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Title: History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 3 of 3. - From the Earliest Times Until the Present Day
Author: Dubnow, Simon
Language: English
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                          HISTORY OF THE JEWS
                         IN RUSSIA AND POLAND

                        FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES
                         UNTIL THE PRESENT DAY



                          HISTORY OF THE JEWS
                         IN RUSSIA AND POLAND

                        FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES
                         UNTIL THE PRESENT DAY


                                  BY
                             S. M. DUBNOW

                      TRANSLATED FROM THE RUSSIAN
                                  BY
                            I. FRIEDLAENDER

                              VOLUME III

       FROM THE ACCESSION OF NICHOLAS II. UNTIL THE PRESENT DAY
                      WITH BIBLIOGRAPHY AND INDEX

                            [Illustration]

                             PHILADELPHIA
               THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA
                                  1920

                          COPYRIGHT, 1920, BY
               THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA



NOTE


The present volume, which concludes Dubnow's "History of the Jews
in Russia-Poland," contains, in addition to the text, an extensive
bibliography and an index to the entire work. In the bibliography an
enormous amount of material has been collected, and it is arranged in
such a way as to enable the reader to ascertain the sources upon which
the author drew. It is thus in the nature of notes, and is therefore
arranged according to the chapters of the book. The index, which has
been prepared with the utmost care by the translator, is really a
synopsis of Jewish history in Russia and Poland, and its usefulness
cannot be over-rated.

Professor Friedlaender, the translator of this work, who left the
United States at the beginning of this year, did not see the proof of
the bibliography and index.

The tragic news has just reached this country that Professor
Friedlaender was murdered under the most revolting circumstances. An
eminent scholar and writer has thus been removed from American Jewry,
and the entire house of Israel together with the Jewish Publication
Society of America, on whose committee Professor Friedlaender served
with conspicuous merit for a number of years, mourns this irreparable
loss.

JULY, 1920.



CONTENTS


  CHAPTER                                                           PAGE

  XXXI. THE ACCESSION OF NICHOLAS II.

  1. Continued Policy of Oppression                                    7
  2. The Martyrdom of the Moscow Community                            12
  3. Restrictions in the Right of Residence                           15
  4. The Economic Collapse of Russian Jewry                           22
  5. Professional and Educational Restrictions                        26
  6. Anti-Semitic Propaganda and Pogroms                              31

  XXXII. THE NATIONAL AWAKENING.

  1. The Rise of Political Zionism                                    40
  2. Spiritual Zionism, or Ahad-Ha´amism                              48
  3. Spiritual Nationalism, or National-Cultural Autonomism           51
  4. The Jewish Socialistic Movement                                  55
  5. The Revival of Jewish Letters                                    58

  XXXIII. THE KISHINEV MASSACRE.

  1. Pogroms as a Counter-Revolutionary Measure                       66
  2. The Organized Kishinev Butchery                                  69
  3. Echoes of the Kishinev Tragedy                                   76
  4. Doctor Herzl's Visit to Russia                                   82

  XXXIV. CONTINUED POGROMS AND THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR.

  1. The Pogrom at Homel and the Jewish Self-Defence                  87
  2. The Kishinev Massacre at the Bar of Russian Justice              90
  3. The Jews in the Russo-Japanese War                               94
  4. The "Political Spring"                                           97
  5. The Homel Pogrom Before the Russian Courts                      101

  XXXV. THE REVOLUTION OF 1905 AND THE FIGHT FOR EMANCIPATION.

  1. The Jews in the Revolutionary Movement                          105
  2. The Struggle for Equal Rights                                   108
  3. The "Black Hundred" and the "Patriotic" Pogroms                 113
  4. The Jewish Franchise                                            121

  XXXVI. THE COUNTER-REVOLUTION AND THE OCTOBER MASSACRES.

  1. The Fiendish Designs of the "Black Hundred"                     124
  2. The Russian St. Bartholomew Night                               127
  3. The Undaunted Struggle for Equal Rights                         131
  4. The Jewish Question Before the First Duma                       135
  5. The Spread of Anarchy and the Second Duma                       139

  XXXVII. EXTERNAL OPPRESSION AND INTERNAL CONSOLIDATION.

  1. The New Alignments Within Russian Jewry                         143
  2. The Triumph of the "Black Hundred"                              149
  3. The Third, or Black, Duma                                       153
  4. New Jewish Disabilities                                         156
  5. The Spiritual Revival of Russian Jewry                          160

  RUSSIAN JEWRY SINCE 1911                                           164

  BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                       171

  INDEX                                                              205



CHAPTER XXXI

THE ACCESSION OF NICHOLAS II.


1. CONTINUED POLICY OF OPPRESSION

In the course of the nineteenth century every change of throne in
Russia was accompanied by a change of policy. Each new reign formed, at
least in its beginning, a contrast to the one which had preceded it.
The reigns of Alexander I. and Alexander II. marked a departure in the
direction of liberalism; those of Nicholas I. and Alexander III. were
a return to the ideas of reaction. In accordance with this historic
schedule, Alexander III. should have been followed by a sovereign of
liberal tendencies. But in this case the optimistic expectations with
which the new ruler was welcomed both by his Russian and his Jewish
subjects were doomed to disappointment. The reign of Nicholas II.
proved the most gloomy and most reactionary of all. A man of limited
intelligence, he attempted to play the rôle of an unlimited autocrat,
fighting in blind rage against the cause of liberty.

This reactionary tendency came to light in the very beginning of the
new reign. During the first few months after the accession of Nicholas
II. to the throne--between November, 1894, and January, 1895--the
liberal Zemstvo assemblies of nine governments,[1] in presenting
addresses of loyalty to the new Tzar, were bold enough to voice the
hope that he would eventually invite the representatives of these
autonomous institutions to participate in the legislative acts of the
Government. This first timid request for constitutional rights met with
a harsh and clumsy rebuff. In his reply to the deputation representing
the nobility, the Zemstvos, and the municipalities, which appeared in
the Winter Palace on January 17, 1895, to convey to him the greetings
of the Russian people, the Tzar made the following pronouncement:

    In several Zemstvo assemblies there have been heard lately the
    voices of men carried away by preposterous delusions concerning
    the participation of the representatives of the Zemstvos in
    the affairs of the inner administration. Let everybody know
    that I shall guard the principle of autocracy as firmly and
    uncompromisingly as it was guarded by my never-to-be-forgotten
    deceased parent.

This veiled threat was enough to intimidate the faint-hearted
constitutionalists. It was universally felt that the autocratic régime
was still firmly entrenched and that the old constitution of "enforced
safety"[2]--this charter of privileges bestowed upon the police to the
disadvantage of the people--was still unshaken. The hope of seeing
Russia transformed from a state based upon brute force into a body
politic resting upon law and order was dashed to the ground.

The Jews, too, were quick to realize that the war which had been waged
against them by Alexander III. for fourteen long years was far from
being at an end. True, the addresses of welcome presented in 1895 by
the Jewish communities of Russia to the young Tzar on the occasion of
his marriage elicited an official expression of thanks, which was not
marred by any rebuke for harboring "preposterous delusions." But this
was purely for the reason that these addresses were not tainted by
any allusions to the hopes for emancipation entertained by the Jews.
There was nothing, indeed, which might have warranted such hopes. The
same dignitaries who, under Alexander III., had stood forth as the
champions of savage anti-Semitic policies, remained at the helm of
Russian affairs: Pobyedonostzev, the head of the Holy Synod, Durnovo,
the Minister of the Interior--towards the end of 1895 he made room
for Goremykin, who was not a whit less reactionary--and Witte, the
double-faced Minister of Finance, who was anxious at that time to fall
in line with the reactionary influences then in vogue. The thoughts
which occupied Pobyedonostzev's mind at the beginning of the new reign
may be gauged from the report submitted by him to the Tzar in 1895,
concerning the state of affairs in the Greek-Orthodox Church. The
"Grand Inquisitor" was deeply worried by the alleged fact that the Jews
were exercising a dangerous influence over the religious life of their
Christian domestics:

    The minors, after living among Jews for several years, prove
    entirely forgetful of the Greek-Orthodox faith. But even the
    beliefs of the adults are being undermined. The priests who
    listen to the confessions of the domestics employed in Jewish
    homes are stricken with horror on learning of the abominable
    blasphemies uttered by the Jews against Christianity, the
    Savior, and the Holy Virgin, which, through the domestics, are
    likely to gain currency among the people.

These charges, which might have been bodily quoted from the
sinister writings of the mediæval guardians of the Church, were
intended as a means of preparing the young sovereign for a proper
understanding of the Jewish problem. They were brought forward by
the procurator-in-chief of the Holy Synod, the same ecclesiastical
functionary who inflicted severe persecutions on the Russian
dissidents and soon afterwards forced the Dukhobortzy, an Evangelistic
sect, to leave their native land and to seek refuge in Canada. Having
failed to realize his great ambition--to clear Russia of its Jewish
population, with the help of Baron Hirsch's millions[3]--Pobyedonostzev
resumed his professional duties, which were those of a procurator[4]
of Jewry on behalf of the Holy Synod, the _sanctum officium_ of the
militant Greek-Orthodox Church.

Not content with brandishing his rusty ecclesiastical sword,
Pobyedonostzev resorted to secular weapons in his fight against the
hated tribe. When, in 1898, the Council of the Jewish Colonization
Association in Paris sent a delegation to St. Petersburg to apply to
the Government for permission to settle Russian Jews as agricultural
farmers in Russia itself, Pobyedonostzev replied: "Nos cadres ne
sont pas prêts pour vous recevoir,"[5] and he went out of his way to
explain to the delegates that the Jews were a very clever people,
intellectually and culturally superior to the Russians, and, therefore,
dangerous to them: "The Jews are displacing us, and this does not suit
us." When questioned as to the future of Russian Jewry under the system
of uninterrupted persecutions, Pobyedonostzev on one occasion made the
following candid statement: "One-third will die out, one-third will
leave the country, and one-third will be completely dissolved in the
surrounding population."

Such being the attitude towards the Jewish problem of the ruling
spheres of Russia, any improvement in the situation of Russian Jewry
was manifestly out of the question. Even where such an improvement
might have been found to tally with the anti-Semitic policies of the
Government, it was ruled out as soon as it bade fair to benefit the
Jews. Thus, when in 1895, the governor of Vilna, in his "most humble
report" to the Tzar, advocated the desirability of abrogating the Pale
of Settlement for the purpose "of weakening the detrimental influence
of Jewry," since the latter constituted a majority of the population in
the cities of the Western region,[6] Nicholas II. penned the following
resolution:[7] "I am far from sharing this view of the governor." The
leaders of Russian Jewry knew full well that the wind which was blowing
from the heights of the Russian throne was unfavorable to them, and
their initial hopefulness gave way speedily to a feeling of depression.
A memorandum drafted at that time by prominent Jews of St. Petersburg,
with the intention of submitting it to one of the highest functionaries
at the Russian court, mirrors this pessimistic frame of mind:

    The Russian Jews are deprived of that powerful lever for
    intellectual and moral advancement which is designated as the
    hope for a better future. They are fully aware of the fact that
    the highest authority in the land, influenced by the distorted
    information concerning the Jews, which is systematically
    presented to it by officials acting from avaricious or other
    selfish motives, is exceedingly unfavorable to the Jews. They
    must resign themselves to the fact that there is actually
    no possibility of directing the attention of the Tzar and
    Sovereign to the true state of affairs, and that even those
    dignitaries who themselves act justly and tolerantly towards
    the Jews are afraid of putting in a good word for them for fear
    of being charged with favoritism towards them.


2. THE MARTYRDOM OF THE MOSCOW COMMUNITY

The attitude which officials of high rank were prone to adopt towards
the Jews was luridly illustrated at that time in Moscow. It will be
remembered that the small Jewish colony which had been left in the
second Russian capital after the cruel expulsions of 1891 was barred
from holding religious services in its large synagogue which had
been closed by order of Alexander III.[8] In view of the forthcoming
festivities in honor of the coronation of Nicholas II., which were
to be held in Moscow in the spring of 1896, the representatives of
the Jewish community of the second Russian capital petitioned the
governor-general of Moscow, Grand Duke Sergius Alexandrovitch, to
secure for them the Tzar's permission to have their synagogue open at
least during the coronation days, "as a special act of grace, in order
that the Jews of Moscow may be given a chance to celebrate the joyful
event with due solemnity." But the grand duke, maddened by Jew-hatred,
notified the petitioners through the Chief of Police that their
petition was "an insolent violation of the imperial will" and could not
be considered.

The martyrdom of the Moscow community, the heritage of the past reign,
stood out like a black stain even upon the gloomy background of the new
era. An imperial ukase issued in 1892 had decreed that the structure
of the sealed-up Moscow synagogue should be sold to the highest
bidder unless it was converted into a charitable institution.[9]
The community was naturally anxious to prevent the desecration of
its sanctuary and to preserve the edifice for better days to come.
With this end in view it placed in the synagogue building the trade
school for Jewish children which had been established in memory of
Alexander II. The anti-Semitic authorities of Moscow scented in this
step a wicked design. The governor-general got into communication with
the Ministers of the Interior and of Public Instruction, and, as a
result, on May 27, 1896, the executive board of the Moscow community
received the following order: To stop the admission of pupils to the
trade school and to close the school altogether after the completion
of the prescribed course of studies by the present contingent of
students. Thereupon the Jews of Moscow made another attempt to save
their synagogue by transferring hither their school and asylum for
poor and orphaned children, the so-called Talmud Torah. This attempt,
too, was frustrated by the Muscovite Hamans. On October 28, 1897,
the governor-general announced that, after consultation with the
Minister of the Interior, the decision had been reached to close
the asylum, which sheltered about one hundred poor children, on the
fanciful ground that these children might just as well receive their
instruction in Russian educational establishments. The underlying
motive of the new order was unmistakably revealed in its latter part:
Unless in the course of two months the building of the synagogue will
be reconstructed and so altered as to be fitted for a hospital or a
similar charitable institution, it will be sold at public auction.

Once more the Jewish community endeavored to save its sanctuary, which
its enemies had made up their minds to destroy. The synagogue structure
was rebuilt to meet the purposes of a hospital and a shelter. But the
commission appointed by the governor-general to examine the alterations
found that they were not sufficiently extensive and therefore
suggested that the interior of the synagogue should be entirely
remodelled so as to exclude the possibility of its ever being used for
devotional purposes. The struggle centering around the alterations
dragged on for another eight years--until the revolution of 1905 and
the assassination of the ferocious governor-general. It was then that
the Jews finally succeeded in releasing their sanctuary from the death
sentence which had been passed upon it.

The motive which animated the Muscovite Jew-haters was perfectly
evident: it was their fervent desire to wipe out the last remnants of
the local Jewish community by subjecting the Jews to religious and
administrative persecutions and thereby compelling them to flee from
the center of Greek Orthodoxy. The growth of the Jewish settlement at
Moscow was checked in ruthless fashion. The Jewish artisans had been
expelled as far back as 1891, but the Jewish merchants who purchased
their right of residence in the second Russian capital at the annual
cost of one thousand rubles--the tax levied on first guild members--had
been allowed to remain. Moreover, as the largest industrial center of
Russia, Moscow naturally attracted a goodly number of Jewish merchants
who came there temporarily on business. These "newcomers" were handled
more severely than are alien enemies in war-time. Police detectives
prowled about on the streets and at the railroad stations, seizing
passers-by who happened to exhibit a "Semitic" countenance, and
dragging them to the police stations, "with a view to the examination
of their right of residence in Moscow." The unfortunate Jews, whose
documents did not comply with all the technicalities of the law,
were expelled at once. The _Moscow Police News_ carried a regular
advertisement offering a reward for the capture of "rightless" Jews. In
October, 1897, the Moscow Chief of Police announced a premium of equal
amount for the capture of one Jew or of two burglars.[10]

Finally, the Russian Government took a most effective step towards
preventing the increase of the Jewish population of Moscow. On January
22, 1899, an imperial ukase was issued forthwith prohibiting Jewish
merchants of the first guild from settling in Moscow, unless they shall
have obtained special permission from the Minister of Finance and
from the governor-general of Moscow, it being beforehand agreed that
no such permission should be granted. The same ukase enacted a number
of offensive discriminations against the Jewish merchants already
settled in Moscow by depriving them of their vote in the commercial
associations, and by other similar devices. On a subsequent occasion
the admission was candidly made that all these measures were prompted
by the desire "to rid as far as possible the government of Moscow of
the Jews already settled there on a legal basis."


3. RESTRICTIONS IN THE RIGHT OF RESIDENCE

Whereas the régime of Grand Duke Sergius in Moscow represented an acute
stage of Judæophobia, manifesting itself in cruelties of an exceptional
character, the central Government in St. Petersburg exhibited the
same disease in a more "normal" form. Here, the oppression of the
Jews was pursued systematically and quietly, and was carried on as
one of the most important functions of the public administration.
The sacrosanct institution of the Pale of Settlement and the other
mainstays of political anti-Semitism were zealously guarded by the
faithful watchdogs of Russian reaction--the various Ministers of the
Interior who followed one another between the years 1895 and 1904:
Durnovo (until the autumn of 1895), Goremykin (1896-1899), Sipyaghin
(1899-1902), and Plehve (1902-1904). True, during the régime of the
last two Ministers the anti-Semitic temperature rose above normal, but
it was only due to the fact that the increased revolutionary propaganda
of those days had generally stimulated the powers of reaction to
a greater display of energy. Quite aside from these exceptional
conditions, the rigid consistency in enforcing the restrictive laws was
sufficient to account for many tragedies in the life of the Jews, while
the despotism of the provincial authorities aggravated the situation
still further and turned the tragedies into catastrophes.

As far as the Pale of Settlement is concerned, the Government continued
its old-time policy of cooping up the Jews within the area of the
cities and towns by shielding the villages carefully against the
influx of Jews. Since the promulgation of the "Temporary Rules" in
1882, the authorities of St. Petersburg had been aiming at the gradual
elimination of those rural Jewish "old timers" who had been allowed
under those rules to remain in the villages.[11] They had been looking
forward to the time when the eyes of the Russian moujik would no
more be offended by the sight of a Jew. But this pious wish did not
materialize quickly enough. Several governors put forth the simple
proposition to expel all Jews from the villages, not excluding those
who had been settled there for a long time. This step, however, was
deemed too radical. The Minister of Finance, Witte, wished to solve the
problem in a different way. He sought to persuade the Tzar that the
introduction of the state liquor monopoly would automatically have the
effect of forcing the Jews to leave the country-side, inasmuch as the
liquor traffic formed the principal occupation of the village Jews.

Witte's conjecture was to a certain degree borne out by the facts.
By the end of the nineties the Jewish country population of Russia
had been considerably reduced. Nevertheless there was no relief in
sight. For the lust of the administration had grown in proportion.
The governors and the other gubernatorial authorities resorted to
all kinds of cunning devices to force the Jews out of the villages
or out of the railroad stations which were situated outside the town
limits. The Christian land-owners frequently complained about these
deportations, and petitioned the governors to permit the Jewish grain
merchants, who were engaged in buying and shipping the grain from
the manorial store-houses, to reside at the railroad stations. The
Senate was compelled over and over again to pass upon the appeals
of illegally deported Jews and to enter into an examination of all
kinds of hair-splitting questions involved in the manipulation of
the anti-Jewish laws by the lower courts, whether, for instance, an
old-time Jewish villager who returns to his home after a brief absence
is to be regarded as a new settler who has no right to live in the
country, or whether a Jew who lives on an estate which happens to be
situated in two contiguous villages is allowed to remove from the one
to the other. As a rule the authorities decided these questions against
the Jews, though the most revolting decisions of this kind were later
reversed by the Senate.

In connection with the prohibition of residence outside the cities, a
new problem had arisen in Jewish life--the "summer resort question."
The authorities frequently prohibited Jewish families from spending the
summer in the outskirts of the cities if a particular resort or cottage
was found to be situated outside the city line. Thousands of Jewish
families were thus deprived of an opportunity to rest in God's free
nature during the summer months, and to breathe the fresh air of the
fields and forests, for no other reason than that they were Jews--a new
variety of territorially affixed city serfs.

The law was just as merciless in the case of Jews afflicted with
disease. The watering-places situated outside the towns were barred
to Jewish sufferers who wished to take a cure there. The Crimean
watering-place Yalta, in the neighborhood of the imperial summer
resort Livadia, was the object of particular vigilance, having been
barred to the Jews by order of the dying Alexander III.[12] The Jewish
consumptives who had managed to obtain "illegal" access to this spa
were pitilessly expelled. The following incident, which was reported at
that time in the Russian press, may serve as an illustration of this
ruthless policy:

    The wife of a [Jewish] physician had come to Yalta to improve
    her shattered health. While she was suffering from severe
    bloodspitting, a policeman invaded the bedroom of the sick
    woman, insisting on her giving a written pledge to leave the
    place within twenty-four hours. The patient was terribly
    frightened. On the following day the deportation was stopped,
    in consequence of the testimony of her physician that the
    slightest motion was fraught with danger to the invalid. But
    the fright and uncertainty had intensified the cough; the young
    woman became worse, and soon afterwards died.

As it happened, the action of the police was subsequently found to be
entirely unwarranted; for, as the wife of a physician, this victim of
bureaucratic heartlessness was, even according to the letter of the
law, entitled to the right of residence in Yalta.

A similar case was that of a sick Jewish student who had been sent by
his physicians to Yalta to cure his lungs. He was expelled in the dead
of winter and deported under a police convoy, together with a batch of
prisoners, to Sevastopol, notwithstanding the fact that he was in a
feverish condition. The correspondent of a local paper in Sevastopol
reported that "along the entire road from the harbor to the prison,
which was traversed by the batch, passers-by would stop in their walk,
staggered by the extraordinary spectacle." The sufferer appealed to the
Senate, but the latter found that the orders of the police "contained
nothing contrary to the law." The highest tribunal of the empire went
with equanimity on record that a Jewish student was liable to the
penalty of being arrested and marched under a police escort, together
with criminal offenders, for an attempt to heal his lungs in the warm
southern climate.

But no place in the empire could vie as regards hostility to the
Jews with the city of Kiev--this inferno of Russian Israel. Though
surrounded on all sides by a string of towns and townlets with a dense
Jewish population, the southwestern metropolis was guarded by a host
of police watchdogs against the invasion of "aliens." Apart from the
"privileged" Jews who formed part of the permanent population, the
police were forced to admit into the city Jewish visitors who came to
Kiev for a few days to attend to their affairs. Yet, haunted by the
fear lest these visitors might stay there too long, the police arranged
_oblavas_, or raids, to hunt them down like stray dogs. About once a
week, during the night, the police would raid certain hostelries in
which the Jews were wont to stop, put those that were caught under
arrest, and then expel them from the confines of the city. This
additional heavy "night work" called for a larger police staff, and to
meet this increased expenditure, an annual sum of 15,000 rubles was
appropriated--from the proceeds of the Jewish meat tax. This revenue,
collected from the Jews for the purpose of maintaining the charitable
and educational institutions of the Jewish communities, was now used
to pay the police agents to enable them to hunt down these Jews and
expel them in merciless fashion. To put it more plainly, the convict,
after being sentenced to be hanged, was forced to buy the rope. The
methods of the Russian inquisition gradually reached the top notch of
efficiency. Even the "_Kievlanin_" ("The Kievian"), the anti-Semitic
official organ of Kiev, was bound to confess on one occasion that "in
the course of the month of July (of the year 1901) things have taken
place in Kiev which are hardly conceivable."

As far as the general disabilities are concerned, the entire area of
the Russian empire outside the Pale of Settlement, though open to
foreigners of all nationalities, remained hermetically closed to the
Jewish citizens of Russia, and the borders of that prohibited area were
guarded even more rigorously than they had been during the previous
reign. In the consistent enforcement of this principle the Government
did not shrink from the most revolting extremes. A law passed in
1896 interdicted Jewish soldiers from spending outside the Pale of
Settlement even the brief leave of absence which they were granted
during their term of military service. A Jewish soldier serving in a
regiment which was stationed, let us say, in St. Petersburg, Moscow,
or even in far-off Siberia, was forced, under this law, to travel
hundreds and even thousands of miles to the Pale of Settlement to spend
his month of furlough there, being denied the right to remain in the
city in which he was discharging his military duty, and it made no
difference even if the furlough was granted to him for the purpose of
recuperating his health.

In many places of the empire, the whimsicality of the local authorities
in construing the law of residence was of a nature to suggest that
they had no other end in view except that of making sport of the Jews.
The administration of Siberia, for instance, invented the following
regulation: a Jewish merchant or artisan who is registered in one of
the Siberian cities shall have the right only to live in the particular
city of his registration, and in no other. Since very many Jews
resided outside the localities of their accidental registration, a
transmigration of Siberian Jewry was the result. The Jews registered,
_e. g._, in Tomsk, though they might have lived from the day of their
birth in Irkutsk, were deported in batches to Tomsk, meeting on the way
parties of exiled Jews from Tomsk who had the misfortune of having
their names entered upon the records of Irkutsk. Human beings were
shuffled like a pack of cards. This revolting practice of the Siberian
authorities, which had begun at the end of the preceding reign, was
sustained by the Senate in a decision handed down in 1897.


4. THE ECONOMIC COLLAPSE OF RUSSIAN JEWRY

The result of all these persecutions was the complete economic
collapse of Russian Jewry. Speaking generally, the economic structure
of the Russian Jews experienced violent upheavals during the first
years of Nicholas II.'s reign. The range of Jewish economic endeavor,
circumscribed though it was, was narrowed more and more. In 1894, the
law placing the liquor trade under Government control was put into
effect by Witte, the Minister of Finance. Catering to the prejudices of
the ruling spheres of Russia, Witte had already endeavored to convince
Alexander III. that the liquor state monopoly would have the effect
of completely undermining "Jewish exploitation," the latter being
primarily bound up with the sale of liquor in the towns and villages.
In view of this, the monopoly was introduced with particular zeal
in the western governments, where a little later, in the course of
1896-1898, during the reign of Nicholas II., all private pot-houses
were replaced by official liquor stores, the so-called "imperial
bar-rooms." In consequence of this reform, tens of thousands of Jewish
families who had derived their livelihood either directly from the
liquor trade, or indirectly from occupations connected with it, such
as the keeping of inns and hostelries, were deprived of their means of
subsistence. It goes without saying that, as far as the moral aspect
of the problem was concerned, the best elements of Russian Jewry
welcomed this reform, which bade fair to wipe out an ugly stain on the
escutcheon of the Jewish people--the liquor traffic bequeathed to the
Jews by ancient Poland. Known as the most sober people on earth, the
Jews had been placed in the tragic position that thousands of them, in
their search for a piece of bread, were forced to serve as a medium for
promoting the pernicious Russian drunkenness. The memory of the days
when the Jewish saloon was the breeding-place of pogroms, in which the
Russian peasants and burghers filled themselves with Jewish alcohol to
fortify themselves in their infamous work of demolishing the homes of
the Jews, was still fresh in their minds. Cheerfully would the Jewish
people have yielded its monopoly of the liquor trade to the Russian
bar-room keepers and to the Russian Government who seemed genuinely
attracted toward it, had it only been allowed to pursue other methods
of earning a livelihood. But in closing the avenue of the liquor
traffic to two hundred thousand Jews, the Government did not even think
of removing the special restrictions which barred their way to other
lines of endeavor. Having been robbed of the scanty livelihood they
derived from their country inns, thousands of rural victims of the
state monopoly flocked into the cities, only to clash with a host of
urban victims of the same reform who had also been deprived of their
means of sustenance. The growth of the proletariat within the Pale
of Settlement, both in business and in the trades, assumed appalling
proportions. The observers of economic life in the Pale, such as the
well-known Russian economist Subbotin and others, called attention to
the frightful increase of pauperism in that region. Between 1894 and
1898 the number of Jewish families in need of assistance increased
twenty-seven per cent. as compared with former years. In 1897, the
number of Jews without definite occupations amounted in certain cities
to fifty per cent. and more. The number of destitute Jews applying
for help before the Passover festival reached unheard of proportions,
amounting in Odessa, Vilna, Minsk, Kovno, and other cities to forty
and even fifty per cent. of the total Jewish population. The crop
failures of 1899 and 1900 in the south of Russia resulted in a terrible
famine among the impecunious Jewish masses. Whereas the peasants who
suffered from the same calamity received financial assistance from the
Government, the Jews had to resort to self-help, to the collection
of funds throughout the empire to which only here and there liberal
Christians added their mites.

Many of these Jewish proletarians were willing to take up agriculture,
but the "Temporary Rules" of 1882 blocked their way to the
country-side, and made it impossible for them to buy or even lease
a piece of land. Prominent Jews of St. Petersburg, such as Baron
Günzburg and others, petitioned the Government to allow the Jews to
purchase small parcels of land for personal use, but, after long
deliberations, their petition was rejected. Thus, at the end of the
nineteenth century, the ruling spheres of the Russian empire proved
more anti-Semitic than at the beginning of the same century, when the
Government of Alexander I. and even that of Nicholas I. had endeavored
to promote agriculture among the Jews and had established the Jewish
agricultural colonies in the south of Russia.[13] The mania of
oppression went so far as to prohibit the Jews from buying or leasing
parcels of land which were part of a city, but happened to be situated
outside the city line. A rich Jew of Minsk, by the name of Pollak,
petitioned, in 1897, the local Town Council to sell him a piece of
suburban property for the establishment of a Jewish agricultural farm,
but his petition was refused. This refusal was thoroughly consistent.
For the fact that the Jews were forbidden to own land made the training
of Jews in the art of agriculture entirely superfluous. It may be added
that this prohibition of land ownership was upheld by the Government
even in the case of the Jewish students who had completed their course
in the school of the Jewish Agricultural Farm near Odessa.

Similar methods were employed to check the development of arts and
crafts, which were widely represented among the Jews, but stood on a
very low technical level. Even the efforts to organize mutual help
among the working classes were blocked by the Government in all kinds
of ways. The well-known Jewish millionaire, Brodski, of Kiev, wishing
to assist the toiling masses without distinction of creed, offered to
open a trade bank in that city and to contribute towards that purpose
the sum of 120,000 rubles. When, in 1895, he submitted the constitution
of the proposed bank to the local authorities for their approval, he
was required to insert a clause to the effect that the directors and
the chairman of the bank council should always be Christians and that
the council itself should not include more than one Jewish member.
To this insolent demand Brodski made the only fitting retort: "Being
myself a Jew, I cannot possibly agree that the constitution of an
establishment which is to be founded with the money contributed by me
and which is to bear my name shall contain restrictions affecting my
coreligionists." He naturally withdrew his offer, and Kiev was deprived
of a trade bank. The fact that the failure of the project also affected
the Christian artisans did not disturb the authorities in the least.
It was enough of a compensation that the Jews were made to suffer not
only materially, but also morally, and the purpose of the highly-placed
Jew-baiters was accomplished.


5. PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL RESTRICTIONS

In the domain of those liberal professions to which the Jewish
intellectuals, being barred from entering the civil service, were
particularly attracted, the law went to almost any length in its
endeavor to keep them closed to the Jews. The legal career had been
blocked to them ever since the passage of the law of 1889, which made
the admission of a properly qualified Jew to the bar dependent upon
the granting of a special permission by the Minister of Justice. In
the course of a whole decade, the Minister found it possible to grant
this permission only to one Jew, who, it may be added, had sat on the
bench for twenty-five years--there were two or three such "relics,"
dating back to the liberal era of Alexander II. In consequence of
this provision, the proportion of Jews at the bar, which prior to the
enactment of the restriction had reached from fourteen to twenty-two
per cent, was reduced to nine per cent. In 1897, a committee appointed
by the Government was considering the proposal to place the disability
on the statute books and to establish a ten per cent norm for Jewish
lawyers. The reasons advanced by the committee for the proposed
restriction were of the distinctly mediæval variety:

    The conduct of a lawyer is determined by the impulses of his
    will, of his conscience,--in other words, that sphere of his
    inner life which finds its manifestation in religion. Now the
    admission of Jews constitutes a menace, resulting from views
    peculiar to the Jewish race, which are contrary to Christian
    morality.

Subsequently, the champions of "Christian morality" on the staff of the
Ministry of Justice bethought themselves that it might even be better
and nobler to stop the admission of Jews to the bar altogether, and
the proposal regarding the percentage norm was tabled. Hundreds upon
hundreds of young Jews who had completed their legal education at the
universities, or who had acted as assistants to sworn attorneys, saw
once more their hopes for the legitimate pursuit of their profession
vanish into the air.

Jewish physicians were restricted to private practice and robbed
of their right to occupy a Government or public position. Even the
autonomous Zemstvo institutions adopted more and more the practice
of refusing to appoint Jews, and very frequently the printed
advertisements of the Zemstvos offering medical positions contained the
stipulation _kromye yevreyev_ ("except the Jews").

The scholastic education of the Jewish children was throttled in the
same pitiless manner as theretofore. The disgraceful school norm
which had been introduced in 1887[14] performed with ever-increasing
relentlessness its task of dooming to spiritual death the Jewish youths
who were knocking at the doors of the gymnazia and universities. In
the beginning of 1898, the post of Minister of Public Instruction,
which had been occupied by Dyelanov, was entrusted to Professor
Bogolepov of Moscow. While Dyelanov had been occasionally inclined
to soften the rigor of the school norm--it was commonly rumored that
this good-natured dignitary could not bear to see a woman cry, and the
tearful entreaties of the mothers of the rejected scholars made him
sanction the admission of a certain number of Jewish children over and
above the established percentage norm--his successor Bogolepov, an
academic teacher who had become a gendarme of education, was impervious
to any sentiment of pity. In the course of the three years of his
administration, he not only refused to admit the slightest departure
from the established norm, but attempted to curtail it still further.
Thus, orders were issued to calculate the percentage norm of the Jewish
applicants for admission to the universities not in its relation to the
total number of the annual admissions, but separately for each faculty
(1898-1899). This provision was designed to limit the number of Jewish
students who flocked to the medical and legal faculties, since, in
view of the fact that the Jews were entirely barred from appointments
in the general educational institutions, the other faculties did
not offer them even a sporting chance of earning a livelihood. The
ruthlessness displayed by the Ministry of Public Instruction towards
the Jewish youth was officially justified on the ground that certain
elements among them were affiliated with the revolutionary movement
which, just at that time, had assumed particular intensity in the
Russian student body. This sentiment was openly voiced in a circular
of the Ministry, issued on May 26, 1901, which makes the following
statement: "The disorders which took place at the end of the nineties
in the institutions of higher learning testified to the fact that the
instigators of these disorders were, to a large extent, persons of
non-Russian extraction."

Bogolepov himself, the reactionary Minister of enlightenment, fell
a victim of this agitation among the student body. He died from the
bullet of a Terrorist who happened to be of unadulterated Russian
extraction. His successor, General Vannovski (1901-1902), though
endeavoring to assuage the university disorders by a policy of "kindly
solicitude," maintained the former uncompromising attitude as far as
the Jews were concerned. In view of the fact that, in spite of all
restrictions, the ratio of Jewish students at all universities actually
exceeded the norm prescribed by law, the new Minister decreed that
the percentage of Jewish admissions be temporarily curtailed in the
following proportion: Two per cent for the capitals (instead of the
former three per cent), three per cent for the universities outside of
the Pale of Settlement (instead of five per cent), and seven per cent
for the Pale of Settlement (instead of ten per cent).

Even the restrictions placed upon the admission of the Jews to the
gymnazia were intensified. In 1901, Jewish children who had graduated
from a pro-gymnazium[15] were forbidden to continue their education
in the advanced classes of a gymnazium unless there was a free Jewish
vacancy within the percentage norm--a truly miraculous contingency.
The same policy was extended to the commercial schools established
with funds which were provided by the merchant class and the bulk
of which came from Jews. In the commercial schools maintained by
the commercial associations Jewish children were admitted only in
proportion to the contributions of the Jewish merchants towards the
upkeep of the particular school. In private commercial schools,
however, percentages of all kinds, varying from ten to fifty per cent,
were fixed in the case of Jewish pupils. This provision had the effect
that Jewish parents were vitally interested in securing the entrance
of as many Christian children as possible in order to increase thereby
the number of Jewish vacancies. Occasionally, a Jewish father, in the
hope of creating a vacancy for his son, would induce a Christian to
send his boy to a commercial school--though the latter, as a rule,
offered little attraction for the Christian population--by undertaking
to defray all expenses connected with his education. Yet many Jewish
children, though enduring all these humiliations, found themselves
outside the doors of the intermediate Russian schools.

It is worthy of note that in this attempt at the spiritual
extermination of the Jewish children by barring them from intermediate
educational institutions the Russian law followed strictly the ancient
rule of the Pharaohs: "If it be a son, then ye shall kill him; but if
it be a daughter, then she shall live." The Government schools for
girls were opened to the Jewish population without any restriction, and
the influx of Jewesses to these gymnazia was only checked unofficially
by the anti-Semitic authorities of this or that institution, thereby
turning the tide of applicants in the direction of private girls'
schools. But as far as the higher schools were concerned, Jewish girls
were subjected to the same restrictions as the boys. The Higher Courses
for Women and the Pedagogic Courses in St. Petersburg restricted the
admission of Jewesses to five per cent. The constitution of the Medical
Institute for Women, founded in 1895, provided at first for the entire
exclusion of Jewesses. But in 1897, the doors of this institution were
opened to the hated tribe--just enough to admit them to the extent of
three per cent.

It was scarcely to be expected that the Jewish youths who had been
locked out of the Russian school should entertain particularly friendly
sentiments towards a régime which wasted their lives, humiliated their
dignity, and sullied their souls. The Jewish lad, driven from the
doors of the gymnazia, became an embittered "extern," who was forced
to study at home and from year to year present himself for examination
before the school authorities. An immense host of young men and women
who found their way blocked to the higher educational institutions
in Russia went abroad, flocking to foreign universities and higher
professional schools, where they learned to estimate at its full
value a régime which in their own country denied them the advantages
granted to them outside of it. A large number of these college youths
returned home permeated with revolutionary ideas--living witnesses to
the sagacity of a Government which saw its reason for existence in the
suppression of all revolutionary strivings.


6. ANTI-SEMITIC PROPAGANDA AND POGROMS

The reactionary Russian press, encouraged and stimulated by the
official Jew-baiters, engaged in an increasingly ferocious campaign
against the Jews. The Russian censorship, known all over for its
merciless cruelty, which was throttling the printed word and trembling
at the criminal thought of "inciting hatred toward the Government," yet
granted untrammeled freedom to those who propagated hatred to Judaism,
and thereby committed the equally criminal offence of "inciting one
part of the population against the other." The _Novoye Vremya_, the
most wide-spread semi-official press organ, and its satellites in the
provincial capitals were permitted to do what they pleased. They were
free to slander the Jewish religion, the Jewish people, and the Jewish
communities. When the famous Dreyfus affair had started in France, the
_Novoye Vremya_, the oracle of Russia's ruling spheres, arrayed itself
on the side of the Jew-baiters from among the French general staff, and
launched a savage campaign of slander against the Jews of the entire
globe. Many an article published in the anti-Semitic press was scarcely
distinguishable from the proclamations calling upon the mob to massacre
the Jews.

By far the most effective propaganda on behalf of pogroms was carried
on, sometimes without a conscious realization of the consequences,
by the Government itself: by persisting in its anti-Jewish policy.
Observing this uninterrupted maltreatment of the Jews on the part of
the Russian legislation and administration, which treated the Jews
as if they were criminals, witnessing the expulsions inflicted upon
the "illegally residing" Jews and the raids engineered against them,
watching the constant mockery at the Jewish children who were driven
from the doors of the educational institutions, and seeing the endless
multitude of other humiliating disabilities, the unenlightened Russian
populace necessarily gained the conviction that the extermination of
Jewry was a noble and patriotic duty. Coupled with the usual economic
and national conflicts, this trend of mind could not but lead to acts
of violence.

At the end of the nineties the Russian horizon was darkened again by
the ominous shadow of the beginning of the eighties: pogroms, at first
sporadic and within circumscribed limits, broke out again in various
parts of the Pale. On February 18 and 19, 1897, an anti-Jewish riot
took place in Shpola, a town in the government of Kiev. The following
officially inspired account of the excesses, in which the facts were
undoubtedly toned down, appeared in the _Novoye Vremya_:

    At three o'clock in the afternoon an immense crowd of peasants
    rushed into our town, and wrecked completely the stores, homes,
    and warehouses belonging exclusively to the Jews. A large
    number of rich business places and small stores, as well as
    hundreds of houses, were demolished by the crowd, which acted,
    one might say, with elemental passion, dooming to destruction
    everything that fell into its hands. The town of Shpola, which
    is celebrated for its flourishing trade and its comparative
    prosperity, now presents the picture of a city which has been
    ravaged by a hostile army. Lines of old women and children may
    be seen moving [into the town] to carry home with them the
    property of the "Zhyds." Of essential importance is the fact
    that these disorders were undoubtedly prearranged. The local
    Jews knew of the impending disaster four days before it took
    place; they spoke about it to the local police chief, but the
    latter assured them that "nothing is going to happen."

Two months later, on April 16 and 17, the Christian inhabitants of
the town of Kantakuzenka, in the government of Kherson, indulged in a
similar "amusement" at the expense of the Jews. To quote the words of a
semi-official report:

    A cruel pogrom has taken place. Almost the entire town has
    been destroyed by an infuriated mob. All Jewish stores were
    wrecked and the goods found there were thrown about. A part of
    the merchandise was looted by the rabble. The synagogue alone
    remained unscathed.

Here, too, it was known beforehand that a pogrom was in the course
of preparation. The Jews petitioned the authorities to avert the
catastrophe, but the local police force was found inadequate to cope
with the situation.

In both devastated towns the governors of the respective provinces
eventually appeared on the scene with detachments of troops, but in
the meantime the revolting performances were over. Many rioters were
placed under arrest and put on trial. More than sixty were sentenced
by the courts to a term in prison from eight to fourteen months. One
of the defendants, a Little-Russian peasant, who had been arrested for
having taken part in an anti-Jewish riot, voiced his amazement in these
characteristic words: "They told us we had permission to beat the Jews,
and now it appears that it is all a lie."

A pogrom on a more comprehensive scale, arranged in honor of the
Easter festival, and lasting for three days (April 19-21, 1899), was
allowed to take place in the city of Nicholayev, the South-Russian
port of entry. Bands of rioters, to the number of several thousand,
among them many newly arrived Great-Russian day laborers, and a few
"intellectual" ringleaders, fell upon Jewish stores and residences
and destroyed or looted their contents, complying faithfully with the
established pogrom ritual, while the police and Cossack forces proved
"powerless." On the third day, when the news of the freedom accorded
to the rioters and robbers at Nicholayev reached the villages in the
vicinity, a whole army of peasants, both men and women, numbering
some ten thousand, started towards the city on their wagons, with the
intention of carrying off the property of the Jews--but they were too
late; for in the meantime Cossacks and soldiers had been ordered to
stop the pogroms and disperse the rioters. The peasants were driven off
and had to return to their villages on their empty wagons. Exasperated
by their failure, the peasants vented their fury upon the Jewish
cemetery outside the city, demolishing a large number of tombstones,
and then, scattering all over the district, made an attack upon the
Jewish population in the neighboring settlements and villages. In the
Jewish agricultural colony of Nagartava all farm-houses and stores
were wrecked and looted, and the agricultural implements demolished.
The Russian peasant was unscrupulously ruining and robbing his Jewish
fellow-peasant. In the adjacent colonies, the Jews, being of a robust
physique, were able to put up an effective defence.

The only protest against this new outbreak of barbarism was voiced by
the "Son of the Fatherland" (_Syn Otyechestva_), a liberal Russian
press organ:

    When at last--questioned the paper--will that terrible relic of
    the gloomy era of the Middle Ages take an end? When will there
    be a stop to this breaking of windows, this beating of men and
    this wrecking of houses and stores?

This time the orders from St. Petersburg were explicit: the local
authorities were commanded to prevent the further spread of the pogrom
agitation. The reason for this unaccustomed attitude is not difficult
to guess. Two weeks after the Nicholayev atrocities, the first
International Hague Conference opened its sessions (May 6-18), having
been called at the initiative of the Russian emperor to discuss the
question of disarmament, and this Conference must have suggested to the
Tzar the advisability of first disarming the anti-Jewish rioters in
Russia itself. However, he failed to draw the more important conclusion
from the Conference called by him: that it was necessary to stop, or at
least to reduce, the constant arming of his own Government against the
Jews and to discard the mediæval weapons of oppression and persecution
which spelled destruction to an entire nation. This alone is enough
to expose the hollowness of the spectacle at the Hague, which had
been designed by the feeble-minded Nicholas as a sort of diplomatic
entertainment.

That the Russian authorities, when so minded, were fully capable of
grappling with the pogrom agitation was demonstrated by the rapidity
with which, on a later occasion, they suppressed the anti-Jewish
excesses in the Polish city of Chenstokhov (August 19, 1902). In this
hotbed of dismal Polish clericalism, the goal of thousands of Catholic
pilgrims, who arrive there to worship the Holy Virgin on the "Bright
Mountain," a street brawl between a Jewish tradesman and a Polish woman
grew, owing to the instigations of Catholic priests, into a monstrous
assault upon Jewish houses and stores by a crowd of fifteen thousand
Poles. Here, too, the customary shouts were heard: "Beat the Jews!
Nothing will happen to us." But the Chenstokhov rioters made a grievous
error in their calculation. The protection of the Russian authorities
did not extend to the Poles who were not considered politically
"dependable," and were known to be equally hostile to the Zhyds and
the "Moskals."[16] The excesses had started in the morning, and in
the evening they were at an end, a volley from the soldiers having
put the tremendous crowd to flight. When the case came up before the
courts, the public prosecutor pleaded for the severe punishment of the
culprits. The guilty Poles were sentenced to penal servitude and to
terms in prison, and in some cases even damages were awarded to the
Jewish victims--an extraordinarily rare occurrence in legal proceedings
of this kind.

The union of Polish anti-Semitism with Russian Judæophobia brought
again to life the old monstrous accusation against the Jews--the ritual
murder libel. A Polish servant girl in the employ of David Blondes,
a Jewish barber in Vilna, steeped, as she was, in gross superstition
and being a pliant tool in the hands of fanatical priests, ran out
one night (March, 1900) into the street, shouting that her master had
wounded her and had tried to squeeze blood from her for the Matzah. A
crowd of Christians quickly assembled, and seeing the scratches on the
neck and hands of the girl, fell upon Blondes and gave him a severe
beating. The "criminal" was thrown into prison, and the prosecuting
authorities, listening to the "voice of the people," were zealous in
their search for the threads of the crime. The anti-Semitic press
launched a well-planned campaign against the Jews in the hope of
influencing the judicial verdict. The lower court recognized the fact
of the assault, but denied the presence of any murderous intent, and,
leaving aside the possibility of a ritual motive, sentenced Blondes
to imprisonment for four months. The counsel for the defence, the
well-known lawyer Gruzenberg, and others, fearing lest this sentence
might be construed by the enemies of Judaism as a corroboration of the
ritual murder libel, appealed from the verdict of the court, and proved
victorious: a decision handed down by the Senate ordered the case to be
sent back for a second trial to the District Court of Vilna, and the
court of jurymen, after listening to the statements of authoritative
experts and the brilliant speeches of the defence, rendered a verdict
of not guilty (February 1, 1902). The prisoner was set at liberty, and
the nightmare of the "ritual murder Dreyfusiad" was dispelled for the
time being.

Even the Russian stage was made subservient to the purposes of
Jew-baiting. A converted Jew by the name of Efron-Litvin, who had
joined the anti-Semitic business firm of the _Novoye Vremya_, wrote a
libelous play under the title "The Sons of Israel," or "The Smugglers,"
in which Jews and Judaism were made the subject of the most horrible
calumnies. The play was first produced at St. Petersburg, in the
theatre controlled by Suvorin, the publisher of the _Novoye Vremya_,
and in the course of 1901-1902 it made the rounds of the provincial
stage. Everywhere, the Russian Jew-haters welcomed this talentless
production, which pictured the Jews as rogues and criminals, and
represented the Jewish religion and morality as the fountain-head
whence the supposed hatred of the Jews against the Christians derived
its origin. Naturally enough the Jews and the best elements among the
Russian _intelligenzia_ looked upon the mere staging of such a play
as an incitement to pogroms. They appealed repeatedly to the police,
calling upon them to stop the production of a play which was sure to
fan national and religious hatred. The police, however, were not guided
by the wishes of the Jews, but by those of their enemies. As a result,
in a considerable number of cities where the play was presented,
such as Smolensk, Oryol, Kishinev, Tiflis, and others, violent
demonstrations took place in the theatres. The Jewish spectators and a
part of the Russian public, particularly from among the college youth,
hissed and hooted, demanding the removal from the stage of this libel
on a whole people. The anti-Semites, in turn, shouted: "Down with the
Jews!", and started a fight with the demonstrators. The police, of
course, sided with the anti-Semites, attacking the demonstrators and
dragging them to the police stations. This agitation led to a number of
legal proceedings against the Jews who were charged with disturbing the
peace. During the trial of one of these cases (in the city of Oryol),
the counsel for the defence used the following argument:

    The play inflames the national passions, and makes the national
    traits of a people the object of ridicule and mockery,--of a
    people, moreover, which is denied equal rights and has no means
    of voicing its protest. The production of such a play should
    never have been permitted, the more so as the police were well
    acquainted with the agitated state of the public mind.

The argument of the defending attorney was scarcely convincing. For the
article of the Russian law which forbids the "incitement of one part of
the population against the other" loses its validity when the "other
part" means the Jews.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] See on the Zemstvos, vol. II, p. 173, n. 1.

[2] See vol. II, p. 246.

[3] See vol. II, p. 421.

[4] The Russian title for a prosecuting attorney.

[5] "Our frame (of society) is not ready to receive you."

[6] See on this term vol. II, p. 16, n. 1.

[7] See on the meaning of this term, vol. I, p. 25, n. 1.

[8] See vol. II, p. 423.

[9] See vol. II, p. 424.

[10] These barbarities were suspended only for a few days during that
year, while the International Congress of Medicine was holding its
sessions in Moscow. The police were ordered to stop these street raids
upon the Jews for fear of compromising Russia in the eyes of Western
Europe, since it was to be expected that the membership of the Congress
would include medical celebrities with "Semitic" features.

[11] The "Temporary Rules" were not given retroactive force, and those
settled in the villages before the promulgation of the law of May 3,
1882, were accordingly permitted to stay there. [See vol. II, p. 311.]

[12] See vol. II, p. 428 _et seq._

[13] According to the statistics of 1898-1901, some 150,000 Jews in
Russia engaged in agrarian pursuits. Of these, 51,539 were occupied
with raising corn in the colonies, 64,563 engaged in special branches
of agrarian economy, 19,930 held land as owners or lessees, and 12,901
were engaged in temporary farm labor.

[14] See vol. II, p. 350.

[15] A pro-gymnazium is made up of the six (originally four) lower
grades of a gymnazium which embraces eight grades.

[16] A contemptuous nickname for Russians customary among the Poles.



CHAPTER XXXII

THE NATIONAL AWAKENING


1. THE RISE OF POLITICAL ZIONISM

For two decades the sledge hammer of Russian reaction had been
descending with crushing force upon the vast community of the six
million Russian Jews. Yet in the end it was found that the heavy
hammer, to use the well-known simile of Pushkin, instead of shattering
the national organism of Jewry, had only helped to steel it and to
harden its indestructible spiritual self. The Jewry of Russia showed to
the world that it was endowed with an iron constitution, and those that
had hoped to crush it by the strokes of their hammer were ultimately
forced to admit that they had produced the opposite result. At first it
seemed as if the effect of these blows would be to turn Jewry into a
shapeless mass. There were moments of despair and complete prostration,
when the approaching darkness threatened to obliterate all paths.
This stage was followed by a period of mental haziness, marked by
dim yearnings for regeneration, which were bound to remain fruitless
because unaccompanied by organizing energy.

This transitional state of affairs lasted throughout the eighties
and during the first half of the nineties. But by and by, out of the
chaos of these nebulous social tendencies, there emerged more and
more clearly the outlines of definite politico-national doctrines and
organizations, and new paths were blazed which, leading in different
directions, converged toward one goal--that of the regeneration of the
Jewish people from within, both in its national and social life.

The turning-point of this process is marked by the year 1897. That
year, in which the first International Zionist Congress held its
sessions, inaugurated not only the political Zionist movement, but also
the development of other currents of Jewish national and political
thought. The entire gamut of public slogans rang through the air, all
bearing testimony to one and the same fact: that the era of national
prostration had come to an end, and that the vague longings for
liberation and regeneration had assumed the character of a conscious
endeavor pursuing a well-defined course. The careful observer could
scarcely fail to perceive that beneath the hammer of history the
formless mass of Jewry was being forged into a well-shaped instrument
of great power. The organization of the Jewish people had made its
beginning.

Among the movements which arose at the end of the nineteenth century
there were some which came to the surface of Jewish life rather
noisily, attracting the attention of the Jewish masses as well as
that of the outside world. Others, however, were imbedded more deeply
in the consciousness of the educated classes and were productive of
a new outlook upon the national Jewish problem. The former were an
answer to the question of the "Jewish misery," of the _Judennot_,
in its practical aspect. The latter offered a solution of the
national-cultural problem of Judaism in its totality. The movements of
the first kind are represented by Political Zionism and Territorialism.
In the second category stand Spiritual Zionism and National-Cultural
Autonomism. On a parallel line with both varieties of the national
movement, and frequently intersecting it, went the Jewish socialistic
movement, tinged to a lesser or larger degree by nationalistic
tendencies.

For fifteen years, the "Lovers of Zion," or the _Hibbat Zion_ movement,
had been pursuing its course in Russia, without showing marked
progress in the direction of that universal Jewish goal which had been
formulated by its champions, Lilienblum and Pinsker.[17] During that
period some fifteen Jewish agricultural colonies had sprung up in
Palestine. The Jewish population of the Holy Land had been increased
by some twenty thousand souls, and an effort had been made to create
a national model school and to revive the ancient Hebrew tongue; but
needless to say all this was far from solving the burning question of
the six million Russian Jews who were clamoring for relief from their
intolerable condition. At the slow rate of progress which had hitherto
characterized the Jewish endeavors in Palestine any attempt to transfer
a considerable portion of the Russian center to the Holy Land was
doomed to failure, particularly in view of the hostility of the Turkish
Government which was anxious to check even this insignificant growth of
Jewish colonization.

At that juncture, the air of Europe resounded with the clarion tones
of Theodor Herzl's appeal to the Jews to establish a "Jewish State."
The appeal came from Western Europe, from the circles in which the
sufferings of their "Eastern brethren" had hitherto been viewed
entirely from the philanthropic point of view. It came from a young
Viennese journalist who had been aroused by the orgy of anti-Semitism
in the capital of Austria (the agitation of Burgomaster Lueger, and
others), and by the exciting anti-Jewish scenes enacted in the capital
of France, where, as a correspondent of the Viennese daily "_Die Neu
Freie Presse_," he followed the Dreyfus affair in its first early
stages. Herzl became suddenly conscious of the acute pain of the Jewish
misery. He saw the anti-Semitism of Western Europe closing ranks with
the Judæophobia of Eastern Europe. He saw the ideal of assimilation
crumbling to pieces, and he made up his mind to hoist the flag of
Jewish nationalism, scarcely aware of the fact that it had already
been hoisted in the East.[18] His pamphlet ("The Jewish State"),
which appeared in the beginning of 1896, was in its fundamental
premises a repetition of the old appeal of Pinsker. The author of the
new publication was convinced, like his predecessor, that the only
relief from the Jewish misery lay in the concentration of the Jewish
people upon a separate territory, without determining the question
whether that territory should be Palestine or Argentina. But, in
contradistinction to Pinsker, Herzl was not satisfied with formulating
the problem theoretically; he offered at the same time a plan of
political and economic organization by means of which the problem was
to be solved: the creation of special representative bodies which were
to enter into negotiations with rulers and Governments concerning the
cession of an appropriate territory to the Jews under an international
protectorate, and were also to obtain huge funds to carry out the
transplantation and resettlement of vast Jewish masses. Representing a
combination of theoretic enthusiasm and practical Utopias, the "Jewish
State" of Herzl revived the nearly smothered political hopes which had
been cherished by the _Hobebe Zion_ circles in Russia. The Russian
Jews, groaning under the yoke of an Egyptian bondage, flocked to the
new Moses who announced the glad tidings of the Exodus, and Herzl,
beholding the ready hosts in the shape of the _Hobebe Zion_ societies,
was quick to adjust his territorialistic scheme to the existing
Palestinian movement.

In this wise, the organization of political Zionism sprang into life,
using as its medium of expression the international party congresses,
most of which convened in Switzerland, in the city of Basle. The first
Basle Congress held in August, 1897, was an impressive demonstration of
the national awakening of the Jewish people. For the first time, the
united representatives of Eastern and Western Jewry proclaimed before
the world that the scattered sections of Jewry looked upon themselves
as one national organism striving for national regeneration. From the
center of Western assimilation, advocating the disappearance of Jewry,
came the war-cry, proclaiming the continued existence of the Jewish
nation, though that existence was conditioned by the establishment
of a separate "publicly and legally assured" territorial center. Of
the four articles of the "Basle program," which were adopted by the
first Congress, three deal with the fundamental task of the party,
the political and financial endeavors looking to the colonization of
large Jewish masses in Palestine, and only one voices the need "of
strengthening the Jewish national feeling and self-respect."

In the further progress of the Zionist organization, these two
principles, the political and the cultural, were constantly struggling
for mastery, the Zionists of the West gravitating toward political
activities and diplomatic negotiations, while the Zionists of the
East laid greater emphasis upon internal cultural work along national
lines, looking upon it as an indispensable prerequisite for national
rebirth. The struggle between these two principles continued at each
succeeding annual Congress (at the second and third held in Basle in
1898 and 1899, at the fourth in London in 1900, and at the fifth in
Basle in 1901). On the one hand, the Zionists were feverishly engaged
in the external organization of the movement: the consolidation of
the Shekel-payer societies, the creation of the Jewish Colonial Trust
and the Jewish National Fund, the conduct of diplomatic negotiations
with the Turkish Government and with the political representatives of
other countries for the purpose of obtaining a guaranteed "charter" for
a wholesale colonization in Palestine. On the other hand, endeavors
were made to nationalize the Jewish intellectual classes, to promote
the Hebrew language, to create a national school, and "to conquer the
communities" for Zionism, that is, to strengthen the influence of the
party in the administration of the Jewish communities. The Convention
of Russian Zionists, held at Minsk in 1902, paid particular attention
to the cultural aspirations of the party, and adopted a resolution
calling for the appointment of two committees, an orthodox and a
progressive, to find ways and means for placing Jewish education on
a national basis. The same Convention demonstrated the growth of the
movement, for, during the first five years of its existence, the
Zionist organization in Russia had succeeded in securing about seventy
thousand Shekel-payers who were organized in approximately five hundred
societies.

Yet the political and financial achievements of Zionism during that
period of bloom--prior to the crisis of 1903--were insignificant.
The diplomatic negotiations of the Zionist leader, Dr. Theodor
Herzl, with the Sultan of Turkey and his Government, as well as with
the German emperor and several other European sovereigns, failed of
their purpose--the obtaining of a Turkish charter for the wholesale
colonization of Palestine. The financial instrument of the party,
the Jewish Colonial Trust, proved as yet too weak to collect the
proposed fund of ten million dollars--a modest sum when compared with
the purpose for which it was destined. The colonization of Palestine
proceeded at a slow pace, and its miniature scale was entirely out of
proportion to the grand plan of establishing a national autonomous
center in Palestine. Withal, Zionism proved during that brief interval
a potent factor in the national awakening of Jewry. The strength of
the movement lay, not in the political aims of the organization, which
were mostly beyond reach, but in the very fact that tens of thousands
of Jews were organized with a national end in view. It lay, moreover,
in the current national-cultural activities, in the _Gegenwartsarbeit_,
which, yielding to necessity, had been raised from a means to an end.
In Western Europe, the principal significance of Zionism lay in its
effect as a counterbalance to assimilation, Herzl having declared
that "Zionism aims at the establishment of a publicly and legally
assured home for those Jews who, in their present places of residence,
are not able, or not willing, to assimilate themselves." In Russia,
however, where Jewish life was dominated by more powerful nationalizing
influences, the chief importance of political Zionism lay in this very
propaganda of a national rebirth in the midst of those whom militant
Judæophobia was endeavoring to reduce by intolerable oppression to
the level of moral degenerates. The apathy and faint-heartedness
which had characterized public Jewish life during the eighties and
the first half of the nineties was followed by a period of noisy
bustle, of organizing activity, and of great animation. The Pale
of Settlement resounded with the din of its hundreds of Zionist
societies, with the speeches of Zionist agitators at public meetings
and in the synagogues, with the intense agitation preceding the
elections for each Zionist congress, with the heated debates about the
program between the political and the cultural Zionists, between the
Mizrahists (the faction of orthodox Zionists) and the Progressives.
The public utterances of the Zionist leaders, Herzl and Nordau, were
the subject of interminable discussion and comment. The Russian Jews
were particularly stirred by the annual Congress addresses of Nordau on
the "General Situation in Jewry," in which the famous writer pictured
with characteristic vividness the tragedy of the _Golus_, the boundless
extent of Jewish misery, having a material aspect in the lands of
oppression and a moral aspect among the emancipated sections of Jewry,
and which culminated in the thought that Jewry could not exist without
Zion.

Nordau's motto, "Jewry will be Zionistic, or it will not be," was
differently interpreted in the different circles of the Russian Jewish
_intelligenzia_. Among the Russian leaders of the party only a minority
(Dr. Mandelstamm of Kiev, and others) were fully in accord with the
extreme political views of the Western leaders. The majority of the
former workers in the ranks of the _Hobebe Zion_ movement (Ussishkin,
Chlenov, and others) sought to harmonize the political functions of
Zionism with its cultural aspirations and combine the diplomatic
negotiations concerning a charter with the upkeep of the existing
colonization work in Palestine, which latter was contemptuously
branded by the hide-bound adherents of political Zionism as
"infiltration." This Babel of opinions within the ranks of the
organization could not fail to weaken its effectiveness as an agency
for the attainment of the ultimate Zionist goal. At the same time, it
brought life and animation into the movement. The crack of the whip of
the Egyptian taskmasters remained unheard amidst the clash of ideas and
the proud slogans of national liberation which resounded throughout the
Jewish Pale.


2. SPIRITUAL ZIONISM, OR AHAD-HA´AMISM

And yet, political Zionism viewed as a theory failed to offer a
satisfactory solution of the great Jewish problem in all its historic
complexity. Born of the reaction against anti-Semitism, and endeavoring
to soothe the pain of the wounded Jewish heart, it was marked by all
the merits and demerits of a theory which was substantially Messianic
in character and was entirely dependent on subjective forces, on faith
and will-power. "If you only will it, then it is no fairy tale"[19]--in
these words the ultimate goal of political Zionism is indicated by
its founder, who firmly believed that an extraordinary exertion of
the national will would transform the fairy tale of a "Jewish state"
into reality. When confronted with the question as to the future of
the Jewish nation in case faith and will-power should prove unable
to grapple with the conditions over which it had no control, and the
"fairy tale" of a united political autonomous center should not be
realized, political Zionism either remained silent or indulged in
a polemical retort which was in flagrant contradiction to Jewish
history: "Without Zion, Judaism is bound to perish." The national
conscience, however, could not be reconciled to such an answer. A more
or less satisfactory solution of the problem of Judaism could not
spring from the external reaction against anti-Semitism, but could
only mature as the fruit of profound contemplation of the course of
development pursued by the Jewish people in the Diaspora; such a
solution could only be found in the endeavor to adapt the new national
movement to this historic course. From this point of view political
Zionism was rectified by "Spiritual Zionism," the teaching of the
publicist and philosopher Ahad Ha'am (U. Ginzberg).

Even before political Zionism, or "Herzlianism," appeared on the scene,
Ahad Ha'am had succeeded in substantially modifying the Palestinian
idea as formulated by Lilienblum and Pinsker. In the program of the
semi-Masonic order _Bne Moshe_ ("Sons of Moses"), established by him in
Odessa,[20] he laid down the fundamental principle that the preparation
of the land for the people must be preceded by the transformation of
the people into a firmly-knit national organization: "We must propagate
the national idea, and convert it into a lofty moral ideal." Having
become associated with the Palestinian colonization in a practical
manner, as a leading member of the Odessa Palestine Society, founded
in 1890,[21] Ahad Ha'am indefatigably preached that the significance
of this microscopic colonization was not to be sought in its economic
results, but in its spiritual and cultural effects, in establishing
upon the historic soil of Judaism a nursing-ground for a pure national
culture which should be free from foreign admixture, and from the
inevitable cultural eclecticism of the Diaspora. After the spectacular
appearance of political Zionism on the Jewish stage this fundamental
idea of "Neo-Palestinianism" was more fully elaborated by Ahad Ha'am,
assuming the shape of a comprehensive doctrine, known as the doctrine
of "Spiritual Zionism." When the first Basle Congress was over, Ahad
Ha'am declared that the "Jewish State," as formulated by Herzl,
was beyond realization, for the reason that, under the prevailing
circumstances, it was entirely impossible to transfer to Palestine
the whole Diaspora, or even a substantial part of it. Consequently,
the Palestinian colonization could not put an end to the material
"Jewish misery," whereas a small Jewish center, gradually rising in
Palestine, might, with the help of a proper organization, solve the
national-spiritual problem of Judaism. The formation of a spiritual
center in the historic homeland of the nation, the creation in that
center of a Jewish national school, the revival of the Hebrew language
as a medium of daily speech, the untrammelled development of a Jewish
culture, without the pressure of a foreign environment--such in short
he held to be the true goal of the Palestine idea. A "publicly and
legally assured home for the Jewish spirit" of this kind would exert
an uninterrupted nationalizing influence upon the Diaspora, serving as
a living center of attraction for a genuine Jewish culture, and acting
like a focus which scatters its rays over a large periphery.

The Zionist doctrine of Ahad Ha'am, as a counterbalance to official
Zionism which was hall-marked by the "Basle Program," led to
interminable discussions among the partisans of the movement. It did
not succeed in creating a separate party or a special public agency
for its realization; yet the elements of that doctrine have mingled
in a larger or lesser degree with the views of the political Zionists
in Russia, and manifested themselves in the protests of the cultural
Zionists against the extreme political advocates of the movement at
the Zionist Congresses. The Zionist Convention at Minsk, referred to
previously, resulted in a partial triumph for the ideas championed by
Ahad Ha'am, who submitted a report on the "Spiritual Regeneration of
Judaism."[22] The Convention adopted a resolution calling for a larger
measure of cultural work in the schedule of the party activities,
but rejected at the same time the proposal of the referee to create
a Jewish world organization for the revival of Jewish culture, on
the ground that such an organization might destroy the political
equilibrium of Zionism.


3. SPIRITUAL NATIONALISM, OR NATIONAL-CULTURAL AUTONOMISM

Both political and spiritual Zionism have their roots in the same
common ground, in "the negation of the _Golus_": in the conviction
that outside of Palestine--in the lands of the Diaspora--the Jewish
people has no possibility of continuing its existence as a normal
national entity. Both political and spiritual Zionists have their
eyes equally fixed upon Zion as the anchor of safety for Judaism,
whether it be in its material or in its spiritual aspect. Neither
doctrine had formulated a clear idea of the future destinies of the
Jewish Diaspora, that is, of the destinies of the entire Jewry of the
world, minus the section settled in Palestine. The political Zionists
evaded the question as to the fate of the Jewish people in case
their aspirations should not materialize, and, faithful to the motto
proclaimed by Nordau, were ready, as it were, to sentence the entire
Diaspora to death, or to a life worse than death, in the eventuality of
the Palestine charter being refused. The cultural Zionists protested
against this hypothetical Zionism, insisting that the Diaspora would
preserve its national vitality by mere contact with a small cultural
center in Palestine. But how the tremendous bulk of the Diaspora
Jewry should be organized for a Jewish life on the spot, how it
should be enabled to liberate itself from the political and cultural
pressure of the environment--that question remained unanswered by both
wings of Zionism. An answer to this question could not be found by
considering merely the last stage of Jewish history, but by viewing the
latter in all its phases, beginning with the ancient Greco-Roman and
Eastern Diaspora. Such an answer, based upon the entire Jewish past,
was attempted by the doctrine of "Spiritual Nationalism," or, more
correctly, "National-Cultural Autonomism." Its fundamental principles
have been formulated by the present writer in his "Letters Concerning
Ancient and Modern Judaism."[23]

The theory of Autonomism takes as its point of departure the historic
fact that at all times, with the exception of a few brief and partial
deflections, the Jewish Diaspora, taken as a whole, represented a
national organism, in which the absence of political or territorial
unity was made up by the stronger cohesion of its spiritual and
cultural ties and the greater intensity of its social and autonomous
life. For many centuries the entire culture of Judaism assumed a
religious coloring and its communal autonomy was centered in the
synagogue--which circumstance gave the modern champions of assimilation
reason for thinking that the Jews were only a religious group scattered
among various nations. It was a fatal error on the part of the Parisian
Synhedrion convoked by Napoleon when, in its declaration of 1807, it
proclaimed that "Jewry to-day does not constitute a nation," an error
which during the nineteenth century became an article of faith with
the Jews of Western Europe. The latest development of the national
movement has shown that Jewry, though scattered among various political
states, is a nation full of vitality, and that the Jewish religion
is only one of its functions. The Jewish national idea, secularized
to a certain degree, is based on the assumption that all sections of
the Jewish people, though divided in their political allegiance, form
one spiritual or historico-cultural nation, which, like all national
minority groups in countries with a mixed population, are in duty bound
to fight in their several lands at one and the same time not only for
their civil equality, but also for their national rights--the autonomy
of the Jewish community, school, and language. What Jewish orthodoxy
has for centuries stood for and still stands for, under the guise of
religious Judaism, progressive Jews should fight for under the banner
of a national Jewish culture. The fate of universal Jewry ought not to
be bound up with one single center. We should take into account the
historic fact of a multiplicity of centers of which those that have
the largest numbers and can boast of the most genuine development of a
national Jewish life are entitled to the hegemony of the Jewish people.
In those lands in which civil emancipation has been achieved the fight
must go on for national emancipation, the recognition of the Jews as
a nation which is entitled to a comprehensive communal and cultural
autonomy. In Russia, the struggle must be carried on simultaneously for
civil as well as national rights. Temporary set-backs in this struggle
for a national existence ought not to discourage a nation which has
endured the most terrible sufferings for centuries and has been able to
preserve its spiritual freedom even in the midst of slavery.

A certain measure of relief from these sufferings might be found in the
old-time remedy of Jewish history, in the emigration from the lands of
bondage to countries enjoying a greater amount of freedom. If in one of
the centers the Jews are subject to prolonged persecution, then their
gradual transplantation, be it partial or complete, to another center
offering more favorable opportunities in the struggle for existence
ought to be attempted. Thus, during the last decades, the partial
exodus of the Jews from Russia has helped to create an important Jewish
center in North America and a smaller, yet spiritually valuable center,
in Palestine. The latter may become a medium for the nationalization
of the entire Diaspora, but only then when the Diaspora itself will
be organized _directly_ upon the foundations of a cultural autonomy.
Zionism, when reduced to its concrete possibilities, can form only one
plank in the universal platform of the Jewish nation. The Palestinian
center may strengthen the national development of the Diaspora, but
it does not constitute a _conditio sine qua non_ for its autonomous
existence.

Similar to Spiritual Zionism which had not succeeded in forming
a special party, and yet acted as a lever in the general Zionist
movement, Autonomism, too, failed to find its embodiment in a party
organization, and yet became an integral part of the politico-national
movements of Russian Jewry at the beginning of the present century.
During the revolutionary struggle in Russia, in 1905 and 1906, the
demand for a national-cultural autonomy was embodied in various degrees
by nearly all Jewish parties and groups in their platforms, aside from,
and in addition to, the demand for civil equality.[24]


4. THE JEWISH SOCIALISTIC MOVEMENT

On a parallel line with the nationalistic ideology, which formed a
counterbalance to the assimilationist theory of Western Europe, the
doctrine of Socialism came gradually to the fore, emphasizing the
principle of the class struggle in a more or less intimate connection
with the national idea. The Jewish labor movement was born at the
end of the eighties in Lithuania--in Vilna, and other cities; its
adherents were recruited from among the Jewish workingmen who were
mainly engaged in handicrafts. In the nineties, the movement spread to
the growing manufacturing centers of Lithuania and Poland--Bialystok,
Smorgon, Warsaw, and Lodz. At first, the labor societies were
established with a purely economic end in view--the organization
of strikes for fewer working hours, increased wages, and the like.
The leaders of these societies who were recruited from among the
young Jewish _intelligenzia_, some of whom had received a university
education abroad, endeavored to model the movement upon the pattern
of the West-European Social-Democracy. The doctrine of Marxian
Socialism was applied, sometimes rather hastily, to the primitive
stage of capitalistic production in the Pale of Settlement where it
was still very difficult to draw a line of demarcation between the
poverty-stricken "petty bourgeoisie," forming the bulk of the Jewish
population, and the labor proletariat.

In the second half of the nineties, the Jewish Socialistic societies
were drawn into the maelstrom of the Russian revolutionary movement.
In 1897, all these societies were consolidated in the "League of the
Jewish Workingmen of Lithuania, Poland, and Russia," known under
its abbreviated name as _Der Bund_ ("The League"). The first secret
convention of the "League" took place in Vilna in the month of
September, just one month after the first Zionist Congress at Basle.
Various party centers were organized in Russia--clandestinely, of
course; the party organ, published in the language of the Jewish
masses, in Yiddish, appeared abroad under the name of _Die Arbeiter
Stimme_. It is worthy of note that the formation of the Jewish "Bund"
gave a year later the stimulus to the organization of the "Russian
Social-Democratic Party," which united the formerly existing Russian
labor societies. The "Bund" now joined the ranks of Russian Social
Democracy as a separate autonomous group, although a number of Jewish
Social Democrats who had adopted the viewpoint of assimilation or
cosmopolitanism occupied a conspicuous place in the leadership of the
Russian party at large.

At subsequent conventions the "Bund" endeavored to formulate its
national program. At first, the tendency prevailed to limit the
national element in the party platform to the use of the popular
Jewish vernacular as a propaganda medium among the masses. At the
third convention of the "Bund," which took place in Kovno in 1899, the
proposal to demand national equality for the Jews was voted down on the
ground that the attention of the workingmen should be concentrated upon
their class interests and ought not to be diverted in the direction
of national aspirations. The fourth convention of the party, held in
1901, similarly declared "that it was premature, under the present
circumstances, to put forward the demand for a national autonomy for
the Jews," although it realized at the same time that "the concept
of nationality is also applicable to the Jewish people." Only after
prolonged debates in the party press, and after a violent struggle with
the centralizing tendencies of the Russian Social-Democratic Party, the
convention of the "Bund," held in 1905, adopted a resolution, demanding
"national-cultural autonomy" in the domain of popular education as well
as public rights for the language spoken by the Jews.

In this wise, the national element gradually permeated even the
doctrine of Socialism which, in its essence, had always been opposed to
it and had placed in its stead the principle of internationalism and
class interests. On the other hand, an attempt was made to inject the
Socialistic element into Zionism. Beginning with 1901, the _Poale-Zion_
("The Zionist Workingmen") began to organize themselves in separate
societies which proclaimed the territorial principle of Zionism as the
only means of solving the Jewish social-economic question, proceeding
from the assumption that in the lands of the Diaspora the Jewish masses
would always be barred from the domain of big industry.


5. THE REVIVAL OF JEWISH LETTERS

This national revival of Russian Jewry found its expression also in
Jewish literature. The periodical press, particularly in the Hebrew
language, exhibited new life and vigor, and in other domains of
literary productivity various big talents made their appearance.
As early as the end of the eighties, the two weekly Hebrew organs,
the _ha-Melitz_ in St. Petersburg, and the _ha-Tzefirah_ in Warsaw,
were transformed into dailies. The Hebrew annuals pursuing purely
literary and scientific aims, such as the _ha-Asif_ ("The Harvest"),
_Keneset Israel_ ("The Community of Israel"), _Pardes_ ("The Garden"),
and others, made way for the more energetic _ha-Shiloah_, a monthly
publication which reacted more rapidly on the questions of the day.[25]
This review, which is the equal of the leading periodicals of Europe,
exercised considerable influence upon the views of the nationalist
Jewish youth during the period of transition from the nineteenth to the
twentieth century.

At one and the same time, considerable headway was made by the
periodical press in the popular vernacular, called Jargon, or Yiddish.
The _Jüdisches Volksblatt_, a weekly publication, appeared in
St. Petersburg from 1881 to 1890. The _Hausfreund_, the _Jüdische
Volksbibliothek_, the _Jüdische Bibliothek_, edited by Spektor, Shalom
Aleichem, and I. L. Perez, respectively, were published in Warsaw and
Kiev between 1888 and 1895. _Der Jud_, a Yiddish weekly, was issued in
Warsaw in 1899-1902.

As for the Jewish press in the Russian language, the former mouthpiece
of the progressive _intelligenzia_, the _Voskhod_, which appeared at
the same time as a weekly and as a monthly publication, leaned more
and more towards the national movement. Another Russian-Jewish weekly,
_Budushchnost_, "The Future," which appeared in St. Petersburg from
1899 to 1903, was Zionistic in tendency.

In the theoretic branch of publicistic literature the dominant figure
during that period was Ahad Ha'am, whose articles endeavored to answer
not only the exciting questions of the day, but also the perpetual
problems of Judaism. His brief semi-philosophic, semi-publicistic
essays, under the general heading _Perurim_ ("Titbits"), served as
a lode star for those who hoped to find the synthesis of "Jew" and
"man" in modern Jewish nationalism. In a series of articles he lashes
"slavery in freedom,"[26] or the assimilation of the emancipated
Jews of Western Europe; he criticizes the theory of "Nationalism
without Zion," and the manifestations of a Jewish Nietzscheanism
with its denial of the Jewish ethical doctrine. Not satisfied with
mere criticism, he formulates in these articles the principles of a
"spiritual revival"[27] in the sense of a nationalization of Jewish
culture. The essays of Ahad Ha'am, which were subsequently collected
under the title _'Al Parashat Derakim_, "At the Parting of the
Ways,"[28] represent a profound and closely reasoned system of thought
which is firmly grounded in historico-philosophical premises.

In the forefront of publicists of a less theoretic turn of mind stood
the talented Nahum Sokolow, the editor of the _ha-Tzefirah_ in Warsaw,
who, after some vacillation, joined the ranks of political Zionism.
In the border-land between journalism and literary criticism the most
conspicuous figures were David Frischman and Micah Joseph Berdychevsky.
The former emphasized in his brilliant literary essays the necessity
of a "Europeanization" of Judaism, while the latter championed the
cause of Nietzcheanism, protesting against the suppression of the "man"
in the "Jew," and against the predominance of the spiritual over the
material in the doctrine of Judaism. Berdychevsky is also the author
of a number of sketches portraying the tragic split in the soul of the
Jewish intellectual and the primitive harmoniousness of the old hasidic
world.

In the realm of Jewish _belles lettres_ S. J. Abramovich, known under
his pen-name _Mendele Mokher Sforim_, the writer of the "Era of
Reforms," remained as theretofore the acknowledged leader. The creative
energy of this author, who mastered with equal skill both the national
and the popular language, attained to even greater heights during the
period of the new Jewish martyrdom. His novel _Wünschfingerl_, "The
Wishing Ring," which was originally written in Yiddish, and, in its
Hebrew version, grew into a large volume, _Be-'Emek ha-Bakha_, "In
the Valley of Tears," (1897-1907), constitutes a great epic depicting
Jewish life during the gloomy reign of Nicholas I. and the "Era of
Enlightenment" under Alexander II. A series of sketches, marked by
inimitable humor, portray the disintegration of the old mode of
life under the influence of the pogroms of 1881 and the subsequent
emigration from Russia (_Bime ha-Ra'ash_, "In Stormy Days," and
others). His autobiographical series (_Bayyamim Hahem_, "In Those
Days") and his incomplete _Shloime Reb Hayyims_ ("Solomon the son of
Hayyim") reveal the power of rare psychological analysis.

Abramovich's literary activity, extending over half a century,[29]
earned for him the title of "Grandfather of Neo-Hebrew Literature"
(_Der Zeide_).[30] He was privileged to witness the brilliant
successes of his "sons and grandsons" who came gradually to the fore,
particularly in Yiddish literature. His younger contemporary, Isaac
Leib Perez, wrote, during the first period of his literary endeavors,
clever stories, portraying the life of the Jewish masses in Poland and
distinguished by a powerful realism, often tinged with satire (his
series _Reisebilder_, "Travel Pictures," and other sketches which
were written mostly during the nineties). Later on, Perez leaned more
and more towards modern literary symbolism, drawing his inspiration
mostly from the mystic legends of the Hasidim (his series _Hasidish_,
which was subsequently expanded into two volumes under the title
_Volkstümliche Geschichten_, "Popular Stories," 1909).[31]

Towards the end of the century, the talent of the great Jewish
humorist Shalom Aleichem (S. Rabinovitz)[32] attained its full bloom.
He was particularly successful in his masterly delineation of the
_Luftmensch_ type of the Pale of Settlement, who is constantly on the
hunt for a piece of bread, who clutches at every possible profession
and subsists on illusions (his sketches _Menahem Mendel_). Using the
popular vernacular with its characteristic idioms and witticisms as
his vehicle of expression, Shalom Aleichem draws the pictures of the
"Little People" of the Russian ghetto (his series _Kleine Menshelekh_),
describes the joys and sorrows of their children (_Maassios far Jüdishe
Kinder_, "Stories for Jewish Children"), and puts into the mouth of
the unsophisticated philosopher of the ghetto, "Tevye (Tobias) the
Dairyman," the soul-stirring epic of the great upheavals in this
secluded little world (the series of sketches under the name _Tevye Der
Milchiger_). To these big stars on the sky of Jewish _belles lettres_
may be added the host of lesser luminaries who write in the rejuvenated
ancient language of the nation or in the vernacular of the masses, the
Yiddish.

The literary revival manifested itself with particular vigor in the
domain of poetry. At the beginning of the nineties, the voice of Judah
Leib Gordon, the poet of the "Era of Reforms"[33] was silenced (he died
in 1892). The singer of the national sorrow, Simon Frug,[34] who was
carried away by the new ideas of Zionism, began to sing his "Zionids"
in the Russian language, writing at the same time for the masses
sonorous poems in Yiddish, though neither of them reveals the poetic
charm of his older national elegies.

New stars now glisten on the horizon. The middle of the nineties
saw the ripening of the mighty talent of Hayyim Nahman Bialik, who
brought the poetical forms of ancient Hebrew speech to unprecedented
perfection. The magnificence of form is matched by the wealth of
content. The greatest creative power of Bialik is displayed in his
treatment of national _motifs_. Himself the product of the rabbinical
Yeshibah and Bet ha-Midrash, he sings of the spiritual beauty hidden
behind these ancient and outwardly unattractive walls, in this
antiquated citadel of the Jewish spirit, where the cult of intellectual
knighthood reigned supreme, where the spiritual shield was forged which
preserved a nation of lambs amidst a horde of wolves (his wonderful
poems _Im Yesh Et Nafsheka la-Da'at_,[35] _ha-Matmid_, "the Diligent
Student," and others). The sufferings and humiliations heaped upon his
people by its enemies bring the poet to the brink of despair, for he
realizes that the old shield has been laid aside, and no new shield has
taken its place. He is filled with indignation at the indifference of
the Jewish masses to the appeal for regeneration sounded by Zionism
(_Aken Hatzir ha-'Am_, "Verily, the People are like Grass," and
others). At a later stage, beginning with the Kishinev pogrom of 1903,
Bialik's lyre becomes more and more pessimistic, adopting the tone of
wrathful rebuke and fiery denunciation.

In contradistinction to this singer of the national soul, another
contemporary poet, Saul Chernikhovsky, sounds the keynote of general
human experience and the joy of living. He demonstratively prostrates
himself before the statue of Apollo (_Lenokah Pesel Apollo_, "Before
the Statue of Apollo"), offering to it the repentant prayer of the Jew
for having denied the ideal of beauty. He raves about "Hellenism,"
the cult of joy and light, repudiating the one-sided spirituality and
rigorism of old Judaism. Erotic _motifs_, descriptions of nature,
ballads, rustic idylls--such are the characteristic features of
Chernokhovsky's poetry which forms, as it were, a general human
_pendant_ to the poetry of Bialik, though yielding to it in the depth
of literary conception. Both Bialik and Chernikhovsky fructified the
field of Jewish poetry, which in the beginning of the twentieth century
found a whole host of more or less talented cultivators, most of them
writing in the ancient national language, though in a rejuvenated form.

Less rapid was the progress of Jewish scholarly endeavors. Yet,
beginning with the eighties, even this domain is marked by an
uninterrupted activity which forms a continuation of the scientific
achievements of the West. The nineties inaugurate systematic efforts
directed toward the elucidation of the history of the Jews in Russia
and Poland. A series of scholarly researches, monographs, and general
accounts of Jewish history, written mostly in Russian, make their
appearance. Particularly noteworthy are the efforts to blaze new paths
of Jewish historiography converging towards the national conception of
Judaism. The Jewish historians of the nineteenth century in Western
Europe, who were swayed by assimilationist ideas, viewed Jewish
history primarily from the theological or spiritualistic point of
view. The scholarly endeavors of Russian Jewry constitute an attempt
to understand the social development of the Diaspora as a peculiar,
internally-autonomous nation which, at all times, has sought to
preserve not only its religious treasures, but also the genuine
complexion of its diversified national life.

FOOTNOTES:

[17] See vol. II, p. 332.

[18] After the publication of his _Judenstaat_, Herzl openly confessed
that at the time of writing he did not know of the existence of
Pinsker's "Autoemancipation."

[19] The motto prefixed to Herzl's Zionistic novel _Altneuland_.

[20] It was founded in 1889 and disbanded in 1897.

[21] [See vol. II, p. 421 _et seq._]

[22] [Ahad Ha'am's report is embodied in the second volume of his
collected essays (Berlin, 1903) under the title _Tehiyyat ha-Ru'ah_,
"The Spiritual Revival." An English version of this article is found
in Leon Simon's translation of Ahad Ha'am's essays (Jewish Publication
Society of America, Philadelphia, 1912), p. 253 _et seq._]

[23] [A number of articles under that title appeared originally in the
Russian-Jewish monthly _Voskhod_. They were subsequently enlarged and
published in book form in 1907. The first two "Letters" were rendered
into German by the translator of this volume and published in 1905 by
the _Jüdischer Verlag_ in Berlin, under the title _Die Grundlagen des
Nationaljudentums_.]

[24] See later, p. 108 _et seq._

[25] The _ha-Shiloah_ was edited from 1896 to 1902 by Ahad Ha'am in
Odessa, though it was published in Berlin. Beginning with 1903, it was
edited by Dr. Joseph Klausner, also in Odessa.

[26] [_'Abdut be-tok Herut_, the title of one of these articles.]

[27] [_Tehiyyat ha-Ru'ah_, the title of another article, based upon his
report at the Zionist Convention at Minsk. See above, p. 51.]

[28] The first three volumes appeared in 1895-1904. [The fourth volume
appeared in 1913. A German rendering of Ahad Ha'am's selected essays by
the translator of the present volume was published in Berlin in 1904;
a second enlarged edition appeared in 1913. An English translation by
Leon Simon was issued by the Jewish Publication Society of America in
1912.]

[29] [He died, after the completion of the present volume by the
author, on December 15, 1917.]

[30] [The Yiddish equivalent for "Grandfather."]

[31] A collection of his sketches, translated into English by Helena
Frank, was issued by the Jewish Publication Society of America in 1906.

[32] Died in New York on May 13, 1916.

[33] See vol II, p. 228 _et seq._

[34] See vol. II, p. 330, n. 1.

[35] "If thou wishe to know the fountain--whence thy martyred brethren
drew their inspiration."



CHAPTER XXXIII

THE KISHINEV MASSACRE


1. POGROMS AS A COUNTER-REVOLUTIONARY MEASURE

The frenzy of political reaction, which raged for two decades, was
grist to the mill of the Revolution. Stunned by the blow it had
received at the beginning of the eighties, the Russian revolutionary
movement came back to consciousness at the beginning of the twentieth
century, when the hopes for a change of policy on the part of Nicholas
II. had been completely blasted. The agitation among the students and
the workingmen, the "disorders" at the universities, the strikes at the
factories, the revolutionary propaganda carried on in the underground
press at home and in the public press abroad--all these endeavors
were gradually co-ordinated within the frame of the two revolutionary
organizations, the Social-Democratic and the Social-Revolutionary
parties, both of which assumed definite shape between 1898 and 1900.
The Social-Revolutionary party favored terrorism as a weapon in its
struggle with the Russian Government, which had made use of all the
appliances of police terrorism to suppress the faintest stirring for
liberty. This official terrorism raged with unrestricted violence.
Nocturnal raids, arrests, prisons, and places of deportation or of
penal servitude, filled to overflowing with "political criminals,"
mostly young men and women--such were the agencies by means of which
the Government hoped to stamp out the "revolutionary hydra," even when
manifesting itself in the form of moderate constitutional demands.
The revolutionaries fought terrorism with terrorism, and one of their
victims was the reactionary Minister of the Interior, Sipyaghin, who
was assassinated in April, 1902. The exasperated Tzar retorted by
appointing to the same office von Plehve, one of the most experienced
henchmen of the Russian political inquisition, who had long before, in
his capacity of Chief of the Political Police, brought its mechanism to
the top notch of efficiency.[36] He was destined to play an ill-fated
rôle in the martyrology of Russian Jewry.

It was easily to be foreseen that the Russian revolutionary movement
would make a strong appeal to the Russian Jewish youth. Had any other
cultured nation been tormented and humiliated as cruelly and as
systematically as were the Jews in Russia it would surely have given
birth to an immense host of desperate terrorists. True, the Jews
supplied the revolutionary army with a larger number of fighters than
was warranted by their numerical proportion to the rest of the Russian
population. Yet their number was insignificant when compared with the
atrocities which were constantly perpetrated against them. As a rule,
the Jewish college youth joined the ranks of the Social-Democratic
organization, which disapproved of political assassination. There were
particularly numerous Marxists among the Jewish young men and women
who had been turned away from the Russian institutions of learning
and had gone to Western Europe where they imbibed the doctrines and
methods of German Social Democracy. There were fewer Jews among the
Social Revolutionaries (Gershuni, Gotz, and others), and these, too,
did not as a rule take a direct part in the terroristic plots. As a
matter of fact, the only terrorist act committed by a Jew was that of
the workingman Hirsh Lekkert, in Vilna. Stung by the barbarous conduct
of the governor of Vilna, von Wahl, who had given orders to flog the
Jewish workingmen in public for having arranged a demonstration on
May 1, 1902, Lekkert fired upon that official. The governor escaped
unscathed, and Lekkert paid with his life for the attempt. But on
the whole, the revolutionary activity of the Jews was limited to the
frequent political demonstrations arranged by the "Bund," and to the
organizing endeavors of a certain section of the Jewish intellectuals
who had joined the ranks of both Russian Socialistic parties.

Had the Russian Government been guided by a genuine interest in the
body politic, the spread of the revolutionary movement among the
Jews, which was the child of its own system of oppression, would have
inevitably induced it to mitigate a system which was bound to turn
millions of people into desperadoes. But the Russian Government was,
properly speaking, not a Government. It was a caste of officials who
had degraded the administration of the country to the systematic
endeavor of saving their own personal careers and class interests,
both of which were indissolubly bound up with unlimited autocracy. The
Russian bureaucracy regarded the revolution as a personal threat, as
a menace to its existence, and looked upon the Jewish participants in
the revolution as their own individual enemies whose deeds were to be
avenged upon the whole Jewish people. Thus there ripened in the mind
of Plehve, the head of the bureaucratic inquisition, a truly devilish
plan: to wage war against the Russian revolution by waging war against
the Jews, and to divert the attention of the Russian public, which was
honeycombed with the revolutionary propaganda, in the direction of the
"aliens," thereby stigmatizing the entire emancipatory movement in
Russia as "the work of Jewish hands," as an anti-patriotic cause which
was foreign to the Russian people. It was part of this plan to engineer
somewhere a barbarous anti-Jewish pogrom in order to intimidate the
Jewish revolutionaries and to put it forward as a protest of the
"Russian people" against the "Jewish revolution." "Drown the revolution
in Jewish blood!"--this motto underlay the terrible scheme which,
beginning with 1903, was put into execution by the underlings of
Nicholas II. at the most crucial moments in the Russian revolutionary
movement.


2. THE ORGANIZED KISHINEV BUTCHERY

Needless to say, there was plenty of inflammable material for such
an anti-Jewish conflagration. One of the criminal haunts of these
incendiaries was situated at that time in Kishinev, the capital of
semi-Moldavian Bessarabia. Until the end of the nineteenth century,
the fifty thousand Jews of that city had lived in peace and harmony
with their Christian neighbors who numbered some sixty thousand. At the
beginning of the new century, these friendly relations were severed,
owing to the untrammelled anti-Semitic agitation of a local yellow
journalist, a petty official by the name of Krushevan. This official
had been publishing in Kishinev since 1897 a local sheet under the name
of _Bessarabetz_ ("The Bessarabian"). Having originally embarked upon a
moderately progressive policy, the paper soon sold itself to the local
anti-Semitic reactionaries from among the nobility and bureaucracy,
and was thenceforth subvention-ed by the Government. For a number of
years Krushevan's paper carried on an unbridled agitation against
the Jews. The Jews were accused of every possible crime, of economic
"exploitation," of Socialism, of "hatred towards the Christians," of
ritual murders, and of fathering the "Godless revolution." Favored by
the powers that be, the _Bessarabetz_ could do what it pleased. The
censorship of the paper lay in the hands of the deputy-governor of
Kishinev, Ustrugov, who during his administrative activity had proved
himself a past master in the art of persecuting the Jews and curtailing
the crumbs of rights that were still left to them. Under the auspices
of such a censor, who was in reality a contributor to the paper, the
latter was sure of immunity even when it proceeded to print appeals
calling on the Christian population to make pogroms upon the Jews.

This agitation was particularly dangerous in view of the fact that
the _Bessarabetz_ was the only press organ in the province, the
Government consistently refusing to license the publication of
any other newspaper. As a matter of fact, Krushevan's activity in
Bessarabia was so well thought of by Plehve that in 1902 the mercenary
journalist received considerable sums from a special slush fund for
the publication of a newspaper in St. Petersburg, under the name
_Znamya_ ("The Banner"), with a similarly reactionary anti-Semitic
tendency. However, in the capital, the filthy sheet was unable to find
readers. But as far as the _Bessarabetz_ was concerned, its influence
was clearly felt. Russian public opinion was affected by the poisonous
doses administered to it daily. The sinister instincts of the mob
became inflamed more and more, and there was the foreboding of a storm
in the air.

In the beginning of 1903, Krushevan found an occasion to give a
definite turn to his accustomed pogrom propaganda. In the town of
Dubossary the mutilated body of a Russian peasant boy, Rybalenko,
had been found, who, as was subsequently brought out by the judicial
inquiry, had been slain by his uncle in the hope of appropriating his
portion of a bequest. The _Bessarabetz_ immediately launched a campaign
against the Jews, accusing them of ritual murder. "Death to the Jews!
Let all Zhyds be massacred!"--such appeals were almost daily repeated
in the paper which was read in all the saloons and public-houses of
Bessarabia. The unenlightened Russian mob itched for an occasion to lay
its hands upon the Jews. An attempt at a pogrom was made at Dubossary,
but it was frustrated by the local Jews who were of a sturdy physique.

On the eve of the Easter festival of 1903, mysterious rumors were set
afloat in Kishinev itself telling of the murder of a Christian servant
girl, whose death was ascribed to the Jews. In reality the girl had
taken poison and died, despite the efforts of her Jewish master to
save her life. The goings-on in Kishinev on the eve of that Easter
bore the earmarks of an energetic activity on the part of some secret
organization which was hatching an elaborate fiendish scheme. That
criminal organization was centered in the local Russian club which was
the rallying-point of the officials of the province. Shortly before
the holiday, there suddenly appeared in the city an emissary of the
political police, the gendarmerie officer Levendahl, who had been
despatched from St. Petersburg; after Easter, when the sanguinary crime
had already been committed, the same mysterious envoy vanished just as
suddenly.

The triumvirate Krushevan-Ustrugov-Levendahl was evidently the soul of
the terrible anti-Semitic conspiracy. Printed hand-bills were scattered
about in the city, telling the people that an imperial ukase had been
published, granting permission to inflict a "bloody punishment" upon
the Jews in the course of the three days of the Christian Passover.
The police made no attempt to suppress these circulars, for, as
was subsequently brought out, they were in the conspiracy. Several
police officials even hinted at the impending events in their talks
with Jewish acquaintances. In the saloons and in the tea-houses, the
approaching pogrom was the subject of public discussion. The Jews were
fully aware of the coming storm, though they scarcely realized that it
would take the form not merely of an ordinary pogrom, but of a regular
butchery. On the eve of the festival of Passover, the representatives
of the Jewish community waited upon the governor and the Chief of
Police, praying for protection, and received the cool reply that the
necessary instructions had already been given and that the proper
measures for their safety had been adopted. The local Greek-Orthodox
bishop asked the rabbi, who came to see him on the subject, whether it
was true that there was a Jewish sect which used Christian blood for
ritual purposes.

The conflagration which was openly prepared by the incendiaries broke
out at the moment determined upon. On Sunday, April 6, the first day of
the Christian Passover and the seventh day of the Jewish holiday, the
church bells began to ring at noontime, and a large crowd of Russian
burghers and artisans, acting undoubtedly upon a given signal, scattered
all over the town, and fell upon the Jewish houses and stores. The
bands were preceded by street urchins who were throwing stones at
the windows. The rioters, whose number was swelled by these youthful
"fighters," seeing that the police made no attempt to interfere,
began to break into the houses and stores, and to throw the contents
on the street where everything was destroyed or plundered by the
festive crowd. But even then the police and soldier detachments who
were stationed on the streets remained passive, and made no attempt
to arrest the rioters. This attitude served in the eyes of the mob as
a final proof that the rumors concerning the permission of the Tzar
"to beat the Jews" were correct. An immense riff-raff, in a state of
intoxication, crowded the streets, shouting "Death to the Zhyds! Beat
the Zhyds!"

In the evening looting gave way to killing. The murderers, armed with
clubs and knives, assailed the Jews in the cars, on the streets, and in
the houses, wounding them severely, sometimes even fatally. Even then,
the police and military remained inactive; only when in one place a
group of Jews, armed with sticks, attempted to drive off the murderers,
the police stepped in at once and disarmed the defenders.

At ten o'clock in the evening the looting and killing were suddenly
stopped. Rumor had it that the general staff of the rioters were
holding a meeting concerning the further plan of military operations,
and were making arrangements for a systematic butchery. The "army" soon
received the necessary orders, and in the course of the entire day of
April 7, from daybreak until eight o'clock in the evening, Kishinev
was the scene of bestialities such as find few parallels even in the
history of the most barbarous ages. Finding themselves defenceless and
exposed to the passions of a savage crowd, many Jewish families hid
themselves in their cellars, or in their garrets, and sometimes sought
safety in the houses of their Christian neighbors, but the murderers
succeeded in hunting down their unfortunate victims. The Jews were
slain in most barbarous fashion. Many of them were not killed at once,
but were left writhing in pre-mortal agonies. Some had nails driven
into their heads or had their eyes put out. Little children were thrown
from garrets to the pavement, and their brains dashed out upon the
stones. Women had their stomachs ripped open or their breasts cut off.
Many of them became the victims of rape. One gymnazium pupil who saw
his mother attacked by these fiends threw himself single-handed upon
them, and saved at the cost of his life his mother's honor; he himself
was slain, and his mother's eyes were put out. The drunken hordes broke
into the synagogue, and, getting hold of the Torah scrolls, tore them
to shreds, defiled them, and trampled upon them. In one synagogue, the
old _Shammes_ (beadle), arrayed in his prayer-shawl, and shielding with
his body the Ark containing the sacred scrolls, was savagely murdered
by the desecrators on the threshold of the sanctuary.

Throughout the entire day, wagons were seen moving in the streets,
carrying wounded and slain Jews to the hospitals which had been
converted into field-lazarettes.

But even this sight did not induce the police to step in. The Russian
population, outside of a few isolated cases, made no attempt to
defend the tormented Jews. The so-called "intelligent" public, the
officials with their wives and children, the students, the lawyers,
the physicians, walked leisurely upon the streets and looked on
indifferently, and sometimes even sympathetically, while the terrible
"work" was going on. The governor of Bessarabia, von Raaben, who, on
the morning of the second day of the pogrom, was waited upon by a
Jewish deputation begging for protection, replied that he could do
nothing since he had received no instructions from St. Petersburg.

At last at five o'clock in the afternoon, a telegram was received from
Plehve, and at six o'clock large detachments of troops, fully armed,
appeared on the central streets. No sooner had the crowd noticed that
the soldiers were ready to act than it took to its heels, without a
single shot being fired. Only in the outskirts of the town, which had
not yet been reached by the troops, the plunder and massacre continued
until late in the evening.

It is needless to point out that had this readiness of the police and
military to attend to their duty been displayed in Kishinev at the
inception of the pogrom, not a single Jew would have been murdered nor
a single house destroyed. As it was, the murderers and rioters were
given a free hand for two days, and the result was that forty-five
Jews were slain, eighty-six severely wounded or crippled, five hundred
slightly wounded, apart from cases of rape, the number of which could
not be determined. Fifteen hundred houses and stores were demolished
and looted. The victims were mostly among the lower classes of the
Jewish population, since many well-to-do Jewish families were able,
by bribing the police heavily, to secure the protection of the latter
and to have the rioters turned away from their houses. As against the
enormous number of Jewish victims, there were only two fatalities among
the intoxicated rioters. The Kishinev Jews seemed unable to resist the
murderers and sell their lives dearly.


3. ECHOES OF THE KISHINEV TRAGEDY

A cry of horror rang throughout Russia and the more or less civilized
countries of the world when the news of the Kishinev butchery became
known. The entire liberal Russian press voiced its indignation against
the Kishinev atrocities. The most prominent Russian writers expressed
their sympathy with the victims in letters and telegrams. Leo Tolstoi
voiced his sentiments in a letter which could not be published on
account of the censorship.[37] The humanitarian writer Korolenko
portrayed the horrors of Kishinev in a heart-rending story under the
title "House No. 13," in which, on the basis of personal observation,
he pictured how the Jewish residents of one house were tortured to
death by the rioters. The story was circulated in an illegal edition,
its publication having been strictly forbidden by the censor. But
in Russia itself, the cry was stifled by the heavy hand of Plehve's
censorship, and wherever a fraction of the terrible truth managed to
slip through the barriers of the censor, Plehve sent out warnings
to the papers threatening to discontinue their publication for the
"pursuit of an injurious policy." Such a fate actually overtook the
Russian-Jewish _Voskhod_, in St. Petersburg, the legal journal _Pravo_
("The Law"), and others. The entire Russian press was forced by the
Government to publish the falsified version embodied in its official
reports, in which the organized massacre was toned down to a casual
brawl, and the inactivity of the troops was explained either by the
inadequacy of their numbers--despite the fact that several battalions
were stationed in the city--or by the incapacity of the police, while
the dead and wounded were referred to in a vague manner so as to
suggest that the victims of the "brawl" were to be found on both sides.

But the revelations in the foreign press were of a nature to stagger
all Europe and America. The correspondent of the London _Times_
published the text of a secret letter addressed by Plehve to the
governor of Bessarabia, in which, two weeks before the pogrom, the
latter official was told that, in the case of anti-Jewish "disorders,"
"no recourse shall be taken to armed interference with the urban
population, so as not to arouse hostility to the Government in a
population which has not yet been affected by the revolutionary
propaganda." The authenticity of this letter is not entirely beyond
suspicion. But there can be no doubt that instructions to that effect,
rather by word of mouth than in writing, probably through the secret
agent Levendahl, had been actually transmitted to the authorities in
Kishinev.

From the fact that on the second day of the pogrom the governor was
still waiting for instructions from St. Petersburg permitting him to
discontinue the massacre it is evident that he must have received
previous orders to allow it to proceed up to a certain point. The
horrors of the Armenian massacres in Turkey, against which even Russian
diplomacy had protested more than once, faded into insignificance
before the wholesale butchery at Kishinev. Europe and America were
deeply agitated. The Jews outside of Russia collected large funds for
their unhappy Russian brethren, but their efforts exhausted themselves
in sympathy and philanthropy.

The effect of the catastrophe upon Russian Jewry was more lasting.
A mixed feeling of wrath and shame seized the Jewish public--wrath
against the organizers and abetters of the terrible crime, and shame
for the tortured and degraded brethren who, not having a chance to
save their lives, had failed to save their honor by offering stout
resistance to these beasts in human shape, who were sure of immunity.
The poet Frug poured forth his sentiments in a Yiddish poem, voicing
his sorrow at the physical helplessness of his nation and confining
himself to an appeal to the kind Jewish heart:

    Too keen and grievous is our pain, too weak our hand the blow to parry.
    Come on, then, tender Jewish heart, and love and comfort to us carry!
    Brothers, sisters, pray, have pity; dire and dreadful is our need:
    Shrouds we want the dead to bury, and bread that the living we
        may feed.[38]

A little later, the young poet Bialik gave powerful utterance to his
feeling of wrath and shame in his "Burden of Nemirov."[39] He makes God
address these words to the martyred nation:

    Your dead have died in vain, and neither you nor I
    Can say for what they gave their lives, and why....
    No tears shall flow for you!--the Lord swears by His Name--
    For though the pain be great, great also is the shame,
    And which of them the greater, thou, son of man, decide....

In picturing the memorial services held in honor of the Kishinev
victims at the synagogues, he angrily exclaims in the name of God:

    Lift thine eyes and look how steeped they are in grief.
    You hear them cry and sob and mournful prayers read.
    You see them beat their breasts and for forgiveness plead....
    What are they praying for?... Tell them to protest!
    To shake their fists at Me and justice to demand!
    Justice for all they've suffered throughout the generations,
    So that My Heaven and Throne shall quake to their foundations!

Neither the pogroms at the beginning of the eighties, nor the Moscow
atrocities at the beginning of the nineties can compare, in their
soul-stirring effect upon Russian Jewry, with the massacre of Kishinev.
It awakened the burning feeling of martyrdom, but with it also the
feeling of heroism. All were seized by one and the same impulse--the
organization of self-defence, as if to say: "Since the Government
fails to defend our life and honor, then we ourselves are bound to
defend it." The pogrom panic which spread over the entire South
following upon the terrible days of April 6-7 led to the organization
of self-defence societies in a number of cities. Plehve knew of these
preparations, and found himself in a difficult position. He realized
that these endeavors might interfere with the engineering of the
pogroms, since the latter would no longer be safe for the murderers
and plunderers, and he was, moreover, full of apprehension that
these self-defence societies might become hotbeds of a revolutionary
propaganda and provide a training ground for political demonstrations.
These apprehensions were voiced in a circular issued at the end of
April, in which the Minister instructed the governors, first, that "no
self-defence societies should be tolerated," and, second, that the
authorities should adopt measures for the "prevention of violence" and
the "suppression of lawlessness." Subsequent events showed that the
latter order was never put into effect. The first instruction, however,
was carried out with relentless cruelty, and, during the following
pogroms, the troops made it their first business to shoot down the
members of the self-defence.

Such being the frame of mind of Russian Jewry, the ukase of May 10,
1903, opening up to the Jews for "free domicile" one hundred and one
localities in various governments of the Pale of Settlement, which had
hitherto been barred to them under the "Temporary Rules" of 1882, was
received with complete indifference. As a matter of fact, many of the
rural settlements, included in that ukase, were in reality towns which
had been converted into "villages," at the instigation of spiteful
officials, for the sole purpose of rendering them inaccessible to the
Jews. The stolen property was now returned with a slight surplus. The
Danaid gift, which seemed to be offered to the Jews as a compensation
for the Kishinev horrors, could not but fill them with disgust.
Parenthetically it may be remarked that the Government itself nullified
the moral effect of its "act of grace" by issuing on the same day a new
repressive law prohibiting the privileged Jews who were entitled to the
right of domicile outside the Pale of Settlement from acquiring real
property in the villages and hamlets. The knot of rightlessness was
loosened by a hair's breadth in one place, and tightened in another.

Grief and shame over "the Kishinev days" armed the hand of Pincus
Dashevski, a high-minded Jewish youth, against the most culpable
instigator of the massacre--Krushevan. Dashevski, the son of a
military surgeon, travelled from Kiev, where he was a student at the
Polytechnicum, to St. Petersburg to inflict punishment on the miserable
hireling of Judæophobia, who had caused the Kishinev conflagration
by his criminal newspaper agitation. On June 4, 1903, he assailed
Krushevan in the heart of the capital, on the so-called Nevski
Prospect, wounding him in the neck with a knife. The wound proved of no
consequence, and the "victim" was able to go home, without accepting
the first aid proffered to him in a Jewish drug store nearby. Dashevski
was arrested and brought to trial. At the preliminary examination he
frankly confessed that he had intended to avenge the Kishinev massacre
by killing Krushevan. Krushevan, now more ferocious than ever, demanded
in his newspaper _Znamya_ that the Jewish avenger be court-martialled
and executed, and his demand was echoed by the entire anti-Semitic
press. The case was tried in a district court behind closed doors, the
Government of Plehve evidently fearing the appearance of the sanguinary
ghost of Kishinev in the court-room.

Krushevan was represented by the anti-Semitic lawyer Shmakov, who
subsequently figured in the Beilis trial. The counsel for Dashevski
(the lawyer Gruzenberg and others) pleaded that his client's act had
been inspired by the intention not to kill, but merely to voice his
protest against the unbridled criminal activity of Krushevan. Dashevski
received the severe sentence of penal military service for five years
(August 26). An appeal was taken to the Senate, but the judgment of
the lower court was sustained. The youth who, in a fit of righteous
indignation, had given vent to the outraged feelings of his martyred
nation, was put in chains and sent into the midst of murderers and
thieves, while the venal instigator, whose hands were stained with the
blood of numerous victims, escaped unscathed, and assisted by public
funds, continued his criminal activity of fanning the hatred of the
populace against the Jews.


4. DOCTOR HERZL'S VISIT TO RUSSIA

The alert bureaucratic mind of Plehve was quick to make its deductions
from the Dashevski case. He realized that the Kishinev massacre
would inflame the national Jewish sentiment and divert the national
or Zionist cause into the channel of the revolutionary movement.
Accordingly, on June 24, 1903, Plehve issued a circular to the
governors, which was marked "strictly confidential," and sent out
through the Police Department, ordering the adoption of energetic
measures against "the propaganda of the ideas of Zionism," which had
departed from its original aim--the transfer of Jews to Palestine--and
"had directed its activity towards strengthening the Jewish national
idea," preaching "the organization of the Jews in secluded societies
in the places of their present domicile." Acting upon these orders,
the police began to persecute the Zionists in a number of cities,
prohibiting the sale of Jewish Colonial Trust shares, collections for
the Jewish National Fund, and meetings and conferences of the Zionist
societies.

Shortly thereafter, on July 25, the leader of the Zionists, Dr.
Herzl, arrived in St. Petersburg to induce the Russian authorities
to discontinue these persecutions. Apart from this immediate object,
Herzl had another more important mission in mind. He hoped to obtain
a promise from the Russian Government to exert a diplomatic pressure
upon Turkey in favor of permitting the settlement of Jews in Palestine
on a large scale. During his four interviews with Plehve, the Zionist
leader succeeded in convincing the minister that "it was in keeping
with the interests of the Russian Government to assist the Zionist
movement." Plehve replied--and subsequently confirmed his reply in
writing--that the Russian Government was willing to help Zionism so
long as its political activity would be directed towards the attainment
of its aims outside of Russia, towards the creation of a Jewish center
in Palestine and the emigration of the Jews from Russia, but that as
soon as the movement would be turned inwards, that is, towards the
propaganda of the Jewish national idea and the organization of Jewry
in Russia itself, it would not be tolerated, being subversive of the
Russian national policies. Herzl assured Plehve that political Zionism
_sans phrase_ had no other aim in view, except the creation of a center
outside of the Diaspora.

Both Plehve and Herzl seemed to be satisfied with the results of their
conversation. Herzl saw also the Minister of Finance, Witte, and the
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lamsdorff, and left St. Petersburg in a
hopeful mood. On his way to St. Petersburg, particularly during his
stay in Vilna, Herzl was the object of stormy ovations by the Zionists.
At the same time, he was severely criticized by the representatives
of other Jewish political groups who thought that he had lowered the
national dignity of the Jewish people by conducting negotiations for
the salvation of Jewry with the man on whose forehead was stamped the
Cain's mark of Kishinev.

It seems that the severe crisis which had set in for political Zionism,
when the hope for obtaining a charter from the Sultan had receded into
a distance, had impelled Herzl to catch at a straw, at negotiations
with the Russian Government. He was evidently of the opinion that the
Russian Pharaohs who had countenanced the methods of reducing the
Jewish population in Russia, such as had been practised at Kishinev,
might be willing to achieve the same object by rendering its diplomatic
assistance to the Zionist plans. A pledge in this direction was
actually given to Herzl. But Herzl overestimated the importance of the
promises made to him by potentates who merely looked upon him as a
noble-minded dreamer.

Two weeks after Herzl's visit to St. Petersburg, the acuteness of the
Zionist crisis manifested itself at the sixth Congress at Basle (August
11-16, 1903). On that occasion Herzl announced his new project, the
colonization of Uganda, in British East Africa, by virtue of a charter
which had been offered to him by the British Government. He pointed
out that this project had a definite aim in view--the amelioration of
the terrible condition of Russian Jewry, for which purpose Zion at
that particular moment was not available. Herzl's pronouncement rent
the Congress in twain: one section seized enthusiastically upon the
Uganda project, which held out the promise of at least a temporary
shelter in Africa, a _Nachtasyl_, for a part of the agonized nation.
The other section protested violently against this attempt to create a
"Zionism without Zion," against the abandonment of Palestine and the
higher aspirations of the movement. After many stormy and soul-stirring
scenes, the majority of the Congress adopted a resolution to send an
expedition to Uganda to investigate the proffered country from the
point of view of its fitness for Jewish colonization. Thereupon, all
the opponents of the Uganda project, the so-called _Neinsager_ (the
"Nay-sayers"), mostly Russian Zionists, left the Congress hall in a
body.

The movement was now rent by a severe conflict, the result of the
struggle between the two principles which had long been intermingled
in the theoretic foundations of Zionism: Palestinianism and
Territorialism. This internal conflict culminated in an open split
between these two principles. Out of the Zionist movement was born
the Territorialist Organization, which proclaimed as its object the
creation of a Jewish autonomous center on any available point of the
globe. For the blood of Kishinev cried out for an exodus from the
new Egypt. The emigration to the United States, where the prisoners
of Tzardom had in the course of twenty years, beginning with 1881,
succeeded in forming a big Jewish center, had passed the million mark,
and was expected to assume larger and larger dimensions. The Jewish
public press insisted on the necessity "of regulating the emigration to
America not only as a social-economic, but also as a national factor."
It was pointed out that a considerable portion of the historic national
center in Russia and Poland was, under the pressure of external events,
in the process of removing to North America, and that practical Jewish
politics had the direct duty of organizing this great rising center of
Jewry.

FOOTNOTES:

[36] See vol. II, p. 381.

[37] The following extract may show that the great writer had a
profound insight into the causes of the Kishinev barbarities:

    "My opinion concerning the Kishinev crime is the result also
    of my religious convictions. Upon the receipt of the first
    news which was published in the papers, not yet knowing all
    the appalling details which were communicated subsequently,
    I fully realized the horror of what had taken place, and
    experienced simultaneously a burning feeling of pity for the
    innocent victims of the cruelty of the populace, amazement at
    the bestiality of all these so-called Christians, revulsion at
    all these so-called cultured people who instigated the mob and
    sympathized with its actions. But I felt a particular horror
    for the principal culprit, our Government with its clergy
    which fosters in the people bestial sentiments and fanaticism,
    with its horde of murderous officials. The crime committed at
    Kishinev is nothing but a direct consequence of that propaganda
    of falsehood and violence which is conducted by the Russian
    Government with such energy. The attitude adopted by the
    Russian Government in relation to this question may only serve
    as a new proof of the class egotism of this Government, which
    stops at no cruelty whenever it finds it necessary to check
    movements that are deemed dangerous by it. Like the Turkish
    Government at the time of the Armenian massacres, it remains
    entirely indifferent to the most horrible acts of cruelty, as
    long as these acts do not affect its interests."

[38]
    _Schlaff is unser Hand zu streiten, stark un schwer is unser Schmerz,
    Kum-zhe du mit Treist un Liebe, gutes heisses jüdisch Herz!
    Brüder, Schwester, hot rachmones: groiss un schrecklich is di Noit,
    Giebt di Toite oif Tachrichim, giebt di Lebedige Broit!_

[39] _Massa Nemirov._ This heading was chosen to appease the censor.
As the name Kishinev could not be mentioned, Nemirov was chosen, being
the name of the town which yielded the largest number of victims during
the Cossack massacres of 1648. [See vol. I, p. 146, _et seq._--In a
later edition the poem was renamed _Be-'Ir ha-Haregah_, "In the city of
Slaughter."]



CHAPTER XXXIV

CONTINUED POGROMS AND THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR


1. THE POGROM AT HOMEL AND THE JEWISH SELF-DEFENCE

No sooner had the Zionist Congress, at which the heated discussions
concerning the salvation of Judaism were intermingled with sobs
bemoaning the martyrs of Kishinev, concluded its sessions than a new
catastrophe broke out in the dominions of the Tzar--the pogrom at
Homel, in the Government of Moghilev. In this lively White-Russian
town, in which the twenty thousand Jews formed fully one-half of the
population, public Jewish life was marked by great vigor. There existed
in the city important societies of Zionists and Socialists. Both of
these parties had organized several self-defence contingents, and it
was to be expected that the disgrace of Kishinev would not be repeated
at Homel, and that, in the case of an attack, the Jews would give a
good account of themselves.

On August 29, 1903, a fight broke out on the market-place between a
crowd of Jews and Christians. The cause of the quarrel was a trivial
incident, one peasant trying to carry off from a Jewish store a barrel
of herrings at a lower price than the one demanded by the storekeeper.
The rowdyish purchaser was pushed out of the store, but the peasants on
the market-place took sides with him, and in the ensuing fight between
them and the Jew, one peasant was accidently killed. The peasants were
scared and took to their heels, while the police began to make arrests
among the Jews. The Jews might have been satisfied with the fact that
their energetic attitude had succeeded in preventing a pogrom, did they
not anticipate the revenge which was sure to be wreaked upon them.

Two days passed in a state of tense agitation. On the third day,
on September 1, a crowd of Russian workingmen, numbering about two
hundred, issued forth from the railroad shops, and began to demolish
Jewish residences and houses of worship. The rioters were joined by a
mob of stone-cutters, day-laborers, and ragamuffins. Here and there
the crowd was incited by a few "intellectuals": a merchant, a student,
and a teacher. On the Konnaya Square, the mob was checked by a large
detachment of the Jewish self-defence, consisting of several hundred
men. The rioters were on the point of giving way before the gallant
attack of the self-defence; but at that moment the troops appeared on
the scene, and fired a volley in the direction of the Jews, resulting
in three killed and several wounded. The assistance rendered by the
troops filled the rioters with fresh courage, and they continued their
work of destruction with renewed vigor. All over the town a chain of
soldiers shielded the attacking hordes against the Jewish self-defence
contingents which tried in vain to break through the chain. The
defenders were driven off with rifle butts and bayonets, while the
rioters were allowed to destroy and murder without let or hindrance.
In the evening, the pogrom was stopped; the results were twelve killed
or dangerously wounded Jews, eight killed or dangerously wounded
Christians, a large number of maltreated and slightly wounded Jews and
over two hundred and fifty devastated Jewish residences and stores.
Among those arrested by the police was a considerably larger number of
self-defending Jews than of attacking Christians.

Two days later, the governor of Moghilev came to Homel, and, having
summoned the Jews to the Town Council, treated them to the following
harangue:

    I am sorry for the unhappy victims, but how could such
    bitterness have arisen? Religious toleration in Russia is
    complete. The causes of the latest events lie deeper. The
    Jews have now become the leaders and instigators in all
    movements directed against the Government. This entire
    "Bund" and the Social-Democrats--they are all Jews. You are
    yourselves to blame for all that has happened. You do not
    educate your children properly. You have no influence over
    them. But at least you can surrender them, pointing them out
    to the Government, whereas you conceal them. You propagate
    disobedience and opposition to the Government among an
    uncivilized population. But the Russian populace does not care
    for it and turns against you.

It would seem as if Plehve himself had spoken through the mouth
of the governor. The Russian functionary expressed with naïve and
clumsy frankness the hidden thought of the Chief of the Political
Inquisition--the idea of punishing the fathers for the revolutionary
leanings of their children, who were to be surrendered to the police,
and of discrediting the entire Russian liberty movement as a "Jewish
cause." In a Government communication which appeared after the pogrom
the events at Homel were reported in such a way as to suggest that they
were brought about by an attack of the Jews upon Christian residents
and upon the troops, in consequence of which the latter had been forced
to fire in "self-defence." The final deduction was formulated thus:
"The cause of the disorders lies in the extremely hostile and defiant
attitude of the local Jews toward the Christians." Thus were the actual
facts distorted in an official document, and the tortured were put
forward as the torturers.

The Homel pogrom did not attain to the dimensions of the Kishinev
massacre, nor was it as painful to the moral consciousness of the
Jews. For in Homel the Jews did not allow themselves to be beaten
and slaughtered like sheep, but put up a valiant defence. Had the
troops not turned against the self-defence, the pogrom would not
have taken place, and the cowardly rabble would have taken to flight
before the gallant defenders of their national honor. Already in the
spring, Plehve had foreseen that the Jews would attempt to organize
a self-defence of their own, and he had in his previously mentioned
circular declared in advance that this most fundamental right of
human beings to defend their lives was "inadmissible." Accordingly,
several Jewish heroes paid with their lives for having violated this
ministerial circular. Their death was the foreboding of a new Jewish
martyrdom. All this had the natural effect of enormously intensifying
the revolutionary sentiments of the Jewish youth and of inspiring them
with hatred towards a régime which permitted some of its citizens to
commit murder and prohibited others to defend their lives.


2. THE KISHINEV MASSACRE AT THE BAR OF RUSSIAN JUSTICE

In the fall of 1903 the judicial investigation in connection with the
spring pogrom in Kishinev was nearing its end. The investigation was
conducted with a view to obliterating the traces of the deliberate
organization of the pogrom. The representatives of Government authority
and of the better classes whose complicity in the Kishinev massacre had
been clearly established were carefully eliminated from the trial, and
only the hired assassins and plunderers from among the lower classes,
numbering about four hundred men, were brought to justice. Prompted
by fear lest the terrible truth might leak out in the court, the
Ministry of Justice ordered the case to be tried behind closed doors.
By this act, the blood-stained Russian Government refused in advance to
rehabilitate itself before the civilized world, which looked upon it as
the instigator of the catastrophe.

In the court proceedings, the echo of which penetrated beyond the walls
of the closed court-room, the counsel for the defence from among the
best representatives of the Russian bar (Karabchevski, Sokolov, and
others, who were Christians, and the Jews Gruzenberg, Kalmanovich, and
others) succeeded in proving that the prisoners at the bar were only
blind tools in the commission of the crime, whereas the organizers of
the butchery and the ringleaders of the mob were escaping justice.[40]
They demanded that the case be probed to the bottom. The court refused
their demand, whereupon the lawyers, having stated their reasons,
withdrew from the court-room one after the other.[41] The only
advocates left were the anti-Semite Shmakov and other whole-hearted
defenders of the Kishinev massacre, who regarded the latter as a
manifestation of the honor and conscience of the Russian people. In the
end, the court sentenced a score of murderers and rioters of the first
group to hard labor or penal service, dismissing at the same time the
civil actions for damages presented by the Jews.

Six months later the Kishinev case came up before the Senate, the
Jews appearing as complainants against Governor von Raaben (who had
been dismissed after the pogrom), Deputy-Governor Ustrugov, and the
Kishinev Chief of Police, upon whom they fastened the responsibility.
The bureaucratic defendants cynically declared "that the losses
suffered by the Jews have been covered many times over by contributions
from Russia, Western Europe, and America." All the eloquence of the
well-known lawyer Vinaver and of his associates failed to convince the
judges of the Senate, and the petition for damages was dismissed. The
Government did not wish to create a precedent for compensating pogrom
victims out of public funds, for "this might place the representatives
of the administration in an impossible position," as was stated with
naïve frankness by von Raaben, since it might become necessary to
increase the imperial budget by several million rubles a year.

In the midst of these ghastly proceedings Plehve conceived the plan of
"regulating the legislation concerning the Jews." In August, 1903, he
sent out a circular to the governors, calling upon them, in view of
the extraordinarily complex and tangled condition of the Russian laws
affecting the Jews, to point out ways and means "of bringing these
legal enactments into proper order and into as harmonious a system as
possible." In reply to this circular, the governor of Vilna, Pahlen,
submitted an extensive memorial, in which he pointed out that all the
restrictive laws within the boundaries of the Pale of Settlement ought
to be repealed on account of their pernicious political influence,
since they were driving the Jews into the ranks of the paupers or
revolutionaries. At the same time he suggested to retain the repressive
measures "against the manifestation of the injurious characteristics
of Judaism on the part of certain individuals" and also to exclude the
Jewish youth from the Christian schools and establish for them special
elementary and intermediate schools under the supervision of Christian
teachers. A few other governors, among them the new governor of
Bessarabia, Urussov, also expressed themselves in favor of mitigating
the repressive policy against the Jews.

In January, 1904, a committee of governors and of several high
officials representing the Ministry of the Interior met to consider the
Jewish question. From the very beginning the conferees were given to
understand that in "the highest spheres" every thought of the slightest
mitigation of the condition of Jewry was taboo. The only liberal member
of the committee, Governor Urussov, subsequently stated that after
the Kishinev pogrom and the agitation raised by it "one could feel
quite tangibly the unfriendly attitude of the highest spheres toward
the Jews"--in other words, that the hatred toward the Jews was shared
personally by the Tzar and by his _camarilla_. The committee therefore
applied itself to the task, not of reforming Jewish legislation, but
rather of systematizing the anti-Jewish code of laws. Its labors were
interrupted by the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War, on January 27,
1904.


3. THE JEWS IN THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR

On the day following the declaration of war, the organ of Russian
Jewry, the _Voskhod_, wrote as follows:

    This is not the time to irritate the old wounds. Let us
    endeavor, as far as it is in our power, to forget also the
    recent expulsion from Port Arthur,[42] the pogroms of Kishinev
    and Homel, and many, many other things.... Let the Jewish
    parents not think of the bitter fate of their children who had
    been thrown overboard [by being barred from the educational
    establishments]. The Jews will go forth into battle as plain
    soldiers, without any hope of attaining an officer's rank, or
    shoulder-straps, or distinctions--the blood of our sons will
    flow as freely as that of the Russians.

The Jews marched to the Far East to assist Russia in making the
province of Manchuria part of Siberia in which they were forbidden
to reside. The number of Jews at the front was disproportionately
large--it amounted to some thirty thousand, owing to the fact that, in
accordance with the usual military regulations, the Jewish recruits
from the Western governments were generally despatched to Siberia,
so that, at the very outset, they were near the theatre of military
operations. Disproportionately large was also the number of Jewish
physicians in the reserves. They were mobilized at once, evidently
for the reason that they lived on their private practice and were not
allowed to occupy any state or public office, whereas the Russian
physicians were not drawn upon to the same extent, so as not to divert
them from their administrative, municipal, or Zemstvo services.[43]
Hundreds of Jewish physicians had to work and to encounter the
murderous fire of the Japanese because of the fact that an unjust law
deprived them of the right of civil service in time of peace.

While scores of thousands of disfranchised Jews were fighting for the
prestige of Russia in the Far East, the whip of rightlessness did
not cease to lash their brethren at home. In a number of places the
authorities began to expel the families of the soldiers and physicians
who had been sent to the war, on the ground that with the departure of
the head of the family the wife and children had forfeited the right
of residence, the latter being conditioned by the profession of the
husband or father. This policy, however, was too monstrous even for
St. Petersburg, and Plehve was soon forced to decree that the families
of the mobilized Jews should be left in their places of residence,
"pending the termination of the war."

Though the Government was compelled to relax for a while its oppression
of the Jews, social Judæophobia, fanned by the chauvinism incident
to war time, broke out with greater violence than ever. Irritated by
the rapid failures of the Russian arms and by the unexpected military
superiority of the Japanese, the reactionary press, headed by the
_Novoye Vremya_, began to circulate preposterous rumors to the effect
that the Jews were secretly helping the Japanese, their "kinsmen
by race," in order to wreak their vengeance upon Russia for having
perpetrated the Kishinev massacres. The story of the Jewish-Japanese
alliance issued from the public press of the capital to make its
rounds through the provinces, and each day gave birth to a rumor
more absurd than the other: the Jews are exporting gold abroad, they
are purchasing horses for Japan, they are collecting money to build
cruisers for the Mikado, they are provoking England and America
against Russia, and similar preposterous stories. It was clear that
these rumors were the work of a gang of unscrupulous agitators _à la_
Krushevan, who were eager to instigate anti-Jewish pogroms on a modern
basis--the accusation of "treachery." This assumption is confirmed by
the additional fact that these incendiary rumors were particularly
circulated in February and March, before the Easter festival, the
old-time pogrom season, just as in the preceding year the ritual murder
libel of Dubossary had been kept afloat during the same months. "The
incendiaries have already set out upon their work"--with these words
the Jewish organ _Voskhod_ warned its readers in its issue of March 11.
A week later, the same paper had occasion to publish accounts of the
panic which had spread among the Jewish population, particularly in
the South. In Kishinev, a second pogrom was feared, calling forth an
intensified emigration to America. In Odessa, the Jews were agitated by
sinister rumors, and began to prepare themselves for self-defence. This
state of alarm was reflected in the foreign press. It was rumored that
the American ambassador at St. Petersburg had received instructions
to make representations to the Russian Government--which rumor was
subsequently officially denied.

Fortunately the Government itself came to the conclusion that the
time of war was not a fit opportunity for arranging pogroms. The
governors received orders to adopt energetic measures for the
prevention of Passover excesses. Governor Urussov of Bessarabia and
the city-governor of Odessa addressed serious warnings to the Russian
population. These steps had the desired effect. As soon as the police
and population realized that the pogroms were not desired from above,
the agitation collapsed; and in April the papers were able to tell
their readers that "Passover has passed quietly everywhere." In his
_Memoirs_ Urussov tells us that, during the restless day preceding
the Easter festival in Kishinev, he had been engaged, together with
the Chief of Police, in working out a plan looking to the maintenance
of public order in the city; during this conference he noticed that
the Chief of Police was rather hesitant and puzzled. This hesitation
continued until the governor received from Plehve a telegram in cipher,
calling upon him to prevent pogroms. No sooner had Urussov shown the
Chief of Police the deciphered telegram than the latter exclaimed:
"Don't trouble yourself--now there will be no disorders in Kishinev."
Such was the spirit in which the provincial administrators had been
trained. Without a special order from St. Petersburg, they did not have
the courage to suppress the pogroms.


4. THE "POLITICAL SPRING"

On the morning of July 15, 1904, the square before the Warsaw depôt in
St. Petersburg presented a terrible sight. Upon the pavement lay the
blood-stained body of Plehve, who had been smitten by the bomb of the
Russian terrorist Sazonov while on his way to Peterhof where he was to
report to the Tzar. This meant that the revolution had again raised its
head. After two years of frenzied police terrorism, and in spite of
all attempts to divert the attention of the public from the necessity
of reforms, first by pogroms and then by the war against Japan--Plehve
had insisted upon the declaration of war, hoping to drown the
"seditious" movement in chauvinism--the revolutionary spectre was once
more haunting the country. The martyrs of the autocratic inquisition
perceived the "finger of God" in the calamities caused by the war and
in the miserable end of Plehve. In February, 1904, the Russian censor
confiscated an issue of the _Voskhod_ in which a young Jewish sibyl,
in a poem entitled "To Haman," referring to the biblical _Mene, Mene,
Tekel u-Farsin_, predicted a shameful death for the new Haman who was
easily identified as the hero of Kishinev. One could feel in the air
the coming of a cleansing tempest. Even the reactionary Government was
taken aback by the approaching storm. It did not dare to answer the
terrorism of the revolution with police terrorism. On the contrary, it
made an attempt to moderate the régime of serfdom.

On August 11, on the occasion of the birth of the heir-apparent Alexis,
an imperial manifesto was issued, granting "favors" and "privileges"
to the population, the most important of which consisted in the
abrogation of corporal punishment for peasants and soldiers. On the
same day, a ukase was promulgated in which the Tzar "thought it _just_
to introduce, pending the general revision of the legislation affecting
the Jews, several amendments in the enactments concerning their rights
of residence at present in force." The amendments were trifling: the
Jews with a higher education were permitted to live in the villages
and acquire real property there, as well as to carry on business
everywhere. Those who had participated in the Japanese war, and had
distinguished themselves or had conducted themselves irreproachably
were to be accorded the right of universal domicile. The wives and
under-aged children of the Jews with a higher education were granted
the right of residence even after the death of their husbands and
fathers. These rights were the only ones which the Government thought
it "just" to confer upon the Jews, who had sent thirty thousand people
into the active army to fight on the fields of Manchuria. The Jewish
public received this niggardly gift with chilly indifference, and
turned its gaze to wider horizons which were then opening up before
Russia. The country was on the eve of a "political spring."

On August 26 the post of Minister of the Interior was entrusted to
Svyatopolk-Mirski, who in his previous capacity of governor-general
of Vilna had displayed comparative administrative leniency. The new
leader of internal Russian politics promised that he would strive for
the restoration of "confidence" between the Government and the people
by adjusting his actions to the demands of "true progress." The Jewish
deputation which waited upon him at Vilna and the representatives of
the foreign press were told that as far as the Jewish question was
concerned, he would be guided by justice and "kindness." Unfortunately,
at the very beginning he showed himself powerless to stem the new tide
of pogroms. At the end of August, the Russian South was the scene of
several "regular" pogroms, beginning with a quarrel in a Jewish store
and ending with the demolition of Jewish stores and houses--as was the
case in the town of Smyela, in the government of Kiev, on August 22, or
in the city of Rovno, in Volhynia, where a similar attempt was made on
the same day. Soon these "regular" riots gave way to a new variety of
pogroms, which were distinguished by a peculiar coloring and might be
termed "mobilization pogroms." The mobilized Russian reserve troops,
wrought up over their impending departure to the fields of death in
Manchuria where the Russian army suffered defeat after defeat, directed
their protest along the line of least resistance--against the Jews.
The soldiers, fortifying themselves with goodly doses of alcohol,
began their "gallant exploits," and, accompanied by the street mobs,
engaged in the task of devastating Jewish homes, maltreating their
inmates, and looting their property. A sanguinary pogrom took place
in Alexandria, in the government of Kherson, on September 6 and 7. On
the sacred day of Yom Kippur a horde of intoxicated assassins invaded
the synagogue which was crowded with worshippers, and butchered there
twenty people in a most barbarous fashion. Among the severely wounded,
who soon afterwards died from the wounds, were several gymnazium and
university students. The police made no attempt to stop the killing and
looting, and only on the second day, when the excesses were renewed,
the Cossacks were summoned from an adjacent town, and succeeded in
restoring order.

A month later, the mobilized Russian reservists began to perpetrate
a series of pogroms in the North, in the region of White Russia. In
the city of Moghilev the lawlessness of the soldiers and the local
hooligans assumed appalling dimensions (October 10). The poorest
quarters of the town suffered most. Among the victims of the riots
were also the families of Jewish reservists who had gone to war.
From the capital of the government the pogrom epidemic spread all
over the region. Everywhere the intoxicated "crusaders," prior to
their departure for Manchuria, engaged in destruction, looting, and
incendiarism. In some places, as was the case in the government of
Vitebsk, the rioters acted with perfect religious toleration, and even
attacked the police, although the center of the "stage" was still
occupied by the Jews.

The Government was manifestly unwilling to adopt energetic measures
against the "defenders of the Fatherland" for fear of irritating them
still further and spoiling the progress of mobilization. It was not
until the end of October that the mobilization pogroms died out.


5. THE HOMEL POGROM BEFORE THE RUSSIAN COURTS

In the same month of October, 1904, the case of the Homel pogrom of the
previous year came up before the Court of Appeals of the Government
of Kiev, which held its sessions at Homel. The department of justice
had taken a whole year to prepare the evidence, prompted by the desire
not so much to investigate the case as to entangle it and present it
in a perverted political interpretation. The investigation which had
started in the lifetime of Plehve and proceeded under the pressure of
the anti-Semitic reactionary, Minister of Justice Muravyov, resulted
in a bill of indictment which was a flagrant example of deliberate
misrepresentation. The whole affair was pictured as an anti-Russian
pogrom which had been perpetrated by the Jews. According to this
version, the Jews of Homel, wishing to avenge the Kishinev massacre,
had taken up arms and attacked the Christian population on August 29,
thereby calling forth a counter-pogrom on the part of the Russian
workingmen on September 1, when again the armed Jewish self-defence
had taken an aggressive attitude and thereby forced the soldiers to
shoot at them. Sixty people were indicted on this charge, among them
thirty-six Jews, representing the part of the population which had been
the victims of the pogrom. The Jews who had dared to defend themselves
stood at the prisoners' bar side by side with their assailants.
Yielding to the pressure of public opinion, the Government decided
to have the Homel case tried in open court, but the president of the
tribunal was instructed to eliminate from the judicial proceedings
all political revelations which might embarrass the Government. The
élite of the legal profession, both among Jews and non-Jews (Vinaver,
Sliosberg, Kalmanovich, Ratner, Sokolov, Kupernik, Zarudny, and
others), assembled at Homel to plead the cause of the indicted Jews and
to defend the action for damages brought by the Jewish pogrom victims.
The trial was drawn out for nearly three months, reducing itself to a
duel between the counsel who endeavored to bring out the facts, and
the bench which was anxious to suppress them. The depositions of the
witnesses and the cross-examinations of the Jewish lawyers succeeded in
demolishing the entire structure of the indictment, but when the case
reached the stage which was bound to lead to the detection of the real
authors of the pogrom and lay bare the conduct of the authorities, the
president stopped the counsel despotically, denying them the floor.
The gross partiality manifested by the president of the court had the
effect that the counsel for the defence lost their patience, and on
December 21, after a violent scene, refused to participate in the trial
and demonstratively left the court-room.

This action aroused public opinion throughout Russia to an
extraordinary degree; it caused a storm of indignation against this
official miscarriage of justice, and the fearless defenders received
innumerable expressions of sympathy. The indicted Jews, too, joined
in the noble demonstration of their lawyers, which was in itself
an eloquent plea for a righteous cause. The trial terminated in
January, 1905, and ended in the acquittal of half of the accused Jews
and Christians and a verdict of guilty against the other half from
among both groups. The guilty were sentenced to comparatively light
penalties--to imprisonment for brief terms--and, in addition, the court
decided to petition the Tzar for a mitigation even of these penalties.

This verdict displayed the Jesuitic character of Russian politics. The
reprobate murderers and plunderers from among the Russian group were
either acquitted altogether, or were sentenced to trifling penalties
and placed on the same level of culpability with the members of the
Jewish self-defence whose only crime was that they had stood up for
their life, honor, and property. The Russian law journal _Pravo_ ("The
Law"), the organ of the progressive Russian _intelligenzia_, published
on this occasion a strong article which concluded with the following
words:

    The truth stands out in bold relief even in this verdict, and
    it does so against the wish of its authors. If, as is implied
    in this verdict, both the Jews and Christians are guilty of
    murder, violence, and plunder to a minimum degree only--for
    how could otherwise the extraordinary leniency of the verdict
    be justified?--then everybody is bound to ask himself the
    question: Who then is the real author of all the horrors that
    were perpetrated at Homel? Those who have followed the course
    of the judicial investigation with some degree of attention
    can only have one answer: Besides the Christians and the
    Jews, there is still a third culprit, the politically rotten
    officialdom. This culprit did not stand at the prisoners' bar,
    but the verdict is against him.... The best elements of the
    Russian public, and the Jews in particular, have been thirsting
    for justice and for the disclosure of the truth, but it was
    just that third accomplice who was afraid of justice and has
    managed to cover it up by a general amnesty.

Such was the end of the two ill-fated years of Russian-Jewish history
(1903-1904)--years, marked by the internal war against the Jews and
by the external war against Japan, filled with the victories of the
reaction at Kishinev and Homel and the defeats of the Russian arms
at Port Arthur, Liao-Yang, and Mukden. This ghastly interval of
reactionary terrorism, which began to subside only towards the end of
1904, drove from Russia to America more than 125,000 Jewish emigrants
who fled for their very lives from the dominions of the Tzar.

However, at the end of the long nightmare, the political horizon began
to clear up. The tide of the liberty movement surged forward again
and it looked as if the Russian people, and with it tormented Russian
Jewry, would soon behold the new dawn. Yet the six million Jews of
Russia were destined to pass through two more stormy years, standing
between the firing lines of autocratic despotism and the revolutionary
movement, and suffering the excruciating agonies of suspense, while
hovering between degradation and emancipation.

FOOTNOTES:

[40] One of the instigators, Pisarevski, a notary public, had blown out
his brains before the beginning of the trial. Other instigators from
among the Kishinev _intelligenzia_ appeared merely as witnesses.

[41] The speech of Karabchevski justifying his withdrawal was
particularly powerful. He openly declared that the pogrom was only
"the fulfilment of a criminal order given from above." "The whole of
Kishinev," he said, "was converted during the excesses into an immense
circus of antiquity, where, before the eyes of curious spectators from
among the administration and the army, before a festively attired
crowd, a terrible drama was enacted in the depth of the arena. From the
one side defenceless victims were driven upon the arena, and from the
other maddened beasts were set at them, until the signal to stop was
given, and the frightful spectacle was ended at once."

[42] About two months before the war, the Russian viceroy of the Far
East had prohibited the Jews from residing in Port Arthur and upon the
Kuantung Peninsula, whence the Russians were expelled by the Japanese a
year later.

[43] Out of the thirty physicians who were mobilized in Kiev twenty-six
were Jews. In Odessa, the Jews furnished twenty-one physicians out of
thirty.



CHAPTER XXXV

THE REVOLUTION OF 1905 AND THE FIGHT FOR EMANCIPATION


1. THE JEWS IN THE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT

The "political spring," manifesting itself in the attempt of the
Government, headed by Svyatopolk-Mirski, to establish friendly
relations with the liberal elements of Russia, gave the first
impetus to an open movement for political emancipation. The liberal
"conspirators," who had hitherto been secretly dreaming of a
constitution, gave public utterance to this tabooed aspiration. In
November, 1904, the conference of Zemstvo workers, assembled in
St. Petersburg, adopted a resolution pointing out "the anomaly of
the political order" of Russia which is founded on autocracy and
proclaiming the necessity of associating the representatives of the
people in the work of legislation. About the same time, a large
mass-meeting, which took the form of a public banquet, attended by
lawyers and littérateurs, adopted a similar resolution calling for
"the repeal of all national and denominational restrictions." Taking
advantage of the temporary relaxation of police despotism, the press
spoke up more boldly, while the better elements of the population began
to organize themselves in all kinds of public bodies.

The Government was slow in making concessions, and harshly condemned
the "boisterous assemblages" which called for changes in "the
unshakable foundations of our political order." Nevertheless, an
imperial ukase, published on December 12, 1904, promised a number of
partial reforms--improvement of the legal status of the peasantry,
enlargement of the activities of the Zemstvos, the establishment of
a state insurance for workingmen, relaxation of the severities of
police and censorship, and likewise "a revision of the laws restricting
the rights of aliens," with the retention of those provisions only
"which are called forth by the genuine interests of the state and the
manifest needs of the Russian people." It is almost needless to add
that the latter clause held forth no promises to the Jews. For their
disfranchisement could always be justified by "the genuine interests
of the state"--a state built upon the foundations not of law, but of
police force. The carrying into effect of the promised semi-reforms
was entrusted to a bureaucratic body, the Committee of Ministers. The
services of the popular representatives were repudiated.

The new movement for liberty forced further concessions from Russian
officialdom, but these concessions could only be wrested from it
in small doses and were granted only after a desperate resistance.
The "bloody Sunday" of January 9, 1905, marked the beginning of the
open revolution in which social, economic, and political demands
were interwoven with one another. The demonstration of the striking
workingmen of St. Petersburg, who marched in immense numbers to the
Winter Palace to present a petition to the Tzar for economic and
political reforms, ended in a tragedy. The petitioners who marched
with crosses in their hands, under the leadership of the priest and
demagogue Gapon, were received with a shower of bullets, resulting
in a large number of victims from among the participants in the
demonstration, as well as from among the public. There were also
several Jews among them--a first-aid nurse, a dentist, a pharmacy
student and a journalist. This scandalous conduct of the Tzar, who
replied with bullets to a peaceful appeal for reforms, led to a series
of demonstrations, labor strikes, and terrorist acts in the provinces.

In the Western governments and in the Kingdom of Poland the Jews
played a conspicuous rôle in the revolutionary movement, counting as
they did a large number of organized workingmen. In Odessa, a Jewish
workingman by the name of Stillman fired at the Chief of Police and
wounded him (January 19). In Moghilev, a Jewish youth made a vain
attempt upon the life of the local Chief of Police who was accused
of having instigated the pogrom which had taken place there in the
fall of 1904. These incidents served in the hands of the reactionary
Government--on January 9, Svyatopolk-Mirski had been dismissed for his
excessive leaning toward liberalism--as an excuse for continuing its
oppression of the Jews as the "ringleaders of the revolution." The
president of the Committee of Ministers, Witte, was the only one who
advocated a different point of view. At the meeting of the Committee,
held on February 11, he contended that "the hostile attitude toward the
Government, now noticeable among the Jews, is due to the sad material
conditions in which the bulk of Russian Jewry lives, being weighed down
by the pressure of restrictive laws." Witte prophesied that the police
authorities would be bound "to fight with redoubled zeal against the
anti-governmental activity of the Jews, until the amelioration of the
condition of the aliens, promised in the ukase of December 12, would be
carried into effect."


2. THE STRUGGLE FOR EQUAL RIGHTS

Notwithstanding these pleas, the Government was slow in realizing even
the moderate reforms which had been outlined in the imperial ukase. In
the meantime the representatives of Russian Jewry had decided to place
before it their own more comprehensive demands. In February, 1905,
several mass petitions, demanding equal rights for Jews, were addressed
to Witte. A petition signed by thirty-two Jewish communities--St.
Petersburg, Vilna, Kovno, Homel, Berdychev, and others--began with
these words:

    The measures adopted for the last twenty-five years toward
    the Russian Jews were designed with the deliberate end in
    view to convert them into a mass of beggars, deprived of all
    means of sustenance, and of the light of education and human
    dignity. Consistency and comprehensiveness marked the system
    of oppression and violence which was skilfully planned and
    carefully executed.... The entire machinery of the state was
    directed to one end--that of making the life of the Jews in
    Russia impossible.

The petition repudiates the idea, voiced in the ukase of December
12, 1904, of a gradual amelioration of the position of the Jews,
and of a few "mitigations"; for "the insulted dignity of man cannot
be reconciled to half measures; it demands the complete removal of
rightlessness."

    All the Jews of Russia are permeated at the present moment by
    one thought: that the cruel system of endless restrictions and
    disabilities undermines the very basis of their existence,
    that it is impossible to continue such a life.... Worn out by
    all they have had to go through, and filled with grave anxiety
    about their future destinies, the Jews are waiting at last for
    their entire enfranchisement; they are waiting for a radical
    repeal of all restrictive laws, so that, enjoying freedom and
    equality with all others, they may, shoulder to shoulder with
    the other citizens of this great country, work for its welfare
    and prosperity.

A memorandum couched in more resolute terms was sent by twenty-six
Jewish communities--Moscow, Odessa, and others--and by the radical
groups of the communities which had signed the first petition.

    We declare--the memorandum states--that we look upon the
    attempt to satisfy and appease the Jewish population by any
    partial measures of improvement as doomed to failure. We
    expect equal rights, as human beings in whom the feeling of
    human dignity is alive, as conscious citizens in a modern body
    politic.

The memorandum of the Vilna community made the following addition to
the last clause: "As a cultured nation, we demand the same rights of
national-cultural self-determination which ought to be granted to all
the nationalities that go to make up the Russian body politic."

Memorials and telegrams, addressed to the president of the Committee
of Ministers, with the demand for equal rights, were also sent by many
individual Jewish communities.

In the meantime, the general revolutionary movement in Russia proceeded
apace. Professional organizations were springing into existence,
such as the leagues of railroad workers, engineers, and lawyers.
Here and there, huge railroad strikes were called. The college youth
were in a state of ferment, and often went on strike. The agitation
was answered by rifle shots and Cossack whips which were used to
disperse the demonstrators. The extreme wing of the Socialist party
resorted to terroristic acts. A tremendous sensation was caused by
the assassination of Grand Duke Sergius, the governor-general of
Moscow (February 4), one of the most detestable members of the house
of Romanov. The grand duke, whose name was bound up with the expulsion
of tens of thousands of Jews from Moscow in 1891 and with the cruel
oppression of the Jewish colony still left there, was the victim of a
bomb thrown by a non-Jew, the Social-Revolutionist Kalayev.

The surging tide of the revolution intimidated Nicholas II., and
wrested from him still another concession. On February 18, 1905,
three enactments were published: an imperial manifesto condemning the
revolutionary "unrest" at a time when "the sanguinary war in the Far
East" was going on, and calling upon all "well-intentioned persons"
to wage war against "the internal sedition." A rescript addressed
to Bulyghin, Minister of the Interior, announced the decision of
the Tzar "to invite the worthiest men, invested with the confidence
of the nation and chosen by the population, to participate in the
consideration of legislative projects"--in other words, a popular
representation with merely consultative rights. Finally, an ukase
addressed to the Senate granted permission to private persons and
institutions to lay before the Government their "views and suggestions
relating to the perfection of the wellbeing of the state."

The progressive elements of Russia were not in a mood to be reconciled
to the duplicity of these enactments in which threats and concessions
followed upon one another, or to the pettiness of the concessions
in themselves. They took, however, full advantage of the permission
to "lay" their views before the Government, and indulged in an
avalanche of resolutions and declarations, demanding the substitution
of a parliamentary system of government for the existing system of
autocracy. The Jewish institutions joined in this general campaign.
The oldest Jewish organization, the "Society for the Diffusion of
Enlightenment Among the Jews," in St. Petersburg, at a meeting, held on
February 27, adopted the following resolution:

    The proper organization of Jewish education such as would be
    in keeping with the social and cultural peculiarities of the
    Jewish people, will only be possible when the Jews will be
    placed on a footing of complete equality of rights with the
    rest of the Russian population. As a firm guarantee of the
    untrammelled cultural development and the complete equality of
    all nationalities, it is necessary that the legislative power
    and the administrative control of the country shall have the
    co-operation of popular representatives, to be elected upon the
    basis of the universal, direct, and secret vote of all citizens
    of the country, without any distinction of nationality,
    denomination or calling.

The need of a non-partisan political organization to direct the
struggle for Jewish emancipation which was to be waged by all classes
of Jewry--outside the small fraction which had already been united in
the labor organization of the "Bund"--was universally felt.

Such an organization was formed at the conference of public-spirited
Jews which took place in Vilna at the end of March, 1905. It assumed
the name of "The League for the Attainment of Equal Rights for the
Jewish People in Russia," and proclaimed as its object "the realization
to their full extent of the _civil, political, and national rights_
of the Jewish people in Russia." The complete civil emancipation of
the Jews, the assurance of their proportionate participation in the
Russian popular representation, "the freedom of national-cultural
self-determination in all its manifestations," in the shape of "a
comprehensive system of communal self-government, the freedom of
language and school education"--such was the threefold program of the
League.

It was the first attempt of a Jewish organization in modern history
to inscribe upon its banner not only the demand for the civil and
political, but also for the national emancipation of the Jewish people,
the first attempt to obtain liberty for Jewry as a nationality, and not
as a mere denominational group, forming part of the dominant nation, as
had been the case in Western Europe during the nineteenth century. The
central bureau of the League was located in St. Petersburg, composed
of twenty-two elective members, half of whom lived in the capital (M.
Vinaver, G. Sliosberg, L. Bramson, and others), and the other half in
the provinces (Dr. Shmaryahu Levin, S. M. Dubnow,[44] M. Ratner, and
others).

The first resolutions adopted by the League were in substance as
follows:

    To demand universal suffrage at the elections to the future
    parliament, with a guarantee of proper representation for
    the national minorities; to influence the Russian public to
    the end that the general resolutions demanding equality for
    all citizens should contain an explicit reference to the
    emancipation of the Jews; to call upon all the Jewish aldermen
    in the municipal Dumas to resign their posts, in view of the
    fact that under the law of 1892, which had deprived the Jews of
    their franchise at the municipal elections,[45] these aldermen
    had not been elected by the Jewish population, but had been
    appointed by the administration--an act which implied an insult
    to the civic and national dignity of the Jewish people.

The last-mentioned clause of this resolution, adopted at the first
conference of the League, proved effective. In the majority of cities,
the Jewish members of the municipal Dumas began to tender their
resignations, by way of protest against the disfranchisement of the
Jews in the municipal self-government. At first, the authorities were
somewhat embarrassed and made an attempt to appoint other Jews in
lieu of those that had resigned, but seeing that the Jewish boycott
continued, they became "reconciled" to the entire absence of Jewish
representatives in municipal self-government. The protest of the
Jewish aldermen was drowned in the general noise of protests and
demonstrations which filled the air during the revolutionary year.


3. THE "BLACK HUNDRED" AND THE "PATRIOTIC" POGROMS

In this wise did the Jewish people, though chafing under thraldom and
well-nigh crushed by it, strive for the light of liberty. But the
forces of reaction were preparing to wreak terrible vengeance upon the
prisoner for his endeavor to throw off his bonds. As the revolutionary
tide, which had engulfed the best elements of the Russian people, was
rolling on, it clashed with the filthy wave of the Black Hundred,
which the underlings of Tzardom had called to the surface from the
lowest depths of the Russian underworld. _Acheronta movebo_[46]--this
threat was now carried out systematically by the Government of Nicholas
II. in its struggle with the emancipatory movement. By letting loose
the Russian "nether-world" against the liberal _intelligentzia_ and
the Zhyds, the reactionaries hoped to achieve three objects at
once: to intimidate the liberals and revolutionaries; to demonstrate
the unwillingness of the "people" to abolish autocracy in favor of
constitutional government, and, finally, to discredit the entire
revolutionary movement as "the work of Jewish hands." The latter
end could, in the opinion of the reactionaries, be obtained best by
convincing the Russian masses that "the enemies of Christ are the
only enemies of the Tzar." An open anti-Jewish agitation was set in
motion. Proclamations of the Black Hundred with the appeals, "Slay the
students and the Zhyds!" "Remember Kishinev and Homel!" were scattered
broadcast. The proclamation of the "Nationalist Society" of Kiev,
Odessa, Kishinev, and other cities contained the following sentences:

    The shouts "Down with autocracy!" are the shouts of those
    blood-suckers who call themselves Zhyds, Armenians, and
    Poles.... Be on your guard against the Zhyds! All the
    misfortunes in our lives are due to the Zhyds. Soon, very soon,
    the great time will come when there will be no Zhyds in Russia.
    Down with the traitors! Down with the constitution!

With the approaching Passover season, pogroms were openly organized.
The papers were flooded with telegrams from many cities stating that
riots were imminent. In some places the governors adopted measures to
check the excesses of the savage crowd, but in many localities the
pogroms were deliberately permitted or even directly engineered by
the police. In the manufacturing city of Bialystok, the center of the
Jewish labor movement, the Cossacks assaulted Jewish passers-by on the
streets, invaded the synagogues and Jewish homes, cruelly maltreating
their inmates and frequently searching them and taking away their
money (April 9-10). During the Passover holidays, peasants made an
attack upon the Jews in the town of Dusyaty, in the government of
Kovno, looting their property and beating those that dared to oppose
them. In the city of Melitopol, in the government of Tavrida, an
intoxicated mob demolished and set fire to Jewish stores, and thereupon
started to attack the houses of Christians, but the self-defence
consisting of Jewish and Christian young men checked the pogrom (April
18-19). In Simferopol, in the same government, the Black Hundred spread
a rumor that a Jewish boy, the son of a pharmacist, had desecrated
a Christian ikon. A pogrom was set in motion which met with the
resistance of the armed Jewish youth and was afterwards checked by the
troops (April 22).

The most terrible outbreak took place in Zhitomir. In this quiet center
of Volhynia the progressive elements of both the Jewish and the Russian
population revelled in the joy of their political honeymoon. As had
been the case in other large cities, here, too, the "bloody Sunday" of
January called forth political strikes on the part of the workingmen,
demonstrations on the part of the college youth, and the circulation
of revolutionary appeals. The fact that the movement was headed by
the Jewish youth was enough to inspire the Black Hundred to embark
upon their criminal task. All kinds of rumors were set afloat, such
as that the Jews had been firing at the Tzar's portrait on the field
behind the city, that they were preparing to slaughter the Christians,
and other absurd stories. At the approach of Passover, the pogrom
organizers summoned to their aid a group of "Katzaps," Great-Russian
laborers, from Moscow. The Jews, anticipating the danger, began to
arm themselves in self-defence, and made their preparations openly. A
clash between the "Black" and the "Red" was inevitable. It came in the
form of a sanguinary battle which was fought on April 23-26, matching
by its cruelty the pogrom at Homel, though exceeding it vastly by its
dimensions.

In the course of three days, the city was in the hands of the black
hordes who plundered, murdered and mutilated the Jews. They were
fortified not only by quantities of alcohol, but also by the conviction
that they were fighting for the Tzar against the "Sicilists,"[47]
who clamored for "freedom" and a "republic." The Jewish self-defence
performed prodigies of valor wherever they were not interfered with
by the police and military, and died gallantly where the authorities
actively assisted the savage work of the infuriated rioters. During
the three pogrom days fifteen Jews were killed and nearly one hundred
wounded, many of them severely. The casualties were mostly among young
workingmen and handicraftsmen. But there were also some students among
the victims, one of them a Christian, named Blinov, who stood up nobly
for the assaulted Jews. The inhuman fiends fell upon Blinov, shouting:
"Though you are a Russian, you are a Sicilist and worse than the
Zhyds, now that you've come to defend them." The young hero was beaten
to death, and the murderers were actively assisted by soldiers and
policemen.

On one of those days, on April 25, a heart-rending tragedy took place
in the town of Troyanov, in the government of Volhynia, not far
from Zhitomir. Having learned of the massacre that was going on in
Zhitomir, fourteen brave Jewish young men from the neighboring town
of Chudnov armed themselves with cheap pistols, and proceeded to bring
aid to their endangered fellow-Jews. On the way, while passing through
Troyanov, they were met by a crowd of peasants and workingmen who had
been aroused by a rumor that Jewish "slaughterers" were marching in
order to exterminate the Russians. The infuriated mob fell upon the
youths, and, in the presence of the local Jews, savagely killed ten of
them, while the others were cruelly beaten. The following account of
this ghastly occurrence was given by one of the survivors:

    There were fourteen of us. We were on the way from Chudnov
    to Zhitomir. In Troyanov we were surrounded by Katzaps. They
    began to search us, taking away everything we had, and then
    started to beat us with hatchets and clubs. I saw my comrades
    fall down dead one after the other. Before the constabulary
    appeared, only four had remained alive, I and three other men.
    The constabulary ordered us to be carried to the hospital at
    Zhitomir, but on the way we were wrested by the Katzaps from
    the rural police and were tortured again.... I was roped and
    dragged to the priest. He begged that I should be left alone.
    The Katzaps made fun of him, dragged me out again, and started
    to beat me. The policemen began to tell them that "they would
    answer for me," since the constabulary had ordered them to
    get me to Zhitomir. "Well," said the Katzaps, "if that be
    the case, we will let him go, but before we do this, that
    hound of a Jew must have a look at his fellow-Zhyds." I was
    then dragged in an unconscious state to my comrades. I found
    myself in a pool of water. I had been drenched so as to make
    me regain consciousness. Then I beheld the dead bodies of my
    ten comrades.... No matter how long I may live, I shall never
    forget that sight.... One of them lay with his head chopped
    off; another with a ripped stomach ... cut off hands.... I fell
    into a swoon, and found myself here in this bed.

In the cemetery of Troyanov one may still behold the ten graves of the
youthful martyrs who unselfishly went to the rescue of their brethren
against beasts in human form, and were on the way torn to pieces by
these beasts--ten graves which ought to become sacred to the entire
Jewish people.

The Government reacted upon the Zhitomir massacre by an official
communication in which the facts were deliberately garbled in order to
prove that the Jews had called forth the pogrom by their conduct. It
was alleged in this communication that, during their shooting exercises
in the woods, the Jews had discharged their pistols at the portrait of
the Tzar, had hurled insulting remarks at the police escort which was
conveying a band of political prisoners, had issued a proclamation in
the name of "the criminal party of the Social-Revolutionaries" in which
the authorities of Zhitomir were accused of preparing the pogrom, and
similar charges. The concrete object of the official communication is
betrayed in its concluding part in which the governors are enjoined "to
explain to the sober-minded section of the Jewish population that, in
the interest of the safety of the Jewish masses, it is in duty bound
to inspire their coreligionists who have been drawn into the political
struggle with the consciousness of the absolute necessity of refraining
from arousing by their behavior the hatred of the Christian population
against them." Translated into plain terms, the Government order meant:
"If you do not wish to have pogroms and massacres, then keep your hands
off the liberty movement; but if you will persist in playing a part in
it, then the Christian population will make short work of you, dealing
with you as with enemies of the Fatherland."

Caught in the general revolutionary conflagration which flared up
with particular violence in the summer of 1905, after the destruction
of the Russian fleet by the Japanese near Tsushima, the Jews reacted
upon the pogroms by intensifying their revolutionary activity and
swelling the number of self-defence organizations. Russian Jewry
played an active part in the two wings of the emancipation army,
the Constitutional-Democratic as well as the Social-Democratic
party, and was represented even in the extreme wing occupied by the
Social-Revolutionaries. The majority of these Jewish revolutionaries
were actuated by general Russian aspirations, and were often entirely
oblivious of the national interests of Judaism. This, however, did
not prevent the henchmen of the Tzar from visiting the "sin" of the
revolution upon the Jewish masses. A vicious circle was the result of
this policy: As victims of the old despotism, the Jews naturally threw
in their lot with the revolution which promised to do away with it;
thereupon uncivilized Russia vented its fury upon them by instituting
pogroms which, in turn, pushed them more and more into the ranks of the
revolution.

During the summer months of 1905, a new succession of pogroms took
place, this time of the military variety. Wrought up over the defeats
of the Russian army in Manchuria, and roused by the vile proclamations
of the Black Hundred which pictured the Jews as the inner enemy,
soldiers and Cossacks began to wreak their vengeance upon this inner
enemy, assaulting and killing or wounding Jews on the streets of Minsk
(May 26), Brest-Litovsk (May 29-31), Syedletz and Lodz (June 9). In
the first three cities, the soldiers plundered and murdered only the
Jews. In Lodz, they fired at a mixed Polish-Jewish demonstration
of workingmen. A regular butchery was engineered by the soldiery in
Bialystok (June 30). During the entire day, the city resounded with the
rifle shots of maddened soldiers who were firing into peaceful Jewish
crowds. Fifty dead and a still larger number of wounded were the result
of these military exploits.

During the same time a regularly organized pogrom occurred in the
southern outskirts of Russia, in the city of Kerch, in the Crimea.
On July 27, a peaceful political demonstration of the kind then
generally in vogue took place in that city; among the participants
were also the Jewish youth. By way of protest, the city-governor and
gendarmerie chief organized a "patriotic" counter-demonstration,
which was held a few days later, on July 31. Carrying a banner with
the portrait of the Tzar and singing the Russian national hymn, the
"patriotic" hordes, with the notorious local thieves and hooligans as
the predominating element, sacked Jewish houses and stores, and, in
the name of patriotism, looted Jewish property--even the so-called
respectable public participating in the latter act. When the armed
Jewish self-defence began to oppose the rioters, they were scattered by
a volley from the soldiers, ten of them being killed on the spot. The
subsequent inquiry established the fact that the pogrom had been fully
prepared by the police and gendarmerie authorities, which had been in
telegraphic communication in regard to it with the Police Department
in St. Petersburg. It was a rehearsal of the monstrous October pogroms
which were to take place a few months later.


4. THE JEWISH FRANCHISE

In the midst of the noise caused by the revolution on the one hand and
by the pogroms on the other, the question of popular representation,
promised in the ukase of February 18, 1905, was discussed in the
highest Government spheres of Russia. A committee, which met under the
chairmanship of M. Bulyghin, was drafting a scheme of a consultative
popular assembly; as far as the Jews were concerned, it was proposed to
exclude them from the franchise, on the ground that the latter would
not be compatible with their civil disfranchisement. This proposition,
which was in entire accord with the general reactionary trend of
Russian politics, called forth a storm of indignation in all circles
of Russian Jewry. During the month of June protest resolutions against
the contemplated measure were adopted by the Jewish communities of St.
Petersburg, Riga, Kishinev, Bobruisk, Zhitomir, Nicholayev, Minsk,
Vitebsk, Vilna, and other cities. Many resolutions were couched in
violent terms betraying the outraged sentiments of Russian Jewry. As an
illustration, the following extract from the Vilna resolution may be
quoted:

    In the proposed scheme of popular representation, we
    Jews, a cultured nation of six millions, are placed below
    the semi-savage aliens of Eastern Russia. The policy of
    pacification applied to other suppressed nationalities has
    given way to a policy of terrorization when the Jews are
    concerned. The mad system, consisting in the endeavor to
    irritate and infuriate the Jews by mediæval persecutions and
    thereupon wreak vengeance on them for the manifestation of
    that irritation, has now reached its climax.... We appeal to
    the Russian people, which is now called upon to renovate the
    antiquated political structure of the country.... We are of the
    hope that the malign vindictiveness toward the Jews on the
    part of the retiring bureaucracy, which is eager to carry over
    the ferments of corruption into the healthy atmosphere of the
    future popular representation, will not be realized.

Professor Trubetzkoy, who waited upon the Tzar on June 6, at the head
of a combined deputation of Zemstvos and municipalities, pointed out
in his famous speech that no one should be excluded from popular
representation: "It is important that there should not be any
disfranchised and disinherited." The Government was shaken in its
resolution, and the Council of Ministers eliminated from the Bulyghin
project the clause barring the Jews from voting, justifying this step
by the undesirability "to irritate the Jews still further."

The Jewish question was also touched upon in the conferences at
Peterhof, which were held during the month of July under the
chairmanship of the Tzar, to formulate plans for an Imperial Duma.
Naryshkin, a reactionary dignitary, demanded that "the dangerous Jewish
nation" be barred from the Duma. But a number of other dignitaries--the
Minister of Finance, Kokovtzev, the Assistant-Minister of the Interior,
Trepov, and Obolenski and Chikhachev, members of the Council of
State--advocated their admission, and the discussions were terminated
by the brief remark of the Tzar: "The project [with the insertion of
the Council of Ministers in favor of the Jews] shall be left unaltered."

By this action, the Government made itself guilty of a flagrant
inconsistency. It conferred upon the Jews the highest political
privilege--the right of voting for popular representatives--but left
them at the same time in a state of complete civil disfranchisement,
even with regard to such elementary liberties as the right of domicile,
the right of transit, and so on. Only one month previously, on June 8,
the Tzar had approved the "Opinion" of the Committee of Ministers--in
pursuance of the ukase of December 12, 1904, the Committee had
been busy discussing the Jewish problem--to the effect that the
consideration of the question of ameliorating the condition of the
Jews should be deferred until the convocation of the new Parliament.
Evidently, the anti-Jewish conscience of the Tzar made it impossible
for him to grant even the slightest relief to the Jews who from pariahs
had been turned into revolutionaries.

FOOTNOTES:

[44] The author of the present volume, who resided in Vilna at that
time.

[45] See vol. II, p. 246.

[46] "I shall set the nether-world in motion."

[47] A mutilated form of "Socialists" which is in vogue among the
ignorant Russian masses.



CHAPTER XXXVI

THE COUNTER-REVOLUTION AND THE OCTOBER MASSACRES


1. THE FIENDISH DESIGNS OF THE "BLACK HUNDRED"

Soon afterwards, on August 6, 1905, the so-called "Bulyghin
Constitution" was made public, providing for a truncated Imperial
Duma with a system of representation based on class qualifications
and limited to advisory functions but without any restrictions as
far as the franchise of the Jews was concerned. "Now," wrote the
_Voskhod_, "the Jew has the right to be a popular representative, but
he has no right to reside in the place in which the Imperial Duma
assembles--in the capital." Russian Jewry, with the exception of its
Left wing, was on the point of starting an election campaign to send
its representatives to this mutilated Duma, in the hope of attaining
through it to a more perfect form of representation, when the stormy
course of events brought to the fore new threatening questions. This
counterfeit of a national parliament failed to satisfy the Russian
democracy, and the struggle with the Government broke out anew with
unprecedented energy. Stormy political meetings were held at the
universities and at the other institutions of higher learning, which,
by an ukase of August 27, had been granted academic self-government.
The autonomous professorial councils began to admit Jewish students
to the schools, without any restrictive percentage, and the wave
of an agitated Jewish youth was drawn into the whirling sea of the
Russian student body. A new succession of strikes followed, arranged
by the students, workingmen and railroad workers. A general Russian
strike was being carefully prepared as a last resort in the struggle
for a democratic constitution. The army of the emancipation movement
was instituting a bloodless revolution, the temporary stoppage of
all railroad movements and of all other activities in the country,
in the hope of forcing Tzardom to an act of self-abnegation and the
proclamation of civil liberties.

The month of September and the beginning of October were spent in
these feverish preparations, but at the same time, the black army
of absolutism was making its own arrangements for a sanguinary
counter-revolution, for regular St. Bartholomew nights, directed
against the participants in the emancipation movement, and particularly
against the Jews. The plans of the emancipation army were universally
known, but the terrible designs of the dark forces of reaction
were effectively concealed. Only when the bloody undertaking was
accomplished, was it possible to uncover the threads of the criminal
pogrom organization, which led from the palaces of the Tzar and the
highest dignitaries of state, by way of the Police Department, to the
slums of murderers and hooligans. In the disclosures made by Lvov,
in November, 1905, in his memorandum to Witte, the president of the
Council of Ministers, the officials in the immediate environment
of Nicholas II. who had organized the October pogroms were pointed
out by name. They were the "patriotic" General Bogdanovich in St.
Petersburg, who acted with the blessing of Archbishop[48] Vladimir
and with the assistance of the Imperial camarilla and of many
governors and governors-general in the provinces. During the month of
September "fighting contingents" of the Black Hundred, whose number,
as Bogdanovich boasted in the highest government spheres, amounted
to one hundred thousand, were organized all over Russia. In every
city the parts to be enacted by the administrators, the police and
the pogrom hirelings from among the local riff-raff were carefully
prepared and assigned. The pogrom proclamations were printed openly;
the "manufacturing" center of this propaganda literature, as was
afterwards disclosed in the Imperial Duma by deputy Urussov (formerly
Assistant-Minister of the Interior), was located in the printing office
of the Police Department. There can be no question that the Tzar was
acquainted, if not with all the details of these preparations, at least
with the general plan of arranging a counter-revolution by means of
carefully engineered massacres of which the Jews were to become the
chief victims. Millions of rubles for the organization of the pogroms
were appropriated from a secret ten-million ruble fund, the disposition
of which lay entirely in the hands of the Tzar.

Such were the conditions which ushered in the month of October,
1905. The first days of the month saw the beginning of the railroad
strike; by the middle of the month it had already seized the entire
country, accompanied in the industrial centers by a general strike
in all lines of productive endeavor. In many cities, collisions
took place between the revolutionaries and the military. At first,
the Government made an attempt to resort to threats, and all over
Russia rang the blood-thirsty cry of the Chief of Police Trepov:
"No cartridges shall be spared!" But at the last moment, autocracy
recoiled before the revolutionary tempest and gave way. On October
17, an imperial manifesto was issued, solemnly promising to bestow
all civil liberties upon the Russian people--inviolability of person,
freedom of conscience, liberty of speech, assemblage and organization,
and a legislative Duma in which the representatives of all classes of
the population were to have a voice. The manifesto made no mention,
however, of the equality of all citizens before the law or of the
bestowal of equal rights on the various nationalities, and even in the
accompanying memorandum of Premier Witte, the author of the enactment
of October 17, the subject was disposed of in a few nebulous phrases.

Nevertheless, even in this hazy form, the manifesto made a tremendous
impression. Everybody believed that autocratic Tzardom had been
vanquished by the army of liberty and that Russia had been finally
converted from a state founded on police force into a body politic
based on law. But, on the day following, all these hopes were cruelly
shattered. On October 18, in hundreds of cities the carefully concealed
army of counter-revolutionaries, evidently obeying a prearranged
signal, crawled out from beneath the ground, to indulge in an orgy of
blood, lasting a full week (October 18-25), which in its horrors finds
no parallel in the entire history of humanity.


2. THE RUSSIAN ST. BARTHOLOMEW NIGHT

The principal victims of this protracted St. Bartholomew night were
the new Huguenots of the emancipation movement--the Jews. They were
to pay the penalty for having assisted in wresting from the despotic
Government the manifesto with its promise of liberties. In the
course of one week, nearly fifty anti-Jewish pogroms, accompanied
by bloodshed, took place in various cities (Odessa, Kiev, Kishinev,
Kalarash, Simferopol, Romny, Kremenchug, Chernigov, Nicholayev,
Yekaterinoslav, Kamenetz-Podolsk, Yelisavetgrad, Orsha, etc.), in
addition to several hundred "bloodless" pogroms, marked in regular
fashion by the destruction of property, plunder, and incendiarism. The
pogroms directed against the Christian participants in the emancipation
movement, such as intellectuals, students, etc., in Tver, Tomsk, and
other interior Russian cities, amounted in all to a score or two.
This disproportion alone shows the direction in which the organized
dark forces were active. The strict uniformity and consistency in the
carrying out of the counter-revolutionary conspiracy was too palpable
to be overlooked.

The customary procedure was as follows: In connection with the
manifesto of October 17, the progressive elements would arrange a
street procession, frequently adorned by the red flags of the left
parties and accompanied by appropriate acclamations and speeches
expressive of the new liberty. Simultaneously, the participants in the
"patriotic demonstration"--consisting mostly of the scum of society,
of detectives and police officials in plain clothes--would emerge
from their nooks and crannies, carrying the portrait of the Tzar
under the shadow of the national flag, singing the national hymn and
shouting, "Hurrah, beat the Zhyds! The Zhyds are eager for liberty.
They go against our Tzar to put a Zhyd in his place." These "patriotic"
demonstrators would be accompanied by police and Cossack patrols (or
soldiers), ostensibly to preserve order, but in reality to enable the
hooligans to attack and maltreat the Jews and prevent the victims from
defending themselves. As soon as the Jews assembled for self-defence,
they would be driven off by the police and troops. Thereupon, the
"patriotic" demonstrators and the accomplices, joining them on the
way, would break up into small bands and disperse all over the city,
invading Jewish houses and stores, ruin, plunder, beat, and sometimes
slaughter entire families.

The most terrible pogrom took place in Odessa. It lasted fully four
days. The rioters were openly assisted by the police and troops, and
were encouraged by the active support of city-governor Neidthart, and
the criminal inactivity of the military governor, Kaulbars. The heroism
displayed by the Jewish self-defence was strong enough to beat off
the hooligans, but it was powerless to defeat the troops and police.
Over three hundred dead, thousands of wounded or crippled Jews, among
them many who lost their minds from the horrors, one hundred and forty
widows, five hundred and ninety-three orphans, and more than forty
thousand Jews materially ruined--such were the results of the battle
which was fought against the Jews of Odessa during October 18-21.

Approximately along the same lines the pogrom campaign was conducted
in scores of other cities, with a few lurid departures from the
customary ritual, as, for instance, in Nyezhin, in the government of
Chernigov, where the Jewish community, headed by the rabbi, was forced
by the rioters, under the pain of death, to pronounce publicly the
oath of allegiance to the Tzar. As a rule the pogroms which occurred
in hundreds of cities, towns, and villages, were limited to the
destruction of property, although even in small localities, such as in
Semyonovka, in the government of Chernigov, the riots were occasionally
accompanied by massacres. It may be added that the outbreaks were not
confined to the Pale of Settlement. In a number of cities outside the
Pale, such as in Saratov, Voronyezh, and other places with a small
Jewish population, the Jewish communities were ruthlessly attacked.

Contemporary history is not yet in a position to depict all the horrors
which were perpetrated upon the Jews in Russia in the latter half of
October, 1905, or to trace with any amount of accuracy their underlying
causes. Let us draw a veil over this bloody spectacle. There will
come a time when the world will shudder on learning the truth about
the bloody happenings and about the real culprits of this prolonged
Bartholomew night at the beginning of the twentieth century.

The sinister counter-revolution which broke out on October 17, the
day on which the manifesto of the Tzar was promulgated, threatened to
drag the revolution into the abyss of anarchy. All were profoundly
aroused by the perfidious Byzantine policy of Nicholas II., who with
one hand waved the peace banner before the progressive section of the
Russian people, and with the other plunged a knife into its heart--a
knife which most of all was to slash Jewry. Not only the parties of
the extreme Left, but even the Constitutionalists who were willing to
accept the promises of the October manifesto, had little faith in their
ultimate realization. A reign of chaos ensued. The parties of the Left
demanded now a democratic, now even a social, republic. The political
and labor strikes, among them those arranged by the Jewish "Bund,"
assumed the character of anarchy. The peasant or agrarian movement
burst forth, accompanied by the burning of manors and estates. Poland
and the Baltic region were in the throes of terrorism. Moscow witnessed
an armed uprising with barricades and with all the paraphernalia of a
popular revolution (December, 1905). The Government quelled the Moscow
rebellion, and resolutely adopted a policy of repression. Arrests,
executions, punitive military expeditions, were the means by which the
program of the Witte-Durnovo Cabinet was to be carried into effect.

The reactionary camarilla around the Tzar operated in full force,
fanning the hatred against the Jews. On December 23, the Tzar received
a deputation of the ringleaders of the Black Hundred, who had organized
themselves in the "League of the Russian People." One of the speeches
appealing to the Tzar to preserve autocracy was devoted to the Jewish
question. The deputation begged the Tzar "not to give equal rights to
the Jews." To this Nicholas replied laconically: "I shall think it
over."


3. THE UNDAUNTED STRUGGLE FOR EQUAL RIGHTS

The terrible October calamities were faced by Russian Jewry in a spirit
of courage and fortitude. It stood alone in its sorrow. The progressive
elements of Russian society which were themselves in the throes of
a great crisis reacted feebly upon the sufferings of the Jewish
people which had become the scape-goat of the counter-revolution. The
indifference of the outside world, however, was counteracted by the
rise of the Jewish national sentiment among the better classes of
Russian Jewry. One month after the pogrom bacchanalia, the "League
for the Attainment of Equal Rights for the Jewish People" held its
second convention in St. Petersburg. The Convention which lasted four
days (November 22-25) gave public utterance to the feeling of profound
national indignation. It voted down the motion to send a deputation
to Count Witte, asking for the immediate grant of equal rights to
the Jews. In the resolution repudiating this step the policy of the
Government was characterized in these words:

    The facts have incontrovertibly proved that the recent pogroms,
    appalling by their dimensions and by the number of their
    victims, have been staged with the open connivance and, in many
    cases, with the immediate assistance and sometimes even under
    the direction of the police and highest local administration;
    that the Government, not at all abashed by the monstrous crimes
    of its executive organs, the local representatives of State
    authority, has not removed from office a single one of the
    suspected functionaries, and has taken no measures to bring
    them to justice.

    In view of the fact that Count Witte has repeatedly stated that
    the Government does not see its way clear to proclaim at the
    present moment the emancipation of the Jews, supposedly in the
    interest of the Jews themselves, against whom the agitation
    of the popular masses might be intensified by such a measure,
    whereas, in reality, the pogroms are a result of that very
    rightlessness of the Jews which is fully realized by the masses
    of the Russian people and by the so-called Black Hundred--the
    Convention resolves that the sending of a deputation to
    Count Witte and the entering into negotiations with him will
    achieve no purpose, and that, instead, all efforts shall be
    concentrated upon organizing Russian Jewry in the struggle for
    its equality of citizenship by joining the ranks of the general
    movement for liberty.

Imbued with the spirit of martyrdom, the Convention remembered the
martyr Dashevski, the avenger of the Kishinev massacre,[49] and
passed a resolution to convey to the youthful sufferer, who was then
languishing in a penal military company, its "enthusiastic greetings."

In an outburst of national enthusiasm the Convention adopted the
following bold resolution:

    In the interest of realizing to their full extent the civil,
    political, and national rights of the Jewish nationality in
    Russia, the Convention resolves as follows:

    To proceed without delay to call, on the basis of universal
    and equal suffrage, without discrimination of sex, and by a
    direct secret vote, an All-Russian Jewish National Assembly in
    order to establish, in accordance with the will of the entire
    Jewish population, the forms and principles of its national
    self-determination as well as the foundations of its internal
    organization.

It was the project of a national Synedrion, radically different in its
conception from the Napoleonic Synedrion convened in 1807.

The third convention of the "League of Equal Eights" was held on
February 10-13, 1906, during the election campaign to the first
Imperial Duma. The proposal of the Left wing of the League to boycott
the Duma, on the ground that it "will prove a bulwark of reaction"--a
prediction which was fully justified by events--and to refrain from
taking part in the elections, was voted down. On the contrary, a
resolution was passed, calling upon the Jews to take a most active
part in the elections, to nominate everywhere their own Jewish
candidates, and, wherever this was impossible, to give their votes to
the non-Jewish candidates on condition that they pledge themselves
to support in the Duma the civil, political, and national rights of
the Jewish people. The resolution, moreover, contained this clause:
"To insist that the Jewish question in the Duma shall be settled
unconditionally in connection with the fundamental articles of the
Constitution and with the questions of elementary liberties to be
granted to all citizens."

An election campaign was set in motion and carried on under the
most difficult circumstances. The police authorities took advantage
of the state of war which had been proclaimed in many places to
interfere with a comprehensive pre-election propaganda, and at the
same time the Black Hundred tried to intimidate the Jews by holding
out the menace of pogroms during the approaching Passover season.
In Poland, the anti-Semitic chauvinists threatened the Jews with
all possible reprisals for their "audacious intention" to nominate
their own candidates for the Duma, alongside of the candidates of the
Christian Poles. Simultaneously, the Jewish group of the Left, the
"Bund" and others, followed the policy of boycotting the Duma and
did their best to interfere with the elections. However, all these
apprehensions proved groundless. The Passover and election pogroms did
not take place, and Russian Jewry displayed a vigorous activity in the
elections, with the result that twelve Jewish deputies were sent to
the first Duma. The most active among these deputies were M. Vinaver,
one of the leaders of the general Russian Constitutional-Democratic
party and president of the "League for the Attainment of Equal Rights";
Dr. Shmaryahu Levin, the well-known Zionist; L. Bramson, actively
identified with Jewish educational activities, who was affiliated with
the Russian Democratic group, known as the _Trudoviki_, or "Laborites."
All the Jewish deputies were united on the nationalistic platform
formulated by the "League for the Attainment of Equal Rights." By a
resolution passed at the fourth Convention of the League, held on
May 9-13, 1906, they pledged themselves to co-ordinate their actions
in all questions pertaining to Jewish emancipation and to abide by a
common discipline, without, however, forming a separate parliamentary
fraction.


4. THE JEWISH QUESTION BEFORE THE FIRST DUMA

The first Duma was convened on April 27, 1906, and barely three months
later, on July 8, it was dissolved, or rather dispersed by the Tzar,
for having displayed a spirit of excessive opposition. The prevailing
element in the first Duma was the Constitutional-Democratic majority
to which, by their political sympathies, the bulk of Russian Jewry and
ten of its twelve representatives in the Duma--the other two stood
a little more to the Left--belonged. It was natural for the Jews to
expect that a Parliament of this complexion would have no difficulty
in solving the question of equal rights for the Jews as one of the
most fundamental prerequisites of civil liberty. Unfortunately,
this expectation was not justified. The entire brief session of the
Duma was spent in an uninterrupted struggle of the Opposition with
the unscrupulous Government which was then headed by Goremykin, a
hide-bound reactionary. True, in its reply to the speech from the
throne, the Duma declared that "neither liberty nor order can be firmly
established without the equality of all citizens before the law." But
in the pronouncement of the Government of May 13 no word was said about
this equality of citizenship. The Jewish deputy Vinaver delivered a
powerful speech, in which, among other things, he spoke as follows:

    From this platform, from which so much has been said about
    political liberties, we Jews, the representatives of one of
    the most tortured nationalities in the land, have not uttered
    a single word about ourselves, because we did not consider it
    seemly to speak here of civil inequality.... Now, however, it
    is becoming clear to us that the Government has made up its
    mind to continue on the same road on which it has gone until
    now, and we are, therefore, bound to declare that, so long as
    you will connive at civil slavery, there will be no peace in
    the land.

The mistake made by the Jewish deputies consisted just in the fact
that they had not "uttered a single word" about themselves on a former
occasion, in reply to the speech from the Throne which had equally
failed to make the slightest mention of civil equality--practically
affecting only the Jews--and that they did not utter that word with
that feeling of righteous indignation to which the representatives of
"the most tortured nationality" in Russia were morally entitled.

Later on, the debates in the Duma concerning the Jewish question were,
by the force of events, concentrated upon the pogrom policy of the
Government. On May 8 an interpellation was introduced regarding the
complicity of the Imperial Police Department in instigating the pogroms
of 1905. Stolypin, the Minister of the Interior, promised to reply to
the interpellation, which was substantiated by documentary evidence, a
month later. But before that term had elapsed a new sanguinary pogrom
broke out in Bialystok.

In this center of the Jewish revolutionary and labor movement, where,
in 1905, the police and troops had already twice staged a Jewish
massacre, a new conspiracy was being hatched by the police and military
against "the authors of the liberty movement." An accidental act of
terrorism, the assassination of the Chief of Police by an unknown
culprit, gave the police conspirators a proper occasion to execute
their terrible design. On June 1, during a church procession, a pistol
was discharged by an _agent provocateur_ from among the Black Hundred,
and at once a rumor spread like wildfire among the crowd that "the
Jewish anarchists are firing at the Christians." The pogrom flared up
on the spot. In the course of two days the mob was busy demolishing
Jewish houses and stores and attacking the Jews, while at the same time
the police and military were systematically firing at the Jews not
only on the streets but also in the houses, in which the unfortunate
tried to hide. The bestialities of Kishinev were enacted again. Entire
families were slaughtered, human beings were tortured, and hacked
to pieces; limbs were cut off from the body, nails driven into the
heads.... Eighty dead and hundreds of wounded Jews were the result of
this new exploit of the counter-revolutionaries.

On June 2, the Imperial Duma received the heart-rending news of the
Bialystok massacre, and right there, after the passionate speeches
of Dr. Levin, Rodichev, and other deputies, passed a resolution to
bring in an interpellation to be answered by the Government within a
fixed date, and to appoint a parliamentary commission which was to
investigate the events on the spot. Three Duma deputies left at once
for Bialystok, and on their return submitted to the Duma an unvarnished
account which incontrovertibly established the fact that the Bialystok
crime had been carefully prepared as a counter-revolutionary act, and
that the peaceful Jewish population had been pitilessly shot down by
the police and soldiery.

On June 5, three days after the appearance of the bloody spectre of
Bialystok in the Duma hall, a bill dealing with civil equality for
the Jews came up for discussion. The burning problem involving the
disfranchisement of six million human beings was discussed side by
side with the question of a few petty class discriminations and with
the entirely separate question of women's rights. The entire treatment
of the subject by the deputies showed a distinct lack of warm-hearted
sympathy. Only the speech of the Jewish deputy Levin reverberated with
indignation, when he reminded the Russian Assembly that he himself,
being a Jew, would in ordinary times be denied the right of residence
in the capital, and that, as soon as the Duma would be dissolved, he, a
representative of the people and a former legislator, would be evicted
from St. Petersburg by the police. The bill was referred to a committee
to receive its final shape.

After an interval of three days, on June 8, the Duma had again occasion
to discuss the subject of pogroms. Premier Stolypin replied to the
interpellation of May 8 concerning the complicity of the Government
in the pogrom of 1905. His lame attempt to exonerate the authorities
called forth a strong rebuttal from a former member of the Government,
the erstwhile Assistant-Minister of the Interior, Deputy Urussov, who
bravely disclosed the full truth. Fortified by documentary evidence,
he proved the existence of a secret printing-press in the Police
Department which was issuing "patriotic" proclamations calling upon
the populace to exterminate the Jews. He quoted the words of the
gendarmerie officer who was in charge of that particular activity:
"A pogrom may be arranged on whatever scale you please, whether it
be against ten people or against ten thousand," and he concluded his
speech with these words: "The danger will not disappear, so long as
the affairs of the state and the destinies of the land will be subject
to the influence of people who, by their training, are corporals and
policemen, and by their convictions pogrom makers." These words were
accompanied by a storm of applause, and the Government bench was
showered with cries, "Resign, you pogrom fiends!" The Duma finally
adopted a resolution echoing these cries of indignation.

A more passionate tone characterized the discussions of the Duma
during the days of June 23-26, in connection with the report of the
parliamentary commission which had been appointed to investigate the
Bialystok massacre. The Duma was scandalized by the lying official
communication, in which the Jews were put forward as the authors of
the pogrom, and by the shameful military order of the day, in which
the troops of the Bialystok garrison were thanked "for their splendid
services during the time of the pogrom." The speeches delivered by the
Jewish deputies, by Jacobson, who had visited Bialystok as one of the
members of the parliamentary commission, and by Vinaver and Levin, gave
vent to their burning national wrath. The Russian Mirabeau, Rodichev,
pilloried the highly placed instigators of the Bialystok butchery.
On July 7, the Duma concluded the debate by adopting a resolution
denouncing in violent terms the policy of the Government, a policy
of oppression, frightfulness and extermination, which had created "a
situation unprecedented in the history of civilized countries," and
demanding, moreover, the immediate resignation of the reactionary
Ministry.


5. THE SPREAD OF ANARCHY AND THE SECOND DUMA

Two days later, when the deputies appeared before the Duma, they
found the building closed, and on the doors was displayed an imperial
manifesto dissolving the Duma which "has encroached upon a domain
outside its jurisdiction, and has engaged in investigating the acts
of the authorities appointed by us." The sudden dissolution of the
Duma was answered by the "Vyborg Manifesto" which was signed by the
entire parliamentary Opposition, calling upon the people to refuse to
pay taxes to furnish soldiers to a Government which had driven asunder
their representatives. The manifesto was also signed by all the Jewish
deputies who subsequently had to pay for it with imprisonment and the
loss of their electoral rights.

The revolutionary terrorism which had subsided during the sessions
of the Duma broke out with redoubled violence after its dissolution.
Attempts upon the lives of high officials--the most terrible being
the explosion of a bomb in the summer residence of Stolypin,
who had been appointed Prime Minister at the dissolution of the
Duma--"expropriations," _i. e._, the plunder of state funds and private
moneys for revolutionary purposes, anarchistic labor strikes, were
the order of the day. The Government retorted with monstrous measures
of oppression. A political court-martial was instituted which, in the
course of five months (September, 1906-January, 1907) sentenced over
one thousand people to death, among them many who were innocent or
under age. Needless to say, a considerable portion of these victims
were Jews.

Yet as far as the revolutionary attitude of the Jewish population was
concerned, the Government was not satisfied to cope with it by "legal"
executions, and therefore resorted, in addition, to the well-tried
contrivance of wholesale executions, in other words, of pogroms. The
chief of the political police in the city of Syedletz, Tikhanovich,
engineered on August 27-28 a bloody military pogrom in that city,
netting thirty dead and more than one hundred and fifty wounded Jews.
The signal for the pogrom were shots fired at a sentry by an _agent
provocateur_, whereupon the troops started an aimless musketry fire
on the streets and even bombarded Jewish houses with grenades. Many
soldiers, in a state of intoxication, committed incredible barbarities
and looted Jewish property. Notwithstanding the official report of
another agent of the local political police, Captain Pyetukhov, in
which he asserted that the Jews had not given the slightest reason for
the butchery and that the latter had been entirely engineered by the
military and political authorities, the perpetrator of the pogrom,
Tikhanovich, was not only allowed to go unpunished, but received from
the governor-general of Warsaw an expression of thanks for his "energy
and executive skill."

This being the attitude of the ruling spheres of Russia, it was out
of the question to expect any initiative from that quarter in regard
to the solution of the Jewish question. The Government of Stolypin,
in a circular issued on August 24, 1906, had promised "to find out
without delay which restrictions, being a source of irritation and
manifestly obsolete, could be immediately repealed, and which others,
affecting basically the relationship of the Jewish nationality to the
native population, seem to be a matter of popular conscience, and
should therefore be referred to the legislative institutions." The
Council of Ministers laid before the Tzar a draft of moderate reforms
in favor of the Jews, pointing to the necessity of appeasing the Jews
who, as a result of their grievous restrictions, "had been forced to
carry on a desperate struggle against the existing order." But these
representations had no effect. Nicholas II. is reported to have said
on that occasion: "So long as I am Tzar, the Zhyds of Russia shall
not have equal rights." During that time, the power of the so-called
"Second Government," the horrible camarilla around the Tzar, was in the
ascendancy, and their mainstay were the Black Hundred now organized
in the reactionary "League of the Russian People." These reactionary
terrorists knew only of one way to solve the Jewish question--by
exterminating the Jews.

There was only one ray of hope left--the second Duma which was to be
convoked in February, 1907. The election campaign was carried on under
Government pressure and was hampered by the threat of reprisals and
pogroms on the part of the "Black." The elections resulted in a Duma
with an anomalous complexion. The two extreme wings, the Socialists
and Black Hundred, had gained in strength, whereas the Constitutional
Democratic center had been weakened. The Jews had managed to elect only
three deputies, apart from one Jewish Social-Democrat who ran on the
ticket of his party. They were men of little renown, whereas of the
deputies of the first Duma who were prosecuted for signing the Vyborg
Manifesto not one was elected.

The entire energy of the new Parliament spent itself in the struggle
between its left and right wing. The Jewish question was entirely
relegated to the "Committee on the Freedom of Conscience." The
Government had brought in a bill repealing all denominational
restrictions, "except those affecting the Jews," but the Committee
decided to eliminate this discriminating clause and in this manner
carry through the emancipation of the Jews under the guise of the
"Freedom of Conscience."

But this time, too, the hope for Jewish emancipation proved an
illusion. The Duma was soon dissolved, under the pretext that a
revolutionary conspiracy of the Socialistic deputies had been
uncovered. On June 3, 1907, another _coup d'état_ took place. The
former electoral law which made it possible for the Russian democracy
and the oppressed nationalities to send their representatives to
the Duma was arbitrarily changed by the Tzar in order to insure a
conservative pro-Government majority in the Russian parliament. There
followed an era of dismal reaction.

FOOTNOTES:

[48] In Russian, _Mitropolit_, the highest ecclesiastical dignitary
in the Greek-Orthodox Church. There are three Mitropolits in Russia,
residing in Petrograd, Moscow, and Kiev.

[49] See above, p. 81.



CHAPTER XXXVII

EXTERNAL OPPRESSION AND INTERNAL CONSOLIDATION


1. THE NEW ALIGNMENTS WITHIN RUSSIAN JEWRY

The terrible quadrennium of 1903-1906 had an extraordinarily quickening
effect upon the national and political thought of the classes as
well as of the masses of Russian Jewry. The year of Kishinev and
Homel, when the rightless Jews were made defenceless; the year of
the Russo-Japanese War, when these rightless and defenceless pariahs
were called upon to fight for their fatherland against the enemy from
without; the year of the revolution when after the sanguinary struggle
for liberty the Jews received a "constitutional charter wrapped up
in pogroms"; finally, the first year of the Duma when indignant
utterances of the Jewish deputies from the platform of the Duma were
accompanied by the moans of the wounded Jews of Bialystok--these
terrible upheavals might have proved fatal to Russian Israel had it
not, during the preceding period, worked out for itself a definite
_nationalistic_ attitude towards the non-Jewish world. There were
several varieties of this national-political formula. At the one pole
stood Zionism, with its theory of a new "exodus." At the other pole
was the Social-Democratic party with its premise that "the blood of
the Jew must serve as lubricating oil upon the wheels of the Russian
Revolution." But even these two poles came somewhat closer to one
another at the moment of the great national danger, converging, in
spite of all their differences in program and tactics, toward the
central line above which floated the banner proclaiming the fight
for the civil, political, and national rights of the Jewish people.
Disfranchised, battered by pogroms, victimized by tyrannous Tzardom,
the Jews of Russia never thought of degrading themselves to the point
of begging equal rights "in instalments." They demanded their rights in
full, and demanded them not merely as "the Jewish _population_," but as
the Jewish _people_, as an autonomous nation among other nations with a
culture of its own. The doctrine of "National-Cultural Autonomism"[50]
was crystallized in definite slogans. These slogans were proclaimed,
as we have seen, by the "League for the Attainment of Equal Rights for
the Jewish People," which united on its platform all political Jewish
groups, with the exception of the Social-Democratic partisans.

The years of storm and stress also forced Zionism to recede from its
original position of denying the possibility of a national struggle
in the Diaspora. Meeting during the most exciting days of the Russian
Revolution, the Seventh Zionist Congress at Basle, held in July, 1905,
mourned the loss of its prematurely cut-off leader, Theodor Herzl, and
adopted a resolution voicing its strict allegiance to the Palestine
idea and rejecting the temptations of Territorialism. This led to a
formal split within the party, the Territorialists, headed by Zangwill,
seceding and forming an organization of their own.

A year later, in November, 1906, the Russian Zionists met at
Helsingfors, and adopted the platform of a "synthetic Zionism," that
is, a combination of the Palestine idea with the fight for national
and cultural autonomy in the Diaspora. The guiding resolution of the
Zionist Convention was couched in the following terms:

    The Zionist organization of Russia sanctions the affiliation
    of the Zionists with the movement for liberty among the
    territorial nationalities of Russia, and advocates the
    necessity of uniting Russian Jewry upon the principles of the
    recognition of the Jewish nationality and its self-government
    in all the affairs affecting Jewish national life.

This slogan of "national rights" was followed by the Zionists during
the elections to the first Imperial Duma. It was acted upon to a lesser
extent by the two Socialistic factions affiliated with Zionism, the
_Poale Zion_ and the Zionistic Socialists[51]; both groups confined
themselves to the demand of a minimum of cultural autonomy in the
Diaspora, concentrating their entire energy upon emigration, whether it
be into Palestine, as advocated by the _Poale Zion_, or into any other
territory, as preached by the Zionistic Socialists. During 1905-1906,
a new Socialistic party with strong nationalistic leanings came into
existence. In distinction from the other two Socialistic factions, it
demanded a maximum of national autonomy in the Diaspora, including
even a Jewish Diet as the central organ of Jewish self-government.
The members of this party called themselves "Saymists" (from _Saym_,
"Diet"), or went by the name of the "Jewish Socialistic Labor Party."

In the midst of all these partisan platforms stood the "League for the
Attainment of Equal Rights for the Jewish People," disregarding all
party and class affiliations.[52] During the revolutionary period,
this organization endeavored to unite all public-spirited Jews in the
general Russian and national Jewish struggle for liberty, but with the
decline of the revolutionary movement, the centrifugal forces within
the League began to assert themselves. The divergence of views and
tactics among the various groups composing the League proved stronger
than their common interest in the nearest aim, which, with the advent
of the political reaction, had become more remote.

Thus it came about that, at the beginning of 1907, the "League for
the Attainment of Equal Rights" fell asunder into its component
parts. The first to secede from it was the Zionist party, which
preferred to carry on its own _Gegenwartsarbeit_ under a separate
party flag--although, properly considered, a far-reaching activity on
behalf of national-Jewish rejuvenation in the lands of the Diaspora
was scarcely compatible with the fundamental principle of political
Zionism, the "negation of the _Golus_." The Helsingfors program of
"synthetic Zionism," the child of the liberty movement, shrank more and
more, as the hopes for a Jewish emancipation in Russia receded into the
distance.

Out of the "League for Equal Eights" came further the "Jewish People's
Group," a party which opposed the Zionist idea altogether and
repudiated the attempt to find new Jewish centers outside of Russia.
This group, headed by the well-known political leader, M. Vinaver,
placed in the center of its program the fight for civil emancipation,
in close contact with the progressive elements of the Russian people,
whereas in the question of national-Jewish interests it confined itself
to the principle of "self-determination" and to the freedom of Jewish
culture in general outlines, without putting forward concrete demands
of Jewish autonomy. The People's Group counted among its adherents
many representatives of the Jewish _intelligenzia_ who had more or
less discarded the idea of assimilation and had come to recognize the
necessity of a minimum of "Jewish-national rights."

The third group, which also took its rise in the "League for Equal
Eights," and received the name _Volkspartei_, or Jewish National
Party, stood firmly on the platform of national Jewish policies.
The underlying principle of this organization, or, more correctly,
of this far-reaching social current, which has its origin in the
historic development of the Jewish people, was the same principle of
national-cultural autonomism which had long before the revolution
pursued its own line of development parallel to Zionism.[53] The
simultaneous struggle for civil and national rights, the creation of
a full-fledged national community, instead of the _Kultusgemeinde_ of
Western Europe, an autonomous national school, and the rights of both
languages, the Hebrew and the Yiddish--such was, in general outlines,
the program of the _Volkspartei_. At the same time, this party,
taking the historic idea of the transplantation of Jewish centers in
the Diaspora as its point of departure, recognized the emigration to
America and the colonization of Palestine as great national factors
destined to create two new centers of Judaism, one quantitatively
powerful center in North America, and a smaller national center,
but qualitatively, from the point of view of cultural purity, more
valuable, in Palestine.[54]

Finally, the "League for Equal Rights" gave birth to a fourth party,
the Jewish Democratic Group, which is distinguished from the People's
Group by its stronger leaning towards the political parties of the
Left, the Russian radicals and Socialists.

Since the dissolution of the "League," these four groups have, as a
rule, united in various coalitions. They are all represented on the
permanent council at St. Petersburg which, together with the deputies
of the Imperial Duma, discusses Jewish political questions as they
arise from time to time. Thus, there emerged in Jewish public life a
form of representation reflecting the national and political ideas
which had assumed concrete shape during the years of the Russian
revolution and counter-revolution. The only organization standing
outside these federated groups and their common platform of national
Jewish politics is the Jewish Social-Democratic party, known as the
"Bund," which is tied down by its class program and is barred by it
from co-operating with the bourgeoisie, or a non-class organization,
even within the domain of national Jewish interests.


2. THE TRIUMPH OF THE "BLACK HUNDRED"

All these strivings and slogans were severely hit by the _coup d'état_
of June 3, 1907, when a large part of what the revolution had achieved
was rendered null and void. Owing to the amendment of the suffrage law
by this clumsy act of autocratic despotism, the constitution became the
handmaid of Tzardom. The ruling power slipped into the hands of the
Black Hundred, the extreme monarchistic groups, which were organized in
the "League of the Russian People" and openly advocated the restoration
of autocracy. The head of the League, Dubrovin, congratulated the
emperor upon his act of violence of June 3, and was assured in reply
that henceforth the "League of the Russian People" would be the
"trusted bulwark" of the Throne. Nicholas might have said with greater
justification that the Throne was the bulwark of the League of the
Black Hundred, the hirelings of the reaction, who were supplied with
millions of rubles from the imperial counter-revolutionary fund,
the so-called "black money." Street heroes and pogrom perpetrators
became the masters of Russian politics. The sinister forces began the
liquidation of the emancipation movement. Day after day the newspaper
columns were crammed with reports concerning the arrests of politically
"undependable" persons and the executions of revolutionaries. The
gallows and the jails became, as it were, the emblems of governmental
authority. The spectacle of daily executions which continued for two
years (1907-1909) forced from the breast of the grand old man, Leo
Tolstoi, the desperate cry: "I cannot keep silent."

Yet Nicholas II. continued his rôle of hangman. While young men and
women, among them a great number of Jews, met their fate on the
scaffold, the rioters and murderers from among the Black Hundred, who
during the days of October, 1905, alone had ruined hundreds of Jewish
communities, remained unpunished. The majority of them were not even
put on trial, for the local authorities who were charged with that
duty were afraid lest the judicial inquiry might establish their
own complicity in the pogroms. But even those who were prosecuted
and convicted on the charge of murder and plunder were released
from punishment by orders from St. Petersburg. As a rule, the local
branch of the League of the Russian People would appeal to the Tzar
to pardon the participants in the "patriotic demonstrations"--the
official euphemism for anti-Jewish riots--and the invariable response
was an immediate pardon which was ostentatiously published in the
newspapers. The petitions to the Tzar applying for the pardon of
convicted perpetrators of violence went regularly through the Minister
of Justice, the ferocious reactionary and anti-Semite Shcheglovitov.
No one doubted that this amnesty was granted by virtue of an agreement
concluded in 1905 between the Government and the pogrom ringleaders,
guaranteeing immunity to the anti-Jewish rioters.

A different treatment was meted out to the Jewish self-defence
contingents, which had the courage to oppose the murderers. They
were dealt with ruthlessly. In Odessa, a court-martial sentenced six
young Jews, members of a self-defence group which was active during
the October pogroms, to long terms of hard labor, characterizing the
"crime" of these Jews in the following words: "For having participated
in a conspiracy having for its object the overthrow of the existing
order by means of arming the Jewish proletariat for an attack upon
the police and troops." This characterization was not far from the
mark. The men engaged in defending the lives of their brothers and
sisters against the murderous hordes were indeed guilty of a criminal
offence against the "existing order," since the latter sought its
support in these hordes, of whom "the police and troops," as was shown
by the judicial inquiries, had formed a part. The appeal taken from
this judgment to the highest military court was dismissed and the
sentence sustained (August, 1907). The Jews who had done nothing beyond
defending life and property could expect neither pardon nor mitigation.
This lurid contrast between the release of the pogrom perpetrators
and the conviction of the pogrom victims was interpreted as a direct
challenge to the Jewish population on the part of Nicholas II. and his
frenzied accomplices.

The Black Hundred had a right to feel that it was their day. They knew
that the League of the Russian People formed, to use the phrase then
frequently applied to it in the press, a "Second Government," which
wielded greater power than the official quasi-constitutional Government
of Stolypin. The dregs of the Russian populace gave full vent to their
base instincts. In Odessa, hordes of League members made it a regular
practice to assault the Jews upon the streets with rubber sticks,
and, in case of resistance, to fire at them with pistols. Grigoryev,
the city-governor, one of the few honest administrators, who made an
attempt to restrain this black terrorism, was dismissed in August,
1907,[55] with the result that the assaults upon the Jews in the
streets assumed an even more sanguinary character. All complaints of
the Jews were dismissed by the authorities with the remark: "All this
is taking place because the Jews were most prominent in the revolution."

The Government represented by Stolypin, which was anxious to save at
least the appearance of a constitutional régime, was often forced
to give way before the secret Government of the Black League, which
commanded the full sympathy of the Tzar. By orders of the League,
Stolypin decreed that one hundred Jewish students who had passed the
competitive examination at the Kiev Polytechnicum should be excluded
from that institution and that a like number of Russian students
who had failed to pass should be admitted instead. The director and
dean of the institution protested against this clumsy violation of
academic freedom, but their protest was left unheeded, whereupon they
tendered their resignation (September, 1907). Following upon this, the
Ministry of Public Instruction, yielding to the pressure of the "Second
Government," restored the shameful percentage norm, restricting the
admission of Jews to institutions of higher learning, which, during the
preceding years, had been disregarded by the autonomous professorial
councils.

About the same time the Senate handed down a decision declaring the
Zionist organization, which had been active in Russia for many years,
to be illegal, and giving full scope to the police authorities to
proceed with repressive measures against the members of the movement.


3. THE THIRD, OR BLACK, DUMA

Such was the atmosphere which surrounded the elections to the third
Imperial Duma in the fall of 1907. The reactionary electoral law of
June 3 barred from the Russian Parliament the most progressive and
democratic elements of the Empire. Moreover, by splitting the electoral
assemblies into class and national curias, the Government succeeded in
preventing the election of any considerable number of Jewish deputies.
The elections took place under severe pressure from the authorities.
Many "dangerous" nominees of the Left were arbitrarily put under
arrest on framed-up political charges and, pending the conclusion of
the investigation, were temporarily barred from running for office. In
some places, the Black Hundred openly threatened the Jews with pogroms,
if they dared to nominate their own candidates. As a result, only
two Jewish deputies managed to get into the Duma--Friedman from the
government of Kovno, and Nisselovich from Courland.

The third Duma, nicknamed the Black, assembled in November, 1907. It
had an overwhelming majority of reactionaries and anti-Semites. This
majority of the Right was made up of the coalition of the conservative
Center, represented by the "Octobrist" party,[56] with the extreme
Right wing, the Russian "Nationalists," and Black Hundred. Whenever the
Jewish question came up for discussion, the reactionary bloc was always
able to drown the voices of the weak opposition, the "Cadet" party
(Constitutional Democrats), the _Trudoviki_ ("the Labor Party"), and
the handful of Socialists.

The attitude of this reactionary Duma toward the Jewish question
was revealed at its early sessions when the bill concerning the
inviolability of the person was the subject of discussion. The
opposition demanded the establishment of the full freedom of movement
as the most fundamental condition of the inviolability of the person,
but the majority of the Right managed to insert in the bill the
following stipulation: "No one shall be limited in the right of
choosing his place of residence and in moving from place to place,
except in the cases set forth in the law, and excepting the Jews who
arrive in localities situated outside the Pale of Settlement" (1908).
In this wise the Russian legislators cleverly succeeded in harmonizing
the principle of the inviolability of the person with the life-long
imprisonment of millions of people in the huge prison house known as
the Pale of Settlement.

Their solicitude for the maintenance of this vast ghetto was so
intense that the reactionary Government of Stolypin was often the butt
of criticism because it did not always show sufficient regard for
this holy institution. The fact of the matter was that in May, 1907,
Stolypin had issued a circular ordering the governors to stop the
expulsion from the interior governments of those Jews who had settled
there before August, 1906, and possessed "a family and a domestic
establishment" in those provinces, provided they were "harmless
to the public order and do not arouse the dissatisfaction of the
Christian population." As a result of this circular, several hundred,
possibly several thousand, Jewish families were saved from expulsion.
In consequence, the Right brought in an interpellation calling upon
the Government to explain on what ground it had dared to issue this
"charter of privileges" to the Jews. The interpellation, of course,
proved effective, and the Government did its utmost to nullify the
exemptive provisions of the circular. The anti-Semitic Duma betrayed
the same spirit on another occasion by rejecting in the same year
(1908) the bill, introduced by the Opposition, conferring the right
of visiting the health resorts or watering-places upon all sufferers,
without distinction of nationality.

Yet these legal discriminations were not the worst feature of the
third Duma. Even more excruciating was the way in which the Right wing
of the Russian Parliament permitted itself to make sport of Judaism
and things Jewish. It almost seemed as if the devotees of autocracy,
the members of the extreme Right, had come to the Russian Parliament
for the express purpose of showering abuse not only on the Russian
constitution but also on parliamentary government in general. The
hirelings of Nicholas II. danced like a horde of savages over the dead
body of the emancipation movement, singing hymns in praise of slavery
and despotism. Creatures of the street, the reactionary deputies
drenched the tribune of the Imperial Duma with mud and filth, and,
when dealing with the Jews, they resorted to methods similar to those
which were in vogue among their accomplices upon the streets of the
devastated cities. The term _Zhyd_ and the adjective _Zhydovski_,
in addition to other scurrilous epithets, became the most favored
terms of their vocabulary. They inserted formulas and amendments in
various bills submitted to the Duma which were deliberately intended
to insult the Jews. They called upon the Ministry of War to bring in
a bill excluding the Jews from the army, in view of the fact that the
Jewish soldiers had proved an element "which corrupts the army in the
time of peace and is extremely unreliable in the time of war" (1908).
They supported a law barring the Jews from the military Academy of
Medicine, on the ground that the Jewish surgeons had carried on a
revolutionary propaganda in the army during the Russo-Japanese War
(1910). The Octobrists demanded the exclusion of the Jews from the
office of Justice of the Peace, for the reason that their admission was
subversive of the principles of a "Christian State" (1909). The remark
made on that occasion by Karaulov, a deputy of the Opposition, "Where
there is no equality, where there are pariah nationalities, there is
no room for a constitutional order," was met from the benches of the
Right with the retort: "Thank God for it; we don't want it." A similar
cynical outburst of laughter greeted the warning of Rodichev: "Without
the abolition of the Jewish disabilities, there is no access to the
Temple of Freedom."

The two Jewish Duma deputies did their utmost to get a hearing,
but the Black Hundred generally interrupted their speeches by wild
and offensive exclamations. In 1910, the Jewish deputy Nisselovich
succeeded in obtaining the signatures of one hundred and sixty-six
deputies for a legal draft, abrogating the Pale of Settlement. It was
laid before the Duma, but resulted merely in fruitless debates. It was
referred to a committee which quietly strangled the bill.


4. NEW JEWISH DISABILITIES

Spurred on by the reactionary Duma, the Government went to even greater
lengths in its policy of Jewish discrimination. Premier Stolypin, who
was getting constantly nearer to the Right, was entirely oblivious
of the promise, made by him in 1905, to remove immediately all
restrictions which are "the source of irritation and are manifestly
obsolete." On the contrary, the Ministry presided over by him was
systematically engaged in inventing new grievous disabilities. The
Jewish deputy Friedman was fully justified in declaring, in a speech
delivered in February, 1910, that even "during the most terrible time
which the Jews had to live through under Plehve no such cruelties
and barbarities were practised as at the present moment." Wholesale
expulsions of Jews from the cities situated outside the Pale of
Settlement and from the villages within the Pale assumed the character
of an epidemic. In the spring of 1910 the Government decided on
sacrificing to the Moloch of Jew-hatred a whole hecatomb by expelling
twelve hundred Jewish families from Kiev--a measure which aroused a
cry of indignation beyond the confines of Russia. The acts of the
Government were marked by a refinement of cruelty, for even little
children, invalids, and aged people were pitilessly evicted. Particular
enmity was shown in the ejection of Jews who had committed the
"crime" of visiting summer resorts outside the city lines. The Senate
handed down a decision to the effect that the Jewish soldiers who had
participated in the defence of the besieged fortress of Port Arthur
during the Japanese War were not entitled to the right of residence
which had been granted by a former decree[57] to the Jewish soldiers
who had taken part in the war.

The spiritual murder of Jewish school children was the function of the
black Minister of Enlightenment, with the significant name of Schwartz.
The school norm, which, before the revolution, had been applied merely
as a Government order, without legislative sanction, was formulated by
him into a law and ratified by the Tzar in September, 1908. Henceforth,
all institutions of higher learning in the Empire were open to the
Jews only in a proportion not exceeding three per cent. of the total
number of students for the capitals, five per cent. for the educational
establishments outside the Pale, and ten per cent. for the Pale of
Settlement. In view of the fact that during the emancipation movement
the influx of Jews to the higher schools had been very great, so that
their number was now vastly in excess of the established norm, it would
have become necessary for the higher schools to bar completely all new
candidates until the number of Jewish students had been reduced to
the prescribed percentage limits. For a while the Minister recoiled
from taking this cruel step, and permitted for the next few years
the admission of Jewish students within the limits of the percentage
norm, calculating the latter in relation to the number of the _newly
admitted_ Christian students during a given year, without regard to
the Jewish students admitted previously. Subsequently, however, many
educational institutions closed their doors completely to the Jews,
referring, by way of explanation, to the "completion of the norm" by
the former pupils. Once more, bands of the "martyrs of learning" could
be seen wending their ways toward the universities in foreign lands.

A year later, in 1909, the percentage restrictions governing the
secondary schools were also placed on the statute books. The proportion
of Jewish admissions was fixed between five and fifteen per cent.--_i.
e._, slightly in excess of the old norm--and was extended in its
application to private educational institutions with the prerogatives
of government schools. This law spelled ruin to many gymnazia and
schools of commerce which, though directed by Christians, were almost
entirely dependent on Jewish support, eighty per cent. of their school
population consisting of Jews. As for the gymnazia maintained by Jews,
with very few exceptions, they never were able to obtain from the
Ministry the status of government institutions.

The educational Hamans, however, went a step further, and in March,
1911, secured an ukase of the Tzar extending the percentage norm to the
"externs":[58] henceforward Jews were to be admitted to the examination
for the "certificate of maturity"[59] or for the completion of a
part of the curriculum only in a certain proportion to the number of
Christian externs. In point of fact, however, there were no Christian
externs, since only the Jews who had failed to find admission to the
schools were forced to present themselves for examination as externs.
In consequence, the enormous number of Jewish children who had been
barred from the schools by the percentage norm were deprived of their
right to receive a testimonial from a secondary school. This law was
passed during a brief interruption in the sessions of the Duma and was
never submitted to it. The deputies of the Opposition brought in an
interpellation concerning this action, but the "Black Parliament" laid
the matter on the table, and the law which lacked all legal basis went
into operation.

Swayed more and more by the tendencies of a reactionary Russian
nationalism, Stolypin's Government set out to uproot the
national-cultural institutions of the "alien" races in Russia.
The Poles, the Finns, and other nationalities became the victims
of this policy. The lash of oppression was also applied to Jewish
cultural life. In 1910, Stolypin issued a circular impressing Russian
officialdom with the idea that the cultural and educational societies
of the "aliens" contributed towards arousing in them "a narrow
national-political self-consciousness" and towards "the strengthening
of national separatism," and that for this reason all the societies
of the Ukrainians and Jews which were established for the purpose of
fostering a separate national culture should be prohibited.


5. THE SPIRITUAL REVIVAL OF RUSSIAN JEWRY

This new blow was aimed right at the heart of Judaism. For after the
revolution, when the political struggle had subsided, the Jewish
_intelligenzia_ directed its entire energy into the channel of
national-cultural endeavors. Profiting by the law of 1906, granting the
freedom of assemblies and meetings, they founded everywhere cultural,
educational, and economic (co-operative and credit) societies. In
1908, the Jewish Literary Society was established in St. Petersburg,
which soon counted over a hundred branches in the provinces. The same
year saw the formation of the Jewish Historico-Ethnographic Society
which began to publish a quarterly review under the name _Yevreyskaya
Starina_ ("Jewish Antiquity").[60] The oldest educational organization
among the Jews, the Society for the Diffusion of Enlightenment,
enlarged its activity and was endeavoring to create a new type of
national Jewish school.

A multitude of other cultural societies and circles sprang into life
with the sanction of the authorities throughout the length and breadth
of the Pale. Everywhere lectures and conferences were held and heated
debates were carried on, centering around national-cultural problems.
Particularly passionate were the discussions about the position of
Hebrew and Yiddish in public life, in school and in literature, leading
to the alignment of two parties, the Hebraists and the Yiddishists. The
lectures, conferences and debates themselves were generally carried on
in one of these languages, mostly in the Yiddish vernacular.

In spite of their crudities, these partisan conflicts were a clear
indication of the advance of national self-consciousness and of the
desire for the upbuilding of a genuine Jewish life upon the concrete
foundations of a cultural autonomy. Of course, anti-Semitic Tzardom
could not be expected to sympathize with this inner regeneration of
Jewry, and, as in the time of Plehve, it directed its blow at the
Jewish-national organizations. Here and there the blow was effective.
In 1911, the Jewish Literary Society, with its one hundred and
twenty branches, which had displayed an energetic activity in the
establishment of libraries and the arrangement of public lectures, went
out of existence. In general, however, the attacks directed against
the Jewish spirit proved much more difficult of realization than the
attacks upon Jewish property. The cultural activities continued in
their course, defying all external restrictions and persecutions.

The literary revival, which had started in the nineties, and was but
temporarily interrupted by the stormy events of the revolutionary
period, also came into its own again. The rejuvenation of both the
national and the popular language, finding its expression in a widely
ramified Jewish literature, proceeded along paralleled lines.
The periodical press in Hebrew, represented by the two dailies,
_ha-Tzefirah_ in Warsaw, and _ha-Zeman_ in Vilna, and the monthly
ha-Shiloah in Odessa, found its counterpart in a popular press in
Yiddish, reaching hundreds of thousands of readers, such as the dailies
_Fraind_ ("The Friend," published since 1903 in St. Petersburg),
_Haint_ ("To-day"), _Moment_, and others, in Warsaw. In addition there
was the Jewish press in Russian: the weeklies _Voskhod_, _Razsvyet_,
_Yevreyski Mir_ in St. Petersburg, and a few other publications.

In the domain of higher literary productivity, new forces were being
constantly added to the old ones. Besides the great national bard
Bialik there appeared a number of gifted poets: Shneor, the singer of
"storm and stress," of doubts and negations, the romantically inclined
Jacob Kohan, Fichman, Reisin, David Einhorn, and many other youthful,
as yet scarcely unfolded talents. J. L. Perez found a rival in Shalom
Asch, the portrayer of patriarchal Jewish life in the provincial
towns of Poland (_Die Städtel_, "The Provincial Town," 1904), and the
author of charming sketches from Jewish life, as well as a playwright
of note whose productions have met with tumultuous applause both on
the Jewish and the non-Jewish stage (_Moshiah's Zeiten_, "Messianic
Times," _Gott von Nekomo_, "God of Revenge," _Shabbetai Zewi_, _Yihus_,
"Blue Blood"). His numerous co-workers in Yiddish letters have devoted
themselves with youthful enthusiasm to the cultivation of this branch
of Jewish literature.

In Hebrew fiction a number of talented writers and a group of
novelists, who publish their works mostly in the _ha-Shiloah_, came
to the fore. The successor of Ahad Ha'am in the editorship of this
periodical, Dr. Joseph Klausner, occupies a prominent place in Jewish
literature as publicist, critic, and partly as historian. If we add
to these talents the not inconsiderable number of writers who are
domiciled in Galicia, Palestine, Germany, and America, and draw their
inspiration from the vast Russian-Jewish reservoir, the growth of
Jewish literature during the last decade stands forth in bold relief.

This progress of inner Jewish life in Russia is truly remarkable. In
spite of the catastrophes which have descended upon Russian Jewry
during the first decade of the twentieth century, the productivity
of the Jewish national spirit has gone on unchecked, and the
national-Jewish culture has struck out in all directions. The
assimilationist positions, which have been generally abandoned, are
only held by a few loyal devotees of a past age. It is true that
the process of _elemental_ assimilation, which penetrates from the
surrounding atmosphere into Judaism through the medium of language,
school and literature continues to affect Jewish life with the same
force as of old. But there can be no doubt that it is effectively
counterbalanced by the centripetal factor of a national culture
which is becoming more and more powerful. Large as is the number of
religious apostates who have deserted Judaism under the effect of
external pressure, and of moral renegades who have abandoned the
national ethical ideals of Judaism in favor of a new-fangled decadent
æstheticism, it is negligible when compared with the compact mass
of Russian Jewry and with the army of intellectuals whose national
self-consciousness has been deepened by suffering. As in all previous
critical moments in the history of the Jews, the spirit of the nation,
defying its new tormentors, has grown stronger in the worn-out body.
The Hamans of Russia who have attempted to crush the Eternal People
have failed as signally as their predecessors in Persia, Syria and
Byzantium.

FOOTNOTES:

[50] See above, p. 51 _et seq._

[51] Called by their Russian initials S. S.

[52] See above, p. 111 _et seq._

[53] See above, p. 51.

[54] Beginning with the year 1905, the emigration to America once more
assumed enormous proportions. During 1905-1906, the years of revolution
and pogroms, nearly 230,000 Jews left Russia for the United States.
During the following years the figure was somewhat lower, but still
continued on a fairly high level, amounting to 50,000-75,000 annually.
In Palestine, the colonization went apace, and with it the cultural
activities. Several schools, with a purely national program, such as
the gymnazia in Jaffa and Jerusalem, and other institutions, came into
being.

[55] When the same official waited upon the Tzar with his report
concerning the events at Odessa, he was amazed to see the Tzar come
out to him with the badge of the League of the Russian People upon
his chest--the same badge which was worn by the rioters in Odessa.
He was subsequently given to understand that the Tzar had done so
demonstratively to show his solidarity with the hordes of the Black
Hundred.

[56] So called because it based its program on the imperial manifesto
of October 17, 1905. See above, p. 127.

[57] See p. 98 _et seq._

[58] See vol. II, p. 351.

[59] The name given to the graduation certificate of a gymnazium. In
German it is similarly called _Reifezeugnis_.

[60] It was edited by the writer of the present work, S. M. Dubnow.



RUSSIAN JEWRY SINCE 1911


Being loath to cross the threshold of the present, we shall stop at the
year 1911, terminating the first decade of the Thirty Years' War waged
by Russian Tzardom against Jewry since 1881. The more recent phases
of this war are still fresh in our memory. To put the new campaign of
Jew-hatred in its proper light, it will suffice to point out its most
conspicuous landmarks which stand out by their extraordinarily sinister
features. In 1911, the organizations of the Black Hundred, with the
help of their accomplices in the Duma and in the Government circles,
manufactured the monstrous "Beilis case." The murder of a Russian boy
in Kiev, of a family belonging to a band of thieves, and the discovery
of the body in the neighborhood of a brickkiln owned by a Jew provided
the anti-Semites with an opportunity to bring forward the old charge of
ritual murder. In the beginning the Government was somewhat uncertain
as to the attitude it should adopt towards the mysterious Kiev murder.
But a political occurrence which took place at the time put an end to
its vacillation. In September, 1911, Premier Stolypin was assassinated
in a Kiev theatre in the presence of the Tzar and the dignitaries of
State. The assassin, by the name of Bogrov, proved to be the son of a
lawyer who was of Jewish extraction, though he had long before turned
his back upon his people--a semi-anarchist, who at one time had been
active as police agent for some mysterious revolutionary purposes. The
Jewish extraction of the father of the assassin was enough to produce a
paroxysm of fury in the camp of the anti-Semitic reactionaries who had
lost in the person of Stolypin an exalted patron. In Kiev preparations
were openly made for a Jewish massacre, but the Government was afraid
that the proposed wholesale execution of Jews would mar the festive
solemnity of the Tzar's visit to Kiev. The authorities made it known
that the Tzar was not in favor of riots, and a bloody street pogrom was
averted.

In its place, however, a bloodless pogrom, extending over two years,
was arranged in the form of the Beilis case. Minister of Justice
Shcheglovitov, a former Liberal, who had become a fanatical partisan
of the Black Hundred, made up his mind to impart to the trial a
glaring ritual coloring. The original Judicial inquiry having failed
to uncover any traces of Jewish complicity, the Minister of Justice
ordered a new special inquiry and constantly changed the personnel of
the investigating and prosecuting officials, until he finally secured
a bill of indictment in which the whole case was represented as a
ritual crime, committed by the Jew Beilis with the participation of
"undiscovered persons."

For two years, the Beilis case provided the pabulum for a wild
anti-Semitic campaign which was carried on among the so-called better
classes, on the streets, in the press, and in the Imperial Duma. The
court trial which took place in Kiev in October, 1913, was expected
to crown with success the criminal design harbored by the Minister of
Justice and the Black Hundred, but the expectations of the Government
were disappointed. In spite of a carefully selected court personnel,
which consisted of anti-Semitic judges representing the Crown, and
of sworn jurymen, ignorant peasants and burghers who believed in the
ritual murder legend, Beilis was acquitted, and the authorities found
it impossible to fasten the guilt upon the Jews.

Exasperated by the failure, the Government wreaked its vengeance upon
the liberal-minded intellectuals and newspaper men, who, by their
agitation against the hideous libel, had wrested the prey from the
hands of the Black Hundred. Scores of legal actions were instituted
not only against newspaper editors and contributors but also against
the St. Petersburg Bar Association, which had adopted a resolution
protesting against the method pursued by Shcheglovitov in the Beilis
trial. The sensational case against the metropolitan lawyers was tried
in June, 1914, one month before the declaration of the World War, and
terminated in a verdict of guilty for twenty-five lawyers, on the
charge of "having agitated against the Government."

The triennium preceding the World War witnessed the rise of a new
danger for Judaism, this time coming from Poland. The extraordinary
intensity of the national and religious sentiment of the Poles,
accentuated by the political oppression which for more than a hundred
years had been inflicted upon them, particularly by the hands of
Russian despotism, has, during the last decade, been directed against
the Jewish people. The economic progress made by the Jews in the two
industrial centers of Russian Poland, in Warsaw and Lodz, gave rise
to the boycott agitation. Polish anti-Semites proclaimed the slogan
"Do not buy from Jews!", aiming the cry specifically against the
"Litvaks," that is, the hundreds of thousands of Russian Jews who, in
the course of the last few decades, had been chiefly instrumental in
the economic advancement of those two centers. The cloak beneath which
this agitation was carried on was purely that of Polish nationalism:
the Russian Jews were alleged, on the one hand, "to Russify Poland,"
and, accused, on the other hand, of an opposite tendency, of asserting
themselves as the members of a separate Jewish nationality, with a
press and a social organization of their own, which refuses to be
merged in the Polish people.

The anti-Semitic movement in Poland, which began shortly after the
revolution of 1905, assumed extraordinary dimensions in 1910-1911, when
the boycott became a fierce economic pogrom, reaching its culmination
in 1912, during the election campaign to the fourth Imperial Duma. The
Jewish electors of Warsaw formed a majority, and were, therefore, in a
position to send a Jewish deputy to the Duma. Yet out of consideration
for the national susceptibilities of the Poles who insisted on
sending as a representative of the Polish capital one of their "own,"
a Christian, the Jews were willing to accept a Polish candidate,
provided the latter was not an anti-Semite. When, however, the Polish
election committee, disregarding the feelings of the Jews, nominated
the anti-Semitic candidate Kukhazhevski, the Jews gave their votes to
the Polish Socialistic nominee Yaghello, who carried the election.
This attitude of the Jews aroused a storm of indignation among the
higher classes of Polish society. An anti-Jewish campaign, marked by
extraordinary bitterness, was set in motion, and in the press and on
the streets the Jews were nicknamed "Beilises," an echo of the ritual
murder legend which had given rise to such horrors in ancient Catholic
Poland. The economic boycott was carried on with incredible fury, and
in a number of towns and villages the cowardly enemies of the Jews,
being afraid of attacking them openly, set fire to Jewish houses, with
the result that in many cases entire families were consumed in the
flames.

The _furor Polonicus_ assumed more and more dangerous forms, so that
at the beginning of the World War, in 1914, almost the entire Polish
nation, from the "progressive anti-Semites" down to the clericals,
were up in arms against the Jews. From this armed camp came the
defiant war cry: "On the banks of the Vistula there is no room for two
nationalities," thus sentencing to death the two millions of Polish
Jewry who consider themselves a part of the Jewish, and not of the
Polish nation. Out of this soil of national hatred crawled forth the
snake of the terrible "military libel," which during the first year of
the war drenched Polish Jewry in rivers of blood. Over the bleeding
body of the Jewish people Polish and Russian anti-Semitism joined
hands. Horrors upon horrors were perpetrated before which the ancient
annals of Jewish martyrdom fade into insignificance.

       *       *       *       *       *

Nearly twenty centuries have passed since the ancient Judæo-Hellenic
Diaspora sent forth a handful of men who established a Jewish colony
upon the northern Scythian, now Russian, shores of the Black Sea. More
than a thousand years ago the Jews of Byzantium from one direction, and
those of the Arabian Caliphate from another, went forth to colonize the
land of the Scythians. The Jew stood at the cradle of ancient Kiovian
Russia, which received Christianity from the hands of the Byzantines.
The Jew witnessed the birth of Catholic Poland, and, during the stormy
days of the Crusades, fled from the West of Europe to this haven of
refuge which was not yet entirely in the hands of the Catholic Church.
He has seen Poland in its bloom and decay; he has witnessed the rise
of Muscovite Russia, tying the fate of one-half of his nation to the
new Russian Empire. Here the power that dominates history opened up
before the Jewish people a black abyss of mediævalism in the midst of
the blazing light of modern civilization, and finally threw it into
the flames of the gigantic struggle of nations. What may the World War
be expected to bring to the World-Nation? Full of agitation, the Jew
is looking into the future, and the question of his ancient prophet is
trembling on his lips: "Ah Lord God! wilt Thou make a full end of the
remnant of Israel?"[61].... Let the entire past of the Jewish people
serve as an answer to this question--a people which, in the maelstrom
of human history, has succeeded in conquering the two cosmic forces:
Time and Space.

FOOTNOTES:

[61] Ezekiel XI, 13.



BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY


VOLUME I

[_Yevr. Bibl._ = _Yevreyskaya Bibliotyeka_; _Yevr. St._ = _Yevreyskaya
Starina_.]


CHAPTER I

THE JEWISH DIASPORA IN EASTERN EUROPE

(pp. 13-38)

    Latyschew, Inscriptiones antiquae orae Septentrionalis Ponti
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    Reghesty i Nadpisi. Svod materialov dla istoriyi yevreyev
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    ----, Altjüdische Denkmäler aus der Krim, St. Petersburg, 1876.

    Firkovich, Abne Zikkaron. Matzebot 'al Kibre Bne Israel
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    Chwolson, Corpus inscriptionum hebraicarum. Grabschriften aus
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    Petahiah of Ratisbon, Sibbub, edited by Grünhut, Jerusalem,
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    Benjamin of Tudela, Sefer ha-Massa'ot, ed. Grünhut, Jerusalem,
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    Hoker, "The Jews in Kaffa under the Genoese Régime (1455),"
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    Sobranie russkih letopisey ("Collection of Russian Chronicles")
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    Solovyov, Historiya Rossiyi ("The History of Russia"). Vol. I,
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CHAPTER II

THE JEWISH COLONIES IN POLAND AND LITHUANIA

(pp. 39-65)

    Volumina legum. Leges et constitutiones Regni Poloniae, vol. I,
        St. Petersburg, 1859 (_sub anno_ 1347, 1420, 1496, 1505).

    Bershadski, Russko-yevreyski arkhiv ("Russian-Jewish
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    Hube, Constitutiones synodales provinciae Gnesnensis, St.
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    Gumplowicz, Prawodawstwie Polskie wzgledem zydów ("Polish
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    Sternberg, Geschichte der Juden in Polen, Leipzig, 1878.

    Bershadski, Litovskiye yevreyi ("The Lithuanian Jews"), St.
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    Schipper, Studya nad stosunkami gospodarczymi zydów w Polsce
        podczas zredniowiecza ("A Study of the Economic Relations
        of the Jews in Poland during the Middle Ages"), Leinberg,
        1911 [P].


CHAPTER III

THE AUTONOMOUS CENTER IN POLAND AT ITS ZENITH

(pp. 66-102)

    Volumina legum (1859-1860), vol. I, pp. 309, 375, 506, 524-525,
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        pp. 289, 809-810; vol. IV, pp. 39-40.

    Bershadski, Russo-yevreyski arkhiv, vol. I, pp. 62-337; vol. II
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    Reghesty i Nadpisi, vol. I, pp. 95-871 [R].

    Akty Vilenskoy kommissiyi dla razbora drevnikh aktov ("Records
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    Bersohn, Dyplomataryusz, Nos. 5-246, 351-356, 401-552 [P].

    Schorr, "The Cracow Collection of the Jewish Statutes and
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        St._, vol. I, pp. 247 _et seq._, vol. II, pp. 76, 223 _et
        seq._

    Czacki, Rozprawa o Zydach, pp. 44-54 [P].

    Kraushar, Historya Zydów w Polsce ("History of the Jews in
        Poland"), vol. II, Warsaw, 1866, pp. 144-318 [P].

    Gumplowicz, Prawodawstwie Polskie, etc., pp. 36-45, 50-52,
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    Nussbaum, Historya Zydów ("History of the Jews"), vol. V, pp.
        108-223 [P].

    Bershadski, Litovskiye yevreyi, chapters V-VI [R].

    Dubnow, "The Jews and the Reformation in Poland during the
        Sixteenth Century," _Voskhod_, 1895. Books V-VIII.

    ----, "The Victims of Fictitious Accusations during the years
        1636-1639," _Voskhod_, 1895. Books I-II.

    Perles, Geschichte der Juden in Posen, Breslau, 1865. Comp.
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    Balaban, "The Jewish Physicians in Cracow and Tragedies of the
        Ghetto," _Yevr. St._, 1912, p. 38 _et seq._

    ----, "Episodes from the History of Ritual-Murder Trials,"
        _Yevr. St._, 1914, p. 163 _et seq._

    ----, "The Legal Status of the Jews in Poland during the Middle
        Ages and in more Recent Times," _Yevr. St._, 1910-1911.

    ----, Dzieje Zydów w Krakowie ("History of the Jews in
        Cracow"), vol. I, Cracow, 1913 [P].

    ----, Zydyi lwowscy na przelomie XVI i XVII wieku ("The Jews
        of Lemberg on the Border-Line between the Sixteenth and
        Seventeenth Century"), Lemberg, 1906 [P].


CHAPTER IV

THE INNER LIFE OF POLISH JEWRY AT ITS ZENITH

(pp. 103-138)

    Dubnow, "Kahal Constitutions," etc., _Voskhod_, 1894, Books
        II-XII.

    ----, "Documents of the Council of Four Lands," _Yevr. St._,
        1912, pp. 70, 178, 453.

    ----, "The Record Book of the Lithuanian Provincial Assembly,"
        _Yevr. St._, 1909-1915.

    ----, Wa'ad Arba 'Aratzot be-Polen, article in _Sefer ha-Yobel_
        le-Rab Nahum Sokolow, Warsaw, 1904.

    ----, "Council of Four Lands," article in Jewish Encyclopedia,
        vol. IV, p. 304 _et seq._

    ----, "The Inner Life of Polish Jewry during the Sixteenth
        Century," _Voskhod_, 1900, Books II and IV.

    ----, "The Vernacular of the Polish-Lithuanian Jews during the
        Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century," _Yevr. St._, 1909, p. 1
        _et seq._

    Harkavy, Hadashim gam Yeshanim. Appendix to Rabbinowitz's
        Hebrew translation of Grätz's History, vol. VII, Warsaw,
        1899.

    Schorr, Organizacya Zydow w Polsce ("The Organization of the
        Jews in Poland"), Lemberg, 1899.

    ----, Zydzi w Przemyzlu ("The Jews in Pshemyshl"), 1903.

    Perles, Geschichte der Juden in Posen, 1865.

    Balaban, Zydzi lwowscy, etc.

    ----, Dzieye Zydow w Krakowie.

    ----, "Jacob Pollak, the Father of Polish Rabbinism, and His
        Age," _Yevr. St._, 1912, p. 225 _et seq._

    ----, "Die Krakauer Judengemeinde-Ordnung von 1595," _Jahrbuch
        der Jüdisch-Literarischen Gesellschaft_, vol. X,
        Frankfurt-on-the-Maine, 1913.

    Horodezki, Le-Korot ha-Rabbanut, Warsaw, 1911, containing the
        biographies of Moses Isserles, Solomon Luria, Mordecai
        Joffe, Meir of Lublin, Samuel Edels, and others.

    ----, "Rabbi Nathan Shapiro, a Kabbalist of the Seventeenth
        Century," _Yevr. St._, 1910, pp. 192 _et seq._

    ----, "The Age of the Ascetic Kabbalah" (Isaiah Horvitz and his
        family), _Yevr. St._, 1913, pp. 145, 367, 455.

    Rabbinovich, "Traces of Free-thinking in Polish Rabbinism of
        the Sixteenth Century," _Yevr. St._, 1911, p. 1 _et seq._

    Warchel, "Polish Jews at the University of Padua," _Kwartalnik
        historyi Zydow_ ("Jewish Historical Quarterly"), Warsaw,
        1913, No. 3.

    Bruckner, "From the History of Polish Dissidents," _Ateneum_,
        Warsaw, 1898, No. 2.

    Isaac Troki, Hizzuk Emunah, edited with German translation by
        D. Deutsch, Breslau, 1873.


CHAPTER V

THE AUTONOMOUS CENTER IN POLAND DURING ITS DECLINE

(pp. 139-187)

    Nathan Hannover, Yewen Mezulah, Venice 1653. The other Jewish
        chronicles and records will be found in the collection of
        I. Gurland, Le-Korot ha-Gezerot `al Israel, Parts I-VI,
        Cracow, 1887-1892, and the posthumous edition, Odessa, 1892.

    Kostomarov, Bogdan Khmelnitzki, vols. I-III, St. Petersburg,
        1884 [R].

    Arkhiv Yugo-zapadnoy Rossiyi ("Archives of South-western
        Russia"), Part III, volume 3, Kiev 1876, containing the
        documents relating to the Haidamacks, with a preface by V.
        Antonovich [R].

    ----, Part V, volume II, Kiev 1890, concerning the censuses of
        the Jewish population of the South-western region, taken
        during the years 1765-1791 [R].

    Volumina Legum, vols. IV-VIII, passim.

    Bersohn, Dyplomataryusz, Nos. 247-350, 357-384.

    Schorr, "The Cracow Collection, etc.," see bibliography to
        Chapter III.

    Akty Vilenskoy kommissiyi (see bibliography to Chapter III),
        vols. XXVIII-XXIX, containing Jewish records, Vilna,
        1901-1902.

    Reghesty i Nadpisi, vol. I, Nos. 872:1111; vol. II; vol. III,
        Nos. 1850-2224, St. Petersburg, 1913.

    Levin, Judenverfolgungen im Schwedisch-polnischen Kriege
        1655-1659, Posen, 1901.

    Dubnow, "The Ruzhan Martyrs of 1659," _Voskhod_, 1893, Book I.

    Balaban, "The Jewish Physicians in Cracow, etc." (concerning
        Calahora), _Yevr. St._, 1912, pp. 51-53.

    ----, Skizzen zur Geschichte der Juden in Polen, Berlin, 1911.

    ----, "From the Past of a Jewish Street in Lemberg," _Yevr.
        St._, 1909, p. 237.

    ----, "The Ritual Murder Trial in Posen of 1736-1740," _Yevr.
        St._, 1913, p. 469 _et seq._

    ----, "An Episode from the History of the Ritual Murder Trials
        and of the anti-Jewish Literature in Poland," _Yevr. St._,
        1914, p. 318 _et seq._

    Galant, "The Ritual Murder Trial in Dunaigorod of 1748," _Yevr.
        St._, 1911, p. 268.

    ----, "The Victims of the Blood Accusation in Zaslav of 1747,"
        _Yevr. St._, 1912, p. 202 _et seq._

    G. E., On the trials of Stupnitza and Voyslavitzá, _Yevr.
        St._, 1912, p. 26 _et seq._

    The Papal Bulls concerning the Blood Accusation, Russian
        translation of Stern's book, pp. 29-105, containing
        Ganganelli's memorandum and the appended documents, Kiev,
        1912.

    Hekker, "Anti-Semitism in Poland during the Eighteenth
        Century," _Yevr. St._, 1913, p. 439 _et seq._

    Concerning the Haidamack uprising and the massacre at Uman, see
        Gurland's Le-Korot ha-Gezerot and Reghesty i Nadpisi, _sub
        anno_ 1768.


CHAPTER VI

THE INNER LIFE OF POLISH JEWRY DURING THE PERIOD OF DECLINE

(pp. 188-241)

    Dubnow, "Records of the Council of Four Lands during
        1621-1699," _Yevr. St._, 1912, pp. 178, 453.

    ----, "The Record Book of the Lithuanian Provincial Assembly
        during 1623-1761," _Yevr. St._, 1910-1915.

    ----, Article on the Provincial Assemblies, _Voskhod_, 1894,
        Books IV and XII.

    Schipper, Beiträge zur Geschichte der partiellen Judentage in
        Polen im XVII-XVIII Jahrhundert bis 1764.

    Grätz, Geschichte der Juden, vol. X, Index sub "Polen,"
        particularly the chapter on Sabbatai Zevi.

    ----, Frank und die Frankisten, Breslau, 1868.

    Dubnow, "Jacob Frank and his Christianizing Sect," _Voskhod_,
        1883, Book I _et seq._

    ----, "The History of Frankism according to newly discovered
        sources," _Voskhod_, 1896, Books III-IV.

    Kraushar, Frank i Frankizci ("Frank and the Polish Frankists"),
        Cracow, 1895. Two volumes [P].

    Balaban, "Notes on the History of the Frankist Sect,"
        _He-`Atid_, vol. V, Berlin, 1913.

    Horodezki, Mystisch-religiöse Strömungen unter den Juden in
        Polen im XVI-XVIII Jahrhundert, Leipzig, 1914.

    Dubnow, "The Social and Spiritual Life of the Jews in Poland in
        the First Half of the Eighteenth Century," _Voskhod_, 1899,
        Books I-II.

    ----, "Introduction to the History of Hasidism," _He-`Atid_,
        vol. III, Berlin, 1911.

    ----, "The Rise of Hasidism and Tzaddikism. History of the
        Hasidic Schism. The Religious Struggle, etc.," _Voskhod_,
        1888-1893.

    Lewin, "Aliyyot Eliyyahu" (a biography of the Gaon of Vilna),
        Vilna, 1875.

    Yatzkan, Rabbenu Eliyyahu (another biography), Warsaw, 1900.

    Solomon Maimon, Lebensgeschichte, Berlin, 1792.


CHAPTER VII

THE RUSSIAN QUARANTINE AGAINST JEWS

(pp. 242-261)

    Reghesty i Nadpisi, vol. I, Nos. 462, 470, 527, 653, 654, 757,
        877-878, 897-898.

    Levanda, Sbornik zakonov o yevreyakh ot 1649 do 1873
        ("Compendium of the Laws relating to Jews from 1649 to
        1873"), Nos. 1-29.

    Solovyov, Historya Rossiyi ("History of Russia"), Book III,
        edition 1910, p. 1345.

    Dubnow, "Peter the Great and the Jews."

    ----, Article on the Moghilev massacre of 1655, _Pardes_, vol.
        III, Odessa, 1896.

    Orshanski, Russkoye zakonodatyelstvo o yevreyakh ("The Russian
        Legislation relating to Jews"), St. Petersburg, 1877.

    Golitzin, Istoriya russkavo zakonodatyelstva o yevreyakh
        ("History of the Russian Legislation relating to Jews"),
        St. Petersburg, 1886.

    Kunin, "The Jews of Moscow in the Seventeenth Century," _Yevr.
        St._, 1913, p. 96 _et seq._

    S. D., "The Expulsion of the Jews from Little Russia in the
        Second Quarter of the Eighteenth Century," _Yevr. St._,
        1913, pp. 193, 123 _et seq._

    ----, "The Census taken of the Jews of Little Russia in 1736,"
        _Yevr. St._, 1913, pp. 400, 526.

    ----, "The Petition of the Nobility and the Elders of Little
        Russia for the Restoration of the Ancient Rights of Little
        Russia, presented to Catherine II. in 1764," _Kievskaya
        Starina_, 1883, Book 6.


CHAPTER VIII

POLISH JEWRY DURING THE PERIOD OF THE PARTITIONS

(pp. 262-305)

    Czacki, Rozprawa o Zydach (see bibliography to Chapter II), 9,
        pp. 117-134 [P].

    Korzon, Wewnetvzne dzieje Polskie za Stanislawa Augusta ("The
        Inner History of Poland under Stanislav Augustus"), Cracow,
        1882, vol. I, pp. 164-167, 230-232, 240 _et seq._ [P].

    Solomon Maimon, Lebensgeschichte.

    Okhotski, "Stories from Poland's Past," Russian translation,
        St. Petersburg, 1874, vol. I, pp. 54-55.

    Volumina Legum (see bibliography to Chapter II), vol. VII, pp.
        333, 352; vol. VIII, p. 95.

    Nussbaum, Szkice historyczne z zycia zydow w Warszawie
        ("Historic Sketch from the Life of the Jews in Warsaw"),
        Warsaw, 1881, pp. 13-15 [P].

    Smolenski, Stan i sprawa zydow polskich w XVIII wieku ("The
        Status and the Cause of the Polish Jews in the Eighteenth
        Century"), Warsaw, 1876 [P].

    Maciejowski, Zydzi w Polsce, na Rusi i Litwie (" The Jews in
        Poland, Russia and Lithuania"), Warsaw, 1878 [P].

    Bershadski, Litovskiye yevreyi ("The Jews of Lithuania"), St.
        Petersburg, 1883, pp. 46-48 [R].

    Akty Vilenskoy kommissiyi (see bibliography to Chapter III),
        vol. 29, pp. 463-180 [R].

    Hekker, "The Jews in the Polish Cities in the Second Half of
        the XVIII. Century," _Yevr. St._, 1913.

    Dubnow, "History of the Hasidic Schism," _Voskhod_, 1890-1891.

    Fünn, Kiryah Neemanah (history of the Vilna community), Vilna,
        1860, pp. 27, 130, 273.

    Katz, "History of the Haskalah Movement in Russia," _Ha-Zeman_,
        1903, vol. I, pp. 97-102.

    Kraushar, Frank i Frankizci (see bibliography to Chapter VI),
        vol. I, pp. 139-149 [P].

    Paperna, article on Hirshovitz's memorandum, _Voskhod_, Book
        VI, 1902.

    Kraszewski, Polska w czasie trzech rozbiorów ("Poland during
        the Time of the Three Partitions"), vol. II, pp. 318-320;
        vol. III, pp. 108, 122 [P].

    Gumplowicz, Stanislawa Augusta proekt reformy zydowstwa
        ("Stanislav Augustus' Project of Jewish Reform"), Cracow,
        1875 [P].

    Deiches, Sprawa zydowska podezas Sejmu Weilkiego ("The Jewish
        Cause at the Time of the Great, or Quadrennial Diet"), 1891.

    Luninski, Berek Joselwicz, Warsaw, 1909 [P]. Comp. _Yevr. St._,
        1909, vol. II, p. 128 _et seq._

    Moscicki, "Polish Jewry under the Sceptre of Catherine II,"
        _Kwartalnik pozwiacony badaniu przeszlozci zydow w Polsce_
        ("Quarterly devoted to the Study of the History of Polish
        Jewry"), Warsaw, vol. I, 1912. Pages 61-65 describe the
        attitude of the Jews in Vilna and Grodno in the Polish
        revolution of 1794 [P].

    Skarbek, Dzieje ksiestwa Warszawskiego ("History of the Duchy
        of Warsaw"). Three volumes, Posen, 1860 [P].

    Golitzin, Istoriya russkavo zakonodatyelstva (see bibliography
        to Chapter VII), pp. 1001 _et seq._, containing a list of
        the laws passed by the Duchy of Warsaw during 1807-1812 [R].

    Vishnitzer, "A Plan of Reforming Jewish Life in the Duchy of
        Warsaw and in the Kingdom of Poland," _Perezhytoye_, vol.
        I, pp. 166-171, St. Petersburg, 1908 [R].

    Hessen, "In an Ephemeral Body Politic," _Yevr. St._, 1910, p. 6
        _et seq._

    Askenazy, "The Era of the Duchy of Warsaw," _Kwartalnik_, etc.,
        1912, vol. I [P].


CHAPTER IX

THE BEGINNINGS OF THE RUSSIAN RÉGIME

(pp. 306-334)

    Shugurov, "History of the Jews in Russia," _Russki Arkhiv_,
        1894, vol. I, pp. 163-167. The petition of the Moscow
        merchants is reprinted, _Voskhod_, 1895, Book I, pp. 31-33
        of the second division [R].

    Orshanski, Russkoye zakonodatyelstvo (see bibliography to
        Chapter VII), pp. 183-184.

    Golitzin, Istoriya russkavo zakonodatelstva, p. 136 [R].

    Levanda, Sbornik, etc. (see bibliography to Chapter VII), Nos.
        30-47, 55.

    Bershadski, "The Jewish Statute of 1804" (containing the
        official correspondence and plans relating to the Jewish
        question during 1797-1801), _Voskhod_, 1895, Books I-IV.

    Dyerzhavin, Collected Writings, 1878, vol. VI, pp. 113-114,
        124, 715; vol. VII ("Opinion concerning the Jews") [R].

    Hessen, Yevreyi v Rossiyi ("The Jews in Russia"), St.
        Petersburg, 1906 [R].


CHAPTER X

THE "ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM" OF ALEXANDER I.

(pp. 335-365)

    Brafman, Kniga Kahala ("The Book of the Kahal"), vol. II, Nos.
        335, 339, 340, 352.

    Hessen, Yevreyi v Rossiyi, pp. 77-78, 322.

    ----, "The Deputies of the Jewish People," _Yevr. St._, 1909,
        vol. II, pp. 19-20.

    Gordon, "Note on the History of the Settlement of the Jews in
        St. Petersburg," _Voskhod_, 1881, Book II, pp. 29, 39-40.

    Levanda, Sbornik zakonov, Nos. 59 (the Statute of 1804), 64,
        69-70.

    "The Report of the Jewish Committee in 1812," _Russki Arkhiv_,
        1903, Book II, pp. 253-274.

    Orshanski, Russkoye zakonodatelstvo, p. 271 _et seq._

    Golitzin, Istoriya russkavo zakonodatelstva, pp. 543 _et seq._,
        587, 590, 981, 985 [R].

    Ginsburg, Otyechestvennaya Voyna 1812 goda i russkiye yevreyi
        ("The Patriotic War of 1812 and the Russian Jews,") St.
        Petersburg, 1912 [R].

    Nikitin, Yevreyi-zemledyeltzy ("The Jewish Agriculturists"),
        St. Petersburg, 1887 [R].

    Helman, Bet Rabbi (a biography of Shneor Zalman and his
        children), Berdychev, 1901, fol. 47.


CHAPTER XI

THE INNER LIFE OF RUSSIAN JEWRY DURING THE PERIOD OF "ENLIGHTENED
ABSOLUTISM"

(pp. 366-389)

    Bershadski, "The Jewish Statute of 1804," _Voskhod_, 1895. Book
        VI, pp. 46-63.

    Hessen, Yevreyi v Rossiyi, pp. 220, 237 [R].

    Golitzin, Istoriya, pp. 348-355 [R].

    Dubnow, "History of the Hasidic Schism." _Voskhod_, 1890, Books
        XI-XII; 1891, Book I.

    ----, "The Religious Struggle," _Voskhod_, 1893, Book I, pp.
        37-49.

    ----, "The Intervention of the Russian Government in the War
        against Hasidism," _Yevr. St._, 1910, Books I-II.

    Hessen, Yevreyi v Rossiyi, p. 164 _et seq._ [R].

    Fünn, Kiryah Neemanah (history of the Vilna community), Vilna,
        1860, p. 134 _et seq._

    ----, Safah le-Neemanim, Vilna, 1881, §§ 91, 94, 98.

    Horodezki, "Levi Itzhok of Berdychev," _Yevr. St._, 1909, vol.
        I, p. 205 _et seq._

    ----, "Nahman of Bratzlav." _Ha-Goren_, IV (1903).

    Zederbaum, Keter Kehunnah, Odessa, 1866.

    Frenk, Yehude Polin bime Napoleon, Warsaw, 1912.

    Calmanson, Essai sur l'état actuel des Juifs, Warsaw, 1796;
        comp. _Ha-Meassef_, 1809, pp. 286-291.

    Nyevakhovich, Vopl dochery yudyeyskoy ("The Moan of the
        Daughter of Judah"), St. Petersburg, 1803. Reprinted in the
        collective volume published by the Russian-Jewish weekly
        _Budushchnost_, St. Petersburg, 1902 [R]. The same in
        Hebrew, under the title _Kol shaw'at bat Yehudah_, Shklov,
        1804.

    Stanislavski, "Mendel Lewin," _Voskhod_, 1881, Book III.


CHAPTER XII

THE LAST YEARS OF ALEXANDER I.

(pp. 390-413)

    Levanda, Sbornik zakonov, _sub anno_ 1815-1825.

    Pen, "The Deputation of the Jewish People," _Voskhod_, 1905,
        Books 1-3.

    Hessen, "The Deputies of the Jewish People," _Yevr. St._, 1909,
        vol. II.

    Way, Lewis, Mémoires sur l'état des Israélites, dediés et
        presentés à leurs Majestés imperiales et royales réunies au
        Congres d'Aix-la-Chapelle, Paris, 1819.

    Lerner, Yevreyi v Novo-rossiyskom kraye ("The Jews in the
        New-Russian Region"), Odessa, 1901 [R].

    Golitzin, Istoriya, etc., pp. 608, 686 [R].

    Kozmin, "Past and Present of the Siberian Subbotniks
        (Sabbatharians)," _Yevr. St._, 1913, Book I, p. 3 _et seq._

    Dubnow, "Historical Communications," _Voskhod_, 1901, Book IV,
        p. 37.

    "A Inquiry into the Jewish Question," published by the
        Chancellery of the United Societies of the Nobility, St.
        Petersburg, 1910, vol. I, pp. 3, 18 [R].

    Pestel, Russkaya Pravda ("Russian Truth"), edited by
        Shchogolev, St. Petersburg, 1906, pp. 50-52 [R].

    Semyovski, Politicheskiya i obshchestvennyia idyeyi
        Dyekabristov ("The Political and Social Ideas of the
        Decembrists"), St. Petersburg, 1910, pp. 517-523 [R].


VOLUME II


CHAPTER XIII

THE MILITARY DESPOTISM OF NICHOLAS I.

(pp. 13-45)

    _Yevr. St._, 1911, p. 589 (Nicholas' Opinions of the Jews).

    ----, 1909, p. 236 ff., (an account of Tziprinus, a Russian
        official, about the introduction of military service).

    Levanda, Sbornik zakonov, Nos. 153, 154, 159, etc. (see Index
        s. v. "Recruits").

    Volhynian Legends, _Yevr. St._, 1911, p. 389.

    Ginzburg and Marek, Yevreyskiya Narodniya Pyesni ("Jewish
        Folk-Songs"), St. Petersburg, 1901, p. 42 _et seq._ [R].

    Recollections of former Cantonists in _Yevr. St._, 1909, vol.
        II, pp. 115 _et seq._; 1911, pp. 249 _et seq._; 1912, pp.
        54 _et seq._

    Hertzen, Byloye i Dumy ("Recollections and Reflections"),
        foreign edition, vol. I, 308 [R].

    Korobkov, "Jewish Conscription during the Reign of Nicholas
        I.," _Yevr. St._, 1913, Books I-II.

    Nikitin, Mnogostradalnyie ("The Martyrs"), St. Petersburg, 1871.

    ----, Reminiscences, _Yevr. Bibl._, St. Petersburg, 1873.

    On the _Beholoh_, see Bogrov, Zapiski Yevreya ("Memoirs of
        a Jew"), St. Petersburg, 1874, p. 114 [R]; Smolenskin,
        Ha-To'eh, vol. II, p. 169; and Kotik, Meine Zichroines ("My
        Reminiscences"), Warsaw, 1913, pp. 99 _et seq._

    Levanda, Sbornik zakonov, _sub anno_ 1827-1840.

    Spravka po yevreyskomu voprosu ("Inquiry into the Jewish
        Question"), Part I, pp. 1-43 (containing archival documents
        on the work preliminary to the Statute of 1835).

    Hessen, "The Memoranda Submitted by the Kahal of Vilna and L.
        Feigin." _Yevr. St._, 1911, 96 _et seq._ and 394 _et seq._

    _Yevr. St._, 1909, p. 112, and 1911, pp. 417-418.


CHAPTER XIV

COMPULSORY ENLIGHTENMENT AND INCREASED OPPRESSION

(pp. 46-87)

    Dubnow, "Historical Communications," _Voskhod_, 1901, Books 4-5
        (dealing with the work of the committee of 1840).

    Georgievski, Doklad po voprosu ob obrazovaniyi yevreyev
        ("Report on the Question of Educating the Jews"), St.
        Petersburg, 1886. Not published [R].

    Morgulis, Voprosy yevreyskoy zhizni ("Problems of Jewish
        Life"), St. Petersburg, 1889, pp. 33 _et seq._ [R].

    Mandelstamm, Hazon la-Mo'ed ("A Vision for the Appointed
        Time"), Vienna, 1877. Part II [H].

    _Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums_, 1842-1848, articles
        describing Lilienthal's mission.

    Scheinhaus, Ein deutscher Pioneer (on Lilienthal's mission),
        Berlin, 1911.

    Tzinberg, "Levinsohn and his Time," _Yevr. St._, 1910, pp. 520
        _et seq._ Comp. _ibid._, 1912, p. 91.

    Levanda, Sbornik zakonov, Nos. 462, 475, 509-510, 575.

    Die Juden in Russland, Hamburg, 1844.

    Lerner, Yevreyi v Novorossiyi ("The Jews in New Russia"),
        Odessa, 1901, pp. 46 _et seq._ [R].

    Loewe, Diaries of Sir Moses Montefiore, London, 1890. Hebrew
        edition, Warsaw, 1899.

    Ginzburg, "A Forerunner of Baron Hirsch" (on Altaras),
        _Voskhod_, 1897, Book XI.

    Leket Amarim ("Collection of Essays"), edited _Ha-Melitz_, St.
        Petersburg, 1889, pp. 81 _et seq._

    Nikitin, Yevreyi zemledyeltzy ("Jews as Agriculturists"), St.
        Petersburg, 1887, pp. 103 _et seq._ [R].

    Spravka k dokladu po yevreyskomu voprosu ("Inquiry in
        connection with the Report on the Jewish Question"). Part
        V: The Ritual Murder Trials, edited by the United Societies
        of the Nobility, St. Petersburg, 1912 [R].

    A memorandum on the Velizh case by the Senate. Not published.

    Hessen, Velizhskaya Drama ("The Drama of Velizh"), St.
        Petersburg, 1905 [R].

    Ryvkin, "The Velizh Case as reflected in local legends,"
        _Perezhytoye_, vol. III, St. Petersburg, 1911 [R].

    Dubnow's articles on Velizh, _Luah Ahiasaf_, 1895-1896; on
        Novaya Ushitza, _Perezhytoye_, vol. I (1909); on Mstislavl,
        _Voskhod_, 1899, Book 9.

    Hessen, "The Mstislavl Disturbances," _Perezhytoye_, vol. II.

    An-ski, "Some of the Legends Connected with the Mstislavl
        Incident," _ibid._


CHAPTER XV

THE JEWS IN THE KINGDOM OF POLAND

(pp. 88-110)

    S. Askenazy, "Concerning Jewish Affairs during the Era of
        Congresses," _Kwartalnik_, etc., vol. I, No. 3, Warsaw,
        1913.

    Vishnitzer, "Reform Projects in the Kingdom of Poland,"
        _Perezhytoye_, vol. I, St. Petersburg, 1908.

    Friedländer, David, Die Verbesserung der Israeliten im
        Königreich Polen, Berlin, 1819.

    Inquiry into the Jewish Question, etc. (the utterances of
        Zaionchek), vol. I, 43.

    The Legal Journal of the Kingdom of Poland (during the years
        indicated in the text).

    Golitzin, Istoria Russkavo zakonodatyelstva o yevreyakh ("The
        History of Russian Legislation relating to Jews,") pp.
        1001-1005 [R].

    Luninski, Berek Joselowicz, Warsaw, 1909.

    "The Ritual Murder Trials during the Year 1816," _Yevr. St._,
        1912, pp. 144-163.

    Nussbaum, Historya Zydow, V, 390-399 [P].

    "From the History of the Rabbinical School in Warsaw,"
        _Perezhytoye_, vol. I.

    Kandel, "The Committee of Old Testament Believers,"
        _Kwartalnik_, 1912, No. 12, pp. 85-103.

    Jost, 11. II, 302 (on Chiarini).

    Mstislavskaya, "The Jews in the Polish Insurrection of 1831,"
        _Yevr. St._, 1910.

    Myakotin, "The Tovyanski Movement," _Voskhod_, 1888, Books
        11-12.

    Die Juden in Russland, Hamburg, 1844, pp. 35, 38-40 (on
        conscription in the kingdom of Poland).


CHAPTER XVI

THE INNER LIFE OF RUSSIAN JEWRY DURING THE PERIOD OF MILITARY DESPOTISM

(pp. 111-139)

    Gottlober, Autobiography, in the Hebrew periodical _Ha-Boker
        Or_, 1880-1881.

    Ginzburg, M. A., Abi`ezer (autobiography), Vilna, 1883.

    Plungian, Ben Porat (biography of Menashe Ilyer), Vilna, 1858.

    Hilman, Beth Rabbi (biography of Shneor Zalman and
        descendants), Berdychev, 1901.

    Horodezki, Rabbi Nahum mi-Chernobyl u-Banaw ("R. Nahum of
        Chernobyl and his Descendants"), Berdychev, 1902.

    Sternholz, `Alim li-Tetrufah ("Leaves for Healing," letters of
        Rabbi Nahman of Bratzlav), Berdychev, 1896.

    Nathansohn, Sefer ha-Zikronot ("Book of Recollections," on I.
        B. Levinsohn), Warsaw, 1878.

    Wengeroff, P., Memoiren einer Grossmutter, Berlin, 1908.

    Horodezki, "The Sadagora Dynasty," _Yevr. St._, 1909, vol. II.

    Zederbaum, Keter Kehunnah ("The Crown of Priesthood," on the
        Tzaddiks of Poland), Odessa, 1866.

    Magid, "M. A. Ginzburg," St. Petersburg, 1897 [H].

    Fünn, Safah le-Neemanim ("Speech of the Trustworthy"), pp. 149
        _et seq._, Vilna, 1881.

    Gordon, "A. B. Lebensohn," _Yevr. Bibl._, vol. VIII, St.
        Petersburg, 1880.


CHAPTER XVII

THE LAST YEARS OF NICHOLAS I.

(pp. 140-153)

    Levanda, Sbornik zakonov (for the years 1848-1854).

    Ginzburg, "A forgotten Era," _Voskhod_, 1896, Book 2.

    Ginzburg and Marek, Yevreyskiya Narodnya Pyesni ("Jewish
        Folk-Songs"), St. Petersburg, 1901, No. 53 [R].

    Osip Rabinovich, "The Penal Recruit" and "The Inherited
        Candlestick," collected works, vol. I, St. Petersburg, 1880
        [R].

    Bogrov, "The Captured Recruit," _Yevr. Bibl._, vol. IV, St.
        Petersburg, 1874, pp. 2-7, preface.

    Friedberg, "The Captured Recruits," _Sefer ha-Shanah_, edited
        by Sokolow, vol. III, Warsaw, 1901.

    Spiegel, "From the Diary of a Cantonist," _Yevr. St._, 1911,
        pp. 249 _et seq._

    Itzkovich, "Reminiscences of a Cantonist," _Yevr. St._, 1912,
        pp. 54 _et seq._

    Korobkov, "Jewish Conscription during the Reign of Nicholas
        I.," _Yevr. St._, 1913.

    On the Ritual Murder Trial of Saratov, see "Inquiry into the
        Jewish Question, etc." Part V, pp. 208-243 [R].

    Trivus, "Ritual Murder Trials before the pre-Reformatory
        Courts," _Yevr. St._, 1912, pp. 252-262 _et seq._


CHAPTER XVIII

THE ERA OF REFORMS UNDER ALEXANDER II.

(pp. 154-183)

    Levanda, Sbornik zakonov (for the years 1855-1865).

    "Inquiry into the Jewish Question," etc. Part I, pp. 55-102,
        105, 112; Part III, pp. 10-17, 79-92 (discussion of the
        projected legal bills in the Council of State, etc.).

    K stoletyu komityeta ministrov ("The Centenary of the
        Committee of Ministers"), St. Petersburg, 1902 [R]; the
        "resolutions" of Alexander II. are recorded in _Voskhod_,
        1903, Book III.

    "Some Resolutions of Alexander II. on the Jewish Question in
        1861," _Yevr. St._, 1912, p. 472.

    Hessen, "An Attempt at Jewish Emancipation in Russia,"
        _Perezhytoye_, vol. I, p. 153 ff.

    Orshanski, Yevreyi v Rossiyi ("The Jews in Russia"), St.
        Petersburg, 1877 [R].

    ----, Russkoye zakonodatyelstvo o yevreyakh ("The Russian
        Legislation relating to Jews"), St. Petersburg, 1877, pp.
        214, 309-334 [R].

    Georgievski, Doklad po voprosu ob obrazovaniyi yevreyev
        ("Report on the Question of educating the Jews"), St.
        Petersburg, 1886, pp. 92, 134 _et seq._ [R].

    Marek, Ocherki po istoriyi prosvyeshchenya v Rossiyi ("Sketches
        from the History of Enlightenment among the Jews of
        Russia"), Moscow, 1909 [R].

    Kandel, "The Petition of 1857," _Kwartalnik_, 1913, 147-159.

    Sternberg, Geschichte der Juden in Polen, Leipsic, 1878,
        Beilage G, pp. 186-191 (the Jewish agitation of 1859 in
        Warsaw, and Lelevel's reply).

    _Jutrzenka_ ("The Dawn"), Polish-Jewish weekly in Warsaw, for
        the years 1861-1863.

    Berg, Zapiski o polskikh zagovorakh i powstaniakh ("Memoirs
        concerning Polish Conspiracies and Revolutions"), St.
        Petersburg, 1873 [R].

    "The Experiences of a Jew during the Polish Insurrection of
        1863," _Yevr. St._, 1910, pp. 378-390.

    Inquiry into the Jewish Question, Part VII, pp. 63, 70, 89, 95.

    Spasovski, Zhizn i politika markiza Vyelepolskavo ("Life and
        Policies of Marquis Vyelepolski"), St. Petersburg, 1882 [R].


CHAPTER XIX

THE REACTION UNDER ALEXANDER II.

(pp. 184-205)

    Spravka po yevreyskomu voprosu ("Inquiry into the Jewish
        Question"), Part VII, pp. 63, 70, 89, 95 [R].

    Brafman, Kniga Kahala, 3d edition, St. Petersburg, 1888 [R].

    "The Jewish Delegation in the Vilna Commission of 1869," _Yevr.
        St._, 1912, pp. 187 _et seq._; comp. _Perezhytoye_, II, pp.
        306 _et seq._ and III, pp. 385 _et seq._

    "The Enactments against the Jewish Dress in 1871," _Yevr. St._,
        1912, pp. 334-338; comp. "The Struggle with the Jewish
        Dress," _Perezhytoye_, I, 2d Section, pp. 16-18.

    Orshanski, "On the Nature of the Odessa Pogrom," in the
        collective volume _Yevreyi v Rossiyi_ ("The Jews in
        Russia"), 1877, pp. 156 _et seq._ [R].

    Margulis, "The Odessa Riots of 1871," in the collective volume
        _Yevreyski Mir_ ("The Jewish World"), St. Petersburg, 1910.

    Levanda, Sbornik zakonov, for the years 1865-1873.

    For the additional laws for 1874-1880 see _Sobranie zakonov_
        ("Collection of Laws"), edited by the Government Senate.
        Comp. _Systyematicheski ukazatyel literatury o yevreyakh_
        ("A Systematic Index of the Literature dealing with the
        Jews"), St. Petersburg, 1892, pp. 59-60.

    "Analysis of the Legislation relating to the Jews during the
        past Decade," _Yevr. Bibl._, vol. VII, 1879.

    The memorandum of Nyekhludov "On the Emancipation of the Jews"
        is found in _Spravka po yevreyskomu voprosu_, Part VII,
        pp. 103-122; appeared also as a separate publication, St.
        Petersburg, 1907.

    On the Municipal Statute of 1870 and on the Conscription
        Statute of 1874, see _Spravka_, Part II, pp. 127-138,
        142-209.

    An account of the Congress of Berlin, based on the French text
        of the Proceedings, _Spravka_, Part III, pp. 151-154; see
        also _Yevr. Bibl._, vol. VI, 1878, p. 145 _et seq._ [R].

    On the Jews in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877, see Criticus
        (pen-name of S. M. Dubnow) in _Voskhod_, 1891, Book I, pp.
        32-38.

    The full proceedings of the Kutais case are found in a
        supplement to _Yevr. Bibl._, vol. VI, pp. 1-188.

    Chwolson, Upotreblayut-li yevreyi khristianskuyu krov? ("Do the
        Jews use Christian Blood?"), 2d edition, with a reply to
        Kostomarov, St. Petersburg, 1879 [R].

    Borissov, "Ippolit Lutostanski," Kiev, 1912 [R].


CHAPTER XX

THE INNER LIFE OF RUSSIAN JEWRY DURING THE REIGN OF ALEXANDER II.

(pp. 206-242)

    S. Ginzburg, "A forgotten Era," _Voskhod_, 1896, Books III and
        V.

    Margulis, article on "N. I. Pirogov," in _Voprosy yevreyskoy
        zhizni_ ("Questions of Jewish Life"), St. Petersburg, 1889.

    Criticus (pen-name of S. M. Dubnow), "I. S. Aksakov and the
        Jews," _Voskhod_, 1887, Book II.

    Dostoyevski, Yevreyski vopros ("The Jewish Question"), in his
        collected writings, edited by Marx, vol. XI, pp. 85-102;
        also in his _Dnyevnik pisatyela_ ("The Diary of an Author,"
        autobiographical sketches), during 1873-1877, in various
        places [R].

    Orshanski, Yevreyi v Rossiyi ("The Jews in Russia").

    Margulis, Voprosy yevreyskoy zhizni, pp. 149-195, on the Crown
        rabbis and teachers of the sixties.

    Tarnopol, Opyt osmotrityelnoy reformy v oblasti iudaizma
        ("Attempt at Cautious Reforms in the Domain of Judaism"),
        Odessa, 1868, [R].

    Gumplovich's article is found in _Jutzenka_ ("The Dawn"), 1891,
        No. 19 [P].

    Leon Rosenthal, Toldot Hebrat Marbe Haskalah be-Israel
        ("History of the Society for the Diffusion of Enlightenment
        among the Jews"), two volumes, St. Petersburg, 1885-1890;
        comp. Criticus, _Voskhod_, 1891, Books X-XI.

    Levanda, "The Establishment of the First Periodical of Russian
        Jewry," _Voskhod_, 1881, Book VI.

    The letters of Ossip Rabinovich, published in _Yevr. St._,
        1911, p. 71 _et seq._

    Dubnow, "The Change of Tendencies in Jewish Journalism," in
        "Letters on Ancient and Modern Judaism," St. Petersburg,
        1907, pp. 205-226 [R].

    Frumkin, "From the History of the Revolutionary Movement among
        the Jews during the Seventies," _Yevr. St._, 1911, pp. 221
        _et seq._, 513 _et seq._

    Tzinberg, "The First Socialistic Periodicals in Hebrew
        Literature," _Perezhytoye_, I, pp. 233-263.

    Sosis, "Social Currents during the Period of Reforms," _Yevr.
        St._, 1914.

    Mandelkern, "Micah Joseph Lebensohn," _Ha-Asif_, III, 1886.

    Brainin, "Micah Joseph Lebensohn," _Voskhod_, 1902, Book III.

    ----, "Abraham Mapu," Warsaw, 1900 [H].

    Cantor, "Gordon and His 25 years of Activity," _Voskhod_, 1881,
        Books XI-XII.

    S. D. (=S. Dubnow), "The Jewish Nyekrassov" (on J. L. Gordon),
        _Voskhod_, 1884, Book VII.

    Iggerot Jelag ("Letters of J. L. Gordon"), two volumes, Warsaw,
        1894.

    Bienstock, "A Festival in Yiddish Literature" (a biography of
        Abramovich), _Voskhod_, 1884, Book XII.

    Frischmann, "Mendele Mokher Sforim," in Introduction to the
        collected Hebrew works of Abramovich, vol. II, Odessa, 1911.

    Brainin, "Perez Smolenskin," Warsaw, 1896 [H].

    M. Kahan, Me-'Ereb 'ad `Ereb, vol. I, Vilna, 1904, pp.
        186-244. The same volume also contains an analysis of
        Lilienblum's work and of the literary currents of the
        seventies in general.

    Gottlieb, "P. M. Smolenskin" ("Gallery of Jewish Worthies"),
        Part II, St. Petersburg, 1899 [R].

    Lilienblum, Hattot Ne`urim ("Sins of Youth"), Vienna, 1876;
        also in his collected works, Cracow, 1910-1912, vol. II.

    Klausner, "Moshe Leib Lilienblum" (a biographical analysis,
        prefacing the first volume of Lilienblum's collected works).

    Hessen, "O. Rabinivich and I. Orshanski" ("Gallery of Jewish
        Worthies"), Part I, St. Petersburg, 1898 [R].

    "Ilya Grigorievich Orshanski, an Autobiographical Sketch,"
        _Yevr. Bibl._, vol. VI, pp. 1-43, St. Petersburg, 1878.

    Yampolski, "Recollections of I. G. Orshanski," _Yevr. St._,
        1911, p. 55 _et seq._

    Volynski, "The Portrayer of Russian Jewry" (on the stories of
        Levanda), _Voskhod_, 1888.

    "From the Correspondence of L. O. Levanda," _Yevr. Bibl._,
        vols. IX-X, St. Petersburg, 1901-1903, containing also some
        letters from Bogrov; Comp. _Yevr. St._, 1913, pp. 279-281.

    Wengeroff, Memoiren einer Grossmutter, vol. II, Berlin, 1910,
        containing valuable material for the understanding of the
        transition period of the fifties and sixties.


CHAPTER XXI

THE ACCESSION OF ALEXANDER III. AND THE INAUGURATION OF POGROMS

(pp. 243-258)

    _Razsvyet_, 1881, pp. 494, 650, 653; 846, 1255-57.

    _Yevr. St._, I. pp. 9193; II. pp. 207 ff.

    Chronique du movement socialiste en Russie, 1878-1887. _Byloye_
        (historical journal), 1907, Book VI, p. 305.


CHAPTER XXII

THE ANTI-JEWISH POLICIES OF IGNATYEV

(pp. 259-283)

    _Pravityelstvyenny vyestnik_ (1881), No. 98.

    _Razsvyet_, No. 19.

    _Yevr. St._, V, p. 346.

    _Archives of Historical Society._

    _Voskhod_ (1881), Book V, p. 83 (II part).

    Sagasty's letter, _Razsvyet_, 1881, p. 1105; Campos' letter,
        _ibid._, p. 1148.

    "Inquiry into the Jewish question" (ed. by the Council of
        the United Nobility, St. Petersburg, 1910), Part II, pp.
        125-126; _Russian Jew. Encycl._, I, pp. 826-827.

    Dr. Mandelstamm's Reminiscences, _Perezhitnoye_, vol. IV, p. 53
        et seq. (St. Petersburg, 1913).

    Report of the Gubernatorial Commissions on the Jewish Question,
        vols. I-II, St. Petersburg, 1884.

    Istoria Revolutzionnavo Dvizhenia v Rossiyi ("The History of
        the Revolutionary Movement in Russia"), St. Petersburg,
        1906, pp. 260-262.

    Die Judenpogromen in Russland, I, pp. 46-66 (Köln, 1910).


CHAPTER XXIII

NEW MEASURES OF OPPRESSION AND PUBLIC PROTESTS

(pp. 284-308)

    "Historical review of the activities of the Committee of
        Ministers," vol. IV, p. 183 (St. Petersburg, 1902).

    _Voskhod_, 1903, Book III, p. 154.

    _Razsvyet_ (1882), No. 3 (supplement), and No. 4, p. 125.

    _Yevr. St._ (1909), I. pp. 93-97.

    _Judische Welt_ (Yiddish monthly, St. Petersburg, 1912), No. 2.

    _Archives_, Nos. 10, 12, 13, 15.


CHAPTER XXIV

LEGISLATIVE POGROMS

(pp. 309-323)

    _Yevr. St._, I. pp. 265-267.

    _Russian Jew. Encycl._, I, p. 829.

    Historical Review of the activities of the Commission of
        Ministers, IV, pp. 20-21, 183.

    _Voskhod_, 1903, Book III, p. 155.

    _Razsvyet_, No. 20.

    _Razsvyet_, 1882, pp. 1125, 1417.

    "Diary of a Palestinian Immigrant," _Voskhod Chron._, 1882.

    _Yevr. St._, 1915, pp. 100, 201 ff.

    _Voskhod_, 1883, Book I, p. 69 (II part).


CHAPTER XXV

INNER UPHEAVALS

(pp. 324-335)

    _Razsvyet_, 1882, pp. 506, 1301.

    _Voskhod Chron._, 1882, p. 645.

    Bez Illuzii ("Without Illusion"), _Razsvyet_, 1881, p. 1988;
        1882, p. 152 ff.

    Dubnow, _Razsvyet_, 1881, Nos. 34, 35.

    Gordon, Kol Schire Jelag, I, pp. 115-116, St. Petersburg, 1884.

    Dubnow, "The Question of the Day," _Razsvyet_, 1881, Nos. 34-35.

    Hamzefot, Chto Zhe Dielat? ("What is to be done?"), _Razsvyet_,
        1882, Nos. 2-5.

    _Razsvyet_, 1881, Nos. 41-42, "The General Jewish Question and
        Palestine."

    Ben-Zion (Priluker), Yevreyi Reformatory ("Jewish Reformers"),
        St. Petersburg, 1882.


CHAPTER XXVI

INCREASED JEWISH DISABILITIES

(pp. 336-357)

    "Inquiry into the Report on the Jewish question," vol. II, pp.
        20-21.

    Pahlen's Commission, pp. 175, 251 _et seq._

    _Yevr. St._, I. p. 88 _et seq._

    Gieorgievski, Doklad po vøprosu ob obrazovani Yevreyev ("Report
        on the question of the Education of Jews"), St. Petersburg,
        1886.

    Pozner, Yevrei v Obshchey Shkolie ("Jews in Secular Schools"),
        St. Petersburg, 1914, pp. 58-59.

    "History of Ministers' Commission" (Government publication),
        vol. IV, p. 433, St. Petersburg, 1902.

    "Review of the Last Year" (Annual reviews of the first books of
        the _Voskhod_ for 1884-1889; especially 1884, Book I, pp.
        27, 30-31, 36-37; 1885, Book I, p. 47 _et seq._).

    _Voskhod_, 1891, Book II, p. 40 (II part).

    Frederic, "The New Exodus," London, 1902, pp. 175, 248-252.

    Frug, "Two Generals" (a page of reminiscences), _Yevreyskaya
        Zhizn_, 1915, No. 14.

    Mysh, Rukovodstvo k zakonodatielstvu o Yevreyakh v Rossiyi
        ("Guide to the Laws about Jews in Russia"), p. 384, St.
        Petersburg, 1892.

    _Yevreyskaia Bibl._, vol. IV, p. 469, St. Petersburg, 1901.

    Usov, Yevreyi v Armii ("Jews in the Army"), St. Petersburg,
        1911, pp. 14-92.


CHAPTER XXVII

RUSSIAN REACTION AND JEWISH EMIGRATION

(pp. 358-377)

    _Voskhod Chron._ (1883), Nos. 19, 20; 1884, Book VI, p. 30 _et
        seq._ (II part).

    Orshanski, "Review for the Last Year," _Voskhod_, 1884, Book
        II, pp. 40-49.

    Pahlem Commission, pp. 78-79.

    Margulis, "Reminiscences," _Yevreyski Mir_ (1909), Book VI;
        _Voskhod_ (1895), Book I, p. 50 (II part).

    Pozner, Yevreyi v Vysshey Shkolie ("Jews in Higher
        Institutions"), p. 56.

    "Russian Jews in America: Results of the Emigration Movement,"
        _Voskhod_, 1890, Book X.

    "Jewish Agricultural Colonies in America," _Voskhod_, 1891,
        Books I-IV.

    Fornberg, Yevreyskaya Emigratzia ("Jewish Emigration"), Kiev,
        1908.

    Lilienblum, Derekh la-`avor Golim, Warsaw, 1893.

    M. Kahan, Me-'Erev 'ad `Erev ("From Evening to Evening"), vol.
        II, Vilno, 1904.

    Khisin, "From the Diary of a Palestinian Emigrant," _Voskhod_,
        1889, Books I-XXII.

    Sapir, "Zionism," Vilno, 1903, _Yevr. St._, 1915, Books I-II.


CHAPTER XXVIII

JUDÆOPHOBIA TRIUMPHANT

(pp. 378-398)

    H. Frederic, "The New Exodus: A Study of Israel in Russia," p.
        173 (London, 1892; the author visited Russia in 1891, and
        heard about the Tzar's resolution from a man who saw the
        document).

    _Voskhod Chron._, 1890, No. 21 (p. 528), 23 (p. 569), 30 (pp.
        475, 752).

    _Voskhod_ (1891), Book I, p. 63 (II part); II, pp. 42-47.

    "Judenpogromem in Russland," I, p. 119.

    "Spravka k dokladu po yevreyskomu voprosu" ("Inquiry of the
        Report on the Jewish Question"), II, pp. 138-140.

    Letters from V. Solovyev to F. Getz (St. Petersburg, 1909), pp.
        27-40, 55 _et seq._


CHAPTER XXIX

THE EXPULSION FROM MOSCOW

(pp. 399-413)

    "Mysterious References to the Work of the Councils," _Voskhod
        Chron._, 1891, No. 11, p. 288, and No. 12, p. 315.

    _Voskhod_ (1895), Book I, p. 50 (II part).

    _Archives of the Jew. Hist. Soc._ (interview between Baron
        Günzburg and the Minister of Finance in September, 1891).

    Weber-Kempner, La Situation des Juifs en Russie. Rapport
        addressé au Gouvernement des États-Unis (Paris, 1892), p.
        17.

    Goldovski, "Jews in Moscow."

    "Beyond the Border," _Voskhod_ (1891), Books IV-XI, pp. 5-6.


CHAPTER XXX

BARON HIRSCH'S EMIGRATION SCHEME AND UNRELIEVED SUFFERING

(pp. 414-429)

    Istoricheski Obzor Dieyatielnosti Comitieta Ministrov
        ("Historical Study of the Activity of the Ministers'
        Committee"), vol. IV, p. 184 (St. Petersburg, 1902).

    _Jew. Encycl._, VI, p. 415.

    _Russian Jew. Encycl._, VI, p. 564.

    _Voskhod_ (1888), No. 2.

    A. White, Jewish Colonization and the Russian Persecution, New
        Review, London, 1891, No. 27, August, pp. 97-105.

    _Voskhod_, 1891, Books IV-IX.

    Lietopisiets, "Beyond the Border."

    Lapin, Nastoyashchiye i Budushchiye Colonisatsii v Argentinie
        ("The Present and Future Colonisation in Argentine"), St.
        Petersburg, 1894.

    Fornberg, Yevreyskaya Emigratzia ("Jewish Emigration"), Kiev,
        1908.

    Jewish Colonisation Association Rapports de L'administration
        Centrale, Paris, 1891-94.

    M. Kahan, Me-'Erev 'ad `Erev, I, pp. 55-118, Vilno, 1904.

    Berkenheim, "Colonisation Movement," _Voskhod_, 1895, Books I,
        V, VII, XI.

    Katzenelson, "The Martyrdom in the Moscow Synagogues," _Yevr.
        St._, 1909, I, pp. 175-186.

    Goldovski, "Jews in Moscow," _Byloye_, 1907, Book IX, 161-163.

    _Yevr. St._ (1911), IV, p. 109 _et seq._

    Dubnow, Novieyshaya Istoria Yevreyev ("The New History of the
        Jews"), p. 552 (1914 ed.).

    _Voskhod Chron._, 1894.


VOLUME III


CHAPTER XXXI

THE ACCESSION OF NICHOLAS II.

(pp. 7-39)

    _Voskhod_, 1896, Book I, p. 38 (II part).

    _Yevr. St._ (1914), VIII, p. 400.

    Judenpogromen in Russland, vol. I, p. 98.

    "Memoirs of the commission on the Jewish question under Plehve"
        (1903-1904), pp. 6-7 (not published).

    _Archives of Jew. Hist. Soc._, coll. S. P. E., No. 134, I.

    _Byloye_ (1907), Book IX, p. 162.

    Levine, Svornik Zakonov o Yevreyakh ("Collection of Laws about
        Jews"), St. Petersburg, 1902.

    Voytanski, Yevreyi v Irkutskie ("Jews in Irkutsk"), 1915, pp.
        30, 264.

    _Yevr. Bibl._, IX, p. 467 _et seq._ (St. Petersburg, 1901,
        London ed.).

    Pozner, Yevreyi v Obshchey Shkolie ("Jews in Secular Schools"),
        St. Petersburg, 1914, pp. 89-92, 105, 119-129, 127-129.

    _Budushchmost_ (weekly), 1902, Nos. 5-6.

    _Russian Jew. Encycl._, IV, pp. 661-664.


CHAPTER XXXII

THE NATIONAL AWAKENING

(pp. 40-65)

    Theodor Herzl, Zionistische Schriften, vol. I, Berlin, 1905.

    Friedemann, Das Leben Th. Herzl's, Berlin, 1904.

    R. Gottheil, Zionism, Philadelphia, 1914.

    Protokolle der Zionisten-Kongresse 1897-1901 (_Die Welt_,
        official party organ, 1897-1902, Vienna).

    _Voskhod_ (weekly), 1987-1902.

    _Ha-Shiloah_ (Ahad Ha`am's monthly), Berlin Odessa, 1896-1902.

    Max Nordau, Zionistische Schriften, Köln, 1909.

    Dubnow, Letters about the Old and New Judaism, St. Petersburg,
        1907, pp. 164 _et seq._, 181 ff., 230 _et seq._ (The first
        two "letters" were translated into German, Jud. Verlag,
        Berlin, 1903.)

    Ahad Ha'am, `Al Parashat Derakhim, vols. I-III, 1895-1904
        (partly in English and partly in German translation).

    J. Klausner, Dukhovny Sionisme ("Spiritual Zionism"), St.
        Petersburg, 1900.

    Frumkin, "Sketches from the History of the Jewish Workingmen's
        Movement, 1885-97," _Yevr. St._, 1913.

    Geschichte vun d. Judische Arbeiter-Bewegung in Russland
        (Yiddish), Geneva, 1900.

    Medem, Natzionalnost i Proletariat ("Nationalism and the
        Proletariat") in Kastelanski's collection, Formy
        natzionalnavo dvizhenia v sovremiennykh gosudarstvakh
        ("The Forms of the National Movement in Contemporary
        Governments"), St. Petersburg, 1910, pp. 772 _et seq._

    "Bund" in _Russian Jew. Encycl._, vol. V, p. 93 _et seq._

    M. Philippson, Neueste Geschichte d. Jüdischen Bewegung,
        Berlin, 1911.

    Borokhov, Klassovye momenty natzionalnavo voprosa ("Classic
        Moments of the National Question"), St. Petersburg, 1906.

    J. Klausner, Novoyevreyskaya literatura ("The New Jewish
        Literature"), 2d edition, Odessa, 1912; M. Pines, Historie
        de la Litterature Judéo-Allemande, Paris, 1910.


CHAPTER XXXIII

THE KISHINEV MASSACRE

(pp. 66-86)

    Die Judenpogromen in Russland, vol. II, pp. 6-8.

    _Voskhod_ (weekly), 1903, pp. 11 _et seq._, 16 _et seq._, 18,
        20, 22, 24, 25, 28, 31, 32, 33, 38.

    Urusov, Zapiski Gubernatora ("A Gubernator's Memoirs"), St.
        Petersburg, 1907.

    Chemu uchit pokushenie Dashevskavo? ("What Do We Learn from
        Dashevski's Temptation?"), London, 1903, edition of
        _Molodoi Israel_ ("Young Israel").

    _Yevr. St._ (1915), VIII, p. 412.

    Protokoll d. VI Zionisten-Congresses, 1903.

    Chlenov, Sion i Africa na Vi Congressie ("Zion and Africa at
        the VI Congress"), Moscow, 1905.

    Dubnow, "Historical Moment," _Voskhod_, 1903, Nos. 21-22.


CHAPTER XXXIV

CONTINUED POGROMS AND THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR

(pp. 87-104)

    _Voskhod_, 1905, pp. 3-35.

    Memoirs of Pahlen, governor of Vilna, Geneva, 1904 ("Bund"
        edition).

    Voskhod Booklets, 1904, IX, pp. 134 _et seq._, 140 _et seq._,
        146 _et seq._

    Fornberg, Yevreyskaya Emigratzia ("Jewish Emigration"), p. 19,
        Kiev, 1908.


CHAPTER XXXV

THE REVOLUTION OF 1905 AND THE FIGHT FOR EMANCIPATION

(pp. 105-123)

    _Voskhod_, 1905, Nos. 3-35.


CHAPTER XXXVI

THE COUNTER-REVOLUTION AND THE OCTOBER MASSACRE

(pp. 124-142)

    _Voskhod_, 1905, No. 47; 1906, Nos. 10, 14, 18-21, 26, 42, 47,
        49, 50.

    "Sources for the History of the Russian Counter-Revolution,"
        vol. I, St. Petersburg, 1908 (Pogroms according to official
        documents).

    Judenpogromen, vol. I, pp. 187-223, 267-327, 383-400; vol. II,
        pp. 8-536.

    _Archives of the League of Equal Rights_, St. Petersburg, 1906.

    Vinaver, Yevreyski Vopros v Gosudarstvyennoy Dumie ("The Jewish
        Question in the Duma"), in _Svoboda i Ravienstvo_, 1907,
        Nos. 2-3.

    _Yevreyskaya Zhizn_ (weekly), 1906, Nos. 25-28, 32.

    L. Wolf, The Legal Sufferings of the Jews in Russia, London,
        1902, pp. 49-50.


CHAPTER XXXVII

EXTERNAL OPPRESSION AND INTERNAL CONSOLIDATION

(pp. 143-169)

    Formy natzionalnavo dvizhenia v sovremiennykh gosudarstvakh,
        St. Petersburg., 1910, pp. 399-423, 778-783.

    Dubnow, "Letters," St. Petersburg, introduction and pp. 294-361.

    _Svoboda i Ravienstvo_, 1907, Nos. 30-32, 38, 39, 40, 41,
        43-45, 46.

    Stenographic Reports of the Duma for 1908-1909.

    "A Study of Internal Affairs," in _Yevr. Mir._, 1909, Book I.

    _Russian Jew. Encycl._, vol. VII, p. 374.

    J. Klausner, Novoyevreyskaya Literatura ("The New Jewish
        Literature"), 2d edition, Odessa, 1912.

    M. Pines, Histoire de la Litterature Judéo-Allemande, Paris,
        1910.



INDEX

INDEX


  =Aaron= (=I.=), king of Khazars, I 26

  =Aaron= (=II.=), king of Khazars, I 26

  =Aaron=, rabbi of Tulchyn, I 148

  =Aaron=, of Karlin, hasidic leader, I 234

  =Aaron Samuel Kaidanover=, see Kaidanover

  =Abderrahman III.=, caliph of Cordova, I 24

  =Abraham=, son of Isaac, Polish minter, I 42

  =Abraham Prokhovnik=, see Prokhovnik

  =Abrahams, Israel=, quoted, I 160

  =Abramius=, Russian priest, objects to erection of synagogue,
            I 252

  =Abramovich, Shalom Jacob= (_Mendele Mokher Sforim_), Hebrew
            and Yiddish writer, II 231 ff, III 60 f

  =Abydos=, near Constantinople, seat of Sabbatai Zevi, I 206,
            219

  =Adam=, see Lebensohn, Abraham Baer

  =Adamovich, Mary=, alleged victim of ritual murder, II 73

  =Adrianople=, Sabbatai Zevi active in, I 207

  =Agriculture=, among Jews in Lithuania, I 60, 68, II 72
    in Poland, I 68, 264, II 89
    championed by Nota Shklover, I 338;
      by Isaac Baer Levinsohn and by Maskilim in general, II 126
    promoted by Russian Government, I 342 f, II 20, 61, 71
    hampered by it, II 48, 197, III 10, 24 f;
      see also Colonization

  =Ahad Ha'am=, pen-name of Asher Ginzberg, II 423
    Hebrew writer and thinker, II 423, III 59 f
    exponent of Spiritual Zionism, II 48 ff
    associated with Palestinian colonization, III 49
    founder of Order _Bne Moshe_, III 49
    participates in Zionist Convention, III 51
    founder and editor of _Ha-Shiloah_, III 58, 162 f

  =Ahijah=, the prophet, alleged teacher of _Besht_, I 228

  =Aix-la-Chapelle=, Jewish question discussed at Congress of,
            I 398 f

  =Akhal-Tekke=, oasis in Central Asia, offered to Jews for settlement,
            II 306

  =Akmolinsk=, territory of, in Siberia, II 367

  =Aksavok, Ivan=, Russian publicist, advocates limited emancipation
            of Jews, II 208
    defends pogroms, II 278

  =Aktziznik=, Russian name for farmer of excise dues, II 186,
            241

  =Albedinski=, governor-general of Warsaw, suppresses pogrom,
            II 282

  =Albo, Joseph=, philosophic work of, studied in Poland, I 133
            f

  =Alexander the Great=, indirectly responsible for Jewish immigration
            into Eastern Europe, I 13 f

  =Alexander= (=Yaghello=), grand duke of Lithuania
            (1492-1506) and king of Poland (1501-1506), grants
            autonomy to Karaites, I 64 f
    favors Jewish capitalists, I 65, 71
    expels Jews from Lithuania, and confiscates their property
            (1495), I 65
    allows Jews to return to Lithuania and restores their property
            (1503), I 65, 70 f
    attended by Jewish body-physician, I 132

  =Alexander I.=, emperor of Russia (1801-1825), I 335-413
    receives report of "Jewish Committee," I 341 f
    sanctions Jewish Statute of 1804, I 342
    agrees to postponement of expulsion from villages, I 347
    invites Jews to send deputies, I 351
    establishes friendly relations with Napoleon, I 350 f
    orders again expulsion from villages, I 361
    again postpones it, I 352
    Hasidim indebted to, I 356
    releases Shneor Zalman, hasidic leader, I 378
    praises patriotism of Jews, I 358
    accords friendly reception to Jewish deputations, I 358, 359,
            392 f
    appealed to by Christian residents of Vilna and Kovno against
            Jews, I 369 f
    orders investigation of ritual murder, II 74
    issues decree forbidding charge of ritual murder, II 74
    grants autonomy to Poland, II 88
    appoints his brother Constantine military commander of Poland,
            II 16
    receives report on Jews of Poland, II 94
    appealed to by Poles against Jews, II 97, 99
    vetoes Polish law barring Jews from liquor trade, II 94
    reaction under, I 390 ff, 395 ff
    favors conversion of Jews, I 396
    establishes "Society of Israelitish Christians," I 396 f
    refuses to dissolve it, I 400
    sanctions severe measures against "Judaizers," I 403
    receives memorandum of Lewis Way on Jews of Russia, I 398
    renews oppression of Jews, I 404
    decrees expulsion from villages in White Russia, I 406
    appoints new "Jewish Committee," I 407
    objects to residence of Jews in Russian Interior, I 409
    contemplates introduction of military service among Jews, II
            15
    favors agriculture among Jews, II 197, III 24;
      see I 363 ff
    beginnings of revolutionary movement under, I 410

  =Alexander II.=, emperor of Russia (1855-1881), II 154-242
    descendants of Jewish converts prominent during reign of, I
            388
    releases imprisoned Jewish printer, II 124
    confirms sentence of Jews accused of ritual murder, II 152
    pardons them later, II 153
    abolishes juvenile conscription, II 155 f
    sanctions opening of Russian Interior to first guild merchants,
            II 162;
      to university graduates, II 166, 348;
      to artisans, II 170
    promotes handicrafts among Jews, II 346 f
    Jewish trade school named after, III 13
    does not favor agriculture among Jews, II 197
    refuses right of universal residence to "Nicholas Soldiers,"
            II 171 ff;
      finally grants it, II 29, 172
    restricts appointment of rabbis and teachers, II 175
    sanctions removal of Jewish disabilities in Poland, II 95,
            181 f
    admits Jews to bench, III 26
    receives memorandum from Brafman, II 187
    approves of popular representation, II 245
    grants liberties to Zemstvos, II 386
    assassinated, II 243, 279
    influence of, on succeeding reign, II 349
    laws in favor of Jews enacted by, repealed by successor, II
            399
    Jewish policy of, declared ineffective, II 271, 309
    era of, depicted by Mendele Mokher Sforim, III 61

  =Alexander III.=, emperor of Russia (1881-1894), II 243-429
    prejudiced against Jews while yet crown prince, II 202, 203,
            244
    influenced by Pobyedonostzev, II 245
    holds conferences to decide policy of state, II 244
    promises to maintain autocracy, II 246
    receives Jewish deputation, II 260 f
    endorses Ignatyev's anti-Jewish policy, II 272
    appoints Gubernatorial Commissions, II 272
    regrets necessity of suppressing pogroms, II 284
    disregards Jews in coronation manifesto, II 338
    bent on limiting admission of Jews to schools, II 339 f, 349
    closes Jewish school of handicrafts, II 347
    supports anti-Jewish minority of Pahlen Commission, II 370
    affected by "miraculous" escape in railroad accident, II 378
    condemns Jews for Crucifixion, II 379
    reads and supports anti-Semitic papers, II 380
    disregards Solovyov's appeal in favor of Jews, II 390
    appealed to by Mayor of London in favor of Jews, II 390
    angered by London appeal, II 393
    United States Congress decides to appeal to, II 395
    endorses emigration of Jewish proletariat, II 414
    favors liquor state monopoly as anti-Jewish measure, III 22
    refuses petition of Jewish soldiers to remain in Moscow, II
            404
    expels heads of Moscow Jewish community, II 424
    threatens to sell at auction Moscow synagogue, II 424, III
            12
    causes expulsion of Jews from Yalta, II 429, III 18
    death of, II 429
    Jewish sect promises to name children after, II 334

  =Alexandria=, Egypt, emigration from, to South Russia, I 16

  =Alexandra= (government of Kherson), pogrom at, III 100

  =Alexandrovka=, village in Podolia, II 301

  =Alexeyev=, member of Russian Senate, investigates condition
            of Jews, I 347 f, 352

  =Alexeyev=, burgomaster of Moscow, opposes Jews, II 400 f

  =Alexis Michaelovich=, Russian Tzar, annexes Little Russia, I
            152 f, 244
    invades Polish provinces, I 245
    expels Jews from Moghilev, I 153
    persecutes Jews of Vilna, I 154
    imposes death penalty on converts to Judaism, I 253

  =Alexis=, son of Nicholas II, birth of, occasions manifesto,
            III 98

  =Alexius=, Russian priest, converted to Judaism, I 36

  =Alfasi=, work of, studied in Poland, I 118

  =Algiers=, emigration of Russian Jews to, II 69

  =Aliens=, Jews in Russian law designated as, II 367

  _Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums_, quoted, II 55
    founded by Ludwig Philippson, II 67, 219
    hails end of persecution in Russia, II 67

  =Alliance, the Holy=, inaugurates European reaction, I 390
    assembles in Aix-la-Chapelle, I 398

  =Alliance Israélite Universelle=, headed by Crémieux, II 153
    suspected by Russian anti-Semites, II 189, 194
    assists Russian-Jewish emigrants, II 268 f, 297
    establishes agricultural settlement in Palestine, II 322

  =Alma=, locality in Crimea, I 26

  =Altaras, Isaac=, of Marseilles, visits Russia, II 69

  =Alter, Isaac Itche Meier=, hasidic leader in Poland, II 122

  =Alubika=, locality in Crimea, I 26

  =Alus=, locality in Crimea, I 26

  =America=, see Argentina and United States

  =American Hebrew, The=, quoted, II 296

  =Amoraim=, names of, collected by Polish rabbi, I 200

  =Amsterdam=, emissary of Sabbatai Zevi active in, I 204
    Jews of, petition Peter the Great, I 246

  =Ananyev= (government of Kherson), pogrom at, II 251

  =Anapa=, see Gorgippia

  =Andreas=, of Brixen, alleged victim of ritual murder, I 179

  =Andrusovo=, Treaty of (1667), provides for cession of Polish
            territory to Russia, I 159;
    and release of prisoners, I 245

  =Anna= (=or Anne=), Russian empress, permits retail trade to
            Jews, I 251
    expels Jews from Little Russia, I 254
    attended by Jewish body-physician, I 258

  =Anti-Semitism=, in Poland, I 281 f, II 94 ff, III 166 ff
    German A., referred to by Russian dignitaries, II 309
    contrasted with Russian, III 6 f
    in Russia, condemned by Russian writers, II 208
    denounced by Solovyov, II 387
    effect on Zionism, III 48 f

  =Anti-Trinitarians=, Christian rationalistic sect in Poland,
            I 79, 136

  =Antwerp=, Russian Jews in, II 420

  =Apostol=, see Daniel Apostol;
    see also Conversion

  =Apter, Joshua Heshel=, hasidic leader, II 121

  =Arabs=, backward condition of, II 375
    Jews in Palestine buy land from, II 422

  =Arakcheyev, Alexis=, Russian reactionary, I 395, 406, II 19

  =Arbeiter Stimme=, socialistic organ in Yiddish, III 56

  =Archangel=, government of, II 367

  =Arendar=, name explained, I 93
    position of, I 93, 112, 265 f
    in the Ukraine, I 141 f, 152
    maltreated by Poles, I 169 f

  =Arendator=, see Arendar

  =Argentina=, emigration of Russian Jews to, II 413, 416 ff, 419

  =Arians=, heterodox Christian sect in Poland, I 91, 136, 164
    Isaac Troki argues with, I 137

  =Aristotle=, studied in Polish yeshibahs, I 120, 126

  =Arisu=, Slavonic tribe, I 26

  =Armenians=, in Crimea, I 34
    in Lemberg, I 53

  =Armleder=, persecution of, drives Jews to Poland, I 50

  =Army=, Jews volunteer in Polish A., I 152, 293 ff, II 105 f
    Jews assist Polish A., in defence of country, I 147 f, 154,
            293
    Jews barred from advancement in Russian A., II 157, 354
    number of Jews disproportionately large in Russian A., II 355
            ff, 394.
    promotion of Jews in Russian A., limited to rank of sergeant,
            II 157
    Third Russian Duma proposes exclusion of Jews from, III 155
            f
    See Military Service, Recruits, and Soldiers

  =Aronovich, Joseph=, Polish-Jewish patriot, I 394

  =Artemisia=, name of Jewess in Crimea, I 16

  =Arthur=, president of United States, submits to Congress papers
            relating to Russian Jews, II 294

  =Artisans=, Jews form 50% of A., in Poland, I 264
    excluded from Christian trade-guilds, I 266
    form special estate in Russia, I 308
    form part of "burgher class," II 405
    encouraged in Jewish Statute of 1804, I 344
    opposed by Christian trade-guilds, I 360
    exempted from military service, II 20
    granted right of residence outside Pale, II 161, 168, 170
    fictitious A., in St. Petersburg, II 343 f
    restricted to products of their own workmanship, II 347
    wives of, forbidden to engage in trade, II 385
    attempt to withdraw from, right of residence outside Pale,
            II 399
    school for A., closed, II 347
    bank for A., opposed, III 25 f
    expelled from Moscow, II 402, III 14
    Baron Hirsch's gift in favor of, declined, II 415

  =Asefat Hakamim=, Hebrew magazine, II 223

  =Ash, Shalom=, Yiddish novelist and playwright, III 162

  =Asher=, rabbi in Cracow, I 104 f

  =Ashkenasi, Solomon=, Polish court physician, I 132

  =Asia, Central=, steppes of, suggested for settlement of Russian
            Jews, II 285, 306

  =Asia Minor=, emigration from, to Black Sea coast, I 13 f, 16
    establishment of Jewish state in, advocated, I 412;
      see also Turkey

  =Assimilation=, see Polonization and Russification

  "=Assortment=" (classification), of Jews, decreed by Nicholas
            I., II 64 ff, 141 ff
    reflected in manifesto of Alexander II., II 157

  =Astrakhan= (city), ancient Khazar capital situated near, I 19

  =Astrakhan= (government), mosques destroyed in, I 254
    opened to Jewish agriculturists, I 342
    villages in, forbidden to Jews, I 343
    Jews compared with Kalmycks in, II 367

  =Atyeney ("Athenaeum")=, Russian magazine, defends Jews, II 208

  =Augustus II.=, king of Poland (1697-1704), I 167
    ratifies Jewish privileges, I 168
    expels Jews from Sandomir, I 173

  =Augustus III.=, king of Poland (1733-1763), I 167
    ratifies Jewish privileges, I 168, 180
    appealed to by Jews of Posen, I 175
    acquits Jews of ritual murder charge, I 176
    grants safe conduct to Frankists, I 215
    acts as God-father to Frank, I 218
    Austria, Jews flee from, to Poland, I 66
    Polish Jews export goods to, I 67
    Polish Jews pass, on way to Palestine, I 209
    shares in partitioning of Polish territory, I 186, 262, 274,
            371
    Frank stays in, I 220
    Berek Yoselevich arrested in, I 297
    wages war against duchy of Warsaw, I 303
    forbids Jews to communicate with Paris, I 346 f
    represented at Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, I 398 f
    Jews of, forbidden to settle in Russia (1824), I 409
    grants emancipation to Jews, II 30
    imposes military duty on Jews, II 30
    Jewish policy of, serves as model for Russia, II 46, 49
    Israel of Ruzhin escapes to, II 121
    Parliament of, meets in Kremsier, II 177
    Jewish socialists expelled from, II 224
    Russian-Jewish students in, II 351
    Government of, supports plans of Baron Hirsch, II 416
    anti-Semitism rampant in, III 42

  =Autocracy=, upheld by Alexander III., II 246;
    by Nicholas II., III 8
    re-establishment of, favored by Black Hundred, III 149

  =Autoemancipation=, doctrine of, propounded by Leo Pinsker, II
            330 ff
    contrasted with emancipation, II 331

  =Autonomism=, national-cultural, doctrine of, propounded by Dubnow,
            III 41, 51 ff
    adopted as political platform, III 144

  =Autonomy=, Jewish, in ancient Tauris, I 16
    granted, or confirmed, by kings of Poland, I 52, 53, 62, 72
            f, 83 f, 98, 104, 105
    rise and development of, I 103 ff, 188 ff
    _magna charta_ of (1551), I 105 ff
    curtailment of, advocated by Poles, I 273, 280 f, 282
    Jews of Poland plead for preservation of, I 291
    recognized by Russian Government (1776), I 308 ff
    curtailed by it (1795), I 319 f
    recognized in modified form in Statute of 1804, I 344
    larger amount of, demanded by Jews, I 349
    abolition of, recommended by Council of State (1840), II 49
    abolished by Nicholas I. (1844), II 59 ff
    scheme of, proposed for kingdom of Poland, II 92
    abolished in Poland (1822), II 102
    abolition of last remnants of, recommended by Committee of
            Russian Government, II 195
    St. Petersburg Jews, plead for, II 370
    demanded by adherents of national-cultural Autonomism, III
            53 f;
      by "Bund," III 57;
      by Vilna community, III 109;
      by League for Equal Rights, III 112;
      by Russian Jewry in general, III 161;
      see also Kahal

  =Azariah=, alleged biblical prophet, quoted to substantiate ritual
            murder libel, II 73

  =Azov, Sea of=, Jewish settlements on shores of, I 14 f
    movement of Khazars towards, I 19


  =Baal-Shem=, name explained, I 223
    Joel, I 203
    founder of Hasidism acting as, I 224
    _Israel Baal-Shem-Tob_, see Israel

  =Bab Al-Abwab= (now Derbent), city in Caucasia, I 26

  =Babunj=, land of, synagogue destroyed in, I 22

  =Babylonia=, Judaism of, influences Khazars, I 20
    scholars of, invited by Khazars 21, I 27
    Poland compared with, I 122

  =Baer=, of Lubavici, head of _Habad_ sect, II 117

  =Baer=, of Mezherich, disciple of Israel _Baal-Shem-Tob_, I 227,
            I 229 f, I 232
    disciples of, carry Hasidism to North, I 234;
      establish Hasidism in Poland, I 33, 34
    great-grandson of Israel of Ruzhin, II 120

  =Bagdad=, caliphate of, relation of Khazars to, I 22
    city of, threatened by Russians, I 26 f
    Gaon of, communicates with Jewish scholars in Russia, I 33

  =Bahurs=, or Yeshibah students, supported by Jewish communities
            in Poland, I 116
    large number of in Lithuania, II 113
    affected by _pilpul_ method, I 119
    study Aristotle, I 120

  =Bak-Tadlud=, city in Caucasia, I 26

  =Bakchi-Sarai=, Tartar capital, I 35

  =Bakst=, professor, attends Jewish conference in St. Petersburg,
            II 304
    opposes Jewish emigration from Russia, II 306

  =Balkan Peninsula=, movement of Khazars towards, I 20

  =Balta= (Podolia), pogrom at, II 299 ff, 314, 316, 321
    rabbi of, pleads for rioters, II 316
    visited by governor-general, II 316 f
    Jewish community of, sends deputation to St. Petersburg, II
            316 f

  =Baltic Provinces=, number of Jews in, II 168
    new Jewish settlers expelled from, II 32
    Jews barred from (1835), II 40
    expulsion of old settlers from, repealed, II 428
    in throes of terrorism (1905), III 130;
    see Courland and Livonia

  =Bank=, St. Petersburg lawyer, member of Jewish deputation to
            Alexander III., II 261

  =Baptism=, see Conversion

  =Bar= (Podolia), massacre at, I 149
    Polish conference of, I 183

  =Bar=, the Russian, established 1864, II 173
    Jews admitted to, II 73
    excluded from, II 352 f; III 26 f
    Bar Association of St. Petersburg protests against Beilis case,
            II 166

  =Baranov=, Russian Senator, dispatched to White Russia, I 406

  "=Bare-Footed Brigade=," the, nickname for tramps, II 253
    active in pogroms, 253, 256

  =Bartnit=, city in Crimea, I 26

  =Baruch=, see Borukh

  =Bashi-Buzuks=, Turkish irregular troops, II 253
    pogrom makers compared with, II 253, 289

  =Basil=, the Macedonian, emperor of Byzantium, persecutes Jews,
            I 23

  =Basil=, Christian martyr, I 17

  =Basil=, grand duke of Moscow, I 242

  =Basle=, Council of, adopts canonical laws against Jews, I 63
    Zionist Congresses at, III 44 f, 84 f, 144
    "Program," III 44;
      modified by Ahad Ha'am, 50

  =Basurman=, Russian name for non-Orthodox, I 35

  =Batory, Stephen=, king of Poland (1576-1586), forbids charge
            of ritual murder and desecration, I 89, 96
    ratifies and amplifies Jewish privileges, I 89
    defends Jews of Posen, I 90
    patronizes Jesuites, I 90 f
    grants license to Jewish printer, I 131
    attended by Jewish body-physician, I 132
    recaptures city of Polotzk, I 243

  =Bavaria=, Wagenseil, anti-Jewish writer, native of, I 138
    Max Lilienthal, native of, II 52

  =Beaconsfield, Earl of=, champions equal rights for Jews, II
            202
    hostile to Russia, II 288

  =Beards=, shaving of (and of earlocks), recommended by Polish
            reformers, I 282, and by Kalmansohn, I 385
    "bearded regiment" in Warsaw, II 106;
    see Earlocks

  =Beilis, Mendel=, accused of ritual murder, III 82, 164 ff
    nickname for Jews in Poland, III 167

  =Bekri, Al-=, Arabic writer, quoted, I 21

  =Belza=, Polish judge, arranges libel against Jews, I 101

  =Belzhytz= (Province of Lublin), Jacob of, author of polemical
            treatise in Polish, I 136

  =Bench=, the Russian, Jews excluded from, II 352 f, III 26

  =Benckendorff=, chief of Russian gendarmerie, II 21

  =Benedict XIV.=, appealed to by Jews of Poland, I 179

  =Benjacob=, bibliographer in Vilna, II 136

  =Benjamin=, king of Khazars, I 26

  =Benjamin of Tudela=, Jewish traveller, I 32; II 233

  =Benjamin II.= (Joseph Israel), Jewish traveller, II 233

  =Benjamin III.=, name of fictitious traveller in Yiddish and
            Hebrew novel, II 233

  =Berdychev= (government of Kiev), Levi Itzhok, hasidic leader,
            resident of, I 232 f, 382
    Jews of, release fellow-Jews from prison, I 266
    Jews of, support Polish cause, I 292
    Tobias Feder, Hebrew writer, of, I 388
    Max Lilienthal accorded friendly reception at, II 56
    Halperin, resident of, member of Rabbinical Commission, II
            57
    Mendele Mokher Sforim, resident of, II 232
    pogrom at, averted by Jewish self-defence, II 256 f
    visited by White, representative of Baron Hirsch, II 418
    Jewish community of, signs petition for equal rights, III 108

  =Berdychevsky, Micah Joseph=, Hebrew writer, III 60

  =Berek=, Kahal elder, I 172

  =Berek Yoselovich=, see Yoselovich

  =Bergson, Jacob=, prominent Jew of Warsaw, II 103

  =Berkovich, Joseph=, son of Berek Yoselovich, calls for Jewish
            volunteers to Polish army, II 105

  =Berlin= (Germany), Mendelssohn circle in, centre of enlightenment,
            I 238
    attracts Jewish students from Poland and Russia, I 239, 388,
            II 114
    "Berliner" synonymous with heretic, I 278, 384
    enlightenment of, hated by hasidic leaders, I 383
    influences Warsaw, I 300 f, 384 f
    epidemic of conversions in, I 388
    Congress of, II 202
    Jewish socialists in, II 223
    stock-exchange of, affected by pogrom at Rostov, II 358
    refugees from Moscow arrive in, II 408
    Russian Jews emigrate to, II 420
    place of publication, I 386, III 51, 52, 58, 60

  =Berlin, Shmerka=, of Velizh, accused of ritual murder, II 75,
            77

  =Berlin, Slava=, wife of former, arrested on same charge, II
            77

  =Berlin=, Jewish scholar, member of Jewish deputation to Alexander
            III., II 261

  =Berliner, A.=, quoted, I 179

  =Bernardine Monks=, in Poland, active in ritual murder libel,
            I 100 f, 177

  =Bersohn=, Polish-Jewish writer, quoted, I 105

  =Berthenson, I.=, converted Jew, Russian court physician, II
            214

  =Besht=, see Israel Baal-Shem-Tob

  =Bessarabetz=, anti-Semitic paper in Kishinev, III 169 ff

  =Bessarabia=, included in Pale (1835), II 40
    Jewish agricultural colonies in, II 72
    expulsions from, II 385
    anti-Semitic agitation in, III 69 ff
    von Raaben, governor of, III 74, 77
    Urussov, governor of, III 93, 97;
    see Kishinev

  =Bezalel=, Jewish tax-farmer in Poland, I 167

  =Bezalel=, of Kobrin, Hebrew author, I 201

  =Bialocerkiew=, see Byelaya Tzerkov

  =Bibikov=, governor-general of Kiev, criticises Jews in official
            report, II 47
    arrests Israel of Ruzhyn, II 120 f

  =Bialik, Hayyim Nahman=, Hebrew poet, III 63, 162
    composes poem on Kishinev massacre, III 79 f

  =Bialystok=, province of, annexed by Prussia (1795), I 297

  =Bialystok= (city, government of Grodno), Samuel Mohilever, rabbi
            of, II 378
    Poles threaten massacre of Russians and Jews in, I 357
    Jewish labor movement in, III 55
    pogroms at, III 114 f, 120, 136 f;
      discussed by First Russian Duma, 137 f

  =Bible=, studied by Khazars, I 21
    taught in Yiddish translation in Poland, I 114
    study of, encouraged by Isaac Baer Levinsohn, II 126

  =Bible Society=, of London, model of Russian Bible Society, I
            396
    Lewis Way, representative of, champions cause of Russian Jews,
            I 397

  =Bible Society=, the Russian, established under Alexander I.,
            I 396

  =Bielsk= (Lithuania), Jew of, accused of ritual murder, I 87

  _Bielski_, Polish chronicler, quoted, I 80

  "=Bilu=," society of Palestinian pioneers, organized in Kharkov,
            II 321 f

  =Bismarck=, German chancellor, favors equal rights for Jews,
            II 202

  =Black Death=, the, stimulates immigration of Jews into Poland,
            I 50
    penetrates to Poland, I 52
    ravages of 1648 compared with those of, I 157

  =Black Hundred=, the, patronized by Nicholas II., III 113, 151
    deputation of, received by Nicholas II., III 131
    supposed to number 100,000, III 126
    organized as "League of Russian People," III 141
    gain in Second Duma, III 142
    triumph of, III 149 ff
    active in organizing pogroms, III 113 ff, 124 ff, 126 ff, 136
    engineer Beilis case, III 164 ff
    take advantage of Jewish rightlessness, III 132
    intimidate Jews during elections, III 134, 153
    insult Jewish deputies in Duma, III 156;
    see League of the Russian People

  =Black Sea=, the, ancient Jewish settlements on shores of, I
            13 ff
    Khazars move in direction of, I 19, 28
    Petahiah of Ratisbon travels to, I 33
    establishment of Jewish colonies in neighborhood of, advocated,
            I 331

  =Blaine, James G.=, American Secretary of State, expresses resentment
            at persecution of Russian Jews, II 395 f

  =Blinov=, Russian student, killed while defending Jews, III 116

  =Blondes, David=, Jewish barber in Vilna, accused of ritual murder,
            III 37

  =Board of Deputies=, Jewish organization in London, pleads for
            Russian Jews, II 262

  =Bobovnya= (government of Minsk), Jewish convert from, slanders
            Jews, II 80
    Jewish community of, protests against denial of Jewish franchise,
            III 121

  =Bobrov, District of= (government of Voronyezh), Judaizing sect
            spreads to, I 401

  =Bogdanov=, Russian soldier, accuses Jews of ritual murder, II
            151

  =Bogdanovich=, Russian general, organizes pogroms, III 125 f

  =Bogolepov=, Minister of Public Instruction, bars Jews from schools,
            III 27 f
    assassinated by Russian terrorist, 29

  =Bogrov, Grigory=, Russian-Jewish writer, II 241 f

  =Bogrov=, assassinates Stolypin, III 164 f

  =Bohemia=, visited by Pethahiah of Ratisbon, I 33
    oppressed Jews of, emigrate to Poland, I 41
    Jews from, form community in Cracow, I 104
    Magdenburg Law adopted in many parts of, I 41
    talmudic learning carried from, to Poland, I 122
    Mordecai Jaffe, native of, famous rabbi in Poland, I 127
    Jews of, apply to Polish rabbis for religious guidance, I 125

  =Boleslav the Pious= (_Polish_, Boleslav Pobozny), of Kalish,
            prince of Great Poland, grants charter to Jews, I 45 ff
    charter of, ratified by successors, I 51, 59;
      embodied in Polish code of law, I 71

  =Boleslav the Shy= (_Polish_, Boleslav Wstydliwy), Polish prince,
            encourages immigration of Germans, I 44

  =Bona Sporza=, Polish queen, sells office of state, I 76

  =Bonaparte=, see Napoleon

  =Border Zone=, along Polish-Prussian and
            Polish-Austrian border (Twenty-one-Verst Zone), barred
            to Jews by Polish Government (1823), II 95
    law excluding Jews from, repealed by Alexander II., II 95,
            181
    along Western Russian border (Fifty-Verst Zone), villages in,
            barred to new Jewish settlers (1835), II 40, 366
    expulsion of Jews from entire B. Z. ordered, II 63;
      but not executed, II 64
    new attempt to expel Jews from, II 385

  =Borispol= (government of Poltava), pogrom at, II 267

  =Borki= (government of Kherson), railroad accident to Alexander
            III., in neighborhood of, affects his policies, II 378

  =Borukh Leibov=, Jewish tax-farmer, I 249
    publicly executed, I 251 ff

  =Borukh Shklover=, translates Euclid into Hebrew, I 381

  =Borukh of Tulchyn=, hasidic leader, I 232
    succeeded by Joshua Heshel, II 121

  =Bosporan Era, The=, I 15

  =Bosporus=, the Cimmerian, or Taurian, also called Panticapaeum
            (now Kerch), ancient Jewish community in, I 14 f
    Greco-Jewish inscription found in, I 15
    bishop of, instructed to convert Jews, I 18

  =Boycott=, economic, against Jews in Poland, III 166 ff

  =Brafman, Jacob=, Jewish apostate, accuses Jews of forming illegal
            Kahal organization, II 187 ff
    author of "Book of the Kahal," I 189
    accuses _Alliance Israélite_ of heading world Kahal, II 189
    accuses Society for Diffusion of Enlightenment of forming part
            of Kahal, II 216
    influences Russian authorities, II 190, 193 ff, 240
    example of, followed by Lutestanski, II 202

  =Bramson, L.=, member of Central Committee of League for Equal
            Rights, III 112
    deputy to First Russian Duma, III 134

  =Bratzlav= (Podolia), Polish deputy from, objects to extension
            of Jewish rights, I 288
    Nahman of, leader of "Bratzlav Hasidim," I 382 f; II 121 f
    former name for government of Podolia, I 317

  =Breslau=, Church Council of, adopts anti-Jewish restrictions,
            I 47 ff;
      ratified by Church Council of Kalish, I 57
    visited by Solomon Maimon, I 239

  =Brest-Kuyavsk=, name explained, I 75
    anti-Jewish riot in, I 75
    home of Jacob Koppelman, Hebrew author, I 133

  =Brest-Litovsk=, name explained, I 75
    Jews of, form important community, I 59, 73
    Jewish community of, represented in Polish Federation of Kahals,
            I 110;
      and later in Lithuanian Federation, I 112
    Jewish community of, headed by Saul Udich (Saul Wahl), I 94
    Michael Yosefovich, tax-farmer, native of, I 72
    Mendel Frank, rabbi of, I 73, 104
    supposed former rabbi of, accuses Jews of ritual murder, I
            173
    Jews expelled from (1495), I 65
    Jews of, express loyalty to Sigismund I., I 81
    Jews of, protected by Sigismund III., I 94
    Jews of, import goods to Moscow, I 243
    Starosta of, upholds authority of Kahal, I 190
    Kahal of, upbraided by Polish authorities for delaying elections,
            I 192
    pogroms in (17th century), I 99, 161 (May, 1905), III 119

  =Briskin, Arye=, Jewish apostate, informs against Jews of Mstislavl,
            II 85

  =British East Africa=, see Uganda

  =British Government, The=, see England

  =Brodski=, Jewish merchant of Kiev, offers to establish trade
            bank, III 25 f

  =Brody= (Galicia), rabbis assembled at, excommunicate Frankists,
            I 214;
    and Hasidim, I 237
    Besht settles in, 223
    Jewish merchants of, settling in Odessa, spread Haskalah, II
            133
    rallying-point of pogrom refugees, II 268 f, 321

  =Bruchsaal= (Germany), Alexander I., receives Jewish deputation
            at, I 359, 391

  =Bruhl=, Polish Prime Minister, I 180

  =Brünn=, capital of Moravia, Jacob Frank settles in, I 219

  =Brussels=, newspaper in, defends Russian Government, II 393;
      place of publication, II 178

  =Bryce, James=, English statesman, addresses London protest meeting
            against pogroms, II 290

  =Buarezm=, see Khwarizm

  =Buchner, Abraham=, Polish assimilationist, II 103 f

  =Buckee=, influences Russian-Jewish _intelligenzia_, II 209

  =Buda= (Ofen), Hungary, Church Council of, passes anti-Jewish
            restrictions, I 49;
      ratified by Council of Kalish, I 57

  =Budak=, city in Crimea, I 26

  =Budberg=, Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs, member of Committee
            to consider Jewish legislation, I 347

  =Budek=, Polish priest, foments anti-Jewish agitation in Cracow,
            I 56

  =Budny, Simon=, Polish theologian, holds disputations with Jews,
            I 136

  =Budushchnost= ("The Future"), Zionist weekly in Russian, III
            59

  =Buenos Ayres=, Russian Jewish immigrants settle in, II 421

  =Bukovina, The=, I 150
    Hasidism gains footing in, II 121

  =Bulan=, King of Khazars, embraces Judaism, I 21, 25

  =Bulgar, The=, Slav tribe, I 26

  =Bulgaria=, on the way to Khazaria, I 25
    called upon by Congress of Berlin to grant equality to Jews,
            II 202
    villages in, attacked by Bashibuzuks, II 253, 289

  =Bulgarin, Thaddeus=, Russian anti-Semitic writer, II 139

  =Bulyghin=, Russian Minister of Interior, receives rescript from
            Nicholas II. concerning Duma, III 110
    Chairman of Committee to discuss Jewish franchise, III 121
    recommends denial of Jewish franchise, III 122
    "the Bulyghin Constitution" published, III 124

  "=Bund=," League of the Jewish Workingmen of Lithuania, Poland,
            and Russia, organized (1897), III 56 ff
    holds secret conventions, III 56 f
    demands Jewish-national rights, III 57
    arranges demonstrations, III 68;
      and strikes, III 130
    held responsible for pogroms, III 89
    boycotts First Duma, III 134
    refuses co-operation with other Jewish parties, III 111, 148;
    see Revolutionary Movement and Socialism

  =Burghers= form estate in Poland, I 44
    hostile to Jews, I 70
    enter into relations with, I 84 f
    receive civil rights from Polish Diet, I 279
    form estate in Russia, I 308
    restricted in right of transit, I 322
    bear burden of conscription, II 23, 29;
      later relieved, II 200
    subject to corporal punishment, II 405
    artisans included in estate of, II 405
    segregation of Jews as unsettled B. proposed by Nicholas I.,
            142 f

  =Burgomaster=, office of, barred to Jews, II 199, 425

  =Burtas=, Slav tribe, I 26

  =Butrymovich= (_Polish_, Butrymowicz), Polish deputy, member
            of Jewish Commission, I 264, 287 f
    offers plan of Jewish reform, I 271, 274, 281 ff, 283
    his plan used as a model, I 326 f, 385

  =Byelaya Tzerkov= (_Polish_, Bialocerkiew), Treaty of (1651),
            readmits Jews to Ukraina, I 152

  =Byzantine Sea, The=, see Black Sea

  =Byzantium, Empire of=, influences Jewish colonies in Tauris,
            I 17 ff
    Jews persecuted in, I 23 f
    Jews emigrate from, to Tauris, I 28
    relation of, to Khazars, I 19 ff
    defeats Khazars in Crimea, I 28
    relation of, to Russia, I 30
    relations of Hasdai Ibn Shaprut with, I 24


  =Cabala=, firmly entrenched in Poland, I 134 f
    attracts Solomon Luria, I 126
    esteemed and defended by Joel Sirkis, I 130, 133
    vies with Rabbinism, I 199
    study of, forbidden before the age of forty, I 214
    adopted by sect of Frankists, I 214
    studied by Elijah of Vilna, I 235
    preached by Nohum of Chernobyl, I 382

  =Cabala=, Practical, name explained, I 134
    spreads in Poland, I 134 f, 202 ff
    introduced from Italy, I 208
    studied and pursued by Besht, I 222 f, 224

  =Cadets, The=, see Constitutional Democrats

  =Calahora, Arie-Leib=, Jewish martyr in Posen, I 174 f

  =Calahora, Mattathiah=, Jewish martyr in Cracow, I 164 f

  =Calahora, Solomon=, Polish court physician, I 132

  =Caliphate=, Eastern, or Caliphate of Bagdad, checks movement
            of Khazars, I 19
    relation of, to Khazars, I 22

  =Caliphate, of Cordova=, connected by Hasdai ibn Shaprut with
            other lands, I 24

  =Calvinists=, in Poland, welcome invading Swedes, I 155

  =Candia=, Delmedigo, author, born in, I 134

  =Campe=, German author, work of, translated into Hebrew, II 134

  =Canada=, Jewish emigration from Russia to, II 421
    immigration of Dukhobortzy, Russian sect, to, III 10

  =Candidate=, learned degree in Russia, term explained, II 165

  =Candle Tax=, see Tax

  =Canterbury, Archbishop of=, sends representative to London protest
            meeting against pogroms, II 289
    joins pogrom relief committee, II 291

  =Cantonists=, or juvenile recruits, name explained, II 19
    institution by Nicholas I., II 19
    sent to outlying Russian provinces, II 24 f
    hunters, or "captors," of, II 23
    martyrdom of, II 24 ff
    forced conversion of, II 26, 45
    institution of, not extended to Poland, II 109
    abolished by Alexander II., II 156;
      see Conscription, Military Service, Recruits, and Soldiers

  =Capistrano=, papal legate, "Scourge of the Jews," I 62

  =Capitals=, the Russian (St. Petersburg and Moscow), Jewish first
            and second guild merchants permitted to visit (1835), II 40
    Jewish physicians, though admitted into Interior, excluded
            from (1865), III 167
    admission of Jews to schools of, restricted to 3%, II 350
    admission of Jews to universities of, restricted to 2%, III
            29

  =Capiton=, Christian martyr, I 17

  =Carlowitz=, Treaty of (1699), returns Podolia to Poland, I 208

  =Carmelites=, Church of, in Posen, holds demonstration against
            Jews, I 95
    monk, member of, accuses Jews of ritual murder, I 100
    bring law suit against Jews of Posen, I 174

  =Caro, Joseph=, author of _Beth-Yoseph_, I 123
    author of Shulhan-Arukh, see Shulhan-Arukh

  =Carpathian Mountains, The=, Besht retires to, I 223

  =Casimir the Great= (1333-1370), king of Poland, rejuvenates
            country, I 50 f
    ratifies and amplifies Jewish charter of Boleslav, I 51 f
    annexes Red Russia, I 42, 53
    grants autonomy to Jews of Lemberg, I 53
    infatuated with Jewess, I 53 f
    charter of, ratified by Vitovt, I 59
    referred to as patron of Jews, II 98

  =Casimir IV.=, king of Poland (1447-1492), pursues liberal policy
            towards Jews, I 61 f
    grants Jews new charter, I 61 f
    attacked by archbishop of Cracow, I 62
    forced to rescind Jewish privileges, I 63
    fines magistracy of Cracow for permitting riots against Jews,
            I 64
    charter of, ratified by Sigismund II., I 83

  =Casimir the Just=, Polish ruler, Jews active as ministers during
            reign of, I 42

  =Caspian Sea, The=, called Sea of Jorjan, I 23
    Khazars settled on shores of, I 19, 26;
      dislodged from, I 28

  =Castellan=, title of Polish official, explained, I 287

  =Catherine I.=, empress of Russia, changes and deports Jewish
            tax-farmer (1727), I 249

  =Catherine II.=, The Great (1762-1796), empress of Russia, fictitious
            ukase of, permitting pogroms, I 183
    refuses to admit Jews into Russia, I 259 f;
      and into Little Russia, I 260 f
    attitude of, towards Jews of annexed Polish provinces, I 306
            ff
    appealed to by the Jews of White Russia, I 311 f
    attitude of, towards Jews, changes for worse, I 314 ff
    lays foundation of Pale of Settlement, I 314 ff
    favors removal of Jews from villages, I 319, 366
    curtails Jewish autonomy, I 319, 366
    endeavors to destroy "Jewish separateness," I 367
    admits Jews to South Russia, I 316
    substitutes term "Yevrey" for "Zhyd," I 320

  =Caucasus, The=, ancient trade route leading through, I 23
    Khazars originate from, I 19
    Khazars occupy cities in, I 26
    Jewish agriculturists permitted to settle in (1804), I 342;
      but not in villages of, I 343
    "Judaizers" deported to, I 403
    ritual murder trial in, II 204

  =Censorship=, over Hebrew books, exercised by Council of Four
            Lands, I 195 f
    Government C. advocated by Polish reformers, I 723, 281
    disregard of, severely punished, II 123
    enforcement of, advocated by I. B. Levinsohn, II 130
    hasidic books subjected to, II 212
    Russian C., hampers Maskilim in Vilna, II 136
    interferes with Jewish press, I 219 f
    suppresses _ha-Emet_, II 223;
      _Voskhod_, 407, III 98;
      _Novosti_, II 407
    rages throughout Russia, II 371
    suppresses news of pogroms, II 302, 358;
      and of Moscow expulsion, II 407
    prevents Russian press from expressing sympathy with Jews,
            II 387
    forbids Russian press to publish collective statements concerning
            Jews, II 387
    confiscates pamphlet defending Jews, II 388
    grants full scope to anti-Semitic press, III 31;
    see also Printing

  =Census=, of the Jewish population, in Poland (1764), I 197
    in White Russia (1772), I 307
    in Russia (1816-1819), I 390
    Jews of Vilna released from municipal C. (1682), I 166;
    see Statistics

  =Central Committee=, see Committee

  =Champagny=, French Cabinet Minister, conducts negotiations with
            Polish Government, I 299

  =Charles IX.=, French king, succeeded by Henry, Polish king, I
            89

  =Charles XII.=, Swedish king, invades Poland, I 154 ff, 169

  =Charnetzki=, Polish general, massacres Jews, I 155 f

  =Charter=, granted to Jews by Leshek, prince of Poland (905),
            I 40
    issued by Boleslav of Kalish (1264), I 45 ff
    included in Polish code of law (1505), I 71
    ratified and amplified by Casimir the Great, I 51 f;
      burned, I 61
    issued by Vitovt, grand duke of Lithuania (1388), I 59 f
    granted by Casimir IV. (1447), I 61 f
    granted to Jews of Lithuania by Sigismund I. (1540), I 81
    ratified by Sigismund II. (1548), I 83 f
    old Ch's. ratified by Stephen Batory, I 89;
      by Vishniovetzki, I 160;
      by Augustus II., I 168;
      by Augustus III., I 168, 180
    Ch. of Jewish autonomy issued by Sigismund II. (1551), I 105
            ff
    Ch. demanding admission of Jews into Russia sent by Sigismund
            II. to Ivan the Terrible (1550), I 243
    granted to Jews of Cracow by John Casimir (1661), I 159
    "Golden Ch." by Catherine the Great, permitting pogroms, I
            183
    Theodor Herzl seeks to obtain Ch. from Sultan, III 84
    offered by British Government for colonization of Uganda, III
            84;
    see also Statute

  =Chartoriski (or Chartoryski), Adam=, member of Committee for
            Amelioration of Jews, I 335
    chairman of Committee to consider Jewish question in Poland,
            II 89, 91
    opposes liberal project of Novosiltzev, II 93

  =Chatzki, Thaddeus=, Polish historian, makes special study of
            Jewish problem, I 263 ff
    proposes Jewish reforms, I 271, 288
    suggestions of, adopted by others, I 327, 385

  =Chatzkin=, Russian-Jewish journalist, II 207

  =Chazars=, see Khazars

  =Chekhovich, Martin=, Polish theologian, holds disputations with
            Jews, I 136 f

  =Chenstokhov= (_Polish_, Czenstochowa), province of Piotrkov,
            Jacob Frank imprisoned in, I 218 f
    occupied by Russian troops, I 219
    pogrom at, III 36 f

  =Cherkaski=, Count, burgomaster of Moscow, favors limitation
            of Jews in municipal government, II 199

  =Cherkassy= (government of Kiev), hasidic center, II 120

  =Chernigov= (city), Jews of, exterminated, I 149
    pogrom at, III 128
    ritual murder at Gorodnya, in neighborhood of, I 247
    home of Isaac, early Russian-Jewish scholar, I 33
    home of Litman Veigin, merchant, II 38

  =Chernigov= (province or government), subject to Poland, I 140
    closed to Jews (1649), I 151
    opened again to Jews (1651), I 152
    Jews of, exterminated, I 157
    ceded to Russia (1667), I 159
    few Jews left in, I 246
    made part of Pale (1794), I 317, II 40
    pogroms in localities of, II 257, 267, 315, 411, III 129
    court of, sentences rioters, II 315
    Jews expelled from villages of, II 341
    governor of, misapplies laws relating to Jews, II 341
    governor of, permits Jews to open stores on Christian holidays,
            II 411
    localities in:
      Gorodnya, I 247
      Karpovich, II 315
      Konotop, II 257
      Nyezhin, II 267, III 129
      Semyonovka, III 129
      Starodub, II 411

  =Chernikhovsky, Saul=, Hebrew poet, III 64

  =Chernobyl= (government of Kiev), hasidic center, I 232, 382
    "dynasty" of, widely ramified, I 382, II 119 ff

  =Chernovitz= (Bukowina), Sadagora, in neighborhood of, hasidic
            center, II 121

  =Chernyshev=, Count, governor-general of White Russia, assures
            Jews of former liberties, I 306 f
    sets apart Jews as an estate, I 309

  =Chernyshevski=, radical Russian author, influences
            Jewish _Intelligenzia_, II 207, 209
    effect of, on Lilienblum, 237

  =Chersonesus=, near Sevastopol, bishops of, force Jews into baptism,
            I 17
    scene of rivalry between Jews and Byzantines, I 30

  =Chetvertinski=, Count, betrays Jews of Tulchyn, I 147 f

  =Chiarini, Abbé=, Polish anti-Semitic writer, II 104

  =Chigirin= (province of Kiev), home of Khmelnitzki, I 144

  =Chikhachev=, Russian Navy Minister, favors emigration of Jews
            from Russia, II 419

  =Chikhachev=, member of Council of State, favors Jewish franchise,
            III 12

  =Chlenov=, Zionist leader, III 47

  =Chmelnicki=, see Khmelnitzki

  =Chresta=, name of Greco-Jewish woman, I 15

  =Christianity=, propaganda of, in Tauris, I 17 f;
      among Khazars, I 20
    fusion of Judaism and Ch. attempted by Jewish sect in Russia,
            II 335;
      see Church and Conversion

  =Chudnov= (Volhynia), young Jews of, martyred, III 117

  =Chufut-Kale= (Crimea), harbors old Karaite community, I 35

  =Church=, the Greek-Orthodox, persecutes Jews in Byzantine empire,
            I 18
    Pobyedonostzev reports on affairs of, III 9

  =Church=, the Roman-Catholic, in Poland, spreads hatred of Jews,
            I 44, 47 ff
    gains strength under Yaguello, I 54 f
    opposes Casimir IV., I 62 f
    hostile to Jews during Reformation, I 79, 85 f
    agitates against Jews, I 99 ff
    prompts anti-Jewish legislation of Polish Diets, I 160
    responsible for anti-Jewish riots, I 161
    Jews forbidden to leave houses during Ch. processions, I 160

  =Church Council=, or Synod, of Breslau (1266), introduces canonical
            laws into Poland, I 47 f
    of Buda (1279), passes anti-Jewish restrictions, I 49
    of Constance (1420), attended by Polish ecclesiastics, I 57
    of Kalish (1420), ratifies former canonical enactments against
            Jews, I 57 f
    of Piotrkov (1542), adopts "Constitution" against Jews, I 82
            f, 171
    of Lovich (1720), forbids building of new synagogues, I 171
    of Plotzk (1733), insists on necessity of Jewish suffering,
            I 171

  =Chwolson, Daniel=, professor, converted Jew, member of Committee
            to investigate ritual murder, II 151
    disproves ritual murder, II 205
    member of Executive Committee of Society for Diffusion
            of Enlightenment, II 214

  =Cilicia= (Asia Minor), harbors Jewish communities, I 14

  =Cimmerian Bosporus=, see Bosporus

  =Cincinnati=, Max Lilienthal, rabbi of, II 59

  "=Circular Jews=," name explained, II 404
    privileges of, withdrawn, II 428

  =City Government=, see Municipalities

  =Civil Service=, Jews barred from by Church councils, I 49
    Jews in Russian army promised admission to, II 29
    possessors of learned degrees admitted to, II 165
    Jewish physicians admitted to, II 167; barred from, III 27
    Jews in general barred from, II 352; III 26;
    see Tax-Farmer

  =Clement XIII.=, pope, protects Polish Jews, I 180

  =Clement XIV.=, see Ganganelli

  =Cohen, Jacob Joseph=, disciple of Besht, I 227, 230 f
    stirs wrath of Elijah Gaon, I 237

  =Cohen, Joshua Falk=, rabbi of Lublin, I 111 f
    presides over Council of Four Lands, I 128
    head of talmudic academy in Lemberg, I 128

  =Cohen, Naphtali=, Polish rabbi, engages in magic and enters
            into relations with Sabbatians, I 204

  =Cohen, Nehemiah=, Messianic propagandist, I 207

  =Cohen, Sabbatai=, called _Shak_, of Vilna, author of commentary
            on _Shulhun Arukh_, I 130
    issues epistle picturing persecutions of 1648, I 157 f

  =Colchians=, tribe, I 15

  =Colonies=, Jewish, in South Russia, visited by emissary of Baron
            Hirsch, II 418
    pogroms in, II 271; III 35

  =Colonization, of Jews=, undertaken by Russian Government in
            New (South) Russia, I 352, 363 ff; II 70 ff;
      checked by Government, II 365
    in White Russia, II 72
    in Siberia, II 71
    in Palestine, II 321 f; III 42, 46, 49;
      promoted by Baron Rothschild, II 375
    in United States, II 328, 374
    in Russia, proposed by Baron Hirsch, II 415;
      and by ICA of Paris, III 10;
      but discouraged by Russian Government, III 24 f
    in Argentina, II 416, 421;
      see Agriculture

  =Commerce=, Jews as mediators in, between Europe and Asia, I
            23
    Jews engage in, with Slav countries, I 39
    Jews in Polish C., I 264, 266 f
    Polish kings encourage Jews in, I 85
    Sigismund III. confirms Jewish rights of (1588), I 93
    Jews restricted in, in Posen, I 74 f;
      Lemberg, I 75;
      Cracow, I 98;
      Vilna, I 99
    restrictions in, imposed upon Jews by Polish Diets (1538),
            I 78;
      (1768), I 182;
      (1643), I 99
    anti-Jewish restrictions in, demanded by Synod of Piotrkov
            (1542), I 82;
      and by Polish journalist (1798), I 281
    Russian Government permits Jews to engage in, at fairs of Little
            Russia and Kharkov government, I 250 ff
    Little Russians plead for admission of Jews in interest of,
            I 260 f
    Jews in Russian C., I 359 f; II 366
    deprecated by I. B. Levinsohn, II 126;
      and other Maskilim, II 137
    attitude of Russian Government towards Jewish C., II 185
    Jews with higher education granted unrestricted right of (1904),
            III 98;
      see also Economic Life and Merchants

  =Commission=, "C. for Jewish Reform," appointed by Polish Diet
            (1790), I 287 ff
    project of, submitted to Diet and postponed, I 289
    resumes labors but fails, I 290
    Butrymovich, member of, I 264
    project of, adopted by Friesel, Russian governor of Vilna,
            I 326 f

  =Commission=, "High C. for revision of current Laws concerning
            Jews" ("Pahlen C."), appointed 1883, II 336
    composition of, II 336
    examines material of "Gubernatorial Commissions," II 337, 363
    futility of, II 337
    serves as screen for anti-Jewish legislation, II 338
    discusses projected educational restrictions against Jews ("school
            norm"), II 339;
      votes against them, II 349
    conclusions of, II 363 ff
    deprecates Jewish disabilities, II 364, 366
    refers to revolutionary leanings of Jews, II 364 f
    criticize Jewish separation and exploitation, II 365
    describes poverty of Jews, II 366 f;
      favors gradual emancipation of Jews, II 368 f
    minority of, favors continuation of repression policy, II 369;
      supported by Alexander III., II 370
    invites Jewish experts, II 369 f
    disbanded, II 380

  =Commissions=, the Gubernatorial, appointed to counteract "injurious
            influence" of Jews (1881), II 272 ff
    circular of Ignatyev concerning appointment of, II 273;
      quoted by Cardinal Manning, II 289
    anti-Jewish recommendations of, II 275
    influence Central Committee for Revision of Jewish Question,
            II 277, 309
    material of, examined and discarded by Pahlen Commission, II
            337, 363
    charges of, denied by Jewish Conference, II 307

  =Commission=, the Rabbinical, see Rabbinical Commission

  =Committee=, to consider Jewish questions, appointed by Polish
            Government (1815), II 89 f;
      (1825), II 103 f
    to investigate ritual murder (1864), II 151
    to investigate Brafman's charges against Kahals (1866), II
            189 f, 240
    Russo-Jewish C. in London, II 388 f
    Central C. of ICA in St. Petersburg, II 420
    secret C. under Plehve plans Jewish counter-reforms (1891),
            II 399
    C. of governors and high officials appointed with anti-Semitic
            instructions (1904), III 93

  =Committee= for Amelioration of Jews, called "Jewish Committee"
            (1802), I 335 ff
    appointment of, causes alarm among Jews, I 336
    invites deputies from Jewish Kahals, I 337
    Nota Shklover invited to assist, I 338
    elaborates plan of Jewish reform, I 338;
      and submits it to Kahals, I 339
    conflicting tendencies within, I 339 f
    submits report to Alexander I., I 341 f
    supplies basis for Statute of 1804, I 342
    reappointed 1809, advises against expulsion of Jews from villages,
            I 352 ff, 405
    reappointed 1823, plans to reduce number of Jews in Russia,
            I 407 f
    drafts principal enactments concerning Jews, II 31
    suggest expulsion of Jews from Courland, II 32
    frame Statute of 1835, II 34
    appointed 1871, II 191
    charged to consider Kahal organization and economic exploitation,
            II 193 ff

  =Committee for Radical Transformation of Jews=, appointed 1840,
            II 49 f, 157
    presided over by Kisselev, II 50, 157
    considers plan of "assorting" Jews, II 64 ff
    Moses Montefiore permitted to communicate with Nicholas I.
            through, II 68
    suggests modification of conscription system, II 155
    resuscitated (1856), II 161
    discusses right of residence outside Pale, II 161 ff, 163 ff,
            169
    favors opening of Interior to retired soldiers, II 171
    suggests law demanding secular education of teachers and rabbis,
            II 175

  =Committee for Revision of Jewish Question=, appointed 1881,
            II 277
    suggests unpopulated localities for Jewish settlement, II 285
    plans expulsion of Jews from villages, II 285
    frames "Temporary Law" of 1882, II 309 ff

  =Committee of Ministers= approves measures against "Judaizers,"
            I 402
    approves expulsion of Jews from villages of White Russia, I
            406
    instructed to provide relief for expelled Jews, I 406
    advised to stop expulsion, I 407
    formulates function of "Jewish Committee," I 408
    question of admitting artisans into Interior transferred to,
            II 169 f
    modifies "temporary Rules" of Ignatyev, II 311 f, 318
    objects to pogroms, II 312 f
    advocates school norm for Jews, II 339, 349
    discusses emigration to Argentina, II 419
    entrusted by Nicholas II. with execution of constitutional
            reforms, III 106
    presided over by Witte, III 107
    discusses Jewish question, III 123;
    see Council of Ministers

  =Committee on Freedom of Conscience=, appointed by Second Duma,
            favors Jewish emancipation, III 142

  =Conference of Jewish Notables=, in St. Petersburg (September,
            1881), II 277;
      (April, 1882), II 304 ff
    refuses to regulate emigration, II 307
    disastrous results of decision of, II 321

  =Congregation of New Testament Israelites=, Judeo-Christian sect
            in Kishinev, II 335

  =Congregational Board=, supersedes Kahal in Poland, II 102 f
    (of Warsaw), objects to separate Jewish regiment, II 106
    sends deputation to St. Petersburg to plead for equal rights,
            II 110
    president of, arrested by Russian Government, II 181

  =Congress=, of Aix-la-Chapelle, discusses Jewish question, I
            398 f
    of Berlin, demands equal rights for Balkan Jews, II 202
    of Vienna, see Vienna, Congress of
    Jewish C. proposed by Pinsker, II 331
    of Medicine, in Moscow, III 15
    Zionist C., III 41, 44 f, 84 f, 144
    of United States, see United States
    of Poland, see Poland, kingdom of

  =Congressional Record=, quoted, II 294, 296, 395

  =Conscription=, see Cantonists, Military Service, and Recruits

  =Constance=, Synod of, attended by Polish clergy, I 57

  =Constantine, Old=, see Constantinov

  =Constantine Pavlovich=, grand duke, Russian heir-apparent, II
            13, 129
    proclaimed emperor but resigns, II 13
    appointed commander of Poland, II 13, 16, 91
    suggests expulsion of Jews from border zone, I 408
    expels Jews from villages, II 31
    Isaac Baer Levinsohn submits memorandum to, II 129

  =Constantinople=, capital of Byzantium, I 17
    captured by Turks, I 35
    patriarchs of, carry on Christian propaganda in Tauris, I 18
    Church of, hopes for conversion of Khazars, I 20
    Spanish exiles in, I 27
    Abydos, seat of Sabbatai Zevi, in neighborhood of, I 206
    Jewish pilgrims on way to Palestine arrive in, I 209
    Ignetyev, Russian ambassador at, II 259

  =Constantinov, Old=, or Staro-(Volhynia), Cossack massacre at,
            I 149
    "protest" against conscription at, II 21 f

  =Constitution=, "anti-Jewish C.," passed by Polish Diet of 1538,
            1 77 f
    adopted by Piotrkov Church Council of 1542, I 82 f
    Polish C. of May 3, 1791, 289 f.
    introduced by Napoleon into duchy of Warsaw, I 398
    violated by Government of duchy, I 299 ff
    "Jewish C." of 1804, I 342 ff

  =Constitutional Democratic Party=, the (Cadets), in Russia, mistrusts
            Government, III 130
    forms majority in First Duma, III 135
    loses in Second Duma, III 142
    weak in Third Duma, III 153
    Jews in, III 119
    Vinaver, leader of, III 134
    majority of Jewish deputies belong to, III 135

  =Contra-Talmudists=, name for Frankists, I 214 f

  =Conversion=, of Jews, to Christianity, recommended by patriarch
            of Constantinople and bishop of Bosporus, I 18, 20
    forced upon Jews of Byzantium, I 23
    forcible C. of children punished by Polish law (1264), I 47
    of Jewish Messianic pilgrims in Palestine, I 210
    of Jacob Frank and followers, I 217 f;
      deplored by Besht, I 229
    carried on through military service, II 26 f, 45, 156 f
    feared by Jews of Vilna, II 54 f
    endeavors of Russians towards, stopped, II 173 f
    of Haskalah pioneers, II 132
    of disillusioned _intelligenzia_, II 327
    as result of expulsions in St. Petersburg, II 344;
      and Moscow, II 425;
      see Society of Israelitish Christians
    C. epidemic in Berlin, I 388
    forced by Ivan the Terrible upon Jews of Vitebsk, I 154;
      and upon Jews of Polotzk, I 243
    Russian Government aims at, I 396 ff; II 44 f, 188
    of Khazars, to Judaism, I 20
    attempted C. of Vladimir, I 30
    of Turkish Sabbatians, to Mohammedanism, I 210

  =Converts=, to Christianity, permitted by King John Casimir to
            return to Judaism, I 151
    accuse Jews of ritual murder, I 173 f; II 73, 80
    inform against Hebrew books, II 42
    in city of Saratov, II 150
    individual converts:
      Abraham Yosefovich, I 73
      Berthenson, II 214
      Bogrov, II 242
      Brafman, II 187 ff
      Briskin, II 85
      Chwolson, II 151, 205, 214
      Efron-Litvin, III 38
      Grudinski, II 80
      Horvitz, II 202, 244
      Kronenberg, II 178
      Nyevakhovich, I 388
      Peretz, I 388
      Pfefferkorn, II 189
      Priluker, II 335
      Savitzki, II 73
      Serafinovich, I 173 f
    See also, Judaizers

  =Cordova=, Caliphate of, see Caliphate

  =Coronation Diets=, see Diets, Coronation

  =Cosmopolitanism=, advocated by Jewish socialists, II 222;
    by Levanda, II 240;
    by Bogrov, II 241

  =Cossacks=, name explained, I 142
    origin of, I 142 ff
    Ukrainian C's., I 142
    Zaporozhian C's., see Zaporozhians
    massacre Jews (1637), I 144;
      (1648), I 144 ff, 154, 246
    exclude Jews from their country (1649), I 151
    readmit Jews to their territory (1651), I 152
    ally themselves with Russia (1654), I 152 ff
    invade Polish territories, I 154, 156, 244 ff
    rise against Poles and Jews, I 182 ff
    Jews visit territory of, despite prohibition, I 246
    C's. of Little Russia plead for admission of Jews, I 250
    See also Khmelnitzki

  =Costanda=, military governor of Moscow, inaugurates expulsion
            of Jews, II 401

  =Council, Church C.=, see Church Council

  =Council of Ministers=, in duchy of Warsaw, opposes Jewish emancipation,
            I 299
    in Russia, Nicholas I. appends resolution to report of, II
            62
    reports to Tzar on Jewish agricultural colonization, II 71
    recommends appointment of "High Commission" on Jewish question,
            II 336
    passes anti-Jewish laws, II 338
    not consulted in expulsion from Moscow, II 402
    favors grant of franchise to Jews, III 122
    presided over by Witte, II 125
    suggests moderate Jewish reforms to Nicholas II., II 141

  =Council of State=, in Poland, discusses Jewish question, II
            93 f
    formation of, in Russia, I 335
    bars Jews from Russian Interior, I 316
    condemns expulsion of Jews from White Russian villages, I 407;
            II 34
    objects to further expulsions, II 34 f
    discusses right of residence outside Pale, II 35 f, 161 ff,
            163 ff, 169 f
    recommends alleviation in military service, II 36
    disagrees on expulsion from Kiev, II 36 f
    passes Statute of 1835, II 37
    receives memoranda on Jewish question, II 38
    discusses Jewish question and suggests measures (1840), II
            47 ff
    discusses exact limits of Pale, II 70
    acquits Velizh Jews of ritual murder charge, II 81 ff
    convicts Jews of Saratov, II 152
    discusses Jewish separatism, under influence of Brafman's charges,
            II 190
    recommends appointment of Commission of Amelioration of Jews,
            II 191, 193
    material on Jewish question prepared for, II 336
    plans of Pahlen Commission said to have been brought before,
            II 320
    disregarded by Alexander III. in issuing "Temporary Rules,"
            II 312, 386;
      in passing anti-Jewish restrictions, II 338;
      in passing school norm, II 349;
      in expulsion from Moscow, II 402
    confirms exclusion of Jews from Zemstvos, II 386
    members of, favor Jewish franchise, III 122

  =Courland=, added to Pale, I 321
    Jews settled in, I 341
    new Jewish settler expelled from, II 32
    Lipman Levy, Russian financial agent, native of, I 248
    Mordecai Aaron Ginzburg, Hebrew writer, resident of, II 133
    Nisselovich, Duma deputy for, III 153

  =Courts=, Jews of Poland exempted from jurisdiction of municipal
            and ecclesiastic C's., I 45 f, 51 f, 84, 94, 103
    cases between Jews tried by royal C's., or Voyevoda C. (in
            Lithuania, Starosta C.), I 45 f, 51 f, 59 f
    "Jewish Judge," Polish official nominated by Jews, attached
            to Voyevoda C., I 46, 52, 192
    Voyevoda C. tries cases between Jews and Christians, I 84,
            191;
      acts as Court of Appeals, I 191;
      Kahal elders attached to, I 84
    tax-farmer Yosko and employees placed under jurisdiction of
            royal C., I 71
    Jews on noble estates placed under C's. of nobles, I 84
    Municipal C's. claim jurisdiction over Jews, I 93 f
    ritual murder cases tried by C's. without proper jurisdiction,
            I 95 f
    civil and partly criminal cases between Jews tried by C. of
            rabbis and Kahal elders, I 83, 105 f
    Kahal C. granted right of imposing _herem_ and other penalties,
            I 73, 105 f
    Kahal C. granted exclusive jurisdiction in cases between Jews,
            I 191
    Kahal C. consists of rabbis as judges and Kahal elders as jury,
            I 191
    Council of Four Lands acts as C., I 111;
      appoints provincial judges, I 111
    Kahal C. of Vilna issues _herem_ against Hasidim (1772), I
            237
    Kahals recognized as C's. by Russian Senate (1776), I 309
    cases between Jews tried by C's. of District and Gubernatorial
            Kahals, I 309
    Gubernatorial Kahals act as C's. of Appeal, I 309
    cases between Jews and Christians tried by municipal C's.,
            I 309
    Senate questions legality of special Jewish C's. (1782), I
            310
    Jews admitted to membership in municipal C's. (1783), I 310
    cases between Jews tried by municipal C's. (1786), I 313
    Jews represented on municipal C's. by elective jurymen, I 313
    Kahal C's. limited to spiritual affairs (1786), I 313;
     (1795), I 319
    Jews of Lithuania plead for preservation of Kahal C's. (1795),
            I 320
    Statute of 1804 places Jews under jurisdiction of Russian C's.,
            I 344
    Jews continue to resort to Kahal C., I 367;
      see Kahal, Jewish Judge, and Rabbi

  =Cox, Samuel S.=, of New York, protests in Congress against pogroms,
            II 294 ff

  =Cracow=, leading city of Little Poland, I 42, 110, 196
    capital of Western Galicia, I 53
    election diets held in, I 98
    superseded as Polish capital by Warsaw, I 85
    conquered by Swedes, I 154
    surrendered by Shlakhta, I 155
    Province of, annexed by Austria, I 297
    Jewish refugees from Crusade seek shelter in, I 41
    Jewish Community of, represented on Council of Four Lands,
            I 110
    Jewish communities in Province of, destroyed, I 156
    Jewish charter ratified by Casimir the Great, in, I 51
    Jews of, receive charter from John Casimir, I 159
    anti-Jewish riots in, I 56 f, 63 f, 75 f, 102, 161, 166
    Jews of, subjected to commercial restrictions, I 74 f, 98
    restrictions for Jews of, demanded by Church Synod, I 82
    ghetto established in, I 64, 85
    ritual murder trial in, I 164 f
    host trial in, I 101 f
    "Judaizing" tendencies in, I 79 f
    anti-Semitic writers in, 96 f
    Oleshnitzki, archbishop of, I 62
    Gamrat, bishop of, I 79
    Kmita, Voyevoda of, I 76
    Hebrew printing-press in, I 131, 195
    Delacruta, Cabalist, resident of, I 134
    Horowitz, Isaiah, Cabalist, studies in, I 135
    Pollak, Jacob, head of yeshibah in, I 122
    Spira, Nathan, head of yeshibah in, I 135
    Rabbis of:
      Asher, I 104
      Fishel, I 105, 132
      Heller, I 158
      Isserles, I 123
      Kaidanover, Samuel, I 200
      Meir of Lublin, I 129
      Meisels, II 179
      Peretz, I 104
      Sirkis, I 133

  =Crémieux, Adolf=, president of _Alliance Israélite_, corresponds
            with Lilienthal, II 67
    petitions Alexander II. on behalf of Jews accused of ritual
            murder, II 153
    criticized by governor-general of Kiev, II 194

  =Crimea, The=, name defined, I 13
    Greeks in, I 13 f
    conquered by Khazars, I 19 f
    last refuge of Khazars, I 28
    known as Khazaria, I 28 f
    ruled by Pechenegs and Polovtzis, I 29
    conquered by Tatars, I 33
    Tataric Khanate of, I 35 f, 142
    Tatars of, ally themselves with Cossacks, I 143 ff
    Kaffa, Genoese colony in, I 33 f
    list of cities in, I 26
    visited by Petahiah of Ratisbon, I 33
    Taman peninsula, in neighborhood of, I 23
    Jews in, I 14 ff, 33 ff
    Karaite communities in, I 35
    Jews of, settle in Kiev, I 30;
      in Lithuania, I 35
    expelled Lithuanian Jews emigrate to, I 65
    Jewish State in, suggested, I 412;
      see Tavrida, government of

  =Crimean War=, stops plan of Jewish "Assortment," II 143
    effect of, on Jewish situation II 149 f, 154

  =Crown=, the, signifying Poland as contrasted with Lithuania,
            I 72, 88, 110, 113, 127, 162, 193
  =Crown Rabbis= ("official," or _kazyonny_, rabbis), name explained,
            II 176
    forced upon congregations, II 176
    act as Government agents
    See Rabbis

  =Crown Schools=, see Schools

  =Crusades=, the, stimulate immigration of Jews into Poland, I
            33, 41
    give rise to Teutonic order, I 63
    victims of Cossack massacres (1648) compared with those of,
            I 156

  =Cyril=, Christian missionary, disputes with Jews, I 18


  =Daitzelman=, Jewish merchant in Nizhni-Novgorod, victim of pogrom,
            II 361

  =Dakota, North and South=, Jewish agricultural colonies in, II
            374

  =Damascus=, ritual murder trial of, II 68

  =Daniel Apostol=, Hetman of Little Russia, pleads for admission
            of Jewish salesman, I 250

  =Dantzic=, annexed by Prussia, I 292

  =Danube, The=, Jewish emigration form provinces of, to Poland,
            I 41

  =Dardanelles, The=, commerce between Genoa and Crimea through,
            I 34

  =Darkest Russia=, periodical published in England, II 381

  =Darshanim= (Preachers), in Poland, I 201 f

  =Darvin, Charles=, influences Russian-Jewish _intelligenzia_,
            II 209

  =Dashevski, Pincus=, assaults Krushevan to avenge Kishinev massacre,
            III 81 f
    trial of, induces Plehve to forbid Zionism, III 82
    receives greetings of Russian-Jewish convention, III 132

  =Davidov=, Russian military leader, praises Jews, I 357

  =Davis, Noah=, Judge, speaks at New York protest meeting, II
            297

  =Decembrists= (_Russian_, Dyekabrist), Russian revolutionaries,
            name explained, I 410
    suppressed by Nicholas I., II 13
    attitude of, towards Jews, I 409 ff

  =Dekert, John=, mayor of Warsaw, champion of burgher class, I
            286

  =Delacruta, Mattathiah=, Italian Cabalist in Cracow, I 134
  =Delmedigo, Joseph Solomon=, called _Yashar_, of Candia, arraigns
            Polish Jews for opposing secular culture, I 134

  =Dembrovski=, Polish bishop, arranges disputations between Frankists
            and Talmudist, I 214 f
    orders burning of Talmud, I 215

  =Demiovka=, suburb of Kiev, pogrom at, II 254 f

  =De non Tolerandis Iudæis=, right of excluding Jews
    in Warsaw (and other Polish cities), I 85
    in Kiev, I 94 f
    abolished in Zhitomir, Vilna (and other cities), II 172
    abolished throughout Poland (1862), II 181

  =Denis=, Greek-orthodox priest, converted to Judaism, I 36

  =Department of Law=, part of Council of State, considers Jewish
            legislation, II 34 ff

  =Deputation of the Jewish People, The=, created by Alexander
            I., I 392 ff
    disbanded in 1825, I 395
    instrumental in stopping ritual murder trial in Grodno, II
            74
    induces Alexander I. to veto prohibition of liquor trade in
            Poland, II 94

  =Derbent=, see Bab Al-Abwab

  =Diaspora=, Jewish, neglected by Zionism, III 52
    as conceived by National-Cultural Autonomism, III 53 ff
    as conceived by Russian-Jewish historians, II 65

  =Diet, The=, in Poland, term defined, I 76
    controlled by Shlakhta, I 58, 77, 160
    authority of, undermined by _liberum veto_, I 92, 168
    Jews represented at, by "syndics," I 111
    anti-Jewish tendency of, I 76 f, 160
    preceded by anti-Jewish propaganda, I 165
    counteracts benevolent intentions of kings, I 160
    censures King Sobieski for interest in Jews, I 167
    condemns anti-Jewish riots, I 166 f, 171
    fixes amount of Jewish head-tax, I 194
    granted right to elect government, I 263
    Jews admitted to Warsaw during sessions of, I 268 ff
    re-established in duchy of Warsaw, I 298
    Coronation D's., name explained, I 98
    Jewish privileges ratified at, I 98, 160, 168

  =Election D's.=, name explained, I 98
    Individual Diets, according to years:
      1423 (of Varta), restricts financial operations of Jews,
            I 58
      1454 (of Nyeshava), rescinds Jewish privileges, I 63
      1496 (of Piotrkov), confirms restrictions of Nyeshava Diet,
            I 64
      1521 (of Piotrkov), limits commerce of Lemberg Jews, I 75
      1538 (of Piotrkov), passes anti-Jewish "constitution," I
            77;
        confirmed by Diet of 1562, 1565 and 1768, I 87
      1548 (of Piotrkov), Sigismund II. ratifies Jewish charter
            at, I 83
      1618, discusses passionately Jewish question, I 97
      1643 (of Warsaw), restricts profits of Jews, I 99
      1658 (of Warsaw), expels sectarians from Poland, I 91
      1670 (of Warsaw), restricts financial operations of Jews,
            I 160
      1693 (of Grodno), arraigns Bezalel, Jewish tax-farmer, I
            167
      1717 (of Warsaw), increases Jewish head-tax, I 169;
        protests against anti-Jewish riots, I 171
      1740, rejects resolution turning Jews into serfs, I 170
      1764 (of Warsaw), alters system of Jewish taxation, I 181,
            197;
        prohibits conventions of Jewish District elders, I 198
      1768 (of Warsaw), renews commercial restrictions of 1538,
            I 182, 267;
        admits Jews temporarily to Warsaw, I 268
      1788-1791, see Diet, Quadrennial
      1808, elections to, force Government to take up Jewish question,
            I 299
      1818, first D. of kingdom of Poland, displays anti-Jewish
            attitude, II 96, 99
      1831, releases Jews from conscription, II 107

  =Diet, The Quadrennial=, or Great (1788-1791), name explained,
            I 263
    reflects liberal ideas, I 278
    elaborates modern constitution, I 263
    equalizes burgher class, I 278
    discusses agrarian question, I 279
    prepares for struggle with Russia, I 279
    attitude of, towards Jewish question, I 263 ff, 279 ff, 285,
            288 ff
    refers Jewish question to special commission, I 264, 279, 287,
            327
    finance committee of, reports on Jews, 263 ff
    Chatzki, Polish historian, member of, I 263, 288
    Butrymovich, champion of Polish Jews, member of, I 264, 274,
            280 f, 285, 289
    Chatzki and Butrymovich submit proposals to, I 271
    Jews admitted to Warsaw during, I 285
    notified of anti-Jewish demonstration in Warsaw, I 286;
      and investigates it, I 287
    literature centering around, I 279 ff
    appealed to by Simeon Wolfovich against Kahals, I 276
    project of Jewish reforms submitted to king during, I 284

  =Dietines=, the, Polish provincial diets, I 76
    provide occasions for anti-Jewish riots, I 170
    serve as pattern for Jewish D., I 113, 196 f
    Jewish D., called officially "synagogues," I 196

  =Dilke, Sir Charles=, English Under-Secretary of State, interpellated
            about pogroms, II 262

  =Dillon, Eliezer=, army purveyor, represents Jews before Russian
            Government, I 358
    member of Deputation of Jewish People, I 392 f

  =Disabilities=, see Restrictions

  =Disputations=, religious, between Jews and Christians, I 136 f
    between Frankists and orthodox Jews, I 214 f, 216 f;
      attended by Besht, I 229

  =Disraeli=, see Beaconsfield

  =Distillers=, Jewish, admitted to Russian Interior, II 170

  =Distilling=, see _Propinatzya_

  =Dlugosh, Jan=, called Longinus, Polish historian, quoted, I
            57

  =Dnieper=, the, river, Petahiah of Ratisbon reaches banks of,
            I 33
    Jews disappear from left bank of, I 157
    Jews decimated on right bank of, I 157
    southern basin of, subject to Poland, I 140
    left bank of, called Little Russia, ceded to Russia, I 159
    Jews penetrate into Little Russia "from other side of," I 253
    Cossacks beyond Falls of, I 143 ff
    uprising against Poles and Jews on right bank of, I 182
    Cossack army "on both sides of," plead for admission of Jewish
            salesmen, I 250
    central river of Pale, I 317
    See Moghilev on the Dnieper

  =Dniester, The=, river, Moghilev on, I 98

  =Dobrolubov=, Russian critic, influences Jewish _intelligenzia_,
            II 207, 209

  =Doctor=, official title of rabbis in ancient Poland, I 72, 104,
            109

  =Dolgoruki=, Count, governor-general of Moscow, friendly to Jews,
            II 400 f

  =Dombrovski=, Polish revolutionary leader, I 303

  =Domestics, Christian=, the keeping of, prohibited by Church
            Council of Breslau (1266), I 49
    by Synod of Piotrkov (1542), I 82
    by "Lithuanian Statute" (1566), I 87
    by Diet of Warsaw (1670), I 160
    prohibition of, in Russia, suggested by Dyerzhavin, I 333,
            and Golitzin, 404
    prohibited by Russian Senate (1820), I 404 f
    prohibited for permanent employment (1835), II 40
    Christians of Pereyaslav call upon Jews to refrain from, II
            266
    Pobyedonostzev deplores influence of Jews on their D., III
            9

  =Domestics, Jewish=, outside Pale, Jewish merchants allowed limited
            number of, II 162
    Jewish university graduates allowed two, II 166, 344
    fictitious D. in St. Petersburg, II 344 f

  =Dominican Order=, the, church of, in Posen, collects regular
            fine from Jews, I 55
    priest of, in Cracow, causes execution of Jews, I 164
    general of, in Rome, calls upon head of, in Cracow, to defend
            Jews, I 165

  =Don=, the, river, Khazars move towards, I 19
    Territory of D. Army closed to Jews, II 346

  =Dondukov-Korsakov=, governor-general of Kiev, criticizes Jews,
            II 193 f

  =Drabkin=, rabbi of St. Petersburg, reports conversation with
            Ignatyev, II 305

  =Drenteln=, governor-general of Kiev, ferocious Jew-baiter, abets
            pogroms, II 252, 254
    recommends severe repression of Jews, II 276
    upbraids Jews of Balta, II 316 f
    misconstrues "Temporary Rules" against Jews, II 341

  =Dresden=, Jews of, appeal to Augustus III. against ritual murder
            libel, I 176

  =Dress, Christian=, forbidden to Jews by "Lithuanian Statute"
            (1566), I 87
    deprecated by rabbis (1607), I 112
    prescribed for Jewish visitors to Russian Interior (1835),
            II 40
    prescribed for Jewish members of municipalities (1804), I 345
    German D. adopted by "Berliners," I 384
    Russian D. preferred by Jews to German D., I 350;
    see Dress, Jewish

  =Dress, Jewish= (hat or badge), prescribed by Synod of Breslau
            (1266), I 48
    by Synod of Buda (1279), I 49
    by Synod of Kalish (1420), I 57
    by Diet of Piotrkov (1538), I 78
    by Synod of Piotrkov (1542), I 83
    abandoned by some Jews in Warsaw, I 300 f
    defended by Polish rabbi, I 283
    Jews of Warsaw demand equal rights as reward for discarding,
            I 385 f
    prohibition of, recommended by Butrymovich, I 281;
      by Polish nobility of Lithuania, I 326;
      by Friesel, governor of Vilna, I 327;
      and Dyerzhavin, I 333
    tax imposed on, in Russia (1843), I 110;
      extended to Poland (1845), I 110
    Russian Council of State finds principal source of Jewish separatism
            in (1840), II 48;
      and suggests prohibition, II 49;
      but modifies view (1870), II 190 f
    governors-general advised of impending prohibition of, II 66
    prohibition of, enacted (1850), I 144;
      and extended to female attire (1851), I 144
    prohibition of, remains ineffective, I 144 f
    Alexander II. displeased with, in Poland, II 190
    luxury in, forbidden (1566), I 87;
      deprecated by Abraham Hirshovich, I 284;
      by I. B. Levinsohn, II 128;
      by Christians of Pereyaslav, II 266
    white D. favored by early "Hasidim," I 209, 231, 237;
      objected to by assembly of rabbis, I 237;
      see Dress, Christian

  =Dreyfus Affair=, the, exploited by Russian press, III 32
    witnessed by Doctor Herzl, III 42

  =Druskeniki= (government of Grodno), Conference of "Lovers of
            Zion" at, II 377

  =Drusus=, name of Greek Jew, I 15

  =Dubnow, S. M.=, author of present work, quoted, I 114, 163,
            235
    champions national rejuvenation of Judaism in Russia, II 327
    formulates theory of Spiritual Nationalism, or National-Cultural
            Autonomism, III 52
    member of central committee of League for Equal Rights, III
            42
    editor of periodical _Yevreyskaya Starina_, III 160

  =Dubossary=, ritual murder libel at, III 70 f
    pogrom at, frustrated by Jews, III 71

  =Dubrovin=, head of Black Hundred, received by Nicholas II.,
            III 149

  =Dubrovna= (government of Moghilev), Voznitzin, captain of navy,
            converted to Judaism at, I 252

  =Duchy of Warsaw=, see Warsaw, Duchy of

  =Dukhobortzy=, Russian sect, flees from persecution to Canada,
            III 10

  =Duma, Imperial Russian=, plans for, formulated, III 122;
      and published, III 124
    manifesto of October 17 promises establishment of, III 127
    _First D._, elections to, III 133
    League for Equal Rights participates in elections to, III 133 f
    Zionists participate in elections to, III 145
    boycotted by Left, III 134
    Jewish deputies to, III 134
    Jewish question before, III 135 ff
    pogroms discussed by, III 126, 136 ff
    appoints commission to investigate Bialystok pogrom, III 137
    adopts resolution condemning pogroms, III 139
    dissolved, III 139
    _Second D._, convoked, III 141
    only three Jewish deputies elected to, III 142
    Jewish question referred by, to committee, III 142
    dissolved, III 142
    _Third D._, called the Black, III 153
    only two Jewish deputies elected to, III 153
    violently anti-Semitic, III 153 ff
    discusses Beilis case, III 165
    _Fourth D._, anti-Semitic agitation in Poland during elections
            to, III 167
    Jewish D. deputies co-operate with joint Jewish Council in
            St. Petersburg, III 148

  =Dunaigrod= (Podolia), ritual murder trial at, I 178

  =Durnovo=, Russian official, investigates ritual murder trial
            at Saratov, II 150

  =Durnovo=, Russian Minister of Interior, fanatic reactionary,
            II 379
    bars Jews from local self-government (Zemstvos), II 386;
      and municipal self-government, II 425
    suggests expulsion of Jews from Moscow, II 402
    revokes decree of 1880, causing expulsion of "circular Jews,"
            II 428
    continues in office under Nicholas II., III 9, 16
    member of Witte cabinet, III 31

  =Dusyaty= (government of Kovno), pogrom at, III 115

  =Dvina=, river, Jews drowned by Russian troops in, I 243

  =Dyekabristy=, see Decembrists

  =Dyelanov=, Minister of Public Instruction, decrees
            "school norm," limiting admission of Jews to schools
            and universities, II 349 ff
    applies school norm leniently, III 27 f

  =Dyen= ("The Day"), Russian-Jewish weekly, II 218, 220, 238

  =Dyerzhavin, Gabriel=, member of Russian Senate, becomes interested
            in Jewish question, I 327
    meets Jews for first time on tour to White Russia, I 328
    meets modernized Jewish physician in White Russia, I 386
    pursues anti-Jewish purpose on tour, I 329 f
    prepares elaborate "Opinion" on Jews, I 330 ff
    appointed Minister of Justice, I 335
    "Opinion" of, studied by Committee for Amelioration of Jews,
            I 335 f
    retires, I 337
    example of, followed later in White Russia, 405


  =Earlocks= (_Peies_), discarded by modernized Jews, I 384
    cutting off of, recommended in Poland, I 385
    wearing of, prohibited by Nicholas I., II 144 f
    See Beards

  =Easter=, Russian, duration of, II 249
    season of pogroms, II 248, 299; III 34, 71 ff, 96 f, 114 f,
            134

  =Economic= life, of Jews, in Poland, I 42, 44 f, 67 f, 160, 264
            ff, 270
    in Polish Silesia, I 42
    in Lithuania, I 60
    in Russia, I 353 f, 359 ff
    in White Russia, I 310 ff; II 14
    in Russian South-west, II 193 f
    in Kiev, II 264
    undermined under Nicholas I., II 70, 72
    improved under Alexander II., II 185 f
    E. importance of Russian Jews pointed out by Vorontzov, II
            64 f;
      by Pahlen Commission, II 366;
      and by foreign press, II 408
    Russian Jews accused of E. exploitation, II 193 f, 270 ff
    restricted under Alexander III., II 318, 346 ff
    E. misery of Russian Jews, II 318, 366 f
    collapse of, under Nicholas II., III 22 ff
    in America, II 374
    E. boycott in Poland, III 166 ff

  =Edels, Samuel=, called Maharsho, famous Polish talmudist, I
            129 f

  =Education, Jewish=, see Heder and Yeshibah
    modernization of, in Poland, urged by Kalmansohn, I 385;
      by David Friedländer, II 90;
      by Polish assimilationists, II 101
    criticized by Russian Council of State, II 48
    negative effects of, pointed out by author, II 113
    national E. demanded by Zionist Convention at Minsk, III 45
    fostered by Society for Diffusion of Enlightenment, III 160
    autonomy of, demanded by League for Equal Rights, III 112
    progress of, in Palestine, III 148
    See School

  =Education, Secular=, promotion of, among Jews, urged by Russian
            dignitaries, I 327, 333
    championed by Frank, Jewish physician, I 331;
      by I. B. Levinsohn, II 128;
      and by Maskilim of Vilna, II 137
    encouraged by Alexander I., I 344 f;
      by Nicholas I., II 20, 57 f;
      and by Alexander II., II 163 ff, 166, 175, 216
    shunned by Russian Jews, I 350, 380; II 48, 53 ff, 175
    spreads under Alexander II., II 176 f, 216
    promoted by Society for Diffusion of Enlightenment
    spread of, among Jews feared by Russian authorities, II 339,
            348
    disparaged in general by Pobyedonostzev, II 348

  =Educational Restrictions=, demanded by Alexander III., II 349
    issued by Minister of Instruction (1887), II 350
    disastrous effects of, II 350 f
    compel Jewish youth to study abroad, II 351; III 31
    stimulate emigration, II 373
    applied with increasing rigor under Nicholas II., III 27 ff
    abolished in institutions of higher learning (1905), III 124
    restored (1907), III 152
    placed on Statute books in 1908, III 157 f
    See Enlightenment, School, and University

  =Efron-Litvin=, converted Jew, anti-Semitic playwright, III 38

  =Egypt=, emigration of Jews from, into Tauris, I 16
    Sabbatian propaganda in, I 205

  =Eibeschütz=, upheld by Polish rabbis in struggle with Emden,
            I 204

  =Einhorn, David=, modern Jewish writer, III 162

  =Eisenbaum, Anton=, Polish-Jewish assimilationist, head of rabbinical
            seminary, II 103

  =Eisenmenger=, anti-Jewish writer, II 104

  =Eisenstadt, Michael=, represents Kahals before Russian Government,
            I 393

  =Ekaterinoslav=, see Yekaterinoslav

  =Ekron=, Jewish colony in Palestine, II 375

  =Eliezer=, Bohemian scholar, quoted, I 43

  =Elijah=, the prophet, believed to associate with Besht, I 228
    Russian church festival in honor of, II 358

  =Elijah of Vilna=, called the Gaon, idolized by rabbis of Lithuania
            and other countries, I 235 f
    familiar with Cabala, I 235
    studied secular sciences, I 235 f
    tolerant towards pursuit of secular sciences, I 381
    avoids _pilpul_ and cultivates method of textual analysis,
            I 236
    introduces method into yeshibahs of Lithuania, I 380;
      particularly into yeshibah of Volozhin, I 381
    fragmentary nature of literary work of, I 236
    rigorist in religious practice, I 236
    opposes Hasidism, I 236
    causes issuance of _herem_ against Hasidism, I 237
    reaffirms _herem_, I 373
    checks growth of Hasidism in Vilna, I 372
    refuses to see Shneor Zalman, I 374 f
    death of, I 375
    Hasidim of Vilna rejoice over death of, I 375

  =Elimelech of Lizno=, hasidic leader, I 232

  =Elizabeth Petrovna=, Russian empress (1741-1761), persecutes
            non-Orthodox, I 254
    decrees expulsion of Jews from entire Russian empire (1727),
            I 255
    refuses plea of Ukrainians and Livonians for admission of Jews,
            I 257
    pens famous resolution against Jews (1743), I 257
    decrees again unconditional expulsion of Jews (1744), I 257
            f
    dismisses Sanches, Jewish court physician, I 258
    policy of, followed by Catherine II., I 259

  =Elizabethgrad=, see Yelisavetgrad

  =Emancipation= (Equal Rights), introduced by Napoleon into duchy
            of Warsaw, I 298
    not applied to Jews, I 298 f
    Warsaw Jews apply to Polish Government for, I 299
    opposed by Polish Council of Ministers, I 299
    suspended by duke of Warsaw for ten years, I 299
    17 Jews of Warsaw apply for, as reward for assimilation, I
            300
    refused by Polish Minister of Justice, I 300 f
    representatives of Warsaw community plead for, I 301 f
    opposed by Polish Senate, I 302
    Warsaw Jews apply to Nicholas I. for, II 110
    granted to Jews of Poland by Alexander II. (1862), II 181 ff
    promised to Jews by early Russian revolutionaries, I 413
    prominent St. Petersburg Jews apply to Alexander II. for, II
            159 f
    recommended by Stroganov, governor-general of New Russia, II
            168 f
    advocated by Russian-Jewish press, II 219 f, 238, 332
    claimed by Young Israel, heterodox Jewish sect, II 334
    recommended by Pahlen Commission, II 364, 368
    urged by Guildhall meeting in London, II 391
    demanded by Russian lawyers and writers for all citizens, III
            105
    partial E. promised by Russian Government, III 106
    unrestricted E. demanded by Russian Jews, III 108 ff
    demanded by Society for Diffusion of Enlightenment, III 111
    urged by League for Equal Rights, III 111 f
    adopted for all citizens by First Duma, III 135
    bill providing for E. of Jews referred by First Duma to Committee,
            III 137 f
    opposed by Nicholas II., III 141
    bill providing for, passed by Committee of Second Duma, III
            142
    forms platforms of Jewish people's group, III 140 f
    See League for Attainment of Equal Rights

  =Emden, Jacob=, opposed by Polish rabbis in fight with Eibeshütz,
            I 204

  =Emigration=, of Jews, from Lithuania, prevented by Sigismund
            I. (1540) I 81
    from Poland, caused by Khmelnitzki massacres (1648 ff), I 157
    from Russia, caused by persecutions and pogroms, II 268, 327
            ff, 413, 420; III 96
    causes shortage of Jewish recruits, II 356
    prompts imposition of military fine, II 373, 414
    stimulated by educational restrictions, I 373
    welcomed by Russian Government as solution of Jewish problem,
            II 419 f; III 10
    encouraged by Russian Government, II 285, 414, 417 f, 420
    old Russian law prohibiting E. not enforced, II 69, 285
    Plehve promises to support E., III 83
    to Algiers, proposed by French Jews, II 69
    to Argentina, II 413, 416 ff, 419 f
    to Canada, II 421
    to Palestine, I 269 f; II 321 f, 419 ff, 421 ff;
      advocated by _Poale Zion_, III 145;
      importance of, recognized by Russian Jewry, III 54, 147
    to United States, II 297 f, 320 f, 373 ff, 409, 413, 420 f;
            III 96, 104;
      calls forth protest of U. S. Government, II 396;
      importance of, recognized by Russian Jewish parties, III
            54, 145, 147

  =Emigration, Regulation of=, attempted by emigrant societies,
            II 297 f
    urged by Mandelstamm and part of Jewish press, II 298
    feared by prominent St. Petersburg Jews, II 298
    deprecated by _Voskhod_ as subversive of emancipation, II 298
            f
    rejected by Jewish Conference in St. Petersburg (April, 1882),
            II 307;
      disastrous results of rejection, II 420
    proposed by Baron Hirsch, II 416, 419
    sanctioned by Russian Government, II 420

  =Encyclopedists=, French, praise polemical treatise of Isaac
            Troki, I 138

  =England=, represented at Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, I 398
    Parliament in, discusses pogroms, II 262 f, 281 f, 287 ff,
            388 ff
    prominent men in, approach Nicholas I. on behalf of Russian
            Jews, II 63
    Priluker, Russian Jew, missionary in, II 335
    Russian-Jewish students in, II 351
    offers Uganda to Zionists, III 85
    See London

  =Enlightenment=, see Haskalah

  =Equal Rights=, see Emancipation

  =Ephes-Dammim=, name of biblical place, used as book title, II
            131

  =Ephesus=, city in Asia Minor, Jewish community in, I 14

  =Epstein, Samuel=, represents Jews before Russian Government,
            I 393

  =Eshet Hayil=, term explained, II 113

  =Estate, Real=, see Property, Real

  =Estherka=, concubine of Casimir the Great, I 53 f

  =Euclid=, geometry of, translated into Hebrew, I 381

  =Euler=, German mathematician, criticizes dismissal of Jewish
            court physician in St. Petersburg, I 258

  =Europe, Eastern=, beginnings of Diaspora in, I 13

  =Euxine Colonies=, see Black Sea

  =Evangelists=, Protestant sect in Poland, I 91

  =Evarts, William M.=, American Secretary of State, makes representations
            to Russian Government, II 293

  =Eve=, daughter of Jacob Frank, head of Frankist sect, I 220

  =Excise Farmers=, called _aktzizniks_, II 186

  =Excommunication=, see _Herem_

  =Execution=, or forcible seizure, term explained, II 20

  =Exilarchs=, heads of Babylonian Jewry, I 20

  =Exploitation=, economic, Russian Jews accused of, II 193
    used as pretext for pogroms, II 261 f, 264, 270 ff, 315
    handicrafts stigmatized as, I 347

  =Expulsion=, of Jews, by Polish Government from Lithuania (1495),
            I 65
    from Sandomir, I 173
    from Warsaw, I 260, 286 f
    by Russian troops, from invaded Polish cities (1654), I 153
            f, 245
    by Russian Government, from Little Russia (1727), I 249 f,
            253 ff
    from Russia in general (1741), I 255; (1744), I 257 f
    from Courland and Livonia (1829), II 32
    from Port Arthur and Kuantung Peninsula (1904), III 94
    from Russian Interior (outside of Pale), in general, I 402
            f; II 264, 399, 428; III 95, 154, 157;
      foreign Jews expelled from, II 262, 293, 345
    from Kharkov, II 319
    from Moscow, II 264, 319, 396 f, 399 ff, 402, 408, 424 f; III
            14 f
    from Oryol, II 264
    from Riga, II 256
    from St. Petersburg, II 319, 344, 399, 410
    from Pale of Settlement;
      Fifty-Verst Zone, I 408; II 62 ff, 385
    from Kiev, II 31, 33, 263 f, 319, 346; III 157
    from Nicholayev, II 32
    from Sevastopol, II 32
    from Yalta, II 428 f; III 18 f
    from villages, I 319, 323 f, 326, 343, 345 ff, 349, 351
            f, 354 f, 405 ff; II 30 f, 32 f, 35, 48, 310 f, 318 f,
            385; III 17, 157
    For particulars see special headings;
      see also Residence, Right of, and Temporary Rules

  =Externs=, _extra muros_ pupils, result of educational restrictions,
            II 351; III 31
    school norm applied to, without sanction of Duma, III 159
    join revolutionary ranks, III 31


  =Factor=, Polish name for agent, I 170; II 55

  =Fair=, commercial, Jews permitted to visit F's.
    of Little Russia, for wholesale trade (1728), I 250;
      and for retail trade (1734), I 251
    of government of Smolensk (1731), I 251
    of government of Kharkov, for retail trade (1734), I 251
    of Warsaw (1768), I 268
    of Nizhni-Novgorod, Kharlov, and other cities (1835), II 40
    Jews travel to F's. abroad, particularly Leipsic, I 359
    Polish F's. provide occasion for Jewish conferences, I 109
            f
    F. of Lublin, chief meeting-place of Council of Four Lands,
            I 109
    F. of Lantzkrona, mystical services of Frankists during, I
            213, 215
    F's. of Brody and Zelva, rabbis assembled at, excommunicate
            Hasidim, I 237

  =Farrar, Canon=, addresses Mansion House Meeting in London, II
            290

  =Feder, Tobias=, Hebrew writer, I 388
    criticizes translation of Bible into Yiddish, I 388

  =Feigin, Litman=, of Chernigov, submits memorandum on Jewish
            question to Council of State, II 38 f

  =Feldshers=, Jewish, name explained, II 167
    granted right of universal residence (1879), II 167
    admission of, into army restricted, II 319

  =Fergusson=, English Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, replies
            to interpellation concerning Russian Jews, II 382

  =Fez= (Morocco), Alfasi native of, I 118

  =Fichman=, modern Hebrew writer, III 162

  =Fifty-Verst Zone=, see Border Zone

  =Finkelstein, Nahum=, delegate of Jews wishing to engage in agriculture,
            I 363

  =Finns=, oppressed by Russian Government, III 159

  =Fishel, Moses=, chief-rabbi of Cracow, I 105
    studied medicine in Padua, I 132

  =Foreign Jews= forbidden to settle in Russia (1824), I 409
    expelled from Russia, II 262, 293, 345

  =Foster, John W.=, United States Minister to Russia, reports
            about pogroms, II 260

  =Fox=, Polish tailor, starts anti-Jewish riot at Warsaw, I 286
            f

  =Fraind=, Yiddish daily in St. Petersburg, III 162

  =France= (and French), Napoleon's policy towards Jews of, I 298
    Jews killed by French for loyalty to Russia (1812), I 358
    represented at Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, I 398
    high officials of, favor immigration of Russian Jews to Algiers,
            II 69
    Polish-Jewish patriots, pursued by Russia, flee to, I 298;
            II 105, 109
    French witness protest against pogroms, II 326
    Russian Jews, in search of university education, go to, II
            351
    Dreyfus Affair in, III 32, 42;
      see Paris

  =Franchise=, Jewish, discussed by Russian officials, III 121
    proposed denial of, elicits protests from Jewish communities
            in Russia, III 121;
      and representatives of Russian people, III 122
    finally granted, III 122

  =Frank=, physician in White Russia, adherent of Mendelssohn,
            suggests Jewish reforms, I 331, 386

  =Frank, Helena=, English translator of Peretz' works, III 62

  =Frank, Jacob=, Polish-Jewish sectarian, born in Podolia, I 211
    settles in Wallachia, I 212
    travels as salesman in Turkey, I 212
    joins, and later heads, Turkish Sabbatians, I 212
    banished by Polish authorities to Turkey, I 213
    regarded as reincarnation of Sabbatai Zevi, I 214
    reappears in Podolia, I 216
    submits to preliminary baptism in Lemberg, I 217
    appears for final baptism in Warsaw, I 217 f
    Polish king acts as godfather of, I 218
    poses as Messiah, I 218
    arrested in Warsaw, I 218
    imprisoned in Chenstokhov, I 219 f
    freed by invading Russian troops, I 219
    escapes to Brünn (Moravia), I 219
    moves to Vienna, I 220
    settles in Offenbach (Germany), I 220
    supported in Offenbach by adherents in Poland, I 283
    See Frankists

  =Frank, Mendel=, rabbi of Brest, receives large powers from Polish
            king, I 73, 104 f

  =Frankfort-on-the-Main=, Naphtali Cohen, Polish Cabalist and
            Sabbatian, settles in, I 204
    Offenbach, in neighborhood of, residence of Jacob Frank, I
            220
    Oppenheim, Jewish painter, resident of, II 67
    place of publication, II 202

  =Frankists=, adherents of Jacob Frank, hold mystical services
            and engage in excesses, I 213 f
    excommunicated by rabbis, I 214
    address themselves to Demboviski, Catholic bishop, I 214
    denounce Talmud and recognize Trinity, I 214
    call themselves "Contra-Talmudists," and "Zoharists," I 214
    bishop arranges disputation between, and rabbis, I 214 f
    acknowledged victorious in disputation and awarded fine, I
            215
    obtain safe-conduct from Polish king, I 215
    offer to embrace Christianity, I 216
    hold second disputation with rabbis, I 216 f
    accuse Jews of ritual murder, I 216 f
    large number of, baptized at Lemberg, I 217
    remain loyal to Frank, I 218, 283
    follow Frank to Chenstokhov, his place of imprisonment, I 219
    settle with Frank in Offenbach, I 220
    Sabbatian movement compromised by, I 222
    shunned and despised by Poles, I 283
    ultimately absorbed by Poles, I 230

  =Frederic, Harold=, quoted, II 378

  =Freeman=, see Lieberman, A.

  =Frederick of Austria=, Jewish charter of, used as model by Polish
            rulers, I 45

  =Frederick II., The Great=, annexes Polish territory, I 262

  =Frederick Augustus=, Saxon king, made ruler of duchy of Warsaw,
            I 297
    receives report of Council of Ministers, opposing Jewish emancipation,
            I 299
    issues decree, postponing Jewish emancipation for ten years
            (1808), I 299
    receives anti-Jewish report from Polish Senate, I 302

  =Frelinghuysen, Frederic T.=, American Secretary of State, expresses
            regret at treatment of Russian Jews, II 294

  =Friedlaender, Israel=, quoted, II 235
    translator of Dubnow, III 52
    translator of Ahad Ha'am, III 60

  =Friedländer, David=, submits memorandum to Polish Government,
            suggesting reform of Polish Jewry, II 90 f
    followers of, in Warsaw, plead for secular culture, I 386

  =Friedman=, Jewish deputy to Third Duma, III 153
    complains about Jewish disabilities, III 157

  =Friesel=, governor of Vilna, invites Polish nobility of Lithuania
            to express opinion on Jews, I 325 f
    submits opinion of nobility to Senate with his own memorandum,
            I 326
    urges Jewish cultural reforms, I 327

  =Frischman, David=, Hebrew writer, III 60

  =Frug, Simon=, Russian and Yiddish poet, III 63
    resides in St. Petersburg as "flunkey," II 345
    glorifies emigration, II 330
    pictures despair of Russian Jewry, II 371
    appeals for victims of Kishinev massacres, III 78

  =Fünn, Samuel Joseph=, Jewish historian and writer, II 136
    editor of _Pirhe Tzafon_, II 136;
      and _ha-Karmel_, II 217


  =Gabbaim=, directors of Kahal institutions, I 107
    "gentlemen in waiting" of Tzaddiks, II 120

  =Galatia= (Asia Minor), Jewish communities in, I 14

  =Galatovski=, Ukrainian writer, quoted, I 205

  =Galicia=, divided into Eastern and Western, I 53
    annexed by Austria (1772), I 187, 262
    Sabbatian propaganda in, I 208, 210 f
    intellectual development of Jews in, contrasted with North-west,
            I 221
    Besht, founder of Hasidism, active in, I 223
    Hasidism spreads in, I 229, 274
    type of Tzaddik in, I 233
    rabbis of, excommunicate Hasidim, I 237
    Tzaddik of Sadagora (Bukovina) attracts Hasidim from, II 121
    I. B. Levinsohn associates with Maskilim of, II 125 f; contrasted
            with them, II 127
    Haskalah carried from, to Odessa, II 133
    Hebrew publications of, imitated in Vilna, II 136
    Meisels, rabbi of Cracow, joins Polish patriots in, II 179
    Baron Hirsch establishes schools in, II 416
    Hebrew writers in, III 163;
      see Russia (Red), Lemberg, and Yaroslav

  =Galicia, Eastern=, see Russia, Red Uniat Church in, I 141

  =Galilee=, Jewish colonies in, II 375

  =Gamrat, Peter=, bishop of Cracow, condemns woman to death for
            adhering to Jewish doctrine, I 79
    leads agitation against Jews, I 81 f

  =Ganganelli=, cardinal, later Pope Clement XIV., defends Polish
            Jews against ritual murder charges, I 179 f

  =Gania=, Cossack leader, perpetrates Jewish massacre in Niemirov,
            I 146

  =Gans, David=, work of, copied by Halperin, Polish-Jewish chronicler,
            I 201

  =Gaons=, heads of Babylonian Jewry, I 20
    Gaon of Bagdad corresponds with early Russian rabbis, I 33
    Gaon of Vilna, see Elijah of Vilna

  =Gapon=, Russian priest and demagogue, III 106

  =Gatchina=, near St. Petersburg, secret conferences of high Russian
            dignitaries held at, II 244 f
    Jewish deputation received by Alexander III. at, II 261

  =Geiger, Abraham=, quoted, I 136
    corresponds with Lilienthal, II 67

  =Gemara=, term explained, II 114;
    see Talmud

  =Gendarmerie=, see Police

  =Genoa=, commercial colony of, in Crimea, I 33 f

  =Germany=, Poland commercially dependent on, I 39;
      and religiously, I 40 f, 44
    Polish rulers welcome settlers from, I 43 f;
      bestow upon them autonomy (Magdeburg Law), I 44
    Jews of, carry on commerce with Slav countries, I 39
    Jewish delegation from, pleads for admission of Jews to Poland,
            I 40
    Jews of, immigrate to Poland, I 33, 41, 66
    anti-Jewish hatred in Poland fed from, I 57;
      fostered by German burghers in Poland, I 95
    Polish-Jewish pilgrims to Palestine pass through, I 209
    Jacob Frank settles in, I 220
    Jews of Slav lands culturally dependent on, I 33;
      invite rabbis from, I 43
    Jews of, apply to Polish rabbis for religious advice, I 125
    grandfather of Solomon Luria native of, I 124
    Haskalah originates in, I 239, 384 ff
    Polish Jews contrasted with Jews of, I 386
    Hebrew publications of, imitated in Vilna, II 136
    Russian-Jewish students in, II 381
    Hebrew writers in, III 163
    Doctor Herzl negotiates with emperor of, III 46
    penalty of _Spiessruten_ introduced into Russia from, II 85
    See Prussia and Berlin

  =Gershon Kutover=, see Kutover

  =Gershuni=, member of Social-revolutionary party, III 67

  =Ghederah=, Jewish colony in Judea, II 375

  =Gher= (Poland), see Goora Kalvaria

  =Ghetto=, separate Jewish quarter in cities, creation of, demanded
            by Polish Church, I 48, 57
    in Cracow, I 64, 85
    in Moghilev (on the Dnieper), I 98 f
    in Posen, I 85
    in Vilna, I 99
    in Warsaw, I 269
    former Moscow Gh. called Glebov Yard, II 403

  =Gicatilla, Joseph=, Cabalist, work of, published in Poland,
            I 134

  =Giers, De=, Russian minister for Foreign Affairs, discusses
            Jewish question with American Government, II 293, 396

  =Ginzberg, Asher=, see Ahad Ha'am

  =Ginzburg, Mordecai Aaron=, Hebrew writer, II 133 f
    translates German works into Hebrew, II 134
    influences formation of neo-Hebraic style, II 134

  =Giovio, Paolo=, Italian scholar, I 242

  =Gladkov=, instigator of pogrom in Starodub, II 411 f

  =Gladstone=, English Prime Minister, cultivates friendly relations
            with Russia, II 287 f
    appealed to by Mansion House Meeting on behalf of Russian Jews,
            II 290
    answers interpellation concerning Russian Jews, II 291 f

  =Glebov Yard=, former Ghetto in Moscow, raided by police, II
            403

  =Glogau= (Germany), Solomon Maimon buried in, I 240

  =Gmina=, Polish name for Congregation, II 102

  =Gnesen= (Province of Posen), oldest Polish diocese, I 47
    seat of Polish primate, I 82
    Council of Breslau demands introduction of canonical laws into
            diocese of, I 47 f
    archbishop of, attends Synod of Constance and presides
    over Synod of Kalish, I 57
    John Casimir, primate of, becomes Polish king, I 151

  =God=, conception of, by Besht, I 225 f

  =Goeje, De=, quoted, I 23

  =Goethe=, impressed by autobiography of Solomon Maimon, I 240

  =Goetz, F.=, author of pamphlet defending Jews, II 389

  =Gogol=, Russian writer, anti-Jewish tendency of, 138 f

  "=Going to the People=," phase of Russian revolutionary movement,
            term explained, II 222
    practised by Russian-Jewish _intelligenzia_, II 222

  =Golitzin=, Count, Minister of Ecclesiastic Affairs, associate
            of Alexander I. in Christian mysticism, I 392, 396
    president of Russian Bible Society, I 396
    all Jewish matters transferred to, I 394
    communicates with Kahals through "Deputies of Jewish People,"
            I 394
    receives protest of deputies against blood accusation, II 74
    prohibits blood accusation by decree, II 74 f
    extends prohibition of blood accusation to Poland, II 99
    advises dissolution of Society of Israelitish Christians, I
            400
    orders investigation of "Judaizing heresy," I 401
    accuses Jews of proselytizing, I 404
    suggests prohibition of keeping Christian domestics, I 404
    discharged, I 395

  =Gonta=, Cossack leader, engineers Jewish massacre, I 184 ff

  =Goora Kalvaria= (_Polish_, Gora Kalwarza; _Yiddish_, Gher),
            hasidic dynasty of, popular in Warsaw, II 122

  =Gorchakov=, viceroy of Poland, receives deputation of revolutionary
            Poles, II 180
    opposes Jewish rights at Berlin Congress, II 202

  =Gordin, Jacob=, founds anti-talmudic sect, II 333 f
    becomes Jewish playwright in America, II 325

  =Gordon, Judah Leib=, Hebrew poet, champion of Haskalah, II 228
    secretary of Society of Diffusion of Enlightenment, II 229
    attacks traditional Judaism, II 129 ff
    champions emigration from Russia, II 328
    dies (1892), III 63

  =Goremykin=, Minister of Interior, pursues reactionary policy,
            III 9, 16, 135

  =Gorgippia= (Crimea), now called Anapa, ancient Jewish settlement
            in, I 14

  =Gorodnya= (near Chernigov), alleged ritual murder at, reported
            to Peter the Great, I 247 f

  =Gotovtzev=, Assistant-Minister of Interior, chairman of Central
            Committee for Revision of Jewish Question, II 227

  =Gotz=, member of Social Revolutionary party, III 67

  =Government= (province), governor, and governor-general, terms
            explained, I 308

  =Grace, William R.=, mayor of New York, presides at protest meeting,
            II 296

  =Granville, Lord=, English Secretary for Foreign Affairs, receives
            Anglo-Jewish deputation on subject of pogroms, II 262 f
    receives resolutions of Mansion House Meeting, II 290

  =Grazdanin= ("The Citizen"), anti-Semitic Russian paper, II 380,
            381, 412

  =Great Poland=, see Poland, Great

  =Greeks=, immigration of ancient Greeks into Tauris and Crimea,
            I 13 f
    export grain from Tauris and Crimea, I 14
    Jews follow in wake of, I 14
    language of, spoken by Jews of Tauris, I 16
    compete with Jews in Odessa, II 191
    make pogrom upon Jews of Odessa, II 192 f

  =Greek-Orthodox Church=, oppressed in Poland, I 91 f;
      and Ukraine, I 140 ff

  "=Gregor, Horowitz & Kohan=," semi-Jewish firm of Russian army
            purveyors, II 202, 244

  =Greig=, Russian Admiral, member of Council of State, pleads
            for Jews, II 37

  =Gresser=, city-governor of St. Petersburg, persecutes Jews,
            II 343 f
    issues ordinance concerning Jewish names, II 397 f
    deports Moscow fugitives, II 410

  =Grigoryev=, member of Committee for Amelioration of Jews, pleads
            for maintenance of Pale, I 196

  =Grigoryev=, city-governor of Odessa, dismissed for restraining
            "Black Hundred," III 151

  =Grodno= (city), meeting-place of Polish Diet, I 76
    important Jewish community in, I 59, 73
    Jews of, expelled, I 65;
      and allowed to return, I 70 f
    Jews of, assure Sigismund I. of loyalty to country, I 81
    Poles of, antagonistic to Russia (1812), I 357
    Jews of, entrusted with police duty, I 357
    blood accusation in, II 73, 80
    Jewish community of, represented on Polish Council, (_Waad
            Aria Aratzoth_), I 110;
      and later on Lithuanian Council, I 112
    Mordecai Jaffe rabbi of, I 127
    Sundel Sonnenberg, army purveyor and Jewish deputy, native
            of, I 358

  =Grodno= (province, or government), annexed by Russia (1795),
            I 297
    included in Pale (1795), I 317;
      (1835), II 39
    invited by Russian Government to send deputies, I 349
    Jews expelled from villages of (1827), II 30 f
    placed under military dictatorship of Muravyov, II 188
      Cities in:
        Druskeniki, II 377
        Ruzhany, I 162
        Zelva, I 237

  =Grudinski=, convert, accuses Jews of ritual murder, II 80

  =Gruzenberg=, Russian-Jewish lawyer, acts as counsel for Blondes,
            accused of ritual murder, III 37
    defends Dashevski, assailant of Krushevan, III 82
    defends Jews of Kishinev, III 91

  =Gruzin= (Crimea), I 26

  =Gudovich=, Count, governor-general of South-west, rebuked for
            interfering with Jewish deputation to Paul I., I 325

  =Guido=, papal legate, convenes Church Council of Breslau, I
            47

  =Guilds=, mercantile, in Poland, I 44;
      see Merchants trade Guilds, in Poland, I 44;
      see Trade-Unions

  =Guizolfi, Zechariah=, Italian Jew, owns Taman Peninsula, I 36
    corresponds with Ivan III. of Moscow, I 36

  =Guizot=, French Premier, supports schemes of Russian-Jewish
            emigration to Algiers, II 69

  =Gumbiner, Abel=, head of yeshibah in Kalish, Hebrew author,
            I 200

  =Gumplovich=, Polish-Jewish writer and assimilator, II 213

  =Günzberg, Baron Joseph Yozel=, leader of St.
            Petersburg community, petitions Alexander II. on behalf
            of victim of ritual murder accusation, II 152
    petitions Alexander II. for privileges to Jews, II 159 f
    founder of Society for Diffusion of Enlightenment, II 214

  =Günzburg, Baron Horace=, son of former, waits on Vladimir, brother
            of Alexander III., II 260
    member of Jewish deputation to Alexander III., 261
    calls conference of notables in St. Petersburg, II 277, 304
    acts as link between Jews and Pahlen Commission, I 337
    petitions Government to allow Jews purchase of land for personal
            use, III 24

  =Gurko=, governor-general of Odessa, suggests restrictive school-norm
            for Jews, II 339

  =Gurnitzki, Lucas=, Polish writer, quoted, I 79 f

  =Gymnazium=, secondary school, name explained, II 164
    right of residence outside Pale proposed for graduates of,
            II 164
    restrictive percentage at, intensified, III 29, 158;
      but not applied to girls, III 30
    award of graduation certificates restricted in case of Jews,
            III 159
    Pro-gymnazium, name explained, III 29
    See Education and School

  =Gzheslik=, Jewish tailor, accused of desecrating host, I 101

  _Ha-Asif_, Hebrew Periodical, II 372, III 58

  =Habad=, adherents of "rational Hasidism," term explained, I
            234
    centered in White Russia, I 234, II 117
    Polish Tzaddiks compared with those of, II 123
    See Shneorsohn, Zalman

  =Haber=, title of Jewish educated layman, I 117

  _Ha-Emet_, socialistic periodical in Hebrew, II 223

  =Hague Conference=, the, calling of, prompts Nicholas II. to
            stop pogroms, III 35 f

  =Haidamacks=, rebellious Ukrainian peasants, name explained,
            I 182, II 138
    massacre Jews (1648), I 49;
      (1734 and 1750), I 182;
      (1768), I 182 ff
    massacres of, described by Gogol, II 138 f

  =Haimovich, Avigdor=, rabbi of Pinsk, informs against Hasidim,
            I 377 f

  _Haint_, Yiddish daily in Warsaw, III 162

  _Ha-Karmel_, Hebrew weekly, in Vilna, II 217

  _Ha-Kol_, Hebrew periodical in Königsberg, II 223

  =Halevi, David=, called _Taz_, rabbi of Lemberg and Ostrog, I
            130
    author of commentary on _Shulhan Arukh_, I 130
    receives letter and present from Sabbatai Zevi, I 206 f

  =Halevi, Isaiah=, son of former member of Polish-Jewish delegation
            to Sabbatai Zevi, I 206

  =Halperin=, banker of Berdychev, member of rabbinical commission,
            II 57

  =Halperin, Jehiel=, rabbi of Minsk, Hebrew chronicler, I 200
            f

  _Ha-Maggid_, Hebrew weekly, II 217

  =Hamburg=, Solomon Maimon resides in, I 239
    Moscow refugees in, II 420

  _Ha-Melitz_, Hebrew weekly, in St. Petersburg, edited by Zederbaum,
            II 204, 217 f
    publishes Lilienblum's articles, II 236
    champions "Love of Zion" movement, II 332
    becomes daily, II 372, III 58

  =Handicrafts=; see Artisans

  =Hannover, Nathan=, of Zaslav, historian, describes Council of
            Four Lands, I 111
    pictures Jewish intellectual life in Poland, I 116 ff
    gives account of Khmelnitzki massacres, I 157

  =Hanukkah=, king of Khazars, I 26

  =Hardenberg=, Prussian representatives at Congress at Aix-la-Chapelle,
            I 399

  =Harkavy=, quoted, I 23

  =Harrison=, President of United States, publishes diplomatic
            papers bearing on Russian Jews, II 294, 394
    describes, in message to Congress, plight of Russian Jewry,
            II 408 f

  =Hasdai Ibn Shaprut=, of Cordova, corresponds with king of Khazars,
            I 24 ff

  _Ha-Shahar_, Hebrew monthly, edited by Smolenskin, II 218, 234
    publishes Gordon's epics, II 229
    champions "Love of Zion" movement, II 332

  _Ha-Shiloah_, Hebrew monthly, edited by Ahad Ha'am, and later
            by Klausner, III 58, 162 f

  =Hasidim=, adherents of Judah Hasid, I 209
    emigrate to Palestine, I 209 ff
    adherents of Hasidism; see Hasidism
    struggle between H. and old-orthodox (_Mithnagdim_), I 238,
            274, 278, 375 f
    H. of Vilna rejoice over death of Gaon, I 375
    granted right of secession by Statute of 1804, I 356, 379
    H. of Old-Constantinov "protest" against Nicholas I., II 22
    H. of Poland refuse to discard Jewish dress, II 145

  =Hasidism=, founded by Besht, I 222
    doctrine of, expounded by Besht, I 22, 224 ff
    counteracts Rabbinism, I 224 f;
      and Messianism, I 222;
      and Asceticism, I 227
    propagated by Besht's apostles, I 229 ff
    opposes Haskalah, I 238 f
    bitterly opposed by Elijah of Vilna, I 236 ff, 372 ff
    spread of, I 231 f
    triumph of, I 371 f
    growth of, under Alexander I., I 381 ff
    stagnation of, under Nicholas I., II 116 ff
    in North (White Russia and Lithuania), I 381 f, II 117 f
    in South (Ukraina), I 382 f, II 119 ff
    in Poland, I 384, II 122 f
    retrogressive character of, I 278, II 124
    encourages use of alcohol, II 124 f
    restrictions against, suggested by Friesel, governor of Vilna,
            I 327
    denounced by rabbi of Pinsk, as dangerous to Russian Government,
            I 378
    extermination of, recommended by Kalmansohn, I 385
    criticized by David Friedländer, II 90
    attacked, or silently opposed, by I. B. Levinsohn, II 127 f
    subjected to rigorous censorship (1864), II 212
    literature of, declared by I. B. Levinsohn as dangerous to
            State, II 130
    See Hasidim, Tzaddiks, and Shneor Zalman

  =Haskalah=, attempt to harmonize Jewish and secular culture,
            term explained, II 125
    originated by Mendelssohn in Germany, I 238 f, II 125
    opposed by Rabbinism and Hasidism, I 238 f
    hated by Nahman of Bratzlav, I 383
    Solomon Maimon influenced by, I 239
    effect of, on Jews of Warsaw, I 284, 384 ff
    championed by Jacques Kalmansohn, I 385
    need of, for Polish Jews, emphasized by David Friedländer,
            II 90;
      and followers, I 386
    advocated by Frank in White Russia, I 331, 386
    carried to St. Petersburg, I 386 ff
    Max Lilienthal appeals to adherents of (Maskilim), II 53
    preached by Isaac Baer Levinsohn, II 125 ff
    center of, in Odessa, II 132 f
    center of, in Vilna, II 134, 136 f
    aims of adherents of, in Vilna, II 136 f.
    persecuted adherents of, escape through baptism, II 132
    adherents of, lean on Russian Government, II 137
    Russian H. compared with German, II 137 f
    becomes more aggressive, II 210, 224
    stimulates neo-Hebraic style and literature, II 132 ff, 210
    advocated by Jewish press, II 217, 332 f
    championed by M. L. Lilienblum, II 236
    adherents of, portrayed by Mapu, II 228
    See Education, Neo-Hebraic Literature, and School

  =Ha-Tzefirah=, Hebrew weekly in Warsaw, advocates Haskalah, II
            333
    edited by Sokolow, III 60
    becomes a daily, II 372, III 58, 162

  =Hausfreund=, Yiddish periodical, III 59

  =Hayyun=, emissary of Sabbatai Zevi, I 204

  =Hazakah=, priority of possession, term explained, II 188
    grant of, must be sanctioned by Kahal, I 190, II 188
    matters relating to, decided by Council of Four Lands, I 111

  =Ha-Zeman=, Hebrew daily in Vilna, III 162

  =Hebrew=, language, importance of, emphasized by Smolenskin,
            II 134 f
    position of, in Jewish life, forms party issue, III 161
    promoted by Zionism, III 45
    restoration of, II 133, 135, 225
    modern H. (Neo-Hebraic) literature, beginnings of, I 388 f
    rise of, II 132 ff
    renaissance of, II 224 ff, III 58 ff, 162 f
    cultivated by Haskalah, II 132-ff, 210, 224
    H. writers hail from Lithuania, II 238
    H. press, beginnings of, II 217 f
    preaches Haskalah, II 217
    recent revival of, III 58 f
    See also Language

  =Heder=, traditional Jewish school, imparts elementary education,
            I 114
    Bible and Talmud principal subjects of instruction at, I 114,
            121
    secular subjects excluded from I 277
    left to private initiative, but supervised by Kahal, I 114
    pupils of, examined weekly by head of yeshibah, I 118
    attendance at, compulsory for boys, I 114, 121
    negative effects of, I 277
    shortened attendance at, suggested by Dyerzhavin, I 333
    criticised by Russian Council of State, II 49
    abolition of, suggested by Lilienthal, II 53
    defended by Rabbinical Commission, II 57
    placed under Government supervision (1812), II 56;
      (1856), II 176
    keepers of (Melammeds) required to possess secular education
            (1844), II 58
    recognized by ukase of 1879, II 177
    6,000 H's, in Russian South-west, II 194
    legalized and restricted to religious subjects (1893), II 427
            f
    See Education, School, and Yeshibah

  =Heder=, for poor children, called Talmud Torah, maintained by
            public funds, I 114 f
    pupils of, examined weekly by trustee, I 118
    provided for, by Council of Four Lands, I 195
    established in Moscow, III 13

  =Helena=, Russian princess, sympathizes with "Judaizing heresy,"
            I 36

  =Helfman, Hesia=, participates in plot against Alexander II.,
            II 244

  =Heliconias=, name of Greek-speaking Jew, I 115

  =Heller, Lipman=, rabbi of Cracow, describes persecutions of
            1648, I 58

  =Helsingfors= (Finland), Russian Zionists hold Convention at,
            III 144 f
    "H. Program" gradually weakened, III 146

  =Heniochi=, tribe, I 15

  =Hennadius=, archbishop of Novgorod, combats "Judaizing heresy,"
            I 37

  =Henry of Valois=, elected king of Poland, I 89

  =Heracles=, name of slave freed by Crimean Jewess, I 15

  =Herem= (Excommunication), right of, granted by Polish kings
            to rabbi of Brest (1531), I 73, 105;
      to rabbis of Great Poland (1551), I 106;
      to Kahals of Lithuania (1672), I 190
    proclaimed against Sabbatians by rabbis assembled at Lemberg
            (1722), I 211;
      (1725), I 211
    issued against Frankists by rabbis assembled at Brody, I 214
    issued against Hasidim by rabbinical court of Vilna (1722),
            I 237;
      by rabbis assembled at Brody, I 237;
      and at Zelva (Grodno), I 237;
      reaffirmed by Elijah of Vilna (1796), I 373 f
    new H. against Hasidim contemplated by Kahal of Vilna (1797),
            I 375
    issued by Kahal of Vilna against Simeon Volfovich (1788), I
            276
    Jews of Minsk complain about abuse of (1782), I 275
    prohibited by Statute of 1804, I 344
    prohibition of, occasionally disregarded, I 367
    power of, criticised by Polish assimilationists, II 101
    secret exercise of, alleged by Brafman, II 188

  =Hernish, Stanislav=, Polish-Jewish patriot, II 105
    refutes Polish attacks upon Jews, II 109

  =Hershel=, Ostropoler. See Ostropoler

  =Hershko=, name of Jewish "arendar," I 266

  =Hertzen, Alexander=, liberal Russian writer, describes sufferings
            of cantonists, II 24 f
    influences Russian-Jewish _intelligenzia_, II 207

  =Herzl, Theodor=, aroused by Dreyfus Affair, III 42 f
    publishes _Judenstaat_, III 43
    compared with _Pinsker_, III 43
    revives hopes of _Hobebe Zion_, III 43 f
    speeches of, discussed in Russia, III 47
    author of _Altneuland_, III 48
    visit of, to Russia, III 82 ff
    negotiates with Plehve, III 83 f;
      and Lamsdorff, III 84
    greeted enthusiastically by Russian Zionist, III 84
    criticized by non-Zionists, III 84
    lays Uganda project before Sixth Zionist Congress, III 84
    death of, mourned by Seventh Zionist Congress, III 144

  =Hetman=, name explained, I 143, 192, 250
    head of Cossacks, I 143
    Khmelnitzki elected to post of, I 144
    H. of Lithuania sends instructions to Kahal of Brest, I 192
    H. of Little Russia pleads for admission of Jews, I 250, 260

  =Hezekiah=, king of Khazars, I 26

  =Hirsch, Baron Maurice=, II 413
    proposes to establish arts and crafts schools in Russia, II
            415
    proposal of, declined by Russian Government, II 415
    representatives of, offer Pobyedonostzev large contribution,
            II 415
    applies funds intended for Russia to schools in Galicia, II
            416
    sends expedition to Argentina, II 416
    sends Arnold White to Russia, II 416 ff
    founds Jewish Colonization Association, II 414, 419
    obtains permission of Russian Government to regulate emigration,
            II 420
    issues appeal, warning against emigration, II 420
    scheme of, results in failure, II 421, III 10

  =Hirsh Kaidanover=, see Kaidanover

  =Hirshovich, Abraham=, Polish court broker, submits project of
            Jewish reforms to King Stanislav Augustus, I 284

  =Historiography=, Jewish, in Russia, III 65

  =Hobebe Zion=, see Zionism

  =Hollaenderski=, Polish-Jewish patriot and writer, lives as exile
            in Paris, II 109

  =Holland=, Peter the Great in, I 246
    Antonio Sanchez, Russian court physician, invited from, I 258
    See Amsterdam

  =Horodno=, Nehman of, disciple of Besht, I 227

  =Homel= (government of Moghilev), massacre under Khmelnitzki
            at (1648), I 149
    pogrom at (1903), III 87 ff
    self-defence organized by Jews of, III 87 f
    pogrom at, condoned by governor of Moghilev, III 89
    misrepresented in official documents, III 89
    described as act of revenge by Jews, III 101
    tried by Russian court, III 101 ff
    Jewish community of, signs petition for equal rights, III 108

  =Horowitz, Isaiah=, Cabalist, author of _Sheloh_, I 135

  =Horowitz, Sheftel=, son of former, rabbi of Posen and Hebrew
            author, I 135
    author of liturgy describing catastrophe of 1648, I 158

  =Horvitz=, Russian-Jewish writer, attacked by Russian periodical,
            II 207 f
    defended in public protest of Russian writers, II 208

  =Host Desecration, Charge of=, causes death of Jews in Posen
            (1399), I 55, 95, 174;
      and Sokhachev (1556), I 86 f
    forbidden by Sigismund II. (1566), I 88;
      and Stephen Batory (1576), I 89
    used as pretext to expel Jews of Cracow (1635), I 101
    of frequent occurrence at end of 17th century, I 172

  =Hoym=, Prussian minister, carries out Jewish reforms in annexed
            Polish provinces, I 385

  =Hugo, Victor=, protests against Jewish persecutions in Russia,
            II 326

  =Hungary=, geographical position of, I 25, 150
    adopts Magdeburg Law, I 44
    Church Council (of Buda) in, I 49
    Louis of, king of Poland, persecutes Jews, I 54

  =Husiatyn= (Galicia), place of publication, I 123

  =Huss=, influence of, penetrates into Poland, I 57
    adherents of, persecuted, I 62


  =Ibn Fakih=, Arabic geographer, quoted, I 23

  =Ibn Khordadbeh=, Arabic geographer, quoted, I 23

  =Ibn Shaprut=, see Hasdai, I

  =Ibn Sharzi=, Arabic writer, quoted, I 23

  =Ignatyev=, Nicholas Pavlovich, Russian statesman, militant pan-Slavist,
            II 259
    ambassador at Constantinople, II 259
    nicknamed "Father of Lies," II 259
    member of reactionary "Sacred League," II 248
    appointed Minister of Interior, II 259
    ascribes pogroms to revolutionary propaganda, II 259 f
    changes attitude, II 261
    refuses to submit memorandum in defence of Jews to Tzar, II
            262
    shows indifference to pogrom victims, II 263
    ascribes pogroms to economic exploitation of Jews, II 271 f
    issues circular condemning economic activities of Jews, II
            273
    influences Central Committee for Revision of Jewish Question,
            II 277
    receives deputation of Jewish Notables, II 277
    calls upon Jews to leave Russia, II 285, 297
    Ignatyev directed to appoint Gubernatorial Commissions, II
            272, 363
    circular of, read to Gubernatorial Commissions, II 274;
      quoted by Cardinal Manning at London protest meeting, II
            289
    disregards protests in England, II 292
    permits holding of Jewish Conference in St. Petersburg, II
            304
    holds Jews responsible for pogroms, II 305
    considers settlement of Jews on steppes of Central Asia, II
            306
    suggests "Temporary Rules," II 311
    makes concessions to Committee of Ministers, II 311, 318
    connivance at pogroms causes downfall of, II 314
    downfall of, checks plan of Jewish emigration from Russia,
            II 414

  =Illarion=, Metropolitan of, preaches hatred against Jews, I
            31

  =Illustratzia=, Russian magazine, attacks Jews, II 207 f
    causes public protest of Russian literateurs, II 208

  =Ilovaiski=, professor, of Moscow, opposed to Jews, II 387

  =Ilya= (government of Vilna), home of Menashe Ilyer, II 114

  =Ilyer, Menashe= (=Manasseh=), Talmudist with modern tendencies,
            II 114 ff
    acquires modern culture, II 114
    criticises spiritual leaders, II 115
    book of, burned, II 115
    pleads for modifications of religious law, II 115
    unappreciated by contemporaries, II 116

  =Imperial Messenger= (_Pravityelstvyenny Vyestnik_), official
            organ of Russian Government, minimizes pogroms, II 255
    warns against pogrom protests, II 291
    foreshadows new pogroms, II 299
    criticised by _Moscow News_, II 299

  =Informing and Informers=, see Mesirah

  =Inkerman, Heights of=, near Sevastopol, Jewish soldiers killed
            at, II 149

  =Inns= (=and Taverns=), keeping of, forms important Jewish pursuit,
            I 265, 362
    Jews in White Russia forbidden from, I 311
    permitted by Senate, I 312
    forbidden by Statute of 1804, I 342 f
    See Arendar, Propinatzya, and Villages

  =Innocent IV.=, pope, bull of, condemning ritual murder libel
            (1247), referred to, I 179

  =Intelligenzia=, Jewish, in Russia, assimilation of, II 206 ff
    in league with Russian Government, II 211 f
    indifferent to things Jewish, II 212
    Society for Diffusion of Enlightenment acts on behalf of, II
            215
    disillusionment of, II 324 ff

  =Interior, Russian=, the (Russian empire outside Pale of Settlement),
            barred to Jews of annexed White Russia (1790, 1791), I 316
    Jewish manufacturers, merchants, and artisans permitted to
            sojourn temporarily in (1804), I 344
    Governments of Astrakhan and Caucasia in, opened to Jewish
            agriculturists (1804), I 342 f
    Council of State considers admission of Jewish merchants into,
            II 35 f;
      negatived by Nicholas I., II 36
    Jews admitted into, on temporary "furlough" (1835), II 40
    Jews, illegally residing in, severely punished (1838), II 42
    prominent Jews of St. Petersburg plead for opening of (1856),
            II 160
    admission of Jews into, discussed by Council of State and "Jewish
            Committee," II 161 ff
    Jewish guild merchants admitted into (1859), II 162
    Jews with learned degrees admitted into (1861), II 166
    Jews with higher education admitted into (1879), II 167
    Jewish artisans (mechanics and distillers) admitted into (1865),
            II 170
    Jews begin to settle in, II 171
    Alexander II. refuses to admit "Nicholas soldiers" into, II
            171;
      but yields (1867), II 172
    discharged Jewish soldiers barred from (1874), II 354 f
    "Jewish Committee" discusses admission of Jews into (1880),
            II 196 ff
    five "Gubernatorial Commissions" advocate opening of, II 275
    "illegal" Jews in, persecuted, II 342 ff, 385
    old settlers from among "illegal" Jews permitted to remain
            in (1880), II 404
    admission of Jews to schools in, restricted to 5% (1887), II
            350;
      restriction placed on Statute books (1908), III 158
    admission of Jews to universities in, restricted to 3% (1898),
            III 29
    pogrom in (Nizhni-Novgorod), II 360
    Government endeavors to annul admission of privileged Jews
            into, II 399
    expulsion of Jews from, II 428
    barred to Jews (under Nicholas II.), III 20 f
    Jewish soldiers forbidden to spend furlough in (1896), III
            21
    Jews in, forbidden to acquire real estate in villages (1903),
            III 81
    attempt to expel families of mobilized Jewish soldiers from,
            III 95
    Jewish veterans of Russian-Japanese War and families of other
            privileged Jews admitted into (1904), III 98 f
    pogroms in (October, 1905), III 130
    expulsion of Jews from (under Nicholas II.), III 157
    See Pale of Settlement, and Residence, Right of

  =Ionian Islands=, emigration from, to Black Sea settlements,
            I 13 f

  =Iphicleides=, name of Greek-speaking Jew, I 15

  =Isaac=, king of Khazars, I 26

  =Isaac=, of Chernigov, corresponds with Gaon in Bagdad, I 33

  =Isaac=, Jewish physician at Polish court, I 132

  =Isaac ben Jacob=, see Alfasi

  =Isaacs, Henry=, Lord Mayor of London, disapproves of protest
            meeting against pogroms, II 382

  =Ishmaelites=, see Mohammedans

  =Ispravnik=, title of Russian official, II 301, 409

  =Israel=, son of Shakhna, succeeds his father as rabbi of Lublin,
            I 123

  =Israel=, of Ruzhany, executed on ritual murder charge, I 162
            f

  =Israel, Baal-Shem-Tob=, called Besht, founder of Hasidism, I
            222 ff
    born in Podolia, I 222
    sent to heder, I 222
    neglects studies, I 222
    strange conduct of, I 222
    studies Practical Cabala, I 222 f
    settles in Brody, I 223
    marries sister of rabbi, I 223
    retires to solitude in Carpathian mountains, I 223
    occupies humble position in Tlusta (Galicia), I 223
    considered an ignoramus, I 223
    begins to practise as _Baal-Shem_, I 223
    reputed as miracle-worker, I 224
    called "good _Baal-Shem_," or _Baal-Shem-Tob_, I 224
    disparages exclusive Talmud study, I 224, 226
    recognizes authority of Cabala, I 224
    objects to Cabalistic asceticism, I 224, 226
    inculcates cheerfulness, I 225
    emphasizes faith and prayer, I 225, 226 f
    settles in Medzhibozh (Podolia), I 225
    doctrine of, I 225 f
    evolves belief in _Tzaddik_, I 227
    disciples of, I 227 f
    acknowledged by rabbi of Brody, I 228
    sends epistle to Palestine, I 228
    believed to associate with biblical prophets, I 228
    popular discourses of, I 228
    laments conversion of Frankists, I 229
    takes part in Frankist disputation, I 229
    sayings of, selected by disciple, I 230, 237
    See also Hasidism and Hasidim

  =Israel=, of Kozhenitz, leader of Hasidim in duchy of Warsaw,
            I 384
    successors of, II 122

  =Israel=, of Ruzhin (government of Kiev), hasidic leader, keeps
            magnificent court, II 120
    arouses suspicions of governor-general, I 120 f
    arrested, I 121
    flees to Sadagora (Bukovina), I 121
    dynasty of, branches out, I 221
    contests supremacy of Joshua Heshel Apter, II 121

  =Isserles, Moses= (_Remo_), son of Kahal elder in Cracow, I 123
    pupil of Shakhna of Lublin, I 123
    judge and head of yeshibah in Cracow, I 123
    writes commentary on _Turim_, I 123
    adds notes to _Shulhan Arukh_, I 124
    makes _Shulhan Arukh_ great factor in Polish Jewry, I 130
    differs from Solomon Luria, I 126
    disparages mysticism, I 126
    favors moderate philosophy, I 126
    studies Maimonides' _Moreh_, I 126, 132
    teacher of Mordecai Jaffe, I 127
    method of, contrasted with that of Jaffe, I 128
    method of, looked down upon by Meir of Lublin, I 129
    unequalled by successors, I 199

  =Istumin=, Pobyedonostzev's agent in Moscow, II 401

  =Italy=, influence of, extends to Crimea, I 34
    Guizolfi, Jew from Italy, owns Tanan Peninsula, I 36
    Master Leon, Jew from, physician at Moscow court, I 37
    Jews of, apply to Polish rabbis for religious advice, I 125
    Jewish physicians in Poland originate from, I 132, or receive
            medical training in, I 132
    Delacruta, founder of Polish Cabala, born in, I 134
    work of Recanati, Italian Cabalist, studied in Poland, I 134
    Calahora, native of, executed in Cracow, I 164 f
    Judah Ilasid studies Practical Cabala in, I 208
    Polish-Jewish pilgrims to Palestine pass through, I 209

  =Itche (Isaac) Meier Alter=, head of Gher Hasidim, has many adherents
            in Warsaw, II 122

  =Ityl=, ancient name for Volga, I 19, 26
    name of Khazar capital, I 19

  =Itzele, Rabbi=, see Zelikin

  =Itzhaki, Itzhok= (=Isaac=), head of Volozhin yeshibah, member
            of Rabbinical Commission, II 57

  =Ivan III.=, grand duke of Moscow, I 29
    assisted by Crimean Jews in negotiations with Khan, I 35
    corresponds with Guizolfi, Italian Jew, I 36
    orders burning of "Judaizers," I 37
    executes his Jewish body-physician, I 37

  =Ivan IV., The Terrible=, Tzar of Moscow, I 29
    refuses to admit Lithuanian Jews into Russia, I 243
    orders drowning of Jews of Polotzk, I 243

  =Izyaslav=, former name for government of Volhynia, I 317


  =Jacob Itzhok= (=Isaac=), of Lublin, pioneer of Hasidism in Poland,
            I 384

  =Jacob= (=Nahman=), of Belzhytz, Polish court physician, I 136
    author of polemical treatise against Christianity, I 136 f

  =Jacob Zelig= (=Selek, or Jelek=), presents petition of Polish
            Jews to pope, I 179 f

  =Jacob Ben Asher=, author of _Turim_, work of, studied in Poland,
            I 118

  =Jacobs, Joseph=, quoted, II 287

  =Jacobsohn=, deputy to First Duma, reports on Bialystok pogrom,
            III 139

  =Jaffa= (Palestine), Jewish agricultural settlements in neighborhood
            of, II 322
    representative of Odessa Palestine Society in, II 422
    gymnazium in, III 148

  =Jaffe, Mordecai=, native of Bohemia, I 126
    pupil of Isserles, I 126
    rabbi of various Polish communities, I 126
    presides over Council of Four Lands, I 126
    author of elaborate code, entitled _Lebushim_, I 126 f
    method of, differs from that of Caro and Isserles, I 27;
      looked down upon by Meir of Lublin, 129
    comments on Maimonides' Mareh, I 132
    pupil of Delacruta, Cabalist, I 134
    author of cabalistic commentary, I 134
    unequalled by successors, I 199

  =Japanese=, expel Russians from Kuantung (Shantung) Peninsula,
            III 94
    destroy Russian fleet, III 110
    Jews accused of alliance with, III 95 f

  =Jastrow, Marcus=, preacher in Warsaw, active in Polish Insurrection,
            II 179 ff
    rabbi in Philadelphia, II 179

  =Jehiel Michael=, rabbi and head of yeshibah in Niemirov, killed
            in massacre (1648), I 146

  =Jelek=, see Jacob Zelig

  =Jeremiah=, the prophet, teachings of, attacked by Judah Leib
            Gordon, II 230

  =Jerome, The Holy=, quoted, I 17

  =Jerusalem=, referred to by Khazarv king, I 27;
      and Khazar Jews, I 30
    Polish-Jewish pilgrims arrive in, I 205
    Gymnazium in, III 148

  =Jesuits=, patronized by Stephen Batory, I 90
    establish academy at Vilna, I 90 f
    grow in influence, I 91
    derive financial benefit from ritual murder libel, I 96
    hostile to Jews, I 97, 99 f
    effect of; on Polish people, I 171
    invited in Posen to exorcise evil spirits, I 203
    students of colleges of, assault Jews, I 95, 161;
      but in Vilna protect Jews, I 166
    college of, in Vitebsk supplies anti-Jewish information, I
            330

  =Jewish Chronicle=, of London, quoted, II 262, 290, 292, 382

  =Jewish Colonial Trust=, created by Zionists, III 45
    financial weakness of, III 46
    sale of shares of, forbidden in Russia, III 83

  =Jewish Colonization Association= (=ICA=), founded by Baron Hirsch
            in London, II 414, 419
    Central Committee of, established in St. Petersburg, II 420
    transplants Jews to Argentina, II 421
    refused permission to settle Jews as farmers in Russia, III
            10

  =Jewish Historico-Ethnographic Society=, in St. Petersburg, founded
            1908, III 160
    publishes periodical, III 160

  =Jewish Judge=, attached to court of voyevoda, I 46
    nominated by Jewish elders, I 191
    appointed by voyevoda, I 46, 191
    functions of, I 46, 191
    tries cases between Jews, I 46, 52
    sits in Kahal chamber, near synagogue, I 46, 52, 191
    officiates in presence of Kahal elders, I 191
    guided, in part, by Jewish law, I 191

  =Jewish Literary Society=, in St. Petersburg, founded in 1908,
            III 160
    dissolved (1911), III 161

  =Jewish National Fund=, created by Zionists, III 45
    collections for, forbidden in Russia, III 83

  =Jewish National Party= (Volkspartei), in Russia based on principle
            of National-Cultural Autonomism, III 147
    recognizes Jewish centers in America and Palestine, III 147
            f

  =Jewish People's Group=, in Russia, opposes Zionism, III 146
    satisfied with minimum of Jewish national rights, III 147

  =Jewish Publication Society of America=, referred to, III 51,
            60, 62

  =Joel Baal-Shem= (miracle worker), of Zamoshch, I 203

  =John=, Russian ecclesiastic, preaches hatred against Jews, I
            31

  =John Albrecht=, king of Poland (1492-1501), establishes ghetto
            in Cracow, I 64
    permits expelled Lithuanian Jews to settle in Poland, I 65
    grants right of distilling (_propinatzya_) to nobles (1496),
            I 67
    attended by Jewish body-physician, 132

  =John Casimir= (1648-1668), concludes peace with Khmelnitzki,
            I 151
    permits baptized Jews to return to Judaism, I 151
    anxious to compensate Jews for past sufferings, I 158
    grants right of free commerce to Jews of Cracow, I 159
    grants privileges to other communities, I 159

  =John Sobieski= (1674-1696), protects Jews against enemies, I
            165 f
    protects Jews of Vilna, I 166

  =Jorjan, Sea of=, see Caspian Sea

  =Joseph=, king of Khazars, replies to letter of Hasdai Ibn Shaprut,
            I 25 ff

  =Joseph II.=, emperor of Austria, engages in "reformatory" experiments,
            I 262
    project of Jewish reforms in Poland influenced by policy of,
            I 271, 273
    Toleration Act of (1782), II 30

  =Joseph Israel=, see Benjamin III

  =Joseph Kalish=, Polish minter, I 42

  =Joseph, N. S.=, secretary of Russo-Jewish Committee in London,
            II 388

  =Josephus=, historian, quoted, I 14 f

  =Joshua Heshel Apter=, see Apter

  =Jost=, refutes anti-Semitic book of Abbé Chiarini, II 104, quoted,
            I 390

  =Journal De St. Petersbourg=, Russian official organ, refutes
            charge of pogroms, II 287 f

  =Jud, Der=, Yiddish weekly in Warsaw, III 59

  =Judæophobia=, name for Russian anti-Semitism, II 247
    growth of, II 378 ff
    contrasted with German anti-Semitism, II 6

  =Judah Ha-Nasi=, compiler of the Mishnah, II 114

  =Judah Hasid=, founds sect in Poland, I 208 f
    heads pilgrims to Palestine, I 209
    dies in Jerusalem, I 210

  =Judah Leib=, father of Jacob Frank, I 211
    settles with son in Wallachia, I 212

  "=Judaizing Heresy=," originated in Novgorod by Zechariah (15th
            century), I 36
    carried to Moscow (1480), I 36
    finds adherents at court, I 36
    leaders of, burned at stake, I 37
    checked, I 37
    instills fear of Jews, I 37, 242, 249
    spreads in Central Russia (1796), I 401 f
    severe measures adopted against (1823), I 402 f
    quoted by Senate as proof of Jewish proselytism, I 404
    Reformation in Poland regarded as, I 79 f
    Christian rationalists in Poland nicknamed "Judaizers," I 136

  =Jude, Der=, German-Jewish periodical, published by Riesser,
            II 219

  =Judea=, part of Hellenistic Orient, I 14
    Jewish colonies, in, II 375

  =Judicial Authority=, see Courts

  =Jüdisch-Deutsch=, see Yiddish

  =Jüdische Bibliothek=, Yiddish periodical, edited by I. L. Peretz,
            III 59.

  =Jüdische Volksbibliothek=, Yiddish periodical, edited by Shalom
            Aleichem, III 59

  =Jüdischer Verlag=, in Berlin, referred to, III 52

  =Jüdisches Volksblatt=, Yiddish weekly in St. Petersburg, III
            58 f

  =Justinian=, emperor of Byzantium, persecutes Jews, I 18

  =Jutrzenka= ("The Dawn"), organ of Polish-Jewish assimilationists,
            II 213


  =Kaffa= (now Theodosia), Crimea, maintains commercial relations
            with Kiev, I 33
    becomes Genoese colony and international emporium, I 33 f
    Jews flock to, I 34
    taken by Turks (1475), I 34
    Khoza-Kokos, Jewish native of, exercises great influence, I
            35
    Jews, expelled from Lithuania, emigrate to, I 65

  =Kahal= (Jewish community), under Polish régime, forms cultural,
            national, and civil entity, I 103
    signifies "community" and "communal administration," I 105
    autonomy of, recognized by Casimir the Great, I 52
    fully established by Sigismund II. (1551), I 106 f
    organization of, I 106 f
    elections to, I 192
    oligarchic character of, I 192 f
    functions of, I 107 f
    acts as fiscal agency, I 107, 181;
      and valued as such by Government, 189 f
    manages Jewish institutions, I 107
    executes civil acts, I 107, 190
    supervises elementary education, I 114 f
    has separate judiciary, I 83, 191
    elders of, attached to general courts, I 84
    K. chamber serves as a seat of judiciary, I 191 f
    relation of, to Polish authorities, I 191
    federation of K's., I 104, 108 f, 112, 193, 196 f
    Conferences (or _Waads_), of federated K's., I 108 ff
    relation of K's. to one another, I 193
    minor K's. called _Pri-Kahalki_, I 108, 193
    autonomy of, stimulates learning, I 121;
      exerts beneficient effect on Jewish life, I 189
    Polish Jews exhorted by rabbis to obey K's., I 188 f
    Blackmailed by Polish officials, I 169
    K. of Brest ordered by authorities to hold elections (1719),
            I 192
    K. of Lemberg receives constitution from voyevoda (1692), I
            191 f
    court of Vilna K. excommunicates Hasidim (1772), I 237
    K. of Vilna engages in litigation with rabbis, I 275 f
    financial indebtedness of K's., I 290
    degeneration of, I 274 ff
    Jews of Minsk complain against (1782), I 275
    Simeon Volfovich of Vilna urges abolition of (1788), I 276
    abolition or curtailment of, urged by Poles, I 280 ff
    weakening of, recommended by Kalmansohn (1796), I 385
    defended by Hirsch Yosefovich, rabbi of Khelm, I 283
    supervision over, recommended by Abraham Hirschovich, I 284
    abolition of, recommended by Committee of Polish Government
            (1815), II 89
    abolition of, favored by Polish-Jewish assimilationists, II
            101
    criticised by David Friedländer, II 90
    abolished in Poland (December 20, 1821-January 1, 1822), II
            102
    superseded by "Congregational Board," II 102 f
    See also Autonomy and Courts

  =Kahal= (Jewish Community), under Russian régime, attitude of
            Government towards, I 308 ff
    admission of Jews to city government conflicts with separate
            organization, I 308
    Jews of annexed White Russia in K's. (1772), I 308
    sanctioned by Senate (1776), I 309
    granted right to issue passports, I 309
    charged with collection of state taxes, I 309
    endowed with judicial powers, I 309
    Government changes attitude towards, I 310
    confined to religious and fiscal functions (1786), I 313
    deprived of civil and judicial powers (1795), I 319
    promise of Government to maintain judicial powers of, violated,
            I 320
    preservation of, due to fiscal considerations, I 320, 366
    establishment of, in Courland, due to same motives (1799),
            I 321
    curtailed status of, recognized in Statute of 1804, I 344
    admission to city government fails to weaken power of, I 368
            ff
    Government forced to extend functions of, I 367
    Government communicates with K's., I 336, 339
    K. of Minsk decides to send delegation to St. Petersburg (1802),
            I 336
    K's. invited by Government to elect deputies (1803), I 337;
      (1806), I 349
    ordered to assist Jews expelled from villages (1810), I 351
    represented at army headquarters (1812), I 358
    elected representatives of K's., called "Deputation of
            Jewish People," act as advisory council to Government
            (1818-1825), I 393 ff
    K. of Grodno entrusted with police duties (1812), I 357
    Alexander I. receives K. of Kalish, I 358
    Alexander I. assures K's. of his high favor (1814), I 359
    K. of Minsk inquires about attitude of Vilna Gaon towards Hasidism,
            I 373
    Gaon issues appeal to K's. against Hasidism (1796), I 373
    Hasidim kept within K. by Statute of 1804, I 379
    demoralized by hasidic schism, I 371, 379
    suppression of, advocated by nobility of Lithuania (1800),
            I 326;
      and Dyerzhavin (1800), I 332
    made responsible for supply of recruits (1827), II 19 f
    K's. directed to elect recruiting trustees, II 19
    trustees of, turned into police agents, II 22 f
    K. of Vilna complains to Council of State about oppression
            of Jews, II 38 f;
      pleads for abolition of cantonists, II 36 f
    functions of, regulated by Statute of 1835, II 41
    Council of State criticises power of (1840), II 47;
      and suggests dissolution of, II 49
    abolished by Nicholas I. (December 19, 1844), II 59 ff
    retained as fiscal and recruiting agency, I 60 ff
    demoralized condition of, II 112
    elders of, made personally responsible for quota of recruits
            (1850), 147 f
    misdeeds of, portrayed by Mapu, II 227;
      by Gordon, II 230;
      by Bogrov, II 241
    Brafman accuses Jews of secret continuation of, in Russia,
            II 188;
      and of organizing international "World K.," II 189
    minutes of K. of Minsk serve as incriminating material, II
            189
    Brafman's "Book of K." printed and distributed by Government,
            II 190; serves
    as material for "Jewish Committee," II 193;
      influences reports of governors, II 194
    Russian officials repeat Brafman's charges concerning K's.,
            II 194 f
    _Alliance Israélite_ of Paris accused of constituting World
            K., II 189, 194
    Society for Diffusion of Enlightenment accused of forming part
            of, II 216
    Jewish Conference in St. Petersburg solemnly denies charges
            concerning K. (1882), II 307 f
    Pahlen Commission questions Jewish experts in regard to (1888),
            II 369 f
    See also Municipality and Autonomy

  =Kaidanover, Aaron Samuel=, rabbi of Cracow, Hebrew author, I
            200

  =Kaidanover, Hirsch=, son of former, Hebrew author, I 202

  =Kakhanov=, governor-general of Vilna, rebukes Jewish deputation
            of welcome, II 383

  =Kalarash= (government of) pogrom at, III 128

  =Kalayev=, Russian revolutionary, assassinates Grand Duke Sergius,
            III 110

  =Kalinovski=, Polish commander, defeated by Cossacks, I 145

  =Kalish=, leading city of Great Poland, I 42
    Synod of, issues canonical laws against Jews, I 57, 62
    surrenders to Swedes, I 155
    city and province of, annexed by Prussia, I 292
    Jews settle in, I 41
    Jews of, petition Casimir IV for renewal of charter, I 61
    communities in province of, destroyed, I 156
    Alexander I. receives Kahal of, I 358
    Abel Gumbiner, head of yeshibah in, I 200
    Warta, in province of, place of Polish Diet, I 58

  =Kalkreuth=, Count, patron of Solomon Maimon, I 240

  =Kalman=, Jewish printer in Lublin, I 131

  =Kalmansohn, Jacques=, author of pamphlet advocating Jewish reforms
            in Poland, I 385

  =Kalmanovich=, Jewish lawyer, acts as council for Jewish victims
            of Kishinev pogrom, III 91;
      and of Homel pogrom, III 102

  =Kalmycks=, tribe of, I 367

  =Kamenetz-Podolsk= (Podolia), Dembrovski, bishop of, arranges
            disputation at, I 214 f
    Talmud burned at, I 215
    Vilna Gaon appeals against Hasidim to Kahal of, I 373
    pogrom at, III 128

  =Kaniev= (Ukraina), Starosta of, maltreats Jews, I 169

  =Kant, Immanuel=, praises Solomon Maimon, I 240

  =Kantakuzenka= (government of Kherson), pogrom at, III 33

  =Karabchevski=, Russian lawyer, acts as council for Jewish victims
            of Kishinev pogrom, III 91

  =Karaites=, in Byzantine empire, I 28
    in Crimea, I 28 f
    in Chufut-Kale (Crimea), I 35
    in Lithuania, I 60
    K. of Lithuania, receive autonomy from Casimir IV., I 61
    autonomy of K's. of Troki confirmed by Alexander Yaguello,
            I 64
    form separate municipality in Troki, I 73
    K's. of Tavrida granted equal rights, I 318 f; II 160
    excluded from bar but inofficially admitted, II 352 f
    Isaac Troki, Karaite, author of anti-Christian treatise, I
            137 f
    Simha Pinsker, historian of, II 160

  =Karaulov=, deputy to Third Duma, defends Jews, III 156

  =Karlin=, near Pinsk (government of Minsk), Hasidim establish
            themselves in, I 372
    Aaron of, hasidic leader, I 234
    Solomon of, hasidic leader, I 372

  "=Karliners=," nickname for Hasidim in Lithuania, I 372, 375

  =Karnyeyev=, governor of Minsk, inquires into condition of peasantry,
            I 322 f

  =Karpov=, member of "Jewish Committees," advocates Jewish emancipation,
            II 196 ff

  =Karpovich= (government of Chernigov), pogrom at, II 315

  =Kattowitz= (Prussia), conference of "Lovers of Zion," at, II
            376

  =Katzaps=, nickname for Great-Russians in Little Russia, II 248;
            III 115, 117

  =Katzenellenbogen, Saul=, rabbi of Vilna, objects to heterodoxy
            of Menashe Ilyer, II 115 f

  =Kauffmann=, governor-general of Vilna, appoints commission to
            investigate Brafman's charges, II 189

  =Kaulbars=, military governor of Odessa, fails to check pogrom,
            III 129

  =Kazan= (Central Russia), Jews of Vitebsk exiled to (1654), I
            154
    cantonists stationed in, II 25
    suicide of cantonists in, II 27
    mosques destroyed in government of, I 254

  =Kazimiezh= (_Polish_, Kazimierz), suburb of Cracow, established
            as Jewish ghetto, I 64
    Jews of, restricted in business, I 75

  =Kedars=, name for Polovtzis, conquerors of Crimea, I 29

  =Kempster=, United States commissioner, sent to Russia, II 407

  =Keneset Israel=, Hebrew periodical, II 372, III 58

  =Kerch=, pogrom at, III 120; see Bosporus

  =Kertz=, Crimean city, probably identical with Kerch, I 26

  =Khagan=, title of Khazar king, I 20 ff

  =Khappers=, Yiddish name for recruiting agents, II 23

  =Kharkov= (city), Jews permitted to visit fair of (1835), II
            40
    Jews expelled from, II 319
    merchants of, protest against exclusion of Jews, II 319
    _Bilu_, organization of Palestine pioneers, formed in, II 321

  =Kharkov= (government), Jews permitted to visit fairs of (1734)[62],
            I 251
    Gubernatorial Commission appointed for, I 273
    governor of, condemns Jews, II 276;
      advocates school-norm, II 339

  =Khazars=, various forms of name, I 18
    appear in Caucasus, I 19
    establish kingdom on Volga, I 19
    penetrate as far as Kiev, I 19
    establish another center in Crimea, I 19 f
    church attempts conversion of, I 20
    converted to Judaism, I 20 f
    invite teachers from Babylonia, I 21
    inner life of, I 22
    Jewish merchants travel through kingdom of, I 23
    Jews of Byzantium flee to, I 23 f
    Hasdai Ibn Shaprut corresponds with king of, I 24 ff
    K's. defeated by Russians, I 28
    withdraw to Crimea, I 28
    K's. in Crimea destroyed by Russians and Byzantines, I 28
    relatives of last king of, flee to Spain, I 28
    Jews from kingdom of, attempt conversion of Vladimir, I 30
    settle in principality of Kiev, I 31
    civilizing influence of, on Kiev, II 252

  =Khazars, Sea of=, name for Caspian Sea, I 23

  =Khazaria=, name for Crimea, I 28 ff

  =Khelm= (province of Lublin), bishop of, imprisons Jews on charge
            of host desecration, I 86
    rabbi of, author of Polish pamphlet defending Jews, I 283

  =Kherson= (city), visited by White, emissary of Baron Hirsch,
            II 418

  =Kherson= (government), seat of Zaporozhian Cossacks, I 143
    Jews settled as agriculturists in, I 363 f, II 71
    included in Pale (Statute of 1835), II 40
    pogroms in, II 251, 304, III 33, 100
    governor of, deplores effect of Jews on their domestics, I
            404
      Localities in:
        Alexandria, III 100
        Anayev, II 251
        Borki, II 378
        Kantakuzenka, III 33

  =Khlopitzki=, Polish dictator, declines offer of Jewish volunteers,
            II 105

  =Khlops=, nickname for Polish peasants, I 140, 182;
    see Serfs

  =Khmelnitzki= (_Polish_, Chmelnicki), =Bogdan=, I 144 ff
    elected Hetman by Cossacks, I 144
    forms alliance with Tartars of Crimea, I 144
    defeats Polish army, I 145
    heads rebellion of Ukrainians against Poles, I 145
    organizes massacre of Jews, I 145
    sends detachment of Cossacks against Niemirov, I 146
    derides Polish generals, I 149
    besieges Lemberg, I 150 f
    demands delivery of Jews, I 151
    receives ransom and withdraws, I 151
    defeated by Poles, I 152
    signs Treaty of Byelaya Tzerkov (1651), I 152
    enters into negotiations with Tzar Alexis, I 152 f
    extent of K. massacres, I 157
    recollection of K. massacres stirs later Ukrainians, I 182
            185
    reports of K. massacres arouses Sabbatai Zevi, I 205
    K. massacres described by Gogol, II 139;
      and Bogrov II 242
    See Cossacks

  =Kholonyevski=, member of Polish Diet, objects to extension of
            Jewish rights, I 288

  =Khomyakov=, Russian poet, condemns régime of Nicholas I., II
            141

  =Khovanski=, governor-general of White Russia, ordered to provide
            livelihood for Jews expelled from villages, I 406
    recommends discontinuation of expulsion, I 407
    recommends proceedings in ritual murder trial of Velish, II
            76 ff
    believes to have discovered monstrous crime, II 78
    asks governors of Pale for incriminating material, II 80
    censured by Nicholas I., II 80
    exposed as Jew-baiter by Council of State, I 81

  =Khoza Kokos=, Jew of Crimea, agent of Grand Duke Ivan III. of
            Moscow, I 35
    arranges alliance between grand duke and Khan of Crimea, I
            35
    writes to Ivan III. in Hebrew, I 35

  =Khwarism=, city in Asia, I 26

  =Kiev= (city), Khazars make raids on, I 19
    captured by Lithuanians (1320), I 94
    forms part of Polish empire, I 94, 140
    incorporated, together with Little Russia, in Russian empire
            (1654), I 94
    ceded to Russia by Poland (1667), I 159
    Metropolitan of Greek-Orthodox Church resides in, III 125
    Jews settle in, I 31
    Jews and Khazars in, II 252
    Khazar Jews appear in, to convert Prince Vladimir (986), I
            30 f
    Greek-Orthodox priests in, preach hatred against Jews, I 31
    pogroms at (12th century), I 32
    Jews of, protected by Prince Svyatopolk II., I 32
    fire at, damages Jews (1124), I 32
    "Jewish Gate" at, mentioned in Russian Chronicles, I 32
    visited by early Jewish travellers, I 32 f
    Jews, fleeing from Germany, settle in, I 33
    Moses, rabbi of, mentioned in early Hebrew sources, I 33
    "Skharia," Jew of, settles in Novgorod (15th century), I 36
    burghers of, obtain right of excluding Jews (1619), I 95
    Jews permitted to settle in (1794), I 317, II 31
    Nicholas I. orders expulsion of Jews from (1827), II 30 ff
    authorities of, secure postponement of expulsion, II 33
    Nicholas I. insists on expulsion from, II 36
    closed to Jews by Statute of 1835, II 40
    Jews permitted to visit K. temporarily, II 172
    privileged categories of Jews settle in (under Alexander II.),
            II 264
    Government agents prepare pogrom at (after accession of Alexander
            III.), II 248
    pogrom at (April, 1881), II 251 ff, 287;
      tried in court, II 264
    "illegal" Jews expelled from (May, 1881), II 263 f
    wholesale expulsions of Jews from (1882), II 319;
      (1886), II 346
    Jews of, subjected to raids, or _oblavas_, II 346; III 20
    wives of Jewish artisans in, forbidden to trade, II 385
    visited by White, emissary of Baron Hirsch, II 418
    persecution of Jews in (under Nicholas II.), III 19 f
    Jews made to pay for night raids, III 20
    Government frustrates project of trade bank in, III 25 f
    Russian Nationalist Society of, incites to pogroms, III 114
    pogrom at (October, 1905), III 128
    Jewish students excluded from Polytechnicum at (1907), III
            152
    1200 Jewish families expelled from (1910), III 157
    Stolypin assassinated at (1911), III 164
    impending pogrom at, stopped, III 165
    Beilis ritual murder case in, III 165 f
    Jewish printing-press in, II 43;
      transferred to Zhitomir, II 43
    Jewish printers of Slavuta imprisoned in, II 123
    Censorship Committee in, ordered to examine Jewish books, II
            44
    Professor Mandelstamm, resident of, II 298, 304, III 47
    Dashevski, avenger of Kishinev pogrom, student in, III 81
    _Jüdisches Volksblatt_ appears in, III 59

  =Kiev= (province, or government), subject to Poland, I 140
    estate in, owned by Polish nobles, I 140
    ceded to Russia (1667), I 159
    part of, annexed by Russia (1793), I 292
    Jews of, flee to Tatars (1648), I 145
    Jews forbidden to settle in (1649), I 151
    Jews in part of, exterminated, I 157
    few Jewish survivors in, I 246 Haidamacks massacre Jews in
            (1768), I 183 f
    included in Pale (1794), I 317;
      (1804), I 342;
      (1835), II 40
    Jewish deputies from, arrive in St. Petersburg (1803), I 337
    Jews of, invited to send delegates to city of Kiev (1807),
            I 349
    Hasidism spreads in, I 382; II 119 f
    Jews expelled from villages in (1830), II 32;
      expulsion postponed until 1835, II 33
    number of Jewish artisans in, II 168
    Poles and Jews forbidden to acquire estates in (1864), II 173
    economic activity of Jews in, II 194
    pogroms in (1881), II 256 f
    Court of Appeals of, tries Homel pogrom, III 101
      Localities in:
        Berdychev, II 256 f
        Chernobyl, I 382, II 119
        Ruzhin, II 120
        Shpola, III 33
        Smyela, II 256
        Uman, I 184 f, 383, II 122
    Bibikow, governor-general of, condemns Jews, II 47;
      arrests Israel of Ruzhin, II 120 f
    Vasilchikov, Count, favors transfer of Jewish artisans to Russian
            Interior, II 168
    Dondukov, Korsakov, points out economic danger of Jews, II
            193 f
    Drenteln, fierce anti-Semite, II 276, 316 f, 319, 341

  =Kiev=, principality of, claims overlordship over Russian lands,
            I 29
    influenced by Byzantium, I 29 ff
    passes under sovereignty of Tatars, I 33;
    see Kiev (city)

  =Kievlanin=, anti-Semitic paper in Kiev, III 20

  =Kings, Polish=, favor Jews because of financial advantages,
            I 69
    elected by Poles, I 89
    keep Jewish body-physicians, I 132
    counteracted by Diets, I 160
    lose their authority, I 168

  =Kirgiz=, tribe, placed in Russian law above Jews, II 367

  =Kiselev=, count, appointed chairman of Committee for Radical
            Transformation of Jews (1840), II 50, 157
    addressess circular to governors-general concerning projected
            Jewish reforms (1845)[63], II 65 f
    receives petitions in favor of Jews from Moses Montefiore,
            II 688
    advocates mitigation of Jewish restrictions (1856), II 157

  =Kishinev=, modern Jewish school in, II 52
    Jews of, accord friendly reception to Max Lilienthal, II 56
    "Congregation of New Testament Israelites" in, II 225
    "Smugglers," anti-Semitic play, produced in, III 38
    pogrom at (1903), III 69 ff;
      stirs Jewish national sentiment, III 82;
      avenged by Jewish youth, II 81, 132;
      stimulates emigration, III 85;
      intensifies animosity of Nicholas II., III 93;
      tried in court, III 90 ff
    authorities of, impeached before Senate, III 92
    Jews accused of seeking to avenge K. massacre, III 95, 101
    fear of new pogrom at, causes emigration, III 96 f
    Russian Nationalist Society of, incites to pogroms, III 114
    pogrom at (October, 1905), III 128
    Jewish community of, protests against denial of Jewish franchise,
            III 121

  =Kitovich=, Polish writer, accuses Jews of ritual murder, I 180

  =Klaus=, name for hasidic house of prayer, II 124

  =Klausner, Joseph=, Hebrew writer, editor of _ha-Shiloah_, III
            58, 163

  =Klopstock=, German poet, imitated in Hebrew, II 135

  =Kmita, Peter=, voyevoda of Cracow, accepts bribes from Jewish
            merchants, I 76

  =Kobrin= (province of Grodno), Bezalel of, Hebrew author, I 201

  =Kochubay=, Minister of Interior, appointed chairman of Committees
            for Amelioration of Jews (1802), I 335 f
    instructs governors to allay fears of Jews, I 336
    assisted by Speranski, I 340
    recommends postponement of expulsion of Jews from villages,
            I 347
    assists settlement of Jewish agriculturists in New Russia,
            I 363
    accepts dedication of pamphlet by Nyevakhovich, I 387
    recommends severe measures against "Judaizers," I 402

  =Koenigsburg= (Prussia), visited by Solomon Maimon, I 239
    visited by Menashe Ilyer, II 114
    Jewish socialists arrested in, III 223 f
    Hebrew periodicals published in, II 223

  =Kohan, Jacob=, Hebrew poet, III 162

  =Kohen, Sabbatai=, see Cohen

  =Kokovtzev=, Minister of Finance, favors Jewish franchise, III
            122

  =Kol Mebasser=, Yiddish periodical, II 218

  =Kollontay= (_Polish_, Kollontaj), radical member of Polish Diet,
            I 280
    suggests abolition of Jewish autonomy, I 282
    assists Jews in struggle for rights, I 291

  =Kolomea= (Galicia), capital of Pokutye province, I 150

  =Königsberg=, see Koenigsburg

  =Konotop= (government of Chernigov), pogrom at, intensified by
            Jewish self-defence, II 257

  =Koppelman, Jacob=, Hebrew author, I 133

  =Koretz= (Volhynia), Phineas of, disciple of Besht, I 227

  =Korff=, Baron, advocates admission of Jewish artisans into Russian
            Interior, II 170

  =Korobka=, or basket tax, name explained, II 61;
    see Tax

  =Korolenko=, Russian writer, signs protest against Jewish persecutions,
            II 387
    writes public letter in defence of Jews, II 388
    portrays Kishinev massacre, III 76 f

  =Korostyshev=, hasidic center, II 120

  =Korsun= (province), Poles defeated by Cossacks at (1648), I
            145

  =Kosciuszko=, spelling and pronunciation of name, I 292
    leads Polish uprising of 1794, I 292
    liberal and democratic, I 292 f
    permits formation of Jewish regiment, I 294
    announces it in special army order, I 294 f
    captured by Russians, I 296
    Zayonchek, general under, I 296, II 91

  =Kosovo= (Galicia), Besht settles in, I 223
    Nahman of, disciple of Besht, I 227

  =Kostantinia, Sea of=, name for Black Sea, I 26

  =Kostomarov=, Russian historian, defends ritual murder libel,
            II 205

  =Kotzebue=, governor-general of New Russia, fails to check Odessa
            pogrom (1871), II 192

  =Kotzk= (_Polish_, Kock), near Warsaw, Berek Yoselevich killed
            in vicinity of, I 303
    hasidic dynasty of, II 122

  =Kovalevski=, Minister of Public Instruction, advocates admission
            into Russian Interior of graduates of secondary schools, II 164

  =Kovno= (city), Jews of, barred from city government (1805),
            I 370
    growth of pauperism in, III 24
    "Bund" holds convention in (1899), III 57
    Jewish community of, signs petition for equal rights (1905),
            III 108
    Abraham Mapu, Hebrew writer, native of, II 226 ff
    Isaac Elhanan Spector, rabbi of, II 304

  =Kovno= (government), part of, called Zhmud, I 293, II 133
    formed originally part of government of Vilna, I 317
    constituted 1872, I 317
    forms part of Lithuania, II 39
    vitally affected by expulsion of Jews from border zone (1843),
            II 63
    placed under military dictatorship of Muravyov (1863), II 188
    Lutostanski, anti-Semitic writer, priest in, II 203
    Friedman from, deputy to Third Duma, III 153
    Localities in:
      Dusyaty, III 115
      Salant, II 133
      Vilkomir, II 236

  =Kozhenitz= (Poland), Israel of, hasidic leader in Poland, I
            384, II 122

  =Kozhmyan=, member of Polish Council of State, objects to emancipation
            of Jews, II 93

  =Kozlovska=, witness in ritual murder case of Velizh, II 82

  =Kozodavlev=, Russian assistant-minister of Interior, member
            of "Jewish Committee," I 352

  =Kozubales=, tax to Catholic academies in Poland, I 161, 166

  =Kramshtyk=, president of Warsaw community, arrested for participating
            in Polish Insurrection, II 181

  =Krasinski, Vincent=, Polish general, author of pamphlet on Jews
            of Poland, II 96 f

  =Kraushar=, quoted, I 136

  =Krechatinikov=, Russian general, captures Haidamack leaders,
            I 186

  =Kremenchug= (government of Poltava), pogrom at (October, 1905),
            III 128

  =Kremenetz= (Volhynia), Jewish community of, represented on Council
            of Four Lands, I 110
    massacre at (1648), I 149
    Mordecai Jaffe, rabbi of, I 127
    native place of Isaac Baer Levinsohn, II 125 ff[64]

  =Kremsier= (Moravia), meeting-place of Austrian Parliament, II
            179

  =Kreslavka= (government of Vitebsk), Frank, Jewish physician,
            resident of, I 331, 386

  =Krestentzya=, form of lease, forbidden to Jews, I 404 f

  =Kretingen= (province of Zhmud), Berek Yoselovich born at, I
            293

  =Krochmal, Nahman=, Galician thinker, associates with Isaac Baer
            Levinsohn, II 126
    work of, compared with that of Levinsohn, II 127

  =Kronenberg=, convert, protests against Polish anti-Semitism,
            II 178

  =Kronenstadt=, fortress near St. Petersburg, place of imprisonment,
            II 42

  =Krueger=, Russian official, accuses Jews of Saratov of ritual
            murder, II 151

  =Krushevan=, journalist and petty official in Kishinev, III 69
    editor of _Bessarabetz_, III 69 ff
    carries on violent agitation against Jews, III 69 ff
    invited by Plehve to publish =Znamya=, anti-Semitic paper,
            in St. Petersburg, III 70
    accuses Jews of ritual murder, III 71
    incites to pogroms, III 71
    wounded by Dashevski, III 81 f

  =Krushnitza=, ancient Polish capital, Jew elected king at, I
            40

  =Krysa, Leib=, represents Frankists at religious disputation,
            I 217
    baptized, I 217

  =Kuantung= (=Shantung=) Peninsula, Jews expelled by Russians
            from, III 94

  =Kukhazhevski= (=Polish=, Kucharzewski), Polish anti-Semitic
            candidate to Russian Duma, defeated by Warsaw Jews, III 167

  =Kulak=, Russian name for village boss, II 318, 325

  =Kupernik=, Jewish lawyer, acts as council for victims of Homel
            pogrom, III 102

  =Kursk= (government), number of artisans in, II 168

  =Kut=, Crimean city, I 26

  =Kutais= (city in Caucasia), ritual murder case at, II 204

  =Kutaysov=, Count, declares pogroms result of Jewish "exploitation,"
            II 271

  =Kutover=, Gershon, rabbi of Brody, brother-in-law of Besht,
            I 223
    receives message from Besht in Palestine, I 228

  =Kuty= (Galicia), Besht settles in neighborhood of, I 228

  =Kuyavia=, former Polish province, I 75; II 90


  =Ladi= (government of Moghilev), residence of Shneor Zalman,
            founder of _Habad_, and his successors, I 234; II 117

  =Lakh=, Ukrainian nickname for Pole, I 142, 184

  =Lambat=, Crimean city, I 26

  =Lamsdorff=, Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, has interview
            with Herzl, III 84

  =Landed Property=, see Villages

  =Landau, Adolph=, Russian-Jewish publicist, II 221

  =Language=, use of Polish L., abandonment of Yiddish, and restriction
            of Hebrew advocated by Poles (1788-1791), I 273, 281
    use of Polish in business [and elimination of Hebrew and Yiddish]
            advocated by Friesel, governor of Vilna (1800), I 327
    use of Russian, Polish, or German in legal documents and in
            business suggested by Dyerzhavin (1800), I 333
    Russian, Polish, or German made obligatory for Jewish schools
            and for public documents and business [Statute of 1804], I 345
    reading and writing knowledge of Russian, Polish, or
            German required for Jewish members of municipalities
            [Statute of 1804], I 345
    Jewish deputies plead for use of Hebrew in business, I 349
            f
    followers of David Friedländer call upon Polish Jews to abandon
            Yiddish and adopt L. of country, I 386
    Statute of 1835 requires use of Russian, or other local
            dialect, for public and business documents, and forbids
            Hebrew categorically, II 40
    Kahal elders required to read and write Russian [1835], II
            41
    Isaac Baer Levinsohn calls on Jews to study L. of country,
            II 126
    Jews of Poland forbidden use of Hebrew and Yiddish
            in civil affairs, legal documents, and business
            correspondence [Act of 1862], II 182
    Jews of Poland retain use of their L., II 195
    freedom of L. demanded by League for Equal Rights [1905], III
            112
    fight between Hebrew and Yiddish (1908), III 161
    See Hebrew, Polish, Russian, and Yiddish

  =Lanskoy=, Minister of Interior, favors admission into Russian
            Interior of Jewish graduates of secondary schools, II 164
    corresponds with officials concerning admission of Jewish artisans
            into Russian Interior, II 168

  =Lantzkorona= (_Polish_, Lanckorona, Podolia), assembly of Frankists
            at fair of, I 213, 215

  =Lapin, Shalom=, of Grodno, suspected of ritual murder, II 73

  =Lapkovski, Benish=, from government of Vitebsk, elected Jewish
            deputy, I 393

  =Laski, John=, Polish chancellor, edits Polish code of laws,
            I 71

  =Laschenko= organizes pogrom at Ananyev, government of Kherson,
            II 251

  =Lavrov=, Russian revolutionary in London, II 223

  =Layze= (=Lazarus=), son of Jewish arendar, I 266

  =Lazhentzka, Dorothy=, of Sokhachev, sentenced on charge of having
            sold host to Jews, I 86

  =League for the Attainment of Equal Rights for the Jewish People
            in Russia=, the, organized in Vilna (1905), III 111
    program of, III 111 f
    establishes Central Bureau in St. Petersburg, III 112
    conventions of, III 131, 133 f
    protests against pogroms, III 132
    sends greetings to Dashevski, avenger of Kishinev pogrom, III
            132
    decides to call All-Russian Jewish National Assembly, III 133
    Jewish Duma deputies accept program of, III 134
    presided over by Vinaver, III 134
    represents doctrine of National-Cultural Autonomism, III 144
    stands above class and party affiliations, III 145 f
    disintegration of, III 146 f

  =League of Jewish Socialists=, in London, II 223

  =League of Jewish Workingmen=, see "Bund"

  =League of Russian People=, organization of Black Hundred, III
            141
    favors re-establishment of unlimited autocracy, III 149
    secures pardon for pogrom makers, III 150
    forms "Second Government," III 141, 151
    badge of, demonstratively worn by Nicholas II., III 151
    See Black Hundred

  "=Learned Jew=" (_Uchony yevrey_), Russian title for Jewish Government
            expert, II 239

  =Lebensohn, Abraham Baer= (called "Adam"), Hebrew poet, II 134
            f
    prominent in Maskilim circle of Vilna, II 136

  =Lebensohn, Micah Joseph=, son of former, Hebrew poet, II 226

  =Legal Profession=, see Bar

  =Leipsic=, Russian-Jewish merchants visit fair of, I 359 f
    place of publication, II 135

  =Lekkert, Hirsch=, shoots at governor of Vilna, III 67

  =Lelevel= (_Polish_, Lelewel), Polish historian, issues manifesto
            to Jews, II 107 f
    calls upon Poles to be friendly to Jews, II 178
    eulogized by Jews at memorial service, II 180

  =Lemberg= (Lvov, _Polish_, Lwow), leading city of Red Russia,
            I 74, 196
    anti-Jewish riots in (1463), I 63 f
    Jews of, restricted in commerce, I 74
    besieged by Khmelnitzki(1648), I 150 f
    authorities of, refuse to deliver Jews, I 151
    Jesuit college students in, attack Jews, I 161
    Jews of, organize self-defence, I 161; but are massacred (1664),
            I 162
    Pikolski, monk in, conducts agitation against Jews, I 174
    Jews of, receive communal autonomy (1356), I 53;
      granted communal constitution(1692), I 191
    rights of Kahal elders upheld by voyevoda of, I 190
    Jewish community of, represented on Council of Four Lands,
            I 110
    rabbis assembled at, excommunicate adherents of Sabbatai Zevi,
            I 211
    disputation between Frankists and Orthodox at, I 216 f, 229
    conversion of Frankists at, I 217
    Isaiah Horowitz (_Sheloh_) educated in, I 135
      Rabbis of:
        Joshua Falk Cohen, head of yeshibah, I 128
        David Halevi (Taz), I 130, 206
        Meir of Lublin, I 129
        Hayyim Rapoport, I 216
        Solomon, I 115

  =Le Nord=, newspaper in Brussels, organ of Russian Government,
            II 393

  =Lenchitza= (_Polish_, Leckyca, province of Kalish), Jews of,
            executed on ritual murder charge, I 100
    Solomon Ephraim of, criticises yeshibahs, I 119 f

  =Leon=, Jewish physician, executed by Ivan III., I 37

  =Leshek=, Polish prince, receives Jewish delegation from Germany,
            I 40

  =Leshek The White=, Polish ruler, favorable to Jews, I 42

  =Lesnaya= (White Russia), battle at, I 248

  =Lessing=, referred to by Nyevakhovich, Russian-Jewish writer,
            I 387

  =Levanda, Leon= (=Lev=), Russian-Jewish writer, native of Lithuania,
            II 238
    teacher in Jewish Crown school, II 239
    "Learned Jew" in Vilna, II 239 f
    novels by, II 239 f
    joins Palestine movement, II 240, 332
    corresponds with Bogrov, II 241

  =Levendahl=, Russian official, inspires Kishinev massacre, III
            71, 77

  =Levi Itzhok=, of Berdychev, hasidic leader, I 232 f
    saintliness of, I 233, 382
    Hebrew author, I 382

  =Levin, Shmaryahu=, member of Central Committee of League for
            Equal Rights, III 112
    deputy to First Duma, III 134
    denounces Bialystok pogrom, III 137, 139
    demands equal rights for Jews, III 137

  =Levinsohn, Isaac Baer=, called "the Russian Mendelssohn," II
            125 ff
    born in Volhynia, II 125
    associates with Maskilim of Galicia, II 125 f
    author of _Te'udah be-Israel_, II 126;
       conclusions of, II 126
    author of anonymous anti-hasidic satire, II 127
    author of _Bet Yehudah_, II 127 f
    suggests plan of Jewish reforms, II 128;
      and modifications in Jewish religious life, II 129
    keeps in contact with Russian dignitaries, II 129 f
    receives subsidies from Russian Government, II 129, 132
    advocates prohibition of "harmful" books, II 129 f
    _naiveté_ of, II 130
    publishes refutation of blood accusation, II 131
    author of apologetic treatise _Zerubbabel_, defending the Talmud,
            II 131
    compared with scholars in other lands, II 131
    dies unappreciated, II 132

  =Levita, Benedict=, of Cracow, granted monopoly of importing
            Hebrew books, I 131

  =Levy, Lipman=, financial agent at Russian Court, I 248

  =Lewin, L.=, quoted, I 111

  =Lewin, Mendel=, of Satanov (Podolia), Hebrew writer, I 388

  =Liberum Veto=, Polish parliamentary law, source of anarchy,
            I 92, 168

  =Lieberman, A.= (=Freeman=), Jewish socialist, II 223 f

  =Lieders=, Russian viceroy in Poland, arrests Jewish leaders,
            II 181

  =Lieven=, Russian Minister of Public Instruction, receives memorandum
            from Isaac Baer Levinsohn, II 129

  =Lifschitz, Gedaliah=, of Lublin, Hebrew author, I 133

  =Lilienblum, Moses Leib=, advocates religious reforms, II 236
    joins Russified _intelligenzia_, II 237
    writes "Sins of Youth," II 237
    joins "Love of Zion" and later Zionist movement, II 237, 328
            f, 376, III 42, 49

  =Lilienthal, Max=, native of Bavaria, II 52
    director of modern Jewish school in Riga, II 52
    commissioned by Russian Government to carry out school reforms,
            II 53
    visits Vilna, II 54; meets with approval of local Maskilim,
            II 136 f
    meets with opposition in Minsk, II 55
    presents report to Uvarov, Minister of Public Instruction,
            II 55
    tours Russian South and South-west, II 56
    assured by Jewish communities of co-operation, II 56
    campaign of, hailed by Jewish leaders of western Europe, II
            67
    not supported by Isaac Baer Levinsohn, II 136
    emigrates to America, II 59
    quoted, II 55

  =Lippomano=, papal nuncio, instigates host trial of Sokhachev,
            I 86 f

  =Liquor=, use of, encouraged by Hasidim, II 124 f

  =Liquor Trade=, see Propination

  =Literature=, rabbinic L. in Poland, I 121 ff; see also Hebrew,
            Yiddish, and Russian

  =Lithuania=, Kiev incorporated in, I 94
    Volhynia annexed by, I 59
    "Union of Lublin," between Poland and L. (1569), I 88
    annexed by Russia (1795), I 297
    Jews emigrate from Crimea into, I 35
    important Jewish communities in, I 59
    Jews of, obtain charter from Vitovt (1388), I 59
    favorable economic condition of Jews in, I 60, 72 f
    Jewish tax farmers in, I 72, 94
    Karaites in, I 60
    Jews expelled from (1493), and allowed to return (1503), I
            65, 70 f
    Jews of, suspected of sheltering proselytes, I 80;
      and of planning to leave country, I 81
    cleared of suspicion by royal charter (1540), I 81

  "=Lithuanian Statute=" (1566) imposes restrictions on Jews, I
            87
    blood accusations in, I 87 f, 96, 162 ff
    "Union of Lublin" affects unfavorably Jews of, I 88
    Ukrainian rebels penetrate into, I 149
    invaded by Russians (1654 ff), I 153 ff, 156, 264
    Jews, persecuted by Cossacks, flee to, I 157
    Jewish cultural center moves to, I 159 f
    Jewish conditions in, described by Solomon Maimon, I 239 f
    Jews of, barred from Russia, I 243 f;
      yet penetrate into Moscow, I 245
    numbers of Jews in, I 263 f
    included in Pale (1795), I 317;
      (1804), I 342;
      (1835), II 39
    Polish nobility of, advocate Jewish reforms (1800), I 325 f
    Jews establish woolen mills in, I 363
    Jewish agricultural colonies in, II 72
    Jews admitted to municipal government in, I 369;
      but speedily disfranchised, I 370
    Jews of, loyal to Russia in Polish insurrections of 1861 and
            1863, II 107, 182 f
    Russian authorities of, believe Brafman's charges against Jews,
            II 189
    pogroms checked in, II 267, 276
    Jewish labor movement in, III 55
    Jews of, called Litvaks, object of Polish anti-Semitism, III
            166 f
    Jewish communities of, represented on Council of Four Lands,
            I 110;
      but later form separate Council (1623), I 112, 193 f, 195
    Michael Yosefovich appointed "senior" of Jews of, I 72
    Kahals of, granted right of _herem_ (1672), I 190
    different intellectual development in, I 221
    strong position of Rabbinism and Talmudism in, I 199 f, 221,
            II 113
    Elijah of Vilna, champion of Rabbinism in, see Elijah of Vilna
    yeshibahs of, adopt method of Elijah of Vilna, I 381 f
    Messianism preached among Jews of, I 208
    Hasidim penetrates into, I 230 ff, 237
    type of Hasidism in, I 232 f
    rabbis of, oppose Hasidism, II 233, 237 f
    Kahals of, appealed to against Hasidism, I 373
    Hasidism weak in, I 274, 372
    Hasidim of, denounced to Russian authorities, I 376
    spirit of denunciation (_mesirah_) among Jews of, I 377 f
    disintegration of Kahals in, I 275 f
    Jews of, plead for preservation of Kahal courts, I 320
    greater political sense among Jews of, I 379
    rabbis of, arbitrate between Kahal and rabbi of Vilna, I 276
    rabbis of, appeal to I. B. Levinsohn to refute blood accusation,
            II 131
    opposition to secular learning among Jews of, II 114 f
    Haskalah movement in, see Haskalah and Vilna
    Hebrew writers originate from, II 238

  =Little Poland=, see Poland, Little

  =Little Russia=, see Russia, Little

  =Livadia=, summer residence of Alexander III., II 429, III 18

  =Livonia=, inhabitants of, demand admission of Jews, I 256
    Empress Elizabeth refuses to admit Jews into, I 257
    Jews expelled from (1744), I 257
    Jewish newcomers expelled from (1829), II 32;
    see Baltic Provinces

  =Lizno= (Galicia), Elimelech of, hasidic leader, I 232

  =Lobanov-Rostoveki=, chairman of Committee for Amelioration of
            Jews (1871), II 191

  =Lobzovo=, near Cracow, residence of Estherka, favorite of Casimir
            the Great, I 53

  =Lodz=, Jewish labor movement in, III 55
    pogrom at, III 119 f
    economic success of Jews in, stimulate Polish boycott, II 166

  =Loewenthal=, professor, sent by Baron Hirsch to Argentina, II
            416

  =Lokhvitz= (province), massacre at (1618), I 145

  =London=, Moses Montefiore of, goes to Russia, II 68
    M'Caul, missionary in, II 131
    Jewish Socialist Society in, II 223
    Mansion House Meeting held in (February 1, 1882), II 288 ff
    Lord Mayor of, presides at meeting, II 288;
      and joins pogrom committee, II 291
    bishop of, joins pogrom committee, II 291
    secret circular of Plehve circulated in, II 381
    new protest meeting planned in, II 382
    Guildhall Meeting held in (December 10, 1890), II 388 ff
    effect of protest meeting in, felt in St. Petersburg, II 397
            f
    Moscow refugees in, II 408
    Jewish Colonization Association in, II 414, 419
    Fourth Zionist Congress held in, III 45
    _L. Times_ publishes account of pogroms and persecutions, II
            287;
    attacks Russia, II 381, 389 f;
    publishes secret letter of Plehve, III 77

  =Longinus=, see _Dlugosh_

  =Lopukhin=, Russian prosecutor general, receives denunciation
            against Hasidim, I 375 f

  =Loris-Melikov=, Russian statesman, favors popular representation,
            II 245
    discusses Jewish question with American Minister, II 293

  =Louis of Hungary=, Polish king (1370-1382), persecutes Jews,
            I 54

  =Louisiana=, Jewish agricultural colonies, in, II 374

  "=Love of Zion=," see Zionism

  =Lovich=, Synod of (1720), forbids building or repairing of synagogues,
            I 171

  =Lozno= (government of Moghilev), residence of Shneor Zalman,
            founder of _Habad_, I 234, 330, 372, 376, 378, II 117

  =Lubavichi= (government of Moghilev), residence of Shneor Zalman's
            successors, II 117

  =Lubbock, Sir John=, protests against pogroms, II 288

  =Lubenski=, Polish Minister of Justice, objects to emancipation
            of Jews, I 300 f
    suggests law barring Jews from liquor trade, I 304

  =Lublin=, leading city of Little Poland and capital of Poland,
            I 42, 110
    "Union of" (1569), I 88

  =Lublin= (province), annexed by Austria (1795), I 297
    ritual murder cases in, I 96, 100
    Crown Tribunal in, tries ritual murder cases, I 96, 100, 172
    conference of rabbis and Kahal elders meet at, I 109 f, 123
    Council of Four Lands meets periodically at, I 110, 152, 194
    community of, receives royal permission to open yeshibah (1567),
            I 115
    printing-press in, I 131, 196
    disputations between Jews and Christians at, I 136
    Gedaliah Lifschitz, Hebrew author, of, I 133
    Jacob Itzhok, hasidic leader, of, I 384
    Martin Chekhovich, Christian theologian, of, I 136
      Rabbis of:
        Shalom Shakhna, father of Polish Talmudism, I 105, 122
            f
        Israel, son of former, I 123
        Joshua Falk Cohen, I 112, 128
        Solomon Luria (_Maharshal_), I 125
        Mordecai Jaffe, I 127
        Meir of (=Maharam=), I 128 f, 199
        Samuel Edels (=Maharsho=), I 129
    Towns in:
      Shchebreshin, I 158
      Voistovitza, I 178
      Zamoshch, I 203

  =Lubliner=, Polish-Jewish writer and patriot, II 109

  =Lubny= (province of Poltava), Cossack massacres at (1637), I
            144; (1648), I 145

  =Lubomirski=, Polish Crown Marshal, imposes tax on Jews sojourning
            in Warsaw, I 268 f

  =Lueger=, anti-Semitic burgomaster of Vienna, III 32

  =Luga= (government of St. Petersburg), Alexander I. causes expulsion
            of Jews from, I 409

  =Lukasinski, Valerian=, Polish army officer, defends Jews, II
            97 f

  =Lukov= (province of Shedletz), I 287

  =Luria, Isaac= (Ari), name explained, I 134
    influence of Cabala system of, on Poland, I 134, 202
    study of writings of, forbidden before age of forty, I 214
    writings of, studied by Besht, I 223
    prayer-book of, accepted by Hasidim, I 231

  =Luria, Solomon= (Reshal or Maharshal) native of Posen, I 124
    rabbi in Ostrog and Lublin, I 125
    follows casuistic method of Tosafists, I 125
    criticises _Shulhan Arukh_, I 125
    gravitates towards mysticism, I 126
    criticises study of Aristotle in yeshibahs, I 120
    leaves profound impress on posterity, I 199

  =Lutherans=, Isaac Troki argues with, I 137; see Reformation

  =Lutostanski, Hippolyte=, accuses Jews of ritual murder, II 203
            f
    receives acknowledgment from Alexander III., 203, 244

  =Lutzk= (Volhynia), Crimean Jews settle in, I 35
    important Jewish community in, I 59
    Karaites in, I 60
    Jews of, expelled (1495), I 65

  =Lvov=, see Lemberg

  =Lvov=, Russian statesman, discloses connection between Government
            and pogroms, III 125 f

  =Lyck= (Prussia), _ha-Maggid_, published in, II 217

  =Lysyanka= (province of Kiev), massacre at, I 184


  =Maeotis=, see Azov, Sea of

  "=Magdeburg Law=," name explained, I 44
    granted to Germans in Poland, I 44
    bestowed on city of Lemberg, I 53
    granted to Karaites of Lithuania, I 61;
      and confirmed, I 64
    taken advantage of by Polish estates to oppress Jews, I 74
    Jews exempted from jurisdiction of, I 94
    Jewish Kahal forms counterpart to, I 103; see also Autonomy

  =Magister=, Russian university degree, explained, II 165

  =Magistracies=, see Municipalities

  =Maimon, Solomon=, born in Lithuania, I 239
    receives talmudic education, I 239
    studies in Germany, I 239 f
    student of Kantian philosophy, I 240
    writes "Autobiography," I 240
    quoted, I 221

  =Maimonides=, philosophic writings of, studied by Moses Isserles,
            I 126; and Mordecai Jaffe, I 132
    studied and interpreted by Solomon Maimon, I 240
    influences Shneor Zalmon, I 382
    does not appeal to Nahman of Bratzlav, I 383
    invoked by Maskilim in support of secular learning, II 126
    quoted, II 119

  =Makarov= (government of Kiev), hasidic center, II 120

  =Makov=, chairman of Commission for Revision of Laws concerning
            Jews, II 336

  =Malakh, Hayyim=, Sabbatian propagandist, I 208
    joins Judah Hasid, I 209
    heads party of pilgrims to Palestine, I 209
    holds Sabbatian services in Jerusalem, I 210

  =Melchevski=, Polish bishop, invites David Friedländer to render
            opinion on Polish-Jewish question, II 90

  =Maliss, Eda=, victim of pogrom, II 302

  =Manasseh, I., and II.=, kings of Khazars, I 26

  =Manassein=, Minister of Justice, excludes Jews from Russian
            bar, II 352

  =Mandelstamm=, successor to Max Lilienthal, II 118

  =Mandelstamm=, professor, of Kiev, insists on necessity of organizing
            emigration, II 298
    attends conference of Jewish notables in St. Petersburg, II
            304
    denounces Ignatyev's offer to settle Jews in Central Asia,
            II 306
    supports Zionist leaders in Western Europe, III 47

  =Manifesto=, name explained, II 246
    coronation M. of Alexander II. abolishes Jewish conscription,
            II 155 f
    M. of Alexander III. promising to uphold autocracy, II 246
    coronation M. of Alexander III. disregards Jews, II 338
    M. of Nicholas II., on birth of heir-apparent Alexis, offers
            trifling alleviations to Jews, III 98
    M. of October 17, promising Constitution, III 127; followed
            by pogroms, III 127 ff
    Vyborg M., see Vyborg

  =Mankup= (=Mangup=), Crimean city, I 26

  =Manning=, cardinal, protests at Mansion House Meeting against
            pogroms, II 289 f
    joins pogrom committee, II 291
    expresses sympathy with Guildhall Meeting, II 390

  =Mansion House Meeting=, see London

  _Mapu, Abraham_, Hebrew writer, II 226 ff

  =Margolis, M.=, Jewish expert, invited by Pahlen Commission,
            II 369

  =Marini=, general of Dominican Order, deprecates persecution
            of Polish Jews, I 165

  =Mark= (=Mordecai=), victim of blood accusation, I 100

  =Markovich, Moses=, "general syndic" of Polish Jews, I 160

  =Marriage=, among Jews, restrictions placed upon, by Polish Diet
            (1775), I 267; disregarded, I 268
    limitation of number of M's proposed by Poles, I 282
    age of, restricted by Russian law (1835), II 40
    early M's in vogue, II 112

  =Marseilles=, Altaras of, visits Russia, II 69

  =Masalski=, bishop of Vilna, employs Berek Yoselovich, I 294

  =Maskilim=, see Haskalah

  =Massacres=, see Pogroms

  =Masudi=, Arabic writer, quoted, I 23 f

  =May Laws=, see Temporary Rules

  =Maximova=, witness in ritual murder case, II 82

  =Mazovia=, Polish principality and province, I 42, 85
    annexed by Prussia (1795), I 297

  =M'Caul=, London missionary, attacks Talmud, II 131

  =Me'assef=, Hebrew periodical, I 386; II 137

  =Meat Tax=, see Tax

  =Meath, Earl of=, addresses Guildhall Meeting, II 391

  =Mechanics=, see Artisans

  =Mechislav=, prince of Great Poland, forbids violence against
            Jews, I 42

  =Mechislav= (=Meshko=), Polish king, mentioned on coins, I 42

  =Medicine=, see Physicians

  =Medzhibozh= (Podolia), Besht settles in, I 225
    visited by his disciples, I 228
    residence of Borukh Tulchinski, I 384;
    and his disciples, II 121

  =Meir= of Lublin (_Maharam_), rabbi and scholar, I 128 f
    leaves profound impress on posterity, I 199

  =Meir=, of Shchebreshin, describes Cossack persecutions, I 158

  =Meir=, of Tarnopol, Hebrew author, I 201

  =Meisels, Berush=, rabbi in Cracow, and member of Austrian parliament,
            II 179
    rabbi in Warsaw, and active in Polish Insurrection (1863),
            II 179 ff

  =Melammed=, see Heder

  =Melitopol= (government of Tavrida), pogrom at, III 115

  =Melitzah=, conventionalized Hebrew style, II 225, 228

  =Menahem=, king of Khazars, I 26

  =Mendel=, chief rabbi of Great Poland, I 104

  =Mendel Kotzker=, hasidic leader, II 122

  =Mendel=, of Lubavichi, see Shneorsohn

  =Mendel=, of Vitebsk, hasidic leader, I 234

  =Mendele Mokher Sforim=, see Abramovich

  =Mendelssohn, Moses=, "Father of Enlightenment," I 238, II 125
    "Enlightenment" of, contrasted with Russian Haskalah, II 137
    followers of, among Polish and Russian Jews, I 239, 331, 384,
            385, 387
    Isaac Baer Levinsohn, called "the Russian M.," II 125
    Bible translation of, rendered into Russian, II 118
    David Friedländer, pupil of, approached by Polish Government,
            II 90
    attacked by Smolenskin, II 235
    Wessely, associate of, II 135

  =Mengli-Guiray=, Khan of Crimea,
    communicates with prince of Moscow through Jewish agents, I
            35 f

  =Menorah=, represented on tombstones in Tauris, I 16

  =Merchants=, the, form separate estate in Russia, I 308
    exempted from military service, II 20
    called to military service (1874), II 200
    few first-guild Jewish M's. in Pale, II 162
    Jewish M. permitted temporary visit to Interior (1835), II
            40
    admission of, into Interior voted down by Council of State,
            II 35 f;
    discussed by Committee for Amelioration of Jews, II 161 f
    Jewish first-guild M's. admitted into Interior (1859), II 62,
            343
    attempt to exclude Jewish M's. from Interior (under Alexander
            III.), II 399
    permitted to remain in Moscow, III 14;
    but restricted in rights, III 15
    See Commerce

  =Meshcherski=, Count, editor of anti-semitic weekly _Grazhdanin_,
            II 380, 413

  =Meshko=, see Mechislav

  =Mesirah= ("Informing") develops among Jews under Russian rule,
            I 377
    discharged rabbi of Pinsk engages in, I 377 f
    in Novaya Ushitza, II 84 f, 121
    in Mstislavl, II 85 ff

  =Messianism=, preached in Poland, I 204 ff
    superseded by Hasidism, I 222
    defended by Smolenskin, II 235
    "Love of Zion" viewed with suspicion by Orthodox as rival of,
            II 377
    Messianic character of Political Zionism, III 48

  =Methodius=, Slavonian missionary, engages in disputation with
            Jews, I 18

  =Metternich=, represents Austria at Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle,
            I 399

  =Mezherich= (or =Mezhirich=), Volhynia, hasidic center, I 229
            f
    Baer of M., called "Mazhiricher Maggid," I 227, 229 f, 384,
            II 120

  =Michinski=, =Sebastian=, Polish anti-Semitic writer, I 97

  =Mickiewicz=, see Mitzkevich

  =Mikhailishok= (government of Vilna), residence of Abraham Lebensohn,
            II 134

  =Mikolski=, Polish priest, favors Frankists, I 216

  =Mikweh Israel=, agricultural settlement in Palestine, II 322

  =Miletus= (Asia Minor), Jewish community in, I 14

  =Military Service= (or =Conscription=), Jews of Poland free from,
            I 304
    payment of ransom in lieu of, confirmed by Polish law (1812),
            I 304;
    (1817), II 95;
    (1831), II 107
    imposed on Jews of Poland (1843), II 109
    imposed on Jews of Austria, II 30
    merchants in Russia exempted from, by paying conscription tax,
            I 318; II 15
    merchants subjected to (1874), II 200
    imposition of, on Jews planned by Alexander I., II 15
    conceived by Nicholas I. as means of de-Judaization, II 15
    danger of imposition of, on Jews set forth by Novosiltzev,
            II 16
    Jews alarmed by rumors concerning imposition of, II 17
    imposed upon Jews by conscription ukase of August 26, 1827,
            II 18 ff, ukase reaffirmed in Statute of 1835, II 41
    juvenile M. S., see Cantonists
    certain classes of Jews exempted from, II 20
    weight of, falls principally on burghers, II 29
    horrors of, II 24 ff, 27 ff, 145 ff
    Jews of Old-Constantinov "protest" against, II 21 f
    early marriages due to fear of, II 28
    alleviations in, proposed by Council of State and rejected
            by Nicholas I., II 36
    ineffectiveness of, in reforming Jews pointed out by Council
            of State (1840), II 48
    term of, reduced for graduates of Crown schools (1844), II
            58
    Jewish agriculturists exempted from, II 71
    shunned by Russians in general, II 146
    evaded by Jews, II 146
    barbarous penalties decreed for evasion of (1850), II 147 f
    severities of, repealed by Alexander II. (1856), II 155 ff
    tax in lieu of, proposed for graduates of secular schools and
            rejected (1859), II 164
    newly regulated by Law of 1874, II 199 ff
    discriminations against Jews in new M. S. Statute of 1874,
            II 200 f, 355
    evasion of, punished by fining family of recruit (1886), II
            356
    fine for evasion of, stimulates emigration, II 373, 414
    Jewish emigrants relieved from, II 420
    See Army, Recruits, and Soldiers

  =Milton=, indirect effect of, on Hebrew literature, II 135

  =Minor=, rabbi of Moscow, refuses blackmail offer of Lutostanski,
            II 203
    dismissed from office and exiled by Russian Government, II
            423 f

  =Minsk= (city), Jews of, complain against abuses of Kahal, I
            275
    Kahal of, decides to send deputation to Tzar, I 336
    Jews of, communicate with Jews of Vilna concerning Hasidism,
            I 373
    Max Lilienthal opposed by Jews of, II 55
    visited by Alexander II., II 187
    minutes of Kahal of, used by Brafman as incriminating material,
            II 189
    growth of pauperism in, III 24
    Convention of Russian Zionists at, III 45, 51, 59
    pogrom at, III 119
    Jewish community of, protests against denial of Jewish franchise,
            III 121
    Jehiel Halperin, rabbi of, I 200
    Naphtali, resident of, Hebrew author, I 201
    Pollak, resident of, offers to establish agricultural farms,
            III 25

  =Minsk= (province, or government), annexed by Russia (1793),
            I 292
    included in Pale (1794), I 316 f;
      (1804), I 342;
      (1835), II 39
    famine in, I 322 f
    Polish nobles of, propose restrictions for Jews, I 322 ff
    Jewish deputies from, active in St. Petersburg, I 337
    Jews of, asked to elect delegates, I 349
    massacre of Jews and Russians threatened by Poles in, I 357
    Solomon of Karlin killed by troops in, I 372
    placed under military dictatorship of Muravyov, II 188
    Brafman, accuser of Jews, native of, II 187
    Localities in:
      Bobovnia, II 80
      Mir, II 113
      Nesvizh, I 239

  =Mint=, Polish, administered by Jews, I 42

  =Mir= (government of Minsk), yeshibah at, II 113

  =Mishnah=, term explained, II 114

  =Mithnagdim=, name of opponents of Hasidim, I 238, 372
    oppose Hasidim, I 274, 278, 372, 375

  =Mitropolit=, highest ecclesiastic title in Russia, III 125

  =Mitzkevich= (_Polish_, Myckiewicz), Adam, Polish poet friendly
            to Jews, II 108

  =Mizrahi=, Orthodox Zionists, III 47

  =Mladanovich=, Polish governor of Uman, betrays Jews, I 184
    killed by Haidamucks, I 185

  =Mocatta, Moses=, English translator of Isaac Troki's work, I
            130

  =Modebadze, Sarre=, Gruzinian girl, alleged victim of ritual
            murder, II 204

  =Moghilev, on the Dnieper= (city), I 98
    Jews of, transferred to outskirts of city (1633), I 98;
      and barred from Christian neighborhood (1646), I 98 f
    Jews of, expelled by invading Russians (1654), I 153;
      and massacred by Russian soldiers, I 154, 245
    echo of Sabbatian propaganda, in, I 205
    rabbinical conference at, protests against Hasidism, I 238
    Kahal of, appealed to by Vilna Gaon against Hasidism, I 373
    Shmerling, deputy from, dies at St. Petersburg Conference (1882),
            II 304
    pogrom at (1904), III 100 f;
      avenged by Jewish youth, III 107

  =Moghilev= (government), forms part of White Russia, I 187, 262,
            307
    communities of, form federation, I 196
    Polish Jewish prisoners of war from, form nucleus of Moscow
            community, I 245
    Jews of, visit Smolensk and Moscow, I 315
    made part of Pale (1794), I 317;
      (1835), II 40
    Jewish deputies from, arrive in St. Petersburg (1803), I 337
    Jews of, invited to send delegates (1807), I 349
    Jews from apply to be settled as agriculturists in New Russia,
            I 363
    Jews elected to municipal offices in, I 368
    Jews expelled from villages of (1823), I 406
    governor of, reprimanded for accusing Jews falsely, II 87
    governor of, decrees "polite manners" for Jews, II 383
    governor of, censures Jews of Homel, III 89
      Localities in:
        Dubrovna, I 252
        Homel, III 87 ff
        Ladi, I 239, II 117
        Lozno, I 234, II 117
        Lubavichi, II 117
        Monostyrchina, II 86
        Mstislavl, II 85 ff, 383

  =Moghilev, on the Dniester= (Podolia), I 98

  =Mohammedans=, king of Khazars invites representative of, I 21
    destroy Synagogue and are punished by Khazar king, I 22
    protected by Khazars against Russians, I 26
    persecuted in Russia, I 254
    excluded from Russian bar, II 252 f

  =Mohilever, Samuel=, rabbi of Bialystok, joins "Love of Zion"
            movement, II 376 f

  =Moldavo-Wallachia=, Jews export goods from Poland to, I 67 f

  =Moldavia=, Lithuanian Jews accused of sending proselytes to,
            I 81

  _Moment_, Yiddish daily in Warsaw, III 162

  =Monastyrchina= (government of Moghilev), Itzele of, pleads for
            Jews, II 86

  =Montagu, Sir Samuel=, of London, expelled from Moscow, II 345

  =Montefiore, Sir Moses=, corresponds with Max Lilienthal, II
            67
    visits Russia and pleads for Jews, II 68
    fund in honor of, established by "Lovers of Zion," II 376

  =Moravia, Jacob Frank= moves to, I 219
    Kremsier, city in, II 179

  =Moravski=, Polish Minister of War, objects to Jewish volunteers,
            II 105

  =Mordecai= (=Motele=), of Chernobyl, hasidic leader, II 119

  =Mordvinov=, member of Council of State, saves Jews of Velizh
            from ritual murder charge, II 81 f

  =Morenu=, title of ordained rabbi, I 117

  =Moscow, Principality= (=Tzardom=) =of= [=Muscovy=], growth of,
            I 29
    Jews of Tauris brought into contract with, I 33
    Crimean Jews render services to rulers of, I 35 f
    closed to Jews, I 60, 242
    Little Russia incorporated in (1654), I 94, 153;
      (1657), I 159
    Jews barred from (1610), I 244
    rulers of Muscovy invade Polish provinces, I 153 f, 244;
      and troops of, expel or massacre Jews, I 154, 243, 245 f
    See Moscow (city)

  =Moscow= (city), "Judaizing heresy" spreads in, I 36 f
    Jewish court-physician burned in, 37
    Jewish merchants from Poland and Lithuania penetrate into,
            I 242 f
    Ivan the Terrible refuses to admit Jews to (1550), I 243
    influx of Poles and Jews into, I 244
    Polish-Jewish prisoners of war permitted to stay in, I 245
    Jewish cloth merchants permitted to visit, I 245
    Jews barred from (1676), I 245
    Borukh Leibov pays visit to, I 251; and converts Voznitzin
            to Judaism, I 251 f
    Jewish merchants of White Russia pay visits to, I 315
    Russian merchants of, protest against admission of Jews, I
            315
    Jewish merchants excluded from (1790, 1791), I 316
    Jewish merchants permitted temporary sojourn in (1835), II
            40
    Jewish physicians, though admitted to Interior, excluded from,
            II 167
    burgomaster of, objects to admission of Jews to city government,
            II 199
    Jews expelled from (under Ignatyev), II 264, 319
    Russian merchants plead for admission of Jews to, II 319
    Sir Samuel Montagu, of London, expelled from, II 345
    admission of Jews to schools and university of, restricted
            to 3% (1887), II 350;
    restriction placed on statute books (1908), III 157 f
    Jews harassed in, II 385, 397
    Russian celebrities of, sign protest against Jewish persecution,
            II 387
    Dolgoruki, governor-general of, lenient towards Jews, II 401
    Grand Duke Sergius appointed governor-general of, II 400
    Alexeyov, burgomaster, of, agitates against Jews, II 400 f
    Istomin, agent of Pobyedonostzev, appointed to important post
            in, II 401
    ukase, expelling Jews from city and government of, decreed
            (March 28, 1891), II 402;
    wording of ukase affected by hope for foreign loan, II 408
    "illegal" Jews raided and imprisoned, II 403
    Alexander III. pays visit to, II 404
    discharged Jewish soldiers forbidden to remain in, II 404
    Jewish artisans and tradesmen expelled from, II 404 f
    horrors of expulsion from, II 405 f
    news of expulsion from, suppressed in Russian press, II 407;
    reported in foreign press, II 407
    expulsion from, witnessed by United States commissioners, II
            407;
      causes protest of President Harrison of United States, II
            408 f
    expulsion from, affects unfavorably Russian loan in Paris,
            II 408
    M. refugees deported from St. Petersburg, II 410
    expulsion of Jews from, continued, II 413;
      causes emigration to Western Europe and America, II 410,
            413, 420
    visited by White, representative of Baron Hirsch, II 418
    synagogue of, closed (1892), II 423
    Minor, rabbi of M., and Schneider expelled from, II 423 f
    conversion of synagogue of, into charitable institution ordered
            by Alexander III., II 424
    "Marranos" in, II 425
    request of Jews of, to open synagogue for Coronation services,
            refused, II 112
    complete fashioning of synagogue of, ordered (1897), III 13
            f
    Jewish merchants left in, persecuted and expelled, III 14 f
    new settlement of Jewish merchants in, prohibited (1899), III
            15
    International Congress of Medicine held in, III 15
    Jewish community of, signs petition for equal rights, III 109
    Grand Duke Sergius, governor-general of, assassinated, III
            110
    Russian laborers from, assist in Zhitomir pogrom, III 115
    armed uprising in (December, 1905), III 131
    Troitza monastery, in vicinity of, II 203
    Minor, rabbi of, II 203, 423 f
    Pobyedonostzev, professor at University of, III 245
    _Russ_, newspaper in, deprecates sympathy with pogrom victims,
            II 278
    headquarters of People's Freedom, revolutionary party, II 279
            f
    _Moscow News_ criticises _Imperial Messenger_ for connivance
            at pogroms, II 279
    Bogolyepov, professor in, anti-Jewish minister of Public Instruction,
            III 27 f
    _Mitroplolit_, head of Russian Church, resides in, III 125

  =Moser=, see Mesirah

  =Moses=, king of Khazars, I 26

  =Moses=, of Kiev, early Jewish scholar, corresponds with Gaon
            in Bagdad, I 133

  =Moses=, rabbi of Great Poland, confirmed in office by Polish
            king (1518), I 104

  =Moses Ben Abraham=, rabbi, author of Polish pamphlet defending
            Jews, II 98

  =Moskal=, nickname for Russians among Poles, III 36

  =Motele=, see Mordecai

  =Moyetzki=, Polish priest, anti-Jewish writer, I 96

  =Moyshe= (=Moses=), Jewish martyr in Zaslav, I 177

  =Mstislavl= (government of Moghilev), anti-Jewish riot at, stopped
            by Peter the Great, I 248
    Jews of, accused of mutiny (1844), II 85 ff
    Jews of, threatened with public whipping, II 383

  =Munich= (Bavaria), Max Lilienthal born in, II 52

  =Municipalities= (=Magistracies=), autonomy of Polish M. guaranteed
            by Magdeburg Law, I 44
    subject Jews to economic restrictions, I 70, 74 f
    of several cities combine against Jews, I 75
    form compacts with Kahals, I 84 f
    obtain right of excluding Jews, I 85
    arrogate jurisdiction over Jews, I 93 f
    Jews engaged in litigations with, I 171
    Jews placed under control of (1768), I 267
    Russian Government regulates relation of Jews to (1785 ff),
            I 308 ff
    Jewish merchants of White Russia admitted as members of (1783),
            I 310, 367 f
    Jews complain against oppression of, I 311 f
    hostility of Christian burghers bars Jews from, I 320, 369
            ff
    Jewish membership in, restricted to one-third, I 368;
      (1836), II 41;
      (1870), II 199, 425
    Jews of Lithuania declared eligible to (1802), I 369
    Jews of Lithuania barred from (1805), II 41
    participation of Jews in, discussed by special Government Committee,
            II 198 f
    Jews of Pereyaslav invited to resign from, II 266
    Jews take conspicuous part in, II 425
    Jews deprived of votes in (1892), II 425 f
    local authorities ordered to appoint Jewish members, II 426
    League for Equal Rights calls on Jewish appointees in, to resign
            (1905), III 112
    Jewish Government appointees resign, III 113
    combined deputation of Zemstvos and M. favors universal suffrage,
            III 122
    See Kahals and Zemstvos

  =Muravyov=, Minister of Justice, misrepresents facts of Homel
            pogrom, III 101

  =Muravyov, Michael=, governor-general of Vilna, subdues Poles,
            II 183
    appointed military dictator of six governments, II 188
    pursues policy of Russification, II 188, 239

  =Muravyov, Nikita=, leader of "Northern" revolutionaries, I 410
    limits political rights of Jews to Pale, I 413

  =Musar= (Ethical Literature), name explained, I 201
    flourishes in Poland, I 201 f

  =Muscovy=, see Moscow, principality of

  =Mysticism=, see Cabala


  =Nagartava=, agricultural Jewish colony, pogrom at, III 35

  =Nahman=, of Belzhytz, see Jacob of Belzhytz

  =Nahman=, of Bratzlav, hasidic leader, I 382
    makes pilgrimage to Palestine, I 383
    deprecates rationalism, I 383 21
    dies at Uman, I 383
    grave of, visited annually by devotees, II 122
    adherents of, persecuted by other Hasidim, II 122

  =Nahman=, of Horodno, disciple of Besht, I 227

  =Nahman=, of Kosovo, disciple of Besht, I 227

  =Nahum=, see Nohum

  =Names=, Jews of St. Petersburg ordered to use mutilated first
            N. (1890), II 397 f
    Jews prohibited from using Russian first N. (1893), II 427

  =Naphtali=, of Minsk, Hebrew author, I 201

  =Napoleon=, creates duchy of Warsaw, I 297 f
    "Code of N." introduced into duchy of Warsaw, I 298
    "suspensory decree" of (1808), duplicated in duchy of Warsaw,
            I 299
    announces to Jews of Europe convocation of "Great Synhedrion,"
            I 346
    marches towards Russia (1806), I 347
    influence of, over Jews feared by Russian Government, I 347
    presented by Russian authorities to Jews as enemy of Judaism,
            I 348
    denounced by Holy Synod as "savior" of Jews, I 348 f
    wins friendship of Alexander I., I 350 f
    invades Russia (1812), I 354
    meets with sympathy of Poles, I 355
    Russian Jews prejudiced against, I 356 f
    marches through Palestine, I 383

  =Narodnaya Vola= ("=The People's Freedom="), revolutionary party,
            II 279;
      see Revolution

  =Narodnichestov= ("=Populism="), II 222;
    see Revolution

  =Narol= (Volhynia), massacre at (1648), I 149

  =Naryshkin=, Russian dignitary, opposes Jewish suffrage, III
            122

  =Nathan=, successor of Nahman of Bratzlav, II 122

  =Nationalism, Jewish=, preached by Smolenskin, II 233 ff
    growth of, in Russia, II 372
    rise of, III 40 ff
    National-cultural Autonomism (spiritual nationalism), II 327,
            332, III 41, 51 ff, 144
    effect of, on Jewish Labor Movement, III 57
    national emancipation (and self-determination) demanded by
            League for Equal Rights, III 112, 133
    calling of Russian-Jewish National Assembly decided upon by
            League, III 133
    national-cultural Jewish institutions prohibited and suppressed,
            III 160 f
    strength of, III 163

  =Nationalist Society=, organization of Russian Black Hundred,
            III 114

  =Neidthart=, city-governor of Odessa, assists pogrom, III 129

  =Nekhludov=, member of Committee for Amelioration of Jews, favors
            emancipation of Jews, II 196 ff

  =Nemirov=, see Niemirov

  =Neo-Hebraic Literature=, see Hebrew

  =Nesselrode=, Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, forwards memorandum
            on Jews to Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, I 398
    discusses plan of settling Russian Jews in Algiers, II 69

  =Nestor=, Russian chronicler, refers to Jews, I 31

  =Nesvizh= (government of Minsk), Solomon Maimon born in vicinity
            of, I 239
    Simeon Volfovich, opponent of Vilna Kahal, imprisoned in, I
            276
    Eliezer Dillon, Jewish deputy, native of, I 358

  =Netter, Charles=, sent by _Alliance Israélite_ to help emigrants
            in Brody, II 269

  =Neu Freie Presse=, Vienna daily, Dr. Herzl acts as correspondent
            of, in Paris, III 42

  =Neuman=, rabbi in St. Petersburg, member of Executive Committee
            of Society for Diffusion of Enlightenment, II 214

  =Nevel=, Jews, driven from villages, huddled together in, I 407

  =New Israel=, Jewish sect in Odessa, II 334 f

  =New Jersey=, Jewish agricultural colonies in, II 374

  =New Russia=, see Russia, New

  =New York=, Max Lilienthal accepts post as rabbi in, II 59
    Joseph Jacobs settles in, II 287
    Cox, Congressman from, addresses Congress on persecutions in
            Russia, III 284 f
    protest meeting against pogroms held in, II 296 f
    Jewish emigrants settle in, II 374
    Shalom Aleichem dies in, III 62
    place of publication, II 290, 297

  =Nicholas I.=, emperor of Russia (1825-1855), II 13-153
    policy of, foreshadowed by Alexander I., I 390
    character of reign of, I 391, II 13, 140 f
    era of, depicted by Mendele Mokher Sforim, III 61
    coronation of, celebrated by Hebrew poet, II 135
    ascends throne through resignation of brother, II 13
    suppresses uprising of Decembrists, I 410, II 13
    characterizes Jews as "leeches," II 14
    plans to de-Judaize Jews through military conscription, II
            15 f
    signs Conscription Ukase (August 26, 1827), II 17
    decrees expulsions of Jews, II 30 ff
    rejects plea for postponement of expulsion, II 33
    rejects recommendations of Council of State in favor of Jews,
            II 35 ff
    signs "Statute concerning Jews" (1835), II 39
    sentences Jews with expired passports to penal service, II
            42
    subjects Hebrew books to censorship (1836), II 42 ff
    dissolves "Society of Israelitish Christians," I 400
    interested in conversion of Jews, II 44 f
    appoints Committee for Radical Transformation of Jews (1840),
            II 49
    places Jewish schools under Government supervision (1842),
            II 56
    orders opening of Government schools for Jews (1844), II 57
            f
    expels Jews from 51-verst zone (1843), II 62
    approached on behalf of Jews during stay in England, II 63
    German Jews plan gift to, II 67
    receives Moses Montefiore, II 68
    prohibits Jews from leaving Pale, II 70
    interested in spreading agriculture among Jews, II 71 f, 197,
            III 24
    closes synagogues in Velizh on ritual murder charge (1826),
            II 78
    believes ritual murder accusation, II 78 f
    warns Commission of Inquiry, at Velizh, against exaggerations,
            II 80
    sanctions acquittal of Velizh Jews (1835), II 82
    reiterates belief in ritual murder, II 83
    inflicts severe punishment on Jews of Mstislavl, II 86
    deports Jewish printers to Siberia, II 123
    orders "assortment" of Jews (1851), II 142 f
    prohibits Jewish dress (1851), II 144 f
    issues draconian conscription measures (1850), II 147;
      (1853), 148 f
    appoints committee to investigate blood accusation (1854),
            II 151, 203
    eclipsed by Alexander III., II 354
    See "Nicholas Soldiers"

  =Nicholas II.=, emperor of Russia (1894-1917), III 7-169
    reign of, characterized, III 7
    ascends throne, III 7
    pledges himself to uphold autocracy, III 8
    thanks Jews for address of welcome, III 8
    surrounds himself with reactionaries, III 9
    influenced by Pobyedonostzev, III 9 f
    objects to abrogation of Pale, III 11
    Jews of Moscow restrained from celebrating coronation of, III
            12
    economic collapse of Russian
    Jewry during reign of, III 22 ff
    Jews barred from liquor trade, III 22
    calls Hague Conference, III 35 disappoints hopes of liberals,
            III 66
    appoints Plehve, III 67
    hatred of, toward Jews, intensified by Kishinev massacre, III
            93
    grants trifling privileges to Jews on birth of heir-apparent,
            III 99
    makes partial concession to revolution (1904), III 106
    orders shooting of demonstrators (January, 1905), III, 106
            f
    forced to make further concessions (February 18, 1905), III
            110
    patronizes Black Hundred, III 113 f
    receives deputation of Zemstvos and municipalities, III 122
    defers consideration of Jewish question, III 123
    abets counter-revolutionary pogroms (October, 1905), III 127
    pursues double-faced policy, III 130
    receives deputation of Black Hundred, III 131
    dissolves First Duma, III 135, 139
    objects to mitigation of Jewish disabilities, III 141
    changes electoral law, III 142
    expresses confidence in Black Hundred, III 149
    pardons pogrom perpetrators, III 150
    wears ostentatiously badge of Black Hundred, III 151
    ratifies restrictive school norm of 1887 (1908), III 157
    extends school norm to Jewish "externs" (1911), III 159
    witnesses assassination of Stolypin at Kiev, III 164
    checks pogrom at Kiev, and
    stirs up Beilis case, III 165

  "=Nicholas Soldiers=," term explained, II 29
    forbidden to live outside Pale, II 29
    permitted to live outside Pale (1867), II 29, 172

  =Nicholayev= (government of Kherson), Jews expelled from (1829),
            II 32 f
    excluded from Pale and closed to Jews (1835), II 4
    included in Pale by Alexander II., II 172
    pogrom at (April 19, 1899), III 34;
      (October, 1905), III 128
    Jewish community of, protests against denial of Jewish franchise,
            III 128

  =Niemen=, river, Lithuanians settled on banks of, I 59
    part of Jewish Pale, I 317

  =Niemirov= (Podolia), Khmelnitzki massacre at (1648), I 146 f
    pogrom at, commemorated annually, I 152
    Jacob Joseph Cohen, rabbi of, I 227, 230
    name of, used as substitute for Kishinev, III 79

  =Nietzscheanism=, preached by Hebrew writer, III 60

  =Nikitin=, Russian-Jewish writer, quoted, I 315

  =Nisselovich=, Jewish deputy to Third Duma, III 153
    collects signatures for abrogation of Pale, III 156

  =Nissi=, king of Khazars, I 26

  =Nizhni-Novgorod=, Jews permitted to visit fair of (1835), II
            40
    pogrom at (1884), II 360 f

  =Nobility=, in Poland, see Shlakhta

  =Nohum=, of Chernobyl, hasidic preacher and leader, I 232, 382;
            II 119

  =Nordau, Max=, Zionist discourses of, discussed in Russia, III
            47
    denies future of diaspora, III 52

  =Norov=, Minister of Public Instruction, suggests
            admission into Russian Interior of Jewish graduates of
            Russian schools (1857), II 163

  =North-West= (Lithuania and White Russia), rabbinism
            of, contrasted with Hasidism of South-west (Ukraina and
            Poland), I 199, 221, 274
    Hasidism weak in, I 371 f;
      and different from Hasidism of South-west, I 233 ff
    Kahals in, stronger than in South-west, I 274, 379

  =Notkin=, see Shklover

  =Novaya Ushitza= (Podolia), Jews of, accused of collective crime,
            II 84 f
    Israel of Ruzhin implicated in case against Jews of, II 121

  =Novgorod=, Jews of Kiev emigrate to, I 36 f
    Jews of Vitebsk exiled by Russians to (1654), I 154

  =Novgorod-Seversk=, former name of government of Poltava, I 321
    included in Pale (1794), I 317

  =Novo-Moskovsk= (government of Yekaterinoslav), pogrom at (1883),
            II 360

  =Novoshelski=, burgomaster of Odessa, favors admission of Jews
            to municipal government, II 199

  =Novosiltzev, Nicholas=, Russian Commissary in Poland, II 16
    warns against imposing conscription on Jews, II 16 f
    proposes plan of reorganization of Polish Jews, II 92 f
    plan of, discussed and rejected by Polish Council of State,
            II 93 f

  =Novosti= ("=The News="), liberal paper in St. Petersburg, II
            379
    suppressed for expressing sympathy with Moscow exiles, II 407

  =Novoye Vremya= ("=The New Time="), St. Petersburg daily, adopts
            anti-Semitic policy, II 205
    becomes organ of reaction, II 247
    advocates repression of Jews, II 278, 381
    commends pogrom at Warsaw, II 282
    exerts anti-Jewish influence on Government circles, II 380
    read by Alexander III., II 380
    attacks Rothschild of Paris, II 410
    utilizes Dreyfus Affair for attack upon Jews, III 32
    report of Shpola pogrom in, quoted, III 33
    Suvorin, publisher of, produces anti-Semitic play, II 38
    libels Jews in Russo-Japanese war, III 95

  =Nyeshava= (_Polish_, Nieszawa), Diet of, adopts anti-Jewish
            "Statute" (1454), I 63
    "Statute" of, confirmed by Piotrkov Diet (1496), I 64

  =Nyevakhovich, Judah Leib= (=Lev=), author of Russian pamphlet
            on Jewish question, I 386 f
    becomes Russian playwright, I 388
    embraces Christianity, I 388
    descendants of, occupy prominent Government positions, I 388

  =Nyezhin= (government of Chernigov), pogrom at (1881), II 267;
    (October, 1905), III 129


  =Obadiah=, king of Khazars, I 26;
    invites Jewish sages from Babylonia, I 21

  =Oblavas=, or raids, on Jews of Moscow, II 403
    on Jews of Kiev, III 20

  =Obolanin=, procurator-general of Senate, gives anti-Jewish instructions
            to Dyerzhavin, I 229

  =Obolenski=, member of Council of State, favors Jewish franchise,
            III 122

  =Octobrists=, conservative Russian party, name explained, III
            153
    demand exclusion of Jews from office of Justice of Peace, I
            156

  =Odessa=, Jewish families in, converted to Christianity, I 400
    Jewish model school in, II 52, 133, 137
    Lilienthal kindly received by Jews of, II 56
    Bezalel Stern, resident of, appointed on Rabbinical Commission,
            II 57
    center of Haskalah, II 132 f
    pogrom at (1871), II 191 ff, 215 f;
      effects of, II 216, 239
    burgomaster of, advocates admission of Jews to municipal government,
            II 199
    Pirogov, school superintendent of, encourages Jewish cultural
            aspirations, II 207, 209
    branch of Society for Diffusion of Enlightenment established
            in, II 215 f;
      discontinued as result of pogrom, II 216
    _ha-Melitz_, published in, II 217
    Jewish periodicals in Russian published in, II 219
    Smolenskin removes to, II 234
    Lilienblum settles in, II 237
    Osip Rabinovich, founder of Russian-Jewish literature, resides
            in, II 238
    Government emissaries prepare pogrom in, II 248
    pogrom at (May, 1881), II 257 f
    Jewish students of, organize self-defence, II 258
    "New Israel," Judeo-Christian sect, founded in, I 334
    center of "Love of Zion" movement, II 376
    headquarters of Palestine Relief Society, II 422
    Jews of, warned by city-governor, II 383
    visited by White, representative of Baron Hirsch, II 418
    growth of pauperism among Jews of, III 24
    pupils of Jewish Agricultural School in vicinity of, barred
            from land ownership, III 25
    Order _Bne Moshe_ founded by Ahad Ha'am in, III 49
    _ha-Shiloah_ edited in, III 58, 162
    Jews of, organize self-defence (1904), III 96
    Grigoryev, city-governor of, prevents pogrom, III 97;
      dismissed, III 151
    chief-of-police of, fired at by Jew, III 107
    Jewish community of, signs petition for equal rights, III 109
    Russian Nationalist Society of, incites to pogrom, III 114
    pogrom at (October, 1905), III 128 f
    Jewish self-defence of, sentenced by court-martial, III 150
            f
    Jews of, assaulted by Black Hundred, III 151
    governor-general of, condemns Jews, II 276
    Gurko, governor-general of, suggests restrictive school norm,
            II 339
    governor of, recommends forbidding Jewish emigrants to return
            to Russia, II 414

  =Odoyevski=, Count, advises Catherine II. concerning admission
            of Jews into Russia, I 259

  =Ofen=, see Buda

  =Offenbach= (Germany), Jacob Frank settles in, I 220

  =Olbia=, on Black Sea, Jewish settlement in, I 14

  =Old-Constantine= (=Staro-Constantine=), see Constantinov

  "=Old Testament Believers=," term of assimilated Polish Jews,
            II 96, 100 ff

  =Oleshnitzki, Zbignyev=, archbishop of Cracow, denounces Casimir
            IV. for protecting Jews, I 62
    starts campaign against Jews, I 62 f
    dictates anti-Jewish "Statute" of Nyeshava, I 63

  =Omsk, Territory of= (Siberia), lands in, set aside for Jewish
            colonists, II 71

  =Oppenheim=, German-Jewish painter, stops painting ordered for
            Nicholas I., II 67

  =Orlov= (government), "Judaizers" in, I 402

  =Orlov=, Count, president of Council of State, urges punishment
            of Jews accused of ritual murder, II 162

  =Orsha= (government of Moghilev), pogrom at, III 128

  =Orshanski, Ilya= (=Elias=), Russian-Jewish writer, II 238 f

  =Orshanski, Dr.=, brother of former, reports interview with Ignatyev,
            II 284 f, 297

  =Oryol= (city), Jews expelled from, II 264
    anti-Semitic play produced at, III 38 f

  =Ostrog= (Volhynia), Jewish community of, represented on Council
            of Four Lands, I 110
    Cossack massacre at (1648), I 149
    bombarded by Russian army (1792), I 292
    Jewish conference at (1798), I 324
      Rabbis of:
        Solomon Luria (_Reshal_), I 125
        Samuel Edels (_Maharsho_), I 129
        David Halevi (_Taz_), I 130
        Naphtali Cohen, I 204

  =Ostropol=, Samson of, Cabalist and martyr, I 148 f

  =Ostropoler, Hershel=, "court-fool" of Tzaddik Borukh Tulchinski,
            I 348

  =Ostrov=, at extreme end of Jewish Pale, II 70

  =Ostrovski, Anton=, commander of National Guard in Warsaw, II
            106
    defends Jews, II 107

  =Ottocar=, of Bohemia, Jewish charter of, serves as model for
            Boleslav of Kalish, I 45

  =Otyechstvennyia Zapiski= ("Records of the
            Fatherland"), radical Russian magazine, records Jewish
            question as economic problem, II 325
    quoted, II 325

  =Oxman=, Jewish informer, II 84


  =Padua=, Polish Jews study medicine at University of, I 105,
            132

  =Pahlen=, Count, chairman of "Pahlen Commission," II 336 f

  =Pahlen=, governor of Vilna, suggests removal of Jewish disabilities,
            III 93

  =Pale of Settlement= (Russian, _cherta osyedlosti_),
            foreshadowed in decree of May 7, 1786, restricting Jews
            to annexed White Russia, I 314 f
    enlarged as result of second partition of Poland (1793), I
            316 f
    formally sanctioned by Law of June 23, 1794, I 317
    enlarged as result of third partition of Poland (1795), I 317
            f
    Courland added to (1795), I 321
    defined in Statute of 1804, I 342
    Kiev excluded from (1827), II 31 ff
    Courland [and Livonia] excluded from (1829), II 32
    Sevastopol and Nicholayev excluded from (1829), II 32
    accurately defined in Statute of 1805, II 39 f
    Nicholas I. watches over strict maintenance of, II 70
    number of Jews and Jewish artisans in, II 168
    Commission for Amelioration of Jews considers thinning out
            of (1871), II 193
    gubernatorial commission appointed for every government of
            (1881), II 273
    Ignatyev refuses to add to, II 285, 306
    Rostov and Taganrog excluded from (1887), II 346
    admission of Jews to schools in, restricted to 10% (1887),
            II 350;
      restriction placed on Statute books (1908-1909), III 157
            f
    admission of Jews to universities in, restricted to 7%, II
            29
    disproportionately large number of Jewish recruits in, II 355
            f
    congestion in cities of, II 385
    Jews in, compared with prisoner in cell, II 389
    Moscow refugees driven into, II 406
    visited by United States commissioners, II 407
    visited by Arnold White, emissary of Baron Hirsch, II 417
    Yalta excluded from (1893), II 428 f
    governor of Vilna recommends abrogation of, III 11
    zealously maintained under Nicholas II., III 16, 20 f
    growth of pauperism in, III 23 f
    localities in, barred to Jews in 1882, reopened to them (1903),
            III 80 f
    preservation of, affirmed by Third Duma (1908), III 154
    one hundred and six Duma deputies favor abrogation (1910),
            III 156
    exclusion of Jews from villages in, see Villages
    See also Interior, and Residence, Right of

  =Palestine=, Teutonic Order originates in, I 63
    Cabalists of, influence Polish Jewry, I 134
    Sabbatian propaganda carried on in, II 205
    mass emigration of Polish Jews to (1700), I 209 f
    Shneor Zalman accused of collecting money for, I 376
    Nahman of Bratzlav makes pilgrimage to, I 383
    Lelevel, Polish historian, promises Polish help in restoration
            of, II 108
    restoration of Jews to, preached by Smolenskin, II 236;
      advocated by Levanda, II 240
    _Bilu_ pioneers emigrate to (1882), II 321 f
    beginnings of Jewish colonization in, II 322
    "Lovers of Zion" establish colonies, in, III 42
    Jewish national center in, championed by Lilienblum, II 328
            ff;
      and, as an alternative, by Pinsker, II 331
    expulsion from Moscow stimulates emigration to, II 416
    attempt at mass emigration to (1891), II 421 f
    feeble results of colonization in, III 42
    colonization of, made part of Basle program, III 44
    modern Hebrew writers in, III 163
    See also Zionism

  =Palestinophilstvo=, Russian name for "Love of Zion," II 328;
    see also Zionism

  =Pan=, noble landowner in Poland, name explained, I 93

  =Panticapaeum=, see Kerch

  =Pardes=, Hebrew annual, III 58

  =Paris=, Sanchez, Jewish court-physician in St. Petersburg, removes
            to, I 258
    Berek Yoselovich pays visit to, I 294
    "Jewish Parliament" meets in, I 346 ff; III 53
    Rothschilds of, II 69, 375, 407, 410
    Lelevel, Polish historian, refugee in, II 107
    Polish refugees in, II 108
    anti-Semitism among Polish refugees in, II 109
    _Alliance Israélite Universelle_ in, II 189, 194, 297, 322
    Plehve's secret circular made known in, II 381
    Moscow refugees arrive in, II 408
    Jewish Colonization Association in, sends deputation to Pobyedonostzev,
            III 10
    Herzl resides in, III 42

  =Paskevich=, Russian viceroy in Poland, pacifies Poland (after
            1831), II 109
    Moses Montefiore communicates with, II 68
    Altaras of Marseilles negotiates with, II 69

  =Passek=, governor-general of White Russia, questioned by Senate
            concerning Jewish law courts, I 310
    restricts Jews of White Russia in economic pursuits, I 310
            f

  =Passover=, Christian, see Easter

  =Passover=, lawyer, member of Jewish deputation to Alexander
            III., II 261

  =Passports=, Jews with expired P's. severely punished, II 42
    Jews found without P's. sent into army, II 148 f
    Jewish P's. examined in St. Petersburg, II 343
    Jewish emigrants relieved from tax on, II 418
    disabilities imposed by P. Regulations of 1894, II 427

  =Paul IV.=, pope, encourages anti-Jewish policy in Poland, I
            86

  =Paul I.=, emperor of Russia (1796-1801), I 321-334
    includes Courland in area of Jewish settlement, I 321
    imposes restrictions on Jews of government of Minsk, I 323
    Jews of Volhynia prepare to send deputation to, I 324 f
    dispatches Dyerzhavin to White Russia, I 328 f
    releases Shneor Zalman from prison, I 376
    receives denunciation against Hasidim, I 378
    Arakcheyev prominent in military affairs during reign of, I
            395

  =Pavlovsk, District of= (government of Voroneyezh), "Judaizing"
            sect spreads in, I 401

  =Pavluk=, Cossack leader, instigates attacks upon Jews, I 144

  =Pavolochi= (province of Kiev), Jews of, accused of ritual murder,
            I 178

  =Pecheneges= succeed Khazars in Crimea, I 29

  =Pechera Monastery=, in Kiev, Abbot of, preaches hatred toward
            Jews, I 31

  "=People's Freedom=" (in _Russian_, Narodnaya Vola), revolutionary
            party, responsible for assassination of Alexander II., II 279
    pursues anti-Jewish policy, II 279 f

  =Perekop=, gulf and isthmus of, I 13, 29

  =Peretz=, rabbi of Bohemian Community in Cracow, I 104

  =Peretz, Abraham=, of St. Petersburg, assists Jewish deputies,
            I 338
    acts as Jewish Maecenas, I 386
    converted to Christianity, I 388

  =Peretz, Gregory=, son of former, Russian revolutionary, I 412

  =Pereyaslav= (province, or government of Poltava), Cossack massacre
            at (1648), I 145
    pogrom at (1881), II 265 f

  =Perez, I. L.=, editor of Yiddish magazine, III 59
    Yiddish and Hebrew writer, III 61 f, 162

  =Perl, Joseph=, Hebrew writer in Galicia, II 126 f

  =Perm= (Central Russia), Jewish cantonists driven to, II 25

  =Perovksi=, Russian statesman, considers emigration of Russian
            Jews to Algiers, II 69

  =Persia=, Khazars make inroads into, I 19
    Jewish merchants travel through, I 23

  =Pestel, Paul=, leader of early Russian revolutionaries, I 410
    discusses Jewish problem, I 410 ff
    favors establishment of separate Jewish Commonwealth, I 412

  =Peter=, Carmelite monk in Lublin, alleged victim of ritual murder,
            I 100

  =Peter I., The Great=, emperor of Russia (1688-1725), extends
            influence of Russia over Poland
    refuses to admit Jews into Russia, I 246 f
    prejudiced against Jews, I 247 f
    stops military riot against Jews, I 248
    admits Jewish financiers to St. Petersburg, I 248
    quoted in favor of barring Jews from Russia, II 35 f
    originator of penalty by _Spiessruten_, II 85

  =Peter II.=, emperor of Russia (1727-1730), permits Jews to visit
            fairs in Little Russia, I 250

  =Peter III.=, emperor of Russia (1761), dethroned by Catherine
            II., I 259

  =Peterhof=, near St. Petersburg, Plehve killed on way to, III
            97
    Jewish franchise discussed at conferences in, III 122

  =Petersburg=, see St. Petersburg

  =Pethahiah=, of Ratisbon, Jewish traveller, I 29
    refers to Russia, I 32 f

  =Petrograd=, Greco-Jewish inscription kept in Hermitage at, I
            15
    Russian _Mitropolit_ resides at, II 125; see St. Petersburg

  =Pfefferkorn=, Jewish convert, II 189

  =Phanagoria= (Taman Peninsula), Jews settled in, I 14, 18

  =Philadelphia=, Marcus Jastrow accepts post of rabbi in, II 179
    place of publication, III 51

  =Philippson, Ludwig=, founder of _Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums_,
            II 67
    corresponds with Max Lilienthal, II 67
    serves as model for Russian-Jewish publicists, II 219

  =Philipson, David=, quoted, I 54

  =Philosophy, Jewish=, studied in Poland, I 132 f
    opposed by Joel Sirkis, I 133
    reflected in doctrine of Besht, I 225 f
    imbedded in doctrine of Shneor Zalman, I 374, 382
    opposed by Rabbinism, I 381
    regarded as destructive by Nahman of Bratzlav, I 383

  =Phineas=, of Koretz, disciple of Besht, I 227
    descendants of, II 123

  =Photius=, Patriarch of Constantinople, hopes for conversion
            of Crimean Jews, I 18

  =Physicians, Jewish=, in Poland, attacked by Christian physician,
            I 96
    originally natives of Spain or Italy, I 131 f
    study at University of Padua, I 105, 132
    at Polish court, I 132, 136
    at Russian court, I 258
    in White Russia, I 331, 386
    admitted to residence in Russian Interior and to civil service
            (1861), II 165, 167
    excluded from civil service, III 27

  =Physicians, Jewish=, in Russian army:
    number of, restricted, II 319 f
    first to be mobilized in Russo-Japanese war, III 94 f
    families of mobilized P. expelled, III 95
    accused of revolutionary propaganda, III 156

  =Piast=, progenitor of Piast dynasty in Poland, I 40

  =Piatoli=, secretary of Polish king, assists Jews, I 291

  =Pidyon=, contribution of Hasidim, term explained, II 119

  =Pikolski=, monk at Lemberg, conducts agitation against Jews,
            I 174

  =Pilpul=, method of talmudic dialectics, fostered in Poland,
            I 119 f
    carried from Bohemia to Poland, I 122
    opposed by Solomon Luria, I 256
    grafted upon by Cabala, I 135, II 117
    shunned by Elijah of Vilna, I 236

  =Pinkasevich, Jacob=, Jewish martyr in Posen, I 175

  =Pinsk=, important community in Lithuania, I 73
    Jewish community of, represented in Lithuanian _Waad_, I 112
    Avigdor, rabbi of, I 377 f

  =Pinsker, Leon=, editor of _Sion_, II 220
    author of _Autoemancipation_, II 330 f
    ideas of, affect "Love of Zion" movement, II 332
    becomes its leader, II 376, III 42, 49
    elected president of Society for Granting Relief in Syria and
            Palestine, II 422
    contrasted with Herzl, III 43

  =Pinsker, Simha=, father of former, teacher in Odessa school,
            II 133

  =Piotrkov, Diet of= (1496), confirms anti-Jewish Statute, I 64;
      restricts commercial rights of Lemberg Jews (1521), I 75
    Sigismund II. confirms liberal Jewish Statute at Diet of (1548),
            I 83
    Church Synod of, passes anti-Jewish "Constitution" (1542),
            I 82 f
    Crown Tribunal of, tries ritual murder cases, I 95 f;
      and Jews accused of blasphemy, I 164 f
    Jewish communities in province of, destroyed, I 156
    Tobias Feder, Hebrew writer, native of, I 388

  =Pirhe Tzafon=, Hebrew periodical in Vilna, II 136

  =Pirogov, Nicholas=, Odessa physician, friend of Jews, II 207,
            209

  =Piryatin= (province of Poltavia), Cossack massacre at (1648),
            I 145

  =Pisarevski=, instigator of Kishinev pogrom, commits suicide,
            III 91

  =Pisaryev=, radical Russian writer, influences Russian-Jewish
            _intelligenzia_, II 209
    influences M. L. Lilienblum, II 238

  =Plehve=, Russian assistant-minister of Interior, II 379
    chief of political police, II 381
    objects to Jewish participation in Zemstvos, II 386
    chairman of secret anti-Jewish Committee, II 399
    suggests expulsion of Jews from Moscow, II 402
    bars Jews from municipal government, II 425
    appointed Minister of Interior, III 16, 67
    plans to check revolution by pogroms, III 68 f
    subventions Krushevan's anti-Semitic paper, III 70
    sends telegram to stop Kishinev massacre, III 75, 97
    stifles press protests against Kishinev massacre, III 77
    suspected of sending orders encouraging massacre, III 77
    forbids Jewish self-defence, III 80, 90
    forbids Zionism, III 82 f
    negotiates with Herzl, III 83 f
    plans regulating Jewish legislation, III 92 f
    stops expulsion of families of mobilized Jews, III 95
    assassinated, III 97
    urges Russo-Japanese War as anti-revolutionary measure, III
            98
    death of, predicted in _Voskhod_, III 98
    investigation of Homel pogrom started during lifetime of, III
            101

  =Plotzk= (_Polish_, Plock), city in Poland, I 243
    city and province of, annexed by Prussia (1793), I 292
    Synod of, passes anti-Jewish resolution (1733), I 171
    archbishop of, endorses project of Jewish reforms, I 292

  =Poale Zion=, see Zionism

  =Pobyedonostzev, Constantine Petrovich=, professor at Moscow
            University, II 245
    tutor of Alexander III., II 245
    head of Holy Synod, II 245
    defends autocratic régime, II 245
    member of reactionary Sacred League, II 248
    disparages popular education, II 348 f
    inspires educational restrictions for Jews, II 349
    utilizes railroad accident at Borki for purposes of reaction,
            III 378
    opposes Jewish participation in Zemstvos, II 386
    endorses expulsion of Jews from Moscow, II 401
    receives gift for ecclesiastic schools from Baron Hirsch, II
            415
    receives White, emissary of Baron Hirsch, II 417
    recommends him to officials, II 418
    condemns Jews as parasites, II 417
    bars Jews from municipal self-government, II 425
    all powerful under Nicholas II., III 9
    continues fight against Jews, III 9 f

  =Podol=, Jewish quarter in Kiev, pogrom in, II 252 ff

  =Podolia=, part of Red Russia, I 53
    subject to Poland, I 140
    uprising against Poles in (1648), I 145
    regained by Poland (1667), I 159
    annexed by Turkey (1672), I 208
    returned to Poland (1699), I 208
    strip of, annexed by Austria (1772), I 187
    annexed by Russia (1793), I 292
    included in Pale (1794), I 317;
      (1804), I 342;
      (1835), II 39
    Jews prohibited from selling cloth in, I 75
    Jews massacred by Cossacks in (1648), I 146 ff, 157
    part of, forbidden to Jews (1649), I 151
    Jews massacred by haidamacks (1768), I 183 ff
    Talmudic culture deteriorates in, I 199
    Sabbatian movement propagated in, I 208, 210 f
    Jacob Frank active in, I 211, 212 f, 216
    rabbis of, summoned to disputation with Frankists, I 214 f
    difference of intellectual development in, I 221
    Besht, founder of Hasidism, active in, I 222, 224 f, 228
    Hasidism spreads in, I 229, 274
    type of Tzaddik in, I 233
    conquered by Hasidim, I 371, 383
    Kahal of, appealed to by Vilna Gaon against Hasidism, I 373
    remains hotbed of Hasidism, II 121 f
    Jews of, suffer from civil war in Poland (1792), I 292
    Shlakhta of, suggests anti-Jewish measures (1798), I 324
    Jews of, decide to appeal to Paul I., I 325
    Jews of, send delegate to St. Petersburg (1803), I 337
    Jews of, invited by Government to elect deputies (1807), I
            349
    Jews of, protest against discrimination in municipal government,
            I 369
    Jews of, indifferent towards Polish insurrection (1831), II
            107
    Jewish economic activity in, II 194
    pogroms in (1881), II 256; (1882), 299 ff, 304
    governor of, favors emigration of Jewish proletariat, II 414
      Localities in:
        Balta, II 299 ff
        Bratzlav, I 288, 383
        Kamenitz, I 215, 324
        Lantzkorona, I 213
        Moghilev (on the Dniester), I 98
        Satanov, I 213, 388

  =Pogroms= (under Polish régime), occasioned by Black Death, I
            52
    at Cracow, I 56 f, 63 f, 97, 102, 161, 166
    at Lemberg, I 64
    at Posen, I 64, 75, 90, 95, 166
    at Brest-Kuyavsk, I 75
    at Brest-Litovsk, I 99
    at Vilna, I 94, 99
    at Warsaw (1790), I 285 ff
    occasioned by meetings of provincial diets, or dietines, I
            170
    perpetrated by Polish irregular troops (1656), I 155 f
    suppressed by Sigismund I., I 76
    energetically opposed by Stephen Batory, I 90
    forestalled by Sigismund III., I 97
    prevented by Vladislav IV., I 98
    forbidden by diet of Warsaw (1717), I 171
    perpetrated by theological students (_Schülergelauf_), I 161
    student P's. forbidden by Mechislav III. (1173), I 42; and
            condemned by Polish diet, I 166 f

  =Pogroms= (in the Ukraina), under Pavluk, Cossack leader (1637),
            I 144
    under Khmelnitzki, Cossack leader, (1648), I 145 ff
    by Haidamacks (1768), I 183
    at Uman, I 184 f

  =Pogroms= (under Russian régime), term explained, II 191
    perpetrated in Poland by invading Russians (1563), I 243;
      (1654), I 153 f, 245
    checked by Peter the Great (1708), I 248 at Odessa (1871),
            II 191 ff;
      halts assimilation endeavors, 215 f;
      depicted by Smolenskin, II 245;
      produces staggering effect on Orshanski, II 239
    initiation of policy of (1881), I 247
    carefully prepared by Government agents, II 248
    _Katzaps_, or Great Russians, imported for perpetration of,
            II 248, 256, 359, III 115
    at Yelisavetgrad (April, 1881), II 249 ff
    in district of Yelisavetgrad and government of Kherson, II
            251
    at Kiev (April, 1881), II 251 ff;
      effects of, minimized by Government press, II 255 f;
      tried in court, II 264 f
    new P's. in South Russia, II 256 ff
    averted at Berdychev by Jewish self-defence, II 256 f
    at Odessa (May, 1881), II 257 f;
      Jewish self-defence punished, II 264
    believed by peasants to have been ordered by Tzar, II 257
    ascribed by Government to Russian revolutionary propaganda,
            II 259 f, 269, 279
    later attributed by it to Jewish economic exploitation, II
            261, 315
    Government indifferent towards victims of, II 263
    perpetrators of, receive slight sentences in court, II 264
    outbreak of new P's. in South Russia (summer 1881), II 265
            ff
    suppressed in Lithuania and White Russia, II 267, 276
    replaced there by incendiary activities, II 267
    give rise to emigration movement, II 267 f
    at Warsaw (December, 1881), II 280 ff;
      effect of, on Europe and America, II 283;
      London, II, 287;
      welcomed by Government "Jewish Committee," II 310
    Alexander III. regrets necessity of suppressing, II 284
    Jews hold public mourning for victims of, II 286
    cause agitation in England, II 287 f
    Mansion House Meeting in London protests against (February
            1, 1882), II 288 ff
    committee to aid victims of, organized in London, II 290 f
    perpetrators of, arrested, II 291
    at Balta (March, 1882), II 299 ff;
      horrors of, II 302 f, terrifies Government, II 314;
      tried in court, II 315 f;
      produces emigration panic, II 321
    discussed by Jewish Conference in St. Petersburg, II 306 f
    justified in report of "Jewish Committee," II 309
    policy of, abandoned by Government, II 311 ff
    perpetrators of, receive severe sentences, II 315 f
    Russian press and literature react feebly on, II 325 f
    effect of, on Russian-Jewish _intelligenzia_, II 326
    outbreak of new P's. in South Russia (1883), II 358 ff
    at Rostov (May, 1883), II 358;
      news of, suppressed, II 358
    at Yekaterinoslav (July, 1883), II 358 ff
    at Nizhni-Novgorod (1884), II 360 ff;
      prompted by greed and prospect of immunity, II 361
    referred to by Pahlen Commission, II 367
    at Starodub (government of Chernigov, 1891), 411 ff;
      displeases Government, II 412
    bred in public houses, III 23
    outbreak of new P's. in Russian South and South-west (1897),
            III 32 ff
    stopped by Government on account of Hague Conference, II 35
    at Chenstokhov (by Poles), stopped by Russian Government (1902),
            III 36
    planned by Plehve as counter-revolutionary measure, III 68
            f
    at Kishinev (April, 1903), III 69 ff;
      see Kishinev
    at Homel (August, 1903), III 87 ff;
      tried in court and misrepresented by Government, III 101
            ff
    impending P's. stopped by Government (1904), III 96 f
    in Russian South-west (August, 1904), III 99
    by mobilized soldiers (September, 1904), III 100
    at Moghilev (October, 1904) III 100 f;
      avenged by Jewish youth, III 107
    in government of Vitebsk (October, 1904), III 101
    organized by Black Hundred (April, 1905), III 113 ff
    at Bialystok, III 114 f
    at Dusyaty (government of Kovno), III 115
    at Melitopol (government of Tavrida), III 115
    at Simferopol (government of Tavrida), III 115
    at Zhitomir (Volhynia), III 115 f;
      followed by tragedy at Troyanov, III 116 ff;
      misrepresented by Government, III 118
    intensify revolutionary movement among Jews, III 119
    perpetrated by soldiers (summer, 1905), III 119 f
    at Minsk, III 119
    at Brest-Litovsk, III 119
    at Syedletz, III 119
    at Lodz, III 119 f
    at Bialystok (June, 1905), III 120
    at Kerch (Crimea), July, 1905, III 120;
      prepared by Government, III 120
    "October P's." (October 18-25, 1905), III 124 ff;
      organized by Black Hundred, with help of Tzar and police,
            III 125 f;
      vast extent of, III 128;
      followed by anarchy, III 130 f
    at Odessa, III 129;
      assisted by police, III 129
    at Nyezhin (government of Chernigov), III 129
    outside Pale (October, 1905), III 130
    participation of Government in, denounced by assembled Russian
            Jews, III 132
    Jews threatened with, during elections to First Duma, III 135;
      to Third Duma, III 153
    discussed by First Duma, III 130 ff;
      and condemned in resolution (1906), III 139
    at Bialystok (June, 1906), III 136 f;
      investigated and reported upon by commission of First Duma,
            III 137
    perpetrators of October P. either untried or pardoned, III
            150
    planned at Kiev but averted (September, 1911), III 165
    List of pogroms according to cities and governments:
      Alexandria (Kherson), III 100
      Ananyev (Kherson), II 251
      Balta (Podolia), II 299 ff
      Berdychev (Volhynia), II 256 f
      Bialystok, III, 114 f, 120, 136 f
      Borispol (Poltava), II 267
      Chenstokhov (Poland), III 36 f
      Chernigov (city), III 128
      Chernigov (government), II 257
      Dusyaty (Kovno), III 115
      Homel (Moghilev), III 87 ff
      Kularash, III 128
      Kamenetz (Podolia), III 128
      Kantakuzenka (Kherson), III 33
      Karpovich (Chernigov), II 315
      Kerch (Tavrida), III 120
      Kherson (government), II 304
      Kiev (city), I 32, II 251 ff, III 128, 165
      Kiev (government), II 256
      Kishinev, III 69 ff, 128
      Konotop (Chernigov), II 257
      Lodz, III 119 f
      Melitopol (Tavrida), III 115
      Minsk, III 119
      Moghilev (city), I 153 f, 245; III 100
      Moghilev (government), III 100
      Mstislavl (Moghilev), I 248
      Nagartava, Jewish agricultural colony, III 35
      Nicholayev (Crimea), III 34 f, 128
      Nizhni-Novgorod, II 360 f
      Novo-Moskovsk (Yekaterinoslav), II 360
      Nyezhin (Chernigov), II 267, III 129
      Odessa, II 191 ff, 257 f, III 128 f
      Orsha (Moghilev), III 128
      Pereyaslav (Poltava), II 265
      Podolia (government), II 256, 304
      Polotzk (Vitebsk), I 243
      Romny, III 128
      Rostov, II 358
      Rovno (Volhynia), III 99
      Saratov, III 130
      Semyonovka (Chernigov), III 129
      Shpola (Kiev), III 33
      Simferopol (Tavrida), III 115, 128
      Smyela (Kiev), II 256; III 99
      Starodub (Chernigov), II 411 ff
      Syedletz (Poland), III 119
      Troyanov (Volhynia), III 116 ff
      Vilna, I 154, 245
      Vitebsk (city), I 154, 245
      Vitebsk (government), III 101
      Volhynia (government), II 256
      Voronyezh, III 130
      Warsaw, II 280 ff
      Yekaterinoslav, II 359 f, III 128
      Yelisavetgrad, II 249 ff, III 128
      Zhitomir (Volhynia), III 115 ff
      See also Self-Defence

  =Poklonski=, Russian colonel, massacres Jews of Moghilev, I 153
            f

  =Pokutye= (_Polish_, Pokucie), region in Poland, I 150

  =Polakov, Lazarus=, Jewish financier in Moscow, II 400

  =Polakov, Samuel=, Jewish financier in St. Petersburg, participates
            in Jewish Conference, II 304
    discusses Jewish question with Ignatyev, II 305 f

  =Poland=, first partition of (1772), I 262
    condition of Jews in, after first partition, I 263 ff, 270
    schemes for improving condition of Jews in, I 271 ff, 284
    inner life of Jews in, I 274 ff
    Hasidism spreads in, I 231 f
    problem of Jews in, discussed in Polish literature, I 280 ff
    Polish Diet appoints committee to consider Jewish question,
            I 287 f;
      postpones action, I 290
    second partition of (1793), and revolution under Kosciuszko,
            I 292 f
    patriotism of Jews in, I 292 ff
    third partition of (1795), I 297
    reconstituted by Napoleon as Duchy of Warsaw (1807), I 297
    equality of all citizens proclaimed in, I 298
    Government of, suspends emancipation of Jews (1808), I 299,
            II 100 f
    Government of, passes anti-Jewish restrictions, I 300
    assimilated Jews of, apply for equal rights, I 300 ff;
      and are refused, I 302
    Jews of, released from military service (1812), I 304
    Jews of, barred from liquor trade (1812), I 304, II 100
    French influences among Jews of, I 385 f
    growth of Hasidism in, I 384, II 122
    Poles side with Napoleon in Franco-Russian War, I 355;
      and threaten to massacre Jews and Russians, I 357
    reconstituted as "Kingdom of Poland," and assigned
            by Congress of Vienna to Russia [Russian Poland, or
            Congress Poland] (1815), I 390
    granted complete autonomy by Alexander I., II 88
    number of Jews in kingdom of, I 390
    Government of, appoints Committee on Jewish Question (1815),
            II 89
    David Friedländer of Berlin submits memorandum on Jews of,
            II 90
    Zayonchek, viceroy of, opposed to Jewish emancipation, II 91
            f
    Polish Diet unfriendly to Jews of, II 93 f, 99 f
    Government of, passes anti-Jewish restrictions, II 94 f
    condition of Jews in, discussed in Polish literature, II 95
            ff
    blood accusation in, II 74; forbidden by Russian Government,
            II 99
    assimilationist tendencies among Jews of, II 100 ff
    Kahals abolished in, and replaced by _Gminas_ (1822), II 102
    Government of, appoints Committee to Polonize Jews, II 103
    anti-Semitism in, II 104 f, 178
    Polish insurrection of 1831, II 33, 105
    Jews volunteer in revolutionary army of, II 105 ff
    Polish writers express sympathy with Jews, II 108 f
    Nicholas I. imposes conscription on Jews of (1843), II 109
            f
    prohibition of Jewish dress in Russia extended to (1845), II
            110
    Jews of, continue to wear Jewish dress, II 145
    influence of Talmud prevails in, II 51
    Hasidism firmly established in, II 122 f
    Polish insurrection of 1863, II 178 ff, 182 f
    patriotic attitude of Jews in, II 179 ff
    Jewish disabilities in, removed by Alexander II. (1862), II
            181;
      and re-established by Alexander III., 367
    Jews of, accused of separation, II 195
    Poles try to stop pogrom at Warsaw (1881), II 283
    Poles perpetrate pogrom on Jews of Chenstokhov (1902), III
            36
    Jewish labor movement in, III 55
    Jews of, active in Russian revolution of 1905, III 107
    terrorism in (1905), III 130
    Jews in, intimidated during Duma elections, III 134
      recrudescence of anti-Semitism in (1905), III 166 ff
    Jews of, subjected to economic boycott (1912), III 167 f
    Jewish life in, depicted by Perez, III 61;
      and Ash, III 162
    See also Poland (Great), Poland (Little), Polish Language,
            Polonization, and Warsaw

  =Poland, Great=, forms feudal principality, I 41 f
    Posen leading city of, I 74, 110, 196
    part of, conquered by Swedes (1655), I 154 f
    part of, annexed by Prussia (1772), I 187;
      (1793), I 292;
      (1795), I 297
    formed by Napoleon into Duchy of Warsaw (1807), I 297
    tribunal of, at Piotrkov, I 96
    provincial diet of, I 113
    Boleslav, prince of, grants charter to Jews of principality
            (1264), I 45, 51
    Jews of, secure ratification of charter (1548), I 83
    Jewish communities of, receive charter of autonomy (1551),
            I 105 ff
    "senior rabbis" of, confirmed by Sigismund I. (1518), I 105
    represented on Council of Four Lands, I 110
    federated Kahals of, meet periodically, I 196
    Jews of, massacred by Polish troops (1656), I 155 f

  =Poland, Little=, forms feudal principality, I 41 f
    Cracow, leading city of, I 74
    includes Western Galicia, I 53
    part of, conquered by Swedes (1655), I 154 f
    annexation of, completed by Austria (1795), I 297
    added by Napoleon to duchy of Warsaw (1809), I 297
    tribunal of, at Lublin, I 96
    "senior rabbis" of, confirmed by Sigismund I. (1541), I 105,
            109, 122
    represented on Council of Four Lands, I 110
    federated Kahals of, meet periodically, I 196
    Jews of, massacred by Polish troops (1656), I 155 f
    Jewish commercial activity held to be injurious to, I 288

  =Polemics, and Political Literature=, between Jews and Christians
            in Poland, I 136 ff

  =Police=, central department of, in St. Petersburg co-operates
            with rioters in Kerch, III 120
    abets October pogroms (1905), III 125 f
    charged by First Duma with complicity in pogroms, II 136
    complicity of, in pogroms disclosed by Urussov, III 138

  =Police, Political=, known as "The Third Section," term explained,
            II 21
    chief of, appointed on Committee for Radical Transformation
            of Jews (1840), II 50
    crushes revolutionary endeavors, II 140
    calls forth terrorism, II 184
    distributes anti-Semitic book among detectives, II 204
    reports on revolutionary activities of Jews, II 348

  =Polish Language= used for literary purposes by Nahman and Belzhytz,
            I 136 f
    by rabbi of Khelm, I 283
    by anonymous orthodox rabbi, II 98
    by Jewish weekly, II 213
    See also Language and Polonization

  =Politz=, Universal History by, translated into Hebrew, II 134

  =Pollak, Jacob=, of Prague, introduces _pilpul_ method into Poland,
            I 122

  =Pollak=, of Minsk, offer of, to establish Jewish agricultural
            colony refused by Government, III 25

  =Polonization=, advocated by David Friedländer and his followers,
            I 386, II 90
    champions of, advocate abolition of Jewish autonomy, II 100
    rabbinical seminary at Warsaw established for, II 103
    among Jewish _intelligenzia_ in Poland, II 182
    extreme form of, in Warsaw, II 213

  =Polonnoye= (Volhynia), Khmelnitzki massacre in (1648), I 148
            f
    Jacob Joseph Cohen, rabbi of, I 227, 230

  =Polotzk= (government of Vitebsk), Jews of, drowned by Russian
            invaders (1654), I 243
    Jewish coachmen of, forbidden to drive beyond Pale, II 70
    government of, former name for government of Vitebsk;
      see Vitebsk (government)
    Kahal of, appealed to by Elijah of Vilna against Hasidism,
            I 373

  =Polovtzis=, succeed Khazars as masters of Crimea, I 29

  =Poltava= (city), Osip Rabinovich, Russian-Jewish writer, native
            of, II 238

  =Poltava= (region, or government), subject to Poland, I 140
    ceded to Russia (1667), I 159
    included in Pale (1794), I 317;
      (1835), II 40
    Pavluk, Cossack leader, massacres Jews of (1637), I 144
    Jews forbidden residence in (1649), I 151;
      readmitted (1651), I 152
    Jewish communities of, disappear almost entirely (1648), I
            157
    few Jews survive in (after 1648), I 246
    Jews of White Russia settle in, 321
    Jews expelled from villages of, II 341
      Localities in:
        Borispol, II 267
        Lokhvitz, I 145
        Lubny, I 144, 145
        Pereyaslav, I 145; II 265
        Piryatin, I 145

  =Pomerania=, annexed by Prussia (1772), I 187, 262

  =Poniatovski, Stanislav Augustus=, king of Poland (1764-1795),
            reign of, I 180 ff
    election of, preceded by change in system of Jewish taxation,
            I 197
    protects Simeon Volfovich, spokesman of Vilna Jewish masses,
            against Kahal, I 276
    receives plan of Jewish reform from Hirshovich, royal broker,
            I 284
    grants solemn audience to Jews, I 290 f

  =Pontus Euxinus=, see Black Sea

  =Populism= (in Russian, _narodnichestvo_), branch of Russian
            revolutionary movement, II 222 f
    anti-Semitic tendency of, II 279 f
    influences Jacob Gordin, II 333

  =Popiel=, ancient Polish ruler, I 40

  =Popov=, member of "Jewish Committee" of Russian Government,
            I 352

  =Port Arthur=, Jews expelled from, III 94;
      and denied right of residence in, III 157

  =Posen= (_Polish_, Poznan), leading city of Great Poland, I 42,
            74, 110, 116
    surrendered by Shlakhta to invading Swedes (1655), I 155
    refugees from crusades settle in, I 41
    Jews of, petition Casimir IV. to renew charter (1447), I 61
    Jews of, petition Sigismund I. to ratify election of rabbis
            (1518), I 104
    Jews of, persecuted on charge of host desecration, I 55, 95
    riots in, I 64, 75, 90, 95, 161
    Jews of, restricted in economic pursuits, I 74, 95
    magistracy of, joins other cities in economic fight against
            Jews, I 75
    Jews of, limited to separate quarter, I 75;
      and forbidden to increase number of houses, I 85
    rights of Jews of, enlarged by Stephen Batory, I 89 f
    Jews of, accused of ritual murder (1736), I 172, 174 ff
    Jewish community of, represented on Council of Four Lands,
            I 110
    exorcism of devils in, I 203
    rabbis of:
      Naphtali Cohen, I 204
      Solomon Edels (_Maharsho_), I 129
      Sheftel Horowitz, I 135, 158
      Mordecai Jaffe, I 127
      Solomon Luria (_Maharshal_), native of, I 120
      Arie Leib Calahora, preacher in, I 175

  =Posen=, province of, annexed by Prussia (1772), I 187, 262
    Polish troops destroy Jewish communities in (1656), I 156

  =Posner, Solomon=, prominent Jew in Warsaw, II 103

  =Potemkin=, Nota Shklover purveyor to army of, I 338

  =Pototzki= (_Polish_, Potocki), commander of Polish army, I 145

  =Politzki=, voyevoda of Kiev, I 184

  =Polotzki, Severin=, member of "Jewish Committee" of Russian
            Government (1802), I 335

  =Politzki, Stanislav=, delivers eulogy on Berek Yoselovich, I
            303 f

  =Praga=, suburb of Warsaw, attached by Russian Government (1802),
            I 335
    home of Berek Yoselovich, I 294

  =Prague=, capital of Bohemia, visited by Pethahiah of Ratisbon,
            I 33
    Jews attacked by crusaders in, I 41
    Mordecai Jaffe, rabbi of, I 127

  =Pravo ("The Law")=, Russian journal, suppressed for protesting
            against Kishinev massacre, III 77
    protests against court verdict in Homel pogrom, III 103 f

  =Prayer=, importance of, emphasized by Besht, I 226
    Hasidim adopt Ari's form of, I 231

  =Press, Russian=, used euphemistically to designate Russian Government,
            II 386
    pursues anti-Semitic policy, II 278, 379, III 31 f
    makes no reference to expulsion from Moscow, II 407
    liberal P. protests against Kishinev massacre, III 76 f
    stifled by Plehve, III 77

  =Press, Jewish=, in Russia, II 216 ff
    in Hebrew, II 217 f, 372, III 58, 162
    in Yiddish, III 58 f, 162
    in Russian, II 218 ff, 277 f;
      yields to press in Hebrew, II 372

  =Press, Foreign=, protest against Jewish disabilities, II 381
    reports (together with Russian P.) on anti-Semitic exploits
            of Russian officials, II 384
    denounces expulsion of Jews from Moscow, II 407 f
    protests against Kishinev massacre, III 77
    See Printing-Presses

  =Prikahalki=, name for minor Kahals, I 108, 193;
      see Kahals

  =Priluker, Jacob=, founder of Judeo-Christian sect, II 334 f
    becomes Christian missionary, II 335

  =Printing-Press=, Hebrew, of Cracow and Lublin, I 131
    of Vilna, II 42, 115, 127
    of Slavuta, II 42, 123
    of Kiev, II 43;
      transferred to Zhitomir, II 43
    establishment of, by Russian Government, suggested by Dyerzhavin,
            I 333
    See Censorship

  =Professions=, restrictions in pursuit of, II 26 f;
      see Bar, and Physicians;
      also Education and University

  =Pro-Gymnazium=, term explained, III 29;
      see Gymnazium

  =Prokhonvik, Abraham=, legendary king of Poland, I 40

  =Property, Real=; see Villages

  =Propination= (_Polish_, Propinacya), right of distilling and
            selling liquor, term explained, I 67
    carried on by Jews in Poland, I 67;
      and Ukraine, I 141
    forced upon Jews by economic factors, I 266 f
    from Polish pan by Jewish arendar, I 93, 170, 265
    connected with other economic pursuits, I 93, 361 f
    elimination of Jews from, advocated by Polish reformers (1782),
            I 272 f, 280;
      recommended by Polish Government Committee (1815), II 89;
      and demanded by Polish Diet (1818), II 100
    law barring Jews from, issued by Duchy of Warsaw (1812), I
            304 f;
      but vetoed by Alexander I. (1816), II 94
    participation of Jews in, defended by Polish officer, II 98
    Jews of annexed White Russia hampered in pursuit of (1784),
            I 311 ff
    Polish nobles of annexed Polish provinces advocate elimination
            of Jews from, I 323 ff
    abuses of, set forth by Russian Government Committee (1804),
            I 341 f
    committee appointed to consider elimination of Jews from (1809),
            I 352 f;
      but reports against it (1812), I 353 f
    economic mainstay of village Jewry, I 361 f
    nobility of White Russia demands elimination of Jews from,
            I 405;
      decreed for villages of White Russia (1823), I 406
    occupies central place in economic structure of Russian Jewry,
            II 72
    big Jewish capital transferred from, to railroad, II 186
    Government Committee recommends elimination of Jews from (1882),
            II 310
    Government monopoly of, urged as means of removing Jews from
            villages, III 17
    effects of Government monopoly of, III 22 f
    See Villages

  =Protestantism=, see Reformation

  =Protoyerey=, Russian ecclesiastic title, term explained, II
            301

  =Prussia= shares in partition of Poland, I 185 f, 262, 292, 297
    participates in siege of Warsaw (1794), I 293
    rules over Warsaw (1796-1806), I 385
    shattered by Napoleon, I 347
    represented at Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, I 398 f
    introduces Jewish reforms in annexed Polish provinces, I 385
    Jewish regulations of, serve as model for Russian statesmen,
            I 331, II 46, 49
    Jewish socialist expelled from, II 224
    See Berlin

  =Pshemyshl= (_Polish_, Pszemysl), see Stupnitza

  =Pskov=, Jews exiled from (1654), I 154
    situated outside Pale, II 70

  =Ptolemies=, the Jewish center under rule of, I 14

  =Pulavy=, Poland, Jews of, manifest Polish patriotism, I 292

  =Pushkin=, Russian poet, relation of, to Jews, II 138

  =Pyetukhov=, member of political police, exposes complicity of
            Government in pogrom, III 140


  =Quadrennial Diet=, see Diet, Quadrennial


  =Raaben, von=, governor of Bessarabia, refuses to stop Kishinev
            pogrom, III 74 f
    sued for damages by Jews, III 92

  =Rabbanites=, in Crimea, I 28, 34

  =Rabbinical Commission=, appointed by Russian Government (1842),
            II 56
    Jews of Western Europe invited to participate in, II 67
    Rabbi Mendel of Lubavich, member of, II 118

  =Rabbinical Schools= (modern), opened by assimilationist Jews
            in Warsaw (1826), II 103 f
    opening of, decreased by Nicholas I. (1844), II 38
    pupils of, promised alleviations in military service, II 58
    graduates of, intended to supersede former type of rabbis and
            teachers, II 58, 176
    opened in Vilna and Zhitomir (1847), II 59, 174 f
    graduates of, act as Government agents, II 212
    graduates of, form revolutionary circle, II 223
    Levanda, graduate of, II 239
    closed (1873), II 177

  =Rabbinism= opposes Hasidism, I 233 f, 235 ff
    opposes enlightenment, I 238 f
    firmly entrenched during reign of Alexander I., 380
    uncompromising attitude of, II 111 ff

  =Rabbis= (and Rabbinate), officially recognized by Polish king,
            I 101 ff
    clothed with wide powers, I 73, 105 ff
    bear title of _Morenu_, I 117
    relation of, to Kahal, I 107 f
    conferences of, I 108 f
    conference of, "tries" demons in Posen, I 203
    accused of purchasing offices from pans, I 284
    jurisdiction of, limited to religious affairs (1804), I 344
    deprived of right of imposing _herem_ (1804), I 344
    highly respected by Jews of Russia, II 112
    exempted from military service, II 20
    reform of, recommended by Council of State, II 49;
      by I. B. Levinsohn, II 128;
      and by other Maskilim, II 136 f
    fanaticism of, attacked by Mapu, II 227 f
    See Crown Rabbis

  =Rabinovich, I.=, founder of Congregation of New Testament Israelites,
            II 335

  =Rabinovich, Osip= (=Joseph=), editor of _Razsvyet_, II 219 f
    author of Jewish novels (in Russian), II 238

  =Rabinovitz, S.=, see Shalom Aleichem

  =Radom=, see Shidlovitz

  =Radzieyevski=, Polish sub-chancellor, betrays Poland to Swedes,
            I 155

  =Radzionovski=, Greek-Orthodox priest, admonishes rioters at
            Balta, I 301 f

  =Radziwill=, Prince, patron of Saul Wahl, I 94

  =Radziwill=, voyevoda of Vilna, settles dispute between rabbis
            and Kahal, I 276

  =Railroads=, Jews become interested in, II 186

  =Rakhmistorvka= (government of Kiev), hasidic center, II 120

  =Randar=, see Arendar

  =Rashi=, works of, studied in Poland, I 117

  =Ratisbon=, see Pethahiah of Ratisbon

  =Ratner, M.=, counsel for victims of Homel pogrom, III 102
    member of Central Committee of League for Equal Rights, III
            112

  =Rav= (or _Rov_), name for rabbi, II 120

  =Ravski, M.=, prominent Jew in Warsaw, II 103

  =Razryaden=, "Assortment" of Jews;
      see Assortment

  =Razsvyet= ("=The Dawn="), Jewish periodical in Russian, II 218,
            219 f, 238
    resumes publication, after interruption, in St. Petersburg,
            II 221, 277
    publishes statement of Ignatyev inviting Jews to emigrate,
            II 285
    favors organization of emigration movement, II 298
    champions "Love of Zion," II 332
    discontinued (1883), II 372
    appears again in St. Petersburg, III 162

  =Razumovksi=, president of Russian academy, deplores anti-Jewish
            prejudice, I 258

  =Real Estate=, see Villages

  =Rebbe=, popular name for Tzaddik, or hasidic leader, II 120;
      see Tzaddik

  =Recanati, Menahem=, Italian Cabalist, work of, studied in Poland,
            I 134

  =Recruits= (and Recruiting), recruiting ukase of 1827, II 18
            ff
    minor recruits, see Cantonists
    Jewish committee, or Kahals held responsible for quota of, II 19 f
    oath of allegiance of, marked by great solemnity, II 20
    kept apart from non-Jewish recruits, II 21
    recruiting (or conscription) trustees of Kahals, II 19 f
      turned into police agents, I 22 f;
      retained after abolition of Kahal, II 60;
      made personally responsible for completion of quota, II 147
    sent to recruiting jails, II 24
    divorce wives before leaving home, II 28
    drafting of "penal" recruits decreed (1850), II 147 f
    community of Mstislavl punished by drafting penal recruits,
            II 86
    individual Jews permitted to capture recruits as substitutes
            (1853), II 148 f
    See Military Service and Soldiers

  =Red Russia=, see Russia, Red

  =Reforms=, religious, in Judaism, advocated by Lilienblum, II
            236
    preached by Jacob Gordin (and others), II 333 ff
    reform Judaism attacked by Smolenskin, II 234

  =Reformation= affects unfavorably position of Jews in Poland,
            I 79 f, 85 ff
    stimulates literary polemics, I 135 ff
    Polish adherents of, welcome invading Swedes, I 155
    fear of, responsible for Jewish tragedy in Cracow, I 164 f
    Russian sect of Stundists traceable to influence of, II 333

  =Reisin=, Yiddish writer, III 162

  =Renan= protests against Jewish persecutions, II 326

  =Repnin=, governor-general of Lithuania, promises to respect
            Jewish autonomy, I 320

  "=Republic=" (_Polish_, Rzecz Pospolita), title applied to Poland
            (after 1572), I 88, 262

  =Residence, Right of=, denied to Jews in towns of ancient Poland;
      see "_De non Tolerandis Iudæis_";
      particularly in Warsaw, I 85, 268, 300; II 94 f
    tax paid by Jews for, in Warsaw, II 95
    all restrictions in, abolished in Poland (1862), II 181;
      reintroduced by Alexander III. (1891), II 367
    withdrawn from Jews of Ukraina (1649), I 151;
      and returned to them (1651), II 152
    withdrawn from Jews of Little Russia (1727), I 250
    in ancient Russia, see Moscow, principality of
    in modern Russia, see Interior, Pale of Settlement, and Expulsions
    outside of cities and towns, see Villages
    non-Jews plead before Government for grant of, to Jews, I 256,
            II 319
    denied to Jews in health and summer resorts, III 18 ff, 154,
            157
    See also Capitals, and under Kiev and Moscow

  =Resolution=, term explained, I 253
    by Empress Anna, sentencing Borukkov and Voznitzin to death
            (1738), I 253
    by Empress Elizabeth, excluding Jews from Russia (1741), I
            257;
      referred to by Empress Catherine II., I 259, 261
    by Paul I., approving of anti-Jewish restrictions (1797), I
            323
    by Nicholas I., postponing expulsion of Jews from villages,
            opposing admission of Jewish merchants to Interior, II 36;
      expelling Jews from 50-verst zone, II 62;
      limiting Jewish coachmen to Pale, II 70;
      closing synagogues in Velizh, II 78;
      expressing doubt about existence of ritual murder, II 80;
      punishing Jews of Mstislavl, II 86
    R's. of Alexander III. assume power of laws, II 339
    by Nicholas II., opposing abrogation of Pale, III 11

  =Resorts=, see Residence, Right of

  =Restrictions=, against Jews, enormous extent of, admitted by
            Pahlen Commission, II 364
    Guildhall meeting in London protests against, II 391
    Russian governors favor repeal of, III 93
    regarded by Council of Ministers as cause of revolutionary
            movement among Jews, III 141
    new R's. decreed by Third Duma, III 156 f
    in army, II 319 f, 354 ff
    in commerce, see Commerce
    in dress, see Dress
    in keeping domestics, see Domestics
    in education, II 348 ff, III 27 ff;
      see Educational Restriction
    in language, see Language
    in professions, II 352 f, III 26 f
    in trades, see Artisans
    in rights of residence, see Residence, Right of, also Interior
            and Pale

  =Revolutionary Movement=, in Russia, unfriendly attitude of,
            towards Jews, I 409 ff
    anti-Semitic tendency of, II 279 f
    early pogroms ascribed to influence of, II 259 f, 269, 279
    Jews participate in, II 198, 221 ff, 243 f, III 67 ff, 105
            ff
    Jewish college men join ranks of, II 348;
      particularly graduates of foreign universities, III 31
    Jews held responsible for, III 70
    spread of, among Jews, admitted by Russian officials as due
            to restrictive laws, II 364 f, III 93, 141
    participation of Jews in, blamed for pogroms, II 305, III 89
            152;
      intensifies anti-Semitism, III 16;
      prompts anti-Jewish restrictions at universities, III 28
    pogroms engineered for suppression of, III 66 ff, 137
    pogroms intensify spread of, among Jews, III 90
    Zionism prohibited as contributory to, III 82
    intensified after death of Plehve, III 98
    combated by Black Hundred, III 124 ff
    Jewish participants in, executed, III 140;
    see Bund and Socialism

  =Rhescupondes, Dynasty of=, rulers of Jewish colonies in Crimea,
            I 14 f

  =Rhine=, the, Jewish immigration into Poland from, I 41

  =Richelieu=, Duke, governor of Kherson, interested in Jewish
            agriculture, I 303 f

  =Richter, De=, aide-de-camp of Alexander III., receives pro-Jewish
            petition from Mayor of London, II 393

  =Riesser, Gabriel=, German-Jewish publicist, II 219
    compared with Osip Rabinovich, II 238

  =Riga=, magistracy of, protests against contemplated expulsion
            of Jews (1743), I 256
    Jews of White Russia forbidden to settle in, I 313
    Max Lilienthal resides in, II 52
    Lilienthal's school in, pointed to as model, II 137
    Jewish community of, protests against denial of Jewish franchise
            (1905), III 121
    See also Livonia

  =Rindfleisch=, persecution of, in Germany, drives Jews into Poland,
            I 50

  =Riots=, see Pogroms

  =Ripon=, Bishop of, addresses Guildhall meeting in favor of Russian
            Jews, II 391

  =Rishon-le-Zion=, Jewish colony in Palestine, II 322, 375

  =Ritual Murder Libel= (blood accusation), forbidden by Boleslav
            of Kalish (1264), I 47;
      by Sigismund II. (1564 and 1566), I 88;
      by Stephen Batory (1575), I 89
    frequency of, in Poland, I 95, 172 ff, II 74, 99
    General of Dominican Order in Rome warns Poles against (1664),
            I 165
    Polish Jews appeal to pope against (1758), I 179
    prohibition of, confirmed by Augustus III. (1763), I 180
    supported by sect of Frankists, I 216 f
    forbidden in kingdom of Poland by Russian Government (1817),
            II 99
    repeated by Abbé Chiarini in Warsaw, II 104
    prejudices Peter the Great against Jews, I 247 f
    assumes malign aspect under Nicholas I., II 73
    believed by Nicholas I., I 79, 83
    affects Jewish legislation in Russia, II 79
    refuted by Isaac Baer Levinsohn, II 131
    commission for investigation of, appointed by Nicholas I. (1854),
            II 151
    defended by Lutostanski, II 203 f, 244
    Alexander III. gives credence to, II 203, 244
    championed by _Novoye Vremya_, II 205
    preached by Krushevan, III 70
    cases of (in Poland):
      Bielsk, I 87
      Cracow, I 56 f
      Lenchitza, I 100 f
      Lublin, I 96, 100
      Posen, I 172
      Ruzhany, I 162 ff
      Sandomir, I 172 ff
      Zaslav, I 172
      Zhitomir, I 178
      minor places, I 178
    cases of (in Russia):
      Dubossary, III 71
      Gordonya, II 247 f
      Grodno, II 73
      Kiev (Beilis trial), see Beilis
      Kishinev, III 71
      Kutais (Caucasus), II 204
      Nizhni-Novgorod, II 360 f
      Saratov, II 150 ff
      Velizh, II 75 ff
      Vilna (Blondes trial), III 37

  =Rivkes, Moses=, of Vilna, Hebrew author, I 200

  =Rodichev=, Duma deputy, denounces Bialystok pogrom, II 137,
            139
    defends Jews, III 156

  =Rodkinson=, publishes _ha-Kol_, II 223

  =Rogov, Anton=, propagates "Judaizing heresy," I 402

  =Roman Empire=, immigration into Western Europe proceeds from,
            I 13
    sovereignty of, acknowledged by rulers of Crimea, I 14 f
    menaced by Khazars, I 20

  =Rome=, nuncio Lippomano dispatched from, to Poland, I 86
    general of Dominican Order in, defends Polish Jews, I 165
    Ambassador of Muscovy at, I 242

  =Romny=, pogrom at (October 1905), III 128

  =Ronne and Simon=, quoted, I 331

  =Rosenthal, Leon=, founder of Society for Diffusion of Enlightenment,
            II 214

  =Rosenthal, N.=, leader of Vilna Maskilim, II 136

  =Rosh-Pinah=, Jewish colony in Palestine, II 375

  =Rosh-Yeshibah=, head of Talmudic academy, recognized by Polish
            Government, I 115 f
    position of in Jewish community, I 116 ff

  =Rossie=, mythical philosopher, quoted in support of blood accusation,
            II 73

  =Rostov= (on the Don), placed outside Pale and closed to Jews,
            II 346
    pogrom at, II 358

  =Rothschild, Alphonse de=, of Paris, refuses to participate in
            Russian loan, II 408
    attacked by _Novoye Vremya_, II 410
    refusal of, infuriates Russian Government, II 417

  =Rothschild, Edmond de=, of Paris, supports Jewish colonization
            of Palestine, II 375 f, 422

  =Rothschild, Nathaniel de=, of London, member of Committee for
            Pogrom Victims, II 291

  =Rothschilds=, the, of Paris, offer to pay transportation of
            Russian Jews to Algiers, II 69
    expected to participate in Russian loan, II 407 f

  =Roumania= compelled by Congress of Berlin to emancipate Jews,
            II 202
    Jews of, establish colonies in Palestine, II 375

  =Rovno= (Volhynia), pogrom at, III 99

  =Rum=, name for Byzantium, I 24

  =Russ=, old name for Russia, I 33;
      Red Russia, I 115

  =Russ=, anti-Semitic newspaper in Moscow, II 278, 325

  =Russia=, ancient, see Moscow, principality of, and Kiev, principality
            of
    exercises protectorate over Poland, I 181
    Jews expelled from (1741), I 255
    shares in partition of Poland, I 186 f, 262, 292, 297, 314
    joins Prussia in besieging Warsaw (1794), I 293
    represented at Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, I 398
    Jews of Poland transferred to, I 241
    Jews of White Russia brought under dominion of (1792), I 306
            ff
    attitude of, towards Jews, I 242 ff
    admission of Jews to, favored by Senate and refused by Catherine
            II., I 259 f
    follows traditional Muscovite policy in excluding Jews, I 246
            f, 341, II 35 f
    institutes Pale of Settlement, I 314
    adopts policy of exceptional laws, I 314 ff
    Jews loyal to, in Franco-Russian War (1812), I 355 ff
    Zionists of, assemble at Minsk Convention, III 45
    importance of Zionism for Jews of, II 146 ff

  =Russia, Great=, laborers from, active in pogroms, II 248, 256,
            359

  =Russia, Little=, population of, I 53
    ceded to Russia (1654), I 94, 153
    annexed by Russia (1667), I 159, 244
    Jews barred from, I 246
    ritual murder in, I 247 f
    Jews expelled from (1727), I 249 f
    Cossacks of, protest against exclusion of Jews, I 250
    Jews admitted to fairs of, I 250 f
    Jews penetrate into, and settle in, I 253, 255
    expelled again from (1740), I 254
    inhabitants of, protest against exclusion of Jews, I 256
    admission of Jews into, favored by Senate, I 257
    Empress Elizabeth insists on expulsion of Jews from (1844),
            I 257
    representatives of, plead for admission of Jews, I 260
    Catherine II. refuses to admit Jews into, I 261
    included in Pale (1794), I 317;
      (1804), 342;
      (1835), II 40
    Jews of White Russia settle in, I 321 f
    Great Russians, or _Katzaps_, prepare pogroms in, II 248, 256,
            359

  =Russia, New (South Russia)=, steppes of, inhabited by Cossacks,
            I 142 f
    Jews permitted to settle in (1791), I 316
    Karaites of, granted special privileges (1795), I 318
    included in Pale (1804), I 342;
      (1835), II 40
    expelled village Jews beg to be transferred to, I 352
    Jews of White Russia settle as farmers in, I 363 f
    agricultural immigration into, temporarily stopped (1810),
            I 365
    Government attempts to settle "Israelitish Christians" in,
            I 400
    Jewish agricultural colonies in, II 70 f, 197
    Max Lilienthal makes educational tour, through, II 56
    represented on Rabbinical Commission of Bezalel Stern, II 57
    Odessa, capital of, center of Haskalah, II 132
    Vorontzov, governor-general of, defends Jews, II 64 ff
    Stroganov, governor-general of, advocates emancipation of Jews,
            II 168 f
    pogroms in, II 249 ff
    See Odessa

  =Russia, Red=, occasionally called Russia (or Russ), I 75, 115
    corresponds to Eastern Galicia, I 53
    forms independent principality, I 53
    annexed by Casimir the Great, I 42, 53
    Lemberg, leading city of, I 74
    invaded by Khmelnitzki, I 150 f
    Jews forbidden to sell cloth in, I 75
    Jews of, represented on Council of Four Lands, I 110
    federated Kahals of, I 196
    Solomon of Lemberg, chosen spiritual head of, I 115
    voyevoda of, grants constitution to Lemberg Jews, I 191
    See Lemberg

  =Russia, White=, Ukrainian bands penetrate into (1648), I 149
    invaded by Russian troops (1654), I 153 f, 244 f
    annexed by Russia (1772), I 186, 262, 306
    divided into two governments (Moghilev and Vitebsk), I 307
    becomes Jewish intellectual center, I 159 f
    federated Kahals of, I 196
    traces of Sabbatian propaganda in, I 205
    differs intellectually from South-west, I 221
    Hasidism spreads in, I 230, 238, 372;
      but excelled by Rabbinism, I 274
    distinct character of Hasidism in, I 233 ff
    Kahals of, appealed to by Elijah Gaon against Hasidism, I 373
    Hasidism in, founded by Shneor Zalman, I 234, 356, II 57;
      and represented by his dynasty, II 117
    Jews of, penetrate into Moscow, I 245;
      and Smolensk, I 249
    Russian Government promises Jews of, preservation of ancient
            liberties (1772), I 306 f, 366
    Jews of, numbered and taxed, I 307
    internal organization of Jews in, I 308 ff
    Kahals of, recognized by Government, I 309;
      but restricted to spiritual affairs and collection of taxes,
            I 313
    Jews of, oppressed by Passek, governor-general, I 310 ff
    Jews of, appeal to Catherine II., I 311
    Jews of, refused permission to settle in Riga, I 313;
      and outside of White Russia in general, 315 f
    included in Pale (1794), I 317;
      (1804), I 342;
      (1835, except villages), II 40
    Jews of, immigrate to New Russia, I 364, II 70
    famine in (1821), I 329
    Dyerzhavin sent as investigator to, I 328 f, 386
    Jews of, emigrate to New Russia, I 364; II 70
    Jews in, elected to municipal offices, I 368
    Jews of, marked by public spirit, I 379
    traces of "Enlightenment" in, I 386
    new famine in (1821), suggests expulsion of Jews from villages,
            I 405 f
    expulsion of Jews from villages of, decreed (1823), I 406;
      and carried out, I 407;
      denounced as useless by Council of State (1835), I 407, II
            34 f
    expelled village Jews of, settle in New Russia, II 70
    Jewish agricultural settlements in, II 72
    Khovanski, governor-general of, active in ritual murder trial,
            II 76 ff;
      see Velizh
    pogroms checked by authorities of (1881), II 267
    pogroms spread in, III 87 ff, 100 f;
      see Moghilev, Vitebsk, and Villages

  =Russian Language=, the, Jewish literature in, II 238 ff
    Jewish writers in, hail from South, II 238
    declared native language of Jews by sect "New Israel," II 334
    Jewish press in, III 59, 162
    Frug, Jewish poet, writes in, III 63
    Jewish science in, III 65
    See also Language

  =Russian Poland=, see Poland

  =Russians=, the, tribe, in land of Khazars, I 22
    relation of, to Khazars, I 26, 28
    converted to Greek-Orthodoxy, I 31
    See Russia

  _Russification_ of Jews, under Alexander II., II 174 ff, 206
            ff, 215
    advocated by Orshanski, II 239;
      and Levanda, II 239 f
    discarded by Jewish _intelligenzia_, II 326 ff, III 163

  =Russkaya Zhizn= ("Russian Life"), newspaper in St. Petersburg,
            pictures sufferings of Moscow Jews, II 397

  =Russki Vyestnik= ("Russian Herald"), Russian magazine, defends
            Jews, II 207 f

  =Russki Yevrey= ("The Russian Jew"), Jewish weekly in Russian,
            in St. Petersburg, II 221, 277
    pursues moderate policy, II 332
    discontinued (1884), II 372

  =Russo-Japanese War= interrupts labor of Government Commission
            on Jewish Question, III 93
    participation of Jews in, III 94 ff
    Jewish veterans of, granted universal right of residence, III
            98 f
    Jewish surgeons in, accused of revolutionary propaganda, III
            156
    Jewish soldiers in, denied residence in Port Arthur, III 157

  =Ruthenians, or Little Russians=, the, I 53
    belong to Uniat Church, I 141;
      see Russia, Little

  =Ruzhany= (province of Grodno), ritual murder case of, I 162

  =Ruzhin=, Israel of, hasidic leader, II 120 f

  =Rybalenko=, alleged victim of ritual murder, III 71


  =Sabbatai Zevi=, name of, left out by Halperin, contemporary
            Polish-Jewish chronicler, I 201
    Hayyun, emissary of, I 204
    Polish Jews respond to claims of, I 204;
      and send deputation to, I 206 f
    betrayed by Nehemiah Cohen, I 207
    Polish Jews loyal to, I 207
    Jacob Frank considered reincarnation of, I 212 f, 214;
      and follows example of, I 216
    See Sabbatians

  =Sabbatarians=, the, "Sabbath observers," "Judaizing" sect in
            Russia, I 401 ff

  =Sabbatians=, the, adherents of Sabbatai Zevi, movement of, in
            Poland, I 204 ff
    Council of Four Lands objects to, I 196
    join adherents of Judah Hasid, I 209
    pose as Mohammedans, I 210
    continue secretly in Podolia and Galicia, I 210 f
    Jacob Frank associates with, I 212 ff
    Hasidim accused of continuing work of, I 376

  =Sack=, St. Petersburg banker, member of Jewish deputation to
            Alexander III., II 261

  "=Sacred League," The=, organization of high Russian officials,
            suspected of assisting pogroms, II 248

  =Sadogora= (Bukovina), Israel of Ruzhin settles in, II 121
    hasidic dynasty of, II 121

  =Safed= (Palestine), _Ari_ and Vital, Cabalists, in, I 134, 134

  =Salant= (government of Kovno), M. A. Ginzburg, Hebrew writer,
            native of, II 133

  =Salisbury=, Lord, English premier, answers interpellation concerning
            Jewish persecutions in Russia, II 382

  =Saloniki=, center of Sabbatian movement, I 207
    Jacob Frank resides in, I 212

  =Samkers=, Jewish city on Taman Peninsula, I 23

  =Samkrtz= (Samkers), locality in Crimea, I 26

  =Samogitia (Zhmud)=, Russian province, name explained, I 293,
            II 133

  =Samson=, of Ostropol, cabalist and martyr, I 148 f

  =Samoyeds=, tribe in government of Archangel, II 367

  =Samuel Ben Ali=, Gaon of Bagdad, corresponds with Moses of Kiev,
            I 33

  =San=, river, provinces on, invaded by Swedes, I 154

  =Sanchez, Antonio=, Jewish court physician in Russia, I 258

  =Sandomir= (Galicia), ritual murder of, I 172 ff
    Jews expelled from, I 173

  =Saratov= (city), ritual murder of, II 150 ff
    pogrom at, III 130

  =Saratov= (government), "Judaizing" movement in, I 401 f

  =Sardis=, city in Asia Minor, Jewish community in, I 14

  =Sarkel=, city in Crimea, I 26

  =Sarmatians=, tribe, I 14

  =Sassanido=, dynasty of, in Persia, I 19

  =Satanov= (Podolia), rabbis assemble at, I 213
    Mendel Lewin, Hebrew writer, native of, I 388

  =Savitzki=, convert, accuses Jews of ritual murder, II 73

  =Savory, Sir Joseph=, Lord Mayor of London, presides at Guildhall
            meeting, II 390 ff
    signs and forwards to Tzar petition on behalf of Russian Jews,
            II 392

  =Savranski, Moses=, hasidic leader, II 121

  =Saym= (_Polish_, Sejm), see Diet

  =Saymists=, the, name of Jewish Socialistic Labor Party, III
            145

  =Sazonov=, Russian terrorist, kills Plehve, III 97

  =Schechter, Solomon=, quoted, I 27

  =Schiller=, impressed by autobiography of Solomon Maimon, I 240
    works of, translated into Hebrew, II 226

  =Schiltberber=, German traveller, refers to Jews in Crimea, I
            34

  =Schluesselburg=, near St. Petersburg, prison at, II 97

  =Schneider=, warden of Moscow synagogue, exiled, II 424

  =School=, traditional Jewish, see Heder and Yeshibah
    modern Jewish S's. in Odessa (1826), II 133;
      and in Riga and Kishinev, II 52
    S. of Handicrafts (in Zhitomir) closed by Alexander III. (1884),
            II 347
    large S. fund offered to Russian Government by Baron Hirsch,
            II 415;
      transferred to S's. in Galicia, II 416
    Jewish trade S. in Moscow, III 13
    Talmud Torah S. in Moscow, III 13
    sending of Jews to Russian Government S's. urged by Friesel,
            governor of Vilna, I 327, and Dyerzhavin, I 333
    Statute of 1804 permits Jews to attend Government S's., or
            to open secular S's. of their own, I 344 f
    Jews shun secular S's., I 350, 380
    graduates of Government S's. exempted from military service
            (1827), II 20
    Council of State criticises traditional Jewish S. (1840), II
            48;
      and suggests special Government (or Crown) S's. for Jews,
            II 49
    opening of network of Jewish Crown S's. urged by Uvarov, II
            51
    S. of Lilienthal in Riga serves as model, II 52
    Lilienthal commissioned to organize Crown S's., II 56
    opening of Crown S's. decreed by Nicholas I. (1844), II 58
    attendance at Crown S's. made compulsory, II 58
    attendance at Crown S's. stimulated by alleviation in military
            service, II 58, 164, 174
    graduation from Crown S's. made obligatory for rabbis and teachers,
            II 58
    Crown S's. expected to weaken influence of Talmud, II 51, 58
    Crown S's. opened (1847), II 59, 174
    attendance at Crown S's. insignificant, II 175
    Crown S's. closed (1873), II 177
    J. L. Gordon and Levanda active as teachers in Crown S's.,
            II 228, 239
    Russian Government abandons fight against traditional Jewish
            S. (1879), II 177
    attendance at general Government S's. urged by Russian officials,
            II 163 ff
    Jews begin to flock to Russian S's., II 209
    Russian S's. as assimilationist factor, II 209
    governors-general of Odessa and Kharkov suggest restrictive
            percentage for Jews at gymnazia (school norm), II 339
    question of S. norm submitted by Pahlen Commission, II 339;
      and disapproved by majority thereof, II 348
    Dyelanov, Minister of Public Instruction, directed by Alexander
            III. to frame enactment embodying S. norm, II 339, 349
    S. norm decreed by ministerial circular (1887), II 350 f;
      without preliminary submission to Council of State, II 349
    S. norm results in large number of Jewish "externs," II 351,
            III 31
    attendance at commercial S's. and gymnazia further restricted
            (1901), III 29 f
    Jewish girls free to attend secondary S's. (gymnazia), but
            restricted in higher S's., III 30 f
    Pahlen, governor of Vilna, advocates separate S's. for Jews
            (1903), III 152
    S. norm abolished in institutions of higher learning (1905),
            III 124;
      but restored (1907), III 152
    S. norm placed on Statute books (1909), III 158
    many higher S's. barred to Jews, III 158
    S. norm applied to private S's., III 158 f;
      and extended to "externs" (1911), III 159
    one hundred Jewish students excluded from Kiev Polytechnicum
            (1907), III 152
    Jews barred from Military Academy of Medicine (1910), III 156
    See Education, Enlightenment, and University

  =Schorr, Solomon=, follower of Jacob Frank, I 217

  =Schülergelauf=, see Pogroms (in Poland)

  =Schussberg, Gabriel=, describes Cossack massacres of 1648, I
            158

  =Schwartz=, informer against Jews, II 48

  =Schwartz=, Russian Minister of Public Instruction, opposed to
            Jews, III 157 f

  =Scythians=, the, tribe, I 14

  =Sejm=, see Saym

  =Selek=, see Jacob Zelig

  =Seleucids=, dynasty of, I 14

  =Self-Defence=, organized by Jews, in riot at Lemberg (1664),
            I 161 f
    in Posen (1687), I 166
    in massacre at Uman (1768), I 184 f
    averts pogrom at Berdychev (1881), I 256 f
    intensifies pogrom at Konotop (Chernigov, 1881), II 257
    checked by police in Odessa (1881), II 258;
      and punished in court, II 264
    active in pogrom at Warsaw (1881), II 281
    forbidden by authorities (during Balta pogrom, 1882), II 300
    organized after Kishinev massacre, III 80
    forbidden by Plehve, III 80, 90
    active in pogrom at Homel (1903), III 87 ff;
      attacked by police, III 88;
      arraigned in court, III 102
    Jews of Odessa organize (1904), III 96
    pogroms checked by, at Melitopol and Simferopol (government
            of Tavrida, 1905), III 115
    displays heroism during pogrom at Zhitomir (1905), III 116
            ff
    movement for, intensified during revolution of 1905, III 119
    attacked by soldiers during pogrom at Kerch (1905), III 120
    police and soldiers ordered to drive off, III 129
    displays heroism in Odessa pogrom (October, 1905), III 129;
      court-martialed, III 150

  =Self-Government, Jewish=, see Autonomy
    local and rural, see Zemstvos
    urban, see Municipalities

  =Selim II.=, Sultan of Turkey, attended by Jewish body-physician,
            I 132

  =Semender= (Tarku), city in Caucasus, I 26

  =Semipalatinsk= (territory), in Central Asia, uncivilized tribes
            of, placed on level with Jews, II 367

  =Semiryechensk= (territory), in Central Asia, semi-civilized
            tribes of, placed on level with Jews, II 367

  =Semyonovka= (government of Chernigov), pogrom at, III 129

  =Senate=, the, in Poland, forms upper Chamber, I 167
    censures King Sobieski for favoring Jews, I 167
    re-established by Napoleon in duchy of Warsaw, I 298
    refuses petition of Jews for equal rights, I 301 f

  =Senate=, the, in Russia, recommends death penalty for conversion
            to Judaism (1738), I 253
    decrees expulsion of Jews from Little Russia (1739), I 254
    recommends admission of Jews to Little Russia and Livonia (1743),
            I 257
    favors admission of Jews into Russian empire (1763), I 259
    sanctions Kahals in White Russia (1778), I 309;
      but suddenly questions their legality (1782), I 310;
      and restricts them to spiritual affairs and collection of
            taxes (1786), I 313
    restricts Jews of White Russia in liquor trade (1786), I 312
    refuses permission to White Russian Jews to settle in Riga,
            thus laying foundation for Pale (1786), I 313 f
    reaffirms Catherine's ukase ordering transfer of village Jews
            to towns (1797), I 323 f
    Friesel, governor of Vilna, forwards suggestions of Jewish
            reforms to, I 326 f
    declares Jews not subject to serfdom, I 328
    Dyerzhavin's memorandum on Jews laid before (1800), I 334
    loses executive power with creation of Council of State (1801),
            I 335
    case against Shneor Zalman transferred to, I 378
    Jewish communal affairs transferred from, to Minister of Ecclesiastic
            Affairs (1817), I 392
    prohibits keeping of Christian domestics (1820), I 404
    puts harsh interpretation on decree of Nicholas I. expelling
            Jews from Fifty-Verst Zone (1843), II 62 f
    takes over ritual murder case of Velizh (1830), II 81
    sends ukase to governors warning against pogroms (1882), II
            313
    sets aside misconstruction of Temporary Rules (1884), II 341
    sustains law of 1874 denying universal right of residence to
            discharged Jewish soldiers (1885), II 355
    passes upon complaints against misapplication of Temporary
            Rules, III 17;
      and reverses decisions of lower courts, III 18
    sustains expulsion of consumptive Jewish student from health
            resort, III 19
    sustains practice of confining Jews of Siberia to their places
            of registration (1897), III 22
    orders second trial of Blondes, III 37
    sustains sentence against Dashevski, assailant of Krushevan,
            II 82
    dismisses complaint of victims of Kishinev massacres, III 92
    receives ukase from Nicholas II. permitting submission of suggestions
            to Government (1905), III 110
    declares Zionism illegal (1907), III 152
    prohibits Jewish soldiers from residing in Port Arthur, III
            157

  "=Senior=," the, title for elder in Poland, I 72 f, 94
    title for chief rabbi in Poland, I 105

  =Separatism=, of Jews, ascribed by Russian Government to their
            inferior "moral status," II 158
    combated by Russian Government, II 190 ff
    commented upon unfavorably by Ignatyev, II 273;
      by Gubernatorial Commissions, II 275;
      and by Pahlen Commission, II 365

  =Serafinovich=, Jewish convert, upholds blood accusation, I 173
            f

  =Serfs, or Khlops=, form separate estate in Poland, I 442
    S's. of Ukraina, resent Polish rule, I 140
    Jews in Ukraina mediators between pans and, I 142
    S's. of Ukraina rise against Poles and Jews, I 182
    conversion of Jews into, rejected by Polish Diet, I 170
    subjection of Jews to serfdom not recognized by Russian Senate,
            I 328

  =Sergius=, grand duke, appointed governor-general of Moscow,
            II 400 f
    entrance into Moscow of, preceded by expulsion of Jews, II
    closes Moscow synagogue, II 423 f
    refuses petition of Jews to reopen it, III 12 f
    assassinated, III 110

  =Serra=, papal nuncio, skeptical towards Frankists, I 216

  =Servia= instructed by Berlin Congress to grant equality to Jews,
            II 202

  =Service, Military=, see Military service

  =Sevastopol= (Crimea), ancient Jewish Community in neighborhood
            of, I 17
    Jews expelled from (1829), II 32
    barred to Jews (1835), II 40
    reopened to Jews by Alexander II., II 172
    thousands of Jewish soldiers fall at (in Crimean War), II 149
    consumptive Jewish student marched through streets of, III
            19

  =Sever=, Slav tribe, subject to Khazars, I 26

  =Sforza=, see Bona Sforza

  =Shaftsbury=, Earl of, addresses Mansion House meeting in London
            on behalf of Russian Jews, II 288

  =Shakhna=, see Shalom Shakhna

  =Shaizari, Ash-=, Arabic writer, quoted, I 23

  =Shak=, see Cohen, Sabbatai

  =Shalom Aleichem= (S. Rabinovitz), editor of _Jüdische Volksbibliothek_,
            III 59
    Yiddish writer, III 62

  =Shalom Shakhna=, rabbi of Lublin and Little Poland, I 105, 109
    pioneer of Talmud study in Poland, I 122 f
    rabbinical conferences initiated by, I 123
    responsa of, I 123

  =Shamir-Khan-Shur=, city in Caucasus, I 26

  =Shantung Peninsula=, see Kuantung

  =Shapiro, Samuel Abba and Phinehas=, Russian-Jewish printers,
            II 123 f

  =Shargorod= (Volhynia), Jacob Joseph Cohen, rabbi of, I 227,
            230

  "=Shabsitzvinnikes=," nickname for adherents of Sabbatai Zevi,
            I 210

  =Shaving= of heads by Jewish women forbidden by Nicholas I. (1852),
            II 144

  =Shchebreshin= (_Polish_, Szezebrzeszyn), Meir, Hebrew author,
            native of, I 158

  =Shchedrin-Saltykov=, Russian satirist, protests against persecution
            of Jews, II 325 f
    denounces _Novoye Vremya_, I 380

  =Shcheglovitov=, anti-Semitic Minister of Justice, secures pardon
            for pogrom makers, III 150
    engineers Beilis case, III 165
    St. Petersburg Bar Association protests against, III 166

  "=Shebsen=," nickname for adherents of Sabbatai Zevi, I 211

  =Shedletz= (_Polish_, Siedlce), Judah Hasid, native of, I 208
    Lukov, in province of, I 287

  =Sheitel=, Jewish name for wig, II 144

  =Shekel=, societies of Sh. prayers organized by Zionists, III
            45

  =Shidlovitz= (_Polish_, Szydlowiec), near Radom, Poland, home
            of Judah Hasid, I 208

  =Shishkov=, Minister of Public Instruction, advocates abolition
            of institution of Jewish deputies, I 395
    I. B. Levinsohn applies for subsidy to, II 129

  =Shklov=, rabbis assembled at, condemn Shneor Zalman, I 238
    Dyerzhavin sent to, in response to complaints of Jews, I 328

  =Shklover, Borukh=, see Borukh Shklover

  =Shklover, Nota=, of St. Petersburg (family name Notkin), I 338
    purveyor to Potemkin's army, I 330
    proposes establishment of Jewish colonies near Black Sea, I
            331
    participates in work of Jewish Government Commission, I 338

  =Shlakhovski, Baruch=, killed in pogrom, II 303

  =Shlakhta= (_Polish_, Szlachta: Polish nobility), term explained,
            I 58
    forms separate estate, I 44
    growing influence of, I 58
    favors Jews on account of financial advantages, I 69
    controls diets, I 77
    attitude of, towards Jews, I 77
    granted jurisdiction over Jews of its estates, I 84
    elects kings, I 89
    usurps power, I 91 ff
    resorts to services of Jews, I 93
    represented among sect of Socinians, I 91
    acts contemptuously towards serfs in Ukraina, I 141 f
    surrenders cities to Swedes, I 155
    diets, controlled by clergy and S., impose restrictions on,
            I 160
    oppresses Jewish arendars, I 170
    tries to turn Jews into serfs, I 170
    forces kings to impose restrictions on Jews, I 181 f
    exterminated in Ukraina, I 183 ff
    Kahals warn Jews against acting as stewards of, I 188
    controls Quadrennial Diet, I 278
    bars Jews from buying crown lands, I 296
    Jews forbidden to acquire estates of (1808), I 300
    proposes anti-Jewish restrictions to Russian Government, I
            322 ff, 324 ff
    hypocrisy of, exposed by Polish writer, II 98

  =Shleshkovski=, Polish physician, attacks Jewish physicians in
            Poland in anti-Semitic pamphlet, I 96

  =Shlieferman=, Jewish soldier in Saratov, accused of ritual murder,
            II 151
    sentenced to penal servitude, II 152

  =Shmakov=, anti-Semitic lawyer, defends Krushevan, III 82
    appears in Beilis case, III 82
    acts as counsel for Kishinev rioters, III 91 f

  =Shmerling=, of Moghilev, dies while attending Jewish Conference
            in St. Petersburg, I 304

  =Shneor Zalman=, founder of "rational Hasidism," or _Habad_,
            I 234
    resides at Ladi (government of Moghilev), I 234, II 117
    moves to Lozno (government of Moghilev), I 234, II 117, 33
    favors Russian arms in Franco-Russian War, I 356 f
    establishes hasidic center in White Russia, I 372
    arouses ire of Vilna Gaon, I 374
    denounced to Russian Government, I 376
    dispatched as prisoner to St. Petersburg and liberated by Paul
            I., I 376
    dispatched again to St. Petersburg and liberated by Alexander
            I., I 378
    author of philosophic work entitled _Tanyo_, I 374
    philosophy of, I 381 f
    rejects _Tzaddik_ cult, I 382
    Mendel, grandson of, II 57
    successors of, II 117 f
    See Shneorsohn

  =Shneor=, Hebrew poet, III 162

  =Shneorsohn, Mendel=, leader of White Russian Hasidim, II 57
    establishes residence at Lubavichi, II 117
    member of Rabbinical Commission, II 118
    forced to approve Mendelssohn's Bible translation, II 118
    rejects innovations in Jewish education, II 118 f

  =Shpola= (government of Kiev), pogrom at, III 33

  =Shtadlan=, representative of Jews before Government, term explained,
            I 111
    officially designated in Poland as "general syndic," I 111,
            160
    appointed by Council of Four Lands, I 111, 193
    secures ratification of Jewish privileges, I 160
    presents applications of Polish Jews to King Sobieski, I 167

  =Shtar Isko=, rabbinical form of promissory note, term explained,
            I 350

  =Shtiblach=, name for hasidic houses of prayer, II 124

  =Shulhan Arukh=, rabbinical code of law, composed by Joseph Caro,
            I 123
    arrangement of, I 128
    supplemented by Isserles, I 124
    criticised by Solomon Luria, I 125
    rivalled by code of Mordecai Jaffe, I 127 f
    Polish rabbis write commentaries on, I 128, 130, 200
    firmly established in Poland, I 130
    amplified by Gaon in Vilna, I 236

  =Siberia=, Jewish prisoners in Russo-Polish War deported to (1654),
            I 245
    "Judaizing" sectarians deported to, I 402 ff
    Jewish juvenile recruits, or cantonists, sent to, II 24
    failure of Courland Jews to leave province punished by deportation
            to, II 34
    colonization of Jews in, started by Government (1836);
      and stopped (1837), II 71
    swamps of, considered for Jewish settlement (1882), II 285
    accusers of Jews, in ritual murder trial of Velizh, deported
            to (1835), II 82
    accused Jews of Novoya Ushitza (Podolia) deported to (1836)
            II 85
    Jewish printers of Slavuta (Volhynia) deported to, II 123
    revolutionaries exiled to, II 243
    Jewish revolutionaries exiled to, II 224
    governors granted right of deportation to, II 246
    criminals sentenced to deportation to, placed in transportation
            prisons, II 403
    "aliens" (semi-savage tribes) in, placed on level with Jews,
            II 367
    Jews of, denied right of movement, III 21 f
    Jewish recruits dispatched to, III 94

  =Sicilist=, vulgar pronunciation for Socialist, III 116

  =Sigismund= (_Polish_, Zygmynt), I., king of Poland and duke
            of Lithuania (1606-1648), favorable to Jews, I 71 f
    appoints Jewish tax-farmers in Lithuania, I 72
    warns authorities of Posen to respect Jewish privileges, I
            74
    forbids Jews of Posen to keep stores on market-place, I 74;
      and restricts Jews of Posen to separate quarters, I 75
    restricts Jews of Lemberg in pursuit of commerce, I 75
    prevents anti-Jewish riot in Cracow, I 76
    wife of, accepts bribes from Jews, I 76
    appoints commission to investigate charges against Jews of
            Lithuania, I 80
    exonerates Lithuanian Jews, I 81
    places Jews on estates under jurisdiction of nobles, I 84
    appoints Michael Yosefovich "senior," or chief rabbi of Lithuanian
            Jews, I 72 f, 104
    confirms election of other chief rabbis, I 104 f, 122
    confers large powers on rabbis, I 73, 104 f
    rabbinical conferences meet during reign of, I 109 f
    kindness of, to Jews commented upon by Polish writer, II 98

  =Sigismund= (_Polish_, Zygmunt) II. Augustus, king of Poland
            (1548-1572), ratifies Jewish privileges, I 83
    enlarges and establishes Jewish autonomy, I 83
    places Jews on estates under jurisdiction of nobles, I 84
    endeavors to stop execution of Jews accused of host desecration,
            I 86 f
    forbids ritual murder and hosts trials, I 88
    bestows on Jews of Great Poland charter of autonomy (1551),
            I 105 ff
    confers on Jews right of establishing _yeshibahs_, and bestows
            large powers on presidents of _yeshibahs_, I 115
    grants Jews of Cracow monopoly of importing Hebrew books, I
            131
    attended by Jewish body physician, I 132
    writes to Ivan the Terrible demanding admission of Jews to
            Russia, I 243
    last king of Yaguello dynasty, I 88

  =Sigismund= (_Polish_, Zygmunt) III., king of Poland (1588-1632),
            I 91
    ratifies Jewish privileges, I 93
    protects Jews against magistracies, I 94
    reaction against "Arian" heresy during reign of, I 91
    requires consent of clergy for erection of synagogues, I 98
    attended by Jewish court physician, I 136

  =Silesia=, Jews fleeing from Crusades seek shelter in, I 41
    Jews own estates in, I 42
    John Casimir, king of Poland, flees to, I 155
    Solomon Maimon ends days in, I 240

  =Simferopol= (government of Tavrida), pogrom at, checked (April,
            1905), III 115
    pogrom at (October, 1905), III 128

  =Simeon Volfovich=, see Volfovich

  =Simon=, of Trent, alleged victim of ritual murder, I 179

  =Simon, Sir John=, interpellates Gladstone concerning Russian
            Jews, II 291

  =Simon, Leon=, quoted, III 51, 60

  =Sion ("Zion")=, Jewish periodical in Russian, II 218, 220

  =Sipyaghin=, Russian Minister of Interior, pursues reactionary
            policy, III 16
    assassinated, III 66

  =Sirkis, Joel=, called _Bah_, Polish rabbi and Talmudist, I 130,
            206
    opposed to philosophy, I 133

  =Sittenfeld=, manager of secular Jewish school in Odessa, II
            133

  =Skarga, Peter=, leading Jesuit in Poland, I 90

  =Skharia (Zechariah)= converts Russian priests to Judaism, I
            36

  =Skvir= (government of Kiev), hasidic center, II 120

  =Slaves=, manumission of, among Jews of ancient Crimea, I 15
            f

  =Slavium=, Slav tribe, tributary to Khazars, I 26

  =Slavs=, the, tributary to Khazars, I 26
    treated tolerantly by Khazars, I 22
    throw off Khazar yoke, I 28
    German Jews visit lands of, I 33, 39

  =Slavuta= (Volhynia), Jewish printing-press in, II 42 f, 123

  =Sliosberg, G.=, counsel for Jewish victims of Homel pogrom,
            III 102
    members of Central Committee of League for Equal Rights, III
            112

  =Sloboda=, older name for government of Kharkov, I 251

  =Slutzk=, Jewish community of, represented on Lithuanian _Waad_,
            I 112

  =Smith, Charles Emory=, United States Minister at St. Petersburg,
            II 395 f

  =Smolensk=, Polish king appoints Jewish convert _starosta_ of,
            I 73
    visited by Jewish merchants of Poland and Lithuania, I 242
    colony of White Russian Jews in, I 249
    Borukh Leibov, resident of, converts captain of navy to Judaism,
            I 249, 251
    visited by Jewish merchants of White Russia, I 315 f;
      but Jews barred from settling in, I 316
    anti-Semitic play produced in, III 38

  =Smolenskin, Perez=, editor of _ha-Shahar_, II 218, 234
    Hebrew writer, II 234 ff
    theory of Judaism by, II 235 f
    joins "Love of Zion" movement, II 232

  =Smorgoni or Smorgon= (government of Vilna), home of Menashe
            Ilyer, II 114
    Jewish labor movement in, III 55

  =Smyela= (government of Kiev), pogrom at (1881), II 256;
      (1904), III 99

  =Smyrna=, Asia Minor, Sabbatai Zevi appears in, I 205
    center of Sabbatian movement, I 206

  =Sobieski=, king of Poland (1674-1696), protects Jews, I 165
            f
    enlarges autonomy of Jews, I 166
    rebuked by Polish diet for protection of Jews, I 167
    protects Jewish tax-farmer Bezalel, I 167
    upholds authority of _Waads_, I 194

  =Socialism= (and Socialists), in Russia, propaganda of, in Hebrew,
            II 223 f
    rise of, among Jews, III 55 ff
    championed by "League of Jewish Workingmen" ("_Bund_"), III
            56
    combined with Zionism by _Poale Zion_, III 57, 145
    represented in Russia by Social-Democrats and Social Revolutionaries,
            III 66, 119
    Jews active in both wings of, III 67
    extreme wing of, resorts to terrorism, III 66, 109 f
    Socialists and Zionists organize self-defence at Homel, II
            87
    spread of, among Jews blamed for pogroms, III 89
    gains in Second Duma, III 142
    losses in Third Duma, III 153
    Jewish socialists refuse co-operation with other Jewish parties,
            III 144
    socialistic factions among Jews, III 145
    socialistic candidate elected in Warsaw with help of Jews,
            III 167
    See Bund and Revolutionary Movement

  =Society of Israelitish Christians=, designed for conversion
            of Jews, I 396, II 74
    Alexander I. looked to, for solution of Jewish problem, I 399
    endeavors of, futile, I 400
    disbandment of, recommended by Golitzin (1824), I 400
    disbanded (1833), I 400

  =Society for Diffusion of Enlightenment= established in St. Petersburg
            (1867), II 214 f
    branch of, established in Odessa, II 215 f
    accused by Brafman of forming part of World Kahal, II 316
    employs J. L. Gordon as secretary, II 229
    adopts resolution demanding constitution for Russia, III 111
    creates new type of Jewish school, III 160

  =Society for Granting Assistance to Jewish Colonists
            and Artisans in Syria and Palestine= legalized by
            Russian Government (1891), II 421 f

  =Socinians=, the, Christian rationalistic sect in Poland, I 91,
            136

  =Socinus, Faustus=, founder of Socinian sect, I 91

  =Sokhachev=, host trial in, I 86 f
    Jews of, display Polish patriotism, I 292

  =Sokolov=, Russian lawyer, acts as council for Jewish victims
            of Kishinev pogrom, III 91;
      and of Homel pogrom, III 102

  =Sokolow, Nahum=, editor of _ha-Tzefirah_, III 60
    joins political Zionism, III 60

  =Soldiers, Jewish=, refused right of universal residence by Alexander
            II., II 171
    permitted to remain in St. Petersburg, II 172
    forbidden to return to native villages, II 384
    forbidden to remain in Moscow, II 404
    forbidden to spend furlough outside of Pale, III 21
    stationed in Siberia, III 94
    families of, expelled, III 95
    forbidden to reside in Port Arthur, III 157
    Russian S's. make pogroms, III 100 f
    See Conscription, Military Service, "Nicholas Soldiers," and
            Recruiting

  =Solkhat= (now Eski Krym, Crimea), ancient capital of Tatar Khans,
            Jewish communities in, I 34 f

  =Solomon (Shelomo)=, of Karlin, hasidic leader, I 372

  =Solomon=, of Lemberg, recognized by Polish king as _Rosh-Yeshibah_,
            I 115

  =Solomon Ephraim=, of Lenchytaa, criticises system of Jewish
            education in Poland, I 119 f

  =Solovaychik=, editor of _Sion_, II 220

  =Solovyov, Vladimir=, Russian historian, quoted, I 247
    collects signatures for public protest against persecution
            of Jews, II 386 ff
    appeals to Alexander III. on behalf of Jews, II 388

  =Sonnenberg, Sundel=, of Grodno, represents Jews at Russian army
            headquarters, I 358
    acts as deputy of Russian Jews in St. Petersburg, I 392 ff
    deprived of office, I 395
    active against ritual murder libel, II 74, 99

  =South= (and South-west), of Russia, forms part of Pale (1835),
            II 342
    Max Lilienthal tours through, II 56
    represented on Rabbinical Commission, II 57
    Tzaddiks in, II 119 ff
    Jewish writers in Russian language hail from, II 238
    pogroms in, II 267 f, 209, 258 f, III 99 ff
    emigration from, II 297 f
    agricultural colonies in, III 24;
      see Agriculture;
      see also North-west and Russia, White

  =Spain=, Caliphate of Cordova in, I 24
    epistle of king of Khazars arrives in, I 27
    Jewish physicians in Poland natives of, I 131
    offers shelter to Russian Jews, II 268

  =Spector, Isaac Elhanan=, rabbi of Kovno, attends Jewish Conference
            in St. Petersburg, II 304

  =Spektor=, editor of Yiddish magazine, III 59

  =Spencer, Herbert=, influences Russian-Jewish _intelligenzia_,
            II 209

  =Speranski=, Russian statesman, recommends liberal policy towards
            Jews, I 399 ff
    Statute of 1804 contravenes policy of, I 345

  =Spiessruten= (running the gauntlet), term explained, II 85
    applied as punishment, II 85, 123
    abolished in 1863, II 85

  =Spira, Nathan=, Cabalist, I 135

  =Spiritual Biblical Brotherhood=, Jewish reform sect in Yelisavetgrad,
            II 333 f

  =St. Bartholomew Night=, I 89

  =St. Petersburg=, capital of Russia, Jewish financial agents
            admitted by Peter the Great to, I 248
    Borukh and Vornitzin tried at, and burned, I 252 f
    delegates of Gubernatorial Kahals assembled at (1803), I 337,
            386
    beginnings of Jewish community in, I 337 f
    Committee for Jewish Affairs appointed in (1809), I 352
    Finkelstein, delegate of Moghilev Jews, proceeds to, I 363
    Shneor Zalman arrested and dispatched to, I 376, 378
    Deputies of Jewish People reside in, I 393 f, II 74
    temporary residence in, permitted to Jewish merchants (1835),
            II 40
    Jews illegally residing in, severely punished, II 42
    "harmful" Hebrew books ordered sent to, II 43
    Max Lilienthal invited to, II 53
    Rabbinical Commission summoned to, II 56, 118
    influential Jews of Western Europe invited to, II 67
    visited by Moses Montefiore, II 68
    visited by Altaras of Marseilles, II 69
    Congregation Board of Warsaw sends deputation to, II 110
    Baron Joseph Günzburg presides over Jewish community of, II
            152
    influential Jews of, apply for equal rights, II 159 f
    Jewish physicians barred from, II 167
    Jewish soldiers in body-guard of, permitted to remain in, II
            172
    Lutostanski, accuser of Jews, welcomed in, II 203
    _Illustratzia_, Russian magazine in, attacks Jews, II 207 f
    Jewish intellectuals in, II 214
    Society for Diffusion of Enlightenment established in, II 214
            f
    Russian-Jewish press in St. Petersburg, II 221, 332 f, 59,
            III 77, 162
    Yiddish press in, III 59, 162
    Hebrew press in, see _ha-Melitz_
    Alexander II. assassinated in, III 243
    governor of, granted wide discretionary powers, II 246
    emissaries from, prepare pogroms in South, II 248
    Jewish community of, presided over by Baron Horace Günzburg,
            II 260
    English Jew expelled from, II 262
    Jews of, forbidden to collect pogrom fund, II 263
    Conference of Jewish Notables in (1881), II 277;
      (1882), II 299, 304 ff
    Jewish demonstration against pogroms in, II 286
    Dr. Drabkin, rabbi of, interviews Ignatyev, II 305
    Jews of Balta, send deputation to, II 316 f
    Jews expelled from, II 319
    Jews of, persecuted by Gresser, city-governor, II 343 ff, 397
            f
    admission of Jews to educational institutions of, limited to
            3%, II 350, III 158
    Jews prominent at bar of, II 352
    Jewish notables of, consulted by Pahlen Commission, II 369
            f
    British ambassador at, assured of discontinuation of Jewish
            persecutions, II 382
    Jews of, harassed anew, II 385
    Solovyov collects signatures for public protest against Jewish
            persecutions in, II 387
    petition of Guildhall meeting in London sent to, II 392
    American Minister at, instructed to exert influence on behalf
            of Jews, II 395
    _Russkaya Zhizn_ ("Russian Life"), paper in, depicts Jewish
            sufferings, II 397
    _Novosti_ ("The News"), paper in, confiscated for defending
            Jews, II 407
    expulsion of all Jews from, contemplated, II 410 f
    visited by White, representative of Baron Hirsch, II 416 f,
            419
    Central Committee of Jewish Colonization Association established
            in, II 420
    Jewish Colonization Association sends deputation to, III 10
    Jews of, submit memorandum to Government, III 11
    Jews of, ask permission to acquire land for agriculture, III
            24
    new educational restrictions in, III 30
    "Smugglers," anti-Semitic play, produced in, III 38
    _Znamya_ ("The Banner"), anti-Semitic paper, appears in, III
            70
    Levendahl, Government agent dispatched from, to arrange pogroms,
            III 71
    visited by Dr. Herzl, III 89
    American ambassadors in, reported to have protested against
            persecution, III 96
    Plehve assassinated in, III 97
    Conference of Zemstvo workers in, opposes autocracy (1904),
            III 105
    "Bloody Sunday" in, III 106
    Jewish community of, signs petition for equal rights, III 108
    Society for Diffusion of Enlightenment in, demands constitution
            for Russia, III 111
    League for Equal Rights establishes central bureau in, III
            112
    Jewish community of, protests against denial of Jewish franchise,
            III 121
    Bogdanovich, general in, assists October pogroms, 111 125
    League for Equal Rights holds convention in, III 131
    Jewish parties form permanent council in, III 148
    Jewish Literary Society founded in, III 160 f
    Bar Association of, protests against Beilis trial, III 166
    Natives and residents of:
      J. L. Gordon, Hebrew poet, II 229
      Nyevakhovich, convert, Russian poet, I 386 f
      Abraham Peretz, Jewish merchant (convert), I 338, 386, 412
      Antonio Sanchez, court physician, I 258
      Nota Shklover, Jewish merchant, I 330

  =St. Petersburg= (government), Jews expelled from villages of,
            I 409
    Localities in:
      Luga, I 409
      Schlüsselburg, II 97

  =Stage=, Russian, anti-Semitism on, III 38 f

  =Stanislav Augustus Poniatovski=, see Poniatovski

  =Staro-Constantinov=, see Constantinov

  =Starodub= (government of Chernigov), Cossack massacre at (1648),
            I 149
    pogrom at (1891), II 411 f

  =Starosta=, high Polish office, name explained, I 69
    encroaches on duties of voyevoda, I 46
    Lithuanian Jews subject to jurisdiction of, I 60, 94, 104
    S. of Sokhachev ordered by king to stop execution of Jews,
            I 86
    S. of Brest supports Kahal, I 190
    S. of Kaniev makes sport of Jews, I 169 f
    S's. administer Ukraina, I 142
    S's. begin to oppress Jews, I 169
    determines extent of Jewish autonomy, I 191

  =Stashitz= (_Polish_, Stashyc), Polish priest and statesman,
            anti-Semitic author, I 281 f, II 95 f
    opposes plan of reform favorable to Jews, II 93

  =Statistics=, of Jews, in Poland, I 66, 187, 263 f, 390
    in Russia, II 341, 415
    in White Russia, I 307
    in Pale, II 168
    of Jewish first-guild merchants in Pale, II 162
    of Jewish artisans in Pale, II 168
    of Jewish economic activity in Russian South-west, II 194
    of Jews in agrarian pursuits, III 24
    of Jewish recruits, II 355 f
    of Jewish physicians in Russian army, III 95
    of Jewish pauperism, III 23 f
    of Jews expelled from Russia, I 254, 258
    of Jewish emigration to United States, II 373, 421, III 148
    of Jewish emigration to Argentina, II 419

  =Statute=, "Lithuanian S." (1566), I 87
    "S. concerning the Organization of the Jews" (1804), I 342
            ff;
      criticized by Jewish representatives, I 349 ff
    "S. of Conscription and Military Service" (1827), II 18 ff,
            29;
      extended to Poland (1843), II 109;
      leaves inner life of Jews unchanged, II 48
    Military S. (1874), II 199 ff, 355
    "S. on the Jews" (1835), II 28, 33, 34 ff, 39 ff;
      fixes age of marriage, II 112;
      fails to assimilate Jews, II 47
    "S. concerning Zemstvos Organizations" (1864), admits Jews
            to local self-government, II 173
    "S. concerning Zemstvos Organizations" (1890), bars Jews from
            local self-government, II 385 f
    Municipal S. (1870) limits admission of Jews to one-third and
            bars Jews from office of burgomaster, II 198 f
    "S. concerning Enforced Public Safety" (1881), II 246
    See Charter

  =Stavropol= (government), nomads of, placed on level with Jews,
            II 367

  =Stephen Batory=, see Batory

  =Stern, Abraham=, Jewish scholar and mathematician in Warsaw,
            II 103

  =Stern, Bezalel=, principal of modern Jewish school in Odessa,
            II 57, 133

  =Stillman=, Jewish workingman, fires at Odessa Chief of Police,
            III 107

  =Stolypin=, Russian Minister of Interior, answers interpellation
            concerning pogroms, III 136, 138
    appointed Prime Minister, III 138, 140
    attacked by terrorist, III 140
    promises mitigation of Jewish disabilities, III 141
    controlled by League of Russian People, III 151
    excludes Jewish students from Kiev Polytechnicum, III 152
    stops expulsion of Jews from Interior, III 154
    becomes more reactionary, III 156 f
    determines to uproot alien cultures in Russia, III 159 f
    assassinated at Kiev, III 164

  =Strakhov=, Russian official entrusted with conduct of Velizh
            ritual murder case, II 76 ff

  =Strashun, Mattathiah=, Talmudist and Maskil in Vilna, II 136

  =Strelnikov=, Russian public prosecutor, calls upon Jews to leave
            Russia, II 264 f

  =Strigolnik, Carp=, founder of Strigolniki sect, I 36

  =Strikes= adopted as revolutionary weapon, III 125 f
    arranged by "Bund," III 130

  =Stroganov=, Russian Minister of Interior, advocates liberal
            attitude towards Jews, II 47

  =Stroganov=, Count, governor-general of New Russia, advocates
            emancipation of Jews, II 168 f

  =Studzienski=, alleged victim of ritual murder, I 178 f

  =Stundists=, the, rationalistic Christian sect in Russia, II
            333
    Jacob Gordin influenced by, II 333

  =Stupnitza=, near Pshemyshl (Galicia), ritual murder libel at,
            I 178

  =Sub-Starosta=, Polish official, Jews subject to jurisdiction
            of, I 60;
      see Starosta

  =Subbotin=, Russian economist, points out pauperism in Pale,
            III 23

  =Sudak=, locality in Crimea, subject to Khazars, I 26

  =Sugdas=, locality in Crimea, subject to Khazars, I 26

  =Summer Resorts=, Jews barred from, III 18 f
    bill admitting Jews to, rejected, III 154
    Jews expelled from, III 157
    See Residence, Right of

  =Superstition= rampant in Poland, I 203 f

  =Supreme Secret Council=, official body in Russia (18th century),
            I 249 f

  =Surgeons=, see Physicians

  =Suvar=, Slav tribe, subject to Khazars, I 26

  =Suvarov=, Russian general, attacks Praga, suburb of Warsaw,
            I 296

  =Suvorin=, editor of _Novoye Vremya_, II 380
    produces anti-Semitic play, III 38

  =Svyatopolk II.=, prince of Kiev (1093-1113), favors Jews, I
            32

  =Svyatopolk-Mirski=, governor-general of Vilna and later Russian
            Minister of Interior, pursues liberal policy, III 99, 105
    dismissed, III 107

  =Svyatoslav=, prince of Kiev, defeats Khazars, I 28

  =Swedes=, the, invade Poland, I 154 ff

  =Switzerland=, Zionist Congresses held in, III 44

  =Syech=, name of Cossack Republic, I 143

  =Syedletz= (_Polish_, Siedlce), pogroms at (1905), III 119, 140
            f

  =Syn Otyechestva ("Son of the Fatherland")=, Russian magazine,
            protests against pogroms, III 35

  =Synagogue=, in Bosporus, I 15 f
    erection of, in Poland, requires royal permission, I 98
    building of new S's., in Poland, forbidden (1720), I 171
    erection of, near church in Russia, forbidden (1835), I 41
    S's. in Moscow closed, II 397
    Great S. of Moscow closed, I 423 ff, III 12
    Jews fight for preservation of Moscow S., III 12 ff

  =Synhedrion=, convoked by Napoleon, I 298, 351
    convocation of, viewed with suspicion by Austria and Russia,
            I 346 ff
    represented by Russian Government both as anti-Jewish
            and anti-Christian, I 348
    influences Jews of Warsaw, I 386
    fatal error of, in denying Jewish nationality, III 53
    creation of, in Russia, advocated by Dyerzhavin, I 333
    convocation of, in Russia suggested by Pestel, Russian revolutionary,
            I 412

  =Synod=, the, see Church Council

  =Synod, Holy=, in Russia, issues circular against Napoleon, I
            348
    deals severely with "Judaizers," I 402 f
    appoints Brafman, Jewish informer, instructor of Hebrew, II
            187
    presided over by Pobyedonostzev, II 245; III 9 f

  =Syria=, emigration of Jews from, to Tauris, I 16


  =Taganrog= (government of Yekaterinoslav), excluded from Pale,
            II 346

  =Talmud=, the, studied by Khazars, I 21
    study of, pursued by early Russian Jews in Germany, I 33
    predominant factor in Jewish education, I 114 ff
    study of, stimulated by Jewish autonomy, I 121 ff
    reigns supreme in Russia and Poland, I 195, 221, 264, 198 ff,
            380, II 51
    rejected by Frankists, I 214 f
    burned at Kamenetz-Podolsk, I 215
    importance of study of, minimized by Besht, founder of Hasidism,
            I 224 ff
    arrogance of students of, attacked by Besht's disciple, I 230
    neglected by Hasidim, I 235
    burning of, recommended by Polish reformers, I 282
    opposed by Frank of Kreslavka, Jewish Mendelssohnian, I 331
    regarded by Russian Council of State as source of Jewish suffering,
            II 47
    accused by Uvarov of demoralizing Jews, II 51
    weakening and uprooting of, aimed at by Nicholas I., II 58,
            66
    criticised by David Friedländer, II 90
    assailed by Abbé Chiarini in Warsaw, II 104
    defended by I. B. Levinsohn, II 131
    injuriousness of, emphasized by Russian Commission, II 195
    attacked by Lutostanski, II 204
    conceived by Lilienblum as factor in Jewish reform, II 236
    attacked by Gubernatorial Commissions, II 275
    rejected by New Israel Sect, II 334

  =Talmud Torah=, Jewish public school in Poland, I 114, 118
    maintained by Waads, I 195
    in Moscow, placed in Synagogue, III 13

  =Talno= (government of Kiev), hasidic center, II 120

  =Taman Peninsula=, Greek city-republic on, I 14
    Samkers, Jewish city on, I 23
    owned by Guizolfi, Italian Jew, I 36

  =Tannaim=, names of, collected by Polish rabbi, I 200

  =Tanyo=, philosophic work by Shneor Zalman, I 372, II 117

  =Tarashkevich=, anti-Semitic priest in Velizh, II 77

  =Targovitza= (_Polish_, Targowica), confederacy of, between Russians
            and Poles (1792), I 292

  =Tarku (Semender)=, Caucasian city, subject to Khazars, I 26

  =Tarnopol= (Galicia), Meir of, Hebrew author, I 201

  =Tarsus= (Asia Minor), Jewish community in, I 14

  =Tatars=, the, Russia under dominion of, I 29
    conquer Crimea, I 33
    Jews of Crimea under rule of, I 34 ff
    T. of Lemberg granted autonomy by Casimir the Great, I 53
    barred from office and from keeping Christian domestics in
            Lithuania, I 87
    invade Polish border provinces and combated by Cossacks, I
            142 f
    form alliance with Cossacks under Khmelnitzki, I 144 ff, 150
    spare Jewish prisoners, I 145, 157, 205
    take Jews of Polonnoye captive, I 148
    cause spread of Mohammedanism, I 254

  =Tauri, or Taurians=, tribe, I 13 ff

  =Taurian Bosporus=, see Kerch

  =Taurian Chersonesus=, see Bosporus

  =Tauris=, northern shores of Black Sea, I 13
    immigration of Jews into, I 13 ff
    Khazars move towards, I 19
    bishops of, try to proselytize Khazars, I 20
    remnant of Khazar kingdom in, I 28
    ruled by Pechenegs and Polovtzis, I 29
    retains name Khazaria, I 29
    in relations with Kiev, I 33 ff

  =Tavrida= (region, or government), extent of, I 13
    Jews permitted to settle in (1791), I 316 f
    Karaites settled in, I 318
    included in Pale (1835), II 40, 428
    pogroms in, III 115, 120, 128
    Cities in:
      Kerch, III 115, 120
      Melitopol, III 115
      Simferopol, III 115, 128
      Mylta, II 428 f

  =Tax=, under Polish régime, paid by Jews to Church, I 57 f
    paid by Jews to Catholic academies (called Kozubales), I 161,
            166
    Polish king conditions protection to Jews on payment of, I
            84
    collected by Jews on estates of Shlakhta, I 93
    apportioned by Waads and collected by Kahals, I 107, 181, 189
            f, 197 f
    Council of Four Lands declines responsibility for collection
            of, I 194
    increased (1717), I 169
    changed into individual T. of two gulden per head (1764), I
            197
    raised to three gulden per head (1775), I 267
    disproportionately assessed by Kahals, I 275
    Jews of Minsk complain about abuses in collection of, I 275
    paid on taking possession of real estate, I 190
    paid for right of sojourn in Warsaw, I 269, II 95
    imposed on Jews in lieu of conscription (1817), I 95;
      (1831), I 107

  =Tax=, under Russian régime, per capita T. of one rubel imposed
            on Jews of White Russia (1772), I 307
    Kahals of White Russia charged with collection of, I 309
    Jews of annexed Polish provinces required to pay double T.
            (1794), I 318
    payment of double T. confirmed by Paul I., I 321
    Karaites relieved from payment of double T., I 318
    payment of double T. by Jews commented upon by "Jewish Committee"
            (1804), I 341
    manufacturers and artisans relieved from payment of double
            T. (1801), I 344
    Jewish deputies plead for abolition of double T., I 349
    Kahals in Courland organized for collection of, I 321
    estates, subject to payment of (so-called taxable estates),
            hindered in right of transit, I 322
    alleviations in payment of, promised to converts, I 397
    in lieu of conscription, I 318;
      II 15, 20
    irregularity in payment of, punished by conscription, II 19
    modification in payment of, suggested by Council of State,
            II 49
    Kahals limited to conscription and collection of (1844), I
            60
    revenue from meat or basket T., called _Korobka_, placed under
            control of Russian authorities (1844), I 61
    "auxiliary basket T." (on immovable property, etc.), instituted,
            II 61
    levied on Sabbath candles for maintenance of Crown schools,
            I 61 f
    levied on traditional Jewish dress in Russia (1843), II 110;
      extended to Poland, I 110, 144
    T. on passports waived in case of Jewish immigrants, I 418,
            420
    basket T. represented as Jewish system of finance, II 194
    abuses of basket T. depicted by Mendele Mokher Sforim, II 232
    Pahlen Commission inquires about purposes of basket T., II
            370
    use of basket T. for defraying emigration suggested by Russian
            official, II 420
    basket and candle T. for non-Jewish purposes, II 426 f
    basket T. used to defray night raids upon Jews, III 20

  =Tax Farming (and Tax Farmers)=, Jews engage in, in Poland, I
            44, 67, 69, 71
    in Lithuania, I 60, 65
    forbidden by Church Councils, I 49
    opposed by petty Shlakhta, I 77
    forbidden by Piotrkov Diet of 1538, I 77 f
    Shlakhta forces king to bar Jews from, I 182
    law barring Jews from, upheld by rabbis, I 110
    Kahals call upon Jews to refrain from, I 188
    Jews from White Russia engage in, in Smolensk, I 249
    class of Jewish tax farmers in Russia, II 72
    Individual tax farmers:
      Bezalel, I 167
      Borukh Leibov, I 249
      Abraham and Michael Yosefovich, I 73
      Yosko, I 71
      Saul Yudich, I 94

  =Teachers, Jewish=, see Heder and School

  "=Temporary Rules=" of May 3, 1882, known as May Laws, genesis
            of, II 309 ff
    contents of, II 312
    effect of, II 318 f
    old settlers permitted to stay in villages under, II 16
    misconstrued to apply to old settlers, II 340 ff
    check agriculture among Jews, III 24 f

  =Tennyson=, English poet, expresses sympathy with Russian Jews,
            II 258

  =Teplitz, T.=, prominent Jew of Warsaw, II 103

  =Terentyeva, Mary=, accuses Jews of ritual murder, II 75 ff
    exiled to Siberia for false accusation, II 82

  =Territorialism= accepts idea of Pinsker's _Autoemancipation_,
            II 332
    rise of, III 41
    born out of Zionist organization, III 185
    secedes from Zionist organization, III 144

  =Terrorism=, rampant under Alexander II., II 243
    favored by Social-Revolutionary party, III 66, 109 f
    Jews take small part in, III 67
    acts of, committed by Jews, III 107
    rampant in Poland and Baltic provinces (1905), III 130
    used as pretext for pogroms, III 136
    intensified after dissolution of First Duma, III 140

  =Tetyev= (government of Kiev), massacre at, I 184

  =Teutonic Order=, the, name explained, I 63
    engages in war with Poland, I 63

  =Theodosia=, see Kaffa

  =Theodosius II.=, emperor of Byzantium, persecutes Jews, I 18

  =Theodosius=, Abbot of Kiev monastery, persecutes Jews, I 31

  =Theophanes=, Byzantine writer, quoted, I 18

  "=Third Section=," the, see Police, Political

  =Thorn= (_Polish_, Torun), annexed by Prussia (1793), I 292

  =Tiberias= (Palestine), visited by Nahman of Bratzlav, I 383

  =Tiflis= (Caucasia), anti-Semitic play produced at, III 38

  =Tikhanovich=, chief of political police in Syedletz, engineers
            pogrom, III 140
    thanked by governor-general of Warsaw, III 141

  =Tilsit, Peace of= (1807), leads to establishment of duchy of
            Warsaw, I 297
    affects policy of Alexander I. towards Jews, I 350

  =Tlusta= (Galicia), Besht settles in, I 223

  =Tobias=, of Ruzhany, martyr, I 162 f

  =Tobolsk= (government), lands in, set aside for colonization
            of Jews, II 71

  =Toledo= (Spain), Jacob ben Asher rabbi of, I 118

  =Tolstoi, Demetrius=, Minister of Interior, II 314
    adopts energetic measures against pogroms, II 315
    anti-pogrom circular of, quoted by United States Minister,
            II 293
    destroys plans of Pahlen Commission, II 370
    takes into consideration economic importance of Jews, II 428

  =Tolstoi, Leo=, preaches "Going to the People," II 222
    keeps silent on Jewish persecutions, II 325
    preaches doctrine of non-resistance, II 371
    protests against Jewish persecutions in Russia, II 387 f
    condemns Kishinev massacre, III 76
    protests against atrocities of Russian Government, III 149

  =Tomsk= (Siberia), pogrom against intellectuals at, III 128

  =Tosafists=, the, name explained, I 117
    Rabbi Eliezer, of school of, quoted, I 43
    work of, studied in Poland, I 117
    method of, followed by Solomon Luria, I 125

  =Totleben=, Russian governor-general of Vilna, opposes settling
            of Jews in villages, II 276
    checks pogroms, II 276

  =Tovyanski= (_Polish_, Towianski), Polish mystic, preaches union
            of Jews and Poles peoples, II 108

  =Trades=, see Artisans

  =Trade-Unions, or Trade-Guilds=, in Poland, hostile to Jews,
            I 70, 74

  =Trans-Caspian Region=, Akhal-Tekke, oasis in, suggested for
            settlement of Jews, II 306
    alien tribes of, placed on level with Jews, II 367

  =Transportation Prisons=, term explained, II 403
    exiled Moscow Jews placed in, II 403, 405 f

  =Trepov=, Assistant-Minister of Interior, favors Jewish franchise,
            III 122

  =Trepov=, Chief of Police, orders suppression of revolution,
            III 126

  =Tribunal=, Crown T. in Poland, name explained, I 96
    tries ritual murder cases, I 96, 100, 172 f

  =Troitza Monastery=, near Moscow, II 203

  =Troki= (province of Vilna), Crimean Jews settle in, I 35
    Jewish community in, I 59
    Karaites settle in, I 60
    Jews expelled from (1495), I 65

  =Troki, Isaac=, author of anti-Christian treatise, I 137 f

  =Tromba, Nicholas=, archbishop of Gnesen, attends Synod of Constance
            and presides over Synod of Kalish, I 57

  =Troyanov= (Volhynia), tragic fate of Jewish self-defence at,
            III 116 ff

  =Trubetzkoy=, Russian commissioner, exonerates Jews of Mstislavl,
            II 87

  =Trubetzkoy=, professor, head of delegation to Nicholas II.,
            III 122

  =Trudoviki= ("Laborites"), Bramson, Jewish member of, III 134
    lose in Third Duma, III 153

  =Tsushima=, Russian fleet destroyed by Japanese in vicinity of,
            III 119

  =Tudela= (Spain), Benjamin of, Jewish traveller, I 32

  =Tugendhold, Jacob=, Jewish assimilationist in Warsaw, II 98
            f
    refutes Abbé Chiarini, II 104

  =Tugendhold, Wolf=, brother of former, censor in Vilna, II 136

  =Tula= (government), "Judaizers" in, I 401 f

  =Tulchinski, Borukh=, see Borukh of Tulchyn

  =Tulchyn= (Podolia), Khmelnitzki massacre at, 146 f
    residence of Pestel, Russian revolutionary, II 411

  =Turgay, Territory of= (Central Asia), semi-civilized tribes
            of, placed on level with Jews, II 367

  =Turgenieff= (=Turgeniev=), Russian writer, II 210
    influences S. J. Abramovich, II 231
    keeps silent on Jewish persecutions, II 325

  =Turish=, hasidic center, II 120

  =Turkey=, takes over colony in Kaffa, I 34
    Jewish center in, I 66
    Polish Jews export goods to, I 68
    Jews of Lithuania suspected of preparing to flee to, I 51
    raided by Cossacks, I 143
    Jewish prisoners of war carried by Tatars to, I 145, 157, 205
    lays claim to Ukraina, I 159
    Sabbatai Zevi carries on propaganda in, I 205, 210
    influence of, on Polish Jewry, I 207 f
    annexes part of Podolia (1672), I 208;
      returns it to Poland (1699), I 208
    Jacob Frank travels about in, I 212;
      sent back from Poland to, I 213;
      returns to Poland from, I 216
    engages in war with Russia (1739), I 253 f
    establishment of Jewish State in, suggested by Russian revolutionary,
            I 412
    Moses Montefiore pays visit to, II 68
    _Bilu_ pioneers enter into negotiations with, II 322
    hampers Palestinian colonization, II 375, 422, III 42
    Dr. Herzl enters into negotiations with, III 45 f
    Russian Government promises to exert influence over, in favor
            of Zionism, II 83

  =Twenty-One-Verst Zone=, see Border Zone

  =Tver= (Central Russia), pogrom against intellectuals at, III
            128

  =Typography=, see Printing-Press

  =Tzaddik= ("=The Righteous Man="), title of hasidic leader, rival
            of rabbi, I 235
    revered by Jewish masses, I 274; II 112
    controls rabbinate in Russian South-west, I 371
    gains foothold in Lithuania, I 372
    type of, in Poland, resembles that of _Habad_, II 123
    miraculous stories about, circulate among Hasidim, II 124
    firmly entrenched, II 116 ff
    forbidden by Russian Government to travel about, II 212
    See Tzaddikism and Hasidism

  =Tzaddikism= (cult of _Tzaddik_), as conceived by Besht, I 227
    developed by Baer of Mezherich, I 230
    practical consequences of, I 231 f
    extreme formulation of, I 232 f
    viewed with apprehension by Elijah of Vilna, I 374
    triumphant in South-west, I 381
    vulgar form of, rejected by
    Shneor Zalman, I 382
    degeneration of, I 382 f
    extermination of, advocated by Kalmansohn, I 385
    criticised by Pestel, Russian revolutionary, I 411
    attacked by Maskilim, II 210;
      see Tzaddik and Hasidism

  =Tzarmis=, Slav tribe, subject to Khazars, I 26


  =Uganda= (British East Africa), offered as Jewish settlement
            to Zionists, III 84 f

  =Ukase=, term explained, I 249;
      spelling of word, I 6

  =Ukraina= (=Ukraine=), name explained, I 140
    part of, called Little Russia, invaded and annexed by Russia
            (1654), I 153, 244 f
    divided between Poland and Russia (1667), I 159
    Jewish massacres in (1648), I 139 ff
    part of, barred to Jews (1649), I 151;
      reopened to Jews (1651), I 152
    Jews decimated in, I 157
    uprisings against Poles and Jews in (18th century), I 182 ff
    Jewish massacres in, stimulate propaganda of Sabbatai Zevi,
            I 205
    talmudic culture deteriorates in, I 199
    intellectual development of Jews in, differs from that in North-west,
            I 221
    character of Hasidism in, I 232, II 119 ff
    type of Tzaddik in, I 233;
      differs from that in Poland, II 123
    Tzaddik dynasty of Chernobyl widely ramified in, I 382
    Jews expelled from (1727), I 249
    transfer of Polish Jews to, suggested, I 284
    included in Pale (1794), I 317
    Galatovski, Ukrainian writer, refers to Sabbatai Zevi, I 205
    Russian revolutionaries appeal to Ukrainian people, II 274
    Ukrainian cultural institutions suppressed by Russian Government,
            III 160
    See Russia, Little

  =Ulrich Von Hutten=, epistles of, imitated in Hebrew, II 126

  =Uman= (_Polish_, Human, province of Kiev), massacre at, I 184
    Nahman of Bratzlav dies at, I 383
    place of pilgrimage for Bratzlav Hasidim, I 383, II 122

  =Uniat Church=, the, I 141

  =Union of American Hebrew Congregations= appeals to United States
            Government on behalf of Russian Jews, II 293

  "=Union of Lublin=" (1569), I 88

  =Unitarians=, the, Christian rationalistic sect in Poland, I
            136

  =United States of America=, Max Lilienthal emigrates to, II 59
    Marcus Jastrow emigrates to, II 179
    emigration of Russian Jews to, II 268 f, 297 f, 321, 327 f,
            373 ff, 421, III 104
    stirred by Warsaw pogrom, II 283
    Government of, protests against Jewish persecutions in Russia,
            II 292 ff, 394 ff, 408 ff
    Congress of, protests against Jewish persecutions in Russia,
            II 294 ff, 394
    Jewish center in, suggested as alternative by Pinsker, II 331
    Jacob Gordin settles in, II 335
    Jewish agricultural colonies in, II 374
    economic condition of Jews in, II 374
    Jewish emigrants in, said to wish for return to Russia, II
            393
    Government of, sends two Commissioners to Russia, II 407
    exiled Moscow Jews emigrate to, II 413, 416
    emigration to, embodied in Jewish pogrom of Dubnow, III 54
    agitated over Kishinev massacre, III 78
    Kishinev massacre stimulates emigration to, III 85 f
    fear of new Kishinev pogrom intensifies emigration to, III
            96
    ambassador of, in St. Petersburg, reported to have protested
            against Jewish persecutions, III 96
    emigration to, embodied in pogrom of Jewish National Party
            in Russia, III 147 f
    statistics of Jewish emigration to, III 148
    Hebrew writers in, III 163

  =University=, Polish Jews study at U. of Padua, I 132
    "Statute of 1804" admits Jews to Russian U's., I 345
    Jewish U. graduates admitted into Russian Interior and to civil
            service (1861), II 166;
      required to possess learned degree, II 165, 167;
      requirement dropped (1879), II 167
    Jewish U. graduates permitted to keep two Jewish servants in
            Russian Interior, II 166;
      fictitious servants of, II 344 ff
    Jews with U. education permitted to live in villages and own
            property (1904), III 98;
      privilege extended to wives and children, III 99
    Jewish U. students suspected of revolutionary leanings, II
            348, III 28
    admission of Jews to, restricted (1887), II 350;
      placed on Statute books (1908), III 157 f
    restricted admission drives Jews into foreign U's, II 351,
            III 31, 158;
      and makes them antagonistic to Government, III 31
    restricted admission to, abolished by professional councils
            (1905), III 124;
      restored (1907), III 152;
      placed on Statute books (1908), III 157 f
    See Education and School

  =Ural=, territory of, semi-civilized tribes of placed on level
            with Jews, II 367

  =Urussov=, governor of Bessarabia, and later Assistant-Minister
            of Interior, favors mitigation of Jewish disabilities, III 93
    discloses personal animosity of Nicholas II. against Jews,
            III 93
    issues warning against pogroms, III 97
    reveals in _Memoirs_ Plehve's share in pogroms, III 97
    discloses in Duma share of Russian Government in October pogroms,
            III 126, 138

  =Ushitza=, see Novaya Ushitza

  =Ussishkin=, Russian Zionist leader, III 47

  =Ustrugov=, deputy-governor of Bessarabia, persecutes Jews, III
            70
    assists in arranging Kishinev massacre, VIII 71
    sued by Jews, III 92

  =Uvarov, Sergius=, Minister of Public Instruction, endeavors
            to spread enlightenment among Russian Jews, II 46 ff
    lays plans before "Jewish Committee," II 50 ff
    visits Lilienthal's school in Riga, II 52
    negotiates with Lilienthal, II 53
    instructs Lilienthal to enter into correspondence with Jewish
            leaders in Western Europe, II 67
    petitioned by Moses Montefiore on behalf of Russian Jews, II
            68
    plans of, received favorably by Jews of Vilna, II 136 f
    See Lilienthal


  =Valnyev=, Minister of Interior, favors admission of Jewish artisans
            and mechanics into Russian Interior, II 169 f

  =Vannovski=, Minister of War, restricts number of Jewish surgeons
            in Russian army, II 319 f
    accepts post of Minister of Public Instruction and curtails
            admission of Jews to universities, III 29

  =Varta= (_Polish_, Warta), Diet of (1423), restricts commercial
            operations of Jews, I 58

  =Varta= (_Polish_, Warta), river, lands on banks of, attract
            Jews, I 39

  =Vasa Dynasty=, of Swedish origin, rules in Poland, I 91

  =Vasilchikov=, Count, governor-general of Kiev, favors admission
            of Jewish artisans into Russian Interior, II 168

  =Veitelson, Marcus=, Jewish deputy in St. Petersburg, I 393

  =Velizh= (government of Vitebsk), ritual murder trial at, II
            75 ff
    Alexander I. passes through, and orders opening of case, II
            76
    Jews of, acquitted, II 83

  =Venentit=, Slav tribe, subject to Khazars, I 26

  =Venice=, Jewish Palestine pilgrims from Poland pass through,
            I 209
    Master Leon, Russian court physician, invited from, I 37

  =Victoria=, Queen of England, recommends Moses Montefiore to
            Nicholas I., II 68

  =Vienna=, Jewish bankers in, petition Polish king on behalf of
            Posen Jews, I 176
    Jews of, assist Jewish Palestine pilgrims from Poland to reach
            Constantinople, I 209
    Congress of, inaugurates European reaction, I 359
    Congress of, transfers duchy of Warsaw to Russia, I 390, II
            88
    Lieberman, Russian-Jewish socialist, publishes _ha-Emet_ in,
            II 223
    Smolenskin resides in, II 234;
      and publishes _ha-Shahar_ in, II 218
    secret circular of Plehve made known in, II 381
    Dr. Herzl resides in, III 42

  =Vigdorovich, Samuel=, rabbi of Vilna, engages in litigation
            with Kahal, I 275 f

  =Vilenski Vyestnik= ("The Vilna Herald"), publishes Brahman's
            articles against Kahal, II 189

  =Vilkomir= (government of Kovno), home of M. Lilienblum, II 236

  =Villages=, transfer of Jews from to towns ordered by Catherine
            II. (1795), I 319
    Jews retained in, by land owners, I 323
    Russian officials given wide powers in dislodging Jews from
            (1797), I 323 f
    expulsion of Jews from, decreed in Statute of 1804, I 343
    projected expulsion from, affects half million Jews, I 346
    expulsion checked by fear of Napoleon's invasion (1807), I
            347 f
    Jewish deputies plead for repeal, or postponement of expulsion
            from, I 349
    expulsion of Jews from, reaffirmed (1808), I 351
    expulsion from, started, I 351
    Alexander I. admits impossibility of removing Jews from (1809),
            I 352
    "Jewish Committee" advises against expulsion of Jews from (1812),
            I 353 f
    economic importance of Jews in, I 361 f
    evil effects of endeavors to dislodge Jews from, I 362 f
    renewal of effort to remove Jews from, I 405
    Jews expelled from, in White Russia (1823), I 406 f
    uselessness of expulsion from, in White Russia pointed out
            by Council of State (1835), I 407 f, II 34 f
    Jews expelled from, in government of Grodno (1827), II 30 f
    expulsion of Jews from, in government of Kiev, decreed (1830),
            II 33;
      delayed, II 33;
      objected to by Council of State and indefinitely postponed,
            II 35
    barred to Jews in government of Kiev and Little Russia in Statute
            of 1835, II 40
    barred to Jews in Fifty-Verst-Zone under same law, II 40
    Jews of Poland permitted to live in (1862), II 181, 367;
      permission invalidated by restriction of property rights
            (1891), 367
    Jews of Poland permitted to acquire land in (1862), II 172,
            181;
      permission withdrawn as result of Polish insurrection (1864),
            II 173
    exclusion of Jews from, recommended by Totleben, governor-general
            of Vilna, II 276
    complete elimination of Jews from, recommended by "Jewish Committee"
            (1882), II 310
    expulsion of old settlers objected to by Committee of Ministers,
            II 311
    Jews forbidden to settle anew in, and to acquire property in
            ("Temporary Rules" of May 3, 1882), II 312
    remain closed to Jews, II 318
    old Jewish settlers expelled from, by peasant communes, II
            318 f
    peasants encouraged to expel old Jewish settlers from, II 319,
            340
    Jews in, harassed by Russian officials, II 340 ff
    thousands of Jews expelled from, in governments of Chernigov
            and Poltava, II 341
    disabilities of Jews in, commented upon by Pahlen Commission,
            II 366
    discharged Jewish soldiers, being regarded as "new settlers,"
            barred from returning to, II 384
    towns transferred into, and barred to Jews (1890), II 385;
      reopened to Jews (1903), III 80 f
    policy of eliminating Jews from, continued under Nicholas II.,
            III 16 ff
    Jews dislodged from, by introduction of liquor monopoly (1894),
            III 23
    privileged Jews, though admitted into Interior, prohibited
            from acquiring property in (1903), III 81;
      exception made for Jews with higher education (1904), III
            98
    wholesale expulsions of Jews from (1910), III 157
    See Expulsion, and Residence, Right of

  =Villani, Matteo=, Italian chronicler, quoted, I 52

  =Vilna= (_Polish_, Wilna, city), superseded by Warsaw as capital,
            I 85
    conquered by Russians (1654), I 154, 245
    surrendered by Poles, I 155
    Lithuanian Hetman resides in, I 192
    anti-Jewish riots in (under Polish Régime), I 94, 99, 161,
            166;
      by invading Russian troops, I 245
    Jews of, permitted to engage, in petty trade, I 99
    Jews of, restricted to "Jewish Street" and placed under jurisdiction
            of Municipal Courts (1633), I 99
    Jewish community of, represented on Lithuanian Waad, I 112
    Kahal of, engaged in litigation with rabbi of, I 275 f
    Jews of, support Polish troops fighting against Russians (1792),
            I 292
    Christian burghers of, protest to Alexander I., against admission
            of Jews to city-government (1805), I 370
    Jews of, barred from city-government in (1805), I 370
    exclusion of Jews from city-government of, confirmed in Statute
            of 1835, II 41
    hasidic societies secretly organized in, I 237
    visited by Shneor Zalman to request interview with Gaon, I
            238
    Kahal of, excommunicates Hasidim (1772), I 237, 371;
      (1796), II 371, 373
    Hasidim reside "illegally" in, I 372
    Kahal of, sends out messengers to stir up anti-hasidic agitation,
            I 373
    Hasidim of, rejoice over death of Gaon, I 375
    Kahal elders of, vow to avenge insult to Gaon, I 375;
      and denounce Hasidism to Government, I 375 f
    Hasidim arrested in, I 376
    Hasidim of, depose Kahal elders, I 377
    conference of Jewish deputies at (1815), I 393 f
    Kahal of, pleads for abolition of cantonists, II 36
    Kahal of, complains to Council of State about Jewish disabilities,
            II 38;
      and begs permission to send spokesmen to St. Petersburg,
            II 39
    printing-press in, II 42, 127
    censorship committee in, II 44
    visited by Max Lilienthal, II 54
    Maskilim of, promise support to Lilienthal, II 55;
      and form his mainstay, II 136
    Rabbinical Institute opened in (1847), II 59, 174;
      closed (1873), II 177;
      graduates of, un-Jewish, II 212
    Teachers' Institute in, II 177
    pupils of both Institutes form revolutionary circle in, II
            223
    visited by Moses Montefiore, II 68
    center of Haskalah, II 132 ff
    Maskilim circle in, II 136 ff
    residential restrictions in, abolished by Alexander II., II
            172
    Brafman carries on anti-Jewish agitation in, II 187 ff, 240
    pauperism among Jews of, III 24
    Blondes, Jewish barber in, accused of ritual murder, II 37
    Jewish labor movement in, III 55
    "Bund" holds convention in (1897), III 56
    Lekkert, Jewish workingman in, assails governor of Vilna,
            III 66 f
    Dr. Herzl enthusiastically received by Jews of, III 84
    Jews of, assured by Svyatopolk-Mirski of just treatment, III
            99
    Jewish community of, signs petition for equal rights, III 108;
      and demands self-determination, III 109
    league for Attainment of Equal Rights formed in (1905), III
            111
    Jewish community of, protests against denial of Jewish franchise,
            III 121 f
    place of publication, II 115, 126, 131, 134, 136, 226
    _ha-Karmel_, published in, II 217
    _ha-Zeman_, Hebrew daily, published in, III 162
    Sabbatai Cohen (_Shak_), famous Talmudist, native of, I 130,
            157 f
    Budny, Christian theologian, of, I 136
    Moses Rivkes, Talmudist, of, I 200
    Elijah of; see Elijah of Vilna Masalski, bishop of, employs
            Berek Yoselovich, I 294
    Saul Katzenellenbogen, rabbi of, II 115
    M. A. Ginzberg, Hebrew writer, resident of, II 133
    Abraham Baer Lebensohn, Hebrew poet, resident of, II 134 f
    Micah Joseph Lebensohn, Hebrew poet, native of, II 226
    Levanda, Russian-Jewish writer, resident of, II 239
    S. M. Dubnow, author of present work, resident of, III 112
    See Vilna (government)

  =Vilna= (province or government), annexed by Russia (1795), I
            297
    included in Pale (1794), I 317;
      (1835), I 39
    includes later government of Kovno, I 317
    Jews of, invited to elect deputies (1807), I 349
    Poles threaten to massacres Russians and Jews in, I 357
    Samuel Epstein elected Jewish deputy from, I 393
    Poles and Jews forbidden to acquire estate in (1864), II 173
    placed under jurisdiction of Muravyov, II 188
    Friesel, governor of, suggests Jewish reforms, I 325 ff
    governor of, testifies to loyalty of Jews to Russia (1812),
            I 357
    governor-general of, opposes admission of Jewish artisans into
            Russian Interior, II 168
    Muravyov, governor-general of, pursues policy of Russification,
            II 183, 239
    Totleben, governor-general of, favors forbidding Jews to settle
            in villages, II 276
    Kakhanov, governor-general of, insults Jewish deputation of
            welcome, II 383
    governor of, favors abrogation of Pale (1895), III 11
    Pahlen, governor of, favors mitigation of restrictive laws,
            III 93
    Svyatopolk-Mirski, governor-general, promises Jewish deputation
            favorable treatment of Jews, III 99
    Localities in:
      Ilya, II 114
      Mikhailishok, II 134
      Troki, see Troki
      Volozhin, I 380, II 57, 113

  =Vinaver, M.=, Russian-Jewish lawyer, acts as counsel for Jewish
            victims of Kishinev pogrom, III 92;
      and Homel pogrom, III 102
    member of Central Bureau of League for Equal Rights, III 112
    elected president of League for Equal Rights, III 134
    deputy to First Duma, III 134
    leader of Constitutional Democratic party, III 134
    denounces in Duma oppression of Jews, III 136; and pogroms,
            III 139
    head of Jewish People's Group, III 146

  =Vinchevski, M.=, publishes Hebrew periodical _Asefat Hakamim_,
            II 223

  =Vinnitza=, Kahal of, appealed to by Vilna Gaon against Hasidim,
            I 373

  =Virgil, Aeneid of=, translated into Hebrew, II 226

  =Visconti=, papal nuncio at Warsaw, ordered to report on ritual
            murder trial in Poland, I 179

  =Vishniovetzki= (_Polish_, Wisniowiecki), =Count Jeremiah=, Polish
            commander, protects Jews against Cossacks, I 149, 161

  =Vishniovetzki= (_Polish_, Wisniowiecki), =Michael=, Polish king
            (1669-1673), son of former, ratifies Jewish privileges, I 160

  =Vistula=, river, lands on banks of, attract Jews, I 39
    provinces on banks of, invaded by Swedes, I 154
    Plotzk, on banks of, I 243
    Poles perish in, defending Warsaw against Russians, I 296
    Hasidism established on banks of, I 384
    Gher, or Goora Kalvarya, on left bank of, II 122
    Poles admit only "one nation on banks of," III 168

  =Vital, Hayyim=, Cabalist, I 134

  =Vitebsk= (city), Jews of, defend city against invading Russians,
            I 154
    Jews of, robbed by Cossacks and maltreated or exiled, I 154
    Jews of, made prisoners of war by Russians, I 245
    Mendel of, hasidic leader, I 234, II 117
    Dyerzhavin writes "Opinion" on Jews in, I 330
    pogrom at, III 101
    Jewish community of, protests against denial of Jewish franchise,
            III 121
    See Vitebsk (government)

  =Vitebsk= (government), annexed by Russia (1772), I 186, 262
    Jews from, made prisoners of war by Russia, I 245
    formerly called government of Polotzk, I 307, 315, 317
    forms part of White Russia, I 307, 315
    included in Pale (1794), I 317;
      (1835), II 40
    Jews of, visit Smolensk and Moscow, I 315
    Jews of, invited to elect deputies, I 349
    Jewish deputies from, I 393
    expulsion of Jews from villages of, begun (1808), I 351
    Jews, expelled from villages of, economically ruined, I 364
    Jews elected to municipal offices in, I 368
    expulsion of Jews from villages of, decreed (1823), I 406
    Supreme Court acquits Velizh Jews accused of ritual murder,
            II 76
    placed under jurisdiction of Muravyov, II 188
    Cities in:
      Kreslavka, I 331
      Polotzk, I 243
      Velizh, II 75
    See Vitebsk (city), and Russia, White

  =Vitovt= (also Vitold, or Witold; _Polish_, Witowt), grand duke
            of Lithuania (1388-1430) protects Jews of Lithuania, I 35
    grants Jews charter (1388) and additional privileges (1389),
            I 59

  =Vladimir= (_Polish_, Wlodzimierz Volhynia), early Jewish community
            in, I 59

  =Vladimir=, prince of Kiev, receives Khazar Jews (986), I 30

  =Vladimir, Monomakh=, prince of Kiev, stops anti-Jewish riots,
            I 32

  =Vladimir=, grand duke, brother of Alexander III., holds Russian
            revolutionaries responsible for pogroms, II 260

  =Vladimir=, archbishop (Mitropolit) of St. Petersburg, encourages
            pogroms, III 125

  =Vladislav= (also Wladislaus and Leidislaus; _Polish_,
            Wladyslaw), =Lokietek=, Polish ruler, unites Great
            Poland and Little Poland, and assumes royal title
            (1319), I 42, 50

  =Vladislav= (_Polish_, Wladyslaw) IV., Polish king (1632-1648),
            I 91
    tolerant to other creeds, I 97
    confirms Jewish privileges, I 98
    makes erection of synagogues and establishment of cemeteries
            dependent on royal permission, I 98
    restricts Jews in response to anti-Jewish petitions, I 98 f
    uprising of Khmelnitzki during reign of, I 144
    dies during uprising, I 145
    offered, as crown prince, Russian throne (1610), I 244

  =Voislovitza=, near Lublin, Jews of, accused of ritual murder,
            I 178 f

  =Volfovich, Simeon=, denounces abuses of Vilna Kahal, I 276
    persecuted and imprisoned, I 276
    advocates abolition of Kahal, I 276

  =Volga=, river, Khazars move towards banks of, I 19
    Khazar capital situated at mouth of, I 23, 26, 28
    called Ityl by Khazars, I 26, 28
    bodies of alleged ritual murder victims found in, II 150

  =Volhynia= (_Polish_, Volyn), forms part of Lithuania, I 59
    ceded to Poland (1569), I 110
    controlled economically by Polish magnates, I 140
    uprising against Poles in (1648), I 145
    returned to Poland (1667), I 159
    annexed by Russia (1793), I 292
    included in Pale (1794), I 317, (1804), I 342;
      (1835), II 39
    called formerly government of Izyaslav, I 317
    Cossack massacres in (1648), I 148 f
    Jews decimated in, I 157
    Jews of, slain by haidamacks (18th century), I 182 f
    Jewish _arendar_ of, oppressed by Polish squire, I 266
    Jews of, suffer from Polish civil war (1792), I 292
    Polish nobility of, advocates anti-Jewish restrictions, I 324
    Jews of, hold conference and decide to appeal to Tzar (1798),
            I 324 f
    Jews of, invited by Alexander I. to elect deputies, I 349
    woolen mills established by Jews in, I 363
    Jews of, indifferent towards Polish revolution (1831), I 107
    statistics of Jews in, II 194
    pogroms in, II 256
    represented on Council of Four Lands, I 110
    Jewish Provincial Assembly (or Dietine) of, I 113; called "Volhynia
            Synagogue," I 196
    Talmudism deteriorates in, I 199
    intellectual development of Jews of, differs from that in North-west,
            I 221
    Besht travels about in, I 224
    Baer of Mezherich, hasidic preacher in, I 227
    Hasidism spreads in, I 229, 274
    becomes hasidic headquarters, I 229 f
    Hasidism triumphant in, I 371, II 119 f
    Gubernatorial Kahal of, appealed to by Vilna Gaon, against
            Hasidism, I 373
    Isaiah Horowitz (_Shelo_), Cabalist, rabbi in, I 135
    Levi Itzhok of Berdychev, leader of Hasidim in, I 382
    Menashe Ilyer, Talmudist and writer, resides in, II 115
    Isaac Baer Levinsohn, native of, II 125 ff
    rabbis of, request Levinsohn to refute blood accusation, II
            131
    Localities in:
      Chudnov, III 117
      Kremenetz, II 125[65]
      Old (Staro-)-Constantinov, II 21 f
      Ostrog, I 125
      Rovno, III 99
      Slavuta, II 42, 123
      Troyanov, III 116
      Zaslav, I 116, 177
      Zhitomir, see Zhitomir

  =Volkspartei=, see Jewish National Party

  =Volozhin= (government of Vilna), yeshibah of, established by
            Hayyim Volozhiner, pupil of Vilna Gaon (1803), I 380 f
    sends forth large number of pupils, II 113

    Itzhok Itzhaki, president of, member of Rabbinical Commission,
            II 57

  =Volozhiner, Hayyim=; see Volozhin

  =Voltaire=, praises polemical treatise of Isaac Troki, I 138

  =Vorontzov=, governor-general of New Russia, protests against
            proposed "assortment" of Jews by Nicholas I., II 64 ff, 142

  =Voronyezh= (city and government), "Judaizers" spread in, I 401
    archbishop of, reports to Government on "Judaizers," I 401
            f
    Senate refers to "Judaizers" in, I 404
    pogrom in city of (1905), III 130

  =Voskhod ("The Sunrise")=, Jewish weekly and monthly, in Russian,
            published in St. Petersburg, II 221, 277, 332, 372, III 162
    opposes organizing of emigration, as subversive of emancipation,
            II 298 f
    protests against anti-Semitic speech of governor-general of
            Kiev, II 317
    opposes "Love of Zion" movement, II 332
    suppressed by censor, II 407
    publishes Dubnow's "Letters on Old and New Judaism," III 52
    leaning towards nationalism, III 59
    suppressed for protesting against Kishinev massacre, III 77
    appeals to patriotism of Jews in Russo-Japanese War, III 94
    warns against impending pogroms, III 96
    confiscated by censor, III 98
    points out rightlessness of Jews, III 124

  =Voyevodas= (_Polish_, Wojewoda), high Polish officials, name
            and functions of, explained, I 46
    correspond to _Starostas_ in Lithuania, I 60
    exercise, as representatives of sovereign, special jurisdiction
            over Jews, I 46, 94
    V. courts, see Courts
    Jewish Dietines assemble by order of, I 196 f
    instructed by Stephen Batory to protect Jews, I 89
    accept bribes, I 76
    begin to oppress Jews, I 169
    V. of Cracow accepts bribes from Jews and their opponents,
            I 76
    V. of Kiev owns city of Uman, I 184
    V. of Lemberg, or Red Russia, upholds prestige of Kahal, I
            190;
      grants constitution to Kahal of Lemberg (1692), I 191
    V. of Vilna sides with Kahal against rabbi, I 276;
      imprisons Simeon Volfovich, opponent of Kahal, I 276

  =Voyevodstvo= (_Polish_, Wojewodstwo), name for Polish province,
            term explained, I 46, 76

  =Voznitzin, Alexander=, captain in Russian navy, converted by
            Borukh Leibov to Judaism, I 251 f
    burned at stake in St. Petersburg (1738), I 253

  =Vperyod= ("=Forward="), Russian revolutionary periodical in
            London, II 223

  =Vratislav=, prince of Bohemia, robs Jews fleeing to Poland,
            I 41

  =Vyatka= (government) cantonists carried to, II 24

  =Vyborg= (Finland), V. Manifesto, protesting against dissolution
            of First Duma, signed by Jewish deputies, III 139
    signatories to, prosecuted, III 142

  =Vyelepolski=, Marquis, Polish statesman, secures assent of Alexander
            II. to Act of Emancipation of Polish Jews (1862), II 181, 195

  =Vyestnik Russkikh Yevreyev= ("Herald of Russian Jews"), Russian
            Jewish periodical, II 221


  =Waad Arba Aratzoth= ("Council of Four Lands"), central organization
            of Polish Jewry, pronunciation of word _Waad_, I 108
    grows out of conferences of rabbis and Kahal leaders, I 108
            f;
    which meet at fair of Lublin, I 109;
    at initiative of Shalom Shakhna, rabbi of Lublin, I 123;
    exercising judicial as well as administrative and legislative
            functions, I 109 f
    presided over by Mordecai Jaffe, I 127
    presided over by Joshua Falk Cohen, I 128
    meets periodically at Lublin and Yaroslav, I 110, 194
    composition of, I 110
    provincial _Waads_ represented on, I 113, 196 f
    oligarchic character of, I 195
    acts as court of appeals, I 111
    decides litigations between Kahals, I 193
    activities of, stimulate rabbinical learning, I 126 f
    regulates inner life of Jews, I 111 f, 152, 188 f
    concerned about maintenance of Talmud Torahs and yeshibahs,
            I 195
    exercises censorship over Hebrew books, I 195 f
    issues _herem_ against Frankists, I 214
    appoints _Shtadlans_ to represent Jews before Government, I
            111, 193
    apportions head-tax among Kahals, I 181, 189 f, 194
    authority of, in apportioning head-tax upheld by King Sobieski
            (1687), I 194
    authority of, undermined by withdrawing right of apportioning
            head-tax (1764), I 181, 197
    meetings of, forbidden by diet; of 1764, I 198

    =Waad Kehilloth Rashioth Di-Medinath Lita= ("Council
            of the Principal Communities of the Province of
            Lithuania"), central organization of Lithuanian Jews,
            formed in 1623, I 112
    provincial Waads represented on, I 113, 196
    meets periodically, I 194
    functions of, I 112 f
    cultivates Jewish education, I 195
    appoints _Shtadlans_ to represent Jews before Government, I
            193
    apportions head-tax among Jews, I 181

  =Waddington=, English representative at Berlin Congress, favors
            emancipation of Jews, I 202

  =Wagenseil=, German professor, publishes Isaac Troki's _Hizzuk
            Emuna_, I 138

  =Wahl, Saul=, legendary king of Poland, I 94

  =Wahl, Von=, governor of Vilna, flogs Jewish workingmen, I 67

  =Wallachia=, Jacob Frank settles in, I 212
    Besht born on border of, I 222;
      see Moldavo-Wallachia

  =Warsaw= (_Polish_, Warszawa), capital of Poland, I 85, 111
    capital of duchy of Warsaw, I 298
    meeting-place of Polish diet, I 76, 98, 99, 111, 160, 165,
            169, 171, 181, 278, II 96;
      see Diet
    Khmelnitzki moves towards, I 151
    conquered by Swedes (1655), I 154
    Russia maintains Resident at, I 279
    besieged by Russian troops (1794), I 293
    stormed by Suvarov, I 296
    annexed by Prussia (1795), I 296;
      held by it (1796-1806), I 385
    granted right of excluding Jews, I 85, 268
    Jews permitted temporary visits to, I 111, 268
    Serafinovich, converted Jew, invited to disputation in, to
            prove blood accusation, I 173 f
    Jews of, appeal to Polish king on behalf of Posen Jews, I 176
    Visconti, papal nuncio at, instructed to report on ritual murder
            cases, I 177
    Jacob Frank, baptized at, I 217 f;
      arrested at, and exiled to Chenstokhov, I 218;
      returns to, I 219
    Jews permitted to stay in, during sessions of diet (1768),
            I 268
    procedure in admitting Jews to, I 269
    Jews pay tax for sojourn in, I 269, II 95
    Polish dignitaries rent houses to Jews in outskirts of, I 269
    "New Jerusalem," district in, I 269
    Jews expelled from (1775), I 269
    Jews return surreptitiously to, I 269 f, 285
    burghers of, demand expulsion of Jews, I 285 f
    anti-Jewish riot at (1790), I 286 f
    Jews expelled from (1790), I 287
    Jews volunteer in defence of, I 293
    siege of, arouses patriotism of Berek Yoselovich, I 294;
      appeal for special Jewish regiment, II 295
    Jews display heroism in defence of, I 296
    Jews barred from principal streets of, (1809), I 300, II 94;
      exception made for widow of Berek Yoselovich, I 304
    assimilated Jews of, plead for special privileges, I 300
    representatives of Jewish community of, complain about disabilities,
            I 301 f
    "Enlightenment" among Jews of, I 385
    visited by Moses Montefiore, II 68
    visited by Altaras of Marseilles, II 69
    Tugendhold, Jewish assimilator in, II 98
    Jewish assimilators in, II 100 ff
    Congregational Board of, objects to special Jewish regiment,
            II 106
    Jewish militia participates in defence of (1831), II 106
    Congregational Board of, sends deputation to St. Petersburg
            to plead for equal rights, II 110
    adherents of hasidic dynasty of Gher numerous in, II 122
    assimilation in, II 177 f;
      assumes menacing proportions, II 213
    Jews of, display Polish patriotism in uprising against Russia
            (1861-1863), II 179 ff
    pogrom at (1881), II 280 ff
    archbishop of, endeavors to check pogrom, II 283
    prominent Poles of, offer to organize civil guard for protection
            of Jews, II 283;
      offer refused by governor-general of, II 283
    number of writers arrested at, II 291
    effect of pogrom in, upon Western Europe and America, II 283,
            287
    governor-general of, reports to Tzar on pogroms in, II 284
    pogrom in, welcomed by Central Jewish Committee, II 310
    center of "Love of Zion" movement, II 376
    Jewish labor movement in, III 55
    economic progress of Jews in, III 166
    Jews of, instrumental in election of socialistic deputy to
            Duma, III 167
    Hebrew papers and periodicals published in, II 333, 372, III
            58, 60, 162
    Yiddish papers and periodicals published in, III 59, 162
    Goora Kalvarya (Gher), in vicinity of, II 122
    Kotzk, in vicinity of, I 303, II 122
    Praga, suburb of, I 294

  =Way, Lewis=, representative of London Bible Society, I 397
    submits memorandum to Alexander I. pleading for Jewish emancipation,
            I 398
    memorandum of, laid before Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, I 398

  =Weber=, United States Commissioner to Russia, II 407

  =Wertheimer=, banking house of, in Vienna, exerts influence over
            Polish king, I 176

  =Wessely, Naphtali Hirz=, Hebrew poet, compared with A. B. Lebensohn,
            II 135

  =Western Europe=, Jewish diaspora in, I 13
    emigration from, into Poland, I 39 ff
    leading Jews of, invited by Russian Government to participate
            in work of enlightenment, II 67
    Jews of, intercede on behalf of Russian Jews, II 67 ff
    public opinion of, influences Russia, II 262
    effect of Warsaw pogrom on, II 283, 287
    emigration from Russia to, II 321, 408, 413
    Political Zionism originates in, III 42, 46
    Jews of, deny Jewish nationalism, III 53
    public opinion of, agitated over Kishinev massacre, III 78

  "=Western Region=," term explained, II 16
    number of Jews in, II 168
    Jews form majority of population in cities of, III 11

  =Westminster=, duke of, addresses Guildhall meeting in London
            against oppression of Russian Jews, II 390 f

  =White, Arnold=, member of English parliament, sent by Baron
            Hirsch to Russia, II 417
    discusses Jewish question with Russian dignitaries, II 417
    visits Pale and is favorably impressed by Jews, II 418
    recommends regulation of emigration, II 418
    dispatched to Russia a second time, II 419

  =White Russia=, see Russia, White

  _Wine_ grown by Jews in Palestine, II 376;
      see Liquor

  =Witsen=, burgomaster of Amsterdam, petitions Peter the Great
            to admit Jews into Russia, I 246

  =Witte=, Russian Minister of Finance, advocates liquor monopoly
            as means of dislodging Jews from villages, III 17;
      and eliminating Jewish "exploitation," III 22
    favors mitigation of Jewish disabilities, III 107 f
    Jews address petitions for equal rights to, III 108 f
    receives, as president of Council of State, memorandum on pogroms,
            III 125
    appointed Prime Minister, author of manifesto of October 17,
            1905, III 127
    adopts policy of oppression, III 131
    League for Equal Rights votes down proposal to send delegation
            to, III 131

  =Wolff, Sir H. D.=, member of English parliament, interpellates
            Government concerning pogroms, II 262

  =Worms, Baron Henry De=, member of English parliament, interpellates
            Government concerning pogroms, II 262
    Gladstone replies to interpellation of, II 292


  =Yadviga= (_Polish_, Jadwiga), Polish queen, marries Yaguello,
            grand duke of Lithuania (1386), I 54
    Yaguello, Vladislav II. (_Polish_, Wladyslaw Jagiello), king
            of Poland and grand duke of Lithuania (1386-1434), I 54
    converted from paganism to Catholicism, I 55
    restricts commercial operations of Jews, I 58
    Lithuania ruled by Vitovt, as representative of, I 59
    extinction of Y. dynasty, I 88 f, 91

  =Yalta=, health resort in Crimea, Jews expelled from, II 428
            f, III 18 f

  =Yampol= (Volhynia), ritual murder trial at, I 178

  =Yaroshevski=, Russian-Jewish novelist and physician, protests
            against affront to Jewish army surgeons, II 320

  =Yaroslav= (_Polish_, Jaroslaw; Galicia), meeting-place of Council
            of Four Lands, I 110, 194

  =Yekaterinoslav= (city), Orshanski, Russian-Jewish writer, native
            of, II 238
    pogrom at (1883), II 358 ff;
      (October, 1905), III 128

  =Yekaterinoslav= (government), territory of, raided by Turks
            and defended by Cossacks, I 143
    territory of, opened to Jews (1791), I 316
    tract of land in, set aside for Jewish converts (1820), I 400
    included in Pale (1794), I 317;
      (1835), II 403
    Jewish agricultural colonies in, II 72
    Rostov and Taganrog transferred from, to territory of Don army
            and barred to Jews (1887), II 346
    pogroms in (1883), II 360

  =Yelisavetgrad= (government of Kherson), Government agents appear
            in, to prepare pogroms, II 248
    pogroms at (1881), II 249 ff, 333; (October, 1905), III 128
    "Spiritual Biblical Brotherhood," heterodox Jewish sect, founded
            by Jacob Gordin in (1881), II 333 f

  =Yellow Waters= (_Polish_, Zolte Wody), Polish army defeated
            by Cossacks near, I 145

  =Yemetyanov, Theodore=, alleged victim of ritual murder, II 75
            f

  =Yeremyeyeva=, Russian woman, accuses Jews of Velizh of ritual
            murder, II 75
    convicted by Council of State, II 82

  =Yeshibah, or Talmudic Academy=, imparts higher rabbinical education,
            I 114 f
    secular studies excluded from, I 120, 277
    maintained by Council of Four Lands, I 195
    sanctioned by Sigismund II. under name of _gymnazium_, I 115
    head of, or _rosh-yeshibah_, granted wide powers by Polish
            Kings, I 115 f;
      enjoys great distinction, I 119
    Y's spread all over Poland and Lithuania, I 115 f
    Y's of Lithuania adopt method of Talmud study of Vilna Gaon,
            I 380 f
    important Y's in Lithuania, II 113 f
    negative effect of, II 113 f
    placed under Government supervision (1842), II 56
    Joshua Falk Cohen, head of, in Lemberg, I 128
    Moses Isserles, head of, in Cracow, I 123
    Nathan Spira, head of, in Cracow, I 135
    Isaiah Horowitz (_Shelo_), studies in, of Lemberg and Cracow,
            I 135
    Eliezer, head of, in Homel, I 150
    Abel Gumbiner, head of, in Kalish, I 200
    Hayyim Volozhiner, head of, in Volozhin, I 381
    Itzhok Itzhaki, head of, in Volozhin, II 57

  =Yesod Hama'Alah=, Jewish colony in Galilee, II 375

  =Yevrey=, Russian term for Jew, officially introduced, I 320

  =Yevreyskaya Bibliotyeka ("Jewish Library")=, Jewish periodical
            in Russian, II 221
    Orshanski contributes to, II 238

  =Yevreyskaya Starina ("Jewish Antiquity")=, Jewish periodical
            in Russian, III 160

  _Yevreyski Mir_ ("Jewish World"), Jewish weekly in Russian, III
            162

  =Yezierski=, Polish statesman, chairman of Jewish Commission
            of Polish Diet, I 287
    recognizes economic importance of Polish Jews, I 287 f
    defends Jews in Diet, I 289

  =Yiddish=, brought by Jews from Germany, I 43, 114
    translations of prayers in, used by women, I 121
    read by women and lower classes, I 202
    Mendel Lewin translates Bible into, I 388; attacked by Tobias
            Feder, I 388
    Y. press, II 217 f, III 58 f, 162
    Y. literature, III 61 ff, 162
    Mendele Mokher Sforim turns to, II 232
    Gordin writes plays in, II 335
    Frug, Russian-Jewish poet, writes in, III 63, 78
    used as propaganda means by Jewish Labor movement, III 56 f
    position of, hotly discussed, III 161
    adherents of (Yiddishists), III 161

  =Yosefovich, Hirsh=, rabbi of Khelm, author of Polish pamphlet
            defending Jews, I 283

  =Yosefovich, Abraham=, Jewish tax-farmer in Poland, I 73
    converted to Christianity and appointed Chancellor of Lithuanian
            Exchequer, I 73

  =Yosefovich, Michael=, brother of former, Jewish tax-farmer in
            Poland, 172 f
    appointed by Sigismund I. "senior" of Lithuanian Jews, I 72
            f, 104

  =Yoselovich= (_Polish_, Joselowicz) =Berek=, Polish-Jewish patriot,
            I 293 ff
    accompanies Bishop Masalski to Paris, I 294
    offers to form special Jewish regiment, I 294 f
    regiment of, displays heroism, I 296
    flees to France, I 296 f
    returns to Poland and dies heroic death, I 303
    eulogized by Pototzki, I 303 f
    widow of, granted special permission to sell liquor, I 304

  =Yosko=, Jewish tax-farmer in Poland, I 71

  =Yudich, Saul=, Jewish tax-farmer in Lithuania, I 94
    possibly identical with Saul Wahl, legendary king of Poland,
            I 94

  =Yurkevich, Peter=, accused of stealing host for Jews, I 101
            f

  =Yurkovski=, Moscow police commissioner, makes raid on Jews,
            II 403

  =Yushkevicher, Yankel=, of Saratov, accused of ritual murder,
            II 151
    sentenced, with son, to penal servitude, II 152
    pardoned by Alexander II. through intercession of Crémieux,
            II 153


  =Zadok=, Messianic propagandist in Lithuania, I 208

  =Zaleshkovska, Catherine=, suspected of leanings towards Judaism
            and burned at stake, I 79 f

  =Zalman Shneorsohn=, or =Zalman Borukhovich=; see Shneor Zalman

  =Zamyatin=, Minister of Justice, defends Jews of Saratov accused
            of ritual murder, II 152

  =Zamoiski, Andreas=, Polish chancellor, suggests reforms for
            Jews of Poland, I 271 ff

  =Zamoshch= (_Polish_, Zamosc), Joel Baal-Shem of, I 203

  =Zangwill, Israel=, founder of Territorialism, III 144

  =Zaporozhians=, the, or =Zaporozhian Cossacks=, name explained,
            I 143
    raid Turks and fight Tatars, I 143
    cultivate relations with Ukrainian Cossacks, I 143
    form alliance with Tatars, I 144
    exterminate Jews and Poles, I 145 f
    plunder Jews of Vitebsk, I 154
    form bands attacking Poles and Jews, I 182 f
    petition Russian Government to admit Jews to fairs of Little
            Russia, I 250
    See Cossacks

  =Zarudny=, Council of Jewish victims of Homel pogrom, III 102

  =Zaryadye=, part of Moscow illegally inhabited by Jews, II 403

  =Zaslav= (_Polish_, Zaslaw; Volhynia), Cossack massacre at (1648),
            I 149
    ritual murder case in (1747), I 172, 177 f
    Nathan Hannover of, see Hannover, Nathan

  =Zayonchek=, Polish general, flees from Poland, I 296
    appointed viceroy of Poland, II 91
    opposes measures in favor of Jews, II 93
    makes insulting remark about Jews, II 94

  =Zborov, Treaty of=, between Poles and Cossacks (1649), I 151
    not kept by Polish Government, I 152

  =Zebulun=, king of Khazars, I 26

  =Zederbaum, Alexander=, editor of _ha-Melitz_ in St. Petersburg,
            II 217
    refutes charge of ritual murder, I 204
    publishes _Vyestnik Russkikh Yevreyev_, I 221

  =Zelenoy=, city-governor of, warns Jews to use polite manners,
            II 383

  =Zelig=, see Jacob Selig

  =Zelikin, Isaac=, called Rabbi Itzele, secures acquittal of Mstislavl
            Jews, II 86 f

  =Zelva= (province of Grodno), rabbis issue _herem_ against Hasidim
            at fair of, I 237

  =Zemstvos= (local self-governments in Russia), term explained,
            II 173
    Jews admitted to (1864), II 173
    rights of, curtailed by Alexander III., II 379, 386
    Jews barred from (1890), II 385 f
    liberal Z. voice desire for constitution, III 7 f
    refuse to appoint Jewish physicians, III 27
    conference of, in St. Petersburg protests against autocracy
            (1904), III 105
    combined deputation to Nicholas II. of municipalities and Z.
            express desire for abolition of restrictions (1905), III 122

  =Zetlin, Yevzik=, of Velizh, arrested on charge of ritual murder,
            II 75, 77

  =Zetlin, Hannah=, wife of former, arrested on same charge, II
            77

  =Zeno=, emperor of Byzantium, persecutes Jews, I 18

  =Zhelezniak=, Cossack leader, massacres Jews (1768), I 183 f

  =Zhitomir=, see Zhytomir

  =Zhmud= (Samogitia) region in North-west Russia, I 293, II 133

  =Zhukhovski, Stephen=, Polish priest, accuses Jews of ritual
            murder, I 172 f

  =Zhyd= (and =Zhydovski=), Russian derogatory appellation for
            Jew, I 184, 320, 403, II 14, 78, III 155
    officially abolished by Catherine II., I 320

  =Zhytomir= (_Polish_, =Zytomir=; Volhynia), ritual murder trial
            at (1753), I 178
    Kahal of, appealed to by Vilna Gaon against Hasidism, I 373
    printing-press of, II 43
    Rabbinical Institute opened in (1847), II 59, 174;
      closed (1873), II 177;
      graduates of, un-Jewish, II 212
    Teachers Institute in, closed (1873), II 177
    old privilege of, excluding Jews from parts of town, abolished
            by Alexander II., II 172
    _Mendele Mokher Sforim_ removes to, II 232
    School of Handicrafts in, closed by Alexander III., II 347
    pogrom in (1905), III 115 ff
    Jews of Chudnov attempt to defend Jews of Zhytomir and are
            massacred, III 116 f
    Jewish community of, protests against denial of Jewish franchise,
            III 121

  =Zikhron Jacob=, Jewish colony in Galilee, II 375

  =Zionism=, before Herzl, called in Hebrew _Hibbat Zion_
            (in Russian, _Palestinophilstvo_) "Love of Zion,"
            preached by Lilienblum, II 237, 328 ff
    expounded by Pinsker, II 220, 330 ff
    adopted by Lilienblum, II 237
    engages in colonization of Palestine, II 375 f, 422 f
    adherents of, assemble in Kattowitz (1884), II 376;
      and Druskeniki (1887), II 377
    legalized by Russian Government (1890), II 377
    center of, in Odessa and Warsaw, II 376
    wins over orthodoxy, II 376 f
    failure of, III 42
    leaders of, join political Zionism, III 47
    modified by Ahad Ha'am, II 423, III 49 f
    rise of political Z., III 41 ff
    proclaimed by Herzl, III 42 f
    First Zionist Congress (1897), III 44
    political and cultural tendency within, III 44 f
    effects of, III 46 f
    Spiritual Z., or Ahad Ha'amism, III 41, 48 ff
    Russian Zionists Convention at Minsk, III 51
    inadequacy of, III 51 f
    combined with Socialism by _Poale-Zion_, III 57 f, 145
    Nahum Sokolow declares allegiance to, III 60
    Reflected in poems of Frug, III 63
    indifference to, denounced by Bialik, III 63
    forbidden in Russia by Plehve, III 82 f
    Plehve promises support of, as result of Dr. Herzl's visit,
            III 83
    Vilna Zionists give ovation to Dr. Herzl, III 84
    crisis of, at Sixth Congress, III 84 f
    Schism between Palestinianism and Territorialism, III 85
    organize self-defence at Homel, III 87
    Shmaryahu Levin, representative of, deputy to First Duma, III
            134
    forms contrast to Social Democracy, III 143
    Seventh Zionist Congress reaffirms allegiance to Palestine,
            III 144
    Russian Zionist Convention at Helsingfors (1906) recognizes
            rights of diaspora, III 144 f
    adherents of, secede from League for Equal Rights, III 146
    declared illegal by Senate, III 152

  =Znamya= ("The Banner") anti-Semitic paper in St. Petersburg,
            III 70
    demands execution of Dashevski, assailant of Krushevan, III
            81 f

  =Zohar=, the, cabalistic standard work, study of, not permitted
            before the age of thirty, I 214
    Frankists recognize authority of, I 214;
      call themselves Zoharists, 214
    used by Besht to foretell the future, I 224

  =Zonch=, Russian general, maltreats Jews on his estates, I 328

  =Zubov=, Count, governor-general of New Russia, secures equal
            rights for Karaites, I 318
    member of "Jewish Commission" appointed by Alexander I., I
            335

  =Zunz=, refutes charges of Abbé Chiarini, II 104

  =Zverovich=, synagogue built in, by Borukh Leibov of Smolensk,
            I 249, 252

FOOTNOTES:

[62] The text has 1774 by mistake.

[63] The text has 1815 by mistake.

[64] P. 125, line 3 from below, read "Volhynia," instead of "Podolia."

[65] Page 125, line 3 from bottom, read Volhynia, instead of Podolia.
The mistake is due to a confusion with Kamenetz.

                       _The Lord Baltimore Press_

                        BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A.



    Transcriber's Notes:


    Simple spelling, grammar, and typographical errors were
    corrected.

    Punctuation normalized.

    Anachronistic and non-standard spellings retained as printed.

    Italics markup is enclosed in _underscores_.

    Bold markup is enclosed in =equals=.





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