a fifth, long
and slender, and hairy at the point, but without any anther; and in
Calceolaria and Veronica there are only two. Among the genera included
in this order may be mentioned Buddlea, the flowers of which grow in
ball-like heads; Paulownia, Maurandya, Mimulus, Alonsoa, and Collinsia.
The Toadflax (_Linaria_), and several other British plants belong
to it; but the Yellow Rattle (_Rhinanthus_), and some other allied
plants, have been formed into a new order called Rhinanthaceæ; Chelone
and Pentstemon have been formed into an order called Chelonaceæ; and
Sibthorpia, Disandra, &c., into one called Sibthorpiaceæ. Trevirana or
Achimenes, and Columnea, are removed to Gesneriaceæ.

The new order Cyrtandraceæ, including Æschynanthus, Streptocarpus or
Didymocarpus, Fieldia, and Amphicoma, is introduced here: the first and
last of these genera are new, and the others were formerly included in


[Illustration: FIG. 141.—A LABIATE FLOWER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 142.—BLACK HOREHOUND (_Ballota nigra_).]

The plants belonging to this order include Mint, Sage, Thyme, and other
kitchen aromatic plants, and several well-known British weeds. They
are all distinguished by a tubular, bilabiate corolla with a projecting
under lip (see _a_ in fig. 141). In some plants the corolla is ringent,
as shown in fig. 142, taken from Dr. Lindley’s _Ladies’ Botany_, in
which _a_ is the galea or helmet, and _b_ the lower lip, which is
three-lobed. There are four stamens, two of which are longer than the
others, and the cells of the anthers differ from those of most other
plants in spreading widely apart from each other, each being joined
to the filament only at the tip. The pistil consists of four distinct
carpels (_c_), a very long style lobed at the tip, and furnished with
a very small stigma at the tip of each lobe (_d_). The flowers of some
of the plants belonging to this order are disposed in a whorl round
the stem; as, for example, those of the Dead Nettle (_Lamium_). Among
the other plants belonging to the order may be mentioned the Bugle
(_Ajuga_), and the Ground Ivy (_Glechoma_), both common but very pretty
British weeds.


The genus Verbena is well known, from the many beautiful species now
common in every greenhouse. The fruit is two or four celled, and
a drupe or a berry, and the calyx of the flowers is tubular, and
persistent round it; but the corolla is deciduous, and falls off long
before the fruit is ripe. In the genus Verbena the calyx is tubular,
with five distinct angles, ending in five teeth. The corolla has a
cylindrical tube nearly double the length of the calyx, and a flat limb
divided into five unequal segments, which are wedge-shaped and notched,
the central one of the lower three appearing to have been slightly
pinched; the throat of the corolla is hairy. There are four stamens,
two longer than the others, the anthers having two widely-spreading
lobes, as in the Labiatæ. The style is slender below, and thickest in
the upper part; and the stigma is two-lobed. The leaves are opposite,
and furnished with stipules The flowers form a corymb in the Scarlet
Verbena, and a spike in some of the other kinds, which elongates
gradually as the flowers expand. The principal other genera are
Clerodendron, or Volkameria, Vitex (the Chaste-tree), Lantana, Aloysia
(the Lemon-scented Verbena), and Tectona (the Teak) which is so much
used in the East Indies for ship-building.


Australian and Polynesian plants, nearly allied to Verbenaceæ. The
principal genera are Myoporum and Avicennia, the White Mangrove of


These plants are known by the elastic opening of the capsules, which
are two-celled, and the hooked points of the seeds by which they are
attached to the placenta. The calyx remains on the ripe fruit, but in
most of the plants it is so extremely small as to be inconspicuous, and
its place is supplied by three large leafy bracts. The corolla varies
considerably, being sometimes two-lipped as in Justicia, sometimes
funnel-shaped as in Ruellia, and sometimes campanulate, with a
spreading five-cleft limb, as in Thunbergia. There are only two stamens
in Justicia and some of the other genera, but in Thunbergia, Acanthus,
and Ruellia, there are four of unequal length, inclosed within the
throat of the corolla. The ovary is imbedded in the disk, and it is two
or many seeded; the style is simple, and the stigma one or two lobed.


Leafless parasites, with brown or colourless scaly stems and flowers.
The genera are Lathræa and Orobanche.


Pretty little marsh plants, natives of Europe and North America.
Pinguicula has very much the appearance of a violet, and the
Utricularias are floating plants.


The plants belonging to this order are easily known by the stamens, or
rather anthers, for they have scarcely any filaments, being affixed
to the corolla in the centre of the lobes, instead of being alternate
to them, and by the capsule, though five or ten ribbed, being only
one-celled, with a central placenta, to which the seeds are attached.
The calyx remains on the ripe fruit. In the genus Primula (the
Primrose), the calyx is tubular, and strongly marked with five distinct
angles, which end in as many teeth; and the corolla is salver-shaped,
with a contraction in the tube, at the insertion of the stamens, the
five segments of the limb being wedge-shaped and notched. The style is
slender, and the stigma capitate. The capsule opens naturally by ten
teeth, which curl back. The Cyclamen, or Sow-bread, one of the genera
belonging to this order, has the lobes of the corolla bent back; and
when the flower falls, the peduncle coils up in a most curious manner,
so as to bury the seed-vessel in the earth. These plants have tuberous
roots, which are so acrid as only to be eaten by the wild-boars. The
seed-vessel of the Pimpernel (_Anagallis_) resembles a round case
with a lid, which may be taken off, when it displays a great number
of seeds, so closely packed, that no room is lost. The principal
other genera are the American Cowslip (_Dodecatheon_), Bear’s-ear
Sanicle (_Cortusa_), _Soldanella_, the Water Violet (_Hootonia_), and
Loosestrife (_Lysimachia_).


Pretty alpine plants, with blue flowers.


This order probably belongs to Monochlamydeæ. The principal genera are
Sea Lavender (_Statice_), remarkable for the coloured footstalks of the
flowers; Thrift (_Armeria_); and Leadwort (_Plumbago_). The corolla in
these plants is either monopetalous, with the stamens free from the
corolla and growing from beneath the pistil, or with five petals, to
which the stamens are attached. There are five styles and five stigmas,
but only a one-celled and one-seeded ovary. The fruit is thin and dry.
The pedicels of all the species of the Sea Lavender, particularly of
_Statice arborea_, are often mistaken for the flowers.



In all the plants contained in this division, the stamens and pistils
have either no floral covering, or only one; and as, when this is the
case, the covering is called the calyx, the plants in this division
are said to have no corolla. Some botanists think that the calyx and
corolla have become intermixed, so as to form only one covering,
which they call the perianth; a word applied to the calyx and corolla


The weed called Plantain, or Rib-grass, is well known to all persons
who keep birds, as it is a food that cage-birds are very fond of. It is
conspicuous by its strongly-ribbed leaves, which form a flat tuft on
the ground, and by the large arrow-shaped anthers of its four stamens,
which hang on very slender filaments. The flowers are arranged in dense
spikes, and are green and inconspicuous.


The Marvel of Peru (_Mirabilis Jalapa_), and the other species of
that genus, are the only ornamental plants belonging to this order.
The flowers consist of a coloured calyx, surrounded by a five-toothed
involucre, which greatly resembles a calyx. The true calyx is
funnel-shaped, with a spreading limb, the lobes of which are plaited,
and notched at the margin; and which, with the tubular part, form at
the base a globular swelling, which incloses the ovary. The stamens
grow from beneath the pistil, adhering together at the base, so as to
form a kind of cup. The ovary contains only one seed; and the style
is long and slender, terminating in a capitate stigma, divided into a
number of tubercles or warts. The lower part of the calyx remains on
the ripe fruit, hardening into a kind of shell.


The flowers of the plants belonging to this order are either in spikes,
like Love-lies-bleeding (_Amarantus caudatus_), in heads like the Globe
Amaranth (_Gomphrena globosa_), or in a singular crest-like shape,
like the Cock’s-comb (_Celosia cristata_). In all, the flowers have
no corolla, and only a very thin and dry calyx, which is surrounded
by hard, thin, dry bracts, of the same colour, each ending in a long
point. There are generally five anthers, and two or three styles, with
pointed stigmas; but the capsule contains only one cell and one seed;
and when ripe, it divides horizontally in the middle, like the capsule
of the Pimpernel.


Herbaceous plants and shrubs, with racemes of red, white, or greenish
flowers. Phytolacca is the principal genus; and one species, the
Virginian Poke (_Phytolacca decandra_) is remarkable for being found
wild in climates so different as Spain and Portugal, the north of
Africa, Jamaica, and North America. The flowers are greenish, tinged
with red, and they are followed by very dark purple berries, which are
said to have been formerly used for colouring port wine, but the juice
having medicinal qualities, their use in Portugal is now prohibited.
Rivina belongs to this order.


The plants belonging to this order bear considerable resemblance to
those included in the order Amaranthaceæ, but their flowers are
disposed in loose clusters without bracts, and all their parts are
fleshy; while the flowers of the Amaranthaceæ are disposed in dense
spikes with bracts, which, as well as the divisions of the flowers, are
quite hard and dry. The stamens are five in number, and they are spread
out like those of the Nettle tribe; there are two styles with hairy
stigmas, and the capsule resembles the Echinus, or Sea Urchin. The
principal genera in this order are,—Spinach (_Spinacea_), Red and White
Beet (_Beta vulgaris_), Mangold Wurtzel (_B. altissima_), Chard Beet
(_B. cicla_), the Strawberry Blite (_Blitum_), Fat-hen or Goosefoot
(_Chenopodium_); Glasswort, the ashes of which are used in making glass
(_Salicornia_), Saltwort (_Salsola Kali_, or _Soda_), from the ashes of
which soda is prepared; and the Garden Orache (_Atriplex hortensis_).
The leaves of all the species are somewhat succulent and pulpy, and
they are frequently stained with brilliant colours.


The only genus in this tribe is Begonia, the plants belonging to which
have pretty flowers, and strongly-veined leaves, which are crimson
on the lower side, with one half smaller than the other, and each
furnished with a pair of large stipules. The flowers are male and
female; the first consist of four sepals, two of which are much longer
than the others, and a beard of anthers, with the filaments united into
one common stalk, and each anther containing two cells for pollen. The
female flowers have five sepals; the lower part is thick and fleshy,
having three unequal wings. This part becomes the capsule, and it is
furnished with three stigmas, each of which has two curiously-twisted
lobes. The capsule when ripe has three wings, one much longer than the
others; and it is in three cells, each containing a central placenta
with a double row of seeds, which are covered with a beautifully
reticulated skin.


This order comprehends the Rhubarb (_Rheum_), the Dock (_Rumex
obtusifolius_), Sorrel (_R. acetosa_), the Buckwheat (_Polygonum
Fagopyrum_), Persicaria (_P. orientale_), Water-pepper (_P.
hydropiper_), and Knot-grass (_P. aviculare_). The leaves of these
plants either sheath the stem with the base of their petioles, or are
furnished with ochreæ, that is, with stipules which are joined together
so as to form a kind of purse or boot. The flowers are inconspicuous,
and the fruit is a triangular nut, retaining the calyx till it is ripe.
The genera Eriogonum, Calligonum, and Kœnigia, formerly included in
this order, are now formed into another, called Eriogoneæ.


These plants are known by their anthers, which are two or four celled,
with the valves curling upwards when ripe, like those of the Berberry,
and the filaments are furnished near the base with two kidney-shaped
glands. The male and female flowers are distinct; the former have six,
eight, or twelve stamens, and a calyx of four or six divisions united
at the base. The female flowers have a one-celled and one-seeded ovary,
with a simple style, and an obtuse-crested stigma; and four or more
abortive stamens, furnished with glands, but without anthers. The
most interesting plants contained in this order are,—the Sweet Bay
(_Laurus nobilis_), the Sassafras-tree (_L. Sassafras_, or _Sassafras
officinale_), the Cinnamon-tree (_L. Cinnamomum_, or _Cinnamomum
verum_, or _zeylanicum_); the Camphor-tree (_L. camphora_, or _Camphora
officinarum_); and the Alligator Pear (_L. Persea_, or _Persea
gratissima_). All the plants belonging to this order are aromatic,
either in the leaves, bark, or fruit.

Two small orders, Illigereæ and Hemandiaceæ, containing Indian plants
rarely met with in England, are introduced here by some botanists.


The only interesting plant in this order is the Nutmeg (_M.
officinale_, or _moschata_). In this plant, the fruit is pear-shaped,
and it consists of a half-fleshy pericardium enclosing a jet-black
stone, encircled by a fleshy orange-red arillus, which is the mace. The
nutmeg is the kernel of the stone, and it is not taken out for sale
till it is sufficiently ripe to rattle when shaken. The leaves are of
a dark green above, and glaucous beneath; and the flowers are white,
with the red pistil conspicuous in the centre. The tree is a native of
Ceylon and the East Indian Islands, and it requires a stove in England.


The principal genera are Protea, Banksia, Dryandra, and Grevillea, all
very singular plants, the species of which, when one of each genus has
been seen, are easily recognised. They are all natives of the Cape of
Good Hope and New Holland.


[Illustration: FIG. 143.—A FLOWER OF MEZEREON.]

This order is well known from the Mezereon and the Spurge Laurel, both
common garden shrubs belonging to the genus Daphne. The berries of both
are poisonous, and the bark acrid. The flowers of the Mezereon (_D.
Mezereum_) have a coloured calyx, which is tubular, with a four-cleft
limb (see _fig._ 143), which is slightly hairy on the outer surface,
and pitted on the inner one. It is said that this calyx will separate
readily into two, the inner part peeling off like a lining: but I have
never been able to effect this without tearing the outer covering.
There are eight anthers, with scarcely any filaments, affixed in two
rows to the throat of the corolla; and an egg-shaped ovary, with a
tufted stigma without any style. The fruit is a drupe, that is, formed
like a plum, with a fleshy pericardium, enclosing a stone or nut,
the kernel of which is the seed, and which sometimes appears to be
partially enveloped in a sort of hairy bag, which is the lining of
the ovary become loose. The flowers of the Mezereon grow round the
stem, with a tuft of leaves at the top; but those of the Spurge Laurel
(_D. Laureola_) are in a cluster of short drooping racemes. The most
remarkable species of the genus is, however, the Lace Bark-tree of
Jamaica (_D. Lagetto_, or _Lagetta lintearia_), the liber or inner bark
of which has such tough fibres as to bear stretching out considerably
without breaking; and in this state it resembles lace so much, that
a collar and ruffles were made of it and sent to Charles II. Gnidia,
a greenhouse plant, has little scales in the mouth of the calyx;
and Pimelea has the flowers in heads, surrounded by a four-leaved
involucre. The principal other genera are Lachnæa, a little Australian
plant with woolly flowers, Passerina or Sparrow-wort, and Struthiola.
The curious little tree called Leatherwood (_Dirca palustris_) also
belongs to this order.


Exotic trees with white or greenish flowers. The only genera are the
Poet’s Cassia (_Osyris_), and a genus of Australian plants called


The most interesting plant is the Sandal-wood tree (_Santalum album_),
which requires a stove in England; but the North American trees
belonging to the genus Nyssa, including the Tupelotree and the Ogechee
Lime, are quite hardy. The flowers are small and insignificant; and the
fruit is a drupe.


The three genera included in this order are the Sea Buckthorn
(_Hippophae_), the Oleaster (_Elæagnus_), and the Shepherdia; all so
easily recognised by their silvery foliage, as to need no particular
description. The flowers are small and inconspicuous.


The genus Aristolochia, or Birthwort, is remarkable for the very
singular shape of its flowers, which are as strange, and as much
varied, as it is possible for the wildest imagination to conceive.
The flowers are tubular, with one lip much longer than the other; and
the tube takes an abrupt bend near the middle. Here are six anthers,
fixed very curiously on the outside of a club-shaped column, split into
six lobes at the point. In the centre of this column is a style with
a six-rayed stigma; and the fruit is a large capsule with six cells,
which opens by as many slits, and discharges the numerous thin, flat,
dark brown seeds.

_Asarum canadense_, the Wild Ginger of North America, has
kidney-shaped leaves, and dark purplish brown flowers, on very short
footstalks, which resemble those of the genus Stapelia, both in
appearance and smell.


The most interesting plant in this order is _Nepenthes distillatoria_,
the Chinese Pitcher-plant, the leaves of which have a tendril at the
point curiously dilated at the extremity, so as to form a cup-like
appendage, which is generally full of water. The rim of the pitcher is
beautifully ribbed, and it is furnished with a lid. The male and female
flowers are on different plants, but neither of them possess much
beauty. The remarkable Javanese fungus Rafflesia belongs to this order.

A small order called Cephaloteæ, and containing only the genus
Cephalotis, formerly included in Rosaceæ, is introduced here.


[Illustration: FIG. 144.—EUPHORBIA.]

[Illustration: FIG. 145.—FRUIT OF EUPHORBIA.]

The genus Euphorbia is well known by the British weed called Caper
Spurge, and the showy stove plants which belong to it. The male and
female flowers are distinct; but both are inclosed in one cup-like
involucre. In _fig._ 144, _a_ is the involucre, _b_ the female flower,
and _c_ the male ones. The fruit (_fig._ 145) consists of three
carpels, each containing a single seed, which divide with elasticity
when the seeds are ripe. All the plants belonging to this order have a
milky, glutinous juice when young, which in some genera becomes solid
when exposed to the air. This is particularly the case with Siphonia
Hevea, a Brazilian tree, the sap of which yields the Indian rubber used
for Macintosh cloaks, &c.; it being more suitable for that purpose
than the caoutchouc yielded by the _Ficus elastica_, which is the true
Indian Rubber. The principal other genera belonging to this order
are the Box (_Buxus_), the tree kind of which yields the wood used
for wood-engraving, and the dwarf variety is employed as edging for
gardens; Croton, an annual species of which (_Croton Tiglium_) yields
the celebrated Croton oil; the Cassava (_Jatropha Manihot_), which
though poisonous in a raw state, becomes the wholesome food called
tapioca, when properly prepared; Palma Christi (_Ricinis communis_),
from the seeds of which castor-oil is made; and the Manchineel tree
(_Hippomane_), which is said to be so poisonous as to occasion the
death of those who sleep beneath its shade.


Small Australian shrubs with insignificant flowers.


East-Indian trees with inconspicuous flowers.


The plants belonging to this order are divided into two sections, viz.
those with tough fibres, as the Hemp, the Nettle, &c.; and those with
milky sap, such as the Fig, the Mulberry, the Bread-fruit, &c. All the
genera have the male and female flowers separate. The male flowers
have four stamens which spring back and discharge their pollen with
elasticity, and the female flowers have a one-celled ovary with two
long stigmas.


The principal genera are the Elm (_Ulmus_), the Nettle-tree (_Celtis_),
and the Zelkoua-tree (_Planera_). The flowers, though very small, are
pretty, from their opening in clusters before the leaves; and each has
four stamens, with dark purple anthers, and is furnished with dark
brown bracts. The fruit is a utricle, having a single seed, encircled
by a broad thin transparent membrane. The leaves are rough, and their
sides are unequal at the base. The bark of Elm trees is rough and
deeply furrowed; and the roots spread, instead of penetrating deeply
into the ground like those of the Oak.


The species are generally climbing plants with perfect flowers, which
are produced in spikes, and are succeeded by one-seeded berries. The
genus Piper contains the common Pepper (_P. nigrum_), the Betel (_P.
Betel_), and several other species.


The male and female flowers are distinct, but on the same plant. The
male flowers are produced on long thick anthers, and each consists
of a scale-like calyx enclosing numerous stamens; the female flowers
are two or more together, and each consists of a scale-like calyx,
enclosing a one-celled ovary. The fruit is a drupe, that is, it
consists of a fleshy husk enclosing a nut. The embryo fills the whole
seed; and the cotyledons are fleshy, two-lobed, and wrinkled. There are
only two genera, the Walnut (_Juglans_), the male catkins of which are
produced singly, and the Hickory (_Carya_), the male catkins of which
are in clusters.


The male flowers are in catkins, and the fruit of most of the genera
is, when ripe, partially or wholly enclosed in a cup-like involucre,
formed by the adhesion of the numerous bracts.


This order has been already inserted, p. 380.


Little heath-like plants, with small flowers and showy berries. The
Crowberry, _Empetrum nigrum_, is very common in Scotland on heaths.


The male and female flowers are both produced in catkins, and both
consist only of scales. The pollen of the male flowers is very
abundant, and is discharged freely in fine weather. The female flowers
form cones, consisting of numerous scales, at the base of each of which
are two winged seeds. The timber abounds in resin.


These singular plants have thick timber-like trunks, yet they can
hardly be called trees, as they increase in height by a single terminal
bud. The leaves are pinnate, and they unroll, when they expand, like
those of the ferns. The male flowers are in cones, and the female ones
either in cones, or produced on the margin of contracted leaves. The
principal genera are Zamia and Cycas, and one species of the latter
yields a kind of sago; the true kind being a product of a species of



All the trees belonging to this division are natives of tropical
countries; and they, as well as all the herbaceous plants belonging
to it, are distinguished by the veins of their leaves being never
branched, but principally in parallel lines. These plants are
re-divided into those with a perianth, which are called the Petaloideæ,
and in which are included the Orchidaceæ and the bulbous-rooted plants;
and those without a perianth, which are called Glumaceæ, and in which
are included the grasses, and sedges.



Aquatic plants, two of which are of very curious construction. In
Vallisneria, the male and female flowers are on different plants,
and the buds of the female flowers rise on long spiral stalks, which
gradually uncoil, till the flower appears above the surface of the
water, where it expands. The male flowers are produced on separate
plants at the bottom, but, before they expand, they detach themselves
from the soil, and rise up to the surface, where they float till the
flowers have opened, and the pollen has fallen on the stigmas of the
female flowers, after which the male flowers wither, and the female
ones coil up their stalks again to ripen the seed-vessels at the
bottom. This curious arrangement is necessary, because the pollen
should be dry when it falls on the stigmas; and nearly a similar
arrangement takes place with the Fresh-water Soldier (_Stratiotes_).
The Frog’s Bit (_Hydrocharis morsus ranæ_) is a floating plant,
with pretty white flowers. _Damosonium indicum_ is a very handsome
water-plant, with white flowers and winged stems.


The principal genera in this order are Alisma, Sagittaria, and
Actinocarpus, all common British aquatic plants. The Water Plantain
(_Alisma plantago_) has ribbed leaves, and a loose panicle of small
pinkish flowers, which have a permanent calyx of three sepals, a
corolla of three petals, six stamens, and numerous carpels, which grow
close together so as to form a head, as in the Ranunculus tribe. _A.
natans_, which is generally found on lakes in the mountainous districts
of Wales and Cumberland, has rather large white flowers, with a yellow
spot at the base of each petal. The flower-stalks rise high above the
water, and the flowers expand in the months of July and August. The
common Arrowhead (_Sagittaria sagittifolia_) has curiously-shaped
leaves, resembling the head of an arrow. The flowers are white, and
resemble those of _A. natans_; but they have a pink spot at the base,
and there are numerous stamens. The flowers are in whorls, and those
in the upper whorls are generally destitute of carpels. The common
Star-fruit (_Actinocarpus damsonium_) has only six carpels, which are
so arranged as to form a star-like fruit when ripe.


The flowering Rush (_Butomus umbellatus_) is certainly the handsomest
of the British aquatic plants. The flowers are rose-coloured, crimson,
or white; and they are produced in large erect umbels. The calyx and
the corolla are generally of the same colour, and in three divisions
each; there are nine stamens and six capsules, which are many-seeded.
The leaves are triangular or flat. _Limnocharis Plumieri_ is a very
handsome Brazilian aquatic belonging to this order.


Insignificant bog plants, with grassy leaves, and central spikes or
racemes of greenish yellow flowers.


[Illustration: FIG. 146.—ORCHIS MORIO.]

[Illustration: FIG. 147.—POLLEN MASSES OF THE ORCHIS.]

The plants belonging to this order may be divided into two kinds, those
that grow in the earth, and those which require to have their roots
suspended in the air; the latter being the beautiful tropical plants
called Orchideous Epiphytes. Most of the terrestrial Orchidaceæ are
British plants belonging to several genera, the most curious of which
are Orchis, Habenaria, Ophrys, Aceras, Nœttia, Epipactis, and Malaxis.
Nearly all the British Orchidaceæ have tuberous roots, which remain
above ground, a new tuber being formed every year. The leaves are
alternate, with an entire margin, without any footstalk, and sheathing
the stem at the base. The flowers are produced in a spike, furnished
with bracts, and though they are very irregular in their forms, there
are certain particulars in which they all agree. Though in reality
sessile, they appear to have each a footstalk, but this footstalk is
only the long twisted ovary (_c_ in _fig._ 146), which is one-celled
and many-seeded, and which serves to support the calyx and corolla
of the flower, which are both above it. The calyx consists of three
sepals, one of which has the appearance of a hood (_a_), and the
others (_b b_) look like wings. The petals are very disproportionate
in their size; two are generally very small, and are only seen peeping
beneath the hood of the calyx; while the third (_d_), which is called
the labellum, or lip, is very large, and hangs down. In the centre
of the flower is a singular mass, called the column, composed of the
stamens and pistil, grown together (see _a_ in _fig._ 147). In this
column there is one perfect anther (_b_), and two imperfect ones (_c
c_). The perfect anther consists of a pouch or bag, which, when opened,
displays two stalked masses of globular pollen, one of which (_d_) is
pulled down to show its appearance, while the other remains in its
case at (_e_). The stigma is a sort of cup half full of a glutinous
fluid, but it appears entirely shut out from the pollen, which is not
only enclosed in its pouch or bag, but is of such a solid waxy nature
as to prevent any possibility of its being carried by wind or insects
to the stigma. Nature, however, has contrived a means of obviating
the difficulty. At the foot of each stalk of the pollen masses, there
is a little protuberance, covering a gland, through which the pollen
descends to the stigma, and thence to the ovary or germen.

The different genera are distinguished, partly by the manner in which
the granules of the pollen adhere together, and partly by the shape
of the flowers; and their different species vary principally in the
form of the labellum. In the genera Orchis and Habenaria, the labellum
is drawn out behind into a kind of spur (see _e_ in _fig._ 146); and
in others it assumes strange shapes, as in the Man Orchis (_Aceras
anthropophora_), where the labellum looks like a little man; and in the
Lizard Orchis (_A._ or _Orchis hircina_) where the labellum is drawn
out into a long tail, which looks like the tail and long body of the
lizard, while the petals, which are long and narrow and bent back,
look like the hind legs. In the genus Ophrys, the labellum also takes
strange shapes, sometimes resembling a bee, at others a fly, and at
others a spider. In the genus Cypripedium, the two side stamens bear
anthers and pollen, and only the central one is imperfect.

In the orchideous epiphytes the same general construction prevails, but
the forms of the flowers are still more varied and fantastic. All of
them have pseudo bulbs above ground, which serve as substitutes for the
tubers of the terrestrial species.


This order contains several plants, well known for their useful
properties, as for example, the Ginger (_Zingiber officinale_), and
the Turmeric (_Curcuma Zerumbet_). Some of the plants grow tall and
reed-like, as for example in Hedychium. Most of the genera have a
creeping underground stem, called a rhizoma, which is often jointed.
The flowers are produced in spathe like bracts; the calyx is tubular,
and adheres to the ovary; and the corolla, which is also tubular, has
six segments arranged in two rows; the inner row, which is supposed to
consist of the dilated filaments of abortive stamens, has one of the
segments, called the labellum, larger than the rest. There are three
stamens, two of which are abortive, as in the Orchidaceæ; but the
pollen does not cohere in masses, and it is not inclosed in a kind of
pouch or bag. The ovary is three-celled (though the cells are sometimes
imperfect), and many-seeded; the style is filiform, and the stigma is
dilated and hollow. The fruit is generally a capsule; but in some cases
it is a berry.


The most interesting genera are—_Canna_, containing reed-like plants
with brilliant flowers; as, for example, _C. indica_, the Indian Shot;
_Thalia_, a curious aquatic; and _Maranta_, the tubers of which furnish
India Arrowroot. The flowers in their construction greatly resemble
those of the preceding order; but the filaments of the stamens are
petal-like, and it is one of the side stamens that is perfect, the
middle and the other side stamens being always abortive. The fruit is
always capsular.


The genus Musa is known by its fruit, which is eaten under the names
of Plantain and Banana. The flowers are produced in spikes, enclosed
in spathe-like bracts, which are often richly coloured; and they are
succeeded by the fruit, which hang down in massive spikes of enormous
weight. The leaves are very large and strong, and Indian muslin is
manufactured from the fibres of one of the species. The principal other
genera, Strelitzia and Heliconia, are both remarkable for the brilliant
colours of their flowers.


The principal genera belonging to this order are—Iris, Moræa, Marica,
Vieusseuxia, Homeria, Sisyrinchium, Patersonia, Witsenia, Ferraria,
Tigridia, Babiana, Watsonia, Gladiolus, Sparaxis, Tritonia, Ixia,
and Crocus; but almost every genus contained in the order has showy
flowers, and is consequently well known in gardens. The leaves are
generally thin, long, and flat, with the edge towards the stem, and the
flowers are produced from spathes; the perianth is also in six segments
coloured alike, the calyx and corolla being in most cases confounded
together. The genus Iris has generally tuberous or solid bulbous
roots, of the kind called corms, and the perianth of the flower is
divided into six segments, three of which are larger than the others;
these three larger segments, which form the calyx, (see _a_ in _fig._
148) are reflexed, and a stamen springs from the base of each, which
reclines upon it, with its anther turned from the rest of the flower,
the segment, in many species, having a kind of crest or beard near the
base, as though it were intended to form a cushion for the stamen to
repose on, while over each stamen is spread, as a kind of coverlid, a
stigma (_b_) which is dilated so as to resemble a petal. The petals
(_c_) often stand erect, and were called by Linnæus the standards. The
seed-vessel, which forms below the flower, is a three-celled capsule,
opening, when ripe, by three valves, and containing numerous seeds.

[Illustration: FIG. 148.—FLOWER OF THE IRIS.]

The other genera differ from the Iris in having the lower part of the
segments of the perianth generally combined into a tube, with the
ovary below, looking like a footstalk; the limb being divided into six
parts, all so much alike, both in form and position, as to render it
difficult to distinguish the calyx from the corolla. There is only
one style, with three stigmas, which are always more or less leafy,
and the anthers (which are never more than three) are always turned
away from the pistil. In Ferraria, the filaments of the stamens grow
together, and form a hollow tube, as in the Passion-flower, surrounding
the style and stigmas; and in the Saffron Crocus (_C. sativa_), the
stigmas (which, when dried, form the saffron) are so heavy, as to hang
out on one side of the perianth from between the segments. Most of the
genera have solid bulbs or corms at the base of their stems; but some,
such as Marica, Sisyrinchium, and Patersonia, have only fibrous roots.
The genera Colchicum and Bulbocodium very much resemble the Crocus in
the appearance of their flowers; but they are distinguished by having
three styles and a superior ovary, and they are included in the order


The principal genera are Wachendorfia, Hæmadorum, and Anigozanthos,
which differ from the preceding genus principally in having six
stamens, the anthers of which are turned towards the stigma. Most of
the genera have only fibrous roots, but Wachendorfia has a rhizoma,
producing buds in the scales. The plants are natives of the Cape of
Good Hope and New Holland, and the roots of some of the species yield a
brilliant scarlet dye.


Bulbous-rooted plants, with long narrow leaves covered with soft downy
hairs, and rather small yellow flowers, which are frequently fragrant.


A large order of genera, all of which have bulbous roots, and most
of them splendid flowers. Some of the most interesting genera
are—Amaryllis, Nerine (the Guernsey Lily), Brunsvigia, Hæmanthus,
Crinum, Pancratium, Narcissus, Galanthus (the Snowdrop), Leucojum,
Alstrœmeria, and Doryanthes. The different kinds of Amaryllis have
large lily-like flowers, divided into six equal segments, which are
joined into a tube below, with six stamens, the anthers of which are
turned towards the pistil, and a long style crowned with a simple
stigma. The ovary is beneath the other parts of the flower, to which
it serves as a receptacle; and in most of the plants it looks like a
small green calyx below the perianth. The leaves are very long, but
they are rather thick and fleshy, and their edge is not turned towards
the stem. In Narcissus, Pancratium, and some other genera, the flowers
have a kind of cup within the perianth, formed of the filaments of
abortive stamens grown together. In Pancratium, the filaments of the
anther-bearing stamens grow into the others, so as to form a part of
the cup, the anthers springing from the margin of it; but in Narcissus,
the fertile stamens are distinct. In Galanthus, and its allied genera,
the anthers open by pores, as in the Ericaceæ, and there is a kind of
receptacle on the germen, in which the petals, and sepals, and the
filaments of the stamens, are inserted.


This order, which included the Day Lilies (_Hemerocallis_ and
_Funkia_), the African Lily (_Agapanthus_), the Aloe (_Aloë_), the
Tuberose (_Polianthes_), with several other genera which have their
flowers in upright racemes or umbels, is now generally considered to
form a section of the order Liliaceæ.


The Yam (_Dioscoreæ_), and the Elephant’s-foot (_Testudinaria_), are
the principal genera in this order; and both have an enormously-large
tuberous root which is eatable, and a very slender climbing stem, with
rather small leaves and inconspicuous flowers. The ovary is below the
flower, and the fruit is capsular.


This order consists only of the genus _Tamus_, the Black Bryony, which
Dr. Lindley includes in Dioscoreæ. It has, however, a berry-like fruit.


This order includes Smilax, the root of a species of which affords the
drug called Sarsaparilla, the Lily of the Valley (_Convallaria_), and
the Alexandrian Laurel, or Butcher’s Broom (_Ruscus_). The male and
female flowers in Smilax are on different plants; and in Ruscus the
flowers spring from the middle of the leaves. The perianth is in six
equal segments, and there are six stamens. The ovary is three-celled,
with the cells one or many seeded, and the fruit is a globose berry.
The seeds, when ripe, have a brown membranous skin. Dr. Lindley
confines this tribe to Smilax, and Ripogonum; and includes the other
genera in Liliaceæ.


This order includes the Hyacinth (_Hyacinthus_), the squills
(_Scilla_), the onions (_Allium_), the Grape Hyacinth (_Muscari_),
the Star of Bethlehem (_Ornithogalum_), King’s Spear (_Asphodelus_),
_Anthericum_, _Albuca_, _Gagea_, _Thysanotus_, _Asparagus_, the
Dragon-wood (_Dracæna_), and New Zealand flax (_Phormium_). Many of
these plants have tunicated bulbs; that is, bulbs which consist of
several fleshy tunics or coats, which may easily be separated from
each other, as may be seen in the hyacinth and the onion. The leaves
are fleshy, and ligulate or strap-shaped; and the stems are frequently
hollow. The flowers are generally in upright racemes, or umbels; they
are regular, and sometimes bell-shaped; the perianth is divided into
six segments, which are sometimes partly united into a tube, and
recurved at the tip. There are six stamens attached to the perianth,
and the fruit is either a fleshy or dry three-celled capsule, generally
with several seeds, and opening into three valves, when ripe. Dr.
Lindley makes this a separate order in his _Ladies’ Botany_, but he
combines it with Liliaceæ in his _Introduction to the Nat. Syst._, and
Sir W. J. Hooker includes in it Yucca and Aloe, the first of which in
the _Hortus Britannicus_ is included in Tulipaceæ, and the latter in


This order in the _Hortus Britannicus_ comprises the genera Yucca,
Tulipa, Fritillaria, Cyclobothra, Calochortus, Lilium, Gloriosa, and
Erythronium (the Dog Violet); but Sir W. J. Hooker omits Yucca, and
adds Blandfordia, Hemerocallis, and Polianthes; while Dr. Lindley
includes all these plants, together with those comprised in Asphodeleæ,
in the order Liliaceæ. This last appears the most natural arrangement,
as all these plants have a regular perianth of six segments, with six
stamens, and a dry or fleshy capsule of three cells, opening by as
many valves. Some of the genera have more seeds than others, and some
of the seeds have a hard, dry, black skin, while others have the skin
spongy and soft. Some of the genera have the flowers erect and single,
as in the Tulip; in others the flowers are erect, but in umbels, as in
the Orange Lily; and in others they are in racemes and drooping, as in
the Yucca, or single and drooping, as in the Fritillaria, or with the
segments curved back as in the Martagon Lily.


The plants belonging to this order have generally inconspicuous
flowers, except Colchicum and Bulbocodium, both of which have flowers
like the Crocus. The bulbs of the Colchicum are used in medicine; but
they and the whole plant abound in an acrid juice, which is poisonous
if taken in too large a dose. The root of Veratrum is also poisonous,
and this plant is believed to be the Hellebore of the ancients. The
Colchicum and the Bulbocodium are distinguished from the Crocus genus,
which they so strongly resemble in the appearance of their flowers, by
the ovary being within the flower instead of below it, as is the case
with all the Amaryllidaceæ, and by their having three distinct styles,
instead of one style and three stigmas. In all other respects they are
the same.


This order includes the Pine Apple (_Bromelia Ananas_), the American
Aloe (_Agave americana_), _Billbergia_, the magnificent plant
_Bonapartea juncea_, now called _Lyttæa geminiflora_, and the curious
epiphyte _Tillandsia_. What we are accustomed to call the fruit of
the Pine Apple is, in fact, a fleshy receptacle, like that of the
Strawberry, covered with scaly bracts, which are the remains of the
fallen flowers. The flowers are blue, and one is produced in each
bract; when they fall, the bracts thicken and grow together, and cover
the ovaries, which sink into the fleshy part of the receptacle.


Elegant aquatic plants, with kidney-shaped leaves, and spikes or
racemes of blue or white flowers. The principal genus is Pontederia.


This order is principally known in Britain by the Spiderwort
(_Tradescantia_), and the beautiful _Commelina cælestis_. Both plants
have the flowers springing from a tuft of leaves which sheath the stem.


This order contains many lofty trees, which are, with one exception,
without branches, and bear a tuft of large leaves, called fronds, at
the summit. The flowers are small, with bracts, and they are enclosed
in a spathe, which bursts on the under side. The mass of flowers is
called a spadix; and it is succeeded by the fruit, which, when ripe,
is either a drupe or a berry. In the Cocoa-nut Palm (_Cocos nucifera_)
the fruit is a drupe; but the pericardium consists of hard, dry,
fibrous matter, which is uneatable, the only part fit for food being
the albumen of the kernel. The Date Palm (_Phœnix dactylifera_), and
the Sago Palm (_Sagus Rumphii_), are two interesting plants, from their


The most interesting plant in this order is the Screw Pine
(_Pandanus_), which has the habit of the Palms, but the flowers of the
Arum tribe.


The Bullrushes (_Typha_), also called Cat’s-tail and Reed-mare, are
tall rush-like plants, with a cylindrical mass of dark brown flowers
round the stem, surmounted by a spike of yellow flowers. The lower
dark-brown flowers are female ones, and the yellow ones are the males;
the former consist only of an ovary on a long stalk, and a calyx cut
into fine hairs so as to form a kind of pappus. The male flowers have
a chaff-like calyx, enclosing the stamens, the filaments of which
are united at the base, and the anthers are very long and of a bright
yellow. The seed is a dry capsule, and the plant has a rhizoma or
creeping stem under the water.


These curious plants have their flowers in a spadix, enclosed in a
spathe, the male and female flowers being separate, and the former
above the latter, with some abortive ovaries again above them. The
male flowers have only one stamen in each without any covering; and
the female flowers in like manner consist each of a single ovary, with
a puckered-up hole in the upper part, which serves as the stigma.
The fruit consists of a cluster of red berries, which form round the
spadix. Many of these plants have a very unpleasant smell, and some
of them have a tuberous root, which, when cooked, is eaten, though it
is poisonous when raw. _Arum_ or _Caladium esculentum_ is thus eaten
as a common article of food in the East Indies; but the Dumb Cane
(_A._ or _C. seguinum_) has its English name from its juice being so
poisonous as, if tasted, to cause the lips to swell so as to prevent
the possibility of speaking. The beautiful marsh plant called _Calla_
or _Richardia ethiopica_, or the White Arum, belongs to this order;
as does the fragrant rush, _Acorus Calamus_. The order Typhaceæ is
included by many botanists in Aroideæ; and indeed, the difference
between them consists principally in the Bullrushes having no spathe.


Floating plants, of which _Aponogeton distachyon_ is by far the most
beautiful. This plant, which is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, has
oblong, deeply-ribbed leaves on very long footstalks, and the flowers
in two-cleft spikes, with snow-white bracts, which are very ornamental
and very fragrant; each flower consists of from six to twelve stamens,
and from two to five carpels. The root is tuberous, and eatable when
roasted. The Duckweed (_Lemna_), which is sometimes included in this
order, appears to consist entirely of a few leaves floating on the
water, each of which sends down a root; and many people believe that
it never flowers. If, however, it be watched in the months of June
and July, two yellow anthers will be seen peeping out of the side of
each leaf; and if the opening be enlarged, the flower will be found to
consist of a kind of bag, open on one side, and containing two stamens,
with an ovary furnished with a style and simple stigma. The fruit is a
one-celled capsule, containing one or more seeds. Some botanists place
this plant in a separate order, called Pistiaceæ, from another genus
included in it.


The most interesting genus is the Rush (_Juncus_). These plants, low
as they rank in the vegetable world, have a regular perianth of six
divisions with six stamens, and a three-celled capsule which opens by
three valves. The perianth of the flowers is, however, so small as to
be inconspicuous. Most of the species are weeds, which are considered
to indicate cold, wet, and poor ground.


A grass-like plant, a native of Chili, with greenish flowers.


Rigid, inelegant, and often leafless, plants, with the habit of rushes,
natives of New Holland and the Cape of Good Hope.


These plants, instead of having a regular calyx and corolla, have
nothing but green and brown scales, which are called glumes, to cover
the stamens and pistil. There are only two orders belonging to this
division in British fields and gardens.


These plants have solid stems, and the leaves not only sheathe the
stem, but grow together round it, so as to form a kind of tube. The
flowers are arranged in heads, some of which contain only male flowers,
each of which consists of a membranous scale and three stamens, and
others contain only female flowers. In the genus Carex, the Sedge,
these flowers are each enclosed in a kind of bottle formed by two
scales growing together, and opening at the top into two parts so as
to show three stigmas, which have only a single style. The fruit is a
dry, hard, triangular capsule with only one seed. The most remarkable
genera are _Papyrus_, the plant anciently used for paper; _Scirpus_,
the Club-rush, used for making the seats of chairs, mats, &c.;
_Eriophorum_, Cotton-grass; and _Cyperus_.


This very important order includes not only the common Grasses, but the
Bread Corns, or Cereal Grasses—Wheat, Oats, Barley, Rye, and Maize;
and the Sugar-cane and Rice. All these plants are botanically allied
to the Sedges, but their stems are hollow, except at the joints, where
they become solid; and their leaves, though sheathing the stem, do not
unite round it. The flowers are produced in spikes, which are what are
called spikelets. The glume, or calyx as it was called by Linnæus, is
generally two-valved; and within it are two thinner smaller scales, or
paleæ, which were called the corolla by Linnæus. Besides these, there
are frequently two still smaller scales within the paleæ. There are
generally three or six stamens, the anthers of which are two-celled,
and forked at the extremity. There are two styles, either quite
distinct, or combined at the base, and the stigmas are feathery. The
pericarp is membranaceous, and adheres to the seed, forming a kind of
caryopsides. The seeds contain a great deal of albumen, which, when
ground into flour, becomes nourishing food. The stems, or culms, are
hollow and articulated; the leaves, which are alternate, springing
from each joint. The most important genera are Wheat (_Triticum_),
Barley (_Hordeum_), Rye (_Secale_), Oats (_Avena_), Maize (_Zea_), the
Sugar-cane (_Saccharum_), Rice (_Oryza_), and the Bamboo (_Bambusa_).
Oats are not produced in spikes, but in loose panicles; and the male
and female flowers of the Maize or Indian Corn are on different plants.



These plants are generally described as being without spiral vessels,
and consisting only of cellular tissue; but spiral vessels are known
to exist in the Ferns, and are said to have been found in the Mosses.
Whether this be the case or not, it is evident that the plants included
in this division are very different from all that have preceded them,
and occupy a lower grade in the scale of vegetable creation. They
are divided into two sub-classes: viz. the _Foliaceæ_, or those with
leaves, and the _Aphyllæ_, or those without leaves; both of which are
without visible flowers, though some have what are called anthers,
and the Mosses have something resembling a style and stigma. They may
also be said to have no seeds, for the spores, or sporules as they are
called, are very different from the seeds of vascular plants, and they
have neither cotyledon nor embryo.



Though some of the Ferns are so common that almost every one must
have seen them, very few persons are aware how very curiously they
are constructed. In the first place, they may be said to have neither
stems nor leaves, and neither flowers nor seeds. The different parts
of the plant spring from a rhizoma, and the leaves, which are called
fronds, have their veins neither branched nor in parallel lines, but
forked. On the back of the leaves are some curious brown spots of
various shapes called sori; and these, which generally form under the
outer skin or cuticle of the leaf, and which always spring from one of
the veins, contain a number of small grains, called the thecæ, which
are in reality cases containing the sporules or seeds. When the sorus
forms under the cuticle of the leaf, the membranous part raised, which
resembles a blister, is called the indusium; but sometimes the sori
are naked, that is, they are formed on the outside of the cuticle; and
sometimes they are found on the margin of the leaf, which folds over
them, and supplies the place of the indusium. The order is generally
divided into two sections, called Polypodiaceæ and Osmundaceæ. The
first contains those plants which unroll their leaves, when they
rise from the stem, and which have their sori either on the back or
on the margin of the frond. The thecæ are on stalks, and they are
furnished with a ribbed, elastic, articulated but incomplete ring,
which seems to serve as a sort of hinge when they burst. This elastic
ring is a continuation of the stalk of the theca, which always bursts
on the opposite side. The following are the principal genera in this
division: Polypody (_Polypodium_), sori without any indusium; Shield
Fern (_Aspidium_), Bladder Fern (_Cistopteris_), and Spleenwort
(_Asplenium_), all of which have their fronds pinnate or pinnatifid;
Maiden Hair (_Adiantum_), Hart’s-tongue (_Scolopendrium_), the frond
of which is simple and shaped like a tongue, and the sori oblong; and
Brake (_Pteris_), the leaves of which are pinnatifid, with the sori
placed round the margin so as to form a continuous line, and the edge
of the leaf turned over them. The rhizoma of the Brake is eaten in many
countries, and the fronds, when burnt, yield alkali, which is used in
making both soap and glass.

The second division Osmundaceæ comprises those Ferns which apparently
have flowers; the flowers, however, being merely sori, with the leaves
on which they grew shrivelled up round them. The most remarkable of
these is the flowering Fern (_Osmunda regalis_); but others are—the
Grape Fern or Moonwort (_Botrychium_), a species of which, a native of
North America, is called there the Rattle-snake Fern; and the Adder’s
Tongue (_Ophiglossum_). The Tree Ferns of New Zealand are magnificent
plants. The trunk or stipe rises to the height of forty or fifty feet
without a branch, and then terminates in a head of noble fronds, which
hang down on every side like a plume of feathers. The wood of these
trees when cut across, instead of being in circles like the wood of
Dicotyledonous trees, or full of pores like that of the Endogens, is
marked with a number of zigzag lines, the traces of the stalks of old
fronds which have grown together and formed the stipe.


These plants appear to occupy the intermediate space between the Ferns
and the Mosses. They have creeping stems, and grow two or three feet
high; the erect stems being clothed with imbricated leaves, in the
axils of which these are produced. Some of them open into three or four
valves, and contain sporules; while others are only two-valved, and
contain a kind of powder, which some suppose to be pollen, and others
abortive sporules. In some of the species, the thecæ are produced in
bracteated spikes, which resemble the young strobiles on a Spruce Fir.
The seeds of the common Club-moss (_Lycopodium clavatum_) are used at
the theatres to imitate lightning.


These are aquatic herbs, the thecæ or receptacles of which are always
found in the axils of the leaves near the root. In the genus _Isoetes_
(Quillwort) these are of two kinds, like those of the Club-mosses, the
one containing powder, and the other granules; but in Pepper-grass or
Pillwort (_Pillularia_), the receptacles are four-celled, and each cell
contains both powder and granules. _Marsilea_, from which the order
takes its name, is a native of Italy and other parts of the south of
Europe, where it grows in the same manner as Duckweed does with us.


The thecæ of these well-known plants are contained in terminal
cone-like spikes or catkins, from four to eight lying in each scale.
The stems are tubular, and articulated with whorls of membranaceous
sheaths, and of slender branches, jointed, and sheathed like the stem
at every joint. All the species of Equisetum abound in silicious
matter, and particularly the Dutch Rush (_E. hyemale_), which is used
for polishing both wood and metal. The handsomest species is _E.


Aquatic herbs, contained in the genera Nitella and Chara, always
growing under water, with slender jointed stems, surrounded at the
joints by whorls of tubular leaves or branches, which are either
membranaceous and transparent, as in _Nitella_; or brittle, and more or
less encrusted with carbonate of lime, as in _Chara_, Stonewort. The
organs of reproduction are formed in the axils of the branches, and
consist of transparent globules, and hard, spiral nuculas, which appear
to be formed of twisted leaves, the points of which often form a kind
of crest. Young plants are only produced by the nuculas.


[Illustration: FIG. 149.—CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS.]

The Mosses have fibrous roots, and slender wiry stems, densely covered
with leaves, which are very small, and laid over each other like
scales (see _a_ in _fig._ 149). The theca (_g_) is urn-shaped, and
it is produced singly; in most cases, on a long, slender, wiry stem,
called a seta, which signifies a bristle, but sometimes without any
stalk. It always springs from a tuft of leaves, differing both in size
and shape from ordinary leaves, which form what is sometimes called
the perichætium. Among these may occasionally be seen a few stalks,
resembling the Lichen called Cup-moss, which terminates in a kind of
cup, and thickened at the base. The cups and upper parts soon die away,
and the thicker part left among the leaves swells, and in time rises
on a stalk of its own, carrying away one of the leaves with it on
its head. This is the theca, and the leaf it carried away, and which
resembles an extinguisher, is called the calyptra, and it remains on
till the sporules are nearly ripe. When the calyptra falls, the theca
is found to be covered with a little lid called the operculum; which
also falls off in time, and shows the mouth or stoma of the theca. This
mouth is sometimes naked, and sometimes covered with a kind of film;
but generally it is surrounded by a row of long, slender, hair-like
teeth called the peristome or fringe. When there are two rows of these
hair-like teeth, the inner ones, which are finer than the others, are
called the cilia; and the number of both the cilia and the teeth is
always some number that can be divided by four. In the cavity of the
theca is a central axis called the columella, and around that are found
the sporules, kept together by the lining of the theca, which forms a
kind of open bag. This is the usual construction of all the numerous
genera of mosses; but in some kinds, as for example in the Hair-moss
(_Polytrichium_), in addition to the theca, a number of granules are
found among the leaves, which are said to be capable of producing young


These plants greatly resemble Mosses in their appearance, but they
differ in their construction. The theca has no lid, but bursts into
valves; and it generally contains not only sporules, but tubes formed
of curiously twisted threads, called elaters. Jungermannia and
Marchantia have a calyptra, which the other genera are without; and in
Jungermannia the theca has a sort of sheath, which is sometimes called
the calyx. There are also stalked granules called anthers, and warts
which form on the leaves, and break up into a kind of sporules.



[Illustration: FIG. 150—USNEA FLORIDA. (_Old Trees._)]

[Illustration: FIG. 151.—RAMALINA FASTIGIATA. (_Rocks and Trees._)]

[Illustration: FIG. 152.—CORNICULARIA HETEROMALLA.—(_Old Trees._)]

Though these plants are said to have no leaves, they consist almost
entirely of a kind of leafy stem, called a frond or thallus, the
branches of which are called podetia (see _a_ in _figs._ 150, 151, and
152). The spores or sporules are produced in what are called shields
(_b_ in _figs._ 149, 150, and 151), which are generally embedded in
the thallus, and which, when they are cup-shaped (as in _fig._ 150),
are called scyphæ, and when flat (as in _fig._ 151), apothecia. The
sporules, which are very numerous, are inclosed in receptacles of
various forms, which are embedded in the shields. Some of the commonest
lichens are _Usnea florida_ (_fig._ 150), and _Ramalina fastigiata_
(_fig._ 151), both of which are found on old oaks, and are generally
called grey moss; and _Cornicularia heteromalla_ (_fig._ 152) is
a brown mossy-looking lichen, often found on the bark. Other more
interesting lichens are—the Iceland-moss (_Cetraria islandica_), the
Reindeer-moss (_Cenomyce_, or _Cladonia rangiferina_), the Cup-moss
(_Cenomyce pyxidata_), and the Orchil (_Rocella tinctoria_).


The Fungi are divided into several distinct sections; the most
important of which may be called the Mushroom tribe. The largest genus
in this division is Agaricus, and the plants belonging to it consist
of a stipe, or stalk (_c_ in _fig._ 149), surmounted by the pileus or
cap (_d_). When the mushroom first appears, the stalk is covered by
a thin membrane, called the veil (_e_), which unites the cap to the
lower part; but as the mushroom grows, this veil is rent asunder, and
it either entirely disappears, or only a small part of it remains round
the stalk, which is called the annulus or ring. Under the cap are the
gills or lamellæ, which are of a dark reddish brown; and attached to
these are the thecæ, containing the sporules or seed. In the common
Mushroom (_Agaricus campestre_), and all the eatable kinds, the gills
are pink when the veil breaks, which it does very soon, and they become
afterwards nearly black; but in all the poisonous kinds, the veil is
longer before it breaks, and when it does so, the gills are pale, and
frequently nearly white, without becoming darker; the smell is also
quite different. The Mushroom tribe, which includes all the Fungi
that carry their sporules in the part above the stem, is divided into
two sections, viz., those with caps, like the Mushroom, and those
which are slender and entire, but club-shaped in the upper part, like
_Clavaria helvola_, a fungus often found in meadows, which resembles
the stamen of an orange-lily.

The Morel tribe includes those Fungi which have their sporules in the
stipe, and it is in two divisions; the first of which includes those
which, like the Morel (_Morchella esculenta_), have a pileus, or cap,
like a mitre; and the second, those which have the pileus curving
upwards, like a cup, as in Peziza. A third tribe includes those which,
like Tremella, are of a jelly-like substance; and in a similar manner
all the numerous genera are arranged. Among these the most remarkable
are the Truffle (_Tuber cibarium_), which is found buried in the earth,
and the curious Fungi called Blight and Mildew, which belong to several
different genera, and which appear on the leaves and fruit of other


The Sea-weeds are placed on the extreme verge of the vegetable kingdom;
and indeed some of them seem almost to partake of the nature of
zoophytes. They can live only where there is abundance of moisture,
and many of them, such as the different kinds of Fucus, inhabit the
sea; by the waves of which they are torn up from their native beds, and
washed on shore by the tides. Others are found in the form of Confervæ,
or green slime, on the surface of stagnant ponds, or on damp stone or
gravel-walks; and others appear to form one of the connecting links
between vegetable and animal life, as the joints in which they are
produced possess the power of separating from each other, and in their
divided state so closely resemble animals, as to puzzle naturalists to
know where to place them. The Algæ are divided by botanists into three
classes; viz., the jointless, the jointed, and the disjointed. The
jointless Algæ are by far the most numerous; and they comprehend all
those broad flat jelly-like substances which are called by the popular
names of tangle and dulse on the coast, and which are frequently
eaten. To this division belong the kinds of sea-weed that are used
for making kelp; those from which iodine is procured; those forming
the celebrated Chinese birds’ nests; those sold in the oil-shops
under the name of laver; and those used by farmers as manure. The
jointed Algæ are very inferior in the scale of creation to the first
division; but the Confervæ (see _f_ in _fig._ 149) are well known, from
the rapidity with which they form a thick green slime, by adhering
together on the surface of ditches and cisterns, and in short, wherever
there is stagnant water exposed to the open air. The disjointed Algæ
are generally found among the Confervæ; but they are so small, and
insignificant in appearance, as, in most cases, entirely to escape



  Abele Tree, 185

  Abies, 212

  Acacia, 35, 41

  Acanthaceæ, 415

  Acer, 315

  Achenium, 98

  Achimenes, 412

  Achras Sapota, 399

  Acorus Calamus, 455

  Acotyledonous Plants, 234, 236, 238

  Actinocarpus, 437

  Adansonia, 300

  Adenophora, 394

  Adiantum, 462

  Adnate anther (_fig._ 4), 12

  Æschynanthus, 412

  Æsculus (_figs._ 127-132), 323

  African Lily, 447

  Agapanthus, ib.

  Agaricus, 470

  Agave, 451

  Agrostemma, 293

  Ailantus, 341

  Ajuga, 414

  Alangium, 357

  Alaternus, 345

  Albuca, 449

  Albumen, 233

  Alburnum, 235

  Alchemilla, 74

  Alder, 189

  Alexandrian Laurel, 448

  Algæ (Sea-weed), 37, 471

  Alisma, 436

  Allamanda, 402

  Alligator Pear, 424

  Allium, 449

  Almond, 60

  Aloe, 447

  Alonsoa, 412

  Aloysia, 415

  Alstrœmeria, 446

  Althæa, 299

  Althæa frutex, 296

  Amarantus, 420

  Amaryllidaceæ, 446

  Amaryllis, ib.

  Amelanchier, 73

  American Allspice, 351

  American Cotton Tree, 203

  American Cowslip, 417

  American Honeysuckle, 127

  Ampelopsis, 331

  Amphicoma, 412

  Anacardium, 348

  Anagallis, 417

  Anchusa, 409

  Andromeda, 115

  Androsæmum, 312

  Anemone, 19

  Anigozanthos, 445

  Aniseed Tree, 241

  Anona, 245

  Anther, 6

  Anthocercis, 156

  Antiaris (_fig._ 75), 167

  Antidesmeæ, 431

  Apocyneæ, 402

  Aponogeton, 455

  Apothecia, 469

  Apple (_fig._ 27), 65

  Apple Berry of Australia, 287

  Apricot, 62

  Aquilarinaæ, 347

  Aralia, 380

  Araucaria, 219

  Arbor Vitæ (_fig._ 99), 220

  Arbre à perruques, 349

  Arbutus (_fig._ 55), 118

  Ardisia, 399

  Argania, ib.

  Argemone, 265

  Aristolochia, 428

  Aristotelia Macqui, 346

  Armeria, 418

  Arnotta, 275

  Aronia, 68

  Arrow-grass, 438

  Arrowhead, 437

  Artichoke, 103

  Articulated, 44, 53

  Artocarpus, 163

  Arum Tribe, 454

  Asarum, 428

  Asclepiadeæ, 403

  Asclepias, ib.

  Ash, 138

  Ash-leaved Berberry, 251

  Asimina, 246

  Asparagus, 449

  Aspen, 186

  Asphodeleæ, 449

  Asphodelus, ib.

  Aspidium, 462

  Asplenium, ib.

  Aster, 107

  Astrapæa Wallichii, 301

  Atragenè, 24

  Atropa Belladonna (_fig._ 69), 146

  Aubergine, 143

  Aucuba, 381, 386

  Aurantiaceæ, 307

  Avena, 459

  Avicennia, 415

  Ayrshire Rose, 52

  Azalea, 125


  Babiana, 443

  Balm of Gilead, 347

  Balsam, 338

  Balsam Apple, 361

  Balsam Poplar, 187

  Bamboo, 459

  Bambusa, ib.

  Banana, 442

  Banisteria, 315

  Banksia, 425

  Banyan Tree, 173

  Baobab, 299

  Barbadoes Cherry, 314

  Barbadoes Flower Fence (_fig._ 18), 35, 45

  Barbadoes Gooseberry, 371

  Barley, 458

  Bartonia, 362

  Batatas, 408

  Batchelor’s Buttons, 16

  Bead Tree, 328

  Bean, 39

  Bean Caper, 340

  Bearberry, 119

  Bear’s-ear Sanicle, 418

  Bedstraw, 94

  Beech (_fig._ 87), 195

  Bee Larkspur, 31

  Beet, 422

  Begonia, ib.

  Benthamia, 382

  Berberideæ, 247

  Berberry (_figs._ 107 and 108), ib.

  Berberry-leaved Rose, 53

  Berry-bearing Alder, 346

  Berry-bearing Campion, 292

  Bertholletia (Brazil Nut), 360

  Besom Heath (_fig._ 47), 110

  Betel, 432

  Bignonia, 404

  Bilabiate, 413

  Bilabiate florets, 99, 390

  Billbergia, 451

  Bilberry (_fig._ 61), 130

  Billardiera, 287

  Bi-pinnate leaf (_fig._ 17), 43

  Birch-tree (_figs._ 83 and 84), 188

  Bird Cherry, 65

  Bird’s-nest, 132

  Birthwort, 428

  Bi-ternate leaf, 32

  Bitter-sweet (_fig._ 68), 143

  Bixa, 275

  Blackberry, 57

  Black Bryony, 448

  Black Italian Poplar, 186

  Black Walnut (_fig._ 78), 178

  Bladder Campion, 293

  Bladder Ketmia, 297

  Blight, 471

  Blue Anemone, 21

  Blumenbachia, 362

  Boisduvalia, 81

  Bombaceæ, 299

  Bonapartea, 451

  Bonnet de prêtre (Euonymus), 343

  Boragineæ, 409

  Bossiæa, 40

  Bottle Gourd, 361

  Bouvardia, 88

  Box-thorn, 146

  Box-tree, 430

  Brachysema, 40

  Bracts, 301, 319

  Brake, 462

  Brambles, 57

  Brandy Bottle, 257

  Brazil Nut, 360

  Bread-fruit Tree, 163

  Brexieæ, 400

  Bridewort, 59

  Bromelia, 451

  Brompton Stock, 270

  Broom, 40

  Broussonetia, 169

  Browallia, 156

  Brugmansia, 153

  Bruniaceæ, 346

  Brunsvigia, 446

  Bryonia (White), 361

  Buckbean, 404

  Buckeye (_fig._ 132), 327

  Bucku, 341

  Buckwheat, 423

  Bugle, 414

  Bulbocodium, 451

  Bullrushes, 453

  Bumelia, 399

  Bur (_fig._ 45), 103

  Burchellia, 89

  Burdock (_fig._ 45), 103

  Burgundy Pitch, 214

  Bur-marigold, 106

  Burnet, 73

  Burtonia, 40

  Butcher’s Broom, 448

  Butomus, 437

  Butter-cup, 11

  Butter-nut, 327

  Butter-nut Walnut (_fig._ 79), 179

  Butter-tree, 400

  Buxus, 430

  Byttneria, 300


  Cabomba, 254

  Cactus, 368

  Caiophora, 362

  Calabash Tree, 405

  Calandrinia, 364

  Calceolaria, 411

  Calempelis, 404

  Calla ethiopica, 454

  Callista, 113

  Callistachys, 40

  Callistemon, 359

  Callitriche, 355

  Callitris, 222

  Calluna, 114

  Calochortus, 450

  Calycanthus, 351

  Calyceraceæ, 390

  Calycifloræ, 237

  Calycine scales, 291

  Calyptrate calyx, 265

  Calystigia, 408

  Calyx (_fig._ 3), 7

  Camellia, 304

  Campanula, 394

  Camphor of Sumatra, 303

  Camphor Tree, 424

  Candy Tuft, 270

  Canna, 442

  Cannabis, 162

  Cannon ball Tree, 360

  Cape Gooseberry, 145

  Cape Heaths, 112

  Cape Jasmine, 89

  Cape Marigold, 107

  Caper Spurge, 429

  Caper Tribe, 274

  Capparis, ib.

  Caprifolium, 383

  Capsicum, 144

  Carex, 457

  Carica, 361

  Carina, 37

  Carnation (_fig._ 118), 289

  Carob Tree, 46

  Carpels (_figs._ 5 & 7), 13, 24

  Carpinus, 201

  Caryocar, 327

  Caryophyllaceæ, 289

  Caryopsides, 33

  Cashew Nut, 348

  Cassandra, 116

  Cassava, 430

  Cassine, 343

  Castor Oil, 431

  Casuarina, 204

  Catalpa, 405

  Catchfly, 292

  Cat’s Tail, 453

  Ceanothus, 346

  Cedar of Goa, 224

  Cedar of Lebanon, 207, 217

  Cedrela, 329

  Cedrus, 217

  Celandine, Lesser, 16

  Celastrus, 343

  Cellulares, 231

  Cellular Tissue, ib.

  Celosia, 420

  Celsia, 155, 410

  Celtis, 432

  Cephalanthus, 94

  Ceratophylleæ, 355

  Cerbera, 402

  Cereus, 369

  Cerinthe, 409

  Ceropegia, 403

  Cestrum Parqui, 147

  Chailletiaceæ, 347

  Chamomile, 106

  Chara, 465

  Charity, 406

  Chaste Tree, 415

  Cheiranthus, 268

  Chenopodeæ, 421

  Cherry (_fig._ 26), 64

  Chestnut (_figs._ 88 and 89), 198

  Chian Turpentine, 348

  Chickweed, 289

  Chicot, 48

  Chilian Pine, 219

  Chilies, 145

  Chimonanthus, 352

  China Pink, 292

  Chionanthus virginica, 137

  Chlorantheæ, 386

  Chocolate, 300

  Chorozema, 40

  Christmas Rose, 25

  Christ’s Thorn, 345

  Chrysanthemum, 104

  Cinchona (_fig._ 36), 86

  Cineraria, 107

  Cinnamon Tree, 424

  Circæa, 84

  Cissus, 331

  Cistineæ, 275

  Cistus, ib.

  Citron, 307

  Citron Wood, 224

  Clarkia, 83

  Clawed petals, 83, 289

  Claytonia, 364

  Cleavers, 96

  Clematis, 23

  Cleome, 274

  Clerodendron, 415

  Clethra (_fig._ 56), 120

  Clintonia, 392

  Cloves, 359

  Club Moss, 463

  Club Rust, 457

  Cobæa scandens, 405

  Cocoa, 300

  Cocoa Nut, 453

  Codlings and Cream, 82

  Cocculus, 247

  Cochineal Insect, 371

  Cockscomb, 420

  Coffee Tree (_fig._ 39), 91

  Colchicum, 451

  Collar of a plant, 30

  Collinsia, 412

  Collomia, 407

  Colocynth, 361

  Coltsfoot, 107

  Columbine (_fig._ 12), 31

  Combretum, 353

  Commelina cælestis, 452

  Compositæ, 98, 390

  Comptonia, 204

  Compound flowers, 98

  Compound leaf, 252

  Concentric rings, 235

  Cone of a Scotch Pine (_fig._ 94), 210

  Confervæ, 472

  Constantinople Nut, 201

  Convallaria, 448

  Convolvulus, 407

  Corchorus japonica, 59

  Cordiaceæ, 410

  Cork Tree, 194

  Corms, 443

  Corn Blue-bottle, 104

  Corn Cockle, 293

  Corn Poppy (_fig._ 111), 260

  Corn Salad, 388

  Cornelian Cherry, 381

  Cornus, 381

  Corræa, 341

  Coriaria, 342

  Corrigiola, 365

  Corolla (_fig._ 2), 7

  Corollifloræ, 237

  Corymbs, 69

  Corydalis, 266

  Cotton Grass, 457

  Cotton Thistle (_fig. 42_), 99

  Cotton Tree, 299

  Cotoneaster, 73

  Cotyledons (_fig._ 102), 39, 233, 317, 325

  Cowper’s Lines on the Oak, 193

  Cow Tree, 166

  Crack Willow, 183

  Cranberry (_fig._ 63), 131

  Crassula, 366

  Cratægus, 70

  Creeping Cereus, 370

  Crinum, 446

  Crocus, 443, 451

  Croton Oil, 430

  Crowea, 341

  Crowfoot, 14

  Cruciferous Plants, 266

  Crucinella stylosa, 97

  Cryptogamic Plants, 236

  Cucubalus, 292

  Cucumber, 360

  Cunonia, 378

  Cuphea, 356

  Cup Moss, 469

  Cupressus, 223

  Curcuma, 441

  Currants, 374

  Cuscuta, 408

  Custard Apple, 245

  Cycas, 229

  Cyclamen, 417

  Cyclobothra, 450

  Cydonia, 70

  Cymes of flowers, 301

  Cynoglossum, 409

  Cyperaceæ, 457

  Cypress, 223

  Cypress knees, 225

  Cyprus Turpentine, 348

  Cyrtandraceæ, 412


  Daisy, 104

  Dandelion (_fig._ 44), 102

  Date Palm, 453

  Date Plum, 400

  Datisceæ, 273

  Datura, 152

  Daviesia, 40

  Day Lily, 447

  Deadly Nightshade, 146

  Dead Nettle, 414

  Deal, 208

  Deciduous Cypress, 224

  Decumaria, 358

  Deodar, 217

  Deutziæ, 358

  Devil-in-a-Bush, 26

  Dewberry, 57

  Dianthus, 289

  Dichlamydeæ, 237

  Diclytra, 266

  Dicotyledonous Plants, 234

  Dictamnus, 341

  Didymocarpus, 412

  Digitalis, 411

  Dillenia, 240

  Dillwynia, 40

  Dionæa muscipula, 284

  Dioscorea, 447

  Diosma, 341

  Diphylleia, 253

  Dipsacus, 389

  Dirca palustris, 427

  Dock, 423

  Dodecatheon, 418

  Dog Rose, 52

  Dog Violet, 450

  Dogwood, 381

  Dorsal Suture, 37

  Dortmannia, 392

  Doryanthes, 446

  Double Flowers, 16

  Dracæna, 449

  Dragon Wood, ib.

  Drimys Winteri, 241

  Drosera, 284

  Dryandra, 425

  Duckweed, 455

  Duke of Argyle’s Tea-tree, 146

  Dumb Cane, 454

  Dutch Rush, 465

  Duvaua, 347

  Dyer’s Weed, 273


  Ebony, 400

  Eccremocarpus, 404

  Echinocactus, 369

  Echium, 409

  Edwardsia, 40

  Egg Plant, 143

  Ehretia, 410

  Elæagnus, 428

  Elæocarpus, 302

  Elder, 382

  Elephant’s Foot, 447

  Elm, 432

  Empetrum, 433

  Enchanter’s Nightshade, 84

  Endive, 101

  Endocarp, 66

  Endogens, 236

  Epacris, 397

  Epilobium (_figs._ 34 & 35), 82

  Epimedium, 253

  Epiphyllum, 371

  Equisetum, 465

  Eryobotrya, 72

  Eriophorum, 457

  Erodium, 35

  Erythronium, 450

  Erythroxylon, 314

  Escallonia, 376

  Eschscholtzia, 265

  Eucalyptus, 359

  Eugenia, ib.

  Euonymus, 343

  Euphorbia, 429

  Euryale, 256

  Eutaxia, 40

  Euthales, 393

  Eutoca, 410

  Evening Primrose (_fig._ 33), 80

  Exogens, 235


  Fagus, 195

  Fair Maid of France, 16

  Fat-hen, 422

  Fedia, 388

  Fennel Flower, 26

  Ferns, 461

  Ferraria, 443

  Feverfew, 105

  Ficaria, 17

  Ficus Carica, 171

  Field Madder, 96

  Fig, 171

  Fig Marigold, 367

  Filament, 6

  Filbert, 201

  Five-leaved Ivy, 331

  Flacourtianeæ, 275

  Flannel Flower, 154

  Flax, 293

  Flowering Ash, 139

  Flowering Fern, 463

  Flowering Rush, 437

  Fluviales, 455

  Fly Honeysuckles, 383

  Follicles, 28

  Foramen, 192

  Forbidden Fruit, 307

  Forget-me-not, 409

  Fothergilla, 380

  Foxglove, 411

  Fragrant Rush, 455

  Franciscea, 156

  Francoa, 377

  Frankenia, 288

  Fraxinella, 341

  French Willow Herb, 82

  Fresh-water Soldier, 436

  Fringe Tree, 137

  Fritillaria, 450

  Frog’s Bit, 435

  Fronds, 461

  Fuchsia (_figs._ 31 and 32), 75

  Fumaria, 266

  Fumitory, ib.

  Fungi, 470

  Funicle, 38

  Funkia, 447

  Furze, 35-40

  Fusiform root, 30


  Gagea, 449

  Galanthus, 446

  Galax, 377

  Galea, 413

  Galium, 94

  Gamboge, 313

  Garcina, ib.

  Garden Anemones, 21

  Garden Orache, 422

  Gardenia, 89

  Garrya elliptica, 204

  Gaultheria, 119

  Gaura, 84

  Gentiana, 403

  Geranium, 335

  Germen, 5

  Gesneria, 395

  Geum, 58

  Ghent Azaleas, 127

  Gilia, 407

  Gillesieæ, 456

  Ginger, 441

  Githago, 293

  Gladiolus, 443

  Glasswort, 422

  Glaucium, 264

  Gleditschia, 46

  Glechoma, 414

  Globe Amaranth, 420

  Globe Flower, 26

  Globularia, 418

  Gloriosa, 450

  Gloxinia, 395

  Glumaceæ, 457

  Glumaceous Plants, 238

  Gnidia, 427

  Godetia, 81

  Golden Rod, 107

  Goldilocks, 14

  Gomphrena, 420

  Gonolobus, 403

  Goodenoviæ, 393

  Gooseberry, 372

  Goosefoot, 422

  Goose-grass, 96

  Gopher Wood, 224

  Gordonia, 303

  Gossypium, 299

  Gourd, 360

  Grabowskia, 156

  Gramineæ, 458

  Grape, 329

  Grape Hyacinth, 449

  Grass Tribe, 458

  Greek Valerian, 406

  Grevillea, 425

  Ground Ivy, 414

  Groundsel, 106

  Guava, 359

  Guelder Rose, 383

  Guernsey Lily, 446

  Guiacum, 340

  Gum Arabic, 35, 43

  Gum-Cistus, 277

  Gum-Sandarach Tree, 222

  Guttiferæ, 313


  Hæmanthus, 446

  Hæmadoraceæ, 445

  Hair Moss, 467

  Halesia, 398

  Hamamelis, 380

  Hand Plant, 300

  Hart’s Tongue, 462

  Hawthorn (_fig._ 30), 71

  Hazel (_figs._ 90 and 91), 200

  Heartsease, 279

  Heath Family, 109

  Heather, 114

  Hedera, 379

  Hedgehog Thistles, 369

  Hedychium, 441

  Heimia, 356

  Helianthemum, 278

  Heliconia, 443

  Heliotrope, 409

  Hellebore, 25

  Hellebore of the Ancients, 451

  Hemerocallis, 447

  Hemlock Spruce, 214

  Hemp, 162

  Henbane (_fig._ 71), 151

  Hepatica, 22

  Hepaticæ, 468

  Herb Bennet, 58

  Herb Robert, 336

  Hibbertia, 240

  Hibiscus, 297

  Hickory (_fig._ 80), 180

  Hilum, 39, 192, 324, 327

  Hippocrataceæ, 313

  Hippomane, 431

  Hippophae, 428

  Hippuris, 355

  Hog Plum, 347

  Holly, 344

  Hollyhock, 299

  Homalineæ, 346

  Homeria, 443

  Honey Locusts, 46

  Honeysuckles, 381

  Hop, 160

  Hop Hornbeam, 202

  Hordeum, 459

  Hornbeam (_fig._ 92), 201

  Hornwort, 355

  Horned Poppy, 264

  Horn of Plenty, 388

  Horse Chestnut, 322

  Horse-tail, 464

  Hound’s-tongue, 409

  House-leek, 365

  Hovea, 40

  Hoya carnosa, 403

  Hudsonia, 275

  Hugonia, 303

  Humulus, 160

  Hyacinth, 449

  Hydrangea, 377

  Hydroleaceæ, 407

  Hydropeltis, 254

  Hydrophylleæ, 410

  Hyoscyamus, 151

  Hypericum, 312

  Hypoxis, 446


  Iberis, 270

  Iceland Moss, 469

  Ice Plant, 367

  Ilex aquifolium, 344

  Ilex (_Quercus Ilex_, the Evergreen Oak), 194

  Illecebrum, 365

  Illicium, 241

  Impari-pinnate leaf, 69

  Impatiens, 338

  Indian Arrowroot, 442

  Indian Corn, 459

  Indian Cress, 337

  Indian Fig, 371

  Indian Hawthorn, 71

  Indian Lilac, 328

  Indian Lotos, 257

  Indian-rubber Tree, 173

  Indian Shot, 442

  Indusium, 393

  Involucre (_fig._ 43), 98, 101

  Ipecacuanha, 93

  Ipomœa, 407

  Ipomopsis, ib.

  Iris (_fig._ 148), 443

  Iron Tree, 400

  Isotoma, 392

  Itea, 377

  Ivy, 379

  Ixia, 443

  Ixora, 92


  Jacaranda, 404

  Jack Tree, 165

  Jacobæa, 106

  Jacob’s Ladder, 406

  Jacquinia, 399

  Jalap, 408

  Jamaica Allspice, 359

  Jambosa, ib.

  Jasmine (_fig._ 64), 134

  Jatropha Manihot, 430

  Jeffersonia, 253

  Jointed, 44

  Judas Tree, 47

  Jujube lozenges, 345

  Juncus, 456

  Jungermannia, 468

  Juniper (_fig._ 100), 225

  Justicia, 415


  Kadsura, 247

  Kageneckia, 351

  Kalmia, 128

  Kalosanthes, 366

  Keel, 37

  Kentucky Coffee Tree, 48

  Kenwood, 194

  Kermes, 195

  Kernelled fruit, 65

  Kerria, 59

  Keys, 310

  King’s Spear, 449

  Knautia, 389

  Knawel, 365

  Knot-grass, 365, 423

  Kölreuteria, 327


  Labiatæ, 412

  Labrador Tea, 129

  Laburnum, 35, 40

  Lace Bark Tree, 427

  Lachnæa, ib.

  Ladanum, 277

  Ladies’ Mantle, 74

  Lagenaria, 361

  Lagerstrœmeria, 356

  Lamb’s Lettuce, 388

  Lamellæ, 470

  Lamium, 414

  Lamp-black, 209

  Lantana, 415

  Larch, 207, 216

  Larix, 216

  Larkspurs (_fig._ 10), 29

  Lasiopetalum, 300

  Lathræa, 416

  Laudanum, 277

  Laurel, 65

  Laurestinus, 383

  Laurus, 424

  Lavatera, 299

  Lawsonia, 356

  Leadwort, 418

  Leatherwood, 427

  Lechea, 275

  Lechenaultia, 393

  Lecythis, 360

  Ledum, 129

  Leguminous Plants, 35, 349

  Leiophyllum, 130

  Lemna, 455

  Lemon, 307

  Lemon-scented Verbena, 415

  Leontice, 253

  Leptosiphon, 406

  Leptospermum, 359

  Lesser Celandine, 17

  Lettuce (_fig._ 41), 99

  Leucojum, 446

  Leucothoe, 117

  Leycesteria, 384

  Lichens, 468

  Lignum Vitæ, 340

  Ligulate florets (_fig._ 41), 99, 101

  Ligustrum, 136

  Lilac, 137

  Lilium, 450

  Lily of the Valley, 448

  Lime, Sweet, 307

  Lime Tree, 301

  Limnanthes, 337

  Limnocharis, 438

  Linaria, 412

  Linden tree, 301

  Linnæa, 385

  Ling, 114

  Linum, 293

  Linseed, 295

  Liquidambar, 203

  Liquorice, 35

  Liriodendron (Tulip Tree), 245

  Lisianthus, 403

  Litchi, 328

  Live Oak, 194

  Loasa, 362

  Lobelia, 391

  Loblolly-boy, 303

  Logwood, 35, 47

  Loiseleuria, 129

  London Pride, 377

  Lonicera, 383

  Loosestrife, 418

  Lopezia, 84

  Lophirseæ, 354

  Loquat Tree, 72

  Loranthus, 385

  Lotos, 258

  Lotus Tree, 400

  Loudonia aurea, 355

  Love Apple, 144

  Love-lies-bleeding, 420

  Luculia gratissima, 87

  Lupuline, 161

  Lychnis, 293

  Lycium, 146

  Lycopodium, 463

  Lyonia, 116

  Lysimachia, 418

  Lythrum, 356

  Lyttæa, 451


  Manchineel Tree, 431

  Maclura, 170

  Madia, 107

  Magnolia (_figs._ 104 to 106), 241

  Mahaleb, 66

  Mahogany, 329

  Mahonia, 251

  Maiden Hair, 462

  Maize, 458

  Malachodendron, 303

  Malcomia, 270

  Malesherbia, 362

  Mallow, 298

  Malope, ib.

  Malpighia, 314

  Malva, 298

  Mammillaria, 368

  Mandrake, 360

  Manettia cordifolia, 88

  Mango, 348

  Mangold Wurtzel, 422

  Mangosteen, 313

  Mangrove, 353

  Mangrove of Brazil, 415

  Manna Ash, 139

  Manne de Briançon, 217

  Maple, 315

  Maranta, 442

  Marcgraaviaceæ, 313

  Marchantia, 468

  Mare’s-tail, 355

  Marica, 443

  Marsh Mallow, 299

  Marsilea, 464

  Mastic Tree, 348

  Martagon Lily, 450

  Mathiola, 270

  Martynia, 405

  Marvel of Peru, 420

  Maurandya, 412

  May Apple, 253

  Meadow Crane’s-bill, 336

  Medlar, 72

  Medullary rays, 235

  Melaleuca, 359

  Melastoma, 357

  Melia, 328

  Melianthus, 340

  Melocactus, 369

  Melon, 360

  Melon Thistle, 369

  Memecyleæ, 353

  Menispermum, 247

  Menyanthes, 403

  Menziesia (_fig._ 60), 128

  Mesembryanthemum, 367

  Mespilus, 72

  Metrosideros, 359

  Mezereon, 426

  Michaelmas Daisy, 107

  Michelia, 241

  Mignonette, 271

  Mildew, 471

  Milkwort, 285

  Mimosa, 44

  Mimulus, 412

  Mint, 412

  Mirabilis Jalapa, 420

  Mirbelia, 40

  Mistletoe, 385

  Mock Orange, 358

  Momordica, 361

  Monkshood, 27

  Monochlamydeæ, 237

  Monocotyledonous Plants, 234, 236

  Monotropa, 132

  Moon Seed, 247

  Moor Heaths, 113

  Moræa, 443

  Morchella, 471

  Morels, ib.

  Moreton Bay Pine, 220

  Moss, 466

  Mountain Ash (_fig._ 29), 68

  Mulberry (_fig._ 76), 167

  Mullein, 134

  Musa, 442

  Muscari, 449

  Musci, 466

  Mushrooms, 470

  Mussæuda, 90

  Mutisia latifolia, 108

  Myrica, 204

  Myriophyllum, 355

  Myristica (Nutmeg), 425

  Myoporum, 415

  Myrsine, 399

  Myrtle, 359

  Myrtle Tree of Van Diemen’s Land, 197

  Myrtus, 359


  Naiades, 455

  Nandina, 253

  Narcissus, 446

  Nasturtium, 337

  Nectarine, 62

  Nectary, 12

  Negundo, 321

  Nelumbium, 257

  Nemophila, 410

  Nepenthes, 429

  Nerine, 446

  Nerium, 402

  Nettle, 158

  Nettle Tree, 432

  New Jersey Tea, 346

  New Zealand Flax, 449

  Nicotiana, 148

  Nierembergia, 150

  Night-flowering Cereus, 370

  Nightshade, 143

  Nitella, 465

  Nitraria, 367

  Nitrogen, 267

  Nolana, 155

  Noli-me-tangere, 338

  Nopal tree, 371

  Norfolk Island Pine, 220

  Norway Maple, 319

  Nuphar, 256

  Nutmeg, 425

  Nux vomica, 401

  Nuytsia, 385

  Nyctagineæ, 420

  Nymphæa (_fig._ 110), 254

  Nyssa, 427


  Oak (_figs._ 85, 86), 190

  Oak Apples, 195

  Oak Wood, mode of testing, 194

  Oats, 458

  Ochnaceæ, 342

  Œnothera (_fig._ 33), 80

  Ogechee Lime, 428

  Olax Tribe, 307

  Old man, 107

  Oleander, 402

  Oleaster, 428

  Olive, 137

  Onagraceæ, 354

  Onions, 449

  Opercularieæ, 387

  Opium, 263

  Opium Poppy (_fig._ 112), 262

  Opuntia, 371

  Orange (_figs._ 121 and 122), 307

  Orange Lily, 450

  Orchidaceæ, 438

  Orchil, 469

  Orchis, 439

  Ornithogalum, 449

  Orobanche, 416

  Oryza (Rice), 459

  Osage Orange, 170

  Osier, 184

  Osmunda, 463

  Ostrya, 202

  Osyris, 427

  Ovary, 5

  Ovules, ib.

  Oxalis, 339

  Ox-eye Daisy, 105

  Oxycoccus, 131


  Palea (_fig._ 45), 103

  Paliurus, 345

  Palma Christi, 431

  Palm Trees, 452

  Palo de Vacca, 166

  Pancratium, 446

  Pandamus, 453

  Papaw Tree, 361

  Paper Mulberry, 169

  Papilionaceous Flowers (_fig._ 13), 36

  Pappus, 98

  Papyrus, 457

  Parnassia, 284

  Parsley Tribe, 378

  Partridge Wood, 307

  Passerina, 427

  Passion Flower, 361

  Pasque Flower, 19

  Patersonia, 443

  Paulownia, 412

  Pavia, 326

  Peach, 61

  Pear (_fig._ 28), 67

  Pedalineæ, 405

  Pedicel, 47

  Pelargonium (_fig._ 134), 332

  Pellitory of Spain, 105

  Pellitory of the wall, 163

  Pendaceæ, 396

  Pentstemon, 412

  Peony (_fig._ 6), 18

  Pepper, 432

  Pepper-grass, 464

  Perennial Flax, 295

  Pereskia, 371

  Pergularia, 403

  Perianth, 7

  Periploca græca, 403

  Peristome, 467

  Persicaria, 423

  Persimon, 400

  Personate corolla, 411

  Peruvian Bark, 86

  Petaloid, 237

  Petals, 7

  Petty Whin, 40

  Petunia, 149

  Peziza, 471

  Phacelia, 410

  Phœnix dactylifera, 453

  Phanerogamic Plants, 236

  Pharbitis, 408

  Philadelphus, 358

  Phillyrea, 137

  Phlox, 406

  Phormium, 449

  Photinia, 72

  Phyllodia (_fig._ 15), 42

  Physalis, 145

  Physianthus, 403

  Phyteuma, 394

  Phytolacca, 421

  Picea, 214

  Pileus, 470

  Pilewort, 17

  Pillwort, 464

  Pimelea, 427

  Pimpernel, 417

  Pinaster, 211

  Pinckneya, 88

  Pine and Fir Tribe, 208

  Pine Apple, 451

  Pinguicula, 416

  Pink, 292

  Pinnæ, 43

  Pinnate leaf, 252

  Pinnatifid leaf, 69

  Pinus, 209

  Pipewort, 456

  Pistacia, 348

  Pistil (_fig._ 1), 5

  Pitch, 209

  Pitcher Plant, 429

  Pittosporum, 287

  Placenta, 37

  Plane Tree, 202

  Planera, 432

  Plantain, 419, 442

  Platylobium, 40

  Plum, 63

  Plumbago, 418

  Plumule, 192

  Podetia, 468

  Podolobium, 40

  Podophyllum, 253

  Poet’s Cassia, 427

  Polemonium, 406

  Polianthes, 446

  Pollen, 6

  Polygala, 285

  Polygonum, 423

  Polyphore, 55

  Polypodium, 462

  Polypody, ib.

  Polytrichum, 467

  Pomegranate, 352

  Pomes, 67

  Pontederia, 452

  Pond Weed, 455

  Poplar (_fig._ 82), 185

  Poppy Tribe, 259

  Porte-chapeau, 345

  Port Famine Fuchsia, 78

  Portugal Laurel, 65

  Portulaca, 364

  Port wine, 421

  Potentilla, 54

  Prickles, 53

  Prickly Ash, 341

  Prickly Pear, 371

  Prickly Poppy, 265

  Pride of India, 328

  Primrose, 417

  Primula, ib.

  Prinos, 345

  Privet (_fig._ 65), 136

  Protea, 425

  Psidium, 359

  Ptelea, 341

  Pteris, 462

  Pulmonaria, 409

  Pultenæa, 40

  Punica Granatum, 352

  Purging Buckthorn, 345

  Purslane, 364

  Pyrola, 132

  Pyroligneous acid, 209

  Pyrus japonica, 70


  Quamoclit, 407

  Quassia, 342

  Queen’s Needlework, 59

  Quercus, 190

  Quillaja, 351

  Quillwort, 464

  Quince, 70

  Quisqualis indica, 353


  Rafflesia, 429

  Ragged Robin, 293

  Ranunculaceæ, 239

  Ranunculus, 10

  Raphiolepis, 71

  Raspberry (_fig._ 23), 56

  Reaumuria, 367

  Receptacle, 5

  Red Cedar, 227

  Red Clover, 40

  Red German Catchfly, 293

  Red Root, 346

  Red-wood Tree, 314

  Reed-mare, 453

  Reindeer Moss, 469

  Reseda, 271

  Restiaceæ, 456

  Retziaceæ, 407

  Rheum, 423

  Richardia, 454

  Rhinanthus, 412

  Rhipsalis, 371

  Rhizoboleæ, 327

  Rhizophora, 353

  Rhododendron (_figs._ 57 and 58), 121

  Rhodora canadensis, 127

  Rhubarb, 423

  Rhamnus, 345

  Rhus, 349

  Ribes, 372

  Rib-grass, 419

  Rice, 458

  Ricinus, 431

  Ringent corolla, 413

  Rivinia, 421

  Robinia, 35

  Rock Rose, 275

  Rock Lychnis, 293

  Rocket Larkspur, 31

  Roman Nettle, 160

  Rondeletia (_figs._ 37 and 38), 90

  Rosaceæ, 350

  Rose (_figs._ 20-22), 51

  Rose Apple, 359

  Rose Campion, 293

  Rubiaceæ, 85, 386

  Rue, 340

  Ruellia, 415

  Rumex, 423

  Ruscus, 448

  Rush, 456

  Ruta, 340

  Rye, 458


  Saccharum, 459

  Sacred Bean of India, 258

  Saffron, 445

  Sage, 412

  Sagittaria, 437

  Sago Palm, 453

  Sagus Rumphii, ib.

  Salicornia, 422

  Sallow, 184

  Salpiglossis, 150

  Salsola Kali, 422

  Samara, 317

  Sambucus, 382

  Samydeæ, 346

  Sandal-wood, 427

  Sapindaceæ, 327

  Saponaria, 292

  Sapoteæ, 399

  Sarracenia, 259

  Sarsaparilla, 448

  Sassafras, 424

  Savin, 227

  Saxifrage, 377

  Scabious, 389

  Scaly bracts, 108

  Schinus, 347

  Schizandra, 247

  Schizanthus, 151

  Schubertia, 225

  Scilla, 449

  Scirpus, 457

  Scitamineæ, 441

  Scleranthus, 365

  Scolopendrium, 462

  Scotch Pine (_figs._ 93 & 94), 209

  Screw Pine, 453

  Screw Tree, 300

  Scrophularinæ, 411

  Scyphæ, 469

  Sea Buckthorn, 428

  Sea Lavender, 418

  Sea Weeds, 471

  Secale, 459

  Sedges, 457

  Seed-leaves, 233

  Segments of the perianth, 8

  Sempervivum, 365

  Senna, 35, 46

  Sensitive Plant, 35, 40, 44

  Sepals, 7

  Seville Orange, 308

  Shaddock, 307

  Shepherd’s Club, 154

  Shield Fern, 462

  Shrubby Trefoil, 341

  Sideroxylon, 399

  Side-saddle Plant, 259

  Sieversia, 58

  Silene, 292

  Silk Cotton Tree, 299

  Sillicle (_fig._ 114), 267

  Sillique (_fig._ 115), 267

  Silver Fir, 206, 214

  Simarubaceæ, 342

  Sinningia, 395

  Siphocampylos, 392

  Siphonia, 430

  Sisyrinchium, 443

  Sloe (_fig._ 25), 62

  Smilax, 448

  Snake Gourd, 361

  Snapdragon, 411

  Snowberry, 384

  Snowdrop, 446

  Snowdrop Tree, 398

  Soap Tree, 327

  Soapwort, 292

  Soda, 422

  Solandra, 153

  Solanum, 142

  Soldanella, 418

  Sollya, 288

  Sophora, 40

  Sorbus, 68

  Sorrel, 423

  Sorus, 461

  Sour Sop, 246

  Southern-wood, or Old-man, 107

  Sow-bread, 417

  Sowthistle (_fig._ 43), 101

  Spanish Broom, 40

  Sparaxis, 443

  Spearwort, 14

  Spiderwort, 452

  Spleenwort, 462

  Spinach, 422

  Spindle Tree, 343

  Spiræa (_fig._ 24), 59

  Spiral vessels, 232, 336

  Sporules, 461

  Spruce Fir, 206, 212

  Spurge Laurel, 426

  Squills, 449

  Squirting Cucumber, 361

  Stackhousia, 431

  Staff Tree, 343

  St. Dabeoc’s Heath, 117

  St. John’s Bread, 46

  St. John’s Wort, 312

  Stamens (_fig._ 1), 5

  Standard, 37

  Stapelia, 403

  Stapylæa, 343

  Star of Bethlehem, 449

  Statice, 418

  Sterculia, 300

  Stigma, 5

  Sting of the Nettle, 159

  Stipes, 470

  Stipules (_fig._ 20), 53

  Stocks, 270

  Stone Pine, 211

  Stonewort, 465

  Storax, 398

  Stratiotes, 436

  Strawberry, 55

  Strawberry Blite, 422

  Strawberry Tree, 118

  Strelitzia, 443

  Streptocarpus, 412

  Strobile, 210

  Strychnos, 401

  Stuartia, 303

  Stump of the Silver Fir, 215

  Stump Tree, 48

  Style, 5

  Stylideæ, 393

  Styrax, 398

  Succory, 101

  Sugar Cane, 458

  Sugar Maple, 320

  Sun-dew Tribe, 284

  Sun Flower, 107

  Sun Rose, 279

  Suwarrow Nut, 327

  Sweet Bay Tree, 424

  Sweet Briar, 53

  Sweet Gale, 203

  Sweet Pea (_fig._ 13), 36

  Sweet William, 292

  Swietenia, 329

  Sycamore (_figs._ 123 & 124), 315

  Sycamore Tree of Holy Writ, 172

  Symplocos, 397

  Symphoria, 384

  Syringa, 358


  Tacamahac Tree, 187

  Talauma, 245

  Talinum, 364

  Tamarind, 35, 46

  Tamarisk, 357

  Tamus, 448

  Tanghina, 402

  Tapioca, 431

  Tap-root (_fig._ 11), 30

  Tar, 209

  Taxodium, 224

  Taxus, 228

  Teak, 415

  Teasel, 389

  Tea Tree, 306

  Tecoma, 404

  Tectona, 415

  Tendrils, 24

  Terebinthaceæ, 347

  Ternate leaves, 55

  Ternstrœmiaceæ, 303

  Testudinaria, 447

  Thalia, 442

  Thallus, 468

  Thalamifloræ, 237

  Thalamus, 5

  Theca, 461

  Thea Bohea, 307

  Theobroma, 300

  Theophrasta, 399

  Thistle Down, 104

  Thomasia, 300

  Thorn Apple, 153

  Thorny Acacia, 47

  Thread, 495

  Thrift, 418

  Thunbergia, 416

  Thyme, 412

  Thymelææ, 426

  Thysanotus, 449

  Tigridia, 443

  Tilia (_fig._ 120), 301

  Tillandria, 451

  Toadflax, 412

  Tobacco (_fig._ 70), 148

  Tomato, 144

  Toothache Tree, 341

  Torch Thistle, 369

  Tormentilla, 58

  Torus, 5

  Touch-me-not, 338

  Trachelium, 394

  Tradescantia, 452

  Trapa, 355

  Traveller’s Joy, 24

  Tree Ferns, 237, 463

  Tree Peony, 19

  Tree Primrose (_fig._ 33), 75, 80

  Tremandreæ, 286

  Tremella, 471

  Trevirana, 412

  Triptilion spinosum, 108

  Triticum, 459

  Tritonia, 443

  Tropæolum, 337

  True Service, 69

  Truffle, 471

  Trumpet Honeysuckle, 384

  Tuber cibarium, 471

  Tuberose, 447

  Tubular florets (_fig._ 42), 99

  Tulipa, 456

  Tulipaceæ, 450

  Tulip Tree (Liriodendron), 245

  Tupa, 392

  Tupelo Tree, 427

  Turk’s Cap, 369

  Turmeric, 441

  Turnera, 363

  Turpentine Trees, 348

  Tutsan, 312

  Typha, 453


  Ulmus, 432

  Umbelliferous Plants, 378

  Umbilicate, 67

  Unguiculate, 83

  Upas Tree (_fig._ 75), 167

  Upright (Fly) Honeysuckle, 383

  Urtica, 158

  Utricularia, 416


  Vaccinium, 130

  Valerian, 387

  Vallisneria, 435

  Valves, 37

  Vasculares, 231

  Vascular Tissue, ib.

  Vegetable Marrow, 361

  Venetian Sumach, 349

  Venice Turpentine, 217

  Ventral suture, 37

  Venus’ Fly-trap, 284

  Venus’ Looking-glass, 394

  Venus Navelwort, 409

  Verbascum, 154, 410

  Verbena, 411

  Veronica, 412

  Vervain, 414

  Vestia, 147

  Vexillum, 37

  Viburnum, 383

  Victoria Regina, 256

  Vieusseuxia, 443

  Vinca, 402

  Vine (_fig._ 133), 329

  Violet, 279

  Virgilia, 40

  Virginian Creeper, 331

  Virginian Poke, 421

  Virginian Stock, 270

  Virgin’s Bower (Clematis), 24

  Viscaria, 293

  Viscum, 385

  Vitex, 415

  Vitis, 329

  Vochysieæ, 353

  Volkameria, 415


  Wachendorfia, 445

  Wallflower (_fig._ 116), 268

  Walnut (_fig._ 77), 176

  Water Caltrops, 355

  Water Crowfoot, 16

  Water Lily (_fig._ 110), 254

  Water Melon, 361

  Water Milfoil, 355

  Water Pepper, 423

  Water Plantain, 436

  Water Starwort, 355

  Water Violet, 418

  Watsonia, 443

  Wayfaring Tree, 383

  Weld, 273

  Weymouth Pine (_fig._ 95), 212

  Wheat, 458

  White Beam Tree, 69

  White Cedar, 224

  White Poppy, 263

  Whorl of leaves, 95

  Wild Chamomile, 105

  Wild Ginger, 428

  Wild Service, 69

  Wild Saffron, 104

  Willow (_fig._ 81), 182

  Willow Herb, 356

  Wings, 37

  Winter Aconite, 26

  Winter Bark, 241

  Winter Berry, 345

  Winter Cherry, 145

  Winter Green, 132

  Witch Hazel, 380

  Witsenia, 443

  Wolfsbane, 27

  Woodruff, 96

  Wood-sorrel, 339

  Wordsworth’s lines on the lesser Celandine, 16

  Wormwood, 107


  Xanthoxylum, 341

  Xygophyllum, 340

  Xylosteum (Fly Honeysuckle), 383


  Yam, 447

  Yarrow, 106

  Yellow Anemone, 20

  Yellow Azalea 126

  Yellow Ragwort, or Benweed 106

  Yellow Rattle 412

  Yew 228

  Yucca 450


  Zamia 230

  Zanthoxylum 341

  Zea 459

  Zelkoua Tree 432

  Zenobia 116

  Zingiber 441

  Zizyphus 345

  Zygophyllum 340





With directions for every Month in the Year.

Second Edition, with Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo, 6_s._


Digging.—Forking.—Hoeing, and Raking.—Manuring, and making
Hotbeds.—Sowing Seeds, Planting Bulbs and Tubers, Transplanting
and Watering,—Grafting, Budding, Inarching, Making Layers and
Cuttings.—Training, Pruning, and destroying Insects.—Kitchen
garden, and Culinary Vegetables.—Kitchen-garden, and
Fruit-trees.—Flower-garden, and Flowers.—The Lawn, Shrubbery, and
Pleasure-ground.—Rock-work, Moss-houses, and Fountains.—Window
Gardening, and Greenhouse Plants.—Calendar of operations for the Year.



Snails and Slugs.—Moths and Butterflies.—Bees and Wasps.—British
Singing Birds.—Luminous Insects.—Wild Flowers and Clouds.—Water
Beetles: Rose Chaffer, Cock Chaffer, Cock Roach, Dragon Fly, May
Flies, and the Stickle Back.—The Limestone Caverns; Fossil Remains;
Coal Mines; Iron Furnaces; Thunder Storm.—Moles, Mushrooms, Truffles,
and Morels, Shrews, Mice, Frogs, and Polecats.—River Crawfish; and
Flies.—Snipes and Woodcocks, Fieldfares and Thrushes; American Mocking
Bird; Larks; Courses of the Wind.—Frost and Snow; The Holly; Mistletoe,
and Robin Redbreast.

With 45 Woodcuts, 16mo, 4_s._

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Botany for Ladies - or, A Popular Introduction to the Natural System of Plants, - According to the Classification of De Candolle." ***

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