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Title: Elementary Instruction in The Art of Illuminating and Missal Painting on Vellum - A Guide to Modern Illuminators
Author: Lara, D. Laurent de
Language: English
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  JUST PUBLISHED.

  LAURENT DE LARA'S

  SHAKSPERIAN PROVERBS, FROM HIS PLAYS.

  Quarto Imperial, price 1s. 6d. Plain; 3s. Partly Coloured.

       1. ALL THE WORLD'S A STAGE.
       2. RICH GIFTS WAX POOR.
       3. SUSPICION ALWAYS HAUNTS.
       4. FAST BIND, FAST FIND.
       5. SWEET ARE THE USES OF ADVERSITY.
       6. THERE IS NO VICE SO SIMPLE.
       7. VIRTUE ITSELF TURNS VICE.
       8. COME WHAT, COME MAY, TIME.
       9. O IT IS EXCELLENT TO HAVE A GIANT'S STRENGTH.
      10. THERE'S A DIVINITY THAT SHAPES OUR ENDS.
      11. ONE TOUCH OF NATURE MAKES THE WHOLE WORLD KIN.
      12. LIFE'S BUT A WALKING SHADOW.


  3. SHAKSPERE "IN MEMORIAM," with Vignette Portrait.
        2_s._ and 3_s._ 6_d._

  4. THE CHRISTIAN MARTYR. "Be thou faithful," &c. With Photograph,
        2_s._ plain; 3_s._ 6_d._ partly coloured.


  CROSSES.

     1. NO CROSS, NO CROWN, &C. Imperial 4to, 14½ by 10½,
        1_s._ 6_d._ plain; 3_s._ partly coloured.

     2. TAKE UP THY CROSS AND FOLLOW ME. 18 by 7½,
        1_s._ 6_d._ plain; 3_s._ partly coloured.



  ILLUMINATED WORKS

  PUBLISHED BY MESSRS. LONGMAN, GREEN & CO.


  The Parables of Our Lord.

     A Selection of the most striking Parables from the four
     Gospels, richly illuminated on every Page by HENRY NOEL
     HUMPHREYS. In rich binding, in high relief, imitative of carved
     ebony, 21_s._

  The Miracles of Our Lord.

     Being a Selection from the Miracles of our Saviour, richly
     illuminated with appropriate borders of original design
     on every page, and 6 illuminated miniatures by HENRY NOEL
     HUMPHREYS. In a carved binding of appropriate design, 21_s._

  Maxims and Precepts of the Saviour.

     A Selection of the most striking Aphorisms and Moral Precepts
     of the Saviour, richly ornamented with decorative borders of
     appropriate design by HENRY NOEL HUMPHREYS, founded on the
     passage, "Behold the lilies of the field," &c. In an ornamental
     cover of novel character, after the Style of the famous "Opus
     Anglicum" of the 9th and 10th centuries. 21_s._

  Sermon on the Mount.

     Gospel of St. Matthew, illuminated by F. LEPELLE DE
     BOIS-GALLAIS. Printed on plates of Silver with Landscape,
     illustrative Vignettes, and illuminated borders. Square 18mo,
     bound, 21_s._

  The Book of Ruth,

     from the Holy Scriptures. Enriched with coloured borders. The
     illuminations arranged and executed under the direction of H.
     NOEL HUMPHREYS. In embossed leather cover, square fcap. 8vo.,
     21_s._

  The Good Shunammite.

     From the Scriptures--2 Kings, chap. IV. vv. 8 to 37. Square
     fcap. 8vo. With Six original designs, and an ornamental border
     to each page, printed in Colours and Gold. In carved binding,
     21_s._

  Sentiments and Similes of Shakspeare.

     Illuminated by H. N. HUMPHREYS. New Edition, square 8vo, in
     massive carved binding, 21_s._


  LONDON: LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, ROBERTS & GREEN.



  THE
  Albert Lithographic Printing Office,
  _Established to promote Female Employment_,

  168, GREAT PORTLAND STREET, OXFORD STREET,
  LONDON, W.


    E. FULLER & CO.,
    ARE PREPARED TO EXECUTE
    Every description of Chromo-Lithography,

    ALSO

    COPPER-PLATE & LETTER-PRESS PRINTING,
    WITH PROMPTNESS AND DESPATCH,

    At Twenty per Cent. lower than any other House.


    1000 CIRCULARS ON GOOD PAPER FOR 21s.


    Lithographic Fac-simile Circulars, and all kinds
    of Commercial Printing

    EXECUTED FOR THE TRADE ON LIBERAL TERMS.


    _The artistic Branch of Lithography wholly carried out by Females._



  ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION

  IN

  The Art of Illuminating and Missal
  Painting on Vellum,

  A GUIDE TO MODERN ILLUMINATORS.

  _With Illustrations in Outline as Copies for the Student._

  BY D. LAURENT DE LARA,
  (_Illuminating Artist to the Queen.)_

  Seventh Edition,

  WITH CONSIDERABLE ENLARGEMENTS AND ADDITIONS.

    "Ingenuas didicisse fideliter artes
    Emollit mores, nec sinit esse feros."

  LONDON:
  LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, ROBERTS, AND GREEN,
  PATERNOSTER ROW.
  AND ALL BOOKSELLERS.

  _Price Three Shillings._

  _The Author reserves the right of translation to himself._



  LONDON:
  PRINTED BY J. WERTHEIMER AND CO.,
  CIRCUS PLACE, FINSBURY CIRCUS.



DEDICATED BY KIND PERMISSION TO THE LADY HARRIET ASHLY.


  MADAM,

Irrespective of the honor your Ladyship confers on me, by allowing
the privilege of associating your name with this edition, a nobler
motive which actuated your generous sanction, viz., "the high
interest you feel in the revival of an obsolete but noble art," and
of which you are at once its zealous Patroness, and its more than
accomplished votary, are claims on my gratitude, which words scarcely
can express, even in the hackneyed terms the humble sometimes venture
to address to rank!--Appreciating, therefore, deeply the distinction
you thus confer on one of your fellow-labourers in art,

  Allow me,
  MADAM,
  To remain with profound respect,
  Your Ladyship's devoted
  and obliged servant,
  D. LAURENT DE LARA.


3, Torrington Square, October, 1863.



CONTENTS.


                                                        PAGE.

  PREFACE                                                   7

  PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION                              9

  INTRODUCTION                                             11

  On Illumination                                          17

  General Rules                                            25

  On Colours:--Ultramarine Blue--Vermilion--Emerald
    Green--Cobalt Blue--Purple--Orange Chrome--Chrome
    Yellow--Carmine, plain and burnt--Hooker's
    Green--Burnt Sienna--Lamp Black--Middle
    Tints--Enamel White--Platina and Silver--Green
    or Yellow Gold--The Agate                              30

  On the Arrangement of Colours                            47

  On Composition                                           52

  On Preparing the Vellum                                  59

  On Tracing and Transferring                              61

  On Raised Gold Ornamentations                            64

  Conclusion                                               67

  On Outlines                                              78

  List of Colours                                          82

  Plates                                                   83

  Appendix                                                 83



PREFACE TO THE SEVENTH EDITION.


Two years sufficed to exhaust the sixth edition (the first shilling
one) of my "Elementary Instruction on Illuminating," in opposition,
too, of a rival author; who was, however, more fortunate--for he was
enabled to _illuminate_ the world, with seven consecutive editions
in as many months, and left the world for two years after in as much
darkness as ever.--Far from envying him this inordinate success,
I rest secure on my laurels, humble though they be.--Ten years
were needed to bring forth my seventh edition, and here it is--as
unpretending as ever--but fully understood, and understandable--no
new theories erudite in print and bad in practice--no old ones,
filched from musty manuscripts, alike impracticable as complicated,
and displayed with learning and research, to bolster up repute and
attach importance to very questionable utility; wholly unimportant to
those who seek information. I address the _few_ and the few only,
who will take practical hints, from a practical man, clothed in the
plainest English. I do not trade on other men's brains, but endeavour
to live by my own. Those who encourage the empiric in art must buy
experience, and be contented with their shillings worth.(?) I have
added only some additional matter on colours and composition, as
applied to illumination, which I hope the public may find useful--in
other respects the seventh edition is like its predecessors--a
claimant to public favour.

    D. L.



PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION.


The steady revival of the "Art of Illuminating" during the last
few years, and the rapid progress it has made amongst the educated
classes, even since the fifth edition of this work was published
in 1859 (all the copies of which are now sold), has induced me to
re-publish it, under the present less expensive form, in order to
keep pace with the many publications which, under the names of
"Manuals," "Primers," "Treatises," "Guides," and "Instruction Books,"
have lately been forced on the public notice, each pretending to
give the desired information to the followers of this beautiful art,
with more or less display of talent; but all tending towards the
cultivation of a highly interesting pursuit, and proving that the
nineteenth century may in future history be distinguished as having
produced a "style" of its own, and identifying it with the happy
and peaceful reign of "Victoria," under whose mild rule, arts and
civilization are so eminently flourishing. The perusal, however, of
these various publications has confirmed me in the conviction, that,
for the purposes of instruction, the plan originally carried out by
me was best fitted to achieve the object in view, my aim being to
_instruct in_, and not to _lecture on_ the art. I have, therefore,
studiously divested the present publication of technicalities, or of
any attempt to display learned research, in the origin or progress
of the art, which, to the uninitiated, would not be instructive,
and could only prove "caviare to the general." My long professional
experience as a practical artist, has induced me to clothe, in the
plainest language, the information I wished to convey; and, in common
English, endeavour to speak to the understanding of my readers. If,
therefore, the present volume prove continuously useful, as it has
hitherto been, my readers will absolve me from blame or egotism, in
thus adhering to my original plan; my care having been not to fall
into the error of my contemporary imitators. All I have ventured to
add, is such information as my continued practical experience has
enabled me to collect, and I cheerfully communicate it to my readers.


  3, Torrington Square, October, 1860.



INTRODUCTION.


The beautiful "Art of Illuminating," which sprang up with the early
dawn of Christianity, and attained its highest perfection in the
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, owes its total extinction to
that powerful instrument of modern civilisation, the Printing Press.
Whether it be the phlegmatic Dutch Coster, or the German Necromancer,
Guttenberg, who was the first inventor of "moveable type," I know
not; but it is quite certain that the "printing process" struck a
fatal and decisive blow to "illuminated painting," the relics of
which at present are carefully hoarded up in our Museums and Public
Libraries, and are at once the living and imperishable oracles of
the bygone ages of romance and chivalry, and form the glorious
monuments of the known and unknown artists who created them! It is
equally true, as well as curious, that to another mode of printing
(chromo-lithography) the present century is indebted for the partial
revival of this beautiful art, since the many publications from the
lithographic press have engendered a corresponding taste with the
public for its cultivation, which is daily increasing. That taste
is now so manifest, and so general amongst the higher and middle
classes, that it can no longer be considered as a mere "fashionable"
pursuit, subject to the capricious ebb and flow of the tide of
fashion, and again to be doomed to pass into oblivion. I believe a
healthier motive is apparent in its cultivators; and the desire of
re-instating it to the rank it once held amongst its sister arts
is not unmixed with the holier emotions which a genuine religious
feeling, arising from the daily contemplation of the divine truths
of Holy Writ (as exhibited in the study of our finest missals), is
capable of producing. In this respect, it presents itself to the
devout mind of the novice as a labour of love, for the glorious
poetry of the Bible offers such a singularly fertile source, to which
the imagination and pencil may look for artistic inspiration.

The seductiveness of the art, too, on which the meanest capacity can
employ itself, is another incentive, which will cause many to venture
on so pleasing an occupation. The interesting question then arises:
What probable results are likely to follow from this general revival
of an obsolete art? My answer is, "That modern civilisation will
adapt it to our modern wants, and will gradually lay the foundation
of forming a _new school_, identical with the nineteenth century."
To attain this end, _conscientious_ artists only can pave the road;
_they_ have it in their power to direct and guide the masses, and the
public is sure to go with them.

The ILLUMINATING ART UNION OF LONDON, in its annual expositions,
invites artists to exhibit their productions, by which others less
gifted may be incited to follow their example. True Genius, however
exalted, does not feel itself above instructing others, as long as
through the medium of its productions the very best interests of the
art are likely to be promoted. Gradually, these productions will
develop new ideas, new resources, and features of originality, in
addition to the improvements which modern civilisation and modern
appliances necessarily suggest. Already three prizes have been
awarded for original designs of the "Beatitudes"; and, as a first
essay of a young Society, they are eminently creditable. The highest
in the land, and, perhaps, the humblest also, are its members and
supporters; and however the effort to increase its strength and its
popularity might have been thwarted, by the lukewarmness of those
professedly the most interested in the art, we owe it a debt of
profound gratitude, for the real good it has already achieved, and
cheerfully join our wishes for its welfare and success in what it
still hopes to accomplish.

A tendency to undermine the best interests of the art is, however,
insidiously at work to misguide the public taste. The hired pen
of the unprincipled and unskilful scribbler has been used by mere
traders, to advertise _their own materials_, and bring into notice
_worthless designs for illuminating_; the former without the
slightest regard to their adaptability for the purposes of "missal
painting," and the latter without the least pretence to artistic
merit. Unscrupulous authors have been found to dictate "rules"
for instruction, when, practically, they require _instruction_
themselves, judging from the ignorance they display in their own
pages. These very books, miscalled "Guides" and Outlines, facetiously
named "Useful Models," have received, in their turn, fulsome praise
in the pages of those, whose talents (to their shame be it written)
as illuminators are unquestionable, and whose commendations, though
valuable (?) in a _trading sense_, are sadly detrimental to the
interests of those who seek for information and instruction.

It is, however, to be hoped that a discriminating public, whose
taste in _Missal Painting and Illuminating_ has become considerably
enlightened and developed of late years, by the daily contemplation
of, and familiarity with, the works of our greatest masters,
(owing to the great liberality displayed by the trustees of the
British Museum, in throwing open, without reserve, for daily
inspection, the glowing vellums contained in its various collections,
together with the publication of such immortal works as the "Hours of
Anna Brittanny" published in Paris, etc., etc.) will be enabled to
discern the _useful_ from the worthless, and separate the _gold_ from
the _dross_.



ON ILLUMINATION.


The necessity for an "Elementary Instruction Book," to acquire the
art of illuminating on vellum, for the use of those who are desirous
of practising this beautiful and graceful accomplishment, has long
since become imperative; particularly since, to my own knowledge,
several handbooks have made their appearance, professedly with the
object of affording instruction to the many amateur artists, who
eagerly seek for such information in the first one that is presented
to them by the bookseller; and it often happens, that such books, by
their high sounding titles, deceive both the vendor and purchaser.
The subsequent disappointment to the latter may be easily imagined,
when, instead of the "instruction" anxiously looked for, he finds
an elaborate treatise "_cut short_" on the plea "_of the necessary
limits of the little work_," etc; and then only obtains snatches
of information of extraordinary existing specimens to be found in
the various libraries of Europe, to which he can have _no_ access;
interlarded with "technical phrases," of which he can have _no_
idea, and elaborate fragments of ornamentation, illustrative of
the author's text, but without affording him the slightest clue
what to do with them, or how, in his experience, he can apply them
to a useful purpose. The disappointed amateur artist, therefore,
turns away and feels himself sadly at a loss for some aid in his
endeavour to pursue a most beautiful, and, at the same time, easy
accomplishment, simply from the fact of unexplained difficulties
having been thrown in his path; for though specimens of illuminations
have from time to time been published, from which the student may
have derived some slight advantage,--if only a superficial insight
into style and taste,--yet they are universally of too elaborate a
character to be of much utility to the beginner; and in the attempt
to copy such specimens as Noel Humphreys has published in his
"Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages," the pupil frequently must
become embarrassed by the intricacy of the design; and not knowing
any method _where_ to commence or _how_ to proceed, would, in
attempting such specimens, make such signal failures, that in despair
he would throw his work aside, and for ever abandon an art, which,
simple and highly interesting in itself, would by him be considered
at once as futile and impracticable.

The beauty of illuminated drawing consists chiefly in the _nicety_
of execution, elaborate ornamental detail, and the mathematical
precision with which ornaments are frequently repeated throughout the
same design. The arrangement of colours requires also much judgment
and taste, whilst the knowledge how to lay them on evenly and
smoothly, requires the practical instruction of the teacher, without
whom it is almost impossible to overcome these difficulties, or
acquire proficiency, particularly in _raised gilding_, and the nicety
which is required in using the agate, with which the ornamentations
are engraved on matted gold or silver.

As an art, which originated at the remotest period of Christianity,
and which originally was practised by very limited artistic
intelligence, its first development was exceedingly simple, crude,
and grotesque. When the rolled papyrus manuscripts were superseded by
squares of parchment, in the form of our present books, the Scribes
or Monks of the early Christian period were the first who were
engaged in the writing of prayer-books or missals for the wealthier
classes of people, who at that time were alone enabled to indulge
in the luxury of a book; it is then we find the first germs of
artistic composition displayed, in the initial letters which began
to be conspicuously large and ornamental, fanciful, and sometimes
intricately and ingeniously contrived, in contradistinction to the
older rolled manuscripts discovered in Herculaneum and Pompeii, in
which no traces of ornamentation could be found. From this simple
source of artistic development, we may contrast the productions
of Giulio Clovio of a much later period, and his many and unknown
contemporaries, who have astonished the world by productions,
unequalled by anything that modern art could achieve. As I shall have
occasion to speak of the progress of illuminating, and ornamental
art, in a separate work about to be published, I merely hint here,
at the commencement, that, for modern purposes of illumination, it
would be highly pedantic to copy the earlier productions of missal
painting, merely because they are antique, if in other respects they
do not possess some artistic quality of graceful development both in
outline and colouring, to which the modern artist may, with very good
taste, give preference.

The object of this little work is not so much to enter into any
detailed history of the progress of ornamental art, which may
well become a separate and intricate study, as to smooth down
the difficult path of the beginner, to unravel for him apparent
mysteries in the art, to give him examples of practical designs to
imitate from, suitable to his skill; to point out to him clearly
and unmistakeably such rules as, from my experience, I have found
absolutely necessary to adopt, and which if studiously followed up
will, in a great measure, assist his first efforts and enhance his
ultimate success and proficiency.

That which is most remarkable in those mediæval vellum-illuminations
which have been preserved in the various collections of Europe,
is the brilliancy of their colours, tints unsurpassed by anything
that our modern contrivances can equal, or our colour-box approach.
Specimens which have stood the test of a thousand years' duration,
are as fresh and as brilliant as if they came newly from the artist's
hands. Such _orange_, and such _greens_, and _purples_, as if
directly snatched and stolen from the rainbow itself, or distilled
from the prismatic rays of a benignant sun. The borders are actually
studded with gems of colour which sparkle on the insects as if they
were photographed from nature, colours as well as form. Drapery,
damask, armoury, furs, and feathers, are all portrayed in such rich
and gorgeous tints, that we may well doubt whether the secret of
these colours has not died with those who used them centuries ago.
Our water-colours were as brickdust at the side of them. In order
somewhat to remedy the deficiency of our colours (as I found them)
in comparison with what was desirable, the attempt has been made to
manufacture them on a new principle, in order to preserve all the
brightness of the chief tints predominant in illuminations; and I
am happy to say, that, after years of experience, I have entirely
succeeded in producing a set of colours suitable for the purposes
of illumination; and I now beg to recommend to my pupils and readers
those only called "Illuminating Colours." Chemically speaking,
they are manufactured on a totally distinct principle from other
water-colours, and are made to answer all the purposes of illuminated
drawing, affording perfect facility on the one hand in laying them
on evenly and smoothly, and, on the other, saving a great deal of
time and labour, and enhancing much the general effect of the design,
in the _brilliancy_ of the tints; this refers more particularly to
their use when applied to vellum, which from its greasy surface
is apt to reject the _usual water-colours_, whilst those of the
illuminating-box are found perfectly to answer the purpose. I beg
also to recommend the "water gold-size," which in its application to
the drawing, can be raised considerably above its surface, assuming
all the appearance of being embossed, and can be _immediately_ gilded
over, which greatly expedites the process over that of any other gold
varnish.[A]

  [A] _Vide_ list of materials at the end of the book.

That persons having a knowledge of drawing can and will make better
illuminators than those who have not, there can be no doubt; and
the more accomplished the artist, the better illuminator he will
make is also obvious. Yet the art of illumination may be practised
by persons who may be but indifferent artists in general design,
and with a great deal of success; whilst others, conversant with
the highest principles of art, have frequently been found to be
but very indifferent illuminators. The reason of this is apparent;
illuminating being for the most part a strictly mechanical art
(though subject to artistic principles), any one possessed of natural
gifts of taste, patience and perseverance, will, by studiously
following out some slight mechanical contrivances, easily attain
the first principles primarily necessary to copy any given outline
however intricate; not even excluding the human figure.

The ornamental arabesque scroll, from its primitive simplicity
to the most elaborately finished foliage, interlaced initials,
etc., are given in due succession for the pupil to copy; by which
means his hand becomes gradually trained to curval delineations,
and his eyes get by degrees educated, till at last all angular
tendency in his ornamentations is entirely eradicated. Once trained
to that perfection, colouring and shading become comparatively
easy, and a little instruction, with practice, will enable the
hitherto uneducated artist to overcome almost every obstacle. The
free-hand artist, on the other hand, relying on his capacity alone,
and disregarding the mechanical contrivances at his command, not
unfrequently stumbles over the easiest parts, pettishly condemns
all such appliances, the neglect of which destroys the uniformity
and mathematical precision of his work, and finally he leaves off,
disgusted with his ill success.

I would, therefore, recommend first of all to the pupil to provide
himself with a box of Illuminating Colours, which can be obtained
of the author, or at any of the authors agents, which also includes
compasses, parallel rule, ruling-pen, agate, gold, etc., and other
little but indispensable tools; without which the student would be
at a loss to proceed. Having procured these, I would then place this
book in his hand, and, by following up the rules laid down here he
will find himself, at least, enabled to make such progress, that,
with the aid of one or two courses of instruction from a proper and
experienced artist, he will completely overcome those difficulties
which it would be vain to struggle against by himself. The manuscript
room in the British Museum, to which, on a proper recommendation,
access can be had, will finally give him an opportunity of studying
the art more fully, and make him conversant with the immense store
of mediæval treasures hoarded up there in endless variety and
profusion.



GENERAL RULES.


Beginners should not be too ambitious; let them be, therefore,
contented to copy first, before attempting _original_ designs,--it
will give them experience and method. In the higher walks of art,
copying is always resorted to; the painter has models, casts, and
drapery to guide him, and Nature is his instructor; and let him be
ever so original, he still imitates nature. Now, since there are no
ornamentations in nature to guide our illuminating art-student, let
him be content to copy, first, from those whose works are acceptable
for their originality, their effect, and their classical beauty. The
more these are studied and copied from, the nearer the pupil will
arrive at perfection, and may gradually become an original artist
himself.

       *       *       *       *       *

In commencing a subject, it is absolutely necessary first to arrange
a rough design of the intended subject; to perfect a sketch, and
then to make careful and correct tracings of the various parts (if
the design is a subject of repetition), or the whole; to retrace
them to the vellum, or Bristol board, with the red prepared paper,
as faintly as is consistent with being able to see it. This is
accomplished by placing the red paper between the tracing and the
vellum, or drawing board, and following its outline rather briskly
with a fine pointed H H H lead pencil, reversing the tracing when the
ornament or border forms the counterpart of the design, which secures
a perfect facsimile reversed; and, when completed, repairing any part
which may be defective with the pencil, and perfecting the outline
where it is uneven, or the scrollwork is broken or ungraceful. The
beauty of illuminations is always best secured when the scrollwork
runs gracefully smooth, not broken or angular, which gives it an
awkward and unartistic appearance. In order to prepare the pupil,
I have given, in the illustrations, the arabesque scroll and curval
lines to be drawn at the beginning in pencil only; and when _form_
is thoroughly attained, let him re-execute it with a fine sable
brush and carmine, which will give proper practice to use the brush
effectually. I have adopted the arabesque scroll as the principle
of all ornamental design; and I would advise the novice to practise
it continually, on the same principle that exercises and scales are
recommended in music to train the hand.

Referring back to the design, when the sketch is complete (which
should always be as faint and delicate as possible, since it is no
easy matter to erase a coarse outline from the vellum or cardboard
by the usual mode of india-rubber), the process of colouring may
then commence, by placing in the various compartments of the design
the colours as previously arranged, somewhat in the following order,
viz., first, all the blue throughout the drawing, or any portion
of it intended for completion; then the vermilion, the orange,
the purple, the green or yellow, and any other colour which may
be in the design; next, the gold forming the outlines of the next
ornamentations; and last of all, the shading of scrollwork, both gold
and coloured, and also the shadings on the gold backgrounds; that
being completed, you put white or gold arabesque ornamentations on
the ultramarine, carmine damask on the vermilions and orange, and
Hooker's green or cobalt ornamentations on the emerald. After the
whole has been thus far finished, the raised gold may be introduced,
finishing the matted or dead gold with burnished ornamentations,
dots, scrolls, arabesques, or any other design. This should be the
last process of all, since the atmosphere is somewhat apt to deaden
its brilliancy; and, therefore, it should be the concluding operation
before the drawing is finally consigned to the frame or album. I
must here also state, that if the vellum be somewhat soiled whilst
the drawing proceeds (which every care should be taken to avoid, by
always using a mat of blotting paper to rest the hand on), it may be
rubbed over with a piece of stale bread, which will perfectly cleanse
it. This process, however, must always be done before filling in the
gold, silver, or platina, as it cannot be used _over_ the _gold_ with
safety.

All straight lines, however short, should be drawn in with the
ruling-pen, opening it wider or narrowing it, as the line is required
to be thick or thin; if very thick, rule in _two_ thin lines equally
distant, and then fill up the intermediate space with the brush. A
circle, or portion of a circle, is drawn with the bow-pen; and any
portion of a curve is drawn in by the aid of the wooden scroll,
which is fixed on the drawing in such a position, that its curve
corresponds with the outline to be ruled. The nicety of the drawing
depends entirely on the execution, and the carefulness with which the
details are accomplished.



ON COLOURS.


If the observations on Colours, advanced elsewhere, hold good, as to
their brilliancy in the mediæval missals, the improvement which the
modern manufacturer has been able to effect is not less apparent;
for, although the mediæval productions are mostly painted in body
colours, which are managed so exceedingly and wondrously skilfully,
with touches so light and aërial, that to the beholder the dew-drops
might almost seem capable of being gathered from the flowers, or
the "mealy" dust brushed from off the wings of the butterfly--that
furs and feathers would almost seem to yield to the touch, so nicely
is the perception of their appearance preserved, that one may well
look with amazement, not only at the marvellous tints themselves,
which are preserved to this day in all the brilliancy of their
pristine freshness and beauty, but also question as to whether these
effects were mostly attributable to the skill of the artist, or to
the quality of the body colours themselves. Still, I am inclined to
think, from general observation and historic tradition, that the
_secret_ of the chemical admixture of these pigments was as much
the individual secret of the artist himself, as was his particular
mode of executing his handiwork. For it is reliably known, that the
great Rubens, and his predecessor Van Eyck, both Flemish artists,
most assiduously studied chemistry in Germany before they applied
themselves to painting; and that, to a great extent, the brilliancy
of their colours was owing to their extensive knowledge of that
science. If, therefore, the "science of chemistry" was considered
so material a qualification in the mediæval painter, it is not at
all improbable, that the illuminator of the period was actuated by
the same motive to acquire this knowledge, by which only his works
could be appreciated, as so much was depending on the quality of
his colours, to produce those mysterious and almost miraculous
effects, which the present age is still at a loss to imitate. I am
strengthened in this assumption by the fact of having seen a curious
old missal, in the library and museum of the Hague, a few years ago,
attributed to Van Eyck (who is known, not only as an illustrious
painter, but also as a skilful illuminator), in which is embodied an
illumination representing a studio, where the scribe is assiduously
engaged on his work, whilst an assistant is seen _grinding materials
on a stone slab_, and arranging them on a pallet, for the use of the
artist.

With work on hand, and, perhaps, with commissions for years, is it
too much to assume, that he would never incur the additional trouble
of preparing his materials, were it not that the _secret_ of his
preparations was his motive for so doing? This secret, I contend,
is lost to us, and with it the character of these body-colours,
which our present ones do not equal. For instance, I ask the student
and observer to compare the delicacy and permanency of the _white
ornamentations_ in the works of the older masters with what our
present _Chinese white_ will effect.

Whether, in the present day, we can again produce such glowing
_scarlet_ or brilliant _orange_, remains a matter of doubt; but
enough has been done already to make us hope that much more may
be expected, in proportion as the attention of chemical science
is directed to the object, and the urgency of the illuminator
furnishes suggestions. I have come, however to the conclusion,
that with our present appliances, we may make a tolerably good
shift; and I recommend, therefore, for general purposes of the art,
the "ILLUMINATING CAKE COLOURS" as the best, and as the safest
(particularly to place in the hands of the beginner). They are
capable of being used with the greatest facility, and can be worked
up, with the happiest effect, in shading very minute ornamentations
or miniature paintings; and it would require more than ordinary
skill, and a vast amount of experience, to handle "Moist Colours"
equally well. How the several writers on this art can recommend
them, I am totally at a loss to imagine. One colour manufacturer,
in his eagerness to go with the stream, has actually produced
an illuminating box with _Powder Colours_. I advise the unlucky
purchaser to lay them by, to tint wax-flowers with, since, for
the purposes of illumination, they are totally useless. The _Cake
Colours_, from my own experience, are the only means the illuminator
has to rely on, in order to give a soft tone to his work; and when
mixed with the _enamel white_, they form opaque tints, which even
then can be used with greater facility than when compounded with
Moist Colours.

Half a dozen only of the Moist Colours I recommend, in addition to
the Cakes, to produce finishing effects in touching up, when all
the subject has been completed, or to use wholly for deep-tinted
fruits or flowers, such as cherries, currants, carnations, or
hearts'-ease, in which the rich, moist, purple carmine will give the
happiest and quickest effects. _Hooker's green_, _carmine_, _burnt
carmine_, _purple_, _burnt sienna_, and _emerald green_, will be
amply sufficient for this purpose. In conclusion, I therefore
warn the purchaser not to be allured by the sounding title of an
"ILLUMINATING COLOUR-BOX," though highly-priced and costly fitted
up, but to purchase that only which is likely and capable of
answering his purpose.

I must give the present age credit for having left no means untried
to supply the demand of suitable materials for the purposes of
illuminating, in the hope of approaching, or even equalling, the
effects displayed in the missals of the middle ages; and, as these
effects vary in the originals, owing to different theories pursued
by different artists, so the present systems adopted by various
and eminent manufacturers in their present _Illuminating Colours_,
are apt also to produce _different results_. We have then before
us--_Powder_, _Moist_, _Cake_, and recently again a new contrivance
of _Liquid Colours_, produced by a firm of eminent repute, and which,
from my own experience, are certainly as _bright_ and _brilliant_ as
one would wish to see--each of these possesses merits useful in its
own way, _provided the skill of the Artist has been able to seize on
their adaptability_,--but placing each of these four different kinds
of colours in four equally clever hands, there will be four distinct
results; thus, with our _present Moist_ colours, we shall obtain
(if we wish to imitate that) the coarsest results of the earlier
productions of mediæval art, without their _brilliancy_, looking
heavy, and wanting the _transparency_ so charming in the better
productions of the later Italian style. The _Powder_ colours again
look transparent, and perhaps brilliant, but require great skill
and _much_ manipulation, to keep the shading soft, and prevent the
_hard line_, where the colour unhappily was suffered prematurely to
dry; depth of tone, too, is out of the question. The _Liquid_ colour
possesses brilliancy of tint, a perfectly flat and even appearance
like enamel, depth of tone, and is most useful for flat illuminations
_where no shading is required_; transparency, however, according to
my present impressions, is wanting. _Cake_ colours, therefore, aided
here and there by the adjuncts of moist or liquid colours, as the
nature of the work in hand may suggest, are, in my opinion, the best
medium through which the higher qualities of finish, and the general
impression which those better and unapproachable specimens of our
best models leave on our mind, can be attained.

Since brightness and effect are essentials in missal painting,
all the fault must not be laid at the door of the colour-box, but
frequently to the unskilful manner in which they are used. It is
astonishing the difference which is perceptible in the drawings
of one artist and another. I have frequently had occasion to ask
my pupil where she obtained that orange or this vermilion. "It is
from your colour-box," would be the reply, and whilst, in another
instance, I might find fault with a colour for being dingy and
impure, she might have been heard to answer, that it was my own
colour she had used. The fact is thus quite clear, that one artist
has better skill to use the colours than another; and it requires
a certain knowledge and method to use them properly. From my own
experience, therefore, I will give explanations how each colour
should be used, for what applies to one may be totally different in
another. I shall, therefore, commence with--


_The Ultramarine Blue_,

Which is a metallic colour of recent invention, and chiefly
manufactured in Germany. The best and purest is prepared in France,
and varies considerably in price and quality. It forms one of the
most essential colours in illuminated painting, giving tone and
life to the whole, and forming a strong contrast against any other
bright colour; it should, however, not be too predominant, but
judiciously introduced. It is manufactured without any component
ingredient which tends to affect its brightness, or its brilliant
depth. In combination with _enamel white_ it can be tempered to any
shade, resembling the pure _ultramarine_ in tint, but of a brighter
and less greenish quality. It must be laid on very evenly, very
rapidly, and after once being painted in and yet moist, a full brush
must immediately be used, to let an additional quantity freely and
fully drop in; when dry, it will be perfectly even and equally
dispersed. Gold, platina, or _enamel white_ may form graceful
ornamentations over it, as also a deep black, which forms a rich
contrast against the ultramarine; particularly if a bright spot of
orange or carnation, such as a dot, is introduced. The drawing of any
ornamentation over it should be done very finely, and with the finest
brush, so as to look delicate, artistic, and studiously neat. The
best mode of shading it is not with black, but with deep carmine and
a little gum arabic in solution; it forms an intense purple, and is
much more effective than black.


_Vermilion._

The vermilion, which at all times is difficult to obtain very bright,
requires to be laid on evenly and not _too_ thin; it should not be
allowed to dry before the intended space be completed, otherwise
you obtain a sharp edge. The brush should be moderately full, but
if too full, it will cause the colour to run towards one point, and
form a dark spot. Once is sufficient to go over with the brush,
if carmine ornamentations are intended to embellish it; but when
a bright red only is intended, it would be better to paint over
twice, always taking care to let the first wash dry first, before
applying the colour a second time. Carmine should always be used to
shade or ornament it, and if in some instances a deeper contrast is
desirable, add a little burnt carmine to it, where the greatest
amount of intensity is required. Never use black to effect the object.


_Emerald Green_

Requires nearly the same treatment as vermilion, with a little
more care in washing in a second time, since that colour is easily
displaced by the second time going over it, which would give it an
uneven appearance. The beauty of illuminated drawing is greatly
increased by the solid and even appearance of the colours. If used
faintly, it may be shaded and ornamented with cobalt; if used
intensely, Hooker's green may be more effective; mixed with a little
cobalt, it forms a bluish green, frequently introduced in drapery in
the old missals. It is a useful and effective adjunct in scrollwork,
but should not be used for the painting of natural leaves; they look
then as if cut from bright green paper, instead of representing
nature's variegated ornaments.


_Cobalt Blue_

Is used precisely as the emerald green. A thin and even wash is
most essential in the first place, to be gradually tinted up
with the same tint. A good deal of patience and manipulation is
necessary to smooth this most difficult colour into obedience.
Young beginners will find it most irksome to handle, but it forms an
agreeable variety amidst the other blues. It looks well for skies
in tiny landscapes, and may be used for water, if copying the older
missals, in which it will be seen that water is always blue. White
ornamentations are used over it, to hide any defects.


_Purple_

Is not a permanent colour, but being in combination with another, it
changes to a bluish tint; it is easily applied, and very useful and
rich in contrast with orange, silver, or light colours in general.
This colour has been much esteemed, as preferable to the made-purple
of carmine and cobalt. It can be used for backgrounds if intensely
laid on, two or three times over: it has almost the appearance of
velvet, and may be used with advantage in every shade, and modified
with a little burnt carmine to suit the taste of the artist.


_Orange Chrome_

Is not so bright as the red lead, but is permanent, and will not
turn black. I have preserved all its brightness that was possible to
obtain, and have, therefore, entirely abandoned the more seductive
red lead: it is used precisely as the vermilion.


_Chrome Lemon._

Requires no particular treatment; it is both permanent and bright. We
place it in the box to be occasionally used for illuminations, where
an opaque colour is desirable. The gamboge can be used instead, when
a transparent colour is preferable, and it will, in combination with
prussian blue, form beautiful greens for foliage.


_Carmine_, _plain_, _burnt_, _and purple_.

Is one of the most useful colours in illuminations; its richness,
either diluted or not, gives life and brilliancy to the surrounding
colours. In combination with enamel white, it makes a rich pink; with
cobalt, it forms a soft lilac; and with burnt carmine, it produces
a rich brown, and invariably adds to the general effect. Carmine is
so generally useful, so easily applied, that the artist will soon
discover its inestimable value.


_Hooker's Green_

Is equally useful, brilliant, and easily applied. It adds
intensity to the shading of all the greens. In combination with
white, a beautiful middle tint is obtained, and may be used for
ornamentations, scrollwork, etc.


_Burnt Sienna_

Is used with the greatest advantage in shading gold or silver
(particularly the former), intensified with lamp-black. It is used in
figure-drawing for the hair, eyebrows, etc. In combination with burnt
carmine and lamp-black, it forms a rich brown for backgrounds, and
touches up foliage to much advantage.


_Lamp-black_

For its intensity, is preferable to Indian ink, and is very effective
for backgrounds. To add to its intensity, you may mix a little gum
arabic with it, when required as a shadow on the same colour.


_Middle Tints_

Or opaque colours, which form so conspicuous a feature in the old
missals, such as pink, salmon, gray, lilac, pale green, primrose, or
pale blue, are severally produced, by the addition of _enamel white_
with the following colours: carmine, vermilion,[B] black, cobalt and
carmine, Hooker's green, yellow and ultramarine, in such proportion
as the tint requires to be high or faint; but care must be taken in
laying these on evenly to preserve an equal surface, which is easily
displaced by going over it a second time.

  [B] A contemporary has asserted, that "vermilion" and "white"
  should not be mixed; he says: "The vermilion must not be mixed
  with white, or it will lose its brilliancy, and become a colour
  like brickdust." I know not what vermilion or white he used to
  induce him to come to this conclusion, but, after an experience
  of many years, I assert, that if the proper illuminating colours
  are used, they will, in combination, form that beautiful "_salmon
  tint_," so frequently to be found in the old missals.


_Enamel White_

Forms a distinguished feature in illuminating; its utility for
various objects is apparent; a small dot, the size of a pin's
point, tells on the blue, red, pink, or lilac with most delicate
effect. It adds, also, a brightness to the gold and on colours, when
judiciously applied. The artist can extensively avail himself of
it, and may modify its intensity as circumstances require. It forms
a _hard enamel_ over the gold size, which then may be painted over
with gold or silver from the shell; and when perfectly dry, may be
burnished richly over with the agate, and forms a bright gold or
silver _raised_ ornament. It aids him, also, to repair any damage or
imperfection which may accidentally occur; and its general utility
will soon be discoverable, when the student begins to advance in the
art.


With respect to other colours, not enumerated here, they may be
used as occasion requires; and those acquainted with water-colour
painting, can apply them to the painting of flowers, landscapes,
miniatures, etc., in the same manner as on drawing-board. The
delicacy of vellum, however, is much better fitted for the purposes
of painting than either ivory or paper; I need not add, that the
most pleasing and the highest finished drawing may be successfully
executed on it.


_Platina and Silver._

I have adopted platina, or aluminium, in preference to silver, since
the two former retain their colour permanently, whilst the silver
generally discolours after two or three weeks' exposure to the air.
Those who prefer the more brilliant colour of bright silver, can,
however, use it; gently washing it over with a soft new brush dipped
into spirits of wine (which, when dry, forms a varnish over it),
thus excluding atmospheric air, and thereby effectually preventing
discoloration. Care should be taken that in the process the silver
be not removed, by the brush being _too_ dry or too roughly used.


_Green or Yellow Gold._

The application of the green gold forms also a pleasing variety,
amidst illuminations of yellow or matted gold, and gives a richness
to the design, entirely unknown in the ancient missals, since its
use at that period was not discovered. For this reason, many of my
orthodox pupils have objected to use it, "because they could not
find it in the ancient manuscripts;" but whilst I would encourage
the study and close imitation of the _style_ of the ancient masters,
as far as artistic principles are concerned, I cannot object to
the introduction of any improvement in EFFECT, which modern art
may suggest, merely on the ground that our productions should be
slavishly imitative of the old originals. For this reason, I also
always discourage the introduction of quaint and grotesque figures,
mis-shapen animals and monstrosities, imaginary flowers or fruits,
which never had existence, and which merely indicate a want at the
time of artistic knowledge of the real beauties which are to be
found in the productions of nature, the want of which knowledge,
taught them to supply us with the defective creations of their
untutored imaginations. Of these, plenty of specimens are found in
the earlier productions of the sixth and seventh centuries; they
are, however, gradually improved upon in the later productions. I
prefer, therefore, the pleasing consistency of representing objects
of accurate design, to such as, at the present moment, would incur
the ridicule and just censure of the critic. Very little observation
need be made in the use of either gold, silver or platina, since it
is applied easily from the shell with a paintbrush and clean water
to the vellum, and can be ornamented or burnished with the agate at
pleasure, or be painted over with blue, white, or red scrollwork.


_The Agate_

Is used, with a little practice, to great advantage, and is capable
of producing beautiful effects on the shell gold. A large field of
gold would look rather monotonous; the agate is, therefore, employed
for engraving, as it were, little ornaments over it, of various
designs, which appear in bright contrast to the dead gold. A steady
hand is required to make the scrollwork run smoothly and freely; a
little dot, or a cluster of them, a stalk producing little flowers,
and an indented rose-leaf or vine-leaf, with its arteries, can also
successfully be produced. It were best, however, to practise this on
a small scale first, before progressing with the drawing in too great
a hurry. I entirely disagree with the use, under any circumstances,
of any kind of _imitation_ or _liquid gold_, firstly, because its
permanency is quite uncertain; secondly, it is too coarse and brassy
in appearance; and lastly, the agate could not produce the delicate
tracings on its surface, as when applied to the _real_ shell gold.



ON STYLE AND THE ARRANGEMENT OF COLOURS.


The immense variety of styles adopted formerly in illuminations,
makes it somewhat difficult to classify them in this little volume;
and I will, therefore, confine myself to those which are the most
popular and the most admired. We have the transparent border, with
a profusion of scrollwork, foliage, fruits, flowers, and insects,
relieved by tre-foiled ornamentations in raised gold, and the blank
spaces filled up with black filigree work, and which I perform
simply with the lead pencil.[C] The colours to be arranged in such
borders may be as varied as possible, in proportion as the design
consists of small and numerous ornamentations. The contrast and
variety cannot here be too profuse, so long as they are made with
discretion. A predominance of too much blue, or red, or green,
becomes tiresome to the eye; and, therefore, the greater number of
varied tints introduced the better. Avoid, above all, ugly colours.
No olive greens or bad blues, but rich and decided tints; a deep
orange, a bright red, a clear purple--against a soft pink, a delicate
primrose, or a blushing carnation; a sky blue against a deep bronze,
or chocolate brown; the gold between, and the silver, will divide
the monotony of effects; sameness will be avoided, and yet unity
preserved. The same rule does not apply to the solid border, where
the ornamentation is formal and large, and conspicuously relieved by
a background of solid gold or colour. A profusion of colours _then_
would resemble the harlequin's coat of many shreds and patches.
Simplicity, to my mind, is its greatest merit and recommendation. I
have seen the best effects produced by the simplest means, and by two
or three colours only. Much depends on taste, everything on effect
and sound judgment; and if, in such class of design, the object must
be attained by the quantity of colours, it proves the poverty of the
artist's resources.

  [C] Or with one of Gillott's fine Lithographic Pens.

The partially solid border, which is a combination of the first
mentioned, consisting of square, or undulated solid bands, with
transparent background, should, in character and combination of
colours, be also alike; modified, however, by the consideration of
these solid spaces, on which the ornamentation should be simpler,
and in good harmony against the colour of the background. These
backgrounds are in various tints--the most common in use is gold; we
have also crimson, ultramarine, purple, and not unfrequently black.
On all these, the taste of the illuminator is called in to produce a
good contrast in the arrangement of colours, and the less confused by
quantity the better.

There is another style which I have adopted, and which scrupulous
antiquarians would not designate as being strictly legitimate, in
which the arrangements and a profusion of contrasting colours, is
allowable and even desirable. I published the class of design I
allude to in the "Victoria Annual of 1844," the originals of which
are in Her Majesty's possession--the chief attraction consists in
the design of the initial letter, and the first word of the poem or
subject, which is prominent at the head of the drawing, enclosing the
remaining text in a small narrow framework, surrounded more or less
by elaborate scrolls, arabesques, medallions, etc., always avoiding
known and accepted mediæval ornamentations from the old missals
as much as possible, in order not to mix the different styles in
one drawing. This style has found much favour with modern artists,
on account of its graceful effect, the absence of conventional
stiffness, and the rapidity with which a composition may be arranged.
_Legitimists_ do not like it from mere affectation; they would prefer
crude, ugly, misshapen ornamentation, flat and unfinished, as long
as it resembled a conventional style. For the same reason they
object to _green_ gold, or agate ornamentations; yet what can be more
attractive than the yellow and bright green gold in combination,
enriched by the artistic engravings of the agate? What more
gorgeous to the eye than a display of graceful curves fantastically
interwoven, enclosing highly-finished medallions, and thrown up by
all the effects imagination and art can conjure up? Some of these
specimens may be seen at my own gallery, and amongst them a rich
specimen of a chess table which figured at the Great Exhibition in
1851, and which occupied me two years in painting. There are numerous
other styles; and even modern art illuminations may be multiplied
in an almost infinite variety; but the experience in such as are
above alluded to, will give sufficient instruction, and regulate a
classical and perfect taste, under whatever circumstances afterwards
the pupil may be called upon to exercise his skill.

Within the last few weeks, I have designed and published a Series
of Outlines, called the "Beauties of Shakespeare," illustrative
of the poetical genius of the great bard, in which the attempt
has been made to embody the poetical creations of the Poet in
_vignette_ illustrations of the text, interwoven with suitable
ornamentations, light and aërial as the fleeting thoughts of the
Poet himself, unencumbered by formal _square_ borders, and avoiding
all conventional ornamentations, which, strictly speaking, belong
to sacred art only. Six subjects from the "Tempest" form the first
series, in which the songs of Ariel are surrounded by descriptive and
pictorial illustrations of the text, and the choice sentiments of the
chief personages in the play, such as "Prospero," "Ferdinand," and
"Caliban," are duly illustrated throughout the ornamentations with
pleasing and appropriate effect. Six more subjects from the "Merchant
of Venice," which forms the second series, are treated similarly,
and to this, the more dramatic description of the text, afforded a
widely different opportunity in producing totally distinct effects,
by which _sameness_ was entirely avoided. Sufficient of ornament is,
however, preserved to throw in harmony and healthy contrast of colour
and gold, to keep it legitimately within the range of "illuminated
illustrations." Whether the modern taste will encourage this attempt
at innovation,--whether it will attract the sympathies of a new
school of artists, or not,--or be condemned by the more severe and
uncompromising antiquarian, experience and the success or failure of
this publication will prove; if successful, the boundless wealth to
be found in the pages of the illustrious dramatist, will afford ample
material to follow up this publication by similar attempts in his
other, and perhaps more popular plays.



ON COMPOSITION.


Whilst the student may profitably employ himself in attempting
minor trifles--initials, copies of anything within his reach, or
his own ideas; to acquire proficiency in the art, it is requisite
to employ a master to direct his taste on the one hand, and to lead
him on step by step to perfection, on the other. It would be highly
essential to him to study the ancient missals, so as to enable him
to distinguish the progress the art has made in various countries
and in different ages. It is a field for deep research and study,
to note the different styles adopted at different epochs, from the
crude development of art of the fifth and sixth centuries, to the
refined and exquisite productions of the Italian and Flemish schools
of the fourteenth century, and again down to the inferior and flimsy
style of Louis Quatorze. It is from the study of these, that his own
ideas will be developed and improved, and that his modern notions
of beauty and effect may be advantageously thrown in, to produce
original and classical productions, abandoning that which is absurd
and meaningless, and substituting that which is rational, effective,
and beautiful. The pedantic absurdity of retaining any class of
ornamentation, solely because it was used in the early ages by our
ancestral predecessors, on account of their notions of drawing and
perspective being imperfect, is as rational, as it would be for
the vigorous offspring of a lame parent to use crutches and insist
on walking lamely; and whilst we may justly admire the ingenuity
of their efforts in producing the historic records of their skill,
we may, at least, elevate our taste in improving on that which
plainly bears the stamp of their imperfections. In composing a
drawing, the student should select the style of a certain period,
to which throughout he should strictly adhere, as the adoption of
different styles in the same drawing is both inconsistent, and
evinces bad taste; to mix up the Gothic with the Louis Quatorze, or
the Elizabethan with the Italian style, would simply be absurd. The
writing of the text, the initial letters, the ornaments, costume,
armory, etc., all should partake of the corresponding epoch.
Illustrations also should be introduced according to the subject, and
the ornamentations be also adapted to, and harmonize with, the whole.
If, for instance, it was determined on to illuminate the Creed or
the Lord's Prayer, pictures might be introduced illustrative of the
lives of the Saviour and the Apostles, historical and pictorial
illustrations of the Christian creed, etc. If a secular subject from
Milton, Shakespeare, or Byron, the same rule should be adopted. The
"Lines on a Skull" from Byron might happily be illustrated with
emblems of mortality, whilst the numerous episodes to be gleaned from
the immortal pages of our great dramatist, Shakespeare, furnish an
almost inexhaustible spring of truth and beauty, from which the young
illuminator may draw his subjects for illustration; great liberty
being allowed for embodying the imaginations of the poet with his
own, and affording ample opportunities and material for the exercise
of his inventive powers as an illustrator, thereby evincing a decided
stamp of reflective genius. Above all, never attempt to illustrate
a common-place subject, or defective and puerile poetry; it is not
worth the pains of a single daub of colour.

In arranging a subject for illumination, I should first draw my
attention to the initial letter at the head of the text. There are
thousands of specimens in the British Museum; and many publications
of alphabets are in existence, very useful for the beginner; these
may be varied, or strictly copied at pleasure.[D] Colours may be
changed, scrolls or foliage altered, taking care that alterations
are judiciously made, and really _improve_ the general effect. The
initial letter being settled on (which should, if possible, in some
manner bear on the subject-matter of the poem or episode), I would
recommend next, to write the text in old English, or Church Text,
each line being ruled-in equi-distant, and the capitals left blank,
to be painted in afterwards; and where a word at the end of a line
is so short as not to fill up close to the margin let the space be
filled up with a small ornament in some colour; where a word is to
be prominent, write it in gold, or red, or a different colour to the
general body of the text; when the writing is completed, I would
arrange the border, one side of which may be double the width of the
other, the bottom also wider than the top; if pictures are to be
introduced, sketch out a proper framework first for their reception.
These arrangements form the groundwork of the drawing; scrollwork may
then be introduced, beginning at some corner, or springing from the
framework of the intended picture; when that is nicely arranged, the
same scroll might be repeated, upwards or sideways by transferring
the tracings; the intervening spaces, if too naked, can be filled
up with flowers, taking care that, in the reduction of the size
of the flowers, they each shall preserve a relative proportion to
the other, equal to the scale to which they are reduced; this is
very essential. If any insects are introduced, this rule should
also be observed. It would look very ridiculous that a butterfly,
fluttering over a rose, should be as large or larger than the rose
itself, or that a caterpillar should assume the size of a conger eel
in proportion to the size of a heart's ease introduced in the same
drawing; one's natural judgment will suggest such faults as absurd,
and they should be avoided. If the border is to remain transparent,
lighter ornamentations may be introduced to fill up the blanks; and
finally, all the white parts may be covered by thousands of little
dots, in colour and gold, taking care that in size and distance they
are all alike; this last process can be effected either with the
brush or fine steel pen, as best suited to the ability of the pupil;
if it should be determined on to fill up the blanks with a solid
background of gold, the spaces need not be crowded too profusely with
small details, since the filling up of the gold would become tedious.
If solid, a white line of equal distance may be preserved round every
object in the border: these lines should be drawn round carefully
first (not too wide), and afterwards filled up solid. This white
edging forms a very soft and pleasing appearance in the drawing.
If the gold is closely to fill up against the scroll or flowers,
you may throw a strong shadow under it on the gold, by which means
the ornaments will appear to stand out in bold relief, and be very
effective, taking care that the shadows are properly thrown on, and
always according to the strict rules of drawing.[E] The solid part,
instead of gold or silver, may also be made of a light tint, such as
a pink, or light blue, or deep purple, or even black; in which case
the same colours in deeper tint, with solution of gum arabic may be
used, this will throw up the shadow more perfectly; the solid parts
should then be scrolled over with close and fine ornamentations of
permanent white or gold on the black background. As the varieties of
effect are so very numerous, I think it best to leave the judgment
of the pupil unfettered, to suggest the varieties himself, or to
consult the various specimens in the manuscript room of the _British
Museum_. A very effective mode of painting pictorial illustrations
(known by the name of Cameo painting) may also be resorted to, viz.,
to draw a subject for illustration or a group of figures, all in
_one_ colour, including the background, say blue, the outlines are
given on the side where the light falls, in gold; on the shaded side,
with a deeper blue, the lights are gradually tinted over with gold,
and the shadows shaded in with darker blue. This mode of introducing
pictures was very prevalent in the Italian missals of the twelfth and
thirteenth centuries; and I have seen them executed in every colour,
with very good effect.

  [D] I have prepared a variety of drawings of initial letters,
  and classical borders both on vellum and cardboard, with
  _accompanying outlines_ of the same, very faintly lithographed,
  on super-fine drawing-boards which may be purchased for a
  trifling expense at most art repositories and booksellers. The
  illuminations may _also be purchased, or are lent on hire_, for
  the purposes of copying. These are executed under my direction
  and superintendence, by my numerous pupils, who now follow out
  the art as a lucrative profession. As the student will obtain
  better and more accurate ideas of copying from _drawings_ than
  from _prints_, I have, at the suggestion of many of my friends,
  adopted this plan of supplying the amateur artist with an
  illuminated copy, and its _outline_, which he may _easily_ fill
  up according to his own taste, or strictly follow the original:
  the encouragement this suggestion has received from the public
  has tended to confer a great boon on a worthy class of female
  artists, who have been zealous and successful in a beautiful
  branch of female accomplishment.

  [E] Some eminent writer on "ornamental art" strongly objects to
  introduce "casting shadows" in ornamentations, or in other words
  bringing out objects in "relief,"--he argues, with some apparent
  plausibility, that if treading on a carpet, where flowers or
  scrollwork were introduced, he should be afraid of crushing the
  flowers, or stumbling over the ornamentations. I know not which
  to admire most, the pedantry of modern philosophy on art, or the
  actual beauty displayed in the "Old Missals," in which these
  charming "casting shadows" present such bewitching reality to the
  imagination. I leave the question to be answered by the untutored
  beholder, without venturing on any theory of my own.



ON PREPARING THE VELLUM.


The vellum (which should be the best Italian, and prepared from
the kid), is of peculiarly fine and white texture, different from
parchment both in substance and quality. I import it myself, and
previously prepare it for the artist, so that both sides are equally
good to receive the drawing upon. Yet there is always a preferable
side, which can easily be distinguished: it is in reality the inside
of the skin, and has the smoothest appearance. The price varies,
according to the size, from 10_s._ to 3_l._ the skin. Parchment of
course is much cheaper, and English vellum may also be had, but
it does not possess the beautiful and even quality of Italian. To
prepare it for drawing, it should be stretched on a board made of
good deal; the vellum should be cut _larger_ all round than the
board, by about its thickness (three-quarters of an inch), and
sponged with a perfectly clean sponge and water, on the side only
which is to lay against the board. When moderately soaked, it should
be laid between a fresh mangled napkin for about five minutes, to
let the vellum get an equal moisture; the board is then placed on
the top, and the two corresponding sides are tightly folded over,
and resting it on the side, you begin to nail from the centre, with
small gimp-pins, till one side is completed, each pin to be about one
inch and a half apart. You then do the same operation on the other
side, previously stretching it _slightly_ and _evenly_ with the hand,
and then again fixing the pin, from the centre till the second side
be completed. You then again lay the board flat on the napkin, and
fold the two ends over as before, and complete the stretching of the
vellum in a similar manner. You will then have only the back of the
drawing-board uncovered by the vellum. Let it gradually dry when it
will lie perfectly smooth and unwrinkled; and it is then ready to
work upon.



ON TRACING AND TRANSFERRING.


If a copy is to be made of any illumination, the easiest mode is by
affixing a piece of French tracing paper on the back of the drawing,
and throwing it over the front; begin with a fine-pointed H H H
pencil, to draw an accurate outline of the whole thin, pale and
delicate. Above all things, be _correct_; do not trace _more_ than is
necessary for your object, and avoid details, which may more easily
be put in by the eye. _Too much_ tracing often confuses. The _upper_
and _inner_ line of the hair, the eyebrows, the line of the nose,
the upper line of each eyelid, the central line of the mouth, and
the contour of the cheek and chin, is sufficient to give a correct
tracing of a face; if you trace more, in retracing it you will get
confused. With ornamentations the same rule applies; trace only as
much as will secure your object. When your tracing is complete,
unfasten it, and attach it by two spots of gum _to the back_ of the
drawing-board or vellum prepared to receive it, and placing the _red
prepared_ paper between it (with the prepared side towards the board
or vellum), you trace over it with the same pencil (using a little
pressure), and you then obtain a fine, thin, delicate and faint red
tracing on the vellum. In this operation, in order to work cleanly,
the following rules must be observed. You should use a fine H H H
sharp-pointed pencil; you should not press hard to make the transfer
_too_ red, nor should your pencil-tracing in the first instance be
otherwise than _light_; it becomes deeper when the pencil goes over
it a second time, which avoids the necessity of lifting up the paper,
to ascertain where you have or have not been over. A good, correct
and delicate transfer makes it pleasurable to paint; a coarse deep
red one gives the artist an infinite deal of trouble, and the drawing
in this case will always look smeared and dirty, which with a little
attention can easily be avoided. As the prepared red paper cannot
always be easily obtained, it is much easier to prepare it yourself,
which is done as follows: Purchase at the chemist's a quarter of a
pound of _red French chalk_, scrape some with a table-knife on the
thinnest _white_ writing paper you may have handy, and with a piece
of wadding rub it equally over the surface, taking care that the
other side is kept perfectly clean; no grease or water should be used
in this operation. Should a pencil tracing be preferred, blacklead
may be used instead of the chalk.



ON RAISED GOLD ORNAMENTATIONS.


The raised gold ornaments, which form so brilliant a relief, amidst
the gaiety and contrast of well-arranged colours and matted gold,
are subjects which require a great deal of practice; they should be
used, therefore, sparingly at first, on account of their difficulty,
and they should always be introduced with great judgment, since a
profusion of bright ornamentations distracts the eye from the main
subject, and becomes extremely vulgar, resembling much that _ginger
bread_ appearance of the French class of tinsel and emptiness;
whilst a moderate use of them, here and there, enriches the drawing,
without their effect becoming tiresome and destructive to the general
beauties of the drawing itself. They should, therefore, be limited
to small raised dots, or tre-foiled leaves only, a line to form a
bright shadow on the dead gold, or the arteries on a leaf of green
gold. They may also form a circle round a gem of ruby or emerald,
representing the setting or mounting of real gold, and such other
trifles as the subject may require. Water gold-size, for the purpose
of producing these raised ornaments, is well calculated to effect
this. The brown paste contained in the little vessel is used in a
similar manner as a cake of water-colour, wetting it with a sable
brush, till of sufficient consistency, and painting with it the
desired ornament, and raising it by dropping freely sufficient paste
on it, which, by its own gravity, will be properly rounded off,
and becomes, when properly set, fit to receive the gold leaf. It
stands then raised on the vellum, and may be increased _ad libitum_
by dropping more and more on it till sufficiently high. In ten or
fifteen minutes, at furthest, when sufficiently set, cut a piece of
gold leaf (always a trifle larger than the object), and previously
slightly breathing on it, with the warm breath, place the cut gold
leaf on it, either with the point of a brush, or clean scissors, or a
pair of steel tongs made for the purpose. The gold, being thus placed
on the top, should receive the warm breath again, and immediately it
will adhere firmly to the moistened matter: leave it there for about
one hour, when it will be properly hardened; after which, with a soft
clean piece of wadding, rub it over, and the superfluous parts will
loosen easily, while those intended to be gilded will remain. Should
any part be imperfect, apply the paste again as before over the
imperfect part, going through the same process till complete. This,
however, will not occur when the pupil acquires sufficient experience
of the material with which he has to work. Another mode of raised
gilding, and one which, in my opinion, is more expeditious and less
troublesome, is effected by my "Liquid Gold Cement," which is used
in a similar manner as the "Enamel White," and is partly composed of
the same material, with some slight addition. You dip the brush in
the bottle, and use it rather thinly at first, whilst delineating the
ornamentation, and afterwards drop on it (whilst wet) as much of the
same as the brush will hold, till sufficiently RAISED; in about half
an hour, being properly set, PAINT over it, in either colour, gold or
silver, and when quite dry and hard, let the same be burnished over
GENTLY with the _crooked_ agate, and the ornament will stand brightly
out in the drawing; this mode I much prefer to the former. There
is still another and better method, which I make use of in large
and elaborate work, but which I only can communicate to my pupils
personally, as it is a process that cannot possibly be imparted in
any other manner than by personal superintendence and demonstration.



CONCLUSION.


Having given a detailed explanation of the mechanical means to be
employed, sufficient for the student to practise the "beautiful art
of missal painting," permit me to add a few words in conclusion,
which I hope will not be thought superfluous. Deeming it essential
to be as explicit as possible in the treatment to be adopted, I have
not left a single subject unnoticed, which requires the attention
of the learner. The illustrations I have been enabled to give are
merely explanatory, but sufficient to help the pupil, with some of
the leading features observable in the illuminations of the middle
ages. For the purposes of research, no other than the very originals
ought to be consulted, which lie within the reach of every one to
examine, at the _British Museum_. In that splendid collection quite
sufficient store will be found to furnish the student with ample
means of research, without the necessity of travelling on the
continent, though, no doubt, a great many gems of art are to be found
in the VATICAN, or the ROYAL LIBRARY AT PARIS. But in a collection
so extensive as that in our own national Museum, or the libraries
of Oxford and Cambridge, we can find sufficient to satisfy the most
fastidious and ardent lover of art. It is essential for the student
to study _originals_; and I have made it a practice to accompany
my pupils at least half-a-dozen times to the manuscript rooms,
during their course of instruction, for the purpose of calling the
attention to what to him or her is essential to know, and to afford
an opportunity of making such extracts as afterwards may usefully
avail. They then can note down the progress of art from age to age,
and the gradual development of decorative improvement, progressive
with the advancement of civilization; yet, strange to say, though
our own age claims to have reached that, in an eminent degree, the
decorative art, as indeed arts in general, have not progressed in
the same proportion; how to account for this, is, not that art has
arrived at its climax of excellence; but that most of its followers
of the present age have contented themselves by strictly admiring and
_copying_ the mediæval artist, instead of exerting their own powers
to excel him.

Our age is too utilitarian. The artist now merely toils to _live_;
while, formerly, his ambition took a higher flight; for then he
laboured for _fame_ and for _posterity_. The artist, however, who
does not solely paint for _gain_, and who, from circumstances,
is happily freed from the trammels of poverty, should strive to
excel his predecessors. There is much room for improvement; modern
inventions have sprung up; mechanical contrivances have advanced;
new and interesting objects of natural productions have been brought
within his reach, from the furthest limits of the habitable globe,
to enrich the resources of his inventive powers, unknown to the
antiquated monastic scribes, to whom we owe so much. Our advantages
over them are obvious. Why, then, should we not excel them? Let it
not be considered that this art is a mere mechanical amusement;
a mere ingenious contrivance; a daub of colours and gold--showy,
flimsy, and unmeaning. Though much of that exists in our modern
decorations, it is highly desirable that it should not partake of
that character; a little taste, a little poetry, gracefulness, order,
and some display of general knowledge, of artistic combinations and
principles, cannot fail to make our productions more valued and
valuable. Give a tinge of some originality,--display an attempt of
your own inventive powers, based upon acknowledged principles of
beauty and effect, and your productions will soon reach an eminence
of which art is ever capable! Though the age of romance and chivalry
has gone by, and we live now, strictly speaking, in that of sober
reality, our artistic productions may at least show that such things
have been, and may happily awaken a dream of what life _once_ was.
The study of combination and contrast of colours, affords him ample
means to exercise his taste; and the eye becomes instinctively
capable of discerning that which is graceful and beautiful, and
that which is not. But his task is more severe than that of the
painter, inasmuch as the constant demand for new ideas and effects,
is a continual drain upon his inventive powers; the more these are
exercised, the more original his productions, and the more likelihood
there is of his excelling the mediæval artists.

It is only within the last fifteen years, that the art of
illuminating has been newly revived: it has slumbered for nearly
two centuries in total oblivion. I do not remember ever having
seen an old missal in my younger days; so little was it considered
of importance to the artist; yet what a store of information may
be obtained from them! What illustrations do they furnish of the
progress of the human mind and of civilization! What light do they
throw on the manners, customs, and morals of bygone ages! What links
do they form in the gap of historical events, which otherwise would
have been left in darkness for ever! There is scarcely a page, but
on which you may trace some interesting event connected with the
history of the period, its arts, its husbandry, its revels, its
glories, or its shame!

The application of _lithography_ for purposes of coloured printing
or chromo-lithography in the last fifteen years, has done much to
awaken the attention of the artist and the lovers of art to the
treasures mouldering in our libraries and museums; by its aid we have
been enabled to obtain copies and specimens of illuminated printing,
almost perfect facsimiles of the originals. It has stimulated the
artist to pursue a new track for his operations; it has infused a
corresponding taste in the public mind for ornamental improvement,
which has manifested itself in every branch of manufacture. The
interior decorations of the House of Lords afford a striking proof. A
century ago, when pigtails and cocked hats were the fashion, such a
gorgeous display of ornamental grandeur would not, and _could_ not,
have been suggested.

The religious associations which suggest themselves in the study of
the old missals, is an element which has proved itself sufficiently
powerful to our present generation, as to induce a spirit for its
revival. The English as a nation (to its credit be it said) is a
truly religious one. As a sacred art, then, it is alike reconcilable
with their devotional habits on the one hand, and their indefatigable
industry on the other, not to grudge some spare time, to its alluring
attractiveness. English ladies, of the highest rank, even, have each
of their hours apportioned out to some useful object. This art now
takes a distinguished place amongst them, and claims a great share
of their solicitude, as it affords them calm and sacred thoughts
to dwell upon, and ways that may be described, in the language of
the Proverbs, as "ways of pleasantness and paths of peace," and
that, which is anything but frivolous or worldly--divested from the
_pictorial_ and _symbolical_ emblems of the Romish Church--the art
has enough left of holy associations, to make it harmonise with
the feelings of the Protestant profession of faith without being
offensive. Those possessed of sterner religious scruples can fly to
the secular illustration of the poets. Our literature, so rich and
so eminently descriptive, opens a wide field for the followers of
this art to indulge in, thus creating another field for the artist's
genius equally imaginative and interesting. Tennyson's, Longfellow's,
or Moore's pages are abundantly fertile in images of beauty, to
single them out as _fittest_ for the modern illuminator. All that is
required (for the interest of the art) is the formation of a _good
school_. THE ILLUMINATING ART UNION OF LONDON has made a laudable
attempt to establish this; its annual exhibition opens the door and
invites the public to co-operate, not so much by pecuniary support
as by the aid of their contributions. Those who have the ability,
and have already gained their laurels, should set the example; it
will add much to their _popularity_, and not diminish one jot of
that fame their talents have already achieved. TRUE ART should not
be selfish. Monopoly in art, as in corn, affects the food for the
mind, as in the latter, it affects that of the body. That society,
happily, is not exclusive. Though supported by the highest in the
land, it co-operates with the humblest in one common labour and one
common object. _Rank_ is forgotten, so long as their association with
their fellow-labourers tends to humanize the masses, which, through
the means of a _sacred art_, is so easily effected. That its labours
may be successful, that its hopes may be realized, the strenuous
efforts of its promoters, and their persevering exertions, are ample
guarantees that the interest of those sanguine in its success is
amply secured.

The International Exhibition of 1862 (notwithstanding the factious
outcry against the unfortunate building, and its hapless Architect),
was conspicuously successful, on account of the marked advance
Industrial Art had made, not only in the produce of foreign
Exhibitors, but mostly so in that of our English artizans, as
compared with that of 1851 in Hyde Park. As far as English Industry
and skill was concerned--it left its unmistakable traces behind,
that since our first exhibition, when England entered the lists with
foreign competitors, it had at the latter attained a miraculous
improvement in _design_, which no doubt was owing to a more extended
and systematical culture, and to which, the numerous "Schools of
Design" now established throughout the kingdom gave rise. This
improvement was so perceptible by our neighbours, that even recently
a celebrated and well known French statesmen and political economist,
has not scrupled to express his fears "that our English manufacturers
had made such progress, that sooner or later they would displace
the foreign producer, and monopolize the markets of the world!" And
will it now be believed, that unquestionable as it is, that this
improvement is entirely due to the more extended cultivation of
_Ornamental Art_ in this country--that the Royal Commissioners of
1862, with all their collective wisdom, with their enlarged views
and former experience, and with the valuable aid of highly gifted
men in all departments of Science to guide their councils, should
have been short-sighted enough, peremptorily to refuse admission to
any works of illumination, or decorative Art, on the meagre pretence
that there was _no space_ available for such works, which in 1851,
however, were deemed of sufficient importance, and to have exercised
such influence on Art manufactures in general, not only to admit
them freely, but to award several first-class medals, to Artists,
who then even enjoyed a European reputation! (Vide report of the
Exhibition of 1851). All remonstrance which could have been urged by
me, against such suicidal an Act, was cut short by the curt and _red
tape_ reply--"that the Royal Commissioners having once determined on
any point there was no appeal from their decision."--This closed a
vexatious correspondence in December, 1861, and it was not till the
following April, a short month previous to the opening of the world's
fair at Kensington, that among the arrivals of some productions
from Japan, one I particularly noticed to consist of an "Historical
Biography," a specimen of curious Caligraphy, and embellished with
artistic illuminated borders in gold and colours. It was then that
I ventured to address an earnest protest against this unseemly
partiality to a gentleman high in office, and well known for his
well earned reputation, gained in connection with the success of
the first exhibition, and to his honour, be it said, immediately on
receipt of my letter, he placed himself in communication with the
"National Board of Education," and had influence enough to reverse
the decision which the Royal Commissioners previously had arrived
at. _Space_ was then granted (almost unlimited) for the reception
of Missals and Modern Illuminations. I managed by great persuasion
to induce the members of the "Illuminating Art Union of London," to
send what specimens they hastily could gather together, and some
fifty subjects of more or less merit were hurried to the building,
and placed without order, without classification, in the gallery
next the great dome, amongst the Architectural designs--perhaps
some thirty more from private sources, amongst which were specimens
from Owen Jones, Audsley and others, were the joint and meagre
contributions, which the International Exhibition of 1862 received
within its walls. Unprepared and without any special object, there
was not a single contributor who deserved or could lay claim to
any attention from the thousands who daily visited the building. I
believe the _wax dolls and sewing machines_ gained more notoriety.
Unhonoured and tacitly admitted, we were ignominiously buried in a
corner--the whole collection as representing the illuminating talent
of this country was a miserable failure--one solitary specimen, a
beautiful little prayer book in the Austrian Court, a gem of high Art
of modern Illumination was worth seeing, and worth more, as a work
of Art, than all the combined skill displayed in the _corner_ of the
Architectural Gallery. Who was to blame for this egregious failure?
Is it to be laid at the door of our own Artists, or to the mistaken
judgment of those who had the nation's interest so much at heart
and who deprived us for six months of the opportunity of preparing
something specially for the occasion? Has illuminating done nothing
for the manufactures of this country? Ask Bookbinders, Silkweavers,
Architects, Sculptors, Decorators, and every handicraft besides,
in which decoration forms its chief ingredient--ask the "School of
Design" whether the inspiration of its latent genius, was not derived
from the impetus modern illumination has given to decorative Art
in general. Is it a fair standard of what English skill might have
accomplished, to judge it by the miserable refuse of stale bits of
_tinsel_ and _text-writing_ which was exhibited there? No wonder that
in all the elaborate reports which daily appeared in the "Times,"
not a single line was penned to the Art Illuminations of 1862--it is
to be hoped that the opportunity thus lost may not be fatal to the
further development of an Art, which has and still exercises such
beneficial influences on our Art manufactures and civilization.



ON OUTLINES.


In my first edition, in 1850, I suggested the publication of
classical outline borders, which I only carried out in 1856, when my
second edition made its appearance; the first part of six outlines,
royal quarto, was then produced to try how far the public would
appreciate their usefulness. The first attempt proved a decided
failure; they remained unsold, because the uninitiated did not
know how to apply them, having no model for their guidance. I then
tried them with a small fragment, illuminated-in by hand, which,
in all cases, forms a complete key as to the effect intended to be
produced in the whole remaining border. This met with a decided
success; the public eagerly purchased these partially illuminated
outlines; and very seldom any plain subjects afterwards were asked
for. The demand has ever since become so extensive, that upwards
of four hundred different subjects have now been published, some
forming complete works in themselves, such as the 119th Psalm
(twenty-four subjects) published by Messrs. Longman and Co.;
and its companion, the "Sermon on the Mount," "The Beatitudes,"
etc., on the illumination of which a large staff of lady artists
are always employed. My most anxious care was then directed as to
the _choice of subjects_, but above all in the selection of the
_designs_ themselves. If, by an extensive sale, I found myself
amply rewarded, I conscientiously felt also the importance, that
the public should receive none but choice and classical models,
from which they could study with advantage. I was less ambitious
to furnish them with original ideas of my own, than to illustrate
those various styles and periods of art, which would have a tendency
to general improvement, and were likely to cause a more healthy
taste in the beginner. I therefore carefully selected models from
the best specimens in the libraries of Paris, Brussels, Heidelberg,
and Amsterdam, besides those to be found in our own Museum, and the
Bodleian library, Oxford, and which, with important alterations, I
found adaptable for my object. I attempted to illustrate subjects
from the _seventh_ to the _fifteenth_ century--from the _Byzantine_,
_Anglo-Saxon_, _Flemish_, and _Italian schools_, which should
form a complete grammar of ornamental art, from which the student
might learn something better than to daub in a worthless or a
meaningless design. I abandoned all pictorial illustrations (in
the sacred subjects at all events) which could in the slightest
degree be considered as sectarian, or partaking of partiality for
any particular religious denomination; all my aim was directed,
that the ornamental border should be applicable to the subject and
highly artistic, in order to be perfectly and usefully instructive.
To pervert the taste, then, by producing decidedly ill-conceived
ideas, in the shape of outlines, which any _sign-painter_ might
produce with equally good success, I conscientiously opposed. As a
stepping-stone towards achieving better things my method only is
defensible, as an attempt to awaken the taste of the beginner, which
afterwards may tend to develop originality in him; how inexcusable,
then, to place rubbish in his hand for the mere purposes of gain. I
am sorry my unscrupulous imitators are differing from me; and I am
more sorry that a man, whose genius as an illuminator is of European
repute, should have been found _really capable_ to endorse with his
authoritative approval, the worthless productions of a _trading
publisher_ as "most useful models," and insert that statement in
one of the most _valuable publications_ on the art of illuminating
hitherto published. To put the public on its guard, both as to the
_malproductions_ themselves, as well as to the _opinions_ thus
promulgated with so much appearance of honest "criticism," and
industriously paraded forth in the trade-lists of the speculative
publisher, has been my principal motive for introducing this subject
into the present volume; as I feel too much interest in the pursuit,
not to denounce the worthlessness of these publications, which can
only tend to injure a beautiful art. I introduced my outlines with
the deliberate object of directing the taste towards the development
of a highly pleasing and instructive accomplishment, the interest
of which is daily gaining ground with the public, and to lessen the
difficulties which surround the illuminator as much as possible; for
this purpose I took away from him the responsibility of forming his
design, for which his inexperience was not fitted. I left him enough
to do, in _arranging_ his colours and producing his _effects_. It was
only when the _outline_ was illuminated, that he could appreciate
the beauties of the _design_; and it is from that appreciation, that
his own ideas would become sufficiently matured to _invent one_ of
his own. The effect of this truism was amply demonstrated in the
fact, that one of my distinguished lady pupils, who for a year had
practised on these examples, was successful enough two years ago to
carry away the "first prize" for the best original design of the
"Beatitudes," awarded to her by the ILLUMINATING ART UNION OF LONDON;
on the merits of which Messrs. OWEN JONES and H. NOEL HUMPHRIES gave
their valuable decision. _Had she studied from modern and meaningless
models, her beautiful Italian border would never have been the
result._


LIST OF COLOURS.


The following colours I have selected as the most necessary, and
which may constitute a sufficient assortment for the artist:--

  YELLOW   Pale Chrome, Orange Chrome, Gamboge, and occasionally
            good Cadmium.

  GREENS   Hooker's, and Emerald.

  RED      Orange Vermilion, and pure Scarlet.

  MADDERS  Rose and Pink Madders.

  CARMINES Carmine, Burnt Carmine, and Purple Carmine.

  BROWNS   Burnt Sienna, Vandyke Brown, Dragon's Blood, Yellow Ochre.

  BLUES    Cobalt, French Ultra, Prussian Blue.

  BLACK    Lamp-black.

  WHITE    _Enamel White_ only.

  MOIST COLOURS FOR FLOWERS AND FRUITS.--Hooker's Green, Emerald,
            Purple, Carmine, Burnt Carmine, Crimson Lake; and one or
            two more may be added, if occasion requires.



APPENDIX.


PLATE I.

FIG. 1,

A thin border, very frequently used in illuminating by the _Italians_;
consisting of small blue and pink spaces, ornamented with white
lacework over the flat ground.

FIG. 2,

Are specimens of various flowers, ornamentations, foliage, the
arabesque scroll, etc., which are to be met with in the ancient
manuscripts. To give anything like a variety, would fill a volume; to
classify them would also be an endless task, since any contrivance
to do so would be fruitless: my object being to give an insight to
some of the _leading_ features observable in the illuminations: these
are sufficient for the beginner. To acquire an accurate idea, I must
refer the student to the _British Museum_. I have given here outlines
of subjects most frequently met with; these the student can fill up
with colours according to his taste, varying them at pleasure; yet,
in preference, he should endeavour to sketch them himself, since it
is desirable that he should acquire proficiency in these trifles, for
as they generally form small details, to relieve the solid parts,
and are intended to fill up blanks, they invariably require to be
well executed.

FIG. 3,

Are compartments to be filled up by various solid colours over which
the scrollwork or ornaments are applied, either in white, gold, or
colours; when in red, it is called _damask-work_, the patterns of
which can be varied in endless variety. Over the gold, engravings
with the agate are highly effective, sometimes forming simple
ornamentations, or representing embossed chasing.

FIG. 4,

Represents a portion of a scroll to be filled in by a solid colour,
over which, after being properly shaded, fine threads of gold may be
drawn, or thinly dotted in white. In making these or similar scrolls,
care should be taken that they are gracefully drawn, and made to run
_freely_ throughout the design.

FIG. 5,

Illustrates fragments of curves with leaves or ornaments which must
be ruled-in with the _ruling-pen_, by the aid of the wooden scroll,
the scroll being placed on the pencil-tracing, where a portion of its
curve corresponds with the intended design.

FIG. 6,

Are two straight lines ruled parallel and closely together, so as to
show a white thread between.


PLATE II,

Is the initial letter O, copied from a woodcut. Though the general
design is effective and pleasing, it is not accurately drawn;
whereas it might have been, had the designer used the tracing-paper.
I have shown the defects in the outline, to illustrate a principle
which should be always avoided, viz., disregard for the mechanical
appliances, by means of repetition always at hand for the illuminator
by using the red transfer paper.

This initial is very useful to copy frequently, since it will give
freedom to the hand in producing graceful curves. The remaining
figures on this plate are various initials, used at the head of
texts; they may be variously illuminated.


PLATE III,

Is an early specimen of _Byzantine_ art, about the eighth century,
the principle of the Irish school being here adopted, on which the
acanthus foliage of the _Roman_ style is superadded. Some gorgeous
specimens of this style are in most of the European libraries; but
many valuable specimens of that period must have been lost, since the
_Iconoclastic fanatics_ destroyed so many thousands by the flames,
from the end of the fifth to the seventh centuries.


PLATE IV,

Is a specimen of a style of illuminating much in use from the
thirteenth century to the beginning of the fourteenth. Many and
very varied specimens of this style are in almost every collection
in European libraries. Sometimes the bands are alternately solid
and transparent; in others, the bands assume a lozenge-fashioned,
undulated, or circular shape; but another and more frequently adopted
mode is to alternate them, tints, of _solid coloured bands_, keeping
up strict regard as to complement of colour. The following order
may be regarded as a lesson:--_Crimson_, _gold_, _ultramarine_,
and _buff_ may succeed each other. The ornamentations show best on
them when relieved, by placing "casting shadows" under the flowers,
scrolls, etc.


PLATE V,

Is an Italian border of the fourteenth century. The stems of the
scrollwork may be, with good effect, painted in gold, and shaded up
in burnt sienna, to imitate the bark of trees. Scrolls and foliage
may be painted in this specimen in delicate tinted colours, such
as greys, light blues, or pinks, softly shaded up, and ornamented
with white or gold ornamentations, according to the circumstance of
the tint selected. Flowers and leaves, of course, in their natural
colours. Various, and always delicate tints for greens in leaves,
are essentials in the old Italian border. The "back-ground" here is
intended to be gold, though other tints may be substituted, so long
as they are not introduced in the ornamentations.


PLATE VI,

Is a border, to be found in almost every contemporaneous school
of the period--the French, the Flemish, the Italian, as well as
English and Irish. The ornamentations are not so softly executed,
nor is the outline as graceful as in the former. The back-ground is
always transparent, containing, sometimes, small figured filigree
work. A preponderance of one pervading colour is sometimes its
characteristic; but too much similarity in tint should be carefully
avoided.


PLATE VII,

Is the same style precisely as above, with the peculiarity of the
ornamentation springing from the immediate border surrounding the
text. The grotesque animal, twining itself in a curious manner, is
also typical of the illuminations of the twelfth and thirteenth
centuries.


PLATE VIII.

"THE MODEL OUTLINE."

I have ventured to give a specimen of a modern style of illumination,
based upon _no principle_ whatever which could furnish the student
with any instructive hints, or enable him to produce original ideas
of his own. As a whole, it represents snatches of ornamentations,
jumbled together without order or arrangement, and vanishing at both
ends into space.

Scrollwork, having neither _beginning_, _middle_, or _termination_,
and presenting a series of flourishes, which may be said to give this
class of outline a distinctive character, under the generic title of
_Sign-boarding_. It is an attempt at imitating missal, bearing about
the same relation to its prototype as the modern to the pure Gothic
in architecture, or the ancient Rome of Augustus to that of the
present day in civilisation.


  _De gustibus non disputandum est._


  THE END



  [Illustration: PLATE 1]

  [Illustration: PLATE 2]

  [Illustration: PLATE 3]

  [Illustration: PLATE 4]

  [Illustration: PLATE 5]

  [Illustration: PLATE 6]

  [Illustration: PLATE 7]

  [Illustration: PLATE 8]



    CATALOGUE
    AND
    LIST OF COLOURS
    OUTLINES, MATERIALS AND PUBLICATIONS,

    FOR

    Illuminating and Missal Painting.

    MANUFACTURED AND PUBLISHED BY
    D. LAURENT DE LARA.
    (_Illuminating Artist to the Queen._)

    3, TORRINGTON SQUARE, RUSSELL SQUARE,
    LONDON, W.C.

    _Wholesale Agents for Laurent de Lara's publications_,

    Messrs. MOORE & McQUEEN, Berners-street, Oxford-street.
       "    ROWNEY & Co., Rathbone-pl.
       "    REEVES & SONS, Cheapside.
       "    PENNY & SON, Bow Lane, and Cannon Street.
       "    HENRY HERING, 137 Regent Street.
       "    R. ACKERMANN, Regent-st.
       "    CLIFFORD, Piccadilly.
       "    BOWDEN, Oxford-street.
       "    FULLER & Co., Pall Mall.
       "    DROOSTEN, ALLAN & Co. 126, Strand.
       "    RIXON & ARNOLD, 29, Poultry.
       "    JOHN FIELD, Regent's Quadt.
       "    GALIGNANI, Rue de Rivoli, Paris.
       "    BUFFA & SONS, Amsterdam.
       "    NUTNAM, Bowery, New York.

    E. FULLER & Co, 168, Portland Road, N.W.



  D. LAURENT DE LARA'S

  SERIES OF OUTLINES
  FOR
  Illuminating and Missal Painting,
  DESIGNED BY D. L. DE LARA.


  Outlines for Illuminating, in parts of 6 Plain       6_s._ 0_d._
  Partially Coloured Nos.                             12_s._ 0_d._

  _Or may be had in separate Numbers, Price 1s. Plain, 2s.
  partly Coloured_.

  The great demand made for Outlines by the daily increase of the
  chaste and beautiful Art of Illuminating, originally induced
  their publication by Mr. De Lara, and, although he has numerous
  imitators he confidently recommends them to the notice of the
  Public, both as aids and instructors in the study of Missal
  Painting; every care having been taken faithfully to reproduce
  for the Student's enlightenment, adaptations of the style of the
  best and purest Masters.


    PART I.
    No. 1. Credo.
     "   2. Do.
     "   3. Sonnet.
     "   4. Lord's Prayer.
     "   5. David.
     "   6. Psalm LXVII.

    PART II.
    No.  7. Psalm LXXXII.
     "   8. Thompson's Seasons.
            "Now the bright Morning Star."
     "   9. Thompson's Seasons.
            "These as they change."
     "  10. Poesy.
     "  11. Psalm I.
     "  12. Do. IV.

    PART III.
    No. 13. Psalm XCIII.
     "  14. "Nunc Dimittis."
     "  15. A. B. (Initials).
     "  16. St. John the Evangelist and
            Adoration of the Magi, (2 Subjects.)
     "  17. Psalm CXLVI.

    PART IV.
    No. 18. Psalm XXIII.
     "  19. Do. XV.
     "  20. Do. CL.
     "  21. Do. CXXV.
     "  22. C. D. (Initials).
     "  23. Psalm CXXIX.

    PART V.
    Psalm CXIX.
    No. 24. "Portio mea Domine."
     "  25. "Principes persecuti sunt."
     "  26. "Legem pone."
     "  27. "Appropinquat deprecatio."
     "  28. "Bonitatem fecisti."
     "  29. E. F. (Initials).

    PART VI.
    No. 30. "Beati Immaculati."
     "  31. "In quo corriget."
     "  32. "Adhesit Pavimento."
     "  33. "Et veniat super me."
     "  34. "Memor esto servi tui."
     "  35. G. H. (Initials).

    PART VII.
    No. 36. "Retribus servo tuo."
     "  37. "Manus tuæ fecerunt me."
     "  38. "Deficit anima mea."
     "  39. "In æternum Domine."
     "  40. "Quomodo dilexi."
     "  41. "Lucerna pedibus meis."

    PART VIII.
    No. 42. "Iniquos odio habui."
     "  43. "Feci judicium."
     "  44. "Mirabilia."
     "  45. "Justus es Domine."
     "  46. "Clamavi in toto corde meo."
     "  47. "Vide humilitatem."

  ☞ Title and Presentation Plate may be had to complete this Series;
  or, elegantly bound in cloth, antique gilt. Dedicated to
  VISCOUNTESS COMBERMERE, with Title and Presentation Plate. Plain
  25s., partially Coloured, 45s. Published by Longman, Green, Longman,
  and Roberts.


    PART IX.
    Nos. 48 to 53. Proverbs. Six Numbers.

    PART X.
    Nos. 54 to 59. Sermon on the Mount. Six Numbers.

    PART XI.
    Nos. 60 to 67. [F]Beatitudes. Eight Numbers.

    PART XII.
    Nos. 68 to 73. Sermon on the Mount. Six Numbers.

    PART XIII.
    Nos. 74 to 79. Sermon on the Mount. Six Numbers.

    PART XIV.
    Nos. 80 to 85. Sermon on the Mount, To complete Six Numbers.

    PART XV.
    Nos. 86. Riflemen Form.--Tennyson.
     "   87. [G]Now Shoulder the Gun, Boys.
     "   88. Riflemen, stand to your Post.
     "   89. The Spirit of Poetry.--Longfellow.
     "   90. The Idylls of the King.--Tennyson.
     "   91. The Beggar Maid.--Tennyson.

       [F] 8s. plain, 16s. partly coloured.

       [G] This Song published and set to Music, by H. VON HOFF,
           words by LAURENT DE LARA.


  SCRIPTURAL TEXTS AND CROSSES.

  _Half Sheet Imperial._

  "Glory to God in the Highest," etc.
  "Behold I bring you good tidings," etc.

  _Two Christmas Texts, plain each 2s. 6d., and 4s. part
  Coloured_.

  LONG TEXTS, 28 BY 7 INCHES.--PLAIN 1_s._ 6_d._ COLOURED 3_s._

    "Thy will be done."
    "Hope thou in God."
    "Thou God seest me."
    "Suffer little children."
    "Honi soit qui mal y pense."
    "Envy is an enemy to honour."
    "Do this in remembrance of me."
    "Remember the sabbath day."
    "The Lord reigneth."
    "Our Father which art in heaven."
    "Love one another."
    "All good is from above."

  SMALL TEXTS, 21 BY 6 INCHES.--PLAIN 1_s._ PART COLOURED 2_s._

    "Fear God."
    "God is love."
    "Watch and pray."
    "Ecce homo."
    "We praise thee, O God."
    "Give us this day our daily bread."
    "The Lord is gracious."
    "Consider thy ways."
    "Overcome evil with good."
    "Read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest."

  SQUARE TEXT.--PLAIN 1_s._ 6_d._ PART COLOURED 3_s._

    "O Lord God, thou art my trust from my youth."
    "Thanks be unto God for his unspeakable gift."
    "Hosannah to the Son of David."
    "The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want."
    "The earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof."
    Two subjects in blank to insert any text at pleasure.

  _Crosses, 4to. Imperial 1s. 6d. plain, 3s. part
   Coloured_.

    "Truly this man was the Son of God."
    "It is finished."
    "Fear not, believe only."
    "Ecce homo."
    "Lord, remember me."
    "He died the just for the unjust."

    SECOND SERIES.
    "I am the resurrection and the life."
    "Look unto God and be ye saved."
    "Christ the hope of glory."
    "Eli, Eli, lama sabachtani."
    "Truly this man was the Son of God."
    "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do."

    THIRD SERIES.
    "Excelsior."
    "Looking unto Jesus."
    "Follow thou me."
    "The Lord is risen indeed."
    "Peace be unto you."
    "The Lord is at hand."

  _Fourth Series, Quarto Royal, 1s. plain, 2s. part Coloured_.
  THREE SACRED MONOGRAMS, 1, 2 AND 3; AND THREE CROSSES, 1_s._ AND
  2_s._ PLAIN AND COLOURED.

    1. "Let the peace of God rule thy breast."
    2. "Be not overcome with evil, but overcome evil with good."
    3. "No Cross no Crown."


  _Illuminated in Chromo-Lithography, Half Sheet Royal, in Gold and 10
  Colours, Price 5s. each_.

   THE LORD'S PRAYER, AND
   THE CREDO. From an old Psalter of Henry VIII., in the collection of
   E. OFFOR, Esq. (Dedicated by permission to VISCOUNTESS FORBES), and
   published by Henry Hering, (Late Hering & Remington), 137, Regent
   Street.

   THE SAME SUBJECT in outline, price 1_s._ 6_d._ plain, and 3_s._
   partly coloured.

   ALSO

   THE TEN COMMANDMENTS, 4to Imperial. An original design, richly
   illuminated in Chromo-Lithography, price 5 _s._ (Dedicated to her
   Majesty the Queen.)

   OUTLINES OF THE ABOVE, 4to Imperial. 2_s._ plain, and 3_s._ 6_d._
   partly Illuminated.

   AND THE

   ROYAL CHESS BOARD. In Outline 22½ inches square, with Four
   Illustrations, viz.:--"First Move," "Stale Mate," "Check Mate," and
   "Mated." Price, 5_s._ plain, 8_s._ partly coloured, and on the
   finest Italian Vellum, 31_s._ 6_d._

   SHEET OF FIFTEEN BOOK-MARKERS. 4to Imperial, with Scriptural
   Mottoes, 5_s._ plain, and 8_s._ partially Illuminated.

   SHEET OF MEDIÆVAL ALPHABETS, 4to Imperial, 1_s._ plain, 3_s._ 3_d._
   partially Illuminated.

   THE PRIZE "BEATITUDES," for 1860. (Outlines) awarded by the I.
   A. U. L.

     No. 1. Original design by MADAME CITERIO.
      "  2. do. do. by EDWARD OFFOR, ESQ.
      "  3. do. do. by the Hon. LOUISA TENISON.
      "  4. The Ten Commandments for 1859. 2_s._ each plain, 3_s._ 6_d._
              partially Illuminated.

   THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI. 4to Imperial. (A splendid Missal
   with 12 figures). 2_s._ 6_d._ plain, and 4_s._ part Coloured.

   ☞ _All the above Subjects are also published on the finest Italian
   Vellum, from 8s. to 10s. 6d. each_.


   _The following Illuminations, executed by Lady Artists, are ready
   for Sale or hire._

                                                                _s. d._
    Thompson's Seasons--Two Subjects                   each      12 0
    The Lord's Prayer                                            14 6
    The Creed                                                    14 0
    Two Subjects of the 119th Psalm                    each      14 0
      BY MRS. DAVIDSON.
    Two Subjects of the 119th Psalm                    each      12 0
    The Poppy Flower, and Cherry Border                          12 0
      BY MISS WEBB.
    "Nunc Dimittis," St. Luke                                    12 0
    Poesy                                                        10 6
    Praise--Psalm 146                                             7 0
      BY MISS SAUNDERS.
    The Adoration of the Magi, and St. John            each      14 0
    David with the Head of Goliath                               10 6
    Alphabetical Letters, by various Artists, from     3_s._ to   8 0
      BY MISS THOMPSON & MISS PEET.


  And other Subjects from Psalm CXIX., &c., &c., are in progress, and
  may be always had.



  JUST PUBLISHED

  Miniature Outlines for Illuminating,

  _Plain 9d.; Partially coloured, 1s. 6d. each_.

  _Or in Handsome Wrappers containing Eight Subjects._

  _6s. and 12s._

  These "MINIATURE OUTLINES" are so delicately executed, and in detail
  so perfect, that they afford the Student an admirable opportunity
  of acquiring a most delicate touch before venturing on the larger
  subjects; and the universal satisfaction they have given, has induced
  LAURENT DE LARA to re-produce the whole of his numerous publications
  in this form. At the same time he most earnestly enjoins the Student
  not to use other than "CAKE ILLUMINATING COLOURS" in these, as indeed
  in ALL ILLUMINATIONS where delicacy and effect is desirable.


  THE "BEATITUDES," (Eight Subjects.) Fac-simile, half the size of the
  4to Royal.

  THE SAME SUBJECT, one sixth the original size, 6_d._ and 1_s._ each.

  THE LORD'S PRAYER.} from an old Psalter of HENRY the VIII.
  THE CREDO.        }

  4to. Imperial drawing boards, 1_s._ plain, 2_s._ coloured.

  THE SAME SUBJECTS, one sixth, 9_d._ plain, 1_s._ 6_d._ coloured.



  Illuminating Art Circulating Library,

  3, TORRINGTON SQUARE, RUSSELL SQUARE.

  Subscribers are entitled to two Illuminations at a time, to be
  exchanged for fresh subjects, as frequently as desired.

    TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTIONS.
    ANNUALLY £4 4_s._ 0_d._
    HALF YEARLY £2 12_s._ 6_d._
    QUARTERLY £1 11_s._ 6_d._


  A Select assortment of VELLUM ILLUMINATIONS are constantly kept in
  stock for sale or hire, of which pencil outlines are published at
  6_d._, 9_d._, 1_s._, 1_s._ 6_d._, & 2_s._ each.

    THE LORD'S PRAYER, 4to. Imperial, 4to. Royal, }
        Miniature, and small Miniature.           } Two designs.
    THE APOSTLES' CREED, ditto.                   }

    SONNET.--"It is a Dream."

    DAVID WITH THE HEAD OF GOLIATH.

    THE 67TH PSALM.

    SMALL CREDO.

    THE 119TH PSALM. Twenty-two Subjects, with Title and Presentation
        Plate.

    THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. Twenty-two Subjects, with ditto.

    THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI.

    ST. JOHN WRITING THE GOSPEL.

    POESY. Sonnet.

    THE PROVERBS, Alphabetically arranged. Large text 24 subjects.

    THOMPSON'S SEASONS. (Two Subjects).

    THE COMMANDMENTS. (Dedicated to her Majesty).

    THE COMMANDMENTS. (Byzantine School).

    THE "BEATITUDES." (Eight Subjects, complete).

    THE PRIZE "BEATITUDES." (Three Subjects), awarded by the
        I. A. U. L. for 1860.

    MEDIÆVAL ALPHABETS, 4to. Imperial.

    25 DIFFERENT BOOK-MARKERS, 10 for the reception of Photograph
        vignettes. Small and large size.

    THE ROYAL CHESSBOARD. Folio Imperial, 22½ inches square.

    18 DIFFERENT CROSSES.

    18 SUBJECTS FROM "SHAKSPEARE." (_Quite new_).



  D. LAURENT DE LARA'S

  COLOURS AND MATERIALS

  FOR

  ILLUMINATING & MISSAL PAINTING.


  The necessity for improvements to be made in the Ordinary Water
  Colours, too often palmed off on the unwary by Artists' Colourmen,
  has induced Mr. DE LARA to give the Subject his most earnest and
  careful attention, and as a result, they have acquired a reputation
  for the richness and brilliancy of their Tints, surpassing even
  those manufactured in Paris; and their peculiar fitness when
  applied to Illuminating on Vellum, or for Miniatures, proves them,
  in these respects, to be unrivalled.


  THE TWENTY FIVE SHILLING BOX

  CONTAINS

  Twelve Colours, Gold and Aluminium Shells, Enamel White, Agate
  Burnisher Pencils, Sable Brush, Parallel Rules, Ruling Pen,
  Compasses.


  THE GUINEA & A HALF BOX

  CONTAINS

  Eighteen Colours, Gold and Aluminium Shells, Enamel White, and
  fuller fittings than above.


  THE TWO GUINEA BOX

  CONTAINS

  Fourteen Double and Four Half Cakes, Gold and Aluminium Shells, and
  complete Fittings.


  THE TWO GUINEA & A HALF BOX

  CONTAINS

  Eighteen Whole Cakes, and additional materials.


  THE THREE GUINEA BOX

  Same Colours and superior and additional Fittings.

  In calling the attention of the Public to this Box, D. LAURENT DE
  LARA feels it incumbent on him to remark, that whatever costliness
  and expense may be bestowed on material, nothing further is required
  for the successful practising of this Art.


  Illuminating Box of Moist Colors for Fruits and Flowers, 12_s._ 6d.
  each.


  Box of Opaque Tints, 12_s._ each.


  ALWAYS ON HAND

  _An Assortment of Prepared Italian Vellum, ready Mounted, 3s.
  6d., 6s., and 8s. each. Whole Skins from 7s. 6d. to £3
  3s. each_.


  GOLD, PLATINA, AND ALUMINIUM SHELLS, 10_s._ 6d. PER DOZEN.


  Best Water Gold-Size in Pots 2_s._ each, for raised Gilding.


  Real French Tracing Paper, 1_s._ 6_d._ the Sheet.


  MATHEMATICAL INSTRUMENTS 21_s._ OR 31_s._ 6_d._ THE CASE.


  ⁂Instruction in the Art of Illuminating by personal Lessons or by
  correspondence--the Course, £3 3_s._--_with_ employment afterwards,
  if desired by special contract.



  ANOTHER EDITION OF
  THE 119th PSALM,
  WILL BE REPUBLISHED FOR THE FORTHCOMING SEASON,
  DEDICATED TO VISCOUNTESS COMBERMERE,
  WITH PRESENTATION AND TITLE PLATE.

  Partly Illuminated and handsomely bound      £2 5 0
            Plain          Ditto                1 5 0


  LONDON: LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, ROBERTS AND GREEN, PATERNOSTER
  ROW, AND ALL BOOKSELLERS.


  JUST PUBLISHED MISCELLANEOUS PIECES,

  _Plain 1s. 6d.; part Coloured 3s._

  12 Nos. OF THE ROYAL PSALTER,
  DEDICATED TO THE (COUNTESS DOWAGER OF LICHFIELD.)

  Adapted from the famous missal the Hours of Anna of Brittany.

  (_Floral and Fruit Borders._)

    "A SWARM OF BEES WORTH HIVING, OR BEES WITHOUT STINGS."
    "GIVE ALL THINE EAR, BUT FEW THY VOICE,"

  (from an old book in the Stow Library) dedicated to the late
  Marquis of Breadalbane.


  TWO SUBJECTS FROM ISAIAH LIII.

  _1s. 6d. and 3s. each._


  Published on the 10th of March, 1863, on the occasion of the
  Marriage of H.R.H. the Princess Alexandra and the Prince of Wales.

  _Price 1s. 6d. and 3s. part Coloured._

  THE ROYAL MONOGRAM AND CORONET,
  AND THE ODE "HAIL ALEXANDRA, STAR OF DENMARK," ETC.,

  (Poetry and Designs by D. Laurent de Lara.)

  The originals of these beautiful and characteristic designs, were
  presented to Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales on the
  occasion of her marriage.

  _Completely Illuminated price £2 2s. each._



  JUST PUBLISHED.

  "THE BEAUTIES OF SHAKSPERE,"

  BEING CHOICE EXTRACTS OF THE GREAT DRAMATIST, PICTORIALLY
  ILLUSTRATED, CONTAINING TEXT IN THE CENTRE.


  _First Series, 6s. plain; 12s. partly illuminated._

  Six Subjects from the "Tempest."

     1. CALIBAN. "I'll shew thee the best Springs."
     2. FERDINAND. "My Spirit as in a Dream," etc.
     3. PROSPERO. "Hast thou, which art but air."
     4. VANITY OF HUMAN NATURE. "The Cloud capp'd Towers."
     5. ARIEL'S SONG. "Where the Bee sucks," etc.
     6. DO. DO. "Full fathom five thy Father lies."


  _Second Series, 6s. plain; 12s. coloured._

  Six Subjects from the "Merchant of Venice."

     7. SHYLOCK. "If it will feed nothing."
     8. BASSANIO. "In Belmont is a lady."
     9. LAUNCELOT GOBBO. "Well, if any man in Italy," etc.
    10. THE PRINCE OF MOROCCO. "What have we here, a Carrion's death."
    11. ANTONIO. "I am armed and well prepared."
    12. PORTIA. "The quality of mercy is not strained."


  Six Subjects from "Hamlet."

    13. POLONIUS. "Give every man thine ear."
    14. OPHELIA. "O, what noble mind is here overthrown."
    15. HAMLET'S SOLILOQUY. "To be or not to be."
    16. INTERVIEW. "Ecstasy."
    17. HAMLET. "Alas! poor Yorrick."
    18. GRAVE-DIGGERS. "Who builds stronger than a mason."

  _This beautiful publication of which already three successive
  editions have been issued, will be followed by_ "AS YOU LIKE IT"
  _and other popular Plays, at short intervals._



  R. ACKERMANN,

  MANUFACTURER OF

  ILLUMINATING COLOURS,

  Which are strongly recommended for their brilliancy of Tint, may
  be had separately or in

  Boxes price 21s. and 42s.

  Gold, Silver Aluminium, and Platina,
    In Shells, Saucers, and Cakes.
    A large assortment of the best Prepared Drawing Vellum.

  Vellum Paper, and the best Drawing Boards.
    TRACING AND TRANSFER PAPERS.
    A GREAT VARIETY OF
    Laurent de Lara's Outlines for Coloring Scrolls and Texts,

    WITH

  The best Works of Instruction.

    BOOKS OF ALPHABETS AND ALL ILLUMINATED WORKS.

    GOLD SIZE,
    AND ALL ARTICLES CONNECTED WITH THE

    Art of Illuminating and the Fine Arts.

  191, REGENT STREET, W.

  _Catalogues by post, free on application._



  JAMES NEWMAN,

  MANUFACTURER OF

  Illuminating Colours in Oil or Water.


  Boxes of Colours fitted up with Burnishers, Brushes, Shells, &c.,
  very complete.

  PURE GOLD AND ALUMINIUM POWDER IN SHELLS, HALF SHELLS, OR

  CAKES, LIKE WATER COLOURS.

  Prepared Vellum and every Article used in Illuminating.

  ORNAMENTAL ALPHABETS AND WORKS ON ILLUMINATING

  BODY COLOUR WHITE.

  Sizing preparation to prepare the Surface of many Materials and
  give hardness to the Colours.

  _See_ NEWMAN'S _Harmonious Colouring, &c., Price_ 1_s._

  NEWMAN'S SUPERFINE WATER COLOURS.

  Newman's Improved Moist Colours & Chinese White.

  MANUFACTURER OF

  Every Description of Artist's Materials of the Best Quality.

  24, SOHO SQUARE, LONDON, W.



  REEVES & SONS'

  _Colours & Materials for_

  Illuminating & Missal Painting.


  Water Colours Prepared for Illuminating, in Cakes or Moist in
  Pans, Half Cakes or Half Pans.


  WHOLE CAKES, 1_s._, HALF CAKES, 6_d._ each.

    Antwerp Blue
    Azure Blue
    Bistre
    Blue Black
    Bronze Green
    Brown Ochre
    Brown Pink
    Burnt Ochre
    Burnt Sienna
    Burnt Umber
    Chinese Vermilion
    Chinese White
    Chrome Yellow, Pale
    Chrome Yellow, Middle
      Do. Deep
    Cologne Earth
    Dragon's Blood
    Emerald Green
    Flake White
    Gamboge
    Green Bice
    Green Verditer
    Hooker's Green, No. 1 Shade
      Do. No. 2 do.
    Indian Red
    Indigo
    Italian Pink
    Ivory Black
    King's Yellow
    Lamp Black
    Light Red
    Naples Yellow
    Neutral Tint
    Olive
    Orange
    Payne's Grey
    Permanent Red
    Prussian Blue
    Prussian Green
    Purple
    Raw Sienna
    Raw Umber
    Red Chalk
    Roman Ochre
    Sap Green
    Saturnine Red
    Terra Verte
    Vandyke Brown
    Venetian Red
    Vermilion
    Yellow Lake
    Yellow Ochre


  WHOLE CAKES, 1_s._ 6_d._, HALF CAKES, 9_d._ each.

    Brown Madder
    Coëlin Blue
    Crimson Lake
    Indian Yellow
    Intense Blue
    Mars Yellow
    Permanent White
    Purple Lake
    Scarlet Lake
    Scarlet Vermilion
    Sepia
    Warm Sepia
    Green Vermilion


  WHOLE CAKES, 2_s._, HALF CAKES, 1_s._ each.

    Cobalt Blue
    Cobalt Ash, Nos. 1 & 2
    Green Oxide of Chromium
    Lemon Yellow
    Orange Vermilion
    Pure Orange
    Violet Carmine


  WHOLE CAKES, 3_s._, HALF CAKES, 1_s._ 6_d._ each.

    Burnt Carmine
    Cadmium Yellow, Pale
      Do. Middle
    Cadmium Yellow, Deep
    Carmine
    French Ultramarine
    Gallstone
    Intense Madder
    Orange Scart. Madder
    Permanent Blue
    Pink Madder
    Rose Madder
    Royal Scarlet
    Yellow Madder


  WHOLE CAKES, 5_s._, HALF CAKES, 2_s._ 6_d._ each.

    Extract of Vermilion
    Madder Carmine
    Mars Orange
    Purple Madder
    Royal Blue
    Smalt
    Ultramarine Ash
    Ultramarine (Genuine)


  Whole Cake, £1 1_s._, Half Cake, 10_s._ 6_d._, Quarter Cake,
  5_s._ 6_d._ each.


  Powder Colours for Illuminating,

  In Bottles, Ready prepared for use with the admixture of Water
  only.

  Prices same as Whole Cakes.



  [Illustration: 1½ GUINEA BOX.]

  Boxes of Colours for Illuminating and Missal Painting.


  _Half-Guinea Box._

  French Polished Mahogany Slide-top Box, containing Six Half Cakes
  of Colours--Crimson Lake, Scarlet Vermilion, French Ultramarine,
  Emerald Green, Pale Chrome, and Burnt Sienna, Tube of Enamel White,
  Gold and Aluminium Shells, Four Siberian Brushes, Burnisher, and
  Indian Ink.


  _One Guinea Box._

  Mahogany French Polished Lock Box, containing (in a Japanned Tin
  Box) Crimson Lake, Scarlet Vermilion, Cobalt, French Ultramarine,
  Cadmium Yellow, Lamp Black, Emerald Green, Burnt Sienna, Bottle of
  Enamel White, Prepared Gum Water, China Slab, Water Glass, Liquid
  Ox Gall, Saucer of Gold, Saucer of Aluminium, Agate Burnisher,
  Cumberland Lead Pencil, Sable Brushes, and Gummed Gold Paper.


  _One Guinea and a Half Box._

  Mahogany French Polished Lock Box, containing (in a Japanned Tin
  Box) Crimson Lake, Scarlet Vermilion, Cobalt, French Ultramarine,
  Cadmium Yellow, Lamp Black, Emerald Green, Burnt Sienna, Rose
  Madder, Gamboge, Vandyke Brown, and Pale Chrome Yellow, Bottle of
  Enamel White, Prepared Gum Water, Liquid Ox Gall, Gold Ink, Saucer
  of Gold, Saucer of Aluminium, China Slab, Water Glass, Pot of Water
  Gold Size, Agate Burnisher, Cumberland Lead Pencil, Six Sable
  Brushes, and Gummed Gold Paper.



  Materials for Illuminating and Missal Painting.


  _Two Guinea Box._

  Mahogany French Polished Lock Box, containing (in a Japanned Tin
  Box) Crimson Lake, Scarlet Vermilion, Cobalt, French Ultramarine,
  Cadmium Yellow, Lamp Black, Emerald Green, Burnt Sienna, Rose
  Madder, Gamboge, Vandyke Brown, Pale Chrome, Carmine, Green Oxide
  of Chromium, Permanent Red, Brown Madder, Lemon Yellow, and Violet
  Carmine, Bottle of Enamel White, Prepared Gum Water, Liquid Ox
  Gall, Gold Ink, Saucer of Gold, Saucer of Aluminium, Six-Division
  China Slab, Water Glass, Pot of Water Gold Size, Agate Burnisher,
  Cumberland Lead Pencil, Eight Sable Brushes, and Gummed Gold Paper.


  _Three Guinea Box._

  Rosewood Caddy Lid French Polished Box with Plated Fittings,
  containing Colours, &c., as above, and a most complete Set of
  Materials.


                                                    _s._ _d._

    Prepared Enamel White, in bottles     each       1    0
        "    Indian  Ink                   "         1    0
        "    Liquid  Brown                 "         1    0
        "       "    Carmine               "         1    6
        "       "    Ox Gall               "         1    0
        "    Gold Size, in pots            "         1    0
    Raising Preparation,   "               "         1    0
    Prepared Strong Clarified Gum Water    " 6_d._ & 1    0


  _Gold, Silver, Aluminium, &c._

    Gold Leaf, per Book of 25 Leaves                 1     9
    Silver "       "       50 "                      1     9
    Gold Paper, Adhesive on back        per Sheet    3     6
      Ditto           ditto               ½ Sheet    1     9
      Ditto           ditto               ¼ Sheet    1     0
      Ditto, in packets          per packet, 6_d._ & 1     0
    Gold in Cakes                            each    5     0
    Aluminium ditto                           "      1     0
    Gold in Saucer                      each 6_d._ & 0     9
    Aluminium ditto                      "           0     4



Materials for Illuminating and Missal Painting.


                            _d._
    _Gold, in Shell_ _each_  8
    _Smaller ditto_    "     6
    _Green Gold_       "     8
    _Platina_          "     8
    _Aluminium_        "     4
    _Silver_           "     4

    _Gold and Silver Ink._
                                                    _s._ _d._
       Liquid in Bottles                      each   1    0

    _Bessemer's Gold Paint._
       Gold Paint and Preparation, large size each   4    0
          Ditto, small size                    "     1    6
       Preparation only, large size            "     0    6

    _Bronzes._

       Finest Deep and Pale Gold, Silver,
          Copper and Green Bronzes      per packet   2    0
       Common Gold Bronze        per bottle, 6_d._ & 1    0


  _Prepared Vellum._

  PRICE ACCORDING TO SIZE.


  _Small Agate Burnishers._

       Albata Ferrules and Black Handles,
          various patterns                    each   2    0


  A LARGE ASSORTMENT OF OUTLINES, COPIES, AND BOOKS ON ILLUMINATING
  ALWAYS IN STOCK.

  _De Lara's Series of Outlines and Publications, for which see his
  List._



  Illuminating Art Union of London

  (INSTITUTED 1857.)

  For promoting and encouraging the MEDIÆVAL STYLE OF ILLUMINATING ON
  VELLUM, adaptable for Modern purposes, either _sacred or secular_,
  to hold Annual Exhibitions and distribute prizes for original
  designs, and to afford _employment_ to the educated gentlewomen of
  limited means.

  Annual Subscription £1 1s.

  _For which an "Original Vellum Illumination" executed by the less
  affluent Members, will be presented annually to the Subscribers._

  Life Members £12 12s.


  Patronesses.

    LAURA, COUNTESS OF ANTRIM.
    THE COUNTESS OF DALKEITH.
    THE COUNTESS OF LICHFIELD.
    THE COUNTESS DOWAGER OF LICHFIELD.
    VISCOUNTESS DUNGARVON.
    VISCOUNTESS FORBES.
    VISCOUNTESS JOCELYN.
    COUNTESS OF MOUNT EDGECOMBE.
    BARONESS DE ROTHSCHILD.
    LADY HARRIET ASHLEY.
    LADY NAAS.
    LADY G. REBOW.
    LADY DE ROTHSCHILD.
    LADY ANNA LOFTUS.
    LADY C. LOFTUS.
    LADY SARAH SPENCER.
    LADY HELEN M'DONNELL.
    LADY FRANCES HARCOURT.
    LADY LOUISA BOYLE.
    LADY LOUISA LASCELLES.
    LADY LOUISA TENISON.
    HONOURABLE MRS. YELVERTON.
    HONOURABLE MRS. CUNYNGHAME.
    HONOURABLE LORA LANE FOX.
    HONOURABLE MISS MONTAGUE.
    MRS. RIDGEWAY.
    MRS. E. WYNNE (Pernambuco).
    MRS. BELLEW.
    MRS. CHAUNCY.
    MRS. HENRY BOLTON.
    MRS. FABER.
    MISS DE ROTHSCHILD.
    MISS ANNA D'ARLEY.
    MISS VAUGHAN.
    MISS S. MOSTYN OWEN.
    MISS FRANCES GRAHAM M'DOWALL
    MISS FOX STRANGWAYS.
    &c., &c.

    Honorary Secretary.
    MRS. FABER.

    Honorary Treasurer.
    CHARLES BOARD, ESQ.

    Manager.
    D. LAURENT DE LARA, ESQ.


  Prospectuses and Reports may be had of D. LAURENT DE LARA, _Manager_,
  3, Torrington Square, Russell Square, W.C.



  LIST OF

  COLOUR BOXES AND MATERIALS,

  PREPARED BY

  GEORGE ROWNEY & COMPANY,

  FOR

  Illuminating & Missal Painting.


  15s. Mahogany Box,

  CONTAINING

  Cobalt, Prussian Blue, Emerald Green, Chrome 2, Crimson Lake,
  Vermilion, Gold and Silver Shells, Agate Burnisher, and Three Sable
  Brushes.


  21s. Mahogany Lock Box,

  CONTAINING

  Cobalt, Fr. Ultra, Emerald Green, Sap Green, Chrome 2, Chrome 4,
  Crimson Lake, Madder Lake, Lamp Black, Vandyke, Vermilion, and
  White, Gold, Green Gold, and Aluminium Shells, Agate Burnisher,
  Sable Brushes, &c., &c.


  31s. 6d. Caddy Lid Box,

  CONTAINING

  Cobalt, Fr. Ultra, Emerald Green, Sap Green, Chrome 1, Chrome 3,
  Dragon's Blood, Vermilion, Yellow Oker, Lamp Black, Violet, Carmine,
  Rose Madder, Carmine, Bt. Carmine, Bottle of Chinese White, Gold,
  Green Gold and Aluminium Shells, Gold Leaf, Agate Burnisher,
  Dividers, Sable Brushes, Pot of Water Gold-Size, &c.


  2 Guinea Caddy Lid Box with Drawer,

  CONTAINING

  Cobalt, Fr. Ultra, Emerald Green, Sap Green, Chrome 1, Chrome 3,
  Gamboge, Yellow Oker, Bt. Sienna, Vandyke, Sepia, Lamp Black,
  Crimson Lake, Scarlet Vermilion, Rose Madder, Purple Madder, Madder
  Brown, Carmine, Bottle of Chinese White, Pot of Water Gold-Size,
  Two Shells, each as above, Gold Leaf, Extra Brushes, &c.


  3 Guinea Rosewood, Caddy Lid,

  CONTAINING

  besides the above Eighteen colours, Prussian Blue, Violet Carmine,
  Cadmium Yellow, Mars Orange, Bt. Carmine, Deep Rose; and every
  article necessary for all descriptions of Illuminating.


  _Boxes may be obtained, fitted to any arrangement required. A large
  assortment of Laurent de Lara's outlines, plain, or partly coloured
  either on fine Card or Vellum._


    GEORGE ROWNEY & CO.,
    MANUFACTURING ARTIST'S COLOURMEN,
    51 & 52, RATHBONE PLACE,
    LONDON.



Transcriber's notes


Clear printer's errors were corrected, but original spelling was
not modified or harmonized.

Phrases or words in italics are _underscored_.





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