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´╗┐Title: History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints - Period 1. History of Joseph Smith, the Prophet.
Author: Smith, Joseph, Jr.
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints - Period 1. History of Joseph Smith, the Prophet." ***

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HISTORY

OF THE

CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST

OF

LATTER-DAY SAINTS.

PERIOD I.

History of Joseph Smith, the Prophet.

By Himself.

Volume I.

An Introduction and Notes

by

B. H. Roberts.

Published by the Church.

Deseret News. Salt Lake City, Utah. 1902.

{III}



Preface.

In publishing the History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
Saints, it is felt that a solemn duty is being performed to the Saints
and to the world. The events which make up the history of the Church
in this age are the most important that history can chronicle. It is
due therefore both to the Saints themselves and to the world that
a faithful and complete history of the facts in which the Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints had its origin, together with
the events through which it was subsequently developed, and all the
circumstances, experiences and trials through which it passed be
made known to mankind. It is important, too, that so far as possible
the events which make up the history be related by the persons who
witnessed them, since such statements give the reader testimony of the
facts at first hand; and there is placed on record at the same time the
highest order of historical evidence of the truth of what is stated.
It was these considerations which induced the Church authorities,
under whose auspices this history is published, to take the narrative
of the Prophet Joseph Smith as found in the manuscript History of the
Church--now in the archives of the Historian's office--for the body
of the work, rather than to authorize the writing of a history in
the ordinary way. The editors of the work are not oblivious to the
fact that to proceed in the manner followed in these volumes has its
disadvantages; that it renders it impossible to correlate the facts,
and give unity to the work; {IV} that it makes the body of the work
more of the nature of annals than of history; with the accompanying
result that the conclusion of an event, or even a series of events,
is frequently postponed indefinitely, and each reader is left to be
his own "philosopher of history" while perusing these pages; that is,
to form his own conclusions upon the data here presented to him. To
overcome, at least in some small degree, the obvious disadvantages of
the style in which it has been determined to publish this history,
marginal notes relating to important matters are given, which, while it
is not claimed that they overcome the difficulties of the annalistic
style of the main body of the work, will nevertheless, be of great
service to the reader both in this respect and also in here and there
enlarging upon the Prophet's narrative where the narrative does not
include all the facts known upon the subject.

From the first the Prophet Joseph Smith had a clear apprehension of
the importance of keeping a faithful record of the events connected
with the great work which God was bringing forth through his
instrumentality; and it is to his appreciation of the importance of
that fact, and his never tiring energy respecting it, that we are
indebted for the minute completeness of our Church annals. While the
very rapidity with which events happened, together with the quickly
changing circumstances through which the purposes of God were unfolded
in the great Dispensation of the Fulness of Times, necessarily occupied
the time of the Prophet, and well nigh made it impossible for him to
give all the attention to the making of annals that is necessary to
such work, still he quite thoroughly supervised the writing of his
history, with the result that more complete historical data have been
written and preserved {V} respecting the coming forth of the work of
God in these last days than any other great movement whatsoever.

One difficulty the Prophet experienced in writing the annals of the
Church, which he usually called his history, was the unfaithfulness
of some whom he employed in this service, and the frequent change of
historians, owing to the ever shifting conditions surrounding the
Church in the early years of its existence. It would be marvelous
indeed if under all these circumstances there had been no mistakes
made in our annals, no conflict of dates, no errors in the relation of
events. But whether these conditions are taken into account or not, the
manuscript annals of the Church are astonishingly free from errors of
dates, relation of facts, and anachronisms of every description. When
the Church historians George A. Smith and Wilford Woodruff completed
their publication of the _History of Joseph Smith_, down to the 8th
of August, 1844, which history was published in installments in the
_Deseret News_, Utah, and in the _Millennial Star_, England, they
expressed themselves upon the correctness of what they had published in
the following manner:

"_The History of Joseph Smith_ is now before the world, and we are
satisfied that a history more correct in its details than this was
never published. To have it strictly correct, the greatest possible
pains have been taken by the historians and clerks engaged in the work.
They were eye and ear witnesses of nearly all the transactions recorded
in this history, most of which were reported as they transpired,
and, where they were not personally present, they have had access to
those who were. Moreover, since the death of the Prophet Joseph, the
history has been carefully revised under the strict inspection of {VI}
President Brigham Young, and approved by him. We, therefore, hereby
bear our testimony to all the world, unto whom these words shall come,
that the _History of Joseph Smith_ is true, and is one of the most
authentic histories ever written."

Their statement assuredly is true; and yet by a careful revision of
the work they did, and the correction of a few errors in dates and
other details, the work has been brought to a still higher state of
perfection. Where grammatical accuracy was violated in the original
record it has been corrected, so far as observed; but no historical or
doctrinal statement has been changed. Some changes will be observed in
the matter of the biographies of the leading Elders of the early days
of the Church. When a man of prominence connected himself with the
Church, the Prophet Joseph usually gave a biographical sketch of him
in his own history, then writing; and sometimes these biographies were
long and unduly interrupted the movement of events. To rid the body of
the work of this encumbrance it was decided to place all biographical
matter in marginal notes; this made it necessary to condense very much
those found in the Prophet's narrative, while severe brevity--after
accuracy--has been the aim in those prepared by the annotator.

The most careful attention has been given to this work by those
engaged in its preparation. The manuscript has been read to the Church
Historian, President Anthon H. Lund, with constant reference to the
original manuscript history and all copies of it published in the
_Times and Seasons_ and the _Millennial Star_; and also to various
editions of the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Book of Commandments
published at Independence, Missouri, in 1833, {VII} where the
revelations received by the Prophet Joseph Smith are contained. In the
course of this work slight variations in phraseology were discovered
in the several editions of the Doctrine and Covenants, that doubtless
arose through careless proof reading; and as between the most carefully
proof-read editions and the revelations found in the manuscript
_History of the Church_ there were some slight differences, which were
corrected to agree with the original manuscript; but the corrections
were never made until first submitted to the First Presidency, and
carefully considered and approved by them. We therefore feel that this
great care has resulted in presenting to the Church and to the world
the revelations which the Prophet Joseph Smith received in their most
perfect form; and that a standard is created for all future publication
of these revelations. Speaking of the revelations that appear in this
book, it is proper to remark that one of the chief values of this
volume of the _History of the Church_ will arise from the fact that
the greater number of those revelations received by the Prophet Joseph
Smith is published in it--one hundred and one, out of a hundred and
thirty-three found in the Doctrine and Covenants; and as they are
published in connection with the circumstances existing when brought
forth, the student of the doctrines of the Church will find this volume
of almost incalculable benefit to him.

In the Introduction it is believed the reader will find a fitting
background from which are projected with majestic boldness the great
events and splendid doctrines of the Dispensation of the Fulness of
Times. That dispensation, of which this history is but the chronicle,
bears an important relation to all former dispensations since {VIII}
the world began. It is the ocean into which they as streams flow. It
is their complement, and unifying force--it makes them all one; and
demonstrates that while things to men appear but in parts, God forever
stands in the presence of the whole, and dispenses His providences with
reference to His perfect comprehension of the end from the beginning.
It is to exhibit this relation of dispensations that the Introduction
is written, and the importance of the subject must be the apology for
its length.

{IX}



Table of Contents.

Volume I.

Preface.

Introduction.

Antiquity of the Gospel.

The Gospel Revealed to Adam.

Establishment of the Ancient Church.

The Gospel _Versus_ the Law.

From Moses to John the Baptist and Messiah.

The Dispensation of the Meridian of Time.

The Identity of the Dispensation of the Meridian of Time and the
Dispensation of the Fullness of Times Considered.

Joel's Prophecy of the Dispensation of the Last Days.

Daniel's Prophecy of the Rise of the Kingdom of God in the Last Days.

The Announcement of the Universal Apostasy.

Character of the Early Christians.

The Rise of False Teachers.

The Development of False Doctrines After the Death of the Apostles.

The Revolution of the Fourth Century: Constantine.

Christianity Made a Persecuting Religion.

Persecution of "Heretics."

Christianity Before and After Constantine.

Decline in Moral and Spiritual Living Among Christians.

Loss of Spiritual Gifts.

Departure of "Christendom" from the True Doctrine of Deity.

The Christian Doctrine of God.

Paganization of the Christian Doctrine of God.

The Church of Christ Displaced by the Churches of Men.

Testimony of Prophecy to the Universal Apostasy.

Conclusion.

{X} CHAPTER I.

Joseph Smith's Birth and Lineage--The Prophet's First Vision--"This is
My Beloved Son."

The Prophet's Introduction

Birth and Ancestry.

Religious Excitement in Western New York.

Reflection on Divided Christendom.

Perplexity of the Prophet.

The Promise of St. James Tested.

Effort of Satan to Destroy the Prophet.

The First Vision.

State of Christian World.

Sectarian opposition.

Reflections Upon Sectarian Oppositions.

All Doubts Settled.

CHAPTER II.

The Visitation of Moroni--Existence of the Book of Mormon Made Known.

Interval of Three Years, 1820-23.

Confession of Errors.

Appearing of Moroni.

Moroni's Message.

Ancient Prophecies Quoted.

Plates not to be Shown.

Second Appearing of Moroni.

Third Appearing of Moroni.

Fourth Appearing of Moroni.

The Hill Cumorah.

The Nephite Record.

Fourth Annual Visitation to Cumorah.

Story of Being a Money Digger.

The Prophet's Marriage.

CHAPTER III.

The Nephite Record Delivered to Joseph--The Angel's Warning The Work of
Translation.

The Prophet Receives the Plates.

Efforts of Enemies to Get the Plates.

Misrepresentations.

Removal to Pennsylvania.

Words of the Book given to the Learned.

The Loss of 116 Pages of Manuscript.

Prophet's Journey to Manchester and Return to Pennsylvania.

Interpreters and Plates Returned to the Prophet.

Interval in the Work of Translation.

Three Witnesses Promised.

{XI} CHAPTER IV.

Oliver Cowdery Becomes the Prophet's Scribe--The Translation of the
Plates Continued.

Oliver Cowdery.

Witness of the Spirit to Cowdery.

The Mission of John the Apostle.

Oliver desires to Translate.

CHAPTER V.

Restoration of the Aaronic Priesthood--First Baptisms.

The Aaronic Priesthood Restored.

Limitation of the Aaronic Priesthood.

John the Baptist, May 15, 1829.

Outpourings of the Spirit.

Ordination and Baptism Kept Secret.

Conversion of Samuel H. Smith.

Hyrum Smith's Inquiries.

Assistance from Joseph Knight, Sen.

Prophet's Removal to Fayette.

David, John, and Peter Whitmer, Jun., as Assistants.

Early Baptisms.

CHAPTER VI.

The Testimony of the Especial Witnesses to the Book of Mormon.

Provision made for Special Witnesses.

Seeking the Fulfillment of the Promise.

The Order of Prayer.

The Visitation of the Angel--Viewing the Plates.

Martin Harris Views the Plates.

Statement of the Witnesses.

Early Progress in the Work.

CHAPTER VII.

The Day Appointed for Organizing the Church--Revelation on Church
Government.

Directions for the Organization of the Church.

Instructions on Church Organization.

{XII} CHAPTER VIII.

The Book of Mormon Published--The Church Organized.

Price for Publishing Book of Mormon.

The Title Page.

Procedure in the Organization of the Church.

Joseph Smith, Jun., Appointed Prophet, Seer, and Revelator to the
Church.

The Church of Jesus Christ Begins its Career.

Word of the Lord to Several Persons.

CHAPTER IX.

The Commencement of the Public Ministry of the Church.

The First Public Discourse.

The Prophet's Ministry at Colesville.

Labors of the Prophet with Newel Knight.

The First Miracle in the Church.

Remarkable Experience of Newel Knight.

Effect of Publishing the Book of Mormon.

First Conference of the Church.

Effect of Spiritual Manifestations.

Baptisms.

Labor of the Prophet at Colesville.

The Adventures of Emily Coburn.

Mobbings.

The Prophet Arrested.

The Prophet Escapes the Mob.

Excitement over the Prophet's Case.

The Trial.

Daughters of Mr. Stoal as Witnesses.

The Acquittal.

The Prophet's second Arrest.

Unnecessary Severity.

The Second Trial.

Newel Knight vs. Lawyer Seymour.

Plea for the State.

Plea for the Defendant.

Change in Sentiment.

The Prophet Acquitted.

CHAPTER X.

The Molestation at Colesville by Mobs--The Revelation Embodying the
vision of Moses.

The Second Flight from Colesville.

Reflections on Persecution.

The Strength which God gave.

Encouragement from Inspired Dreams.

Compilation of Revelations.

Cowdery's Error.

Prophet's Correction of Error.

{XIII} CHAPTER XI.

Further Light Respecting the Sacrament--Prophet's Removal to Fayette.

Instructions on the Sacrament.

A Confirmation Meeting.

The Prophet's Father-in-law Embittered.

The Eyes of Enemies Blinded Through Faith.

The Prophet Finds an Asylum at Fayette.

Spurious Revelations Through Hyrum Page.

The Conference of September 26th.

Satisfactory Results of the Conference.

Mission to the Lamanites.

Departure of the Lamanite Mission.

Arrival at Kirtland.

Previous Relations of Pratt and Rigdon.

Presentation of the Book of Mormon to Sidney Rigdon.

Public Ministry at Mentor.

The Work Opened at Kirtland.

Conversion of Sidney Rigdon.

CHAPTER XII.

Lost Books of Ancient Scripture--Commandment to the Church in New York
to Move to Ohio.

Readiness of the Lord to Impart Knowledge.

Orson Pratt Seeks to Know the Will of the Lord.

Sidney Rigdon and Edward Partridge Visit the Prophet.

Of the Lost Books of Scripture.

CHAPTER XIII.

Prospects of the Church at the Opening of the year 1831--Removal of the
Prophet Joseph From New York to Ohio--Doctrinal Development.

Prospects of the Church, 1831.

Why Covill Rejected the Commandment.

The Prophet Removes to Ohio.

The Branch of the Church at Kirtland.

Revelation Giving the Law of the Church.

Pretensions of a Woman to Revelations, etc.

A Special Conference, 3rd-6th of June.

{XIV} CHAPTER XIV.

Effort to Overwhelm the Church By Falsehood--Sundry Revelations Leading
to Doctrinal Development.

Efforts Through the Press to Retard the Work.

The Gifts of the Holy Ghost.

John Whitmer Appointed Historian.

On the Purchase of Land in Ohio.

The Shaking Quakers.

Inquiry on Spiritual Manifestations.

Arrival in Ohio of the New York Saints.

CHAPTER XV.

The Important conference of June 3rd-6th--Arrival of the Elders in
Western Missouri.

Important Conference of June 3rd-6th at Kirtland.

Difficulty in the Thompson Branch.

Report of Oliver Cowdery on Conditions on Western Missouri.

Marsh and Thayre Separated as Missionary Companions.

Departure of the Prophets and Company for Missouri.

Treatment by the Way.

Arrival in Missouri.

Questions and the Answer by Revelation.

The First Sabbath in Zion.

Arrival of the Colesville Branch.

CHAPTER XVI.

The Founding of Zion.

The First Act in the Founding of Zion.

Description of the Land of Zion.

Agricultural Products.

Animals, Domestic and Wild.

The Climate.

The Future Glory of Zion.

Dedication of the Temple Site.

First Conference in Zion.

Death of Polly Knight.

Directions for the Elders.

Prophet and Others Depart for Kirtland.

A Chance Meeting of Elders.

Arrival of the Prophet and Party at Kirtland.

Anxiety of the Saints to Receive the Word of the Lord.

Preparation to Move to Hiram.

{XV} CHAPTER XVII.

The Apostasy of Ezra Booth--Preparations for Publishing Book of
Commandments.

The Prophet Move to Hiram.

Ezra Booth's Apostasy.

The Purchase of a Press.

A Prayer Revealed.

Revision of the Bible Renewed.

Instructions and Appointments of the Conference of October 11th.

Special Conference of October 21st.

Conference at Orange, Ohio, October 25th.

Special Conference Nov. 1st.

Language of Revelations Criticised.

The Folly of William M'Lellin.

Preparation of the Revelations for Publication, November 1st-15th.

Dedication of the Book of Commandments.

Esteem in which the Conference Held the Book of Commandments and Book
of Mormon.

CHAPTER XVIII.

The Amherst Conference--The Vision of the Degrees of Glory in Man's
Future Life.

The Labors of the Prophet and Sidney Rigdon.

The Prophet's Earnest Labors in Kirtland.

Effectiveness of the Prophet's and Sidney Rigdon's Labors.

Translation Renewed.

The Amherst Conference.

Revelation of the Degrees of Future Glory.

The Prophet's Views on the Foregoing Revelation.

A Key to St. John's Book of Revelation.

Sundry Revelations.

CHAPTER XIX.

Mob Violence at Hiram--The Second Journey of the Prophet to Zion, and
Return to Kirtland.

Prospects of the "Evening and Morning Star."

The Prophet's Life in Hiram.

A Prophecy on Omsted Johnson.

Apostates.

Mob Violence at Hiram.

Brutality of the Mob.

The Prophet's Pitiable Condition.

A Case of Mistaken Identity.

The Prophet's Undaunted Spirit.

Elder Rigdon's Condition.

{XVI} Composition of the Mob.

The Prophet Starts on his Second Visit to Zion.

Incidents by the Way.

Prophet Acknowledged President of the High Priesthood.

The Purposes the Prophet Seeks to Effect Through Church Organization.

A Visit to the Colesville Saints Literary Affairs of the Church
Considered.

Transaction of Temporal Business.

Return Journey to Kirtland--Incidents by the Way.

The Foreknowledge of a Seer.

CHAPTER XX.

"The Evening and Morning Star."

Occupation of the Prophet, Summer of 1832.

Opposition by the Press.

Second No. of the "Star."

CHAPTER XXI.

Larger Views of the Doctrine of Priesthood Revealed--The Meeting of the
Prophet Joseph Smith. Jun., Brigham Young, and Heber C. Kimball.

Baptism of George A. Smith.

Return of Elders from Missouri.

The Prophet's Visit to Eastern Cities.

The Arrival of the Youngs at Kirtland.

CHAPTER XXII.

The Prophecy on the War of the Rebellion--The Olive Leaf--Communication
to Mr. Seaton--Warning to Zion.

State of the World at the Close of 1832.

CHAPTER XXIII.

The Enjoyment of Spiritual Blessings in the Church--The Word of Wisdom.

Enjoyment of Spiritual Gifts.

Ordinances of the Washing of Feet.

The Elders Pronounced Clean.

Revision of the New Testament Completed.

John Murdock's Message to the Thompson Branch.

{XVII} Concerning the Prophet's Communication to Seaton.

Case of Burr Riggs.

Consideration of Missouri Correspondence of the 11th and 12th of
January.

Excommunication of Burr Riggs.

A Word of Comfort to the Prophet.

The Apocrypha.

A Mission to the East Appointed.

Case of Brother Lake.

CHAPTER XXIV.

Kirtland to be a Stake of Zion--Regulation of Church Affairs in
Missouri.

School of Prophets.

Rigdon and Williams Ordained Presidents.

Kirtland a Stake of Zion.

Matters Relating to Church Government in Zion Settled.

Purchase of the French Farm.

Conference in Zion.

The State of the World.

First Assembly of Mob in Zion.

Conference of High Priests in Kirtland.

Another Conference of High Priests.

Council Proceedings Approved.

Signs of the Times.

Removal of Indians.

Arrival of the Prophet's Relatives in Kirtland.

CHAPTER XXV.

Preparations for Building the Kirtland Temple--Trial and
Excommunication of "Doctor" Philastus Hurlburt.

The House of the Lord at Kirtland.

The Trial of "Doctor" Hurlburt.

The House of the Lord to be Built at Kirtland.

The French Farm.

John Johnson Ordained a High Priest.

Ground Broken for Kirtland Temple.

Action of Conference with Reference to the Temple.

Hurlburt's Appeal.

Copley's Case.

Excommunication of "Doctor" Hurlburt.

Case of James Higbee.

{XVIII} CHAPTER XXVI.

The Plat of the City of Zion--Its Temples--Correspondence on Affairs in
Zion and Eugene.

The General Plan of the City of Zion.

The Blocks Set Aside for Temples.

Location of Land for the Agriculturist.

Zion a Group of Cities.

Names of the Temples.

The House of the Lord for the Presidency.

The Pulpits of the Temple.

The Windows.

General Dimensions.

Arrangements of the Curtains.

Important Letter to Brethren in Zion.

CHAPTER XXVII.

Preparation of the Mob in Jackson County to Resort to
Violence--Important Excerpts From the "Star."

The Rise of Mob Force in Jackson County.

The Mob Ignores the Constitutional Guarantee of Religious Freedom.

Council of Elders in Kirtland.

CHAPTER XXVIII.

Mob Violence in the Land of Zion.

Demands of the Mob.

The Mob's Treatment of Elder Partridge.

Charles Allen.

Reflection of the Prophet.

Aftermath of Mob Violence.

The Second Gathering of the Mob.

A Messenger Sent to Kirtland.

The "Western" Monitor on Jackson County Troubles.

The Prophet's Comment of the "Monitor" article.

Corner Stone of Kirtland Temple Laid.

CHAPTER XXIX.

Minor Events in Zion and Kirtland--An Appeal to the Governor of
Missouri.

Prophet's Letter to Vienna Jaques.

{XIX} CHAPTER XXX.

The Prophet's Mission to Canada.

The Prophet Starts for Canada.

Letter to Saints in Zion.

Distraction about Zion.

Narrative of Canada Journey Renewed.

At Father Nickerson's.

Through Upper Canada.

Meeting at Bradford.

Meeting and Baptisms at Mt. Pleasant.

Return to Kirtland.

Action of Governor Dunklin on Petition.

Preparations for Asserting Rights.

Counsel Employed.

CHAPTER XXXI.

Expulsion of the Saints From Jackson County.

Attack on the Saints Settled on Big Blue.

The Saints at the Prairie Settlement Attacked.

Mobbing at Independence.

Other Incidents at Independence.

An Appeal to the Circuit Court.

Events of Monday, Nov. 4th.

The Battle.

Gilbert _et al_. on Trial.

Assault on the Prisoners.

Incidents of the 5th November.

One Hundred Volunteers.

The Demand of the Mob Militia.

The Savagery of the Mob.

Events of the 5th and 6th of November.

Scenes on the Banks of the Missouri.

Lieutenant Governor Boggs.

In Exile.

The Stars Fall.

CHAPTER XXXII.

Remembrance of Canada Saints--Correspondence and Petition Relative to
Missouri Affairs.

Letter to Moses C. Nickerson.

The Prophet's Reflections.

Sidney Rigdon.

A Prophecy.

The Prophet's Maxims.

Frederick G. Williams.

Attorney General's Letter to the Exiles' Counsel.

Judge Ryland's Letter to Amos Reese.

Hyde and Gould Return to Kirtland.

Remnants Scattered.

New Church Press.

The Dedication of the New Press.

{XX} CHAPTER XXXIII.

The Prophet's Sympathy for the Exiled Saints--Reasons for their
expulsion From Zion.

Expulsion of Saints from Van Buren County.

Sad Condition of the Saints

CHAPTER XXXIV.

A Press Established at Kirtland--Blessing Upon the Prophet's
Family--Responsibility for Lawless Acts in Missouri.

Dedication of Printing Press.

Strength and Weakness of Oliver Cowdery.

The Prophet's Blessing Upon his Father's House.

His Mother.

His Brother Hyrum.

His Brother Samuel.

Prophecy on the Head of his Brother William.

A Prayer.

Messengers to Zion.

A Life Guard of Washington Driven from Jackson County.

Court of Inquiry.

Excommunications at Kirtland.

Elliott, Haggart and Babbitt cases.

Disposition of the _Star_ Press.

Where Responsibility Rests.

CHAPTER XXXV.

Important Correspondence on Jackson County Affairs, Chiefly Between
Leading Officials of the Church in Zion and State Officials of Missouri.

Algernon Sidney Gilbert's Letter to Governor Dunklin.

Letter of the First Presidency to the Scattered Saints.

Letter from Governor Dunklin to the Brethren in Missouri.

Letter of Algernon Sidney Gilbert to A. Leonard, Esq., Attorney.

Letter from Brethren in Clay County, Mo., to Judge Ryland.

{XXI} Letter of W. W. Phelps _et al_. to Judge Woodward.

Affidavit of Abigail Leonard.

Letter of W. W. Phelps to the Brethren in Kirtland, Detailing the
Farcical Effort of the Officers of Missouri to Enforce the Law.

Second Petition to the President of the United States.

Letter of Algernon S. Gilbert _et al_. to President Accompanying
Foregoing Petition.

Letter of the Brethren to Governor Dunklin, Asking him to Write the
President in Connection with their Petition.

Letter of W. W. Phelps to U. S. Senator Benton of Missouri on the
Subject of the Petition to the President.

Letter from Governor Dunklin to the Brethren, Answering the one
Inviting him to Write the President on the Subject of Saint's Petition.

The Brethren in Missouri to Governor Dunklin, Informing him that they
Expect the Arrival of Reinforcement from their Brethren in the East.

Letter of Governor Dunklin Replying to the Communication of April 24th
from the Brethren in Clay County.

Letter to Governor Dunklin Answering his of April 20th, Wherein he
Cautioned the Saints to Keep their Enemies in the Wrong.

Letter to Colonel S. D. Lucas Asking About Arms Surrendered at
Independence.

Reply of the General Government to the Petition of the Saints.

{XXV}



Introduction.

Antiquity of the Gospel.

The History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is also
the history of the opening and progress of the Dispensation of the
fullness of Times; and as that dispensation bears an important relation
to all dispensations which have preceded it, let us here ascertain
in what that relation consists. By doing so we shall have a better
appreciation of the full import of those events which make up the
history of the Church.

A dispensation, without reference to any specific application or
limitation of the term, is the act of dealing out or distributing, such
as the dispensation of justice by courts, the dispensation of blessings
or afflictions by the hand of Providence. Theologically a dispensation
is defined as one of the several systems or bodies of law in which at
different periods God has revealed his mind and will to man, such as
the Patriarchal Dispensation, the Mosaic Dispensation, or the Christian
Dispensation. The word is also sometimes applied to the periods of time
during which the said laws obtain. That is, the period from Adam to
Noah is usually called the Patriarchal Dispensation. From Noah to the
calling of Abraham, the Noachian Dispensation; and from Abraham to the
calling of Moses, the Abrahamic Dispensation. But the word dispensation
as connected with the Gospel of Jesus Christ means the opening of the
heavens to men; the giving out or dispensing to them the word of God;
the revealing to men in whole or the part the principles and ordinances
of the Gospel; the conferring of divine authority upon certain chosen
ones, by which they are empowered to act in the name, that is, in the
authority of God, and for Him. That is a dispensation as relating
to the Gospel; and the Dispensation of the Fulness of Times is the
dispensation which includes all others and gathers to itself all things
which bear any relation whatsoever to the work of God. Also it is the
last dispensation, the one in which will be gathered together in one
all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth;
even in Him. [1] It is the dispensation which will see fulfilled all
the decrees of God respecting the salvation of men and the redemption
of the earth itself; and bears such relation to all other {XXVI}
dispensations of the Gospel as the ocean does to all earth's streams.
It receives and unites them all in itself.

That there have been many dispensations of the Gospel, many times that
divine authority has been conferred upon men, is apparent from the
Scripture narrative of such events. And yet, strange as it may seem, in
the face of such Scripture narratives, there are those among professing
Christians who hold that the Gospel had no earlier origin than the time
of Messiah's ministry in the flesh. As a matter of fact, however, the
Gospel of Jesus Christ has existed from the very earliest ages of the
world. There are, indeed, certain passages of Scripture which lead us
to believe that even before the earth was made or ever man was placed
upon it, the Gospel had been formulated and was understood by the
spirits which inhabited the kingdom of the Father; and who, in course
of time, would be blessed with a probation on the earth--an earth-life.
If this be not true, of what significance is the Scripture which speaks
of Jesus as the Lamb ordained before the foundation of the world, but
revealed in this day for the salvation of man? [2] What of the "Lamb
slain from the foundation of the world"? [3] And further: "They that
dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the
Book of Life from the foundation of the world." [4] "Where wast thou,"
asked the Lord of Job, "when I laid the foundations of the earth? * * *
When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted
for joy?" [5] There is evidence in these expressions found in Scripture
that before the foundations of the earth were laid the sacrifice
necessary to the redemption of men was understood, and the "Lamb" for
the sacrifice was chosen, Jesus, the Messiah. There is evidence in
these expressions from Scripture of the pre-existence of the spirits
of men, and the names of some of them at least were written in the
"Book of Life" from the foundation of the world, and it is not unlikely
that the shouting of all the sons of God for joy, at the creation of
the earth was in consequence of the prospects which opened before them
because of the earth-life and the salvation that would come to them
through the Gospel--even in the prospects of that "eternal life, which
God that cannot lie, promised before the world began."

_The Gospel Revealed to Adam_.

The Gospel, then, is of great antiquity. Older than the hills, older
{XXVII} than the earth; for in the heavenly kingdom was it formulated
before the foundations of the earth were laid. Nor were men left in
ignorance of the plan of their redemption until the coming of the
Messiah in the flesh. From the first that plan was known. Our annals
are imperfect on that head, doubtless, but enough exists even in the
Jewish scriptures to indicate the existence of a knowledge of the fact
of the Atonement and of the redemption of man through that means. Abel,
the son of Adam, is the first we read of in the Jewish scriptures as
offering "the firstlings of his flock" as a sacrifice unto God. How
came he to offer sacrifice of the firstlings of his flock? Doubtless
behind Abel's sacrifice, as behind similar offerings in subsequent
ages, stood the fact of the Christ's Atonement. [6] In it was figured
forth the means of man's redemption--through a sacrifice, and that the
sacrifice of the first-born. But where learned Abel to offer sacrifice
if not from his father Adam? It is reasonably certain that Adam as well
as Abel offered sacrifices, in like manner and for the same intent;
and to Adam, though the Jewish scriptures are silent respecting it,
God must have revealed both the necessity of offering sacrifice and
the great thing of which it was but the symbol. And here, to some
advantage, may be quoted a passage from the writings of Moses, as
revealed to Joseph Smith, in December, 1830. From what was then made
known to the great latter-day Prophet of the writings of Moses, it
appears that our book of Genesis does not contain all that was revealed
to Moses respecting the revelations of God to Adam and his children
of the first generation. According to this more complete account of
the revelation to Moses, after Adam was driven from Eden, God gave
commandments both to him and his wife, that they should worship the
Lord their God, and should offer the firstlings of their flocks for an
offering unto the Lord, and Adam was obedient unto the commandment:

    And after many days an angel of the Lord appeared unto Adam,
    saying: Why doest thou offer sacrifices unto the Lord? And Adam
    said unto him: I know not, save the Lord commanded me. And the
    angel spake, saying: This thing is a similitude of the sacrifice of
    the Only Begotten of the Father, which is full of grace and truth.
    Wherefore, thou shalt do all that thou doest in the name of the
    Son, and thou shalt repent and call upon God in the name of the Son
    for evermore. [7]

After some time elapsed and men multiplied in the earth and wickedness
increased; after Abel, the righteous, was slain and Cain was a vagabond
in the earth for the murder; after Lamech had also become a murderer
and Satan had great power among the disobedient--then, it is written:

{XXVIII} And God cursed the earth with a sore curse, and was angry
with the wicked, with all the sons of men whom he had made; for they
would not hearken unto His voice, nor believe on His Only Begotten Son,
even Him whom He declared should come in the meridian of time, who was
prepared from before the foundation of the world. And thus the Gospel
began to be preached, from the beginning, being declared by holy angels
sent forth from the presence of God, and by His own voice, and by the
gift of the Holy Ghost. And thus all things were confirmed unto Adam,
by an holy ordinance, and the Gospel preached, and a decree sent forth,
that it should be in the world, until the end thereof. [8]

_Establishment of the Ancient Church_.

As the Gospel was thus preached there were those among the children
of Adam who obeyed it, and a record of those men was kept, and they
constituted the ancient Church of God. Enoch was of the number of
righteous ones, and a preacher of righteousness. In these revealed
writings of Moses he is represented in the course of his ministry as
referring to the manner in which the Gospel was taught to Adam;

    And he said unto them: Because that Adam fell, we are and by his
    fall came death; and we are made partakers of misery and woe.
    Behold Satan hath come among the children of men, and tempteth them
    to worship him; and men have become carnal, sensual, and devilish,
    and are shut out from the presence of God. But God hath made known
    unto our fathers that all men must repent. And He called upon our
    father Adam by His own voice, saying: I am God; I made the world,
    and men before they were in the flesh. And He also said unto him:
    If thou wilt turn unto me, and hearken unto my voice, and believe,
    and repent of all thy transgressions, and be baptized, even in
    water, in the name of mine Only Begotten Son, who is full of grace
    and truth, which is Jesus Christ, the only name which shall be
    given under heaven, whereby salvation shall come unto the children
    of men, ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost, asking all
    things in His name, and whatsoever ye shall ask, it shall be given
    you. [9]

Adam was obedient to the commandments of the Lord, and taught them to
his children, many of whom believed them, obeyed, and became the sons
of God.

Enoch, we are told, "walked with God: and he was not; for God
took him." [10] Paul, in speaking of him, says: "By faith Enoch
was translated that he should not see death; and was not found,
because God had translated him." [11] But the writings of Moses, as
revealed to {XXIX} Joseph Smith, and from which I have been quoting,
give information that not only was Enoch translated but the Saints
inhabiting his city, into which he had gathered his people, and this
city was called Zion; "And it came to pass that Zion was not, for God
received it up into His own bosom; and from thence went forth the
saying, Zion is fled." [12]

_The Gospel versus the Law_.

Thus the gospel was taught to the ancients. Noah was a preacher of it
as well as Enoch. So, too, was Melchizedek, priest of the Most High
God, King of Salem, who met Abraham in his day and blessed him. [13]
Paul, the Apostle of the Gentiles, bears unmistakable testimony to the
fact that the Gospel was preached unto Abraham; and also that it was
offered to Israel under Moses before "the law of carnal commandments"
was given. "I would not that ye should be ignorant," he says, "how that
all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;
and were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea; and did
all eat the same spiritual meat; and did all drink the same spiritual
drink: _for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and
that Rock was Christ_." [14]

Referring again to the fact of the presentation of the Gospel to
ancient Israel, Paul says that the Gospel was preached unto ancient
Israel, as well as unto Israel in his day; but the preaching of the
Gospel to ancient Israel was not profitable to them, because they
received it not in faith, and as a result displeased God by their
unbelief, and the rebellious perished in the wilderness. [15]

Paul's great controversy with the Christian Jews was in relation to the
superiority of the Gospel to the law of Moses. Many of the Christian
Jews while accepting Jesus of Nazareth as the promised Messiah, still
held to the law with something like superstitious reverence, and could
not be persuaded that the Gospel superseded the law, and was, in fact,
a fulfillment of all its types and symbols. This controversy culminated
in Paul's now celebrated letter to the Galatians, wherein he says:

Know ye therefore that they which are of faith, the same are the
children of Abraham. And the Scripture, foreseeing that God would {XXX}
justify the heathen through faith, _preached before the Gospel unto
Abraham_, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed. * * * * Now to
Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not And to seeds,
as of many: but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ. And this I
say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the
law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul,
that it should make the promise of none effect. * * * * Wherefore then
serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed
should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels
in the hand of a mediator. * * * Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster
to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith. But after
that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster. For ye are
all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus. [16]

_From Moses to John the Baptist and Messiah_.

In greater clearness, however, than in these sayings of Paul gathered
up from his writings like scattered rays of light from a prism's
reflection, the antiquity of the Gospel, as far as it concerns ancient
Israel, is stated in a revelation of God to the Prophet Joseph Smith.
And not only the antiquity of the Gospel, but in greater clearness
also is stated the reasons why, after the Gospel was first preached
to ancient Israel, the law of carnal commandments was "added" to the
Gospel, or given in its place, to act as a schoolmaster to bring Israel
unto Christ. And by the knowledge imparted in that revelation the time
between the Mosaic dispensation and the coming of John the Baptist, to
prepare the way for the coming of Christ, is spanned by a statement
so rational, that the truth of it cannot be reasonably questioned.
Speaking of the Melchizedek Priesthood and its powers in administering
the ordinances of the Gospel, and how it came to disappear as an
organization in Israel, the passage in question says:

    This greater Priesthood administereth the Gospel and holdeth the
    key of the mysteries of the kingdom, even the key of the knowledge
    of God; Therefore, in the ordinances thereof, the power of
    godliness is manifest; and without the ordinances thereof, and the
    authority of the Priesthood, the power of godliness is not manifest
    unto men in the flesh, for without this no man can see the face of
    God, even the Father, and live. Now this Moses plainly taught to
    the children of Israel in the wilderness, and sought diligently
    to sanctify his people that they might behold the face of God:
    but they hardened their hearts and could not endure his presence,
    therefore, the Lord in His wrath (for His anger was kindled against
    them) swore that they should not enter into his rest while in the
    wilderness, which rest is the fullness of his glory. Therefore
    He took Moses out of their midst, and the Holy {XXXI} Priesthood
    also; and the lesser Priesthood continued, which Priesthood holdeth
    the key of the ministering of angels and the preparatory Gospel;
    which Gospel is the Gospel of repentance and of baptism, and the
    remission of sins, and the law of carnal commandments, which the
    Lord in His wrath, caused to continue with the house of Aaron among
    the children of Israel until John, whom God raised up, being filled
    with the Holy Ghost from his mother's womb; for he was baptized
    while he was yet in his childhood, and was ordained by the angel of
    God at the time he was eight days old unto this power to overthrow
    the kingdom of the Jews, and to make straight the way of the Lord
    before the face of His people, to prepare them for the coming of
    the Lord, in whose hand is given all power. [17]

As before remarked, this passage spans the interval of time between
Moses and John the Baptist, and gives a fuller explanation than can
be found in the writings of Paul or elsewhere, for the reason why and
in what manner the law supplanted the Gospel; and what measure of the
Priesthood remained with Israel unto the coming of John; in what the
mission of John consisted, and in what manner he was qualified to
fulfill that mission.

It should be remarked, however, that while the Lord took Moses out of
the midst of ancient Israel, and the Holy Melchisedek Priesthood also,
as an institution, as an organization, it is evident that subsequently
special dispensations of that Priesthood were given to individual
prophets, such as Samuel, Nathan, Elijah, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel,
and Daniel: for these men exercised powers and enjoyed privileges which
belong exclusively to the Melchisedek Priesthood.

_The Dispensation of the Meridian of Time_.

With the period between Moses and John the Baptist spanned, we come
to the Dispensation of the Meridian of Time. This dispensation begins
with the preaching of John the Baptist in the wilderness. It was made
glorious by the personal ministry of Jesus of Nazareth, the Son of
God; by His suffering and death, for the redemption of mankind; by
His glorious resurrection from the dead; by his subsequent ministry
among his followers, and His final ascension into heaven to the throne
of His Father; by the faithful ministry of His Apostles, by whom the
good tidings of man's salvation were published to the world: by the
establishment of the Church as the agency through which the Gospel
was to be more widely proclaimed, and those who accepted the Gospel
were more thoroughly instructed in its doctrines, guarded from error,
and finally perfected in the Christian life. An inspired volume of
Scripture, the New Testament, was also brought {XXXII} into existence,
from the teachings of the inspired Apostles, in which the great
fundamental truths of the Gospel were embodied and cast in a form that
would be enduring, and to which men could appeal through all the ages
to come, as an authoritative statement, not only of what Jesus said and
what He did, but also a statement of what doctrines are to be believed;
what precepts to be practiced; what ordinances to be observed. By thus
embodying the chief doctrines of Christ in a volume of Scripture that
should live forever, and be published in all the languages of the
world, provision was made for such a dissemination of the knowledge of
God, that the world would never again be wholly without that knowledge;
and though the Church might become corrupted, as it afterwards did;
though men ambitious of distinction and power might usurp authority and
establish churches, in which they taught for doctrines the commandments
of men, as they certainly did; still in this volume of Scripture men
henceforth would have at hand a standard of truth by which to test
the utterances of would-be teachers, while at the same time it would
keep above the horizon of a world's knowledge the great truths of
the Gospel--the existence and character of God; the manifestation
of Him through the person and character of Jesus of Nazareth; the
relationship existing between God and man; the fall of man; and the
redemption provided for him in the atonement of Jesus Christ. All this
was achieved in the Dispensation of the Meridian of Time; a mighty
work accomplished by the Son of God and His associates; a work sealed
not only by the blood of Jesus Christ, but by the blood also of many
faithful witnesses, which shall make their testimony of force in the
world.

_Identity of the Dispensation of the Meridian of Time and the
Dispensation of the Fulness of Times Considered_.

At this point we are confronted with a question that must be settled
before progress is possible with this Introduction. Owing to the
phraseology of certain passages of Scripture, making reference to
the coming of Messiah in the flesh, and to the work of God in those
days, the Dispensation of the Meridian of Time is mistaken for the
Dispensation of the Fulness of Times. In Mark's Gospel, for instance,
John the Baptist is represented as saying, "_The time is fulfilled_,
and the kingdom of God is at hand: repent ye, and believe the gospel."
[18] The words in Italics are usually understood to make reference to
the Dispensation of the Fulness of Times. Again it is written: "_But
when the fulness of the time was come_, God sent forth His Son, made of
a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law."
[19] The words, "when the fulness of the time was come," are supposed
to refer to the Dispensation of the Fulness of Times. Other passages of
Scripture referring to the days of Messiah's personal ministry among
men in the flesh, speak of them as the "last days." Paul in the opening
sentence of his letter to the Hebrews, does this: "God, who at sundry
times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the
prophets, hath _in these last days_ spoken unto us by His Son, whom He
hath appointed heir of all things." [20] So St. John, in addressing
the Saints in his day: "Little children, _it is the last time:_ and
as ye have heard that anti-Christ shall come, even now are there many
anti-Christs; whereby we know that _it is the last time._" [21] These with
two other special passages of Scripture to be separately considered,
constitute the authority upon which the Meridian Dispensation is
confounded with the Dispensation of the Fullness of Times. And yet all
these passages are susceptible of quite a different and more natural
rendering. Without controversy it will be conceded that the Lord had
an appointed time for His Son Jesus to come to earth in the flesh and
perform the mission that had been assigned him; to suffer; to die; to
arise again from the dead. And when the fullness of this time was come,
God indeed sent forth His Son into the world. As for those inspired
writers who speak of the "last days," and the "last times"--they speak
relatively; that is, with reference to former days and times; and,
of course, the days and times in which they lived to them were the
last days, and the last times; but they were not the last days of the
earth's temporal existence; they were not the last days in any general
sense at all, as there have been now some two thousand years of days
since then. They were not the "last days" that are understood as
immediately preceding the glorious coming of the Son of God.

_Joel's Great Prophecy of the Dispensation of the Last Days_.

Of the special passages before referred to, and which I said would
receive separate consideration, the first is Peter's quotation from
the Prophet Joel concerning the outpouring of the Spirit of God upon
"all flesh in the last days." This quotation from Joel is regarded as
identifying the days in which the Apostle was speaking, as "the last
days;" and the dispensation in which he was living as the Dispensation
of the Last Days and of the Fulness of Times. The conditions existing
when Peter was speaking, and the prophecy of Joel, however, admit
{XXXIV} of no such interpretation. The circumstances were as follows:
The Holy Ghost in an extraordinary manner rested upon the Apostles and
gave them the power of speaking in other languages than those they
had learned. Some in the listening multitude attributed this singular
manifestation to drunkenness, whereupon the Apostle Peter arose and
refuted the slander, saying: "These are not drunken, as ye suppose,
seeing it is but the third hour of the day. But this is _that_ which
was spoken by the Prophet Joel; and it shall come to pass _in the last
days_, saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh: and your
sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see
visions, and your old men shall dream dreams: and on my servants and
on my handmaidens I will pour out in those days of my Spirit; and they
shall prophesy: and I will show wonders in heaven above, and signs in
the earth beneath; blood, and fire, and vapor of smoke: the sun shall
be turned into darkness and the moon into blood, before that great and
notable day of the Lord come: and it shall come to pass, that whosoever
shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved." [22] "For," to
finish the passage as it stands in Joel, but which is not in Peter's
quotation, "For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem shall be deliverance, as
the Lord hath said, and in the remnant whom the Lord shall call." [23]

Because Peter, referring to the Spirit that was then resting upon the
Twelve Apostles, said, "this is that which was spoken by the Prophet
Joel," etc., the very general opinion prevails that Joel's prophecy
was then fulfilled; and hence the _last days_ were come. This is an
entire misapprehension of the purpose of Peter in making the quotation;
as also of the quoted passage itself. Beyond all controversy Peter
meant only: This Spirit which you now see resting upon these Apostles
of Jesus of Nazareth, is that same Spirit which your Prophet Joel
says will, in the last days, be poured out upon all flesh. Obviously
he did not mean that this occasion of the Apostles receiving the Holy
Ghost was a complete fulfillment of Joel's prediction. To insist upon
such an exegesis would be to charge the chief of the Apostles with
palpable ignorance of the meaning of Joel's prophecy. On the occasion
in question the Holy Ghost was poured out upon the Twelve Apostles,
who were given the power to speak in various tongues; Joel's prophecy
for its complete fulfillment requires that the Spirit of the Lord,
the Holy Ghost, shall be poured out upon _all flesh;_ and undoubtedly
refers to that time which shall come in the blessed millennium when the
enmity shall not only cease between man and man, but even between the
beasts of the forests and of the fields; and between man and beast, as
described by Isaiah in the following language:

The wolf also shall dwell with the Lamb, and the leopard shall lie
down with the kid; and the calf, and the young lion, and the fatling
together; and a little child shall lead them. And the cow and the
bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the
lion shall eat straw like the ox. And the suckling child shall play
on the hole of the asp; and the weaned child shall put his hand on
the cockatrice's den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy
mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as
the waters cover the sea. [24]

Compare these conditions so vividly described with what Joel himself
says of the period when the Spirit of the Lord shall be poured out
upon all flesh, and it will at once be clear that the two Prophets
are dealing with the same period, and not only dealing with the same
period, but that the period itself is certainly far beyond in time the
days of Peter; in fact is still in the future; for the sun has not
yet been turned into blackness; nor the moon into blood; nor have the
stars withdrawn their shining. It is obvious that the events upon the
day of Pentecost did not fulfil the terms of this prophecy, except in
those particulars already pointed out. The mention in this prophecy,
however, of those special signs which Jesus refers to as immediately
preceding His own second and glorious coming, clearly demonstrate that
Joel was speaking of the last days indeed, and not of a circumstance
that occurred in connection with a period more properly designated
as the Dispensation of the Meridian of Time. Immediately following
his prediction of the outpouring of God's Spirit upon all flesh, Joel
represents the Lord as saying: "And I will show wonders in the heavens
and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke. The sun shall
be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and
the terrible day of the Lord come." And later: "The sun and the moon
shall be darkened, and the stars shall withdraw their shining. The Lord
also shall roar out of Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem; and
the heavens and the earth shall shake: but the Lord will be the hope of
his people, and the strength of the children of Israel."

Compare this with the Savior's description of conditions in the earth
that will precede His own second coming:

Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be
darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall
fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: and
then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven: and then shall
all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of Man
coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And he shall
send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather
together His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the
other. [25]

The same wonders in heaven and earth; the same changes in sun, and
moon, and stars; the same promises of the gathering of God's people as
are found in the prophecy of Joel. There can be no question, then, but
that the prophecy of Joel refers to the same "last days" that Jesus
here alludes to--the days of the coming of the Son of Man--and not to
the days of Peter and the other Apostles in the Meridian of time.

The sum of the matter then is, that Peter was not living in the "last
days;" that the prophecy of Joel was not in its entirety fulfilled
in the outpouring of God's Spirit upon the Apostles on the day of
Pentecost; that at no time subsequent to the days of the Apostles has
there existed such conditions in the earth as amount to a complete
fulfilment of Joel's prophecy; therefore at some time future from the
days of the Apostles, we may look forward to a universal outpouring
of God's Holy Spirit upon all flesh, resulting in a universal peace
and widespread knowledge of God, brought about, unquestionably, by
a subsequent dispensation from that in which Peter wrought--the
Dispensation of the Fulness of Times, in which God promises to "gather
together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven and
which are on earth; even in Him." [26]

_Daniel's Prophecy of the Rise of the Kingdom of God in the Last Days._

The second special Scripture to which I have promised a separate
consideration is the prophecy of Daniel relative to the succession of
the great earth empires; and the final establishment of the Kingdom of
God, which in "the last days" shall fill the whole earth and remain
for ever. By an error on the part of Christian writers Daniel's
prophecy concerning the Kingdom of God to be set up in "the last days"
is supposed to have been fulfilled by the founding of "The spiritual
kingdom of Christ" in the days of Messiah's earthly ministry; and
therefore the conclusion is drawn that those days were "the last days,"
and the dispensation then ushered in, the final dispensation of the
Gospel. It is my purpose here to refute that error.

The prophecy in question is familiar, and comes from Daniel's
interpretation of the king of Babylon's dream of the great image, whose
"brightness was excellent, whose form was terrible." The head of the
image was of gold; his breast and arms were of silver; the body and
thighs of brass; the legs of iron; and the feet and the toes part of
iron and part of clay. The king in his dream also saw a little stone
cut out of the mountain without hands, that smote the image upon the
feet of mixed clay and iron, and broke it to pieces--until it became
like the chaff of the summer {XXXVII} thrashing floor, and the wind
of heaven carried it away, that no place was found for it: but the
little stone cut from the mountain without hands, which smote the
image on the feet and ground it to dust, became a great mountain and
filled the whole earth. This it the dream; and this is the prophet's
interpretation, addressed to the king of Babylon:

    Thou, O king, art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given
    thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory. And wheresoever
    the children of men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls
    of the heaven hath He given into thine hand, and hath made thee
    ruler over them all. Thou art this head of gold. And after thee
    shall rise another kingdom inferior to thee, and another third
    kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth. And the
    fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh
    in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron that breaketh all
    these, shall it break in pieces and bruise. And whereas thou sawest
    the feet and toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, the
    kingdom shall be divided: but there shall be in it of the strength
    of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with the miry
    clay. And as the toes and the feet were part of iron, and part of
    clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken. And
    whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle
    themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to
    another, even as iron is not mixed with clay. And in the days of
    these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall
    never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other
    people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms
    and it shall stand forever. Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone
    was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it brake in
    pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold,
    the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass
    hereafter: and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof
    sure. [27]

As understood by the learned, Daniel's interpretation stands thus:

"(1) The _Golden Head_--the Assyrio-Babylonish monarchy (the 6th and
5th century B.C.);

"(2) The _Silver Breast and Arms_--the Medo-Persian empire (from 538
B.C. to about 330 B.C.);

"(3) The _Brazen Belly and Thighs_--the Greco-Macedonian kingdom,
especially after Alexander, those of Egypt and Syria (from about 330
B.C. to 160 B.C.);

"(4) The _Legs of Iron_--the power of Rome, bestriding the east and
west, but broken into a number of states, the ten toes, which retained
some of its warlike strength (the iron), mingled with elements of
weakness (the soft potters' clay), which rendered the whole imperial
structure unstable.

{XXXVIII} "(5) The _Stone_ cut without hands out of the _Living Rock_,
dashing down the image, becoming a great mountain, and filling all the
earth--_The Spiritual Kingdom of Christ_."

The last phrase--"The Spiritual Kingdom of Christ"--meaning of course
the "Christian churches" which have existed from the time of Christ,
and that now exist, and which, taken together, form Christ's spiritual
kingdom.

On the foregoing exegesis, which is the one commonly accepted by
orthodox Christians, I make the following several observations:

_First:_ The phrase with reference to the little Stone, "cut out of
the Living Rock," is one introduced by Dr. Smith, from whose "Old
Testament History" [28] the above analysis of Daniel's interpretation is
taken. The language of the Bible is, "cut out of the mountain without
hands." Why it is changed by the Doctor one may not conjecture, unless
it is to lay the foundation of an argument not warranted by the text
of Daniel's interpretation. It is enough here to note that the change
in phraseology is wholly gratuitous and unwarranted.

_Second:_ The claim that the "little Stone cut from the mountain
without hands," is
the "_Spiritual Kingdom of Christ_"--if by that "spiritual kingdom" is
meant not a real kingdom, actually existing, visible and tangible--is
an assumption of the Doctor's. It is not the language of the Bible, nor
is there any evidence in Scripture for believing that the "kingdom,"
represented by "the stone cut out of the mountain without hands,"
is any less a _material_ kingdom than those which preceded it. The
differences between this kingdom of God and the other kingdoms of the
vision are not in the kingdom being "spiritual," but in these: (1) that
the kingdom which God shall set up will never be destroyed; (2) never
left to another people: (3) will break in pieces and consume all other
kingdoms: (4) it shall fill the whole earth; (5) and stand forever. We
are warranted in the belief, however, that it will be a tangible, _bona
fide_, government of God on earth, consisting of a king; subordinate
officers; laws; subjects; and the whole earth for its territory--for
its dominion. The coming forth of such a government, the founding of
such a kingdom, is in harmony with all the hopes of all the saints,
and the predictions of all the prophets who have touched upon the
subject. It is the actual reign of Christ on earth with His Saints, in
fulfillment of the hopes held out to them in every dispensation of the
Gospel. It is to be the burden of the song of the redeemed out of every
kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation, that Christ has made them
unto their God kings and priests--"and we shall reign on the earth." [29] It
is to be the chorus in {XXXIX} heaven--the kingdoms of this world are
become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of His Christ; and He shall reign
for ever and ever. [30] And the elders in heaven shall say:

    We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, and
    art to come; because thou hast taken to thee Thy great power, and
    hast reigned. And the nations were angry, and Thy wrath is come,
    and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that Thou
    shouldst give reward unto Thy servants the prophets, and to the
    saints, and them that fear Thy name, small and great; and shouldst
    destroy them which destroy the earth. [31]

And still again:

    Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on
    such the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of
    God and of Christ, and shall reign with Him a thousand years. [32]

It should be observed respecting the last passage and the one preceding
it, that "the reign on earth" of the kingdom of God is connected with
the resurrection of the righteous saints; so that it will be the "last
days" indeed--not in the days of the Roman empire. And this reign of
the saints on earth, this kingdom of God which they shall constitute
shall be a reign of righteousness, but a veritable kingdom nevertheless.

_Third_: The orthodox exegesis under consideration omits one
important matter of fact, viz., that instead of four great dominant
political powers symbolized in the image which Nebuchadnezzar saw,
and which Daniel interpreted, there are five: viz., (1) The Head
of Gold--Babylonish kingdom; (2) the Chest and Arms of Silver--the
Medo-Persian monarchy; (3) the Brazen Belly and Thighs--the
Greco-Macedonian Empire: (4) the Legs of Iron--Rome; (5) the _Feet and
Toes_ mixed of _iron and clay_--the modern kingdoms and states of the
world.

This failure to recognize the fifth political power represented by the
feet and toes of Daniel's image leads to serious errors with respect
to this prophecy. It has led the theologians to assign the setting up
of God's kingdom spoken of in the prophecy to the wrong period of the
world's history. They say the kingdom represented by the stone cut
from the mountain without hands is "the spiritual kingdom of Christ;"
and that the said kingdom was set up in the days of Messiah's earthly
ministry in the meridian of time. This, however, cannot be correct; for
the Church which Jesus established by His personal ministry and which,
it is granted, is sometimes spoken of as the Kingdom of {XL} God,
was founded in the days of the Roman empire, the fourth world power
of Daniel's prophecy; and at a time, too, when imperial Rome was at
the very zenith of her glory and power. Whereas the terms of Daniel's
prophecy require that the kingdom which God shall establish, and which
was represented by the stone cut from the mountain without hands, shall
be set up in the days of the fifth political world power--in the days
of the kingdom represented by the pieces of iron and clay in the feet
and toes of the image. The language of the prophecy on this point is:
"And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters' clay, and
part of iron, the kingdom [i. e. the political power so represented,
and that succeeds the fourth power or Roman empire,] shall be divided;
but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as
thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay. And as the toes of the feet
were part of iron, and part of clay, * * * they [i. e., the kingdom
represented by the pieces of iron and clay,] shall mingle themselves
with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as
iron is not mixed with clay. And in the days of _these kings_ [not in
the days of the Roman empire]--_in the days of these kings_ shall the
God of heaven set up a kingdom, which never shall be destroyed."

_Fourth:_ One of the peculiarities of the kingdom of God of Daniel's
prophecy is, that when it is established among men it will not only
never be destroyed, but "_the kingdom shall not be left to other
people_." By which saying we can only conclude that when the kingdom
of God shall be set up by the Lord in the last days, it will not
be taken from the people to whom it shall come, and be given to,
or left, to another people. But how stands it with the institution
which arose from the preaching of the Gospel in the days of Messiah's
earthly ministry, the church, sometimes called the kingdom of God,
and the kingdom of heaven? Was it not "left to other people"? Messiah
Himself said of the Jews, "Therefore say I unto you, _the kingdom of
God shall be taken from you and given to a nation bringing forth the
fruits thereof._" This passage comes, too, as a conclusion to the
parable of the householder who let both his house and his vineyard
to unworthy husbandmen, who successively beat, stoned, and slew the
servants, and even the son and heir whom the master sent to collect
his portion of the fruit of the vineyard. "When the Lord of the
vineyard cometh, what will he do unto those husbandmen?" asked Jesus
of his hearers. "He will miserably destroy these wicked men," they
replied, "and will let out his vineyard unto other husbandmen, which
shall render him the fruits in their season." They had pronounced
judgment among themselves. The parable presented the case of the
Jews to whom Jesus was speaking, exactly, and Jesus quickly made the
application of the judgment--"Therefore say I unto you, The kingdom of
God shall be taken from you, and given unto a nation bringing forth
the fruits thereof." [33] There can be no mistaking the meaning of the
parable or its application; and some years later we have Paul saying
to the contradicting and blaspheming Jews of Antioch in Pisidia: "It
was necessary that the word of God should first have been spoken to
you; but seeing ye put it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of
everlasting life, lo, we turn to the Gentiles. _For so hath the Lord
commanded us_." [34] And so it came to pass that as Israel in those days
rejected the Gospel of the kingdom which was first offered to them,
so God also rejected them; and they have stood rejected to this day;
smitten and trodden under food of the Gentile races, a scoff, a hiss,
and a byword in every land that they have inhabited; while the kingdom
of God first offered to them was left to other people, to the Gentiles,
who, for a season, brought forth the fruits thereof. But the fact that
the kingdom then preached to the Jews was taken from them and given to
another people, is proof positive that it was not the kingdom which was
to fulfill the terms of Daniel's great prophecy.

_Fifth:_ Another characteristic of the kingdom of God of Daniel's
prophecy is, that it will never be destroyed, but will break in pieces
and consume all other kingdoms, and stand for ever. This is not true of
that institution brought into existence by the preaching of Messiah and
the Apostles, sometimes called the kingdom of God, but more properly
the Church of Christ. Saddening as the thought may seem, the Church
founded by the labors of Jesus and His Apostles was destroyed from
the earth; the Gospel was perverted; its ordinances were changed; its
laws were transgressed; its covenant was, on the part of man, broken;
and the world was left to flounder in the darkness of a long period of
apostasy from God. For the reason, then, that the institution founded
by the preaching of the Apostles was destroyed in the earth, as well
as for the other reasons considered, the conclusion is forced upon the
mind that the Church founded by Jesus and the Apostles was not the
fulfillment of Daniel's great prophecy respecting the kingdom which God
promised to set up in the last days: and hence we may look for another
dispensation beyond the times of the Apostles, which will culminate in
subduing the kingdoms of this world and making them the kingdom of our
God and His Christ, followed by that reign of righteousness and peace
of which all the prophets have spoken.

Having considered the Dispensation of the Meridian of Time and
corrected the popular error which confounds that dispensation with the
{XLII} Dispensation of the Fulness of Times, it is necessary now to
consider the decline of the Christian religion.

_The Announcement of the Universal Apostasy_.

It is a most startling announcement with which the Prophet Joseph Smith
begins his message to the world. Concerning the question, he asked
God--"Which of all the sects is right, and which shall I join?" he says:

    "_I was answered that I must join none of them, for they were all
    wrong, and the personage who addressed me said that all their
    creeds were abomination in His sight: that those professors were
    all corrupt; that they draw near to me with their lips, but their
    hearts are far from me; they teach for doctrines the commandments
    of men: having a form of godliness, but they deny the power
    thereof._" [35]

This is a tremendous arraignment of all Christendom. It charges a
condition of universal apostasy from God, especially upon Christendom
that was dwelling in a fancied security of being the farthest removed
from the possibility of such a charge; each division of the so-called
Christian Church felicitating itself with the flattering unction that
its own particular society possessed the enlightened fullness of the
Christian religion. While the boldness of this declaration of the young
Prophet is astounding, upon reflection it must be conceded that just
such a condition of affairs in the religious world is consistent with
the work he, under the direction of divine Providence, was about to
inaugurate. Nothing less than a complete apostasy from the Christian
religion would warrant the establishment of the Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints. Of sects there were already enough in existence.
Division and subdivision had already created of confusion more than
enough, and there was no possible excuse for the introduction of a new
Christian sect. But if men through apostasy had corrupted the Christian
religion and lost divine authority to administer the ordinances of the
Gospel, it was of the utmost importance that a new dispensation of the
true Christian religion should be given to the world. It should also
be observed at this point, that Joseph Smith, then but a boy, scarcely
removed from childhood, was not himself pronouncing judgment upon the
status of Christendom. It was not he who declared the sects to be all
wrong, their creeds an abomination, and the professors thereof corrupt.
He of all persons, both on account of his extreme {XLIII} youthfulness
and his lack of general information, was among the least qualified
to pronounce upon such a question. Indeed, he himself confesses his
unfitness for such an office. His seeking knowledge from God upon this
very question--"which of all the sects is right?" is a confession
of his own inability to determine the matter. No human wisdom was
sufficient to answer that question. No man in all the world was so
pre-eminent as to be justified in proclaiming the divine acceptance of
one church in preference to another. Divine wisdom alone was sufficient
to pass judgment upon such a question; and there is peculiar force in
the circumstance that the announcement which Joseph Smith makes with
reference to this subject is not formulated by him nor by any other
man, but is given to him of God. God has been the judge of apostate
Christendom, Joseph Smith but His messenger, to herald that judgment to
the world.

It now becomes my melancholy task to trace through the early Christian
centuries the decline of the Christian religion. By this phrase I mean
that a really unchristian religion was gradually substituted for the
beautiful religion of Jesus Christ; that a universal apostasy from the
Christian doctrine and the Christian Church took place. So tracing
the decline of Christianity, I shall establish the truth of the first
great message with which the modern prophet, Joseph Smith, came to the
world; and shall also prove the fact, that a necessity existed for the
establishment of such a work as he claims, under God, to have founded,
and of which the several volumes of this work are the detailed history.

_Character of the Early Christians_.

First of all, it should be remarked that the early Christians were not
so far removed from the possession of the common weaknesses of humanity
as to preclude the possibility of apostatizing from the Christian
religion. Owing to our being so far removed from them in time, by which
many of their defects are obscured, and the exaggerated celebration of
their virtues, extravagant ideas of the sanctity of their lives, and
the holiness of their natures have very generally obtained, whereas a
little inquiry into the character of the early Saints will prove that
they were very human, and men of like passions with ourselves. The
mother of Zebedee's children exhibited a rather ambitious spirit, and
the two brethren themselves gave much offense to their fellow Apostles
by aspiring to sit one on the right hand of Jesus and the other on His
left when He should come in His kingdom. [36] Even Peter, the chief
Apostle, exhibited his full share of human weakness {XLIV} when he
thrice denied his Lord in the presence of his enemies, through fear,
and even confirmed that denial by cursing and swearing. [37] It was
rather a heated controversy, too, that arose in the early Christian
Church as to whether those who accepted the Christian faith were still
bound to the observances of the law of Moses, and more especially
to the rite of circumcision. Although there seems to have been an
amicable and authoritative settlement of that question by the decision
of what some learned writers have called the first general council
of the Church held by the Apostles and Elders at Jerusalem, [38] yet
the old difficulty broke out again and again, not only between the
Jewish saints and the Gentile converts, but even among the Apostles
themselves, leading to serious accusations one against another, the
straining of friendship between fellow-workmen in the ministry, through
criminations and recriminations.

After the settlement of this very question of circumcision by the
council at Jerusalem, Peter went down to Antioch and at first mingled
unreservedly with both Gentile and Jewish converts without distinction,
accepting both Jew and Gentile in perfect fellowship, departing
entirely from the restraints placed on a Jew by the law of Moses, which
rendered it unlawful for one who was a Jew to have such unrestricted
fellowship with the Gentiles. But when certain ones came down from
James, who resided at Jerusalem, then Peter, fearful of offending
"them which were of the circumcision," suddenly withdrew his social
fellowship from the Gentile converts. Other Jewish brethren did the
same; Barnabas, the friend of Paul, being among the number. Whereupon
Paul, as he himself testified, withstood Peter to the face, directly
charging him before all the brethren with dissimulation, saying: "If
thou being a Jew livest after the manner of Gentiles and not as do the
Jews, why compellest thou the Gentiles to live as do the Jews?" [39]
Yet this same Paul notwithstanding his loyalty to the Gentile converts
on that occasion, his zeal for the decision which had been rendered by
the council of the Church at Jerusalem, and notwithstanding his usually
strong moral courage, subsequently showed by his conduct, that he,
too, was not beyond the weakness of "becoming all things to all men;"
for a short time after the incident with Peter at Antioch, when in the
province of Galatia, and he desired Timothy to be his companion in the
ministry, Paul took him and circumcised him, because it was well known
that while his mother was a Jewess, his father was a Greek, and all
this for fear of the Jews. [40]

{XLV} This question continued to be a cause of contention, even after
this sharp disputation at Antioch; for though the decision of the
council at Jerusalem was against the contention of the Judaizing
party, yet they continued to agitate the question whenever opportunity
presented itself, and seemed especially to follow close upon the
footsteps of Paul in his missionary journeys; and in Galatia, at least,
succeeded in turning the saints of that province from the grace of
Christ unto another gospel, perverting the Gospel of Christ. [41] This
question continued to agitate the Church throughout the Apostolic age,
and was finally settled through overwhelming numbers of Gentiles being
converted, and taking possession of the Church, rather than through any
profound respect for the decision of the council at Jerusalem.

The withdrawal of John Mark from the ministry while accompanying
Paul and Barnabas on their first mission in Asia Minor, and which
withdrawal grew out of a faltering of his zeal or a misunderstanding
with his companions, will be readily called to mind. [42] Subsequently,
when Paul proposed to Barnabas that they go again and visit the
brethren in every city where they had preached while on their first
mission, a sharp contention arose between them about this same John
Mark. Barnabas desired to take him again into the ministry, but Paul
seriously objected; and so pronounced was the quarrel between them that
these two friends and fellow yokemen in the ministry parted company
no more to be united. It is just possible also that in addition to
this misunderstanding about John Mark, the severe reproof which Paul
administered to Barnabas in the affair of dissimulation at Antioch had
somewhat strained their friendship.

Turning from these misunderstandings and criminations among the leading
officers of the Church, let us inquire how it stood with the members.
The epistle of Paul to the church at Corinth discloses the fact that
there were serious schisms among them; some boasting that they were of
Paul, others that they were of Apollos, others of Cephas, and still
others of Christ; which led Paul to ask sharply, "Is Christ divided?
was Paul crucified for you?" [43] There were endless strifes as well as
divisions among them, which caused Paul to denounce them as carnally
minded. [44] Among them also was such fornication as was not named
among the Gentiles, "that one should have his father's wife!" And this
shameful sin had not humbled the church at Corinth, for Paul denounced
them for being puffed up in the presence of such a crime, rather than
having mourned over it. [45] They were in the habit of going {XLVI}
to law one with another, and that before the world, in violation of
the teachings of Jesus Christ. [46] They desecrated the ordinance of
the Lord's Supper by their drunkenness, for which they were sharply
reproved by the Apostle. [47] They ate and drank unworthily, "not
discerning the Lord's body; for which cause many were sickly among
them, and many slept" (that is, died). There were heresies also among
them, [48] some denying the resurrection of the dead, while others
possessed not the knowledge of God, which the Apostle declared was
their shame. [49] It is true, this sharp letter of reproof made the
Corinthian saints sorry, and sorry, too, after a godly fashion, in
that it brought them to a partial repentance; but even in the second
epistle, from which we learn of their partial repentance, the Apostle
could still charge that there were many in the church who had not
repented of the uncleanness and fornication and lasciviousness which
they had committed. [50] From this second letter, also, we learn that
there were many in the Church at large who corrupted the word of God;
[51] that there were those, even in the ministry, who were "false
prophets, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the Apostles
of Christ." [52]

Of the churches throughout the province of Galatia, it is scarcely
necessary to say more than we have already said concerning the invasion
of that province by Judaizing Christian ministers who were turning
away the saints from the grace of Christ back to the beggarly elements
of the law of carnal commandments; a circumstance which led Paul to
exclaim: "I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that had
called you unto the grace of Christ, unto another gospel; which is not
another, but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the
Gospel of Christ." [53]

That there were two distinct parties in the Church at this time,
between whom bitter contentions arose, is further evidenced by the
letter of Paul to the Philippians. Some preached Christ even of
envy and strife, and some of good will. "The one preach Christ of
contention, not sincerely," says Paul, "supposing to add affliction
to my bonds: but the other of love, knowing that I am set for the
defense of the Gospel." [54] "Beware of dogs," said he again to the
same people; "beware of evil workers; beware of the concision." [55]
"Brethren, be {XLVII} followers of me," he admonishes them, "and mark
them which walk so as ye have us for an example, for many walk of whom
I have told you often, and now tell you even weeping, that they are the
enemies of the cross of Christ: whose end is destruction, whose God is
their belly, and whose glory is their shame, who mind earthly things."
[56] To the Colossians Paul found it necessary to say: "Beware lest any
man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the traditions
of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ. * * *
* Let no man beguile you of your reward in a voluntary humility and
worshiping of angels, intruding into those things which he hath not
seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind." [57]

But it is in Paul's pastoral letters that we get a deeper insight into
corruptions threatening the early church, and even beginning to lay
the foundation for that subsequent apostasy which overwhelmed it. The
Apostle sent Timothy to the saints at Ephesus to represent him, that
he might charge some to teach no other doctrines than those which
he had delivered to them: "Neither give heed to fables and endless
genealogies, which minister questions, rather than godly edifying
which is in faith," for some had turned aside from the commandment
of charity, out of a pure heart, and a good conscience, and faith
unfeigned, unto "vile jangling, desiring to be teachers of the law,
understanding neither what they say nor whereof they affirm." [58]
Others concerning faith had made shipwreck, of whom were Hymenaeus and
Alexander, whom Paul had delivered unto Satan that they might learn
not to blaspheme. [59] Others had "erred concerning the faith" and
had "given heed to vain babblings, and opposition of science falsely
so called." [60] In his second letter to Timothy, Paul informs him
that all the saints in Asia had turned away from him, "of whom were
Phygellus and Hermogenes." [61] He admonishes Timothy again to shun
"profane and vain babblings," "for," said he, "they will increase unto
more ungodliness, and their word will eat as doth a canker; of whom is
Hymenaeus and Philetus; who, concerning the truth, have erred, saying
that the resurrection is passed already, and overthrown the faith of
some." [62] Demos, once a fellow-laborer with Paul, had forsaken him,
"having loved this present world;" [63] and at Paul's first answer,
that is, when arraigned before the court at Rome, no man {XLVIII} stood
with him, but all men forsook him; he prays that God will not lay this
to their charge. [64]

Paul admonished Titus to hold fast to the faith, for there were
many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, especially those of the
circumcision; who subverted whole houses, teaching things which they
ought not, for filthy lucre's sake; and were giving heed to Jewish
fables and commandments of men and turning from the truth. [65]

Peter also had something to say with reference to the danger of
heresies and false teachers which menaced the Church. He declared that
there would be false teachers among the saints, who "privily would
bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and
bring upon themselves swift destruction." "And many," said he, "shall
follow their pernicious ways: by reason of whom the truth shall be evil
spoken of. And through covetousness shall they with feigned words make
merchandise of you; whose judgment now for a long time lingereth not,
and their damnation slumbereth not. For if God spared not the angels
that sinned, but cast them down to hell and delivered them unto chains
of darkness to be reserved unto judgment"--he argued that the Lord
would not spare these corrupters of the Gospel of Christ, who, like the
dog, had turned again to his own vomit, and the sow who was washed to
her wallowing in the mire. [66] He charged also that some were wresting
the epistles of Paul, as they were some of the "other scriptures," unto
their own destruction. [67]

John, the disciple whom Jesus loved, also bears testimony to the
existence of anti-Christs, false prophets, and the depravity of many in
the early Church. "It is the last time," said he, "and as ye have heard
that anti-Christ shall come, even now there are many anti-Christs,
whereby we know that it is the last time;" * * * * "They went out from
us * * * * that they might be manifest that they were not all of us."
[68] "Try the spirits," said he, in the same epistle, "whether they are
of God; because many false prophets are gone out into the world." [69]
Again: "Many deceivers are entered into the world, who confess not that
Jesus Christ is come in the flesh. This is a deceiver, an anti-Christ."
[70]

Jude also is a witness against this class of deceivers. He admonished
{XLIX} the saints to "contend earnestly for the faith which was once
delivered unto the saints;" "for," said he, "there are certain men
crept in unawares, * * * ungodly men, turning the grace of our God
into lasciviousness and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus
Christ." [71] The rest of the epistle he devotes to a description of
their wickedness, comparing it with the conduct of Satan, and the
vileness of the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah.

I have not given this review of the condition of the Church of Christ
in the Apostolic age with the view of establishing the idea that the
Church at that time was in a complete state of apostasy; nor have
I dwelt upon the weaknesses and sins of the early saints for the
purpose of holding them up for contempt. My only purpose has been to
dispel, first of all, the extravagant ideas that obtain in many minds
concerning the absolute sanctity of the early Christians; and secondly,
and mainly, to show that there were elements and tendencies existing
in the early Church, even in the days of the Apostles, that would,
when unrestrained by Apostolic authority and power, lead to its entire
overthrow.

We have no good reason to believe that there occurred any change
for the better in the affairs of the Church after the demise of the
Apostles, no reason to believe that there were fewer heresies or
fewer false teachers, or false prophets to lead away the people with
their vain philosophies, their foolish babblings, and opposition of
science falsely so called. On the contrary, one is forced to believe
the prediction of Paul, viz., that evil men and seducers would wax
worse and worse, deceiving and being deceived; [72] for who, after the
Apostles were fallen asleep, would stand up and correct the heresies
that were brought into the Church, rebuke the schismatics, the false
teachers and false prophets that arose to draw away disciples after
them? If false teachers insinuated themselves into the Church, brought
in damnable heresies by reason of which the way of truth was evil
spoken of, and the pure religion of Jesus Christ corrupted even while
inspired Apostles were still in the Church, it is not unreasonable to
conclude that all these evils would increase and revel unchecked after
the death of the Apostles.

_The Rise of False Teachers_.

I cannot, of course, in this introduction, enter into even a brief
history of false teachers in the early Christian centuries. That of
itself would be matter for a volume. I shall therefore content myself
with making quotations from reliable authorities that will directly
establish the fact of the rapid increase in the number of false
teachers, and the {L} pernicious effects of their doctrines upon the
Christian religion. It should be said before making these quotations,
however, that Protestant writers are interested in maintaining that the
Christian religion was perpetuated, even through the ages of apostasy,
and given back to mankind by the agency of the so-called "Reformation"
of the sixteenth century. Hence in their writings, when stating the
corruptions of the early Church, they are especially guarded lest
too strong a statement would lead to the belief that the Christian
religion had been utterly subverted. Indeed, it is well known that
Milner wrote his Church History--which should be regarded not so much
as the history of the Church as the history of piety--to counteract
the influence of Mosheim's Institutes of Ecclesiastical History, which
work Milner considered too frank in its statements of perversions
and abuses of religion. The Protestant writers must need set forth
the theory that the Christian religion survived all the abuses and
corruptions of it through ages of apostasy, else they would have no
logical ground for the sixteenth century "Reformation" to stand upon.
They seem not oblivious to the fact, though never mentioning it, that
if the Christian religion was displaced by a paganized religion--a
false religion--as is fully predicted, as we shall see later, in
the New Testament prophecies, and of which the works of Protestant
writers go far towards proving--then the only possible way in which
the true Christian religion and the Church of Christ could be restored
would be by re-opening of the heavens, and the giving forth of a
new dispensation of the Gospel, together with a renewal of divine
authority to preach it, and administer its ordinances of salvation.
Catholics hold that there has been no great apostasy in the Church.
Their theory is, that there has been a constant, unbroken, perpetuation
of the Christian Church from the days of the Messiah and His Apostles
until now; and that the Roman Catholic church is that very Church so
perpetuated through the ages. Catholic writers admit that there have
been very corrupt periods in the Church and many wicked prelates, and
some vile popes; yet they hold that the Church has persisted, that the
Christian religion has been preserved in the earth.

With these remarks on the position of the Protestant and Catholic
churches respecting their attitude on the subject of the perpetuation
of the Christian religion, I proceed with the quotations promised;
and, first, a passage from Neander's History of the Christian Religion
and Church, on the very great difference between the writings of the
Apostles and the writings of the so-called Apostolic Fathers; and the
suddenness of that transition, to the disparagement of the productions
of the Fathers:

    A phenomenon, singular in its kind, is the striking difference
    between {LI} the writings of the Apostles and the writings of
    the Apostolic Fathers, who were so nearly their contemporaries.
    In other cases, transitions are wont to be gradual; but in this
    instance we observe a sudden change. There are here no gentle
    gradations, but all at once an abrupt transition from one style
    of language to another; a phenomenon which should lead us to
    acknowledge the fact of a special agency of the Divine Spirit
    in the souls of the Apostles. After the time of the first
    extraordinary operations of the Holy Ghost followed by the period
    of the free development of human nature in Christianity; and here,
    as in all other cases, the beginning must be small and feeble
    before the effects of Christianity could penetrate more widely, and
    bring fully under their influence the great powers of the human
    mind. It was to be shown first, what the divine power could effect
    by the foolishness of preaching. The writings of the so-called
    Apostolic Fathers have unhappily for the most part, come down to
    us in a condition very little worthy of confidence, partly because
    under the name of these men, so highly venerated in the Church,
    writings were early forged for the purpose of giving authority to
    particular opinions or principles; and partly because their own
    writings which were extant became interpolated in subservience to a
    Jewish hierarchical interest which aimed to crush the free spirit
    of the Gospel. [73]

There is no authority of scripture for the supposition made here by
Dr. Neander that the extraordinary operations of the Holy Ghost were
to be confined to the Apostles; the whole tenor of scripture authority
is to the contrary. It is the theory of the Gospel itself, that all
who receive it, and particularly its ministers, shall have the divine
Spirit as a special agency working in their souls, through all time,
and there is no warrant for the belief that its operations were to be
confined to those who first received it and became its first ministers.
Therefore, this sudden transition in the matter of excellence and
trustworthiness between the writings of the Apostles and the writings
of the Apostolic Fathers indicates not only a deterioration in the
character of the teachers in the Church and what is taught, but more
especially indicates the progress of the "mystery of iniquity" which
was at work subverting the Christian religion and destroying the Church
of Christ.

On the question of forged books and writings mentioned in the passage
from Neander, Dr. Nathaniel Lardner refers to a dissertation written
by Dr. Mosheim, which shows the reasons and causes for the many forged
writings produced in the first and second centuries, and then adds:
"All own that Christians of all sorts were guilty of this fraud. Indeed
we may say it was one great fault of the times; for truth needs no such
defenses, and would blush at the sight of them." [74]

Eusebius, quoting Hegesippus on the subject of false teachers and
referring to the condition of the Church about the close of the first
century, says:

    {LII} The Church continued until then [close of the first century]
    as a pure and uncorrupt virgin, whilst if there were any at all
    that attempted to pervert the sound doctrine of the saving Gospel,
    they were yet skulking in dark retreats: but when the sacred choir
    of Apostles became extinct, and the generation of those that had
    been privileged to hear their inspired wisdom had passed away, then
    also the combinations of impious errors arose by the fraud and
    delusions of false teachers. These also, as there were none of the
    Apostles left, henceforth attempted without shame, to preach their
    false doctrine against the gospel of truth. [75]

Dr. Mosheim has the following on the same subject:

    Not long after the Savior's ascension, various histories of
    His life and doctrines, full of impositions and fables, were
    composed by persons of no bad intentions, perhaps, but who were
    superstitious, simple, and piously fraudulent; and afterwards
    various other spurious writings were palmed upon the world, falsely
    inscribed with the names of the holy Apostles. [76]

This condition of things with reference to the writers in the centuries
under consideration, naturally leads one to the reflection, that if
there were so much of fraud, and so many forged writings, what must
have been the state of the Church at this time with reference to oral
teaching? We are justified in believing, I think, that bad as was the
state of things with reference to the writings of these early teachers
of the Church, the discourses of such as preached may be depended
upon as being much worse. In this view of the case, one can readily
understand that the "authority of antiquity" so generally urged as a
reason for accepting the testimonies of the Fathers, that "handmaid to
scripture," as "antiquity" is sometimes called, the whole body of it,
written and oral, may indeed "be regarded," as Dr. Jortin remarks, "as
Briarean, for she has a hundred hands, and these hands often clash and
beat one another." [77]

Moreover, it often happens that those who are condemned by some of
these Fathers as heretics were not only censured for their heresies,
but sometimes for the truths which they held. For example: Papias,
a Bishop and Christian Father in the second century, is condemned
by Eusebius for saying that he received from Apostolic men--meaning
thereby men who were associated with the Apostles--the fact that there
would be a corporeal reign of Christ on earth with the saints, after
the resurrection, which would continue through a thousand years. [78]

{LIII} Prodicus is censured by Clement of Alexandria for holding that
men are by nature the children of Deity. [79]

Marcion, besides being condemned for his many errors, is also censured
by Irenaeus for believing in salvation for the dead, concerning which,
it must be acknowledged, Marcion did hold peculiar views; but that is
no reason why the general principle should be condemned. [80] He taught
that Jesus Christ went to Hades and preached there, and brought hence
all that believed on him. "The ancients," continue Irenaeus, as quoted
by Lardner, "being of opinion that eternal life is not to be obtained
but through faith in Jesus Christ, and that God is too merciful to let
men perish for not hearing the Gospel, supposed that the Lord preached
also to the dead, that they might have the same advantage with the
living." He further adds, "In the language of Marcion and the fathers,
hell does not necessarily mean the place of the damned; in that place
is Tartarus, the place of torment, and Paradise, or the bosom of
Abraham, a place of rest and refreshment. In that part of Hades Jesus
found the just men of the Old Testament. They were not miserable, but
were in a place of comfort and pleasure." "For Christ," he continues,
"promiseth the Jews after this life, rest in Hades, even in the bosom
of Abraham." This far the doctrine of Marcion is in strict agreement
with the New Testament, though denounced as blasphemy by his opponent.
The unfortunate part of Marcion's doctrine on this head is that he
taught that Cain and the wicked of Sodom and the Egyptians, and in fact
all the nations in general, though they had lived in all manner of
wickedness, were saved by the Lord, but that Abel, Enoch, Noah, and the
patriarchs and prophets and other righteous men who walked with God and
pleased Him in their earth life, did not obtain salvation because they
suspected that in the preaching of Christ in the spirit world there was
some scheme of deception to lead them away from their present qualified
acceptance with God, and therefore they would not come to Christ nor
believe in him, for which reason, as he says, "their souls remained in
hell." [81]

Marcion is also condemned for believing in the eternity of matter. [82]
So, too, Hermogenes is censured by Tertullian for the same cause, and
for arguing that God made the world out of matter and could not have
made it out of nothing. [83]

And so throughout there is censure and counter censure between the
orthodox and the heretics, and it is difficult at times to determine
which are the orthodox and which heretics, so frequently do they change
{LIV} places. Nor was there any improvement in the ages that succeeded
these that have been briefly considered. The editor of Dr. Jortin's
learned work on ecclesiastical history, William Trollope, on a passage
of Jortin's on the early fathers, says of the fathers of the fourth
century:

    After the counsel of Nice, [84] a class of writers sprung up,
    greatly inferior to their predecessors, in whatever light their
    pretensions are viewed. Sadly deficient in learning, prejudiced
    in opinion, and inelegant in style, they cannot be admitted for a
    moment into competition with those who were contemporary with the
    Apostles and their immediate successors. [85]

The whole tenor of his remarks is to the effect that while the fathers
of the second and third centuries, are not to be relied upon in their
interpretations of scripture, were frequently deceived in opinions, and
not always to be depended upon in matters of tradition, yet they were
greatly to be preferred in all respects to the fathers of succeeding
centuries.

_The Development of False Doctrines After the Death of the Apostles_.

Here, too, I shall rely very largely upon the conclusions of the
learned. Dr. Lardner, referring to the development of the heresies, the
seeds of which were sown in the days of the Apostles, says:

    Eusebius relates that Ignatius, on his way from Antioch to Rome,
    exhorted the churches to beware of heresies which were then
    springing up, and which would increase; and that he afterwards
    wrote his epistles in order to guard them against these
    corruptions, and to confirm them in the faith. This opinion that
    the seeds of these heresies were sown in the time of the Apostles,
    and sprang up immediately after is an opinion probable in itself
    and is embraced by several learned moderns; particularly by
    Vitringa, and by the late Rev. Mr. Brekel of Liverpool. [86]

A certain Mr. Deacon attempted to refute the Mr. Brekel referred to
by Dr. Lardner, and to maintain the purity of the Church of the first
three centuries. On this Mr. Brekel observed that "If this point
were thoroughly examined, it would appear that the Christian Church
preserved her virgin purity no longer than the Apostolic age, at least
if we may give credit to Hegesippus." Relying upon the {LV} support of
the ecclesiastical history of Socrates, a writer of the first half of
the fifth century, Mr. Brekel also says: "To mention the corruptions
and innovations in religion of the four first centuries, is wholly
superfluous; when it is so very notorious, that, even before the reign
of Constantine, there sprang up a sort of heathenish Christianity which
mingled itself with the true Christian religion." [87]

Of the impending departure from the Christian religion immediately
succeeding the days of the apostles, Dr. Neander says:

    Already, in the latter part of the age of St. Paul, we shall see
    many things different from what they had been originally; and so it
    cannot appear strange if other changes come to be introduced into
    the constitution of the [Christian] communities, by the altered
    circumstances of the times immediately succeeding those of St. Paul
    or St. John. Then ensued those strongly marked oppositions and
    schisms, those dangers with which the corruptions engendered by
    manifold foreign elements threatened primitive Christianity. [88]

Dr. Philip Smith, the author of the "Students' Ecclesiastical History,"
in speaking of the early corruptions of the Christian religion, says:

    The sad truth is that as soon as Christianity was generally
    diffused, it began to absorb corruption from all the lands in which
    it was planted, and to reflect the complexion of all their systems
    of religion and philosophy. [89]

Dean Milman, in his preface to his annotated edition of Edward Gibbon's
great work, "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," and commenting
upon that great author's attitude respecting the Christian religion,
says:

    If, after all, the view of the early progress of Christianity be
    melancholy and humiliating, we must beware lest we charge the
    whole of this on the infidelity of the historian. It is idle, it
    is disingenuous to deny or to dissemble the early depravations of
    Christianity, its gradual but rapid departure from its primitive
    simplicity and purity, still more from its spirit of universal
    love. It may be no unsalutary lesson to the Christian world, that
    this silent, this unavoidable perhaps, _yet fatal change_ shall
    have been drawn by an impartial, or even an hostile hand. [90]

Dr. Mosheim, in his "Institutes," deals at length with the abuses which
arose in the Church in the second and third centuries, which I abridge
to the following, and first as to the second century: Many rites were
added without necessity to both public and private {LVI} religious
worship, to the great offense of good men; and principally because of
the perversity of mankind who are more delighted with the pomp and
splendor of external forms and pageantry than with the true devotion of
the heart. There is good reason to believe that the Christian bishops
purposely multiplied sacred rites for the sake of rendering the Jews
and pagans more friendly to them. For both these classes had always
been accustomed to numerous and splendid ceremonies, and believed them
an essential part of religion. In pursuance of this policy, and to
silence the calumnies of the pagans and the Jews against them--to the
effect that the Christians were pronounced atheists, because destitute
of temples, altars, victims, priests, and all that pomp in which the
vulgar suppose the essence of religion to consist--the Christian
leaders introduced many rites, that they might be able to maintain
that they really had those things which the pagans had, only they
subsisted under different forms. Some of these rites--justified, as
was supposed, by a comparison of the Christian oblations with Jewish
victims and sacrifices--in time corrupted essentially the doctrine of
the Lord's supper, and converted it into a sacrifice. To add further to
the dignity of the Christian Religion, the churches of the east feigned
mysteries similar to those of the pagan religions; and, as with the
pagans, the holy rites of the mysteries were concealed from the vulgar:
"And they not only applied the terms used in the pagan mysteries to the
Christian institutions, particularly baptism and the Lord's supper,
but they gradually introduced also the rites which were designated by
those terms." This practice originated in the eastern provinces of the
empire, and thence, after the times of Adrian (who first introduced the
Grecian mysteries among the Latins), it spread among the Christians
of the west. "A large part, therefore, of Christian observances and
institutions, even in this century, had the aspect of the pagan
mysteries." In like manner many ceremonies and customs of the Egyptians
were adopted. [91]

Speaking of the third century the Doctor says that all the monuments
of this century show that there was a great increase of ceremonies in
the Church owing to the prevailing passion for the Platonic philosophy.
Hence arose the public exorcisms, the multiplication of fasts, the
aversion to matrimony, and the painful austerities and penances which
were enjoined upon offenders. [92]

_The Revolution of the Fourth Century: Constantine_.

It will be observed that I have so far confined my quotations
concerning the corruptions which arose in the Church to the first three
centuries {LVII} of the Christian Era. I have done so purposely; and
chiefly that I might show by such quotations that the forces which
were to bring about the destruction of the Christian Church were
active during those ages; and also because an event took place in the
first part of the fourth century that culminated in the triumph of
those forces. This event was the establishment of Christianity as the
state religion of Rome. Constantine the Great was the emperor under
whose reign this unlooked for revolution took place. He was the son
of Constantine Chlorus, emperor of the West in the preceding reign,
which reign he had shared with Galerius Maximianus, who ruled the
East. Constantine was an "emperor born of an emperor, the pious son of
a most pious and virtuous father," is the flattering announcement of
his parentage on the paternal side, by his contemporary, Eusebius, the
church historian; though he neglects to mention the obscure origin and
humble vocation (that of inn keeper) of his mother, Helena, whom her
husband repudiated when raised to the dignity of "Caesar" in the reign
of Diocletian.

Constantine was proclaimed emperor by the army in Britain on the death
of his father at York, 306 A. D.; but civil strife raged through the
empire for eighteen years, occasioned by the contending aspirants for
the imperial dignity. The future patron of Christianity, however,
overcame all his rivals and reigned sole monarch of Rome from 323 A.
D., to the time of his death, fourteen years later.

The policy of Constantine's father towards the Christians in his
division of the empire, the West, had been one not only of toleration
but also of friendship; and this policy the son followed from the
commencement of his career as emperor. The fact of both his own and
his father's friendliness toward the Church on the one hand, and the
hostility of his rivals against the Church on the other, brought to
him the united support of the Christians throughout the empire; and
though they were not so numerous as they are frequently represented to
be, yet it cannot be denied that the Christians were important factors
in determining the course of events in the empire at this time, and
truly they were faithful allies to Constantine, and he, on his part,
neglected not to meet their anticipations of reward.

A careful study of his life and character will force the conviction
upon the mind that Constantine was a most suitable head for the
revolution which ended by establishing a pseudo-Christianity as the
state religion of the decaying empire. A professed Christian for many
years, if we may believe Lactantius and Eusebius he postponed his
baptism, after the fashion of his times, until the very last year of
his life, in order that, purified at once from all the stains of sin
by means of it, he might be sure of entering into bliss. Such the
explanation of those who would defend this delay of the emperor's;
but one cannot fail to {LVIII} remember that it was quite customary
at this time among many professing the Christian religion to put off
baptism as long as they dared that they might enjoy a life of sin, and
then through the means of baptism, just before death, as by magic,
obtain forgiveness. [93] On the motives that prompted Constantine's
acceptance of Christianity, our historians are not agreed. According
to Eusebius his conversion was brought about through seeing in the
heavens a luminous cross at midday, and above it the inscription: "_By
this Conquer._" This miraculous sign was supplemented on the night
following by the appearance of Jesus Christ to the emperor in a dream,
with the same symbol, the cross, and directed him to make it the ensign
of his banners and his protection against the power of the enemy. [94]
According to Theodoret the emperor was converted through the arguments
of his Christian mother. [95] According to Zosimus, it was through
the arguments of an Egyptian Christian bishop--supposed to be Hosius,
Bishop of Corduba--who promised him absolution for his crimes, which
included a number of murders, if he would but accept Christianity. [96]

It is as difficult to settle upon the time of Constantine's conversion
as it is the means and nature of it. Neander inclines to the opinion
that he was early influenced in favor of Christianity through the
example if not the teachings of his parents, who, if not fully
converted to the Christian faith, were at least tolerant of it; and may
be reasonably counted among that number who at least admitted Christ
to the pantheon of the gods. But an act of his in 308 A. D., after the
death of his father, and he himself had been proclaimed emperor of
the West, shows that he was at that time still attached to the pagan
forms of worship; for hearing that the Franks who had been inclined
to rebellion against his government had, on his preparations to make
war upon them, laid down their arms, he offered public thanks in a
celebrated temple of Apollo and gave a magnificent offering to the god.
[97]

The story of his conversion as related by Eusebius would fix that
event in the year 312 A. D.; and surely if the open vision of the
luminous cross and the subsequent appearing of Christ in his dream,
were realities, Constantine had sufficient grounds for a prompt and
unequivocal conversion to the Christian faith. But after that, if
we consider the conduct of the emperor, we shall find him, however
astonishing it may seem, still attached to pagan ceremonies of
worship. As late as 321, A. D., nine years after the visitation of
Christ to him, we find him accused of artfully balancing the hopes and
fears of both his pagan and Christian {LIX} subjects by publishing
in the same year two edicts; the first of which enjoined the solemn
observance of Sunday; and the second directed the consultation of
the Haruspices [98]--the soothsayers of the old pagan religion. Of
this circumstance, Neander, who is disposed to palliate the conduct
of Constantine as far as possible, after intimating that this lapse
might be accounted for on the grounds of state policy, says, "Yet the
other hypothesis, viz., that Constantine had actually fallen back into
heathen superstitions may indeed be regarded as the more natural."
[99] Five years after his supposed miraculous conversion "we find
marks of the pagan state religion upon the imperial coins." [100] "A
medal was struck," says Dr. John W. Draper, doubtless referring to
the same thing, "on which was impressed his [Constantine's] title of
'God,' together with the monogram of Christ." "Another," he continues,
"represented him as raised by a hand from the sky while seated in the
chariot of the Sun. But more particularly the great porphyry pillar,
a column one hundred and twenty feet in height, exhibited the true
religious condition of the founder of Constantinople. The statue on
its summit mingled together the Sun, the Savior, and the Emperor. Its
body was a colossal image of Apollo, whose features were replaced by
those of Constantine, and around the head, like rays, were fixed the
nails of the cross of Christ recently discovered in Jerusalem." [101]
While on the day Constantinople was formally made the capital of the
empire, he honored the statue of Fortune with his gifts. In view of
all these acts, ranging as they do over the greater part of the first
Christian emperor's life, and through many years after his supposed
conversion, I think Gibbon is justified in his remarks upon this part
of Constantine's conduct: "It was an arduous task to eradicate the
habits and prejudices of his education, to acknowledge the divine power
of Christ, and to understand that the truth of _his_ revelation was
incompatible with the worship of the gods." [102]

Turning from the consideration of the equivocal conduct of the
emperor to his character, we have a subject about which there is less
disagreement among authorities; for even Christian apologists are
compelled to admit the wickedness of this first Christian emperor.
"Relying with presumptuous confidence," says Neander, "on the great
things which God had done, through him, for the advancement of the
Christian Church, he found it easy to excuse or extenuate to his
conscience many a wrong deed, into which he had suffered himself to be
betrayed by {LX} ambition, the love of rule, the arbitrary exercise of
power, or the jealousy of despotism." [103]

"It is indeed true that Constantine's life was not such as the precepts
of Christianity required," Dr. Mosheim remarks, but softens the
statement against the emperor by saying that, "It is but too notorious
that many persons who look upon the Christian religion as indubitably
true and of divine origin, yet do not conform their lives to all its
holy precepts." [104]

Dr. Lardner, after drawing a most favorable outline of Constantine's
person and character, and citing the flattery of contemporary
panegyrists as a description of the man, says: "Having observed these
virtues of Constantine, and other things, which are to his advantage; a
just respect to truth obligeth us to take notice of some other things,
which seem to cast a reflection upon him." [105] And then in the most
naive manner he adds: "Among these, one of the chief is putting to
death so many of his relatives!" He enumerates the victims of the
first Christian emperor as follows: "Maximilian Herculius, his wife's
father; Bassianus, husband of his sister Anastasia; Crispus, his own
son; Fausta, his wife; Licinius, husband of his sister Constantia;
and Licinianus, or Licinius the younger, his nephew, and son of the
forementioned Licinius." [106] The last named victim was a mere lad
when put to death, "not more than a little above eleven years of age,
if so much," is Dr. Lardner's own description of him. Fausta was
suffocated in a steam bath, though she had been his wife for twenty
years and mother of three of his sons. It should be remembered that
this is the list of victims admitted by a most learned and pious
Christian writer, not a catalogue drawn up by pagan historians, whom
we might suspect of malice against one who had deserted the shrines
of the ancient gods for the faith of the Christians. But this rather
formidable list of murdered victims admitted by Dr. Lardner, shakes not
his faith in the goodness of the first Christian emperor. Some of these
"executions" he palliates, if not justifies, on the ground of political
necessity; and others on the ground of domestic perfidy; though he
almost stumbles in his efforts at excusing the taking off of Crispus,
the emperor's own son; Fausta, his wife; and the lad Licinius. "These
are the executions," he says, "which above all others cast a reflection
upon the reign of Constantine; though there are also hints of the death
of some others about the same time, with whom Constantine had till then
lived in {LXI} friendship." [107] After which the Doctor immediately
adds--in the very face of all the facts he adduces, and after reciting
the condemnation of both heathen and Christian writers of some of these
murders--the following: "I do by no means think that Constantine was
a man of a cruel disposition; and therefore I am unwilling to touch
upon any other actions of a like nature: as his making some German
princes taken captive, fight in the theatre; and sending the head of
Maxentius to Africa, after it had been made a part of Constantine's
triumphal entry at Rome." When one finds a sober Christian writer of
the eighteenth century who can thus speak of Constantine; and further
remembers that to this day a priest of the Greek church seldom mentions
the name of the "imperial saint," without adding the title, "_Equal
to the Apostles_;" one is not surprised that while he lived, and at
his court a Christian bishop could be found who "congratulated him as
constituted by God to rule over all, in the present world, and destined
to reign with the son of God in the world to come." [108] Or that
Eusebius, who is spoken of as one of the best bishops of the imperial
court, "did not scruple for a moment to ascribe to the purest motives
of a true servant of God all those transactions into which the emperor,
without evincing the slightest regard to truth or to humanity, had
suffered himself to be drawn by an ambition which could not abide a
rival, in the struggle with Licinius; when he represents the emperor,
in a war which, beyond a doubt, had been undertaken from motives of
a purely selfish policy, as marshalling the order of the battle, and
giving out the words of command by divine inspiration bestowed in
answer to his prayer." [109]

Enough of this. Let us look no longer at this first of the Christian
emperors through the eyes of churchmen seeking to extol his virtues
and hide his crimes, all for the honor of the Church. So odious had he
become in Rome for his many murders that a pasquinade which compared
his reign to that of the detested Nero was nailed to the palace gates.
"The guilty emperor," says one, "in the first burst of anger, was on
the point of darkening the tragedy, if such a thing had been possible,
by a massacre of the Roman populace who had thus insulted him." His
brothers were consulted on this measure of vengeance, however, and
the result of their counsel was a resolution to degrade Rome to a
subordinate rank, and build a metropolis elsewhere, and hence the new
capital of the empire rose on the shores of the Bosphorus.

Reflecting upon the career of Constantine from the days of his young
manhood, which had in it something of the quality that makes the
successful leader of men, to the time when he fell under the influence
of the false priests of a corrupted religion, Draper says:

    {LXII} From the rough soldier who accepted the purple at York, how
    great the change to the effeminate emperor of the Bosphorus, in
    silken robes stiffened with threads of gold, a diadem of sapphires
    and pearls, and false hair, stained of various tints; his steps
    stealthily guarded by mysterious eunuchs flitting through the
    palace, the streets full of spies, and an ever watchful police! The
    same man who approaches us as the Roman imperator retires from us
    as the Asiastic despot. In the last days of his life he put aside
    the imperial purple, and, assuming the customary white garments,
    prepared for baptism, that the sins of his long and evil life might
    all be washed away. Since complete purification can thus be only
    once obtained, he was desirous to procrastinate that ceremony to
    the last moment. Profoundly politic, even in his relations with
    heaven, he thenceforth reclined on a white bed, took no further
    part in worldly affairs, and, having thus insured a right to the
    continuance of that prosperity in a future life which he had
    enjoyed in this, expired. [110]

And so Gibbon:

    The sublime theory of the gospel had made a much fainter impression
    on the heart, than on the understanding, of Constantine himself.
    He pursued the great objects of his ambition through the dark
    and bloody paths of war and policy; and, after the victory,
    he abandoned himself, without moderation, to the abuse of his
    fortune. Instead of asserting his just superiority above the
    imperfect heroism and profane philosophy of Trajan and the
    Antonines, the mature age of Constantine forfeited the reputation
    which he had acquired in his youth. As he gradually advanced
    in the knowledge of truth, he proportionately declined in the
    practice of virtue; and the same year of his reign in which he
    convened the council of Nice, was polluted by the execution, or
    rather murder of his eldest son [Crispus]. * * * * At the time
    of the death of Crispus, the emperor could no longer hesitate in
    the choice of religion; he could no longer be ignorant that the
    church was possessed of an infallible remedy, [baptism] though he
    chose to defer the application of it till the approach of death
    had removed the temptation and danger of a relapse. * * * * The
    example and reputation of Constantine seemed to countenance the
    delay of baptism. Future tyrants were encouraged to believe that
    the innocent blood which they might shed in a long reign would
    instantly be washed away in the waters of regeneration; and the
    abuse of religion dangerously undermined the foundations of moral
    virtue. [111]

Such, then, was the first Christian emperor. He uplifted "Christianity"
from the condition of a persecuted religion, and made it the state
religion of Rome; and also provided means for its wider acceptance.
If for this it shall be claimed, as it is, that much in his evil life
should be overlooked, it would still be pertinent to ask whether his
acts in connection with Christianity did not debase rather than exalt
it; and if his provisions for its wider acceptation did not tend rather
to the corruption of what remained true in the Christianity then
extant, than to the establishment of true religion.

{LXIII} _Christianity made a Persecuting Religion_.

The edict of Milan, by which was intended no more than the
establishment of religious liberty in the empire, and which was issued
in 313 A. D., by Constantine and his colleague, Licinius, was well
enough. Freedom to teach and practice the truth is all the Christian
church could ask or expect. Had he stopped here, his action in this
particular would have met with universal applause. But he went beyond
this. He not only protected the Christians by his laws, but prohibited
by express edicts the free exercise of religion to the pagans. His
proscriptions were mild at first, going no further than to prohibit
soothsaying and divination in private houses or anywhere in secret.
Later, however, if we may believe the words of Eusebius, he placed the
pagan religion under the ban of the laws. Eusebius says:

    The emperor proceeded to act with great vigor, gave the government
    of the provinces chiefly to Christians, and when any Gentiles
    were made governors they were prohibited to sacrifice. Which
    law comprehended not only presidents of provinces but also
    higher officers, and even the praetorian praefects. If they
    were Christians, they were required to act according to their
    principles. If they were otherwise disposed, still the practice
    of idolatrous rites were forbidden. * * * * And soon after that
    were two laws published, at one and the same time, one prohibiting
    the detestable rites of idolatry hitherto practiced in cities and
    country places; and that for the future none should erect statues
    to the gods, nor perform the vain arts of divination, nor offer up
    any sacrifices. The other law was for enlarging Christian oratories
    and churches, or for rebuilding them more grand and splendid. [112]

When contrasting the course of the first Christian emperor with the
pagan emperors, Eusebius says, "They commanded the temples to be
magnificently adorned; he demolished them to the foundation, especially
such as were most respected by superstitious people." [113] Later
he expressly says that throughout the whole Roman empire, the doors
of idolatry were shut to the commonalty and to the soldiery, and
that "every kind of sacrifice was prohibited." Again he says, that
there were several laws published for these purposes, forbidding
sacrifices, divinations, raising statues, and the secret mysteries
or rites of initiation. And he says further, that "in Egypt a sort
of priesthood, consecrated to the honor of the Nile, was entirely
suppressed." [114] I am not unmindful that some respectable authorities
question if Constantine really departed from the policy of toleration
announced in his edict of Milan; and that even Gibbon is inclined
to believe in his toleration of {LXIV} paganism. The statement here
made by Eusebius, the contemporary and biographer of Constantine,
however, together with reference to the edicts of suppression quoted
by his son Constans in the succeeding reign, and which is quoted by
Lardner, [115] establishes beyond question the policy of intolerance
of Constantine toward paganism. Especially when what Eusebius has said
is supplemented by the fact that the emperor destroyed a number of
heathen temples, and peremptorily ordered the closing of the others.
Among the heathen temples destroyed was one at Aegae, in Cilicia,
erected to Aesculapius, celebrated for the number of sick that had been
healed there, and held in high esteem by men of the better class among
the pagans and philosophers. It is said that by its destruction and
the public exhibition of certain images of the gods, many tricks of
the priests were exposed and became objects of sport to the populace.
[116] But while this may have been the conduct of some insincere
pagans, those who remained heathens, as LeClerc has well said, "were
no doubt extremely shocked at the manner in which the statues of their
gods were treated; and could not consider the Christians as men of
moderation. For, in short, those statues were as dear to them, as
anything, the most sacred, could be to the Christians." [117] Eusebius
taunted the philosophers about the destruction of the temple, without
any interference on the part of the god to whom it had been erected,
apparently all unmindful of the fact that just such taunts had been
hurled at the Christian martyrs in the days that the "kingdom of
God suffered violence, and the violent took it by force." "Had not
Eusebius," remarked Lardner, "often heard with his own ears, and
read in the history of ancient martyrs, the insults and triumphs of
the heathens over the Christians, that they professed themselves the
worshipers of the great and only true God, and yet everybody, that
pleased, was able to molest and destroy them, as he saw good?" [118]

The zeal of Christian writers has done all in its power to excuse or
palliate the conduct of Constantine in his acts for the suppression of
the pagan religion and worship; but after all is said by his apologists
that can be said; after every allowance is conceded for the times in
which he lived, and the previous conduct of the pagans through two
centuries of violence towards the Christians, the fact remains that
the first Christian emperor did by his edicts put the ancient religion
of the empire under the ban of the law, and by acts of violence
destroyed some of its temples and closed the rest by imperial decree,
that the pagan gods might not be worshiped; and this, doubtless, with
the approval--and it would not {LXV} be difficult to believe, under
all the circumstances, at the suggestion--of Christian bishops who
thronged his court. On the foundation of intolerance thus laid by him,
others hastened to build. In the succeeding reign, among the first laws
enacted was this one against pagan sacrifices:

    Let superstition cease; let the madness of sacrificing he
    abolished. For whoever shall presume contrary to the constitution
    of our father, a prince of blessed memory, and contrary to this
    command of our clemency, to offer sacrifices, let a proper and
    convenient punishment be inflicted, and execution presently done
    upon him. [119]

This edict was supplemented a few years later [120] by the following
edict:

    It is our pleasure that in all places and in all cities, the
    temples be immediately shut, and carefully guarded that none may
    have the power of offending, It is likewise our pleasure, that all
    our subjects should abstain from sacrifices. If any one should be
    guilty of such an act, let him feel the sword of vengeance; and
    after his execution, let his property be confiscated to the public
    use. We denounce the same penalties against the governors of the
    provinces, if they neglect to punish the criminals. [121]

It is not necessary to pursue the subject much further. It will be
sufficient to say that during the fourth century, by following the
policy of suppression inaugurated by this first Christian emperor,
Christianity was changed from a persecuted to a persecuting religion.
Without restraint from the ecclesiastical authorities, the Christian
emperors issued edicts against the pagan religion, proscribed its
followers, destroyed its temples, and confiscated its property to the
uses of the rival religion. Even Neander, speaking of this revolution,
and constrained as he is to say all that he can for the honor of the
Christian Church, is compelled to admit that "the relation of things
had become reversed. As in former times the observance of the pagan
ceremonies, the religion of the state, had appeared in the light of
a civil duty, and the profession of Christianity in that of a crime
against the state; so now it was the case, not indeed that the outward
profession of Christianity was commanded as a universal civil duty, for
against this the spirit of Christianity too earnestly remonstrated;
but that the exercise of the pagan religion was made politically
dangerous." [122] In the pages of this eminent Christian historian
one may read that before the close of the century which witnessed the
elevation of Christianity to the dignity of the state religion of the
empire, wild troops of Christian monks were undertaking campaigns,
especially in the country, for the destruction of the {LXVI} heathen
temples in which sacrifices were alleged to have been performed;
of bishops who not only superintended the destruction of heathen
temples at the head of bands of soldiers and gladiators, but paraded
through the streets of the cities the symbols of the heathen faith,
provoking civil conflicts which Christian emperors did not hesitate
to take advantage of for the more complete suppression of paganism.
[123] Meantime a pagan apologist, Libanius, arises to plead the cause
of religious toleration, and in the course of his address to the
Christian emperor, Theodosius, he puts to shame the Christianity then
in vogue, by showing the emperor how far the Church had departed from
the spirit of the Christian religion, by saying: "Force is said not
to be permitted, even according to the laws of your own religion:
persuasion is said to be praised, but force condemned by them. Why
then, do you wreak your fury against the temples, when this surely
is not to persuade, but to use force? Thus, then, it is plain you
would transgress even the laws of your own religion." [124] Lardner
calls attention to the fact that as under pagan emperors previous to
Constantine Christianity had been in a state of persecution, so now,
after Constantine, he proceeds to show that paganism under Christian
emperors was all along in a state of persecution--"However, I would
hope, not so severe and vigorous as that of the Christians in the
foregoing period of near three hundred years." [125] And so LeClerc, as
quoted by Lardner:

    Thus it was that the Christians continued to return to the pagans
    what they had suffered from them during the first three centuries,
    instead of gaining them by patience and mildness, which they had
    so much recommended when they were the weakest. This conduct
    was proper to make the pagans more obstinate, by teaching them
    that the Christians affected to speak of humanity and moderation
    from interest only, and not from a principle of religion as they
    pretended. At least it is certain, that thereby they lost the
    right to complain of the manner in which the pagans had treated
    them in times past, or to boast of the mildness of their religion,
    which they effectually disparaged by those persecutions. * * * Nor
    ought we to imagine that the penalties laid by Christians upon the
    pagans were light. If a sacrifice was offered in a private place,
    with the knowledge of the proprietor, the place was confiscated;
    if not, they were to pay a fine of twenty pounds of gold, as much
    as if it had been done in a temple; and in some cases the penalty
    of death was appointed. We may look into the oration of Libanius
    for the temples, where that orator sustains the same character
    before Theodosius as the Christians had formerly done before pagan
    emperors. I must acknowledge that this phenomenon, if I may so call
    it, gives me pain: for I could wish that they who defended the
    {LXVII} truth had preserved to themselves the honor of being the
    only persons that were persecuted for religion. [126]

_Persecution of "Heretics_."

Once started upon the policy of suppressing by force those of a
different religion, Christianity did not stop with the persecution
of the pagans; bad and un-Christian as that was, still more serious
results occurred from the persecutions inflicted upon so-called
heretics in the Church, by those who were considered orthodox. It
is true that there were heretics in the Church before the days of
Constantine; much progress had been made in the matter of paganizing
Christianity, and more or less of intolerance was manifested by
Christian sects towards one another; but it was the policy and example
of this first Christian emperor that laid the real foundation for
that monument of shame and disgrace to the Christian name which rises
upon the plains of Christian discord and strife and war waged against
heretics in the name and for the glory of Christ. It is this which
constitutes the most melancholy page of ecclesiastical history.

In his office of supreme pontiff in the old pagan religion, which he
held by virtue of being emperor of Rome, Constantine may naturally have
supposed that the supreme headship of the religion he had protected and
the Church he had elevated fell to him for the same reason; and with
it the right to reconcile differences, compose factions, and determine
what should be the orthodox faith. At any rate we find him acting
somewhat in this capacity. When contending church parties appealed
to him, he at first was indifferent to their disputes, and tried to
shame them into harmony by referring to the conduct of the Greek
philosophers, who never discussed difficult questions before ignorant
multitudes; who could "maintain their arguments without losing their
temper; and assert their freedom without violating any friendship."
[127] His efforts at reconciling the differences that arose among
Christians over what is known as the Arian controversy were of no
avail; and after six years of bitter strife, the emperor summoned the
bishops of the Church to Nicea in Bithynia. After long deliberation
Arianism was condemned, and orthodox Christianity was established by
decree of the council, ratified by the emperor, to which all Christians
must conform. Those who resisted the divine judgment of the synod
must prepare themselves for immediate exile. [128] How effectual
the argument, "belief or banishment," even among the bishops at the
council, was, may be determined from the fact that "the opposition to
the decision of the council was almost {LXVIII} instantly reduced from
seventeen to two." [129] In his zeal to enforce orthodoxy the emperor
forgot his former moderation, and in 326 A.D.--the year following the
council of Nicea--he issued a general edict against heretics, in which,
after condemning his own past forbearance as occasioning men's being
seduced, he says to the various heretical parties:

    Wherefore, since this your pernicious wickedness is no longer to
    be endured, we by this present law command you, that you no more
    presume to meet together. And we have given orders that all those
    places where you are wont to hold assemblies should be taken away.
    Yea, our concern for this matter is such, that we not only forbid
    you to assemble to any public place; but we likewise forbid all
    assemblies of your foolish superstition in private houses, and
    in all private places whatever. All of you, therefore, who have
    any sincere love of truth, come to the Catholic church. And that
    this remedy may have its full effect, we ordain that all your
    superstitious conventicles, I mean oratories of all heretics, if it
    be fit to call such houses oratories, be forthwith taken away, and
    without any opposition delivered to the Catholic church: and that
    the rest of your places be adjudged to the public. [130]

"Thus the dens of heretics were laid open by the imperial edict,"
exultantly exclaims Eusebius, the Christian bishop, "and the wild
beasts, the ring leaders of their impiety, were scattered." [131] And
thus was the paganized Christian church launched upon that career
of persecution of heretics within the church, as well as upon the
policy of persecuting those of a different religion; a policy that has
filled the world with religious wars, and deeds of cruelty which would
better become the reign of a Nero than Christian rulers of Christian
nations. It is a terrible arraignment which Gibbon draws against
apostate Christendom in the concluding paragraph of his review of the
persecutions which had been endured by the followers of Christ in the
Christian centuries preceding Constantine. He says:

    We shall conclude this chapter by a melancholy truth, which
    obtrudes itself on the reluctant mind; that, even admitting,
    without hesitation or inquiry, all that history has recorded,
    or devotion has feigned, on the subject of martyrdoms, it must
    still be acknowledged that the Christians, in the course of their
    intestine dissensions, have inflicted far greater severities on
    each other than they have experienced from the zeal of infidels.
    During the ages of ignorance which followed the subversion of the
    Roman empire in the west, [132] the bishops of the imperial city
    extended their dominion over the laity as well as clergy of the
    Latin church. The {LXIX} fabric of superstition which they had
    erected, and which might long have defied the feeble efforts of
    reason, was at length assaulted by a crowd of daring fanatics, who,
    from the twelfth to the sixteenth century, assumed the popular
    character of reformers. The church of Rome defended by violence
    the empire which she had acquired by fraud; a system of peace and
    benevolence was soon disgraced by proscriptions, wars, massacres,
    and the institution of the holy office; and as the reformers were
    animated by the love of civil as well as religious freedom, the
    Catholic princes connected their own interest with that of the
    clergy, and enforced by fire and sword the terror of spiritual
    censures. In the Netherlands alone more than one hundred thousand
    of the subjects of Charles the Fifth are said to have suffered
    by the hand of the executioner; and this extraordinary number is
    attested by Grotius, a man of genius and learning, who preserved
    his moderation amidst the fury of contending sects, and who
    composed the annals of his own age and century, at the time when
    the invention of printing had facilitated the means of intelligence
    and increased the danger of detection. If we are obliged to submit
    our belief to the authority of Grotius, it must be allowed that the
    number of protestants who were executed in a single province and
    a single reign far exceeded that of the primitive martyrs in the
    space of three centuries, and of the Roman empire! [133]

Both Guizot and Milman, eminent Christian scholars, annotated the
work of Edward Gibbon, the former in French, the latter in an English
edition; and at every point where they could modify a statement or
soften a passage apparently unjust to Christianity, they did so; but in
the presence of the important and terrible passages just quoted, they
remained absolutely silent! Nor has any other Christian writer since
their day, so far as I know, attempted to contradict the statement of
Mr. Gibbon. It is proper to say, however, that in a note Mr. Gibbon
himself cites the fact that Fra Paola, an Italian writer, places the
number of Belgic martyrs at fifty thousand, but even that computation
would still leave the conclusion of Mr. Gibbon's reflections unimpaired.

The circumstance of the Church elevated by Constantine becoming a
persecuting Church is a strong evidence of its paganized state; for
the true Christian religion is not a persecuting religion; the true
Church of Christ is not a persecuting Church. When the Samaritans would
not receive the Messiah, some of the Apostles would have them consumed
by fire from heaven; but the Master turned and rebuked them, saying,
"Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of. For the Son of man is
not come to destroy men's lives, but to save them." [134] It is true
that Messiah said: "Think not that I am come to send peace on earth:
I came not to send peace, but a sword. For I am come to set a man at
variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and
the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. And a man's foes shall
be {LXX} they of his own household." [135] This, however, is but a
prediction of the effect of the proclamation of the Gospel, not an
authorization to force the acceptance of Christianity by the sword; nor
does it authorize the Church to invoke the arm of the civil authority
to execute by force her doctrinal decrees. The Gospel of Jesus Christ,
it is true, did not bring peace, but a sword; the sword, however, was
found in the hands of those who rejected the Gospel, not in the hands
of those who accepted and preached it. And when the Church departed
so far from the spirit of Christ that she grasped the sword in her
own hands, or dictated the civil authority to wield it in her behalf,
and that became the policy of the Church, the adoption of that policy
proclaimed her apostate condition to the world, in a manner to be known
and read of all men.

_Christianity Before and After Constantine_.

I think sufficient has been said to justify the belief that the reign
of Constantine marks the period when the paganization of Christianity
had become complete. I do not mean by this that there is any particular
date which one may set down to show that here true Christianity ceases,
and there apostate Christianity begins; which is a point frequently
insisted upon by those who contend for the unbroken perpetuity of
Christianity from the days of Messiah. They demand to know on what
night it was that the whole collection of Christians, of different
nationalities and languages, went to bed sound in the Christian faith,
to awake the next morning all pagans. [136] I claim no such sudden
revolution brought about the apostasy which I am sure took place. We
have seen by what has already been said, that even in the time of the
Apostles there was a tendency on the part of the Christians to depart
from the religion of Jesus Christ; that after the days of the Apostles
there was a steady increase in the number and influence of false
teachers; an insidious introduction of heresies; a multiplication of
rites and ceremonies well known in the pagan celebration of religious
mysteries, but entirely foreign to the Gospel; and an amalgamation
of pagan doctrines with Christian principles. It remains to be shown
that there was a steady increase of immorality among the professing
Christians; a marked loss of spirituality; a rapid growth of pride and
worldliness on the part of Christian bishops and other church leaders;
and at last, an utter departure from the true and living God and Jesus
Christ whom He had sent, and the establishment of a system in its
place, as debasing to men as it was dishonorable to God.

Taking then the reign of Constantine as the period beyond which the
{LXXI} true religion of Christ did not extend, nor the true Church
of Christ exist, let us consider Christianity before his reign and
after it. Here I shall ask the reader to take into account as part of
the consideration of Christianity previous to Constantine what I have
already set before him in this introduction concerning the tendency
to division and heresies which existed in the Church in the days of
the Apostles; and also those quotations I have made from eminent
Christian authorities, which give evidence of the early corruption of
Christianity, and which too plainly testify that it was in a state of
steady decline through the second and third centuries, until it was fit
only for such enthronement as a Constantine could give it, when he made
it the state religion of a corrupt empire hastening to its decay. If
the reader will do this, it will obviate the necessity of my referring
to these matters again.

_Decline in Moral and Spiritual Living Among Christians_.

It will be conceded that the Gospel of Jesus Christ commands a very
high order of moral and spiritual living, and that the Apostles
enjoined this moral law upon the early saints as essential to the favor
of God. Others also after the days of the Apostles, followed in the
same admonition, and indeed the sharp contrast that existed between the
lives of converts before and after their acceptance of Christianity
was a matter of pride not only to St. Paul, [137] but to Justin Martyr
of the second century, who, in reference to the change produced in the
lives of Christian converts, said:

    We who were once slaves of lust, now have delight only in purity
    of morals; we, who once practiced arts of magic, have consecrated
    ourselves to the Eternal and Good God; we, who once prized gain
    above all things, give even what we have to the common use, and
    share it with such as are in need; we, who once hated and murdered
    one another, who on account of differences of customs would have
    no common hearth with strangers, do now, since the appearance of
    Christ, live together with them; we pray for our enemies; we seek
    to convince those that hate us without cause, so that there may
    order their lives according to Christ's glorious doctrine and
    attain to the joyful hope of receiving like blessings with us from
    God, the Lord of all. [138]

It was not long, however, before there was a marked departure from
this high moral level among the Christians. In tracing that decline I
shall use chiefly the History of the Church by Joseph Milner, published
in 1794. My reason for doing so is as follows: I have already stated
in this writing, that Milner wrote what some regard as his "great
history of the Church," to counteract the influence of Dr. Mosheim's
splendid "Institutes of Ecclesiastical History," which is evidently
by some {LXXII} regarded as too much a history of the perversions and
abuses of religion. Milner plainly informs his readers that he intends
to write the history of those only who have been real, not nominal,
Christians, irrespective of the external Church to which they belonged,
proceeding upon the theory that these good men constitute the Church
of Christ. His history, in other words, is a history of piety, not of
the Church. It will be his purpose therefore to exalt the morality
of the Christians in all ages; and I quote his work respecting the
moral deteriorations of the Christians that I may not be charged with
quoting authorities who some think have made too much of Christian
shortcomings. Milner says that a gloomy cloud, concerning moral
conditions, hung over the close of the first century, and proceeds to
argue that the first impressions made by the effusions of the spirit
are the strongest; that human depravity overborne for a time arose
afresh, particularly in the next generation, and hence the disorders
of schisms and heresies in the Church. Neander does not agree with the
philosophy of Milner. He says, "Christianity, since it first entered
human nature, has operated, wherever it has struck root, with the
same divine power for sanctification; and this divine power cannot
be weakened by the lapse of ages. In this respect, therefore, the
period of the first appearance of Christianity could have no advantage
over any of the following ages of the Christian Church." [139] And
he follows this declaration with a statement, that the change which
Christianity produced in the lives of those who accepted it appeared
so strongly marked by the contrast it presented with what they had
previously been when pagans. The correctness of the philosophy I
shall leave these two great Christian authorities to settle between
themselves. I am concerned more particularly with the facts in the case.

In consequence of the prominence that has been given to the
persecutions of the Christians during the first three centuries, the
impression very extensively prevails that the early Christian Church
was constantly under the hard pressure of continuous and relentless
persecutions. This, however, is not the case. There were many periods
of peace granted to the Christians. Indeed their periods of persecution
were only occasional, and it is a question if these periods of
peace were not more detrimental to Christianity than the seasons of
persecution. Milner, under the authority of Origen, says that the
long peace granted the Church in the third century, during the reign
of the several emperors, from about 260 A. D., to the opening of the
fourth century, produced a great degree of luke-warmness and religious
indecorum. "Let the reader," he says, "only notice the indifference
which Origen here describes and the conduct of Christians both in the
first and second centuries, and {LXXIII} he will be affected with the
greatness of the declension." Then he quotes Origen: "Several come to
church only on solemn festivals, and then not so much for instruction
as diversion. Some go out again as soon as they have heard the lecture,
without conferring or asking the pastors questions. Others stay not
till the lecture is ended, and others hear not so much as a single
word, but entertain themselves in a corner of the church." [140]

Coming to the middle of the third century, just previous to that severe
persecution inaugurated by the emperor Decius, and speaking of Cyprian,
Bishop of Carthage, Milner exclaims: "A star of the first magnitude,
when we consider the time in which he lived! Let us recreate ourselves
with the contemplation of it. We are fatigued with hunting for
Christian goodness, and we have discovered but little and that little
with much difficulty. We shall find Cyprian to be a character who
partook indeed of the declensions which we have noticed and lamented,
but who was still far superior, I apprehend, in real simplicity and
piety, to the Christians of the East." [141] This same Cyprian, in
which Milner delights, speaking of the effects of the long peace upon
the Church which preceded the Decian persecution, says:

    Each had been bent on improving his own patrimony, and had
    forgotten what believers had done under the Apostles, and what
    they ought always to do. They were brooding over the arts of
    amassing wealth; the pastors and the deacons each forgot his duty;
    works of mercy were neglected, and discipline was at the lowest
    ebb; luxury and effeminacy prevailed; meritricious arts in dress
    were cultivated; fraud and deception practiced among brethren.
    Christians would unite themselves in matrimony with unbelievers;
    could swear, not only without reverence but without veracity. With
    haughty asperity they despised their ecclesiastical superiors; they
    railed against one another with outrageous acrimony, and conducted
    quarrels with determined malice. Even many bishops, who ought to
    be guides and patterns to the rest, neglected the peculiar duties
    of their stations, gave themselves up to secular pursuits. They
    deserted their places of residence and their flocks; they traveled
    through distant provinces in quest of pleasure and gain; gave no
    assistance to their needy brethren, but were insatiable in their
    thirst of money. They possessed estates by fraud and multiplied
    usury. What have we not deserved to suffer for such conduct? Even
    the divine word hath foretold us what we might expect: "If his
    children forsake my law and walk not in my judgments, I will visit
    their offenses with the rod and their sins with scourges." These
    things had been denounced and foretold, but in vain. Our sins had
    brought our affairs to that pass, that because we had despised the
    Lord's directions, we were obliged to undergo a correction of our
    multiplied evils and a trial of our faith by severe remedies. [142]

{LXXIV} Referring to the long reign of peace in the closing decade of
the third century, Milner says:

    This new scene [the toleration of Christianity by a pagan
    government] did not prove favorable to the growth of grace and
    holiness. In no period since the Apostles was there ever so great a
    general decay as in this. Not even in particular instances can we
    discover during this interval much of lively Christianity. [143]

Here I drop Milner to take up Eusebius, who was an eye witness of the
moral declension among the Christians previous to the last great pagan
persecution under the emperor Diocletian. Referring to the long period
of peace which the Church had enjoyed--a period of forty years--he says:

    But when, by reason of excessive liberty, we sunk into negligence
    and sloth, one envying and reviling another in different ways,
    and we were almost, as it were, upon the point of taking up arms
    against each other with words as with darts and spears, prelates
    inveighing against prelates, and people rising up against people,
    and hypocrisy and dissimulation had arisen to the greatest height
    of malignity, then the divine judgment, which usually proceeds
    with a lenient hand, whilst the multitudes were yet crowding into
    the Church, with gentle and mild visitations began to afflict
    the episcopacy; the persecution having begun with those brethren
    in the army. But as if destitute of all sensibility, we were not
    prompt in measures to appease and propitiate the Deity; some indeed
    like atheists, regarding our situation as unheeded and unobserved
    by a Providence, we added one wickedness and misery to another.
    But some that appeared to be our pastors deserting the law of
    piety, were inflamed against each other with mutual strifes, only
    accumulating quarrels and threats, rivalship, hostility and hatred
    to each other, only anxious to assert the government as a kind of
    sovereignty for themselves. [144]

Here I shall avail myself of some reflections upon this condition
which I have elsewhere expressed; [145] Let it be remembered that
what is said in the foregoing quotation is from a writer contemporary
with the events, and who says, in the very chapter following the one
from which I have just quoted, that it was not for him to record the
dissensions and follies which the shepherds of the people exercised
against each other before the persecution. He also adds: "We shall
not make mention of those that were shaken by the persecution, nor
of those that suffered shipwreck in their salvation, and of their
own accord were sunk in the depths of the watery gulf." [146] Then
in his Book of Martyrs, referring to events that occurred between
the edicts ordering the persecution, he says: "But the events that
occurred in the intermediate times, besides {LXXV} those already
related, I have thought proper to pass by; I mean more particularly
the circumstances of the different heads of the churches, who from
being shepherds of the reasonable flocks of Christ, that did not
govern in a lawful and becoming manner, were condemned by divine
justice, as unworthy of such a charge, to be the keepers of the
unreasonable camel, an animal deformed in the structure of his body;
and condemned further to be the keepers of the imperial horses. *
* * * Moreover, the ambitious aspirings of many to office, and the
injudicious and unlawful ordinations that took place, the divisions
among the confessors themselves, the great schisms and difficulties
industriously fomented by the factions among the new members, against
the relics of the Church, devising one innovation after another, and
unmercifully thrusting them into the midst of all these calamities,
heaping up affliction upon affliction. All this, I say, I have resolved
to pass by, judging it foreign to my purpose, wishing, as I said in
the beginning, to shun and avoid giving an account of them." [147]
Hence, however bad the condition of the Church is represented to be
by ecclesiastical writers, we must know that it was still worse than
that; however numerous the schisms; however unholy the ambition of
aspiring prelates; however frequent and serious the innovations upon
the primitive ordinances of the Gospel; however great the confusion
and apostasy in the Church is represented to be; we must know that it
is still worse than that, since the Church historians contemporaneous
with the events refused to record these things in their fulness, lest
it should prove disastrous to the Church; just as some of our modern
scholars professing to write Church history express their determination
to close their eyes to the corruption and abuses which form the greater
part of the melancholy story of ecclesiastical history, for fear that
relating these things would make it appear that real religion scarcely
had any existence. [148]

I shall say no more upon the matter of moral declensions among
Christians, except this: If there was such moral declensions among
Christians as is represented by the foregoing high authorities on
Christian affairs in the centuries preceding Constantine, what moral
declension must have prevailed when from a proscribed religion
Christianity was exalted to the dignity of the state religion of the
empire; and her prelates and clergy were recalled from exile and
suffering, poverty and disgrace, and loaded with the wealth and honors
that the lord of the Roman world could bestow? Consider, in this
connection, the propositions of Constantine at the council of Nicea
for the propaganda of Christianity, and pass a candid judgment upon
the moral or rather immoral effect they would produce upon the Church.
Neander thus states them:

{LXXVI} "_The heathen would be most easily led to salvation, if the
condition of the Christians were made to appear to them in all respects
enviable_.

"_They [the bishops] should consider, that the advantage to be derived
from preaching could not belong to all_.

"_Some, he said, might be drawn to the faith by being seasonably
supplied with the means of subsistence_.

"_Others were accustomed to repair to that quarter where they found
protection and intercession (alluding to the intercessions of the
bishops)_.

"_Others would be won by an affable reception_.

"_Others by being honored with presents_.

"_There were but few who honestly loved the exhibitions of religious
doctrine; but few were the friends of truth (therefore but few sincere
converts)_.

"_For this reason they should accommodate themselves to the characters
of all, and like skillful physicians, give to each man that which might
contribute to his cure, so that in every way the saving doctrine might
be glorified in all_." [149]

The effect of adopting such methods for the more rapid propagation
of Christianity, as is here proposed by the emperor to the bishops
assembled at the council of Nicea, must be apparent to all, and is
quite universally lamented by Christian writers of later ages. "A
course of proceeding upon such principles," remarks Neander himself,
"must entirely have thrown open a wide door for all manner of
hypocrisy. Even Eusebius, the panegyrist of Constantine, blinded as
he was by the splendor which the latter had cast over the outward
Church--even he is obliged to reckon among the grievous evils of this
period, of which he was an eye witness, the indescribable hypocrisy
of those who gave themselves out as Christians merely for temporal
advantage, and who, by their outward show of zeal for the faith,
contrived to win the confidence of the emperor, which he suffered
them to abuse." [150] "The piercing eye of ambition and avarice,"
says Gibbon, "soon discovered that the profession of Christianity
might contribute to the interest of the present as well as of a future
life. The hopes of wealth and honors, the example of an emperor, his
exhortations, his irresistible smiles, diffused conviction among the
venal and obsequious crowds which usually fill the apartments of a
palace. The cities which signalized a forward zeal by the voluntary
destruction of their temples, were distinguished by municipal
privileges and rewarded with popular donatives. * * * As the lower
ranks of society are governed by imitation, the conversion of those
who possessed any eminence of birth, of power, or of riches, was soon
followed by dependent multitudes. The salvation of the common people
was purchased at an easy rate, if it be true that in one year {LXXVII}
twelve thousand men were baptized at Rome, besides a proportionable
number of women and children; and that a white garment, with twenty
pieces of gold, had been promised by the emperor to every convert."
[151]

Under all these circumstances it is small wonder if men exclaimed as
Augustine did somewhat later in his commentary on St. John--"How many
seek Jesus only that He may benefit them in earthly matters! One man
has a law suit, so he seeks the intercession of the clergy: another is
oppressed by his superior, so he takes refuge in the Church. Others
are seeking, one in this way and another in that, to be interceded for
in some quarter where they have but little influence themselves. The
Church is daily full of such persons. Seldom is Jesus sought for Jesus'
sake!" [152] After nicely balancing the possibility and probability
of those who came into the Church for present worldly advantage being
converted in time to a true faith in the Christian religion, Neander
says: "Beyond all doubt the number was far greater of those who grew
hardened in that worldly sense by which from the first they had
profaned a holy profession, and who were thus the means of introducing
into the Church a great mass of corruption."

"Unhappily," he adds, "there were bishops whose only wish was to make
the conversion to Christianity a right easy thing for the pagans. * * *
Hence they baptized even those who lived in open sin, and who plainly
enough manifested that it was not their purpose to forsake it. They
imagined that when these were only baptized and introduced into the
fellowship of the Church, it was then time enough to admonish them
against sin." [153] Surely it was not difficult among such a mass of
unconverted members thus brought into the Church to find elements that
would foster the errors, both in ethics and in doctrine, which about
this time arose in the Church. It is small wonder that it was well nigh
publicly adopted in this age--as we are informed by Mosheim--"That
to deceive and lie is a virtue when religion can be promoted by it,
and that error in religion ought to be visited with penalties and
punishments." The first of these evils resulted in the accumulation of
that mass of myth and fable that burdens the annals of the dark ages;
the second established the "holy inquisition," alike the shame of the
Roman Catholic church and the so-called Christian civilization she has
influenced. "It is almost incredible," continues Mosheim, speaking of
the first evil referred to, "what a mass of the most insipid fables,
and what a host of pious falsehoods have, through all the centuries,
grown out of it, to the great detriment of true religion. If some
inquisitive person were to examine the conduct and the writings of the
{LXXVIII} great and most pious teachers of this century, I fear he
would find about all of them infected with this leprosy." "Those idle
fictions," he adds, "which a regard for the Platonic philosophy, and
for the prevailing opinions of the day had induced most theologians
to embrace, even before the time of Constantine, were now in various
ways confirmed, extended and embellished. Hence it is that we see, on
every side, evident traces of excessive veneration for departed saints;
of a purifying fire for the soul when separated from the body; of the
celibacy of the clergy; of the worship of images and relics; and of
many other opinions, which in process of time almost banished the true
religion, or"--and here the Doctor perhaps remembered that he was a
Protestant and that his position as such would not admit of conceding
the utter subversion of the Christian religion, and hence added--"or
at least very much obscured and corrupted it." "Genuine piety" he
continues, "was supplanted by a long train of superstitious observances
which originated partly from opinions inconsiderately embraced, partly
from a preposterous disposition to adopt profane rites and combine them
with Christian worship, and partly from the natural predilections of
mankind in general for a splendid and ostentatious religion." [154]

_The Loss of Spiritual Gifts_.

Not only did the moral declensions in the Church, which started soon
after the demise of the Apostles, proceed with accelerated pace after
Constantine became the patron of the Church, and with such resulting
evils as I have pointed out, but there was a like declension in the
enjoyment of spiritual gifts in the Church. It is well known that the
Apostles promised the Holy Ghost to those who received the Gospel, and
the enjoyment of those supernatural gifts which go with it. Indeed
Jesus Himself said in His last commission to his disciples:

    Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature.
    He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that
    believeth not shall be damned. And these signs shall follow them
    that believe: In my name they shall cast out devils; they shall
    speak with new tongues; they shall take up serpents; and if they
    drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay
    hands on the sick, and they shall recover. [155]

Paul, in speaking of the spiritual gifts promised in the Gospel, says:

    Now there are diversities of gifts, by the same Spirit. And there
    are differences of administrations, but the same Lord. And there
    are {LXXIX} diversities of operations, but it is the same God which
    worketh all in all. But the manifestation of the Spirit is given
    to every man to profit withal. For to one is given by the Spirit
    the word of wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same
    Spirit; to another faith by the same Spirit; to another the gifts
    of healing by the same Spirit; to another the working of miracles;
    to another prophecy; to another discerning of spirits, to another
    diverse kinds of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues:
    but all these worketh that one and the self-same Spirit, dividing
    to every man severally as He will. [156]

It is well known that the spiritual gifts here enumerated were enjoyed
by the saints in the early Christian centuries; and especially in
Apostolic times. The New Testament books are replete with reference to
the enjoyment of these gifts of the Spirit among the saints. Nor is
there any intimation of the discontinuance of them. On the contrary it
is reasonable to conclude that so long as the saints shall continue in
the enjoyment of the Holy Ghost, that long also will they enjoy the
spiritual gifts which proceed from a possession of Him. Moreover, "the
fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness,
goodness, faith, meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.
And they that are Christ's have crucified the flesh with the affections
and lusts." [157] Such are the effects of the operations of the Holy
Ghost upon the nature of man. These fruits of the Spirit indicate the
change that the Spirit of God may effect in human nature; by which that
which is corrupted through sin may be conformed to that which is pure
and holy, according to the working whereby the Spirit is able to subdue
all things unto Himself, in them that give place for His indwelling
in their souls. This effectual working of the Spirit in the souls of
men, by which they were transformed from vileness to holiness, was
the boast of the early saints. And, upon reflection, all will concede
that the victories of the Spirit in reforming the lives of men and
making them in their very nature conform to the likeness of Christ in
righteousness, are more to be desired and more to be celebrated than
those victories which are physical or intellectual merely in their
nature. Indeed these latter fruits of the Spirit derive their chief
value from the extent to which they contribute to the production of
the former--that is, to the extent that they establish men in the
faith, enable them to crucify the flesh with the lusts thereof, and
help them to live in harmony with the sweet influence of the Spirit of
God. When men live in harmony with that Spirit there will righteousness
obtain; there will love abound; there will the Gospel of Christ
appear triumphant. Where these fruits do not appear, there the Gospel
of Christ is not; there the powers of darkness for the time being,
are triumphant. Yet notwithstanding this promise {LXXX} concerning
the enjoyment of the spiritual gifts of the Gospel, the evidence is
abundant and conclusive that when all the Apostles were deceased, then
there was a marked declension in the manifestation of the spiritual
powers of the Gospel. "With the close of the New Testament records,"
says Dr. Phillip Smith, author of The Student's Ecclesiastical History,
"and the death of the last surviving Apostle, the history of the Church
passes from its sacred to its purely human phase. The miraculous gifts
which attested the divine mission of the Apostles ceased; not indeed by
any formal record of their withdrawal, but by the clear evidence that
they were possessed no longer." [158]

Dr. Jortin bears witness to the same fact. He says:

    The words Eusebius intimated that he thought those extraordinary
    powers to be, at least, not very common afterwards--[_i. e._, the
    beginning of the second century]. "They went about," says he, "with
    God's co-operative grace, for even then the divine Spirit performed
    many miracles by them." * * * This brings the probability of
    miracles down to the beginning of the second century, in the middle
    of which Justin Martyr says: "There are prophetic gifts among us
    even until now:" and amongst these gifts he reckons up miraculous
    powers, as healing the sick, casting out evil spirits, etc. His
    words imply an opinion that such gifts were not only exercised in
    his time, but had been continued down to his time, and he may be
    justly supposed to speak the sense of his contemporary Christians;
    and that is all that I cite him for. It seems probable that if we
    bad a full and authentic history of the propagation of the Gospel,
    from the time of the Apostles to the middle of the second century,
    composed by eye witnesses and by the preachers of Christianity, we
    should find miracles wrought for the conversion of the pagans. But
    from A. D. 70 to 150 is a dark interval, and we have very short
    accounts of the transactions of those days, unless we should accept
    of groundless rumors and frivolous tales. [159]

So, also, Dr. Mosheim, speaking of the second century, and after
commenting on the extent to which the extraordinary divine gifts
contributed to the extension of the limits of the Church, says: "The
gift of foreign tongues appears to have gradually ceased, as soon as
many nations became enlightened with the truth; * * * but the other
gifts with which God favored the rising Church of Christ, were, as we
learn from numerous testimonies of the ancients, still conferred upon
particular persons here and there." And when writing of the fourth and
succeeding centuries, he, too, bears witness of the declension, and
final cessation of these spiritual powers among the Christians; and,
indeed, the most of our ecclesiastical writers form the same conclusion.

Thus the Christians lost the enjoyment of the spiritual gifts of
the {LXXXI} Gospel, such as inspired dreams, prophecies, healings,
speaking in new tongues, ministering of angels, and, most to be
lamented of all, direct revelation from God, by which the will of God
might be made known to His people and His Church preserved from error,
from decadence, and from destruction: and by the absence of these
spiritual gifts and powers among the Christians of the third and fourth
centuries, we may know that a mere man-made religion, having indeed a
form of godliness but denying the power thereof, had succeeded to the
spiritually gifted religion, of Jesus Christ, wherein the power of God
is ever present and outwardly as well as inwardly manifested.

_Departure of "Christendom" from the True Doctrine of Deity_.

In nothing perhaps was there a wider departure from the real truth
of Christianity than in the doctrine concerning God defined by the
general council of the Church held within the lifetime of Constantine,
and which, in fact, he assembled upon his own authority. This was the
celebrated Council of Nicea in Bithynia, Asia Minor, held in 325 A.D.
The main purpose for which the first general Council of the Church was
assembled was to settle a dispute between one Arius, a presbyter of
Alexandria, and his bishop, Alexander, of the same city, respecting
the doctrine of the Godhead. The dispute proved to be far-reaching in
its effects, and for three hundred years the rivalry of the contending
factions disturbed the peace of Christendom. We shall have clearer
conceptions of the subject, however, and be better able to judge of the
extent to which there was a departure from the true doctrine respecting
the Godhead, by the definitions formulated and enforced upon the Church
by the council of Nicea, if we first consider the doctrine of the
Godhead as found in the Testament.

_The Christian Doctrine of God_.

The existence of God both Jesus and the Apostles accepted as a fact.
In all the teachings of the former He nowhere seeks to prove God's
existence. He assumes that, and proceeds from that basis with His
doctrine. He declares the fact that God was His Father, and frequently
calls Himself the Son of God. [160] After His resurrection and
departure into heaven, the Apostle taught that He, the Son of God, was
with God the Father in the beginning; that He, as well as the Father,
was God; that under the direction of the Father He was the Creator of
{LXXXII} worlds; that without Him was not anything made that was made.
[161] That in him dwelt all the fulness of the Godhead bodily; [162]
and that He was the express image of the Father's person. [163] Jesus
Himself taught that He and the Father were one [164] that whosoever
had seen Him had seen the Father also; [165] that it was part of His
mission to reveal God, the Father, through His own personality; for
as was the Son, so too was the Father. [166] Hence Jesus was God
manifested in flesh--a revelation of God to the world. [167] That is, a
revelation, not only of the _being_ of God, but of the _kind_ of being
God is.

Jesus also taught (and in doing so showed in what the "oneness" of
Himself and His Father consisted) that the disciples might be one
with Him, and also one with each other, _as_ He and the Father were
one. [168] Not one in person--not all merged into one individual, and
all distinctions of personality lost; but one in mind, in knowledge,
in love, in will--one by reason of the indwelling in all of the one
spirit, even as the mind and will of God the Father was also in Jesus
Christ. [169]

The Holy Ghost, too, was upheld by the Christian religion to be God.
[170] Jesus ascribed to Him a distinct personality; as proceeding from
the Father; as sent forth in the name of the Son, as feeling love;
experiencing grief; as forbidding; as abiding; as teaching; as bearing
witness; as appointing to work; and as interceding for men. All of
which clearly establishes for Him a personality.

The distinct personality of these three individual Gods (united however
into one Godhead, or Divine Council), was made apparent at the baptism
of Jesus; for as He, God the Son, came up out of the water from His
baptism at the hands of John, a manifestation of the presence of the
Holy Ghost was given in the sign of the dove which rested upon Jesus,
while out of the glory of heaven the voice of God the Father was heard
saying, "This," referring to Jesus, "is my beloved Son, in whom I am
well pleased." The distinctness of the personality of each member of
the Godhead is also shown by the commandment to baptize those who
believe the Gospel equally in the name of each person of the Holy
Trinity. That is, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of
the {LXXXIII} Holy Ghost. [171] And again, also, in the Apostolic
benediction, viz., "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of
God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all." [172]

These three personages constitute the Christian Godhead, the Holy
Trinity. In early Christian theology they were regarded as the Supreme
Governing and Creating Power in heaven and in earth. Of which Trinity
the Father was worshiped in the name of the Son, while the Holy Ghost
bore record of both the Father and the Son. And though the Holy Trinity
was made all of three distinct persons, yet did they constitute but one
Godhead, or Supreme Governing Power.

This outline of the doctrine of God derived from the New Testament
represents Him as anthropomorphic; that is, like man in form; or,
rather, it re-affirms the old doctrine found in the book of Genesis,
viz., that man is created in the image of God, and after His likeness.
The outline of New Testament doctrine of God also ascribes to Him what
are called human attributes and feelings; but as in the foregoing we
first say that God is represented as being in human form, and then to
get the exact truth say: "Or, rather, man was created in the image and
likeness of God," so in this latter case, when we have said that the
doctrine of the New Testament ascribes human attributes and feelings to
God, to get the exact truth we should say: "Or, rather, man possesses
the attributes of God"--the attributes of knowing, willing, judging,
loving, etc.--though it should be stated, of course, that man does not
possess these attributes in their perfection, as God does. The same may
also be said of the physical perfections. While man has been created in
the image and likeness of God, yet our bodies in their present state
of imperfection--sometimes stunted in growth, diseased, subject to
sickness, wasting, decay, and death--cannot be said to be like God's
glorious, perfect physical body, yet we have the Divine word that our
bodies shall be like His:

"_For our conversation is in heaven: from whence also we look for the
Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ: who shall change our vile body, that it
may be {LXXXIV} fashioned like unto His glorious body, according to the
working whereby He is able even to subdue all things unto Himself._"
[173]

So also the attributes of the spirit of man--the attributes of the
mind--now imperfect, impure, unholy, and limited in the range of vision
and apprehension of things, owing largely to the conditions in which
man finds himself placed in this earth-life (and all for a wise purpose
in God's economy); yet the time will come that it will be with the
spirit as with the body; for God shall change our vile spirit that it
may be fashioned like unto His own glorious spirit, "according to the
working whereby He is able even to subdue all things unto Himself."
That whereas now we see only as through a glass, darkly, then we shall
see as we are seen; that whereas now we know but in part, then we shall
know even as we are known. [174]

The foregoing doctrine of God, taught to the Christians in Apostolic
times, awakened their pious reverence without exciting their curiosity.
They dealt with no metaphysical abstractions, but were contented to
accept the teachings of the Apostles in humble faith, and believed that
Jesus Christ was the complete manifestation of Deity, and the express
image of God His Father; and hence a revelation to them of God; while
the Holy Ghost they accepted as God's witness and messenger to them.

_Paganization of the Christian Doctrine of God_.

But Christianity, as is well known, came in contact with other
doctrines concerning Deity. It was almost immediately brought in touch
with the mysticism of the Orient and also with the philosophy of the
Greeks, who took so much delight in intellectual subtleties. In the
Oriental philosophies, and in the Greek, there was conceived the idea
of a trinity in Deity; an idea which possibly may have come down from
the doctrines revealed to the patriarchs concerning the Godhead, but
which had been corrupted and rendered unintelligible by the vain
philosophizings of men. In some of the Oriental systems the trinity
or Trimurti consisted of Brahma, the Creator; Vishnu, the Preserver;
and Siva, the Destroyer. It will be seen, however, that this trinity
is not necessarily one of persons, or individuals, but may be one of
attributes, qualities, or even a trinity of functions in _one being_;
and in this way it is usually understood. [175]

Plato's trinity is sometimes stated in the terms, "First Cause; Reason,
or Logos; and Soul of the Universe;" but more commonly in these:
"Goodness, Intellect, and Will." The nature of the Greek trinity has
long been a matter of contention among the learned, and one indeed
that is not settled to this day. Is there indicated in his system
"a true and proper tri-personality, or merely a personification of
three impersonalities," a trinity of attributes or functions? The
answers to these questions are varied, and would require too much
space for consideration here. Christians having been taught to accept
the New Testament doctrine of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit as
constituting one Godhead, Christianity no sooner came in contact with
the philosophies of the Greeks and Egyptians than there was an effort
made to {LXXXV} identify the Christian trinity with that of the Greek
and other philosophies. The temptation to do this was very great.
Christianity was a proscribed religion and its followers detested.
Whenever it could be shown, therefore, that under new symbols the
Church really taught the same doctrines that the old philosophers,
which were held in esteem, did, it was regarded as a distinct gain
to Christianity. The mere fact of Christianity teaching a trinity of
any kind was a sufficient basis of comparison, under the temptation
offered, and hence in a short time we have the alleged followers of
Christ involved in all the metaphysical disputations of the age. The
chief difficulty in those speculations was to define the nature of
the Logos, or Word of God; a title that is given to our Savior by the
Apostle St. John, [176] be it remembered. Adopting absolute "being"
as the postulate of their conception of God, absolute oneness, and
therefore absolute singleness, their difficulties arose in trying
to reconcile the existence of three persons in the Godhead to the
postulate of unity. The disputations were carried on chiefly concerning
Christ, the "Word," in His relationship to the Godhead; and the
disputants concerned themselves with such questions as these: "Is
Jesus the Word?" "If He be the Word, did He emanate from God in time
or before time?" "If He emanated from God, is He co-eternal and of
the _same_, that is _identical_, substance with Him, or merely of
a _similar_ substance?" "Is He distinct from the Father, that is,
separate from Him, or is He not?" "Is He made or begotten?" "Can He
beget in return?" "Has He paternity, or productive virtue without
paternity?" Similar questions were asked as to the other Person of
the Godhead, the Holy Spirit. These questions were violently agitated
at Alexandria by the bishop of that city, Alexander, and one of the
presbyters, Arius, 318-321 A. D.; thence spread throughout Christendom,
and culminated finally in the Council at Nicea, 325 A. D. Arius
held the doctrine that Logos or Word was a dependent or spontaneous
production created out of nothing by the will of the Father, hence
the Son of God, by whom all things were made, begotten before all
worlds; but there had been a time when the Logos _was not_; and also
He was of a substance, however similar it might be, different from
the Father. This doctrine, in the minds of the opponents of Arius,
detracted from the divine nature of Christ, in fact, denied Him true
Deity and relegated Him to the position of a creature, against which
the piety of a large number of Christians rebelled. After six years of
hot disputation and frequent appeals by the contestants to the emperor,
the council of Nicea was assembled and the mysteries of the Christian
faith submitted to public debate, a portion of the time, at least, in
the presence of the emperor, who, {LXXXVI} to some extent, seemed to
exercise the functions of president over the assembly. The doctrine of
Arius was condemned, and after "long deliberations, among struggles,
and scrupulous examinations," the following creed was adopted:

    We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, creator of all things
    visible and invisible; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of
    God, only begotten of the Father, that is, of the substance of
    the Father, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God,
    begotten, not made, being of the same substance with the Father, by
    whom all things were made in heaven and in earth, who for us men
    and for our salvation came down from heaven, was incarnate, was
    made man, suffered, rose again the third day, ascended into the
    heavens, and He will come to judge the living and the dead; and in
    the Holy Ghost. Those who say there was a time when He was not,
    and He was not before He was begotten, and He was made of nothing
    (he was created), or who says that He is of another hypostatis, or
    of another substance (than the Father), or that the Son of God is
    created, that he is mutable, or subject to change, the Catholic
    church anathematizes. [177]

Arius himself was condemned as a heretic and banished into one of the
remote provinces, Ilyricum, his friends and disciples branded by law,
with the odius name of "Porphyrians," because it is supposed that
Arius, like Porphyry, had sought to injure Christianity. His writings
were condemned to the flames and a capital punishment was pronounced
against those in whose possession they should be found. Three years
later, however, through the influence of the women at the imperial
court, Constantine softened in his demeanor towards Arius and his
followers. The exiles were recalled and Arius himself was received at
court and his faith approved by a synod of prelates and presbyters at
Jerusalem; but on the day that he was to be publicly received in the
cathedral church at Constantinople, by the order of the emperor, who,
by the way, received the sacrament at the hands of Arius, he expired
under circumstances which have led many to believe that other means
than the prayers of the orthodox against him were the cause of his
death. The leaders of the orthodox party, Athanasius of Alexandria,
Eustathius of Antioch, and Paul of Constantinople, were now to feel
the wrath of the first Christian emperor. They were deposed on various
occasions and by the sentence of numerous councils, and banished into
distant provinces. In fact, so far from the adoption of the Nicene
creed ending the conflict which had arisen, it was more like the
opening of that controversy which agitated Christendom for so long, and
resulted in so many shameful conflicts. Councils were arrayed against
councils, and though they never could convince one another of error,
they never failed, in the spirit of such Christian charity as was
then extant, to close their {LXXXVII} decrees with curses. Votes were
bartered for and purchased in those councils, and facts justify the
latent sarcasm in Gibbon's remark, that "the cause of truth and justice
was promoted by the influence of gold." There were persecutions and
counter-persecutions, as now one party and then the other prevailed;
there were assassinations and bloody battles over this doctrine of
Deity, the accounts of which fill, as they also disgrace, our Christian
annals. The creed which was adopted at Nicea, however, became the
settled doctrine of orthodox Christendom, and remains so to this day.

It is difficult to determine which is really the worst, the creed
itself or the explanations of it. At any rate, we do not clearly see
the impiety of its doctrines until we listen to the explanations that
have been made of it. Athanasius himself has left on record a creed
explanatory of the one adopted at Nicea. True, among the learned,
many doubt Athanasius being the author of the creed which bears his
name; but, however much doubt may be thrown upon that question, no one
hesitates to accept it as the orthodox explanation of the doctrine of
Deity, and, in fact, it is accepted as one of the important symbols of
the Christian faith, and is as follows:

    We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity, neither
    confounding the persons nor dividing the substance. For there is
    one person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the
    Holy Ghost. But the Godhead of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost is
    all one; the glory equal, the majesty co-eternal. Such as the
    Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Ghost. The Father
    uncreate, the Son uncreate, and the Holy Ghost uncreate. The Father
    incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible, and the Holy Ghost
    incomprehensible. The Father eternal, the Son eternal, and the
    Holy Ghost eternal. And yet there are not three eternals, but one
    eternal. As also there are not three incomprehensibles, nor three
    uncreate, but one uncreate and one incomprehensible. So likewise
    the Father is almighty, the Son almighty, and the Holy Ghost
    almighty; and yet they are not three almighties, but one almighty.
    So the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God;
    and yet there are not three Gods, but one God.

As already stated, this creed of St. Athanasius is accepted as one of
the symbols of the orthodox Christian faith. It is understood that
these two creeds teach that God is incorporeal, that is to say, an
immaterial being. The Catholic church says: "There is but one God,
the creator of heaven and earth, the supreme _incorporeal_, uncreated
being who exists of Himself and is infinite in all his attributes."
[178] While the Church of England teaches in her articles of faith
"that there is but one living and true God everlasting, _without body_,
[179] parts, or passions, of infinite {LXXXVIII} power, wisdom and
goodness." This view of God as an incorporeal, immaterial, bodiless,
partless, passionless, being is now and has been from the days of the
great apostasy from God and Christ, in the second and third centuries,
the doctrine of Deity generally accepted by apostate Christendom.
The simple doctrine of the Christian Godhead, set forth in the New
Testament is corrupted by the meaningless jargon of these creeds,
and their explanations; and the learned who profess a belief in them
are wandering in the darkness of the mysticisms of the old pagan
philosophies. No wonder that Athanasius himself, whom Gibbon with a
quiet sarcasm calls the most sagacious of the Christian theologians,
candidly confessed that whenever he forced his understanding to mediate
on the divinity of the Logos (and which, of course, involved the whole
doctrine of the Godhead), his "toilsome and unavailing efforts recoiled
on themselves; and the more he thought, the less he comprehended: and
the more he wrote, the less capable was he of expressing his thoughts!"
It is a fine passage with which Gibbon closes his reflections upon this
subject, and hence I shall give it place here:

    In every step of the inquiry, we are compelled to feel and
    acknowledge the immeasurable disproportion between the size of the
    object and the capacity of the human mind. We may try to abstract
    the notions of time, of space, and of matter, which so closely
    adhere to all the perceptions of our experimental knowledge; but as
    soon as we presume to reason of infinite substance, or spiritual
    generation; as often as we deduce any _positive_ conclusions from
    a _negative_ idea, we are involved in darkness, perplexity, and
    inevitable contradiction. [180]

Recurrence to the New Testament doctrine of God, and a comparison of
it with the doctrine of Deity set forth in the Nicean and Athanasian
creeds, will exhibit the wide departure--the absolute apostasy--that
has taken place in respect of this most fundamental of all doctrines
of religion--the doctrine of God. Truly "Christians" have denied the
Lord that bought them, [181] and turned literally to fables. They have
enthroned a conception of a negative idea of "being," which can stand
in no possible relationship to man, nor man to it; and to this they
ascribe divine attributes and give it title, knee and adoration which
belong to God alone. Small wonder that the angel whom John saw flying
in the midst of heaven having the everlasting Gospel to commit to the
earth in the hour of God's judgment, in the last days, should cry aloud
to the inhabitants of the earth, saying, "Fear God and give glory to
Him; * * * * and worship Him that made {LXXXIX} heaven, and earth, and
the sea, and the fountains of waters" [182]--small wonder, I repeat,
that such should be part of this great message, for truly the whole
world had departed from the worship of the true and living God.

_The Church of Christ Displaced by the Churches of Men_.

The departure from the form and spirit of church government was no less
marked than the moral and spiritual declension among the Christians
of the early centuries of the era, or the departure from the true
doctrine of Deity. Beyond filling the vacancy in the council of the
Twelve Apostles, occasioned by the fall of Judas, there is no clear
and satisfactory evidence that other successors of the Apostles were
ever chosen, though the fair implication is that the organization of
the Church with Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Seventies, Bishops,
Teachers, etc., was to be perpetuated as at first established. At
least this organization was given for the perfecting of the saints,
for the work of the ministry, until the saints should come to a unity
of the faith and the knowledge of the Son of God; [183] so that the
plain inference is that as long as there are saints to be perfected,
or edified, or united, or brought to the knowledge of God; so long as
there is work for a ministry, or the necessity of a Church through the
agency of which the truth is to be taught to the world, so long as
it will be necessary to perpetuate the organization given of God for
the achievement of those high purposes. To say that man could devise
a better organization for the accomplishment of these several objects
would be to challenge the wisdom of God. To say that any of these means
provided in the Church organization could be dispensed with, would be
to contradict the plain teaching of scripture, which, in this very
connection forbids the eye to say to the hand, I have no need of thee;
or the head to the feet, I have no need of you; that is, one officer
of the Church may not say to another officer, I have no need of thee.
[184] The doctrine of scripture is that all the officers of the Church
together with their several gifts are essential to the Church of
Christ; essential to its perfection; essential to the performance of
the sacred functions assigned to it. Yet it must be conceded that the
organization described in the New Testament did not survive the last of
the Apostles; or preserve much beyond that time, the spirit which the
Master had impressed upon it. [185]

The Apostles, while they lived, exercised a general jurisdiction
over the Church, to which all submitted without question. In the
exercise {XC} of their general authority they organized branches
of the Church, appointed Elders or Bishops to take the oversight
of them, and instructed them in Church government, and discipline,
and doctrine. After the demise of the Apostles, there seems to have
been left no central authority to exercise the functions of general
supervision or presidency over the entire Church, such as the Twelve
had exercised. That center of unity, together with the power thereof,
seems to have vanished from the Church with the Apostles. The bishops
and some subordinate officers remained, it is true, but these were
local, not general authorities. The Church in each city or district of
country after the Apostolic age, seems to have been regarded as a sort
of independent republic of itself, without any bond of consociation
with any other church beyond that which was the result of possessing
a common faith in Christianity, which bond was one of sympathy
merely, not of hierarchal association. The rise of the hierarchy with
the centralization of its powers in the bishop of Rome, and which
ultimately dominated the whole Church, and not only the Church but,
directly or indirectly, the western civilized world, came later, and
was of gradual development; and when it was finally established, it
was not the organization described in the New Testament, the Church
with an inspired priesthood of Apostles, and Prophets, Evangelists,
Seventies, and Pastors, etc., but a hierarchy fashioned by man out
of such remnants of Church organization as survived Apostolic times.
As the number of Christians increased, the bishops of large cities
organized new branches of the Church in the suburbs of their cities,
and in the towns and villages adjacent, and ordained for them a
ministry. It was but natural perhaps that the officers of these new
branches of the Church, both the bishops and the subordinate clergy,
should look to the one who had brought them into existence as a sort
of general presiding authority over them. And hence, in time arose
what were called metropolitan bishops, bishops who had under their
direction the bishops of neighboring towns and villages--bishops of
the "suburbs and the fields," they were sometimes called--and perhaps
of the entire province of which the metropolitan city was recognized
as the center. As the bishops of the metropolis of a province, in
the manner described, became the center of ecclesiastical unity for
that province, so, too, in time, the bishops of cities which were the
capitals of the three great divisions {XCI} of the empire--Antioch,
Alexandria and Rome--asserted a superior dignity over metropolitan
bishops. It was in these cities that the exarchs of the empire
resided, and if we may trust the authority of Neander, the bishops of
these cities also, at first, took that title, but later made choice
of the more ecclesiastical name of Patriarch. [186] In addition to
the importance attached to these cities as the capitals of the great
divisions of the empire, a superior dignity in the minds of Christians
attached to the Churches founded by the Apostles as the surest
depositories of the Apostolic teaching and doctrine; and as Apostolic
origin could be claimed for the churches in the three cities named,
it is not surprising, when their political importance is added, that
the bishops of those cities claimed superior dignity for their office,
and united under their jurisdiction the metropolitan bishops of the
respective three great divisions of the empire. Subsequently the same
title was granted to the bishop of Jerusalem, and to the bishop of
Constantinople; to the former it was granted in virtue of the peculiar
sanctity which attaches to Jerusalem, and the fact that the first
Christian Church was planted there; to the latter, because it was
made the capital of the empire, "New Rome;" and because also it was
peculiarly the city of the first imperial patron of Christianity. Thus
five patriarchates were established.

Through circumstances too numerous and intricate to detail here, the
bishops of Rome changed the primacy of mere precedence which had been
accorded them among associated brethren, to a primacy of power and
jurisdiction, which resulted in the bishops of Rome becoming recognized
as the supreme head of the Christian Church; and the papacy entered
upon that marvelous career which by the impartial can but be regarded
as the shame of the Christian name.

Attention has already been called to the corruptions which prevailed
in that period of peace in the closing decades of the third century,
where bishops are represented as being full of pride and ostentation;
as deserting the law of piety and being inflamed against each other
with mutual strifes, only accumulating quarrels, threats, rivalships,
hostilities, hatred towards each other, and only anxious to assert
the Church government as a kind of sovereignty for themselves. [187]
And all this when Christianity was a proscribed religion; and when
the Church, and especially its leaders, the bishops, were liable to
severest persecution. Reason and a due consideration of human nature
both combined to fix upon us the conviction that the bitterness
of rivalry, of hatred, of ambition, must have greatly increased
when metropolitan and patriarchal bishops, formerly proscribed and
hunted like wild beasts, rose to the dignity of civil princes, and
took upon them more and ever more of the spirit of worldliness as
wealth and honor and popular applause were made the accompaniments
of their ecclesiastical offices. History confirms what reason and a
knowledge of human nature suggests; for the history of the Church
after the elevation of proscribed Christianity to the dignity of the
state religion of the Roman empire, is but the melancholy history of
unholy ambitions, jealousies, strifes, contentions, murders, and wars
between rival bishops and their adherents on the one {XCII} hand; and
equally unholy struggles for worldly advantages with kings and rulers
of this world, on the other. The spirit that actuated the bishops of
the Church after their elevation through the policy of Constantine is
admirably illustrated by a remark of Gregory of Nazianzus, made in
Constantinople, 380 A. D., when deploring the evils of the Church. He
says:

    Would to heaven there were no primacy, no eminence of place, and no
    tyrannical precedence of rank; that we might be known by eminence
    of virtue alone! But, as the case now stands, the distinction of a
    seat at the right hand or the left, or in the middle; at a higher
    or a lower place; of going before or aside of each other, has given
    rise to many disorders among us, to no salutary purpose whatsoever
    and plunged multitudes in ruin. [188]

Matters in Church government did not mend with time, but grew worse
and worse. Pride increased; rivalship between contending prelates grew
more embittered; ambition mounted higher and ever higher in the breasts
of the shepherds of the flock of Christ. In his association with his
Apostles--to whom he committed the keys of His kingdom--the Master had
discouraged ambition and had said that he who would be great among his
followers must be their minister; and whosoever would be chief among
them, was to be their servant; and the government of His Church was to
be distinct in these particulars from the governments of this world.
[189] But all in vain were the instructions of Messiah to the worldly,
ambitious prelates of an apostate Christianity which had gradually
supplanted the religion of Jesus Christ; and henceforth we may see in
that hierarchy which usurped the place of the Church of Christ from
the time of Constantine, all the spirit of pride, envy, jealousy,
contention, strife, selfishness, bitterness, and unholy ambition which
characterized the princes and rulers of this world; attended, too,
with all the evils that wait upon these passions of rulers when once
let loose, viz., secret plottings, usurpations of authority, corrupt
elections, cruel imprisonments, banishments, secret and public murders,
and wars; all undertaken, of course, in the interest of the gentle
religion of Jesus Christ, and the maintenance of that authority which
is based on love, and whose control over men is through the means of
persuasion and the teaching of true knowledge. Is it not evident that
the kingdom of peace, wherein was to dwell righteousness and truth,
had become merely one of the kingdoms of this world? And were not the
Fratriceli of the thirteenth century, though denounced as heretics,
right when they loudly proclaimed their conviction that "the fatal
gift of a Christian emperor had been the doom of the true Christian
religion?"

{XCIII} _The Testimony of Prophecy to the Universal Apostasy_.

Clear as the fact is made in this historical view that there was a
complete and universal apostasy from the religion established in
the Dispensation of the Meridian of Time; and clear as is the proof
from the same review that the Church of Christ then established was
destroyed, there is yet another line of evidence pointing to the same
solemn fact that I can not altogether omit, though often used in our
literature, viz., the testimony of prophecy to the apostasy from the
Christian religion, and the destruction of the Church of Christ.

The Apostles themselves through the inspiration of the Holy Ghost were
fully aware that such an apostasy would take place, as the following
several predictions bear witness: Paul passing through Ephesus
admonished the Elders of that Church to take heed to the flock "over
which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers; * * * * * for I know
this, that after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among
you, not sparing the flock. Also of your own selves shall men arise,
speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them." [190]

To Timothy Paul said: "the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the
latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing
spirits, and doctrines of devils; speaking lies in hypocrisy; having
their conscience seared with a hot iron; forbidding to marry and
commanding to abstain from meats." [191] And again: "I charge thee to
preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke,
exhort with all long suffering and doctrine. For the time will come
when they will not endure sound doctrine, but after their own lusts
they shall heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears; and they
shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto
fables." [192]

And still again he said to Timothy: "This know also, that in the last
days perilous times shall come. For men shall be lovers of their own
selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents,
unthankful, unholy, without natural affection, truce breakers, false
accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good,
traitors, heady, highminded, lovers of pleasure more than lovers of
God; having a form of Godliness, but denying the power thereof: from
such turn away." [193]

Peter's prophecy concerning the rise of false teachers among the
saints, who privately would bring in damnable heresies, even denying
the Lord who bought them, and by reason of whom the way of truth would
be evil spoken of, we have already quoted. [194]

{XCIV} Paul in his second epistle to the Thessalonians gives utterance
to a prophecy which covers the whole ground of the absolute and
universal apostasy of Christendom. A prophecy which, if the apostasy
of so-called Christendom has not been complete and universal, proves
beyond all question that the great Apostle of the Gentiles is a false
prophet; or if fulfilled, then it proves that the Church of Christ, so
far as it existed in the earth was to be destroyed; that another and
different religion was to be substituted for the Christian religion:
that another church, one founded by men, was to take the place of the
Church of Christ, a worldly church dominated by the very spirit of
Lucifer, who, under its rule, would oppose and exalt himself above all
that is called God; and sit in the temple of God showing himself, so
far as this world is concerned, that he is God. Moreover Paul declared
in this very prophecy I am about to quote that the forces which would
ultimately bring to pass this universal apostasy from the Christian
religion--"the mystery of iniquity--" was already at work even in his
day. With this introduction, which is also to be considered as my
comment upon and interpretation of the passage, I quote Paul's great
prediction on the universal Apostasy.

    Now we beseech you, brethren, by the coming of our Lord Jesus
    Christ, and by our gathering together unto Him, that ye be not soon
    shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor
    by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand. Let no
    man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except
    there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed,
    the Son of Perdition; who opposeth and exalteth himself above all
    that is called God, or that is worshiped; so that he as God sitteth
    in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God. Remember
    ye not, that, when I was yet with you, I told you these things?
    And now ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his
    time. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only he who
    now letteth [hindereth] will let [hinder], until he be taken out
    of the way. And then shall that wicked be revealed, whom the Lord
    shall consume with the spirit of His mouth, and shall destroy with
    the brightness of His coming: even him whose coming is after the
    working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders, and
    with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish;
    because they receive not the love of the truth, that they might
    be saved. And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion,
    that they should believe a lie: that they all might be damned who
    believe not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness. [195]

A more ancient prophet than Paul also predicted a like condition of
the world in the last days. "Behold," says Isaiah, "the Lord maketh
the earth empty, and maketh it waste, and turneth it upside down, and
scattereth abroad the inhabitants thereof. And it shall be, as with the
people, so with the priest. * * * * * The land shall be utterly emptied
and utterly spoiled: for the Lord hath spoken this word. The {XCV}
earth mourneth and fadeth away, the world languisheth and fadeth away,
the haughty people of the earth do languish. The earth also is defiled
under the inhabitants thereof; because they have transgressed the laws,
changed the ordinance, broken the everlasting covenant. Therefore hath
the curse devoured the earth, and they that dwell therein are desolate:
therefore the inhabitants of the earth are burned, and few men left."
[196]

Clearly all this prophecy of Isaiah's has not yet been fulfilled; for
the earth, however much it may have been defiled under the inhabitants
thereof, has not yet been burned, and but few men left. That is a
judgment that still hangs over the world; and will come upon it as
sure as the Lord has spoken the word; and that, too, because men have
transgressed the laws; because they have changed the ordinances,
because they have broken--not the covenant made with Moses, or with
Abraham--but because they have broken the everlasting covenant; of
which covenant the blood of Christ is the sign and seal. [197] In other
words, they have broken the Gospel covenant--departed from the Gospel
faith--hence the predicted judgment.

If I did not think these two great prophecies foretold completely the
universal apostasy of Christendom, I should be tempted to enter into
the consideration of the great prophecies to be found in the book
of Daniel and the book of Revelation, and show how to both of these
prophets, as well as unto Paul and other New Testament writers, the
Lord revealed the rise of an earth power that would not only open
his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme His name and them
who dwell in heaven; [198] who would speak great words against the
Most High, and so magnify himself as to stand up against the Prince
of princes [199]--but who would also make war with the saints and
"prevail against them;" [200] who would "wear out the saints of the
Most High;" [201] "destroy the mighty and the holy people;" [202] "make
war with the saints and overcome them." [203] But believing that the
two passages quoted at length entirely cover the subject prophetically,
I shall not here enter into further prophetic proofs either as to
the corruptions of the Christian religion or the destruction of
the Christian Church, deeming that what has already been set forth
sufficient on that head.

_Conclusion_.

The sum of the whole matter is:--The purpose of man's creation, and the
plan of his redemption, were known to God and the immense host {XCVI}
of the spirits of men before the creation of the earth. Adam came to
the new creation, the earth, under the divine commandment to people it
with his offspring. From Adam to Messiah numerous dispensations of the
Gospel were given to men; but these dispensations were limited in their
effectiveness, owing to the proneness of men to reject the truth, and
to walk in darkness rather than light because their deeds were evil.
Yet God left not Himself without witnesses in the earth; for there
were a few in all dispensations that honored Him and His righteous
laws. Finally, when the appointed time was come, Jesus of Nazareth,
the Son of God, came and made the appointed Atonement for the sins of
the world and brought men under the dominion of His mercy. He taught
the Gospel; He brought life and immortality to light; He brought into
existence His Church, and then ascended on high to His Father. For a
time the Gospel in its purity was preached in the world by the chosen
Apostles, though even in their day men began to mar it with their vain
philosophies, their doctrines of science, falsely so called; and when
the Apostles were all fallen asleep, then corruptions ran riot in the
Church, doctrines of men were taught for the commandments of God; a
church made by men was substituted for the Church of Christ; a church
full of pride and worldliness; a church which while it clung to forms
of godliness ran riot in excesses and abominations--until spiritual
darkness fell like a pall over the nations; and thus they lay for
ages. In vain men sought to establish reforms, and through them bring
back the religion of Jesus Christ, and the Church of Christ. To do
that, however, was beyond the power of these men, however good their
intentions. The Gospel taken from the earth, divine authority lost, the
Church of Christ destroyed, there was but one way in which all these
could be restored, viz.: By re-opening the heavens and dispensing again
a knowledge of the Gospel; by once more conferring divine authority
upon men, together with a commission to teach all the world, and
re-establish the Church of Christ on earth. In a word, it would require
the incoming of the Dispensation of the Fulness of Times to restore all
things, and gather together in one all things in Christ, both in heaven
and in earth. Such Dispensation is promised of God, as we have seen;
and now it only remains to add that the History of the Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints, as set forth in these volumes, is the
history of that series of events which has resulted in the restoration
of the Gospel in its fullness, and the re-establishment of the Church
of Jesus Christ on earth.

Footnotes

1. Eph. 1:8-10.

2. I Peter 1:18-25.

3. Rev. 13:8.

4. Rev. 17:8.

5. Job 38:4-6.

6. Paul to Titus 1:2.

7. Pearl of Great Price, Book of Moses, ch. 5:6-8, Edition of 1902,
quoted throughout.

8. Pearl of Great Price, Book of Moses, ch. 5:56-59.

9. Pearl of Great Price, Book of Moses, ch 6:48-52.

10. Gen. 5:24.

11. Heb. 11:5.

12. Pearl of Great Price, Book of Moses, ch. 7:69.

13. Heb. 7:1.

14. 1 Cor. 10:1-4.

15. Heb. 3:14-19 and 4:1-2. This cites the close of one chapter and
the opening verses of another, but it should be remembered that Paul
did not divide his epistle into chapters and verses; and this awkward
division is but one of the many divisions that exist in the Scriptures.

16. Gal. 3.

17. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 84:19-28.

18. Mark 1:15.

19. Gal. 4:4.

20. Heb 1:1, 2.

21. I John 2:18.

22. Acts 2:15-21.

23. Joel 2:28-32.

24. Isaiah 11:6-9.

25. Matt. 24:29-31.

26. Eph. 1:10.

27. Dan. 2:37-45.

28. Edition of 1878, page 622.

29. Rev. 5:10.

30. Rev. 11:15.

31. Ibid. 11:17, 18.

32. Ibid. 20:6.

33. Matt. 21:43.

34. Acts 13:46, 47.

35. History of the Church, vol. 1, p. 6.

36. Matt. 20:20-24.

37. Matt. 26:69-75.

38. Acts 15

39. Galatians 2:1-14.

40. Acts 16:1-4.

41. Gal. 1:6, 7.

42. Acts 13:13.

43. I Cor. 1:12-13.

44. I Cor. 3:3, 4.

45. I Cor. 5:1-3.

46. I Cor. 6:1-20, and Matt. 18:15, 17.

47. I Cor. 11:2-22 and 29, 30.

48. I Cor. 11:19.

49. I Cor. 15:12-34.

50. 2 Cor. 11:21

51. 2 Cor. 2:17.

52. 2 Cor. 11:12-14.

53. Gal. 1:6, 7.

54. Phil. 1:15, 16.

55. Phil. 3:2.

56. Phil. 3:17, 19.

57. Col. 2:8, 18.

58. I Tim. 1:4-7.

59. I Tim. 1:19, 20.

60. I Tim. 6:20, 21.

61. 2 Tim. 1:15.

62. 2 Tim. 2:16, 18.

63. 2 Tim. 4:10.

64. 2 Tim. 4:16.

65. Titus 1:9-14.

66. 2 Peter 2.

67. Ibid. 3:16.

68. I John 2:18, 19.

69. I John 4:1.

70. 2 John 1:7.

71. Jude 3, 4.

72. 2 Tim. 3:13.

73. Vol. 1, pp. 656, 657.

74. Lardner's _Works_, vol. 8, p. 330.

75. Eus. _Ec. Hist_., bk. 3, ch. 32.

76. _Institutes_, bk. 1 cent. 1, part 2, ch. 2.

77. Jortin's _Remarks on Ecclesiastical History_, vol. 1, p. 248.

78. Eusebius, bk. 3, ch. 39.

79. Lardner _Works_, vol. 8, p. 418.

80. Lardner _Works_, vol. 8, 449:470; also I Peter 3:18-21; Ibid, 4:6;
I Cor. 15:29.

81. Lardner, vol. 8, p. 460.

82. Ibid. p. 581-2.

83. Lardner, vol. 8, p. 345.

84. Held in 325 A. D.

85. Jortin, vol. 1, p. 166, note.

86. Lardner, vol. 8, p. 344.

87. Lardner, vol. 8, p. 345.

88. Neander's_ History of the Christian Religion and Church_, vol. 1,
p. 191.

89. Student's _Eccles. Hist._, vol. 1, p. 49.

90. Gibbon's _Roman Empire_, Preface by Dean Milman, p. 15.

91. _Institutes_, vol. 1, cent. 2, ch. 4.

92. Ibid. cent. 3, part 2. ch. 4.

93. Neander _Ch. Hist_., vol. 1, p. 253. _Decline and Fall_, vol. 2,
chap. 20.

94. Eusebius' _Life of Constantine_, bk. 1, 27.

95. _Hist. Eccles_., vol. I, bk. 1, ch. 17.

96. Zosimus, bk. 2, p. 104.

97. Neander's _Ch. Hist_., vol. 2, p. 8.

98. Gibbon, _Decline and Fall_, vol. 3, ch. 20.

99. Neander _Ch. Hist_., vol. 2, p. 23.

100. Neander _Ch. Hist_., vol. 2, p. 21.

101. _Intellectual Development of Europe_, vol. 1, p. 280.

102. Gibbon, _Decline and Fall_, ch. 20.

103. Neander _Ch. Hist_., vol. 2, p. 24.

104. Mosheim's _Institutes_, vol. 1, p. 214.

105. Lardner, vol. 4, p. 39.

106. Lardner, vol. 4, p. 39.

107. Lardner, vol. 4, p. 44.

108. Neander,_ Ch. Hist_., vol. 2, p. 25.

109. Neander, _Ch. Hist_., vol. 2, p. 25.

110. Draper, _Intellectual Development_, vol. 1, p. 283.

111. _Decline and Fall_. ch. 20.

112. _Life of Constantine_ (Eusebius) I, ch. 2:44.

113. Ibid, ch. 45.

114. _Life of Constantine,_ (Eusebius) I, ch. 4:23, 25.

115. Lardner, vol. 8, p. 169.

116. Neander, _Ch. Hist_., vol. 2, p. 26, 27.

117. Lardner, _Works_, vol. 4, p. 49.

118. Lardner, _Works_, vol. 4, p. 50.

119. Lardner, _Works_, vol. 8, p. 169.

120. In 353 A. D., according to Gothford.

121. The law is extant in the Theodocian Code

122. Neander, vol. 2, p. 34.

123. Neander, _Ch. Hist_., vol. 2, pp. 88-110.

124. Neander, _Ch. Hist_., vol. 2, p. 67.

125. Lardner, _Works_, vol. 8, p. 164.

126. Lardner, _Works_, vol. 8, p. 276.

127. _Decline and Fall_, ch. 21.

128. _Decline and Fall_, ch. 21.

129. _Decline and Fall_, ch. 21.

130. Lardner, _Works_, vol. 4, p. 36.

131. _Life of Constantine_, Eusebius, p. 66.

132. This event occured about 476 A. D.

133. _Decline and Fall_, ch. 16.

134. Luke 9:54-56.

135. Matt. 10:34-36.

136. _End of Religious Controversy_, Milner, Letter 26.

137. I Cor. 6:9-11.

138. Neander, _Ch. Hist_., vol. 1, p. 250.

139. Neander,_ Ch. Hist_., vol. 1, p. 259.

140. Milner's _Ch. Hist_., vol. 1, cent. 3, ch. 6.

141. Milner's _Ch. Hist_., vol. 1, cent. 3, ch. 6.

142. Milner's _Ch. Hist_., vol. 1, cent. 3, ch. 8.

143. Milner's _Ch. Hist_., vol. 1, cent. 3, ch. 17.

144. Eusebius' _Eccl. Hist_., bk. 8, ch. 1.

145. _New Witnesses for God_, pp. 75, 76.

146. Eusebius' _Eccl. Hist_., bk. 8, ch. 2.

147. _Book of Martyrs_, ch. 12.

148. See Milner's Introduction to his _Church Hist_., vol. 1.

149. Neander's _Church Hist_., vol 2, pp. 29-30.

150. Neander's _Church Hist_., vol 2, p. 30.

151. _Decline and Fall_, ch. 20.

152. Augustine on St. John, tract 25, ch. 10.

153. Neander's _Ch. Hist_., vol. 2, p. 120.

154. _Mosheim_, book 2, cent, 4, part 2, chap. 3.

155. Mark, 16:15-18.

156. I Cor., 12:4-11.

157. Gal. 5:22-24.

158. _Student's Ecclesiastical History_, vol. 1, p. 62.

159. Jortin's _Eccl. Hist_., vol. 1, pp. 134-6.

160. John 10; Matt. 27; Mark 14:61, 62.

161. For all of which see John 1:1-4, 14; Heb. 1:1-3; Matt. 28:18.

162. Col. 1:15-19, and 2:9.

163. Heb. 1:2, 3.

164. John 10:30; 17:11-22.

165. John 14:9.

166. John 14:1-9; John 1:18.

167. I Tim. 3:16.

168. John 14:10, 11, 19, 20; also John 17.

169. Eph. 3:14-19.

170. Acts 5:1-14. To lie to the Holy Ghost is to lie to God, because
the Holy Ghost is God.

171. Matt. 28:19, 20.

172. 2 Cor. 13:14.

173. Phil. 3:20, 21.

174. I Cor. 14.

175. See Shedd's _History of Christian Doctrine_, vol. 1, p. 342, _et
seq_. and note.

176. John 1:1-5, 14.

177. _Hist. Christian Councils_ (Hefele), p. 294.

178. _Catholic Belief_ (Bruno), p. 1.

179. I.e. without materiality.

180. _Decline and Fall_, 21.

181. 2 Peter, 2:1.

182. Rev. 14:6, 7.

183. I Cor. 12; Eph. 4.

184. I Cor. 12.

185. Matt. 20.

186. Neander, _Ch. Hist_., vol. 2, p. 196.

187. See pp. 73-75.

188. This remark is quoted by Neander, _Ch. Hist_., vol. 2, p. 198.

189. Matt. 20:26, 27.

190. Acts 20:28-30.

191. I Tim. 4:1, 2, 3.

192. 2 Tim. 4:1, 2, 3, 4.

193. 2 Tim. 3:1-5.

194. See page 48, and 2 Peter 1:3.

195. 2 Thes. 2:1-12.

196. Isaiah 24:1-6.

197. Heb. 13:10.

198. Rev. 13:6.

199. Dan. 7:25; 8:25.

200. Dan. 7:21.

201. Dan. 7:25.

202. Dan. 8:24.

203. Rev. 13:7.

{1}



Chapter I.

Joseph Smith's Birth and Lineage--the Prophet's First Vision--"This Is
My Beloved Son."

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Introduction.]

Owing to the many reports which have been put in circulation by
evil-disposed and designing persons, in relation to the rise and
progress of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, all of
which have been designed by the authors thereof to militate against
its character as a Church and its progress in the world--I have been
induced to write this history, to disabuse the public mind, and put
all inquirers after truth into possession of the facts, as they have
transpired, in relation both to myself and the Church, so far as I
have such facts in my possession. In this history I shall present the
various events in relation to this Church, in truth and righteousness,
as they have transpired, or as they at {2} present exist, being now the
eighth [1] year since the organization of said Church.

[Sidenote: Birth and Ancestry.]

I was born in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and
five, on the twenty-third day of December, in the town of Sharon,
Windsor county, state of Vermont. My father, Joseph Smith, was born
July 12th, 1771, in Topsfield, Essex county, Massachusetts; his father,
Asael Smith, was born March 7th, 1744, in Topsfield, Massachusetts;
his father, Samuel Smith, was born January 26th, 1714, in Topsfield,
Massachusetts; his father, Samuel Smith, was born January 26th, 1666,
in Topsfield, Massachusetts; his father, Robert Smith, came from
England. My father, Joseph Smith, Senior, left the state of Vermont,
and moved to Palmyra, Ontario (now Wayne) county, in the state of New
York, when I was in my tenth year, or thereabouts. In about four years
after my father's arrival in Palmyra he moved with his family into
Manchester, in the same county of Ontario, his family consisting of
eleven souls, namely--my father, Joseph Smith, my mother, Lucy Smith,
(whose name, previous to her marriage, was Mack, daughter of Solomon
Mack,) [2] my brothers Alvin, (who died November 19th, 1824, in the
27th year of his age,) Hyrum, myself, Samuel Harrison, William, Don
Carlos, and my sisters Sophronia, Catherine, and Lucy.

[Sidenote: Religious Excitement in Western New York.]

Some time in the second year after our removal to Manchester, there
was in the place where we lived an unusual excitement on the subject
of religion. It commenced with the Methodists, but soon became general
among all the sects in that region of country. Indeed, the whole
district of country seemed {3} affected by it, and great multitudes
united themselves to the different religious parties, which created no
small stir and division amongst the people, some crying, "Lo here!" and
others, "Lo, there!" Some were contending for the Methodist faith, some
for the Presbyterian, and some for the Baptist. For notwithstanding
the great love which the converts to these different faiths expressed
at the time of their conversion, and the great zeal manifested by the
respective clergy, who were active in getting up and promoting this
extraordinary scene of religious feeling, in order to have everybody
converted, as they were pleased to call it, let them join what sect
they pleased--yet when the converts began to file off, some to one
party and some to another, it was seen that the seemingly good feelings
of both the priests and the converts were more pretended than real; for
a scene of great confusion and bad feeling ensued; priest contending
against priest, and convert against convert; so that all their good
feelings one for another, if they ever had any, were entirely lost in a
strife of words and a contest about opinions.

[Sidenote: Reflections on Divided Christendom.]

I was at this time in my fifteenth year. My father's family was
proselyted to the Presbyterian faith, and four of them joined that
church, namely--my mother Lucy; my brothers Hyrum and Samuel Harrison;
and my sister Sophronia. During this time of great excitement, my mind
was called up to serious reflection and great uneasiness; but though my
feelings were deep and often poignant, still I kept myself aloof from
all these parties, though I attended their several meetings as often
as occasion would permit. In process of time my mind became somewhat
partial to the Methodist sect, and I felt some desire to be united with
them; but so great were the confusion and strife among the different
denominations, that it was impossible for a person young as I was, and
so unacquainted with men and things, to come to any certain conclusion
who was right and who was wrong. My mind at times was greatly excited,
the cry and tumult {4} were so great and incessant. The Presbyterians
were most decided against the Baptists and Methodists, and used all
the powers of both reason and sophistry to prove their errors, or, at
least, to make the people think they were in error. On the other hand,
the Baptists and Methodists in their turn were equally zealous in
endeavoring to establish their own tenets and disprove all others.

[Sidenote: Perplexity of the Prophet.]

In the midst of this war of words and tumult of opinions, I often said
to myself, what is to be done? Who of all these parties are right; or,
are they all wrong together? If any one of them be right, which is
it, and how shall I know it? While I was laboring under the extreme
difficulties caused by the contests of these parties of religionists,
I was one day reading the Epistle of James, first chapter and fifth
verse, which reads:

    If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all
    men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him.

[Sidenote: The Promise of James Tested.]

Never did any passage of Scripture come with more power to the heart
of man than this did at this time to mine. It seemed to enter with
great force into every feeling of my heart. I reflected on it again
and again, knowing that if any person needed wisdom from God, I did;
for how to act I did not know and unless I could get more wisdom than
I then had, I would never know; for the teachers of religion of the
different sects understood the same passage of Scripture so differently
as to destroy all confidence in settling the question by an appeal to
the Bible. At length I came to the conclusion that I must either remain
in darkness and confusion, or else I must do as James directs, that
is, ask of God. I at length came to the determination to "ask of God,"
concluding that if He gave wisdom to them that lacked wisdom, and would
give liberally, and not upbraid, I might venture. So, in accordance
with this, my determination to ask God, I retired to the woods to make
{5} the attempt. It was on the morning of a beautiful, clear day, early
in the spring of eighteen hundred and twenty. It was the first time in
my life that I had made such an attempt, for amidst all my anxieties I
had never as yet made the attempt to pray vocally.

[Sidenote: Effort of Satan to Destroy the Prophet.]

After I had retired to the place where I had previously designed to go,
having looked around me, and finding myself alone, I kneeled down and
began to offer up the desires of my heart to God. I had scarcely done
so, when immediately I was seized upon by some power which entirely
overcame me, and had such an astonishing influence over me as to bind
my tongue so that I could not speak. Thick darkness gathered around
me, and it seemed to me for a time as if I were doomed to sudden
destruction. But, exerting all my powers to call upon God to deliver
me out of the power of this enemy which had seized upon me, and at the
very moment when I was ready to sink into despair and abandon myself to
destruction--not to an imaginary ruin, but to the power of some actual
being from the unseen world, who had such marvelous power as I had
never before felt in any being--just at this moment of great alarm, I
saw a pillar of light exactly over my head, above the brightness of the
sun, which descended gradually until it fell upon me.

[Sidenote: The First Vision.]

It no sooner appeared than I found myself delivered from the enemy
which held me bound. When the light rested upon me I saw personages,
whose brightness and glory defy all description, standing above
me in the air. One of them spake unto me, calling me by name, and
said--pointing to the other--

_"THIS IS MY BELOVED SON, HEAR HIM."_

[Sidenote: State of Christian World.]

My object in going to inquire of the Lord was to know which of all the
sects was right, that I might know which to join. No sooner, therefore,
did I get possession of {6} myself, so as to be able to speak, than
I asked the personages who stood above me in the light, which of all
the sects was right--and which I should join. I was answered that I
must join none of them, for they were all wrong, and the personage who
addressed me said that all their creeds were an abomination in His
sight: that those professors were all corrupt; that "they draw near to
me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me; they teach for
doctrines the commandments of men: having a form of godliness, but they
deny the power thereof." He again forbade me to join with any of them:
and many other things did he say unto me, which I cannot write at this
time. When I came to myself again, I found myself lying on my back,
looking up into heaven. When the light had departed, I had no strength;
but soon recovering in some degree, I went home. And as I leaned up to
the fireplace, mother inquired what the matter was. I replied, "Never
mind, all is well--I am well enough off." I then said to my mother, "I
have learned for myself that Presbyterianism is not true."

[Sidenote: Sectarian Opposition.]

It seems as though the adversary was aware, at a very early period of
my life, that I was destined to prove a disturber and an annoyer of
his kingdom; else why should the powers of darkness combine against
me? Why the opposition and persecution that arose against me, almost
in my infancy? Some few days after I had this vision, I happened to be
in company with one of the Methodist preachers, who was very active in
the before-mentioned religious excitement, and, conversing with him
on the subject of religion, I took occasion to give him an account of
the vision which I had had. I was greatly surprised at his behavior;
he treated my communication not only lightly, but with great contempt,
saying, it was all of the devil, that there were no such things as
visions or revelations in these days; that all such things had ceased
with the Apostles, and that there {7} would never be any more of them.
I soon found, however, that my telling the story had excited a great
deal of prejudice against me among professors of religion, and was the
cause of great persecution, which continued to increase; and though I
was an obscure boy, only between fourteen and fifteen years of age, and
my circumstances in life such as to make a boy of no consequence in the
world, yet men of high standing would take notice sufficient to excite
the public mind against me, and create a bitter persecution; and this
was common among all the sects--all united to persecute me.

[Sidenote: Reflections upon Sectarian Opposition.]

It caused me serious reflection then, and often has since, how very
strange it was that an obscure boy, of a little over fourteen years
of age, and one, too, who was doomed to the necessity of obtaining a
scanty maintenance by his daily labor, should be thought a character
of sufficient importance to attract the attention of the great ones of
the most popular sects of the day, and in a manner to create in them
a spirit of the most bitter persecution and reviling. But strange or
not, so it was, and it was often the cause of great sorrow to myself.
However, it was nevertheless a fact that I had beheld a vision. I have
thought since, that I felt much like Paul, when he made his defense
before King Agrippa, and related the account of the vision he had when
he saw a light, and heard a voice; but still there were but few who
believed him; some said he was dishonest, others said he was mad; and
he was ridiculed and reviled. But all this did not destroy the reality
of his vision. He had seen a vision, he knew he had, and all the
persecution under heaven could not make it otherwise; and though they
should persecute him unto death, yet he knew, and would know to the
last breath, that he had both seen a light, and heard a voice speaking
unto him, and all the world could not make him think or believe
otherwise. So it was with me. I had actually seen a light, and in the
midst of that light I saw two personages, and they did in reality {8}
speak to me; and though I was hated and persecuted for saying that I
had seen a vision, yet it was true; and while they were persecuting me,
reviling me, and speaking all manner of evil against me falsely for so
saying, I was led to say in my heart, Why persecute me for telling the
truth? I have actually seen a vision, and who am I that I can withstand
God, or why does the world think to make me deny what I have actually
seen? For I had seen a vision; I knew it, and I knew that God knew it,
and I could not deny it, neither dared I do it, at least I knew that by
so doing I would offend God, and come under condemnation.

[Sidenote: All Doubts Settled.]

I had now got my mind satisfied so far as the sectarian world was
concerned; that it was not my duty to join with any of them, but to
continue as I was until further directed. I had found the testimony of
James to be true, that a man who lacked wisdom might ask of God, and
obtain, and not be upbraided.

Footnotes

1. That is, 1838, since the Church was organized April 6th, 1830. The
date at which the Prophet began the writing of this History is also
indicated on a subsequent page, where reference is made to the final
return of the plates to the angel, in whose charge they remained "until
this day, the second day of May, 1838."

2. The Mack family, at least back to Ebenezer Mack, grandfather
of Lucy, was from the state of Connecticut (_Joseph Smith and his
Progenitors_, by Lucy Smith, ch. 9.)

{9}



Chapter II.

The Visitation of Moroni--Existence of the Book of Mormon Made Known.

[Sidenote: Interval of Three Years 1820-23.]

I continued to pursue my common vocation in life until the twenty-first
of September, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-three, all the time
suffering severe persecution at the hands of all classes of men, both
religious and irreligious, because I continued to affirm that I had
seen a vision.

[Sidenote: Confession of Errors.]

During the space of time which intervened between the time I had the
vision and the year eighteen hundred and twenty-three--having been
forbidden to join any of the religious sects of the day, and being
of very tender years, and persecuted by those who ought to have been
my friends, and to have treated me kindly, and if they supposed me
to be deluded to have endeavored in a proper and affectionate manner
to have reclaimed me,--I was left to all kinds of temptations; and
mingling with all kinds of society, I frequently fell into many foolish
errors, and displayed the weakness of youth, and the foibles of human
nature; which, I am sorry to say, led me into divers temptations,
offensive in the sight of God. In making this confession, no one need
suppose me guilty of any great or malignant sins. A disposition to
commit such was never in my nature. But I was guilty of levity, and
sometimes associated with jovial company, etc., not consistent with
that character which ought to be maintained by one who was called of
God as I had been. But this will not seem very strange to any {10}
one who recollects my youth, and is acquainted with my native cheery
temperament. [1]

[Sidenote: Appearing of Moroni.]

In consequence of these things, I often felt condemned for my weakness
and imperfections; when, on the {11} evening of the above-mentioned
twenty-first of September, after I had retired to my bed for the
night, I betook myself to prayer and supplication to Almighty God for
forgiveness of all my sins and follies, and also for a manifestation to
me, that I might know of my state and standing before Him; for I had
full confidence in obtaining a divine manifestation, as I previously
had done. While I was thus in the act of calling upon God, I discovered
a light appearing in my room, which continued to increase until the
room was lighter than at noonday, when immediately a personage appeared
at my bed side, standing in the air, for his feet did not touch the
floor. He had on a loose robe of most exquisite whiteness. It was a
whiteness beyond anything earthly I had ever seen; nor do I believe
that any earthly thing could be made to appear so exceedingly white and
brilliant. His hands were naked and his arms also, a little above the
wrist, so, also were his feet naked, as were his legs, a little above
the ankles. His head and neck were also bare. I could discover that he
had no other clothing on but this robe, as it was open, so that I could
see into his bosom. Not only was his robe exceedingly white, but his
whole person was glorious beyond description, and his countenance truly
like lightning. The room was exceedingly light, but not so very bright
as immediately around his person.

[Sidenote: Moroni's Message.]

When first I looked upon him, I was afraid; but the fear soon left me.
He called me by name, and said unto me that he was a messenger sent
from the presence of God to me and that his name was Moroni; [2] that
God had a work for me to do; and that my name should be had for good
and evil among all nations, kindreds, and tongues, or that it should be
both {12} good and evil spoken of among all people. He said there was
a book deposited, written upon gold plates, giving an account of the
former inhabitants of this continent, and the sources from whence they
sprang. He also said that the fullness of the everlasting Gospel was
contained in it, as delivered by the Savior to the ancient inhabitants;
also that there were two stones in silver bows--and these stones,
fastened to a breastplate, constituted what is called the Urim and
Thummim--deposited with the plates; and the possession and use of these
stones were what constituted "Seers" in ancient or former times; and
that God had prepared them for the purpose of translating the book.

[Sidenote: Ancient Prophecies Quoted.]

After telling me these things, he commenced quoting the prophecies
of the Old Testament. He first quoted part of the third chapter of
Malachi, [3] and he quoted also the fourth or last chapter of the same
prophecy, though with a little variation from the way it reads in our
Bibles. Instead of quoting the first verse as it reads in our books, he
quoted it thus:

    For behold the day cometh that shall burn as an oven, and all the
    proud, yea, and all that do wickedly shall burn as stubble: for
    they that come shall burn them, saith the Lord of hosts, that it
    shall leave them neither root nor branch.

And again, he quoted the fifth verse thus:

    Behold I will reveal unto you the Priesthood, by the hand of Elijah
    the prophet, before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the
    Lord.

He also quoted the next verse differently:

    And he shall plant in the hearts of the children the promises made
    to the fathers, and the hearts of the children shall turn to their
    fathers; if it were not so, the whole earth would be utterly wasted
    at his coming.

In addition to these, he quoted the eleventh chapter of Isaiah, saying
that it was about to be fulfilled. He quoted {13} also the third
chapter of Acts, twenty-second and twenty-third verses, precisely as
they stand in our New Testament. He said that that Prophet was Christ;
but the day had not yet come when "they who would not hear his voice
should be cut off from among the people," but soon would come. He also
quoted the second chapter of Joel, from the twenty-eighth verse to the
last. He also said that this was not yet fulfilled, but was soon to be.
And he further stated that the fullness of the Gentiles was soon to
come in. He quoted many other passages of Scripture, and offered many
explanations which cannot be mentioned here.

[Sidenote: Plates not to be Shown.]

Again, he told me, that when I got those plates of which he had
spoken--for the time that they should be obtained was not yet
fulfilled--I should not show them to any person; neither the breast
plate with the Urim and Thummim; only to those to whom I should be
commanded to show them; if I did I should be destroyed. While he was
conversing with me about the plates, the vision was opened to my mind
that I could see the place where the plates were deposited, and that so
clearly and distinctly that I knew the place again when I visited it.

[Sidenote: Second Appearing of Moroni.]

After this communication, I saw the light in the room began to gather
immediately around the person of him who had been speaking to me, and
it continued to do so, until the room was again left dark, except just
around me, when instantly I saw, as it were, a conduit open right up
into heaven, and he ascended until he entirely disappeared, and the
room was left as it had been before this heavenly light had made its
appearance. I lay musing on the singularity of the scene and marveling
greatly at what had been told to me by this extraordinary messenger;
when, in the midst of my meditation, I suddenly discovered that my room
was again beginning to get lighted, and in an instant, as it were, the
same heavenly messenger was again by my bedside. He {14} commenced,
and again related the very same things which he had done at the first
visit, without the least variation; which having done, he informed
me of great judgments which were coming upon the earth, with great
desolations by famine, sword, and pestilence; and that these grievous
judgments would come on the earth in this generation. Having related
these things, he again ascended as he had done before.

[Sidenote: The Third Appearing of Moroni.]

By this time, so deep were the impressions made on my mind, that sleep
had fled from my eyes, and I lay overwhelmed in astonishment at what I
had both seen and heard. But what was my surprise when again I beheld
the same messenger at my bedside, and heard him rehearse or repeat
over again to me the same things as before; and added a caution to me,
telling me that Satan would try to tempt me, (in consequence of the
indigent circumstances of my father's family,) to get the plates for
the purpose of getting rich. This he forbade me, saying that I must
have no other object in view in getting the plates but to glorify God,
and must not be influenced by any other motive than that of building
His kingdom; otherwise I could not get them. After this third visit, he
again ascended into heaven as before, and I was again left to ponder on
the strangeness of what I had just experienced; when almost immediately
after the heavenly messenger had ascended from me the third time,
the cock crowed, and I found that day was approaching, so that our
interviews must have occupied the whole of that night.

[Sidenote: Fourth Appearing of Moroni.]

I shortly after arose from my bed, and, as usual, went to the necessary
labors of the day; but, in attempting to work as at other times, I
found my strength so exhausted as to render me entirely unable. My
father, who was laboring along with me, discovered something to be
wrong with me, and told me to go home. I started with the intention
of going to the house; but, in attempting to cross the fence out of
the {15} field where we were, my strength entirely failed me, and I
fell helpless on the ground, and for a time was quite unconscious of
anything. The first thing that I can recollect was a voice speaking
unto me, calling me by name. I looked up, and beheld the same messenger
standing over my head, surrounded by light as before. He then again
related unto me all that he had related to me the previous night,
and commanded me to go to my father and tell him of the vision and
commandments which I had received. I obeyed; I returned to my father in
the field, and rehearsed the whole matter to him. He replied to me that
it was of God, and told me to go and do as commanded by the messenger.
I left the field, and went to the place where the messenger had told me
the plates were deposited; and owing to the distinctness of the vision
which I had had concerning it, I knew the place the instant that I
arrived there.

[Sidenote: The Hill Cumorah.]

Convenient to the village of Manchester, Ontario county, New York,
stands a hill of considerable size, and the most elevated of any in
the neighborhood. [4] On the west side of this hill, not far from the
top, under a stone of considerable size, lay the plates, deposited in a
stone box. This stone was thick and rounding in the middle on the upper
side, and thinner towards the edges, so that the middle part of it {16}
was visible above the ground, but the edge all around was covered with
earth.

[Sidenote: The Nephite Record.]

Having removed the earth, I obtained a lever, which I got fixed under
the edge of the stone, and with a little exertion raised it up. I
looked in, and there indeed did I behold the plates, the Urim and
Thummim, and the breastplate, as stated by the messenger. The box in
which they lay was formed by laying stones together in some kind of
cement. In the bottom of the box were laid two stones crosswise of the
box, and on these stones lay the plates and the other things with them.

[Sidenote: Four Annual Visits to Cumorah.]

I made an attempt to take them out, but was for bidden by the
messenger, and was again informed that the time for bringing them forth
had not yet arrived, neither would it, until four years from that
time; but he told me that I should come to that place precisely in one
year from that time, and that he would there meet with me, and that I
should continue to do so until the time should come for obtaining the
plates. Accordingly, as I had been commanded, I went at the end of each
year, and at each time I found the same messenger there, and received
instruction and intelligence from him at each of our interviews,
respecting what the Lord was going to do, and how and in what manner
His kingdom was to be conducted in the last days.

[Sidenote: Story of Being a Money Digger.]

As my father's worldly circumstances were very limited, we were under
the necessity of laboring with our hands, hiring out by day's work and
otherwise, as we could get opportunity. Sometimes we were at home,
and sometimes abroad, and by continued labor, were enabled to get a
comfortable maintenance. In the year 1824 [5] my father's family met
with a great affliction by the death of my eldest brother, {17} Alvin.
In the month of October, 1825, I hired with an old gentleman by the
name of Josiah Stowel, who lived in Chenango county, state of New York.
He had heard something of a silver mine having been opened by the
Spaniards in Harmony, Susquehanna county, state of Pennsylvania; and
had, previous to my hiring to him, been digging, in order, if possible,
to discover the mine. After I went to live with him, he took me, with
the rest of his hands, to dig for the silver mine, at which I continued
to work for nearly a month, without success in our undertaking, and
finally I prevailed with the old gentleman to cease digging after it.
Hence arose the very prevalent story of my having been a money digger.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Marriage.]

During the time that I was thus employed, I was put to board with
a Mr. Isaac Hale, of that place; it was there I first saw my wife
(his daughter), Emma Hale. [6] On the 18th of January, 1827, we were
married, while I was yet employed in the service of Mr. Stowel. Owing
to my continuing to assert that I had seen a vision, persecution still
followed me, and my wife's father's family were very much opposed to
our being married. I was, therefore, under the necessity of taking her
elsewhere; so we went and were married at the house of Squire Tarbill,
in South Bainbridge, Chenango county, New York. Immediately after my
marriage, I left Mr. Stoal's and went to my father's, and farmed with
him that season.

Footnotes

1. With this agrees a letter which the Prophet addressed to Oliver
Cowdery upon hearing that it was the intention of the latter to publish
a series of articles in the _Saints' Messenger and Advocate_, on "Early
Scenes and Incidents in the Church." The letter referred to appeared
in vol. 1, no. 3, of the _Messenger and Advocate_, 1834. Letter of
Joseph Smith to Oliver Cowdery:_Dear Brother_: Having learned from the
first number of the _Messenger and Advocate_, that you were not only
about to "give a history of the rise and progress of the Church of the
Latter-day Saints;" but that said history would necessarily embrace
my life and character, I have been induced to give you the time and
place of my birth; as I have learned that many of the opposers of those
principles which I have held forth to the world, profess a personal
acquaintance with me, though when in my presence, represent me to be
another person, in age, education, and stature, from what I am. I was
born (according to the record of the same kept by my parents) in the
town of Sharon, Windsor county, Vermont, on the 23rd of December,
1805. At the age of ten my father's family removed to Palmyra, New
York, where, in the vicinity of which, I lived, or, made it my place
of residence, until I was twenty-one; the latter part in the town of
Manchester. During this time, as is common to most, or all youths, I
fell into many vices and follies; but as my accusers are, and have been
forward to accuse me of being guilty of gross and outrageous violations
of the peace and good order of the community, I take the occasion to
remark that, though as I have said above, "as is common to most, or
all youths, I fell into many vices and follies," I have not, neither
can it be sustained, in truth, been guilty of wronging or injuring any
man or society of men; and those imperfections to which I allude, and
for which I have often had occasion to lament, were a light, and too
often, vain mind, exhibiting a foolish and trifling conversation. This
being all, and the worst, that my accusers can substantiate against my
moral character, I wish to add that it is not without a deep feeling
of regret that I am thus called upon in answer to my own conscience,
to fulfil a duty I owe to myself, as well as to the cause of truth,
in making this public confession of my former uncircumspect walk,
and trifling conversation and more particularly, as I often acted in
violation of those holy precepts which I knew came from God. But as the
"Articles and Covenants," of this Church are plain upon this particular
point, I do not deem it important to proceed further. I only add, that
I do not, nor never have, pretended to be any other than a man "subject
to passion," and liable, without the assisting grace of the Savior, to
deviate from that perfect path in which all men are commanded to walk.
By giving the above a place in your valuable paper, you will confer
a lasting favor upon myself as an individual, and, as I humbly hope,
subserve the cause of righteousness. I am, with feelings of esteem,
your fellow-laborer in the Gospel of our Lord,[Signed] Joseph Smith.

2. In the original publication of the history in the _Times and
Seasons_ at Nauvoo, this name appears as "Nephi," and the _Millennial
Star_ perpetuated the error in its republication of the History. That
it is an error is evident, and it is so noted in the manuscripts to
which access has been had in the preparation of this work. See also
_Book of Doctrine and Covenants_, section 27, par. 5, and section 128,
par. 20.

3. Most likely the first part of the chapter; as that deals with the
coming of a messenger to prepare the way for the glorious coming of
Messiah.

4. The following description of Cumorah is from the pen of Oliver
Cowdery:

You are acquainted with the mail road from Palmyra, Wayne county, to
Canandaigua, Ontario county, New York, and also, as you pass from the
former to the latter place, before arriving at the little village of
Manchester, say from three to four, or about four miles from Palmyra,
you pass a large hill on the east side of the road. Why I say large,
is because it is as large perhaps, as any in that country. To a person
acquainted with this road a description would be unnecessary, as it is
the largest and rises the highest of any on that route. The north end
rises quite sudden until it assumes a level with the more southerly
extremity, and I think I may say an elevation higher than at the south
a short distance, say half or three-fourths of a mile. As you pass
toward Canandaigua it lessens gradually until the surface assumes
its common level, or is broken by other smaller hills or ridges,
water-courses and ravines. I think I am justified in saying that this
is the highest hill for some distance round, and I am certain that its
appearance, as it rises so suddenly from the plain on the north, must
attract the notice of the traveler as he passes by.--_Messenger and
Advocate_, 1834.

5. A genealogy of the Prophet's family in the Church records gives the
date of Alvin's death, November 19, 1825. Lucy Smith's _History of the
Prophet_ agrees with the text above.--1824, November 19.

6. Emma Hale was born in the town of Harmony, Susquehanna county,
Pennsylvania, July 10, 1804. It will therefore be observed that Emma
Hale was in her twenty-third year at the time of her marriage with
the Prophet; hence of age; hence, under the law, mistress of her own
actions. This is remarked because the Prophet, in works written against
him, is charged with having abducted his wife.

{18}



Chapter III.

The Nephite Record Delivered to Joseph--the Angel's Warning--the Work
of Translation.

[Sidenote: The Prophet Receives the Plates.]

At length the time arrived for obtaining the plates, the Urim and
Thummim, and the Breastplate. On the twenty-second day of September,
one thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven, having gone as usual at
the end of another year to the place where they were deposited, the
same heavenly messenger delivered them up to me with this charge:
that I should be responsible for them; that if I should let them go
carelessly, or through any neglect of mine, I should be cut off; but
that if I would use all my endeavors to preserve them, until he, the
messenger, should call for them, they should be protected.

[Sidenote: Efforts of Enemies to Get the Plates.]

I soon found out the reason why I had received such strict charges to
keep them safe, and why it was that the messenger had said that when I
had done what was required at my hand, he would call for them. For no
sooner was it known that I had them, than the most strenuous exertions
were used to get them from me. Every stratagem that could be invented
was resorted to for that purpose. The persecution became more bitter
and severe than before, and multitudes were on the alert continually to
get them from me if possible. But by the wisdom of God, they remained
safe in my hands, until I had accomplished by them what was required
at my hand. When, according to arrangements, the messenger called for
them, I delivered them up to him; and he has them in his charge {19}
until this day, being the second day of May, one thousand eight hundred
and thirty-eight. [1]

[Sidenote: Misrepresentations.]

The excitement, however, still continued, and rumor with her thousand
tongues was all the time employed in circulating falsehoods about my
father's family, and about myself. If I were to relate a thousandth
part of them, it would fill up volumes. The persecution, however,
became so intolerable that I was under the necessity of leaving
Manchester, and going with my wife to Susquehanna county, in the state
of Pennsylvania.

[Sidenote: Removal to Pennsylvania.]

While preparing to start,--being very poor, and the persecution so
heavy upon us that there was no probability that we would ever be
otherwise,--in the midst of our afflictions we found a friend in a
gentleman by the name of Martin Harris, [2] who came to us and gave me
fifty dollars to assist us on our journey. Mr. Harris was a resident of
Palmyra township, Wayne county, in the state of New York, and a farmer
of respectability. By this timely aid was I enabled to reach the place
of my destination in Pennsylvania; and immediately after my arrival
there I commenced copying the characters off the plates. I copied a
considerable number of them, and by means of the Urim and Thummim I
translated some of them, which I did between the time I arrived at the
house of my wife's father, in the month of December, and the February
following.

[Sidenote: Words of the Book Given to the Learned.]

Some time in this month of February, the aforementioned Mr. Martin
Harris came to our place, got the characters which I had drawn off
the plates, and started with them to the city of New York. For what
took place relative to him and the {20} characters, I refer to his
own account of the circumstances, as he related them to me after his
return, which was as follows:

    I went to the city of New York, and presented the characters
    which had been translated, with the translation thereof, to
    Professor Charles Anthon, a gentleman celebrated for his literary
    attainments. Professor Anthon stated that the translation was
    correct, more so than any he had before seen translated from the
    Egyptian. I then showed him those which were not yet translated,
    and he said that they were Egyptian, Chaldaic, Assyriac, and
    Arabic; and he said they were true characters. He gave me a
    certificate, certifying to the people of Palmyra that they were
    true characters, and that the translation of such of them as had
    been translated was also correct. I took the certificate and put
    it into my pocket, and was just leaving the house, when Mr. Anthon
    called me back, and asked me how the young man found out that there
    were gold plates in the place where he found them. I answered that
    an angel of God had revealed it unto him.

    He then said to me, "Let me see that certificate." I accordingly
    took it out of my pocket and gave it to him, when he took it and
    tore it to pieces, saying, that there was no such thing now as
    ministering of angels, and that if I would bring the plates to him,
    he would translate them. I informed him that part of the plates
    were sealed, and that I was forbidden to bring them. He replied, "I
    cannot read a sealed book." I left him and went to Dr. Mitchell,
    who sanctioned what Professor Anthon had said respecting both the
    characters and the translation. [3]

[Sidenote: The Loss of 116 Pages of Manuscript.]

Mr. Harris, having returned from his tour, left me and went home to
Palmyra, arranged his affairs, and returned again to my house about the
12th of April, 1828, and commenced writing for me while I translated
from the plates, which we continued until the 14th of June following,
by which time he {21} had written one hundred and sixteen pages of
manuscript on foolscap paper. Some time after Mr. Harris had begun to
write for me, he began to importune me to give him liberty to carry the
writings home and show them; and desired of me that I would inquire
of the Lord, through the Urim and Thummim, if he might not do so. I
did inquire, and the answer was that he must not. However, he was not
satisfied with this answer, and desired that I should inquire again. I
did so, and the answer was as before. Still he could not be contented,
but insisted that I should inquire once more. After much solicitation
I again inquired of the Lord, and permission was granted him to have
the writings on certain conditions; which were, that he show them
only to his brother, Preserved Harris, his own wife, his father and
his mother, and a Mrs. Cobb, a sister to his wife. In accordance with
this last answer, I required of him that he should bind himself in a
covenant to me in a most solemn manner that he would not do otherwise
than had been directed. He did so. He bound himself as I required of
him, took the writings, and went his way. Notwithstanding, however,
the great restrictions which he had been laid under, and the solemnity
of the covenant which he had made with me, he did show them to others,
and by stratagem they got them away from him, and they never have been
recovered unto this day.

[Sidenote: Prophet's Journey to Manchester and Return to Pennsylvania.]

In the meantime, while Martin Harris was gone with the writings, I
went to visit my father's family at Manchester. I continued there
for a short season, and then returned to my place in Pennsylvania.
Immediately after my return home, I was walking out a little
distance, when, behold, the former heavenly messenger appeared and
handed to me the Urim and Thummim again--for it had been taken from
me in consequence of my having wearied the Lord in asking for the
privilege of letting Martin Harris take the writings, which he lost by
transgression--and I {22} inquired of the Lord through it, and obtained
the following:

    _Revelation to Joseph Smith, Jun., given July, 1828, concerning
    certain manuscripts of the first part of the Book of Mormon, which
    had been taken from the possession of Martin Harris._ [4]

    1. The works, and the designs, and the purposes of God cannot be
    frustrated, neither can they come to naught.

    2. For God doth not walk in crooked paths, neither doth he turn
    to the right hand nor to the left, neither doth He vary from that
    which He hath said, therefore his paths are straight, and His
    course is one eternal round.

    3. Remember, remember that it is not the work of God that is
    frustrated, but the work of men;

    4. For although a man may have many revelations, and have power to
    do many mighty works, yet if he boasts in his own strength, and
    sets at naught the counsels of God, and follows after the dictates
    of his own will and carnal desires, he must fall and incur the
    vengeance of a just God upon him.

    5. Behold, you have been entrusted with these things, but how
    strict were your commandments; and remember, also, the promises
    which were made to you, if you did not transgress them.

    6. And behold, how oft you have transgressed the commandments and
    the laws of God, and have gone on in the persuasions of men;

    7. For, behold, you should not have feared man more than God,
    although men set at naught the counsels of God, and despise His
    works;

    8. Yet you should have been faithful and He would have extended His
    arm and supported you against all the fiery darts of the adversary;
    and He would have been with you in every time of trouble.

    9. Behold, thou art Joseph, and thou wast chosen to do the work of
    the Lord, but because of transgression, if thou art not aware thou
    wilt fall.

    10. But remember God is merciful; therefore, repent of that which
    thou hast done which is contrary to the commandment which I gave
    you, and thou art still chosen, and art again called to the work;

    11. Except thou do this, thou shalt be delivered up and become as
    other men and have no more gift.

    12. And when thou deliveredst up that which God had given thee
    sight and power to translate, thou deliveredst up that which was
    sacred into the hands of a wicked man,

    13. Who has set at naught the counsels of God, and has broken the
    {23} most sacred promises which were made before God, and has
    depended upon his own judgment and boasted in his own wisdom;

    14. And this is the reason that thou hast lost thy privileges for a
    season;

    15. For thou hast suffered the counsel of thy director to be
    trampled upon from the beginning.

    16. Nevertheless, my work shall go forth, for inasmuch as the
    knowledge of a Savior has come into the world, through the
    testimony of the Jews, even so shall the knowledge of a Savior come
    unto my people,

    17. And to the Nephites, and the Jacobites, and the Josephites, and
    the Zoramites, through the testimony of their fathers--

    18. And this testimony shall come to the knowledge of the
    Lamanites, and the Lemuelites, and the Ishmaelites, who dwindled in
    unbelief because of the iniquity of their fathers, whom the Lord
    has suffered to destroy their brethren the Nephites, because of
    their iniquities and their abominations;

    19. And for this very purpose are these plates preserved which
    contain these records, that the promises of the Lord might be
    fulfilled, which He made to His people;

    20. And that the Lamanites might come to the knowledge of their
    fathers, and that they might know the promises of the Lord, and
    that they may believe the Gospel and rely upon the merits of Jesus
    Christ, and be glorified through faith in his name, and that
    through their repentance they might be saved. Amen.

[Sidenote: Interpreters and Plates Returned to the Prophet.]

After I had obtained the above revelation, both the plates and the
Urim and Thummim were taken from me again; but in a few days they were
returned to me, when I inquired of the Lord, and the Lord said thus
unto me: [5]

    _Revelation, given to Joseph Smith, Jun., informing him of the
    alteration of the manuscript of the fore part of the Book of
    Mormon._ [6]

    1. Now, behold, I say unto you, that because you delivered up those
    writings which you had power given unto you to translate by the
    means of the {24} Urim and Thummim, into the hands of a wicked man,
    you have lost them.

    2. And you also lost your gift at the same time, and your mind
    became darkened.

    3. Nevertheless, it is now restored unto you again; therefore see
    that you are faithful and continue on unto the finishing of the
    remainder of the work of translation as you have begun;

    4. Do not run faster, or labor more than you have strength and
    means provided to enable you to translate; but be diligent unto the
    end:

    5. Pray always that you may come off conqueror: yea, that you may
    conquer Satan, and that you may escape the hands of the servants of
    Satan that do uphold his work.

    6. Behold, they have sought to destroy you; yea, even the man in
    whom you have trusted has sought to destroy you.

    7. And for this cause I said that he is a wicked man, for he has
    sought to take away the things wherewith you have been entrusted;
    and he has also sought to destroy your gift;

    8. And because you have delivered the writings into his hands,
    behold wicked men have taken them from you:

    9. Therefore, you have delivered them up, yea, that which was
    sacred, unto wickedness.

    10. And, behold, Satan hath put it into their hearts to alter
    the words which you have caused to be written, or which you have
    translated, which have gone out of your hands.

    11. And behold, I say unto you, that because they have altered the
    words, they read contrary from that which you translated and caused
    to be written;

    12. And, on this wise, the devil has sought to lay a cunning plan,
    that he may destroy this work;

    13. For he hath put it into their hearts to do this, that by lying
    they may say they have caught you in the words which you have
    pretended to translate.

    14. Verily, I say unto you, that I will not suffer that Satan shall
    accomplish his evil design in this thing.

    15. For, behold, he has put it into their hearts to get thee to
    tempt the Lord thy God in asking to translate it over again;

    16. And then, behold, they say and think in their hearts, We will
    see if God has given him power to translate; if so, he will also
    give him power again;

    17. And if God giveth him power again, or if he translates again,
    or, in other words, if he bringeth forth the same words, behold, we
    have the same with us, and we have altered them:

    18. Therefore, they will not agree, and we will say that he has
    lied in his words, and that he has no gift, and that he has no
    power:

    {25} 19. Therefore we will destroy him, and also the work, and we
    will do this that we may not be ashamed in the end, and that we may
    get glory of the world.

    20. Verily, verily, I say unto you, that Satan has great hold upon
    their hearts; he stirreth them up to iniquity against that which is
    good,

    21. And their hearts are corrupt, and full of wickedness and
    abominations, and they love darkness rather than light, because
    their deeds are evil: therefore they will not ask of me.

    22. Satan stirreth them up, that he may lead their souls to
    destruction.

    23. And thus he has laid a cunning plan, thinking to destroy the
    work of God; but I will require this at their hands, and it shall
    turn to their shame and condemnation in the day of judgment.

    24. Yea, he stirreth up their hearts to anger against this work;

    25. Yea, he saith unto them, Deceive and lie in wait to catch, that
    ye may destroy--behold, this is no harm; And thus he flattereth
    them, and telleth them that it is no sin to lie, that they may
    catch a man in a lie, that they may destroy him;

    26. And thus he flattereth them, and leadeth them along until he
    draggeth their souls down to hell; and thus he causeth them to
    catch themselves in their own snare;

    27. And thus he goeth up and down, to and fro in the earth, seeking
    to destroy the souls of men.

    28. Verily, verily, I say unto you, woe be unto him that lieth to
    deceive, because he supposeth that another lieth to deceive, for
    such are not exempt from the justice of God.

    29. Now, behold, they have altered these words, because Satan saith
    unto them, He hath deceived you, and thus he flattereth them away
    to do iniquity, to get thee to tempt the Lord thy God.

    30. Behold, I say unto you, that you shall not translate again
    those words which have gone forth out of your hands;

    31. For, behold, they shall not accomplish their evil designs in
    lying against those words. For, behold, if you should bring forth
    the same words, they will say that you have lied, and that you have
    pretended to translate, but that you have contradicted yourself:

    32. And, behold they will publish this, and Satan will harden the
    hearts of the people to stir them up to anger against you, that
    they will not believe my words.

    33. Thus Satan thinketh to overpower your testimony in this
    generation, that the work may not come forth in this generation;

    34. But behold, here is wisdom, and because I show unto you wisdom,
    and give you commandments concerning these things, what you shall
    do, show it not unto the world until you have accomplished the work
    of translation.

    35. Marvel not that I said unto you, Here is wisdom, show it not
    {26} unto the world, for I said, show it not unto the world, that
    you may be preserved.

    36. Behold, I do not say that you shall not show it unto the
    righteous;

    37. But as you cannot always judge the righteous, or as you cannot
    always tell the wicked from the righteous, therefore I say unto
    you, hold your peace until I shall see fit to make all things known
    unto the world concerning the matter.

    38. And now, verily, I say unto you, that an account of those
    things that you have written, which have gone out of your hands, is
    engraven upon the plates of Nephi;

    39. Yea, and you remember it was said in those writings that a more
    particular account was given of these things upon the plates of
    Nephi.

    40. And now, because the account which is engraven upon the plates
    of Nephi is more particular concerning the things which, in my
    wisdom, I would bring to the knowledge of the people in this
    account;

    41. Therefore, you shall translate the engravings which are on
    the plates of Nephi, down even till you come to the reign of King
    Benjamin, or until you come to that which you have translated,
    which you have retained.

    42. And behold, you shall publish it as the record of Nephi, and
    thus I will confound those who have altered my words.

    43. I will not suffer that they shall destroy my work; yea, I will
    show unto them that my wisdom is greater than the cunning of the
    devil.

    44. Behold, they have only got a part or an abridgment of the
    account of Nephi.

    45. Behold, there are many things engraven upon the plates of
    Nephi which do throw greater views upon my Gospel; therefore, it
    is wisdom in me that you should translate this first part of the
    engravings of Nephi, and send forth in this work.

    46. And behold, all the remainder of this work does contain all
    those parts of my Gospel which my holy prophets, yea, and also my
    disciples, desired in their prayers should come forth unto this
    people.

    47. And I said unto them, that it should be granted unto them
    according to their faith in their prayers;

    48. Yea, and this was their faith, that my gospel, which I gave
    unto them, that they might preach in their days, might come
    unto their brethren the Lamanites, and also all that had become
    Lamanites, because of their dissensions.

    49. Now, this is not all--their faith in their prayers was, that
    this gospel should be made known also, if it were possible, that
    other nations should possess this land;

    {27} 50. And thus they did leave a blessing upon this land in their
    prayers, that whosoever should believe in this Gospel in this land,
    might have eternal life;

    51. Yea, that it might be free unto all of whatsoever nation,
    kindred, tongue, or people they may be.

    52. And now, behold, according to their faith in their prayers
    will I bring this part of my Gospel to the knowledge of my people.
    Behold, I do not bring it to destroy that which they have received,
    but to build it up.

    53. And for this cause have I said, If this generation harden not
    their hearts, I will establish my Church among them.

    54. Now I do not say this to destroy my Church, but I say this to
    build up my Church;

    55. Therefore, whosoever belongeth to my Church need not fear, for
    such shall inherit the kingdom of heaven;

    56. But it is they who do not fear me, neither keep my
    commandments, but build up churches unto themselves to get gain,
    yea, and all those that do wickedly and build up the kingdom of the
    devil; yea, verily, verily, I say unto you, that it is they that I
    will disturb, and cause to tremble and shake to the center.

    57. Behold, I am Jesus Christ, the Son of God. I came unto my own,
    and my own received me not.

    58. I am the light which shineth in darkness, and the darkness
    comprehendeth it not.

    59. I am He who said, Other sheep have I which are not of this
    fold, unto my disciples, and many there were that understood me not.

    60. And I will show unto this people that I had other sheep, and
    that they were a branch of the house of Jacob;

    61. And I will bring to light their marvelous works, which they did
    in my name;

    62. Yea, and I will also bring to light my Gospel which was
    ministered unto them, and, behold, they shall not deny that which
    you have received, but they shall build it up, and shall bring to
    light the true points of my doctrine, yea, and the only doctrine
    which is in me;

    63. And this I do that I may establish my Gospel, that there may
    not be so much contention; yea, Satan doth stir up the hearts of
    the people to contention concerning the points of my doctrine; and
    in these things they do err, for they do wrest the Scriptures and
    do not understand them;

    64. Therefore, I will unfold unto them this great mystery;

    65. For, behold, I will gather them as a hen gathereth her chickens
    under her wings, if they will not harden their hearts.

    66. Yea, if they will come, they may, and partake of the waters of
    life freely.

    {28} 67. Behold, this is my doctrine: whosoever repenteth and
    cometh unto me, the same is my Church.

    68. Whosoever declareth more or less than this, the same is not of
    me, but is against me; therefore he is not of my Church.

    69. And now, behold, whosoever is of my Church, and endureth of my
    Church to the end, him will I establish upon my rock, and the gates
    of hell shall not prevail against him.

    70. And now, remember the words of him who is the life and light of
    the world, your Redeemer, your Lord and your God. Amen.

[Sidenote: Interval in the Work of Translation.]

I did not, however, go immediately to translating, but went to laboring
with my hands upon a small farm which I had purchased of my wife's
father, in order to provide for my family. In the month of February,
1829, my father came to visit us, at which time I received the
following revelation for him:

    _Revelation to Joseph Smith, Sen., given February, 1829._ [7]

    1. Now behold, a marvelous work is about to come forth among the
    children of men;

    2. Therefore, O ye that embark in the service of God, see that ye
    serve him with all your heart, might, mind and strength, that ye
    may stand blameless before God at the last day;

    3. Therefore, if ye have desires to serve God, ye are called to the
    work,

    4. For behold the field is white already to harvest, and lo, he
    that thrusteth in his sickle with his might, the same layeth up in
    store that he perisheth not, but bringeth salvation to his soul;

    5. And faith, hope, charity and love, with an eye single to the
    glory of God, qualify him for the work.

    6. Remember faith, virtue, knowledge, temperance, patience,
    brotherly kindness, godliness, charity, humility, diligence.

    7. Ask, and ye shall receive, knock and it shall be opened unto
    you. Amen.

[Sidenote: Three Witnesses Promised.]

The following I applied for and obtained, at the request of the
aforementioned Martin Harris:

    _Revelation, given March, 1829._ [8]

    1. Behold, I say unto you, that as my servant Martin Harris has
    {29} desired a witness at my hand, that you, my servant Joseph
    Smith, Jun., have got the plates of which you have testified and
    borne record that you have received of me;

    2. And now, behold, this shall you say unto him, He who spake unto
    you, said unto you, I, the Lord, am God, and have given these
    things unto you, my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., and have commanded
    you that you should stand as a witness of these things,

    3. And I have caused you that you should enter into a covenant with
    me, that you should not show them except to those persons to whom
    I commanded you; and you have no power over them except I grant it
    unto you.

    4. And you have a gift to translate the plates; and this is the
    first gift that I bestowed upon you, and I have commanded that you
    should pretend to no other gift, until my purpose is fulfilled in
    this; for I will grant unto you no other gift until it is finished.

    5. Verily, I say unto you, that woe shall come unto the inhabitants
    of the earth if they will not hearken unto my words;

    6. For hereafter you shall be ordained and go forth and deliver my
    words unto the children of men.

    7. Behold, if they will not believe my words, they would not
    believe you, my servant Joseph, if it were possible that you should
    show them all these things which I have committed unto you.

    8. Oh, this unbelieving and stiffnecked generation, mine anger is
    kindled against them!

    9. Behold, verily I say unto you, I have reserved those things
    which I have entrusted unto you, my servant Joseph, for a wise
    purpose in me, and it shall be made known unto future generations;

    10. But this generation shall have my word through you;

    11. And in addition to your testimony, the testimony of three of
    my servants, whom I shall call and ordain, unto whom I will show
    these things, and they shall go forth with my words that are given
    through you:

    12. Yea, they shall know of a surety that these things are true,
    for from heaven will I declare it unto them.

    13. I will give them power that they may behold and view these
    things as they are;

    14. And to none else will I grant this power, to receive this same
    testimony among this generation, in this the beginning of the
    rising up and the coming forth of my Church out of the wilderness;
    clear as the moon, and fair as the sun, and terrible as an army
    with banners.

    15. And the testimony of three witnesses will I send forth of my
    word;

    16. And behold, whosoever believeth on my words, them will I visit
    with the manifestation of my Spirit, and they shall be born of me,
    even of water and of the Spirit.

    {30} 17. And you must wait yet a little while, for ye are not yet
    ordained;

    18. And their testimony shall also go forth unto the condemnation
    of this generation if they harden their hearts against them;

    19. For a desolating scourge shall go forth among the inhabitants
    of the earth, and shall continue to be poured out from time
    to time, if they repent not until the earth is empty, and the
    inhabitants thereof are consumed away and utterly destroyed by the
    brightness of my coming.

    20. Behold, I tell you these things, even as I also told the people
    of the destruction of Jerusalem, and my word shall be verified at
    this time as it hath hitherto been verified.

    21. And now I command you, my servant Joseph, to repent and walk
    more uprightly before me, and to yield to the persuasions of men no
    more;

    22. And that you be firm in keeping the commandments wherewith I
    have commanded you, and if you do this, behold I grant unto you
    eternal life, even if you should be slain.

    23. And now, again, I speak unto you, my servant Joseph concerning
    the man that desires the witness.

    24. Behold, I say unto him, he exalts himself and does not humble
    himself sufficiently before me; but if he will bow down before me,
    and humble himself in mighty prayer and faith, in the sincerity of
    his heart, then will I grant unto him a view of the things which he
    desires to see.

    25. And then he shall say unto the people of this generation,
    Behold, I have seen the things which the Lord hath shown unto
    Joseph Smith, Jun., and I know of a surety that they are true for
    I have seen them, for they have been shown unto me by the power of
    God and not of man.

    26. And I, the Lord, commanded him, my servant Martin Harris, that
    he shall say no more unto them concerning these things, except he
    shall say, I have seen them, and they have been shown unto me by
    the power of God, and these are the words which he shall say;

    27. But if he deny this, he will break the covenant which he has
    before covenanted with me, and behold he is condemned.

    28. And now, except he humble himself and acknowledge unto me the
    things that he has done which are wrong, and covenant with me that
    he will keep my commandments, and exercise faith in me, behold, I
    say unto him, he shall have no such views, for I will grant unto
    him no views of the things of which I have spoken.

    29. And if this be the case, I command you, my servant Joseph that
    you shall say unto him, that he shall do no more, nor trouble me
    any more concerning this matter.

    30. And if this be the case, behold, I say unto thee Joseph, when
    {31} thou hast translated a few more pages, thou shalt stop for a
    season, even until I command thee again; then thou mayest translate
    again.

    31. And except thou do this, behold, thou shalt have no more gift,
    and I will take away the things which I have entrusted with thee.

    32. And now, because I forsee the lying in wait to destroy thee,
    yea, I forsee that if my servant Martin Harris humbleth not
    himself, and receive a witness from my hand, that he will fall into
    transgression;

    33. And there are many that lie in wait to destroy thee from off
    the face of the earth, and for this cause, that thy days may be
    prolonged, I have given unto thee these commandments;

    34. Yea, for this cause I have said, Stop and stand still until
    I command thee, and I will provide means whereby thou mayest
    accomplish the thing which I have commanded thee.

    35. And if thou art faithful in keeping my commandments, thou shalt
    be lifted up at the last day. Amen.

Footnotes

1. See footnote page 2.

2. Martin Harris, who subsequently became one of the Three Witnesses
to the Book of Mormon, was born in East-town, Saratoga county, New
York, on the 18th of May, 1783. When in his ninth year his father moved
with his family into Palmyra, Wayne county, so that man and boy Martin
Harris had lived in Palmyra some thirty-six years. He had amassed a
considerable property in lands, and had established a reputation for
business reliability.

3. In a letter to E. D. Howe, of Painesville, Ohio, who published a
book against the Church in 1834, Professor Anthon acknowledged the
visit of Martin Harris to him and the presentation of the characters
in question. He states, however, that Harris, whom he describes as "a
plain, apparently simple-hearted farmer," presented him with a note
from Dr. Samuel L. Mitchell, of New York, requesting him (Anthon) to
decipher, if possible, a paper which the "farmer" would hand to him.
The call on Dr. Mitchell, alluded to in Martin Harris' statement above,
must, therefore, have referred to a second visit to Dr. Mitchell, after
his adventure with Professor Anthon. The latter's communication to Howe
bears the date of February 17th, 1834, and is published in _extenso_ in
Smucker's _History of the Mormons_, pp. 37-39.

4. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 3.

5. This revelation, which appears as section 10 in the Doctrine and Covenants is there dated May, 1829. This is clearly an error. The Prophet's words in the text above can lead to but one conclusion, namely, that this was the first revelation he received after the plates and the Urim and Thummim were finally restored to him and this, he says, was only "a few days" after he had received the previous revelation, which, indeed, refers to the same subject as this one. The latter was, therefore, in all probability, received in August or September, 1828.

6. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 10.

7. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 4.

8. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 5.

{32}



Chapter IV.

Oliver Cowdery Becomes the Prophet's Scribe--the Translation of the
Plates Continued.

[Sidenote: Oliver Cowdery.]

On the 5th day of April, 1829, Oliver Cowdery [1] came to my house,
until which time I had never seen him. He stated to me that having been
teaching school in the neighborhood where my father resided, and my
father being one of those who sent to the school, he went to board for
a season at his house, and while there the family related to him the
circumstance of my having received the plates, and accordingly he had
come to make inquiries of me. [2] Two days after the arrival of Mr.
Cowdery (being the 7th of April) [3] I {33} commenced to translate the
Book of Mormon, and he began to write for me, which having continued
for some time, I inquired of the Lord through the Urim and Thummim, and
obtained the following:

    _Revelation given April, 1829, to Oliver Cowdery and Joseph Smith,
    Jun._ [4]

    1. A great and marvelous work is about to come forth unto the
    children of men.

    2. Behold, I am God, and give heed unto my word, which is quick and
    powerful, sharper than a two-edged sword, to the dividing asunder
    of both joints and marrow; therefore give heed unto my words.

    3. Behold, the field is white already to harvest, therefore, whoso
    desireth to reap, let him thrust in his sickle with his might, and
    reap while the day lasts, that he may treasure up for his soul
    everlasting salvation in the kingdom of God;

    4. Yea, whosoever will thrust in his sickle and reap, the same is
    called of God;

    5. Therefore, if you will ask of me you shall receive; if you will
    knock it shall be opened unto you.

    6. Now, as you have asked, behold, I say unto you, keep my
    commandments, and seek to bring forth and establish the cause of
    Zion;

    7. Seek not for riches but for wisdom, and behold, the mysteries of
    God shall be unfolded unto you, and then shall you be made rich.
    Behold, he that hath eternal life is rich.

    8. Verily, verily, I say unto you, even as you desire of me, so it
    shall be unto you; and if you desire, you shall be the means of
    doing much good in this generation.

    9. Say nothing but repentance unto this generation: keep my
    commandments, and assist to bring forth my work, according to my
    commandments, and you shall be blessed.

    10. Behold thou hast a gift, and blessed art thou because of thy
    gift. Remember it is sacred and cometh from above:

    11. And if thou wilt inquire, thou shalt know mysteries which are
    great and marvelous: therefore thou shalt exercise thy gift, that
    thou mayest find out mysteries, that thou mayest bring many to the
    knowledge of the truth; yea, convince them of the error of their
    ways.

    12. Make not thy gift known unto any, save it be those who are of
    thy faith. Trifle not with sacred things.

    13. If thou wilt do good, yea, and hold out faithful to the end,
    thou shalt be saved in the kingdom of God, which is the greatest of
    all the gifts of God; for there is no gift greater than the gift of
    salvation.

    {34} 14. Verily, verily, I say unto thee, blessed art thou for what
    thou hast done, for thou hast inquired of me, and behold, as often
    as thou hast inquired, thou hast received instruction of my Spirit.
    If it had not been so, thou wouldst not have come to the place
    where thou art at this time.

    15. Behold, thou knowest that thou hast inquired of me, and I did
    enlighten thy mind; and now I tell thee these things, that thou
    mayest know that thou hast been enlightened by the spirit of truth;

    16. Yea, I tell thee, that thou mayest know that there is none else
    save God that knowest thy thoughts and the intents of thy heart.

    17. I tell thee these things as a witness unto thee that the words
    of the work which thou hast been writing are true.

    18. Therefore be diligent, stand by my servant Joseph faithfully,
    in whatsoever difficult circumstances he may be for the word's sake.

    19. Admonish him in his faults and also receive admonition from
    him. Be patient; be sober; be temperate; have patience, faith, hope
    and charity.

    20. Behold, thou art Oliver, and I have spoken unto thee because
    of thy desire; therefore, treasure up these words in thy heart. Be
    faithful and diligent in keeping the commandments of God, and I
    will encircle thee in the arms of my love.

    21. Behold, I am Jesus Christ, the Son of God. I am the same that
    came unto my own, and my own received me not. I am the light which
    shineth in darkness, and the darkness comprehendeth it not.

    22. Verily, verily, I say unto you, if you desire a further
    witness, cast your mind upon the night that you cried unto me in
    your heart, that you might know concerning the truth of these
    things.

    23. Did I not speak peace to your mind concerning the matter? What
    greater witness can you have than from God?

    24. And now, behold, you have received a witness, for if I have
    told you things which no man knoweth, have you not received a
    witness?

    25. And, behold, I grant unto you a gift, if you desire of me, to
    translate even as my servant Joseph.

    26. Verily, verily, I say unto you, that there are records which
    contain much of my Gospel, which have been kept back because of the
    wickedness of the people;

    27. And now I command you, that if you have good desires--a desire
    to lay up treasures for yourself in heaven--then shall you assist
    in bringing to light, with your gift, those parts of my Scriptures
    which have been hidden because of iniquity.

    28. And now, behold, I give unto you, and also unto my servant
    Joseph, the keys of this gift, which shall bring to light this
    ministry; and in the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every
    word be established.

    {35} 29. Verily, verily, I say unto you, if they reject my words,
    and this part of my Gospel and ministry, blessed are ye, for they
    can do no more unto you than unto me;

    30. And even if they do unto you, even as they have done unto me,
    blessed are ye, for you shall dwell with me in glory;

    31. But if they reject not my words, which shall be established
    by the testimony which shall be given, blessed are they, and then
    shall ye have joy in the fruit of your labors.

    32. Verily, verily, I say unto you, as I said unto my disciples,
    where two or three are gathered together in my name, as touching
    one thing, behold, there will I be in the midst of them: even so am
    I in the midst of you.

    33. Fear not to do good, my sons, for whatsoever ye sow, that shall
    ye also reap; therefore, if ye sow good ye shall also reap good for
    your reward.

    34. Therefore, fear not, little flock, do good; let earth and hell
    combine against you, for if ye are built upon my rock, they cannot
    prevail.

    35. Behold, I do not condemn you; go your ways and sin no more;
    perform with soberness the work which I have commanded you.

    36. Look unto me in every thought; doubt not; fear not;

    37. Behold the wounds which pierced my side, and also the prints of
    the nails in my hands and feet; be faithful, keep my commandments,
    and ye shall inherit the kingdom of heaven. Amen.

    [Sidenote: Witness of the Spirit to Cowdery.]

    After we had received this revelation, Oliver Cowdery stated to
    me that after he had gone to my father's to board, and after the
    family had communicated to him concerning my having obtained the
    plates, that one night after he had retired to bed he called upon
    the Lord to know if these things were so, and the Lord manifested
    to him that they were true, but he had kept the circumstance
    entirely secret, and had mentioned it to no one; so that after this
    revelation was given, he knew that the work was true, because no
    being living knew of the thing alluded to in the revelation, but
    God and himself.

    [Sidenote: The Mission of John the Apostle.]

    During the month of April I continued to translate, and he to
    write, with little cessation, during which time we received several
    revelations. A difference of opinion arising between us about the
    account of John the Apostle, mentioned in the {36} New Testament,
    [5] as to whether he died or continued to live, we mutually agreed
    to settle it by the Urim and Thummim and the following is the word
    which we received:

    _Revelation, given to Joseph Smith, Jun., and Oliver Cowdery, in
    Harmony, Pennsylvania, April, 1829, when they desired to know
    whether John, the beloved disciple, tarried on earth or died.
    Translated from parchment, written and hid up by himself._ [6]

    1. And the Lord said unto me: John, my beloved, what desirest thou?
    For if you shall ask what you will, it shall be granted unto you.

    2. And I said unto him, Lord, give unto me power over death, that I
    may live and bring souls unto Thee.

    3. And the Lord said unto me, Verily, verily, I say unto thee,
    because thou desirest this, thou shalt tarry until I come in my
    glory, and shall prophesy before nations, kindreds, tongues and
    people.

    4. And for this cause the Lord said unto Peter: If I will that he
    tarry till I come, what is that to thee? For he desired of me that
    he might bring souls unto me, but thou desiredst that thou mightest
    speedily come unto me in my kingdom.

    5. I say unto thee, Peter, this was a good desire, but my beloved
    has desired that he might do more, or a greater work yet among men
    than what he has before done;

    6. Yea, he has undertaken a greater work, therefore I will make
    him as flaming fire and a ministering angel; he shall minister for
    those who shall be heirs of salvation who dwell on the earth.

    7. And I will make thee to minister for him and for thy brother
    James; and unto you three I will give this power and the keys of
    this ministry until I come.

    8. Verily, I say unto you, ye shall both have according to your
    desires, for ye both joy in that which ye have desired.

[Sidenote: Oliver Desires to Translate.]

Whilst continuing the work of translation, during the month of
April, Oliver Cowdery became exceedingly anxious to have the power
to translate bestowed upon him, and in relation to this desire the
following revelations were obtained:

    _Revelation, given April, 1829._ [7]

    1. Oliver Cowdery, verily, verily, I say unto you, that assuredly
    as the Lord liveth, who is your God and your Redeemer, even so
    surely {37} shall you receive a knowledge of whatsoever things you
    shall ask in faith, with an honest heart, believing that you shall
    receive a knowledge concerning the engravings of old records, which
    are ancient, which contain those parts of my Scripture of which
    have been spoken by the manifestation of my Spirit;

    2. Yea, behold, I will tell you in your mind and in your heart, by
    the Holy Ghost which shall come upon you, and which shall dwell in
    your heart.

    3. Now, behold, this is the Spirit of revelation; behold, this is
    the spirit by which Moses brought the children of Israel through
    the Red Sea on dry ground;

    4. Therefore this is thy gift, apply unto it, and blessed art
    thou, for it shall deliver you out of the hands of your enemies,
    when, if it were not so they would slay you and bring your soul to
    destruction.

    5. Oh, remember these words and keep my commandments. Remember,
    this is your gift.

    6. Now this is not all thy gift; for you have another gift, which
    is the gift of Aaron: behold, it has told you many things;

    7. Behold, there is no other power, save the power of God, that can
    cause this gift of Aaron to be with you;

    8. Therefore doubt not, for it is the gift of God, and you shall
    hold it in your hands, and do marvelous works; and no power shall
    be able to take it away out of your hands, for it is the work of
    God.

    9. And, therefore, whatsoever you shall ask me to tell you, by that
    means, that will I grant unto you, and you shall have knowledge
    concerning it:

    10. Remember that without faith you can do nothing, therefore ask
    in faith. Trifle not with these things; do not ask for that which
    you ought not:

    11. Ask that you may know the mysteries of God, and that you may
    translate and receive knowledge from all those ancient records
    which have been hid up, that are sacred; and according to your
    faith shall it be done unto you.

    12. Behold, it is I that have spoken it; and I am the same that
    spake unto you from the beginning. Amen.

    _Revelation, given to Oliver Cowdery, April, 1829._ [8]

    1. Behold, I say unto you, my son, that because you did not
    translate according to that which you desired of me, and did
    commence again to write for my servant, Joseph Smith, Jun., even so
    I would {38} that ye should continue until you have finished this
    record, which I have entrusted unto him:

    2. And then, behold, other records have I, that I will give unto
    you power that you may assist to translate.

    3. Be patient, my son, for it is wisdom in me, and it is not
    expedient that you should translate at this present time.

    4. Behold, the work which you are called to do, is to write for my
    servant Joseph;

    5. And, behold, it is because that you did not continue as you
    commenced, when you began to translate, that I have taken away this
    privilege from you.

    6. Do not murmur, my son, for it is wisdom in me that I have dealt
    with you after this manner.

    7. Behold, you have not understood; you have supposed that I would
    give it unto you, when you took no thought, save it was to ask me.

    8. But, behold, I say unto you, that you must study it out in your
    mind; then you must ask me if it be right, and if it is right I
    will cause that your bosom shall burn within you; therefore, you
    shall feel that it is right;

    9. But if it be not right, you shall have no such feelings, but you
    shall have a stupor of thought that shall cause you to forget the
    thing which is wrong: therefore, you cannot write that which is
    sacred, save it be given you from me.

    10. Now if you had known this, you could have translated;
    nevertheless, it is not expedient that you should translate now.

    11. Behold, it was expedient when you commenced; but you feared,
    and the time is past, and it is not expedient now;

    12. For, do you not behold that I have given unto my servant Joseph
    sufficient strength, whereby it is made up? and neither of you have
    I condemned.

    13. Do this thing which I have commanded you, and you shall
    prosper. Be faithful, and yield to no temptation.

    14. Stand fast in the work wherewith I have called you, and a hair
    of your head shall not be lost, and you shall be lifted up at the
    last day. Amen.

Footnotes

1. Oliver Cowdery was born in the town of Wells, Rutland county,
Vermont, Oct. 3, 1806. He married Elizabeth Ann Whitmer, in Kaw
township, Jackson county, Missouri, Dec. 18, 1832. She was born in
Fayette, Seneca county, New York, January 22, 1815.

2. Previous to joining the Prophet Joseph Smith, Oliver Cowdery had met
David Whitmer at Palmyra, and conversed with him concerning the rumors
rife in that vicinity about the finding of the Book of Mormon plates.
This chance meeting resulted in a friendship between the young men, and
finally when Cowdery determined to visit the Prophet in Harmony, he
went _via_ the Whitmer residence, at Fayette, which was near the town
of Waterloo, at the head of Seneca lake, Seneca county, New York; and
promised his friend David Whitmer that after visiting the Prophet he
would write him his impressions as to the truth or untruth of Joseph
Smith's having an ancient record. (See statement of David Whitmer in
_Kansas City Journal_, June 5th, 1886; also statement of the same to
Orson Pratt and Joseph F. Smith, in 1878. _Millennial Star_, vol. 11,
pp. 769-774.)

3. This date, 7th of April, and the one above, 5th of April, 1829, in
the History of Joseph Smith, published in the _Millennial Star_, are
given as the 15th and 17th of April, respectively. The dates in the
Star, however, are typographical errors, as in the original MS of the
History the dates are as given in the text. See also Cowdery's letters
to W. W. Phelps, published in _Messenger and Advocate_, 1834, where the
dates are also given as in the text above--5th and 7th of April.

4. Doctrine and Covenants, section 6.

5. St. John, chap. 21, verse 22.

6. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 7.

7. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 8.

8. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 9.

{39}



Chapter V.

Restoration of the Aaronic Priesthood--First Baptisms.

[Sidenote: The Aaronic Priesthood Restored.]

We still continued the work of translation, when, in the ensuing month
(May, 1829), we on a certain day went into the woods to pray and
inquire of the Lord respecting baptism for the remission of sins, that
we found mentioned in the translation of the plates. While we were thus
employed, praying and calling upon the Lord, a messenger from heaven
descended in a cloud of light, and having laid his hands upon us, he
ordained us, saying:

    Upon you my fellow servants, in the name of Messiah I confer the
    Priesthood of Aaron, which holds the keys of the ministering
    of angels, and of the Gospel of repentance, and of baptism by
    immersion for the remission of sins; and this shall never be taken
    again from the earth, until the sons of Levi do offer again an
    offering unto the Lord in righteousness. [1]

[Sidenote: Limitations of the Aaronic Priesthood.]

He said this Aaronic Priesthood had not the power of laying on hands
for the gift of the Holy Ghost, but that this should be conferred on
us hereafter; and he commanded us to go and be baptized, and gave
us directions that I should baptize Oliver Cowdery, and afterwards
that he should baptize me. Accordingly we went and were baptized. I
baptized him first, and afterwards he baptized me, after which I laid
my hands upon his head and ordained him to the Aaronic Priesthood, and
afterwards he {40} laid his hands on me and ordained me to the same
Priesthood--for so we were commanded.

[Sidenote: John the Baptist, May 15, 1829.]

The messenger who visited us on this occasion, and conferred this
Priesthood upon us, said that his name was John, the same that is
called John the Baptist in the New Testament, and that he acted under
the direction of Peter, James and John who held the keys of the
Priesthood of Melchizedek, which Priesthood he said would in due time
be conferred on us, [2] and that I should be called the first Elder
of the {41} Church, and he (Oliver Cowdery) the second. It was on the
15th day of May, 1829, that we were ordained under the hand of this
messenger and baptized.

{42} [Sidenote: Outpourings of the Spirit.]

Immediately on our coming up out of the water after we had been
baptized, we experienced great and glorious blessings from our Heavenly
Father. No sooner had I baptized Oliver Cowdery, than the Holy Ghost
fell upon him, and he stood up and prophesied many things which should
shortly come to pass. And again, so soon as I had been baptized by him,
I also had the spirit of prophecy, when, standing up, I prophesied
concerning the rise of this Church, and many other things connected
with the Church, and this generation of the children of men. We were
filled with the Holy Ghost, and rejoiced in the God of our salvation.
[3]

[Sidenote: Ordination and Baptism Kept Secret.]

{43} Our minds being now enlightened, we began to have the Scriptures
laid open to our understandings, and the true meaning and intention
of their more mysterious passages revealed unto us in a manner which
we never could attain to previously, nor ever before had thought of.
In the meantime we were forced to keep secret the circumstances of
having received the Priesthood and our having been baptized, owing to a
{44} spirit of persecution which had already manifested itself in the
neighborhood. We had been threatened with being mobbed from time to
time, and this, too, by professors of religion. And their intentions
of mobbing us were only counteracted by the influence of my wife's
father's family (under Divine providence), who had become very friendly
to me, and who were opposed to mobs, and were willing that I should
be allowed to continue the work of translation without interruption;
and therefore offered and promised us protection from all unlawful
proceedings as far as in them lay.

[Sidenote: Conversion of Samuel H. Smith.]

After a few days, however, feeling it to be our duty, we commenced
to reason out of the Scriptures with our acquaintances and friends,
as we happened to meet with them. About this time my brother Samuel
H. Smith [4] came to visit us. We informed him of what the Lord was
about to do for the children of men, and began to reason with him out
of the Bible. We also showed him that part of the work which we had
translated, and labored to persuade him concerning the Gospel of Jesus
Christ, which was now about to be revealed in its fulness. He was not,
however, very easily persuaded of these things, but after much inquiry
and explanation he retired to the woods, in order that by secret and
fervent prayer he might obtain of a merciful God wisdom to enable him
to judge for himself. The result was that he obtained revelation for
himself sufficient to convince him of the truth of our assertions
to him; and on the twenty-fifth day of that same month in which we
had been baptized and ordained, Oliver Cowdery baptized him; and he
returned to his father's house, greatly glorifying and praising God,
being filled with the Holy Spirit.

[Sidenote: Hyrum Smith's Inquiry.]

Not many days afterwards, my brother Hyrum Smith [5] {45} came to us
to inquire concerning these things, when at his earnest request, I
inquired of the Lord through the Urim and Thummim, and received for him
the following:

    _Revelation, given to Hyrum Smith, Harmony, Susquehanna County,
    Pennsylvania, May, 1829._ [6]

    1. A great and marvelous work is about to come forth among the
    children of men.

    2. Behold, I am God; give heed to my word, which is quick and
    powerful, sharper than a two-edged sword, to the dividing asunder
    of both joints and marrow; therefore give heed unto my word.

    3. Behold the field is white already to harvest, therefore, who
    desireth to reap let him thrust in his sickle with his might, and
    reap while the day lasts, that he may treasure up for his soul
    everlasting salvation in the kingdom of God;

    4. Yea, whosoever will thrust in his sickle and reap, the same is
    called of God;

    5. Therefore, if you will ask me, you shall receive; if you will
    knock, it shall be opened unto you.

    6. Now, as you have asked, behold, I say unto you, keep my
    commandments, and seek to bring forth and establish the cause of
    Zion.

    7. Seek not for riches but for wisdom; and, behold, the mysteries
    of God shall be unfolded unto you, and then shall you be made rich:
    Behold, he that hath eternal life is rich.

    8. Verily, verily, I say unto you, even as you desire of me, so it
    shall be done unto you; and, if you desire, you shall be the means
    of doing much good in this generation.

    9. Say nothing but repentance unto this generation. Keep my
    commandments, and assist to bring forth my work, according to my
    commandments, and you shall be blessed.

    10. Behold, thou hast a gift, or thou shalt have a gift if thou
    wilt desire of me in faith, with an honest heart, believing in the
    power of Jesus Christ, or in my power which speaketh unto thee.

    11. For, behold, it is I that speak; behold I am the light which
    shineth in darkness, and by my power I give these words unto thee.

    12. And now, verily, verily, I say unto thee, put your trust in
    that Spirit which leadeth to do good: yea, to do justly, to walk
    humbly, to judge righteously, and this is my Spirit.

    13. Verily, verily, I say unto you, I will impart unto you my
    Spirit, which shall enlighten your mind, which shall fill your soul
    with joy,

    {46} 14. And then shall ye know, or by this shall you know, all
    things whatsoever you desire of me, which are pertaining unto
    things of righteousness, in faith believing in me that you shall
    receive.

    15. Behold, I command you that you need not suppose that you are
    called to preach until you are called:

    16. Wait a little longer, until you shall have my word, my rock, my
    Church, and my Gospel, that you may know of a surety my doctrine.

    17. And then, behold, according to your desires, yea, even
    according to your faith, shall it be done unto you.

    18. Keep my commandments, hold your peace, appeal unto my Spirit;

    19. Yea, cleave unto me with all your heart, that you may assist in
    bringing to light those things of which have been spoken--yea, the
    translation of my work; be patient until you shall accomplish it.

    20. Behold, this is your work, to keep my commandments, yea, with
    all your might, mind and strength;

    21. Seek not to declare my word, but first seek to obtain my word,
    and then shall your tongue be loosed; then, if you desire, you
    shall have my Spirit and my word, yea, the power of God unto the
    convincing of men.

    22. But now hold your peace, study my word which hath gone forth
    among the children of men, and also study my word which shall come
    forth among the children of men, or that which is now translating,
    yea, until you have obtained all which I shall grant unto the
    children of men in this generation, and then shall all things be
    added thereto.

    23. Behold, thou art Hyrum, my son; seek the kingdom of God, and
    all things shall be added according to that which is just.

    24. Build upon my rock, which is my Gospel;

    25. Deny not the spirit of revelation, nor the spirit of prophecy,
    for woe unto him that denieth these things;

    26. Therefore, treasure up in your heart until the time which is in
    my wisdom that you shall go forth.

    27. Behold, I speak unto all who have good desires, and have thrust
    in their sickle to reap.

    28. Behold, I am Jesus Christ, the Son of God. I am the life and
    the light of the world.

    29. I am the same who came unto my own and my own received me not;

    30. But verily, verily, I say unto you, that as many as receive me,
    to them will I give power to become the sons of God, even to them
    that believe on my name. Amen.

{47} [Sidenote: Assistance from Joseph Knight, Sen.]

About the same time an old gentleman came to visit us of whose name
I wish to make honorable mention--Mr. Joseph Knight, Sen., [7] of
Colesville, Broome county, New York, who, having heard of the manner in
which we were occupying our time, very kindly and considerately brought
us a quantity of provisions, in order that we might not be interrupted
in the work of translation by the want of such necessaries of life;
and I would just mention here, as in duty bound, that he several times
brought us supplies, a distance of at least thirty miles, which enabled
us to continue the work when otherwise we must have relinquished it for
a season. {48} Being very anxious to know his duty as to this work, I
inquired of the Lord for him, and obtained the following:

    _Revelation, given to Joseph Smith, Sen., at Harmony, Susquehanna
    County, Pennsylvania, May, 1829._ [8]

    1. A great and marvelous work is about to come forth among the
    children of men.

    2. Behold, I am God; give heed to my word, which is quick and
    powerful, sharper than a two-edged sword, to the dividing asunder
    of both joints and marrow; therefore, give heed unto my word.

    3. Behold, the field is white already to harvest, therefore, whoso
    desireth to reap, let him thrust in his sickle with his might, and
    reap while the day lasts, that he may treasure up for his soul
    everlasting salvation in the kingdom of God.

    4. Yea, whosoever will thrust in his sickle and reap, the same is
    called of God.

    5. Therefore if you will ask of me, you shall receive; if you will
    knock it shall be opened unto you.

    6. Now, as you have asked, behold, I say unto you, keep my
    commandments, and seek to bring forth and establish the cause of
    Zion.

    7. Behold, I speak unto you, and also to all those who have desires
    to bring forth and establish this work;

    8. And no one can assist in this work, except he shall be humble
    and full of love, having faith, hope, and charity, being temperate
    in all things, whatsoever shall be entrusted to his care.

    9. Behold, I am the light and the life of the world, that speak
    these words, therefore give heed with your might, and then you are
    called. Amen.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Removal to Fayette.]

Shortly after commencing to translate, I became acquainted with Mr.
Peter Whitmer, [9] of Fayette, Seneca county, New York, and also with
some of his family. In the beginning of the month of June, his son,
David Whitmer, [10] came to the place {49} where we were residing,
and brought with him a two-horse wagon, for the purpose of having us
accompany him to his father's place, and there remain until we should
finish the work. It was arranged that we should have our board free
of charge, and the assistance of one of his brothers to write for me,
and also his own assistance when convenient. Having much need of such
timely aid in an undertaking so arduous, and being informed that the
people in the neighborhood of the Whitmers were anxiously awaiting the
opportunity to inquire into these things, we accepted the invitation,
and accompanied Mr. Whitmer to his father's house, and there resided
until the translation was finished and the copyright secured. Upon our
arrival, we found Mr. Whitmer's family very anxious concerning the
work, and very friendly toward ourselves. They continued so, boarded
and lodged us according to arrangements; and John Whitmer, [11] in
particular, assisted us very much in writing during the remainder of
the work.

[Sidenote: David, John and Peter Whitmer, Jun., as Assistants.]

In the meantime, David, John and Peter Whitmer, Jun., [12] became our
zealous friends and assistants in the work; and being anxious to know
their respective duties, and having desired with much earnestness that
I should inquire of the Lord concerning them, I did so, through the
means of the Urim and Thummim, and obtained for them in succession the
following revelations:

    _Revelation, given to David Whitmer, at Fayette, Seneca County, New
    York, June, 1829._ [13]

    1. A great and marvelous work is about to come forth unto the
    children of men.

    2. Behold, I am God; give heed to my word, which is quick and
    powerful, sharper than a two-edged sword, to the dividing asunder
    of both joints and marrow; therefore give heed unto my word.

    {50} 3. Behold, the field is white already to harvest, therefore
    whoso desireth to reap, let him thrust in his sickle with his
    might, and reap while the day lasts, that he may treasure up for
    his soul everlasting salvation in the kingdom of God;

    4. Yea, whosoever will thrust in his sickle and reap, the same is
    called of God;

    5. Therefore, if you will ask of me you shall receive; if you will
    knock, it shall be opened unto you.

    6. Seek to bring forth and establish my Zion. Keep my commandments
    in all things;

    7. And if you keep my commandments and endure to the end, you shall
    have eternal life, which gift is the greatest of all the gifts of
    God.

    8. And it shall come to pass, that if you shall ask the Father in
    my name, in faith believing, you shall receive the Holy Ghost,
    which giveth utterance, that you may stand as a witness of the
    things of which you shall both hear and see, and also that you may
    declare repentance unto this generation.

    9. Behold, I am Jesus Christ, the Son of the living God, who
    created the heavens and the earth; a light which cannot be hid in
    darkness.

    10. Wherefore I must bring forth the fulness of my Gospel from the
    Gentiles unto the house of Israel.

    11. And behold, thou art David, and thou art called to assist;
    which thing if ye do, and are faithful, ye shall be blessed both
    spiritually and temporally, and great shall be your reward. Amen.

    _Revelation given to John Whitmer, June, 1829._ [14]

    1. Hearken, my servant John, and listen to the words of Jesus
    Christ, your Lord and your Redeemer,

    2. For behold, I speak unto you with sharpness and with power, for
    mine arm is over all the earth,

    3. And I will tell you that which no man knoweth save me and thee
    alone;

    4. For many times you have desired of me to know that which would
    be of the most worth unto you.

    5. Behold, blessed are you for this thing, and for speaking my
    words which I have given you according to my commandments.

    6. And now, behold, I say unto you, that the thing which will be of
    the most worth unto you, will be to declare repentance unto this
    people, {51} that you may bring souls unto me, that you may rest
    them in the kingdom of my Father. Amen.

    _Revelation given to Peter Whitmer, Jun., June, 1829._ [15]

    1. Harken, my servant Peter, and listen to the words of Jesus
    Christ, your Lord and your Redeemer,

    2. For behold, I speak unto you with sharpness and with power, for
    mine arm is over all the earth,

    3. And I will tell you that which no man knoweth save me and thee
    alone;

    4. For many times you have desired of me to know that which would
    be of the most worth unto you.

    5. Behold, blessed are you for this thing, and for speaking my
    words which I have given unto you according to my commandments.

    6. And now, behold, I say unto you, that the thing which will be of
    the most worth unto you, will be to declare repentance unto this
    people, that you may bring souls unto me, that you may rest with
    them in the kingdom of my Father. Amen.

[Sidenote: Early Baptisms.]

We found the people of Seneca county in general friendly, and disposed
to enquire into the truth of these strange matters which now began to
be noised abroad. Many opened their houses to us, in order that we
might have an opportunity of meeting with our friends for the purpose
of instruction and explanation. We met with many from time to time
who were willing to hear us, and who desired to find out the truth
as it is in Christ Jesus, and apparently willing to obey the Gospel,
when once fairly convinced and satisfied in their own minds; and in
this same month of June, my brother Hyrum Smith, David Whitmer, and
Peter Whitmer, Jun., were baptized in Seneca lake, the two former by
myself, the latter by Oliver Cowdery. From this time forth many became
believers, and some were baptized whilst we continued to instruct and
persuade as many as applied for information.

Footnotes

1. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 13.

2. Restoration of the Melchizedek Priesthood.--The promise to confer
upon Joseph and Oliver the Melchizedek Priesthood was fulfilled; but as
there is no definite account of the event in the history of the Prophet
Joseph, or, for matter of that, in any of our annals, the evidences of
the fact of their ordination to the higher or Melchizedek Priesthood
promised them by John the Baptist are presented now, together with a
consideration of the place where, and the time when the great event
occurred. The Prophet Joseph, in a communication to the Church, under
date of September 6, 1842, makes undoubted allusion to the restoration
of the Melchizedek Priesthood in the course of an ecstatic review of
the great things God had revealed to him. He said: "And again, what
do we hear? Glad tidings from Cumorah. Moroni, an angel from heaven,
declaring the fulfilment of the prophets--the book to be revealed.
A voice of the Lord in the wilderness of Fayette, Seneca county,
declaring the three witnesses to bear record of the book. The voice of
Michael on the banks of the Susquehanna, detecting the devil when he
appeared as an angel of light. _The voice of Peter, James and John in
the wilderness between Harmony, Susquehanna county, and Colesville,
Broome county, on the Susquehanna river, declaring themselves as
possessing the keys of the kingdom, and of the Dispensation of the
Fulness of Times_." (Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 128:20.) In one of
the early revelations given to the Prophet Joseph, the Lord makes most
direct reference to the restoration of the higher Priesthood through
the ministration of Peter, James and John. The subject matter of the
revelation is the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper; and in the course
of it the Lord promises to "drink of the fruit of the vine" with His
servants on earth to whom the revelation is addressed; "and with
Moroni, * * * and also Michael, or Adam, the father of all, * * * and
also with _Peter, and James, and John, whom I have sent unto you, by
whom I have ordained you and confirmed you to be Apostles, and special
witnesses of my name_, and bear the keys of your ministry, and of the
same things which I revealed unto them; unto whom I have committed
the keys of my kingdom, and a dispensation of the gospel for the last
times; and for the fulness of times." (Doctrine and Covenants, sec.
27). This revelation was given some time early in August, 1830, but
only the first four verses were written at that time. The rest of
it was written in September of that year. (See chapter 11 of this
volume). These two allusions--the one by the Prophet and the other by
the Lord--to the restoration of the Melchizedek Priesthood not only
make clear the fact that the Melchizedek Priesthood was restored in
accordance with the promise of John the Baptist when conferring the
Aaronic Priesthood, but they make it possible to fix upon the place
where, and approximately the time when, the event occurred. Undoubtedly
the _place_ where the ordination was performed was on the banks of the
Susquehanna river, in the wilderness between Colesville, in Broome
county, New York, and Harmony, in Susquehanna county, Pennsylvania; for
it is there the Prophet says the voice of Peter, James and John was
heard declaring themselves as "possessing the keys of the kingdom, and
of the Dispensation of the Fulness of Times;" for which appearing and
declaration there could be no other occasion than the ordination of
Oliver and Joseph to the Melchizedek Priesthood in fulfilment of the
promises made by John the Baptist. The _time_ at which the ordination
took place was evidently between the 15th of May, 1829, and August,
1830. The last named date is the one under which the Lord so definitely
referred to the circumstance of having sent Peter, James and John to
ordain Joseph and others to be Apostles, even special witnesses of
His name, and unto whom He had committed the keys of the kingdom.
Hence the time of the ordination must have been between those two
dates. From information contained in other revelations, however, this
period within which the Melchizedek Priesthood was restored may be
considerably reduced. In April, 1830, a revelation was given concerning
the organization and government of the Church, and in that revelation
the Lord said: "Which commandments [i. e. to organize the Church] were
given to Joseph Smith, Jr., who was called of God and ordained an
apostle of Jesus Christ to be the first Elder of this Church; and to
Oliver Cowdery, who was also called of God, an Apostle of Jesus Christ,
to be the second Elder of this Church, and ordained under his hand."
(Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 20:2, 3.) This allusion to the ordination
of these men to the apostleship reduces the time of their ordination
to the period between the 15th of May, 1829, and April 6, 1830. But
the time within which the ordination took place may be still further
reduced. In a revelation bearing the date of June, 1829, making known
the calling of the Twelve Apostles in these last days, and addressed
to Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer, the Lord said: "I speak unto
you, even as unto Paul mine Apostle, _for you are called even with
that same calling with which he was called_." As this could scarcely
be said of men who had not been ordained to the same holy apostleship
as that held by Paul, and consequently to the Melchizedek Priesthood,
the conclusion is reasonable that the ordination promised by John the
Baptist, doubtless occurred some time between May 15, 1829, and the
expiration of the month of June of that same year. That there was a
distinct administration of angels in the restoration of the Melchizedek
Priesthood is sustained by the testimony of Oliver Cowdery. On the
occasion of his returning to the Church at Kanesville, Iowa, in the
fall of 1848, after an absence of eleven years from the body of the
Saints, in the course of the public address which he then delivered, he
said: "I was present with Joseph when an holy angel from God came down
from heaven and conferred on us, or restored, the lesser or Aaronic
Priesthood, and said to us, at the same time, that it should remain
upon the earth while the earth stands. _I was also present with Joseph
when the higher or Melchizedek Priesthood was conferred by the holy
angel from on high_. This Priesthood, we then conferred on each other
by the will and commandment of God." The authority for the foregoing
statement is the report of Bishop Reuben Miller, who was present on
the occasion of Oliver Cowdery's delivering the address from which
the above is quoted. Bishop Miller's notes of Cowdery's remarks were
published in the _Deseret News_ of the 13th of April, 1859. It is to
be observed that Oliver Cowdery, in this quotation, is represented as
saying with reference to the restoration of the Melchizedek Priesthood,
that it was by the "holy angel," whereas, according to the statement
of the Prophet, that Priesthood was restored by three angels--Peter,
James and John. The discrepancy may arise from imperfect recording of
Oliver's language. In a signed statement which Oliver Cowdery gave to
Samuel W. Richards, under date of January 13, 1849--the statement has
been published a number of times in our Church periodicals--being about
two months and a half after delivering the address reported by Bishop
Miller, he said: "John the Baptist, holding the keys of the Aaronic
Priesthood; Peter, James and John, holding the keys of the Melchizedek
Priesthood, have also ministered for those who shall be heirs of
salvation, and with these administrations ordained men to the same
Priesthood. These Priesthoods, with their authority, are now, and must
continue to be in the body of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
Saints. * * * Accept assurances, dear brother, of the unfeigned prayer
of him who, in connection with Joseph, the Seer, was blessed with the
above administrations."

[Signed] Oliver Cowdery.

3. It may be well at this point to call attention to the singular and
important fact that the Prophet, neither in his narrative of the above
really great and dramatic event, nor in any of those great visions
and revelations which precede or follow it, stops to comment or grow
eloquent over the importance of an administration or the grandeur of
an occasion. He may never have heard the maxim, "A true tale speeds
best being plainly told," but had he heard of it and adopted it as his
motto, he could not have followed it more closely than unconsciously
he has done in his narrative. He seems to have but one object in view,
and that is to get on record the plain truth pertaining to the coming
forth of the work of God. Oliver Cowdery, however, who shared in this
ministration of the angel, John the Baptist, has left upon record a
description of the scene and the impressions it left upon his mind,
and which, withal is of such singular beauty and power that I think
the history of the event should not go to the world without it. After
speaking of his own and the Prophet's desire to hear the commandment
given, "Arise and be baptized," he says: "This was not long desired
before it was realized. The Lord, who is rich in mercy, and ever
willing to answer the consistent prayer of the humble, after we had
called upon him in a fervent manner, aside from the abodes of men,
condescended to manifest to us His will." On a sudden, as from the
midst of eternity, the voice of the Redeemer spake peace to us, while
the veil was parted and the angel of God came down clothed with glory
and delivered the anxiously looked for message, and the keys of the
Gospel of repentance. "What joy! what wonder! what amazement! While the
world was racked and distracted--while millions were groping as the
blind for the wall, and while all men were resting upon uncertainty,
as a general mass, our eyes beheld--our ears heard. As in the 'blaze
of day;' yes, more--above the glitter of the May sunbeam, which then
shed its brilliancy over the face of nature! Then his voice, though
mild, pierced to the center, and his words, 'I am thy fellow-servant,'
dispelled every fear. We listened, we gazed, we admired! 'Twas the
voice of an angel from glory--'twas a message from the Most High, and
as we heard we rejoiced, while His love enkindled upon our souls,
and we were rapt in the vision of the Almighty! Where was room for
doubt? Nowhere; uncertainty had fled, doubt had sunk, no more to rise,
while fiction and deception had fled forever. But, dear brother,
think further, think for a moment what joy filled our hearts and with
what surprise we must have bowed, (for who would not have bowed the
knee for such a blessing?) when we received under his hands the Holy
Priesthood, as he said, 'Upon you my fellow servants, in the name of
Messiah, I confer this Priesthood and this authority, which remain upon
earth, that the sons of Levi may yet offer an offering unto the Lord in
righteousness!'

"I shall not attempt to paint to you the feelings of this heart, nor
the majestic beauty and glory which surrounded us on this occasion; but
you will believe me when I say, that earth, nor men, with the eloquence
of time, cannot begin to clothe language in as interesting and sublime
a manner as this holy personage. No; nor has this earth power to give
the joy, to bestow the peace, or comprehend the wisdom which was
contained in each sentence as it was delivered by the power of the
Holy Spirit! Man may deceive his fellow man; deception may follow
deception, and the children of the wicked one may have power to seduce
the foolish and untaught, till naught but fiction feeds the many, and
the fruit of falsehood carries in its current the giddy to the grave,
but one touch with the finger of his love, yes, one ray of glory from
the upper world, or one word from the mouth of the Savior, from the
bosom of eternity, strikes it all into insignificance, and blots it
forever from the mind! The assurance that we were in the presence of an
angel; the certainty that we heard the voice of Jesus, and the truth
unsullied as it flowed from a pure personage, dictated by the will
of God, is to me, past description, and I shall ever look upon this
expression of the Savior's goodness with wonder and thanksgiving while
I am permitted to tarry, and in those mansions where perfection dwells
and sin never comes, I hope to adore in that day which shall never
cease."--(_Messenger and Advocate_, 1834.)

4. Samuel H. Smith was born in Tunbridge, Vt., March 13, 1808. He was
the fourth son of Joseph and Lucy Smith.

5. Hyrum Smith was born in Tunbridge, Vt., February 9, 1800. He was the
second son of Joseph and Lucy Smith, and at this time the oldest son
living.

6. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 11.

7. There is no record in the Church annals of the time and place of the
birth of Joseph Knight, Sen. He was well advanced in life, however,
when the work of God in these last days began to come forth. From the
journal of his son, Newel Knight, it is learned that Joseph Knight,
Sen., married Polly Peck; that he moved into the state of New York and
settled on the Susquehanna river, near the great bend, in Chenango
county, in 1809. Two years later he removed to Colesville, Broome
county, New York, where he remained nineteen years. "My father," says
Newel Knight in his journal, "owned a farm, a grist mill and carding
machine. He was not rich, yet he possessed enough of this world's goods
to secure to himself and family, not only the necessaries, but also
the comforts of life. His family, consisting of my mother, three sons
and four daughters, he reared in a genteel and respectable manner,
and gave his children a good, common school education. My father was
a sober, honest man, generally respected and beloved by his neighbors
and acquaintances. He did not belong to any religious sect, but was a
believer in the Universalian doctrine." The business in which Joseph
Knight, Sen., engaged, made it necessary at times for him to hire men,
and the Prophet Joseph was occasionally employed by him. To the Knight
family, who were greatly attached to him, the young Prophet related
many of the things God had revealed respecting the Book of Mormon, then
as yet, to come forth. So far at least was the elder Knight taken into
the Prophet's confidence that he purposely so arranged his affairs as
to be at the Smith family residence, near Manchester, at the time the
plates of the Book of Mormon were given into Joseph's possession. Mr.
Knight had driven to the Smith residence with a horse and carriage,
and in this conveyance, according to the statement of both Lucy Smith,
mother of the Prophet, (See Lucy Smith's _History of the Prophet_, ch.
23), and Joseph Knight, Sen., Joseph, in company with his wife Emma,
drove away very early--before daylight--on the morning of September
the 22nd. It is presumed, of course, the Prophet drove to Cumorah, and
there received from Moroni the plates of the Book of Mormon, the Urim
and Thummim and Breastplate, which were, for some time--excepting the
Urim and Thummim--concealed in the woods. Mr. Knight remained at the
Smith residence several days, and was there the day Joseph brought
home the plates; and in company with Joseph Smith, Sen., and Mr.
Stoal--who was also present at the Smith residence in company with
Mr. Knight--went in search of those men who had assailed the Prophet
while on his way home with the plates, but they did not find them. From
Joseph's narrative in the text it will be seen that the senior Joseph
Knight's interest in the work continued.

8. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 12.

9. Peter Whitmer, Sen., was born April 14, 1773. Of the place of his
birth there is no record in the Church annals, but it was doubtless
in the state of Pennsylvania. He married Mary Musselman, who was born
27th of August, 1778; and to them were born eight children. The Elder
Whitmer was a strict Presbyterian, and trained his children in that
faith. In the early years of the 19th century he moved from the state
of Pennsylvania to New York, and settled in Fayette township, about
three miles south of Waterloo, where the Prophet made his acquaintance.

10. David Whitmer was born near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, January 7th,
1805, and was the fourth son of Peter Whitmer, Sen., and Mary Musselman
Whitmer.

11. John Whitmer was born August 27th, 1802. He was the third son of
Peter Whitmer, Sen., and Mary Musselman Whitmer.

12. Peter Whitmer, Jun., was born September 27th, 1809, and was the
fifth son, but sixth child of Mary Musselman and Peter Whitmer, Sen.

13. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 14.

14. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 15.

15. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 16.

{52}



Chapter VI.

The Testimony of the Especial Witnesses to the Book of Mormon.

[Sidenote: Provision Made for Special Witnesses.]

In the course of the work of translation, we ascertained that three
special witnesses [1] were to be provided by the Lord, to whom He would
grant that they should see the plates from which this work (the Book
of Mormon) should be translated; and that these witnesses should bear
record of the same, as will be found recorded, Book of Mormon, page 581
[Book of Ether, chapter 5, verses 2, 3 and 4], and also page 86 [II
Nephi, chapter 11, verse 3]. [2] Almost immediately after we had made
this discovery, it occurred to {53} Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, and
the aforementioned Martin Harris (who had come to inquire after our
progress in the work) that they would have me inquire of the Lord to
know if they might not obtain of Him the privilege to be these three
special witnesses; and finally they became so very solicitous, and
urged me so much to inquire that at length I complied; and through the
Urim and Thummim, I obtained of the Lord for them the following:

    _Revelation to Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, and Martin Harris,
    at Fayette, Seneca County, New York, June, 1829, given previous to
    their viewing the plates containing the Book of Mormon._ [3]

    1. Behold, I say unto you, that you must rely upon my word, which
    if you do, with full purpose of heart, you shall have a view of the
    plates, and also the breastplate, the sword of Laban, the Urim and
    Thummim, which were given to the brother of Jared upon the mount,
    when he talked with the Lord face to face, and the miraculous
    directors which were given to Lehi while in the wilderness, on the
    borders of the Red Sea;

    2. And it is by your faith that you shall obtain a view of them,
    even by that faith which was had by the prophets of old.

    3. And after that you have obtained faith, and have seen them with
    your eyes, you shall testify of them, by the power of God;

    4. And this you shall do that my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., may
    not be destroyed, that I may bring about my righteous purposes unto
    the children of men in this work.

    5. And ye shall testify that you have seen them, even as my servant
    Joseph Smith, Jun., has seen them, for it is by my power that he
    has seen them, and it is because he had faith;

    6. And he has translated the book, even that part which I have
    commanded him, and as your Lord and your God liveth it is true.

    7. Wherefore you have received the same power, and the same faith,
    and the same gift like unto him;

    8. And if you do these last commandments of mine, which I have
    given you, the gates of hell shall not prevail against you; for my
    grace is sufficient for you, and you shall be lifted up at the last
    day.

    9. And I, Jesus Christ, your Lord and your God, have spoken it
    unto you, that I might bring about my righteous purposes unto the
    children of men. Amen.

{54} [Sidenote: Seeking the Fulfilment of the Promise.]

Not many days after the above commandment was given, we four, viz.,
Martin Harris, David Whitmer, Oliver Cowdery and myself, agreed to
retire into the woods, and try to obtain, by fervent and humble prayer,
the fulfilment of the promises given in the above revelation--that they
should have a view of the plates. We accordingly made choice of a piece
of woods convenient to Mr. Whitmer's house, to which we retired, and
having knelt down, we began to pray in much faith to Almighty God to
bestow upon us a realization of these promises.

[Sidenote: The Order of Prayer.]

According to previous arrangement, I commenced prayer to our Heavenly
Father, and was followed by each of the others in succession. We did
not at the first trial, however, obtain any answer or manifestation of
divine favor in our behalf. We again observed the same order of prayer,
each calling on and praying fervently to God in rotation, but with the
same result as before.

[Sidenote: The Visitation of the Angel--Viewing the Plates.]

Upon this, our second failure, Martin Harris proposed that he should
withdraw himself from us, believing, as he expressed himself, that his
presence was the cause of our not obtaining what we wished for. He
accordingly withdrew from us, and we knelt down again, and had not been
many minutes engaged in prayer, when presently we beheld a light above
us in the air, of exceeding brightness; and behold, an angel stood
before us. In his hands he held the plates which we had been praying
for these to have a view of. He turned over the leaves one by one, so
that we could see them, and discern the engravings thereon distinctly.
He then addressed himself to David Whitmer, and said, "David, blessed
is the Lord, and he that keeps His commandments;" when, immediately
afterwards, we heard a voice from out of the bright light above us,
saying, "These plates have been revealed by the power of God, and they
have been translated by the power of God. The {55} translation of them
which you have seen is correct, and I command you to bear record of
what you now see and hear."

[Sidenote: Martin Harris also Views the Plates.]

I now left David and Oliver, and went in pursuit of Martin Harris,
whom I found at a considerable distance, fervently engaged in prayer.
He soon told me, however, that he had not yet prevailed with the Lord,
and earnestly requested me to join him in prayer, that he also might
realize the same blessings which we had just received. We accordingly
joined in prayer, and ultimately obtained our desires, for before we
had yet finished, the same vision was opened to our view, at least
it was again opened to me, and I once more beheld and heard the same
things; whilst at the same moment, Martin Harris cried out, apparently
in an ecstasy of joy, "'Tis enough; 'tis enough; mine eyes have beheld;
mine eyes have beheld;" and jumping up, he shouted, "Hosanna," blessing
God, and otherwise rejoiced exceedingly. [4]

[Sidenote: Statement of the Witnesses.]

{56} Having thus, through the mercy of God, obtained these glorious
manifestations, it now remained for these three individuals to fulfil
the commandment which they had received, viz., to bear record of these
things; in order to accomplish which, they drew up and subscribed [5]
the following document: [6]

    _The Testimony of Three Witnesses._

    Be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues, and people, unto
    whom this work shall come, that we, through the grace of God the
    {57} Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ, have seen the plates which
    contain this record--which is a record of the people of Nephi, and
    also of the Lamanites, their brethren, and also of the people of
    Jared, who came from the tower of which hath been spoken; and we
    also know that they have been translated by the gift and power of
    God, for His voice hath declared it unto us, wherefore we know of a
    surety that the work is true. And we also testify that we have seen
    the engravings which are upon the plates, and they have been shown
    unto us by the power of God, and not of man; And we declare with
    words of soberness, that an angel of God came down from heaven, and
    he brought and laid before our eyes, that we beheld and saw the
    plates and the engravings thereon; and we know that it is by the
    grace of God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ, that we beheld
    and bear record that these things are true, and it is marvelous in
    our eyes; Nevertheless, the voice of the Lord commanded us that
    we should bear record of it; wherefore, to be obedient unto the
    commandments of God, we bear testimony of these things; And we know
    that if we are faithful in Christ, we shall rid our garments of the
    blood of all men, and be found spotless before the judgment seat of
    Christ, and shall dwell with him eternally in the heavens. And the
    honor be to the Father and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, which
    is one God. Amen.

    Oliver Cowdery,

    David Whitmer,

    Martin Harris.

Soon after these things had transpired, the following additional
testimony was obtained: [7]

    _The Testimony of Eight Witnesses._

    Be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues and people unto
    whom this work shall come, that Joseph Smith, Jun., the translator
    {58} of this work, [8] has shown unto us the plates of which hath
    been spoken, which have the appearance of gold; and as many of the
    leaves as the said Smith has translated, we did handle with our
    hands; and we also saw the engravings thereon, all of which has the
    appearance of ancient work and of curious workmanship. And this we
    bear record, with words of soberness, that the said Smith has shown
    unto us, for we have seen and hefted, and know of a surety that the
    said Smith has got the plates of which we have spoken. And we give
    our names unto the world to witness unto the world that which we
    have seen; and we lie not, God bearing witness of it.

    Christian Whitmer,

    Jacob Whitmer,

    Peter Whitmer, Jun.,

    John Whitmer,

    Hiram Page,

    Joseph Smith, Sen.,

    Hyrum Smith,

    Samuel H. Smith.

{59} [Sidenote: Early Progress in the Work.]

Meantime we continued to translate, at intervals, when not under the
necessity of attending to the numerous inquirers who now began to visit
us--some for the sake of finding the truth others for the purpose of
putting hard questions, and trying to confound us. Among the latter
class were several learned priests, who generally came for the purpose
of disputation. However, the Lord continued to pour out upon us His
Holy Spirit, and as often as we had need, He gave us in that moment
what to say; so that although unlearned and inexperienced in religious
controversies, yet we were able to confound those learned priests of
the day; whilst at the same time we were enabled to convince the honest
in heart that we had obtained, through the mercy of God, the true and
everlasting Gospel of Jesus Christ; and occasionally we administered
the ordinance of baptism for the remission of sins to such as believed.

Footnotes

1. See also revelation given March, 1829, page 29.

2. In the original manuscript copy of the History, the reference here
made are to the first edition of the Book of Mormon, but to avoid
confusion, the pages, chapters and verses of the later and prevailing
editions are given. In the first edition [now very rare] the reference
from the Book of Ether is on page 548, toward the middle of chapter 2;
and that from Nephi is on page 86, toward the beginning of chapter 8.
The quotations are as follows:

"And behold, ye may be privileged that ye may show the plates unto
those who shall assist to bring forth this work; and unto three shall
they be shown by the power of God; wherefore they shall know of a
surety that these things are true. And in the mouth of three witnesses
shall these things be established; and the testimony of three, and
this work, in the which shall be shown forth the power of God and also
his word, of which the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost bear
record:--and all this shall stand as a testimony against the world at
the last day."--_Book of Ether_, 5:2-4.

"And my brother, Jacob also has seen him as I have seen him; wherefore,
I will send their words forth unto my children to prove unto them that
my words are true. Wherefore, by the words of three, God hath said, I
will establish my word. Nevertheless, God sendeth more witnesses, and
he proveth all his words."--_2 Nephi _11:3.

3. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 17.

4. There are some other details connected with the obtaining of
the testimony of the Three Witnesses which ought not to be omitted
at this point. The day on which the Three Witnesses received their
manifestation the usual morning family service was held at the Whitmer
residence, namely, scripture-reading, singing, and prayer. Besides the
Whitmer family, the Prophet and his wife and Oliver Cowdery, there were
present the Prophet's father and mother and Martin Harris. As soon
as Joseph rose from his knees, he approached Martin Harris and said,
"with a solemnity that thrills through my veins to this day," says the
Prophet's mother, who relates this circumstance: "Martin Harris, you
have got to humble yourself before your God this day, that you may
obtain a forgiveness of your sins. If you do, it is the will of God
that you should look upon the plates in company with Oliver Cowdery and
David Whitmer." (_History of the Prophet Joseph_, by Lucy Smith, ch.
31.) When the former transgression of Martin Harris in the matter of
betraying the trust of the Prophet, by which part of the translation of
the Book of Mormon had been lost (see p. 21)--when this and the pride
and self-will of the man's character are taken into account, there was
certainly a necessity for the admonition which the Prophet gave Martin
Harris that morning. The circumstance also affords an explanation
of Martin's difficulty in obtaining a testimony which, after his
withdrawal from them, appears to have been given so readily to Oliver
Cowdery and David Whitmer.

Another circumstance is related by Lucy Smith which is here _apropos_,
namely, the joy of the Prophet in having other witnesses than himself
to the truth of the work the Lord was then bringing forth to the world.
Speaking of the witnesses returning to the Whitmer home after seeing
the plates, she says: "When they returned to the house, it was between
three and four o'clock p. m. Mrs. Whitmer, Mr. Smith, and myself were
sitting in the bedroom at the time. On coming in, Joseph threw himself
down beside me, and exclaimed, 'Father, mother, you do not know how
happy I am; the Lord has now caused the plates to be shown to three
more besides myself. They have seen an angel, who has testified to
them, and they will have to bear witness to the truth of what I have
said, for now they know for themselves that I do not go about to
deceive the people, and I feel as if I was relieved of a burden which
was almost too heavy for me to bear, and it rejoices my soul that I am
not any longer to be entirely alone in the world.' Upon this, Martin
Harris came in. He seemed almost overcome with joy, and testified
boldly to what he had both seen and heard. And so did David and Oliver,
adding that no tongue could express the joy of their hearts and the
greatness of the things which they had both seen and heard."--_History
of the Prophet Joseph_, ch. 31.

5. In an extended interview between Elders Orson Pratt, Joseph F. Smith
(both of the council of the Twelve Apostles) and David Whitmer, at the
home of Mr. Whitmer, in Richmond, Missouri, in September, 1878, the
question was asked the then aged witness if he and the other witnesses
did or did not sign the testimonies themselves. Whitmer replied that
each signed his own name.--Pratt and Smith Report, _Millennial Star,_
vol. 11, nos. 49, 50. Report is dated Sept. 17, 1878.

6. In the first edition of the Book of Mormon the testimony of Three
Witnesses, and also the Testimony of Eight Witnesses appear at the
end--or on the last two pages of the volume, instead of being, as in
the later editions, on the page following the title-page. The first
edition also had the following:

Preface.

To the Reader--

As many false reports have been circulated respecting the following
work, and also many unlawful measures taken by evil designing persons
to destroy me, and also the work, I would inform you that I translated,
by the gift and power of God, and caused to be written, one hundred
and sixteen pages, the which I took from the book of Lehi, which was
an account abridged from the plates of Lehi, by the hand of Mormon;
which said account, some person or persons have stolen and kept from
me, notwithstanding my utmost exertions to recover it again--and being
commanded of the Lord that I should not translate the same over again,
for Satan had put it into their hearts to tempt the Lord their God,
by altering the words, that they did read contrary from that which
I translated and caused to be written; and if I should bring forth
the same words again, or, in other words, if I should translate the
same over again, they would publish that which they had stolen, and
Satan would stir up the hearts of this generation, that they might not
receive this work; but behold, the Lord said unto me, I will not suffer
that Satan shall accomplish his evil design in this thing; therefore
thou shalt translate from the plates of Nephi, until ye come to that
which ye have translated, which ye have retained; and behold ye shall
publish it as the record of Nephi; and thus I will confound those who
have altered my words. I will not suffer that they shall destroy my
work; yea, I will show unto them that my wisdom is greater than the
cunning of the devil. Wherefore to be obedient unto the commandments
of God, I have through His grace and mercy, accomplished that which He
hath commanded me, respecting this thing. I would also inform you that
the plates of which hath been spoken, were found in the township of
Manchester, Ontario county, New York.

The Author.

7. According to Lucy Smith (see _History of the Prophet Joseph,_ ch.
31) the eight witnesses obtained a view of the plates near the Smith
residence at Manchester. It was on the occasion of the Prophet Joseph's
coming over to Manchester from Fayette, accompanied by several of the
Whitmers and Hiram Page, to make arrangements about getting the Book of
Mormon printed. After arriving at the Smith residence, Joseph Smith,
Sen., Hyrum Smith, and Samuel H. Smith, joined Joseph's company from
Fayette, and together they repaired to a place in the woods where
members of the Smith family were wont to hold secret prayer, and there
the plates were shown to these eight witness by the Prophet himself.
The difference between the testimony given the Three Witnesses and
that given to the Eight, is that the former was attended by a splendid
display of the glory and power of God and the ministration of an angel,
while the latter was attended by no such display, but was a plain,
matter-of-fact exhibition of the plates by the Prophet to his friends,
and they not only saw the plates, but handled them and examined the
engravings upon them.

8. In the first edition, the words "Author and Proprietor" appear
instead of the word "translator." The reason for this is obvious.
Under the laws then existing the copyright was secured to "authors and
proprietors;" and hence on the title page of the first edition, "Joseph
Smith, Junior, author and proprietor," takes the place of the line
"Translated by Joseph Smith, Jun.," in the later editions. The Prophet
merely adopted the phraseology of the law. Preceding the preface to the
first edition appears the following certificate of copyright, which is
interesting not only as explaining the foregoing point, but also as
preserving an important date in Church history:

_Northern District of New York, to wit_:

Be it Remembered, That on the eleventh day of June, in the fifty-third
year of the independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1829,
JOSEPH SMITH JUN., of the said district, hath deposited in this office
the title of a Book, the right whereof the claims as author, in the
words following to wit: [Here follows the title page with the words,
"By Joseph Smith, Junior, Author and Proprietor, Palmyra: Printed by E.
B. Grandin for the Author. 1830."]

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled
"An act for the encouragement of learning by securing the copies of
Maps, Charts and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies,
during the times therein mentioned;" and also the act, entitled, "An
act supplementary to an act, entitled, 'An act for the encouragement
of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to
to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times
therein mentioned,' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of
designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints."

R. R. Lansing,

_Clerk of the Northern District of New York_.

{60}



Chapter VII.

The Day Appointed for Organizing the Church--Revelation on Church
Government.

[Sidenote: Directions for the Organization of the Church.]

We now became anxious to have that promise realized to us, which the
angel that conferred upon us the Aaronic Priesthood had given us,
viz., that provided we continued faithful, we should also have the
Melchisedek Priesthood, which holds the authority of the laying on of
hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost. We had for some time made this
matter a subject of humble prayer, and at length we got together in the
chamber of Mr. Whitmer's house, in order more particularly to seek of
the Lord what we now so earnestly desired; and here, to our unspeakable
satisfaction, did we realize the truth of the Savior's promise--"Ask,
and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall
be opened unto you"--for we had not long been engaged in solemn and
fervent prayer, when the word of the Lord came unto us in the chamber,
[1] commanding us {61} that I should ordain Oliver Cowdery to be an
Elder in the Church of Jesus Christ; and that he also should ordain me
to the same office; and then to ordain others, as it should be made
known unto us from time to time. We were, however, commanded to defer
this our ordination until such times as it should be practicable to
have our brethren, who had been and who should be baptized, assembled
together, when we must have their sanction to our thus proceeding to
ordain each other, and have them decide by vote whether they were
willing to accept us as spiritual teachers or not; when also we were
commanded to bless bread and break it with them, and to take wine,
bless it, and drink it with them; afterward proceed to ordain each
other according to commandment; then call out such men as the Spirit
should dictate, and ordain them; and then attend to the laying on
of hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost, upon all those whom we had
previously baptized, doing all things in the name of the Lord. The
following commandment will further illustrate the {62} nature of our
calling to this Priesthood, as well as that of others who were yet to
be sought after:

    _Revelation to Joseph Smith, Jun., Oliver Cowdery and David
    Whitmer, making known the calling of Twelve Apostles in these last
    days; and also instructions relative to building up the Church of
    Christ according to the fulness of the Gospel. Given in Fayette,
    New York, June, 1829_. [2]

    1. Now, behold, because of the thing which you, my servant Oliver
    Cowdery, have desired to know of me, I give unto you these words:

    2. Behold, I have manifested unto you, by my Spirit in many
    instances, that the things which you have written are true;
    wherefore you know that they are true;

    3. And if you know that they are true, behold, I give unto you a
    commandment, that you rely upon the things which are written;

    4. For in them are all things written concerning the foundation of
    my Church, my Gospel and my rock.

    5. Wherefore, if you shall build up my Church, upon the foundation
    of my Gospel and my rock, the gates of hell shall not prevail
    against you.

    6. Behold, the world is ripening in iniquity, and it must needs be
    that the children of men are stirred up unto repentance, both the
    Gentiles and also the house of Israel;

    7. Wherefore, as thou hast been baptized by the hands of my servant
    Joseph Smith, Jun., according to that which I have commanded him,
    he hath fulfilled the thing which I commanded him.

    8. And now marvel not that I have called him unto mine own purpose,
    which purpose is known in me; wherefore, if he shall be diligent in
    keeping my commandments, he shall be blessed unto eternal life, and
    his name is Joseph.

    9. And now, Oliver Cowdery, I speak unto you, and also unto David
    Whitmer, by the way of commandment; for, behold, I command all men
    everywhere to repent, and I speak unto you, even as unto Paul mine
    Apostle, for you are called even with that same calling with which
    he was called.

    10. Remember the worth of souls is great in the sight of God;

    11. For, behold, the Lord your Redeemer suffered death in the
    flesh; wherefore He suffered the pain of all men, that all men
    might repent and come unto Him.

    12. And He hath risen again from the dead, that He might bring all
    men unto Him, on conditions of repentance.

    13. And how great is His joy in the soul that repenteth!

    14. Wherefore, you are called to cry repentance unto this people;

    {63} 15. And if it so be that you should labor all your days in
    crying repentance unto this people, and bring save it be one soul
    unto me, how great shall be your joy with him in the kingdom of my
    Father!

    16. And now, if your joy will be great with one soul that you have
    brought unto me into the kingdom of my Father, how great will be
    your joy if you should bring many souls unto me!

    17. Behold, you have my Gospel before you, and my rock, and my
    salvation.

    18. Ask the Father in my name, in faith believing that you shall
    receive, and you shall have the Holy Ghost, which manifesteth all
    things which are expedient unto the children of men.

    19. And if you have not faith, hope, and charity, you can do
    nothing.

    20. Contend against no church save it be the church of the devil.

    21. Take upon you the name of Christ, and speak the truth in
    soberness;

    22. And as many as repent, and are baptized in my name, which is
    Jesus Christ, and endure to the end, the same shall be saved.

    23. Behold, Jesus Christ is the name which is given of the Father,
    and there is none other name given whereby man can be saved;

    24. Wherefore, all men must take upon them the name which is given
    of the Father for in that name shall they be called at the last day;

    25. Wherefore, if they know not the name by which they are called,
    they cannot have place in the kingdom of my Father.

    26. And now, behold, there are others who are called to declare my
    Gospel, both unto Gentile and unto Jew:

    27. Yea, even Twelve, and the Twelve shall be my disciples, and
    they shall take upon them my name; and the Twelve are they who
    shall desire to take upon them my name with full purpose of heart;

    28. And if they desire to take upon them my name with full purpose
    of heart, they are called to go into all the world to preach my
    Gospel unto every creature;

    29. And they are they who are ordained of me to baptize in my name
    according to that which is written;

    30. And you have that which is written before you; wherefore, you
    must perform it according to the words which are written.

    31. And now I speak unto you the Twelve--Behold, my grace is
    sufficient for you: you must walk uprightly before me and sin not.

    32. And, behold, you are they who are ordained of me to ordain
    Priests and Teachers; to declare my Gospel; according to the power
    of the Holy Ghost which is in you, and according to the callings
    and gifts of God unto men;

    33. And I, Jesus Christ, your Lord and your God, have spoken it.

    34. These words are not of men, nor of man, but of me; wherefore,
    you shall testify they are of me, and not of man;

    {64} 35. For it is my voice which speaketh them unto you, for they
    are given by my Spirit unto you, and by my power you can read them
    one to another, and save it were by my power, you could not have
    them;

    36. Wherefore, you can testify that you have heard my voice, and
    know my words.

    37. And now, behold, I give unto you, Oliver Cowdery, and also unto
    David Whitmer, that you shall search out the Twelve, who shall have
    the desires of which I have spoken;

    38. And by their desires and their works you shall know them.

    39. And when you have found them, you shall show these things unto
    them.

    40. And you shall fall down and worship the Father in my name;

    41. And you must preach unto the world, saying, You must repent and
    be baptized, in the name of Jesus Christ;

    42. For all men must repent and be baptized, and not only men, but
    women, and children who have arrived to the years of accountability.

    43. And now, after that you have received this, you must keep my
    commandments in all things;

    44. And by your hands I will work a marvelous work among the
    children of men, unto the convincing of many of their sins, that
    they may come unto repentance, and that they may come unto the
    kingdom of my Father.

    45. Wherefore, the blessings which I give unto you are above all
    things.

    46. And after that you have received this, if you keep not my
    commandments you cannot be saved in the kingdom of my Father.

    47. Behold, I, Jesus Christ, your Lord and your God, and your
    Redeemer, by the power of my Spirit have spoken it. Amen.

[Sidenote: Instructions on Church Organization.]

In this manner did the Lord continue to give us instructions from time
to time, concerning the duties which now devolved upon us; and among
many other things of the kind, we obtained of Him the following, by
the spirit of prophecy and revelation; which not only gave us much
information, but also pointed out to us the precise day upon which,
according to His will and commandment, we should proceed to organize
His Church once more here upon the earth:

    _A Revelation on Church Government._ [3]

    1. The rise of the Church of Christ in these last days, being one
    thousand eight hundred and thirty years since the coming of our
    Lord and {65} Savior Jesus Christ in the flesh, it being regularly
    organized and established agreeable to the laws of our country, by
    the will and commandments of God, in the fourth month, and on the
    sixth day of the month which is called April;

    2. Which commandments were given to Joseph Smith, Jun., who was
    called of God, and ordained an Apostle of Jesus Christ, to be the
    first Elder of this Church;

    3. And to Oliver Cowdery, who was also called of God, an Apostle of
    Jesus Christ, to be the second Elder of this Church, and ordained
    under his hand;

    4. And this according to the grace of our Lord and Savior Jesus
    Christ, to whom be all glory, both now and for ever. Amen.

    5. After it was truly manifested unto this first Elder that he had
    received a remission of his sins, he was entangled again in the
    vanities of the world.

    6. But after repenting, and humbling himself sincerely, through
    faith, God ministered to him by an holy angel, whose countenance
    was as lightning, and whose garments were pure and white above all
    other whiteness;

    7. And gave unto him commandments which instilled him;

    8. And gave him power from on high, by the means which were before
    prepared, to translate the Book of Mormon;

    9. Which contains a record of a fallen people, and the fulness of
    the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles and to the Jews also;

    10. Which was given by inspiration, and is confirmed to others by
    the ministering of angels, and is declared unto the world by them;

    11. Proving to the world that the Holy Scriptures are true, and
    that God does inspire men and call them to His holy work in this
    age and generation, as well as in generations of old,

    12. Thereby showing that He is the same God yesterday, today, and
    for ever. Amen.

    13. Therefore, having so great witnesses, by them shall the world
    be judged, even as many as shall hereafter come to a knowledge of
    this work;

    14. And those who receive it in faith, and work righteousness,
    shall receive a crown of eternal life;

    15. But those who harden their hearts in unbelief, and reject it,
    it shall turn to their own condemnation;

    16. For the Lord God hath spoken it; and we, the Elders of the
    Church, have heard and bear witness to the words of the glorious
    Majesty on high, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

    17. By these things we know that there is a God in heaven, who is
    infinite and eternal, from everlasting to everlasting the same {66}
    unchangeable God, the framer of heaven and earth, and all things
    which are in them;

    18. And that He created man, male, and female, after His own image
    and in His own likeness, created He them,

    19. And gave unto them commandments that they should love and serve
    Him, the only living and true God, and that He should be the only
    being whom they should worship.

    20. But by the transgression of these holy laws, man became sensual
    and devilish, and became fallen man.

    21. Wherefore, the Almighty God gave His Only Begotten Son, as it
    is written in those scriptures which have been given of Him.

    22. He suffered temptations but gave no heed unto them.

    23. He was crucified, died, and rose again the third day;

    24. And ascended into heaven, to sit down on the right hand of the
    Father, to reign with almighty power according to the will of the
    Father.

    25. That as many as would believe and be baptized in His holy name,
    and endure in faith to the end, should be saved:

    26. Not only those who believed after He came in the meridian of
    time, in the flesh, but all those from the beginning, even as
    many as were before He came, who believed in the words of the
    holy prophets, who spake as they were inspired by the gift of the
    Holy Ghost, who truly testified of Him in all things, should have
    eternal life,

    27. As well as those who should come after, who should believe
    in the gifts and callings of God by the Holy Ghost which beareth
    record of the Father and of the Son;

    28. Which Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are one God, infinite and
    eternal, without end. Amen.

    29. And we know that all men must repent and believe on the name
    of Jesus Christ, and worship the Father in His name, and endure
    in faith on His name to the end, or they cannot be saved in the
    kingdom of God.

    30. And we know that justification through the grace of our Lord
    and Savior Jesus Christ, is just and true;

    31. And we know also, that sanctification through the grace of our
    Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, is just and true, to all those who
    love and serve God with all their mights, minds, and strength.

    32. But there is a possibility that man may fall from grace and
    depart from the living God;

    33. Therefore let the Church take heed and pray always, lest they
    fall into temptation;

    34. Yea and even let those who are sanctified take heed also.

    35. And we know that these things are true and according to the
    {67} revelations of John, neither adding to, nor diminishing from
    the prophecy of his book, the Holy Scriptures, or the revelations
    of God which shall come hereafter by the gift and power of the Holy
    Ghost, the voice of God, or the ministering of angels.

    36. And the Lord God has spoken it; and honor, power and glory be
    rendered to His holy name, both now and ever. Amen.

    37. _And again, by way of commandment to the Church concerning the
    manner of baptism._--All those who humble themselves before God,
    and desire to be baptized, and come forth with broken hearts and
    contrite spirits, and witness before the Church that they have
    truly repented of all their sins, and are willing to take upon them
    the name of Jesus Christ, having a determination to serve Him to
    the end, and truly manifest by their works that they have received
    of the Spirit of Christ unto the remission of their sins, shall be
    received by baptism into His Church.

    38. _The duty of the Elders, Priests, Teachers, Deacons, and
    members of the Church of Christ._--An Apostle is an Elder, and it
    is his calling to baptize;

    39. And to ordain other Elders, Priests, Teachers, and Deacons;

    40. And to administer bread and wine--the emblems of the flesh and
    blood of Christ;

    41. And to confirm those who are baptized into the Church, by the
    laying on of hands for the baptism of fire and the Holy Ghost,
    according to the Scriptures;

    42. And to teach, expound, exhort, baptize, and watch over the
    Church;

    43. And to confirm the Church by the laying on of the hands, and
    the giving of the Holy Ghost;

    44. And to take the lead of all meetings.

    45. The Elders are to conduct the meetings as they are led by the
    Holy Ghost, according to the commandments and revelations of God.

    46. The Priest's duty is to preach, teach, expound, exhort, and
    baptize, and administer the sacrament;

    47. And visit the house of each member, and exhort them to pray
    vocally and in secret, and attend to all family duties.

    48. And he may also ordain other Priests, Teachers, and Deacons.

    49. And he is to take the lead of meetings when there is no Elder
    present;

    50. But when there is an Elder present, he is only to preach,
    teach, expound, exhort, and baptize,

    51. And visit the house of each member, exhorting them to pray
    vocally and in secret, and attend to all family duties.

    52. In all these duties the Priest is to assist the Elder if
    occasion requires.

    {68} 53. The Teacher's duty is to watch over the church always, and
    be with and strengthen them;

    54. And see that there is no iniquity in the Church--neither
    hardness with each other--neither lying, back biting, nor evil
    speaking;

    55. And see that the Church meet together often, and also see that
    all the members do their duty;

    56. And he is to take the lead of meetings in the absence of the
    Elder or Priest--

    57. And is to be assisted always, in all his duties in the Church,
    by the Deacons, if occasion requires.

    58. But neither Teachers nor Deacons have authority to baptize,
    administer the sacrament, or lay on hands;

    59. They are, however, to warn, expound, exhort, and teach and
    invite all to come unto Christ.

    60. Every Elder, Priest, Teacher, or Deacon is to be ordained
    according to the gifts and callings of God unto him; and he is to
    be ordained by the power of the Holy Ghost, which is in the one who
    ordains him.

    61. The several Elders composing this Church of Christ are to meet
    in conference once in three months, or from time to time as said
    conferences shall direct or appoint;

    62. And said conferences are to do whatever Church business is
    necessary to be done at the time.

    63. The Elders are to receive their licenses from other Elders, by
    vote of the church to which they belong, or from the conferences.

    64. Each Priest, Teacher, or Deacon, who is ordained by a Priest,
    may take a certificate from him at the time, which certificate,
    when presented to an Elder, shall entitle him to a license, which
    shall authorize him to perform the duties of his calling, or he may
    receive it from a conference.

    65. No person is to be ordained to any office in this Church, where
    there is a regularly organized branch of the same, without the vote
    of that Church;

    66. But the presiding Elders, traveling Bishops, High Councilors,
    High Priests, and Elders, may have the privilege of ordaining,
    where there is no branch of the Church that a vote may be called.

    67. Every president of the High Priesthood (or presiding Elder),
    Bishop, High Councilor and High Priest, is to be ordained by the
    direction of a High Council or general conference. [4]

    68. _The duty of the members after they are received by
    baptism._--The Elders or Priests are to have a sufficient time to
    expound all things {69} concerning the Church of Christ to their
    understanding, previous to their partaking of the Sacrament and
    being confirmed by the laying on of the hands of the Elders, so
    that all things may be done in order.

    69. And the members shall manifest before the Church, and also
    before the Elders, by a godly walk and conversation, that they are
    worthy of it, that there may be works and faith agreeable to the
    Holy Scriptures--walking in holiness before the Lord.

    70. Every member of the Church of Christ having children is to
    bring them unto the Elders before the Church, who are to lay their
    hands upon them in the name of Jesus Christ, and bless them in His
    name.

    71. No one can be received into the Church of Christ, unless he has
    arrived unto the years of accountability before God, and is capable
    of repentance.

    72. Baptism is to be administered in the following manner unto all
    those who repent:--

    73. The person who is called of God, and has authority from Jesus
    Christ to baptize, shall go down into the water with the person
    who has presented himself or herself for baptism, and shall say,
    calling him or her by name--Having been commissioned of Jesus
    Christ, I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son,
    and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

    74. Then shall he immerse him or her in the water, and come forth
    again out of the water.

    75. It is expedient that the Church meet together often to partake
    of bread and wine in the remembrance of the Lord Jesus;

    76. And the Elder or Priest shall administer it; and after this
    manner shall he administer it: he shall kneel with the Church and
    call upon the Father in solemn prayer, saying--

    77. O God, the Eternal Father, we ask Thee in the name of Thy Son,
    Jesus Christ, to bless and sanctify this bread to the souls of all
    those who partake of it, that they may eat in remembrance of the
    body of Thy Son, and witness unto Thee, O God, the Eternal Father,
    that they are willing to take upon them the name of Thy Son, and
    always remember Him and keep His commandments which He has given
    them, that they may always have His Spirit to be with them. Amen.

    78. The manner of administering the wine: He shall take the cup
    also, and say--

    79. O God, the Eternal Father, we ask Thee in the name of Thy Son,
    Jesus Christ, to bless and sanctify this wine to the souls of all
    those who drink of it, that they may do it in remembrance of the
    blood of Thy Son, which was shed for them; that they may witness
    unto Thee, O God, {70} the Eternal Father, that they do always
    remember Him, That they may have His Spirit to be with them. Amen.

    80. Any member of the Church of Christ transgressing, or being
    overtaken in a fault, shall be dealt with as the Scriptures direct.

    81. It shall be the duty of the several churches, composing the
    Church of Christ, to send one or more of their Teachers to attend
    the several conferences held by the Elders of the Church,

    82. With a list of the names of the several members uniting
    themselves with the Church since the last conference, or send by
    the hand of some Priest, so that a regular list of all the names
    of the whole Church may be kept in a book by one of the Elders
    whomsoever the other Elders shall appoint from time to time;

    83. And also, if any have been expelled from the Church, so that
    their names may be blotted out of the general Church record of
    names.

    84. All members removing from the church where they reside, if
    going to a church where they are not known, may take a letter,
    certifying that they are regular members and in good standing,
    which certificate may be signed by any Elder or Priest if the
    member receiving the letter is personally acquainted with the Elder
    or Priest, or it may be signed by the Teachers or Deacons of the
    Church.

Footnotes

1. This occasion is unquestionably the one that the Prophet Joseph
alludes to in his letter to the Saints in Nauvoo, under date or
September 6th 1842, (Doctrine and Covenants sec. 128:21) where he says:
"Again what do we hear * * * _the voice of God in the chamber of old
father Peter Whitmer, in Fayette, Seneca county_, and at sundry times,
and in divers places through all the travels and tribulations of this
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints." It must not be thought
because of the reference in the text above to the desire of Joseph
and Oliver to have the Melchizedek Priesthood conferred upon them,
and the commandment given that they should ordain each other Elders
of the Church--it must not be thought because of this, I repeat, that
there is any conflict between what is here stated in the text and what
has been said with reference to the restoration of the keys of the
Melchizedek Priesthood by Peter, James and John. This "voice of God
in the chamber of old Father Peter Whitmer, in Fayette," commanding
Joseph and Oliver to ordain each other "Elders of the Church," but also
commanding them to defer said ordinations until their brethren who had
been and should be baptized could be assembled together to give their
sanction to such procedure--was all previous to their ordination to
the Apostleship under the hands of Peter, James and John and; to be
regarded as instruction to them as to how they should proceed in the
matter of ordaining each other, and calling and ordaining others to
the same ministry, after they themselves should have received the keys
of this Melchizedek Priesthood. The ordination of each other to be
Elders of the Church was deferred until the meeting at which the Church
was organized, the 6th of April, 1830. (see p. 75.) But this voice of
God in Peter Whitmer's chamber, which told them how to proceed in the
matter of ordaining each other, was given in or before June, 1829.
The evidence of this is in the fact that the revelation in Whitmer's
chamber, about ordaining each other "Elders of the Church," precedes
the one immediately following the paragraph of narrative above: and
that revelation, making known the calling to the Twelve Apostles,
was given in June, 1829, ten months before the instructions relative
to ordaining each other to be Elders in the Church was carried out.
Meantime, as we have seen (see note pp. 40, 41, 42,) before the 6th of
April, 1830, and probably before that very month of June, 1829, had
expired Peter, James and John had come and conferred upon Joseph and
Oliver the keys of the Melchizedek Priesthood, the holy apostleship,
by which authority they were authorized to organize the Church, ordain
each other Elders, and also call and ordain others to the same office.

2. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 18.

3. Doctrine and Covenants, section 20.

4. Verses 65, 66 and 67 were added by the Prophet some time after the
rest of the revelation was given.

{71}



Chapter VIII.

The Book of Mormon Published--the Church Organized.

[Sidenote: Price for Publishing Book of Mormon.]

Meantime, our translation drawing to a close, we went to Palmyra, Wayne
county, New York, secured the copyright, and agreed with Mr. Egbert B.
Grandin to print five thousand copies for the sum of three thousand
dollars.

[Sidenote: The Title Page.]

I wish to mention here that the title-page of the Book of Mormon is a
literal translation, taken from the very last leaf, on the left hand
side of the collection or book of plates, which contained the record
which has been translated, the language of the whole running the same
as all Hebrew writing in general; [1] and that said title page is not
by any means a modern composition, either of mine or of any other man
who has lived or does live in this generation. Therefore, in order to
correct an error which generally exists concerning it, I give below
that part of the title-page of the English version of the Book of
Mormon, which is a genuine and literal translation of the title-page of
the original Book of Mormon as recorded on the plates:

    The Book of Mormon.

    _An account written by the hand of Mormon, upon Plates, taken from
    the Plates of Nephi._

    Wherefore it is an abridgment of the record of the people of Nephi,
    and also of the Lamanites; written to the Lamanites, who are a
    {72} remnant of the house of Israel; and also to Jew and Gentile;
    written by way of commandment, and also by the spirit of prophecy
    and of revelation. Written and sealed up, and hid up unto the Lord,
    that they might not be destroyed--To come forth by the gift and
    power of God unto the interpretation thereof--Sealed by the hand of
    Moroni, and hid up unto the Lord, to come forth in due time by the
    way of Gentile--The interpretation thereof by the gift of God.

    An abridgment taken from the Book of Ether, also, which is a record
    of the people of Jared, who were scattered at the time the Lord
    confounded the language of the people when they were building a
    tower to get to heaven; which is to show unto the remnant of the
    house of Israel what great things the Lord hath done for their
    fathers; and that they may know the covenants of the Lord, that
    they are not cast off forever; and also to the convincing of the
    Jew and Gentile that _Jesus_ is the _Christ_, the _Eternal God_,
    manifesting Himself unto all nations. And now, if there are faults,
    they are the mistakes of men; wherefore, condemn not the things of
    God, that ye may be found spotless at the judgment-seat of Christ.

The remainder of the title-page is, of course, modern.

    _A Commandment of God and not of man, to Martin Harris, given
    (Manchester, New York, March, 1830) by Him who is Eternal_. [2]

    1. I am Alpha and Omega, Christ the Lord; yea even I am He, the
    beginning and the end, the Redeemer of the world.

    2. I, having accomplished and finished the will of Him, whose I
    am, even the Father, concerning me--having done this that I might
    subdue all things unto myself--

    3. Retaining all power, even to the destroying of Satan and his
    works at the end of the world, and the last great day of judgment,
    which I shall pass upon the inhabitants thereof, judging every man
    according to his works and deeds which he hath done.

    4. And surely every man must repent or suffer, for I, God, am
    endless;

    5. Wherefore, I revoke not the judgments which I shall pass, but
    woes shall go forth, weeping, wailing, and gnashing of teeth, yea,
    to those who are found on my left hand;

    {73} 6. Nevertheless it is not written that there shall be no end
    to this torment, but it is written endless torment.

    7. Again, it is written eternal damnation; wherefore it is more
    express than other Scriptures, that it might work among the hearts
    of the children of men, altogether for my name's glory.

    8. Wherefore I will explain unto you this mystery, for it is meet
    unto you to know even as mine Apostles.

    9. I speak unto you that are chosen in this thing, even as one,
    that you may enter into my rest;

    10. For, behold, the mystery of godliness, how great is it! For
    behold, I am endless, and the punishment which is given from my
    hand, is endless punishment, for endless is my name: wherefore--

    11. Eternal punishment is God's punishment.

    12. Endless punishment is God's punishment.

    13. Wherefore I command you to repent, and keep the commandments
    which you have received by the hand of my servant Joseph Smith,
    Jun., in my name;

    14. And it is by my almighty power that you have received them;

    15. Therefore I command you to repent--repent, lest I smite you by
    the rod of my mouth, and by my wrath, and by my anger, and your
    sufferings be sore--how sore you know not, how exquisite you know
    not, yea, how hard to bear you know not!

    16. For behold, I, God, have suffered these things for all, that
    they might not suffer if they would repent;

    17. But if they would not repent, they must suffer even as I,

    18. Which suffering caused myself, even God, the greatest of all,
    to tremble because of pain, and to bleed at every pore, and to
    suffer, both body and spirit: and would that I might not drink the
    bitter cup, and shrink--

    19. Nevertheless glory be to the Father, and I partook and finished
    my preparations unto the children of men;

    20. Wherefore, I command you again to repent, lest I humble you
    with my almighty power, and that you confess your sins, lest you
    suffer these punishments of which I have spoken, of which in the
    smallest, yea, even in the least degree you have tasted at the time
    I withdrew my Spirit.

    21. And I command you, that you preach naught but repentance, and
    show not these things unto the world until it is wisdom in me.

    22. For they cannot bear meat now, but milk they must receive;
    wherefore, they must not know these things, lest they perish.

    23. Learn of me and listen to my words; walk in the meekness of my
    Spirit, and you shall have peace in me.

    24. I am Jesus Christ; I came by the will of the Father, and I do
    His will,

    {74} 25. And again, I command thee that thou shalt not covet thy
    neighbor's wife; nor seek thy neighbor's life.

    26. And again, I command thee that thou shalt not covet thine own
    property, but impart it freely to the printing of the Book of
    Mormon, which contains the truth and the word of God.

    27. Which is my word to the Gentiles, that soon it may go to the
    Jew, of whom the Lamanites are a remnant, that they may believe the
    Gospel, and look not for a Messiah to come who has already come.

    28. And again, I command thee that thou shalt pray vocally as well
    as in thy heart; yea, before the world as well as in secret, in
    public as well as in private.

    29. And thou shalt declare glad tidings, yea, publish it upon the
    mountains, and upon every high place, and among every people that
    thou shalt be permitted to see.

    30. And thou shalt do it with all humility, trusting in me,
    reviling not against revilers.

    31. And of tenets thou shalt not talk, but thou shalt declare
    repentance and faith on the Savior and remission of sins by baptism
    and by fire, yea, even the Holy Ghost.

    32. Behold this is a great and the last commandment which I shall
    give unto you concerning this matter; for this shall suffice for
    thy daily walk, even unto the end of thy life.

    33. And misery thou shalt receive if thou wilt slight these
    counsels: yea even the destruction of thyself and property.

    34. Impart a portion of thy property; yea, even part of thy lands,
    and all save the support of thy family.

    35. Pay the debt thou hast contracted with the printer. Release
    thyself from bondage.

    36. Leave thy house and home, except when thou shalt desire to see
    thy family:

    37. And speak freely to all: yea, preach, exhort, declare the
    truth, even with a loud voice, with a sound of rejoicing,
    crying--Hosanna, hosanna! Blessed be the name of the Lord God!

    38. Pray always, and I will pour out my Spirit upon you, and great
    shall be your blessing; yea, even more than if you should obtain
    treasures of earth and corruptibleness to the extent thereof.

    39. Behold canst thou read this without rejoicing and lifting up
    thy heart for gladness?

    40. Or canst thou run about longer as a blind guide?

    41. Or canst thou be humble and meek, and conduct thyself wisely
    before me? yea, come unto me thy Savior. Amen.

[Sidenote: Procedure in the Organization of the Church. Joseph Smith,
Jun., Appointed a Prophet, Seer and Revelator to the Church.]

Whilst the Book of Mormon was in the hands of the {75} printer, [3]
we still continued to bear testimony and give information, as far as
we had opportunity; and also made known to our brethren that we had
received a commandment to organize the Church; and accordingly we met
together for that purpose, {76} at the house of Mr. Peter Whitmer,
Sen., (being six in number,) [4] on Tuesday, the sixth day of April,
{77} A. D., one thousand eight hundred and thirty. Having opened
the meeting by solemn prayer to our Heavenly Father, we proceeded,
according to previous commandment, to call on our brethren to know
whether they accepted us as their teachers in the things of the Kingdom
of God, and whether they were satisfied that we should proceed and
be organized as a Church according to said commandment which we had
received. To these several propositions they consented by a unanimous
vote. I then laid my hands upon Oliver Cowdery, and ordained him an
Elder of the "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints;" after {78}
which, he ordained me also to the office of an Elder of said Church. We
then took bread, blessed it, and brake it with them; also wine, blessed
it, and drank it with them. We then laid our hands on each individual
member of the Church present, that they might receive the gift of the
Holy Ghost, and be confirmed members of the Church of Christ. The Holy
Ghost was poured out upon us to a very great degree--some prophesied,
whilst we all praised the Lord, and rejoiced exceedingly. Whilst yet
together, I received the following commandment:

    _Revelation to Joseph Smith, Jun., given at Fayette, Seneca County,
    New York, April 6th, 1830._ [5]

    1. Behold, there shall be a record kept among you, and in it thou
    shall be called a Seer, a Translator, a Prophet, an Apostle of
    Jesus Christ, an Elder of the Church through the will of God the
    Father and the grace of your Lord Jesus Christ,

    2. Being inspired of the Holy Ghost to lay the foundation thereof,
    and to build it up unto the most holy faith,

    3. Which Church was organized and established in the year of our
    Lord eighteen hundred and thirty, in the fourth month, and on the
    sixth day of the month, which is called April.

    4. Wherefore, meaning the Church, thou shalt give heed unto all his
    words and commandments which he shall give unto you as he receiveth
    them, walking in all holiness before me;

    5. For his word ye shall receive, as if from mine own mouth, in all
    patience and faith;

    6. For by doing these things the gates of hell shall not prevail
    against you; yea, and the Lord God will disperse the powers of
    darkness from before you, and cause the heavens to shake for your
    good, and His name's glory.

    7. For thus saith the Lord God, Him have I inspired to move the
    cause of Zion in mighty power for good, and his diligence I know,
    and his prayers I have heard.

    8. Yea, his weeping for Zion I have seen, and I will cause that
    he shall mourn for her no longer; for his days of rejoicing are
    come unto the remission of his sins, and the manifestations of my
    blessings upon his works.

    9. For, behold, I will bless all those who labor in my vineyard
    with a mighty blessing, and they shall believe on his words, which
    are given {79} him through me by the Comforter, which manifesteth
    that Jesus was crucified by sinful men for the sins of the world,
    yea, for the remission of sins unto the contrite heart.

    10. Wherefore it behoveth me that he should be ordained by you,
    Oliver Cowdery, mine Apostle;

    11. This being an ordinance unto you, that you are an Elder under
    his hand, he being the first unto you, that you might be an Elder
    unto this Church of Christ, bearing my name,

    12. And the first preacher of this Church unto the Church, and
    before the world, yea, before the Gentiles; yea, and thus saith the
    Lord God, lo, lo! to the Jews also. Amen.

[Sidenote: The Church of Jesus Christ Begins its Career.]

We now proceeded to call out and ordain some others of the brethren to
different offices of the Priesthood, according as the Spirit manifested
unto us: and after a happy time spent in witnessing and feeling for
ourselves the powers and blessings of the Holy Ghost, through the grace
of God bestowed upon us, we dismissed with the pleasing knowledge that
we were now individually members of, and acknowledged of God, "The
Church of Jesus Christ," organized in accordance with commandments and
revelations given by Him to ourselves in these last days, as well as
according to the order of the Church as recorded in the New Testament.
Several persons who had attended the above meeting, became convinced of
the truth and came forward shortly after, and were received into the
Church; among the rest, my own father and mother were baptized, to my
great joy and consolation; and about the same time, Martin Harris and
Orrin Porter Rockwell.

    _Revelation to the Church of Christ which was established in these
    last days, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and
    thirty. Given at Manchester, New York, April, 1830, in consequence
    of some desiring to unite with the Church without re-baptism, who
    had previously been baptized._ [6]

    1. Behold, I say unto you that all old covenants have I caused to
    be done away in this thing; and this is a new and an everlasting
    covenant, even that which was from the beginning.

    {80} 2. Wherefore, although a man should be baptized an hundred
    times, it availeth him nothing, for you cannot enter in at the
    strait gate by the law of Moses, neither by your dead works;

    3. For it is because of your dead works, that I have caused this
    last covenant and this Church to be built up unto me, even as in
    days of old.

    4. Wherefore, enter ye in at the gate, as I have commanded, and
    seek not to counsel your God. Amen.

[Sidenote: Word of the Lord to Several Persons.]

The following persons being anxious to know of the Lord what might be
their respective duties in relation to this work, I inquired of the
Lord, and received for them the following:

    _Revelation to Oliver Cowdery, Hyrum Smith, Samuel H. Smith, Joseph
    Smith, Sen., and Joseph Knight, Sen. Given at Manchester, New York,
    April, 1830._ [7]

    1. Behold, I speak unto you, Oliver, a few words. Behold, thou art
    blessed, and art under no condemnation. But beware of pride, lest
    thou shouldst enter into temptation.

    2. Make known thy calling unto the Church, and also before the
    world, and thy heart shall be opened to preach the truth from
    henceforth and forever. Amen.

    3. Behold, I speak unto you, Hyrum, a few words: for thou also art
    under no condemnation, and thy heart is opened, and thy tongue
    loosed; and thy calling is to exhortation, and to strengthen the
    Church continually. Wherefore thy duty is unto the Church forever,
    and this because of thy family. Amen.

    4. Behold, I speak a few words unto you, Samuel, for thou also art
    under no condemnation, and thy calling is to exhortation, and to
    strengthen the Church, and thou art not as yet called to preach
    before the world. Amen.

    5. Behold I speak a few words unto you, Joseph, for thou also art
    under no condemnation, and thy calling also is to exhortation, and
    to strengthen the Church, and this is thy duty from henceforth and
    forever. Amen.

    6. Behold, I manifest unto you, Joseph Knight, by these words, that
    you must take up your cross, in the which you must pray vocally
    before the world as well as in secret, and in your family, and
    among your friends, and in all places.

    7. And, behold, it is your duty to unite with the true Church, and
    give your language to exhortation continually, that you may receive
    the reward of the laborer. Amen.

Footnotes

1. That is, from right to left.

2. Doctrine and Covenants, section 19. No words of the Prophet
introduce this revelation in his History. Nothing is known of the
circumstances which called it forth. And yet there are few revelations
that have been given in the present dispensation of the Gospel more
important than this one. The doctrine of the atonement of the Lord
Jesus, as directly applying to the individual, and God's exposition
of "Eternal Punishment," as here set forth, give it a place of first
importance in the doctrinal development of the Church.

3. Nothing is said by the Prophet in his History of the difficulties
that arose "whilst the Book of Mormon was in the hands of the printer;"
nor of the care that was taken to prevent the manuscript falling
into the hands of enemies of the work. It is proper, however, that
these matters should be stated at this point. It appears that when
the arrangements was completed with Mr. Grandin for printing the Book
of Mormon, the Prophet went down to Harmony, in Pennsylvania. Before
taking his departure, however, it was arranged:_First_: that Oliver
Cowdery transcribe the whole manuscript; hence it came about that there
were two manuscript copies of the Book of Mormon, the original, which
was taken in charge by the Prophet after the publication of the book,
and the copy made by Oliver Cowdery for the printer's use, and which
finally was given by him into the custody of David Whitmer, with whose
family it remains to this day (1901)._Second_: that the copy made by
Oliver Cowdery from the original manuscript only should be taken to
the printers, so that if that should be destroyed the original would
remain in the hands of the Prophet and his associates from which it
could be replaced; and even this copy was supplied the printer in small
quantities at a time, usually enough only for a single day's work of
the printer.

_Third_: that in going to and from the office whoever carried the
manuscript--usually it was Oliver Cowdery--should always have a guard
to attend him.

_Fourth_: that a guard should be kept constantly upon the watch,
both night and day, about the house, to protect the manuscript from
malicious persons, who might seek to destroy it. (The authorities for
the above are: Lucy Smith's _History of the Prophet Joseph_, ch 31;
the statements of Stephen S. Harding, who a number of times visited
Grandin's establishment while the Book of Mormon was being printed; His
statement is published in _The Prophet of Palmyra,_ by Thomas Gregg,
pg. 34-56--this is that same Stephen S. Harding who was governor of
Utah Territory from July, 1862 to July, 1863; also the statement of
J. H. Gilbert, the principal compositor on the Book of Mormon. The
extreme care in allowing the printer to have but a small amount of copy
at a time is subject of ridicule in nearly all anti-"Mormon" books
that treat of this period. In addition to all this is the evidence
of the manuscript in the hands of the Whitmer family, nearly every
page of which is in the handwriting of Oliver Cowdery, and by being
divided into "takes" clearly bears evidence of having passed through
the printers hands. The evidence also in the existence of portions of
the original manuscript, now in the possession of President Joseph
F. Smith, which was taken from its depository in one of the corner
stones of the Nauvoo House, where it was placed by the hands of Joseph
the Prophet, with other relics, on the occasion of laying the corner
stone of that building on the 2nd of October, 1841. Unfortunately a
great part of the manuscript was destroyed by dampness, but enough is
preserved to establish the fact that it is the original).

Notwithstanding all the precautions taken by the little group of
brethren engaged in publishing the book, the Nephite record, mutilated
by interlineations of human invention, omissions, and added vulgarisms
intended to destroy the work, came nearly being given to the world
before the Book of Mormon itself was published. This was the work of
one Esquire Cole, ex-justice of the peace, who undertook to publish the
Book of Mormon, in instalments, in a weekly periodical called _Dogberry
Paper on Winter Hill_. He obtained the use of Grandin's press nights
and on Sundays, and surely must have obtained the advance sheets of
the printed forms of the Book of Mormon, which he was using, with the
knowledge of Mr. Grandin; at least it is difficult to conceive how he
could obtain and use them without his knowledge. Hyrum Smith, feeling
uneasy concerning the security of that part of the Book of Mormon in
the hands of the printer, induced Oliver Cowdery one Sunday to go with
him to the printer's to see if all was well, and there they found
Squire Cole at work on his _Dogberry Paper_, and publishing mutilated
extracts from the Book of Mormon. He refused to desist from his
unlawful course; but Joseph was sent for and came up during the week
from Harmony, and by firmly asserting his rights under the copyright
law and by threatening to prosecute those who infringed them, Cole was
induced to abandon his intention of publishing the Book of Mormon in
his paper.

This difficulty past, another arose. The people of Palmyra and vicinity
held a mass meeting and passed a resolution pledging themselves not to
purchase the Book of Mormon when published, and to use their influence
to prevent others from purchasing it. This had the effect of causing
Mr. Grandin to suspend printing until he could obtain renewed assurance
of receiving the amount agreed upon for printing the edition of five
thousand. Again the Prophet was sent for, and again he made the journey
from Harmony to Palmyra, quieted the fears of Mr. Grandin by renewed
assurance on the part of himself and Martin Harris that the amount
agreed upon would be paid. The work proceeded, and at last issued from
the press, notwithstanding all the difficulties it had encountered (see
Lucy Smith's _History of the Prophet Joseph_, ch. 33).

4. The following statement is interesting as furnishing the names
of these six: Names of the six members of the Church as they were
organized April 6, 1830--Oliver Cowdery, Joseph Smith, Jun., Hyrum
Smith, Peter Whitmer, Jun., Samuel H. Smith, David Whitmer. Some of
these had been baptized previously; but were all baptized on the day of
organization. These names were given to Joseph Knight by Oliver Cowdery.

(signed) Joseph Knight.

G. S. L. City

Aug. 11th, 1862.

Witnesses

G. A. Smith,

Robt. L. Campbell,

Thos. Bullock,

John V. Long.


(_Copy_)

There has been some question as to the number that had been baptized
previous to the organization of the Church on the 6th day of April,
1830. David Whitmer in his "Address to All Believers in Christ," a
pamphlet of seventy-five pages, published in 1887, says that there were
six Elders and about seventy members before April 6th, 1830. Others
have estimated the number at thirty, thirty-five, and forty. These
estimates, however, are beyond all question too large. In the minutes
of the second conference of the Church, held at Fayette, New York, on
the 26th of September, 1830, this statement is made: "Number of the
several members uniting to this Church, since the last conference,
thirty-five: making in whole now belonging to this Church, sixty-two."
"The last conference," referred to was one held on the 9th of June,
1830. If there were but sixty-two members in September, 1830, and
thirty-five of them were added since the conference of the Church held
on the 9th of June of that year, then there were but twenty-seven in
the Church on the said 9th of June. In the last week of May, 1830,
Newel Knight was baptized--_one_; on the 18th of April, 1830, Oliver
Cowdery baptized _seven_, (the names are given on p. 81), on the 11th
of April, Oliver baptized _six_ persons (their names are also given
on p. 81); on the 6th of April, 1830, the same day that the Church
was organized, there were _four_ persons baptized, two of whom were
the father and mother of the Prophet (see p. 79). This makes a total
of eighteen baptized between the 9th of June conference and the 6th
of April meeting; and as there were but _twenty-seven_ in the Church
on the 9th of June, the number that had been baptized up to the 6th
of April, 1830, must have been but _nine_. _The Far West Record_,
containing the minutes of the conferences of the 9th of June, and
the 26th of September, was kept by the clerks of the High Council in
Missouri, and the minutes of the two conferences above referred to,
and which give the information here set forth, occupy pages _one_ and
_two_ of that record. The accuracy of the minutes of the conference of
the 26th of September, 1830, which fix the membership of the Church
at that time at _sixty-two_, is confirmed by the following remark
of the Prophet, to be found in his history in December of that same
year, which remark immediately precedes extracts from the prophecy
of Enoch in this volume (ch. 12): "To the joy of the little flock,
which in all, from Colesville to Canandaigua, New York, numbered
about _seventy members_, did the Lord reveal the following," etc.
When it is remembered that the Prophet is here speaking of conditions
existing in December, 1830, and the figures given are exclusive of
the additions which had been made in Kirtland, Ohio, it strongly
sustains the correctness of the minutes of the conference of September
26th, which record the membership of the Church at that time to be
but _sixty-two_. The correctness of this number is also still further
confirmed by a brief historical sketch of "The Rise and Progress of the
Church of Christ," published in the _Evening and Morning Star_ under
date of April, 1833, where it is said: "In October 1830, the number of
disciples had increased to between seventy and eighty." (p.169.)

5. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 21.

6. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 22.

7. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 23.

{81}



Chapter IX.

The Commencement of the Public Ministry of the Church.

[Sidenote: The First Public Discourse.]

On Sunday, April 11th, 1830, Oliver Cowdery preached the first public
discourse that was delivered by any of our number. Our meeting was
held, by previous appointment, at the house of Mr. Peter Whitmer,
Sen., Fayette. Large numbers of people attended, and the same day the
following were baptized, viz., Hiram Page, Katharine Page, Christian
Whitmer, Anne Whitmer, Jacob Whitmer, Elizabeth Whitmer; and on the
18th day, Peter Whitmer, Sen., Mary Whitmer, William Jolly, Elizabeth
Jolly, Vincent Jolly, Richard B. Peterson, and Elizabeth Anne
Whitmer--all by Oliver Cowdery, in Seneca Lake.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Ministry at Colesville.]

During this month of April, I went on a visit to the residence of Mr.
Joseph Knight, of Colesville, Broome county, New York, with whom and
his family I had been for some time acquainted, and whose name I had
previously mentioned as having been so kind and thoughtful towards us
while translating the Book of Mormon. Mr. Knight and his family were
Universalists, but were willing to reason with me upon my religious
views, and were, as usual, friendly and hospitable. We held several
meetings in the neighborhood; we had many friends, and some enemies.
Our meetings were well attended, and many began to pray fervently to
Almighty God, that He would give them wisdom to understand the truth.

{82} [Sidenote: Labors of the Prophet with Newel Knight.]

Amongst those who attended our meetings regularly, was Newel Knight,
son of Joseph Knight. He and I had many serious conversations on the
important subject of man's eternal salvation. We had got into the habit
of praying much at our meetings, and Newel had said that he would
try and take up his cross, and pray vocally during meeting; but when
we again met together, he rather excused himself. I tried to prevail
upon him, making use of the figure, supposing that he should get into
a mud-hole, would he not try to help himself out? And I further said
that we were willing now to help him out of the mud-hole. He replied,
that provided he had got into a mud-hole through carelessness, he would
rather wait and get out himself, than to have others help him; and so
he would wait until he could get into the woods by himself, and there
he would pray. Accordingly, he deferred praying until next morning,
when he retired into the woods; where, according to his own account
afterwards, he made several attempts to pray, but could scarcely do
so, feeling that he had not done his duty, in refusing to pray in the
presence of others. He began to feel uneasy, and continued to feel
worse both in mind and body, until, upon reaching his own house, his
appearance was such as to alarm his wife very much. He requested her to
go and bring me to him. I went and found him suffering very much in his
mind, and his body acted upon in a very strange manner; his visage and
limbs distorted and twisted in every shape and appearance possible to
imagine; and finally he was caught up off the floor of the apartment,
and tossed about most fearfully.

[Sidenote: The First Miracle in the Church.]

His situation was soon made known to his neighbors and relatives and in
a short time as many as eight or nine grown persons had got together to
witness the scene. After he had thus suffered for a time, I succeeded
in getting hold of him by the hand, when almost immediately he spoke to
me, and with great {83} earnestness requested me to cast the devil out
of him, saying that he knew he was in him, and that he also knew that I
could cast him out.

I replied, "If you know that I can, it shall be done;" and then almost
unconsciously I rebuked the devil, and commanded him in the name of
Jesus Christ to depart from him; when immediately Newel spoke out and
said that he saw the devil leave him and vanish from his sight. This
was the first miracle which was done in the Church, or by any member
of it; and it was done not by man, nor by the power of man, but it was
done by God, and by the power of godliness; therefore, let the honor
and the praise, the dominion and the glory, be ascribed to the Father,
Son, and Holy Spirit, for ever and ever. Amen.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Experience of Newel Knight.]

The scene was now entirely changed, for as soon as the devil had
departed from our friend, his countenance became natural, his
distortions of body ceased, and almost immediately the Spirit of the
Lord descended upon him, and the visions of eternity were opened to his
view. So soon as consciousness returned, his bodily weakness was such
that we were obliged to lay him upon his bed, and wait upon him for
some time. He afterwards related his experience as follows:

    I now began to feel a most pleasing sensation resting on me, and
    immediately the visions of heaven were opened to my view. I felt
    myself attracted upward, and remained for some time enwrapt in
    contemplation, insomuch that I knew not what was going on in the
    room. By and by, I felt some weight pressing upon my shoulder and
    the side of my head, which served to recall me to a sense of my
    situation, and I found that the Spirit of the Lord had actually
    caught me up off the floor, and that my shoulder and head were
    pressing against the beams.

All this was witnessed by many, to their great astonishment and
satisfaction, when they saw the devil thus cast out, and the power of
God, and His Holy Spirit thus made manifest. As may be expected, such
a scene as {84} this contributed much to make believers of those who
witnessed it, and finally the greater part of them became members of
the Church.

[Sidenote: Effect of Publishing the Book of Mormon.]

Soon after this occurrence I returned to Fayette, Seneca county. The
Book of Mormon (the stick of Joseph in the hands of Ephraim,) had now
been published for some time, and as the ancient prophet had predicted
of it, "it was accounted as a strange thing." No small stir was created
by its appearance. Great opposition and much persecution followed the
believers of its authenticity. But it had now come to pass that truth
had sprung out of the earth, and righteousness had looked down from
heaven, so we feared not our opponents, knowing that we had both truth
and righteousness on our side, that we had both the Father and the
Son, because we had the doctrines of Christ, and abided in them; and
therefore we continued to preach and to give information to all who
were willing to hear.

During the last week in May, the above-mentioned Newel Knight came to
visit us at Fayette, and was baptized by David Whitmer.

[Sidenote: The first Conference of the Church.]

On the ninth day of June, [1] 1830, we held our first conference as
an organized Church. Our numbers were about thirty, besides whom
many assembled with us, who were either believers or anxious to
learn. Having opened by singing and prayer, we partook together of
the emblems of the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ. We then
proceeded to confirm several who had lately been baptized, after which
we called out and ordained several to the various offices {85} of the
Priesthood. Much exhortation and instruction was given, and the Holy
Ghost was poured out upon us in a miraculous manner--many of our number
prophesied, whilst others had the heavens opened to their view, and
were so overcome that we had to lay them on beds or other convenient
places; among the rest was Brother Newel Knight, who had to be placed
on a bed, being unable to help himself. By his own account of the
transaction, he could not understand why we should lay him on the bed,
as he felt no sense of weakness. He felt his heart filled with love,
with glory, and pleasure unspeakable, and could discern all that was
going on in the room; when all of a sudden a vision of the future burst
upon him. He saw there represented the great work which through my
instrumentality was yet to be accomplished. He saw heaven opened, and
beheld the Lord Jesus Christ, seated at the right hand of the majesty
on high, and had it made plain to his understanding that the time would
come when he would be admitted into his presence to enjoy His society
for ever and ever. When their bodily strength was restored to these
brethren, they shouted hosannas to God and the Lamb, and rehearsed the
glorious things which they had seen and felt, whilst they were yet in
the spirit.

[Sidenote: Effect of Spiritual Manifestations.]

Such scenes as these were calculated to inspire our hearts with joy
unspeakable, and fill us with awe and reverence for that Almighty
Being, by whose grace we had been called to be instrumental in bringing
about, for the children of men, the enjoyment of such glorious
blessings as were now at this time poured out upon us. To find
ourselves engaged in the very same order of things as observed by the
holy Apostles of old; to realize the importance and solemnity of such
proceedings; and to witness and feel with our own natural senses, the
like glorious manifestations of the powers of the Priesthood, the gifts
and blessings of the Holy Ghost, and the goodness and condescension of
a {86} merciful God unto such as obey the everlasting Gospel of our
Lord Jesus Christ, combined to create within us sensations of rapturous
gratitude, and inspire us with fresh zeal and energy in the cause of
truth.

[Sidenote: Baptisms.]

Shortly after this conference, David Whitmer baptized the following
persons in Seneca lake: viz., John Poorman, John Jolly, Julia Anne
Jolly, Harriet Jolly, Jerusha Smith, Katherine Smith, William Smith,
Don C. Smith, Peter Rockwell, Caroline Rockwell, and Electa Rockwell.

[Sidenote: Labor of the Prophet at Colesville.]

Immediately after conference I returned to my own house, and from
thence, accompanied by my wife, Oliver Cowdery, John Whitmer and David
Whitmer, went again on a visit to Mr. Knight, of Colesville, Broome
county. We found a number in the neighborhood still believing, and
now anxious to be baptized. We appointed a meeting for the Sabbath,
and on the afternoon of Saturday we erected a dam across a stream of
water, which was convenient, for the purpose of there attending to
the ordinance of baptism; but during the night a mob collected and
tore down our dam, which hindered us from attending to the baptism on
the Sabbath. We afterward found out that this mob had been instigated
to this act of molestation by certain sectarian priests of the
neighborhood, who began to consider their craft in danger, and took
this plan to stop the progress of the truth; and the sequel will show
how determinedly they prosecuted their opposition, as well as to
how little purpose in the end. The Sabbath arrived, and we held our
meeting. Oliver Cowdery preached, and others of us bore testimony to
the truth of the Book of Mormon, the doctrine of repentance, baptism
for the remission of sins, and laying on of hands for the gift of the
Holy Ghost, etc. Amongst our audience were those who had torn down our
dam, and who seemed desirous to give us trouble, but did not until
after the meeting was dismissed, {87} when they immediately commenced
talking to those whom they considered our friends, and tried to turn
them against us and our doctrines.

[Sidenote: Adventures of Emily Coburn.]

Amongst the many present at this meeting, was one Emily Coburn, sister
to the wife of Newel Knight. The Rev. Mr. Shearer, a divine of the
Presbyterian faith, who had considered himself her pastor, came to
understand that she was likely to believe our doctrine, and had, a
short time previous to this meeting, come to labor with her. But having
spent some time with her without being able to persuade her against
us, he endeavored to have her leave her sister's house and go with him
to her father's, who lived at a distance. For this purpose, he had
recourse to stratagem; he told her that one of her brothers was waiting
at a certain place desirous to have her go with him. He succeeded thus
in getting her a little distance from the house, when seeing that her
brother was not in waiting for her, she refused to go any further with
him; upon which he took hold of her by the arm to force her along. But
her sister was soon with them, and as the two women were too many for
him to cope with, he was forced to sneak off without accomplishing his
errand, after all his labor and ingenuity. Nothing daunted, however,
he went to her father, representing to him some thing or other, which
induced the old gentleman to give him a power of attorney, which,
as soon as our meeting was over, on the above-named Sunday evening,
he immediately served upon her, and carried her off to her father's
residence by open violence against her will. All his labor was in
vain, however, for the said Emily Coburn in a short time afterwards,
was baptized and confirmed a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints.

[Sidenote: Baptisms.]

Early on Monday morning we were on the alert, and before our enemies
were aware of our proceedings, we had repaired the dam, and the
following thirteen {88} persons baptized, by Oliver Cowdery, viz., Emma
Smith, Hezekiah Peck and wife, Joseph Knight, Sen., and wife, William
Stringham and wife, Joseph Knight, Jun., Aaron Culver and wife, Levi
Hale, Polly Knight, and Julia Stringham.

[Sidenote: Mobbings.]

Before the baptizing was entirely finished, the mob began again to
collect, and shortly after we had retired, they amounted to about
fifty men. They surrounded the house of Mr. Knight--whither we had
retired--raging with anger, and apparently determined to commit
violence upon us. Some asked us questions, others threatened us, so
that we thought it wisdom to leave and go to the house of Newel Knight.
There also they followed us, and it was only by the exercise of great
prudence on our part, and reliance in our heavenly Father, that they
were kept from laying violent hands upon us; and so long as they chose
to stay, we were obliged to answer them various unprofitable questions,
and bear with insults and threatenings without number.

[Sidenote: The Prophet Arrested.]

We had appointed a meeting for this evening, for the purpose of
attending to the confirmation of those who had been the same morning
baptized. The time appointed had arrived and our friends had nearly all
collected together, when to my surprise, I was visited by a constable,
and arrested by him on a warrant, on the charge of being a disorderly
person, of setting the country in an uproar by preaching the Book of
Mormon, etc. The constable informed me, soon after I had been arrested,
that the plan of those who had got out the warrant was to get me into
the hands of the mob, who were now lying in ambush for me; but that
he was determined to save me from them, as he had found me to be a
different sort of person from what I had been represented to him. I
soon found that he had told me the truth in this matter, for not far
from Mr. Knight's house, the wagon in which {89} we had set out was
surrounded by a mob, who seemed only to await some signal from the
constable; but to their great disappointment, he gave the horse the
whip, and drove me out of their reach.

[Sidenote: The Prophet Escapes the Mob.]

Whilst driving in great haste one of the wagon wheels came off, which
left us once more very nearly surrounded by them, as they had come on
in close pursuit. However, we managed to replace the wheel and again
left them behind us. He drove on to the town of South Bainbridge,
Chenango county, where he lodged me for the time being in an upper room
of a tavern; and in order that all might be right with himself and with
me also, he slept during the night with his feet against the door, and
a loaded musket by his side, whilst I occupied a bed which was in the
room; he having declared that if we were interrupted unlawfully, he
would fight for me, and defend me as far as it was in his power.

[Sidenote: Excitement Over the Prophet's Case.]

On the day following, a court was convened for the purpose of
investigating those charges which had been preferred against me. A
great excitement prevailed on account of the scandalous falsehoods
which had been circulated, the nature of which will appear in the
sequel. In the meantime, my friend, Joseph Knight, had repaired to
two of his neighbors, viz., James Davidson and John Reid, Esqrs.,
respectable farmers, men renowned for their integrity, and well versed
in the laws of their country; and retained them on my behalf during my
trial.

[Sidenote: The Trial.]

At length the trial commenced amidst a multitude of spectators, who
in general evinced a belief that I was guilty of all that had been
reported concerning me, and of course were very zealous that I should
be punished according to my crimes. Among many witnesses called up
against me, was Mr. Josiah Stoal--of whom I have made mention as having
worked for him some time--and examined to the following effect:

{90} "Did not the prisoner, Joseph Smith, have a horse of you?"

"Yes."

"Did not he go to you and tell you that an angel had appeared unto him
and authorized him to get the horse from you?"

"No, he told me no such story."

"Well, how had he the horse of you?"

"He bought him of me as any other man would."

"Have you had your pay?"

"That is not your business."

The question being again put, the witness replied:

"I hold his note for the price of the horse, which I consider as good
as the pay; for I am well acquainted with Joseph Smith, Jun., and know
him to be an honest man; and if he wishes, I am ready to let him have
another horse on the same terms."

Mr. Jonathan Thompson was next called up and examined:

"Has not the prisoner, Joseph Smith Jun., had a yoke of oxen of you?"

"Yes."

"Did he not obtain them of you by telling you that he had a revelation
to the effect that he was to have them?"

"No, he did not mention a word of the kind concerning the oxen; he
purchased them the same as any other man would."

[Sidenote: Daughters of Mr. Stoal as Witnesses. The Acquittal.]

After a few more such attempts, the court was detained for a time, in
order that two young women, daughters of Mr. Stoal, with whom I had at
times kept company, might be sent for, in order, if possible, to elicit
something from them which might be made a pretext against me. The young
ladies arrived, and were severally examined touching my character and
conduct in general, but particularly as to my behavior towards them,
both in public and private; when they both bore such testimony in my
favor as left my {91} enemies without a pretext on their account.
Several other attempts were made to prove something against me, and
even circumstances which were alleged to have taken place in Broome
county, were brought forward, but these my lawyers would not admit of
as testimony against me; in consequence of which my persecutors managed
to detain the court until they had succeeded in obtaining a warrant
from Broome county, which warrant they served upon me at the very
moment that I was acquitted by this court.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Second Arrest.]

The constable who served this second warrant upon me had no sooner
arrested me than he began to abuse and insult me; and so unfeeling
was he with me, that although I had been kept all the day in court
without anything to eat since the morning, yet he hurried me off to
Broome county, a distance of about fifteen miles, before he allowed me
any kind of food whatever. He took me to a tavern, and gathered in a
number of men, who used every means to abuse, ridicule and insult me.
They spit up on me, pointed their fingers at me, saying, "Prophesy,
prophesy!" and thus did they imitate those who crucified the Savior of
mankind, not knowing what they did.

[Sidenote: Unnecessary Severity.]

We were at this time not far distant from my own house. I wished to
be allowed the privilege of spending the night with my wife at home,
offering any wished for security for my appearance; but this was
denied me. I applied for something to eat. The constable ordered me
some crusts of bread and water, which was the only food I that night
received. At length we retired to bed. The constable made me lie next
the wall. He then laid himself down by me and put his arm around me,
and upon my moving in the least, would clench me fast, fearing that I
intended to escape from him; and in this very disagreeable manner did
we pass the night.

[Sidenote: The Second Trial.]

Next day I was brought before the magistrate's court at Colesville,
Broome county, and put upon my trial. My {92} former faithful friends
and lawyers were again at my side; my former persecutors were arrayed
against me. Many witnesses were again called forward and examined,
some of whom swore to the most palpable falsehoods, and like the
false witnesses which had appeared against me the day previous, they
contradicted themselves so plainly that the court would not admit their
testimony. Others were called, who showed by their zeal that they were
willing enough to prove something against me, but all they could do was
to tell something which somebody else had told them.

[Sidenote: Newel Knight vs. Lawyer Seymour.]

In this frivolous and vexatious manner did they proceed for a
considerable time, when, finally, Newel Knight was called up and
examined by Lawyer Seymour, who had been especially sent for on this
occasion. One Lawyer Burch, also, was on the side of the prosecution;
but Mr. Seymour seemed to be a more zealous Presbyterian, and appeared
very anxious and determined that the people should not be deluded by
any one professing the power of godliness, and not "denying the power
thereof."

Mr. Knight was sworn, and Mr. Seymour interrogated him as follows:

"Did the prisoner, Joseph Smith, Jun., cast the devil out of you?"

"No, sir."

"Why, have not you had the devil cast out of you?"

"Yes, sir."

"And had not Joe Smith some hand in its being done?"

"Yes, sir."

"And did not he cast him out of you?"

"No, sir; it was done by the power of God, and Joseph Smith was the
instrument in the hands of God, on the occasion. He commanded him to
come out of me in the name of Jesus Christ."

"And are you sure that it was the devil?"

"Yes, sir."

{93} "Did you see him after he was cast out of you?"

"Yes, sir! I saw him."

"Pray, what did he look like?"

[Here one of my lawyers informed the witness that he need not answer
the question.] The witness replied:

"I believe I need not answer your last question, but I will do it,
provided I be allowed to ask you one question first, and you answer me,
viz., Do you, Mr. Seymour, understand the things of the spirit?

"No," answered Mr. Seymour, "I do not pretend to such big things."

"Well, then," replied Knight, "it would be of no use to tell you what
the devil looked like, for it was a spiritual sight, and spiritually
discerned; and of course you would not understand it were I to tell you
of it."

The lawyer dropped his head, whilst the loud laugh of the audience
proclaimed his discomfiture.

[Sidenote: Plea for the State.]

Mr. Seymour now addressed the court, and in a long and violent harangue
endeavored to blacken my character and bring me in guilty of the
charges which had been brought against me. Among other things, he
brought up the story of my having been a money-digger; and in this
manner proceeded, hoping evidently to influence the court and the
people against me.

[Sidenote: Plea for the Defendant.]

Mr. Davidson and Mr. Reid followed on my behalf. They held forth in
true colors the nature of the prosecution, the malignancy of intention,
and the apparent disposition to persecute their client, rather than
to afford him justice. They took up the different arguments which had
been brought by the lawyers for the prosecution, and having shown their
utter futility and misapplication, then proceeded to scrutinize the
evidence which had been adduced, and each, in his turn, thanked God
that he had been engaged in so good a cause as that of defending a man
whose character stood so well the test of such a strict investigation.
In fact, these men, although not regular {94} lawyers, were upon this
occasion able to put to silence their opponents, and convince the court
that I was innocent. They spoke like men inspired of God, whilst those
who were arrayed against me trembled under the sound of their voices,
and quailed before them like criminals before a bar of justice. [2]

{95} [Sidenote: Change in Sentiment.]

The majority of the assembled multitude had now begun to find that
nothing could be sustained against me. Even the constable who arrested
me, and treated me so badly, now came and apologized to me and asked
my forgiveness for his behavior towards {96} me; and so far was he
changed, that he informed me that the mob were determined, if the court
acquitted me, that they would have me, and rail-ride me, and tar and
feather me; and further, that he was willing to favor me and lead me
out in safety by a private way.

[Sidenote: The Prophet Acquitted.]

The court found the charges against me not sustained; I was accordingly
acquitted, to the great satisfaction of my friends and vexation of my
enemies, who were still determined upon molesting me. But through the
instrumentality of my new friend the constable, I was enabled to escape
them and make my way in safety to my wife's sister's house, where I
found my wife awaiting with much anxiety the issue of those ungodly
proceedings, and in company with her I arrived next day in safety at my
own house.

Footnotes

1. The date of this conference, in the _History of the Prophet_,
published in the _Times and Seasons_ and the _Millennial Star_,
as also in the History in manuscript in the custody of the Church
Historian--from which the history published in those periodicals
was taken--is given as the "first day of June;" but the minutes of
the conference, written, as the minutes themselves state, by Oliver
Cowdery, and recorded in the _Far West Record_, are dated "June 9th,"
1830. It is for this reason that the date is changed in the text. These
minutes also state that this conference of June 9th, was adjourned to
convene again at the same place on the "26th of September, 1830."

2. In a speech made at a public gathering in Nauvoo, on the 17th of
May, 1844, the above-mentioned Mr. Reid who defended the Prophet in
these early prosecutions before the courts of New York, very strongly
corroborates the statements of the Prophet's History with reference
to those court trials and the Prophet's vindication in them. Mr. Reid
never became a member of the Church, but was always the Prophet's
staunch and true friend. His remarks on the occasion referred to were
as follows: The first acquaintance I had with Gen. Smith was about the
year 1823. He came into my neighborhood, being then about eighteen
years of age, and resided there two years; during which time I became
intimately acquainted with him. I do know that his character was
irreproachable; that he was well known for truth and uprightness; that
he moved in the first circles of the community, and he was often spoken
of as a young man of intelligence and good morals, and possessing a
mind susceptible of the highest intellectual attainments. I early
discovered that his mind was constantly in search of truth, expressing
an anxious desire to know the will of God concerning His children
here below, often speaking of those things which professed Christians
believe in. I have often observed to my best informed friends (those
that were free from superstition and bigotry) that I thought Joseph was
predestinated by his God from all eternity to be an instrument in the
hands of the great Dispenser of all good, to do a great work; what it
was I knew not. After living in that neighborhood about three years,
enjoying the good feelings of his acquaintances, as a worthy youth, he
told his particular friends that he had had a revelation from God to go
to the west about eighty miles, to his father's, in which neighborhood
he would find hid in the earth an old history written on golden plates,
which would give great light and knowledge concerning the will of God
towards His people in this generation; unfolding the destiny of all
nations, kindreds and tongues; he said that he distinctly heard the
voice of Him that spake. Joseph Knight, one of the fathers of your
Church, a worthy man and my intimate friend, went with him. When I
reflect upon our former friendship, Mr. Chairman, and upon the scenes
that he (i. e. Joseph Knight) has passed through in consequence of
mal-administration, mobocracy and cruelty, I feel to lift up my voice
to high heaven and pray God to bless the aged veteran, and that his
silver locks may go down to the grave in peace, like a shock of corn
fully ripe. In a few days his friends returned with the glad news that
Joseph had found the plates and had gone down to his father-in-law's
for the purpose of translating them. I believe he remained there until
he finished the translation. After the book was published, he came
to live in the neighborhood of Father Knight's about four miles from
me, and began to preach the Gospel, and many were pricked in their
hearts, believed and were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.
He soon formed a church at Colesville, his meetings were numerously
attended; the eyes of all people were upon him with astonishment. O,
Mr. Chairman, the world was turned up side down at once, and the devil,
always ready to assist and help along in all difficulties that arise
among men, personified in some of the religionists, begun to prick up
his ears and jump and kick and run about like Jim Crow, calling for
rotten eggs to help in the wake; you would have thought, sir, that Gog
and Magog were let loose on the young man. He called upon the world's
people (as they are called) but got no help; he then flew about in the
sectarian churches like lightning, and they immediately came to his
aid, and uniting their efforts, roared against him like the thunders
of Mount Sinai. When those fiery bigots were let loose, they united in
pouring the red hot vials of their wrath upon his head. The cry of a
"False prophet! false prophet!" was sounded from village to village,
and every foul epithet that malice and wicked ingenuity could invent
was heaped upon him. Yes, sir, the same spirit that influenced the
Presbyterians of Massachusetts, about one hundred and fifty years ago,
in their persecution of the Quakers, when they first began to preach
their doctrines in that state, was fully manifested by those religious
bigots who were afraid if they let them alone their doctrines would
come to nought. * * * But, Mr. Chairman, I am wandering too far from
the subject. I will return to the persecutions which followed General
Smith, when his cheeks blossomed with the beauty of youth, and his eyes
sparked with innocence. Those bigots soon made up a false accusation
against him and had him arraigned before Joseph Chamberlain, a justice
of the peace, a man that was always ready to deal justice to all, and
a man of great discernment of mind. The case came on about 10 o'clock
A.M. I was called upon to defend the prisoner. The prosecutors employed
the best counsel they could get, and ransacked the town of Bainbridge
and county of Chenango for witnesses that would swear hard enough to
convict the prisoner; but they entirely failed. _Yes, sir, let me say
to you that not one blemish nor spot was found against his character,
he come from that trial, not withstanding the mighty efforts that were
made to convict him of crime by his vigilant persecutors, with his
character unstained by even the appearance of guilt_. The trial closed
about 12 o'clock at night. After a few moments' deliberation, the court
pronounced the words "not guilty" and the prisoner was discharged.
But alas! the devil, not satisfied with his defeat, stirred up a
man not unlike himself, who was more fit to dwell among the fields
of hell than to belong to the human family, to go to Colesville and
get another writ, and take him to Broome county for another trial.
They were sure they could send that boy to hell, or Texas, they did
not care which; and in half an hour after he was discharged by the
court, he was arrested again, and on the way to Colesville for another
trial. I was again called upon by his friends to defend him against
his malignant persecutors, and clear him from the false charges they
had preferred against him. I made every reasonable excuse I could, as
I was nearly worn down through fatigue and want of sleep; as I had
been engaged in law suits for two days, and nearly the whole of two
nights. But I saw the persecution was great against him; and here let
me say, Mr. Chairman, singular as it may seem, while Mr. Knight was
pleading with me to go, a peculiar impression or thought struck my
mind, that I must go and defend him, for he was the Lord's anointed. I
did not know what it meant, but thought I must go and clear the Lord's
anointed. I said I would go, and started with as much faith as the
Apostles had when they could remove mountains accompanied by Father
Knight, who was like the old patriarchs that followed the ark of God
to the city of David. * * * * * The next morning about 10 o'clock the
court was organized. The prisoner was to be tried by three justices of
the peace, that his departure out of the county might be made sure.
Neither talents nor money were wanting to insure them success. They
employed the ablest lawyer in that county, and introduced twenty or
thirty witnesses before dark, but proved nothing. They then sent out
runners and ransacked the hills and vales, grog shops and ditches,
and gathered together a company that looked as if they had come from
hell and had been whipped by the soot boy thereof; which they brought
forward to testify one after the other, but with no better success than
before, although they wrung and twisted into every shape, in trying to
tell something that would criminate the prisoner. Nothing was proven
against him whatever. Having got through with the examination of their
witnesses about 2 o'clock in the morning, the case was argued about two
hours. There was not one particle of testimony against the prisoner.
No, sir, he came out like the three children from the fiery furnace,
without the smell of fire upon his garments. The court deliberated upon
the case for half an hour with closed doors, and then we were called
in. The court arraigned the prisoner and said: "Mr. Smith, we have
had your case under consideration, examined the testimony and find
nothing to condemn you, and therefore you are discharged." They then
proceeded to reprimand him severely, not because anything derogatory
to his character in any shape had been proven against him by the
host of witnesses that had testified during the trial, but merely to
please those fiends in human shape who were engaged in the unhallowed
persecution of an innocent man, sheerly on account of his religious
opinions.

After they had got through, I arose and said: "This court puts me in
mind of a certain trial held before Felix of old, when the enemies of
Paul arraigned him before the venerable judge for some alleged crime,
and nothing was found in him worthy of death or of bonds. Yet to please
the Jews, who were his accusers, he was left bound contrary to law; and
this court has served Mr. Smith in the same way, by their unlawful and
uncalled for reprimand after his discharge, to please his accusers." We
got him away that night from the midst of three hundred people without
his receiving any injury; but I am well aware that we were assisted by
some higher power than man; for to look back on the scene, I cannot
tell how we succeeded in getting him away. I take no glory to myself;
it was the Lord's work and marvelous in our eyes.--_Times and Seasons_,
_vol. v, pp. 549-552_.

{97}



Chapter X.

Further Molestation at Colesville by Mobs--The Revelation Embodying the
Vision of Moses.

[Sidenote: Second Flight from Colesville.]

After a few days I returned to Colesville, in company with Oliver
Cowdery, for the purpose of confirming those whom we had been forced
to leave for a time. We had scarcely arrived at Mr. Knight's, when the
mob was seen collecting together to oppose us, and we considered it
wisdom to leave for home, which we did, without even waiting for any
refreshments. Our enemies pursued us, and it was oftentimes as much
as we could do to elude them. However, we managed to get home, after
having traveled all night, except a short time, during which we were
forced to rest ourselves under a large tree by the wayside, sleeping
and watching alternately.

[Sidenote: Reflections on Persecution.]

Thus were we persecuted on account of our religious faith--in a
country the Constitution of which guarantees to every man the
indefeasible right to worship God according to the dictates of his
own conscience--and by men, too, who were professors of religion,
and who were not backward to maintain the right of religious liberty
for themselves, though they could thus wantonly deny it to us. For
instance, Cyrus McMaster, a Presbyterian of high standing in his
church, was one of the chief instigators of these persecutions; and he
at one time told me personally that he considered me guilty without
judge or jury. The celebrated Dr. Boyington, also a Presbyterian,
was another instigator of these deeds of outrage; whilst a young man
named Benton, of the same religious faith, swore out the first warrant
against {98} me. I could mention many others also, but for brevity's
sake, will make these suffice for the present.

[Sidenote: The Strength which God Gave.]

I will say, however, that amid all the trials and tribulations we had
to wade through, the Lord, who well knew our infantile and delicate
situation, vouchsafed for us a supply of strength, and granted us "line
upon line of knowledge--here a little and there a little," of which the
following was a precious morsel:

    _Revelation to Joseph Smith, Jun., given June, 1830._ [1]

    1. _The words of God which He spake unto Moses at a time when Moses
    was caught up into an exceedingly high mountain,_

    2. _And he saw God face to face, and he talked with Him, and the
    glory of God was upon Moses; therefore Moses could endure His
    presence:_

    3. And God spake unto Moses, saying: Behold, I am the Lord God
    Almighty, and endless is my name; for I am without beginning of
    days or end of years; and is not this endless?

    4. And, behold, thou art my son; wherefore look, and I will show
    thee the workmanship of mine hands; but not all, for my works are
    without end, and also my words, for they never cease.

    5. Wherefore, no man can behold all my works, except he behold all
    my glory; and no man can behold all my glory, and afterwards remain
    in the flesh on the earth.

    6. And I have a work for thee, Moses, my son; and thou art in the
    similitude of mine Only Begotten; and mine Only Begotten is and
    shall be the Savior, for He is full of grace and truth; but there
    is no God beside me, and all things are present with me, for I know
    them all.

    7. And now, behold, this one thing I show unto thee, Moses, my son;
    for thou art in the world, and now I show it unto thee.

    8. And it came to pass that Moses looked, and beheld the world
    upon which he was created; and Moses beheld the world and the ends
    thereof, and all the children of men which are, and which were
    created; of the same he greatly marveled and wondered.

    9. And the presence of God withdrew from Moses, that His glory was
    not upon Moses; and Moses was left unto himself. And as he was left
    unto himself, he fell unto the earth.

    10. And it came to pass that it was for the space of many hours
    before Moses did again receive his natural strength like unto man;
    and he said unto himself: Now, for this cause I know that man is
    nothing, which thing I never had supposed.

    {99} 11. But now mine own eyes have beheld God; but not my natural,
    but my spiritual eyes, for my natural eyes could not have beheld;
    for I should have withered and died in His presence; but His glory
    was upon me; and I beheld His face, for I was transfigured before
    Him.

    12. And it came to pass that when Moses had said these words,
    behold, Satan came tempting him, saying: Moses, son of man, worship
    me.

    13. And it came to pass that Moses looked upon Satan and said: Who
    art thou? For behold, I am a son of God, in the similitude of His
    Only Begotten; and where is thy glory, that I should worship thee?

    14. For behold, I could not look upon God, except his glory should
    come upon me, and I were strengthened before Him. But I can look
    upon thee in the natural man. Is it not so, surely?

    15. Blessed be the name of my God, for His Spirit hath not
    altogether withdrawn from me, or else where is thy glory, for it
    is darkness unto me? And I can judge between thee and God; for God
    said unto me: Worship God, for Him only shalt thou serve.

    16. Get thee hence, Satan; deceive me not; for God said unto me:
    Thou art after the similitude of mine Only Begotten.

    17. And He also gave me commandments when He called unto me out of
    the burning bush, saying: Call upon God in the name of mine Only
    Begotten, and worship me.

    18. And again Moses said: I will not cease to call upon God, I have
    other things to inquire of Him: for His glory has been upon me,
    wherefore I can judge between Him and thee. Depart hence, Satan.

    19. And now, when Moses had said these words, Satan cried with a
    loud voice, and rent upon the earth, and commanded, saying: I am
    the Only Begotten, worship me.

    20. And it came to pass that Moses began to fear exceedingly; and
    as he began to fear, he saw the bitterness of hell. Nevertheless,
    calling upon God, he received strength, and he commanded, saying:
    Depart from me, Satan, for this one God only will I worship, which
    is the God of glory.

    21. And now Satan began to tremble, and the earth shook; and Moses
    received strength, and called upon God, saying: In the name of the
    Only Begotten, depart hence, Satan.

    22. And it came to pass that Satan cried with a loud voice, with
    weeping and wailing and gnashing of teeth; and he departed hence,
    even from the presence of Moses, that he beheld him not.

    23. And now of this thing Moses bore record; but because of
    wickedness it is not had among the children of men.

    24. And it came to pass that when Satan had departed from the
    presence of Moses, that Moses lifted up his eyes unto heaven, being
    filled {100} with the Holy Ghost, which beareth record of the
    Father and the Son;

    25. And calling upon the name of God, he beheld His glory again,
    for it was upon him; and he heard a voice, saying: Blessed art
    thou, Moses, for I, the Almighty, have chosen thee, and thou shalt
    be made stronger than many waters; for they shall obey thy command
    as if thou wert God.

    26. And lo, I am with thee, even unto the end of thy days; for thou
    shalt deliver my people from bondage, even Israel my chosen.

    27. And it came to pass, as the voice was still speaking, Moses
    cast his eyes and beheld the earth, yea, even all of it; and there
    was not a particle of it which he did not behold, discerning it by
    the Spirit of God.

    28. And he beheld also the inhabitants thereof, and there was not
    a soul which he beheld not; and he discerned them by the Spirit of
    God; and their numbers were great, even numberless as the sand upon
    the sea shore.

    29. And he beheld many lands; and each land was called earth, and
    there were inhabitants on the face thereof.

    30. And it came to pass that Moses called upon God, saying: Tell
    me, I pray thee, why these things are so, and by what thou madest
    them?

    31. And behold, the glory of the Lord was upon Moses, so that Moses
    stood in the presence of God, and talked with Him face to face.
    And the Lord God said unto Moses: For mine own purpose have I made
    these things. Here is wisdom and it remaineth in me.

    32. And by the word of my power, have I created them, which is mine
    Only Begotten Son, who is full of grace and truth.

    33. And worlds without number have I created; and I also created
    them for mine own purpose; and by the Son I created them, which is
    mine Only Begotten.

    34. And the first man of all men have I called Adam, which is many.

    35. But only an account of this earth, and the inhabitants thereof,
    give I unto you. For behold, there are many worlds that have passed
    away by the word of my power. And there are many that now stand,
    and innumerable are they unto man; but all things are numbered unto
    me, for they are mine and I know them.

    36. And it came to pass that Moses spake unto the Lord saying: Be
    merciful unto Thy servant, O God, and tell me concerning this earth
    and the inhabitants thereof, and also the heavens, and then Thy
    servant will be content.

    37. And the Lord God spake unto Moses, saying: The heavens, they
    are many, and they cannot be numbered unto man, but they are
    numbered unto me, for they are mine.

    38. And as one earth shall pass away, and the heavens thereof, even
    so shall another come; and there is no end to my works, neither to
    my words.

    {101} 39. For behold, this is my work and my glory--to bring to
    pass the immortality and eternal life of man.

    40. And now, Moses, my son, I will speak unto thee concerning this
    earth upon which thou standest; and thou shalt write the things
    which I shall speak.

    41. And in a day when the children of men shall esteem my words as
    naught and take many of them from the book which thou shalt write,
    behold, I will raise up another like unto thee; and they shall be
    had again among the children of men--among as many as shall believe.

    42. These words were spoken unto Moses in the mount, the name
    of which shall not be known among the children of men. And now
    they are spoken unto you. Show them not unto any except them that
    believe. Even so. Amen.

Meantime, and notwithstanding all the rage of our enemies, we had much
consolation, and many things occurred to strengthen our faith and cheer
our hearts.

[Sidenote: Encouragement From Inspired Dreams.]

After our departure from Colesville, after the trial, the Church there
were very anxious, as might be expected, concerning our again visiting
them, during which time Sister Knight, wife of Newel Knight, had a
dream, which enabled her to say that we would visit them that day,
which really came to pass, for a few hours afterwards we arrived; and
thus was our faith much strengthened concerning dreams and visions in
the last days, foretold by the ancient Prophet Joel; and although we
this time were forced to seek safety from our enemies by flight, yet
did we feel confident that eventually we should come off victorious, if
we only continued faithful to Him who had called us forth from darkness
into the marvelous light of the everlasting Gospel of our Lord Jesus
Christ.

Shortly after our return home, we received the following commandments:

    _Revelation to Joseph Smith, Jun., and Oliver Cowdery, given at
    Harmony, Pennsylvania, July, 1830._ [2]

    1. Behold thou wast called and chosen to write the Book of
    Mormon, and to my ministry; and I have lifted thee up out of thy
    afflictions, and have {102} counseled thee, that thou hast been
    delivered from all thine enemies, and thou hast been delivered from
    the powers of Satan and from darkness!

    2. Nevertheless, thou art not excusable in thy transgressions;
    nevertheless, go thy way and sin no more.

    3. Magnify thine office; and after thou hast sowed thy fields and
    secured them, go speedily unto the church which is in Colesville,
    Fayette, and Manchester, and they shall support thee; and I will
    bless them both spiritually and temporally;

    4. But if they receive thee not, I will send upon them a cursing
    instead of a blessing.

    5. And thou shalt continue in calling upon God in my name, and
    writing the things which shall be given thee by the Comforter, and
    expounding all Scriptures unto the Church;

    6. And it shall be given thee in the very moment what thou shalt
    speak and write, and they shall hear it, or I will send unto them a
    cursing instead of a blessing.

    7. For thou shalt devote all thy service in Zion; and in this thou
    shalt have strength.

    8. Be patient in afflictions, for thou shalt have many; but endure
    them, for, lo, I am with thee, even unto the end of thy days.

    9. And in temporal labors thou shalt not have strength, for this
    is not thy calling. Attend to thy calling and thou shalt have
    wherewith to magnify thine office, and to expound all Scriptures,
    and continue in laying on of the hands and confirming the Churches.

    10. And thy brother Oliver shall continue in bearing my name before
    the world, and also to the Church. And he shall not suppose that he
    can say enough in my cause; and lo, I am with him to the end.

    11. In me he shall have glory, and not of himself; whether in
    weakness or in strength, whether in bonds or free,

    12. And at all times, and in all places, he shall open his mouth
    and declare my Gospel as with the voice of a trump, both day and
    night. And I will give unto him strength such as is not known among
    men.

    13. Require not miracles, except I shall command you, except
    casting out devils, healing the sick, and against poisonous
    serpents, and against deadly poisons;

    14. And these things ye shall not do, except it be required of you
    by them who desire it, that the scriptures might be fulfilled; for
    ye shall do according to that which is written.

    15. And in whatsoever place ye shall enter, and they receive you
    not in my name, ye shall leave a cursing instead of a blessing, by
    casting off the dust of your feet against them as a testimony, and
    cleansing your feet by the wayside.

    {103} 16. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall lay their
    hands upon you by violence, ye shall command to be smitten in my
    name; and, behold, I will smite them according to your words, in
    mine own due time.

    17. And whosoever shall go to law with thee shall be cursed by the
    law.

    18. And thou shalt take no purse nor scrip, neither staves, neither
    two coats, for the Church shall give unto thee in the very hour
    what thou needest for food and for raiment, and for shoes and for
    money, and for scrip;

    19. For thou art called to prune my vineyard with a mighty pruning,
    yea, even for the last time. Yea, and also all those whom thou hast
    ordained, and they shall do even according to this pattern. Amen.

    _Revelation given at Harmony, Pennsylvania, July, 1830._ [3]

    1. Hearken unto the voice of the Lord your God, while I speak unto
    you, Emma Smith, my daughter, for verily I say unto you, all those
    who receive my gospel are sons and daughters in my kingdom.

    2. A revelation I give unto you concerning my will, and if thou art
    faithful and walk in the paths of virtue before me, I will preserve
    thy life, and thou shalt receive an inheritance in Zion.

    3. Behold, thy sins are forgiven thee, and thou art an elect lady,
    whom I have called.

    4. Murmur not because of the things which thou hast not seen, for
    they are withheld from thee and from the world, which is wisdom in
    me in a time to come.

    5. And the office of thy calling shall be for a comfort unto my
    servant, Joseph Smith, Jun., thy husband, in his afflictions with
    consoling words, in the spirit of meekness.

    6. And thou shalt go with him at the time of his going, and be unto
    him for a scribe, while there is no one to be a scribe for him,
    that I may send my servant, Oliver Cowdery, whithersoever I will.

    7. And thou shalt be ordained under his hand to expound scripture,
    and to exhort the Church, according as it shall be given thee by my
    Spirit;

    8. For he shall lay his hands upon thee, and thou shalt receive the
    Holy Ghost, and thy time shall be given to writing, and to learning
    much.

    9. And thou needest not fear, for thy husband shall support thee in
    the Church; for unto them is his calling, that all things might be
    revealed unto them, whatsoever I will, according to their faith.

    10. And verily I say unto thee, that thou shalt lay aside the
    things of this world, and seek for the things of a better.

    {104} 11. And it shall be given thee, also, to make a selection of
    sacred hymns, as it shall be given thee, which is pleasing unto me,
    to be had in my Church:

    12. For my soul delighteth in the song of the heart, yea, the song
    of the righteous is a prayer unto me, and it shall be answered with
    a blessing upon their heads.

    13. Wherefore lift up thy heart and rejoice, and cleave unto the
    covenants which thou hast made.

    14. Continue in the spirit of meekness, and beware of pride. Let
    thy soul delight in thy husband, and the glory which shall come
    upon him.

    15. Keep my commandments continually, and a crown of righteousness
    thou shalt receive. And except thou do this, where I am you cannot
    come.

    16. And verily, verily, I say unto you, that this is my voice unto
    all. Amen.

    _Revelation to Joseph Smith, Jun., Oliver Cowdery, and John
    Whitmer, given at Harmony, Pennsylvania, July, 1830._ [4]

    1. Behold, I say unto you, that you shall let your time be devoted
    to the studying of the Scriptures, and to preaching, and to
    confirming the Church at Colesville, and to performing your labors
    on the land, such as is required, until after you shall go to the
    west to hold the next conference; and then it shall be made known
    what you shall do.

    2. And all things shall be done by common consent in the Church, by
    much prayer and faith, for all things you shall receive by faith.
    Amen.

[Sidenote: Compilation of Revelations.]

Shortly after we had received the above revelations, Oliver Cowdery
returned to Mr. Peter Whitmer's, Sen., and I began to arrange and copy
the revelations, which we had received from time to time; in which I
was assisted by John Whitmer, who now resided with me.

[Sidenote: Cowdery's Error.]

Whilst thus employed in the work appointed me by my Heavenly Father,
I received a letter from Oliver Cowdery, the contents of which gave
me both sorrow and uneasiness. Not having that letter now in my
possession, I cannot of course give it here in full, but merely an
extract of the most prominent parts, which I can yet, and expect long
to, remember. {105} He wrote to inform me that he had discovered an
error in one of the commandments--Book of Doctrine and Covenants: "And
truly manifest by their works that they have received of the Spirit of
Christ unto a remission of their sins." [5]

The above quotation, he said, was erroneous, and added: "I command you
in the name of God to erase those words, that no priestcraft be amongst
us!"

I immediately wrote to him in reply, in which I asked him by what
authority he took upon him to command me to alter or erase, to add to
or diminish from, a revelation or commandment from Almighty God.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Correction of the Error.]

A few days afterwards I visited him and Mr. Whitmer's family, when
I found the family in general of his opinion concerning the words
above quoted, and it was not without both labor and perseverance that
I could prevail with any of them to reason calmly on the subject.
However, Christian Whitmer at length became convinced that the sentence
was reasonable, and according to Scripture; and finally, with his
assistance, I succeeded in bringing, not only the Whitmer family, but
also Oliver Cowdery to acknowledge that they had been in error, and
that the sentence in dispute was in accordance with the rest of the
commandment. And thus was this error rooted out, which having its rise
in presumption and rash judgment, was the more particularly calculated
(when once fairly understood) to teach each and all of us the necessity
of humility and meekness before the Lord, that He might teach us of
His ways, that we might walk in His paths, and live by every word that
proceedeth forth from His mouth.

Footnotes

1. Pearl of Great Price.

2. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 24.

3. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 25.

4. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 26.

5. Part of paragraph 37, sec. 20, Doctrine and Covenants.

{106}



Chapter XI.

Further Light Respecting the Sacrament--The Prophet's Removal to
Fayette.

[Sidenote: Instructions on the Sacrament.]

Early in the month of August Newel Knight and his wife paid us a visit
at my place in Harmony, Pennsylvania; and as neither his wife nor mine
had been as yet confirmed, it was proposed that we should confirm them,
and partake together of the Sacrament, before he and his wife should
leave us. In order to prepare for this I set out to procure some wine
for the occasion, but had gone only a short distance when I was met by
a heavenly messenger, and received the following revelation, the first
four paragraphs of which were written at this time, and the remainder
in the September following:

    _Revelation given at Harmony, Pennsylvania, August, 1830._ [1]

    1. Listen to the voice of Jesus Christ, your Lord, your God, and
    your Redeemer, whose word is quick and powerful.

    2. For, behold, I say unto you, that it mattereth not what ye shall
    eat, or what ye shall drink, when ye partake of the Sacrament, if
    it so be that ye do it with an eye single to my glory; remembering
    unto the Father my body which was laid down for you, and my blood
    which was shed for the remission of your sins:

    3. Wherefore, a commandment I give unto you, that you shall not
    purchase wine, neither strong drink of your enemies:

    4. Wherefore, you shall partake of none except it is made new among
    you; yea, in this my Father's kingdom which shall be built up on
    the earth.

    {107} 5. Behold, this is wisdom in me: wherefore, marvel not, for
    the hour cometh that I will drink of the fruit of the vine with
    you on the earth, and with Moroni, whom I have sent unto you to
    reveal the Book of Mormon, containing the fulness of my everlasting
    Gospel, to whom I have committed the keys of the record of the
    stick of Ephraim:

    6. And also with Elias, to whom I have committed the keys of
    bringing to pass the restoration of all things, spoken by the mouth
    of all the holy prophets since the world began, concerning the last
    days:

    7. And also John the son of Zacharias, which Zacharias he (Elias)
    visited and gave promise that he should have a son, and his name
    should be John, and he should be filled with the spirit of Elias;

    8. Which John I have sent unto you, my servant Joseph Smith, Jun.,
    and Oliver Cowdery, to ordain you unto the first Priesthood which
    you have received, that you might be called and ordained even as
    Aaron:

    9. And also Elijah, unto whom I have committed the keys of the
    power of turning the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the
    hearts of the children to the fathers, that the whole earth may not
    be smitten with a curse:

    10. And also with Joseph, and Jacob, and Isaac, and Abraham, your
    fathers, by whom the promises remain;

    11. And also with Michael, or Adam, the father of all, the prince
    of all, the ancient of days.

    12. And also with Peter, and James, and John, whom I have sent unto
    you, by whom I have ordained you and confirmed you to be apostles,
    and especial witnesses of my name, and bear the keys of your
    ministry and of the same things which I revealed unto them:

    13. Unto whom I have committed the keys of my kingdom, and a
    dispensation of the Gospel for the last times; and for the fulness
    of times, in the which I will gather together in one all things,
    both which are in heaven, and which are on earth:

    14. And also with all those whom my Father hath given me out of the
    world:

    15. Wherefore, lift up your heart and rejoice, and gird up your
    loins, and take upon you my whole armor, that ye may be able to
    withstand the evil day, having done all, that ye may be able to
    stand.

    16. Stand, therefore, having your loins girt about with truth,
    having on the breastplate of righteousness, and your feet shod with
    the preparation of the Gospel of peace, which I have sent mine
    angels to commit unto you.

    17. Taking the shield of faith wherewith ye shall be able to quench
    all the fiery darts of the wicked:

    18. And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of my Spirit,
    which I will pour out upon you, and my word which I reveal unto you
    {108} and be agreed as touching all things whatsoever ye ask of me,
    and be faithful until I come, and ye shall be caught up, that where
    I am ye shall be also. Amen.

[Sidenote: A Confirmation Meeting.]

In obedience to the above commandment, we prepared some wine of our
own making, and held our meeting, consisting only of five, viz., Newel
Knight and his wife, myself and my wife, and John Whitmer. We partook
together of the Sacrament, after which we confirmed these two sisters
into the Church, and spent the evening in a glorious manner. The Spirit
of the Lord was poured out upon us, we praised the Lord God, and
rejoiced exceedingly.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Father-in-law Embittered.]

About this time a spirit of persecution began again to manifest itself
against us in the neighborhood where I now resided, which was commenced
by a man of the Methodist persuasion, who professed to be a minister
of God. This man had learned that my father-in-law and his family had
promised us protection, and were friendly, and inquiring into the work;
and knowing that if he could get him turned against me, my friends in
that place would be but few, he visited my father-in-law, and told him
falsehoods concerning me of the most shameful nature, which turned the
old gentleman and his family so much against us, that they would no
longer promise us protection nor believe our doctrines. [2]

[Sidenote: The Eyes of Enemies Blinded Through Faith.]

Towards the latter end of August, in company with John and David
Whitmer, and my brother Hyrum Smith, I visited the Church at
Colesville, New York. Well knowing the determined hostility of our
enemies in that quarter, and also knowing that it was our duty to visit
the Church, we had called upon our Heavenly Father, in mighty {109}
prayer, that He would grant us an opportunity of meeting with them,
that he would blind the eyes of our enemies, so that they would not
know us, and that we might on this occasion return unmolested. Our
prayers were not in vain, for when within a little distance of Mr.
Knight's place, we encountered a large company at work upon the public
road, amongst whom were several of our most bitter enemies. They looked
earnestly at us, but not knowing us, we passed on without interruption.
That evening we assembled the Church, and confirmed them, partook of
the Sacrament, and held a happy meeting, having much reason to rejoice
in the God of our salvation, and sing hosannas to His holy name.
Next morning we set out on our return home, and although our enemies
had offered a reward of five dollars to any one who would give them
information of our arrival, yet did we get out of the neighborhood,
without the least annoyance, and arrived home in safety. Some few days
afterwards, however, Newel Knight came to my place, and from him we
learned that, very shortly after our departure, the mob came to know of
our having been there, when they immediately collected together, and
threatened the brethren, and very much annoyed them during all that day.

[Sidenote: The Prophet Finds an Asylum in Fayette.]

Meantime, Brother Knight had come with his wagon, prepared to move
my family to Fayette, New York. Mr. Whitmer, having heard of the
persecutions against us at Harmony, Pennsylvania, had invited us to go
and live with him; and during the last week in August we arrived at
Fayette, amidst the congratulations of our brethren and friends.

[Sidenote: Spurious Revelations Through Hiram Page.]

To our great grief, however, we soon found that Satan had been lying in
wait to deceive, and seeking whom he might devour. Brother Hiram Page
had in his possession a certain stone, by which he had obtained certain
"revelations" concerning the upbuilding of Zion, the order of the {110}
Church, etc., all of which were entirely at variance with the order of
God's house, as laid down in the New Testament, as well as in our late
revelations. As a conference meeting had been appointed for the 26th
[3] day of September, I thought it wisdom not to do much more than to
converse with the brethren on the subject, until the conference should
meet. Finding, however, that many, especially the Whitmer family and
Oliver Cowdery, were believing much in the things set forth by this
stone, we thought best to inquire of the Lord concerning so important a
matter; and before conference convened, we received the following:

    _Revelation to Oliver Cowdery, given at Fayette, New York,
    September, 1830._ [4]

    1. Behold, I say unto thee, Oliver, that it shall be given unto
    thee, that thou shalt be heard by the Church in all things
    whatsoever thou shalt teach them by the Comforter, concerning the
    revelations and commandments which I have given.

    2. But, behold, verily, verily, I say unto thee, no one shall be
    appointed to receive commandments and revelations in this Church,
    excepting my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., for he receiveth them even
    as Moses.

    3. And thou shalt be obedient unto the things which I shall
    give unto {111} him, even as Aaron, to declare faithfully the
    commandments and the revelations, with power and authority unto the
    Church.

    4. And if thou art led at any time by the comforter to speak or
    teach or at all times by the way of commandment unto the Church,
    thou mayest do it.

    5. But thou shalt not write by way of commandment, but by wisdom:

    6. And thou shalt not command him who is at thy head, and at the
    head of the church,

    7. For I have given him the keys of the mysteries, and the
    revelations which are sealed, until I shall appoint unto them
    another in his stead.

    8. And now, behold, I my unto you, that you shall go unto the
    Lamanites and preach my gospel unto them; and inasmuch as they
    receive thy teachings, thou shalt cause my Church to be established
    among them; and thou shalt have revelations, but write them not by
    way of commandment.

    9. And now, behold, I say unto you, that it is not revealed, and no
    man knoweth, where the city of Zion shall be built, but it shall be
    given hereafter. Behold, I say unto you, that it shall be on the
    borders by the Lamanites.

    10. Thou shalt not leave this place until after the conference, and
    my servant Joseph shall be appointed to preside over the conference
    by the voice of it, and what he saith to thee thou shalt tell.

    11. And again, thou shalt take thy brother, Hiram Page, between
    him and thee alone, and tell him that those things which he hath
    written from that stone, are not of me, and that Satan deceiveth
    him;

    12. For, behold, these things have not been appointed unto him,
    neither shall anything be appointed unto any of this Church
    contrary to the church covenants.

    13. For all things must be done in order, and by common consent in
    the Church, by the prayer of faith.

    14. And thou shalt assist to settle all these things according to
    the covenants of the Church before thou shalt take thy journey
    among the Lamanites.

    15. And it shall be given thee from the time thou shalt go, until
    the time thou shalt return, what thou shalt do.

    16. And thou must open thy mouth at all times declaring my gospel
    with the sound of rejoicing. Amen.

    _Revelation, given in the presence of Six Elders, in Fayette, New
    York, September, 1830._ [5]

    1. Listen to the voice of Jesus Christ, your Redeemer, the Great I
    AM, whose arm of mercy hath atoned for your sins;

    {112} 2. Who will gather His people even as a hen gathereth her
    chickens under her wings, even as many as will hearken to my voice
    and humble themselves before me, and call upon me in mighty prayer.

    3. Behold, verily, verily, I say unto you, that at this time your
    sins are forgiven you, therefore ye receive these things; but
    remember to sin no more, lest perils shall come upon you.

    4. Verily, I say unto you, that ye are chosen out of the world to
    declare my Gospel with the sound of rejoicing, as with the voice of
    a trump.

    5. Lift up your hearts and be glad, for I am in your midst, and am
    your advocate with the Father; and it is His good will to give you
    the kingdom;

    6. And as it is written, Whatsoever ye shall ask in faith, being
    united in prayer according to my command, ye shall receive;

    7. And ye are called to bring to pass the gathering of mine elect;
    for mine elect hear my voice and harden not their hearts;

    8. Wherefore the decree hath gone forth from the Father, that they
    shall be gathered in unto one place upon the face of this land, to
    prepare their hearts and be prepared in all things against the day
    when tribulation and desolation are sent forth upon the wicked;

    9. For the hour is nigh, and the day soon at hand, when the earth
    is ripe; and all the proud, and they that do wickedly, shall be as
    stubble, and I will burn them up, saith the Lord of Hosts, that
    wickedness shall not be upon the earth;

    10. For the hour is nigh, and that which was spoken by mine
    apostles must be fulfilled; for as they spoke, so shall it come to
    pass;

    11. For I will reveal myself from heaven with power and great
    glory, with all the hosts thereof, and dwell in righteousness with
    men on earth a thousand years, and the wicked shall not stand.

    12. And again, verily, verily, I say unto you, and it hath
    gone forth in a firm decree, by the will of the Father, that
    mine apostles, the Twelve which were with me in my ministry at
    Jerusalem, shall stand at my right hand at the day of my coming
    in a pillar of fire, being clothed with robes of righteousness,
    with crowns upon their heads, in glory even as I am, to judge the
    whole house of Israel, even as many as have loved me and kept my
    commandments, and none else;

    13. For a trump shall sound both long and loud, even as upon
    Mount Sinai, and all the earth shall quake, and they shall come
    forth--yea, even the dead which died in me, to receive a crown of
    righteousness, and to be clothed upon, even as I am, to be with me,
    that we may be one.

    14. But, behold, I say unto you, that before this great day shall
    come, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall be turned into
    blood, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and there shall be
    greater signs in heaven above, and in the earth beneath;

    {113} 15. And there shall be weeping and wailing among the hosts of
    men;

    16. And there shall be a great hailstorm sent forth to destroy the
    crops of the earth;

    17. And it shall come to pass because of the wickedness of the
    world, that I will take vengeance upon the wicked, for they will
    not repent: for the cup of mine indignation is full; for behold, my
    blood shall not cleanse them if they hear me not.

    18. Wherefore, I the Lord God will send forth flies upon the face
    of the earth, which will take hold of the inhabitants thereof, and
    shall eat their flesh, and shall cause maggots to come in upon them;

    19. And their tongues shall be staid that they shall not utter
    against me; and their flesh shall fall from off their bones, and
    their eyes from their sockets:

    20. And it shall come to pass that the beasts of the forest, and
    the fowls of the air shall devour them up.

    21. And the great and abominable church, which is the whore of all
    the earth, shall be cast down by devouring fire, according as it
    is spoken by the mouth of Ezekiel the prophet, who spoke of these
    things, which have not come to pass, but surely must, as I live,
    for abominations shall not reign.

    22. And again, verily, verily, I say unto you that when the
    thousand years are ended, and men again begin to deny their God,
    then will I spare the earth but for a little season;

    23. And the end shall come, and the heaven and the earth shall be
    consumed and pass away, and there shall be a new heaven and a new
    earth,

    24. For all old things shall pass away, and all things shall become
    new, even the heaven and the earth, and all the fullness thereof,
    both men and beasts, the fowls of the air, and the fishes of the
    sea;

    25. And not one hair, neither mote, shall be lost, for it is the
    workmanship of mine hand.

    26. But, behold, verily I say unto you, before the earth shall pass
    away, Michael, mine archangel, shall sound his trump, and then
    shall all the dead awake, for their graves shall be opened, and
    they shall come forth; yea, even all.

    27. And the righteous shall be gathered on my right hand unto
    eternal life; and the wicked on my left hand will I be ashamed to
    own before the Father;

    28. Wherefore I will say unto them--Depart from me, ye cursed, into
    everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels.

    29. And now behold, I say unto you, never at any time have I
    declared from mine own mouth that they should return, for where I
    am they cannot come, for they have no power.

    {114} 30. But remember that all my judgments are not given unto
    men: and as the words have gone forth out of my mouth, even so
    shall they be fulfilled, that the first shall be last, and that the
    last shall be first in all things whatsoever I have created by the
    word of my power, which is the power of my spirit.

    31. For by the power of my spirit created I them; yea, all things
    both spiritual and temporal--

    32. Firstly spiritual, secondly temporal, which is the beginning of
    my work; and again, first temporal, and secondly spiritual, which
    is the last of my work--

    33. Speaking unto you that you may naturally understand; but unto
    myself my works have no end, neither beginning; but it is given
    unto you that ye may understand, because ye have asked it of me and
    are agreed.

    34. Wherefore, verily I say unto you, that all things unto me are
    spiritual, and not at any time have I given unto you a law which
    was temporal; neither any man, nor the children of men; neither
    Adam, your father, whom I created.

    35. Behold, I gave unto him that he should be an agent unto
    himself; and I gave unto him commandment, but no temporal
    commandment gave I unto him, for my commandments are spiritual;
    they are not natural nor temporal, neither carnal nor sensual.

    36. And it came to pass that Adam, being tempted of the devil (for,
    behold, the devil was before Adam, for he rebelled against me,
    saying, Give me thine honor, which is my power; and also a third
    part of the hosts of heaven turned he away from me because of their
    agency;

    37. And they were thrust down, and then came the devil and his
    angels;

    38. And, behold, there is a place prepared for them from the
    beginning, which place is hell:

    39. And it must needs be that the devil should tempt the children
    of men, or they could not be agents unto themselves; for if they
    never should have bitter, they could not know the sweet.)

    40. Wherefore, it came to pass that the devil tempted Adam, and he
    partook of the forbidden fruit, and transgressed the commandment,
    wherein he became subject to the will of the devil, because he
    yielded unto temptation.

    41. Wherefore I the Lord God caused that he should be cast out from
    the Garden of Eden, from my presence, because of his transgression,
    wherein he became spiritually dead, which is the first death, even
    that same death, which is the last death, which is spiritual, which
    shall be pronounced upon the wicked when I shall say--Depart, ye
    cursed.

    42. But, behold, I say unto you, that I the Lord God gave unto Adam
    {115} and unto his seed that they should not die as to the temporal
    death, until I the Lord God should send forth angels to declare
    unto them repentance and redemption, through faith on the name of
    mine Only Begotten Son.

    43. And thus did I, the Lord God, appoint unto man the days of
    his probation; that by his natural death he might be raised in
    immortality unto eternal life, even as many as would believe;

    44. And they that believe not unto eternal damnation, for they
    cannot be redeemed from their spiritual fall, because they repent
    not;

    45. For they love darkness rather than light, and their deeds are
    evil, and they receive their wages of whom they list to obey.

    46. But, behold, I say unto you, that little children are redeemed
    from the foundation of the world through mine Only Begotten:

    47. Wherefore, they cannot sin, for power is not given unto Satan
    to tempt little children, until they begin to become accountable
    before me;

    48. For it is given unto them even as I will, according to mine own
    pleasure, that great things may be required at the hand of their
    fathers.

    49. And, again, I say unto you, that whoso having knowledge, have I
    not commanded to repent?

    50. And he that hath no understanding, it remaineth in me to do
    according as it is written. And now I declare no more unto you at
    this time. Amen.

[Sidenote: The Conference of September 26th.]

At length our conference assembled. The subject of the stone previously
mentioned was discussed, and after considerable investigation, Brother
Page, as well as the whole Church who were present, renounced the
said stone, and all things connected therewith, much to our mutual
satisfaction and happiness. We now partook of the Sacrament, confirmed
and ordained many, and attended to a great variety of Church business
on the first and the two following days of the conference, during which
time we had much of the power of God manifested amongst us; the Holy
Ghost came upon us, and filled us with joy unspeakable; and peace, and
faith, and hope, and charity abounded in our midst.

Before we separated we received the following:

    {116} _Revelation to David Whitmer, Peter Whitmer, Jun., and John
    Whitmer, given September, 1830._ [6]

    1. Behold, I say unto you, David, that you have feared man and have
    not relied on me for strength as you ought.

    2. But your mind has been on the things of the earth more than on
    the things of me, your Maker, and the ministry whereunto you have
    been called; and you have not given heed unto my Spirit, and to
    those who were set over you, but have been persuaded by those whom
    I have not commanded:

    3. Wherefore, you are left to inquire for yourself, at my hand, and
    ponder upon the things which you have received.

    4. And your home shall be at your father's house until I give unto
    you further commandments. And you shall attend to the ministry in
    the Church, and before the world, and in the regions round about.
    Amen.

    5. Behold, I say unto you Peter, that you shall take your
    journey with your brother Oliver, for the time has come that it
    is expedient in me that you shall open your mouth to declare my
    Gospel; therefore, fear not, but give heed unto the words and
    advice of your brother, which he shall give you.

    6. And be you afflicted in all his afflictions, ever lifting
    up your heart unto me in prayer, and faith, for his and your
    deliverance: for I have given unto him power to build up my Church
    among the Lamanites:

    7. And none have I appointed to be his counselor over him in the
    Church concerning Church matters, except it is his brother, Joseph
    Smith, Jun.

    8. Wherefore, give heed unto these things and be diligent in
    keeping my commandments, and you shall be blessed unto eternal
    life. Amen.

    9. Behold, I say unto you, my servant John, that thou shalt
    commence from this time forth to proclaim my Gospel, as with the
    voice of a trump.

    10. And your labor shall be at your brother Philip Burroughs', and
    in that region round about; yea, wherever you can be heard, until I
    command you to go from hence.

    11. And your whole labor shall be in Zion, with all your soul, from
    henceforth; yea, you shall ever open your mouth in my cause, not
    fearing what man can do, for I am with you. Amen.

    _Revelation to Thomas B. Marsh, Given September, 1830._ [7]

    1. Thomas, my son, blessed are you because of your faith in my work.

    2. Behold, you have had many afflictions because of your family:
    {117} nevertheless, I will bless you and your family; yea, your
    little ones; and the day cometh that they will believe and know the
    truth and be one with you in my Church.

    3. Lift up your heart and rejoice, for the hour of your mission is
    come: and your tongue shall be loosed; and you shall declare glad
    tidings of great joy unto this generation.

    4. You shall declare the things which have been revealed to my
    servant, Joseph Smith, Jun., You shall begin to preach from this
    time forth; yea, to reap in the field which is white already to be
    burned:

    5. Therefore, thrust in your sickle with all your soul, and your
    sins are forgiven you, and you shall be laden with sheaves upon
    your back, for the laborer is worthy of his hire. Wherefore, your
    family shall live.

    6. Behold, verily I say unto you, go from them only for a little
    time, and declare my word, and I will prepare a place for them;

    7. Yea, I will open the hearts of the people, and they will receive
    you. And I will establish a church by your hand;

    8. And you shall strengthen them and prepare them against the time
    when they shall be gathered.

    9. Be patient in afflictions, revile not against those that revile.
    Govern your house in meekness, and be steadfast.

    10. Behold, I say unto you that you shall be a physician unto the
    Church, but not unto the world, for they will not receive you.

    11. Go your way withersoever I will, and it shall be given you by
    the Comforter what you shall do, and whither you shall go.

    12. Pray always lest you enter into temptation, and lose your
    reward.

    13. Be faithful unto the end, and lo, I am with you. These words
    are not of man, nor of men, but of me, even Jesus Christ, your
    Redeemer, by the will of the Father. Amen. [8]

{118} [Sidenote: Satisfactory Results of the Conference.]

During this conference, which continued three days, the utmost harmony
prevailed, and all things were settled satisfactorily to all present,
and a desire was manifested by all the Saints to go forward and labor
with all their powers to spread the great and glorious principles of
truth, which had been revealed by our Heavenly Father. A number were
baptized during the conference, and the word of the Lord spread and
prevailed.

[Sidenote: Mission to the Lamanites.]

At this time a great desire was manifested by several of the Elders
respecting the remnants of the house of Joseph, the Lamanites, residing
in the west--knowing [9] that the purposes of God were great respecting
that people, and hoping that the time had come when the promises of the
Almighty in regard to them were about to be accomplished, and that they
would receive the Gospel, and enjoy its blessings. The desire being
so great, it was agreed that we should inquire of the Lord respecting
the propriety of sending some of the Elders [10] among them, which we
accordingly did, and received the following:

    _Revelation to Parley P. Pratt and Ziba Peterson, given October,
    1830._ [11]

    1. And now concerning my servant Parley P. Pratt, [12] behold I
    say {119} unto him that as I live, I will that he shall declare my
    Gospel and learn of me and be meek and lowly of heart;

    2. And that which I have appointed unto him is, that he shall go
    with my servants Older Cowdery and Peter Whitmer, Jun., into the
    wilderness among the Lamanites.

    3. And Ziba Peterson, also, shall go with them, and I myself will
    go with them and be in their midst; and I am their advocate with
    the Father, and nothing shall prevail against them.

    {120} 4. And they shall give heed to that which is written and
    pretend to no other revelation, and they shall pray always that I
    may unfold the same to their understanding;

    5. And they shall give heed unto these words and trifle not, and I
    will bless them. Amen.

[Sidenote: Departure of the Lamanite Mission. Arrival at Kirtland.]

Immediately on receiving this revelation, preparations were made for
the journey of the brethren therein designated, to the borders of the
Lamanites, and a copy of the revelation was given them. They bade adieu
to their brethren and friends, and commenced their journey, preaching
by the way, and leaving a sealing testimony behind them, lifting up
their voice like a trump in the different villages through which they
passed. [13] They continued their journey until they came to Kirtland,
Ohio, where they tarried some time, there being quite a number in that
place and vicinity who believed their testimony, and came forward and
obeyed the Gospel. Among the number was Mr. Sidney Rigdon, [14] and a
large portion of the church over which he presided.

{121} [Sidenote: Previous Relations of Pratt and Rigdon.]

Previous to this, Elder Parley P. Pratt had been a preacher in the same
church with Mr. Rigdon, and resided in the town of Amherst, Loraine
county, in Ohio, and had been sent into the state of New York on a
mission, where he became {122} acquainted with the circumstances of the
coming forth of the Book of Mormon, and was introduced to Joseph Smith,
Jun., and other members of the Church. The belief that there were many
in the church with which he had formerly been united, who were honest
seekers after truth, induced Elder Pratt; while on his journey to the
west, to call upon his friends, and make known the great things which
the Lord had brought to pass.

[Sidenote: Presentation of the Book of Mormon to Sidney Rigdon.]

The first house at which they called in the vicinity of Kirtland, was
Mr. Rigdon's, and after the usual salutations, they presented him with
the Book of Mormon, stating that it was a revelation from God. This
being the first time he had ever heard of, or seen, the Book of Mormon,
[15] he felt very much {123} surprised at the assertion, and replied
that he had the Bible which he believed was a revelation from God, and
with which he pretended to have some acquaintance; but with respect
of the book they had presented him, he must say {124} that he had
considerable doubt. Upon this, they expressed a desire to investigate
the subject, and argue the matter. But he replied, "No, young
gentleman, you must not argue with me on the subject; but I will read
your book, and see what claims it has upon my faith, and will endeavor
to ascertain whether it be a revelation from God or not."

[Sidenote: Public Ministry at Mentor.]

After some further conversation they expressed a desire to lay the
subject before the people, and requested the privilege of preaching in
Mr. Rigdon's chapel, to which he readily consented. The appointment
was accordingly published, and a large and respectable congregation
assembled. Oliver Cowdery and Parley P. Pratt severally addressed
the meeting. At the conclusion, Mr. Rigdon arose, and stated to the
congregation that the information they had that evening received was of
an extraordinary character, and certainly demanded their most serious
consideration; and as the Apostle advised his brethren to "prove all
things, and hold fast that which is good," so he would exhort his
brethren to do likewise, and give the matter a careful investigation,
and not turn against it without being fully convinced of its being an
imposition, lest they should, possibly, resist the truth.

[Sidenote: The Work Opened at Kirtland.]

A few miles from Mr. Rigdon's home in Mentor, at the town of Kirtland,
where a number of the members of his church, who lived together and
had all things common--from which circumstance has risen the idea that
this was the case with the Church of Jesus Christ. To that place the
Elders immediately repaired, and proclaimed the Gospel unto them, with
considerable success; for their testimony was received by many of the
people, and seventeen came forward in obedience to the Gospel.

[Sidenote: The Conversion of Sidney Rigdon.]

While thus engaged, they visited Mr. Rigdon occasionally, and found him
very earnestly reading the Book of Mormon,--praying to the Lord for
direction, and meditating on the things he heard and read; and after a
{125} fortnight from the time the book was put into his hands, he was
fully convinced of the truth of the work, by a revelation from Jesus
Christ, which was made known to him in a remarkable manner, so that
he could exclaim, "Flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto me, but
my Father which is in heaven." Accordingly he and his wife were both
baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ; and, together with those who
had been previously admitted to baptism, made a little branch of the
Church, in this section of Ohio, of about twenty members.

This much accomplished, the brethren bound for the borders of the
Lamanites, bade an affectionate farewell to the Saints in Kirtland
and vicinity; and, after adding one of their new converts to their
number--Dr. Frederick G. Williams [16]--they went on their way
rejoicing.

Footnotes

1. Doctrine and Covenants, section 27.

2. Mr. Hale, the Prophet's father-in-law, retained the bitterness then
engendered in his mind; and some years later--namely, in 1834--made an
affidavit concerning the character of Joseph the Prophet, which has
been very generally quoted in anti-"Mormon" works.

3. In the manuscript of the Prophet Joseph's History this conference
is said to have been appointed for the "first day of September;" but
in the _Far West Record_, a manuscript record kept by the clerks of
the High Council in Missouri--and to which reference has before been
made--are the minutes of the 9th of June conference (1830), which
state that that conference adjourned to meet again on the 26th of
September. The record also contains the minutes of the above conference
bearing the date of September 26th. In addition to these reasons for
changing the date in the text is the fact that immediately, or at
least very soon after the close of the conference, a revelation was
sought and obtained concerning the mission to the Lamanites, to which,
even previous to the conference, Oliver Cowdery had been appointed
(Doctrine and Covenants, 28:8-10). The said revelation bears the date
of "October, 1830." (Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 32), which would
scarcely be the case if the conference had been held on the first,
rather than near the close of September, as there is every reason to
believe from the record that this revelation was received immediately
after the conference closed. Moreover, the 26th of September, 1830,
came on Sunday; whereas the first of September came on Wednesday, and
as the conference lasted but three days, the brethren would scarcely
arrange such a gathering without appointing it for such days as would
include a Sunday.

4. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 28.

5. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 29.

6. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 30.

7. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 31.

8. Thomas Baldwin Marsh, to whom the foregoing revelation was given
through the Prophet Joseph, was born in Massachusetts, November 1,
1799, and after his marriage to Elizabeth Godkin in 1820, he went into
the grocery business in New York, afterwards engaging in a type foundry
in Boston. Here he joined the Methodist church, but on comparing its
principles with the Scripture, and failing to make them correspond, he
withdrew from all sects, but expected and indeed predicted the rise of
a new church which should have the truth in its purity. He was moved by
the Spirit to make a journey west, during which he heard of the Book of
Mormon. He met Martin Harris at the office where it was being printed,
and secured proof sheets of the first sixteen pages. He later met
Oliver Cowdery, and remained with him two days, receiving from him full
information as to the coming forth of the Book of Mormon. Returning
to his home near Boston, he kept up a correspondence with the Prophet
and Oliver for about a year; and upon learning of the organization of
the Church, he moved to Palmyra in September, 1830, and was baptized
by David Whitmer, and a few days later was ordained an Elder by Oliver
Cowdery.

9. Of course this knowledge arose from what the brethren had learned
from the Book of Mormon of the promises of God to the Lamanites.

10. The consideration of the "propriety" of sending Elders among the
Lamanites here referred to was doubtless restricted to the propriety
of increasing the number of Elders to go among them; for before the
conference convened the propriety of sending EIders to the Lamanites
had been settled by the word of the Lord. In a revelation receive
before the conference of September 26th, Oliver Cowdery was appointed
to go on a mission to the Lamanites, though instructed not to leave
Fayette until after the conference. (See p. 111; also Doctrine and
Covenants, sec. 28:8-10.) And before the conference adjourned another
revelation was received in which Peter Whitmer, Jun., was appointed to
accompany Oliver Cowdery on his mission. (See p. 116; and Doctrine and
Covenants, sec. 30:5-6.) Hence these inquiries after the conference
concerning the "propriety" of sending Elders among the Lamanites, I
repeat, must have had reference merely to the propriety of increasing
the number that should go. It will be observed also that the revelation
which follows in the text merely appoints Parley P. Pratt and Ziba
Peterson to accompany Elders Cowdery and Whitmer.

11. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 32.

12. Parley Parker Pratt was born on the 12th day of April, 1807, in
Burlington, Otsego county, state of New York. He was the third son of
Jared and Charity Pratt. Jared was the son of Obediah and Jemima Pratt;
Obediah was the son of Christopher and Sarah Pratt; Christopher was the
son of William and Hannah Pratt; William was the son of Joseph Pratt,
Joseph was the son of Lieutenant William and Elizabeth Pratt, who were
found among the first settlers of Hartford, Connecticut, in the year
1639.

This William Pratt was a member of the legislature for some twenty-five
or thirty sessions; and the general court gave him one hundred acres
of land in Saybrook, Connecticut, for services performed as lieutenant
in the Pequot war; he was one of the judges of the first court in New
London county. Parley P. Pratt is a lineal descendant, of the seventh
generation, from that distinguished pilgrim and humble pioneer to the
new world. Parley P. Pratt was reared to hard work on a farm and though
his opportunities for acquiring an education were extremely limited, he
was brought up in the strictest school of morals. Even in early youth
he gave evidence of a profoundly religious nature, and while yet in his
teens became identified with the Baptist church. In 1826 he left New
York state and settled some thirty miles west of the town of Cleveland,
in the state of Ohio, and laid the foundation of a wilderness home.
The next year, 1827, he returned to Canaan, Columbia county, New
York,--the county where much of his boyhood was spent, the home, too,
of his parents--and there married Thankful Halsey, on the 9th of
September, 1827. The same month the newly married couple returned to
the wilderness home west of Cleveland. About eighteen months later
Sidney Rigdon, who was connected with Alexander Campbell, Walter Scott
and others in that aggressive reform movement among the Christian
sects, which resulted in the founding of the sect of the "Disciples"
or "Campbellites," came into Mr. Pratt's neighborhood preaching the
doctrines of faith, repentance and baptism. As his doctrine more nearly
conformed to the scriptures than any other Mr. Pratt had heard, he
accepted Sydney Rigdon's teachings, joined the "Disciples," and became
a minister in that church. He determined to take up the ministry as his
life's labor, sold his possessions and started first of all to call
upon his relatives in New York. En route, however, he was moved upon by
the spirit to stop off at Newark, in New York, while his wife continued
her journey to her father's home. At Newark, Mr. Pratt first heard of
and saw the Book of Mormon, and, without delay, hastened to Palmyra to
investigate the story of its coming forth. At the home of the Smiths,
near Manchester, he met with Hyrum, brother of the Prophet, and from
him learned the particulars of the work. In company with Hyrum Smith he
went to Fayette, where he met with Oliver Cowdery; and about the first
of September he was baptized by him in Seneca Lake, and straightway
was ordained an Elder of the Church. After these events he continued
his journey to the home of his kindred in Columbia county, New York,
where he baptized his brother Orson, then a youth of nineteen years. He
returned to Fayette in time to attend the conference, where he met the
Prophet Joseph, and received the appointment to the Lamanite mission as
related in the text.

13. After traveling for some days the Lamanite mission called at some
Indian encampments near the city of Buffalo, where they spent part
of a day instructing them in the knowledge of their forefathers.
These Indians were of the Cattaraugus tribe, and kindly received the
brethren, who left with certain of their number who could read English,
two copies of the Book of Mormon. And then continued their journey
westward. (_Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt_, pp. 49, 61.)

14. Sidney Rigdon was born in Saint Clair township, Allegheny county,
state of Pennsylvania, on the 19th of February, A. D. 1793, and was the
youngest son of William and Nancy Rigdon, William Rigdon, his father, a
native of Hartford county, state of Maryland, was born A. D. 1743, and
died May 26th, A. D. 1810. William Rigdon was the son of Thomas Baker
and Ann Lucy Rigdon. Thomas Baker Rigdon was a native of the state of
Maryland, and was the son of Thomas Baker Rigdon, who came from Great
Britain. Ann Lucy Rigdon, grandmother of Sidney Rigdon, was a native
of Ireland, and emigrated to the city of Boston, Massachusetts and
was there married to Thomas Baker Rigdon. Nancy Rigdon's mother was a
native of Freehold, Monmouth county, New Jersey; she was born March
16th, 1759, and died October 3rd, 1839, and was the eldest daughter
of Byrant Gallaher, who was a native of Ireland. Elizabeth Gallaher,
mother to the aforesaid Nancy Rigdon, was the second wife of the said
Byrant Gallaher, and her maiden name was Reed. She was a native of
Monmouth county, New Jersey. Her parents were natives of Scotland.
The early days of Sidney Rigdon's life were uneventful. His youth
and the early years of his manhood were spent at his father's farm
in St. Clair township, Allegheny county, Pennsylvania. When Sidney
was seventeen years old his father died, but he continued on the same
farm with his mother until he was twenty-six. In his twenty-fifth
year he joined the "Regular Baptist" society or church. The pastor in
charge was the Rev. David Phillips, a clergyman from Wales. In March,
1819, Mr. Rigdon left the farm and made his home with the Rev. Andrew
Clark, of Pittsburgh, also a Baptist minister. While residing with
Mr. Clark he took out a license and began from that time his career
as a minister. In May, 1819, he removed from Pennsylvania to Trumbull
county, Ohio. In July of the same year he made his home with Adamson
Bentley, a minister of the same faith. While residing at Bentley's he
met Phebe Brook, to whom he was married on the 12th day of June, 1820.
She was a native of the state of New Jersey, Bridgetown, Cumberland
county, but had previously removed to Trumbull county, Ohio. Sidney
Rigdon continued to preach throughout Trumbull county until November,
1821. Passing through Pittsburgh about that time, for the purpose of
visiting his relatives at the old homestead in St. Clair township,
Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, he was invited to preach to the Baptist
society of Pittsburg, which he did the following and several succeeding
Sundays. As the congregation had no regular pastor they invited him
to take charge and become their regular minister; a "call" which he
accepted and removed from Warren in Trumbull county, Ohio, to Pittsburg
in February, 1822. Meantime misgivings arose in his mind with reference
to some of the doctrines of the church with which he was connected,
especially with reference to the fate of unbaptized infants. Finally,
after serving his congregation about two years and six months, he gave
up his charge in August, 1824, and retired from the ministry. After
taking this step he joined his wife's brother, Richard Brook, in the
tanning business. Together they started a small tannery in which Mr.
Rigdon worked as a journeyman for some two years. Meantime he had
formed the acquaintance of Mr. Alexander Campbell, generally regarded
as the founder of the sect of the "Disciples," or "Campbellites," and
Mr. Walter Scott, a Scotchman by birth, but at this time a resident
of Pittsburg and a dissenter from a Scandinavian church with which
he had formerly been associated. These three gentlemen often met and
discussed the subject of religion, the necessity for a universal
reformation among the churches, the abandonment of their creeds, etc.
The consultations they held led ultimately to the establishment of the
church or sect of the "Disciples." Mr. Rigdon left Pittsburg in 1826,
and went to Bainbridge, Geaugo county, Ohio, where the people urged
him to speak to them. He did so, following in his teachings that line
of doctrine which in his consultation with Messrs. Campbell and Scott
they had considered were essential to Christian spiritual life, viz.,
faith in God, repentance of sins, baptism by immersion in water for the
remission of sins, and holiness of life--a godly walk and conversation.
Mr. Rigdon continued to labor in Bainbridge for about one year, when
the people of Mentor, in the same county, but some thirty miles
distant from Bainbridge, invited him to reside among them and preach.
This he consented to do, and notwithstanding he at first met with
some opposition, he prevailed against it and extended his labors into
surrounding townships and counties until he had in a number of places
a large following. Such were his circumstances and such his labor when
the message of "Mormonism" found him--when Parley P. Pratt presented
him with the Book of Mormon and its attendant message.

15. The circumstance of Oliver Cowdery, Parley P. Pratt and their
associates presenting Sidney Rigdon with the Book of Mormon is thus
related in the _Life of Sidney Rigdon_, by his son, John W. Rigdon (Ms.
p. 18): "In the fall of 1830, Parley P. Pratt, Ziba Peterson, Oliver
Cowdery, and Peter Whitmer called at the home of Sidney Rigdon, in the
town of Mentor, Ohio, and Parley P. Pratt presented to him a bound
volume of the Book of Mormon in the presence of his wife and his oldest
child, Athalia Rigdon, now Athalia Robinson, who was then a girl ten
years old, and now (1900) living in the town of Friendship, Allegheny
county, state of New York; and who remembers the transaction as well as
any incident of her life. Parley P. Pratt, at the time he handed the
book to Sidney Rigdon, said it was a revelation from God."

Again referring to this circumstance near the close of the sketch of
his father's life, John W. Rigdon relates how, in the fall of 1863,
he visited the territory of Utah, where he spent the winter among the
"Mormon" people. He was not favorably impressed with their religious
life, and came to the conclusion that the Book of Mormon itself was a
fraud. He determined in his own heart that if ever he returned home
and found his father, Sidney Rigdon, alive, he would try and find
out what he knew of the origin of the Book of Mormon. "Although," he
adds, "he had never told but one story about it, and that was that
Parley P. Pratt and Oliver Cowdery presented him with a bound volume
of that book in the year 1830, while he (Sidney Rigdon) was preaching
Campbellism at Mentor, Ohio." What John W. Rigdon claims to have seen
in Utah, however, together with the fact that Sidney Rigdon had been
charged with writing the Book of Mormon, made him suspicious; "and,"
he remarks, "I concluded I would make an investigation for my own
satisfaction and find out if I could if he had all these years been
deceiving his family and the world, by telling that which was not true,
and I was in earnest about it. If Sidney Rigdon, my father, had thrown
his life away by telling a falsehood and bringing sorrow and disgrace
upon his family, I wanted to know it and was determined to find out
the facts, no matter what the consequences might be. I reached home
in the fall of 1865, found my father in good health and [he] was very
much pleased to see me. As he had not heard anything from me for some
time, he was afraid that I had been killed by the Indians. Shortly
after I had arrived home, I went to my father's room; he was there and
alone, now was the time for me to commence my inquiries in regard to
the origin of the Book of Mormon, and as to the truth of the 'Mormon'
religion. I told him what I had seen at Salt Lake City, and I said
to him that what I had seen at Salt Lake had not impressed me very
favorably toward the 'Mormon' Church, and as to the origin of the Book
of Mormon I had some doubts. You have been charged with writing that
book and giving it to Joseph Smith to introduce to the world. You have
always told me one story; that you never saw the book until it was
presented to you by Parley P. Pratt and Oliver Cowdery; and all you
ever knew of the origin of that book was what they told you and what
Joseph Smith and the witnesses who claimed to have seen the plates had
told you. Is this true? If so all right; if it is not, you owe it to me
and your family to tell it. You are an old man and you will soon pass
away, and I wish to know if Joseph Smith, in your intimacy with him for
fourteen years, has not said something to you that led you to believe
he obtained that book in some other way than what he had told you. Give
me all you know about it, that I may know the truth. My father, after I
had finished saying what I have repeated above, looked at me a moment,
raised his hand above his head and slowly said with tears glistening
in his eyes: 'My son, I can swear before high heaven that what I have
told you about the origin of that book is true. Your mother and sister,
Mrs. Athalia Robinson, were present when that book was handed to me in
Mentor, Ohio, and all I ever knew about the origin of that book was
what Parley P. Pratt, Oliver Cowdery, Joseph Smith and the witnesses
who claimed they saw the plates have told me, and in all my intimacy
with Joseph Smith he never told me but the one story, and that was
that he found it engraved upon gold plates in a hill near Palmyra, New
York, and that an angel had appeared to him and directed him where to
find it; and I have never, to you or to anyone else, told but the one
story, and that I now repeat to you.' I believed him, and now believe
he told me the truth. He also said to me after that that Mormonism was
true; that Joseph Smith was a Prophet, and this world would find it out
some day. After my father's death, my mother, who survived him several
years, was in the enjoyment of good health up to the time of her last
sickness, she being eighty-six years old. A short time before her death
I had a conversation with her about the origin of the Book of Mormon,
and wanted to know what she remembered about its being presented to my
father. She said to me in that conversation that what my father had
told me about the book being presented to him was true, for she was
present at the time and knew that was the first time he ever saw it,
and that the stories told about my father writing the Book of Mormon
were not true. This she said to me in her old age and when the shadows
of the grave were gathering around her and I believe her." (_Life of
Sidney Rigdon_, by his son John W. Rigdon, Ms, pp. 188-195)

Our author also mentions in his sketch of his father's life, an
affidavit given to him by his sister, Athalia Robinson, to the same
effect as the statement of Sidney Rigdon and his wife, relative to the
coming of Pratt and Cowdery to their home in Mentor, and presenting to
her father a bound copy of the Book of Mormon. Athalia was ten years
old at the time, and distinctly remembered throughout her life the
circumstance. (Ibid, Ms. pp. 195-6).

16. Frederick Granger Williams was born in Suffield, Hartford county,
Connecticut, October 28th, 1787. He was therefore a man of forty-three
years of age when the Gospel was brought to him at Kirtland by Oliver
Cowdery and associates. He was a man of considerable influence in the
community where he resided. He owned a farm near Kirtland, but at the
time the Gospel found him he was practicing medicine, and was widely
known as Dr. Williams. He abandoned the practice of his profession,
however, for the work of the ministry, and accompanied the Lamanite
mission to Missouri.

{126}



Chapter XII.

Lost Books of Ancient Scripture--Commandment to the Church in New York
to Move to Ohio.

[Sidenote: Readiness of the Lord to Impart Knowledge.]

The Lord who is ever ready to instruct such as diligently seek in faith
gave the following revelation at Fayette, New York:

    _Revelation to Ezra Thayre and Northrop Sweet, given October,
    1830._ [1]

    1. Behold I say unto you, my servants Ezra and Northrop, open ye
    your ears and hearken to the voice of the Lord your God, whose
    word is quick and powerful, sharper than a two-edged sword, to the
    dividing asunder of the joints and marrow, soul and spirit: and is
    a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.

    2. For verily, verily, I say unto you, that ye are called to lift
    up your voices as with the sound of a trump, to declare my Gospel
    unto a crooked and perverse generation:

    3. For behold, the field is white already to harvest: and it is the
    eleventh hour, and the last time that I shall call laborers into my
    vineyard.

    4. And my vineyard has become corrupted every whit; and there
    is none which doeth good save it be a few; and they err in many
    instances, because of priestcrafts, all having corrupt minds.

    5. And verily, verily, I say unto you, that this Church have I
    established and called forth out of the wilderness:

    6. And even so will I gather mine elect from the four quarters of
    the earth, even as many as will believe in me, and hearken unto my
    voice:

    7. Yea, verily, verily, I say unto you, that the field is white
    already to harvest; wherefore, thrust in your sickles, and reap
    with all your might, mind, and strength.

    8. Open your mouths and they shall be filled, and you shall
    become even as Nephi of old, who journeyed from Jerusalem in the
    wilderness;

    {127} 9. Yea, open your mouths and spare not, and you shall be
    laden with sheaves upon your backs, for lo, I am with you:

    10. Yea, open your mouths and they shall be filled, saying--Repent,
    repent, and prepare ye the way of the Lord, and make His paths
    straight, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand;

    11. Yea, repent and be baptized, every one of you for a remission
    of your sins; yea, be baptized even by water, and then cometh the
    baptism of fire and of the Holy Ghost.

    12. Behold, verily, verily, I say unto you, this is my Gospel, and
    remember that they shall have faith in me, or they can in no wise
    be saved;

    13. And upon this rock I will build my Church; yea, upon this rock
    ye are built, and if ye continue, the gates of hell shall not
    prevail against you;

    14. And ye shall remember the Church articles and covenants to keep
    them.

    15. And whoso having faith you shall confirm in my Church, by the
    laying on of the hands, and I will bestow the gift of the Holy
    Ghost upon them.

    16. And the Book of Mormon and the Holy Scriptures, are given of
    me for your instruction; and the power of my Spirit quickeneth all
    things:

    17. Wherefore, be faithful, praying always, having your lamps
    trimmed and burning, and oil with you, that you may be ready at the
    coming of the Bridegroom:

    18. For behold, verily, verily, I say unto you, that I come
    quickly. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: Orson Pratt Seeks to Know the Will of the Lord.]

In the fore part of November, Orson Pratt, [2] a young man nineteen
years of age, who had been baptized at the first preaching of his
brother Parley P. Pratt, September 19th (his birthday), about six weeks
previous, in Canaan, New York, {128} came to inquire of the Lord what
his duty was, and received the following answer:

    _A Revelation to Orson Pratt, given November, 1830._ [3]

    1. My son Orson, hearken and hear, and behold what I, the Lord God,
    shall say unto you, even Jesus Christ your Redeemer;

    2. The light and the life of the world; a light which shineth in
    darkness and the darkness comprehendeth it not;

    3. Who so loved the world that He gave His own life, that as many
    as would believe might become the sons of God; wherefore you are my
    son,

    4. And blessed are you because you have believed;

    5. And more blessed are you because you are called of me to preach
    my Gospel--

    6. To lift up your voice as with the sound of a trump, both
    long and loud, and cry repentance unto a crooked and perverse
    generation, preparing the way of the Lord for His second coming;

    7. For behold, verily, verily, I say unto you, the time is soon at
    hand that I shall come in a cloud with power and great glory,

    8. And it shall be a great day at the time of my coming, for all
    nations shall tremble.

    9. But before that great day shall come, the sun shall be darkened,
    and the moon be turned into blood, and the stars shall refuse their
    shining, and some shall fall, and great destructions await the
    wicked:

    10. Wherefore lift up your voice and spare not, for the Lord God
    hath spoken; therefore prophesy, and it shall be given by the power
    of the Holy Ghost;

    11. And if you are faithful, behold, I am with you until I come:

    12. And verily, verily, I say unto you, I come quickly. I am your
    Lord and your Redeemer. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: Sidney Rigdon and Edward Partridge Visit the Prophet.]

In December Sidney Rigdon came to inquire of the Lord, and with him
came Edward Partridge; [4] the latter was a pattern of piety, and
one of the Lord's great men. Shortly after the arrival of these two
brethren, thus spake the Lord:

    {129} _Revelation to Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney Rigdon, given
    at Fayette, New York, December, 1830._ [5]

    1. Listen to the voice of the Lord your God, even Alpha and Omega,
    the beginning and the end, whose course is one eternal round, the
    same today as yesterday, and forever.

    2. I am Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who was crucified for the
    sins of the world, even as many as will believe on my name, that
    they may become the sons of God, even one in me as I am one in the
    Father, as the Father is one in me, that we may be one.

    3. Behold, verily, verily, I say unto my servant Sidney, I have
    looked upon thee and thy works. I have heard thy prayers, and
    prepared thee for a greater work.

    4. Thou art blessed, for thou shalt do great things. Behold thou
    wast sent forth, even as John, to prepare the way before me, and
    before Elijah which should come and thou knewest it not.

    5. Thou didst baptize by water unto repentance, but they received
    not the Holy Ghost;

    6. But now I give unto thee a commandment, that thou shalt baptize
    by water, and they shall receive the Holy Ghost by the laying on of
    the hands, even as the apostles of old.

    7. And it shall come to pass that there shall be a great work
    in the land, even among the Gentiles, for their folly and their
    abominations shall be made manifest in the eyes of all people;

    8. For I am God, and mine arm is not shortened; and I will show
    miracles, signs, and wonders, unto all those who believe on my name.

    {130} 9. And whoso shall ask it in my name in faith, they shall
    cast out devils; they shall heal the sick, they shall cause the
    blind to receive their sight, and the deaf to hear, and the dumb to
    speak, and the lame to walk;

    10. And the time speedily cometh that great things are to be shown
    forth unto the children of men;

    11. But without faith shall not anything be shown forth, except
    desolations upon Babylon, the same which has made all nations drink
    of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.

    12. And there are none that doeth good except those who are ready
    to receive the fulness of my Gospel which I have sent forth unto
    this generation.

    13. Wherefore I call upon the weak things of the world, those who
    are unlearned and despised, to thrash the nations by the power of
    my Spirit:

    14. And their arm shall be my arm, and I will be their shield and
    their buckler; and I will gird up their loins, and they shall fight
    manfully for me; and their enemies shall be under their feet; and
    I will let fall the sword in their behalf, and by the fire of mine
    indignation will I preserve them.

    15. And the poor and the meek shall have the Gospel preached unto
    them, and they shall be looking forth for the time of my coming,
    for it is nigh at hand:

    16. And they shall learn the parable of the fig tree, for even now
    already summer is nigh,

    17. And I have sent forth the fulness of my Gospel by the hand of
    my servant Joseph; and in weakness have I blessed him,

    18. And I have given unto him the keys of the mystery of those
    things which have been sealed, even things which were from the
    foundation of the world, and the things which shall come from this
    time until the time of my coming if he abide in me, and if not,
    another will I plant in his stead.

    19. Wherefore, watch over him, that his faith fail not, and it
    shall be given by the Comforter, the Holy Ghost, that knoweth all
    things:

    20. And a commandment I give unto thee, that thou shalt write for
    him; and the Scriptures shall be given, even as they are in mine
    own bosom, to the salvation of mine own elect;

    21. For they will hear my voice, and shall see me, and shall not
    be asleep, and shall abide the day of my coming, for they shall be
    purified, even as I am pure.

    22. And now I say unto you, tarry with him, and he shall journey
    with you; forsake him not, and surely these things shall be
    fulfilled.

    23. And inasmuch as ye do not write, behold, it shall be given unto
    {131} him to prophesy: and thou shalt preach my Gospel, and call on
    the holy prophets to prove his words, as they shall be given him.

    24. Keep all the commandments and covenants by which ye are bound;
    and I will cause the heavens to shake for your good, and Satan
    shall tremble and Zion shall rejoice upon the hills and flourish,

    25. And Israel shall be saved in mine own due time; and by the keys
    which I have given shall they be led, and no more be confounded at
    all.

    26. Lift up your hearts and be glad, your redemption draweth nigh.

    27. Fear not, little flock, the kingdom is yours until I come.
    Behold I come quickly. Even so. Amen.

And the voice of the Lord to Edward Partridge was:

    _A Revelation to Edward Partridge, given December, 1830._ [6]

    1. Thus saith the Lord God, the Mighty One of Israel, Behold, I say
    unto you, my servant Edward, that you are blessed and your sins are
    forgiven you, and you are called to preach my Gospel as with the
    voice of a trump;

    2. And I will lay my hand upon you by the hand of my servant Sidney
    Rigdon, and you shall receive my Spirit, the Holy Ghost, even
    the Comforter, which shall teach you the peaceable things of the
    kingdom;

    3. And you shall declare it with a loud voice, saying, Hosanna,
    blessed be the name of the most high God.

    4. And now this calling and commandment give I unto you concerning
    all men,

    5. That as many as shall come before my servants Sidney Rigdon and
    Joseph Smith, Jun., embracing this calling and commandment, shall
    be ordained and sent forth to preach the everlasting Gospel among
    the nations.

    6. Crying repentance, saying, Save yourselves from this untoward
    generation, and come forth out of the fire, hating even the
    garments spotted with the flesh.

    7. And this commandment shall be given unto the Elders of my
    Church, that every man which will embrace it with singleness of
    heart, may be ordained and sent forth, even as I have spoken.

    8. I am Jesus Christ the Son of God: wherefore, gird up your loins
    and I will suddenly come to my temple. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: Of the Lost Books of Scripture.]

It may be well to observe here, that the Lord greatly encouraged and
strengthened the faith of His little flock, which had embraced the
fullness of the everlasting {132} Gospel, as revealed to them in
the Book of Mormon, by giving some more extended information upon
the Scriptures, a translation of which had already commenced. Much
conjecture and conversation frequently occurred among the Saints,
concerning the books mentioned, and referred to, in various places
in the Old and New Testaments, which were now nowhere to be found.
[7] The common remark was, "They are _lost books;_" but it seems the
Apostolic Church had some of these writings, as Jude mentions or quotes
the Prophecy of Enoch, the seventh from Adam. To the joy of the {133}
little flock, which in all, from Colesville to Canandaigua, New York,
numbered about seventy members, did the Lord reveal the following
doings of olden times, from the prophecy of Enoch: [8]

    _Extracts from the Prophecy of Enoch._

    1. And it came to pass that Enoch continued his speech, saying,
    Behold, our father Adam taught these things, and many have believed
    and become the sons of God, and many have believed not, and have
    perished in their sins, and are looking forth with fear, in
    torment, for the fiery indignation of the wrath of God to be poured
    out upon them.

    2. And from that time forth Enoch began to prophesy, saying unto
    the people, That, as I was journeying, and stood upon the place
    Mahujah and cried unto the Lord, there came a voice out of heaven,
    saying, Turn ye, and get ye upon the Mount Simeon.

    3. And it came to pass that I turned and went up on the mount; and
    as I stood upon the mount, I beheld the heavens open, and I was
    clothed upon with glory,

    4. And I saw the Lord; and He stood before my face, and He talked
    with me, even as a man talketh one with another, face to face; and
    He said unto me, Look, and I will show unto thee the world for the
    space of many generations.

    5. And it came to pass that I beheld in the valley of Shum, and lo,
    a great people which dwelt in tents, which were the people of Shum.

    6. And again the Lord said unto me, Look; and I looked towards the
    north, and I beheld the people of Canaan, which dwelt in tents.

    7. And the Lord said unto me, Prophesy; and I prophesied, saying,
    Behold the people of Canaan, which are numerous, shall go forth in
    battle array against the people of Shum, and shall slay them that
    they shall utterly be destroyed; and the people of Canaan shall
    divide themselves in the land, and the land shall be barren and
    unfruitful, and none other people shall dwell there but the people
    of Canaan;

    8. For behold the Lord shall curse the land with much heat, and
    the barrenness thereof shall go forth forever; and there was a
    blackness came upon all the children of Canaan, and they were
    despised among all people.

    9. And it came to pass that the Lord said unto me, Look; and I
    {134} looked, and I beheld the land of Sharon, and the land of
    Enoch, and the land of Omner, and the land of Heni, and the land of
    Shem, and the land of Haner, and the land of Hanannihah, and all
    the inhabitants thereof;

    10. And the Lord said unto me, Go to this people, and say unto
    them, that they must repent, lest I come out and smite them with a
    curse, and they die.

    11. And he gave unto me a commandment that I should baptize in the
    name of the Father, and of the Son, which is full of grace and
    truth, and of the Holy Ghost which beareth record of the Father and
    the Son.

    12. And it came to pass that Enoch continued to call upon all the
    people, save it were the people of Canaan, to repent;

    13. And so great was the faith of Enoch, that he led the people of
    God, and their enemies came to battle against them; and he spake
    the word of the Lord, and the earth trembled, and the mountains
    fled, even according to his command; and the rivers of water were
    turned out of their course; and the roar of the lions was heard out
    of the wilderness; and all nations feared greatly, so powerful was
    the word of Enoch; and so great was the power of the language which
    God had given him.

    14. There also came up a land out of the depth of the sea, and so
    great was the fear of the enemies of the people of God, that they
    fled and stood afar off, and went upon the land which came up out
    of the depths of the sea.

    15. And the giants of the land, also, stood afar off; and there
    went forth a curse upon all the people that fought against God;

    16. And from that time forth there were wars and bloodshed among
    them; but the Lord came and dwelt with His people, and they dwelt
    in righteousness.

    17. The fear of the Lord was upon all nations, so great was the
    glory of the Lord, which was upon His people. And the Lord blessed
    the land, and they were blessed upon the mountains, and upon the
    high places, and did flourish.

    18. And the Lord called His people Zion, because they were of one
    heart and one mind, and dwelt in righteousness; and there was no
    poor among them;

    19. And Enoch continued his preaching in righteousness unto the
    people of God. And it came to pass in his days, that he built a
    city that was called the city of Holiness: even Zion.

    20. And it came to pass that Enoch talked with the Lord; and he
    said unto the Lord, Surely Zion shall dwell in safety forever. But
    the Lord said unto Enoch, Zion have I blessed, but the residue of
    the people have I cursed.

    21. And it came to pass that the Lord showed unto Enoch all the
    inhabitants of the earth; and he beheld, and lo, Zion, in process
    of {135} time, was taken up into heaven! And the Lord said unto
    Enoch, Behold mine abode forever.

    22. And Enoch also beheld the residue of the people which were the
    sons of Adam; and they were a mixture of all the seed of Adam, save
    it were the seed of Cain, for the seed of Cain were black, and had
    not place among them.

    23. And after that Zion was taken up into heaven, Enoch beheld, and
    lo, all the nations of the earth were before him; and there came
    generation upon generation;

    24. And Enoch was high and lifted up, even in the bosom of the
    Father, and of the Son of Man; and behold, the power of Satan was
    upon all the face of the earth.

    25. And he saw angels descending out of heaven; and he heard a loud
    voice saying, Wo, wo be unto the inhabitants of the earth!

    26. And he beheld Satan; and he had a great chain in his hand, and
    it veiled the whole face of the earth with darkness; and he looked
    up and laughed and his angels rejoiced.

    27. And Enoch beheld angels descending out of heaven, bearing
    testimony of the Father and the Son; and the Holy Ghost fell on
    many, and they were caught up by the powers of heaven into Zion.

    28. And it came to pass that the God of heaven looked upon the
    residue of the people, and He wept; and Enoch bore record of it,
    saying, How is it that the heavens weep, and shed forth their tears
    is the rain upon the mountains?

    29. And Enoch said unto the Lord, How is it that thou canst weep,
    seeing thou art holy, and from all eternity to all eternity?

    30. And were it possible that man could number the particles of
    the earth, yea millions of earths like this, it would not be a
    beginning to the number of Thy creations; and Thy curtains are
    stretched out still; and yet Thou art there, and Thy bosom is
    there; and also thou art just; Thou art merciful and kind forever;

    31. And Thou hast taken Zion to Thine own bosom, from all Thy
    creations, from all eternity to all eternity; and nought but peace,
    justice, and truth is the habitation of Thy Throne; and mercy shall
    go before Thy face and have no end; how is it thou canst weep?

    32. The Lord said unto Enoch, behold these thy brethren; they are
    the workmanship of mine own hands, and I gave unto them their
    knowledge, in the day I created them; and in the Garden of Eden,
    gave I unto man his agency;

    33. And unto thy brethren have I said, and also given commandment,
    that they should love one another, and that they should choose me,
    their Father, but behold, they are without affection, and they hate
    their own blood.

    {136} 34. And the fire of mine indignation is kindled against them;
    and in my hot displeasure will I send in the floods upon them; for
    my fierce anger is kindled against them.

    35. Behold, I am God; Man of Holiness is my name; Man of Counsel is
    my name; and Endless and Eternal is my name, also.

    36. Wherefore, I can stretch forth mine hands and hold all the
    creations which I have made; and mine eye can pierce them also; and
    among all the workmanship of mine hands there has not been so great
    wickedness as among thy brethren;

    37. But behold, their sins shall be upon the heads of their
    fathers; Satan shall be their father, and misery shall be their
    doom; and the whole heavens shall weep over them, even all the
    workmanship of mine hands; wherefore should not the heavens weep,
    seeing these shall suffer?

    38. But behold, these which thine eyes are upon shall perish in the
    floods; and behold, I will shut them up; a prison have I prepared
    for them.

    39. And Him which I have chosen hath plead before my face.
    Wherefore, He suffereth for their sins; inasmuch as they will
    repent in the day that my Chosen shall return unto me, and until
    that day they shall be in torment;

    40. Wherefore, for this shall the heavens weep, yea, and all the
    workmanship of mine hands.

    41. And it came to pass that the Lord spake unto Enoch, and told
    Enoch all the doings of the children of men; wherefore Enoch knew,
    and looked upon their wickedness and their misery, and wept and
    stretched forth his arms, and his heart swelled wide as eternity;
    and his bowels yearned; and all eternity shook.

    42. And Enoch also saw Noah, and his family; that the posterity of
    all the sons of Noah should be saved with a temporal salvation;

    43. Wherefore Enoch saw that Noah built an ark, and that the Lord
    smiled upon it, and held it in His own hand; but upon the residue
    of the wicked the floods came and swallowed them up.

    44. And as Enoch saw this, he had bitterness of soul, and wept
    over his brethren, and said unto the heavens, I will refuse to be
    comforted; but the Lord said unto Enoch, Lift up your heart, and be
    glad; and look;

    45. And it came to pass that Enoch looked; and from Noah, he beheld
    all the families of the earth; and he cried unto the Lord, saying,
    When shall the day of the Lord come? When shall the blood of the
    Righteous be shed, that all they that mourn may be sanctified, and
    have eternal life?

    46. And the Lord said, It shall be in the meridian of time, in the
    days of wickedness and vengeance.

    {137} 47. And behold, Enoch saw the day of the coming of the Son of
    Man even in the flesh; and his soul rejoiced, saying, The Righteous
    is lifted up, and the Lamb is slain from the foundation of the
    world; and through faith I am in the bosom of the Father, and
    behold, Zion is with me.

    48. And it came to pass that Enoch looked upon the earth; and he
    heard a voice from the bowels thereof, saying, Wo, wo is me, the
    mother of men! I am pained, I am weary, because of the wickedness
    of my children! When shall I rest, and be cleansed from the
    filthiness which has gone forth out of me? When will my Creator
    sanctify me that I may rest, and righteousness for a season abide
    upon my face?

    49. And when Enoch heard the earth mourn, he wept, and cried unto
    the Lord, saying, O Lord, wilt thou not have compassion upon the
    earth? Wilt thou not bless the children of Noah?

    50. And it came to pass that Enoch continued his cry unto the Lord,
    saying, I ask thee, O Lord, in the name of thine Only Begotten,
    even Jesus Christ, that thou wilt have mercy upon Noah, and his
    seed, that the earth might never more be covered by the floods.

    51. And the Lord could not withhold; and he covenanted with Enoch
    and sware unto him with an oath, that he would stay the floods;
    that he would call upon the children of Noah;

    52. And he sent forth an unalterable decree, that a remnant of his
    seed should always be found among all nations, while the earth
    should stand;

    53. And the Lord said, Blessed is he through whose seed Messiah
    shall come; for he saith, I am Messiah, the King of Zion, the Rock
    of Heaven, which is broad as eternity; whoso cometh in at the gate
    and climbeth up by me shall never fall; wherefore, blessed are they
    of whom I have spoken, for they shall come forth with songs of
    everlasting joy.

    54. And it came to pass that Enoch cried unto the Lord, saying,
    When the Son of Man cometh in the flesh, shall the earth rest? I
    pray Thee, show me these things.

    55. And the Lord said unto Enoch, Look; and he looked and beheld
    the Son of Man lifted up on the cross, after the manner of men;

    56. And he heard a loud voice; and the heavens were veiled; and all
    the creations of God mourned; and the earth groaned; and the rocks
    were rent; and the Saints arose, and were crowned at the right hand
    of the Son of Man, with crowns of glory;

    57. And as many of the spirits as were in prison came forth, and
    stood on the right hand of God; and the remainder were reserved in
    chains of darkness until the judgment of the great day.

    {138} 58. And again Enoch wept and cried unto the Lord, saying,
    When shall the earth rest?

    59. And Enoch beheld the Son of Man ascend up unto the Father; and
    he called unto the Lord, saying, Wilt thou not come again upon the
    earth? For as much as Thou art God, and I know Thee, and Thou hast
    sworn unto me, and commanded me that I should ask in the name of
    Thine Only Begotten, Thou hast made me, and given unto me a right
    to Thy throne, and not of myself, but through Thine own grace;
    wherefore, I ask Thee if Thou wilt not come again on the earth.

    60. And the Lord said unto Enoch, As I live, even so will I come in
    the last days, in the days of wickedness and vengeance, to fulfil
    the oath which I have made unto you concerning the children of Noah;

    61. And the day shall come that the earth shall rest, but before
    that day the heavens shall be darkened, and a veil of darkness
    shall cover the earth; and the heavens shall shake, and also the
    earth; and great tribulations shall be among the children of men,
    but my people will I preserve;

    62. And righteousness will I send down out of heaven; and truth
    will I send forth out of the earth, to bear testimony of mine
    Only Begotten; His resurrection from the dead; yea, and also the
    resurrection of all men; and righteousness and truth will I cause
    to sweep the earth as with a flood, to gather out mine elect
    from the four quarters of the earth, unto a place which I shall
    prepare; an Holy City, that my people may gird up their loins, and
    be looking forth for the time of my coming; for there shall be my
    tabernacle, and it shall be called Zion, a New Jerusalem.

    63. And the Lord said unto Enoch, Then shalt thou and all thy city
    meet them there, and we will receive them into our bosom, and they
    shall see us; and we will fall upon their necks, and they shall
    fall upon our necks, and we will kiss each other;

    64. And there shall be mine abode, and it shall be Zion, which
    shall come forth out of all the creations which I have made, and
    for the space of a thousand years the earth shall rest.

    65. And it came to pass that Enoch saw the day of the coming
    of the Son of Man, in the last days, to dwell on the earth in
    righteousness for the space of a thousand years;

    66. But before that day he saw great tribulations among the wicked;
    and he also saw the sea, that it was troubled, and men's hearts
    failing them, looking forth with fear for the judgments of the
    Almighty God, which should come upon the wicked.

    67. And the Lord showed Enoch all things, even unto the end of
    the world; and he saw the day of the righteous, the hour of their
    redemption; and received a fulness of joy;

    {139} 68. And all the days of Zion, in the days of Enoch, were
    three hundred and sixty-five years;

    69. And Enoch and all his people walked with God, and he dwelt in
    the midst of Zion; and it came to pass that Zion was not, for God
    received it up into His own bosom; and from thence went forth the
    saying, Zion is fled.

[Sidenote: Commanded to Go to Ohio.]

Soon after the words of Enoch were given, the Lord gave the following
commandment:

    _A Revelation to Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney Rigdon, given
    December, 1830._ [9]

    1. Behold, I say unto you, that it is not expedient in me that ye
    should translate any more until ye shall go to the Ohio, and this
    because of the enemy and for your sakes.

    2. And again, I say unto you, that ye shall not go until ye
    have preached my Gospel in those parts, and have strengthened
    up the Church whithersoever it is found, and more especially in
    Colesville; for, behold, they pray unto me in much faith.

    3. And again, a commandment I give unto the Church, that it is
    expedient in me that they should assemble together at the Ohio,
    against the time that my servant Oliver Cowdery shall return unto
    them.

    4. Behold, here is wisdom, and let every man choose for himself
    until I come. Even so. Amen.

Footnotes

1. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 33.

2. Orson Pratt was born September 19, 1811, in Hartford, Washington
county, New York. His ancestors are enumerated in the biographical note
of his brother, Parley P. Pratt, pp. 118, 119. The humble circumstances
of his parents compelled him to seek employment where he could obtain
it in various places, mainly at farming, during which time, however, he
managed to get some schooling, paying especial attention to arithmetic,
and gaining an acquaintance also with bookkeeping, grammar, geography
and surveying. The early lessons of morality and religion taught at his
father's home made deep impressions on his youthful mind, and led him
in the autumn of 1829, particularly to seek the Lord. For this purpose
he retired frequently to the lonely fields or the woods for prayer.
This continued till September, 1830, when his brother Parley P. Pratt,
an Elder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, came into
the neighborhood where he resided, and as related in the text was
converted at the first preaching of his brother Parley P. Pratt.

3. Doctrine and Covenants, section 34.

4. Edward Partridge was born in Pittsfield, Berkshire county,
Massachusetts, on the 27th of August, 1793, of William and Jemima
Partridge. His father's ancestor emigrated from Berwick, Scotland,
during the seventeenth century, and settled at Hadley, Massachusetts,
on Connecticut river. Nothing worthy of note transpired in his youth,
with the exception, that he remembered, (though the precise time he
could not recollect) that the Spirit of the Lord strove with him a
number of times, insomuch that his heart was made tender, and he went
and wept; and sometimes he went silently and poured the effusions of
his soul to God in prayer.

At the age of sixteen he went to learn the hatter's trade, and
continued as an apprentice for about four years. At the age of twenty
he had become disgusted with the religious world. He saw no beauty,
comeliness, or loveliness in the character of God as represented by the
teaching of the various religious sects. He however heard a Universal
Restorationer preach upon the love of God: this sermon gave him exalted
opinions of God, and he concluded that Universal Restoration was
right according to the Bible. He continued in this belief till 1828,
when he and his wife were baptized into the "Campbellite" church by
Sidney Rigdon, in Mentor, though they resided in Painesville, Ohio. He
continued a member of this church, though doubting at times its being
the true one, until Elders Parley P. Pratt, Oliver Cowdery, Peter
Whitmer, Jun., and Ziba Peterson came with the Book of Mormon, when he
began to investigate the subject of religion anew. As stated in the
text he accompanied Sidney Rigdon to Fayette, New York, where, on the
11th of December, he was baptized by the Prophet Joseph Smith in the
Seneca river.

5. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 35.

6. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 36.

7. The most prominent of the "lost books" of the Old Testament are
mentioned in the following passages: I Chronicles, 29:29; 2 Chronicles
9:29;2 Chronicles 12:15; I Samuel, 10:25; I Kings, 4:32, 33. The
following is the list of "lost books" mentioned in the New Testament:

_Scripture of Abraham's Time_: "And the scripture, foreseeing that God
would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the Gospel
unto Abraham." (Galatians 3:8.) The Christian world says, "Moses was
God's first pen," but it appears from the above quotation that some one
wrote scriptures even before Abraham's day, and he read them, learned
the Gospel from them and also learned that God would justify the
heathen through faith.

_Prophecy of Enoch_: Speaking of characters who are like "raging waves
of the sea, foaming out their own shame," Jude says: "And Enoch also,
the seventh from Adam prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord
cometh with ten thousands of His saints to execute judgment upon all,"
etc. (Jude, 14, 15.) From this it appears that Enoch had a revelation
concerning the glorious coming of the Son of God to judgment. May not
the prophecy of Enoch have been among the scriptures with which Abraham
was acquainted?

_Another Epistle of Jude_: "When I gave all diligence to write unto
you of the common salvation, it was needful for me to write unto you,
and exhort you that ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was
once delivered unto the Saints." (Jude 3.) We have but one epistle of
Jude. Would not the epistle on the "common salvation" be as important
as the one the only one we now have from Jude's pen?

_Another Epistle to the Ephesians_: In Ephesians, 3 and 3rd, Paul
alludes to another epistle which he had written to that people, but of
which the world has no knowledge except from this reference which is
made by its author. This epistle contained a revelation from God.

_An Epistle to the Laodiceans_: "When the epistle [Colossians] is read
among you, cause that it be read also in the church of the Laodiceans;
and that ye likewise read the epistle from Laodicea." (Colossians,
4:16.) The epistles to the Laodiceans is among the lost scripture.

_Another Epistle to the Corinthians_: In the "first letter to the
Corinthians" is this statement: "I wrote you in an epistle not to
company with fornicators" (1 Corinthians, 5:9). From this it would
appear that our so-called first epistle to the Corinthians is really
not the first, since Paul in it speaks of a former letter he had
written to the Corinthians, and which was doubtless as good scripture
as the two which have been preserved.

8. This prophecy of Enoch is contained in the "Writings of Moses,"
which about this time were revealed to the Prophet, and are now
published in the "Pearl of Great Price." It will be understood, then,
by the reader, that the "Prophecy of Enoch" itself is found in the
"Writings of Moses," and that in the text above we have but a few
extracts of the most prominent parts of "Enoch's Prophecy." For the
complete prophecy the reader is referred to the "Pearl of Great Price."
(Chapter 7.)

9. Doctrine and Covenants, section 37.

{140}



Chapter XIII.

Prospects of the Church at the Opening of the Year 1831--Removal of the
Prophet Joseph from New York to Ohio--Doctrinal Development.

[Sidenote: Prospects of the Church--1831.]

The year 1831 opened with a prospect great and glorious for the welfare
of the kingdom; for on the 2nd of January, 1831, a conference was held
in the town of Fayette, New York, at which the ordinary business of the
Church was transacted; and in addition, the following revelation was
received:

    _Revelation, given January 2nd, 1831._ [1]

    1. Thus saith the Lord your God, even Jesus Christ, the Great I AM,
    Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the same which looked
    upon the wide expanse of eternity, and all the seraphic hosts of
    heaven before the world was made:

    2. The same which knoweth all things, for all things are present
    before mine eyes:

    3. I am the same which spake, and the world was made, and all
    things came by me:

    4. I am the same which have taken the Zion of Enoch into mine own
    bosom; and verily, I say, even as many as have believed in my name,
    for I am Christ, and in mine own name, by the virtue of the blood
    which I have spilt, have I pleaded before the Father for them;

    5. But behold, the residue of the wicked have I kept in chains of
    darkness until the judgment of the great day, which shall come at
    the end of the earth;

    6. And even so will I cause the wicked to be kept, that will not
    hear my voice but harden their hearts, and wo, wo, wo, is their
    doom.

    {141} 7. But behold, verily, verily, I say unto you that mine eyes
    are upon you. I am in your midst, and ye cannot see me;

    8. But the day soon cometh that ye shall see me, and know that I
    am; for the vail of darkness shall soon be rent, and he that is not
    purified shall not abide the day:

    9. Wherefore gird up your loins and be prepared. Behold, the
    kingdom is yours, and the enemy shall not overcome.

    10. verily, I say unto you, ye are clean, but not all; and there is
    none else with whom I am well pleased.

    11. For all flesh is corrupted before me; and the powers of
    darkness prevail upon the earth, among the children of men, in the
    presence of all the hosts of heaven.

    12. Which causeth silence to reign, and all eternity is pained, and
    the angels are waiting the great command to reap down the earth, to
    gather the tares that they may be burned; and, behold, the enemy is
    combined.

    13. And now I show unto you a mystery, a thing which is had in
    secret chambers, to bring to pass even your destruction in process
    of time, and ye knew it not.

    14. But now I tell it unto you, and ye are blessed, not because of
    your iniquity, neither your hearts of unbelief; for verily some of
    you are guilty before me, but I will be merciful unto your weakness.

    15. Therefore, be ye strong from henceforth; fear not, for the
    kingdom is yours:

    16. And for your salvation I give unto you a commandment, for
    I have heard your prayers, and the poor have complained before
    me, and the rich have I made, and all flesh is mine, and I am no
    respecter of persons.

    17. And I have made the earth rich, and behold it is my footstool,
    wherefore, again I will stand upon it;

    18. And I hold forth and deign to give unto you greater riches,
    even a land of promise, a land flowing with milk and honey, upon
    which there shall be no curse when the Lord cometh;

    19. And I will give it unto you for the land of your inheritance,
    if you seek it with all your hearts:

    20. And this shall be my covenant with you, ye shall have it for
    the land of your inheritance, and for the inheritance of your
    children forever, while the earth shall stand, and ye shall possess
    it again in eternity, no more to pass away.

    21. But verily I say unto you, that in time ye shall have no king
    nor ruler, for I will be your King and watch over you.

    22. Wherefore, hear my voice and follow me, and you shall be a free
    {142} people, and ye shall have no laws but my laws when I come,
    for I am your Law-giver, and what can stay my hand?

    23. But verily, I say unto you, teach one another according to the
    office wherewith I have appointed you,

    24. And let every man esteem his brother as himself, and practice
    virtue and holiness before me.

    25. And again I say unto you, let every man esteem his brother as
    himself;

    26. For what man among you having twelve sons, and is no respecter
    of them, and they serve him obediently, and he saith unto the one,
    Be thou clothed in robes and sit thou here; and to the other, Be
    thou clothed in rags and sit thou there, and looketh upon his sons
    and saith I am just.

    27. Behold, this I have given unto you as a parable, and it is even
    as I am: I say unto you, be one; and if ye are not one, ye are not
    mine.

    28. And again I say unto you, that the enemy in the secret chambers
    seeketh your lives.

    29. Ye hear of wars in far countries, and you say that there will
    soon be great wars in far countries, but ye know not the hearts of
    men in your own land.

    30. I tell you these things because of your prayers; wherefore
    treasure up wisdom in your bosoms, lest the wickedness of men
    reveal these things unto you by their wickedness, in a manner which
    shall speak in your ears with a voice louder than that which shall
    shake the earth; but if ye are prepared, ye shall not fear.

    31. And that ye might escape the power of the enemy, and be
    gathered unto me a righteous people, without spot and blameless:

    32. Wherefore, for this cause I gave unto you the commandment that
    ye should go to the Ohio; and there I will give unto you my law;
    and there you shall be endowed with power from on high;

    33. And from thence, whomsoever I will, shall go forth among all
    nations, and it shall be told them what they shall do; for I have a
    great work laid up in store, for Israel shall be saved, and I will
    lead them whithersoever I will, and no power shall stay my hand.

    34. And now I give unto the Church in these parts, a commandment
    that certain men among them shall be appointed, and they shall be
    appointed by the voice of the Church;

    35. And they shall look to the poor and the needy, and administer
    to their relief, that they shall not suffer; and send them forth to
    the place which I have commanded them;

    36. And this shall be their work, to govern the affairs of the
    property of this Church.

    {143} 37. And they have farms that cannot be sold, let them be left
    or rented as seemeth them good.

    38. See that all things are preserved; and when men are endowed
    with power from on high and sent forth, all these things shall be
    gathered unto the bosom of the Church.

    39. And if ye seek the riches which it is the will of the Father to
    give unto you, ye shall be the richest of all people, for ye shall
    have the riches of eternity; and it must needs be that the riches
    of the earth are mine to give; but beware of pride, lest ye become
    as the Nephites of old.

    40. And again I say unto you, I give unto you a commandment, that
    every man, both Elder, Priest, Teacher, and also member, go to with
    his might, with the labor of his hands, to prepare and accomplish
    the things which I have commanded.

    41. And let your preaching be the warning voice, every man to his
    neighbor, in mildness and in meekness.

    42. And go ye out from among the wicked. Save yourselves. Be ye
    clean that bear the vessels of the Lord. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: James Covill.]

Not long after this conference of the 2nd of January closed, there was
a man came to me by the name of James Covill, who had been a Baptist
minister for about forty years, and covenanted with the Lord that he
would obey any command that the Lord would give to him through me, as
His servant, and I received the following:

    _Revelation to James Covill, given at Fayette, New York, January
    5th, 1831._ [2]

    1. Hearken and listen to the voice of Him who is from all eternity
    to all eternity, the Great I AM, even Jesus Christ,

    2. The light and life of the world; a light which shineth in
    darkness and the darkness comprehendeth it not:

    3. The same which came in the meridian of time unto my own, and my
    own received me not;

    4. But to as many as received me, gave I power to become my sons,
    and even so will I give unto as many as will receive me, power to
    become my sons.

    5. And verily, verily, I say unto you, he that receiveth my Gospel
    receiveth me; and he that receiveth not my Gospel receiveth not me.

    {144} 6. And this is my Gospel: repentance and baptism by water,
    and then cometh the baptism of fire and the Holy Ghost, even the
    Comforter, which showeth all things, and teacheth the peaceable
    things of the Kingdom.

    7. And now, behold, I say unto you, my servant James, I have looked
    upon thy works and I know thee;

    8. And verily I say unto thee, thine heart is now right before me
    at this time, and behold, I have bestowed great blessings upon thy
    head.

    9. Nevertheless thou hast seen great sorrow, for thou hast rejected
    me many times because of pride and the cares of the world;

    10. But, behold, the days of thy deliverance are come, if thou wilt
    hearken to my voice, which saith unto thee, arise and be baptized,
    and wash away your sins, calling on my name, and you shall receive
    my Spirit, and a blessing so great as you never have known.

    11. And if thou do this, I have prepared thee for a greater work.
    Thou shalt preach the fullness of my Gospel, which I have sent
    forth in these last days; the covenant which I have sent forth to
    recover my people, which are of the house of Israel.

    12. And it shall come to pass that power shall rest upon thee; thou
    shalt have great faith, and I will be with thee and go before thy
    face.

    13. Thou art called to labor in my vineyard, and to build up my
    Church, and to bring forth Zion, that it may rejoice upon the hills
    and flourish.

    14. Behold, verily, verily, I say unto thee, thou art not called
    to go into the eastern countries, but thou art called to go to the
    Ohio.

    15. And inasmuch as my people shall assemble themselves to the
    Ohio, I have kept in store a blessing such as is not known among
    the children of men, and it shall be poured forth upon their heads.
    And from thence men shall go forth into all nations.

    16. Behold, verily, verily, I say unto you, that the people in
    Ohio call upon me in much faith, thinking I will stay my hand in
    judgment upon the nations, but I cannot deny my word;

    17. Wherefore lay to with your might and call faithful laborers
    into my vineyard, that it may be pruned for the last time.

    18. And inasmuch as they do repent and receive the fullness of my
    Gospel, and become sanctified, I will stay my hand in judgment:

    19. Wherefore, go forth, crying with a loud voice, saying, the
    kingdom of heaven is at hand; crying Hosanna! blessed be the name
    of the most High God.

    20. Go forth baptizing with water, preparing the way before my
    face, for the time of my coming;

    21. For the time is at hand; the day nor the hour no man knoweth;
    but it surely shall come.

    {145} 22. And he that receiveth these things receiveth me; and they
    shall be gathered unto me in time and in eternity.

    23. And again, it shall come to pass, that on as many as ye shall
    baptize with water, ye shall lay your hands, and they shall receive
    the gift of the Holy Ghost, and shall be looking forth for the
    signs of my coming, and shall know me.

    24. Behold, I come quickly. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: Why Covill Rejected the Commandment.]

As James Covill rejected the word of the Lord, and returned to his
former principles and people, the Lord gave unto me and Sidney Rigdon
the following revelation, explaining why he obeyed not the word:

    _Revelation given at Fayette, New York, January 6, 1831._ [3]

    1. Behold, verily, I say unto you, that the heart of my servant
    James Covill was right before me, for he covenanted with me that he
    would obey my word,

    2. And he received the word with gladness, but straightway Satan
    tempted him; and the fear of persecution, and the cares of the
    world, caused him to reject the word;

    3. Wherefore he broke my covenant, and it remaineth with me to do
    with him as seemeth me good. Amen.

[Sidenote: The Prophet Removes to Ohio.]

The latter part of January, in company with Brothers Sidney Rigdon and
Edward Partridge, I started with my wife for Kirtland, Ohio, where
we arrived about the first of February, and were kindly received and
welcomed into the house of Brother Newel K. Whitney. [4] My wife and
I lived in {146} the family of Brother Whitney several weeks, and
received every kindness and attention which could be expected, and
especially from Sister Whitney.

[Sidenote: The Branch of the Church at Kirtland.]

The branch of the Church in this part of the Lord's vineyard, which had
increased to nearly one hundred members, were striving to do the will
of God, so far as they knew it, though some strange notions and false
spirits had crept in among them. With a little caution and some wisdom,
I soon assisted the brethren and sisters to overcome them. The plan
of "common stock," which had existed in what was called "the family,"
[5] whose members generally had embraced the everlasting Gospel, was
readily abandoned for {147} the more perfect law of the Lord; and
the false spirits were easily discerned and rejected by the light of
revelation.

The Lord gave unto the Church the following:

    _Revelation, given at Kirtland, Ohio, February 4th, 1831._ [6]

    1. Hearken and hear, O ye my people, saith the Lord and your God,
    ye whom I delight to bless with the greatest of all blessings,
    ye that hear me; and ye that hear me not will I curse, that have
    professed my name, with the heaviest of all cursings.

    2. Hearken, O ye Elders of my Church whom I have called, behold
    I give unto you a commandment, that ye shall assemble yourselves
    together to agree upon my word,

    3. And by the prayer of your faith ye shall receive my law, that ye
    may know how to govern my Church and have all things right before
    me.

    4. And I will be your Ruler when I come; and behold, I come
    quickly, and ye shall see that my law is kept.

    5. He that receiveth my law and doeth it, the same is my disciple;
    and he that saith he receiveth it and doeth it not, the same is not
    my disciple, and shall be cast out from among you:

    6. For it is not meet that the things which belong to the children
    of the kingdom, shall be given to them that are not worthy, or to
    dogs, or the pearls to be cast before swine.

    7. And again, it is meet that my servant, Joseph Smith, Jun.,
    should have a house built, in which to live and translate.

    8. And again, it is meet that my servant, Sidney Rigdon should live
    as seemeth him good, inasmuch as he keepeth my commandments.

    9. And again, I have called my servant, Edward Partridge, and I
    give a commandment, that he should be appointed by the voice of
    the Church, and ordained a Bishop unto the Church, to leave his
    merchandise and to spend all his time in the labors of the Church:

    10. To see to all things as it shall be appointed unto him, in my
    laws in the day that I shall give them.

    11. And this because his heart is pure before me, for he is like
    unto Nathaniel of old, in whom there is no guile.

    12. These words are given unto you, and they are pure before me;
    wherefore beware how you hold them, for they are to be answered
    upon your souls in the day of judgment. Even so. Amen.

{148} [Sidenote: Revelation Giving the Law of the Church.]

On the 9th of February, 1831, at Kirtland, in the presence of twelve
Elders, and according to the promise heretofore made, [7] the Lord gave
the following revelation, embracing the law of the Church:

    _Revelation, given February, 1831._ [8]

    1. Hearken, O ye Elders of my Church, who have assembled yourselves
    together in my name, even Jesus Christ the Son of the living God,
    the Savior of the world, inasmuch as they believe on my name and
    keep my commandments.

    2. Again, I say unto you, hearken and hear and obey the law which I
    shall give unto you;

    3. For verily I say, as ye have assembled yourselves together
    according to the commandment wherewith I commanded you, and are
    agreed as touching this one thing, and have asked the Father in my
    name, even so ye shall receive.

    4. Behold, verily I say unto you, I give unto you this first
    commandment, that ye shall go forth in my name, every one of you,
    excepting my servants Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney Rigdon.

    5. And I give unto them a commandment that they shall go forth for
    a little season, and it shall be given by the power of the Spirit
    when they shall return;

    6. And ye shall go forth in the power of my Spirit, preaching my
    Gospel, two by two, in my name, lifting up your voices as with the
    sound of a trump, declaring my word like unto angels of God;

    7. And ye shall go forth baptizing with water, saying--Repent ye,
    repent ye, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.

    8. And from this place ye shall go forth into the regions westward;
    and inasmuch as ye shall find them that will receive you, ye shall
    build up my Church in every region,

    9. Until the time shall come when it shall be revealed unto you
    from on high, when the city of the New Jerusalem shall be prepared,
    that ye may be gathered in one, that ye may be my people and I will
    be your God.

    10. And again, I say unto you, that my servant, Edward Partridge,
    shall stand in the office wherewith I have appointed him. And
    it shall come to pass, that if he transgress, another shall be
    appointed in his stead. Even so. Amen.

    {149} 11. Again, I say unto you, that it shall not be given to any
    one to go forth to preach my Gospel, or to build up my Church,
    except he be ordained by some one who has authority, and it is
    known to the Church that he has authority, and has been regularly
    ordained by the heads of the Church.

    12. And again, the Elders, Priests and Teachers of this Church
    shall teach the principles of my Gospel, which are in the Bible and
    the Book of Mormon, in the which is the fullness of the Gospel;

    13. And they shall observe the covenants and Church articles to do
    them, and these shall be their teachings, as they shall be directed
    by the Spirit;

    14. And the Spirit shall be given unto you by the prayer of faith,
    and if ye receive not the Spirit, ye shall not teach,

    15. And all this ye shall observe to do as I have commanded
    concerning your teaching, until the fulness of my scripture is
    given.

    16. And as ye shall lift up your voices by the Comforter, ye shall
    speak and prophesy as seemeth me good;

    17. For, behold, the Comforter knoweth all things, and beareth
    record of the Father and of the Son.

    18. And now, behold, I speak unto the Church. Thou shalt not kill;
    and he that kills shall not have forgiveness in this world, nor in
    the world to come.

    19. And again, I say, thou shalt not kill; but he that killeth
    shall die.

    20. Thou shalt not steal; and he that stealeth and will not repent,
    shall be cast out.

    21. Thou shalt not lie; he that lieth and will not repent, shall be
    cast out.

    22. Thou shalt love thy wife with all thy heart, and shalt cleave
    unto her and none else;

    23. And he that looketh upon a woman to lust after her, shall deny
    the faith, and shall not have the Spirit, and if he repents not he
    shall be cast out.

    24. Thou shalt not commit adultery; and he that committeth
    adultery, and repenteth not, shall be cast out;

    25. But he that has committed adultery and repents with all his
    heart and forsaketh it, and doeth it no more, thou shalt forgive;

    26. But if he doeth it again, he shall not be forgiven, but shall
    be cast out.

    27. Thou shalt not speak evil of thy neighbor, nor do him any harm.

    28. Thou knowest my laws concerning these things are given in my
    Scriptures: he that sinneth and repenteth not shall be cast out.

    {150} 29. If thou lovest me, thou shalt serve me and keep all my
    commandments.

    30. And behold, thou wilt remember the poor, and consecrate of thy
    properties for their support that which thou hast to impart unto
    them with a covenant and a deed which cannot be broken--

    31. And inasmuch as ye impart of your substance unto the poor, ye
    will do it unto me--and they shall be laid before the Bishop of my
    Church and his counselors, two of the Elders, or High Priests [9]
    such as he shall appoint or has appointed and set apart for that
    purpose.

    32. And it shall come to pass, that after they are laid before
    the Bishop of my Church, and after that he has received these
    testimonies concerning the consecration of the properties of my
    Church, that they cannot be taken from the Church agreeable to
    my commandments; every man shall be made accountable unto me, a
    steward over his own property, or that which he has received by
    consecration, as much as is sufficient for himself and family.

    33. And again, if there shall be properties in the hands of the
    Church, or any individuals of it, more than is necessary for their
    support, after this first consecration, which is a residue to be
    consecrated unto the Bishop, it shall be kept to administer to
    those who have not, from time to time, that every man who has need
    may be amply supplied, and receive according to his wants.

    34. Therefore, the residue shall be kept in my storehouse, to
    administer to the poor and the needy, as shall be appointed by the
    High Council of the Church, and the Bishop and his council,

    35. And for the purpose of purchasing lands for the public benefit
    of the Church, and building houses of worship, and building up of
    the New Jerusalem which is hereafter to be revealed,

    36. That my covenant people may be gathered in one in that day when
    I shall come to my temple. And this I do for the salvation of my
    people.

    37. And it shall come to pass, that he that sinneth and repenteth
    not, shall be cast out of the Church, and shall not receive again
    that which he has consecrated unto the poor and the needy of my
    Church; or in other words, unto me;

    38. For inasmuch as ye do it unto the least of these, ye do it unto
    me;

    39. For it shall come to pass, that which I spake by the mouths
    of my prophets, shall be fulfilled; for I will consecrate of the
    riches of those who embrace my Gospel among the Gentiles, unto the
    poor of my people who are of the house of Israel.

    {151} 40. And again, thou shalt not be proud in thy heart; let all
    thy garments be plain, and their beauty the beauty of the work of
    thine own hands;

    41. And let all things be done in cleanliness before me.

    42. Thou shalt not be idle; for he that is idle shall not eat the
    bread nor wear the garments of the laborer.

    43. And whosoever among you are sick, and have not faith to be
    healed, but believe, shall be nourished with all tenderness, with
    herbs and mild food, and that not by the hand of an enemy.

    44. And the Elders of the Church, two or more, shall be called, and
    shall pray for and lay their hands upon them in my name; and if
    they die they shall die unto me, and if they live they shall live
    unto me.

    45. Thou shalt live together in love, insomuch that thou shalt weep
    for the loss of them that die, and more especially for those that
    have not hope of a glorious resurrection.

    46. And it shall come to pass that those that die in me, shall not
    taste of death, for it shall be sweet unto them;

    47. And they that die not in me, wo unto them, for their death is
    bitter.

    48. And again, it shall come to pass that he that hath faith in me
    to be healed, and is not appointed unto death, shall be healed;

    49. He who hath faith to see shall see;

    50. He who hath faith to hear shall hear;

    51. The lame who hath faith to leap shall leap;

    52. And they who have not faith to do these things, but believe in
    me, have power to become my sons; and inasmuch as they break not my
    laws, thou shalt bear their infirmities.

    53. Thou shalt stand in the place of thy stewardship;

    54. Thou shalt not take thy brother's garment; thou shalt pay for
    that which thou shalt receive of thy brother;

    55. And if thou obtainest more than that which would be for thy
    support, thou shalt give it into my store-house, that all things
    may be done according to that which I have said.

    56. Thou shalt ask and my Scriptures shall be given as I have
    appointed, and they shall be preserved in safety;

    57. And it is expedient that thou shouldst hold thy peace
    concerning them, and not teach them until ye have received them in
    full.

    58. And I give unto you a commandment that then ye shall teach them
    unto all men; for they shall be taught unto all nations, kindreds,
    tongues and people.

    59. Thou shalt take the things which thou hast received, which have
    been given unto thee in my Scriptures for a law, to be my law to
    govern my Church;

    {152} 60. And he that doeth according to these things shall be
    saved, and he that doeth them not shall be damned, if he so
    continue.

    61. If thou shalt ask, thou shalt receive revelation upon
    revelation, knowledge upon knowledge, that thou mayest know the
    mysteries and peaceable things--that which bringeth joy, that which
    bringeth life eternal.

    62. Thou shalt ask, and it shall be revealed unto you in mine own
    due time where the New Jerusalem shall be built.

    63. And behold, it shall come to pass that my servants shall be
    sent forth to the east and to the west, to the north and to the
    south;

    64. And even now, let him that goeth to the east, teach them that
    shall be converted to flee to the west, and this in consequence of
    that which is coming on the earth, and of secret combinations.

    65. Behold, thou shalt observe all these things, and great shall be
    thy reward; for unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the
    kingdom, but unto the world it is not given to know them.

    66. Ye shall observe the laws which ye have received and be
    faithful.

    67. And ye shall hereafter receive Church covenants, such as shall
    be sufficient to establish you, both here and in the New Jerusalem.

    68. Therefore, he that lacketh wisdom, let him ask of me, and I
    will give him liberally and upbraid him not.

    69. Lift up your hearts and rejoice, for unto you the kingdom, or
    in other words, the keys of the Church have been given. Even so.
    Amen.

    70. The Priests and Teachers shall have their stewardships, even as
    the members;

    71. And the Elders, or High Priests, [10] who are appointed to
    assist the Bishop as counselors in all things, are to have their
    families supported out of the property which is consecrated to the
    Bishop, for the good of the poor, and for other purposes, as before
    mentioned;

    72. Or they are to receive a just remuneration for all their
    services, either a stewardship or otherwise, as may be thought best
    or decided by the counselors and Bishop.

    73. And the Bishop, also, shall receive his support, or a just
    renumeration for all his services in the Church.

    74. [11] Behold, verily I say unto you, that whatever persons among
    you, having put away their companions for the cause of fornication,
    or in other words, if they shall testify before you in all
    lowliness of heart that this is the case, ye shall not cast them
    out from among you;

    {153} 75. But if ye shall find that any persons have left their
    companions for the sake of adultery, and they themselves are the
    offenders, and their companions are living, they shall be cast out
    from among you.

    76. And again, I say unto you, that ye shall be watchful and
    careful, with all inquiry, that ye receive none such among you if
    they are married;

    77. And if they are not married, they shall repent of all their
    sins, or ye shall not receive them.

    78. And again, every person who belongeth to this Church of Christ,
    shall observe to keep all the commandments and covenants of the
    Church.

    79. And it shall come to pass, that if any persons among you shall
    kill, they shall be delivered up and dealt with according to the
    laws of the land; for remember that he hath no forgiveness, and it
    shall be proved according to the laws of the land.

    80. And if any man or woman shall commit adultery, he or she shall
    be tried before two Elders of the Church, or more, and every
    word shall be established against him or her by two witnesses of
    the Church, and not of the enemy; but if there are more than two
    witnesses it is better.

    81. But he or she shall be condemned by the mouth of two witnesses,
    and the Elders shall lay the case before the Church, and the Church
    shall lift up their hands against him or her, that they may be
    dealt with according to the law of God.

    82. And if it can be, it is necessary that the Bishop be present
    also.

    83. And thus ye shall do in all cases which shall come before you.

    84. And if a man or woman shall rob, he or she shall be delivered
    up unto the law of the land.

    85. And if he or she shall steal, he or she shall be delivered up
    unto the law of the land.

    86. And if he or she shall lie, he or she shall be delivered up
    unto the law of the land.

    87. And if he or she do any manner of iniquity, he or she shall be
    delivered up unto the law, even that of God.

    88. And if thy brother or sister offend thee, thou shalt take him
    or her between him or her and thee alone; and if he or she confess,
    thou shalt be reconciled.

    89. And if he or she confess not, thou shalt deliver him or her
    up unto the Church, not to the members, but to the Elders. And it
    shall be done in a meeting, and that not before the world.

    90. And if thy brother or sister offend many, he or she shall be
    chastened before many.

    91. And if any one offend openly, he or she shall be rebuked
    openly, {154} that he or she may be ashamed. And if he or she
    confess not, he or she shall be delivered up unto the law of God.

    92. If any shall offend in secret, he or she shall be rebuked in
    secret, that he or she may have opportunity to confess in secret to
    him or her whom he or she has offended, and to God, that the Church
    may not speak reproachfully of him or her.

    93. And thus shall ye conduct in all things.

[Sidenote: Pretentions of a Woman to Revelations, etc.]

Soon after the foregoing revelation was received, a woman [12] came
making great pretensions of revealing commandments, laws and other
curious matters; and as almost every person has advocates for both
theory and practice, in the various notions and projects of the age, it
became necessary to inquire of the Lord, when I received the following:

    _Revelation given at Kirtland, February, 1831._ [13]

    1. O hearken, ye Elders of my Church, and give ear to the words
    which I shall speak unto you;

    2. For behold, verily, verily, I say unto you, that ye have
    received a commandment for a law unto my Church, through him whom
    I have appointed unto you, to receive commandments and revelations
    from my hand.

    3. And this ye shall know assuredly that there is none other
    appointed unto you to receive commandments and revelations until he
    be taken, if he abide in me.

    4. But verily, verily, I say unto you, that none else shall be
    appointed unto this gift except it be through him, for if it be
    taken from him, he shall not have power except to appoint another
    in his stead;

    5. And this shall be a law unto you, that ye receive not the
    teachings of any that shall come before you as revelations or
    commandments;

    6. And this I give unto you that you may not be deceived, that you
    may know they are not of me.

    7. For verily I say unto you, that he that is ordained of me shall
    {155} come in at the gate and be ordained as I have told you
    before, to teach those revelations which you have received, and
    shall receive through him whom I have appointed.

    8. And now, behold, I give unto you a commandment, that when ye are
    assembled together, ye shall instruct and edify each other, that
    ye may know how to act and direct my Church, how to act upon the
    points of my law and commandments, which I have given;

    9. And thus ye shall become instructed in the law of my Church, and
    be sanctified by that which ye have received, and ye shall bind
    yourselves to act in all holiness before me,

    10. That inasmuch as ye do this, glory shall be added to the
    kingdom which ye have received. Inasmuch as ye do it not, it shall
    be taken, even that which ye have received.

    11. Purge ye out the iniquity which is among you; sanctify
    yourselves before me,

    12. And if ye desire the glories of the kingdom, appoint ye my
    servant Joseph Smith, Jun., and uphold him before me by the prayer
    of faith.

    13. And again, I say unto you, that if ye desire the mysteries of
    the kingdom, provide for him food and raiment, and whatsoever thing
    he needeth to accomplish the work, wherewith I have commanded him;

    14. And if ye do it not, he shall remain unto them that have
    received him, that I may reserve unto myself a pure people before
    me.

    15. Again I say, hearken ye Elders of my Church, whom I have
    appointed: Ye are not sent forth to be taught, but to teach the
    children of men the things which I have put into your hands by the
    power of my Spirit;

    16. And ye are to be taught from on high. Sanctify yourselves and
    ye shall be endowed with power, that ye may give even as I have
    spoken.

    17. Hearken ye, for, behold, the great day of the Lord is nigh at
    hand.

    18. For the day cometh that the Lord shall utter His voice out of
    heaven; the heavens shall shake and the earth shall tremble, and
    the trump of God shall sound both long and loud, and shall say to
    the sleeping nations, Ye Saints arise and live; ye sinners stay and
    sleep until I shall call again;

    19. Wherefore gird up your loins lest ye be found among the wicked.

    20. Lift up your voices and spare not. Call upon the nations to
    repent, both old and young, both bond and free, saying, prepare
    yourselves for the great day of the Lord;

    21. For if I, who am a man, do lift up my voice and call upon you
    to repent, and ye hate me, what will ye say when the day cometh
    when {156} the thunders shall utter their voices from the ends of
    the earth, speaking to the ears of all that live, saying, repent,
    and prepare for the great day of the Lord;

    22. Yea, and again, when the lightnings shall streak forth from the
    east unto the west, and shall utter forth their voices unto all
    that live, and make the ears of all tingle that hear, saying these
    words, Repent ye, for the great day of the Lord is come.

    23. And again, the Lord shall utter His voice out of heaven,
    saying, Hearken, O ye nations of the earth, and hear the words of
    that God who made you.

    24. O, ye nations of the earth, how often would I have gathered you
    together as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wing, but ye
    would not!

    25. How oft have I called upon you by the mouth of my servants,
    and by the ministering of angels, and by mine own voice, and by
    the voice of thunderings, and by the voice of lightnings, and by
    the voice of tempests, and by the voice of earthquakes, and great
    hailstorms, and by the voice of famines and pestilences of every
    kind, and by the great sound of a trump, and by the voice of
    judgment, and by the voice of mercy all the day long and by the
    voice of glory, and honor, and the riches of eternal life, and
    would have saved you with an everlasting salvation, but ye would
    not?

    26. Behold the day has come, when the cup of the wrath of my
    indignation is full.

    27. Behold, verily I say unto you, that these are the words of the
    Lord your God;

    28. Wherefore labor ye, labor ye in my vineyard for the last
    time--for the last time call upon the inhabitants of the earth,

    29. For in mine own due time will I come upon the earth in
    judgment, and my people shall be redeemed and shall reign with me
    on earth,

    30. For the great Millennium, of which I have spoken by the mouth
    of my servants, shall come;

    31. For Satan shall be bound, and when he is loosed again, he shall
    only reign for a little season, and then cometh the end of the
    earth;

    32. And he that liveth in righteousness shall be changed in the
    twinkling of an eye, and the earth shall pass away so as by fire;

    33. And the wicked shall go away into unquenchable fire, and their
    end no man knoweth on earth, nor ever shall know, until they come
    before me in judgment.

    34. Hearken ye to these words; Behold, I am Jesus Christ, the
    Savior of the world. Treasure these things up in your hearts, and
    let the solemnities of eternity rest upon your minds.

    35. Be sober. Keep all my commandments. Even so. Amen.

{157} [Sidenote: A Special Conference, 3rd-6th of June.]

The latter part of February I received the following revelation, which
caused the Church to appoint a conference to be held early in the month
of June ensuing:

    _Revelation to Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney Rigdon, given at
    Kirtland, February, 1831._ [14]

    1. Behold, thus saith the Lord unto you my servants, it is
    expedient in me that the Elders of my Church should be called
    together, from the east and from the west, and from the north and
    from the south, by letter or some other way.

    2. And it shall come to pass, that inasmuch as they are faithful,
    and exercise faith in me, I will pour out my Spirit upon them in
    the day that they assemble themselves together.

    3. And it shall come to pass that they shall go forth into the
    regions round about, and preach repentance unto the people;

    4. And many shall be converted, insomuch that ye shall obtain power
    to organize yourselves according to the laws of man;

    5. That your enemies may not have power over you, that you may
    be preserved in all things; that you may be enabled to keep my
    laws, that every bond may be broken wherewith the enemy seeketh to
    destroy my people.

    6. Behold, I say unto you, that ye must visit the poor and the
    needy, and administer to their relief, that they may be kept until
    all things may be done according to my law which ye have received.
    Amen.

Footnotes

1. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 38.

2. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 39.

3. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 11.

4. Newel Kimball Whitney was descended from the Whitneys of Watertown,
Mass., who emigrated from England in 1635. His mother was a native
of the "Bay state," and his father of the state of Vermont. There,
also, Newel was born, in Marlborough, Windham county, February 5,
1795. A natural business man, he made his own way in the world, and
after figuring as a sutler during the war of 1812, and taking part in
the battle of Plattsburg, near Lake Champlain, he established himself
as an Indian trader at Green Bay, Lake Michigan. He next settled in
Ohio, where he made the acquaintance of Algernon Sidney Gilbert, a
merchant of Painesville, whose partner he became in the successful
firm of Gilbert and Whitney at Kirtland. In October, 1822, he married
Elizabeth Ann Smith, a young lady from Connecticut, who is known in
Church history as "Mother Whitney." When Oliver Cowdery and his fellow
missionaries came to Kirtland, en route to Missouri, the Whitneys were
Campbellites, members of Sidney Rigdon's flock, but upon hearing the
fulness of the Gospel as preached by those Elders, they embraced it. In
the Whitney family folk lore the incident of the Prophet's arrival at
Kirtland is thus related: "About the first of February, 1831, a sleigh
containing four persons drove through the streets of Kirtland and
drew up in front of the store of Gilbert and Whitney. One of the men,
a young and stalwart personage alighted, and springing up the steps
walked into the store and to where the junior partner was standing.
'Newel K. Whitney! Thou art the man!' he exclaimed, extending his
hand cordially, as if to an old and familiar acquaintance. 'You have
the advantage of me,' replied the merchant, as he mechanically took
the proffered hand, 'I could not call you by name as you have me.' 'I
am Joseph the Prophet,' said the stranger smiling. 'You've prayed me
here, now what do you want of me?'" The Prophet, it is said, while in
the East had seen the Whitneys, in vision, praying for his coming to
Kirtland. "Mother Whitney" also tells how on a certain night prior
to the advent of Elder Cowdery and his companions, while she and her
husband were praying to the Lord to know how they might obtain the gift
of the Holy Ghost, which of all things they desired, they saw a vision
as of a cloud of glory resting upon their house, and heard a voice
from heaven saying, "Prepare to receive the word of the Lord, for it
is coming." Shortly afterwards Oliver Cowdery and his associates came
with the Book of Mormon, and with the message of the restored Gospel.
Moreover, in further fulfilment of this vision, under the rooftree of
the Whitneys the Prophet received a number of the revelations contained
in this volume.

5. This organization, called "the family," came into existence before
the Gospel was preached in Kirtland, through an effort of the people
of this neighborhood to live as the early Christians are said to have
lived, viz., "And the multitude of them that believed were of one heart
and of one soul: neither said any of them that ought of the things
which he possessed was his own, but they had all things common."--(Acts
4:32.)

6. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 41.

7. This refers to the promise which the Lord gave in the revelation of
January 1831, see p. 142, verse 32.

8. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 42.

9. The words, "or High Priests," were added by the Prophet some years
after: and also the words, "High Council," in the 34th verse.--_Orson
Pratt_.

10. The words, "or High Priests," were added by the Prophet some years
after.--_Orson Pratt_.

11. Verses 74 to 93 inclusive, were given some days after the first 73
verses.--_Orson Pratt_.

12. This woman's name, according to the history of the church kept by
John Whitmer, was Hubble. "She professed to be a prophetess of the
Lord, and professed to have many revelations, and knew the Book of
Mormon was true, and that she should become a teacher in the church of
Christ. She appeared to be very sanctimonious and deceived some who
were not able to detect her in her hypocrisy; others, however, had the
spirit of discernment and her follies and abominations were manifest."
John Whitmer's _History of the Church_, ch. 3.

13. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 43.

14. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 44.

{158}



Chapter XIV.

Effort to Overwhelm the Church by Falsehood--Sundry Revelations Leading
to Doctrinal Development.

[Sidenote: Efforts through the Press to Retard the Work.]

At this age of the Church [i. e., early in the spring of 1831] many
false reports, lies, and foolish stories, were published in the
newspapers, and circulated in every direction, to prevent people from
investigating the work, or embracing the faith. A great earthquake
in China, which destroyed from one to two thousand inhabitants, was
burlesqued in some papers, as "Mormonism in China." [1] But to the joy
of the Saints who had to struggle against every thing that prejudice
and wickedness could invent, I received the following:

    {159} _Revelation at Kirtland, given March 7th, 1831._ [2]

    1. Hearken, O ye people of my Church, to whom the kingdom has been
    given--hearken ye and give ear to Him who laid the foundation of
    the earth, who made the heavens and all the hosts thereof, and by
    whom all things were made which live, and move, and have a being.

    2. And again, I say, hearken unto my voice, lest death shall
    overtake you; in an hour when ye think not the summer shall be
    past, and the harvest ended, and your souls not saved.

    3. Listen to Him who is the Advocate with the Father, who is
    pleading your cause before Him,

    4. Saying, Father, behold the sufferings and death of Him who did
    no sin, in whom Thou wast well pleased; behold the blood of Thy
    Son which was shed--the blood of Him whom Thou gavest that Thyself
    might be glorified;

    5. Wherefore, Father, spare these my brethren that believe on my
    name, that they may come unto me and have everlasting life.

    6. Hearken, O ye people of my Church, and ye Elders listen
    together, and hear my voice while it is called today, and harden
    not your hearts,

    7. For verily I say unto you that I am Alpha and Omega, the
    beginning and the end, the light and the life of the world--a light
    that shineth in darkness and the darkness comprehendeth it not.

    8. I came unto my own, and my own received me not; but unto as many
    as received me, gave I power to do many miracles, and to become the
    sons of God, and even unto them that believed on my name gave I
    power to obtain eternal life.

    9. And even so, I have sent mine everlasting covenant into the
    world, to be a light to the world, and to be a standard for my
    people, and for the Gentiles to seek to it, and to be a messenger
    before my face to prepare the way before me;

    10. Wherefore, come ye unto it, and with him that cometh, I will
    reason as with men in days of old, and I will show unto you my
    strong reasoning,

    11. Wherefore hearken ye together and let me show unto you, even my
    wisdom--the wisdom of Him whom ye say is the God of Enoch, and his
    brethren,

    12. Who were separated from the earth, and were received unto
    myself--a city reserved until a day of righteousness shall come--a
    day which was sought for by all holy men, and they found it not
    because of wickedness and abominations;

    13. And confessed they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth;

    {160} 14. But obtained a promise that they should find it and see
    it in their flesh.

    15. Wherefore, hearken and I will reason with you, and I will speak
    unto you and prophesy, as unto men in days of old;

    16. And I will show it plainly, as I showed it unto my disciples as
    I stood before them in the flesh, and spake unto them, saying, as
    ye have asked of me concerning the signs of my coming in the day
    when I shall come in my glory in the clouds of heaven, to fulfil
    the promises that I have made unto your fathers,

    17. For as ye have looked upon the long absence of your spirits
    from your bodies to be a bondage, I will show unto you how the day
    of redemption shall come, and also the restoration of the scattered
    Israel.

    18. And now ye behold this temple which is in Jerusalem, which ye
    call the house of God, and your enemies say that this house shall
    never fall.

    19. But, verily, I say unto you, that desolation shall come upon
    this generation as a thief in the night, and this people shall be
    destroyed and scattered among all nations.

    20. And this temple which ye now see shall be thrown down that
    there shall not be left one stone upon another.

    21. And it shall come to pass, that this generation of Jews shall
    not pass away, until every desolation which I have told you
    concerning them shall come to pass.

    22. Ye say that ye know that the end of the world cometh; ye say
    also that ye know that the heavens and the earth shall pass away;

    23. And in this ye say truly, for so it is; but these things which
    I have told you shall not pass away until all shall be fulfilled,

    24. And this I have told you concerning Jerusalem, and when that
    day shall come, shall a remnant be scattered among all nations;

    25. But they shall be gathered again, but they shall remain until
    the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.

    26. And in that day shall be heard of wars and rumors of wars, and
    the whole earth shall be in commotion, and men's hearts shall fail
    them, and they shall say that Christ delayeth His coming until the
    end of the earth.

    27. And the love of men shall wax cold, and iniquity shall abound;

    28. And when the times of the Gentiles is come in, a light shall
    break forth among them that sit in darkness, and it shall be the
    fulness of my Gospel;

    29. But they receive it not, for they perceive not the light and
    they turn their hearts from me because of the precepts of men;

    30. And in that generation shall the times of the Gentiles be
    fulfilled;

    {161} 31. And there shall be men standing in that generation, that
    shall not pass, until they shall see an overflowing scourge; for a
    desolating sickness shall cover the land;

    32. But my disciples shall stand in holy places, and shall not be
    moved; but among the wicked, men shall lift up their voices, and
    curse God and die.

    33. And there shall be earthquakes also in divers places and many
    desolations; yet men will harden their hearts against me, and they
    will take up the sword, one against another, and they will kill one
    another.

    34. And, now, when I the Lord had spoken these words unto my
    disciples, they were troubled:

    35. And I said unto them, be not troubled, for, when all these
    things shall come to pass, ye may know that the promises which have
    been made unto you shall be fulfilled;

    36. And when the light shall begin to break forth, it shall be with
    them like unto a parable which I will show you:

    37. Ye look and behold the fig trees, and ye see them with your
    eyes, and ye say when they begin to shoot forth, and their leaves
    are yet tender, that summer is now nigh at hand;

    38. Even so it shall be in that day when they shall see all these
    things, then shall they know that the hour is nigh.

    39. And it shall come to pass that he that feareth me shall be
    looking forth for the great day of the Lord to come, even for the
    signs of the coming of the Son of man:

    40. And they shall see signs and wonders, for they shall be shown
    forth in the heavens above, and in the earth beneath;

    41. And they shall behold blood, and fire, and vapors of smoke;

    42. And before the day of the Lord shall come, the sun shall be
    darkened, and the moon be turned into blood, and the stars fall
    from heaven;

    43. And the remnant shall be gathered unto this place,

    44. And then they shall look for me, and, behold, I will come; and
    they shall see me in the clouds of heaven, clothed with power and
    great glory, with all the holy angels; and he that watches not for
    me shall be cut off.

    45. But before the arm of the Lord shall fall, an angel shall sound
    his trump, and the saints that have slept shall come forth to meet
    me in the cloud.

    46. Wherefore, if ye have slept in peace, blessed are you, for as
    you now behold me and know that I am, even so shall ye come unto me
    and your souls shall live, and your redemption shall be perfected,
    and the saints shall come forth from the four quarters of the earth.

    {162} 47. Then shall the arm of the Lord fall upon the nations.

    48. And then shall the Lord set his foot upon this mount, and it
    shall cleave in twain, and the earth shall tremble, and reel to and
    fro, and the heavens also shall shake,

    49. And the Lord shall utter his voice, and all the ends of the
    earth shall hear it, and the nations of the earth shall mourn, and
    they that have laughed shall see their folly,

    50. And calamity shall cover the mocker, and the scorner shall be
    consumed, and they that have watched for iniquity shall be hewn
    down and cast into the fire.

    51. And then shall the Jews look upon me and say, What are these
    wounds in Thine hands and in Thy feet?

    52. Then shall they know that I am the Lord; for I will say unto
    them, These wounds are the wounds with which I was wounded in the
    house of my friends. I am he who was lifted up. I am Jesus that was
    crucified. I am the Son of God.

    53. And then shall they weep because of their iniquities; then
    shall they lament because they persecuted their King.

    54. And then shall the heathen nations be redeemed, and they that
    knew no law shall have part in the first resurrection; and it shall
    be tolerable for them;

    55. And Satan shall be bound that he shall have no place in the
    hearts of the children of men.

    56. And at that day when I shall come in my glory, shall the
    parable be fulfilled which I spake concerning the ten virgins;

    57. For they that are wise and have received the truth, and have
    taken the Holy Spirit for their guide, and have not been deceived;
    verily I say unto you, they shall not be hewn down and cast into
    the fire, but shall abide the day.

    58. And the earth shall be given unto them for an inheritance; and
    they shall multiply and wax strong, and their children shall grow
    up without sin unto salvation,

    59. For the Lord shall be in their midst, and His glory shall be
    upon them, and He will be their King and their Lawgiver.

    60. And now, behold, I say unto you, it shall not be given unto
    you to know any further concerning this chapter, until the New
    Testament be translated, and in it all these things shall be made
    known;

    61. Wherefore I give unto you that ye may now translate it, that ye
    may be prepared for the things to come;

    62. For verily I say unto you, that great things await you;

    63. Ye hear of wars in foreign lands, but, behold, I say unto you,
    they are nigh, even at your doors, and not many years hence ye
    shall hear of wars in your own lands.

    {163} 64. Wherefore, I, the Lord, have said, Gather ye out from
    the eastern lands, assemble ye yourselves together ye Elders of
    my Church; go ye forth into the western countries, call upon the
    inhabitants to repent, and inasmuch as they do repent, build up
    churches unto me;

    65. And with one heart and with one mind, gather up your riches
    that ye may purchase an inheritance which shall hereafter be
    appointed unto you,

    66. And it shall be called the New Jerusalem, a land of peace, a
    city of refuge, a place of safety for the Saints of the Most High
    God;

    67. And the glory of the Lord shall be there, and the terror of the
    Lord also shall be there, insomuch that the wicked will not come
    unto it, and it shall be called Zion.

    68. And it shall come to pass, among the wicked, that every man
    that will not take his sword against his neighbor must needs flee
    unto Zion for safety.

    69. And there shall be gathered unto it out of every nation under
    heaven; and it shall be the only people that shall not be at war
    one with another.

    70. And it shall be said among the wicked, Let us not go up to
    battle against Zion, for the inhabitants of Zion are terrible;
    wherefore we cannot stand.

    71. And it shall come to pass that the righteous shall be gathered
    out from among all nations, and shall come to Zion, singing with
    songs of everlasting joy.

    72. And now I say unto you, keep these things from going abroad
    unto the world, until it is expedient in me, that ye may
    accomplish this work in the eyes of the people, and in the eyes
    of your enemies, that they may not know your works until ye have
    accomplished the thing which I have commanded you;

    73. That when they shall know it, that they may consider these
    things;

    74. For when the Lord shall appear he shall be terrible unto them,
    that fear may seize upon them, and they shall stand afar off and
    tremble;

    75. And all nations shall be afraid because of the terror of the
    Lord, and the power of his might. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: The Gifts of the Holy Ghost.]

The next day after the above was received, I also received the
following revelation, relative to the gifts of the Holy Ghost:

    _Revelation, given at Kirtland, March 8th, 1831._ [3]

    1. Hearken, O ye people of my Church; for verily I say unto you,
    {164} that these things were spoken unto you for your profit and
    learning;

    2. But notwithstanding those things which are written, it always
    has been given to the Elders of my Church from the beginning, and
    ever shall be, to conduct all meetings as they are directed and
    guided by the Holy Spirit;

    3. Nevertheless ye are commanded never to cast any one out from
    your public meetings, which are held before the world;

    4. Ye are also commanded not to cast any one who belongeth to the
    church out of your sacrament meetings; nevertheless, if any have
    trespassed, let him not partake until he makes reconciliation.

    5. And again I say unto you, ye shall not cast any out of your
    sacrament meetings, who are earnestly seeking the kingdom: I speak
    this concerning those who are not of the Church.

    6. And again I say unto you, concerning your confirmation meetings,
    that if there be any that are not of the Church, that are earnestly
    seeking after the kingdom, ye shall not cast them out;

    7. But ye are commanded in all things to ask of God, who giveth
    liberally; and that which the Spirit testifies unto you, even so I
    would that ye should do in all holiness of heart, walking uprightly
    before me, considering the end of your salvation, doing all things
    with prayer and thanksgiving, that ye may not be seduced by evil
    spirits, or doctrines of devils, or the commandments of men, for
    some are of men, and others of devils.

    8. Wherefore, beware lest ye are deceived; and that ye may not be
    deceived, seek ye earnestly the best gifts, always remembering for
    what they are given;

    9. For verily I say unto you, they are given for the benefit of
    those who love me and keep all my commandments, and him that
    seeketh so to do; that all may be benefited that seek or that ask
    of me, that ask and not for a sign that they may consume it upon
    their lust.

    10. And again, verily I say unto you, I would that ye should always
    remember, and always retain in your minds what those gifts are,
    that are given unto the Church,

    11. For all have not every gift given unto them; for there are many
    gifts, and to every man is given a gift by the Spirit of God:

    {165} 12. To some is given one, and to some is given another, that
    all may be profited thereby;

    13. To some it is given by the Holy Ghost to know that Jesus Christ
    is the Son of God, and that He was crucified for the sins of the
    world;

    14. To others it is given to believe on their words, that they also
    might have eternal life if they continue faithful.

    15. And again, to some it is given by the Holy Ghost to know the
    differences of administration, as it will be pleasing unto the same
    Lord, according as the Lord will, suiting his mercies according to
    the conditions of the children of men.

    16. And again, it is given by the Holy Ghost to some to know
    the diversities of operations, whether they be of God, that the
    manifestations of the Spirit may be given to every man to profit
    withal.

    17. And again, verily I say unto you, to some is given, by the
    Spirit of God, the word of wisdom;

    18. To another is given the word of knowledge, that all may be
    taught to be wise and to have knowledge.

    19. And again, to some it is given to have faith to be healed,

    20. And to others it is given to have faith to heal.

    21. And again, to some is given the working of miracles,

    22. And to others it is given to prophesy,

    23. And to others the discerning of spirits.

    24. And again, it is given to some to speak with tongues,

    25. And to another is given the interpretation of tongues:

    26. And all these gifts come from God, for the benefit of the
    children of God.

    27. And unto the Bishop of the Church, and unto such as God shall
    appoint and ordain to watch over the Church, and to be Elders unto
    the Church, are to have it given unto them to discern all those
    gifts lest there shall be any among you professing and yet be not
    of God.

    28. And it shall come to pass that he that asketh in Spirit shall
    receive in Spirit;

    29. That unto some it may be given to have all those gifts, that
    there may be a head, in order that every member may be profited
    thereby:

    30. He that asketh in the Spirit, asketh according to the will of
    God, wherefore it is done even as he asketh.

    31. And again I say unto you, all things must be done in the name
    of Christ, whatsoever you do in the Spirit;

    32. And ye must give thanks unto God in the Spirit for whatsoever
    blessings ye are blessed with;

    33. And ye must practice virtue and holiness before me continually.
    Even so. Amen.

{166} [Sidenote: John Whitmer Appointed Historian.]

The same day that I received the foregoing revelation, I also received
the following, setting apart John Whitmer as a historian, [4] inasmuch
as he is faithful:

    _Revelation to Joseph Smith, Jun., and John Whitmer, given at
    Kirtland, March 8th, 1831._ [5]

    1. Behold, it is expedient in me that my servant John should write
    and keep a regular history, and assist you, my servant Joseph,
    in transcribing all things which shall be given you, until he is
    called to further duties.

    2. Again, verily I say unto you, that he can also lift up his voice
    in meetings, whenever it shall be expedient.

    3. And again, I say unto you, that it shall be appointed unto him
    to keep the Church record and history continually, for Oliver
    Cowdery I have appointed to another office.

    4. Wherefore it shall be given him, inasmuch as he is faithful by
    the Comforter, to write these things. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: On the Purchase of Lands in Ohio.]

Upon inquiry how the brethren should act in regard to purchasing lands
to settle upon, [6] and where they should finally make a permanent
location, I received the following:

    _Revelation, given at Kirtland, March, 1831._ [7]

    1. It is necessary that ye should remain for the present time in
    your places of abode, as it shall be suitable to your circumstances;

    2. And inasmuch as ye have lands, ye shall impart to the eastern
    brethren;

    3. And inasmuch as ye have not lands, let them buy for the present
    {167} time in those regions round about as seemeth them good, for
    it must needs be necessary that they have places to live upon for
    the present time.

    4. It must needs be necessary, that ye save all the money that ye
    can, and that ye obtain all that ye can in righteousness, that in
    time ye may be enabled to purchase land for an inheritance, even
    the city.

    5. The place is not yet to be revealed, but after your brethren
    come from the east, there are to be certain men appointed, and to
    them it shall be given to know the place, or to them it shall be
    revealed.

    6. And they shall be appointed to purchase the lands, and to make a
    commencement to lay the foundation of the city; and then shall ye
    begin to be gathered with your families, every man according to his
    family, according to his circumstances, and as is appointed to him
    by the Presidency and the Bishop of the Church, according to the
    laws and commandments which ye have received, and which ye shall
    hereafter receive. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: The Shaking Quakers.]

At about this time came Leman Copley, one of the sect called Shaking
Quakers, [8] and embraced the fullness of the everlasting Gospel,
apparently honest-hearted, but still retaining the idea that the
Shakers were right in some particulars of their faith. In order to have
more perfect understanding on the subject, I inquired of the Lord, and
received the following:

    _Revelation to Sidney Rigdon, Parley P. Pratt, and Leman Copley,
    given March, 1831._ [9]

    1. Hearken unto my word, my servants Sidney, and Parley, and {168}
    Leman, for behold, verily I say unto you, that I give unto you a
    commandment that you shall go and preach my Gospel which ye have
    received, even as ye have received it, unto the Shakers.

    2. Behold, I say unto you, that they desire to know the truth in
    part, but not all, for they are not right before me and must needs
    repent;

    3. Wherefore I send you, my servants Sidney and Parley to preach
    the Gospel unto them;

    4. And my servant Leman shall be ordained unto this work, that he
    may reason with them, not according to that which he has received
    of them, but according to that which shall be taught him by you my
    servants, and by so doing I will bless him, otherwise he shall not
    prosper.

    5. Thus saith the Lord, for I am God, and have sent mine Only
    Begotten Son into the world for the redemption of the world, and
    have decreed that he that receiveth Him shall be saved, and he that
    receiveth Him not shall be damned.

    6. And they have done unto the Son of man even as they listed; and
    He has taken His power on the right hand of His glory, and now
    reigneth in the heavens, and will reign till He descends on the
    earth to put all enemies under His feet, which time is nigh at hand:

    7. I, the Lord God, have spoken it, but the hour and the day no man
    knoweth, neither the angels in heaven nor shall they know until He
    comes.

    8. Wherefore I will that all men shall repent, for all are under
    sin, except those which I have reserved unto myself, holy men that
    ye know not of.

    9. Wherefore I say unto you, that I have sent unto you mine
    everlasting covenant, even that which was from the beginning--

    10. And that which I have promised I have so fulfilled--and the
    nations of the earth shall bow to it; and, if not of themselves,
    they shall come down, for that which is now exalted of itself shall
    be laid low of power;

    11. Wherefore I give unto you a commandment that ye go among this
    people, and say unto them, like unto mine Apostle of old, whose
    name was Peter;

    12. Believe on the name of the Lord Jesus, who was on the earth,
    and is to come, the beginning and the end,

    13. Repent and be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, according
    to the holy commandment, for the remission of sins;

    14. And whoso doeth this shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost,
    by the laying on of the hands of the Elders of the Church.

    15. And again, verily I say unto you, that whoso forbiddeth to
    marry is not ordained of God, for marriage is ordained of God unto
    man;

    {169} 16. Wherefore, it is lawful that he should have one wife, and
    they twain shall be one flesh, and all this that the earth might
    answer the end of its creation.

    17. And that it might be filled with the measure of man, according
    to his creation before the world was made.

    18. And whoso forbiddeth to abstain from meats, that man should not
    eat the same, is not ordained of God;

    19. For, behold, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air,
    and that which cometh of the earth, is ordained for the use of man
    for food and for raiment, and that he might have in abundance:

    20. But it is not given that one man should possess that which is
    above another, wherefore the world lieth in sin;

    21. And wo be unto man that sheddeth blood or that wasteth flesh
    and hath no need.

    22. And again, verily, I say unto you, that the Son of Man cometh
    not in the form of a woman, neither of a man traveling on the earth.

    23. Wherefore be not deceived, but continue in steadfastness,
    looking forth for the heavens to be shaken, and the earth to
    tremble and to reel to and fro as a drunken man, and for the
    valleys to be exalted, and for the mountains to be made low, and
    for the rough places to become smooth; and all this when the angel
    shall sound his trumpet.

    24. But before the great day of the Lord shall come, Jacob shall
    flourish in the wilderness, and the Lamanites shall blossom as the
    rose.

    25. Zion shall flourish upon the hills and rejoice upon the
    mountains, and shall be assembled together unto the place which I
    have appointed.

    26. Behold, I say unto you, go forth as I have commanded
    you--repent of all your sins, ask and ye shall receive, knock and
    it shall be opened unto you:

    27. Behold, I will go before you and be your rearward; and I will
    be in your midst, and you shall not be confounded;

    28. Behold, I am Jesus Christ, and I come quickly. Even so. Amen.
    [10]

    {170} [Sidenote: Inquiry on Spiritual Manifestations.]

    During the month of April, I continued to translate the Scriptures
    as time would allow. In May, a number of Elders being present, and
    not understanding the different spirits [11] abroad in the earth, I
    inquired and received from the Lord the following:

    _Revelation, given May, 1831._ [12]

    1. Hearken, O ye Elders of my Church, and give ear to the voice
    of the living God, and attend to the words of wisdom which shall
    be given unto you, according as ye have asked and are agreed as
    touching the Church, and the spirits which have gone abroad in the
    earth.

    2. Behold, verily, I say unto you, that there are many spirits
    which are false spirits, which have gone forth in the earth,
    deceiving the world;

    3. And also Satan hath sought to deceive you, that he might
    overthrow you.

    4. Behold, I the Lord have looked upon you, and have seen
    abominations in the Church that profess my name;

    5. But blessed are they who are faithful and endure, whether in
    life or in death, for they shall inherit eternal life.

    6. But wo unto them that are deceivers and hypocrites, for thus
    saith the Lord, I will bring them to judgment.

    7. Behold, verily I say unto you, there are hypocrites among you,
    who have deceived some, which has given the adversary power, but
    behold such shall be reclaimed;

    {171} 8. But the hypocrites shall be detected and shall be cut off,
    either in life or in death, even as I will; and wo unto them who
    are cut off from my Church, for the same are overcome of the world;

    9. Wherefore, let every man beware lest he do that which is not in
    truth and righteousness before me.

    10. And now come, saith the Lord, by the Spirit, unto the Elders of
    His Church, and let us reason together, that ye may understand:

    11. Let us reason even as a man reasoneth one with another, face to
    face:

    12. Now when a man reasoneth he is understood of man, because he
    reasoneth as a man, even so will I the Lord, reason with you, that
    you may understand;

    13. Wherefore, I, the Lord, ask you this question, Unto what were
    ye ordained?

    14. To preach my Gospel by the Spirit, even the Comforter which was
    sent forth to teach the truth;

    15. And then received ye spirits which ye could not understand, and
    received them to be of God, and in this are ye justified?

    16. Behold ye shall answer this question yourselves; nevertheless
    I will be merciful unto you; he that is weak among you hereafter
    shall be made strong.

    17. Verily I say unto you, he that is ordained of me and sent forth
    to preach the word of truth by the Comforter, in the Spirit of
    truth, doth he preach it by the Spirit of truth or some other way?

    18. And if it be by some other way, it is not of God.

    19. And again, he that receiveth the word of truth, doth he receive
    it by the Spirit of truth or some other way?

    20. If it be some other way it is not of God:

    21. Therefore, why is it that ye cannot understand and know that he
    that receiveth the word by the Spirit of truth, receiveth it as it
    is preached by the Spirit of truth?

    22. Wherefore, he that preacheth and he that receiveth, understand
    one another, and both are edified and rejoice together.

    23. And that which doth not edify is not of God and is darkness;

    24. That which is of God is light; and he that receiveth light, and
    continueth in God, receiveth more light, and that light groweth
    brighter and brighter until the perfect day.

    25. And again, verily I say unto you, and I say it that you may
    know the truth, that you may chase darkness from among you;

    26. He that is ordained of God and sent forth, the same is
    appointed to be the greatest, notwithstanding he is the least and
    the servant of all.

    27. Wherefore, he is possessor of all things; for all things are
    subject unto him, both in heaven and on the earth, the life and the
    light, {172} the Spirit and the power, sent forth by the will of
    the Father, through Jesus Christ, His Son.

    28. But no man is possessor of all things except he be purified and
    cleansed from all sin;

    29. And if ye are purified and cleansed from all sin, ye shall ask
    whatsoever you will in the name of Jesus, and it shall be done:

    30. But know this, it shall be given you what you shall ask, and as
    ye are appointed to the head, the spirits shall be subject unto you.

    31. Wherefore, it shall come to pass, that if you behold a spirit
    manifested that you cannot understand, and you receive not that
    spirit, ye shall ask of the Father in the name of Jesus, and if he
    give not unto you that spirit, then you may know that it is not of
    God:

    32. And it shall be given unto you power over that spirit, and you
    shall proclaim against that spirit with a loud voice that it is not
    of God;

    33. Not with railing accusation, that ye be not overcome, neither
    with boasting, nor rejoicing, lest you be seized therewith.

    34. He that receiveth of God, let him account it of God, and let
    him rejoice that he is accounted of God worthy to receive.

    35. And by giving heed and doing these things which ye have
    received, and which ye shall hereafter receive: and the kingdom is
    given you of the Father, and power to overcome all things which are
    not ordained of Him.

    36. And behold, verily I say unto you, blessed are you who are now
    hearing these words of mine from the mouth of my servant, for your
    sins are forgiven you.

    37. Let my servant, Joseph Wakefield, in whom I am well pleased,
    and my servant, Parley P. Pratt go forth among the churches and
    strengthen them by the word of exhortation;

    38. And also my servant John Corrill, or as many of my servants as
    are ordained unto this office, and let them labor in the vineyard;
    and let no man hinder them doing that which I have appointed unto
    them:

    39. Wherefore in this thing my servant Edward Partridge is not
    justified; nevertheless let him repent and he shall be forgiven.

    40. Behold, ye are little children, and ye cannot bear all things
    now; we must grow in grace and in the knowledge of the truth.

    41. Fear not, little children, for you are mine, and I have
    overcome the world, and you are of them that my Father hath given
    me;

    42. And none of them that my Father hath given me shall be lost:

    43. And the Father and I are one: I am in the Father and the Father
    in me: and inasmuch as ye have received me, ye are in me and I in
    you;

    44. Wherefore I am in your midst, and I am the Good Shepherd, and
    the Stone of Israel. He that buildeth upon this rock shall never
    fall.

    45. And the day cometh that you shall hear my voice and see me, and
    know that I am.

    {173} 46. Watch, therefore, that ye may be ready. Even so. Amen.
    [13]

[Sidenote: Arrival in Ohio of the New York Saints.]

Not long after the foregoing was received, the Saints from the State
of New York began to come on, and it seemed necessary to settle them;
therefore at the solicitation of Bishop Partridge, I inquired, and
received the following:

    _Revelation, given May, 1831._ [14]

    1. Hearken unto me, saith the Lord your God, and I will speak unto
    my servant Edward Partridge, and give unto him directions, for
    it must needs be that he receive directions how to organize this
    people;

    2. For it must needs be that they be organized according to my
    laws--otherwise, they will be cut off.

    3. Wherefore, let my servant Edward Partridge, and those whom he
    has chosen, in whom I am well pleased, appoint unto this people
    their portions, every man equal according to his family, according
    to his circumstances, and his wants and needs.

    4. And let my servant Edward Partridge, when he shall appoint
    a man his portion, give unto him a writing that shall secure
    unto him his portion, that he shall hold it, even this right and
    this inheritance in the Church, until he transgresses and is not
    accounted worthy by the voice {174} of the Church, according to the
    laws and covenants of the Church, to belong to the Church:

    5. And if he shall transgress and is not accounted worthy to belong
    to the Church, he shall not have power to claim that portion which
    he has consecrated unto the Bishop for the poor and needy of my
    Church; therefore, he shall not retain the gift, but shall only
    have claim on that portion that is deeded unto him.

    6. And thus all things shall be made sure, according to the laws of
    the land.

    7. And let that which belongs to this people be appointed unto this
    people;

    8. And the money which is left unto this people, let there be an
    agent appointed unto this people, to take the money to provide food
    and raiment, according to the wants of this people.

    9. And let every man deal honestly, and be alike among this people,
    and receive alike, that ye may be one, even as I have commanded you.

    10. And let that which belongeth to this people not be taken and
    given unto that of another church;

    11. Wherefore, if another church would receive money of this
    church, let them pay unto this church again according as they shall
    agree;

    12. And this shall be done through the Bishop or the agent, which
    shall be appointed by the voice of the Church.

    13. And again, let the Bishop appoint a storehouse unto this
    Church; and let all things both in money and in meat, which are
    more than is needful for the wants of this people, be kept in the
    hands of the Bishop.

    14. And let him also reserve unto himself for his own wants, and
    for the wants of his family, as he shall be employed in doing this
    business.

    15. And thus I grant unto this people a privilege of organizing
    themselves according to my laws.

    16. And I consecrate unto them this land for a little season, until
    I, the Lord, shall provide for them otherwise, and command them to
    go hence;

    17. And the hour and the day is not given unto them, wherefore let
    them act upon this land as for years, and this shall turn unto them
    for their good.

    18. Behold, this shall be an example unto my servant Edward
    Partridge, in other places, in all churches.

    19. And whoso is found a faithful, a just and a wise steward, shall
    enter into the joy of his Lord, and shall inherit eternal life.

    20. Verily, I say unto you, I am Jesus Christ, who cometh quickly,
    in an hour you think not. Even so. Amen.

Footnotes

1. This earthquake in China is a matter of some interest in connection
with the history of the church, since it was the means of bringing
Simonds Ryder, a somewhat noted preacher of the Campbellite faith,
into the Church. According to _Hayden's History of the Disciples
on the Western Reserve_ (a Campbellite book), Mr. Ryder was much
perplexed over "Mormonism," and for a time was undecided whether to
join the Church or not. "In the month of June," (1831) writes Mr.
Hayden, "he read in a newspaper an account of the destruction of Pekin
in China, and he remembered that six weeks before, a young 'Mormon'
girl had predicted the destruction of that city." J. H. Kennedy, in
his _Early Days of Mormonism_ (Scribner's & Sons, 1888), refers to
the same thing, and adds: "This appeal to the superstitious part of
his nature was the final weight in the balance and he threw the whole
power of his influence upon the side of 'Mormonism.' His surrender
caused an excitement almost equal to that which followed the fall of
Rigdon," (pp. 103-4). It was doubtless this prophecy and the conversion
connected with it that led the papers mentioned in the text to refer
to it as "Mormonism" in China. The discrepancy in dates, Hayden and
Kennedy referring to the published accounts of the events as appearing
in June, and the Prophet making reference to it previous to the 7th
of March, need cause no confusion. It will be seen that the Prophet
alludes to it in connection with a number of other things as taking
place "at this age of the Church"--a very indefinite reference as to
the time in which a thing may have occurred.

2. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 45.

3. Doctrine and Covenants, sec 46. With reference to the matters
mentioned in verses 17 in this revelation, John Whitmer writes: "In
the beginning of the Church, while yet in her infancy, the disciples
used to exclude unbelievers, which caused some to marvel and converse
of this matter because of the things written in the Book of Mormon [3
Nephi 18:22-34.] Therefore the Lord deigned to speak on this subject,
that His people might come to understanding, and said that He had
always given to His Elders to conduct all meetings as they were led by
the Spirit."--John Whitmer's _History of the Church_, ch. 4.

4. Previous to this Oliver Cowdery, had acted as historian and
recorder. John Whitmer, according to his own representations, said he
would rather not keep the Church history, but observed--"The will of
the Lord be done, and if He desires it, I wish that He would manifest
it through Joseph the seer."--John Whitmer's _History of the Church_,
ch. 6.--Accordingly the revelation was given.

5. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 47.

6. This question was agitating the minds of the brethren in consequence
of the expected arrival in the near future, of the Saints from New
York, who had been commanded to gather to Ohio, and for whose reception
it was necessary to make preparations.

7. Doctrine and Covenants, section 48.

8. "This sect of Christians arose in England, and Ann Lee has the
credit of being its founder. They derive their name from their manner
of worship, which is performed by singing and dancing and clapping
their hands in regular time, to a novel but rather pleasant kind of
music. This sect was persecuted in England, and came to America in
1774. They first settled in Watervliet, near Albany, New York. They
have, or think they have, revelations from heaven, or gifts from the
Holy Spirit, which direct them in the choice of their leaders, and
in other important concerns. Their dress and manners are similar to
those of the society of Friends (Quakers); hence they are often called
Shaking Quakers."--Hayward's _Book of All Religions_, pp. 84-85. "They
assert, with the Quakers, that all external ordinances, especially
baptism and the Lord's supper, ceased in the apostolic age; and that
God had sent no one to preach since that time till they were raised up,
to call in the elect in a new dispensation. They deny the doctrine of
the Trinity and a vicarious atonement, as also the resurrection of the
body."--Burder's _History of All Religions_, p. 502.

9. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 49.

10. Elders Rigdon and Pratt fulfilled the mission appointed to them
by this revelation. In company with Leman Copley, who at his own
earnest request had been ordained to the Priesthood, (John Whitmer's
_History of the Church_, p. 20) they visited the settlement of the
Shakers, near Cleveland, Ohio, and preached the Gospel to them;
"but," writes Elder Pratt, "they utterly refused to hear or obey the
Gospel."--_Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt_, p. 65 (first ed.) John
Whitmer also remarks upon this incident: "The above-named brethren went
and proclaimed [the Gospel] according to the revelation given them, but
the Shakers hearkened not to their words and received not the Gospel at
that time, for they are bound in tradition and priestcraft; and thus
they are led away with foolish and vain imaginations."--John Whitmer's
_History of the Church_. Ms. p. 20.

11. This is a very brief allusion to very important and strange
phenomena. Elder Parley P. Pratt, in his _Autobiography_, has a much
more extended account of the spirit manifestations which called forth
the revelation upon the subject. "As I went forth among the different
branches," he says, alluding to the branches in the vicinity of
Kirtland, "some very strange spiritual operations were manifested,
which were disgusting rather than edifying. Some persons would seem
to swoon away and make unseemly gestures, and be drawn or disfigured
in their countenances. Others would fall into ecstasies and be drawn
into contortions, cramp, fits etc. Others would seem to have visions,
and revelations, which were not edifying and which were not congenial
to the doctrine and spirit of the Gospel. In short, a false and lying
spirit seemed to be creeping into the Church. All these things were
new and strange to me and had originated in the Church during our
absence, and previous to the arrival of President Joseph Smith from New
York. Feeling our weakness and inexperience, and lest we should err in
judgment concerning these spiritual phenomena, myself, John Murdock,
and several other Elders, went to Joseph smith and asked him to inquire
of the Lord concerning these spirits or manifestations. After we had
joined in prayer in his translating room, he dictated in our presence
the following revelation." This is the revelation given in the text
above on spiritual manifestations.

12. Doctrine and Covenants, sec 50.

13. Elder Parley P. Pratt; in his _Autobiography_, referring to
this revelation, for he was present when it was given--indeed
it was obtained chiefly at his own and Elder John Murdock's
solicitation--takes occasion to relate how this and other revelations
were given through the Prophet. "Each sentence," says he, "was uttered
slowly and very distinctly, and with a pause between each, sufficiently
long for it to be recorded by an ordinary writer in long hand. This
was the manner in which all his written revelations were dictated and
written. There was never any hesitation, reviewing, or reading back,
in order to keep the run of the subject; neither did any of these
communications undergo revisions, interlinings or corrections. As he
dictated them so they stood, so far as I have witnessed; and I was
present to witness the dictation of several communications of several
pages each."--_Aut_. Parley P. Pratt, pp. 65-66. This statement of
Elder Pratt's is true in a general way, and valuable as a description
of the manner in which revelations were dictated by the Prophet; and
needs modifying only to the extent of saying that some of the early
revelations first published in the "Book of Commandments," in 1833,
were revised by the Prophet himself in the way of correcting errors
made by the scribes and publishers; and some additional clauses
were inserted to throw increased light upon the subjects treated
in the revelations and paragraphs added, to make the principles or
instructions apply to officers not in the Church at the time some of
the earlier revelations were given. The addition of verses, 65, 66 and
67 in sec. 20 of the Doctrine and Covenants, is an example.

14. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 51.

{175}



Chapter XV.

The Important Conference of June 3rd-6th--Arrival of the Elders in
Western Missouri.

[Sidenote: Important Conference of June 3rd-6th, at Kirtland.]

On the 3rd [1] of June, the Elders from the various parts of the
country where they were laboring, came in; and the conference before
appointed, convened in Kirtland; and the Lord displayed His power
to the most perfect satisfaction of the Saints. The man of sin was
revealed, [2] and the authority of the {176} Melchizedek Priesthood was
manifested and conferred for the first time upon several of the Elders.
[3] It was clearly evident that the Lord gave us power in proportion to
the work to be done, and strength according to the race set before us,
and grace and help as our needs required. [4] Great harmony prevailed;
several were ordained; faith was strengthened; and humility, so
necessary for the {177} blessing of God to follow prayer, characterized
the Saints.

The next day, as a kind continuation of this great work of the last
days, I received the following:

    _Revelation, given June, 1831._ [5]

    1. Behold, thus saith the Lord unto the Elders whom He hath called
    and chosen in these last days, by the voice of His Spirit,

    2. Saying, I, the Lord, will make known unto you what I will that
    ye shall do from this time until the next conference, which shall
    be held in Missouri, upon the land which I will consecrate unto
    my people, which are a remnant of Jacob, and those who are heirs
    according to the covenant.

    3. Wherefore, verily I say unto you, let my servants Joseph Smith,
    Jun., and Sidney Rigdon take their journey as soon as preparations
    can be made to leave their homes, and journey to the land of
    Missouri.

    4. And inasmuch as they are faithful unto me, it shall be made
    known unto them what they shall do;

    5. And it shall also, inasmuch as they are faithful, be made known
    unto them the land of your inheritance.

    6. And inasmuch as they are not faithful, they shall be cut off,
    even as I will, as seemeth me good.

    7. And again, verily I say unto you, let my servant Lyman Wight,
    and my servant John Corrill take their journey speedily;

    8. And also my servant John Murdock, and my servant Hyrum Smith,
    take their journey unto the same place by the way of Detroit.

    9. And let them journey from thence preaching the word by the way,
    saying none other things than that which the Prophets and Apostles
    have written, and that which is taught them by the Comforter
    through the prayer of faith.

    10. Let them go two by two, and thus let them preach by the way in
    every congregation, baptizing by water, and the laying on of the
    hands by the water's side;

    11. For thus saith the Lord, I will cut my work short in
    righteousness, for the days come that I will send forth judgment
    unto victory.

    12. And let my servant Lyman Wight beware, for Satan desireth to
    sift him as chaff.

    13. And behold, he that is faithful shall be made ruler over many
    things.

    14. And again, I will give unto you a pattern in all things, that
    ye {178} may not be deceived, for Satan is abroad in the land, and
    he goeth forth deceiving the nations;

    15. Wherefore he that prayeth, whose spirit is contrite, the same
    is accepted of me if he obey mine ordinances.

    16. He that speaketh, whose spirit is contrite, whose language is
    meek and edifieth, the same is of God if he obey mine ordinances.

    17. And again, he that trembleth under my power shall be made
    strong, and shall bring forth fruits of praise and wisdom,
    according to the revelations and truths which I have given you.

    18. And again, he that is overcome and bringeth not forth fruits,
    even according to this pattern, is not of me;

    19. Wherefore, by this pattern ye shall know the spirits in all
    cases under the whole heavens.

    20. And the days have come, according to men's faith it shall be
    done unto them.

    21. Behold, this commandment is given unto all the Elders whom I
    have chosen.

    22. And again, verily I say unto you, let my servant Thomas B.
    Marsh, and my servant Ezra Thayre, take their journey also,
    preaching the word by the way unto this same land.

    23. And again, let my servant Isaac Morley, and my servant Ezra
    Booth take their journey, also preaching the word by the way unto
    this same land.

    24. And again, let my servants Edward Partridge and Martin Harris
    take their journey with my servants Sidney Rigdon and Joseph Smith,
    Jun.,

    25. Let my servants David Whitmer and Harvey Whitlock also take
    their journey and preach by the way unto this same land.

    26. And let my servants Parley P. Pratt and Orson Pratt take their
    journey and preach by the way, even unto this same land.

    27. And let my servants Solomon Hancock and Simeon Carter also take
    their journey unto this same land, and preach by the way.

    28. Let my servants Edson Fuller and Jacob Scott also take their
    journey.

    29. Let my servants Levi W. Hancock and Zebedee Coltrin also take
    their journey.

    30. Let my servants Reynolds Cahoon and Samuel H. Smith also take
    their journey.

    31. Let my servants Wheeler Baldwin and William Carter also take
    their journey.

    32. And let my servants Newel Knight and Selah J. Griffin, both be
    ordained, and also take their journey;

    33. Yea, verily, I say, let all these take their journey unto one
    place, {179} in their several courses, and one man shall not build
    upon another's foundation, neither journey in another's track.

    34. He that is faithful, the same shall be kept and blessed with
    much fruit.

    35. And again, I say unto you, let my servants Joseph Wakefield and
    Solomon Humphrey take their journey into the eastern lands;

    36. Let them labor with their families, declaring none other
    things than the Prophets and Apostles, that which they have seen
    and heard, and most assuredly believe, that the prophecies may be
    fulfilled.

    37. In consequence of transgression, let that which was bestowed
    upon Heman Bassett be taken from him, and placed upon the head of
    Simonds Ryder.

    38. And again, verily I say unto you, let Jared Carter be ordained
    a Priest, and also George James be ordained a Priest.

    39. Let the residue of the Elders watch over the Churches, and
    declare the word in the regions round about them: and let them
    labor with their own hands that there be no idolatry nor wickedness
    practiced.

    40. And remember in all things the poor and the needy, the sick and
    the afflicted, for he that doeth not these things, the same is not
    my disciple.

    41. And again, let my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney
    Rigdon, and Edward Partridge, take with them a recommend from the
    Church. And let there be one obtained for my servant Oliver Cowdery
    also;

    42. And thus, even as I have said, if ye are faithful, ye shall
    assemble yourselves together to rejoice upon the land of Missouri,
    which is the land of your inheritance, which is now the land of
    your enemies.

    43. But, behold, I the Lord, will hasten the city in its time, and
    will crown the faithful with joy and with rejoicing.

    44. Behold, I am Jesus Christ, the Son of God, and I will lift them
    up at the last day. Even so. Amen.

Shortly after the foregoing was received, at the request of Algernon
Sidney Gilbert I inquired, and obtained the following:

    _Revelation, given June, 1831._ [6]

    1. Behold, I say unto you my servant Sidney Gilbert, that I have
    heard your prayers, and you have called upon me that it should be
    made known unto you of the Lord your God, concerning your calling
    {180} and election in the Church, which I, the Lord, have raised up
    in these last days.

    2. Behold, I, the Lord, who was crucified for the sins of the
    world, give unto you a commandment that you shall forsake the world.

    3. Take upon you mine ordination, even that of an Elder, to preach
    faith and repentance, and remission of sins, according to my word,
    and the reception of the Holy Spirit by the laying on of hands.

    4. And also to be an agent unto this Church in the place which
    shall be appointed by the Bishop, according to commandments which
    shall be given hereafter.

    5. And again, verily I say unto you, you shall take your journey
    with my servants Joseph Smith, Jun, and Sidney Rigdon.

    6. Behold these are the first ordinances which you shall receive,
    and the residue shall be made known in a time to come, according to
    your labor in my vineyard.

    7. And again, I would that ye should learn that he only is saved
    who endureth unto the end. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: Difficulty in the Thompson Branch.]

The branch of the Church in Thompson, on account of breaking the
covenant, [7] and not knowing what to do, they sent in Newel Knight and
other Elders, to ask me to inquire of the Lord for them; which I did,
and received the following:

    {181} _Revelation to Newel Knight, given at Kirtland, June, 1831._
    [8]

    1. Behold, thus saith the Lord, even Alpha and Omega, the beginning
    and the end, even he who was crucified for the sins of the world.

    2. Behold, verily, verily, I say unto you, my servant, Newel
    Knight, you shall stand fast in the office wherewith I have
    appointed you;

    3. And if your brethren desire to escape their enemies, let them
    repent of all their sins, and become truly humble before me and
    contrite;

    4. And as the covenant which they made unto me has been broken,
    even so it has become void and of none effect;

    5. And wo to him by whom this offense cometh, for it had been
    better for him that he had been drowned in the depth of the sea;

    6. But blessed are they who have kept the covenant and observed the
    commandment, for they shall obtain mercy.

    7. Wherefore, go to now and flee the land, lest your enemies come
    upon you; and take your journey, and appoint whom you will to be
    your leader, and to pay monies for you. [9]

    8. And thus you shall take your journey into the regions westward,
    unto the land of Missouri, unto the borders of the Lamanites.

    9. And after you have done journeying, behold, I say unto you, seek
    ye a living like unto men, until I prepare a place for you,

    10. And again, be patient in tribulation until I come; and, behold,
    I came quickly, and my reward is with me, and they who have sought
    me early shall find rest to their souls. Even so. Amen.

The Elders now began to go to the western country, two and two,
according to the word of the Lord.

[Sidenote: Report of Oliver Cowdery on Conditions in Western Missouri.]

From Parley P. Pratt, who during the spring had returned from his
mission of last fall, we had verbal {182} information; and from letters
from the still remaining Elders we had written intelligence; and as the
mission to Western Missouri and the gathering of the Saints to that
place was the most important subject which then engrossed the attention
of the Church, I will here insert the copy of a letter, received about
this time from that section, dated at Kaw Township, Missouri, May 7,
1831.

    _Our Dearly Beloved Brethren:_--I have nothing particular to write
    as concerning the Lamanites; because of a short journey which I
    have just returned from, and in consequence of which I have not
    written to you since the 16th of last month. Brother Ziba Peterson
    and myself went into the county east, which is Lafayette, about
    forty miles; and, in the name of Jesus, we called on the people to
    repent, many of whom are, I believe, earnestly searching for truth,
    and if sincerely, I pray they may find that precious treasure, for
    it seems to be wholly fallen in the streets, and equity cannot
    enter.

    The letter we received from you, informed us that the opposition
    was great against you. Now, our beloved brethren, we verily believe
    that we also can rejoice that we are counted worthy to suffer
    shame for His name; for almost the whole country, consisting
    of Universalists, Atheists, Deists, Presbyterians, Methodists,
    Baptists, and other professed Christians, priests and people; with
    all the devils from the infernal pit are united, and foaming out
    their own shame [against us]. God forbid that I should bring a
    railing accusation against them, for vengeance belongeth to Him who
    is able to repay; and herein, brethren, we confide.

    I am lately informed of another tribe of Lamanites, who have
    abundance of flocks of the best kinds of sheep and cattle; and
    they manufacture blankets of a superior quality. The tribe is very
    numerous; they live three hundred miles west of Santa Fe, and are
    called Navashoes. [10] Why I mention this tribe is because I feel
    under obligations to communicate to my brethren any information
    concerning the Lamanites that I meet with in my labors and travels,
    believing, as I do, that much is expected from me in the cause of
    our Lord; and doubting not that I am daily remembered before the
    throne of the Most High by all my brethren, as well by those who
    have not seen my face in the flesh as by those who have.

    We begin to expect our brother Parley P. Pratt soon; we have heard
    from him only when he was at St. Louis. We are all well, bless the
    Lord; {183} and preach the Gospel we will, if earth and hell oppose
    our way--for we dwell in the midst of scorpions--and in Jesus we
    trust. Grace be with you all. Amen.

    Oliver Cowdery.

    P. S.--I beseech Brother Whitney to remember and write, and direct
    to me, Independence, Jackson County, Missouri. [11]

{184} About the middle of June, while we were preparing for our journey
to Missouri, William W. Phelps and {185} his family arrived among
us--"to do the will of the Lord," he said: so I inquired of the Lord
concerning him and received the following:

    _Revelation given June, 1831._ [12]

    1. Behold, thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant William, yea,
    even the Lord of the whole earth, thou art called and chosen, and
    after thou hast been baptized by water, which, if you do with an
    eye single to my glory, you shall have a remission of your sins and
    a reception of the Holy Spirit by the laying on of hands;

    2. And then thou shalt be ordained by the hand of my servant Joseph
    Smith, Jun., to be an Elder unto this Church, to preach repentance
    and remission of sins by way of baptism in the name of Jesus Christ
    the Son of the living God;

    3. And on whomsoever you shall lay your hands, if they are contrite
    before me, you shall have power to give the Holy Spirit.

    4. And again, you shall be ordained to assist my servant Oliver
    Cowdery to do the work of printing, and of selecting, and writing
    books for schools in this Church, that little children also may
    receive instruction before me as is pleasing unto me.

    {186} 5. And again, verily I say unto you, for this cause ye shall
    take your journey with my servants Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney
    Rigdon, that you may be planted in the land of your inheritance to
    do this work.

    6. And again, let my servant Joseph Coe also take his journey with
    them. The residue shall be made known hereafter, even as I will.
    Amen. [13]

[Sidenote: Marsh and Thayre Separated as Missionary Companions.]

Soon after I received the foregoing, Elder Thomas B. Marsh came to
inquire what he should do; as Elder Ezra Thayre, his yoke-fellow in the
ministry, could not get ready to start on his mission as soon as he
(Marsh) would; and I inquired of the Lord, and received the following:

    _Revelation, given at Kirtland, 1831._ [14]

    1. Hearken, O ye people who profess my name, saith the Lord your
    God, for behold, mine anger is kindled against the rebellious,
    and they shall know mine arm and mine indignation, in the day of
    visitation and of wrath upon the nations.

    2. And he that will not take up his cross and follow me, and keep
    my commandments, the same shall not be saved.

    3. Behold, I, the Lord, command, and he that will not obey, shall
    be cut off in mine own due time, after I have commanded, and the
    commandment is broken;

    4. Wherefore I, the Lord, command and revoke, as it seemeth me
    good; and all this to be answered upon the heads of the rebellious,
    saith the Lord.

    5. Wherefore, I revoke the commandment which was given unto
    my servants Thomas B. Marsh and Ezra Thayre, and give a new
    commandment unto my servant Thomas, that he shall take up his
    journey, speedily to the land of Missouri, and my servant Selah J.
    Griffin shall also go with him.

    6. For behold, I revoke the commandment which was given unto my
    servants Selah J. Griffin and Newel Knight, in consequence of the
    stiffneckedness of my people which are in Thompson, and their
    rebellions;

    {187} 7. Wherefore, let my servant Newel Knight remain with them,
    and as many as will go may go, that are contrite before me, and be
    led by him to the land which I have appointed.

    8. And again, verily I say unto you, that my servant Ezra Thayre
    must repent of his pride, and of his selfishness, and obey the
    former commandment which I have given him concerning the place upon
    which he lives.

    9. And if he will do this, as there shall be no divisions made upon
    the land, he shall be appointed still to go to the land of Missouri;

    10. Otherwise he shall receive the money which he has paid; and
    shall leave the place, and shall be cut off out of my Church, saith
    the Lord God of hosts;

    11. And though the heaven and the earth pass away, these words
    shall not pass away, but shall be fulfilled.

    12. And if my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., must needs pay the money,
    behold, I, the Lord, will pay it unto him again in the land of
    Missouri, that those of whom he shall receive may be rewarded again
    according to that which they do;

    13. For according to that which they do, they shall receive, even
    in lands for their inheritance.

    14. Behold, thus saith the Lord unto my people, you have many
    things to do and to repent of; for behold, your sins have come up
    unto me, and are not pardoned, because you seek to counsel in your
    own ways.

    15. And your hearts are not satisfied. And ye obey not the truth,
    but have pleasure in unrighteousness.

    16. Wo unto you rich men, that will not give your substance to the
    poor, for your riches will canker your souls; and this shall be
    your lamentation in the day of visitation, and of judgment, and of
    indignation: The harvest is past, the summer is ended, and my soul
    is not saved!

    17. Wo unto you poor men, whose hearts are not broken, whose
    spirits are not contrite, and whose bellies are not satisfied, and
    whose hands are not stayed from laying hold upon other men's goods,
    whose eyes are full of greediness, and who will not labor with your
    own hands!

    18. But blessed are the poor who are pure in heart, whose hearts
    are broken, and whose spirits are contrite, for they shall see
    the kingdom of God coming in power and great glory unto their
    deliverance; for the fatness of the earth shall be theirs.

    19. For behold, the Lord shall come, and His recompense shall be
    with him, and He shall reward every man, and the poor shall rejoice;

    20. And their generations shall inherit the earth from generation
    to {188} generation, for ever and ever. And now I make an end of
    speaking unto you. Even so. Amen. [15]

[Sidenote: The Departure of the Prophet and Company for Missouri.]

On the 19th of June, in company with Sidney Rigdon, Martin Harris,
Edward Partridge, William W. Phelps, Joseph Coe, Algernon S. Gilbert
and his wife, I started from Kirtland, Ohio, for the land of Missouri,
agreeable to the commandment before received, wherein it was promised
that if we were faithful, the land of our inheritance, even the place
for the city of the New Jerusalem, should be revealed. We went by
wagon, canal boats, and stages to Cincinnati, where I had an interview
with the Rev. Walter Scott, one of the founders of the Campbellites, or
Newlight church. [16] Before the close of our interview, he manifested
one of the bitterest spirits against the doctrine of the New Testament
(that "these signs shall follow them that believe," as recorded in Mark
the 16th chapter,) that I ever witnessed among men. We left Cincinnati
in a steamer, and landed at Louisville, Kentucky, where we were
detained three days in waiting for a steamer to convey us to St. Louis.
At St. Louis, myself, Brothers Harris, Phelps, Partridge and Coe, went
by land on foot to Independence, Jackson county, Missouri, where we
arrived about the middle of July, and the rest of the company came by
water a few days later.

[Sidenote: Treatment by the Way.]

Notwithstanding the corruptions and abominations of the times, and
the evil spirit manifested towards us on account of our belief in the
Book of Mormon, at many places and among various persons, yet the Lord
continued His watchful care and {189} loving kindness to us day by
day; and we made it a rule wherever there was an opportunity, to read
a chapter in the Bible, and pray; and these seasons of worship gave us
great consolation.

[Sidenote: Arrival in Missouri. Reflections on State of Society in
Missouri. Questions and the Answer by Revelation.]

The meeting of our brethren, who had long awaited our arrival, was
a glorious one, and moistened with many tears. It seemed good and
pleasant for brethren to meet together in unity. But our reflections
were many, coming as we had from a highly cultivated state of society
in the east, and standing now upon the confines or western limits
of the United States, and looking into the vast wilderness of those
that sat in darkness; how natural it was to observe the degradation,
leanness of intellect, ferocity, and jealousy of a people that were
nearly a century behind the times, and to feel for those who roamed
about without the benefit of civilization, refinement, or religion;
yea, and exclaim in the language of the Prophets: "When will the
wilderness blossom as the rose? When will Zion be built up in her
glory, and where will Thy temple stand, unto which all nations shall
come in the last days?" Our anxiety was soon relieved by receiving the
following:

    _Revelation, given in Zion, July, 1831._ [17]

    1. Hearken, O ye Elders of my Church, saith the Lord your God, who
    have assembled yourselves together, according to my commandments,
    in this land, which is the land of Missouri, which is the land
    which I have appointed and consecrated for the gathering of the
    Saints:

    2. Wherefore, this is the land of promise, and the place for the
    city of Zion.

    3. And thus saith the Lord your God, if you will receive wisdom
    here is wisdom. Behold, the place which is now called Independence
    is the center place; and the spot for the temple is lying westward,
    upon a lot which is not far from the court house.

    4. Wherefore it is wisdom that the land should be purchased by the
    Saints; and also every tract lying westward even unto the line
    running directly between Jew and Gentile.

    {190} 5. And also every tract bordering by the prairies, inasmuch
    as my disciples are enabled to buy lands. Behold, this is wisdom,
    that they may obtain it for an everlasting inheritance.

    6. And let my servant Sidney Gilbert stand in the office to which
    I have appointed him, to receive monies, to be an agent unto the
    Church, to buy land in all the regions round about, inasmuch as can
    be done in righteousness, and as wisdom shall direct.

    7. And let my servant Edward Partridge, stand in the office to
    which I have appointed him, and divide unto the Saints their
    inheritance, even as I have commanded; and also those whom he has
    appointed to assist him.

    8. And again, verily I say unto you, let my servant Sidney Gilbert
    plant himself in this place, and establish a store, that he may
    sell goods without fraud, that he may obtain money to buy lands for
    the good of the Saints, and that he may obtain whatsoever things
    the disciples may need to plant them in their inheritance.

    9. And also let my servant Sidney Gilbert obtain a license--(behold
    here is wisdom, and whoso readeth let him understand)--that he may
    send goods also unto the people, even by whom he will, as clerks
    employed in his service.

    10. And thus provide for my Saints, that my Gospel may be preached
    unto those who sit in darkness, and in the region and shadow of
    death.

    11. And again, verily I say unto you, let my servant William W.
    Phelps be planted in this place, and be established as a printer
    unto the Church;

    12. And lo, if the world receive his writings--(behold here is
    wisdom)--let him obtain whatsoever he can obtain in righteousness,
    for the good of the Saints.

    13. And let my servant Oliver Cowdery assist him, even as I have
    commanded, in whatsoever place I shall appoint unto him, to copy,
    and to correct, and select, that all things may be right before me,
    as it shall be proved by the Spirit through him.

    14. And thus let those of whom I have spoken be planted in the land
    of Zion, as speedily as can be, with their families, to do those
    things even as I have spoken.

    15. And now concerning the gathering: Let the Bishop and the agent
    make preparations for those families which have been commanded to
    come to this land, as soon as possible, and plant them in their
    inheritance.

    16. And unto the residue of both Elders and members further
    directions shall be given hereafter. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: The First Sabbath in Zion.]

The first Sabbath after our arrival in Jackson county, Brother W.
W. Phelps preached to a western audience over the boundary of the
United States, wherein were present specimens of all the families
{191} of the earth; Shem, Ham and Japheth; several of the Lamanites
or Indians--representative of Shem; quite a respectable number of
negroes--descendants of Ham; and the balance was made up of citizens of
the surrounding country, and fully represented themselves as pioneers
of the West. At this meeting two were baptized, who had previously
believed in the fullness of the Gospel.

[Sidenote: Arrival of the Colesville Branch.]

During this week the Colesville branch, referred to in the latter part
of the last revelation, [18] and Sidney Rigdon, Sidney Gilbert and wife
and Elders Morley and Booth, arrived. I received the following:

    _Revelation, given in Zion, August, 1831._ [19]

    1. Hearken, O ye Elders of my Church, and give ear to my word, and
    learn of me what I will concerning you, and also concerning this
    land unto which I have sent you:

    2. For verily I say unto you, blessed is he that keepeth my
    commandments, whether in life or in death; and he that is faithful
    in tribulation, the reward of the same is greater in the kingdom of
    heaven.

    3. Ye cannot behold with your natural eyes, for the present time,
    the design of your God concerning those things which shall come
    hereafter, and the glory which shall follow after much tribulation.

    4. For after much tribulation cometh the blessings. Wherefore the
    day cometh that ye shall be crowned with much glory; the hour is
    not yet, but is nigh at hand.

    5. Remember this, which I tell you before, that you may lay it to
    heart, and receive that which is to follow.

    6. Behold, verily I say unto you, for this cause I have sent you
    that you might be obedient, and that your hearts might be prepared
    to bear testimony of the things which are to come;

    7. And also that you might be honored of laying the foundation,
    and of bearing record of the land upon which the Zion of God shall
    stand;

    8. And also that a feast of fat things might be prepared for the
    poor; yea, a feast of fat things, of wine on the lees well refined,
    that the earth may know that the mouths of the Prophets shall not
    fail;

    9. Yea a supper of the house of the Lord, well prepared, unto which
    all nations shall be invited.

    10. Firstly, the rich and the learned, the wise and the noble;

    {192} 11. And after that cometh the day of my power: then shall
    the poor, the lame, and the blind, and the deaf, come in unto
    the marriage of the Lamb, and partake of the supper of the Lord,
    prepared for the great day to come.

    12. Behold, I, the Lord, have spoken it.

    13. And that the testimony might go forth from Zion, yea, from the
    mouth of the city of the heritage of God:

    14. Yea, for this cause I have sent you hither, and have selected
    my servant Edward Partridge, and have appointed unto him his
    mission in this land;

    15. But if he repent not of his sins, which are unbelief and
    blindness of heart, let him take heed lest he fall.

    16. Behold his mission is given unto him, and it shall not be given
    again.

    17. And whoso standeth in this mission is appointed to be a judge
    in Israel, like as it was in ancient days, to divide the lands of
    the heritage of God unto His children;

    18. And to judge His people by the testimony of the just, and by
    the assistance of his counselors, according to the laws of the
    kingdom which are given by the Prophets of God;

    19. For verily I say unto you, my law shall be kept on this land.

    20. Let no man think he is ruler, but let God rule him that
    judgeth, according to the counsel of His own will; or, in other
    words, him that counseleth or sitteth upon the judgment seat.

    21. Let no man break the laws of the land, for he that keepeth the
    laws of God hath no need to break the laws of the land:

    22. Wherefore be subject to the powers that be, until He reigns
    whose right it is to reign, and subdues all enemies under His feet.

    23. Behold, the laws which ye have received from my hand are the
    laws of the Church, and in this light ye shall hold them forth.
    Behold, here is wisdom.

    24. And now as I spake concerning my servant Edward Partridge, this
    land is the land of his residence, and those whom he has appointed
    for his counselors. And also the land of the residence of him whom
    I have appointed to keep my store-house;

    25. Wherefore let them bring their families to this land, as they
    shall counsel between themselves and me.

    26. For behold, it is not meet that I should command in all things,
    for he that is compelled in all things, the same is a slothful and
    not a wise servant; wherefore he receiveth no reward.

    27. Verily I say, men should be anxiously engaged in a good cause,
    and do many things of their own free will, and bring to pass much
    righteousness;

    {193} 28. For the power is in them, wherein they are agents unto
    themselves. And inasmuch as men do good they shall in nowise lose
    their reward.

    29. But he that doeth not anything until he is commanded, and
    receiveth a commandment with doubtful heart, and keepeth it with
    slothfulness, the same is damned.

    30. Who am I that made man, saith the Lord, that will hold him
    guiltless that obeys not my commandments?

    31. Who am I, saith the Lord, that have promised and have not
    fulfilled?

    32. I command and men obey not, I revoke and they receive not the
    blessing;

    33. Then they say in their hearts, this is not the work of the
    Lord, for His promises are not fulfilled. But wo unto such, for
    their reward lurketh beneath, and not above.

    34. And now I give unto you further directions concerning this land.

    35. It is wisdom in me that my servant Martin Harris should be an
    example unto the Church, in laying his monies before the Bishop of
    the Church.

    36. And also, this is a law unto every man that cometh unto this
    land to receive an inheritance; and he shall do with his monies
    according as the law directs.

    37. And it is wisdom also, that there should be lands purchased in
    Independence, for the place of the store-house, and also for the
    house of the printing.

    38. And other directions concerning my servant Martin Harris shall
    be given him of the Spirit, that he may receive his inheritance as
    seemeth him good.

    39. And let him repent of his sins, for he seeketh the praise of
    the world.

    40. And also let my servant William W. Phelps stand in the office
    which I have appointed him, and receive his inheritance in the land;

    41. And also he hath need to repent, for I, the Lord, am not
    well pleased with him, for he seeketh to excel, and he is not
    sufficiently meek before me.

    42. Behold, he who has repented of his sins, the same is forgiven,
    and I, the Lord, remember them no more.

    43. By this ye may know if a man repenteth of his sins. Behold he
    will confess them and forsake them.

    44. And now, verily, I say concerning the residue of the Elders
    of my Church, the time has not yet come, for many years, for them
    to receive their inheritance in this land--except they desire it
    through the prayer of faith--only as it shall be appointed unto
    them of the Lord.

    {194} 45. For, behold, they shall push the people together from the
    ends of the earth;

    46. Wherefore, assemble yourselves together; and they who are not
    appointed to stay in this land, let them preach the Gospel in the
    regions round about, and after that let them return to their homes.

    47. Let them preach by the way, and bear testimony of the truth in
    all places, and call upon the rich, the high and the low, and the
    poor to repent;

    48. And let them build up churches, inasmuch as the inhabitants of
    the earth will repent.

    49. And let there be an agent appointed by the voice of the Church,
    unto the church in Ohio, to receive monies to purchase lands in
    Zion.

    50. And I give unto my servant, Sidney Rigdon, a commandment that
    he shall write a description of the land of Zion, and a statement
    of the will of God, as it shall be made known by the Spirit unto
    him;

    51. And an epistle and subscription, to be presented unto all the
    churches to obtain monies, to be put into the hands of the Bishop,
    of himself or the agent, as seemeth him good or as he shall direct,
    to purchase lands for an inheritance for the children of God.

    52. For, behold, verily I say unto you, the Lord willeth that the
    disciples, and the children of men should open their hearts, even
    to purchase this whole region of country, as soon as the time will
    permit.

    53. Behold, here is wisdom. Let them do this lest they receive none
    inheritance, save it be by the shedding of blood.

    54. And again, inasmuch as there is land obtained, let there be
    workmen sent forth of all kinds unto this land, to labor for the
    saints of God.

    55. Let all these things be done in order; and let the privileges
    of the lands be made known from time to time, by the Bishop or the
    agent of the Church;

    56. And let the work of the gathering be not in haste, nor by
    flight, but let it be done as it shall be counseled by the Elders
    of the Church at the conferences, according to the knowledge which
    they receive from time to time.

    57. And let my servant Sidney Rigdon consecrate and dedicate this
    land, and the spot for the temple unto the Lord.

    58. And let a conference meeting be called, and after that let my
    servants Sidney Rigdon and Joseph Smith, Jun., return, and also
    Oliver Cowdery with them, to accomplish the residue of the work
    which I have appointed unto them in their own land, and the residue
    as shall be ruled by the conferences.

    59. And let no man return from this land, except he bear record by
    the way of that which he knows and most assuredly believes.

    {195} 60. Let that which has been bestowed upon Ziba Peterson be
    taken from him; and let him stand as a member in this Church, and
    labor his own hands, with the brethren until he is sufficiently
    chastened for all his sins, for he confesseth them not, and he
    thinketh to hide them.

    61. Let the residue of the Elders of this Church, who are coming to
    this land, some of whom are exceedingly blessed even above measure,
    also hold a conference upon this land.

    62. And let my servant Edward Partridge direct the conference which
    shall be held by them.

    63. And let them also return, preaching the Gospel by the way,
    bearing record of the things which are revealed unto them;

    64. For, verily, the sound must go forth from this place into all
    the world, and unto the utmost parts of the earth--the Gospel must
    be preached unto every creature, with signs following them that
    believe.

    65. And behold the Son of man cometh. Amen.

Footnotes

1. This date in the Prophet's narrative is given the 6th of June, but
the minutes of the conference in the _Far West Record_ are dated "June
3rd." In John Whitmer's _History of the Church_ it is written: "June
3rd 1831, a general conference was called, and a blessing promised
if the Elders were faithful and humble before Him [i. e. the Lord].
Therefore the Elders assembled from the east and from the west, from
the north and the south, and also many members." (p. 21.) Whitmer,
however, speaks of the conference as continuing several days (p. 22);
and then under date of "the 6th of June" states that the revelation
was given which Joseph, the Prophet, in the text of his _History_
above, speaks of as having been given the day following the close of
the conference. The 3rd of June, 1831, fell upon Friday, so that the
great probability is that this important conference commenced on Friday
and continued through Saturday and Sunday; and then before the Elders
dispersed on Monday, the 6th, the revelation alluded to by the Prophet,
was given. Previous conferences of a general character usually occupied
three days, See p. 118, and hence it is likely that this one did.

2. The manner in which the man of sin was revealed and the authority of
the Melchizedek Priesthood manifested, is related by John Whitmer, in
his _History of the Church_ (ch. 7). After giving the names of those
who were ordained High Priests the day on which the two powers were
manifested, he says: "Joseph Smith, Jun., prophesied the day previous
that the man of sin would be revealed. While the Lord poured out His
Spirit upon His servants, the devil took a notion to make known his
power. He bound Harvey Whitlock and John Murdock so that they could
not speak, and others were affected but the Lord showed to Joseph, the
seer, the design of the thing; he commanded the devil in the name of
Christ, and he departed, to our joy and comfort."

Parley P. Pratt also alludes to this subject in his _Autobiography:_
"In this conference much instruction was given by President Smith,
who spoke in great power, as he was moved upon by the Holy Ghost; and
the spirit of power and of testimony rested down upon the Elders in a
marvelous manner. Here also were some strange manifestations of false
spirits, which were immediately rebuked." (p. 72.)

3. A misapprehension has arisen in the minds of some respecting the
statement--"The authority of the Melchizedek Priesthood was manifested
and conferred for the first time upon several of the Elders." It has
been supposed that this passage meant that the higher or Melchizedek
Priesthood was now for the first time conferred upon men in this
dispensation. This of course is an error, since even before the
Church was organized, the Apostleship, the highest authority in the
Melchizedek Priesthood, was conferred upon Joseph Smith and Oliver
Cowdery, and very probably upon David Whitmer also (See pp. 40-42,
note.) The Prophet does not mean that the Melchizedek Priesthood was
given for the first time in the Church. It was at this conference,
however, that the special office of High Priest was for the first time
conferred upon men in this dispensation, except in so far as Apostles
are also High Priests (Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 84:63); and of
course as there were men who had been ordained to the apostleship
before this conference of June, 1831, in that manner there had been
High Priests in the Church, but not otherwise.

4. In addition to the spiritual manifestations already mentioned as
having occurred at this conference of June 3rd-6th, it should be said
that, according to John Whitmer's _History of the Church_ (ch. 5):
"The Spirit of the Lord fell upon Joseph in an unusual manner, and
he prophesied that John the Revelator was then among the Ten Tribes
of Israel who had been led away by Salmanasser, king of Assyria, to
prepare them for their return from their long dispersion, to again
possess the land of their fathers. He prophesied many more things that
I have not written. After he had prophesied he laid his hands upon
Lyman Wight and ordained him to the High Priesthood [i. e. ordained him
a High Priest], after the holy order of God. And the Spirit fell upon
Lyman, and he prophesied concerning the coming of Christ. He said that
there were some in the congregation that should live until the Savior
should descend from heaven with a shout, with all the holy angels with
Him. He said the coming of the Savior should be like the sun rising in
the east, and will cover the whole earth. So with the coming of the
Son of Man; yea, He will appear in His brightness and consume all [the
wicked] before Him; and the hills will be laid low, and the valleys be
exalted, and the crooked be made straight, and the rough smooth. And
some of my brethren shall suffer martyrdom for the sake of the religion
of Jesus Christ, and seal their testimony of Jesus Christ, and seal
their testimony of Jesus with their blood. He saw the heavens opened
and the Son of Man sitting on the right hand of the Father, making
intercession for his brethren, the Saints. He said that God would work
a work in these last days that tongue cannot express and the mind is
not capable to conceive. The glory of the Lord shone around."

"The congregation at this conference number two thousand
souls."--Cannon's _Life of Joseph Smith the Prophet_, p. 113.

This was the fourth general conference of the Church, the others were
held on the 9th of June, 1830; the 26th of September, 1830; and the 2nd
of January, 1831, respectively; and all at Fayette, Seneca County, New
York.

5. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 52.

6. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 53.

7. It is difficult to determine with exactness in what the
transgressions of the Saints at Thompson consisted; but it is evident
that selfishness and rebellion were at the bottom of their trouble,
and that Leman Copley and Ezra Thayre were immediately concerned in
it. The saints comprising the Colesville branch, when they arrived at
the gathering place, in Ohio, were advised to remain together and were
settled at Thompson, a place in the vicinity of Kirtland. On their
arrival Bishop Edward Partridge urged the Prophet Joseph to inquire
of the Lord concerning the manner of settling them, and providing for
them. Whereupon the Prophet inquired of the Lord and received the
revelation found on page 173. It will be seen from that revelation
that the saints of the Colesville branch were to be organized under
the law of consecration and stewardship. That is, in brief, the Saints
were to make a consecration of whatsoever things they possessed unto
the Bishop, and then each man receive from the Bishop a stewardship.
Every man was to be equal in his stewardship, according to his family,
his circumstances, and his needs. For details in the matter the reader
is referred to the revelation itself. It is evident that some of the
brethren already living at Thompson, had agreed to enter into the
law of consecration and stewardship with the Saints from Colesville;
and that afterwards they broke this covenant. Among these were Leman
Copley and Ezra Thayre. "A man by the name of Copley," says Newel
Knight in his journal, "had a considerable tract of land there [in
Thompson] which he offered to let the saints occupy. Consequently a
contract was agreed upon, and we commenced work in good faith. But in a
short time Copley broke the engagement, and I went to Kirtland to see
Brother Joseph," etc. ("Scraps of Biography," in which is published
Newel Knight's journal, ch. vi.) Of this matter, John Whitmer, then
the Church Historian, writes: "At this time [the early part of June]
the Church at Thompson, Ohio, was involved in difficulty because of
the rebellion of Leman Copley, who would not do as he had previously
agreed, which thing confused the whole Church, and finally the
Lord spake through Joseph the Prophet, saying:" He then quotes the
revelation to Newel Knight given in the text above.--(John Whitmer's
History of the Church chap. viii). For Ezra Thayre's part in the
proceedings at Thompson, see the revelation given to Thomas B. Marsh,
pp. 186, 187.

8. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 54.

9. "The Church at Thompson," says John Whitmer, "made all possible
haste to leave for Missouri, and left, and none of their enemies
harmed them."--John Whitmer's _History of the Church_, chap. 8. Newel
Knight was appointed the leader of this company, which was made up of
the Colesville branch, and under his leadership they made the entire
journey from Thompson to Missouri.

10. It was doubtless the Navajo Indians, whose reservation is now
located in northeastern Arizona of whom Oliver heard.

11. The Mission to the Lamanites--As the "mission to the Lamanites"
is a very prominent event in early Church history, it is proper that
the labors of the brethren engaged in at should be spoken of more
fully than appears anywhere in the Prophet's narrative, and at this
point, following the letter of Oliver Cowdery, seems as appropriate
a place as will be found to speak of it. It has already been said
that the brethren of the mission called upon the Cattaraugus tribe,
near Buffalo, New York, (p. 120 note). After leaving Kirtland, on
their journey westward, they visited the Wyandot tribe of Indians
near Sandusky, Ohio, with whom they spent several days. "We were well
received," writes Elder Parley P. Pratt, "and had an opportunity of
laying before them the record of their forefathers, which we did. They
rejoiced in the tidings, bid us Godspeed, and desired us to write to
them in relation to our success among the tribes further west, who had
already removed to the Indian territory, where these expected soon
to go."--_Aut_. P. P. Pratt, p. 54. On arriving at Independence two
of the company secured employment, while the other three crossed the
frontier and began their labors among the Indians. They visited the
Shawnees, spending one night with them, and the next day crossed the
Kansas river and began their labors among the Delawares. They sought an
interview with the chief of the Delawares, known among the whites as
Chief Anderson. He was the grand sachem of ten nations or tribes, and
consequently possessed of large influence. He had always opposed the
introduction of missionaries among his people, and therefore did not at
first extend a very hearty welcome to the brethren. However, through
an interpreter, the brethren made known their errand and explained
to him the Book of Mormon and the information it contained for his
people. They asked to be heard before a full council of his nation, a
proposition which the chief took under consideration until the next
day. Next morning the conversation with the Delaware Chief was renewed,
but he was not inclined at first to call the council. But as he began
to understand better the nature of the Book of Mormon, he changed his
mind and asked the brethren to suspend their conversation until the
council could be assembled. A runner was dispatched to the tribes, and
in about an hour forty leading men were assembled and seated in grave
silence to hear the message concerning the book of their forefathers.
At the request of the chief Oliver Cowdery in substance delivered the
following address:

Oliver Cowdery's Speech to the Delawares.

"Aged Chief, and Venerable Council of the Delaware nation: we are glad
of this opportunity to address you as our red brethren and friends.
We have traveled a long from towards the rising sun to bring you glad
news; We have traveled the wilderness, crossed the deep and wide
rivers, and waded in the deep snows, and in the face of the storms of
winter, to communicate to you great knowledge which has lately come to
oar ears and hearts and which will do the red man good as well as the
pale face.

"Once the red men were many; they occupied the country from sea to
sea--from the rising to the setting sun; the whole land was theirs; the
Great Spirit gave it to them, and no pale faces dwelt among them. But
now they are few in numbers; their possessions are small, and the pale
faces are many.

"Thousands of moons ago, when the red men's forefathers dwelt in peace
and possessed this whole land, the Great Spirit talked with them, and
revealed His law and His will, and much knowledge to their wise men and
prophets. This they wrote in a Book, together with their history and
the things which should befall their children in the latter days.

"This Book was written on plates of gold and handed down from father to
son for many ages and generations.

"It was then that the people prospered and were strong and mighty; they
cultivated the earth, built buildings and cities and abounded in all
good things, as the pale faces now do.

"But they became wicked; they killed one another and shed much blood;
they killed their prophets and wise men, and sought to destroy the
Book. The Great Spirit became angry and would speak to them no more;
they had no more good and wise dreams; no more visions, no more angels
sent among them by the Great Spirit; and the Lord commanded Mormon and
Moroni, their last wise men and prophets to hide the Book in the earth,
that it might be preserved in safety and be found and made known in the
latter-day to the pale faces who should possess the land, that they
might again make it known to the red men, in order to restore them to
the knowledge of the will of the Great Spirit and to His favor. And if
the red men would then receive this Book and learn the things written
in it and do according thereunto, they should be restored to all their
rights and privileges; should cease to fight and kill one another;
should become one people; cultivate the earth in peace, in common with
the pale faces who were willing to believe and obey the same Book and
be good men and live in peace.

"Then should the red men become great and have plenty to eat and good
clothes to wear, and should be in favor with the Great Spirit and be
His children, while He would be their Great Father and talk with them,
and raise up prophets and wise and good men among them again who should
teach them many things.

"This Book, which contained these things, was hid in the earth by
Moroni, in a hill called by him Cumorah, which hill is now in the state
of New York, near the village of Palmyra, in Ontario county.

"In that neighborhood there lived a young man named Joseph Smith, who
prayed to the Great Spirit much, in order that he might know the truth,
and the Great Spirit sent an angel to him and told him where this Book
was hid by Moroni, and commanded him to go and get it. He accordingly
went to the place and dug in the earth and found the Book written on
golden plates.

"But it was written in the language of the forefathers of the red men;
therefore this young man, being a pale face, could not understand it;
but the angel told him and showed him and gave him knowledge of the
language and how to interpret the Book. So he interpreted it into the
language of the pale faces, and wrote it on paper and caused it to be
printed, and published thousands of copies of it among them, and then
sent us to the red men to bring some copies of it to them, and to tell
them this news. So we have now come from him, and here is a copy of
the Book, which we now present to our red friend, the Chief of the
Delawares, which we hope he will cause to be read and known among his
tribe; it will do them good."

We then presented him with a Book of Mormon.

There was a pause in the council and some conversation in their own
language, after which the chief made the following reply;

The Chief's Reply.

"We feel truly thankful to our white friends who have come so far
and been at such pains to tell us good news, and especially this new
news concerning the Book of our forefathers; it makes us glad in
here,"--placing his hand on his heart. "It is now winter; we are new
settlers in this place; the snow is deep; our cattle and horses are
dying; our wigwams are poor; we have much to do in the spring--to build
houses and fence and make farms; but we will build a council house and
meet together, and you shall read to us and teach us more concerning
the Book of our fathers and the will of the Great Spirit."

Elder Parley P. Pratt in his report of the matter adds: "We continued
for several days to instruct the old Chief and many of his tribe.
The interest became more and more intense on their part, from day to
day, until at length nearly the whole tribe began to feel a spirit of
inquiry and excitement on the subject. We found several among them
who could read, and to them we gave copies of the Book, explaining to
them that it was the Book of their forefathers. Some began to rejoice
exceedingly and took great pains to tell the news to others in their
own language. The excitement now reached the frontier settlements in
Missouri, and stirred up the jealousy and envy of the Indian agents and
sectarian missionaries to that degree that we were soon ordered out of
the Indian country as disturbers of the peace, and even threatened with
the military in case of non-compliance. We accordingly departed from
the Indian country and came over the line, and commenced laboring in
Jackson county, Missouri, among the whites. We were well received and
listened to by many, and some were baptized and added to the Church."

"Thus ended our first Indian mission, in which we had preached the
Gospel in its fulness and distributed the record of their forefathers
among three tribes, viz.: the Cattaraugus Indians, near Buffalo, N. Y.;
the Wyandots, of Ohio; and the Delawares, west of Missouri."--Aut. P.
P. Pratt, pp. 56-61.

12. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. lv.

13. William Wine Phelps, spoken of in the foregoing revelation, was
born at Hanover, Morris county, New Jersey, February 17th, 1792. He was
therefore in his fortieth year when he came to the Church at Kirtland,
to cast in his lot with the Saints. It appears that before making his
appearance at Kirtland, he had resided chiefly in the state of New
York; and had been somewhat active in politics. He had been the editor
of a partisan newspaper; and had aspired to be the candidate for the
office of lieutenant-governor of New York. On the 28th of April, 1815,
he married Sally Waterman, at Smyrna, Chenango county, New York.

14. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 56.

15. The phrase in the ninth verse of the foregoing revelation, "_As
there shall be no divisions made upon the land_," undoubtedly has
reference to the land upon which Ezra Thayre was living at Thompson,
and which he had covenanted, under some arrangement for compensation,
to grant to the Church, and which contract he attempted, at least, to
repudiate.

16. Reference is made to both Mr. Alexander Campbell and Mr. Scott,
and the founding of the "Campbellite" or "Disciples" sect in the
biographical sketch of Sidney Rigdon; as also Rigdon's connection with
that movement.--See pp. 120, 121.

17. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 57.

18. Verse fifteen.

19. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 58.

{196}



Chapter XVI.

The Founding of Zion.

[Sidenote: The First Act in the Founding of Zion.]

On the second day of August, I assisted the Colesville branch of the
Church [1] to lay the first log, for a house, as a foundation of Zion
in Kaw township, twelve miles west of Independence. The log was carried
and placed by twelve men, in honor of the twelve tribes of Israel. At
the same time, through prayer, the land of Zion was consecrated and
dedicated by Elder Sidney Rigdon for the gathering of the Saints. [2]
It was a season of joy to those present, and afforded a glimpse of the
future, which time will yet unfold to the satisfaction of the faithful.

{197} [Sidenote: Description of the Land of Zion.]

As we had received a commandment for Elder Rigdon to write a
description of the land of Zion, we sought for all the information
necessary to accomplish so desirable an object. The country is unlike
the timbered states of the East. As far as the eye can reach the
beautiful rolling prairies lie spread out like a sea of meadows;
and are decorated with a growth of flowers so gorgeous and grand as
to exceed description; and nothing is more fruitful, or a richer
stockholder in the blooming prairie than the honey bee. Only on the
water courses is timber to be found. There in strips from one to
three miles in width, and following faithfully the meanderings of the
streams, it grows in luxuriant forests. The forests are a mixture of
oak, hickory, black walnut, elm, ash, cherry, honey locust, mulberry,
coffee bean, hackberry, boxelder, and bass wood; with the addition
of cottonwood, butterwood, pecan, and soft and hard maple upon the
bottoms. The shrubbery is beautiful, and consists in part of plums,
grapes, crab apple, and persimmons.

[Sidenote: Agricultural Products. Animals, Domestic and Wild.]

The soil is rich and fertile; from three to ten feet deep, and
generally composed of a rich black mold, intermingled with clay and
sand. It yields in abundance, wheat, corn, sweet potatoes, cotton and
many other common agricultural products. Horses, cattle and hogs,
though of an inferior breed, are tolerably plentiful and seem nearly to
raise themselves by grazing in the vast prairie range in summer, and
feeding upon the bottoms in winter. The wild game is less plentiful of
course where man has commenced the cultivation of the soil, than in
the wild prairies. Buffalo, elk, deer, bear, wolves, beaver and many
smaller animals here roam at pleasure. Turkeys, geese, swans, ducks,
yea a variety of the feathered tribe, are among the rich abundance that
graces the delightful regions of this goodly land--the heritage of the
children of God.

{198} [Sidenote: The Climate.]

The season is mild and delightful nearly three quarters of the year,
and as the land of Zion, situated at about equal distances from the
Atlantic and Pacific oceans, as well as from the Alleghany and Rocky
mountains, in the thirty-ninth degree of north latitude, and between
the sixteenth and seventeenth degrees of west longitude, [3] it bids
fair--when the curse is taken from the land--to become one of the
most blessed places on the globe. The winters are milder than the
Atlantic states of the same parallel of latitude, and the weather is
more agreeable; so that were the virtues of the inhabitants only equal
to the blessings of the Lord which He permits to crown the industry
of those inhabitants, there would be a measure of the good things of
life for the benefit of the Saints, full, pressed down, and running
over even an hundred-fold. The disadvantages here, as in all new
countries, are self-evident--lack of mills and schools; together with
the natural privations and inconveniences which the hand of industry,
the refinement of society, and the polish of science, overcome.

[Sidenote: The Future Glory of Zion.]

But all these impediments vanish when it is recollected what the
Prophets have said concerning Zion in the last days; how the glory
of Lebanon is to come upon her; the fir tree, the pine tree, and the
box tree together, to beautify the place of His sanctuary, that He
may make the place of His feet glorious. Where for brass, He will
bring gold; and for iron, He will bring silver; and for wood, brass;
and for stones, iron; and where the feast of fat things will be given
to the just; yea, when the splendor of the Lord is brought to our
consideration for the good of His people, the calculations of men and
the vain glory of the world vanish, and we exclaim, "Out of Zion the
perfection of beauty, God hath shined."

{199} [Sidenote: Dedication of the Temple Site.]

On the third day of August, I proceeded to dedicate the spot for the
Temple, a little west of Independence, and there were also present
Sidney Rigdon, Edward Partridge, W. W. Phelps, Oliver Cowdery, Martin
Harris and Joseph Coe.

The 87th Psalm was read:--

    His foundation is in the holy mountains. The Lord loveth the gates
    of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob. Glorious things are
    spoken of thee, O city of God. Selah. I will make mention of Rahab
    and Babylon to them that know me: behold Philistia, and Tyre, with
    Ethiopia; this man was born there. And of Zion it shall be said,
    This and that man was born in her: and the Highest Himself shall
    establish her. The Lord shall count, when He writeth up the people,
    that this man was born there. Selah. As well the singers as the
    players on instruments shall be there: all my springs are in thee.

The scene was solemn and impressive.

[Sidenote: First Conference in Zion.]

On the 4th I attended the first conference in the land of Zion. It was
held at the house of Brother Joshua Lewis, in Kaw township, in the
presence of the Colesville branch of the Church. The Spirit of the Lord
was there.

[Sidenote: Death of Polly Knight.]

On the 7th, I attended the funeral of Sister Polly Knight, the wife
of Joseph Knight, Sen., this was the first death in the Church in
this land, and I can say, a worthy member sleeps in Jesus till the
resurrection. [4]

I also received the following:

    {200} _Revelation, given in Zion, August 7th, 1831._ [5]

    1. Behold, blessed, saith the Lord, are they who have come up
    unto this land with an eye single to my glory, according to my
    commandments;

    2. For those that live shall inherit the earth, and those that die
    shall rest from all their labors, and their works shall follow
    them, and they shall receive a crown in the mansions of my Father,
    which I have prepared for them;

    3. Yea, blessed are they whose feet stand upon the land of Zion,
    who have obeyed my Gospel, for they shall receive for their reward
    the good things of the earth; and it shall bring forth in its
    strength;

    4. And they shall also be crowned with blessings from above, yea,
    and with commandments not a few; and with revelations in their
    time: they that are faithful and diligent before me.

    5. Wherefore I give unto them a commandment, saying thus: Thou
    shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, with all thy might,
    mind and strength; and in the name of Jesus Christ thou shalt serve
    Him.

    6. Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. Thou shalt not steal;
    neither commit adultery, nor kill, nor do anything like unto it.

    7. Thou shalt thank the Lord thy God in all things.

    8. Thou shalt offer a sacrifice unto the Lord thy God in
    righteousness, even that of a broken heart and a contrite spirit.

    9. And that thou mayest more fully keep thyself unspotted from
    the world, thou shalt go to the house of prayer and offer up thy
    sacraments upon my holy day;

    10. For verily this is a day appointed unto you to rest from your
    labors, and to pay thy devotions unto the Most High;

    11. Nevertheless thy vows shall be offered up in righteousness on
    all days and at all times;

    12. But remember that on this, the Lord's day, thou shalt offer
    thine oblations; and thy sacraments unto the Most High, confessing
    thy sins unto thy brethren, and before the Lord.

    13. And on this day thou shalt do none other thing, only let thy
    food be prepared with singleness of heart, that thy fasting may be
    perfect, or, in other words, that thy joy may be full.

    14. Verily, this is fasting and prayer; or in other words,
    rejoicing and prayer.

    15. And inasmuch as ye do these things with thanksgiving, with
    cheerful hearts and countenances; not with much laughter, for this
    is sin, but with a glad heart and a cheerful countenance;

    {201} 16. Verily I say, that inasmuch as ye do this, the fulness of
    the earth is yours: the beasts of the field and the fowls of the
    air, and that which climbeth upon the trees and walketh upon the
    earth;

    17. Yea, and the herb, and the good things which come of the earth,
    whether for food or for raiment, or for houses, or for barns, or
    for orchards, or for gardens, or for vineyards;

    18. Yea, all things which come of the earth, in the season thereof,
    are made for the benefit and the use of man, both to please the eye
    and to gladden the heart;

    19. Yea, for food and for raiment, for taste and for smell, to
    strengthen the body and to enliven the soul.

    20. And it pleaseth God that He hath given all these things unto
    man; for unto this end were they made to be used with judgment, not
    to excess, neither by extortion:

    21. And in nothing doth man offend God, or against none is His
    wrath kindled, save those who confess not His hand in all things,
    and obey not His commandments.

    22. Behold, this is according to the law and the prophets;
    wherefore, trouble me no more concerning this matter.

    23. But learn that he who doeth the works of righteousness shall
    receive his reward, even peace in this world, and eternal life in
    the world to come.

    24. I, the Lord have spoken it, and the Spirit beareth record. Amen.

[Sidenote: Directions for the Elders.]

On the 8th, as there had been some inquiry among the Elders what they
were to do, I received the following:

    _Revelation, given August, 1831_. [6]

    1. Behold, thus saith the Lord unto the Elders of His Church, who
    are to return speedily to the land from whence they came. Behold,
    it pleaseth me, that you have come up hither;

    2. But with some I am not well pleased, for they will not open
    their mouths, but they hide the talent which I have given unto
    them, because of the fear of man. Wo unto such, for mine anger is
    kindled against them.

    3. And it shall come to pass, if they are not more faithful unto
    me, it shall be taken away, even that which they have;

    4. For I, the Lord, rule in the heavens above, and among the armies
    of the earth; and in the day when I shall make up my jewels, all
    men shall know what it is that bespeaketh the power of God.

    {202} 5. But verily, I will speak unto you concerning your journey
    unto the land from whence you came. Let there be a craft made, or
    bought, as seemeth you good, it mattereth not unto me, and take
    your journey speedily for the place which is called St. Louis.

    6. And from thence let my servants Sidney Rigdon, Joseph Smith,
    Jun., and Oliver Cowdery, take their journey for Cincinnati;

    7. And in this place let them lift up their voice and declare my
    word with loud voices, without wrath or doubting, lifting up holy
    hands upon them. For I am able to make you holy, and your sins are
    forgiven you.

    8. And let the residue take their journey from St. Louis, two by
    two, and preach the word, not in haste, among the congregations of
    the wicked, until they return to the churches from whence they came.

    9. And all this for the good of the churches; for this intent have
    I sent them.

    10. And let my servant Edward Partridge impart of the money which
    I have given him, a portion unto mine Elders who are commanded to
    return;

    11. And he that is able, let him return by the way of the agent,
    and he that is not, of him it is not required.

    12. And now I speak of the residue who are to come unto this land.

    13. Behold, they have been sent to preach my Gospel among the
    congregations of the wicked; wherefore, I give unto them a
    commandment thus: Thou shalt not idle away thy time, neither shalt
    thou bury thy talent that it may not be known.

    14. And after thou hast come up unto the land of Zion, and hast
    proclaimed my word, thou shalt speedily return, proclaiming my word
    among the congregations of the wicked, not in haste, neither in
    wrath nor with strife;

    15. And shake off the dust of thy feet against those who receive
    thee not; not in their presence, lest thou provoke them; but in
    secret, and wash thy feet, as a testimony against them in the day
    of judgment.

    16. Behold, this is sufficient for you, and the will of Him who
    hath sent you.

    17. And by the mouth of my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., it shall be
    made known concerning Sidney Rigdon and Oliver Cowdery. The residue
    hereafter. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: Prophet and Others Depart for Kirtland.]

On the 9th, in company with ten Elders, I left Independence landing for
Kirtland. We started down the river in canoes, and went the first day
as far as Fort Osage, where we had an excellent wild turkey for supper.
Nothing very important {203} occurred till the third day, when many of
the dangers so common upon the western waters, manifested themselves;
and after we had encamped upon the bank of the river, at McIlwaine's
Bend, Brother Phelps, in open vision by daylight, saw the destroyer in
his most horrible power, ride upon the face of the waters; others heard
the noise, but saw not the vision.

The next morning after prayer, I received the following:

    _Revelation, given August, 1831._ [7]

    1. Behold, and hearken unto the voice of Him who has all power,
    who is from everlasting to everlasting, even Alpha and Omega, the
    beginning and the end.

    2. Behold, verily thus saith the Lord unto you, O ye Elders of
    my Church, who are assembled upon this spot, whose sins are now
    forgiven you, for I, the Lord, forgive sins, and am merciful unto
    those who confess their sins with humble hearts;

    3. But verily I say unto you, that it is not needful for this whole
    company of mine Elders to be moving swiftly upon the waters, whilst
    the inhabitants on either side are perishing in unbelief;

    4. Nevertheless, I suffered it that ye might bear record; behold,
    there are many dangers upon the waters, and more especially
    hereafter;

    5. For I, the Lord, have decreed in mine anger, many destructions
    upon the waters; yea, and especially upon these waters;

    6. Nevertheless, all flesh is in mine hand, and he that is faithful
    among you shall not perish by the waters.

    7. Wherefore it is expedient that my servant Sidney Gilbert and
    my servant William W. Phelps, be in haste upon their errand and
    mission;

    8. Nevertheless I would not suffer that ye should part until you
    were chastened for all your sins, that you might be one, that you
    might not perish in wickedness;

    9. But now, verily I say, it behoveth me that ye should part,
    wherefore let my servants Sidney Gilbert and William W. Phelps take
    their former company, and let them take their journey in haste that
    they may fill their mission, and through faith they shall overcome;

    10. And inasmuch as they are faithful they shall be preserved, and
    I, the Lord, will be with them.

    11. And let the residue take that which is needful for clothing.

    {204} 12. Let my servant Sidney Gilbert take that which is not
    needful with him, as you shall agree.

    13. And now, behold, for your good I gave unto you a commandment
    concerning these things; and I, the Lord, will reason with you as
    with men in days of old.

    14. Behold, I, the Lord, in the beginning blessed the waters, but
    in the last days, by the mouth of my servant John, I cursed the
    waters;

    15. Wherefore, the days will come that no flesh shall be safe upon
    the waters,

    16. And it shall be said in days to come that none is able to go
    up to the land of Zion upon the waters, but he that is upright in
    heart.

    17. And, as I, the Lord, in the beginning cursed the land, even so
    in the last days have I blessed it, in its time, for the use of my
    Saints, that they may partake the fatness thereof.

    18. And now I give unto you a commandment that what I say unto one
    I say unto all, that you shall forewarn your brethren concerning
    these waters, that they come not in journeying upon them, lest
    their faith fail and they are caught in snares;

    19. I, the Lord have decreed, and the destroyer rideth upon the
    face thereof, and I revoke not the decree;

    20. I, the Lord, was angry with you yesterday, but today mine anger
    is turned away.

    21. Wherefore, let those concerning whom I have spoken, that should
    take their journey in haste--again I say unto you, let them take
    their journey in haste.

    22. And it mattereth not unto me, after a little, if it so be that
    they fill their mission, whether they go by water or by land; let
    this be as it is made known unto them according to their judgments
    hereafter.

    23. And now, concerning my servants Sidney Rigdon, and Joseph
    Smith, Jun., and Oliver Cowdery, let them come not again upon the
    waters, save it be upon the canal, while journeying unto their
    homes, or in other words they shall not come upon the waters to
    journey, save upon the canal.

    24. Behold, I, the Lord, have appointed a way for the journeying of
    my Saints, and behold this is the way--that after they leave the
    canal, they shall journey by land, inasmuch as they are commanded
    to journey and go up unto the land of Zion;

    25. And they shall do like unto the children of Israel, pitching
    their tents by the way.

    26. And, behold, this commandment you shall give unto all your
    brethren;

    {205} 27. Nevertheless, unto whom it is given power to command the
    waters, unto him it is given by the Spirit to know all his ways;

    28. Wherefore let him do as the Spirit of the living God commandeth
    him, whether upon the land or upon the waters, as it remaineth with
    me to do hereafter;

    29. And unto you it is given the course for the Saints, or the way
    for the Saints of the camp of the Lord, to journey.

    30. And again, verily I say unto you, my servants Sidney Rigdon,
    Joseph Smith, Jun., and Oliver Cowdery, shall not open their mouths
    in the congregations of the wicked, until they arrive at Cincinnati;

    31. And in that place they shall lift up their voices unto
    God against that people; yea unto Him whose anger is kindled
    against their wickedness; a people who are well-nigh ripened for
    destruction;

    32. And from thence let them journey for the congregations of their
    brethren, for their labors even now, are wanted more abundantly
    among them than among the congregations of the wicked.

    33. And now concerning the residue, let them journey and declare
    the word among the congregations of the wicked, inasmuch as it is
    given;

    34. And inasmuch as they do this they shall rid their garments, and
    they shall be spotless before me;

    35. And let them journey together, or two by two, as seemeth them
    good, only let my servant Reynolds Cahoon, and my servant Samuel
    H. Smith, with whom I am well pleased, be not separated until they
    return to their homes, and this for a wise purpose in me.

    36. And now, verily I say unto you, and what I say unto one I say
    unto all, be of good cheer little children, for I am in your midst,
    and I have not forsaken you;

    37. And inasmuch as you have humbled yourselves before me, the
    blessings of the kingdom are yours.

    38. Gird up your loins and be watchful and be sober, looking forth
    for the coming of the Son of Man, for He cometh in an hour you
    think not.

    39. Pray always that you enter not into temptation, that you may
    abide the day of His coming, whether in life or in death. Even so.
    Amen.

[Sidenote: A Chance Meeting of Elders.]

On the 13th [August] I met several of the Elders on their way to the
land of Zion, and after the joyful salutations with which brethren meet
each other, who are actually "contending for the faith once delivered
to the Saints," I received the following:

    {206} _Revelation, given August, 1831._ [8]

    1. Behold, and hearken O ye Elders of my Church, saith the Lord
    your God, even Jesus Christ, your advocate, who knoweth the
    weakness of man and how to succor them who are tempted;

    2. And verily mine eyes are upon those who have not as yet gone up
    unto the land of Zion; wherefore your mission is not yet full;

    3. Nevertheless ye are blessed, for the testimony which ye have
    borne, is recorded in heaven for the angels to look upon, and they
    rejoice over you, and your sins are forgiven you.

    4. And now continue your journey. Assemble yourselves upon the
    land of Zion, and hold a meeting and rejoice together, and offer a
    sacrament unto the Most High;

    5. And then you may return to bear record, yea, even all together,
    or two by two, as seemeth you good, it mattereth not unto me, only
    be faithful, and declare glad tidings unto the inhabitants of the
    earth, of among the congregations of the wicked.

    6. Behold, I, the Lord, have brought you together that the promise
    might be fulfilled, that the faithful among you should be preserved
    and rejoice together in the land of Missouri. I, the Lord, promised
    the faithful and cannot lie.

    7. I, the Lord, am willing, if any among you desire to ride upon
    horses, or upon mules, or in chariots, he shall receive this
    blessing, if he receive it from the hand of the Lord, with a
    thankful heart in all things.

    8. These things remain with you to do according to judgment and the
    directions of the Spirit.

    9. Behold, the kingdom is yours. And behold, and lo, I am with the
    faithful always. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: Arrival of the Prophet and Party at Kirtland.]

After this meeting with the Elders, Sidney Rigdon, Oliver Cowdery, and
myself, continued our journey by land to St. Louis, where we overtook
Brothers Phelps and Gilbert. From this place we took stage, and they
went by water to Kirtland, where we arrived safe and well on the 27th
[August]. Many things transpired upon this journey to strengthen our
faith, and which displayed the goodness of God in such a marvelous
manner, that we could not help beholding the exertions of Satan to
blind the eyes of the people, so as to hide the true light that lights
every man that comes into the world.

{207} [Sidenote: Anxiety of the Saints to Receive the Word of the Lord.]

In these infant days of the Church, there was a great anxiety to obtain
the word of the Lord upon every subject that in any way concerned our
salvation; and as the land of Zion was now the most important temporal
object in view, I enquired of the Lord for further information upon
the gathering of the Saints, and the purchase of the land, and other
matters, and received the following:

    _Revelation, given in Kirtland, August, 1831._ [9]

    1. Hearken, O ye people, and open your hearts and give ear from
    afar; and listen, you that call yourselves the people of the Lord,
    and hear the word of the Lord and His will concerning you:

    2. Yea, verily, I say, hear the word of Him whose anger is kindled
    against the wicked and rebellious;

    3. Who willeth to take even them whom He will take, and preserveth
    in life them whom He will preserve;

    4. Who buildeth up at His own will and pleasure; and destroyeth
    when he pleases, and is able to cast the soul down to hell.

    5. Behold, I, the Lord, utter my voice, and it shall be obeyed.

    6. Wherefore, verily I say, let the wicked take heed, and let the
    rebellious fear and tremble; and let the unbelieving hold their
    lips, for the day of wrath shall come upon them as a whirlwind, and
    all flesh shall know that I am God.

    7. And he that seeketh signs shall see signs, but not unto
    salvation.

    8. Verily, I say unto you, there are those among you who seek
    signs, and there have been such even from the beginning;

    9. But, behold, faith cometh not by signs, but signs follow those
    that believe.

    10. Yea, signs come by faith, not by the will of men, nor as they
    please, but by the will of God.

    11. Yea, signs come by faith, unto mighty works, for without faith
    no man pleaseth God: and with whom God is angry He is not well
    pleased; wherefore, unto such He showeth no sign, only in wrath
    unto their condemnation.

    12. Wherefore, I, the Lord, am not pleased with those among you who
    have sought after signs and wonders for faith, and not for the good
    of men unto my glory;

    13. Nevertheless, I gave commandments, and many have turned away
    from my commandments and have not kept them.

    {208} 14. There were among you adulterers and adulteresses; some
    of whom have turned away from you, and others remain with you that
    hereafter shall be revealed.

    15. Let such beware and repent speedily, lest judgment shall come
    upon them as a snare, and their folly shall be made manifest, and
    their works shall follow them in the eyes of the people.

    16. And, verily, I say unto you, as I have said before, he that
    looketh upon a woman to lust after her, or if any shall commit
    adultery in their hearts, they shall not have the Spirit, but shall
    deny the faith and shall fear:

    17. Wherefore I, the Lord, have said that the fearful, and the
    unbelieving, and all liars, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie,
    and the whoremonger, and the sorcerer, shall have their part in
    that lake which burneth with fire and brimstone which is the second
    death.

    18. Verily I say, that they shall not have part in the first
    resurrection.

    19. And now, behold, I, the Lord, say unto you, that ye are not
    justified because these things are among you;

    20. Nevertheless he that endureth in faith and doeth my will, the
    same shall overcome, and shall receive an inheritance upon the
    earth when the day of transfiguration shall come;

    21. When the earth shall be transfigured, even according to the
    pattern which was shown unto mine apostles upon the mount; of which
    account the fulness ye have not yet received.

    22. And now, verily, I say unto you, that as I said that I would
    make known my will unto you, behold I will make it known unto you,
    not by the way of commandment, for there are many who observe not
    to keep my commandments.

    23. But unto him that keepeth my commandments, I will give the
    mysteries of my kingdom, and the same shall be in him a well of
    living water, springing up unto everlasting life.

    24. And now, behold, this is the will of the Lord your God
    concerning His Saints, that they should assemble themselves
    together unto the land of Zion, not in haste, lest there should be
    confusion, which bringeth pestilence.

    25. Behold, the land of Zion, I, the Lord, hold it in mine own
    hands;

    26. Nevertheless, I, the Lord, render unto Caesar the things which
    are Caesar's:

    27. Wherefore, I, the Lord, will that you should purchase the lands
    that you may have advantage of the world, that you may have claim
    on the world, that they may not be stirred up unto anger;

    28. For Satan putteth it into their hearts to anger against you,
    and to the shedding of blood.

    {209} 29. Wherefore the land of Zion shall not be obtained but by
    purchase or by blood, otherwise there is none inheritance for you.

    30. And if by purchase, behold you are blessed;

    31. And if by blood, as you are forbidden to shed blood, lo, your
    enemies are upon you, and ye shall be scourged from city to city,
    and from synagogue to synagogue, and but few shall stand to receive
    an inheritance.

    32. I, the Lord, am angry with the wicked; I am holding my Spirit
    from the inhabitants of the earth.

    33. I have sworn in my wrath, and decreed wars upon the face of the
    earth, and the wicked shall slay the wicked, and fear shall come
    upon every man,

    34. And the Saints also shall hardly escape; nevertheless, I, the
    Lord, am with them, and will come down in heaven from the presence
    of my Father, and consume the wicked with unquenchable fire.

    35. And behold, this is not yet, but by and by;

    36. Wherefore, seeing that I, the Lord, have decreed all these
    things upon the face of the earth, I will that my Saints should be
    assembled upon the land of Zion;

    37. And that every man should take righteousness in his hands and
    faithfulness upon his loins, and lift a warning voice unto the
    inhabitants of the earth; and declare both by word and by flight,
    that desolation shall come upon the wicked.

    38. Wherefore let my disciples in Kirtland arrange their temporal
    concerns, who dwell upon this farm.

    39. Let my servant Titus Billings, who has the care thereof,
    dispose of the land, that he may be prepared in the coming spring
    to take his journey up unto the land of Zion, with those that dwell
    upon the face thereof, excepting those whom I shall reserve unto
    myself, that shall not go until I shall command them.

    40. And let all the monies which can be spared, it mattereth not
    unto me whether it be little or much, be sent up unto the land of
    Zion, unto them whom I have appointed to receive.

    41. Behold, I, the Lord, will give unto my servant Joseph Smith,
    Jun., power that he shall be enabled to discern by the Spirit those
    who shall go up unto the land of Zion, and those of my disciples
    who shall tarry.

    42. Let my servant Newel K. Whitney retain his store, or in other
    words, the store yet for a little season.

    43. Nevertheless let him impart all the money which he can impart,
    to be sent up unto the land of Zion.

    44. Behold, these things are in his own hands, let him do according
    to wisdom.

    {210} 45. Verily I say, let him be ordained as an agent unto the
    disciples that shall tarry, and let him be ordained unto this power;

    46. And now speedily visit the churches, expounding these things
    unto them, with my servant Oliver Cowdery. Behold, this is my will,
    obtaining moneys even as I have directed.

    47. He that is faithful and endureth shall overcome the world.

    48. He that sendeth up treasures unto the land of Zion, shall
    receive an inheritance in this world, and his works shall follow
    him, and also a reward in the world to come:

    49. Yea, and blessed are the dead that die in the Lord from
    henceforth, when the Lord shall come, and old things shall pass
    away, and all things become new, they shall rise from the dead and
    shall not die after, and shall receive an inheritance before the
    Lord, in the holy city.

    50. And he that liveth when the Lord shall come, and has kept the
    faith, blessed is he; nevertheless it is appointed to him to die at
    the age of man.

    51. Wherefore, children shall grow up until they become old, old
    men shall die; but they shall not sleep in the dust, but they shall
    be changed in the twinkling of an eye.

    52. Wherefore, for this cause preached the apostles unto the world
    the resurrection of the dead.

    53. These things are the things that ye must look for, and,
    speaking after the manner of the Lord, they are now nigh at hand,
    and in a time to come, even in the day of the coming of the Son of
    Man.

    54. And until that hour there will be foolish virgins among the
    wise; and at that hour cometh an entire separation of the righteous
    and the wicked; and in that day will I send mine angels to pluck
    out the wicked and cast them into unquenchable fire.

    55. And now behold, verily I say unto you, I the Lord, am not
    pleased with my servant Sidney Rigdon, he exalted himself in his
    heart, and received not counsel, but grieved the Spirit;

    56. Wherefore his writing is not acceptable unto the Lord, and
    he shall make another and if the Lord receive it not, behold he
    standeth no longer in the office which I have appointed him.

    57. And again, verily I say unto you, those who desire in their
    hearts, in meekness, to warn sinners to repentance, let them be
    ordained unto this power.

    58. For this is a day of warning, and not a day of many words. For
    I, the Lord, am not to be mocked in the last days.

    59. Behold, I am from above, and my power lieth beneath. I am over
    all, and in all, and through all, and search all things, and the
    day cometh that all things shall be subject unto me.

    60. Behold, I am Alpha and Omega, even Jesus Christ.

    {211} 61. Wherefore let all men beware how they take my name in
    their lips;

    62. For, behold, verily I say, that many there be who are under
    this condemnation, who use the name of the Lord, and use it in
    vain, having not authority.

    63. Wherefore, let the Church repent of their sins, and I, the
    Lord, will own them, otherwise they shall be cut off.

    64. Remember that that which cometh from above, is sacred, and must
    be spoken with care, and by constraint of the Spirit, and in this
    there is no condemnation, and ye receive the Spirit through prayer;
    wherefore, without this there remaineth condemnation.

    65. Let my servants, Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney Rigdon, seek
    them a home, as they are taught through prayer by the Spirit.

    66. These things remain to overcome through patience, that such may
    receive a more exceeding and eternal weight of glory, otherwise, a
    greater condemnation. Amen.

[Sidenote: Preparations to Move to Hiram.]

The early part of September was spent in making preparations to remove
to the town of Hiram, and renew our work on the translation of the
Bible. The brethren who were commanded to go up to Zion were earnestly
engaged in getting ready to start in the coming October. On the 11th of
September I received the following:

    _Revelation, given in Kirtland._ [10]

    1. Behold, thus saith the Lord your God unto you, O ye Elders of my
    Church, hearken ye and hear, and receive my will concerning you;

    2. For verily I say unto you, I will that ye should overcome the
    world; wherefore I will have compassion upon you.

    3. There are those among you who have sinned; but verily I say, for
    this once, for mine own glory, and for the salvation of souls, I
    have forgiven you your sins.

    4. I will be merciful unto you, for I have given unto you the
    kingdom:

    5. And the keys of the mysteries of the kingdom shall not be taken
    from my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., through the means I have
    appointed, while he liveth, inasmuch as he obeyeth mine ordinances.

    6. There are those who have sought occasion against him without
    cause;

    {212} 7. Nevertheless he has sinned but verily I say unto you, I,
    the Lord forgive sins unto those who confess their sins before me
    and ask forgiveness, who have not sinned unto death.

    8. My disciples, in days of old, sought occasion against one
    another, and forgave not one another in their hearts, and for this
    evil they were afflicted, and sorely chastened.

    9. Wherefore, I say unto you, that ye ought to forgive one another,
    for he that forgiveth not his brother his trespasses, standeth
    condemned before the Lord, for there remaineth in him the greater
    sin.

    10. I, the Lord, will forgive whom I will forgive, but of you it is
    required to forgive all men;

    11. And ye ought to say in your hearts, let God judge between me
    and thee, and reward thee according to thy deeds.

    12. And him that repenteth not of his sins, and confesseth them
    not, ye shall bring before the Church, and do with him as the
    Scripture saith unto you, either by commandment or by revelation.

    13. And this ye shall do that God may be glorified, not because ye
    forgive not, having not compassion, but that ye may be justified
    in the eyes of the law, that ye may not offend Him who is your
    Lawgiver.

    14. Verily I say, for this cause ye shall do these things.

    15. Behold, I, the Lord, was angry with him who was my servant Ezra
    Booth, and also my servant Isaac Morley, for they kept not the law,
    neither the commandment;

    16. They sought evil in their hearts, and I, the Lord, withheld my
    Spirit. They condemned for evil that thing in which there was no
    evil; nevertheless I have forgiven my servant Isaac Morley.

    17. And also my servant Edward Partridge, behold, he hath sinned,
    and Satan seeketh to destroy his soul; but when these things are
    made known unto them, and they repent of the evil, they shall be
    forgiven.

    18. And now, verily I say, that it is expedient in me that my
    servant Sidney Gilbert, after a few weeks, shall return upon his
    business, and to his agency in the land of Zion;

    19. And that which he hath seen and heard may be made known unto my
    disciples, that they perish not. And for this cause have I spoken
    these things.

    20. And again, I say unto you, that my servant Isaac Morley may
    not be tempted above that which he is able to bear, and counsel
    wrongfully to your hurt, I gave commandment that his farm should be
    sold.

    21. I will not that my servant Frederick G. Williams should sell
    his farm, for I, the Lord, will to retain a strong hold in the land
    of Kirtland, for the space of five years, in the which I will not
    overthrow the wicked, that thereby I may save some;

    22. And after that day, I, the Lord, will not hold any guilty that
    shall {213} go with an open heart up to the land of Zion; for I the
    Lord, require the hearts of the children of men.

    23. Behold, now it is called today (until the coming of the Son
    of Man), and verily it is a day of sacrifice, and a day for the
    tithing of my people; for he that is tithed shall not be burned (at
    His coming);

    24. For after today cometh the burning: this is speaking after the
    manner of the Lord; for verily I say, tomorrow all the proud and
    they that do wickedly shall be as stubble; and I will burn them up,
    for I am the Lord of hosts: and I will not spare any that remain in
    Babylon.

    25. Wherefore, if ye believe me, ye will labor while it is called
    today.

    26. And it is not meet that my servants, Newel K. Whitney and
    Sidney Gilbert, should sell their store and their possessions here,
    for this is not wisdom until the residue of the Church, which
    remaineth in this place, shall go up unto the land of Zion.

    27. Behold, it is said in my laws, or forbidden, to get in debt to
    thine enemies;

    28. But behold, it is not said at any time that the Lord should not
    take when He please, and pay as seemeth Him good:

    29. Wherefore, as ye are agents, ye are on the Lord's errand; and
    whatever ye do according to the will of the Lord, is the Lord's
    business,

    30. And He hath set you to provide for His Saints in these last
    days, that they may obtain an inheritance in the land of Zion:

    31. And behold, I, the Lord, declare unto you, and my words are
    sure and shall not fail, that they shall obtain it;

    32. But all things must come to pass in their time;

    33. Wherefore, be not weary in well-doing, for ye are laying the
    foundation of a great work. And out of small things proceedeth that
    which is great.

    34. Behold, the Lord requireth the heart and a willing mind; and
    the willing and obedient shall eat the good of the land of Zion in
    these last days;

    35. And the rebellious shall be cut off out of the land of Zion,
    and shall be sent away, and shall not inherit the land:

    36. For, verily, I say that the rebellious are not of the blood of
    Ephraim, wherefore they shall be plucked out.

    37. Behold, I, the Lord, have made my Church in these last days
    like unto a judge sitting on a hill, or in a high place, to judge
    the nations;

    38. For it shall come to pass that the inhabitants of Zion shall
    judge all things pertaining to Zion;

    39. And liars and hypocrites shall be proved by them, and they who
    are not apostles and prophets shall be known.

    {214} 40. And even the Bishop, who is a judge, and his counselors,
    if they are not faithful in their stewardships, shall be condemned,
    and others shall be planted in their stead;

    41. For, behold, I say unto you that Zion shall flourish, and the
    glory of the Lord shall be upon her,

    42. And she shall be an ensign unto the people, and there shall
    come unto her out of every nation under heaven.

    43. And the day shall come when the nations of the earth shall
    tremble because of her, and shall fear because of her terrible
    ones. The Lord hath spoken it. Amen.

Footnotes

1. The Colesville branch of the Church numbered about sixty
souls.--Statement made by Oliver Cowdery in "John Whitmer's History of
the Church," ch. ix.

2. Speaking of this second of August meeting, in addition to what the
Prophet relates in his narrative, John Whitmer, in his "History of
the Church," (ch. ix) gives the following interesting details from a
statement of Oliver Cowdery's: "On the second day of August, 1831,
Rigdon stood up and asked, saying,

"'Do you receive this land for the land of your inheritance with
thankful hearts from the Lord?'

"Answer from all: 'We do.'

"'Do you pledge yourselves to keep the law of God in this land which
you never have kept in your own lands?'

"'We do.'

"'Do you pledge yourselves to see that others of your brethren who
shall come hither do keep the laws of God?'

"'We do.'

"After prayer, he arose and said: 'I now pronounce this land
consecrated and dedicated unto the Lord for a possession and
inheritance for the Saints, and for all the faithful servants of the
Lord to the remotest ages of time. In the name of Jesus Christ, having
authority from Him. Amen.'"

3. This is the Washington longitude. It is between ninety-five and
ninety-six degrees west longitude from Greenwich.

4. Polly Knight's health had been failing for some time, according to a
statement made by her son, Newel. She was very ill during her journey
from Kirtland to Missouri. "Yet," says her son, "she would not consent
to stop traveling; her only, or her greatest desire was to set her feet
upon the land of Zion, and to have her body interred in that land. I
went on shore and bought lumber to make a coffin, in case she should
die before we arrived at our place of destination--so fast did she
fail. But the Lord gave her the desire of her heart, and she lived to
stand upon that land."--_Scraps of Biography_, p. 70.

5. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 59.

6. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 60.

7. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 61.

8. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 62.

9. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 63.

10. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 64.

{215}



Chapter XVII.

The Apostasy of Ezra Booth--Preparations for Publishing the Book of
Commandments.

[Sidenote: The Prophet Moves to Hiram.]

On the 12th of September, I removed with my family to the township of
Hiram, and commenced living with John Johnson. Hiram was in Portage
county, and about thirty miles south-easterly from Kirtland. From this
time until the forepart of October, I did little more than prepare to
re-commence the translation of the Bible. [1]

[Sidenote: Ezra Booth's Apostasy.]

About this time Ezra Booth came out as an apostate. He came into the
Church upon seeing a person healed of an infirmity of many years
standing. [2] He had been a Methodist priest for some time previous
to his embracing the fulness of the Gospel, {216} as developed in the Book
of Mormon; and upon his admission into the Church he was ordained an
Elder. As will be seen by the foregoing revelations, [3] he went up to
Missouri as a companion of Elder Morley; but when he actually learned
that faith, humility, patience, and tribulation go before blessing, and
that God brings low before He exalts; that instead of the "Savior's
granting him power to smite men and make them believe," (as he said he
wanted God to do in his own case)--when he found he must become all
things to all men, that he might peradventure, save some; and that,
too, by all diligence, by perils by sea and land; as was the case in
the days of Jesus--then he was disappointed. In the 6th chapter of St.
John's Gospel, 26th verse, it is written: "Verily, verily I say unto
you, Ye seek me, not because ye saw the miracles, but because ye did
eat of the loaves, and were filled." So it was with Booth; and when he
was disappointed by his own evil heart, he turned away, and as said
before, became an apostate, and wrote a series of letters, [4] which,
by their {217} coloring, falsity, and vain calculations to overthrow
the work of the Lord, exposed his weakness, wickedness and folly, and
left him a monument of his own shame, for the world to wonder at. [5]

[Sidenote: The Purchase of a Press.]

A conference was held in which Brother W. W. Phelps was instructed to
stop at Cincinnati on his way to Missouri and purchase a press and
type, for the purpose of establishing and publishing a monthly paper at
Independence, Jackson county, Missouri, to be called the _Evening and
Morning Star_.

The first Sunday in October, Orson Hyde, [6] a clerk in Brother Sidney
Gilbert and Newel K. Whitney's store, in Kirtland, was baptized, and
became a member of the Church. He was soon after designated as one of
the chosen men of the Lord, to bear His word to the nations.

{218} [Sidenote: A Prayer Revealed.]

In the fore part of October, I received the following prayer through
revelation:

    _Revelation_. [7]

    1. Hearken, and lo, a voice as of one sent down from on high, who
    is mighty and powerful, whose going forth is unto the ends of the
    earth, yea, whose voice is unto men--Prepare ye the way of the
    Lord, make His paths straight.

    2. The keys of the kingdom of God are committed unto man on the
    earth, and from thence shall the Gospel roll forth unto the ends of
    the earth, as the stone which is cut out of the mountain without
    hands shall roll forth, until it has filled the whole earth;

    3. Yea, a voice crying; prepare ye the way of the Lord, prepare ye
    the supper of the Lamb, make ready for the Bridegroom;

    4. Pray unto the Lord, call upon His holy name, make known His
    wonderful works among the people;

    5. Call upon the Lord, that His kingdom may go forth upon the
    earth, that the inhabitants thereof may receive it, and be prepared
    for the days to come, in the which the Son of Man shall come down
    in heaven, clothed in the brightness of His glory, to meet the
    kingdom of God which is set up on the earth;

    6. Wherefore, may the kingdom of God go forth, that the kingdom of
    heaven may come, that thou, O God, mayest be glorified in heaven
    so on earth, that thine enemies may be subdued; for thine is the
    honor, power and glory, for ever and ever. Amen.

[Sidenote: Revision of the Bible Renewed.]

{219} Soon after the above revelation was received, I renewed my work
on the translation of the Scriptures, in company with Elder Rigdon, who
had removed to Hiram, to act in his office of scribe to me.

[Sidenote: Instructions and Appointments of the Conference of October
11th.]

On the 11th of October, a conference was held at Brother Johnson's,
where I was living, at which the Elders were instructed in the ancient
manner of conducting meetings, of which knowledge most of them were
ignorant. A committee of six was appointed to instruct the several
branches of the Church. Elders David Whitmer and Reynolds Cahoon were
appointed as two of the said committee; with the further duty on their
mission, of setting forth the condition of Brothers Joseph Smith,
Jun., and Sidney Rigdon, that they might obtain means to continue the
translation. This conference was adjourned till the 25th of October, to
meet at the house of Irenus Burnett, in Orange, Cuyahoga county.

[Sidenote: Special Conference of October 21st.]

On the 21st, I attended a special conference, to settle a difficulty
which had occurred in Kirtland, on account of William Cahoon and Peter
Devolue, having abused one of Brother Whitney's children. Elder Rigdon
and myself were appointed to go to Kirtland and settle the difficulty,
which we did.

[Sidenote: Conference at Orange, Ohio, October 25th.]

At the conference on the 25th, at Orange, twelve High Priests,
seventeen Elders, four Priests, three Teachers, and four Deacons,
together with a large congregation attended. Much business was done,
and the four remaining members of the committee, authorized by the
conference at Hiram on the 11th, were appointed, and consisted of
Simeon Carter, Orson Hyde, Hyrum Smith, and Emer Harris. [8]

{220} At the request of William E. M'Lellin, [9] I inquired of the
Lord, and received the following:

    _Revelation, given October, 1831._ [10]

    1. Behold, thus saith the Lord unto my servant William E. M'Lellin,
    {221} Blessed are you, inasmuch as you have turned away from your
    iniquities, and have received my truths, saith the Lord your
    Redeemer, the Savior of the world, even of as many as believe on my
    name.

    2. Verily I say unto you, blessed are you for receiving mine
    everlasting covenant, even the fullness of my Gospel, sent forth
    unto the children of men, that they might have life and be made
    partakers of the glories which are to be revealed in the last days,
    as it was written by the prophets and apostles in days of old.

    3. Verily I say unto you, my servant William, that you are clean,
    but not all; repent, therefore, of those things which are not
    pleasing in my sight, saith the Lord, for the Lord will show them
    unto you.

    4. And now, verily, I, the Lord, will show unto you what I will
    concerning you, or what is my will concerning you;

    5. Behold, verily I say unto you, that it is my will that you
    should proclaim my Gospel from land to land, and from city to city;
    yea, in those regions round about where it has not been proclaimed.

    6. Tarry not many days in this place; go not up unto the land of
    Zion as yet; but inasmuch as you can send, send; otherwise think
    not of thy property.

    7. Go unto the eastern lands, bear testimony in every place, unto
    every people and in their synagogues; reasoning with the people.

    8. Let my servant Samuel H. Smith go with you, and forsake him not,
    and give him thine instructions; and he that is faithful shall be
    made strong in every place, and I, the Lord, will go with you.

    9. Lay your hands upon the sick, and they shall recover. Return not
    till I the Lord shall send you. Be patient in affliction. Ask and
    ye shall receive; knock and it shall be opened unto you.

    10. Seek not to be cumbered. Forsake all unrighteousness. Commit
    not adultery, a temptation with which thou hast been troubled.

    11. Keep these sayings, for they are true and faithful, and thou
    shalt magnify thine office, and push many people to Zion with songs
    of everlasting joy upon their heads.

    12. Continue in these things even unto the end, and you shall have
    a crown of eternal life at the right hand of my Father, who is full
    of grace and truth.

    13. Verily, thus saith the Lord your God, your Redeemer, even Jesus
    Christ. Amen.

[Sidenote: Special Conference November 1st.]

I returned from the conference at Orange, to Hiram; and as Oliver
Cowdery and John Whitmer were to start for Independence, Missouri, a
special conference was appointed for the {222} first of November, [11]
at which I received the following:

    _Revelation._ [12]

    1. Hearken, O ye people of my Church, saith the voice of Him who
    dwells on high, and whose eyes are upon all men; yea, verily I say,
    hearken ye people from afar; and ye that are upon the islands of
    the sea, listen together.

    2. For verily the voice of the Lord is unto all men, and there is
    none to escape, and there is no eye that shall not see, neither ear
    that shall not hear, neither heart that shall not be penetrated.

    3. And the rebellious shall be pierced with much sorrow, for their
    iniquities shall be spoken upon the housetops, and their secret
    acts shall be revealed.

    4. And the voice of warning shall be unto all people, by the mouths
    of my disciples, whom I have chosen in these last days.

    5. And they shall go forth and none shall stay them, for I the Lord
    have commanded them.

    6. Behold, this is mine authority, and the authority of my
    servants, and my preface unto the book of my commandments, which I
    have given them to publish unto you, O inhabitants of the earth.

    7. Wherefore, fear and tremble, O ye people, for what I the Lord
    have decreed in them shall be fulfilled.

    8. And verily, I say unto you, that they who go forth, bearing
    these {223} tidings unto the inhabitants of the earth, to them is
    power given to seal both on earth and in heaven the unbelieving and
    rebellious;

    9. Yea, verily, to seal them up unto the day when the wrath of God
    shall be poured out upon the wicked without measure;

    10. Unto the day when the Lord shall come to recompense unto every
    man according to his work, and measure to every man according to
    the measure which he has measured to his fellow man.

    11. Wherefore the voice of the Lord is unto the ends of the earth,
    that all that will hear may hear:

    12. Prepare ye, prepare ye for that which is to come, for the Lord
    is nigh;

    13. And the anger of the Lord is kindled, and His sword is bathed
    in heaven, and it shall fall upon the inhabitants of the earth.

    14. And the arm of the Lord shall be revealed; and the day cometh
    that they who will not hear the voice of the Lord, neither the
    voice of His servants, neither give heed to the words of the
    prophets and apostles shall be cut off from among the people;

    15. For they have strayed from mine ordinances, and have broken
    mine everlasting covenant;

    16. They seek not the Lord to establish His righteousness, but
    every man walketh in his own way, and after the image of his
    own God, whose image is in the likeness of the world, and whose
    substance is that of an idol, which waxeth old and shall perish in
    Babylon, even Babylon the great, which shall fall.

    17. Wherefore I the Lord, knowing the calamity which should
    come upon the inhabitants of the earth, called upon my servant
    Joseph Smith, Jun., and spake unto him from heaven, and gave him
    commandments;

    18. And also gave commandments to others, that they should proclaim
    these things unto the world; and all this that it might be
    fulfilled, which was written by the prophets;

    19. The weak things of the world shall come forth and break down
    the mighty and strong ones, that man should not counsel his fellow
    man, neither trust in the arm of flesh,

    20. But that every man might speak in the name of God the Lord,
    even the Savior of the world;

    21. That faith also might increase in the earth;

    22. That mine everlasting covenant might be established;

    23. That the fullness of my Gospel might be proclaimed by the weak
    and the simple unto the ends of the world, and before kings and
    rulers.

    24. Behold, I am God and have spoken it; these commandments are of
    me and were given unto my servants in their weakness, after the
    manner of their language, that they might come to understanding.

    {224} 25. And inasmuch as they erred it might be made known:

    26. And inasmuch as they sought wisdom they might be instructed:

    27. And inasmuch as they sinned they might be chastened, that they
    might repent:

    28. And inasmuch as they were humble they might be made strong, and
    blessed from on high, and receive knowledge from time to time:

    29. And after having received the record of the Nephites, yea,
    even my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., might have power to translate
    through the mercy of God, by the power of God, the Book of Mormon;

    30. And also those to whom these commandments were given, might
    have power to lay the foundation of this Church, and to bring it
    forth out of obscurity and out of darkness, the only true and
    living Church upon the face of the whole earth, with which I, the
    Lord, am well pleased, speaking unto the Church collectively and
    not individually.

    31. For I the Lord cannot look upon sin with the least degree of
    allowance.

    32. Nevertheless, he that repents and does the commandments of the
    Lord shall be forgiven;

    33. And he that repents not, from him, shall be taken even the
    light which he has received, for my Spirit shall not always strive
    with man, saith the Lord of Hosts.

    34. And again, verily I say unto you, O inhabitants of the earth, I
    the Lord am willing to make these things known unto all flesh,

    35. For I am no respecter of persons, and will that all men shall
    know that the day speedily cometh; the hour is not yet, but is nigh
    at hand, when peace shall be taken from the earth, and the devil
    shall have power over his own dominion;

    36. And also the Lord shall have power over His Saints, and shall
    reign in their midst, and shall come down in judgment upon Iduma,
    or the world.

    37. Search these commandments for they are true and faithful,
    and the prophecies and promises which are in them shall all be
    fulfilled.

    38. What I the Lord have spoken, I have spoken, and I excuse not
    myself: and though the heavens and the earth pass away, my word
    shall not pass away, but shall all be fulfilled, whether by mine
    own voice or by the voice of my servants it is the same;

    39. For behold, and lo, the Lord is God, and the Spirit beareth
    record, and the record is true, and the truth abideth forever and
    ever. Amen.

[Sidenote: Language of Revelations Criticised.]

After this revelation was received, some conversation was had
concerning revelations and language. I received the following:

    {225} _Revelation, given November, 1831_. [13]

    1. Behold and hearken, O ye Elders of my Church, who have assembled
    yourselves together, whose prayers I have heard, and whose hearts I
    know, and whose desires have come up before me.

    2. Behold and lo, mine eyes are upon you, and the heavens and the
    earth are in mine hands, and the riches of eternity are mine to
    give.

    3. Ye endeavored to believe that ye should secure the blessing
    which was offered unto you; but behold, verily I say unto you,
    there were fears in your hearts, and verily this is the reason that
    ye did not receive.

    4. And now I, the Lord, give unto you a testimony of the truth of
    these commandments which are lying before you;

    5. Your eyes have been upon my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., and his
    language you have known, and his imperfections you have known; and
    you have sought in your hearts knowledge that you might express
    beyond his language, this you also know;

    6. Now, seek ye out of the Book of Commandments, even the least
    that is among them, and appoint him that is the most wise among you;

    7. Or, if there be any among you that shall make one like unto it,
    then ye are justified in saying that ye do not know that they are
    true;

    8. But if ye cannot make one like unto it, ye are under
    condemnation if ye do not bear record that they are true;

    9. For ye know that there is no unrighteousness in them, and that
    which is righteous cometh down from above, from the Father of
    lights;

    10. And again, verily, I say unto you, that it is your privilege,
    and a promise I give unto you that have been ordained unto this
    ministry, that inasmuch as you strip yourselves from jealousies and
    fears, and humble yourselves before me, for ye are not sufficiently
    humble, the veil shall be rent, and you shall see me and know that
    I am; not with the carnal, neither natural mind, but with the
    spiritual;

    11. For no man has seen God at any time in the flesh, except
    quickened by the Spirit of God.

    12. Neither can any natural man abide the presence of God; neither
    after the carnal mind;

    13. Ye are not able to abide the presence of God now, neither the
    ministering of angels; wherefore continue in patience until ye are
    perfected.

    14. Let not your minds turn back, and when ye are worthy, in mine
    own due time, ye shall see and know that which was conferred upon
    you by the hands of my servant Joseph Smith, Jun. Amen.

{226} [Sidenote: The Folly of William E. M'Lellin.]

After the foregoing was received, William E. M'Lellin, as the wisest
man, in his own estimation, having more learning than sense, endeavored
to write a commandment like unto one of the least of the Lord's, but
failed; it was an awful responsibility to write in the name of the
Lord. The Elders and all present that witnessed this vain attempt of
a man to imitate the language of Jesus Christ, renewed their faith
in the fullness of the Gospel, and in the truth of the commandments
and revelations which the Lord had given to the Church through my
instrumentality; and the Elders signified a willingness to bear
testimony of their truth to all the world. Accordingly I received the
following:

    The testimony of the witnesses to the book of the Lord's
    commandments, which He gave to His Church through Joseph Smith,
    Jun., who was appointed by the voice of the Church for this
    purpose; we therefore feel willing to bear testimony to all the
    world of mankind, to every creature upon the face of all the earth
    and upon the islands of the sea, that the Lord has borne record to
    our souls, through the Holy Ghost, shed forth upon us, that these
    commandments were given by inspiration of God, and are profitable
    for all men, and are verily true. We give this testimony unto the
    world, the Lord being our helper; and it is through the grace of
    God, the Father, and His Son, Jesus Christ, that we are permitted
    to have this privilege of bearing this testimony unto the world,
    that the children of men may be profited thereby. [14]

{227} As the following Elders--Orson Hyde, Luke Johnson, Lyman E.
Johnson, and William E. M'Lellin--were desirous to know the mind of the
Lord concerning themselves, I inquired, and received the following:

    _Revelation, given November, 1831_. [15]

    1. My servant, Orson Hyde, was called by his ordination to proclaim
    the everlasting Gospel, by the Spirit of the living God, from
    people to people, and from land to land, in the congregations of
    the wicked, in their synagogues, reasoning with, and expounding all
    Scriptures unto them.

    2. And, behold, and lo, this is an ensample unto all those who were
    ordained unto this Priesthood, whose mission is appointed unto them
    to go forth;

    3. And this is the ensample unto them, that they shall speak as
    they are moved upon by the Holy Ghost.

    4. And whatsoever they shall speak when moved upon by the Holy
    Ghost, shall be scripture, shall be the will of the Lord, shall be
    the mind of the Lord, shall be the word of the Lord, shall be the
    voice of the Lord, and the power of God unto salvation;

    5. Behold this is the promise of the Lord unto you, O ye my
    servants;

    6. Wherefore, be of good cheer, and do not fear, for I the Lord am
    with you and will stand by you; and ye shall bear record of me,
    even Jesus Christ, that I am the Son of the living God, that I was,
    that I am, and that I am to come.

    7. This is the word of the Lord unto you my servant, Orson Hyde,
    and also unto my servant Luke Johnson, and unto my servant Lyman
    Johnson, and unto my servant William E. M'Lellin, and unto all the
    faithful Elders of my Church.

    8. Go ye into all the world, preach the Gospel to every creature,
    acting in the authority which I have given you, baptizing in the
    name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost;

    9. And he that believeth and is baptized shall be saved, and he
    that believeth not shall be damned;

    10. And he that believeth shall be blest with signs following, even
    as it is written;

    11. And unto you it shall be given to know the signs of the times,
    and the signs of the coming of the Son of Man;

    12. And of as many as the Father shall bear record, to you shall be
    given power to seal them up unto eternal life. Amen.

    {228} 13. And now concerning the items in addition to the covenants
    and commandments, they are these:

    14. There remaineth hereafter, in the due time of the Lord, other
    Bishops to be set apart unto the Church, to minister even according
    to the first;

    15. Wherefore they shall be High Priests who are worthy, and they
    shall be appointed by the First Presidency of the Melchisedek
    Priesthood, except they be literal descendants of Aaron,

    16. And if they be literal descendants of Aaron, they have a legal
    right to the bishopric, if they are the firstborn among the sons of
    Aaron;

    17. For the firstborn holds the right of presidency over this
    Priesthood, and the keys or authority of the same.

    18. No man has a legal right to this office, to hold the keys
    of this Priesthood, except he be a literal descendant and the
    firstborn of Aaron.

    19. But, as a high priest of the Melchisedek Priesthood has
    authority to officiate in all the lesser offices he may officiate
    in the office of Bishop when no literal descendant of Aaron can be
    found, provided he is called and set apart and ordained unto this
    power under the hands of the First Presidency of the Melchizedek
    Priesthood.

    20. And literal descendants of Aaron, also, must be designated
    by this Presidency, and found worthy, and anointed, and ordained
    under the hands of this Presidency, otherwise they are not legally
    authorized to officiate in their Priesthood;

    21. But by virtue of the decree concerning their right of the
    Priesthood descending from father to son, they may claim their
    anointing if at any time they can prove their lineage, or do
    ascertain it by revelation from the Lord under the hands of the
    above named Presidency.

    22. And again, no Bishop or High Priest who shall be set apart for
    this ministry, shall be tried or condemned for any crime, save it
    be before the First Presidency of the Church;

    23. And inasmuch as he is found guilty before this Presidency, by
    testimony that cannot be impeached, he shall be condemned;

    24. And if he repent he shall be forgiven, according to the
    covenants and commandments of the Church.

    25. And again, inasmuch as parents have children in Zion, or in
    any of her stakes which are organized, that teach them not to
    understand the doctrine of repentance, faith in Christ the Son of
    the living God, and of baptism and the gift of the Holy Ghost by
    the laying on of the hands, when eight years old, the sin be upon
    the heads of the parents.

    26. For this shall be a law unto the inhabitants of Zion, or in any
    of her stakes which are organized;

    27. And their children shall be baptized for the remission of their
    {229} sins when eight years old, and receive the laying on of the
    hands,

    28. And they shall also teach their children to pray and to walk
    uprightly before the Lord.

    29. And the inhabitants of Zion shall also observe the Sabbath day
    to keep it holy.

    30. And the inhabitants of Zion also shall remember their labors,
    inasmuch as they are appointed to labor, in all faithfulness; for
    the idler shall be had in remembrance before the Lord.

    31. Now, I the Lord, am not well pleased with the inhabitants of
    Zion, for there are idlers among them; and their children are also
    growing up in wickedness; they also seek not earnestly the riches
    of eternity, but their eyes are full of greediness.

    32. These things ought not to be, and must be done away from among
    them: wherefore, let my servant Oliver Cowdery carry these sayings
    unto the land of Zion.

    33. And a commandment I give unto them, that he that observeth not
    his prayers before the Lord in the season thereof, let him be had
    in remembrance before the judge of my people.

    34. These sayings are true and faithful; wherefore transgress them
    not, neither take therefrom.

    35. Behold, I am Alpha and Omega, and I come quickly. Amen.

[Sidenote: Preparation of the Revelations for Publication, Nov.
1st-15th.]

It had been decided by the conference that Elder Oliver Cowdery should
carry the commandments and revelations to Independence, Missouri, for
printing, and that I should arrange and get them in readiness by the
time that he left, which was to be by--or, if possible, before--the
15th of the month [November]. At this time there were many things which
the Elders desired to know relative to preaching the Gospel to the
inhabitants of the earth, and concerning the gathering; and in order
to walk by the true light, and be instructed from on high, on the 3rd
of November, 1831, I inquired of the Lord and received the following
important revelation, which has since been added to the book of
Doctrine and Covenants, and called the Appendix:

    _Revelation, given November 3, 1831_. [16]

    1. Hearken, O ye people of my Church, saith the Lord your God, and
    hear the word of the Lord concerning you;

    {230} 2. The Lord who shall suddenly come to His temple; the Lord
    who shall come down upon the world with a curse to judgment; yea,
    upon all the nations that forget God, and upon all the ungodly
    among you.

    3. For He shall make bare His holy arm in the eyes of all the
    nations, and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of
    their God.

    4. Wherefore, prepare ye, prepare ye, O my people; sanctify
    yourselves; gather ye together, O ye people of my Church, upon the
    land of Zion, all you that have not been commanded to tarry.

    5. Go ye out from Babylon. Be ye clean that bear the vessels of the
    Lord.

    6. Call your solemn assemblies, and speak often one to another. And
    let every man call upon the name of the Lord;

    7. Yea, verily I say unto you again, the time has come when the
    voice of the Lord is unto you, Go ye out of Babylon; gather ye out
    from among the nations, from the four winds, from one end of heaven
    to the other.

    8. Send forth the Elders of my Church unto the nations which are
    afar off; unto the islands of the sea; send forth unto foreign
    lands; call upon all nations; first upon the Gentiles, and then
    upon the Jews.

    9. And behold, and lo, this shall be their cry, and the voice of
    the Lord unto all people: Go ye forth unto the land of Zion, that
    the borders of my people may be enlarged, and that her stakes may
    be strengthened, and that Zion may go forth unto the regions round
    about;

    10. Yea, let the cry go forth among all people: Awake and arise
    and go forth to meet the Bridegroom: behold and lo, the Bridegroom
    cometh, go ye out to meet Him. Prepare yourselves for the great day
    of the Lord.

    11. Watch, therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour.

    12. Let them therefore, who are among the Gentiles, flee unto Zion.

    13. And let them who be of Judah flee unto Jerusalem, unto the
    mountains of the Lord's house.

    14. Go ye out from among the nations, even from Babylon, from the
    midst of wickedness, which is spiritual Babylon.

    15. But verily, thus saith the Lord, Let not your flight be in
    haste, but let all things be prepared before you; and he that goeth
    let him not look back, lest sudden destruction shall come upon him.

    16. Hearken and hear, O ye inhabitants of the earth. Listen, ye
    Elders of my Church together, and hear the voice of the Lord; for
    He calleth upon all men, and He commandeth all men everywhere to
    repent.

    {231} 17. For, behold, the Lord God hath sent forth the angel
    crying through the midst of heaven, saying, Prepare ye the way of
    the Lord, and make his paths straight, for the hour of His coming
    is nigh--

    18. When the Lamb shall stand upon Mount Zion, and with Him a
    hundred and forty-four thousand, having His Father's name written
    on their foreheads:

    19. Wherefore, prepare ye for the coming of the Bridegroom; go ye,
    go ye out to meet Him,

    20. For behold, He shall stand upon the mount of Olives, and upon
    the mighty ocean, even the great deep, and upon the islands of the
    sea, and upon the land of Zion;

    21. And He shall utter His voice out of Zion, and He shall speak
    from Jerusalem, and His voice shall be heard among all people.

    22. And it shall be a voice as the voice of many waters, and as the
    voice of a great thunder, which shall break down the mountains, and
    the valleys shall not be found;

    23. He shall command the great deep, and it shall be driven back
    into the north countries, and the islands shall become one land:

    24. And the land of Jerusalem and the land of Zion shall be turned
    back into their own place, and the earth shall be like as it was in
    the days before it was divided.

    25. And the Lord, even the Savior, shall stand in the midst of his
    people, and shall reign over all flesh.

    26. And they who are in the north countries shall come in
    remembrance before the Lord and their prophets shall hear His
    voice, and shall no longer stay themselves, and they shall smite
    the rocks, and the ice shall flow down at their presence.

    27. And an highway shall be cast up in the midst of the great deep.

    28. Their enemies shall become a prey unto them,

    29. And in the barren deserts there shall come forth pools of
    living water; and the parched ground shall no longer be a thirsty
    land.

    30. And they shall bring forth their rich treasures unto the
    children of Ephraim, my servants.

    31. And the boundaries of the everlasting hills shall tremble at
    their presence.

    32. And there shall they fall down and be crowned with glory,
    even in Zion, by the hands of the servants of the Lord, even the
    children of Ephraim;

    33. And they shall be filled with songs of everlasting joy.

    34. Behold, this is the blessing of the everlasting God upon the
    tribes of Israel, and the richer blessing upon the head of Ephraim
    and his fellows.

    35. And they also of the tribe of Judah, after their pain, shall
    be {232} sanctified in holiness before the Lord, to dwell in his
    presence day and night, forever and ever.

    36. And now, verily saith the Lord, That these things might be
    known among you, O inhabitants of the earth, I have sent forth mine
    angel flying through the midst of heaven, having the everlasting
    Gospel, who hath appeared unto some, and hath committed it unto
    man, who shall appear unto many that dwell on the earth;

    37. And this Gospel shall be preached unto every nation, and
    kindred, and tongue, and people,

    38. And the servants of God shall go forth, saying with a loud
    voice, Fear God and give glory to Him, for the hour of His judgment
    is come;

    39. And worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and
    the fountains of waters,

    40. Calling upon the name of the Lord day and night, saying, O that
    thou wouldst rend the heavens, that thou wouldst come down, that
    the mountains might flow down at Thy presence.

    41. And it shall be answered upon their heads, for the presence of
    the Lord shall be as the melting fire that burneth, and as the fire
    which causeth the waters to boil.

    42. O Lord, Thou shalt come down to make Thy name known to thine
    adversaries, and all nations shall tremble at Thy presence.

    43. When Thou doest terrible things--things they look not for;

    44. Yea, when Thou comest down, and the mountains flow down at
    Thy presence, Thou shalt meet him who rejoiceth and worketh
    righteousness, who remembereth Thee in Thy ways.

    45. For since the beginning of the world have not men heard nor
    perceived by the ear, neither hath any eye seen, O God, besides
    Thee, how great things Thou hast prepared for him that waiteth for
    Thee.

    46. And it shall be said: Who is this that cometh down from God
    in heaven with dyed garments; yea from the regions which are not
    known, clothed in His glorious apparel, traveling in the greatness
    of His strength?

    47. And He shall say; I am He who spake in righteousness, mighty to
    save.

    48. And the Lord shall be red in His apparel, and His garments like
    him that treadeth in the wine vat,

    49. And so great shall be the glory of His presence that the sun
    shall hide his face in shame; and the moon shall withhold its
    light; and the stars shall be hurled from their places;

    50. And his voice shall be heard, I have trodden the wine-press
    alone, and have brought judgment upon all people; and none were
    with me;

    51. And I have trampled them in my fury, and I did tread upon them
    in mine anger, and their blood have I sprinkled upon my garments,
    and {233} stained all my raiment; for this was the day of vengeance
    which was in my heart.

    52. And now the year of my redeemed is come, and they shall mention
    the loving kindness of their Lord, and all that He has bestowed
    upon them according to His goodness, and according to His loving
    kindness, for ever and ever.

    53. In all their afflictions He was afflicted. And the angel of His
    presence saved them; and in His love, and in His pity, He redeemed
    them, and bare them, and carried them all the days of old;

    54. Yea, and Enoch also, and they who were with him; the prophets
    who were before him; and Noah also, and they who were before him;
    and Moses also and they who were before him.

    55. And from Moses to Elijah, and from Elijah to John, who were
    with Christ in His resurrection, and the holy Apostles, with
    Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, shall be in the presence of the Lamb.

    56. And the graves of the saints shall be opened; and they shall
    come forth and stand on the right hand of the Lamb, when He shall
    stand upon Mount Zion, and upon the holy city the New Jerusalem;
    and they shall sing the song of the Lamb, day and night for ever
    and ever.

    57. And for this cause, that men might be made partakers of the
    glories which were to be revealed, the Lord sent forth the fulness
    of His Gospel, His everlasting covenant, reasoning in plainness and
    simplicity,

    58. To prepare the weak for those things which are coming on the
    earth, and for the Lord's errand in the day when the weak shall
    confound the wise, and the little one become a strong nation, and
    two shall put their tens of thousands to flight;

    59. And by the weak things of the earth the Lord shall thrash the
    nations by the power of His Spirit.

    60. And for this cause these commandments were given; they were
    commanded to be kept from the world in the day that they were
    given, but now are to go forth unto all flesh.

    61. And this according to the mind and will of the Lord, who ruleth
    over all flesh.

    62. And unto him that repenteth and sanctifieth himself before the
    Lord, shall be given eternal life;

    63. And upon them that hearken not to the voice of the Lord shall
    be fulfilled that which was written by the Prophet Moses, that they
    should be cut off from among the people.

    64. And also that which was written by the Prophet Malachi; For,
    behold, the day cometh that shall burn as an oven, and all the
    proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble; and the day
    that cometh {234} shall burn them up, saith the Lord of hosts, that
    it shall leave them neither root nor branch.

    65. Wherefore, this shall be the answer of the Lord unto them:--

    66. In that day when I came unto mine own, no man among you
    received me, and you were driven out.

    67. When I called again, there was none of you to answer, yet my
    arm was not shortened at all, that I could not redeem, neither my
    power to deliver.

    68. Behold, at my rebuke I dry up the sea. I make the rivers a
    wilderness; their fish stink and die for thirst.

    69. I clothe the heavens with blackness, and make sackcloth their
    covering.

    70. And this shall ye have of my hand: Ye shall lie down in sorrow.

    71. Behold, and lo, there are none to deliver you, for ye obeyed
    not my voice when I called to you out of the heavens; ye believed
    not my servants, and when they were sent unto you, ye received them
    not.

    72. Wherefore, they sealed up the testimony and bound up the law,
    and ye were delivered over unto darkness;

    73. These shall go away into outer darkness, where there is
    weeping, and wailing, and gnashing of teeth.

    74. Behold the Lord your God hath spoken it. Amen.

[Sidenote: Dedication of the Book of Commandments.]

The Book of Commandments and Revelations was to be dedicated by prayer
to the service of Almighty God by me; and after I had done this,
I inquired of the Lord concerning these things, and received the
following:

    _Revelation, given November, 1831_. [17]

    1. Hearken unto me saith the Lord your God: For my servant Oliver
    Cowdery's sake, it is not wisdom in me that he should be entrusted
    with the commandments and the moneys which he shall carry unto the
    {235} land of Zion, except one go with him who will be true and
    faithful;

    2. Wherefore, I, the Lord will, that my servant, John Whitmer,
    should go with my servant Oliver Cowdery;

    3. And also that he shall continue in writing and making a history
    of all the important things which he shall observe and know
    concerning my Church:

    4. And also that he receive counsel and assistance from my servant
    Oliver Cowdery and others.

    5. And also my servants who are abroad in the earth, should send
    forth the accounts of their stewardships to the land of Zion;

    6. For the land of Zion shall be a seat and a place to receive and
    do all these things;

    7. Nevertheless let my servant John Whitmer travel many times from
    place to place, and from church to church, that he may the more
    easily obtain knowledge;

    8. Preaching and expounding, writing, copying, selecting, and
    obtaining all things which shall be for the good of the Church, and
    for the rising generations, that shall grow up on the land of Zion,
    to possess it from generation to generation, forever and ever. Amen.

[Sidenote: Esteem in which the Conference Held the Book of Commandments
and Book of Mormon.]

My time was occupied closely in reviewing the commandments and sitting
in conference, for nearly two weeks; for from the first to the twelfth
of November we held four special conferences. In the last which was
held at Brother Johnson's, in Hiram, after deliberate consideration,
in consequence of the book of revelations, now to be printed, being
the foundation of the Church in these last days, and a benefit to
the world, showing that the keys of the mysteries of the kingdom of
our Savior are again entrusted to man; and the riches of eternity
within the compass of those who are willing to live by every word that
proceedeth out of the mouth of God--therefore the conference voted that
they prize the revelations to be worth to the Church the riches of the
whole earth, speaking temporally. The great benefits to the world which
result from the Book of Mormon and the revelations, which the Lord has
seen fit in His infinite wisdom to grant unto us for our salvation,
and for the {236} salvation of all that will believe, were duly
appreciated; [18] and in answer to an inquiry, I received the following:

    _Revelation, given November, 1831._ [19]

    1. Behold, and hearken, O ye inhabitants of Zion, and all ye people
    of my Church who are afar off, and hear the word of the Lord which
    I give unto my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., and also unto my servant
    Martin Harris, and also unto my servant Oliver Cowdery, and also
    unto my servant John Whitmer, and also unto my servant Sidney
    Rigdon, and also unto my servant William W. Phelps, by the way of
    commandment unto them.

    2. For I give unto them a commandment; wherefore hearken and hear,
    for thus saith the Lord unto them--

    3. I, the Lord, have appointed them, and ordained them to be
    stewards over the revelations and commandments which I have given
    unto them, and which I shall hereafter give unto them;

    4. And an account of this stewardship will I require of them in the
    day of judgment.

    5. Wherefore I have appointed unto them, and this is their business
    in the Church of God, to manage them and the concerns thereof; yea,
    the benefits thereof.

    {237} 6. Wherefore, a commandment I give unto them, that they shall
    not give these things unto the Church, neither unto the world;

    7. Nevertheless, inasmuch as they receive more than is needful
    for their necessities and their wants, it shall be given into my
    storehouse,

    8. And the benefits shall be consecrated unto the inhabitants of
    Zion, and unto their generations, inasmuch as they become heirs
    according to the laws of the kingdom.

    9. Behold, this is what the lord requires of every man in his
    stewardship, even as I, the Lord, have appointed, or shall
    hereafter appoint unto any man.

    10. And behold, none are exempt from this law who belong to the
    Church of the living God;

    11. Yea, neither the Bishop, neither the agent who keepeth the
    Lord's storehouse, neither he who is appointed in a stewardship
    over temporal things;

    12. He who is appointed to administer spiritual things, the same
    is worthy of his hire, even as those who are appointed to a
    stewardship, to administer in temporal things;

    13. Yea, even more abundantly, which abundance is multiplied unto
    them through the manifestation of the Spirit;

    14. Nevertheless, in your temporal things you shall be equal, and
    this not grudgingly, otherwise the abundance of the manifestations
    of the Spirit shall be withheld.

    15. Now this commandment I give unto my servants for their benefit
    while they remain, for a manifestation of my blessings upon their
    heads, and for a reward of their diligence and for their security;

    16. For food and for raiment; for an inheritance; for houses and
    for lands, in whatsoever circumstances I, the Lord, shall place
    them, and whithersoever I, the Lord, shall send them;

    17. For they have been faithful over many things; and have done
    well inasmuch as they have not sinned.

    18. Behold, I, the Lord, am merciful and will bless them, and they
    shall enter into the joy of these things. Even so. Amen.

Footnotes

1. It would be more proper to say "revision of the Bible" than
"translation" of it; as the Prophet did not at any time pretend to a
knowledge of the ancient languages that would enable him to translate
from the Hebrew or the Greek as "translation" is commonly understood.
But what he did was to revise the English text of the Bible under
the inspiration of God; and that led him not only to give different
renderings of various passages, but also to supply missing parts.

2. The miracle here referred to is thus related in _Hayden's History
of the Disciples_ (a Campbellite work), pp. 250-1. "Ezra Booth, of
Mantua, a Methodist preacher of much more than ordinary culture, and
with strong natural abilities, in company with his wife, Mr. and Mrs.
Johnson, and some other citizens of this place [Hiram], visited Smith
at his home in Kirtland, in 1831. Mrs. Johnson had been afflicted for
some time with a lame arm, and was not at the time of the visit able
to lift her hand to her head. The party visited Smith partly out of
curiosity, and partly to see for themselves what there might be in
the new doctrine. During the interview the conversation turned on the
subject of supernatural gifts, such as were conferred in the days of
the apostles. Some one said, 'Here is Mrs. Johnson with a lame arm; has
God given any power to man now on the earth to cure her?' A few moments
later, when the conversation had turned in another direction, Smith
rose, and walking across the room, taking Mrs. Johnson by the hand,
said in the most solemn and impressive manner: 'Woman, in the name of
the Lord Jesus Christ I command thee to be whole,' and immediately left
the room. The company were awe-stricken at the infinite presumption of
the man, and the calm assurance with which he spoke. The sudden mental
and moral shock--I know not how better to explain the well-attested
fact--electrified the rheumatic arm--Mrs. Johnson at once lifted it up
with ease, and on her return home the next day she was able to do her
washing without difficulty or pain."

3. See page 212, verses 15, 16.

4. It is generally supposed that Ezra Booth was the first to turn away
from the faith; but this is an error. Others denied the faith before
him, but he was the first apostate, I think, to publish anything
against the Church. That he was not the first apostate, however, is
evident from the fact that John Whitmer in his history makes mention
of others turning from the faith even before the journey of the
Elders to Missouri was undertaken; whereas Booth did not announce his
apostasy until his return from that journey in the month of September.
Writing of a time previous to the assembling of the conference of June
3rd-6th, 1831, John Whitmer remarks: "About these days the disciples
arrived from the state of New York to this place, Kirtland, Ohio.
They had some difficulty between themselves because of some that did
not continue faithful--who denied the truth and turned to fables."
(Ch. 8.) Again in chapter 8 he says: "After some of the Elders had
left [i. e., for Missouri], and the time for Joseph Smith, Jun., and
others to leave [had come]--some of those who had been commanded to
take their journey speedily, had denied the faith and turned from the
truth." And still speaking of a time previous to the apostasy of Booth,
and before detailing the events which happened on the land of Zion
among the Elders who went there, he says: "There was much trouble and
unbelief among those who called themselves disciples of Christ; some
apostatized and became enemies to the cause of God, and persecuted the
Saints." (Chapter 9.) All this was before Booth's apostasy. In the
minutes of a conference held on the 6th of September, 1831, and signed
by Oliver Cowdery, it is recorded: "Upon testimony satisfactory to this
conference, it was voted that Ezra Booth be silenced from preaching as
an Elder in this Church."

5. The series of letters referred to in the text above were nine in
number, and first appeared in the _Ohio Star_, published at Ravenna,
the county seat of Portage county. Afterwards they were published in E.
D. Howe's Book, _Mormonism Unveiled_, pp. 175-221.

6. Orson Hyde was born January 8th, 1805, at Oxford, New Haven county,
Connecticut. He was the son of Nathan and Sally Hyde. His father
served in the United States army in the war of 1812. When Orson was
seven years old his mother died, and the large family of Nathan Hyde,
consisting of nine sons and three daughters, were scattered. Orson was
taken in charge by a man of the name of Nathan Wheeler. Seven years
later, or when young Hyde was fourteen years of age, Mr. Wheeler moved
from the state of Connecticut to Ohio, settling in the vicinity of
Kirtland. Orson accompanied him and continued to live with him in Ohio
for about four years, after which he engaged in various occupations
on his own account, at last becoming a clerk in the firm of Gilbert &
Whitney, merchants. In the year 1827 a religious revival of unusual
fervor occurred in Kirtland and vicinity, and under its influence Orson
Hyde became a convert to the Methodist faith; and shortly afterwards
was made a class leader. "At about the same time," writes Edward
Tullidge, in a biographical sketch of him, "he heard that a 'golden
Bible' had been dug out of a rock in the state of New York. It was
treated, however, as a hoax; but, on reading the report, Hyde remarked:
'Who knows but that this 'golden Bible' may break up our religion and
change its whole features and bearing." (_Utah and her Founders_,
Biographical Sketches, p. 70). Some time subsequent to his becoming
a Methodist he heard Sidney Rigdon preach the Campbellite faith, and
being convinced that the doctrine Rigdon advocated was more scriptural
than that which he had embraced, he accepted it and was baptized into
the Campbellite church. He also became a theological student under his
new teacher's instruction, with a view of becoming a minister of the
new church; and, in fact, began to preach and had already assisted
in founding several Campbellite congregations in Lorain and Huron
counties. In 1830, he was made pastor over these congregations. In the
fall of that year the Lamanite mission of the Church of Jesus Christ
arrived in the northeast part of Ohio, and soon the whole country was
agitated by the presentation of the Book of Mormon and its attendant
message, the restored Gospel of Jesus Christ. At first Orson Hyde, at
the request of members of the Campbellite faith, opposed the Book of
Mormon in public addresses; but feeling reproved by the Spirit for this
course, he suspended his opposition in order to make further inquiry,
with the result that after much prayer and some hesitancy he accepted
the great latter-day message, and was baptized, as related in the text.

7. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 65.

8. This was a very important conference, and continued through two
days, the 25th and 26th of October--Tuesday and Wednesday. The minutes
of it are contained in the_ Far West Record_, pp. 10-15. Very many of
the brethren holding the Priesthood addressed the conference, and each
one expressed his willingness to consecrate all he possessed to God
and His cause. The minutes of the Prophets remarks upon this subject,
as relating to his own willingness to consecrate all to the Lord, are
of particular interest. It stands as follows in the record: "Brother
Joseph Smith. Jun., said that he had nothing to consecrate to the Lord
of the things of the earth, yet he felt to consecrate himself and
family. Was thankful that God had given him a place among His Saints;
felt willing to labor for their good" (p. 13). It appears at this time
that the Prophet and other leading Elders of the Church were much
embarrassed in the work of translating the Scriptures and preaching the
Gospel, in consequence of the difficulty they encountered to do this
work of the ministry and at the same time provide for their families.
It appears also that the Saints were somewhat backward in providing
means for the support of the ministry of the Church. Referring to the
subject the Prophet, according to the minutes above referred to, said:
"The Lord held the Church bound to provide for the families of the
absent Elders while proclaiming the Gospel. Further said that God had
often sealed up the heavens because of covetousness in the Church" (p.
13).

The remarks of Simeon Carter, one of the High Priests in attendance at
the conference, are of interest and importance, owing to the light they
throw upon the views of the faithful brethren respecting the journey
to the land of Zion and the work that had been accomplished there. The
minute of his remarks stands as follows: "Brother Simeon Carter said
that he was thankful that he had been spared and preserved to go to the
land of Zion according to the commandment of the Lord, for he received
it as from His mouth; and also thanked the Lord that his feet had
trodden upon the consecrated ground which was the inheritance of the
Saints. Testified that the Book of Mormon was true. Mourned because of
the falling away [in Kirtland] since he took his journey to the land of
Zion" (p. 12).

Another item of interest will be found in the following circumstance:
Several of the brethren took occasion to testify to the truth of the
Book of Mormon; and now the minutes--"Brother Hyrum Smith said that
he thought best that the information of the coming forth of the Book
of Mormon be related by Joseph himself to the Elders present, that
all might know for themselves." "Brother Joseph Smith, Jun., said
that it was not intended to tell the world all the particulars of the
coming forth of the Book of Mormon; and also said that it was not
expedient for him to relate these things" (p. 13). This will account
for the Prophet confining himself to the merest generalities in all his
statements concerning the coming forth of the Book of Mormon.

9. The exact date of the birth of William E. M'Lellin cannot be
ascertained. He was born in the state of Tennessee about the year
1806. He first heard the Gospel preached by Elders Samuel H. Smith and
Reynolds Cahoon, while those brethren were en route from Kirtland to
Independence, Missouri, in the early summer of 1831. He closed up his
affairs as soon as possible and followed these missionaries to Jackson
county. On the way to that place he was baptized and ordained an Elder.
During the same summer he made his way to Kirtland, where we find him
in attendance at the special conference of October 25th, seeking to
learn the will of the Lord, through the Prophet, respecting himself.

10. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 66.

11. This special conference at Hiram on November 1st, should receive
larger notice. The number of copies in the edition of the Book of
Commandments to be printed was considered and the decision reached
that ten thousand should be published. The conference lasted two days.
In the afternoon of the first day of the conference, according to
the minutes of the meeting, the preface to the Book of Commandments
was "received by inspiration." The same afternoon, the following
occurred: "Brother Joseph Smith, Jun., said that inasmuch as the Lord
had bestowed a great blessing upon us in giving commandments and
revelations, he asked the conference what testimony they were willing
to attach to these commandments which would shortly be sent to the
world. A number of the brethren arose and said that they were willing
to testify to the world that they knew that they were of the Lord."
(_Far West Record_, p. 16.)

In the second day's proceedings of the conference it is recorded: "The
revelation of last evening read by the moderator [this was Oliver
Cowdery]. The brethren then arose in turn and bore witness to the
truth of the Book of Commandments; after which Brother Joseph Smith,
Jun., arose and expressed his feelings and gratitude concerning the
commandments and preface received yesterday." (_Far West Record_, p.
16.)

12. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 1. This revelation which, in
the current edition, and in fact in all editions of the Doctrine
and Covenants, stands as section 1, is the Lord's Preface to the
revelations which He has given to this Dispensation of the Fulness of
Times.

13. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 67.

14. This "Testimony" to the truth of the "Book of Commandments" was
doubtless drawn up with the intention of having it signed by the Elders
present at the conference; but whether that was done or not does not
appear in the Ms. of the Prophet's history. The testimony itself,
however, is in the manuscript History. This is remarked because it has
not been published heretofore in the History of the Prophet. The matter
appears to stand thus: Each of the Elders present at the conference
testified to the truth of the revelations then about to be published;
and, as already seen (p. 222 note), expressed a willingness to testify
to the truth of the revelations to all the world. Accordingly this
testimony was prepared with the intention of having it signed and
published in the "Book of Commandments." It may have been signed,
too, and carried to Missouri, but owing to the fact that the printing
press was destroyed by a mob before the "Book of Commandments" was all
printed, the "Testimony" does not appear in the part of it that was
printed. The names of the Elders present at this special conference,
according to the minutes of it in the _Far West Record_ (p. 15), are
as follows: Joseph Smith, Jun., Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, John
Whitmer, Peter Whitmer, Jun., Sidney Rigdon, William B. M'Lellin, Orson
Hyde, Luke Johnson, Lyman E. Johnson.

15. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 68.

16. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 133.

17. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 69. It must not be understood
from the first paragraph of this revelation that Oliver Cowdery
was untrustworthy, and therefore it was necessary that a companion
be provided for him. The fact was that much of the journey between
Kirtland and Independence, or Zion, was through a sparsely settled
country, the western portion of it through a frontier country where
there is always a gathering, more or less, of lawless people; and it
was at considerable risk that a person traveled through such a country,
especially when alone and carrying money with him. It was wisdom then,
for the sake of Oliver Cowdery, and to insure the safety of the money
and the sacred things he was to carry with him, that one should go with
him that would be a true and faithful companion, hence the appointment
of John Whitmer.

18. In the minutes of the special conference of November 12th, spoken
of in the foregoing by the Prophet, occurs the following account of
what took place in addition to what the Prophet has written: "Brother
Joseph Smith, Jun., said one item he wished acted upon was that our
brothers Oliver Cowdery and John Whitmer and the sacred writings which
they have entrusted to them to carry to Zion--be dedicated to the Lord
by the prayer of faith. Secondly, Brother Oliver has labored with me
from the beginning in writing, &c. Brother Martin has labored with me
from the beginning and Brothers John Whitmer and Sidney Rigdon also
for a considerable time, and as these sacred writings are now going to
the Church for its benefit, that we may have claim on the Church for
recompense--if this conference think these things worth prizing to be
had on record to show hereafter--I feel that it will be according to
the mind of the Spirit, for by it these things were put into my heart
which I know to be the Spirit of truth.

"Voted; that Joseph Smith, Jun., be appointed to dedicate and
consecrate these brethren and the sacred writings and all they have
entrusted to their care, to the Lord. Done accordingly. * * * * Voted;
that in consequence of the diligence of our brethren, Joseph Smith,
Jun., Oliver Cowdery, John Whitmer, and Sidney Rigdon in bringing to
light by the grace of God these sacred things,--[they] be appointed to
manage them according to the laws of the Church and the commandments of
the Lord. And also that in consequence of the families of Joseph Smith,
Hyrum Smith, Peter Whitmer, Christian Whitmer, Jacob Whitmer, Hiram
Page and David Whitmer administering to their wants in temporal things;
and also [on account of] the labors of Samuel H. Smith, Peter Whitmer,
Jun., William Smith and Don Carlos Smith--voted by the conference that
the above named brethren be remembered to the Bishop in Zion as being
worthy of inheritances among the people of the Lord according to the
laws of said Church."--_Far West Record_, pp. 18, 19.

19. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 70.

{238}



Chapter XVIII.

The Amherst Conference--The Vision of the Degrees of Glory in Man's
Future Life.

[Sidenote: The Labors of the Prophet and Sidney Rigdon.]

After Oliver Cowdery and John Whitmer had departed for Jackson county,
Missouri, I resumed the translation of the Scriptures, and continued
to labor in this branch of my calling with Elder Sidney Rigdon as my
scribe, until I received the following:

    _Revelation, given December 1st, 1831._ [1]

    1. Behold, thus saith the Lord unto you my servants, Joseph Smith,
    Jun., and Sidney Rigdon, that the time has verily come, that it is
    necessary and expedient in me that you should open your mouths in
    proclaiming my Gospel, the things of the kingdom, expounding the
    mysteries thereof out of the Scriptures, according to that portion
    of Spirit and power which shall be given unto you, even as I will.

    2. Verily I say unto you, proclaim unto the world in the regions
    round about, and in the Church also, for the space of a season,
    even until it shall be made known unto you.

    3. Verily this is a mission for a season, which I give unto you,

    4. Wherefore, labor ye in my vineyard. Call upon the inhabitants
    of the earth, and bear record, and prepare the way for the
    commandments and revelations which are to come.

    5. Now, behold this is wisdom; whoso readeth, let him understand
    and receive also;

    6. For unto him that receiveth it shall be given more abundantly,
    even power;

    7. Wherefore, confound your enemies; call upon them to meet you
    both in public and in private; and inasmuch as ye are faithful,
    their shame shall be made manifest.

    {239} 8. Wherefore, let them bring forth their strong reasons
    against the Lord.

    9. Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you, there is no weapon that is
    formed against you shall prosper;

    10. And if any man lift his voice against you, he shall be
    confounded in mine own due time;

    11. Wherefore, keep my commandments, they are true and faithful.
    Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Earnest Labors in Kirtland.]

Knowing now the mind of the Lord, that the time had come that the
Gospel should be proclaimed in power and demonstration to the world,
from the Scriptures, reasoning with men as in days of old, I took a
journey to Kirtland, in company with Elder Sidney Rigdon on the 3rd day
of December, to fulfil the above revelation. On the 4th, several of
the Elders and members assembled together to learn their duty, and for
edification, and after some time had been spent in conversing about our
temporal and spiritual welfare, I received the following:

    _Revelation, given December 4th, 1831_. [2]

    1. Hearken and listen to the voice of the Lord, O ye who have
    assembled yourselves together, who are the High Priests of my
    Church, to whom the kingdom and power have been given.

    2. For verily thus saith the Lord, it is expedient in me for a
    Bishop to be appointed unto you, or of you, unto the Church in this
    part of the Lord's vineyard;

    3. And verily in this thing ye have done wisely, for it is required
    of the Lord, at the hand of every steward, to render an account of
    his stewardship, both in time and in eternity.

    4. For he who is faithful and wise in time, is accounted worthy to
    inherit the mansions prepared for him of my Father.

    5. Verily I say unto you, the Elders of the Church in this part of
    my vineyard, shall render an account of their stewardship unto the
    Bishop, who shall be appointed of me, in this part of my vineyard.

    6. These things shall be had on record, to be handed over unto the
    Bishop in Zion;

    7. And the duty of the Bishop shall be made known by the
    commandments which have been given, and the voice of the conference.

    {240} 8. And now, verily I say unto you, my servant Newel K.
    Whitney is the man who shall be appointed and ordained unto this
    power. This is the will of the Lord your God, your Redeemer. Even
    so. Amen.

    9. The word of the Lord, in addition to the law which has been
    given, making known the duty of the Bishop who has been ordained
    unto the Church in this part of the vineyard, which is verily this:

    10. To keep the Lord's storehouse; to receive the funds of the
    Church in this part of the vineyard;

    11. To take an account of the Elders as before has been commanded;
    and to administer to their wants, who shall pay for that which they
    receive, inasmuch as they have wherewith to pay;

    12. That this also may be consecrated to the good of the Church, to
    the poor and needy;

    13. And he who hath not wherewith to pay, an account shall be taken
    and handed over to the Bishop of Zion, who shall pay the debt out
    of that which the Lord shall put into his hands;

    14. And the labors of the faithful who labor in spiritual things,
    in administering the Gospel and the things of the kingdom unto the
    Church, and unto the world, shall answer the debt unto the Bishop
    in Zion;

    15. Thus it cometh out of the Church, for according to the law
    every man that cometh up to Zion, must lay all things before the
    Bishop in Zion.

    16. And now, verily I say unto you, that as every Elder in this
    part of the vineyard must give an account of his stewardship unto
    the Bishop in this part of the vineyard,

    17. A certificate from the judge or Bishop in this part of the
    vineyard, unto the Bishop in Zion, rendereth every man acceptable,
    and answereth all things, for an inheritance, and to be received as
    a wise steward, and as a faithful laborer;

    18. Otherwise he shall not be accepted of the Bishop of Zion.

    19. And now, verily I say unto you, let every Elder who shall give
    an account unto the Bishop of the Church, in this part of the
    vineyard be recommended by the church or churches, in which he
    labors, that he may render himself and his accounts approved in all
    things.

    20. And again, let my servants who are appointed as stewards over
    the literary concerns of my Church, have claim for assistance upon
    the Bishop or Bishops, in all things,

    21. That the revelations may be published, and go forth unto the
    ends of the earth; that they also may obtain funds which shall
    benefit the Church in all things,

    22. That they also may render themselves approved in all things,
    and be accounted as wise stewards.

    23. And now, behold, this shall be an ensample for all the
    extensive {241} branches of my Church, in whatsoever land they
    shall be established. And now I make an end of my sayings. Amen.

    24. A few words in addition to the laws of the kingdom, respecting
    the members of the Church. They that are appointed by the Holy
    Spirit to go up unto Zion, and they who are privileged to go up
    unto Zion,

    25. Let them carry up unto the Bishop a certificate from three
    Elders of the Church, or a certificate from the Bishop,

    26. Otherwise he who shall go up unto the land of Zion shall not be
    accounted as a wise steward. This is also an ensample. Amen.

[Sidenote: Effectiveness of the Prophet's and Sidney Rigdon's Labors.]

From this time until the 8th or 10th of January, 1832, myself and Elder
Rigdon continued to preach in Shalersville, Ravenna, and other places,
setting forth the truth, vindicating the cause of our Redeemer; showing
that the day of vengeance was coming upon this generation like a thief
in the night; that prejudice, blindness and darkness filled the minds
of many, and caused them to persecute the true Church, and reject the
true light; by which means we did much towards allaying the excited
feelings which were growing out of the scandalous letters then being
published in the _Ohio Star_, at Ravenna, by the before-mentioned
apostate, Ezra Booth. [3] On the 10th of January, I received the
following revelation making known the will of the Lord concerning the
Elders of the Church until the convening of the next conference. [4]

    _Revelation of January 10th, 1832_. [5]

    1. For verily thus saith the Lord, it is expedient in me, that they
    should continue preaching the Gospel, and in exhortation to the
    churches in the regions round about, until conference;

    2. And then, behold, it shall be made known unto them, by the voice
    of the conference, their several missions.

    3. Now, verily, I say unto you my servants, Joseph Smith, Jun., and
    Sidney Rigdon, saith the Lord, it is expedient to translate again,

    4. And, inasmuch as it is practicable, to preach in the regions
    round {242} about until conference; and after that it is expedient
    to continue the work of translation until it be finished.

    5. And let this be a pattern unto the Elders until further
    knowledge, even as it is written.

    6. Now I give no more unto you at this time. Gird up your loins and
    be sober. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: Translation Renewed.]

Upon the reception of the foregoing word of the Lord, I recommenced the
translation of the Scriptures, and labored diligently until just before
the conference, which was to convene on the 25th of January. During
this period, I also received the following, as an explanation of the
First Epistle to the Corinthians, 7th chapter, 14th verse:

    _Revelation_. [6]

    1. "For the unbelieving husband is sanctified by the wife, and
    the unbelieving wife is sanctified by the husband, else were your
    children unclean, but now are they holy."

    2. Now, in the days of the Apostles the law of circumcision was had
    among all the Jews who believed not the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

    3. And it came to pass that there arose a great contention among
    the people concerning the law of circumcision, for the unbelieving
    husband was desirous that his children should be circumcised and
    become subject to the law of Moses, which law was fulfilled.

    4. And it came to pass that the children, being brought up in
    subjection to the law of Moses, gave heed to the traditions of
    their fathers and believed not the Gospel of Christ, wherein they
    became unholy;

    5. Wherefore, for this cause the Apostle wrote unto the Church,
    giving unto them a commandment, not of the Lord, but of himself,
    that a believer should not be united to an unbeliever, except the
    law of Moses should be done away among them.

    6. That their children might remain without circumcision; and that
    the tradition might be done away, which saith that little children
    are unholy; for it was had among the Jews,

    7. But little children are holy, being sanctified through the
    atonement of Jesus Christ; and this is what the Scriptures mean.

[Sidenote: The Amherst Conference.]

A few days before the conference was to commence in Amherst, Lorain
county, I started with the Elders that lived in my own vicinity, and
arrived in good time. At this conference much harmony {243} prevailed,
and considerable business was done to advance the kingdom, and
promulgate the Gospel to the inhabitants of the surrounding country.
[7] The Elders seemed anxious for me to inquire of the Lord that they
might know His will, or learn what would be most pleasing to Him for
them to do, in order to bring men to a sense of their condition; for,
as it was written, all men have gone out of the way, so that none doeth
good, no, not one. I inquired and received the following:

    _Revelation, given January, 1832_. [8]

    1. Verily, verily, I say unto you, I who speak even by the voice of
    my Spirit; even Alpha and Omega, your Lord and your God;

    2. Hearken, O ye who have given your names to go forth to proclaim
    my Gospel, and to prune my vineyard.

    3. Behold, I say unto you, that it is my will that you should go
    forth and not tarry, neither be idle but labor with your mights,

    4. Lifting up your voices as with the sound of a trump, proclaiming
    the truth according to the revelations and commandments which I
    have given you,

    5. And thus, if ye are faithful ye shall be laden with many
    sheaves, and crowned with honor, and glory, and immortality, and
    eternal life.

    6. Therefore, verily I say unto my servant William E. M'Lellin, I
    revoke the commission which I gave unto him, to go unto the eastern
    countries,

    7. And I give unto him a new commission and a new commandment, in
    the which I, the Lord, chasten him for the murmurings of his heart;

    8. And he sinned, nevertheless, I forgive him, and say unto him
    again, Go ye into the south countries,

    9. And let my servant Luke Johnson go with him and proclaim the
    things which I have commanded them,

    10. Calling on the name of the Lord for the Comforter, which shall
    teach them all things that are expedient for them,

    11. Praying always that they faint not, and inasmuch as they do
    this, I will be with them even unto the end.

    12. Behold, this is the will of the Lord your God concerning you.
    Even so. Amen.

    13. And again, verily thus saith the Lord, let my servant Orson
    Hyde, {244} and my servant Samuel H. Smith, take their journey
    into the eastern countries, and proclaim the things which I have
    commanded them; and inasmuch as they are faithful, lo, I will be
    with them even unto the end.

    14. And again, verily I say unto my servant Lyman Johnson, and unto
    my servant Orson Pratt, they shall also take their journey into the
    eastern countries; and behold, and lo, I am with them also, even
    unto the end.

    15. And again, I say unto my servant Asa Dodds, and unto my servant
    Calves Wilson, that they also shall take their journey unto the
    western countries, and proclaim my Gospel, even as I have commanded
    them.

    16. And he who is faithful shall overcome all things, and shall be
    lifted up at the last day.

    17. And again, I say unto my servant Major N. Ashly, and my servant
    Burr Riggs, let them take their journey also into the south country;

    18. Yea, let all those take their journey, as I have commanded
    them, going from house to house, and from village to village, and
    from city to city;

    19. And in whatsoever house ye enter, and they receive you, leave
    your blessing upon that house;

    20. And in whatsoever house ye enter, and they receive you not, ye
    shall depart speedily from that house, and shake off the dust of
    your feet as a testimony against them;

    21. And you shall be filled with joy and gladness; and know this,
    that in the day of judgment you shall be judges of that house, and
    condemn them;

    22. And it shall be more tolerable for the heathen in the day of
    judgment, than for that house; therefore gird up your loins and be
    faithful, and ye shall overcome all things, and be lifted up at the
    last day. Even so. Amen.

    23. And again, thus saith the Lord unto you, O ye Elders of my
    Church, who have given your names that you might know His will
    concerning you;

    24. Behold, I say unto you, that it is the duty of the Church to
    assist in supporting the families of those, and also to support the
    families of those who are called and must needs be sent unto the
    world to proclaim the Gospel unto the world;

    25. Wherefore, I, the Lord, give unto you this commandment, that
    ye obtain places for your families, inasmuch as your brethren are
    willing to open their heart;

    26. And let all such as can obtain places for their families, and
    {245} support of the Church for them, not fail to go into the
    world, whether to the east or to the west, or to the north, or to
    the south;

    27. Let them ask and they shall receive, knock and it shall be
    opened unto them and be made known from on high, even by the
    Comforter, whither they shall go.

    28. And again, verily I say unto you, that every man who is obliged
    to provide for his own family, let him provide, and he shall in
    nowise lose his crown; and let him labor in the Church.

    29. Let every man be diligent in all things. And the idler shall
    not have place in the Church, except he repent and mend his ways.

    30. Wherefore, let my servant Simeon Carter, and my servant Emer
    Harris, be united in the ministry;

    31. And also my servant Ezra Thayre, and my servant Thomas B. Marsh;

    32. Also my servant Hyrum Smith, and my servant Reynolds Cahoon;

    33. And also my servant Daniel Stanton, and my servant Seymour
    Brunson;

    34. And also my servant Sylvester Smith, and my servant Gideon
    Carter;

    35. And also my servant Ruggles Eames, and my servant Stephen
    Burnett;

    36. And also my servant Micah B. Welton; and also my servant Eden
    Smith. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: Revelation on the Degrees of Future Glory.]

Upon my return from Amherst conference, I resumed the translation of
the Scriptures. From sundry revelations which had been received, it was
apparent that many important points touching the salvation of man, had
been taken from the Bible, or lost before it was compiled. It appeared
self-evident from what truths were left, that if God rewarded every
one according to the deeds done in the body the term "Heaven," as
intended for the Saints' eternal home must include more kingdoms than
one. Accordingly, on the 16th of February, 1832, while translating St.
John's Gospel, myself and Elder Rigdon saw the following vision:

    _Vision of the Glories_. [9]

    1. Hear O ye heavens, and give ear O earth, and rejoice ye {246}
    inhabitants thereof, for the Lord is God, and beside Him there is
    no Savior

    2. Great is His wisdom, marvelous are His ways, and the extent of
    His doings none can find out;

    3. His purposes fail not, neither are there any who can stay His
    hand;

    4. From eternity to eternity He is the same, and His years never
    fail.

    5. For thus saith the Lord, I, the Lord, am merciful and gracious
    unto those who fear me, and delight to honor those who serve me in
    righteousness and in truth unto the end;

    6. Great shall be their reward and eternal shall be their glory;

    7. And to them will I reveal all mysteries, yea, all the hidden
    mysteries of my kingdom from days of old, and for ages to come will
    I make known unto them the good pleasure of my will concerning all
    things pertaining to my kingdom;

    8. Yea, even the wonders of eternity shall they know, and things to
    come will I show them, even the things of many generations;

    9. And their wisdom shall be great, and their understanding reach
    to heaven: and before them the wisdom of the wise shall perish, and
    the understanding of the prudent shall come to naught;

    10. For by my Spirit will I enlighten them, and by my power will I
    make known unto them the secrets of my will: yea, even those things
    which eye has not seen, nor ear heard, nor yet entered into the
    heart of man.

    11. We, Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney Rigdon, being in the Spirit,
    on the sixteenth of February, in the year of our Lord, one thousand
    eight hundred and thirty-two,

    12. By the power of the Spirit our eyes were opened and our
    understandings were enlightened, so as to see and understand the
    things of God--

    13. Even those things which were from the beginning before the
    world was, which were ordained of the Father, through His Only
    Begotten Son, who was in the bosom of the Father, even from the
    beginning,

    14. Of whom we bear record; and the record which we bear is the
    fullness of the Gospel of Jesus Christ who is the Son, whom we saw
    and with whom we conversed in the heavenly vision.

    15. For while we were doing the work of translation, which the Lord
    had appointed unto us, we came to the twenty-ninth verse of the
    fifth chapter of John, which was given unto us as follows:

    16. Speaking of the resurrection of the dead, concerning those who
    shall hear the voice of the Son of Man, and shall come forth;

    17. They who have done good in the resurrection of the just, and
    they who have done evil in the resurrection of the unjust.

    {247} 18. Now this caused us to marvel, for it was given unto us of
    the Spirit;

    19. And while we meditated upon these things, the Lord touched the
    eyes of our understandings and they were opened, and the glory of
    the Lord shone round about;

    20. And we beheld the glory of the Son, on the right hand of the
    Father and received of His fullness;

    21. And saw the holy angels, and they who are sanctified before his
    throne, worshiping God and the Lamb, who worship Him forever and
    ever.

    22. And now, after the many testimonies which have been given of
    Him, this is the testimony, last of all, which we give of him: That
    He lives!

    23. For we saw Him, even on the right hand of God; and we heard the
    voice bearing record that He is the Only Begotten of the Father;

    24. That by Him, and through Him, and of Him, the worlds are and
    were created, and the inhabitants thereof are begotten song and
    daughters unto God.

    25. And this we saw also, and bear record, that an angel of God who
    was in authority in the presence of God, who rebelled against the
    Only Begotten Son whom the Father loved and who was in the bosom of
    the Father--was thrust down from the presence of God and the Son,

    26. And was called Perdition, for the heavens wept over him--he was
    Lucifer, a son of the morning.

    27. And we beheld, and lo, he is fallen! is fallen! even a son of
    the morning.

    28. And while we were yet in the Spirit, the Lord commanded us
    that we should write the vision, for we beheld Satan, that old
    serpent--even the devil--who rebelled against God, and sought to
    take the kingdom of our God, and His Christ,

    29. Wherefore he maketh war with the Saints of God and encompasseth
    them round about.

    30. And we saw a vision of the sufferings of those with whom he
    made war and overcame, for thus came the voice of the Lord unto us.

    31. Thus saith the Lord concerning all those who know my power, and
    have been made partakers thereof, and suffered themselves through
    the power of the devil, to be overcome, and to deny the truth and
    defy my power--

    32. They are they who are the sons of perdition, of whom I say that
    it had been better for them never to have been born,

    33. For they are vessels of wrath, doomed to suffer the wrath of
    God, with the devil and his angels in eternity;

    {248} 34. Concerning whom I have said there is no forgiveness in
    this world nor in the world to come,

    35. Having denied the Holy Spirit after having received it, and
    having denied the Only Begotten Son of the Father--having crucified
    Him unto themselves and put Him to an open shame.

    36. These are they who shall go away into the lake of fire and
    brimstone, with the devil and his angels,

    37. And the only ones on whom the second death shall have any power;

    38. Yea, verily, the only ones who shall not be redeemed in the due
    time of the Lord, after the sufferings of His wrath;

    39. For all the rest shall be brought forth by the resurrection of
    the dead, through the triumph and the glory of the Lamb, who was
    slain, who was in the bosom of the Father before the worlds were
    made.

    40. And this is the Gospel, the glad tidings, which the voice out
    of the heavens bore record unto us,

    41. That He came into the world, even Jesus, to be crucified for
    the world, and to bear the sins of the world, and to sanctify the
    world, and to cleanse it from all unrighteousness;

    42. That through Him all might be saved whom the Father had put
    into His power and made by Him,

    43. Who glorifies the Father, and saves all the works of His hands,
    except those sons of perdition who deny the Son after the Father
    has revealed Him;

    44. Wherefore, He saves all except them; they shall go away into
    everlasting punishment, which is endless punishment, which is
    eternal punishment, to reign with the devil and his angels in
    eternity, where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched,
    which is their torment;

    45. And the end thereof, neither the place thereof, nor their
    torment, no man knows,

    46. Neither was it revealed, neither is, neither will be revealed
    unto man, except to them who are made partakers thereof:

    47. Nevertheless, I, the Lord, show it by vision unto many, but
    straightway shut it up again;

    48. Wherefore the end, the width, the height, the depth, and the
    misery thereof, they understand not, neither any man except those
    who are ordained unto this condemnation.

    49. And we heard the voice, saying, Write the vision, for lo! this
    is the end of the vision of the sufferings of the ungodly.

    50. And again, we bear record, for we saw and heard, and this is
    the testimony of the Gospel of Christ concerning them who shall
    come forth in the resurrection of the just;

    51. They are they who received the testimony of Jesus, and believed
    on His name and were baptized after the manner of His burial, being
    {249} buried in the water in His name, and this according to the
    commandment which he has given,

    52. That by keeping the commandments they might be washed and
    cleansed from all their sins, and receive the Holy Spirit by the
    laying on of the hands of him who is ordained and sealed unto this
    power,

    53. And who overcome by faith, and are sealed by the Holy Spirit of
    promise, which the Father sheds forth upon all those who are just
    and true.

    54. They are they who are the church of the Firstborn.

    55. They are they into whose hands the Father hath given all
    things--

    56. They are they who are Priests and Kings, who have received of
    His fullness, and of His glory,

    57. And are Priests of the Most High, after the order of
    Melchisedek, which was after the order of Enoch, which was after
    the order of the Only Begotten Son;

    58. Wherefore, as it is written, they are Gods, even the sons of
    God--

    59. Wherefore all things are theirs, whether life or death, or
    things present, or things to come, all are theirs and they are
    Christ's and Christ is God's.

    60. And they shall overcome all things;

    61. Wherefore let no man glory in man, but rather let him glory in
    God, who shall subdue all enemies under his feet--

    62. These shall dwell in the presence of God and His Christ for
    ever and ever.

    63. These are they whom He shall bring with Him, when He shall come
    in the clouds of heaven to reign on earth over His people.

    64. These are they who shall have part in the first resurrection.

    65. These are they who shall come forth in the resurrection of the
    just.

    66. These are they who are come unto Mount Zion, and unto the city
    of the living God, the heavenly place, the holiest of all.

    67. These are they who have come to an innumerable company of
    angels, to the general assembly and church of Enoch, and of the
    Firstborn.

    68. These are they whose names are written in heaven, where God and
    Christ are the Judge of all.

    69. These are they who are just men made perfect through Jesus
    the Mediator of the new covenant, who wrought out this perfect
    atonement through the shedding of His own blood.

    70. These are they whose bodies are celestial, whose glory is that
    of the sun, even the glory of God, the highest of all, whose glory
    the sun of the firmament is written of as being typical.

    71. And again, we saw the terrestrial world, and behold and lo,
    these are they who are of the terrestrial, whose glory differs from
    that of the {250} church of the Firstborn, who have received the
    fullness of the Father, even as that of the moon differs from the
    sun in the firmament.

    72. Behold, these are they who died without law,

    73. And also they who are the spirits of men kept in prison, whom
    the Son visited, and preached the Gospel unto them, that they might
    be judged according to men in the flesh,

    74. Who received not the testimony of Jesus in the flesh, but
    afterwards received it.

    75. These are they who are honorable men of the earth, who were
    blinded by the craftiness of men.

    76. These are they who receive of His glory, but not of His
    fullness.

    77. These are they who receive of the presence of the Son, but not
    of the fulness of the Father;

    78. Wherefore, they are bodies terrestrial, and not bodies
    celestial, and differ in glory as the moon differs from the sun.

    79. These are they who are not valiant in the testimony of Jesus;
    wherefore they obtain not the crown over the kingdom of our God.

    80. And now this is the end of the vision which we saw of the
    terrestrial, that the Lord commanded us to write while we were yet
    in the Spirit.

    81. And again, we saw the glory of the telestial, which glory is
    that of the lesser, even as the glory of the stars differs from
    that of the glory of the moon in the firmament.

    82. These are they who received not the Gospel of Christ, neither
    the testimony of Jesus.

    83. These are they who deny not the Holy Spirit.

    84. These are they who are thrust down to hell.

    85. These are they who shall not be redeemed from the devil, until
    the last resurrection, until the Lord, even Christ the Lamb shall
    have finished His work.

    86. These are they who receive not of His fullness in the eternal
    world, but of the Holy Spirit through the ministrations of the
    terrestrial;

    87. And the terrestrial through the ministration of the celestial;

    88. And also the telestial receive it of the administering of
    angels who are appointed to minister for them, or who are appointed
    to be ministering spirits for them, for they shall be heirs of
    salvation.

    89. And thus we saw in the heavenly vision, the glory of the
    telestial, which surpasses all understanding,

    90. And no man knows it except him to whom God has revealed it.

    91. And thus we saw the glory of the terrestrial, which excels in
    all things the glory of the telestial, even in glory, and in power,
    and in might, and in dominion.

    92. And thus we saw the glory of the celestial, which excels in all
    {251} things--where God, even the Father, reigns upon His throne
    for ever and ever;

    93. Before whose throne all things bow in humble reverence, and
    give him glory for ever and ever.

    94. They who dwell in His presence are the church of the Firstborn,
    and they see as they are seen, and know as they are known, having
    received of His fulness and of His grace;

    95. And He makes them equal in power, and in might, and in dominion.

    96. And the glory of the celestial is one, even as the glory of the
    sun is one.

    97. And the glory of the terrestrial is one, even as the glory of
    the moon is one.

    98. And the glory of the telestial is one, even as the glory of the
    stars is one, for as one star differs from another star in glory,
    even so differs one from another in glory in the telestial world;

    99. For these are they who are of Paul, and of Apollos, and of
    Cephas.

    100. These are they who say they are some of one and some of
    another--some of Christ and some of John, and some of Moses, and
    some of Elias, and some of Esaias, and some of Isaiah, and some of
    Enoch;

    101. But received not the Gospel, neither the testimony of Jesus,
    neither the prophets, neither the everlasting covenant.

    102. Last of all, these all are they who will not be gathered with
    the Saints, to be caught up unto the church of the Firstborn, and
    received into the cloud.

    103. These are they who are liars, and sorcerers, and adulterers,
    and whoremongers and whosoever loves and makes a lie.

    104. These are they who suffer the wrath of God on earth.

    105. These are they who suffer the vengeance of eternal fire.

    106. These are they who are cast down to hell and suffer the wrath
    of Almighty God, until the fullness of times, when Christ shall
    have subdued all enemies under His feet, and shall have perfected
    His work;

    107. When He shall deliver up the kingdom, and present it unto
    the Father, spotless, saying I have overcome and have trodden the
    wine-press alone, even the wine-press of the fierceness of the
    wrath of Almighty God.

    108. Then shall He be crowned with the crown of His glory, to sit
    on the throne of His power to reign for ever and ever.

    109. But behold and lo, we saw the glory and the inhabitants of the
    telestial world, that they were as innumerable as the stars in the
    firmament of heaven, or as the sand upon the sea shore,

    110. And heard the voice of the Lord, saying--these all shall bow
    the {252} knee, and every tongue shall confess to Him who sits upon
    the throne for ever and ever.

    111. For they shall be judged according to their works, and every
    man shall receive according to his own works, his own dominion, in
    the mansions which are prepared,

    112. And they shall be servants of the Most High; but where God and
    Christ dwell they cannot come, worlds without end.

    113. This is the end of the vision which we saw, which we were
    commanded to write while we were yet in the Spirit.

    114. But great and marvelous are the works of the Lord, and the
    mysteries of His kingdom which He showed unto us, which surpass all
    understanding in glory, and in might, and in dominion,

    115. Which He commanded us we should not write while we were yet in
    the Spirit, and are not lawful for man to utter;

    116. Neither is man capable to make them known, for they are only
    to be seen and understood by the power of the Holy Spirit, which
    God bestows on those who love Him, and purify themselves before Him;

    117. To whom he grants this privilege of seeing and knowing for
    themselves;

    118. That through the power and manifestation of the Spirit, while
    in the flesh, they may be able to bear His presence in the world of
    glory.

    119. And to God and the Lamb, be glory, and honor, and dominion for
    ever and ever. Amen.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Views on the Foregoing Revelation.]

Nothing could be more pleasing to the Saints upon the order of the
kingdom of the Lord, than the light which burst upon the world through
the foregoing vision. Every law, every commandment, every promise,
every truth, and every point touching the destiny of man, from Genesis
to Revelation, where the purity of the scriptures remains unsullied by
the folly of men, go to show the perfection of the theory [of different
degrees of glory in the future life] and witnesses the fact that that
document is a transcript from the records of the eternal world. The
sublimity of the ideas; the purity of the language; the scope for
action; the continued duration for completion, in order that the heirs
of salvation may confess the Lord and bow the knee; the rewards for
faithfulness, and the punishments for sins, are so much beyond the
narrow-mindedness of men, that {253} every honest man is constrained to
exclaim: "_It came from God_."

[Sidenote: A Key to St. John's Book of Revelation.]

About the first of March, in connection with the translation of the
Scriptures, I received the following explanation of the Revelation of
St. John:

    _Revelation, given at Hiram, Portage County, Ohio._ [10]

    1. Q.--What is the sea of glass spoken of by John, 4th chapter, and
    6th verse of the Revelations?

    A. It is the earth, in its sanctified, immortal and eternal state.

    2. Q. What are we to understand by the four beasts, spoken of in
    the same verse?

    A. They are figurative expressions, used by the Revelator John, in
    describing Heaven, the Paradise of God, the happiness of man, and
    of beasts, and of creeping things, and of the fowls of the air;
    that which is spiritual, being in the likeness of that which is
    temporal; and that which is temporal, in the likeness of that which
    is spiritual; the spirit of man in the likeness of his person, as
    also the spirit of the beast, and every other creature which God
    has created.

    3. Q. Are the four beasts limited to individual beasts, or do they
    represent classes or orders?

    A. They are limited to four individual beasts, which were shown to
    John, to represent the glory of the classes of beings, in their
    destined order or sphere of creation, in the enjoyment of their
    eternal felicity.

    4. Q. What are we to understand by the eyes, and wings, which the
    beasts had?

    A. Their eyes are a representation of light, and knowledge; that is
    they are full of knowledge; and their wings are a representation of
    power, to move, to act, &c.

    5. Q. What are we to understand by the four and twenty Elders,
    spoken of by John?

    A. We are to understand that these Elders whom John saw, were
    Elders who had been faithful in the work of the ministry and were
    dead; who belonged to the seven churches,--and were then in the
    Paradise of God.

    6. Q. What are we to understand by the book which John saw, which
    was sealed on the back with seven seals?

    A. We are to understand that it contains the revealed will,
    mysteries, and works of God; the hidden things of His economy
    concerning this {254} earth during the seven thousand years of its
    continuance, or its temporal existence.

    7. Q. What are we to understand by the seven seals with which it
    was sealed?

    A. We are to understand that the first seal contains the things
    of the first thousand years, and the second also of the second
    thousand years, and so on until the seventh.

    8. Q. What are we to understand by the four angels, spoken of in
    the 7th chapter and 1st verse of Revelations?

    A. We are to understand that they are four angels sent forth from
    God, to whom is given power over the four parts of the earth, to
    save life and to destroy; these are they who have the everlasting
    Gospel to commit to every nation, kindred, tongue, and people;
    having power to shut up the heavens, to seal up unto life, or to
    cast down to the regions of darkness.

    9. Q. What are we to understand by the angel ascending from the
    east, Revelations, 7th chapter and 2nd verse?

    A. We are to understand that the angel ascending from the east, is
    he to whom is given the seal of the living God, over the twelve
    tribes of Israel; wherefore, he crieth unto the four angels having
    the everlasting Gospel, saying: Hurt not the earth, neither the
    sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God in
    their foreheads; And, if you will receive it, this is Elias which
    was to come to gather together the tribes of Israel and restore all
    things.

    10. Q. What time are the things spoken of in this chapter to be
    accomplished?

    A. They are to be accomplished in the sixth thousandth year, or the
    opening of the sixth seal.

    11. Q. What are we to understand by sealing the one hundred and
    forty-four thousand, out of all the tribes of Israel; twelve
    thousand out of every tribe?

    A. We are to understand that those who are sealed are High Priests,
    ordained unto the holy order of God, to administer the everlasting
    Gospel; for they are they who are ordained out of every nation,
    kindred, tongue, and people, by the angels to whom is given power
    over the nations of the earth, to bring as many as will come to the
    church of the Firstborn.

    12. Q. What are we to understand by the sounding of the trumpets,
    mentioned in the 8th chapter of Revelations?

    A. We are to understand that as God made the world in six days,
    and on the seventh day He finished His work, and sanctified it,
    and also formed man out of the dust of the earth; even so, in the
    beginning of the seventh thousand years will the Lord God sanctify
    the earth, and {255} complete the salvation of man, and judge all
    things, and shall redeem all things, except that which He hath not
    put into His power, when He shall have sealed all things, unto
    the end of all things; and the sounding of the trumpets of the
    seven angels are the preparing and finishing of His work, in the
    beginning of the seventh thousand years; the preparing of the way
    before the time of His coming.

    13. Q. When are the things to be accomplished, which are written in
    the 9th chapter of Revelations?

    A. They are to be accomplished after the opening of the seventh
    seal, before the coming of Christ.

    14. Q. What are we to understand by the little book which was eaten
    by John, as mentioned in the 10th chapter of Revelations?

    A. We are to understand that it was a mission, and an ordinance,
    for him to gather the tribes of Israel; behold this is Elias; who,
    as it is written, must come and restore all things.

    15. Q. What is to be understood by the two witnesses, in the
    eleventh chapter of Revelations?

    A. They are two prophets that are to be raised up to the Jewish
    nation in the last days, at the time of the restoration, and to
    prophesy to the Jews, after they are gathered, and have built the
    city of Jerusalem in the land of their fathers.

[Sidenote: Sundry Revelations.]

Besides the work of translating, previous to the 20th of March, I
received the four following revelations:--

    _Revelation, given March, 1832. The Order given of the Lord to
    Enoch, [Joseph Smith, Jun.,] [11] for the purpose of establishing
    the poor_. [12]

    1. The Lord spake unto Enoch (Joseph Smith, Jun.,) saying; Hearken
    unto me, saith the Lord your God, who are ordained unto the High
    Priesthood of my Church, who have assembled yourselves together;

    2. And listen to the counsel of Him who has ordained you from
    on high, who shall speak in your ears the words of wisdom, that
    salvation may be unto you in that thing which you have presented
    before me, saith the Lord God;

    3. For verily I say unto you, the time has come, and is now at
    hand; and behold, and lo, it must needs be that there be an
    organization of {256} my people, in regulating and establishing the
    affairs of the storehouse for the poor of my people, both in this
    place and in the land of Zion,

    4. Or in other words, the city of Enoch, (Joseph) for a permanent
    and everlasting establishment and order unto my Church, to advance
    the cause, which ye have espoused to the salvation of man, and to
    the glory of your Father who is in heaven,

    5. That you may be equal in the bands of heavenly things; yea, and
    earthly things also, for the obtaining of heavenly things;

    6. For if ye are not equal in earthly things, ye cannot be equal in
    obtaining heavenly things;

    7. For if you will that I give unto you a place in the celestial
    world, you must prepare yourselves by doing the things which I have
    commanded you and required of you.

    8. And now, verily thus saith the Lord, it is expedient that all
    things be done unto my glory, by you who are joined together in
    this order;

    9. Or in other words, let my servant Ahashdah [Newel K. Whitney]
    and my servant Gazelam, or Enoch, (Joseph Smith, Jun.,) and my
    servant Pelagoram, (Sidney Rigdon), sit in council with the Saints
    which are in Zion;

    10. Otherwise Satan seeketh to turn their hearts away from the
    truth, that they become blinded and understand not the things which
    are prepared for them;

    11. Wherefore a commandment I give unto you, to prepare and
    organize yourselves by a bond or everlasting covenant that cannot
    be broken.

    12. And he who breaketh it shall lose his office and standing in
    the Church, and shall be delivered over to the buffetings of Satan
    until the day of redemption.

    13. Behold, this is the preparation wherewith I prepare you, and
    the foundation, and the ensample which I give unto you, whereby you
    may accomplish the commandments which are given you,

    14. That through my providence, notwithstanding the tribulation
    which shall descend upon you, that the Church may stand independent
    above all other creatures beneath the celestial world,

    15. That you may come up unto the crown prepared for you, and be
    made rulers over many kingdoms saith the Lord God, the Holy One of
    Zion, who hath established the foundations of Adam-ondi-Ahman;

    16. Who hath appointed Michael your prince, and established his
    feet, and set him up on high, and given unto him the keys of
    salvation under the counsel and direction of the Holy One, who is
    without beginning of days or end of life.

    17. Verily, verily I say unto you, ye are little children, and ye
    have not as yet understood how great blessings the Father hath in
    His own hands and prepared for you;

    {257} 18. And ye cannot bear all things now, nevertheless be of
    good cheer, for I will lead you along: the kingdom is yours and the
    blessings thereof are yours; and the riches of eternity are yours;

    19. And he who receiveth all things with thankfulness shall be made
    glorious; and the things of this earth shall be added unto him,
    even an hundred fold, yea, more;

    20. Wherefore, do the things which I have commanded you, saith your
    Redeemer, even the Son of Ahman, who prepareth all things before He
    taketh you;

    21. For ye are the church of the Firstborn, and He will take you up
    in a cloud, and appoint every man his portion.

    22. And he that is a faithful and wise steward shall inherit all
    things. Amen.

    _Revelation, given March, 1832_. [13]

    1. Verily I say unto you, that it is my will that my servant Jared
    Carter should go again into the eastern countries, from place
    to place, and from city to city, in the power of the ordination
    wherewith he has been ordained, proclaiming glad tidings of great
    joy, even the everlasting Gospel;

    2. And I will send upon him the Comforter, which shall teach him
    the truth and the way whither he shall go;

    3. And inasmuch as he is faithful, I will crown him again with
    sheaves;

    4. Wherefore, let your heart be glad, my servant Jared Carter, and
    fear not, saith your Lord, even Jesus Christ. Amen.

    _Revelation, given March, 1832_. [14]

    1. Verily, thus saith the Lord, unto you my servant, Stephen
    Burnett, Go ye, go ye into the world and preach the Gospel to every
    creature that cometh under the sound of your voice;

    2. And inasmuch as you desire a companion, I will give unto you my
    servant Eden Smith;

    3. Wherefore, go ye and preach my Gospel, whether to the north or
    to the south, to the east or to the west, it mattereth not, for ye
    cannot go amiss;

    4. Therefore, declare the things which ye have heard and verily
    believe, and know to be true.

    5. Behold, this is the will of Him who hath called you, your
    Redeemer, even Jesus Christ. Amen.

    _Revelation, given March, 1832_. [15]

    1. Verily, verily I say unto you my servant Frederick G. Williams,
    {258} listen to the voice of Him who speaketh, to the word of the
    Lord your God, and hearken to the calling wherewith you are called,
    even to be a High Priest in my Church, and a counselor unto my
    servant Joseph Smith, Jun.,

    2. Unto whom I have given the keys of the kingdom, which belong
    always unto the Presidency of the High Priesthood: [16]

    3. Therefore, verily I acknowledge him and will bless him, and
    also thee, inasmuch as thou art faithful in counsel, in the office
    which I have appointed unto you, in prayer, always, vocally and
    in thy heart, in public and in private, also in thy ministry in
    proclaiming the Gospel in the land of the living, and among thy
    brethren;

    4. And in doing these things thou wilt do the greatest good unto
    thy fellow beings, and wilt promote the glory of Him who is your
    Lord;

    5. Wherefore, be faithful, stand in the office which I have
    appointed unto you, succor the weak, lift up the hands which hang
    down, and strengthen the feeble knees;

    6. And if thou art faithful unto the end, thou shalt have a crown
    of immortality and eternal life in the mansions which I have
    prepared in the house of my Father.

    7. Behold, and lo, these are the words of Alpha and Omega, even
    Jesus Christ. Amen.

Footnotes

1. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 71.

2. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 72.

3. These are the letters referred to at p. 217, note.

4. This conference had been appointed to meet on the 25th of January,
at Amherst, Lorain county, Ohio.

5. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 73.

6. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 74.

7. The chief item of interest connected with this Amherst conference
held on the 25th of January, 1832, is the fact that it was here that
the Prophet Joseph was sustained and ordained as President of the High
Priesthood.

8. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 75.

9. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 76.

10. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 77.

11. It was not always desirable that the individuals whom the Lord
addressed in revelations should at the time be known by the world, and
hence in this and in some subsequent revelations the brethren were
addressed by other than their own names. The temporary necessity having
passed for keeping the names of the individuals addressed unknown,
their real names were subsequently given in brackets.

12. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 78.

13. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 79.

14. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 80.

15. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 81.

16. It has been said that there was no First presidency in the Church
of Jesus Christ in former days and that this body is peculiar to the
Dispensation of the Fulness of Times. Here the Lord declares that
the keys of the kingdom "belong always unto the presidency of the
High Priesthood." In other words they belong to the Presidency of the
Church. In a discourse delivered July 2, 1839, the prophet Joseph Smith
said that Adam held the keys of the First Presidency, then Noah also
held this office. He said: "The Priesthood is everlasting. The Savior,
Moses and Elias gave the keys to Peter, James and John, on the mount,
when they were transfigured before him." This being true, then Peter,
James and John were chosen by the Lord as a First Presidency and served
in that capacity in the Church of Jesus Christ in their dispensation.
It was by virtue of this calling that they were sent to confer upon
Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery the keys of the kingdom. (D&C 27:13.)

{259}



Chapter XIX.

Mob Violence at Hiram--The Second Journey of the Prophet to Zion, and
Return to Kirtland.

[Sidenote: Prospectus of _The Evening and Morning Star_.]

I received a letter from the brethren who went up to the land of Zion,
stating that they had arrived at Independence, Missouri, in good health
and spirits, with a printing press and a store of goods. Agreeable
to the instructions of the fall conference, they also sent me the
prospectus of a monthly paper, _The Evening and Morning Star_. [1]

{260} [Sidenote: The Prophet's Life in Hiram.]

According to previous intentions, we now began to make preparations
to visit the brethren who had removed to the land of Missouri. Before
going to Hiram to live with Father Johnson, [2] my wife had taken two
children (twins), of John Murdock's, to rear. [3] She received them
when only nine days old; they were now nearly eleven months. I would
remark that nothing important had occurred since I came to reside in
Father Johnson's house in Hiram, except that I had held meetings on the
Sabbaths and evenings, and baptized a number.

[Sidenote: A Prophecy on Olmsted Johnson.]

Father Johnson's son, Olmsted Johnson, about this time came home on
a visit, during which I told him if he did not obey the Gospel, the
spirit he was of would lead him to destruction, and when he went away,
he would never return or see his father again. He went to the Southern
States and Mexico; on his return he took sick and died in Virginia.

[Sidenote: Apostates.]

In addition to the apostate Ezra Booth, Simonds Ryder, [4] Eli Johnson,
Edward Johnson and John Johnson, Jun., had apostatized.

{261} [Sidenote: Mob Violence at Hiram.]

On the 24th of March, the twins before mentioned, which had been sick
of the measles for some time, caused us to be broken of our rest in
taking care of them, especially my wife. In the evening I told her
she had better retire to rest with one of the children, and I would
watch with the sicker child. In the night she told me I had better lie
down on the trundle bed, and I did so, and was soon after awakened by
her screaming murder, when I found myself going out of the door, in
the hands of about a dozen men; some of whose hands were in my hair,
and some had hold of my shirt, drawers and limbs. The foot of the
trundle bed was towards the door, leaving only room enough for the door
to swing open. My wife heard a gentle tapping on the windows which
she then took no particular notice of (but which was unquestionably
designed for ascertaining whether or not we were all asleep), and
soon after the mob broke open the door and surrounded the bed in an
instant, and, as I said, the first I knew I was going out of the door
in the hands of an infuriated mob. I made a desperate struggle, as I
was forced out, to extricate myself, but only cleared one leg, with
which I made a pass at one man, and he fell on the door steps. I was
immediately overpowered again; and they swore by G--, they would kill
me if I did not be still, which quieted me. As they passed around the
house {262} with me, the fellow that I kicked came to me and thrust his
hand, all covered with blood, into my face and with an exulting hoarse
laugh, muttered "_Ge, gee, G-- d-- ye, I'll fix ye_." [5]

[Sidenote: Brutality of the Mob.]

They then seized me by the throat and held on till I lost my breath.
After I came to, as they passed along with me, about thirty rods from
the house, I saw Elder Rigdon stretched out on the ground, whither they
had dragged him by his heels. I supposed he was dead. I began to plead
with them, saying, "You will have mercy and spare my life, I hope."
To which they replied, "G-- d-- ye, call on yer God for help, we'll
show ye no mercy;" and the people began to show themselves in every
direction; one coming from the orchard had a plank; and I expected they
would kill me, and carry me off on the plank. They then turned to the
right, and went on about thirty rods further; about sixty rods from the
house, and thirty from where I saw Elder Rigdon, into the meadow, where
they stopped, and one said, "Simonds, Simonds," (meaning, I supposed,
Simonds Ryder,) "pull up his drawers, pull up his drawers, he will take
cold." Another replied: "_Ain't ye going to kill 'im? ain't ye going
to kill 'im!_" when a group of mobbers collected a little way off,
and said: "Simonds, Simonds, come here;" and "Simonds" charged those
who had hold of me to keep me from touching the ground (as they had
done all the time), lest I should get a spring upon them. They held a
council, and as I could occasionally overhear a word, I supposed it was
to know whether or not it was best to kill me. They returned after a
while, when I learned that they had {263} concluded not to kill me, but
to beat and scratch me well, tear off my shirt and drawers, and leave
me naked. One cried, "Simonds, Simonds, _where's the tar bucket_?" "I
don't know," answered one, "_where 'tis, Eli's left it_." They ran back
and fetched the bucket of tar, when one exclaimed, with an oath, "_Let
us tar up his mouth;_" and they tried to force the tar-paddle into my
mouth; I twisted my head around, so that they could not, and they cried
out, "_G--d--ye, hold up yer head and let us give ye some tar_." They
then tried to force a vial into my mouth, and broke it in my teeth.
All my clothes were torn off me except my shirt collar; and one man
fell on me and scratched my body with his nails like a mad cat, and
then muttered out: "_G--d---ye, that's the way the Holy Ghost falls on
folks_!"

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Pitiable Condition.]

They then left me, and I attempted to rise, but fell again; I pulled
the tar away from my lips, so that I could breathe more freely, and
after a while I began to recover, and raised myself up, whereupon I
saw two lights. I made my way towards one of them, and found it was
Father Johnson's. When I came to the door I was naked, and the tar made
me look as if I were covered with blood, and when my wife saw me she
thought I was all crushed to pieces, and fainted. During the affray
abroad, the sisters of the neighborhood had collected at my room. I
called for a blanket, they threw me one and shut the door; I wrapped it
around me and went in.

[Sidenote: A Case of Mistaken Identity.]

In the meantime, Brother John Poorman heard an outcry across the corn
field, and running that way met Father Johnson, who had been fastened
in his house at the commencement of the assault, by having his door
barred by the mob, but on calling his wife to bring his gun, saying he
would blow a hole through the door, the mob fled, and Father Johnson,
seizing a club, ran after the party that had Elder Rigdon, and knocked
down one man, and raised his club to level another, exclaiming, "_What
are you doing here_?" when they left {264} Elder Rigdon and turned upon
Father Johnson, who, turning to run toward his own house, met Brother
Poorman coming out of the corn field; each supposing the other to be
a mobber, and encounter ensued, and Poorman gave Johnson a severe
blow on the left shoulder with a stick or stone, which brought him to
the ground. [6] Poorman ran immediately towards Father Johnson's, and
arriving while I was waiting for the blanket, exclaimed, "I'm afraid
I've killed him." Killed who, asked one; when Poorman hastily related
the circumstances of the rencounter near the corn field, and went into
the shed and hid himself. Father Johnson soon recovered so as to come
to the house, when the whole mystery was quickly solved concerning
the difficulty between him and Poorman, who, on learning the facts,
joyfully came from his hiding place.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Undaunted Spirit.]

My friends spent the night in scraping and removing the tar, and
washing and cleansing my body; so that by morning I was ready to be
clothed again. This being the Sabbath morning, the people assembled
for meeting at the usual hour of worship, and among them came also the
mobbers; viz.: Simonds Ryder, a Campbellite preacher and leader of the
mob; one McClentic, who had his hands in my hair; one Streeter, son of
a Campbellite minister; and Felatiah Allen, Esq., who gave the mob a
barrel of whiskey to raise their spirits. Besides these named, there
were many others in the mob. With my flesh all scarified and defaced, I
preached to the congregation as usual, and in the afternoon of the same
day baptized three individuals. [7]

{265} [Sidenote: Elder Rigdon's Condition.]

The next morning I went to see Elder Rigdon, and found him crazy, and
his head highly inflamed, for they had dragged him by his heels, and
those, too, so high from the ground that he could not raise his head
from the rough, frozen surface, which lacerated it exceedingly; and
when he saw me he called to his wife to bring him his razor. She asked
him what he wanted of it; and he replied, to kill me. Sister Rigdon
left the room, and he asked me to bring his razor; I asked him what
he wanted of it, and he replied he wanted to kill his wife; and he
continued delirious some days. The feathers which were used with the
tar on this occasion, the mob took out of Elder Rigdon's house. After
they had seized him, and dragged him out, one of the banditti returned
to get some pillows; when the women shut him in and kept him a prisoner
some time.

[Sidenote: Composition of the Mob.]

During the mobbing one of the twins contracted a severe cold,
continued to grow worse until Friday, and then died. [8] The mobbers
were composed of various religious parties, but mostly Campbellites,
Methodists and Baptists, who continued to molest and menace Father
Johnson's house for a long time. Elder Rigdon removed to Kirtland with
his family--then sick with the measles--the following Wednesday; and,
on account of the mob, he went to Chardon [9] on Saturday, March 31st.

[Sidenote: The Prophet Starts on His Second Visit to Zion.]

April first, I started for Missouri, in company with Newel K. Whitney,
Peter Whitmer, and Jesse Gause, to fulfil the revelation. Not wishing
to go by Kirtland, as another mob existed in that neighborhood (and
indeed, the spirit of mobocracy {266} was very prevalent through that
whole region of country at the time), brother George Pitkin took us in
his wagon by the most expeditious route to Warren, where we arrived the
same day, and were there joined by Elder Rigdon, who left Chardon in
the morning; and proceeding onward, we arrived at Wellsville the next
day, and the day following at Steubenville where we left the wagon; and
on Wednesday, the 4th of April, we took passage on board a steam packet
for Wheeling, Virginia; where we purchased a lot of paper for the press
in Zion, then in care of W. W. Phelps.

[Sidenote: Incidents by the Way.]

After we left Hiram, fearing for the safety of my family, on account
of the mob, I wrote to my wife (in connection with Bishop Whitney)
suggesting that she go to Kirtland and tarry with Brother Whitney's
family until our return. From Wheeling we took passage on board the
steamer Trenton. While at the dock, during the night, the boat was
twice on fire, burning the whole width of the boat through into the
cabin, but with so little damage that the boat went on in the morning;
and when we arrived at Cincinnati, some of the mob which had followed
us, left us, and we arrived at Louisville the same night. Captain
Brittle offered us protection on board of his boat, and gave us supper
and breakfast gratuitously. At Louisville we were joined by Elder
Titus Billings, [10] who was journeying with a company of Saints from
Kirtland to Zion, and we took passage on the steamer Charleston for
St. Louis, where we parted from Brother Billings and company, and by
stage arrived at Independence, Missouri, on the twenty-fourth of April,
having traveled a distance of about three hundred miles from St. Louis.
We found the brethren in Zion, generally enjoying health and faith; and
they were extremely glad to welcome us among them.

{267} [Sidenote: The Prophet Acknowledged President of the High
Priesthood.]

On the 26th, I called a general council of the Church, and was
acknowledged as the President of the High Priesthood, according to
a previous ordination at a conference of High Priests, Elders and
members, held at Amherst, Ohio, on the 25th of January, 1832. The right
hand of fellowship was given to me by the Bishop, Edward Partridge, in
behalf of the Church. The scene was solemn, impressive and delightful.
During the intermission, a difficulty or hardness which had existed
between Bishop Partridge and Elder Rigdon, was amicably settled, and
when we came together in the afternoon, all hearts seemed to rejoice
and I received the following: [11]

    _Revelation, given April, 1832, showing the order given to Enoch,
    and the Church in his day_. [12]

    1. Verily, verily, I say unto you, my servants, that inasmuch as
    you have forgiven one another your trespasses, even so I, the Lord,
    forgive you.

    2. Nevertheless there are those among you who have sinned
    exceedingly; yea, even all of you have sinned; but verily I say
    unto you, beware from henceforth, and refrain from sin, lest sore
    judgments fall upon your heads;

    3. For unto whom much is given much is required; and he who sins
    against the greater light shall receive the greater condemnation.

    4. Ye call upon my name for revelations, and I give them unto you;
    and inasmuch as ye keep not my sayings, which I give unto you, ye
    become transgressors, and justice and judgment are the penalty
    which is affixed unto my law;

    5. Therefore, what I say unto one I say unto all, Watch, for the
    adversary spreadeth his dominions and darkness reigneth;

    6. And the anger of God kindleth against the inhabitants of the
    earth; and none doeth good, for all have gone out of the way.

    7. And now, verily, I say unto you, I, the Lord, will not lay any
    sin to your charge; go your ways and sin no more; but unto that
    soul who sinneth shall the former sins return, saith the Lord your
    God.

    {268} 8. And again, I say unto you, I give unto you a new
    commandment, that you may understand my will concerning you,

    9. Or, in other words, I give unto you directions how you may act
    before me, that it may turn to you for your salvation.

    10. I, the Lord am bound when ye do what I say, but when ye do not
    what I say, ye have no promise.

    11. Therefore, verily I say unto you, that it is expedient for
    my servants Alam and Ahashdah, (Newel K. Whitney), Mahalaleel,
    and Pelagoram (Sidney Rigdon), and my servant Gazelam (Joseph
    Smith), and Horah and Olihah (Oliver Cowdery), and Shalemanasseh
    and Mahemson (Martin Harris), to be bound together by a bond and
    covenant that cannot be broken by transgression, (except judgment
    shall immediately follow,) in your several stewardships,

    12. To manage the affairs of the poor, and all things pertaining to
    the bishopric both in the land of Zion and in the land of Shinehah
    (Kirtland.)

    13. For I have consecrated the land of Shinehah (Kirtland) in mine
    own due time for the benefit of the saints of the Most High, and
    for a stake to Zion.

    14. For Zion must increase in beauty, and in holiness; her borders
    must be enlarged; her stakes must be strengthened; yea, verily I
    say unto you, Zion must arise and put on her beautiful garments:

    15. Therefore I give unto you this commandment, that ye bind
    yourselves by this covenant, and it shall be done according to the
    laws of the Lord.

    16. Behold, here is wisdom also in me for your good.

    17. And you are to be equal, or in other words, you are to have
    equal claims on the properties, for the benefit of managing the
    concerns of your stewardships, every man according to his wants and
    his needs, inasmuch as his wants are just;

    18. And all this for the benefit of the Church of the living God,
    that every man may improve upon his talent, that every man may
    gain other talents, yea, even an hundred fold, to be cast into the
    Lord's storehouse to become the common property of the whole Church.

    19. Every man seeking the interest of his neighbor, and doing all
    things with an eye single to the glory of God.

    20. This order I have appointed to be an everlasting order unto
    you, and unto your successors, inasmuch as you sin not;

    21. And the soul that sins against this covenant, and hardeneth
    his heart against it, shall be dealt with according to the laws of
    my Church, and shall be delivered over to the buffetings of Satan
    until the day of redemption.

    22. And now, verily I say unto you, and this is wisdom, make unto
    {269} yourselves friends with the mammon of unrighteousness, and
    they will not destroy you.

    23. Leave judgment alone with me, for it is mine, and I will repay.
    Peace be with you; my blessings continue with you,

    24. For even yet the kingdom is yours, and shall be for ever, if
    you fall not from your steadfastness. Even so. Amen.

[Sidenote: The Purposes the Prophet Seeks to Effect Through Church
Organization.]

On the 27th, we transacted considerable business for the salvation of
the Saints, who were settling among a ferocious set of mobbers, like
lambs among wolves. It was my endeavor to so organize the Church, that
the brethren might eventually be independent of every incumbrance
beneath the celestial kingdom, by bonds and covenants of mutual
friendship, and mutual love.

[Sidenote: A Visit to the Colesville Saints.]

On the 28th and 29th, I visited the brethren above Big Blue river, in
Kaw township, a few miles west of Independence, and received a welcome
only known by brethren and sisters united as one in the same faith, and
by the same baptism, and supported by the same Lord. The Colesville
branch, in particular, rejoiced as the ancient Saints did with Paul.
[13] It is good to rejoice with the people of God. On the 30th, I
returned to Independence, and again sat in council with the brethren,
and received the following:

    _Revelation, given April, 1832_. [14]

    1. Verily, thus saith the Lord, in addition to the laws of the
    Church concerning women and children, those who belong to the
    Church, who have lost their husbands or fathers.

    2. Women have claim on their husbands for their maintenance, until
    their husbands are taken, and if they are not found transgressors
    they shall have fellowship in the Church.

    3. And if they are not faithful, they shall not have fellowship
    in the {270} Church; yet they may remain upon their inheritances
    according to the laws of the land.

    4. All children have claim upon their parents for their maintenance
    until they are of age.

    5. And after that they have claim upon the Church, or in other
    words upon the Lord's storehouse, if their parents have not
    wherewith to give them inheritances.

    6. And the storehouse shall be kept by the consecrations of the
    Church, and widows and orphans shall be provided for, as also the
    poor. Amen.

[Sidenote: Literary Affairs of the Church Considered.]

Our council was continued on the 1st of May, when it was ordered that
three thousand copies of the Book of Commandments be printed in the
first edition; [15] that William W. Phelps, Oliver Cowdery, and John
Whitmer, be appointed to review and prepare such revelations for the
press as shall be deemed proper for publication, and print them as soon
as possible at Independence, Missouri; the announcement to be made that
they are "Published by W. W. Phelps & Co." It was also ordered that W.
W. Phelps correct and print the hymns which had been selected by Emma
Smith in fulfilment of the revelation.

[Sidenote: Transaction of Temporal Business.]

Arrangements were also made for supplying the Saints with stores in
Missouri and Ohio, which action, with a few exceptions, was hailed with
joy by the brethren. [16] Before we left Independence, Elder Rigdon
preached two most powerful {271} discourses, which, so far as outward
appearance was concerned gave great satisfaction to the people.

[Sidenote: Return Journey to Kirtland--Incidents by the Way.]

On the 6th of May I gave the parting hand to the brethren in
Independence, and, in company with Brothers Rigdon and Whitney,
commenced a return to Kirtland, by stage to St. Louis, from thence
to Vincennes, Indiana; and from thence to New Albany, near the falls
of the Ohio river. Before we arrived at the latter place, the horses
became frightened, and while going at full speed Bishop Whitney
attempted to jump out of the coach, but having his coat fast, caught
his foot in the wheel, and had his leg and foot broken in several
places; at the same time I jumped out unhurt. We put up at Mr. Porter's
public house, in Greenville, for four weeks, while Elder Rigdon went
directly forward to Kirtland. During all this time, Brother Whitney
lost not a meal of victuals or a night's sleep, and Dr. Porter, our
landlord's brother, who attended him, said it was a pity we had not
got some "Mormon" there, as they could set broken bones or do anything
else. I tarried with Brother Whitney and administered to him till he
was able to be moved. While at this place I frequently walked out in
the woods, where I saw several fresh graves; and one day when I rose
from the dinner table, I walked directly to the door and commenced
vomiting most profusely. I raised large quantities of blood and
poisonous matter, and so great were the muscular contortions of my
system, that my jaw in a few moments was dislocated. This I succeeded
in replacing with my own hands, and made my way to Brother Whitney
(who was on the bed), as speedily as possible; he laid his hands on me
and administered to me in the name of the Lord, and I was healed in
an instant, although the effect of the poison was so powerful, as to
cause much of the hair to become loosened from my head. Thanks be to
my Heavenly Father for His interference in my behalf at this critical
moment, in the name of Jesus Christ. Amen.

{272} [Sidenote: The Foreknowledge of a Seer.]

Brother Whitney had not had his foot moved from the bed for nearly four
weeks, when I went into his room, after a walk in the grove, and told
him if he would agree to start for home in the morning, we would take a
wagon to the river, about four miles, and there would be a ferry-boat
in waiting which would take us quickly across, where we would find
a hack which would take us directly to the landing, where we should
find a boat, in waiting, and we would be going up the river before ten
o'clock, and have a prosperous journey home. He took courage and told
me he would go. We started next morning, and found everything as I had
told him, [17] for we were passing rapidly up the river before ten
o'clock, and, landing at Wellsville, took stage coach to Chardon, from
thence in a wagon to Kirtland, where we arrived some time in June.

Footnotes

1. The prospectus of _The Evening and Morning Star_, referred to above,
is a lengthy document, from which the following is condensed: it is
announced that the _Star_ will be devoted to unfolding the meaning of
the revelations of God from the earliest times to the present, but
more especially those revelations which God has given in the present
dispensation; that God made choice of Israel in ancient times through
whom to make known His will unto mankind; but owing to transgression
Israel was taken captive and scattered, among all nations; God,
however, promised that in the last days He would gather Israel then
scattered, and bring them again into their own lands where they should
be wonderfully prospered.

The time for the accomplishment of these things is rapidly approaching.
It will be attended with the sore judgments of God upon the wicked. And
as in all past ages, before allowing judgments to fall upon the wicked,
God has sent them a word of warning and an opportunity to repent,
so too in the crisis pending the Lord will not bring the threatened
calamity upon mankind without sending forth due warning. "Therefore, in
the fear of Him (the Lord) and to spread the truth among all nations,
kindreds, tongues and people, this paper is sent forth, that a wicked
world may know that Jesus Christ, the Redeemer, who shall come to Zion
will soon appear." _The Evening and Morning Star_--in addition to being
a herald of Israel's return to the favor of God, and a messenger of the
everlasting Gospel--will also contain whatever of truth or information
that will benefit the Saints of God temporally as well as spiritually,
"without interfering with politics, broils or the gainsaying of the
world." It is also announced that from the _Star_ press it may be
expected, as soon as wisdom directs, that there will be issued "many
sacred records which have slept for ages." The _Star_ was to be a royal
quarto sheet, issued monthly, at one dollar a year, until it should
be deemed proper to publish it oftener. The prospectus was issued in
February, and signed by W. W. Phelps.

2. The Johnson family was one of the typical American families of old
colonial times--the men were large, strong, brave, sensible, honest,
well-to-do. "My grandfather, Israel Johnson," writes Luke Johnson in
his autobiographical sketch, "lived in Chesterfield, New Hampshire,
and was much respected by his neighbors for his honesty, integrity
and industry. My father, John Johnson, was born in Chesterfield, New
Hampshire, April 11th, 1779. He followed the occupation of farming
on a large scale, and was noted for paying his debts and living
independently. He moved from Pomfret, Vermont, to Hiram, Portage
county, Ohio. He was connected with the Methodist church for about five
years previous to receiving the Gospel." Luke Johnson then relates the
circumstance of the Prophet, through the power of God, healing his
mother of chronic rheumatism in the arm, which converted Ezra Booth as
already related on page 215, and then resumes: "My father was satisfied
in regard to the truth of 'Mormonism,' and was baptized by Joseph
Smith, Jun., in the winter of 1830-1, and furnished him and his family
a home, while he translated a portion of the Bible."

3. Their names were Joseph S. and Julia. They were born in Orange,
Cuyahoga county, Ohio, April 30, 1831. Emma Smith, the Prophet's wife,
had given birth to twins, a boy and girl--on the same date. They lived
but three hours and Emma Smith took the motherless Murdock twins in the
fond hope that they would fill the void in her life occasioned by the
loss of her own.

4. Mention has already been made of Simonds Ryder's conversion to the
Gospel through the fulfilment of a prophecy relating to an earthquake
in Pekin, China (see p. 158). The initial point of his apostasy is
equally interesting. It appears that some time after his baptism he
was ordained an Elder of the Church (_Far West Record_, p. 4); and
somewhat later informed by a communication signed by the Prophet Joseph
and Sidney Rigdon, that it was the will of the Lord, made known by
the Spirit, that he should preach the Gospel. Both in the letter he
received and in the official commission to preach, however, his name
was spelled R-i-d-e-r, instead of R-y-d-e-r, and is soberly stated in
the _History of the Disciples on the Western Reserve_ (Hayden) that
he thought if the "Spirit" through which he had been called to preach
could err in the matter of spelling his name, it might have erred in
calling him to the ministry as well; or, in other words, he was led
to doubt if he were called at all by the Spirit of God, because of
the error in spelling his name! The same circumstance is referred to
in _Kennedy's Early Days of Mormonism_ (p. 104). Kennedy also remarks
that while in the uncertain mood excited by this incident Ezra Booth
returned from Missouri, and a comparison of experiences led to a
complete overthrow of all belief in the new creed in the minds of both.

5. The man whom the Prophet struck was named Waste. He was regarded,
says Luke Johnson, as the strongest man in the Western Reserve, and had
boasted that he could take the Prophet out of the house alone. "At the
time they [the mob] were taking him [the Prophet] out of the house,
Waste had hold of one foot. Joseph drew up his leg and gave him a kick,
which sent him sprawling into the street. He afterwards said that the
Prophet was the most powerful man he ever had hold of in his life."
(_History of Luke Johnson_, by himself: _Millennial Star,_ vol. 26, p.
835.)

6. This blow broke his collar bone, according to the statement of his
son, Luke Johnson. David Whitmer laid his hands upon him, and he was
immediately healed. (_Millennial Star_, vol. 26, p. 835)

7. According to the statement of Luke Johnson (autobiographical sketch,
_Millennial Star_, vol. 26, p. 834-5), there were about forty or fifty
in the mob that attacked the Prophet on this occasion. He also states
that a Dr. Dennison, a man of considerable influence in the community,
was a member of this mob, and threatened to do the Prophet great bodily
injury, but when he saw the Prophet in the hands of his enemies his
heart failed him. Carnot Mason was the one who first seized the Prophet
and dragged him from his bed. Speaking of the fate that overtook some
of the members of the mob, Johnson remarks that Mason, soon after the
mobbing, "had an attack of spinal affection." Fullars, another of the
mob, died of cholera, in Cleveland, Ohio; and Dr. Dennison was sent to
the penitentiary for ten years (but for what offense he does not say)
and died before the term expired.

8. This was Joseph S. Murdock, whose death occurred March 29, 1832, his
age being one day less than eleven months.

9. Chardon was the county seat of Geauga county, and about five miles
from Kirtland.

10. Titus Billings was born on March 25th, 1793, at Greenfield,
Franklin county, Massachusetts. He is said to be the second person
baptized in Kirtland, Ohio, the baptism taking place in November, 1830.

11. "All differences," says the minutes of this meeting, recorded in
the _Far West Record_--"all differences settled, and the hearts of all
were united together in love."--(p. 25.)

12. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 82.

13. It should be remembered that these Colesville Saints were among the
first to receive the Gospel under the teachings of the Prophet, and
hence his heart was naturally tender toward them, and this visit was
doubtless especially delightful both to the Saints and the Prophet.

14. Doctrine and covenants, sec. 83.

15. This action of course, annulled the resolution at the Kirtland
conference to publish an edition of ten thousand. (See p. 222.)

16. The arrangements here referred to for the establishment of stores
in Missouri and Ohio, as disclosed by the minutes of these council
meetings of the 26th, 27th, 30th of April, and the 1st of May, were
that the brethren in mercantile pursuits in Kirtland and Zion should
be united in one firm, and the establishments in Kirtland and Zion
respectively were regarded merely as branches of the one firm; Still it
was resolved that each of these branches should have a separate company
name. The name of the branch in Zion was to be "Gilbert, Whitney &
Company," and the one in Kirtland "Newel K. Whitney & Company." W.
W. Phelps and A. S. Gilbert were appointed to draft the bond for the
united firm. A. S. Gilbert and Newel K. Whitney were appointed to be
the agents of the new firm. It was also resolved that whenever any
special business should arise it would be the duty of the united firm
by its branches at Jackson county, Missouri, and Geauga county, Ohio,
to regulate the same by special agency. It was also resolved that the
united firm negotiate a loan of fifteen thousand dollars at six per
centum. The firm of Newel K. Whitney & Co. was appointed to transact
the business.

17. This is an instance of the Prophet Joseph's power as a seer.
Another example is given by David Whitmer in his account of going to
Harmony, Pennsylvania, after the Prophet and Oliver Cowdery, in order
to take them to his father's home in Fayette, New York, in the summer
of 1829, when the Book of Mormon was in course of translation. "When I
arrived at Harmony," says David, "Joseph and Oliver were coming toward
me, and met me some distance from the house. Oliver told me that Joseph
had informed him when I started from home, where I had stopped the
first night, how I read the sign at the tavern, where I stopped the
next night, etc., and that I would be there that day before dinner and
this was why they had come out to meet me; all of which was exactly
as Joseph had told Oliver, at which I was greatly astonished." (David
Whitmer's Statement to Orson Pratt and Joseph F. Smith, _Millennial
Star_, vol. 40, nos. 49, 50.)

{273}



Chapter XX.

"The Evening and Morning Star."

[Sidenote: Occupation of the Prophet, Summer of 1832.]

As soon as I could arrange my affairs, I recommenced the translation
of the Scriptures, and thus I spent most of the summer. In July, we
received the first number of _The Evening and Morning Star_, which was
a joyous treat to the Saints. Delightful, indeed, was it to contemplate
that the little band of brethren had become so large, and grown so
strong, in so short a time as to be able to issue a paper of their own,
which contained not only some of the revelations, but other information
also,--which would gratify and enlighten the humble inquirer after
truth.

[Sidenote: Opposition of the Press.]

So embittered was the public mind against the truth, that the press
universally had been arrayed against us; and although many newspapers
published the prospectus of our paper, yet it appeared to have been
done more to calumniate the editor, than give publicity to the
forthcoming periodical. Editors thought to do us harm, while the Saints
rejoiced that they could do nothing against the truth but for it.

The following are extracts from _The Evening and Morning Star_,
Independence, Missouri, June, 1832--first number:

    To Man.

    With the help of God, the first number of _The Evening and
    Morning Star_ comes to the world for the objects specified in its
    prospectus, which was published last winter. That we should now
    recapitulate some of its leading objects, and briefly add a few
    remarks, will {274} naturally be expected; and we cheerfully do so,
    that this generation may know--

    That the _Star_ comes in these last days as the friend of man, to
    persuade him to turn to God and live, before the great and terrible
    day of the Lord sweeps the earth of its wickedness;

    That it comes not only as the messenger of truth, to bring the
    revelations and commandments of God which have been, but to publish
    those that God gives now, as in the days of old, for He is the same
    God yesterday, today, and for ever; * * * *

    That it comes as the harbinger of peace and good will to them that
    serve the Lord with a determination to have part in the first
    resurrection, and finally become Kings and Priests to God the
    Father in the celestial kingdom, where God and Christ are, and
    where they will be for eternity; * * * * *

    That it comes according to the will of God from those who are not
    ashamed to take upon them the name of Christ, and walk lowly in the
    valley of humiliation, and let the solemnities of eternity rest
    upon them: knowing that the great day of the Lord will soon usher
    in the Sabbath of creation, for the rest of the Saints, that the
    Savior may reign His thousand years of peace upon the earth while
    Satan is bound;

    That it comes in meekness and mercy to all mankind, that they
    may do works meet for repentance and be saved in the first
    resurrection, and afterwards dwell with the spirits of just men
    made perfect in the celestial kingdom.

    That it comes to bring good tidings of great joy to all people,
    but more especially to the house of Israel scattered abroad, that
    the day of their redemption is near, for the Lord hath set His
    hand again the second time to restore them to the lands of their
    inheritance;

    That it comes to show that the ensign is now set up unto which
    all nations shall come, and worship the Lord, the God of Jacob,
    acceptably;

    That it comes when war, and the plague, or pestilence as it is
    called, are sweeping their thousands and tens of thousands to the
    grave, to show that the day of tribulation spoken of by our Savior
    is nigh at hand, even at the doors;

    That it comes to repeat the great caution of Paul: Beware lest any
    man spoil you, (the disciples of Christ), through philosophy and
    vain deceit, after the traditions of men and the rudiments of the
    world.

    That it comes to prepare the way of the Lord, that when He comes He
    may have a holy people ready to receive Him;

    That it comes to show that no man can be too good to be saved, but
    that many may be too bad;

    {275} That it comes to declare that goodness consists in doing
    good, not merely in preaching it;

    That it comes to show that all men's religion is vain without
    charity;

    That it comes to open the way for Zion to rise and put on her
    beautiful garments and become the glory of the earth, that her land
    may be joined, or married (according to the known translation of
    Isaiah) to Jerusalem again, and they be one as they were in the
    days of Peleg.

*   *   *   *   *   *   *

    Man, being created but little below the angels, only wants to know
    for himself, and not by another, that, by obeying the commands of
    his Creator, he can rise again after death, in the flesh, and reign
    with Christ a thousand years on the earth without sin; be changed
    in the twinkling of an eye, and become a King and Priest to God
    in eternity--to forsake his sins, and say: Lord, I am thine! The
    first words of which we have any account that Jesus Christ spake
    concerning the things of eternal life, were, Suffer it to be so
    now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. Then he
    was baptized: and truly, if it became the Savior of the world, holy
    as He was, to be baptized in the meridian of time, to fulfil all
    righteousness, how much more necessary it is for man to be baptized
    in order to be saved. * * *

    As this paper is devoted to the great concerns of eternal things
    and the gathering of the Saints, it will leave politics, the
    gainsaying of the world, and many other matters, for their proper
    channels, endeavoring by all means to set an example before the
    world, which, when followed, will lead our fellow-men to the gates
    of glory, where the wicked cease from troubling, and where the
    weary will find rest. That there may be errors both in us and in
    the paper, we readily admit, but we mean to grow better, till, from
    little children, we all come into the unity of the faith and of the
    knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure
    of the stature of the fullness of Christ, which we pray may be the
    happy lot of thousands, before He comes with the hundred and forty
    and four thousand that are without guile. [1]

    To the Church of Christ Abroad in the Earth.

    It is the duty of the Church of Christ, in Zion, to stand as
    an ensign to all nations, that the Lord has set His hand the
    second time to restore the house of Israel to the lands of their
    inheritance; and it behoves the members of this Church to manifest
    before the world by a godly walk, by a noble example, as well as
    by sterling precept; by {276} prudence in living, by plainness in
    dress, by industry, by economy, by faith and works, and, above all,
    by solemnity, humility and patience, that this is a day of warning
    and not a day of many words.

    This being the order in Zion, how much more necessary is it, that
    the churches of Christ, which have not yet come up to this land
    should show the world, by well ordered conduct in all things, that
    they are the children of the living God! It is all-important, and
    the salvation of many souls depends upon their faultless example.
    They will, therefore, knowing that the Lord will suddenly come to
    His temple, do their part in preparing the way, by observing the
    Sabbath day, and keeping it holy; by teaching their children the
    Gospel, and teaching them to pray; by avoiding extremes in all
    matters; by shunning every appearance of evil; by studying to be
    approved, and doing unto others as they would have others do unto
    them; by bearing trouble and persecution patiently, without a
    murmur, knowing that Michael, the Arch-angel, when contending with
    the devil--he disputed about the body of Moses--durst not bring
    against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee.
    They will not only set an example worthy of imitation, but they
    will let their light so shine that others, seeing their good works
    may go and do likewise. Example is the great thing that defies the
    world with all its vain glory; by letting their moderation be known
    unto all men, both in dress and in living; in words and in deeds;
    in watching and in praying; in love and in labor, and in works as
    well as in faith, they, [the Saints] preach the world a lecture,
    they set the inquirer an example, and teach all Christendom a
    lesson, that studied preaching and pulpit eloquence have failed to
    accomplish.

    Common Schools.

    The disciples should lose no time in preparing schools for their
    children, that they may be taught as is pleasing unto the Lord,
    and brought up in the way of holiness. Those appointed to select
    and prepare books for the use of schools, will attend to that
    subject as soon as more weighty matters are finished. [2] But the
    parents and guardians in the Church of Christ need not wait--it is
    all-important that children to become good should be taught [good].
    Moses, while delivering the words of the Lord to the congregation
    of Israel, that is, to the parents, says, "And these words which I
    command thee this day, shall be in thy heart: and thou shalt teach
    them diligently unto thy children, and shalt {277} talk of them
    when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way,
    and when thou liest down and when thou risest up. And thou shalt
    bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be as frontlets
    between thine eyes." If it were necessary them to teach their
    children diligently, how much more necessary is it now, when the
    Church of Christ is to be an ensign, yea, even an ensample to the
    world, for good? A word to the wise ought to be sufficient, for
    children soon become men and women. Yes, they are they that must
    follow us, and perform the duties which not only appertain to this
    world, but to the second coming of the Savior, even preparing for
    the Sabbath of creation, and for eternity.

    The "Star" Office.

    The _Star_ office is situated within twelve miles of the west line
    of the state of Missouri; which at present is the western limits
    of the United States, and about 120 miles west of any press in the
    state, in about 39 degrees of north latitude, and about 17 1/2
    degrees of west longitude, 2 1/2 miles south of Missouri river; 280
    miles by land, or 500 by water, west of St. Louis; nearly 1,200
    miles west of Washington; 1,300 miles from New York, and more than
    1,500 miles from Boston.

[Sidenote: Second No. of the _Star_.]

In August we were again delighted to receive the _Star_. The following
is extracted from the second [July] number:

    The Elders in the Land of Zion, to the Church of Christ Scattered
    Abroad.

    Brethren, we think it proper to give you some general information
    respecting the present state of the Church in Zion, and also the
    work of the gathering. Notwithstanding that nearly all Christendom
    doubt the propriety of receiving revelations for the government
    of the Church of Christ in this age, and generally adopt the
    Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the only rule of faith
    and practice, yet we believe, from the Scriptures of truth, that to
    every church in past ages, which the Lord recognized to be His, He
    gave revelations, wisely calculated to govern them in the peculiar
    situation and circumstances under which they were placed, and to
    enable them by authority to do the peculiar work which they were to
    perform. The Bible contains revelations given at different times to
    different people, under different circumstances, as will be seen
    by editorial articles in this paper. The old world was destroyed
    for rejecting the revelations of God given to {278} them through
    Noah. The Israelites were destroyed in the wilderness for despising
    the revelations given to them through Moses; and Christ said that
    the world, in the days of the Apostles, would be condemned for
    not receiving the word of God through them: Thus we see that the
    judgments of God in the past ages have come upon the people, not
    so much for neglecting the revelations given to their forefathers,
    as for rejecting those given immediately to themselves. Of the
    blessings of heaven it may be said, that they always rested upon
    the heads of those to whom they were promised. Therefore, seeing
    that it not only was, but, as long as God remains the same, always
    will be, the privilege of the true Church to receive revelations,
    containing blessings and cursings, peculiarly adapted to itself
    as a Church, we conclude that it is a mistaken notion that the
    Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are the only rule of faith
    and practice; nevertheless, inasmuch as the precepts and examples
    contained in them are truly applicable to us under our particular
    circumstances, we are bound to be governed by them; and we also
    can receive much benefit from such prophecies as point out the
    events that shall take place in our day and age. Of these there are
    many, both in the Old and the New Testaments. They speak plainly
    of great things that shall be accomplished in the last days;--such
    as preaching the everlasting Gospel to all nations; the gathering
    of the elect from the four winds of heaven; the building up of
    Zion and Jerusalem, or the ingathering of the remnants of Jacob,
    and the planting them in the lands of their fathers' inheritance;
    the necessary preparation to meet the Savior at His second coming,
    with all the Saints, to dwell with them in the millennial reign.
    And now, who, with the Bible in his hand, can suppose that these
    great and marvelous works can be accomplished by the Church
    without more revelations from the Lord? We cannot, for we worship
    the God of Israel, in whom is neither variableness nor shadow of
    turning;--consequently as in days of old, so in these last days, He
    has given us revelations by which we may know how to organize the
    Church of Christ, and by His authority to perform the work which He
    has enjoined upon us. And now brethren, if we wish for blessings
    upon this Church, we must walk humbly before the Lord, and observe
    to keep all His commandments. Notwithstanding the work of the
    gathering will be accomplished, we believe in a speedy manner, yet
    the Lord has commanded that it shall not be done in haste, nor by
    flight, but that all things shall be prepared before you; and for
    this purpose He has made it the duty of the Bishop or agent in the
    land of Zion to make known, from time to time, the privileges of
    the land to the conferences, which may determine and make known
    how many can be accommodated. And the Saints will remember that
    the Bishop in the land of Zion will not receive any, as wise
    stewards, {279} without they bring a recommend from the Bishop in
    Ohio, or from three Elders. The Elders therefore, will be careful
    not to recommend and send up churches to this place, without first
    receiving information from the Bishop in Ohio, or in the land of
    Zion, that they can be accommodated when they arrive, so as to
    be settled without confusion, which would produce pestilence.
    Therefore, if a church is desirous to come to the land of Zion,
    we would recommend that first, by letter or otherwise, they make
    known their desires and their situation to the Bishop in Ohio, or
    in the land of Zion, and receive information from them before they
    start. Brethren will perceive as well as we, that where churches of
    fifty or a hundred souls each, are coming to the land of Zion, from
    different parts of the nation, and, as soon will be the case, from
    different nations, without a knowledge of each other, they would,
    when they arrive, be in a state of confusion, and labor under many
    disadvantages which might be avoided by strictly observing the
    rules and regulations of the Church. Moreover by being in haste,
    and forcing the sale of property, unreasonable sacrifices have been
    made, and although this is a day of sacrifice and tithing, yet to
    make lavish and unreasonable sacrifices is not well pleasing in the
    sight of the Lord.

    It is about one year since the work of the gathering commenced,
    in which time between three and four hundred have arrived here,
    and are mostly located upon their inheritances, and are generally
    in good health and spirits and are doing well. The expense of
    journeying and settling here, together with the establishment of a
    printing office and store, have probably exceeded the expectations
    of our brethren abroad, and although Zion, according to the
    Prophets, is to become like Eden, or the garden of the Lord, yet,
    at present it is as it were but a wilderness and desert, and the
    disadvantages of settling in a new country, you know, are many and
    great. Therefore, prudence would dictate the churches abroad, at
    present, not to come up to Zion, until preparations can be made
    for them, and they receive information as above. The prospect for
    crops in this region of country is, at present, tolerably good, but
    calls for provisions will undoubtedly be considerable, for besides
    the emigration of the whites, the government of the United States
    is settling the Indians (or remnants of Joseph), immediately to the
    west, and they must be fed.

    Brethren, we drop the above remarks for your benefit, until you
    can have the revelations to peruse for yourselves, which will be
    published as soon as they consistently can be. Although the Lord
    has said, that it is His business to provide for His Saints in
    these last days, yet remember He is not bound so to do, unless we
    observe His sayings and keep them.

    {280} To the Elders of the Church of Christ, Who Preach Good
    Tidings to the World.

    Brethren, as stars of the ensign which is now set up for the
    benefit of all nations, you are to enlighten the world, you are
    to prepare the way for the people to come up to Zion; you are to
    instruct men how to receive the fullness of the Gospel, and the
    everlasting covenants, even them that were from the beginning; you
    are to carry the ark of safety before the wondering multitudes,
    without fear, entreating and beseeching all men to be saved; you
    are to set an example of meekness and humility before Saints and
    sinners, as did the Savior; and when reviled you are not to revile
    again; you are to reason with men, as in days of old to bear
    patiently and answer as the spirit of truth shall direct, allowing
    all credit for every item of good. You are to walk in the valley of
    humility, and pray for the salvation of all; yes, you are to pray
    for your enemies; and warn in compassion without threatening the
    wicked with judgments which are to be poured out upon the world
    hereafter. You have no right to take the judgments, which fell upon
    the ungodly before the flood, and pour them upon the head of this
    generation; you have no authority to use the judgments which God
    sent upon Pharaoh in Egypt, to terrify the inhabitants of America,
    neither have you any direction by commandment, to collect the
    calamities of six thousand years and paint them upon the curtain
    of these last days to scare mankind to repentance; no, you are to
    preach the Gospel, which is the power of God unto salvation, even
    glad tidings of great joy unto all people.

    Again, you are not to take the blessings of an individual, or of
    a church, from the days of Enoch to the days of the Apostles, and
    place them upon an individual or a church in these last days;
    but you are to teach all men that they shall be judged according
    to their works. For, if God is the same yesterday, today, and
    for ever, His reward is always with Him; and His revelations and
    blessings and judgments, before the flood, were fitted for that
    people and that time, in the days of Abraham, for that man and that
    time; in the days of Moses, for that man and that time; in the days
    of David, for that man and that time; in the days of Paul, for that
    man and that time; and now, for this generation and this time.
    You therefore, must reason from the Bible and the Book of Mormon,
    with great care and not pervert the meaning of God's sacred word.
    If our Heavenly Father saw fit to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah for
    their wickedness, Nineveh for its abomination, and Jerusalem for a
    transgression of His commandments, what have their destruction to
    do with the salvation of the world now? The Lord says, Vengeance
    is mine, and I will repay. Teach all men to trust in God and not
    in man, and do works meet for repentance. Again, {281} teach all
    men that God is a God of the living and not of the dead. Finally,
    whatever you do, do it with an eye single to the glory of God. You
    are the light of the world in matters of pure religion, and many
    souls may be required at your hands. Let the idea not leave you,
    that not only the eyes of the world, but the eyes of the angels and
    of God are upon you.

    Foreign News.

    It is a day of strange appearances. Everything indicates something
    more than meets the eye. Every nation is opening events which
    astonish mankind. Even the heart of man begins to melt at the
    prospect before him. The unquenchable thirst for news; the
    continuity of emigration, the wars and rumors of wars, with many
    other signs of the distress of nations, from the old world--as
    the land is called across the ocean--whisper so loud to the
    understanding, that he who runs may read the label on the eastern
    sky--The end is nigh. France is filled with a spirit of rebellion,
    and when the cholera was sweeping its thousands mobs were
    collecting to slay their tens of thousands. While the hospitals
    were crowded with the sick, and the groans of the dying filled
    the air, the fashionable French were holding cholera balls and
    dancing at the judgments of the Almighty. In England, where an
    anxious multitude have been waiting for reformation in government
    for years, disappointment is destruction. The house of lords has
    rejected the Reform Bill, and the proud-hearted Englishman says:
    Reform or Revolution! No stop there; for the sound comes across
    the Atlantic: Reform or ruin! All the kingdoms of the east seem
    to be preparing to act the part allotted to them, when the Lord
    rebukes the nations. As on a morning of some great festival, the
    church bell, the cannon, the small arms, the music, and the cheers
    of the multitude, arouse all to what is going on, and thunder to
    man: Behold the day! So also earthquakes, wars and rumors of wars,
    the distress of nations, the constant tide of emigration to the
    west, the wide spreading ravages of the cholera, and the joy of the
    Saints of God as they come out of Babylon, alarm the world, and
    whisper to every mortal: Watch ye, for the time is at hand for the
    second coming of Jesus Christ, the Redeemer of Israel, with peace
    on earth and good will to man. Watch the signs of His coming, that
    ye be not deceived.

    Items for the Public.

    In connection with the _Star_, we publish a weekly paper, entitled
    the _Upper Missouri Advertiser_. It will contain sketches of the
    news of the day, politics, advertisements, and whatever tends to
    promote the interest of the great west.

{282} The August number of the _Star_, [no. 3] contained the following:

    The Cholera.

    This desolating sickness is spreading steadily over the United
    States. The account of its ravages in many places, we cannot give.
    The whole number of cases in New York, to July 31st, is 3,731.
    Deaths, 1,520.

    No man can stop the work of the Lord, for God rules the pestilence,
    and the pestilence rules men. Forts, sentinels, and oceans may
    hinder men, or money may bribe, but when the pestilence rides on
    the wings of the wind, the sentinel has no power; the fort is no
    obstacle, the ocean is no barrier; and money has no value; the
    destroying angel goes waving the banner of death over all; and who
    shall escape his pointed arrow? Not he that could brave death at
    the cannon's mouth, but shrinks at the sound of the cholera; not he
    that worshiped his God in some stately chapel, every Sabbath till
    the cholera comes, and then flees for his life; no, none but he
    that trusts in God, shall be able to stand when a thousand shall
    fall at his side, and ten thousand at his right hand by the noisome
    pestilence.

    To the Honorable Men of the World.

    To the honorable searchers for truth: we, in a spirit of candor
    and meekness are bound by every tie that makes man the friend of
    man, by every endowment of heaven, that renders intelligent beings
    seekers of happiness to show you the way to salvation. In fact, we
    are not only bound to do thus for those that seek the riches of
    eternity, but, to walk in the tracks of our Savior, we must love
    our enemies; bless them that curse us; do good to them that hate
    us, and pray for them that despitefully use us, and persecute us,
    or else you and the world may know that we are not the children of
    God. Therefore to be obedient to the precepts of our divine Master,
    we say unto you--Search the Scriptures--search the revelations
    which we publish, and ask your Heavenly Father, in the name of
    His Son Jesus Christ, to manifest the truth unto you, and if you
    do it with an eye single to His glory, nothing doubting, He will
    answer you by the power of His Holy Spirit. You will then know for
    yourselves and not for another. You will not then be dependent
    on man for the knowledge of God; nor will there be any room for
    speculation. No; for when men receive their instruction from Him
    that made them, they know how he will save them. Then again we say:
    Search the Scriptures, search the Prophets, and learn what portion
    of them belongs to you and the people of the nineteenth century.
    You, no doubt, will agree with us, and say, that you have no right
    to claim the promises of the inhabitants before the flood; that you
    cannot found your hopes of salvation upon the {283} obedience of
    the children of Israel when journeying in the wilderness; nor can
    you expect that the blessings which the Apostles pronounced upon
    the churches of Christ, eighteen hundred years ago, were intended
    for you. Again, if others' blessings are not your blessings,
    others' curses are not your curses; you stand then in these last
    days, as all have stood before you, agents unto yourselves, to be
    judged according to your works.

    Every man lives for himself. Adam was made to open the ways of the
    world, and for dressing the garden. Noah was born to save seed of
    everything, when the earth was washed of its wickedness by the
    flood; and the Son of God came into the world to redeem it from the
    fall. But except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of
    God. This eternal truth settles the question of all men's religion.
    A man may be saved, after the judgment, in the terrestrial kingdom,
    or in the telestial kingdom, but he can never see the celestial
    kingdom of God without being born of the water and the Spirit. He
    may receive a glory like unto the moon [i. e. of which the light
    of the moon is typical], or a star [i. e. of which the light of
    the stars is typical], but he can never come unto Mount Zion, and
    unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an
    innumerable company of angels; to the general assembly and Church
    of the First-born, which are written in heaven, and to God the
    judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect, and to
    Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant, unless he becomes as a
    little child, and is taught by the Spirit of God. Wherefore, we
    again say, search the revelations of God: study the prophecies,
    and rejoice that God grants unto the world Seers and Prophets.
    They are they who saw the mysteries of godliness; they saw the
    flood before it came; they saw angels ascending and descending
    upon a ladder that reached from earth to heaven: they saw the
    stone cut out of the mountain, which filled the whole earth; they
    saw the Son of God come from the regions of bliss and dwell with
    men on earth; they saw the deliverer come out of Zion, and turn
    away ungodliness from Jacob; they saw the glory of the Lord when
    He showed the transfiguration of the earth on the mount; they saw
    every mountain laid low and every valley exalted when the Lord was
    taking vengeance upon the wicked; they saw truth spring out of the
    earth, and righteousness look down from heaven in the last days,
    before the Lord came the second time to gather His elect; they saw
    the end of wickedness on earth, and the Sabbath of creation crowned
    with peace; they saw the end of the glorious thousand years, when
    Satan was loosed for a little season; they saw the day of judgment
    when all men received according to their works, and they saw the
    heaven and earth flee away to make room for the city of God, when
    the righteous receive an {284} inheritance in eternity. And, fellow
    sojourners upon earth, it is your privilege to purify yourselves
    and come up to the same glory, and see for yourselves, and know
    for yourselves. Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall
    find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you.

Footnotes

1. The salutatory address was signed by W. W. Phelps.

2. This is in plain allusion to the revelation on page 185 where W.
W. Phelps and Oliver Cowdery are appointed a committee to prepare
books for schools in the Church, that little children might receive
instruction, which is pleasing before the Lord. That revelation and the
above article from the _Star_ of June, 1832, plainly foreshadow the
great interest the Church would take in education.

{285}



Chapter XXI.

Larger Views on the Doctrine of Priesthood Revealed--The Meeting of the
Prophet Joseph Smith, Jun., Brigham Young, and Heber C. Kimball.

[Sidenote: Baptism of Elder George A. Smith.]

On September the 10th, George A. Smith was baptized by Joseph H.
Wakefield, at Potsdam, St. Lawrence county, New York; and confirmed by
Elder Solomon Humphry. [1]

{286} [Sidenote: Return of Elders from Missouri.]

The Elders during the month of September began to return from their
missions to the Eastern States, and present the histories of their
several stewardships in the Lord's vineyard; and while together in
these seasons of joy, I inquired of the {287} Lord, and received on the
22nd and 23rd of September, the following revelation on Priesthood:

    _Revelation_. [2]

    1. A revelation of Jesus Christ unto his servant Joseph Smith,
    Jun., and six elders, as they united their hearts and lifted their
    voices on high.

    {288} 2. Yea, the word of the Lord concerning his church,
    established in the last days for the restoration of his people, as
    he has spoken by the mouth of his prophets, and for the gathering
    of his saints to stand upon Mount Zion, which shall be the city of
    New Jerusalem.

    3. Which city shall be built, beginning at the temple lot, which is
    appointed by the finger of the Lord, in the western boundaries of
    the State of Missouri, and dedicated by the hand of Joseph Smith,
    Jun., and others with whom the Lord was well pleased.

    4. Verily this is the word of the Lord, that the city New Jerusalem
    shall be built by the gathering of the saints, beginning at this
    place, even the place of the temple, which temple shall be reared
    in this generation.

    5. For verily this generation shall not all pass away until an
    house shall be built unto the Lord, and a cloud shall rest upon it,
    which cloud shall be even the glory of the Lord, which shall fill
    the house.

    6. And the sons of Moses, according to the Holy Priesthood which he
    received under the hand of his father-in-law, Jethro;

    7. And Jethro received it under the hand of Caleb;

    8. And Caleb received it under the hand of Elihu;

    9. And Elihu under the hand of Jeremy;

    10. And Jeremy under the hand of Gad;

    11. And Gad under the hand of Esaias;

    12. And Esaias received it under the hand of God.

    13. Esaias also lived in the days of Abraham and was blessed of
    him--

    14. Which Abraham received the priesthood from Melchizedek, who
    received it through the lineage of his fathers, even till Noah;

    15. And from Noah till Enoch, through the lineage of their fathers:

    16. And from Enoch to Abel, who was slain by the conspiracy of his
    brother, who received the priesthood by the commandments of God, by
    the hand of his father Adam, who was the first man--

    17. Which priesthood continueth in the church of God in all
    generations, and is without beginning of days or end of years.

    18. And the Lord confirmed a priesthood also upon Aaron and his
    seed, throughout all their generations, which priesthood also
    continueth and abideth forever with the priesthood which is after
    the holiest order of God.

    19. And this greater priesthood administereth the gospel and
    holdeth the key of the mysteries of the kingdom, even the key of
    the knowledge of God.

    20. Therefore, in the ordinances thereof, the power of godliness is
    manifest.

    21. And without the ordinances thereof, and the authority of the
    priesthood, the power of godliness is not manifest unto men in the
    flesh;

    {289} 22. For without this no man can see the face of God, even the
    Father, and live.

    23. Now this Moses plainly taught to the children of Israel in the
    wilderness, and sought diligently to sanctify his people that they
    might behold the face of God;

    24. But they hardened their hearts and could not endure his
    presence; therefore, the Lord in his wrath, for his anger was
    kindled against them, swore that they should not enter into his
    rest while in the wilderness, which rest is the fulness of his
    glory.

    25. Therefore, he took Moses out of their midst, and the Holy
    Priesthood also;

    26. And the lesser priesthood continued, which priesthood holdeth
    the key of the ministering of angels and the preparatory gospel;

    27. Which gospel is the gospel of repentance and of baptism, and
    the remission of sins, and the law of carnal commandments, which
    the Lord in his wrath caused to continue with the house of Aaron
    among the children of Israel until John, whom God raised up, being
    filled with the Holy Ghost from his mother's womb.

    28. For he was baptized while he was yet in his childhood, and was
    ordained by the angel of God at the time he was eight days old
    unto this power, to overthrow the kingdom of the Jews, and to make
    straight the way of the Lord before the face of his people, to
    prepare them for the coming of the Lord in whose hand is given all
    power.

    29. And again, the offices of elder and bishop are necessary
    appendages belonging unto the high priesthood.

    30. And again, the offices of teacher and deacon are necessary
    appendages belonging to the lesser priesthood, which priesthood was
    confirmed upon Aaron and his sons.

    31. Therefore, as I said concerning the sons of Moses--for the
    sons of Moses and also the sons of Aaron shall offer an acceptable
    offering and sacrifice in the house of the Lord, which house shall
    be built unto the Lord in this generation, upon the consecrated
    spot as I have appointed--

    32. And the sons of Moses and of Aaron shall be filled with the
    glory of the Lord, upon Mount Zion in the Lord's house, whose sons
    are ye; and also many whom I have called and sent forth to build up
    my church.

    33. For whoso is faithful unto the obtaining these two priesthoods
    of which I have spoken, and the magnifying their calling, are
    sanctified by the Spirit unto the renewing of their bodies.

    34. They become the sons of Moses and of Aaron and the seed of
    Abraham, and the church and kingdom, and the elect of God.

    35. And also all they who receive this priesthood receive me, saith
    the Lord;

    {290} 36. For he that receiveth my servants receiveth me;

    37. And he that receiveth me receiveth my Father;

    38. And he that receiveth my Father receiveth my Father's kingdom;
    therefore all that my Father hath shall be given unto him.

    39. And this is according to the oath and covenant which belongeth
    to the priesthood.

    40. Therefore, all those who receive the priesthood, receive this
    oath and covenant of my Father, which he cannot break, neither can
    it be moved.

    41. But whoso breaketh this covenant after he hath received it, and
    altogether turneth therefrom, shall not have forgiveness of sins in
    this world nor in the world to come.

    42. And wo unto all those who come not unto this priesthood which
    ye have received, which I now confirm upon you who are present this
    day, by mine own voice out of the heavens; and even I have given
    the heavenly hosts and mine angels charge concerning you.

    43. And I now give unto you a commandment to beware concerning
    yourselves, to give diligent heed to the words of eternal life.

    44. For you shall live by every word that proceedeth forth from the
    mouth of God.

    45. For the word of the Lord is truth, and whatsoever is truth is
    light, and whatsoever is light is Spirit, even the Spirit of Jesus
    Christ.

    46. And the Spirit giveth light to every man that cometh into the
    world; and the Spirit enlighteneth every man through the world,
    that hearkeneth to the voice of the Spirit.

    47. And every one that hearkeneth to the voice of the Spirit cometh
    unto God, even the Father.

    48. And the Father teacheth him of the covenant which he has
    renewed and confirmed upon you, which is confirmed upon you for
    your sakes, and not for your sakes only, but for the sake of the
    whole world.

    49. And the whole world lieth in sin, and groaneth under darkness
    and under the bondage of sin.

    50. And by this you may know they are under the bondage of sin,
    because they come not unto me.

    51. For whoso cometh not unto me is under the bondage of sin.

    52. And whoso receiveth not my voice is not acquainted with my
    voice, and is not of me.

    53. And by this you may know the righteous from the wicked, and
    that the whole world groaneth under sin and darkness even now.

    54. And your minds in times past have been darkened because of
    unbelief, and because you have treated lightly the things you have
    received--

    {291} 55. Which vanity and unbelief have brought the whole church
    under condemnation.

    56. And this condemnation resteth upon the children of Zion, even
    all.

    57. And they shall remain under this condemnation until they repent
    and remember the new covenant, even the Book of Mormon and the
    former commandments which I have given them, not only to say, but
    to do according to that which I have written--

    58. That they may bring forth fruit meet for their Father's
    kingdom; otherwise there remaineth a scourge and judgment to be
    poured out upon the children of Zion.

    59. For shall the children of the kingdom pollute my holy land?
    Verily, I say unto you, Nay.

    60. Verily, verily, I say unto you who now hear my words, which are
    my voice, blessed are ye inasmuch as you receive these things;

    61. For I will forgive you of your sins with this commandment--that
    you remain steadfast in your minds in solemnity and the spirit of
    prayer, in bearing testimony to all the world of those things which
    are communicated unto you.

    62. Therefore, go ye into all the world; and unto whatsoever place
    ye cannot go ye shall send, that the testimony may go from you into
    all the world unto every creature.

    63. And as I said unto mine apostles, even so I say unto you, for
    you are mine apostles, even God's high priests; ye are they whom my
    Father hath given me; ye are my friends;

    64. Therefore, as I said unto mine apostles I say unto you again,
    that every soul who believeth on your words, and is baptized by
    water for the remission of sins, shall receive the Holy Ghost.

    65. And these signs shall follow them that believe--

    66. In my name they shall do many wonderful works;

    67. In my name they shall cast out devils;

    68. In my name they shall heal the sick;

    69. In my name they shall open the eyes of the blind and unstop the
    ears of the deaf;

    70. And the tongue of the dumb shall speak;

    71. And if any man shall administer poison unto them it shall not
    hurt them;

    72. And the poison of a serpent shall not have power to harm them.

    73. But a commandment I give unto them, that they shall not boast
    themselves of these things, neither speak them before the world;
    for these things are given unto you for your profit and for
    salvation.

    74. Verily, verily I say unto you, they who believe not on your
    words and are not baptized in water in my name, for the remission
    of {292} their sins, that they may receive the Holy Ghost, shall
    be damned, I and shall not come into my Father's kingdom where my
    Father and I am.

    75. And this revelation unto you, and commandment, is in force from
    this very hour upon all the world, and the gospel is unto all who
    have not received it.

    76. But, verily I say unto all those to whom the kingdom has been
    given--from you it must be preached unto them, that they shall
    repent of their former evil works; for they are to be upbraided for
    their evil hearts of unbelief, and your brethren in Zion for their
    rebellion against you at the time I sent you.

    77. And again I say unto you, my friends, for from henceforth I
    shall call you friends, it is expedient that I give unto you this
    commandment, that ye become even as my friends in days when I was
    with them, traveling to preach the gospel in my power;

    78. For I suffered them not to have purse or scrip, neither two
    coats.

    79. Behold, I send you out to prove the world, and the laborer is
    worthy of his hire.

    80. And any man that shall go and preach this gospel of the kingdom
    and fail not to continue faithful in all things, shall not be weary
    in mind, neither darkened, neither in body, limb, nor joint; and a
    hair of his head shall not fall to the ground unnoticed. And they
    shall not go hungry, neither athirst.

    81. Therefore, take ye no thought for the morrow, for what ye shall
    eat or what ye shall drink, or wherewithal ye shall be clothed.

    82. For, consider the lilies of the field, how they grow, they toil
    not, neither do they spin; and the kingdoms of the world, in all
    their glory are not arrayed like one of these.

    83. For your Father, who is in heaven, knoweth that you have need
    of all these things.

    84. Therefore, let the morrow take thought for the things of itself.

    85. Neither take ye thought beforehand what ye shall say; but
    treasure up in your minds continually the words of life, and it
    shall be given you in the very hour that portion that shall be
    meted unto every man.

    86. Therefore, let no man among you, for this commandment is unto
    all the faithful who are called of God in the church unto the
    ministry, from this hour take purse or scrip, that goeth forth to
    proclaim this gospel of the kingdom.

    87. Behold, I send you out to reprove the world of all their
    unrighteous deeds, and to teach them of a judgment which is to come.

    88. And whoso receiveth you, there I will be also, for I will go
    before your face. I will be on your right hand and on your left,
    and my {293} Spirit shall be in your hearts, and mine angels round
    about you, to bear you up.

    89. Whoso receiveth you receiveth me; and the same will feed you,
    and clothe you, and give you money.

    90. And he who feeds you, or clothes you, or gives you money, shall
    in nowise lose his reward.

    91. And he that doeth not these things is not my disciple; by this
    you may know my disciples.

    92. He that receiveth you not, go away from him alone by
    yourselves, and cleanse your feet even with water, pure water,
    whether in heat or in cold, and bear testimony of it unto your
    Father which is in heaven, and return not again unto that man.

    93. And in whatsoever village or city ye enter, do likewise.

    94. Nevertheless, search diligently and spare not; and wo unto that
    house, or that village or city that rejecteth you, or your words,
    or your testimony concerning me.

    95. Wo, I say again, unto that house, or that village or city that
    rejecteth you, or your words, or your testimony of me;

    96. For I, the Almighty, have laid my hands upon the nations, to
    scourge them for their wickedness.

    97. And plagues shall go forth, and they shall not be taken from
    the earth until I have completed my work, which shall be cut short
    in righteousness--

    98. Until all shall know me, who remain, even from the least unto
    the greatest, and shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lord,
    and shall see eye to eye, and shall lift up their voice, and with
    the voice together sing this new song, saying:

    99. The Lord hath brought again Zion; The Lord hath redeemed his
    people, Israel, According to the election of grace, which was
    brought to pass by the faith And covenant of their fathers.

    100. The Lord hath redeemed his people; And Satan is bound and time
    is no longer. The Lord hath gathered all things in one. The Lord
    hath brought down Zion from above. The Lord hath brought up Zion
    from beneath.

    101. The earth hath travailed and brought forth her strength; And
    truth is established in her bowels; And the heavens have smiled
    upon her; And she is clothed with the glory of her God; For he
    stands in the midst of his people.

    102. Glory, and honor, and power, and might, {294} Be ascribed to
    our God; for he is full of mercy, Justice, grace and truth, and
    peace, Forever and ever, Amen.

    103. And again, verily, verily, I say unto you, it is expedient
    that every man who goes forth to proclaim mine everlasting gospel,
    that inasmuch as they have families, and receive money by gift,
    that they should send it unto them or make use of it for their
    benefit, as the Lord shall direct them, for thus it seemeth me good.

    104. And let all those who have not families, who receive money,
    send it up unto the bishop in Zion, or unto the bishop in
    Ohio, that it may be consecrated for the bringing forth of the
    revelations and the printing thereof, and for establishing Zion.

    105. And if any man shall give unto any of you a coat, or a
    suit, take the old and cast it unto the poor, and go on your way
    rejoicing.

    106. And if any man among you be strong in the Spirit, let him take
    with him him that is weak, that he may be edified in all meekness,
    that he may become strong also.

    107. Therefore, take with you those who are ordained unto the
    lesser priesthood, and send them before you to make appointments,
    and to prepare the way, and to fill appointments that you
    yourselves are not able to fill.

    108. Behold, this is the way that mine apostles, in ancient days,
    built up my church unto me.

    109. Therefore, let every man stand in his own office, and labor in
    his own calling; and let not the head say unto the feet it hath no
    need of the feet; for without the feet how shall the body be able
    to stand?

    110. Also the body hath need of every member, that all may be
    edified together, that the system may be kept perfect.

    111. And behold, the high priests should travel, and also the
    elders, and also the lesser priests; but the deacons and teachers
    should be appointed to watch over the church, to be standing
    ministers unto the church.

    112. And the bishop, Newel K. Whitney, also should travel round
    about and among all the churches, searching after the poor to
    administer to their wants by humbling the rich and the proud.

    113. He should also employ an agent to take charge and to do his
    secular business as he shall direct.

    114. Nevertheless, let the bishop go unto the city of New York,
    also to the city of Albany, and also to the city of Boston, and
    warn the people of those cities with the sound of the gospel, with
    a loud voice, of the desolation and utter abolishment which await
    them if they do reject these things.

    {295} 115. For if they do reject these things the hour of their
    judgment is nigh, and their house shall be left unto them desolate.

    116. Let him trust in me and he shall not be confounded; and a hair
    of his head shall not fall to the ground unnoticed.

    117. And verily I say unto you, the rest of my servants, go ye
    forth as your circumstances shall permit, in your several callings,
    unto the great and notable cities and villages, reproving the
    world in righteousness of all their unrighteous and ungodly deeds,
    setting forth clearly and understandingly the desolation of
    abomination in the last days.

    118. For, with you saith the Lord Almighty, I will rend their
    kingdoms; I will not only shake the earth, but the starry heavens
    shall tremble.

    119. For I, the Lord, have put forth my hand to exert the powers
    of heaven; ye cannot see it now, yet a little while and ye shall
    see it, and know that I am, and that I will come and reign with my
    people.

    120. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. Amen.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Visit to Eastern Cities.]

I continued the translation of the Bible and ministering to the Church,
through the fall, excepting a hurried journey to Albany, New York and
Boston, in company with Bishop Whitney, from which I returned on the
6th of November, immediately after the birth of my son Joseph Smith,
the third. [3]

[Sidenote: The Arrival of the Youngs at Kirtland.]

About the 8th of November I received a visit from Elders Joseph Young,
[4] Brigham Young, and Heber {296} C. Kimball [5] of Mendon, Monroe
county, New York. They spent four or five days at Kirtland, during
which we had many interesting moments. At one of our interviews,
Brother Brigham Young [6] and John P. Greene spoke in tongues, which
was {297} the first time I had heard this gift among the brethren;
others also spoke, and I received the gift myself. [7]

In answer to letters received from the brethren in Missouri, I wrote as
follows:

    Kirtland, Nov. 27th, 1832.

    Brother William W. Phelps:--I say brother, because I feel so
    {298} from the heart, and although it is not long since I wrote
    a letter unto you, yet I feel as though you would excuse me for
    writing this, as I have many things which I wish to communicate.
    Some things which I will mention in this letter, which are lying
    with great weight on my mind. I am well, and my family also; God
    grant that you may enjoy the same, and yours, and all the brethren
    and sisters who remember to inquire after the commandments of the
    Lord, and the welfare of Zion and such a being as myself; and while
    I dictate this letter, I fancy to myself that you are saying or
    thinking something similar to these words:--"My God, great and
    mighty art Thou, therefore show unto Thy servant what shall become
    of those who are essaying to come up unto Zion, in order to keep
    the commandments of God, and yet receive not their inheritance
    by consecrations, by order of deed from the Bishop, the man that
    God has appointed in a legal way, agreeably to the law given to
    organize and regulate the Church, and all the affairs of the same."

    Brother William, in the love of God, having the most implicit
    confidence in you as a man of God, having obtained this confidence
    by a vision of heaven, therefore I will proceed to unfold to you
    some of the feelings of my heart, and to answer the question.

    Firstly, it is the duty of the Lord's clerk, [8] whom He has
    appointed, to keep a history, and a General Church Record of all
    things that transpire in Zion, and of all those who consecrate
    properties and receive inheritances legally from the Bishop; and
    also their manner of life, their faith, and works and also of the
    apostates who apostatize after receiving their inheritances. It is
    contrary to the will and commandment of God, that those who receive
    not their inheritance by consecration, agreeably to His law, which
    he has given, that He may tithe His people, to prepare them against
    the day of vengeance and burning, should have their names enrolled
    with the people of God; neither is their genealogy to be kept, or
    to be had where it may be found on any of the records or history
    of the Church; their names shall not be found neither the names of
    the fathers, nor the names of the children written in the book of
    the law of God, saith the Lord of hosts. Yea, thus saith the still
    small voice, which whispereth through and pierceth all things, and
    oftentimes it maketh my bones to quake while it maketh manifest,
    saying: and it shall come to pass, that I, the Lord God, will
    send one mighty and strong, holding the sceptre of power in his
    hand, clothed with light for a covering, whose mouth shall utter
    words, eternal words; {299} while his bowels shall be a fountain of
    truth, to set in order the house of God, and to arrange by lot the
    inheritances of the Saints, whose names are found, and the names of
    their fathers, and of their children enrolled in the book of the
    law of God: while that man, who was called of God, and appointed,
    that putteth forth his hand to steady the ark of God, shall fall
    by the shaft of death, like as a tree that is smitten by the vivid
    shaft of lightning; and all they who are not found written in the
    book of remembrance, shall find none inheritance in that day but
    they shall be cut asunder, and their portion shall be appointed
    them among unbelievers, where are wailing and gnashing of teeth.
    These things I say not of myself; therefore, as the Lord speaketh,
    He will also fulfil. And they who are of the High Priesthood,
    whose names are not found written in the book of the law, or that
    are found to have apostatized, or to have been cut off from the
    Church; as well as the lesser Priesthood, or the members, in that
    day, shall not find an inheritance among the Saints of the Most
    High; therefore it shall be done unto them as unto the children of
    the priest, as will be found recorded in the second chapter, and
    sixty-first and sixty-second verses of Ezra. [9]

    Now, Brother William, if what I have said is true, how careful men
    ought to be what they do in the last days, lest they are cut short
    of their expectations, and they that think they stand should fall,
    because they keep not the Lord's commandments; whilst you, who
    do the will of the Lord and keep His commandments, have need to
    rejoice with unspeakable joy, for such shall be exalted very high,
    and shall be lifted up in triumph above all the kingdoms of this
    world; but I must drop this subject at the beginning [of it].

    Oh, Lord, when will the time come when Brother William, Thy
    servant, and myself, shall behold the day that we may stand
    together and gaze upon eternal wisdom engraven upon the heavens,
    while the majesty of our God holdeth up the dark curtain until we
    may read the round of eternity, to the fulness and satisfaction
    of our immortal souls? Oh, Lord, deliver us in due time from the
    little, narrow prison, almost as it were, total darkness of paper,
    pen and ink;--and a crooked, broken, scattered and imperfect
    language.

    I have obtained ten subscribers for the _Star_. Love for all the
    brethren.

    Yours in bonds. Amen.

    Joseph Smith, Jun.

{300} On the 6th of December, 1832, I received the following revelation
explaining the parable of the wheat and tares:

    _Revelation_. [10]

    1. Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you my servants, concerning the
    parable of the wheat and of the tares;

    2. Behold, verily I say, the field was the world, and the apostles
    were the sowers of the seed;

    3. And after they have fallen asleep, the great persecutor of the
    church, the apostate, the whore, even Babylon, that maketh all
    nations to drink of her cup, in whose hearts the enemy, even Satan,
    sitteth to reign--behold he soweth the tares; wherefore, the tares
    choke the wheat and drive the church into the wilderness.

    4. But behold, in the last days, even now while the Lord is
    beginning to bring forth the word, and the blade is springing up
    and is yet tender--

    5. Behold, verily I say unto you, the angels are crying unto the
    Lord day and night, who are ready and waiting to be sent forth to
    reap down the fields;

    6. But the Lord saith unto them, pluck not up the tares while the
    blade is yet tender (for verily your faith is weak), lest you
    destroy the wheat also.

    7. Therefore, let the wheat and the tares grow together until the
    harvest is fully ripe; then ye shall first gather out the wheat
    from among the tares, and after the gathering of the wheat, behold
    and lo, the tares are bound in bundles, and the field remaineth to
    be burned.

    8. Therefore, thus saith the Lord unto you, with whom the
    priesthood hath continued through the lineage of your fathers--

    9. For ye are lawful heirs, according to the flesh, and have been
    hid from the world with Christ in God--

    10. Therefore, your life and the priesthood have remained, and must
    needs remain through you and your lineage until the restoration of
    all things spoken by the mouths of all the holy prophets since the
    world began.

    11. Therefore, blessed are ye if ye continue in my goodness, a
    light unto the Gentiles, and through this priesthood, a savior unto
    my people Israel. The Lord hath said it. Amen.

Footnotes

1. George Albert Smith was born at Potsdam, St. Lawrence county, New
York, on the 26th of June, 1817. He was the son of John Smith, the
sixth son of Asael and Mary Smith. John Smith was therefore a brother
of the Prophet's father, and George Albert and the Prophet were
cousins. In the fall of 1828, Asael Smith, grandfather of the subject
of this note, received a letter from Joseph Smith, Sen., informing him
of some of the visions the youthful Prophet had received. Soon after
this a letter from the young Prophet himself was received by John
Smith, and read in the hearing of George Albert. The letter declared
that the judgments of God would overtake the wicked of this generation
unless they repented. The letter made a deep impression upon George
Albert; while his father remarked that "Joseph wrote like a prophet."
In August, 1830, Joseph Smith, Sen., visited his brother John, bringing
with him the Book of Mormon, a copy of which he left at the former's
residence. During the temporary absence of his uncle, who was visiting
other branches of the family, George Albert championed the Book of
Mormon, and answered objections urged against it by the neighbors who
came in to examine it. Meantime he formulated some objections of his
own, which his Uncle Joseph on his return answered to his complete
satisfaction; and he never afterwards ceased to advocate the divine
authenticity of the Book of Mormon. Notwithstanding this conviction,
however, he was not baptized until some two years had elapsed as will
be seen by reference to the date of his baptism in the text of the
Prophet's narrative.

At this point I think it proper that a letter written by Asael Smith,
grandfather of the Prophet Joseph Smith Jun., should be introduced. A
copy of the letter was obtained by George A. Smith, the subject of the
foregoing biographical note, while on a visit to Topsfield, in 1872.
The original was in the hands of a son of Mr. Jacob Town, then the town
clerk of Topsfield, and who, while unwilling to part with the original,
because written to and received by his father, permitted President
George A. Smith to copy it.

On the outside of the letter, besides the superscription, "Mr. Jacob
Town, Topsfield Commonwealth of Massachusetts," is this: "Rec'd Feb.
14, 1796, from Asael Smith." From which it appears, when compared with
the date under which it was written, the letter was one month on the
journey from Tunbridge, Vt., to Topsfield, a distance of 150 miles, and
was probably carried by private conveyance.

The letter is produced here for two reasons: first for its own
intrinsic interest as a literary relic of one of the Prophet's
ancestors, and of the American Revolutionary period; second, as showing
the character of the stock from which the Prophet Joseph descended.
This letter exhibits in Asael Smith a noble independence of character,
united with a childlike humility before God, together with unbounded
faith and trust in the wisdom of Providence and of His over-ruling
hand in the affairs of nations. Loyalty to his country and faith in
the stability of the government under the over-ruling providences of
God are equally conspicuous. The letter will go far towards refuting
the slanders which untruthful writers have been pleased to circulate
concerning the character of that race from which the Prophet descended.

Asael Smith's Letter to Mr. Jacob Town.

"Tunbridge. Jan. 14th, 1796.

"Respected Sir:--Having a favorable opportunity, altho' on very short
notice, I with joy and gratitude, embrace it, returning herewith my
most hearty thanks for your respect shown in your favor of the 30th
of November, by Mr. Willis, which I view as a singular specimen of
friendship, which has very little been practiced by any of my friends
in Topsfield, altho' often requested.

"My family are all, through the goodness of the Divine Benediction, in
a tolerable good state of health, and desire to be remembered to you
and to all inquiring friends.

"I have set me up a new house since Mr. Willis was here and expect to
remove into it next spring, and begin again on an entire new farm, and
my son Joseph will live on the old farm (if this that has been but four
years occupied can be called old), and carry it on at the halves, which
half I hope will nearly furnish my family with food, whilst I with my
four youngest sons shall endeavor to bring to another farm, etc.

"As to news, I have nothing as I know of, worth noticing, except that
grain has taken a sudden rise amongst us about one-third.

"As to the Jacobin party, they are not very numerous here, or if they
are they are pretty still; there are some in this state, viz., in
Bennington, who like other children crying for a rattle, have blared
out against their rulers, in hopes to wrest from them, if possible,
what they esteem the plaything of power and trust. But they have been
pretty well whipped and have become tolerably quiet again, and I am
in hopes if they live to to arrive to the years of discretion, when
the empire of reason shall take place, that they will then become good
members of society, notwithstanding their noisy, nucious behavior in
their childhood, for which they were either capable of hearing or
giving any reason.

"For my part, I am so willing to trust the government of the world in
the hands of the Supreme Ruler of universal nature, that I do not at
present wish to try to wrest it out of His hands, and I have so much
confidence in His abilities to teach our senators wisdom, that I do
not think it worth while for me to interpose, from the little stock
of knowledge that He has favored me with, in the affair, either one
way or the other. He has conducted us through a glorious Revolution
and has brought us into the promised land of peace and liberty, and I
believe that He is about to bring all the world into the same beatitude
in His own time and way; which, altho' His ways may appear never so
inconsistent to our blind reason, yet may be perfectly consistent
with His designs. And I believe that the stone is now cut out of the
mountain without hands, spoken of by Daniel, and has smitten the image
upon his feet, by which the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver and
the gold, (viz.) all the monarchial and ecclesiastical tyranny will be
broken to pieces and become as the chaff of the summer threshing floor,
the wind shall carry them all away, that there shall be no place found
for them.

"Give my best regards to your parents and tell them that I have
taken up with the eleventh commandment, that the negro taught to the
minister, which was thus--

"The minister asked the negro how many commandments there were, his
answer was 'Eleben, sir.' 'Aye,' replied the other, 'what is the
eleventh? That is one I never heard of.' 'The eleventh commandment,
sir, is mind your own business.'

"So I choose to do and give myself but little concern about what passes
in the political world.

"Give my best regards to Dr. Meriam, Mr. Willis, Joseph Dorman and Mr.
Cree, and tell Mr. Cree I thank him for his respects and hope he will
accept of mine. Write to me as often and as large as you can and oblige
your sincere friend and well-wisher.

(Signed) Asael Smith

"Mr. Jacob Town, Jun."

The following appears on the back of the first page of the letter,
being evidently of the nature of a postscript--

"Give my hearty thanks to Mr. Charles Rogers for his respects shown
in writing me a few lines, and tell him that I should a wrote to him
now, had I had time, but now waive it for the present, as I have
considerable part of what I intended to a writ to you.

"If I should live and do well, I expect to come to Topsfield myself
next winter, which, if I do, I shall come and pay you a visit. Farewell.

"Tell Mr. Joseph Cree that if he will come here and set up his trade, I
will warrant him as much work as he can do, and good pay."

On the margin of the second page of the letter appears the following--

"I expect my son Joseph will be married in a few days."

2. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 84.

3. Three children had previously been born to Joseph and Emma: a son,
on June 15, 1828, who died the same hour; and a son and daughter, on
April 30, 1831, who lived three hours. These latter children were born
the same day as the Murdock twins, whose adoption into Joseph's family
at the age of nine days, is mentioned on page 260.

4. Joseph Young, mentioned above, was named for his grandfather Joseph
Young, a physician and surgeon in the British-American army during
the French and Indian war. John Young, the father of Joseph Young,
subject of this note, was a native of Hopkinton, Middlesex county,
Massachusetts. He married Nabby Howe, who bore to him eleven children,
of whom Joseph was the seventh child and second son. Joseph was born on
the 7th of April, 1797, in Hopkinton, Middlesex county, Massachusetts.
In early life he became attached to religion, and was very moral and
devout. In his youth he assisted his father in agricultural pursuits.
He was a Methodist preacher for a number of years, and labored in the
United States and Canada. On April 6th, 1832, he was baptized into the
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, by Elder Daniel Bowen, in
Columbia, Pennsylvania; and was ordained an Elder a few days afterwards
under the hands of Ezra Landon. After preaching in the state of New
York for several months, he took a mission to Canada, in the summer of
1832, in company with his brother Phinehas, Eleazer Miller and others.
They organized two small branches, and returned to Mendon in about four
months. He then went to Kirtland with Heber C. Kimball and his brother
Brigham, as related in the text.

5. Heber Chase Kimball was born June 14, 1801, in Sheldon, Franklin
county, Vermont. His parents were American born, though of Scotch
extraction, the ancient name of the family being, it is believed,
Campbell. His opportunities for acquiring an education even of the
common school order were extremely limited. At the age of nineteen he
was apprenticed to his elder brother, Charles, to learn the potter's
trade. He served some two years as an apprentice and then worked for
his brother as a journeyman potter. While yet in the employ of his
brother they together moved to Mendon, Monroe county, where the latter
established a pottery. While living here Heber married Vilate Murray,
of Victor, a town near Mendon, but in the adjoining county of Ontario.
Soon after his marriage he joined the Baptist church. Three weeks
later, and some time in the winter of 1831, a number of the Elders of
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints began preaching in
the town of Victor, and Heber C. Kimball and a number of the Youngs
attended their meetings. Then followed the visit to the branch of the
Church in Columbia, Pennsylvania, mentioned in the biographical note
of Brigham Young. After his return from Columbia he was baptized by
Alpheus Gifford, on the 15th of April, 1832. During the summer of 1832
Heber C. Kimball was ordained an Elder and with the Youngs labored part
of his time in the ministry, and succeeded in raising up several small
branches of the Church. In September he made the journey to Kirtland,
spoken of by the Prophet in his narrative.

6. Brigham Young was born in Whitingham, Windham county, Vermont, June
1, 1801. He was the ninth child and fourth son of John and Nabby Howe
Young. He was early taught by his parents to live a strictly moral
life, it was not until he was in his twenty-second year that he gave
serious thought to religion. He soon afterwards joined the Methodist
church. On the 8th of October he married Miriam Works, daughter of
Asa and Jerusha Works, and for a number of years followed the trade
of carpenter and joiner, painter and glazier. In the spring of 1829
he made his home at Mendon, a small town some fifteen miles south and
east of Rochester, in Monroe county, where his father also resided. A
year later he saw for the first time the Book of Mormon, a copy that
was left at the house of his brother, Phinehas H. Young, by Samuel
H. Smith, brother of the Prophet. In the fall of 1831 Elders Alpheus
Gifford, Elial Strong and others appeared in the vicinity of Mendon,
preaching the restored Gospel, as revealed through Joseph Smith the
Prophet, and Brigham believed their testimony. In company with his
brother, Phinehas, and Heber C. Kimball he visited a branch of the
Church in Columbia, Bradford county, Pennsylvania. The three brethren
remained with the branch of the Church about a week, during which
time their faith was much strengthened in the mission of the modern
Prophet. On returning to Mendon, Brigham Young in company with John
P. Greene started for Canada to find Joseph Young, an elder brother
of Brigham's, then a preacher in the Methodist church. On meeting his
brother Brigham related what he had learned of the new dispensation and
Joseph rejoiced at hearing the glad tidings. Together they returned to
Mendon, where they arrived in March, 1832; and on the 14th of April
following, Brigham was baptized by Eleazer Miller, and confirmed a
member of the Church at the water's edge. Almost immediately afterwards
Miller ordained him an Elder in the Church. During the summer of 1832
he preached in Mendon and vicinity and assisted in raising up several
branches of the Church. On the 8th of September his wife died of
consumption, leaving him with two small children, both girls. After the
death of his wife he made his home with Heber C. Kimball, the latter's
wife taking in charge his motherless babes. In the same month of
September, in company with Heber C. Kimball and his brother Joseph, he
went to Kirtland on his visit to the Prophet, as related in the text.

7. The above incident is thus related by President Brigham Young in
his own history:--In September, 1832, Brother Heber C. Kimball took
his horse and wagon, Brother Joseph Young and myself accompanying
him, and started for Kirtland to see the Prophet Joseph. We visited
many friends on the way, and some branches of the Church. We exhorted
them and prayed with them, and I spoke in tongues. Some pronounced it
genuine and from the Lord, and others pronounced it of the devil. We
proceeded to Kirtland and stopped at John P. Greene's, who had just
arrived there with his family. We rested a few minutes, took some
refreshments and started to see the Prophet. We went to his father's
house and learned that he was in the woods chopping. We immediately
repaired to the woods, where we found the Prophet, and two or three of
his brothers, chopping and hauling wood. Here my joy was full at the
privilege of shaking the hand of the Prophet of God, and receiving the
sure testimony, by the spirit of prophecy, that he was all that any man
could believe him to be as a true prophet. He was happy to see us and
bid us welcome. We soon returned to his house, he accompanying us.

In the evening, a few of the brethren came in, and we conversed upon
the things of the kingdom. He called upon me to pray; in my prayer I
spoke in tongues. As soon as we arose from our knees, the brethren
flocked around him, and asked his opinion concerning the gift of
tongues that was upon me. He told them it was the pure Adamic language.
Some said to him they expected he would condemn the gift Brother
Brigham had, but he said, "No, it is of God."--_Millennial Star_, vol.
25, p. 439.

The gift of tongues here spoken of was first exercised in one of the
Pennsylvania branches; next at Mendon, where the Youngs and Kimballs
resided; then in the branches between Mendon and Kirtland; then in
Kirtland under the circumstances above related, and shortly afterwards
it was a gift quite generally exercised by the Saints in Ohio. "And it
came to pass," writes John Whitmer in his history of the Church (chap.
10), "that in the fall of 1832, the disciples in Ohio received the gift
of tongues, and in June, 1833, we received the gift of tongues in Zion."

8. The part of the above letter, beginning with the words, "It is the
duty of the Lord's clerk," etc., and ending with the words, "As will be
found recorded in the second chapter and sixty-first and sixty-second
verses of Ezra," was accepted afterwards as the word of the Lord, that
is, as a revelation upon the matters treated therein, and appears in
the Doctrine and Covenants as section 85.

9. "And the children of the priests: the children of Habaiah, the
children of Koz, the children of Barzillai; which took a wife of the
daughters of Barzillai the Gileadite, and was called after their
name: these sought their register among those that were reckoned by
genealogy, but they were not found, therefore were they, as polluted,
put from the priesthood."--Ezra 2:61, 62.

10. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 86.

{301}



Chapter XXII.

The Prophecy on the War of the Rebellion--The Olive Leaf--Communication
to Mr. Seaton--Warning to Zion.

[Sidenote: State of the World at the Close of 1832.]

Appearances of troubles among the nations became more visible this
season than they had previously been since the Church began her journey
out of the wilderness. The ravages of the cholera were frightful in
almost all the large cities on the globe. The plague broke out in
India, while the United States, amid all her pomp and greatness, was
threatened with immediate dissolution. The people of South Carolina,
in convention assembled (in November), passed ordinances, declaring
their state a free and independent nation; and appointed Thursday,
the 31st day of January, 1833, as a day of humiliation and prayer, to
implore Almighty God to vouchsafe His blessings, and restore liberty
and happiness within their borders. President Jackson issued his
proclamation against this rebellion, called out a force sufficient to
quell it, and implored the blessings of God to assist the nation to
extricate itself from the horrors of the approaching and solemn crisis.

On Christmas day [1832], I received the following revelation and
prophecy on war.

    Revelation and Prophecy. [1]

    1. Verily, thus saith the Lord concerning the wars that will
    shortly come to pass, beginning at the rebellion of South Carolina,
    which will eventually terminate in the death and misery of many
    souls;

    2. And the time will come that war will be poured out upon all
    nations, beginning at this place.

    3. For behold, the Southern States shall be divided against the
    Northern States, and the Southern States will call on other
    nations, even the nation of Great Britain, as it is called, and
    they shall also call upon {302} other nations, in order to defend
    themselves against other nations; and then war shall be poured out
    upon all nations.

    4. And it shall come to pass, after many days, slaves shall rise up
    against their masters, who shall be marshaled and discipled for war.

    5. And it shall come to pass also that the remnants who are left
    of the land will marshal themselves, and shall become exceedingly
    angry, and shall vex the Gentiles with a sore vexation.

    6. And thus, with the sword and by bloodshed the inhabitants of the
    earth shall mourn; and with famine, and plague, and earthquake, and
    the thunder of heaven, and the fierce and vivid lightning also,
    shall the inhabitants of the earth be made to feel the wrath, and
    indignation, and chastening hand of an Almighty God, until the
    consumption decreed hath made a full end of all nations;

    7. That the cry of the saints, and the blood of the saints, shall
    cease to come up into the ears of the Lord of Sabaoth, from the
    earth, to be avenged of their enemies.

    8. Wherefore, stand ye in holy places, and be not moved, until the
    day of the Lord come; for behold, it cometh quickly, saith the
    Lord. Amen.

Two days after the preceding prophecy, on the 27th of December, I
received the following:

    _Revelation_. [2]

    1. Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you who have assembled
    yourselves together to receive his will concerning you:

    2. Behold, this is pleasing unto your Lord, and the angels rejoice
    over you; the alms of your prayer have come up into the ears of the
    Lord of Sabaoth, and are recorded in the book of the names of the
    sanctified, even them of the celestial world.

    3. Wherefore, I now send upon you another Comforter, even upon you
    my friends, that it may abide in your hearts, even the Holy Spirit
    of promise; which other Comforter is the same that I promised unto
    my disciples, as is recorded in the testimony of John.

    4. This Comforter is the promise which I give unto you of eternal
    life, even the glory of the celestial kingdom;

    5. Which glory is that of the church of the Firstborn, even of God,
    the holiest of all, through Jesus Christ his Son--

    6. He that ascended up on high, as also he descended below all
    {303} things, in that he comprehended all things, that he might be
    in all and through all things, the light of truth;

    7. Which truth shineth. This is the light of Christ. As also he
    is in the sun, and the light of the sun, and the power thereof by
    which it was made.

    8. As also he is in the moon, and is the light of the moon, and the
    power thereof by which it was made;

    9. As also the light of the stars, and the power thereof by which
    they were made;

    10. And the earth also, and the power thereof, even the earth upon
    which you stand.

    11. And the light which shineth, which giveth you light, is through
    him who enlighteneth your eyes, which is the same light that
    quickeneth your understandings;

    12. Which light proceedeth forth from the presence of God to fill
    the immensity of space--

    13. The light which is in all things, which giveth life to all
    things, which is the law by which all things are governed, even the
    power of God who sitteth upon his throne, who is in the bosom of
    eternity, who is in the midst of all things.

    14. Now, verily I say unto you, that through the redemption which
    is made for you is brought to pass the resurrection from the dead.

    15. And the spirit and the body are the soul of man.

    16. And the resurrection from the dead is the redemption of the
    soul.

    17. And the redemption of the soul is through him that quickeneth
    all things, in whose bosom it is decreed that the poor and the meek
    of the earth shall inherit it.

    18. Therefore, it must needs be sanctified from all
    unrighteousness, that it may be prepared for the celestial glory;

    19. For after it hath filled the measure of its creation, it shall
    be crowned with glory, even with the presence of God the Father;

    20. That bodies who are of the celestial kingdom may possess it
    forever and ever; for, for this intent was it made and created, and
    for this intent are they sanctified.

    21. And they who are not sanctified through the law which I have
    given unto you, even the law of Christ, must inherit another
    kingdom, even that of a terrestrial kingdom, or that of a telestial
    kingdom.

    22. For he who is not able to abide the law of a celestial kingdom
    cannot abide a celestial glory.

    23. And he who cannot abide the law of a terrestrial kingdom cannot
    abide a terrestrial glory.

    24. And he who cannot abide the law of a telestial kingdom cannot
    abide a telestial glory; therefore he is not meet for a kingdom
    of glory. {304} Therefore he must abide a kingdom which is not a
    kingdom of glory.

    25. And again, verily I say unto you, the earth abideth the law of
    a celestial kingdom, for it filleth the measure of its creation,
    and transgresseth not the law.

    26. Wherefore, it shall be sanctified; yea, notwithstanding it
    shall die, it shall be quickened again, and shall abide the power
    by which it is quickened, and the righteous shall inherit it.

    27. For notwithstanding they die, they also shall rise again, a
    spiritual body.

    28. They who are of a celestial spirit shall receive the same body
    which was a natural body; even ye shall receive your bodies, and
    your glory shall be that glory by which your bodies are quickened.

    29. Ye who are quickened by a portion of the celestial glory shall
    then receive of the same, even a fulness.

    30. And they who are quickened by a portion of the terrestrial
    glory shall then receive of the same, even a fulness.

    31. And also they who are quickened by a portion of the telestial
    glory shall then receive of the same, even a fulness.

    32. And they who remain shall also be quickened; nevertheless, they
    shall return again to their own place, to enjoy that which they are
    willing to receive, because they were not willing to enjoy that
    which they might have received.

    33. For what doth it profit a man if a gift is bestowed upon him,
    and he receive not the gift? Behold, he rejoices not in that which
    is given unto him, neither rejoices in him who is the giver of the
    gift.

    34. And again, verily I say unto you, that which is governed by law
    is also preserved law and perfected and sanctified by the same.

    35. That which breaketh a law, and abideth not by law, but seeketh
    to become a law unto itself, and willeth to abide in sin, and
    altogether abideth in sin, cannot be sanctified by law, neither by
    mercy, justice, nor judgment. Therefore, they must remain filthy
    still.

    36. All kingdoms have a law given;

    37. And there are many kingdoms; for there is no space in the which
    there is no kingdom; and there is no kingdom in which there is no
    space, either a greater or a lesser kingdom.

    38. And unto every kingdom is given a law; and unto every law there
    are certain bounds also and conditions.

    39. All beings who abide not in those conditions are not justified.

    40. For intelligence cleaveth unto intelligence; wisdom receiveth
    wisdom; truth embraceth truth; virtue loveth virtue; light cleaveth
    unto light; mercy hath compassion on mercy and claimeth her own;
    justice continueth its course and claimeth its own; judgment goeth
    {305} before the face of him who sitteth upon the throne and
    governeth and executeth all things.

    41. He comprehendeth all things, and all things are before him, and
    all things are round about him; and he is above all things, and
    in all things, and is through all things, and is round about all
    things; and all things are by him, and of him, even God, forever
    and ever.

    42. And again, verily I say unto you, he hath given a law unto all
    things, by which they move in their times and their seasons;

    43. And their courses are fixed, even the courses of the heavens
    and the earth, which comprehend the earth and all the planets.

    44. And they give light to each other in their times and in their
    seasons, in their minutes, in their hours, in their days, in their
    weeks, in their months, in their years--all these are one year with
    God, but not with man.

    45. The earth rolls upon her wings, and the sun giveth his light
    by day, and the moon giveth her light by night, and the stars also
    give their light, as they roll upon their wings in their glory, in
    the midst of the power of God.

    46. Unto what shall I liken these kingdoms, that ye may understand?

    47. Behold, all these are kingdoms, and any man who hath seen any
    or the least of these hath seen God moving in his majesty and power.

    48. I say unto you, he hath seen him; nevertheless, he who came
    unto his own was not comprehended.

    49. The light shineth in darkness, and the darkness comprehendeth
    it not; nevertheless, the day shall come when you shall comprehend
    even God, being quickened in him and by him.

    50. Then shall ye know that ye have seen me, that I am, and that I
    am the true light that is in you, and that you are in me; otherwise
    ye could not abound.

    51. Behold, I will liken these kingdoms unto a man having a field,
    and he sent forth his servants into the field to dig in the field.

    52. And he said unto the first: Go ye and labor in the field, and
    in the first hour I will come unto you, and ye shall behold the joy
    of my countenance.

    53. And he said unto the second: Go ye also into the field, and in
    the second hour I will visit you with the joy of my countenance.

    54. And also unto the third, saying: I will visit you;

    55. And unto the fourth, and so on unto the twelfth.

    56. And the lord of the field went unto the first in the first
    hour, and tarried with him all that hour, and he was made glad with
    the light of the countenance of his lord.

    57. And then he withdrew from the first that he might visit the
    second also, and the third, and the fourth, and so on unto the
    twelfth.

    {306} 58. And thus they all received the light of the countenance
    of their lord, every man in his hour, and in his time, and in his
    season--

    59. Beginning at the first, and so on unto the last, and from the
    last unto the first, and from the first unto the last;

    60. Every man in his own order, until his hour was finished, even
    according as his lord had commanded him, that his lord might be
    glorified in him, and he in his lord, that they all might be
    glorified.

    61. Therefore, unto this parable I will liken all these kingdoms,
    and the inhabitants thereof--every kingdom in its hour, and in its
    time, and in its season, even according to the decree which God
    hath made.

    62. And again, verily I say unto you, my friends, I leave these
    sayings with you to ponder in your hearts, with this commandment
    which I give unto you, that ye shall call upon me while I am near;

    63. Draw near unto me and I will draw near unto you; seek me
    diligently and ye shall find me; ask, and ye shall receive; knock
    and it shall be opened unto you.

    64. Whatsoever ye ask the Father in my name it shall be given unto
    you, that is expedient for you;

    65. And if ye ask anything that is not expedient for you, it shall
    turn unto your condemnation.

    66. Behold, that which you hear is as the voice of one crying in
    the wilderness--in the wilderness, because you cannot see him--my
    voice, because my voice is Spirit; my Spirit is truth; truth
    abideth and hath no end; and if it be in you it shall abound.

    67. And if your eye be single to my glory, your whole bodies shall
    be filled with light, and there shall be no darkness in you; and
    that body which is filled with light comprehendeth all things.

    68. Therefore, sanctify yourselves that your minds become single
    to God, and the days will come that you shall see him; for he will
    unveil his face unto you, and it shall be in his own time, and in
    his own way, and according to his own will.

    69. Remember the great and last promise which I have made unto you;
    cast away your idle thoughts and your excess of laughter far from
    you.

    70. Tarry ye, tarry ye in this place, and call a solemn assembly,
    even of those who are the first laborers in this last kingdom.

    71. And let those whom they have warned in their traveling call on
    the Lord, and ponder the warning in their hearts which they have
    received, for a little season.

    72. Behold, and lo, I will take care of your flocks, and will raise
    up elders and send unto them.

    73. Behold, I will hasten my work in its time.

    74. And I give unto you, who are the first laborers in this last
    kingdom, a commandment that you assemble yourselves together, and
    {307} organize yourselves, and prepare yourselves, and sanctify
    yourselves; yea, purify your hearts, and cleanse your hands and
    your feet before me, that I may make you clean;

    75. That I may testify unto your Father, and your God, and my God,
    that you are clean from the blood of this wicked generation; that I
    may fulfil this promise, this great and last promise, which I have
    made unto you, when I will.

    76. Also, I give unto you a commandment that ye shall continue in
    prayer and fasting from this time forth.

    77. And I give unto you a commandment that you shall teach one
    another the doctrine of the kingdom.

    78. Teach ye diligently and my grace shall attend you, that you may
    be instructed more perfectly in theory, in principle, in doctrine,
    in the law of the gospel, in all things that pertain unto the
    kingdom of God, that are expedient for you to understand;

    79. Of things both in heaven and in the earth, and under the earth;
    things which have been, things which are, things which must shortly
    come to pass; things which are at home, things which are abroad;
    the wars and the perplexities of the nations, and the judgments
    which are on the land; and a knowledge also of countries and of
    kingdoms--

    80. That ye may be prepared in all things when I shall send you
    again to magnify the calling whereunto I have called you, and the
    mission with which I have commissioned you.

    81. Behold, I sent you out to testify and warn the people, and it
    becometh every man who hath been warned to warn his neighbor.

    82. Therefore, they are left without excuse, and their sins are
    upon their own heads.

    83. He that seeketh me early shall find me, and shall not be
    forsaken.

    84. Therefore, tarry ye, and labor diligently, that you may be
    perfected in your ministry to go forth among the Gentiles for the
    last time, as many as the mouth of the Lord shall name, to bind up
    the law and seal up the testimony, and to prepare the saints for
    the hour of judgment which is to come;

    85. That their souls may escape the wrath of God, the desolation of
    abomination which awaits the wicked, both in this world and in the
    world to come. Verily, I say unto you, let those who are not the
    first elders continue in the vineyard until the mouth of the Lord
    shall call them, for their time is not yet come; their garments are
    not clean from the blood of this generation.

    86. Abide ye in the liberty wherewith ye are made free; entangle
    not yourselves in sin, but let your hands be clean, until the Lord
    comes.

    87. For not many days hence and the earth shall tremble and reel to
    {308} and fro as a drunken man; and the sun shall hide his face,
    and shall refuse to give light; and the moon shall be bathed in
    blood; and the stars shall become exceedingly angry, and shall cast
    themselves down as a fig that falleth from off a fig-tree.

    88. And after your testimony cometh wrath and indignation upon the
    people.

    89. For after your testimony cometh the testimony of earthquakes,
    that shall cause groanings in the midst of her, and men shall fall
    upon the ground, and shall not be able to stand.

    90. And also cometh the testimony of the voice of thunderings, and
    the voice of lightnings, and the voice of tempests, and the voice
    of the waves of the sea heaving themselves beyond their bounds.

    91. And all things shall be in commotion; and surely, men's hearts
    shall fail them; for fear shall come upon all people.

    92. And angels shall fly through the midst of heaven, crying with a
    loud voice, sounding the trump of God, saying: Prepare ye, prepare
    ye, O inhabitants of the earth; for the judgment of our God is
    come: behold, and lo! the Bridegroom cometh, go ye out to meet Him.

    93. And immediately there shall appear a great sign in heaven, and
    all people shall see it together.

    94. And another angel shall sound his trump, saying, That great
    church, the mother of abominations, that made all nations drink
    of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, that persecuteth the
    Saints of God, that shed their blood; she who sitteth upon many
    waters, and upon the islands of the sea; behold, she is the tares
    of the earth, she is bound in bundles, her bands are made strong,
    no man can loose them; therefore, she is ready to be burned. And
    he shall sound his trump both long and loud, and all nations shall
    hear it.

    95. And there shall be silence in heaven for the space of half
    an hour, and immediately after shall the curtain of heaven be
    unfolded, as a scroll is unfolded after it is rolled up, and the
    face of the Lord shall be unveiled;

    96. And the Saints that are upon the earth, who are alive, shall be
    quickened, and be caught up to meet Him.

    97. And they who have slept in their graves shall come forth; for
    their graves shall be opened, and they also shall be caught up to
    meet Him in the midst of the pillar of heaven:

    98. They are Christ's, the first fruits: they who shall descend
    with Him first, and they who are on the earth and in their graves,
    who are first caught up to meet Him: and all this by the voice of
    the sounding of the trump of the angel of God.

    99. And after this another angel shall sound, which is the second
    trump; and then cometh the redemption of those who are Christ's at
    {309} His coming; who have received their part in that prison which
    is prepared for them, that they might receive the gospel, and be
    judged according to men in the flesh.

    100. And again, another trump shall sound, which is the third
    trump; and then come the spirits of men who are to be judged, and
    are found under condemnation:

    101. And these are the rest of the dead, and they live not again
    until the thousand years are ended, neither again, until the end of
    the earth.

    102. And another trump shall sound, which is the fourth trump,
    saying, There are found among those who are to remain until that
    great and last day, even the end, who shall remain filthy still.

    103. And another trump shall sound, which is the fifth trump, which
    is the fifth angel who committeth the everlasting Gospel,--flying
    through the midst of heaven, unto all nations, kindreds, tongues,
    and people;

    104. And this shall be the sound of his trump, saying to all
    people, both in heaven and in earth, and that are under the earth;
    for every ear shall hear it, and every knee shall bow, and every
    tongue shall confess, while they hear the sound of the trump,
    saying, Fear God, and give glory to Him who sitteth upon the
    throne, for ever and ever: for the hour of His judgment is come.

    105. And again, another angel shall sound his trump, which is the
    sixth angel, saying, She is fallen who made all nations drink of
    the wine of the wrath of her fornication: she is fallen! is fallen!

    106. And again, another angel shall sound his trump, which is the
    seventh angel, saying, It is finished! It is finished! The Lamb
    of God hath overcome and trodden the wine-press alone: even the
    wine-press of the fierceness of the wrath of Almighty God;

    107. And then shall the angels be crowned with the glory of His
    might, and the Saints shall be filled with His glory, and receive
    their inheritance and be made equal with Him.

    108. And then shall the first angel again sound his trump in the
    ears of all living, and reveal the secret acts of men, and the
    mighty works of God in the first thousand years.

    109. And then shall the second angel sound his trump, and reveal
    the secret acts of men, and the thoughts and intents of their
    hearts, and the mighty works of God in the second thousand years.

    110. And so on, until the seventh angel shall sound his trump: and
    he shall stand forth upon the land and upon the sea, and swear in
    the name of Him who sitteth upon the throne, that there shall be
    time no longer; and Satan shall be bound, that old serpent, who
    is called the devil, and shall not be loosed for the space of a
    thousand years.

    {310} 111. And then he shall be loosed for a little season, that he
    may gather together his armies:

    112. And Michael, the seventh angel, even the archangel, shall
    gather together his armies, even the hosts of heaven.

    113. And the devil shall gather together his armies, even the hosts
    of hell, and shall come up to battle against Michael and his armies:

    114. And then cometh the battle of the great God; and the devil and
    his armies shall be cast away into their own place, that they shall
    not have power over the saints any more at all;

    115. For Michael shall fight their battles, and shall overcome him
    who seeketh the throne of him who sitteth upon the throne, even the
    Lamb.

    116. This is the glory of God, and the sanctified; and they shall
    not any more see death.

    117. Therefore, verily I say unto you, my friends, call your solemn
    assembly, as I have commanded you.

    118. And as all have not faith, seek ye diligently and teach one
    another words of wisdom; yea, seek ye out of the best books words
    of wisdom; seek learning even by study, and also by faith.

    119. Organize yourselves, prepare every needful thing, and
    establish a house, even a house of prayer, a house of fasting, a
    house of faith, a house of learning, a house of glory, a house of
    order, a house of God;

    120. That your incomings may be in the name of the Lord; that your
    outgoings may be in the name of the Lord; that all your salutations
    may be in the name of the Lord, with uplifted hands unto the Most
    High.

    121. Therefore, cease from all your light speeches; from all
    laughter; from all your lustful desires; from all your pride and
    light-mindedness, and from all your wicked doings.

    122. Appoint among yourselves a teacher, and let not all be
    spokesmen at once; but let one speak at a time and let all listen
    unto his sayings, that when all have spoken, that all may be
    edified of all, and that every man may have an equal privilege.

    123. See that ye love one another; cease to be covetous, learn to
    impart one to another as the gospel requires:

    124. Cease to be idle; cease to be unclean; cease to find fault one
    with another; cease to sleep longer than is needful; retire to thy
    bed early, that ye may not be weary; rise early, that your bodies
    and your minds may be invigorated.

    125. And above all things, clothe yourselves with the bond of
    charity, as with a mantle, which is the bond of perfectness and
    peace;

    126. Pray always, that ye may not faint, until I come: behold, and
    lo, I will come quickly, and receive you unto myself. Amen.

    {311} 127. And again, the order of the house prepared for the
    presidency of the school of the prophets, established for their
    instruction in all things that are expedient for them, even for all
    the officers of the church, or in other words, those who are called
    to the ministry in the church, beginning at the high priests, even
    down to the Deacons;

    128. And this shall be the order of the house of the presidency of
    the school: He that is appointed to be president, or teacher, shall
    be found standing in his place in the house which shall be prepared
    for him.

    129. Therefore, he shall be first in the house of God, in a place
    that the congregation in the house may hear his words, carefully
    and distinctly, not with loud speech.

    130. And when he cometh into the house of God, (for he should be
    first in the house; behold, this is beautiful, that he may be an
    example),

    131. Let him offer himself in prayer upon his knees before God, in
    token or remembrance of the everlasting covenant.

    132. And when any shall come in after him, let the teacher arise,
    and, with uplifted hands, to heaven; yea, even directly, salute his
    brother or brethren with these words:

    133. Art thou a brother or brethren? I salute you in the name of
    the Lord Jesus Christ, in token or remembrance of the everlasting
    covenant, in which covenant I receive you to fellowship, in a
    determination that is fixed, immovable, and unchangeable, to be
    your friend and brother through the grace of God, in the bonds
    of love, to walk in all the commandments of God blameless, in
    thanksgiving, forever and ever. Amen.

    134. And he that is found unworthy of this salutation, shall not
    have place among you; for ye shall not suffer that mine house shall
    be polluted by him.

    135. And he that cometh in and is faithful before me, and is a
    brother, or if they be brethren, they shall salute the president or
    teacher with uplifted hands to heaven, with this same prayer and
    covenant, or by saying Amen, in token of the same.

    136. Behold, verily, I say unto you, this is an ensample unto you
    for a salutation to one another in the house of God, in the school
    of the prophets.

    137. And ye are called to do this by prayer and thanksgiving as
    the Spirit shall give utterance in all your doings in the house
    of the Lord, in the school of the prophets, that it may become a
    sanctuary, a tabernacle of the Holy Spirit to your edification.

    138. And ye shall not receive any among you into this school save
    he is clean from the blood of this generation;

    {312} 139. And he shall be received by the ordinance of the washing
    of feet, for unto this end was the ordinance of the washing of feet
    instituted.

    140. And again, the ordinance of washing feet is to be administered
    by the president, or Presiding Elder of the Church.

    141. It is to be commenced with prayer; and after partaking of
    bread and wine, he is to gird himself according to the pattern
    given in the thirteenth chapter of John's testimony concerning me.
    Amen.

I wrote to N. E. Seaton, Esq., [3] editor of the--, as follows: [4]

    Kirtland, January 4th, 1833.

    _Mr. Editor_:--Sir, Considering the liberal principles upon which
    your interesting and valuable paper is published, myself being a
    subscriber, and feeling a deep interest in the cause of Zion, and
    in the happiness of my brethren of mankind, I cheerfully take up my
    pen to contribute my mite at this very interesting and important
    period.

    For some length of time I have been carefully reviewing the state
    of things, as it now appears, throughout our Christian land; and
    have looked at it with feelings of the most painful anxiety.
    While upon one hand I behold the manifest withdrawal of God's
    Holy Spirit, and the veil of stupidity which seems to be drawn
    over the hearts of the people; upon the other hand, I behold the
    judgments of God that have swept, and are still sweeping hundreds
    and thousands of our race (and I fear unprepared) down to the
    shades of death. With this solemn and alarming fact before me, I am
    led to exclaim, "O that my head were {313} waters, and mine eyes a
    fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night."

    I think that it is high time for a Christian world to awake out of
    sleep, and cry mightily to that God, day and night, whose anger we
    have justly incurred. Are not these things a sufficient stimulant
    to arouse the faculties and call forth the energies of every man,
    woman or child that possesses feelings of sympathy for their
    fellows, or that is in any degree endeared to the budding cause
    of our glorious Lord! I leave an intelligent community to answer
    this important question, with a confession, that this is what has
    caused me to overlook my own inability, and expose my weakness to
    a learned world; but, trusting in that God who has said that these
    things are hid from the wise and prudent and revealed unto babes, I
    step forth into the field to tell you what the Lord is doing, and
    what you must do, to enjoy the smiles of your Savior in these last
    days.

    The time has at last arrived when the God of Abraham, of Isaac,
    and of Jacob, has set His hand again the second time to recover
    the remnants of His people, which have been left from Assyria,
    and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam,
    and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the
    sea, and with them to bring in the fulness of the Gentiles, and
    establish that covenant with them, which was promised when their
    sins should be taken away. See Isaiah xi, Romans xi, 25, 26 and
    27, and also Jeremiah xxxi, 31, 32 and 33. This covenant has never
    been established with the house of Israel, nor with the house of
    Judah, for it requires two parties to make a covenant, and those
    two parties must be agreed, or no covenant can be made.

    Christ, in the days of His flesh, proposed to make a covenant with
    them, but they rejected Him and His proposals, and in consequence
    thereof, they were broken off, and no covenant was made with them
    at that time. But their unbelief has not rendered the promise of
    God of none effect: no, for there was another day limited in David,
    which was the day of His power; and then His people, Israel, should
    be a willing people;--and He would write His law in their hearts,
    and print it in their thoughts; their sins and their iniquities He
    would remember no more.

    Thus after this chosen family had rejected Christ and His
    proposals, the heralds of salvation said to them, "Lo, we turn
    unto the Gentiles;" and the Gentiles received the covenant, and
    were grafted in from whence the chosen family were broken off: but
    the Gentiles have not continued in the goodness of God, but have
    departed from the faith that was once delivered to the Saints, and
    have broken the covenant in which their fathers were established
    (See Isaiah xxiv, 5); and have {314} become high-minded, and have
    not feared; therefore, but few of them will be gathered with the
    chosen family. Have not the pride, high-mindedness, and unbelief of
    the Gentiles, provoked the Holy One of Israel to withdraw His Holy
    Spirit from them, and send forth His judgments to scourge them for
    their wickedness? This is certainly the case.

    Christ said to His disciples (Mark xvi:17 and 18), that these signs
    should follow them that believe:--"In my name shall they cast out
    devils; they shall speak with new tongues; they shall take up
    serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing it shall not hurt
    them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover;"
    and also, in connection with this, read 1st Corinthians, 12th
    chapter. By the foregoing testimonies we may look at the Christian
    world and see the apostasy there has been from the apostolic
    platform; and who can look at this and not exclaim in the language
    of Isaiah, "The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants
    thereof; because they have transgressed the laws, changed the
    ordinances, and broken the everlasting covenant?"

    The plain fact is this, the power of God begins to fall upon the
    nations, and the light of the latter-day glory begins to break
    forth through the dark atmosphere of sectarian wickedness, and
    their iniquity rolls up int