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Title: Illustrations of Exotic Entomology, Volume 2
Author: Drury, Dru
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Illustrations of Exotic Entomology, Volume 2" ***

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Transcriber's note:

The copy on which this edition is based was bound with the 3 volumes of
text in one physical volume and the plates in another. They have been
reordered into 3 separate projects with the plates inserted adjacent to the
related text - other copies are known to have been bound in this fashion.

Page numbers enclosed by curly braces (example: {25}) have been
incorporated to facilitate the use of the Index (in Volume III.).

Images of the original plates are available through Internet Archive. See
      https://archive.org/details/illustrationsofe12drur

       *       *       *       *       *



ILLUSTRATIONS

OF

EXOTIC ENTOMOLOGY,

CONTAINING

UPWARDS OF SIX HUNDRED AND FIFTY

FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS

OF

FOREIGN INSECTS,

INTERSPERSED WITH

REMARKS AND REFLECTIONS ON THEIR NATURE AND PROPERTIES.

BY DRU DRURY.

----

A NEW EDITION,

BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESENT STATE OF THE SCIENCE,
WITH THE SYSTEMATIC CHARACTERS OF EACH SPECIES, SYNONYMS, INDEXES,
AND OTHER ADDITIONAL MATTER.

BY J. O. WESTWOOD, F.L.S.

SOC. CÆS. NAT. CUR. MOSQ. SOC.
ETC. ETC.

----

VOL. II.

----

LONDON:

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN.

MDCCCXXXVII.

{iii}MR. DRURY'S PREFACE

TO THE FIRST EDITION.

----

VOL. II.


To gratify a laudable curiosity, and lead the mind to the exercise of one
of its noblest faculties, was the motive that first encouraged me to
publish a work of this kind. How far it has answered these ends, what
pleasure it has produced, of what benefit or advantage it has been to
mankind, by inducing them to contemplate the admirable works of Providence,
and trace its wisdom and goodness through the medium of this branch of the
history of nature, are circumstances, the confined sphere of life in which
I have hitherto moved, has not given me those opportunities of knowing that
I could wish. But the kind reception the first volume of this work has met
with, seems to justify the opinion that it has not been written in vain.

In the Preface to my former volume, I told my readers, that my design of
giving an addition to that work, would entirely depend on the reception the
public should be pleased to give it. I was willing to have some proof of
the public approbation, before I ventured rashly to engage further in so
considerable an expense as the engraving and colouring the plates, &c.
which was too great for me to incur without a prospect of a reimbursement.

It is now with the utmost pleasure I can declare, that I have the greatest
reason to be satisfied on that head; the world has generously encouraged my
first attempt, and it is to that cause the present volume owes its
appearance. The quick sale of a great number of copies, on the first
publication, was a proof of the great progress natural history had made;
and gave me the utmost hopes a continuation might be equally as acceptable,
if conducted on the same plan, and rendered as agreeable by the exertion of
the artist's abilities. I have now the satisfaction of offering a volume to
the public not inferior to the first.

It is a pleasing reflection to consider the great strides natural history
is making in this kingdom, as well as in other parts of the world; and the
many publications on the various subjects of nature, that have made their
appearance within these last three or four years, is a circumstance that
must give every man of a liberal mind the greatest satisfaction. We {iv}see
persons, skilled in natural history, receiving encouragements and reward
from men of rank and property, according to their respective abilities.
Some are encouraged to pursue their studies in foreign parts, and
investigate the secrets of nature among the trees and plants; others are
employed in discovering countries, and searching the shores of coasts,
hitherto unknown, for subjects that will afford either profit or
speculative pleasure; while the artist at home is not neglected and
abandoned, but meets the reward his merit entitles him to.

Natural history has, certainly, less reason to court the favour of mankind
than many other branches of knowlege; as the pursuit of it, either as a
science or amusement, is so replete with pleasure, that it is hardly
possible to refuse it our approbation and encouragement, so soon as we give
ourselves the least time to enquire into its merits; and we are often
stimulated to pursue it from the appearance of that inexhaustible store of
entertainment it is sure to afford. It is therefore less to be wondered at
that publications on these subjects are more numerous than formerly; as the
desire of communicating knowledge and happiness is irresistible, and men,
for their own sakes, will be induced to follow the tracks, where the
enjoyment of unallayed pleasure lies within their grasp.

I shall not dwell any longer on this part of the subject, but inform the
reader, that the same plan, of giving _just_ and accurate figures, that was
followed in the first volume, is continued in this. The utmost care and
nicety has been observed, both in the outlines and engraving. Nothing is
strained or carried beyond the bounds nature has set; and whoever will
compare the engravings with the originals, I flatter myself will allow,
that nothing is borrowed from fancy, or any colour given to an insect that
does not really exist in the subject intended to be represented.

It is true, the want of those remarks and observations on their natural
history, similar to those inserted in my first volume, is a circumstance I
have great reason to lament. I mentioned my opinion of the cause in my
former address, in which I have since been confirmed by repeated proofs;
and notwithstanding the great labour and trouble I have been at, not only
in procuring the subjects of the present volume, but in endeavouring also
to get the natural history of some of the most extraordinary of them, I
have not been able to obtain one single piece of information proper to be
laid before the public.

It is to little or no purpose to make further enquiry into the reasons of
this want of curiosity, among all ranks of people, situated in distant
climates, more than I have already done. I find it is so; and whether it
proceeds from an ill-judged pride, in thinking such minute animals below
their notice, or whether it arises from that languor of mind, as well as of
body, that generally prevails in warm climates, is a matter of no
consequence to mankind: the world is not benefited by their situations, and
we must be content to remain in our present ignorance, till Providence
shall think proper to give us a second Swammerdam, or Reaumur, &c. and
place him in a distant part of the globe, for the advantage of the human
race.

{v}It is necessary to mention, that both the descriptions, and engravings,
were finished about the beginning of the year 1771, and as some of the
insects are mentioned as non-descripts, that since that time have appeared
in other works, I hope I shall not be considered as guilty of an imposition
on that account.

The present age has made great improvements in _entomology_, as well as
other parts of natural history. The many publications that have appeared on
that subject within these two years, are proofs how well works of this kind
are received; and as all iconographers aim at giving representations of
unfigured subjects, it is no wonder if some contained in this volume should
be presented to the world by those who happened to have got the start of
me. The plates were actually engraved, and great part of the prints
coloured, before I discovered that any of the subjects had been figured by
other authors; and to have suppressed them on account of the very few that
are found in other works, would have incurred an expense greater than the
nature of the case would allow.

The objection made of the want of _names_ to the insects contained in my
first volume, the reader will here find removed; and _trivial_ as well as
_generical_ ones, given to every insect in the whole work: and likewise a
few errors of the press corrected, that have almost imperceptibly got in. I
was, indeed, truly sensible of the defect and incompleteness of that
volume, occasioned by the above circumstance, and would gladly have named
every insect then delineated; but the different opinions subsisting at that
time among entomologists, some preferring one author and some another, made
me exceeding cautious of entering on that business: and I rather chose to
defer it to the present opportunity, than give occasion for any reflections
against me, for my attachment to an author, whose method I should certainly
have pursued, and whose works have deservedly entitled him to the
appellation of _father_ of natural history. I mean the excellent Linneus,
whose system seems now to be generally approved and followed; and I must
here mention, the opportunity that the present work affords of giving an
explanation of the terms, &c. in his work, I should certainly have availed
myself of, for the benefit of the young beginner; but as my friend, Mr.
Curtis, has published a good translation of the "Fundamenta Entomologiæ" of
that author, wherein the young student, as well as the adept, who are not
versed in the Latin tongue, may receive great improvement; I must refer
them to that work for the properly understanding the plan and design of
that great author.

The reader will observe, that in giving _trivial_ names I have strictly
followed the method of Linneus. The Butterflies entitled to be ranked among
the Equites, are named after some great personage found among the Greeks
and Trojans; as in Plate iii. Fig. 1. where I have named the insect
Antenor, from a Trojan prince; and Plate ix. Fig. 1, 2. Menestheus from a
Grecian one; one belonging to the Eq. Trojanes, the other to Eq. Achivi. I
have likewise followed his rule in naming the insects belonging to other
classes; and given such as I concluded to be the most easily retained in
the memory. To this end also I have used the Latin language in preference
to the English, for the great liberty it allows {vi}of compounding and
decompounding words and names; a circumstance of the greatest consequence
in a business of this sort.

I should think myself totally unpardonable, if I finished this address
without acknowledging the obligation I am under to several friends, whose
assistance in this work claim the utmost return of gratitude; among these,
in a most particular manner I must mention Dr. Fothergill, whose readiness
to encourage and promote every part of natural history, must endear him to
every man who wishes well to so useful and beneficial a branch of
knowledge; and it is to the kindness of that gentleman the reader will
perceive I am indebted for a great number of figures that form a
considerable part of this work; many of which are so very rare, as not to
be met with in any other cabinet.


{1}ILLUSTRATIONS

OF

EXOTIC ENTOMOLOGY.

----


PLATE I.

[Illustration]

HÆTERA PHILOCTETES.

Plate I. fig. 1, 2.

  ORDER. Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurua. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swainson_.

  GENUS. HÆTERA, _Fabr._ (_Syst. Gloss. in Illig. Mag._) Satyrus, _Latr. &
  God._ Papilio p. _Linn._

  HÆTERA PHILOCTETES. Alis suprà violaceo-fuscis; posticis ad angulum ani
  maculis tribus coeruleis, externis duabus puncto nigro, punctisque tribus
  albis, subtus fasciâ latâ communi purpureo-fuscâ utrinque albomarginatâ.
  (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. fere.)

  SYN. Papilio (Equ. Achiv. Philoctetes), _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 750. _No._
  29. _Cramer, tab._ 20. _fig._ A. B. C. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._
  83. _p._ 259. (Nymphalis Ph.) _Herbst. tab._ 55. _fig._ 2. 3. _Enc.
  Méth._ ix. _p._ 481. (Satyrus Ph.)

  HABITAT: Surinam (_Drury_). "In Indiis." (_Linn._)

  _Upper Side._ Head, thorax, and abdomen dusky brown. Anterior wings fine
  mellow dark brown or snuff colour towards the tips; but near the body,
  glowing with a fine dark glossy purple. Near the tip of each wing are two
  small white specks, one scarcely visible; on the lower part of each wing
  is a rather large oval spot, of the same snuff colour with that near the
  tips. Posterior edges circularly dilated, and gradually widening from the
  shoulders to the external edges. Posterior wings dark brown, but glowing
  all over in some directions with a dark glossy blueish purple. Near the
  abdominal corners are two black eyes on each wing, surrounded by
  beautiful dazzling blue.

  _Under Side._ Breast and sides yellowish sandy-coloured. Anterior wings
  divided into three parts by two lines or bars; one being brown and
  narrow, the other white and rather broad. The first division, next the
  body, is of a russet or light hair colour, tinctured with pearl, having a
  short black streak near the middle; the next, or middle division, is
  light brown; the third is dark clay-coloured. A considerable number of
  long hairs arising from a single point or stalk, spreading like the
  leaves of a fan, and occupying the space corresponding with the oval spot
  mentioned before; those on the outside bending downwards, and curling.
  (See Fig. 3. This circumstance is peculiar to one sex only.) Posterior
  wings next the body russet, with a single black spot near the middle of
  each. Abdominal groove russet. {2}Middle of the wing with a rather broad
  bar of a fine deep chocolate colour, beginning at the anterior edge and
  ending at the abdominal groove; the upper side of the bar next the body
  being russet. Lower part of the wing, next the external edge, of a colour
  between russet and chocolate, with three small white spots near the upper
  corner. The two black eyes are distinct on this side, with narrow blue
  irides. The wings are a little dentated.

Drury's figure represents an individual in which the posterior wings have
no appearance of the short tail, which the species ordinarily exhibits. It
may, perhaps, originate in the figure being taken from a mutilated
specimen. The Papilio Morna of Fabricius, appears nearly allied to this
insect.


THECLA FAUNUS [female].

Plate I. fig. 4, 5.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Lycænidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. THECLA, _Fabr._ Polyommatus p. _Latr._ Hesperia p. _Fabr. olim._
  Papilio (Pleb. ruric.) _Drury._

  THECLA FAUNUS. Alis supra fuscescenti-violaceis apice atro, subtus albis
  strigâ communi mediâ fulvâ; posticis tricaudatis, lineâ marginali
  nigricante maculisque duabus nigro viridique mixtis. (Expans. Alar. 1
  unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. [female] Papilio (Pleb. ruric.) Faunus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.
  _Cramer_, _pl._ 39. B. C. [male]. 96. F. G. [female]. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._
  III. 1. _p._ 161. _No._ 11. (Hesperia F.) _Encycl. Méth._ ix. _p._ 618.
  1. (Polyommatus F.)

  [male] Hesperia R. Hesiodus, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 260. 8.
  _Pal. Bauv. Ins. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Lep._ _Pl._ 7. _f._ 5. 6. 7. [male].
  [female].

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone (_Fabr._). Gold Coast (_Drury_).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ ringed with white and black. Anterior wings greyish
  brown, without markings. Posterior wings of the same greyish brown. Cilia
  white. A little above the abdominal corners are four white spots, placed
  close together; the two inner ones being smallest. Each of these wings is
  furnished with three tails, the upper parts of which are black, the other
  parts white; the middle one being almost as long as the wing, the other
  two are about half that length.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, head, and breast white. Legs white and brown. Wings
  fine silvery white. A small, narrow, orange-coloured line begins at the
  middle of the anterior edge of the fore wings: which, crossing them and
  the hind ones, runs almost to the abdominal corner, where it suddenly
  turns back and ends at the abdominal groove. Near this part are two small
  black spots, one placed between the two outer tails, and the other on the
  abdominal edge.

Fabricius gives the sexes of this insect as distinct species, under the
names cited above, stating India to be the habitat of Hesiodus (or the
male). Palisot de Bauvois has, however, satisfactorily cleared up the
error, by figuring both sexes from Africa. The male has the disc of the
wings, on the upper side, of a rich blue colour.


{3}PLATE II.

[Illustration]

EREBUS HIEROGLYPHICUS.

Plate II. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. EREBUS, _Latr._ Thysania, _Dalm._ Noctua, _Fabr._

  EREBUS HIEROGLYPHICUS. Alis dentatis atris; anticis fasciâ abbreviatâ
  albidâ maculâque subocellari, posticarum margine bisinuato. (Expans.
  Alar. 3 unc. 7 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) hieroglyphica, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Donovan
  Ins. India_, _pl._ 54. _fig._ 3. _Oliv. Enc. Méth._ 8. 253. 11.

  Noctua hieroglyphica, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 2. _p._ 11. _No._ 10.

  Phalæna Magdonia, _Cram. Ins._ 2. _t._ 174. _f._ F.

  HABITAT: Madras.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ setaceous. Tongue spiral. Thorax and abdomen dark
  brown. Wings beautiful mellow dark brown, or deep chocolate, appearing
  like velvet. Anterior wings with two long, square, yellow spots on each,
  joined together at their corners, placed near the tips, and joining to
  the anterior edges of each wing; and also a rather large central eye,
  almost joining to the anterior edge; iris black and narrow, the pupil
  large, and the same colour with the wing. Posterior wings immaculate.

  _Under Side._ Palpi filiform at their extremities, and standing erect
  over the head. Breast, sides, and abdomen dark brown. Wings dark brown,
  rather lighter than on the upper side. Anterior with three yellow spots
  on each. Posterior wings immaculate. All the wings dentated; the scollops
  of the anterior wings being small, and those of the posterior very large.


DEIOPEIA? PUELLA.

Plate II. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Lithosiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. DEIOPEIA? _Steph._ Phalæna (Noctua), _Drury_.

  DEIOPEIA? PUELLA. Alis anticis albis, maculâ parvâ discoidali nigrâ,
  fasciisque 4 transversis rubris, posticis abdomineque carneis. (Expans.
  Alar. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Puella, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Madras.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ setaceous. Head white. Tongue spiral. Neck red.
  Thorax red and white. Abdomen grey. Anterior wings white, having a small
  black central spot in the middle of each, with four narrow red lines
  crossing them. Posterior wings yellowish flesh-coloured, immaculate.

  _Under Side._ Breast, sides, and abdomen light grey. Anterior wings
  having the anterior edges tinged with red at the base, the four narrow
  red lines being faintly seen on this side. Posterior wings coloured as on
  the upper side.


NOCTUA MYRTÆA.

Plate II. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. NOCTUA, _Auct._

  NOCTUA MYRTÆA. Testacea, alis strigis nonnullis undatis fuscis. (Expans.
  Alar. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Myrtæa, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Madras.

  {4}_Upper Side._ Antennæ brown and setaceous. Palpi, head, neck, thorax,
  abdomen, and wings reddish flesh-coloured; the latter having some very
  faint waved lines crossing them. Cilia dark brown.

  _Under Side._ Breast, sides, legs, and abdomen coloured as on the upper
  side. Wings yellowish, with many small narrow streaks. On the external
  edges of the anterior wings is a dark brown patch, near the tips. Cilia
  dark brown.

I do not know to which of the modern genera of Noctuidæ this insect
belongs.


HELEONA PAPILIONARIS.

Plate II. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Arctiidæ? _Steph._

  GENUS. HELEONA, _Swains._ (_Zool. Illust. N. Ser._ 116.) Gymnautocera?
  _Guérin._ (_Mag. d'Entomol. t._ 12)

  HELEONA PAPILIONARIS. Alis albido-flavis; margine venisque dilatatis,
  ramosis, nigris et versus medium coalitis, maculas albas efformantibus.
  (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Papilionaris, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Cramer_,
  _t._ 29. _fig._ A.

  Phalæna venaria, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 2. _p._ 156. _No._ 96. _Gmel.
  Linn. S. N._ 2470. _No._ 701.

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). "In Indis" (_Fabr._).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ dark blue and pectinated. Tongue spiral. Head,
  neck, and thorax dark mazarine blue, spotted with white. Abdomen deep
  blue, with six white rings. Wings black, covered with a number of streaks
  and spots of a dusky brimstone; those nearest the body being much longer
  than those next the external edges; where eight of them form a kind of
  border on each wing, and are all placed on the membranous parts between
  the nerves. Margins of the wings entire.

  _Under Side._ Breast and sides blue. Legs blue and white. Anterior wings
  with the anterior edges fine mazarine blue. The remaining parts of all
  the wings are exactly the same as on the upper side.


PLATE III.

[Illustration]

PAPILIO ANTENOR.

Plate III. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PAPILIO, _Auct._ Papilio (Eq. Troj.) _Drury_.

  PAPILIO ANTENOR. Alis dentatis concoloribus albo maculatis; posticis
  caudatis; disco atomis viridibus lunulisque marginalibus rubris. (Expans.
  Alar. 6 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Eq. Troj.) Antenor, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Donovan Ins.
  of India_, _pl._ 15. _f._ 1. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 40. _No._ 9.
  _Boisd. Hist. Nat. Lep._ 1. _p._ 189. _No._ 2.

  HABITAT: Central Africa.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ red brown, but thickening gradually to the tips.
  Head fine scarlet. Thorax velvety black. Abdomen white with scarlet
  rings. Anterior wings black, with three rows of cream-coloured spots on
  each; the two upper ones next the anterior edge being a little confused
  by running into each other; the lower one, running parallel with the
  external margin, is more regular. These spots, being nineteen in number,
  are of different sizes and shapes; some being round, some oval,
  triangular, &c. Posterior wings black, with two tails; having four rather
  broad scarlet crescents placed above {5}each of them, the ends of which
  are verged with cream. On the middle of each wing is placed a great
  number of small powder-like spots of a golden green colour; and on the
  abdominal edges, just below the body, are two scarlet and cream crescents
  placed opposite each other. The upper part of each wing exhibits ten
  cream-coloured spots of different shapes and sizes, whereof three are
  larger than all the rest.

  _Under Side._ Breast scarlet. Sides black. Abdomen scarlet, with white
  rings. Wings coloured nearly as on the other side; the spots being rather
  more distinct, the crescents broader, and the cream edges stronger than
  on the upper side. All the wings are dentated; the superior very faintly,
  the inferior very deeply.

Drury states that he was ignorant from what part of the world his specimen
(which was given to him by Mr. Leman) came from. No other individual of
this species is recorded to exist in the modern collections, and it is from
the figure and description of Drury that all subsequent writers have
derived their knowledge of this splendid and unique insect.

Donovan, however, figured this butterfly, or rather copied Drury's figure
in his beautiful work upon the Insects of India, observing merely that it
might be "mentioned with much propriety amongst the rarest of the Papilio
tribe found in India," without giving any account of the source from whence
his figure and information had been obtained.

At the sale of Mr. Drury's collection, this butterfly composed lot 4 of the
first day's sale, May 23, 1805, and was purchased by Mr. Latham at the
price of £2. 12_s._ 6_d._

The Rev. F. W. Hope, however, possesses a specimen, which he has informed
me, that he obtained in a small collection of rare insects from tropical
Africa, collected by the late Mr. Ritchie.


THECLA SYLVANUS.

Plate III. fig. 2, 3.

  ORDER Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Lycænidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. THECLA, _Fabr._ Polyommatus p. _Latr. & God._ Hesperia p. _Fabr.
  olim._ Papilio (Pleb. ruric.) _Linn. Drury._

  THECLA SYLVANUS. Alis suprà maris obscurè violaceis, feminæ albido
  coerulescentibus; subtus fuscis, annulis numerosis albis seu albidis;
  posticis ocellis duobus anguli ani argenteis rufo cinctis. (Expans. Alar.
  1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Pleb. rur.) Sylvanus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Pap. Larydas, _Cramer_, _pl._ 282. _fig._ H. _Herbst. tab._ 290. _f._ 1.
  _Latr. & God. Enc. Méth._ ix. 619. (Polyommatus Larydas.)

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  _Upper Side._ Head, thorax, and abdomen black. Wings of a dark mazarine
  blue, tinged with brown; immaculate. Posterior wings with three small
  narrow tails to each, which appear to be clusters of small hairs,
  extending from the wing below the cilia.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, breast, and thighs grey. Wings russet or
  hair-coloured. Anterior near the tips with a few faint markings.
  Posterior wings irregularly spotted with black, dark brown, and whitish
  {6}spots and marks; two black ones being situated next the abdominal
  corners, and sparkling with small sapphire-coloured specks placed
  thereon, being scarcely discernible. All the wings are entire.


POLYOMMATUS ISIS.

Plate III. fig. 4, 5.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Lycænidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. POLYOMMATUS, _Latr. & God._ Hesperia (rur.), _Fabr._ Argus p.
  _Scop._

  POLYOMMATUS ISIS. Alis supra violaceo-coerulescentibus, disco anticarum
  maculâ, posticarum fasciâ albis; subtus albis; posticis fasciis duabus
  repandis, et macularum serie nigris, harum duabus internis argentatis
  [male]. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Dan. Festiv.) Isis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 1.

  Hesperia Isarchus, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 316. 198. _Herbst.
  Pap._ 320. _f._ 8, 9. _Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 679. _No._ 194. (Pol.
  Isarchus.)

  Papilio Camillus, _Cramer_, _pl._ 300. _fig._ A. B.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone (_Drury_). "America, Dom. Drury" (_Fabricius_).
  Timor (_Enc. Méth._).

  _Upper Side._ Head, black. Thorax and abdomen dark blue. Anterior wings
  fine violet, a little inclining to purple; round the external edge runs a
  small narrow black line. Cilia white and black. On the middle of these
  wings is a white patch, with two small faint dark spots on its upper
  side. Posterior wings violet-coloured, with the same narrow black line
  running along the external edges as on the anterior. An irregular white
  bar crosses these wings from the anterior to the abdominal edges,
  beginning near the upper corner and ending near the extremity of the
  body.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, breast, and sides white. Legs black. Abdomen white.
  Anterior wings white, with some dark brown markings running along the
  anterior and external edges, whereon are some white streaks and patches.
  Posterior wings white, whereof one-third next the external edges is dark
  brown, but next the cilia is whitish; whereon are six small round brown
  spots, two of which, next the abdominal corners, sparkle with blue like a
  sapphire; the upper parts of these wings, next the shoulders, have a
  brown double streak on each. All the wings are entire.


PLATE IV.

[Illustration]

PAPILIO NIREUS.

Plate IV. fig. 1, 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PAPILIO, _Linn. &c._ (Section Equit. Achiv.)

  PAPILIO NIREUS. Alis dentatis, nigris, fasciâ communi maculisque
  viridibus; posticis breviter caudatis; his subtus fasciâ subargenteâ,
  marginali, nervis divisâ. (Expans. Alar. unc. 4. lin. 8.)

  SYN. Papilio Nireus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. _p._ 750. _No._ 28. _Fabr.
  Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 36. _No._ 106. _God. Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 48.
  _No._ 67. _Cram._ 187. A. B. & 378. F. G. _Herbst. Pap. tab._ 37. _f._ 1.
  2. _Boisduval. Hist. Nat. Lepid._ 1. 224.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone (_Drury_). Coast of Guinea, Caffraria, Madagascar
  (_Bdv._). India (_Linn. & Fabr._).

  _Upper Side._ Head, thorax, and abdomen velvety black. Wings fine deep
  black; with two narrow bars of a beautiful Saxon or blueish green colour,
  which begin about the middle of the anterior edges of the anterior wings,
  and crossing both them and the posterior, meet at the abdominal edges
  near the {7}abdominal corners, running parallel with the external edges.
  Anterior wings with two small blue spots placed on each near the tips,
  and another, larger, divided into three by the nerves, near the middle of
  the anterior edge; being placed at the top and even with the bar, but
  divided from it by a small separation of black. The edges of these wings
  are entire. Posterior wings with six blue spots on each, placed along the
  external edges; the four lower ones being in pairs, and another small one
  at the abdominal corners; margins deeply angulated.

  _Under Side._ Breast and sides dark brown, spotted with white. Abdomen
  brown. Wings dark brown hair-coloured, immaculate, except the posterior
  ones, which have a row of eleven cream-coloured spots running along the
  external edges.

The female differs from the male in being somewhat larger in size, with the
spots on the upper side of a brighter green colour, and with the marginal
row of spots on the under side of the posterior wings of a pearly greyish
hue, and with a tinge of this colour upon the disk of the wings. Cramer has
figured the male as the female, and vice versa. Mr. Smeathman informed Mr.
Drury that this insect feeds upon the orange and lime trees, about which
the butterfly is always seen flying, considering it as remarkable that most
of the insects which feed upon the orange or citron tribes, have some tinge
of green upon them; in like manner the beautiful green snake, so common
about Sierra Leone, is always to be found about these kind of trees. These
circumstances led our author into a series of observations which, though
upwards of half a century old, may still be read not only with pleasure,
but with the hope of beneficial results.

"The particular qualities, dispositions, and uses of by far the greater
part of insects, as well as of plants, are at present totally unknown to
us, nor are the methods by which we are to acquire that knowledge at
present ascertained.

"Their colours have hitherto been of no further use to us than merely to
discriminate one genus or species from another; and yet it is possible
that, by a combination of observations even on the colours of insects, we
may form some ideas of their natures and properties.

"The observation of Mr. Smeathman, if well founded, supposing it did not
lead to a discovery of the nature and properties of an insect itself, might
at least indicate those of the plant on which it feeds. The various species
of the _Danai Candidi_, among which are included the different white
butterflies of Europe, feed chiefly on such plants as are reckoned not only
nourishing, but salutary to the human body, such as the various species of
cabbages, coleworts, turnips, &c. Every foreign country produces
butterflies of that family; some of them so very like those of Europe, that
it is a fair inference they feed on plants of a similar property. This is
countenanced by many corroborating circumstances. The _Papilio Iris_, and
the various _Fritillary_ butterflies fly exceedingly swift; and it appears
from Mr. Smeathman's observations, that foreign butterflies that bear a
resemblance to them, also fly exceedingly swift. The green and golden
_Scarabei_ of this country are found to delight in flowers; those of the
hot climates are also found on flowers; while the black, {8}purple, and
darker coloured _Scarabei_, are generally found frequenting the excrements
of animals, and are, in every quarter of the globe, called Tumble
dung-beetles, from their making balls of those substances, and rolling them
to their holes. The locust tribes feed here chiefly on grasses and roots;
so it appears they do in the torrid zone. Those of the torrid zone are
found to be wholesome food. The inference is plain, that those of this
climate, in case of necessity, or perhaps even as an article of luxury,
might be found the same.

"The caterpillars of certain beetles, from his account, are the greatest
delicacies of the hot regions. They might, in some degree, be found to be
so here. The palm-worm of the West Indies, which is sought at a monstrous
expense, is the caterpillar or maggot of a beetle, of the same genus with
that small beetle, which is produced from the maggot or caterpillar in a
hazel-nut or filberd. This is often eaten here, and esteemed by those who
do so as more delicate than the nut itself.

"The Cantharides is a _green_ beetle. A green beetle of our own, _Cerambyx
Moschatus_, is found capable of raising blisters; and other _green_ beetles
may probably have the same effect.

"The butterflies that are found in the cultivated spots of Africa, have in
shape and appearance a strong resemblance to many of ours, particularly the
white ones. These seldom visit the thick woods; but, when seen in any
number, are certain indications of neighbouring plantations. This
observation might save the lives of bewildered travellers: as in some
instances it might be dangerous to enter into a very large wood, or a thick
part of it; in others again, immediate safety might be the consequence of
leaving a forest, by following the indications of an open or cultivated
spot. The analogy between the colours, the dispositions, and the qualities
of insects, may yet be greater, and between insects, and the plants on
which they feed, still more useful; for if an insect is found in one part
of the world to feed on a plant useful in food, medicine, or manufactures,
an insect of a similar appearance, in another part of the world, will in
all probability be found to feed on a plant of similar virtues. We do not
know but insects may affect, when perfect, to frequent different soils; or
to visit the recesses, where valuable drugs remain hid from human search,
and useless to mankind.

"As, however, observation and experience have demonstrated, through length
of time, that useful hints may be drawn from very trivial properties in the
smallest insects, it seems that none are unworthy of being noted. Future
travellers may draw useful inferences from those now given, and may add to
the number, for the benefit of those who follow after them. There can be no
doubt that every species of insect has its use in the creation, and
probably there are few from which mankind might not derive some advantage,
if their nature and properties were ascertained. We know of a few direct
methods, and must therefore in general wait with patience, till a variety
of observations, such as Mr. Smeathman has given us, by being frequently
compared, strike out new lights upon this part of {9}science, and elucidate
matters at this time buried in obscurity. The uses of many insects in the
creation are obvious at the first sight: such, for instance, are those
which feed on putrid animal or vegetable substances; while others promote
the general good by such remote means, that we cannot immediately see to
what end their operations verge. We are not therefore, however, to suppose
them mere expletives in the great system of beings; neither are we rashly
to attribute an importance to them which they do not deserve, or
ridiculously affect to admire circumstances in them of little moment, and
praise the Creator for dispositions of a secondary nature.

"When I recommend observations to be made on the most trivial
circumstances, it will readily be conceived I do not wish to derogate from
experiment, from which alone solid hopes are to be formed, and those which
have been hitherto made give great encouragement. Mr. Reaumur has found
that the moth, which feeds on clothes, refines the colour with which they
are dyed in a wonderful manner; for the excrement of the animal is the
colour of the cloth on which it is fed; and therefore, for miniature
paintings, infinitely surpasses all others. How far this kind of experiment
can be refined on, must be left to the curiosity and diligence of
travellers and experimental philosophers, who may perhaps, in some part of
the world, realize and improve this reasoning upon a large and useful
scale."


MELITÆA CYTHERIS.

Plate IV. fig. 3, 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains._

  GENUS. MELITÆA, _Fabr._ Argynnis p. _Ochs. Latr. & God._ Papilio (Nymph.
  Phal.) _Drury_.

  MELITÆA CYTHERIS. Alis supra fulvis nigro maculatis, subtus anticis
  fulvis apice fusco, strigâ albâ, posticis fuscis strigâ discoidali
  maculâque marginali albis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Ph.) Cytheris, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Falkland Islands.

  _Upper Side._ Head, eyes, thorax, and abdomen dark brown. Anterior wings
  brown orange, with a number of small black spots thereon (not less than
  twenty) of various shapes and sizes. Next the body these wings are darker
  and pilose. Posterior wings are the same colour as the superior, and
  spotted with many small black spots of different shapes dispersed all
  over the wings; they are also darker next the body and hairy.

  _Under Side._ Palpi reddish. Anterior wings sandy orange-coloured, rather
  paler than the upper side. Near the tips is a white streak placed next
  the anterior margin, and close thereto is a cloud of a dark red colour.
  Most of the small black spots are seen on this side, but less distinctly.
  Posterior wings dark red, with several faint clouds. A narrow white
  streak, about a quarter of an inch in length, is placed near the middle
  of each of these wings; and another much shorter is placed on the
  anterior edge, near the upper corner. All the wings are entire.


{10}PLATE V.

[Illustration]

SATURNIA MYLITTA.

Plate V. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Bombycidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. SATURNIA, _Schrank._ Attacus, _Germar._ Phalæna (Attacus), _Linn._

  SATURNIA MYLITTA. Alis cervino-fulvis, strigâ ferrugineâ submarginali
  ocelloque fenestrato, in medio lineâ diviso. (Expans. Alar. 6 unc. 3
  lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Attacus) Mylitta, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Oliv. Enc.
  Méth._ 5. 26. 9. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 411. _No._ 11. _Gmel. Linn.
  S. N._ 2403. 463.

  Phalæna Paphia, _Cramer_, _t._ 146. _f._ A.

  HABITAT: Bengal.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ pectinated, reddish fox-coloured. Neck grey. Thorax
  and abdomen greyish yellow. Wings reddish fox-coloured, having a round
  transparent eye in the middle of each; those in the superior being
  largest. These eyes are encircled with a narrow yellow edging, then with
  a greyish band, and lastly with a narrow black line; the transparent
  pupil appearing as if a fine hair crossed it. The anterior edges of the
  superior wings have a grey margin from the shoulders almost to the tips,
  where the reddish colour is paler than on the rest of the wing. A narrow
  dark line begins near the tips, and runs along the external edges to the
  lower corners, which is continued along the external edges of the
  posterior wings to the abdominal corners. On these wings a faint arched
  line of a dark colour is observable over each eye.

  _Under Side._ Breast, feet, and abdomen grey. The wings greyish brown;
  eyes appearing as on the upper side. A faint dark-coloured bar, beginning
  at the anterior edges of the anterior wings, and running across the lower
  parts of the eyes, is continued along the posterior ones; where it
  crosses the middle of the eyes, and ends at the abdominal edges below the
  body. All the wings are entire; the superior ones being arched, or hooked
  at the tips.


NOCTUA? SPECIOSA.

Plate V. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ? _Steph._

  GENUS. NOCTUA? _Auct._

  NOCTUA? SPECIOSA. Fulva, alis anticis medio, posticisque albidis, illarum
  basi fulvo, maculis 6 parvis nigris, dimidio apicali obscuriori. (Expans.
  Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Speciosa, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black, setaceous. Tongue long and spiral. Head,
  neck, thorax, and abdomen yellow. Anterior wings pale clay-coloured; but
  next the shoulders yellow, gradually changing to a white towards the
  middle of the wings, and occupying almost half of them; each wing having
  six small black spots on the yellow part, three being placed on the
  anterior edge, and the other three near the shoulder, where likewise is
  another small spot. Posterior wings white, immaculate.

  _Under Side._ Palpi long and yellow at the base, but the ends are black
  and filiform. Legs white, striped with brown. Breast and abdomen white.
  Anterior wings with the tips pale clay-coloured, as on the upper side;
  all the remaining part being white. A small black bar begins about the
  middle of {11}the anterior margin, and crossing the wing ends at the
  lower corner. Next the shoulders is a small tuft of hairs of a silver
  colour placed on each wing. Posterior wings white and immaculate. The
  margin of the wings entire.

This and several nearly allied species of tropical moths constitute a very
distinct subgenus characterized by the prevailing colour, the spots at the
base of the wings, the elongated palpi, and the peculiar neuration of the
anterior wings. I have not, however, ventured to propose the establishment
of a subgenus for them. They appear in some respects to be allied to the
genus Leucania.


CALLIMORPHA? PYLOTIS.

Plate V. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Lithosiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. CALLIMORPHA? _Latr._ Setina p. _Schr._ Phalæna (Bombyx), _Drury._

  CALLIMORPHA? PYLOTIS. Alis atro-coeruleis, anticis fasciâ latâ mediâ
  albâ. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Bombyx) Pylotis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Oliv. Enc. Méth._
  5. 99. _No._ 255. _Fabr. Sp. Ins. No._ 263. _Syst. Ent._ 585.

  Phalæna cribraria, _Clerck. Ins._ 54. _f._ 4.

  HABITAT: Bay of Honduras.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black and pectinated. Tongue orange-coloured, and
  spiral. Head, thorax, and abdomen fine mazarine blue. Anterior wings dark
  mazarine, having a single white bar running from the middle of the
  anterior edge to the lower corner. A small part of the cilia at the tips
  is white, the rest being of the same colour as the wings. Posterior wings
  of the same colour as the superior, and immaculate, except the cilia,
  which is entirely white.

  _Under Side._ Palpi black. Neck white. Breast and sides mazarine. The
  legs black and white. Abdomen orange, ringed with mazarine. Wings
  coloured as on the upper side; but next the body of a finer and stronger
  blue. The white part of the tips is also stronger and more distinct. The
  margins of all the wings are entire.


PLATE VI.

[Illustration]

BOTYS (DESMIA?) SERICEA.

Plate VI. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Pyralidæ.

  GENUS. BOTYS, _Latr._ SUBGENUS: Desmia? _Westw. in Guer. Mag. d'Ent._

  BOTYS (DESMIA?) SERICEA. Alis sericeis viridi-margaritaceis, anticarum
  margine antico luteo. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Pyralis) Sericea, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Gold Coast of Africa.

  _Upper Side._ Head light green. Eyes black. Antennæ thread-like, and very
  long; appearing at the middle as if they had been broken, and had
  branched out again to their proper length. Thorax and abdomen light
  green. Tail dark brown. Wings fine light green, almost transparent, and
  resembling mother of pearl. Anterior edges of the anterior wings pale
  orange-coloured.

  {12}_Under Side._ Palpi, neck, breast, abdomen, and legs light green;
  except the anterior tibiæ, which are pale orange. Tail dark brown. Wings
  of the same colour as on the upper side, immaculate. Wings entire.

The curious structure of the antennæ of this insect (which is, doubtless,
peculiar to the males alone) is very similar to that of Desmia maculalis,
(Westw. in Mag. Zool.) but the larger size, pearly wings, and different
quarters of the globe in which these two species are found, make it
doubtful whether the two insects belong strictly to the same subgenus. It
is evidently nearly allied to the British genus Margaritia. Mr. Smeathman
informed Drury that this is one of the Phalænæ which fly during the day. A
little noise or rustling disturbs it, when it takes rapid flights of twenty
or thirty yards, hiding itself with great ingenuity, which makes it
difficult to catch.


SATURNIA CYNTHIA.

Plate VI. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Bombycidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. SATURNIA, _Schrank._ Attacus, _Germar._ Bombyx p. _Fabr._

  SATURNIA CYNTHIA. Alis falcatis luteo-fuscis, fasciâ communi albidâ
  strigâ basali lunulâque discoidali; anticis ocello parvo apicali.
  (Expans. Alar. 5 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Attacus) Cynthia, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Oliv. Enc.
  Méth._ 5. 30. 26.

  HABITAT: China.

  _Upper Side._ Head greyish brown. Antennæ strongly pectinated. Thorax and
  abdomen greyish. Anterior wings with a bar rising near the middle of the
  anterior margin, continued along the posterior wings parallel with the
  external edges, and ending near the abdominal corners; the inner part
  forming an equilateral triangle. The outer part of this triangle is ash
  colour, the inner part pale brownish grey, but darker than the rest of
  the wings. The tips of the superior wings are adorned with a small eye,
  the lower part of which is black, and the upper part white; from whence a
  faint white serpentine line runs to the very extremity of the wing. The
  spaces between the ash colour mentioned above, and the external edges of
  all the wings, are filled up with light brownish grey, appearing as if
  powdered thinly with black dust. A small narrow black line runs along the
  external edges of all the wings, which, beginning at the abdominal
  corners and ending at the tips, appears as if broken or interrupted just
  below the eyes. A narrow ash-coloured bar begins on the posterior edges
  next the shoulders of the superior wings, which, running towards the
  tips, suddenly turns off, and ends on the anterior edges about half an
  inch from the shoulders. On the middle of the posterior wings is an
  ash-coloured crescent, verged at top with black; and about a quarter of
  an inch above this is another crescent, larger and much fainter, running
  from the anterior to the abdominal edge, and ending at the extremity of
  the body.

  _Under Side._ All the parts on this side are nearly of the same colour as
  on the upper, but not quite so distinct and bright. The angular bar on
  the anterior wings next the shoulders, and the faint crescent on the
  posterior, not being discernible. The margins of all the wings are
  entire; the superior ones being hooked at their tips.

{13}From Dr. Roxburgh's interesting memoir upon the silk-producing moths of
the East Indies,[1] it appears that this species is named the Arundi or
Arrindy silk-worm, the caterpillars feeding upon the Arrindi, Ricinus, or
Palma Christi. It is capable of being reared in the same way as the common
silk-worm, the eggs are hatched in about ten or fifteen days; in about a
month the caterpillars attain their full size, during which period they
cast their skins three or four times. The caterpillar is from two and a
half to three inches in length, each segment being furnished with several
small soft conical tubercles, the prevailing colour being pale green. In
this state they are very voracious, devouring daily many times their own
weight of food. The cocoons are white or yellowish, of a very soft and
delicate texture; in general about two or three inches in length, and three
in circumference, and pointed at both ends. In this cocoon the chrysalis
remains from ten to twenty days, the moth appearing at one end, the period
of its final state not extending beyond from four to eight days. The moths
are quiet, seldom attempting to fly from the apartment in which they are
reared. The silk is so exceedingly delicate and flossy, that it is
impracticable to wind it off; it is, therefore, spun like cotton, and the
thread thus manufactured is woven into a coarse kind of white cloth, of a
loose texture, but of surprising durability, the life of one person seldom
being sufficient to wear out a garment made from it, the same piece
descending from mother to daughter. It is used not only for clothing, but
also for packing light clothes, &c. Some manufacturers in England to whom
it was shewn seemed to think that it could be made here into shawls equal
to any received from India.


DEIOPEIA ASTREA.

Plate VI. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Lithosiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. DEIOPEIA, _Steph._ Phalæna (Noctua), _Drury_.

  DEIOPEIA ASTREA. Alis fulvis; anticis fasciis septem albidis
  nigro-punctatis, posticis fulvis nigro-punctatis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 7
  lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Astrea, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Oliv. Enc. Méth._
  8. 261. (Noctua A.)

  Phalæna (Bomb.) Pylotis? _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 479. _Gmel. Linn. S.
  N._ 2440. 575.

  Phal. Geometra cribrata, _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2482. 751.

  HABITAT: The Gold Coast, Africa.

  _Upper Side._ Head deep yellow. Antennæ filiform, dark brown. Neck and
  thorax yellow, with two small black spots on the former, and four on the
  latter. Abdomen yellow. Wings deep yellow; the anterior being nearly
  orange-coloured, and having several rows of small black spots crossing
  them from the anterior to the posterior edges, most of which are very
  irregular and uneven; the two last next the external edges being the
  least so. The number of spots on each of these wings is forty. Posterior
  wings with black spots, but much larger than those on the anterior,
  except three, which run along the external edges; the whole number being
  eleven.

  {14}_Under Side._ Palpi yellow, tipped with black. Tongue spiral. Legs,
  breast, and abdomen yellow, the last spotted with black. Wings deep
  yellow. The anterior spotted with forty black spots, larger and stronger
  than on the upper side. Posterior wings also spotted as on the upper
  side. Edges of all the wings entire.


CALLIMORPHA? GLAUCOPIS.

Plate VI. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Arctiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. CALLIMORPHA? _Latr._ Zygæna p. _Fabr._ Phalæna (Bombyx), _Drury_.

  CALLIMORPHA? GLAUCOPIS. Collari sanguineo, alis nigricantibus, anticis
  fasciâ obliquâ niveâ. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Bombyx Spiriling.) Glaucopis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.
  _Cramer_, _tab._ 322. _f._ D. Zygæna Glaucopis, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III.
  1. _p._ 400. _No._ 47. _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2397. 140. (Sphinx.)

  HABITAT: Bengal (_Drury_). Carolina (_Fabr._).

  _Upper Side._ Head black. Antennæ black, and very large and deeply
  pectinated. Neck fine scarlet. Thorax and abdomen black, tinged with
  mazarine. Wings black, immaculate; except the anterior, whereon is a
  white bar, beginning near the middle of the anterior edge, crossing the
  wing, and ending at the lower corners.

  _Under Side._ Palpi small and black. Tongue spiral. Breast mazarine,
  intermingled with black. Legs long and black. Thighs mazarine. Abdomen
  black, tinged with mazarine. Wings coloured as on the upper side. Edges
  entire.


PLATE VII.

[Illustration]

IDÆA LYNCEA.

Plate VII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains._

  GENUS. IDÆA, _Fabr. God._ Papilio (Dan. Fest. or Eq. Hel.), _Drury_.

  IDÆA LYNCEA. Alis elongatis integerrimis cinerascentibus, venis
  maculisque permultis nigris; anticis subfalcatis. (Expans. Alar. 6 unc. 9
  lin.)

  SYN. Papilio Lynceus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Papilio Idea, _Stoll. Suppl. Cramer_, _pl._ 42. _f._ 1.

  Idea Lyncea, _Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 195.

  HABITAT: The Island of Johanna, near Madagascar.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black and subfiliform. Head, neck, and thorax
  black, spotted, and streaked with white. Abdomen black. Wings almost
  transparent, and of a glassy hue, much resembling common glass; having a
  great number of black spots like velvet on them of different shapes and
  sizes, some being round, some oblong, and others like streaks; there
  being on each of the anterior wings twenty-eight distinct ones, besides
  those placed next the anterior edges, which are not easily ascertained,
  from their running into one another. Posterior wings with thirty-three
  distinct spots like those on the anterior, whereof some appear double.

  _Under Side._ Palpi white. Tongue black, and spiral. Breast, sides, and
  legs streaked with black and white. Abdomen white. Wings coloured as on
  the upper side. Margins of the wings entire.

{15}The Linnæan specific name of the type of the present genus was Papilio
Idea, a name admirably expressive of the delicate transparent structure of
these butterflies. As several closely-allied species were discovered in
addition to the original type, all partaking of the same appearance,
Fabricius transposed the original specific name into that of the genus; a
new specific name, Agelia, being given to the original species, which is
beautifully figured by Donovan, in his Insects of India, Pl. 24, and is by
him considered identical with the insect figured by Drury. I have adopted
the opinion of the authors of the Encyclopédie Méthodique, who consider the
two insects as distinct.


ACRÆA CAMOENA.

Plate VII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Sw._

  GENUS. ACRÆA, _Fabr. Latr. God._ Papilio (Helicon.), _Fabr. &c._

  ACRÆA CAMOENA. Alis oblongis fuscis, posticis basi nigro-punctatis ad
  extimum fasciâ flavescente transversâ extus nigro-marginatâ. (Expans.
  Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Eq. Helic.) Camoena, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Herbst. Pap.
  t._ 81. _f._ 3. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 173. _No._ 539. _Enc.
  Méth._ ix. _p._ 234. (Acræa C.)

  HABITAT: Cape Coast, Africa.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black. Neck, thorax, and abdomen black, spotted
  with white. Anterior wings dark snuff colour, immaculate. About
  two-thirds of the posterior wings (upwards) also snuff-coloured, having
  some faint black spots thereon, seen more distinctly on the other side;
  beneath this is a yellow clay-coloured bar, running from the abdominal
  corner and ending near the external edge by the upper corner; below this
  bar is a black indented margin running along the external edge, with some
  small faint spots thereon, which are much stronger on the other side.
  Abdominal groove clay-coloured; and on each wing next the shoulders is a
  small triangular clay spot.

  UNDER SIDE. Palpi clay-coloured. Breast and sides black, with white
  spots. Anterior wings coloured as on the upper side. Posterior wings
  clay-coloured, with twelve black distinct spots, two near the upper
  corners being small and round. These wings next the breast are black,
  with some white spots thereon; and along the external edges is a black
  indented margin, with eight small white spots on it, two of which next
  the abdominal corners are joined together. Margins of the wings entire.


HELICONIA DIAPHANA.

Plate VII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Sw._

  GENUS. HELICONIA, _Fabr. Latr. God._ Papilio (Eq. Helicon.), _Drury, &c._

  HELICONIA DIAPHANA. Alis oblongis integerrimis hyalinis, margine omni
  fasciâque transversâ abbreviatâ anticarum fusco-nigris, posticis subtus
  costâ baseos sulphureâ. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Eq. Helic.) Diaphanus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Cramer_,
  _pl._ 231. C. _and pl._ 315. D. E. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 184.
  _No._ 570.

  HABITAT: Jamaica, Brazil to Virginia (_Enc. Méth._).

  {16}_Upper Side._ Antennæ black, and very long. Thorax and abdomen dark
  brown. Wings transparent, vitreous. Anterior ones with the posterior
  edges bending as it were inwards. A small narrow border of dark brown
  runs entirely round the edges of these wings; and on the anterior edges,
  about a third from the tips, runs a dark brown streak towards the middle
  of the wing, close to which is a small white spot joining to the anterior
  edge. Posterior wings having also a very narrow border running about
  two-thirds round them, and stopping at the abdominal edges; some long
  yellowish hairs are placed on the anterior edges near the body.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, breast, sides, ash-coloured. The dark brown borders
  surrounding the wings appear on this side of an orange brown colour; the
  rest as on the upper side. Margins of the wings entire.


PLATE VIII.

[Illustration]

NYMPHALIS SALMACIS.

Plate VIII. fig. 1, 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Sw._

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr. God._ Papilio (Nymphalis Phal.), _Drury, &c._

  NYMPHALIS SALMACIS. Alis dentatis, supra nigris disco coeruleo-radiatis,
  subtus fuscis; fasciâ strigâque maculari albidis ([female]). (Expans.
  Alar. 4 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Ph.) Salmacis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Herbst. tab._
  166. _f._ 5. 6. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 132. _No._ 408.

  Papilio Omphale, _Stoll. Suppl. Cram. pl._ 26. _f._ 1. 1. A.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone (_Drury_). Amboina (_Stoll._).

  _Upper Side._ Antennae black. Neck spotted with grey. Thorax and abdomen
  black. Anterior wings next the body black brown, but at the tips russet,
  or dark hair-coloured; about a quarter of an inch from thence are two
  small white spots placed on each wing, near the anterior margin; near the
  middle is a short white bar, crossed by the black nerves of the wing,
  whose under part joins to a patch of blue which runs to the posterior
  margin. Posterior wings next the body black brown, but along the external
  edges a little lighter. A white bar on each rises at the abdominal
  groove, and runs to the middle of the wing towards the anterior edge,
  being margined with blue which seems to shoot in rays; a row of twelve
  small white spots runs along the external edge in pairs.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, neck, and breast black brown, spotted with white.
  Anterior wings russet, darkest next the body; the white spots and bar
  being very plain on this side, with the addition of a row of white spots
  running half way along the external edges. Posterior wings russet, with
  the same marks and spots as on the other side, but rather of a pearl
  colour. Margins of the wings dentated, the indentings being white.


PIERIS PASITHOE.

Plate VIII. fig. 3, 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PIERIS, _Schrank. Latr. God. Boisduval. Pontia p. Ochs._  Papilio
  (Dan. Cand. or Heliconii), _Linn. Drury, &c._

  PIERIS PASITHOE. Alis suboblongis nigris, suprà
  coerulescenti-albo-maculatis, posticis subtùs disco flavo, nigro venoso,
  fasciâque baseos ferrugineâ incurvâ. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Helicon.) Pasithoe, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 755. _No._ 53.
  _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 179.

  Papilio (Dan. Cand.) Dione, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Papilio Porsenna, _Cramer, pl._ 43. _fig._ D. E. _& pl._ 352. _fig._ A.
  B.

  Pieris Pasithoe, _Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 148. _Boisduval Hist. Nat. Lep._
  1. _p._ 451.

  HABITAT: India (_Drury_). China, Bengal (_Boisduval_).

  {17}_Upper Side._ Antennæ black. Head, thorax, and abdomen dirty black.
  Wings soot-coloured, or dirty black, having a small white spot in the
  middle of the anterior; a row of oblong white spots runs from the
  anterior edge to the lower corner, some being pointed and placed a little
  distance from the tips; base of the wings powdered with white dust,
  increasing to a clear white as it recedes from the body. The posterior
  wings powdered in the same manner; and having four pointed white spots on
  each, crossing them from the upper to the abdominal corners. Abdominal
  groove yellow, extending towards the middle of the wing.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, sides, and breast sooty. Neck and abdomen grey.
  Anterior wings as on the upper side, but the white more distinct.
  Posterior wings next the body black, and surrounded by a red circle. The
  remainder of the wings principally yellow, having the nerves and also a
  margin running along the external edges soot-coloured. Margins of the
  wings entire.


PLATE IX.

[Illustration]

PAPILIO MENESTHEUS.

Plate IX. fig. 1, 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PAPILIO, _Auct._ Papilio (Eq. Ach.) _Drury_.

  PAPILIO MENESTHEUS. Alis dentatis, caudatis, nigris, fasciâ maculari
  maculisque marginalibus flavis, omnibus subtus basi albido striatis,
  posticis lunulis rufis coerulescentibusque. (Expans. Alar. 5 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Eq. Ach.) Menestheus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Cram. pl._
  142. _fig._ A. B. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 31. _Enc. Méth._ ix.
  _p._ 59. _Boisd. Hist. Nat. Lep._ 1. _p._ 236.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone (_Drury_). India (erroneously, _Fabr._).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ brown. The head, thorax, and abdomen greenish
  black. Anterior wings black, covered with minute green spots, the tips
  like black velvet. Some long russet-coloured hairs, occupying a space the
  size of a sixpence, are situated close to the posterior margin, near the
  lower corner; there are also twenty lemon-coloured spots on each, eight
  of which are very small and marginal; eight other oblong spots form a
  bar, rising on the anterior margin and running obliquely across the
  wings, meeting near the extremity of the body. Posterior wings velvety
  black, covered at the base with small green spots, and having five lemon
  spots running along the external edges. Each of these wings is furnished
  with a tail, having a lemon spot on each side; and on the abdominal edge
  is an eye, whose under part is red, and the upper blue. Near the upper
  corner is a red spot, hidden in the figure by the superior wings.

  _Under Side._ Head and breast ash-coloured. All the spots and marks which
  on the upper side are lemon colour, on this are pale cream-coloured.
  Anterior wings soot-coloured, the spots very distinct; those next the
  external edges being larger, with many cream-coloured stripes at the base
  running longitudinally parallel with the tendons both of the anterior and
  posterior wings. These are adorned with several eyes of velvety black;
  the upper sides being blue, and the under orange verged with cream. The
  marginal spots are considerably larger than on the upper side.


{18}THECLA THETIS [female].

Plate IX. fig. 3, 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Lycænidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. THECLA, Fabr. Polyommatus p. _Latr. God._ Hesperia p. _Fabr.
  Linn._ Papilio (Dan. Cand.), _Drury_.

  THECLA THETIS. Alis integris; maris supra fulvis margine exteriori nigro;
  foeminæ fuscis disco albo: subtus albis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio Thetis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Cramer, pl._ 238. _fig._ D.
  [female].

  Hesperia Phædrus, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 307. [male].

  Hesperia Æsopus, _Fabr. op. cit. p._ 307. [female].

  Papilio Cinyra, _Cram. pl._ 238. C. [male].

  Polyommatus Phædrus, _Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 675. _No._ 181.

  HABITAT: Bombay (_Drury_). Bengal, Coromandel (_Enc. Méth._).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown. Wings
  russet, or dark hair-coloured, with a white spot in the middle of each,
  of an oblong shape in the anterior wings, and much smaller and placed
  transversely in the posterior. Cilia and abdominal groove white.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, breast, and legs white. Wings on this side fine
  silvery white, immaculate. Margins of the wings entire.

I have reverted to the original name first proposed by Drury.


PLATE X.

[Illustration]

BIBLIS UNDULARIS.

Plate X. fig. 1, 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Sw._

  GENUS. BIBLIS, _Fabr. Latr. God._ Papilio (Nymphalis), _Fab. olim._
  Papilio (Nymph. Phal.), _Drury_.

  BIBLIS UNDULARIS. Alis dentatis nigris aut fuscis; anticis suprà fasciâ
  apicali cyaneâ, posticis externe ferrugineis, omnibus subtus ferrugineo
  undulatis, punctoque costali posticarum albo. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 7
  lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Undularis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Cramer,
  pl._ 256. _fig._ A. B. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 127. _No._ 389.
  _Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 326. (Biblis Und.)

  HABITAT: East Indies (_Drury_). Coromandel, Java (_Enc. Méth._).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ brown. Head, thorax, and abdomen brown. Superior
  wings dark brown, somewhat lighter along the external edges, with an
  oblong subapical blue streak, beneath which are four oval blue spots
  placed along the external edges, discernible only when the light falls in
  a particular direction. Posterior wings reddish clay-coloured,
  surrounding a dark brown patch placed on the upper part.

  _Under Side._ Breast, abdomen, and legs brown. Wings dark reddish clay,
  with short red streaks all over the wings, and a white spot placed at the
  middle of the anterior edges of the posterior wings. Margins of the wings
  dentated.


{19}NYMPHALIS (LIMENITIS) ARTHEMIS.

Plate X. fig. 3, 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Sw._

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr._ Papilio (Nymphal. Phal.), _Linn. Drury, &c._
  SUBGENUS: Limenitis, _Fabr. Steph._

  NYMPHALIS (LIMENITIS) ARTHEMIS. Alis dentatis fuscis; utrinque fasciâ
  communi albâ strigisque duabus lunularum coerulescentium, subtus
  rufo-maculatis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.--3 unc.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymphal. Phal.) Arthemis, _Drury, Append. vol._. 2 _Say.
  Amer. Entomol._ 2. _pl._ 23.

  Papilio Lamina, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 118. 361. _Enc. Méth._
  ix. _p._ 380. (Nymphalis L.)

  HABITAT: New York.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ, head, thorax, and abdomen black. Wings black, at
  the base surrounded by a white band, separating it from the external
  part, which is black likewise. On the anterior wings, near the tips, are
  four small white spots, the two uppermost being largest; along the
  external edges is a narrow marginal row of small blue crescents,
  continued along the posterior wings, where it is double, having above it
  a row of brown orange spots, verged at top with blue. A white bar begins
  on the middle of the anterior edges of the anterior wings, which,
  crossing them and the posterior, ends at the extremity of the body.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, head, breast, and legs brown. The parts that on the
  upper side are black, are of a fine red brown. The basal parts having
  some brown orange spots on both wings, verged with black. Margins blue;
  scollopings edged with white. Margins of the wings dentated; the inferior
  ones most.

Mr. Say observes of this beautiful species that it occurred sparingly in
the Northwestern territory, during the advance of Major Long's expedition
toward Lake Winnepec. He also found it at that lake as well as at the Lake
of the Woods, and in other parts of Upper Canada. He procured specimens
likewise from Arkansaw, in the expedition to the Rocky Mountains, and
received it from Cambridge (Massachusetts).


PIERIS EUCHARIS.

Plate X. fig. 5, 6.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PIERIS, _Schrank. Latr. God. Boisduval_. Pontia p. _Ochs._ Papilio
  (Dan. Cand. or Heliconii), _Linn._ _Drury, &c._

  PIERIS EUCHARIS. Alis suboblongis integerrimis, supra albis, omnibus
  utrinque venis limboque nigris: posticis subtùs flavis, maculis
  marginalibus coccineis alboque cinctis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 2 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Dan. Cand.) Eucharis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Cramer, pl._
  201. B. C. [male]. 202. C. [female].

  Papilio (D.C.) Hyparete, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 176. (Exclus.
  Syn. _Linn._)

  Pieris Epicharis, _God. Enc. Méth_. ix. _p._ 153. _No._ 122. _Boisd.
  Hist. N. Lepid._ 1. _p._ 456.

  HABITAT: Bombay.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black. Head grey. Thorax and abdomen grey. Anterior
  wings white: nerves black, with seven white oblong spots placed along the
  external edges and tips on a black ground. Posterior wings
  cream-coloured, with six oval flesh-coloured spots placed along the
  posterior margin on a black ground, separated by the black nerves.

  {20}_Under Side._ Palpi, breast, and abdomen grey. Anterior wings white,
  with very broad and black nerves, forming white oblong spots on the upper
  side. Posterior wings yellow, with a broad black margin along the
  external edges, whereon are placed six oval scarlet spots, edged or
  surrounded with white. Nerves black and broad. Margins of the wings
  entire.

Drury correctly considered this species as distinct from the Linnæan
Hyparete, and accordingly named it Eucharis. Fabricius, notwithstanding,
united the two species, and applied the name Eucharis to another Indian
species (Anthocaris Eucharis of Boisduval, but which it would be more
correct to name Aurora after Cramer). Godart, in order to obviate the
confusion arising from two distinct species having the same specific name,
altered the oldest name (Eucharis, Drury), instead of the incorrectly
imposed name of Fabricius. I have therefore reverted to the name proposed
by Drury, the other species being now removed to the genus Anthocaris.


PLATE XI.

[Illustration]

SATURNIA PROMETHEA.

Plate XI. fig. 1, 2. [male].--Plate XII. fig. 1, 2. [female].

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Bombycidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. SATURNIA, _Schrank._ Attacus, _Germar._ Phalæna (Attacus), _Linn._

  SATURNIA PROMETHEA. Alis subfalcatis, maris fuscis, foeminæ ferrugineis,
  fasciâ tenui undatâ communi pallidâ margine griseo, anticis utrinque
  ocello atro. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. [male]. 4 unc. 3 lin. [female].)

  SYN. Phalæna (Attacus) Promethea, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Ent.
  Syst._ III. 1. 411. _No._ 12. _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2403. 464. _Cram. Ins.
  tab._ 75. A. B. [male]. 76. A. B. [female]. _Abbot & Smith Ins. Georgia_,
  1. _tab._ 46. _Oliv. Enc. Méth._ 5. 27. 12. _Pal. Bauv. Ins. d'Afr. et
  d'Amer. Lep. pl._ 21.

  HABITAT: New York, Virginia, Georgia.

  MALE.--_Upper Side._ Antennæ strongly pectinated, dark brown. Head,
  thorax, and abdomen the same. Anterior wings very dark chocolate, hooked
  at the tips; having a margin of light hair colour running along the
  external edges from the tips to the lower corners, through the middle of
  which runs a narrow black serpentine line like a hair, dividing the
  margin into two shades, the external one being darkest; near the tips is
  a black spot like an eye, partly surrounded by a blue iris; a narrow
  waved line of a light hair colour begins at the anterior edge, about
  one-third from the tips, and, crossing both the anterior and posterior
  wings, ends about half an inch below the body. Posterior wings of the
  same colour as the anterior, having a hair-coloured margin running round
  them; being also divided in the middle by a waved narrow line, above
  which are several dark-coloured spots and marks.

  _Under Side._ Breast, legs, and abdomen of a beautiful dark chocolate
  colour. Anterior wings at the base dark chocolate, with a small single
  spot in the middle of each; about a third part of these wings, next the
  external edges, is hair-coloured, appearing next the chocolate part to be
  thickly powdered with grey, so as to form a margin along the chocolate
  part of that colour. The black eye, and hair-coloured margin, as on the
  upper side. The middle of the posterior wings fine chocolate, surrounded,
  except at the abdominal edges, with hair colour, and like the superior
  finely powdered and verged with grey; about the middle of the chocolate
  field is a small transverse white streak; the hair-coloured margin less
  distinct. Margins of all the wings entire.

  {21}FEMALE.--_Upper Side._ Antennæ brown and pectinated. Thorax and
  abdomen red brown. Anterior wings dark red next the body, from whence a
  narrow light-coloured bar begins at the anterior edge, and running
  towards the posterior suddenly turns off and ends at the body, forming an
  obtuse angle; another light-coloured waved bar crosses the wings, ending
  on the abdominal edges a little below the body; the inner side of this
  bar is a dark chocolate, and between it and the angle of the first bar is
  placed a light-coloured triangular mark; near the tips is placed a small
  black eye, partly surrounded by a blue iris; along the external margins
  of all the wings runs a dark buff edge, through the middle of which runs
  a small narrow line; the space between this margin and the waved bar is
  of a dark red, finely powdered next the bar with grey. Posterior wings,
  within the waved bar, dark brown chocolate; the hairs along the abdominal
  edges greyish; and on the middle of the chocolate ground is a
  light-coloured triangular mark; several submarginal red spots of
  different sizes, with a small narrow irregular line running between them
  and the cilia; the space between this margin and the waved bar is dark
  red, that next the bar is powdered as it were very thickly with small
  grey spots like dust.

  _Under Side._ Breast, legs, and abdomen dark red, the sides streaked with
  white. Anterior wings having only two divisions, separated by the waved
  bar mentioned above: the inner division of a fine bright chocolate,
  whereon the small triangular marks are faintly seen; the external
  division as on the upper side, but with the markings more distinct.
  Posterior wings with the part answering to the dark brown chocolate being
  of a fine dark red, verged with black and white, and surrounded entirely,
  except the abdominal edges, by the grey powdered field. Margins entire.

The transformations to which Lepidopterous insects are subject are amongst
the most remarkable phenomena of insect life. In the different states to
which each is liable, a series of changes is exhibited which has been
compared, by an admired writer, to what might be supposed to be undergone
by an animal which for the first five years of its life, exhibited the form
of a serpent, which then penetrated into the earth, spun for itself a
silken coffin, contracting itself into a limbless form resembling, more
than any thing else, an Egyptian mummy; and which, lastly, after remaining
in this state for a length of time, burst into the air a winged bird. Of
these states, it may well be conceived, that the second requires, from its
inactivity and helplessness, a secure retreat, where, removed and secure
from the attack of its enemies, it can rest its appointed period during
which the organs of flight acquire their full development. We accordingly
find that the varied manner in which the caterpillars of the different
species prepare their retreats, affords one of the most interesting
branches of investigation in the natural history of the Lepidoptera. And in
this respect, the species now under consideration certainly exhibits one of
the most interesting manoeuvres hitherto recorded amongst the insect
tribes, and which is described by Mr. Peale in his beautiful "Lepidoptera
Americana."[2] This moth is very abundant in the vicinity of Philadelphia,
at least, judging from the number of cocoons seen hanging from the branches
of the Sassafras (Laurus Sassafras), and Spice-wood (L. Benzoin); and
which, by an ordinary observer, would be readily mistaken for withered
leaves which had withstood the blasts of winter. After the caterpillar has
attained its full size, and lost the voracious {22}appetite which had
hitherto been its predominant character, it begins its preparation for the
great transformation it has to undergo, by selecting a perfect leaf, the
upper surface of which it covers with a fine light yellowish brown silk,
extending this coating with great skill and foresight, _over the footstalk
of the leaf_, and attaching it firmly to the branch, so as to secure the
leaf from being separated by any accident. This preliminary operation
having been accomplished, the caterpillar next draws the edges of the leaf
together, thus forming a perfect external covering or mantle, in which it
spins a fine strong and durable cocoon of fine silk. In this habitation the
little architect passes the winter secure from birds and other enemies. As
soon as the cocoon has been completed, the caterpillar sheds its skin, and
is transformed into a chrysalis. At first the leaf enveloping the cocoon
remains green, but soon changes to a red or brown, when it becomes brittle,
and is gradually carried away by the winds and storms of winter, until,
finally, nothing remains except the cocoon itself, which is firmly
suspended by the silk which once covered the footstalk of the leaf.

Mr. Abbot states that the caterpillar also feeds upon the Snowdrop-tree
(Halesia tetraptera, Linn.) Poplar, Bay, &c. Some individuals spin up in
May, and the moth appears in June; others, as above described, pass the
winter in the chrysalis state.


CALLIMORPHA? FAMULA.

Plate XI. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Arctiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. CALLIMORPHA? _Latr._ Zygæna p. _Fabr._ Phalæna (Bombyx), _Drury_.

  CALLIMORPHA FAMULA. Alis albis, dimidio apicali margineque externo
  nigris, anticarum maculâ ovali obliquâ albâ, collo fulvo. (Expans. Alar.
  2 unc.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Bombyx spiriling.) Famula, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Calabar, in the Bight of Benin, Africa.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ long and pectinated. Thorax spiral. Neck
  orange-coloured. Thorax and abdomen dusky grey. Anterior wings about half
  way from the tips black, but at the base are of a pellucid white; being
  surrounded along the anterior edge and part of the posterior with black;
  an oblong white spot is placed near the tips on the black part. Posterior
  wings black and white; the white entirely surrounded by the black, which
  on the anterior and abdominal edges is very narrow.

  _Under Side._ Palpi orange-coloured, black at the tips. Neck, breast, and
  sides orange. Feet black. Thighs white. Abdomen white, annulated with
  dusky grey. Anterior wings as on the upper side, the black parts being of
  a russet hue. Posterior wings differ a little, the white part running
  down to the middle of the external edges, with a white spot at the upper
  corners. Margins of the wings entire.


{23}ODONESTIS? SERVULA.

Plate XI. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Bombycidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. ODONESTIS? _Germar._ Phalæna (Noctua), _Drury._

  ODONESTIS? SERVULA. Alis luteis, maculâ parva discoidali marginibusque
  externis tenuè fuscis. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Servula. _Drury_, _Append. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Madras.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ slightly pectinated. Tongue short. Head, thorax,
  and abdomen light yellowish sand-coloured. Wings yellow buff-coloured;
  the anterior having a small brown spot in the middle of each, and the
  external edges margined with brown. Posterior wings having a brown patch
  in the middle of each, with the external edges of the same colour.

  _Under Side._ Breast, legs, abdomen, and wings buff-coloured, immaculate.
  Margins of the wings entire.


PLATE XII.

[Illustration]

NOCTUA ANILIS.

Plate XII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ.

  GENUS. NOCTUA, _Auct._ SUBGENUS. ----?

  NOCTUA ANILIS. Alis badio-fuscis; strigis duabus obliquis, externâ
  abbreviatâ, albis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Anilis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Virginia.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ small, filiform. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark
  hair-coloured. Wings dark hair-coloured. Anterior having a narrow white
  line crossing them, about the middle, from the anterior to the posterior
  edges; between this and the tips is another short white streak placed on
  the anterior edge. Posterior wings immaculate. Cilia ash-coloured.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, breast, legs, and abdomen russet-coloured. Wings
  also russet-coloured, with some faint marks, occasioned by the white
  lines on the upper side appearing through. Margins of the wings entire.


NEMEOPHILA FIGURATA.

Plate XII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Arctiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. NEMEOPHILA, _Stephens_. Eyprepia p. _Ochs_. Chelonia p. _God._

  NEMEOPHILA FIGURATA. Alis anticis nigris, fasciâ longitudinali duabus
  alteris convergentibus connexâ, albis, posticis sanguineis margine
  maculâque externâ nigris. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Bombyx) figurata, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Pal. Bauv. Ins.
  d'Afr. et d'Amer. Lep. pl._ 24. _f._ 4. [female]. (Alis posticis nigris
  puncto rufo.)

  HABITAT: Virginia.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ dark brown and pectinated. Thorax cream-coloured
  and black. Abdomen black, the sides red. Anterior wings black; having a
  cream-coloured line running from the shoulders, {24}parallel to and at a
  small distance from the posterior edge, towards the lower corner;
  stopping at about one-third from the external edge, from whence near the
  end of this line arises two others, which run almost to the anterior
  edges. Posterior wings red in the middle; surrounded, except on the
  abdominal edges, by a broad black margin.

  _Under Side._ Palpi hairy and black. Breast, legs, and abdomen black.
  Wings as on the other side; but the colours are not so bright and
  distinct. Margins of the wings entire.


PLATE XIII.

[Illustration]

SATURNIA EPIMETHEA.

Plate XIII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Bombycidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. SATURNIA, _Schrank._ Attacus, _Germar._ Phalæna (Attacus), _Linn._

  SATURNIA EPIMETHEA. Alis subfuscis strigâ communi subapicali albâ,
  posticis acutè angulatis, ocello disci fulvo margine nigro.

  SYN. Phalæna (Attacus) Epimethea, _Drury_, _Append. vol._ 2. _Fab. Ent.
  Syst._ III. 1. 414. _No._ 23. _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2404. 472. _Cramer_,
  _Ins._ 15. _tab._ 176. _f._ A. _Oliv. Enc. Méth._ 5. 29. 21.

  HABITAT: New Calabar, Coast of Guinea.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ strongly pectinated; the extremities appearing like
  threads. Thorax light brown, tinged with red. Abdomen grey brown.
  Anterior wings light grey brown, tinged with red at the base; having a
  narrow dark-coloured bar verged with grey running from the anterior to
  the posterior edges, parallel and at a little distance from the external
  margin. Posterior wings grey brown, terminating behind in points like
  acute angles; a dark narrow bar, edged with white, crosses these wings
  from the upper corners to the abdominal edges, dividing them into two
  compartments; in the uppermost of which are placed two eyes, whose
  centres are yellow, surrounded with black irides edged with red, and
  which also are encircled with ash-coloured rings. Above these eyes the
  wings are dark-coloured, almost black; but next the body are of a reddish
  hue.

  _Under Side._ Legs black. Thorax and abdomen same colour as on the upper
  side. Wings nearly the same colour as on the upper side; the bars being
  plain and distinct, but the eyes are not observable here.


DRYOCAMPA VIRGINIENSIS.

Plate XIII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Bombycidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. DRYOCAMPA, _Harris in Hitchcock's Report on the Geology, &c. of
  Massachusets_ (_Amherst Mass._ 1834. roy. 8vo.)

  DRYOCAMPA VIRGINIENSIS. Alis cervinis, anticis puncto parvo discoidali
  albo, fasciâque obliquâ pallidiori. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 7 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Bombyx) Virginiensis, _Drury_, _Append. vol._ 2.

  Phalæna pellucida, _Abbot & Smith Ins. Georg. t._ 58?

  Phalæna Astynome? _Oliv. Enc. Méth._ 5. 43. 73.

  HABITAT: Virginia.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ setaceous. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark orange.
  Wings faint fox-coloured; immaculate, except the anterior ones, which
  have a faint light spot on each, about a third of {25}an inch from the
  shoulders, and a faint line which runs from the tips to the middle of the
  posterior edges.

  _Under Side._ Legs, sides, thorax, and abdomen dark orange. Wings with a
  faint narrow bar crossing them near their external edges, dividing the
  wings into two partitions; the lower ones being of the same colour as on
  the upper side, but those above the bar are of a yellowish fox-colour.
  Margins of the wings entire.

It is questionable whether this figure represents the Phalæna senatoria or
pellucida of Abbot and Smith, by whom the transformations of both species
have been illustrated; Smith citing Drury's figure with doubt, as belonging
to pellucida. I have much pleasure in adopting the present well-marked
genus proposed by Dr. Thaddeus W. Harris, one of the most distinguished
American entomologists, in the appendix to the work above referred to; and
respecting which I am indebted to that gentleman for the following
communications:--"The male of Dryocampa senatoria, of Abbot and Smith, has
the basal half of the antennæ pectinated on both sides, and the apex
simple, as in Bombyx (Cerocampa, Kirby; Ceratocampa, Harris's Cat.) regalis
and imperialis; and as they are described to be in the genus Zeuzera. The
larvæ are naked, striped, rigid, with acute tubercles, and two thread-like
horns on the second segment. They devour the leaves of forest trees,
particularly oaks, and enter the earth to become pupæ. The edges of the
segments of the pupæ are denticulated. On account of these peculiar
characters, I have ventured to assign to this a new generical name; under
which will be included also Bombyces pellucida, and Stigma, Fabr., figured
in Abbot and Smith's Lepidopterous insects of Georgia; together with B.
rubicunda, F. all of which are now found to inhabit Massachusets."

In addition to the characters mentioned by Dr. Harris, the peculiar form of
the posterior wings of the males of these moths may also be noticed, and
which are of a triangular form, somewhat like those of Erycina menetas (see
vol. 3. pl. 8. fig. 3.), but extending to the extremity of the abdomen.
This genus is not far removed, in its natural affinities, from that of
Ceratocampa, (see vol. 1. pl. 9.)


ÆGOCERA AMABILIS.

Plate XIII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia? FAMILY: Sesiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. ÆGOCERA, _Latr. Boisduval._

  ÆGOCERA AMABILIS. Alis anticis rufis, maculis (nigro marginatis)
  margineque interno, albidis; posticis fulvis maculâ discoidali margineque
  postico nigris. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Amabilis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Ægocera Amabilis, _Boisduval Hist. Nat. Lepid. pl._ 10. B. _f._ 6.

  HABITAT: Coast of Guinea.

  _Upper Side._ Head brown. Antennæ filiform. Thorax and abdomen yellow
  brown. Superior wings fine darkish red, with several yellow spots thereon
  of different shapes, each encircled with black; the posterior and
  external edges having yellow margins. Posterior wings deep yellow,
  inclining to {26}orange, with a black oval spot near the middle of each.
  Along the external edges is a black margin, reaching from the upper to
  the abdominal corners; the upper edge being scolloped.

  _Under Side._ Legs, sides, thorax, and abdomen pale orange. Anterior
  wings entirely pale orange and dusky black, without any mixture of red,
  &c. Posterior wings as on the upper side; the colours being less
  distinct. Margins of the wings entire.


TRIPHÆNA MATERNA.

Plate XIII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ, _Stephens_.

  GENUS. TRIPHÆNA, _Ochs. Treit. Steph._ Phalæna (Noctua), _Linn. Drury_.

  TRIPHÆNA MATERNA. Alis anticis grisescentibus aut luteis, fusco irroratis
  et undulatis, posticis fulvis, maculâ margineque (albo punctato) atris.

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Materna, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ II. 840. 117. _Drury_,
  _App. vol._ 2.

  Noctua Materna, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 2. _p._ 16. _No._ 27. _Gmel.
  Linn. S. N._ 2533. 117. _Oliv. Enc. Méth._ 8. 259. 39.

  Noctua hybrida, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 593. 11.

  HABITAT: Bengal.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ setaceous. Tongue spiral. Palpi yellow, blue at the
  tips. Head tinged with blue. Thorax olive. Abdomen yellow. Anterior wings
  light brown and shining; appearing of several colours according to the
  position they are held in. Posterior wings yellow, with a round black
  central spot. Margins black, beginning at the middle of the anterior
  edges, and ending at the abdominal corners where the margin is narrowest;
  having eight small white spots thereon, placed on the external edges.

  _Under Side._ Thorax, abdomen, and sides yellowish ash-coloured. Anterior
  wings yellow; tips brown, and separated from the yellow by a black streak
  running from the lower corner to the anterior edge. Posterior wings
  coloured as on the upper side; the black margin being rather fainter.
  Margins of the wings dentated.


PLATE XIV.

[Illustration]

EREBUS FLUCTUOSUS.

Plate XIV. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. EREBUS, _Latr._ Thysania, _Dalm._ Noctua, _Fabr._

  EREBUS FLUCTUOSUS. Alis fuscis, fasciâ communi pallidâ, marginibus latè
  nigris internè dentatis, anticis ocello magno auriformi. (Expans. Alar. 3
  unc. 1½ lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) fluctuosa, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ setaceous. Head and thorax brown. Tongue spiral.
  Wings dark hair-coloured, or russet brown; divided into two compartments
  by a clay-coloured line, which beginning at the anterior edges of the
  anterior near the middle, and crossing them and the posterior, meets at
  the extremity of the body: the inner compartment being brown, the outward
  one clay; which is again separated by an irregular waved line, beginning
  at the tips and ending at the abdominal corners. All the outward part is
  brown. Two black spots are placed on the anterior wings next the anterior
  edges, and near the middle.

  {27}_Under Side._ Palpi distinct, and like bristles at their extremities.
  Breast, legs, and wings light brown. A row of cream spots, angularly
  shaped, are placed along the wings; the outward part being furnished with
  about twenty-eight small cream spots irregularly placed. Margins of the
  posterior wings dentated, of the anterior entire.

According to Mr. Smeathman this species is easily disturbed during the day.
It flies exceedingly rapid, and has a method of striking a leaf or bough at
two or three feet distance from the place where it really settles. Whether
this be done to break the violence of its motion, and enable it to settle
without injury to its body; or for the purpose of deceiving its pursuers,
is not easily ascertained; it has, however, the latter, and probably both
effects; most of the locusts do this, for they certainly strike some branch
with a good deal of violence just before they alight, the motion of which
deceives the eyes and baffles the pursuer.


GEOMETRA ARGENTATA.

Plate XIV. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Geometridæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. GEOMETRA, _Auct._ Subgenus. ----?

  GEOMETRA ARGENTATA. Alis pallidè griseis, anticis fasciis duabus,
  posticis unicâ flavis, utrinque argenteo-marginatis his ocello marginali
  obscuro. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Geometra) Argentata, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ filiform. Body grey. Wings pale yellowish grey. A
  narrow yellow bar rises near the middle of the anterior wings, which,
  crossing them and the posterior, ends a little below the body on the
  abdominal edges; another small bar crosses the anterior wings near the
  shoulders, both of them being verged with silver. A small dark spot,
  surrounded with silver, is also placed close to the external edges of the
  posterior wings; and above it is a yellowish patch reaching to the upper
  corners.

  _Under Side._ Wings pale light-coloured, almost white, immaculate.
  Margins of the wings entire.


PETASIA? MINISTRA.

Plate XIV. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Notodontidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. PETASIA? _Stephens._ Phalæna (Noctua), _Drury_.

  PETASIA? MINISTRA. Alis anticis rufescenti-fulvis, strigis quinque
  transversis, posticis pallidioribus [female]. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

  SYN. Phalæna Noctua Ministra, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Phalæna Ministra, _Abbot & Smith Ins. Georg. t._ 81. _Oliv. Enc. Méth._
  5. 69. 155.

  HABITAT: New York.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ filiform. Head and thorax reddish brown. Abdomen
  clay-coloured. Anterior wings brown orange, with five small dark lines
  crossing from the anterior to the posterior edges. Posterior wings
  clay-coloured, fringed with orange brown.

  {28}_Under Side._ Tongue indistinct. Breast and legs red brown. Abdomen
  and posterior wings clay-coloured. Anterior ones brown orange, without
  any marks or lines thereon. Wings a little dentated; especially in the
  anterior wings.

The larva of this insect is long, smooth, and shining, of a black colour,
with eight longitudinal continuous yellow lines, with the base of the legs
and a spot on the neck red. When alarmed it throws up its head and tail
into the air. From the structure of the larva it is therefore nearly allied
to Ptilophora and Petasia, Steph., and not to the buff tip-moth (Pygæra
bucephala). Its food, according to Abbot, consists of the Andromeda
mariana, vulgarly called the male hackleberry, which grows round ponds and
on the margins of running streams; it eats also several species of walnut
and oak. One went into the ground on the 31st of July, and the moth came
out the 23rd of August; another went in the 8th of June, and came forth the
3rd of July. They likewise sometimes go into the ground in autumn, and come
out in the spring. The whole brood of caterpillars feed together in
society. Abbot also states, that when they eat walnut leaves they are
always black, with white hairs;[3] when their food is the oak, they are
more yellow.


HYDROCAMPA? NIVALIS.

Plate XIV. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Pyralidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. HYDROCAMPA? _Latr._ Cataclysta, _Hübn. Steph._ Phalæna (Pyralis),
  _Drury_.

  HYDROCAMPA? NIVALIS. Alis margaritaceo-albis, ciliâ anticarum fuscâ.

  SYN. Phalæna (Pyralis) Nivalis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: New England.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ filiform and brown. Head, thorax, abdomen, and
  wings white. The latter of a fine glossy hue, and immaculate. Cilia of
  the anterior wings brown.

  _Under Side._ Tongue spiral. All the parts on this side are of the same
  white glossy colour as on the upper.


LIPARIS? RIVULOSA.

Plate XIV. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Arctiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. LIPARIS? _Ochs._ Phalæna (bombyx), _Drury_.

  LIPARIS? RIVULOSA. Alis fuscis, strigis transversis undulatis
  pallidioribus et obscurioribus, anticis fasciâ latâ centrali alterâque
  basali badiis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Bombyx) rivulosa, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Oliv. Enc. Méth._
  5. 38. 54. (Bombyx r.)

  HABITAT: Surinam.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ pectinated. Head, thorax, abdomen, and wings pale
  reddish brown, or {29}fawn-coloured. The latter with several indented and
  waved lines, some being darker and some lighter than the general colour
  of the wings. On the anterior is a large chocolate patch, situated on the
  middle of the wings, and joining to the anterior edge; between which and
  the shoulders is another that is much smaller.

  _Under Side._ Tongue obsolete. Palpi, breast, abdomen, and wings brown,
  as on the upper side; the latter immaculate, except a dark patch on each
  wing near the shoulders. Margins of the wings slightly dentated.


PLATE XV.

[Illustration]

NYMPHALIS ERITHONIUS.

Plate XV. fig. 1, 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains_.

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr. God._ Papilio (Dan. Festivi), _Linn. Drury_.

  NYMPHALIS MEDON. Alis dentatis, supra fuscis; anticis utrinque fasciâ
  obliquâ luteâ, apice albo; posticis fasciâ violaceo-coerulescenti,
  singulis subtùs punctis tribus. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 7 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph.) Erithonius, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 82.
  _No._ 255. _Latr. & God. Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 390. _No._ 142. (Nymphalis
  Er.)

  Papilio (Dan. Festivi) Eupalus, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 48. _No._
  148.

  Papilio Harpalyce, _Cram. pl._ 145. _fig._ D. E.

  Papilio (Equ. Achiv.) Medon, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (Exclus. Syn. _Linn. &
  Fabr._)

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black, lighter at the tips. Head black. Thorax and
  abdomen dark brown. Anterior wings dark red brown, tipped with white; but
  next the shoulders of a purplish hue, with a dark yellow streak near the
  tips, extending obliquely from the anterior towards the external edge.
  Posterior wings also red brown; but towards the middle and shoulders of a
  purplish blue, which they reflect more or less according to the position
  they are held in.

  _Under Side._ Palpi and breast yellow. Anterior wings olive brown, tipped
  with white; but along the external edges of a hazel colour, and near the
  shoulders having three round black spots on each. Posterior wings similar
  to the anterior, being of a brown olive, variegated, and clouded, with
  three small spots placed near the shoulders, as in the superior ones. All
  the wings are a little dentated.

There are several African species closely allied to the present insect,
which was regarded by Drury as the Medon of Linnæus. I have followed the
Encyclopédie Méthodique in rejecting this reference; although it will be
seen that the Linnæan description of that insect, "alis supra nigris
primoribus fascia lutea apiceque albo; posticis disco coerulescentibus,"
does not disagree with the character of this insect.

According to Mr. Smeathman this species was taken at some distance inland
upon the continent of Africa; adding, "there are several Papiliones nearly
of this colour, that is to say, with the upper sides of the wings having a
changeable purple, and the under sides being inclinable to green, sometimes
with marks of the most beautiful crimson. The differences between them
arise so gradually, that he thinks them varieties of the same species,
some, apparently very different, being found coupled together. They are all
found congregating in the paths, and in the thick shade of a forest, ten or
a dozen in a circle round a little puddle or moist spot, and seem to like
the most gloomy places."


{30}HESPERIA IPHIS.

Plate XV. fig. 3, 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Hesperiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. HESPERIA, _Latr. God._ Papilio (Pleb. Urbic.) _Linn. &c._

  HESPERIA IPHIS. Alis supra viridi-atris; infra aureo-virescentibus venis
  margineque postico nigris, capite sanguineo. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc.)

  SYN. Papilio (Pleb. Urb.) Iphis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Hesperia (Urb.) Jupiter, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 336. _No._ 279.
  _Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 733. (Hesperia J.)

  Papilio Phidias, _Cram. pl._ 244. A. B.

  HABITAT: Senegal, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Anamaboe, and the Bight of Benin,
  on the Coast of Africa.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ thickest in the middle. Head scarlet. Thorax and
  abdomen black. All the wings green brassy-coloured, the nerves black,
  those parts that surround the body being of a raven black. The tips of
  the anterior wings orange-coloured.

  _Under Side._ Palpi scarlet and hairy, the extremities being small and
  black. Breast, legs, sides, and abdomen black. Anus scarlet. Wings of a
  yellower brassy hue than on the upper side. Superior wings tipped with
  orange, but next the body greenish black; the same colour occupying the
  external edges of the posterior wings.

  The male differs in having the upper side entirely of a fine raven black
  without the orange tips; the under side is also darker, and less brassy
  than the female.

Drury states, that when this insect is at rest it sits with its wings
erect; and Mr. Smeathman considers it "very remarkable that this insect,
which seems an intermediate species between Papilio and Phalæna, associates
with the little assemblages of Nymphalis Erithonius, and is frequently seen
sipping water with them."


PLATE XVI.

[Illustration]

NYMPHALIS (LIMENITIS) SIBILLA.

Plate XVI. fig. 1, 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains._

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr. God._ Papilio (Nymph. Phal.), _Linn. Drury._
  Subgenus: Limenitis, _Fabr. Steph._ Naiades, _Hübn._

  NYMPHALIS (LIMENITIS) SIBILLA. Alis subdentatis supra atro-coeruleis;
  fasciâ maculari albâ; posticis subtus basi cinereo-coerulescente
  immaculatis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio Sibilla, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ ii. 781.

  N. Camilla, _Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 408. _and of the German
  Lepidopterists_.

  Papilio (Nymph.) Sibilla var. _Drury_.

  HABITAT: Smyrna (_Drury_).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black. Head, thorax, and abdomen black. Between the
  eyes are four small white spots. Wings raven black, tinged with green.
  Anterior with ten white spots, of different sizes, placed in various
  parts; four being next the anterior edge, near the middle of the wings,
  and divided only by the nerves. Posterior with a row of long white spots,
  placed together, running from the middle of the anterior edges, and
  ending a little above the abdominal corners, divided by the nerves. A
  range of small black spots, edged with grey, runs parallel with the
  external edges of the wings, from the tips to the abdominal corners,
  where the last spot is encircled with orange.

  {31}_Under Side._ Palpi, legs, breast, and abdomen grey. Anterior wings,
  next the body, grey; the remaining parts being dusky olive, with some
  dark red streaks placed on various parts; the white spots being very
  distinct on this side. Posterior wings, at the base, light grey;
  extending almost to the row of white spots, which are seen on this side
  as well as on the upper. The remaining parts are dusky olive, with two
  rows of faint dark red spots running along the external edges. A range of
  small black spots runs parallel with the external edges of all the wings.
  All the wings are dentated.

There is a diversity of opinion amongst the German and English
Lepidopterists, relative to the names of this species and the English White
Admiral, to which latter Haworth, Stephens, &c. give the name of Camilla,
but which Illiger, Hubner, &c. term Sibilla. I have adopted the former
nomenclature, although it will be seen that the figure of Drury, which is
the Sibilla of the English nomenclature, exhibits a red spot at the anal
angle, which Curtis considers as the most satisfactory mark of distinction
between the two species. (Brit. Ent. p. 124.)


PAMPHILA METIS.

Plate XVI. fig. 3, 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna, _Latr._ FAMILY: Hesperiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. PAMPHILA, _Fabr._ Hesperia p. _Latr. & God._ Papilio (Pleb. rur.),
  _Linn._

  PAMPHILA METIS. Alis anticis utrinquè posticisque suprà nigro-fuscis,
  maculis fulvis, plurisque punctiformibus; alis posticis subtùs
  brunneo-fuscis immaculatis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 1 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Pleb. rur.) Metis, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 792. 245. _Fabr.
  Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 329. _No._ 249. (Hesperia Th.)

  Pap. Metis, _Cramer, pl._ 162. _f._ G.

  HABITAT: Cape of Good Hope.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ brown, yellow beneath. Head hairy. Thorax and
  abdomen brown; the extremity of the latter yellow. Wings dark brown.
  Anterior having four orange spots, two of which next the body are double.
  Posterior with a row of six orange marginal, and two discoidal spots.

  _Under Side._ Tongue black. Palpi orange. Legs, breast, and abdomen
  brown. Wings coloured as on the upper side. The anterior having five
  orange spots, that next the body being long and double. The posterior
  immaculate. Margins of the wings entire.



NYMPHALIS OPIS, VAR. [Greek: g].

Plate XVI. fig. 5, 6.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Sw._

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr. God._ Papilio (Nymphalis), _Linn._

  NYMPHALIS OPIS. Alis supra fuscis, fasciâ communi caracteribusque
  ochraceis; anticis strigâ punctorum alborum. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6
  lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Crithea, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Ent.
  Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 132. _No._ 406. _Cramer, pl._ 16. _f._ 5. 6.

  Nymphalis Opis, _Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 381. _No._ 104. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._
  III. 1. _p._ 131. _No._ 405.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  {32}_Upper Side._ Antennæ brown. Thorax and abdomen dark brown, with four
  yellowish lines crossing them. Anterior wings dark purplish brown, having
  many marks and spots of different shapes and sizes placed thereon of a
  deeper shade; four being round, and gradually diminishing in size, and
  placed along the external edges; two others also, that are small, are
  situated at the shoulders. Posterior wings dark brown; the upper parts
  along the anterior edges dull yellow, reaching almost to the thorax. Two
  indented ash-coloured lines cross these wings; one beginning at the upper
  corners running circularly, and meeting below the body; the other running
  in a straight line above the first, and meeting a little above the
  extremity of it.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, breast, and abdomen ash-coloured. Legs yellowish.
  Anterior wings dull yellow, but next the tips brown, where there are some
  greyish spots and marks; in the centre are two small round spots, almost
  black; and along the anterior edges, next the shoulders, are some other
  brown spots variously and irregularly shaped. Posterior wings entirely
  dull yellow, immaculate; the margins of these being a little dentated,
  the anterior ones entire.

The authors of the Encyclopédie Méthodique consider the insect here
figured, and that represented in Pl. XVII. fig. 5, 6, as varieties of the
same species. Mr. Smeathman states, that this species is found in the same
gloomy recesses, and often congregated together in the same manner as
Nymphalis Erithonius, figured in Pl. XV.


PLATE XVII.

[Illustration]

BIBLIS ILITHYIA.

Plate XVII. fig. 1, 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains._

  GENUS. BIBLIS, _Fabricius, Latr. § God._ Papilio (Nymph. Phal.), _Drury_.

  BIBLIS ILITHYIA. Alis rotundatis denticulatis fulvis fasciâ baseos
  margineque fulvo maculato nigris; posticis subtus fasciis duabus albis
  transversis nigro-punctatis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Ilithyia, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Fabricius
  Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 131. _No._ 403. _Cramer, pl._ 213. _fig._ A. B.
  [male].--214. C. D. [female].

  Pap. Polinice, _Cramer, pl._ 375. _fig._ G. H. (var.)

  Biblis Ilithyia, _Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 327.

  HABITAT: Senegal, and Coast of Africa.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ brown. Thorax and abdomen dark brown. Wings fine
  deep or brown orange. The anterior deeply verged with black along the
  external and anterior edges; the former having a row of oblong orange
  spots running parallel with them, which is continued, together with the
  deep black margin, along the posterior wings to the abdominal corners;
  the spots being larger along these wings than on the anterior. A black,
  irregular, and indented line rises near the middle of the anterior wings,
  and ends at the posterior edges.

  _Under Side._ Palpi and breast orange. Legs brown. Anterior wings orange;
  the external edges with a small, narrow, white indented margin. Four
  small white spots are placed near the tips, that next the anterior edge
  being least; and along the same edge are several other long black spots,
  margined with white. Posterior wings with a row of white crescents placed
  along the external edges; over this is an orange bar, next is a row of
  cream-coloured spots almost round, being seven in number, with a row of
  very small ones above them, consisting of fourteen; above this is an
  orange bar, with a cream one {33}over it, being divided by a narrow black
  line. Above these are two other bars; the first orange, the next cream
  colour, separated by long narrow black spots; the colour of these wings,
  next the body, being orange. All the wings are dentated.


PIERIS CALYPSO.

Plate XVII. fig. 3, 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PIERIS, _Schrank. Latr. God._ Papilio (Dan. Cand.), _Linn. Drury_.

  PIERIS CALYPSO. Alis rotundatis subintegris albis extimo nigro; posticis
  subtus flavis seu nitenti-grisescentibus, limbo punctorum nigrorum serie
  duplici, maculis flavis interjectis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Dan. Cand.) Calypso, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Ent.
  Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 191. _No._ 592. _Cramer_, _pl._ 154. C. D. ([male])
  E. F. ([female]) _Enc. Méthod._ ix. _p._ 130. (Pieris C.) _Boisduval
  Hist. Nat. Lep._ 1. 504.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ brown. Thorax and abdomen nearly black. Wings
  white; margined externally with dusky black. The anterior edges of the
  anterior ones are also margined with black, from the middle of which runs
  a black line to a round spot placed on the middle of the wings; the
  mixture of the colours on these wings somewhat resembles the profile of a
  human face. Posterior wings having a round spot placed near the middle of
  each, with several fainter ones along the external edges, and two
  stronger ones near the upper corners.

  _Under Side._ Palpi and legs black. Breast ash-coloured. Anterior wings
  as on the upper side; three oblong yellow spots being placed at the tips,
  and four round white ones along the external edges. Posterior wings much
  tinged with yellow, having a yellow margin running from the abdominal to
  the upper corners along the external edges, appearing like crescents
  placed on a row; above this is a row of seven square black spots placed
  circularly with the margin, and in the centre is a conspicuous round
  black spot.

Mr. Smeathman states that this insect loves chiefly to sport in the
sunshine. It is therefore very difficult to catch at that time of the day
when the sun is powerful; but towards sunset it is more easily caught, when
it congregates in great numbers, in particular spots most sheltered from
the breeze.


NYMPHALIS LAURE.

Plate XVII. fig. 5, 6.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains._

  GENUS. Nymphalis, _Latr. God._ Papilio (Nymph. Phal.), _Drury_.

  NYMPHALIS LAURE. Alis suprà nigris; fasciâ mediâ anticarum fulvâ
  interruptâ; posticarum albâ, et a latere coeruleo nitidâ. (Expans. Alar.
  2 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Laure, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Papilio (Nymph.) Laura, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 134. _No._ 415.

  Nymphalis Laure, _Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 376.

  HABITAT: The Bay of Honduras, _Drury_.

  {34}_Upper Side._ Antennæ brown. Thorax and abdomen brown. Anterior wings
  fine ochre brown; having two faint, dark, indented lines running along
  the external edges. An oblong yellow spot is placed on the anterior
  margins near the tips. Three others, one being small, are situated near
  the middle of the wings; beginning at the anterior edges and reaching
  almost to the posterior, where it becomes white. Posterior wings ochre
  brown; but when held in a certain position exhibiting a fine purplish
  blue. A white bar crosses these wings obliquely from the middle of the
  anterior edges, and meets a little below the body. Two indented black
  lines are placed on the external edges, running from the upper to the
  abdominal corners, where are placed two small crescent-like blue spots or
  lines, one double, the other single.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, breast, and legs white. Anterior wings having some
  short black irregular lines placed cross-ways, and some brown orange
  marks near the shoulders. Three small triangular black spots are placed
  at a little distance from the external edges, near the lower corners;
  above which is a brownish patch resembling polished metal. Posterior
  wings entirely of the colour of polished metal, except the external edges
  which are ash colour; and a white bar running from the middle of the
  anterior edges to the abdominal corners. All the wings are deeply
  angulated.

Latreille and Godart question whether this be not the female of Nymphalis
Laurentia, of which they had only seen the males.


PLATE XVIII.

[Illustration]

NYMPHALIS CADMA.

Plate XVIII. fig. 1, 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr. God._ Papilio (Nymph. Phal.), _Drury_.

  NYMPHALIS CADMA. Alis denticulatis luteis, anticis utrinque areâ apicis
  nigrâ, maculis duabus flavescentibus; posticis subtùs ocellis duobus
  coeruleis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Gemm.) Cadma, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabricius
  Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 241. _No._ 751. (Papilio Sat. C.) _Enc. Méth._
  ix. _p._ 421. (Nymphalis C.)

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown. Wings
  tawny yellow. The anterior having the extreme parts, near the tips,
  black; with two yellowish spots thereon, joining the anterior edges; also
  a round black spot situated at the lower corners on the posterior edges.
  Posterior wings immaculate, except a black streak placed on the anterior
  edges next the upper corners.

  _Under Side._ Tongue black. Breast, legs, and abdomen ash-coloured. The
  superior wings marked and coloured as on the upper side, but less
  distinctly. Posterior wings tawny orange, having a broad ash-coloured bar
  crossing them from the anterior to the abdominal edges. On this bar are
  placed two eyes, with double pupils; the lower one being of a fine blue
  with a yellow iris; the upper one, next the anterior edges, blue and
  black, with a brown iris. Margins of the wings dentated.


{35}VANESSA TEREA.

Plate XVIII. fig. 3, 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains._

  GENUS. VANESSA, _Fabr. Latr. God. Steph. &c._ Papilio (Nymph. Gemm.),
  _Drury, &c._

  VANESSA TEREA. Alis dentatis supra fuscis, fasciâ communi fulvâ lineâ
  nigrâ divisâ; anticis subfalcatis punctis apicalibus albis, posticis
  intus subcaudatis, ocello anali gemino. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Gemm.) Terea, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 1, 2. _Fab. Ent.
  Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 92. _No._ 288. _Cramer_, _pl._ 138. _fig._ E. F.
  _Encyl. Méth._ ix. _p._ 314. (Vanessa T.)

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen greenish brown. The
  shoulders of all the wings surrounded by a broad patch of a yellowish
  brown; joining to this is a yellow clay-coloured bar, rising near the
  anterior edges. The remaining part of the wings is occupied by a dusky
  black border, situated along the external edges; having some very small
  white spots thereon, whereof four are placed near the tips.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, legs, breast, and sides pale clay-coloured. Anterior
  wings pale clay-coloured; having three irregular indented bars crossing
  them, from the anterior to the posterior edges. Along the external edges
  is a dark cloud, whereon are four or five exceeding small white eyes, and
  a small white spot like an arrow's point near the tips. Posterior wings
  pale clay-coloured, clouded along the external edges, where there are
  three exceeding small white eyes. A small reddish line crosses these
  wings from the abdominal corners to the middle of the anterior edges. All
  the wings are dentated; the anterior being a little angulated.

This butterfly, according to Mr. Smeathman, delights to sport in the
sunshine, and is frequently found in company with Pieris Calypso about
cultivated spots, as old rice plantations and cassava grounds.


NYMPHALIS OPIS.

Plate XVIII. fig. 5, 6.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Sw._

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr. God._ Papilio (Nymphalis), _Linn._

  NYMPHALIS OPIS. Alis supra fuscis, fasciâ communi caracteribusque
  ochraceis; anticis strigâ punctorum alborum. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6
  lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Opis. _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Cramer_, _pl._
  138. _fig._ A. B. _Encyl. Méth._ ix. _p._ 381. _No._ 104. (Nymphalis O.)

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ brown. Head, thorax, and abdomen brown. Wings dark
  brown, or chocolate colour, formed into divisions by lines of a yellowish
  colour crossing and intersecting them in various directions. A yellow bar
  rises on the anterior wings, near the middle, and crossing them and the
  posterior, meets at the extremity of the body. Close to where the bar
  rises on the anterior wings are six very small white spots, placed
  between the nerves, reaching to the anterior edges.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, breast, and sides greyish brown. Anterior wings
  greyish, clouded with red brown, particularly at the tips; on the middle
  of the external edges is a patch of yellow, and on the {36}middle of the
  posterior edges is a patch of a pale clay colour, with six small white
  spots. Posterior wings having a third part, next the shoulders, greyish
  and dark brown; the remainder pale clay, with a reddish brown patch next
  the upper corners; from whence runs an undulated brown line to the
  abdominal edges at the extremity of the body, and another fainter along
  the external edges. The wings are dentated.


PLATE XIX.

[Illustration]

NYMPHALIS CÆNIS [male].

Plate XIX. fig. 1, 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains._

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Schrank. Latr. God. Boisd._ Papilio (Dan. Cand.),
  _Linn, &c._

  NYMPHALIS CÆNIS. Alis subrotundatis albis, margine postico et ante hunc
  marginem lineâ angulatâ maculisque nigris; subtus omnibus strigâ communi
  brunneâ. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Dan. Cand.) Cænis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Encycl. Méth._
  ix. _p._ 142. _No._ 85. (Pieris C.)

  Nymphalis amphiceda, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 113. _No._ 348. [female].
  _Cramer_, _pl._ 146. D. E. _Enc. Méth._ ix. 384. 113.

  HABITAT: Calabar, Africa.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black. Eyes red brown. Thorax greenish. Abdomen
  sooty brown. Wings white, having a narrow border running along the
  external edges of a soot brown; over which is an indented, angulated,
  black line, appearing in some places like two points of arrows united.
  Along the anterior edges of the anterior wings also runs an exceeding
  narrow black line.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, breast, sides, and legs white. Wings white; being
  divided as it were by a brown line, which, beginning near the middle of
  the anterior edges of the anterior wings, and crossing them and the
  posterior, meets near the abdominal corners. The inner part of the
  division having many brown lines thereon, shaped like angles, circles,
  &c. A faint angulated brown line runs along the external edges of all the
  wings; whereon are some short faint brown streaks placed on the upper
  angles. The wings are a little dentated.


NYMPHALIS MELICERTA.

Plate XIX. fig. 3, 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains._

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr. God._ Papilio (Nymph. Phal.), _Linn. Drury_.

  NYMPHALIS MELICERTA. Alis denticulatis utrinque fusco-nigris, fasciâ latâ
  strigisque albis, anticarum basi maculâ cuneiformi albâ. (Expans. Alar. 2
  unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Melicerta, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Herbst.
  Pap. tab._ 238. _f._ 5. 6.

  Nymphalis Melinoe, _Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 432. _No._ 261.

  Papilio Blandina, _Cramer_, _pl._ 237. _fig._ E. F.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen dark brown. Anterior
  wings sooty brown, with two white narrow lines running along the external
  edges. From the shoulders runs a long white streak to the middle of the
  wing, and a small one at the end of it; where are also six other white
  streaks placed transversely, one of which is very small. Posterior wings
  sooty brown, having the two narrow lines continued along the external
  edges from the anterior wings. A broad straight white bar crosses these
  {37}wings, being a little indented on the lower side; beginning at the
  anterior edges near the upper corners, and meeting at the body on the
  abdominal edges.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, breast, sides, and legs ash-coloured; all the white
  parts appearing broader and larger on this side than on the upper; the
  lines along the external edges are broader, and the dark parts of the
  wings have a few whitish marks on them that are not seen on the other
  side. The wings are a little dentated.

The Melicerta of Fabricius and the Encyclopédie Méthodique appears to be a
distinct species, having the base of the anterior wings spotted with white.
I have restored Drury's name to the present insect, as it has the priority.


ANTHOCARIS ARETHUSA.

Plate XIX. fig. 5, 6.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. ANTHOCARIS, _Boisduval_. Pieris, _Latr. &. God._ Papilio (Dan.
  Cand.) _Drury_.

  ANTHOCARIS ARETHUSA. Alis rotundatis integerrimis albidis; supra anticis
  apice maculâque, posticis strigâ incurvâ punctisque marginalibus fuscis;
  anticarum subtus apice fulvo. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 10 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Dan. Cand.) Arethusa, _Drury_, _Append. vol._ 2. _Boisduval
  Hist. Nat. Lepidopt._ 1. _p._ 582. (Anthocaris A.)

  Pieris Amytis, _Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 123. (Exclus. Syn. _Crameri_.)

  Pieris Evippe, [female]. _Enc. Méth. Sup. p._ 805.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ brown. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown.
  Anterior wings white, brown at the base; having a small black round spot
  near the centre of each; the tips are dark brown, occupying a third of
  the wings; near the middle of the posterior edges is a brown patch, and a
  small round spot at the lower corners. Posterior wings white, but clouded
  a little near the body. Along the external edges are placed five brown
  spots, that next the upper corners being double: also a brown line, like
  an obtuse angle, begins on the anterior edges, and ends just below the
  body.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, breast, and legs ash-coloured. Anterior wings white,
  whereof the tips are orange-coloured, verged with yellow; on each wing
  are two black spots, one being very small and answering to that on the
  upper side; the other larger, and placed near the posterior edges.
  Posterior wings pale yellow, with an exceeding small spot, surrounded
  with orange colour, placed near the middle of each; the brown obtuse
  angle appears faintly on this side, but of an orange colour. All the
  wings are entire.


PLATE XX.

[Illustration]

CALLIMORPHA? SANGUIFLUA.

Plate XX. fig. 1, 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Arctiidæ, _Stephens_.

  GENUS. CALLIMORPHA? _Latr._ SUBGENUS: ----? Phalæna (----?), _Drury_.

  CALLIMORPHA? SANGUIFLUA. Alis nigris, anticis albo et flavo punctatis
  nervisque posticis sanguineis; posticis nigris margine coeruleo 4
  albo-punctatis. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. 1½ lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (----) Sanguiflua, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Surinam.

  {38}_Upper Side._ The head is wanting. Thorax blueish black. Abdomen very
  dark blue, with five small white spots on each side. Anterior wings
  black, with a number of small spots dispersed all over them, whereof five
  next the body are yellow, the rest white. The nerves, from the middle to
  the extremities of the wings of a dark red, or crimson colour. Posterior
  wings at the base of a blueish black, but along the external parts deep
  mazarine blue; whereon are placed twelve faintish white spots.

  _Under Side._ Nearly corresponds with the upper, except in the number of
  spots, which are more numerous; some being surrounded with blue, those
  next the external edges being double. The crimson colour on the ribs of
  the superior wings is wanting on this side. All the wings are entire.

Notwithstanding the imperfect state of this insect, it is evident that it
is nearly allied to many other species figured by Drury (including those
represented in Pl. 11. fig. 4., Pl. 6. fig. 4., Pl. 11. fig. 3.), and which
appear to form the connecting links between the aberrant Sphingidæ
(Zygænidæ) and the Arctiidæ. The singular neuration of the upper wings of
this insect is nearly similar to that of a remarkable Indian species, which
I have described and figured in Mr. Royle's work on the Natural History of
the Himalaya.


SPILOSOMA EGLE.

Plate XX. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Arctiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. SPILOSOMA, _Steph._ Arctia, _Latr._ Eyprepia p. _Ochs._ Phalæna
  (Noctua), _Drury_.

  SPILOSOMA EGLE. Alis griseis immaculatis; abdomine luteo, maculis
  dorsalibus nigris. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 10 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Bombyx) Egle, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: New York.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ grey, slightly pectinated. Head grey. Neck
  cream-coloured. Thorax grey. Abdomen yellow, with seven small black spots
  placed along the middle. Wings grey ash-coloured, immaculate.

  _Under Side._ Palpi small. Tongue spiral. Abdomen pale yellow. Wings
  grey-coloured on this side, immaculate. Margins of the wings entire.


NOCTUA CHERA.

Plate XX. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. NOCTUA. SUBGENUS. ----

  NOCTUA CHERA. Alis griseo-badiis, anticis fasciâ irregulari longitudinali
  (cum marginibus externis et posticis) parallelâ fusca. (Expans. Alar. 2
  unc. 5 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Chera, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Surinam.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ setaceous. Head, thorax, and abdomen greyish
  russet. Wings coloured nearly as the preceding insect. The anterior
  having a dark brown irregular line running near the posterior and
  external edges to the anterior near the tips. Posterior wings immaculate.

  {39}_Under Side._ All the parts on this side are of the same colour as
  the upper, without any marks whatever on them. Margins of the wings
  entire.

I have placed this insect in the family Noctuidæ with doubt, as it seems to
have some resemblance with Galleria Mellonella.


PLATE XXI.

[Illustration]

NYMPHALIS JACINTHA.

Plate XXI. fig. 1, 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains._

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr. God._ Papilio (Nymphalis Phal.), _Drury_.

  NYMPHALIS JACINTHA. Alis dentatis fuscis, anticis maculis albo-coeruleis
  omnibusque strigâ punctorum, fasciâ intùs crenatâ, lunulisque apicalibus
  albidis. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Jacintha, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Ent.
  Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 111. _No._ 342. [female]?

  Papilio N. Liria, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 126. 385. [male]? _Enc.
  Méth._ ix. _p._ 395. (Nymphalis Liria).

  Papilio Perimale, _Cramer_, _pl._ 65. _fig._ C. D. _pl._ 67. _fig._ B.

  HABITAT: Bombay (_Drury_).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black; having two small white spots placed at the
  base, and three others behind them. Thorax and abdomen blackish brown.
  Anterior wings, at the base, very dark brown, tinctured with liver
  colour, but at the external edges lighter, and of an orange tinge; having
  six small white spots placed parallel with the edge, but at a small
  distance from it. Near the middle of these wings are four small blue
  spots, when the insect is held in a particular direction. Posterior wings
  darkest at the base, but the other parts are of an olive brown; the
  external edges are fringed with white, having a row of cream-coloured
  crescents above, and another row of cream spots above that, placed two
  and two, with seven small white spots placed above the whole. All the
  wings are dentated.

  _Under Side._ Legs brown. Thighs white. Breast and abdomen whitish. Wings
  brown olive, darkest next the body, with the same cream-coloured spots as
  on the upper side, but a little fainter.


NYMPHALIS PERSEIS.

Plate XXI. fig. 3, 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains._

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr. God._ Papilio (Nymphalis Phal.), _Drury_.

  NYMPHALIS PERSEIS. Alis dentatis, utrinque nigris disco communi testaceo;
  anticis maculis duabus fasciâque, posticis punctis marginalibus
  ochraceis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymphalis Phal.) Perseis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Herbst.
  tab._ 137. _fig._ 5. 6.

  Papilio (Nymph.) Persea, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 137. _No._ 423.
  _Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 391.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen black, spotted with
  white. Anterior wings black, the tips edged with white; two pale
  lemon-coloured spots are situated in the centre of the wings, one being
  long, the other round; between which and the tips is a long lemon streak,
  extending from the anterior almost to the external edges; a large patch
  of a dull red is also placed on the hinder part of the wings, extending
  along the posterior edges from the shoulders almost to the lower corners.
  Posterior {40}wings dull red-coloured, bordered with black, whereon are
  seven small white spots placed along the external edges, and reaching
  from the upper to the abdominal corners. All the wings are dentated.

  _Under Side._ Palpi yellow. Breast white. Legs brown. Thighs white.
  Anterior wings marked as on the upper side, but the colours are much
  duller. Posterior wings dirty red, bordered with black, whereon are eight
  white spots, larger than those on the upper side; the colours of the
  whole being much duller and fainter than on that side.


PLATE XXII.

[Illustration]

ALCIS SCOLOPACEA.

Plate XXII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Geometridæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. ALCIS, _Curtis_. Boarmia, _Treit._ Phalæna (Noctua), _Drury_.

  ALCIS SCOLOPACEA. Alis dentatis griseis, fusco atomosis, strigisque
  dentatis et undulatis communibus albidis et fuscis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc.
  5 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Scolopacea, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ filiform. Thorax, abdomen, and wings brownish grey;
  the latter varied with dark indented brown streaks and lines, contrasted
  with white and ash colour, crossing them from the anterior to the
  posterior and abdominal edges.

  _Under Side._ Legs, sides, abdomen, and wings yellow wainscot-coloured.
  About half the anterior ones, from the tips towards the shoulders, are
  marked with faint dark brown lines and streaks. Posterior wings having a
  faintish dark brown cloud, situated near the upper corners. All the wings
  are deeply dentated.


CALLIMORPHA? MARGINATA.

Plate XXII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Arctiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. CALLIMORPHA? _Latr._ Phalæna (Bombyx), _Drury_.

  CALLIMORPHA? MARGINATA. Alis anticis fusco-nigris, margine antico baseos
  luteo, posticis atris basi maculâ discoidali, punctisque marginalibus,
  coerulescenti albis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 5 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Bombyx) marginata, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ pectinated. Head black. Neck yellow. Tongue
  distinct. Thorax and abdomen black; the latter having two rows of grey
  spots placed along the upper side of it, and reaching towards the anus,
  which is yellow. Anterior wings deep black, the anterior edges next the
  shoulders being yellow. Posterior wings sooty black, with a whitish cloud
  next the shoulders, and a white spot near the centre of each; a row of
  whitish spots are also placed along the external edges, which become
  fainter as they approach the upper corners.

  _Under Side._ Breast, sides, legs, and abdomen black. All the wings are
  the same; the anterior ones being edged with yellow next the shoulders,
  and two faint grey spots near the middle; a small whitish streak is also
  placed on the posterior ones, next the abdominal edges, about a quarter
  of an inch from the shoulders, where is a small yellow spot on each wing.
  Margins of the wings entire.


{41}VENILIA? SOSPETA.

Plate XXII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Geometridæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. VENILIA? _Duponchel, Stephens_. Macaria p., _Curtis_.

  VENILIA? SOSPETA. Alis flavis; anticis punctis duobus parvis
  discoidalibus maculisque tribus marginalibus; posticis maculâ unicâ
  versus angulum ani, brunneis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 5 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Sospeta, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ filiform. Head pale yellow. Eyes dark brown. Tongue
  spiral. Thorax, abdomen, and wings pale yellow. On the posterior edges of
  the anterior wings are placed two faint brown streaks; one, which is
  smallest, being about a quarter of an inch from the shoulders, the other
  the same distance from the lower corners; about the same distance from
  the tips, on the anterior edges, is placed another very small one.
  Posterior wings having likewise two of these faint spots, one on the
  anterior, the other on the abdominal edges.

  _Under Side._ Sides, breast, and abdomen pale yellow. Legs brown and
  yellow. Wings pale yellow, with the same spots and marks as on the upper
  side, but more distinct. The wings are a little angulated.


EREBUS? OPIGENA.

Plate XXII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. EREBUS? _Latr._ Phalæna (Noctua), _Drury_.

  EREBUS? OPIGENA. Alis angulatis badio-fuscis, strigis nonnullis undulatis
  et dentatis communibus obscurioribus. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Opigena, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ filiform. Head dark brown. Neck ash colour. Palpi
  long and greyish, the extremities being black. Tongue spiral. Thorax,
  abdomen, and wings dark russet or grey brown; the latter having some
  faint dark indented lines crossing the middle of them, from the anterior
  to the posterior and abdominal edges. The tips of the anterior wings
  terminate in an obtuse angle.

  _Under Side._ Breast, sides, abdomen, legs, and wings very dark brown. A
  dark narrow line begins at the anterior edge of the superior wings, about
  a quarter of an inch from the tips, and crossing them and the posterior
  ones ends at the abdominal edges, just below the body; dividing each wing
  into two compartments, that above the line being a degree darker than
  that below it; in the centre of each of these divisions is placed a faint
  black spot, and along the external edges are several of a smaller size,
  and equally faint. Margins of the wings entire.


{42}PLATE XXIII.

[Illustration]

URANIA RHIPHEUS.

Plate XXIII. fig. 1, 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia? FAMILY: Uraniidæ.

  GENUS. URANIA, _Fabr._ (Syst. Gloss.) _Latr._ Cydimon, _Dalm._ (Prodr.
  Mon. Castniæ.) Leilus & Rhipheus, _Swainson Zool. Illustr._

  URANIA RHIPHEUS. Alis nigris, anticis utrinque lineolis transversis
  fasciâque mediâ bifidâ aureo viridibus, posticis areâ anali cupreâ
  violaceo micanti nigroque maculatâ. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Eq. Troj.) Rhipheus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Esper. Pap.
  Exot. t._ 21. _f._ 1. 2.

  Rhipheus dasycephalus, _Swainson Zool. Illust. N. Ser. pl._ 131.

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). Bengal (_Cramer_). Coromandel (Fabricius).
  Madagascar (_Enc. Méth._).

  _Upper Side._ "The antennæ are black, and knobbed at their extremities."
  Eyes dark brown. Thorax and abdomen black. The ground of the anterior
  wings is a lovely deep green, marked or striped all over with irregular
  streaks of a deep black, almost all of which run in a direction from the
  anterior to the posterior edges. Posterior wings, next the body, black;
  but towards the anterior edges are of a fine light blue green, clouded
  with black. The other parts, next the abdominal and external edges, are
  of a curious, deep, blood-red, shining with gold, and spotted with black.

  _Under Side._ Palpi grey. Breast and abdomen ash-coloured. Wings light
  sea-green, clouded or marked as on the upper side with black. Posterior
  wings, next the body, of a most brilliant golden green, with small spots
  of black, which green softens into a fine purple, from that into a
  crimson, then into a blood-red, and lastly to an orange; which colours
  occupy the greater part of these wings: that part which lies next the
  upper corners being of a fine blue green, clouded with black; all the
  colours on this side have a rich glow of gold, and appear changeable,
  according to the position in which the light strikes on them; from the
  abdominal corner runs a narrow black border along the external edge, the
  width of three membranes, stopping at the angle, and communicating with a
  large black spot situated near the abdominal edge. "The whole exhibiting
  the most beautiful colours I ever saw united in one insect."

The splendid insect, from which these figures were taken, has been
considered by most Lepidopterists to have been in a mutilated and mended
state; having the head, concealed palpi, and clavate antennæ of a true
Papilio, and the posterior wings nearly truncated at the lower part. These
authors have supposed that the insect was a specimen of the Papilio
Rhipheus of Cramer (pl. 385. fig. A. B. Leilus orientalis, Swainson Zool.
Illustr. N. Ser. pl. 130.), in which the head and antennæ are similar to
those of Nyctalemon Orontes, figured in the first volume of this work, and
the posterior wings are terminated by three tails. Mr. Swainson has however
adopted a different opinion, figuring Drury's insect under the name of
Rhipheus Dasycephalus, and Cramer's under that of Leilus Orientalis;
considering that this view of the subject "will clear up one of the most
intricate and perplexing questions that has hitherto impeded the natural
arrangement of the Linnæan Papiliones and even the entire Lepidoptera."
Drury's insect exhibiting the nervures of Urania, and the head, &c. of
Papilio, is thus considered as establishing as close an affinity as can
possibly be imagined between Papilio and Leilus (i. e. the Rhipheus of
Cramer). It is true that there are many Lepidopterous insects which, on a
{43}casual glance, appear identical, but which belong to distinct groups,
especially distinguished by the neuration of their wings, but when we
consider the almost perfect identity, in the very peculiar markings and
colours, of these two supposed distinct insects, the identity in the nerves
of their wings;[4] the slight scruple which the old collectors had in
patching up their insects, and the truncation of the hind wings in Drury's
figure, which may be exactly imitated by placing a slip of paper over the
tails of perfect tailed specimens of Rhipheus, I think we are authorised in
rejecting, without hesitation, the views of Mr. Swainson.

That this group of insects is one of the most interesting amongst the
Lepidoptera, and at the same time exceedingly difficult, with respect to
its natural relations, cannot be denied. Modern authors, Mr. Swainson
observes, have been unfortunate in their location of this group, of course
alluding to its being placed by Latreille in the family Hesperiidæ. Mr.
Swainson, however, is not less unfortunate in his introduction of it into
the family Papilionidæ, with which the structure of the fore legs is said
peculiarly to rank it. This character, nevertheless, together with its
day-flying habits and brilliant colours, are the only points in which an
affinity can be traced between the Papilionidæ and Uraniidæ. But the
structure of the hind legs (having spurs in the middle, as well as at the
tips of the tibiæ), and of the nerves of the wings, antennæ, and palpi, all
exhibit a very slight degree of relationship with Papilio. Mr. Swainson
has, indeed, endeavoured to make the affinity more evident by introducing
Papilio Curius, Fabr. as a subgenus (Leptocircus) in the genus Leilus (or
Urania), but the relationship between these is of the slightest and most
unsatisfactory kind. Mr. Newman has suggested another view of the
affinities of this group. In his sketch of the circular distribution of the
Lepidoptera,[5] he has introduced into the Butterfly circle, the genera
Coronis and Urania, the last forming the connecting link with the
Geometridæ, by Leach's genus Ourapteryx, or the Swallow-tail Moth. The
whole structure of the latter insect indicates, however, most clearly that
the relation is but an analogical one. Had, indeed, the observations of M.
Sganzin,[6] relative to the transformations of Urania Rhipheus been
confirmed, this would certainly have been its more appropriate locality,
its caterpillar being said by him to be a semi-looper, and its chrysalis to
be naked, suspended by the tail, and girt round the centre. But the
elaborate memoir of Mr. MacLeay,[7] upon the habits and changes of Urania
Fernandinæ, prove most clearly that the larva closely resembles that of
Agarista;[8] and that the pupa, as in that genus, is inclosed in a cocoon.
Now this latter character exists in some species of Hesperia. In these,
however, the chrysalis is still attached by its tail. Mr. MacLeay does not
mention whether such is the case in Urania; but since his return from Cuba
he has had the kindness to shew me the cocoon, and to inform me that the
chrysalis is loose. This character, {44}therefore, with the entire
structure of the imago, removes it from the Diurnal Lepidoptera, and
associates it most satisfactorily with the Hesperi-sphinges of Latreille,
especially Agarista and Coronis, which last is very near Urania Lunus. Thus
the situation proposed for these insects by Latreille, between Hesperia and
Agarista, &c. is found to be most fortunate; Mr. Swainson himself admitting
a relationship with the Hesperiidæ, by calling them the "Hesperian" type of
the Papilionidæ. They also appear to have some relation with Erebus. The
original specimen here figured is stated by Mr. Drury to have been in the
possession of Captain May, of Hammersmith, when the drawing was made. It is
now in all probability destroyed, and cannot be traced.


THECLA PAN.

Plate XXIII. fig. 3, 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Lycænidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. THECLA, _Fabr._ (Syst. Gloss.) Polyommatus p. _Latr._ Papilio
  (Pleb. rural.), _Linn. &c._

  THECLA PAN. Alis fuscis bicaudatis; subtus fuscescentibus, ocellis duobus
  anguli ani, externo nigro iride rufâ. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Pleb. rur.) Pan, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black. Thorax, abdomen, and wings dark brown, or
  dark hair-coloured; the latter being furnished with two small tails like
  hairs, the extremities being white.

  _Under Side._ Palpi white. Breast greyish. Wings nearly the same colour
  as on the upper side. The posterior having two eyes on each at the
  abdominal corners; one being black with a red iris, the other grey and
  faint; above them is a small indented white line, pointing to a spot of
  the same colour placed at the middle of the anterior edge.

Fabricius, without referring to this figure of Drury, described an Indian
species of the same genus from Drury's collection, under the same specific
name, which must of course be rejected. The French encyclopedists consider
the latter as identical with the Fabrician Hesperia Isocrates.


PLATE XXIV.

[Illustration]

EREBUS HERCYNA.

Plate XXIV. fig. 1, 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. EREBUS, _Latr._ Thysania, _Dalm._ Phalæna (Noctua), _Drury_.

  EREBUS HERCYNA. Alis dentatis fuscis obscurè undulatis, anticarum disco
  (puncto nigro) posticarum strigâ mediâ undulatâ pallidè cinereis.
  (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Hercyna, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ filiform, brown, and thread-like. Head, thorax,
  abdomen, and wings greyish brown. The anterior wings having about
  two-thirds, next the shoulders, of a lighter brown, being {45}separated
  from the darker part by a narrow, black, undulated line, similar to one
  which runs along the external edges from the tips to the lower corners;
  near the shoulders are placed two brown spots on each wing, one round,
  the other squarish. Posterior wings having two narrow, black, undulated
  lines crossing them, one next the external edges, the other about a
  quarter of an inch above them; the latter being edged with white.

  _Under Side._ Palpi, breast, and sides greyish brown. Tongue spiral.
  Anterior wings rather lighter than on the upper side; having a dark
  undulated line crossing them, near the middle, from the anterior to the
  posterior edges; near the shoulders are two brown spots, one exactly like
  a comma, the other round and smaller; a white streak, edged at the top
  with brown, is placed near the lower corners; and along the external
  edges is a row of faint angulated brown spots placed over each scollop.
  Posterior wings greyish brown; having a small, square, brown spot near
  the shoulders, and a patch of a whitish colour at the upper corners. A
  dark brown undulated line, edged with white, begins near the middle of
  the anterior edges, which crossing the wings ends at the extremity of the
  body; and along the external edges runs a series of brown spots, placed
  over each scollop. All the wings are dentated.


SATURNIA MAIA.

Plate XXIV. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Bombycidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. Saturnia, _Schrank._ Attacus, _Germar._ Phalæna (attacus),
  _Drury_.

  SATURNIA MAIA. Alis rotundatis nigris; fasciâ albâ, maculâ subocellari
  nigrâ, ano rufescenti. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Bombyx) Maia, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Cramer_, _Ins._ 2.
  _tab._ 98. _fig._ A.

  Bombyx Proserpina, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 419. _No._ 40. _Gmel.
  Linn. S. N._ 2407. 480. _Abbot & Smith Ins. Georg. pl._ 50. _Oliv. Enc.
  Méth._ 5. 37. 48. _Pal. Bauv. Ins. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Lep._ _pl._ 24. _f._
  2. 3.

  HABITAT: New York (_Drury_). Georgia (_Abbot_).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black, and strongly pectinated. Neck ash-coloured.
  Thorax and abdomen black, the extremity being orange. Wings pellucid. The
  anterior being black, with a white bar crossing them from the anterior to
  the posterior edges; whereon is a semi-eye placed near the former.
  Posterior wings black, with a broader white bar crossing them from the
  anterior to the abdominal edges; having near the former a black
  triangular spot thereon.

  _Under Side._ Palpi and tongue indistinct. Legs and thorax black. Thighs
  orange. Abdomen grey, having its sides spotted with white; the extremity
  orange. Wings coloured as on the upper side, but rather more distinct.
  The thinness of the wings occasions the colours to be less distinct and
  clear than in most others of this kind. Margins of the wings entire.

The caterpillar of this very conspicuous moth feeds upon the red oak
(Quercus rubra, Linn.), and other species of the same genus. The
caterpillars represented by Abbot are considerably different in colour; one
being dark-coloured, but covered over with minute yellow spots; and the
other yellow, with a slender, dorsal, and two broader lateral black lines.
The head is red, and each segment is furnished with a transverse series of
tubercles, {46}emitting spinose setæ. It is, I presume, by the assistance
of these setæ that "the caterpillar stings very sharply," as stated by
Abbot. When small the whole brood lives together, but they disperse as they
grow larger. One of these larvæ, in Virginia, went into the ground on the
1st of July, and the moth came out on the 20th of October; whilst in
Georgia another buried itself on the 14th of June, and the fly did not
appear until the 8th of December; after which other individuals kept coming
out from time to time until the 16th of February. The male appears by day,
and flies very swiftly, mounting and descending. The moth is called in
America the Buck-fly, from an erroneous idea that its caterpillars are bred
in the heads of the buck, which blow them out of their nostrils. This
opinion originates from the fly coming out in the rutting season whilst the
bucks are pursuing the does; the hunters therefore take notice of the
insect in order to know the proper season for their sport, which is later
in Georgia than in Virginia, as is also the appearance of the moth. They
are much more plentiful in the last-mentioned country. (Abbot, loc. cit.)

The specific name of Drury having the priority, I have retained it;
although that subsequently proposed by Fabricius is far more expressive,
recalling, as Sir J. E. Smith observes, the idea of a fair flower which had

 "by gloomy Dis been gathered,"

now become as grizly as the grim monarch of the infernal regions himself.


EREBUS EDUSA.

Plate XXIV. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. EREBUS, _Latr._ Thysania, _Dalm._ Phalæna (noctua), _Drury_.

  EREBUS EDUSA. Alis castaneis fusco irroratis, anticis maculis nonnullis
  baseos alterisque duabus majoribus apicalibus; apiceque posticarum (nigro
  punctato) albis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 2 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Edusa, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: New York.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ brown and filiform. Thorax, abdomen, and wings of a
  fine red sandy brown colour; the first ring of the abdomen with an
  ash-coloured spot. Anterior wings with two whitish oblong spots on the
  external edges of each; one near the tips, the other at the lower
  corners. A small whitish bar crosses these wings about a quarter of an
  inch from the body; and next the shoulders is a spot of the same whitish
  colour. Posterior wings brown, with an oblong whitish spot placed along
  the external edges, reaching from the abdominal almost to the upper
  corners. Cilia brown.

  _Under Side._ Palpi brown. Tongue short. Breast, sides, and legs paler
  than on the upper side. Wings pale sandy-coloured, except a few small,
  round, dark spots dispersed over them, but scarcely discernible. Margins
  of all the wings dentated.


{47}PLATE XXV.

[Illustration]

SPHINX ANTÆUS.

Plate XXV. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. SPHINX, _Auct._

  SPHINX ANTÆUS. Alis anticis cinereis nigro undatis, posticis nigris basi
  rufis fasciâque fenestratâ, capite bicorni. (Expans. Alar. [male]. 6
  unc.--[female]. 7 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Antæus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Sphinx Hydaspes, _Cram. Ins. tab._ 118. _fig._ A.

  Sphinx Jatrophæ, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 362. _No._ 22. _Gmel. Linn.
  S. N._ 2376. 63. _Merian Ins. Surinam_, _tab._ 38.

  HABITAT: Jamaica (_Drury_). "In Americæ Jatropha gossypifolia." _Fabr._

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ white underneath, and brown above. Head and thorax
  dark rusty brown. Abdomen the same on the upper part, but on each side of
  the second, third, and fourth rings are three yellow spots. Anterior
  wings dark rusty brown, with several black, waved, and indented lines
  placed in different parts; and in the middle, near the anterior edges,
  are two small, round, white spots placed on each wing. The middle of the
  posterior wings transparent like glass; with a deep brown or black border
  running along the external edges from the abdominal to the upper corners;
  the part next the body being yellow.

  _Under Side._ Breast and abdomen cream-coloured. Legs white and brown.
  Anterior wings, next the body, with two yellow longitudinal streaks; the
  remaining parts being red brown (differing from the colour on the upper
  side) without any other marks or clouds on them. Posterior wings coloured
  as on the upper side, except in the black border, which on this side is
  red brown.


SMERINTHUS JAMAICENSIS.

Plate XXV. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. SMERINTHUS, _Latr._ Laothoë, _Fabr._ (Syst. Gloss.) Sphinx,
  _Linn._

  SMERINTHUS JAMAICENSIS. Alis anticis fusco, griseo, olivaceoque variis,
  posticis roseis ocello coeruleo nigro marginato. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 5
  lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx ocellatus Jamaicensis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Sphinx ocellatus, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 355. _No._ 1. _Gmel. Linn.
  Syst. N._ 2371. 1.

  HABITAT: Jamaica (_Drury_). "In Europæ Americæ Spiræâ, Salice, Pomonâ."
  _Fabr._

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ pectinated and brown. Head and thorax soft
  dun-coloured, but dark brown above. Abdomen dun. Anterior wings delicate
  fine greyish, light brown next the shoulders and tips; the remaining
  parts being clouded with dark olive brown colours. Posterior wings red in
  the middle, but along the external edges dun-coloured; having a large
  black spot placed near the abdominal corners, the middle of which is
  blue, and imperfectly resembling an eye. All the wings are angulated.

  _Under Side._ Breast and abdomen dun. Anterior wings red in the middle;
  but along the anterior edges ash-coloured, which runs to the tips where
  it forms a crescent, the inner part being dark olive brown; the external
  edges are olive brown, but lighter than the crescent. Posterior wings
  clouded with olive brown and ash-colour; having a double ash-coloured bar
  crossing them, which rises at the anterior edges of the anterior wings,
  and, running circularly, ends at the abdominal edges of the posterior.

{48}Fabricius cites the present figure amongst his synonyms of the common
English Eyed-hawk moth (Smerinthus ocellatus), notwithstanding its very
different habitat. It is evident, however, from the diversity in the
outline of the wings of this insect and other English species, and from the
circumstance of several species very closely allied to this being found in
America (two of which are figured by Abbot and Smith in "the Insects of
Georgia," pl. 25. and 26.), that Fabricius overlooked the minute characters
which distinguish these species, and confounded them under the name of
Ocellatus. Drury's insect very nearly approaches Sphinx Myops of Smith, but
differs in the markings, especially of the posterior edge of the wings, and
the colour of the posterior pair.

Sir J. E. Smith notices the very slight difference which exists between the
caterpillars of nearly allied species of Sphingidæ, compared with the
diversity in the larvæ of the genus Papilio of Linnæus.


PLATE XXVI.

[Illustration]

SPHINX FICUS.

Plate XXVI. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. SPHINX, _Auct._

  SPHINX FICUS. Alis anticis cinereo fuscoque nebulosis, maculâ apicali
  albidâ; posticis nigris basi fasciâque mediâ luteis angulo ani albo.
  (Expans. Alar. [male]. 5 unc.--[female]. 6 unc.)

  SYN. _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 800. 15. _Cramer_, _tab._ 246. _fig._ E.
  _Merian Ins. Surin. t._ 33. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 366. _No._ 31.
  _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2380. 15.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ ash-coloured. Head, thorax, abdomen, and anterior
  wings dark olive; the extremities of the latter ending in a point, where
  is situated a cream-coloured spot, close to the anterior edges, whose
  extremity runs to the tips; a patch of a dark cream colour is also placed
  on the external edges, joining to the lower corners. Posterior wings,
  next the body, dark cream-coloured; below this is a black bar, and
  another at the external edges, with a dark cream bar between them. The
  abdominal corners terminate in a point, which is of a fine white silvery
  hue.

  _Under Side._ Breast, abdomen, legs, and wings pale olive brown, with
  three faint indistinct lines crossing them from the anterior to the
  abdominal edges. The anterior wings having a faint whitish streak placed
  at the tips.


SMERINTHUS ASTYLUS.

Plate XXVI. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. SMERINTHUS, _Latr._ Laothoë, _Fabr._ (Syst. Gloss.) Sphinx,
  _Linn._

  SMERINTHUS ASTYLUS. Alis subangulatis cinnamoneo-roseis, anticarum apice
  strigisque subapicalibus fuscis, posticarum ocello coerulescenti.
  (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 10 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Astylus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: New York.

  {49}_Upper Side._ Antennæ reddish. Thorax and abdomen reddish cinnamon;
  having a dark line running from the head along the back to the tail.
  Anterior wings reddish cinnamon; having a dark apical margin, and a paler
  streak running circularly from the tips to the lower corners; where, at
  each of those places, is a yellowish indistinct mark. Posterior wings
  reddish cinnamon, paler at the base; near the abdominal corners is a
  round black spot, with an indistinct centre.

  _Under Side._ Breast, thighs, and abdomen cinnamon. Legs black. Wings
  nearly coloured as on the upper side; the pale streaks and yellow marks,
  at the tips and lower corners, being more distinct and plain on this
  side; the black spots on the posterior wings being wanting. Drury
  considered it as a distinct species from that in the foregoing plate.


SPHINX HYLÆUS.

Plate XXVI. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ.

  GENUS. SPHINX, _Auct._

  SPHINX HYLÆUS. Alis anticis fuscis margine interno apiceque variegatis;
  posticis nigris maculâ basali fasciâque mediâ transversâ cinereis.
  (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Hylæus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Cramer Ins. pl._ 107. _fig._
  C? _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 373. _No._ 53. _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2383.
  81.

  Sphinx Prini, _Abbott & Smith Ins. Georg. tab._ 35.

  HABITAT: New York.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ white within, brown without. Head, thorax, and
  abdomen rusty grey brown; the latter having on the sides of each ring a
  narrow white streak, and two small white spots on the upper part.
  Anterior wings rusty grey brown; having several dappled white marks
  dispersed on different parts, particularly at the shoulders and external
  edges; a narrow black line rises near the lower corners, running from
  thence to the anterior edges, and ending near the tips; cilia brown,
  spotted with white. Posterior wings black; cilia white, having some
  whitish marks thereon, particularly near the abdominal corners.

  _Under Side._ Breast and abdomen white. Legs brown. Wings brown; having
  two faint indented lines crossing them, near the tips and lower corners.
  Posterior wings brown, with some faint undulated dark lines crossing them
  from the anterior edges to the abdominal corners.

The caterpillar of this insect, observed by Abbot, feeds upon the evergreen
winter-berry, or gall-berry (Prinos glaber, Linn.), whence Sir J. E. Smith
altered the name of the species from Hylæus to Prini. It is of a pale green
colour, with six lateral oblique pink lines, the last of which extends to
the base of the nearly straight tail, which is of the same colour; the
chrysalis is chesnut, without any porrected tongue-case. One of these
caterpillars, observed by Abbot, went into the ground on the 17th of May,
and appeared as a moth on the 19th of June; whilst another buried itself on
the 25th of August, and remained in the earth until the 26th of April. The
caterpillar is subject to the attacks of a small Ichneumon, the larvæ of
which, when full grown, eat their way out of its body and spin themselves
up on the outside. The moth is occasionally seen sucking the blossoms of
gourds in the twilight, but is not common.


{50}PLATE XXVII.

[Illustration]

DEILEPHILA NESSUS.

Plate XXVII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. DEILEPHILA, _Ochs._ Spectrum P. _Scop._ Sphinx P. _Linn._

  DEILEPHILA NESSUS. Alis anticis cinerascentibus apice externo albido,
  posticis nigris fasciâ fulvâ, abdominis lateribus fulvis. (Expans. Alar.
  fere 5 unc.)

  SYN. Sphinx Nessus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Cramer Ins. tab._  226. _fig._
  D.

  Sphinx equestris, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 365. _No._ 29.

  HABITAT: Madras.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ white above, and brown beneath. Head, neck, and
  thorax olive brown, with an ash-coloured streak running on each side
  thereof. Abdomen, next the thorax, very dark, from whence a brown list
  runs along the upper part to the extremity; the sides being of a golden
  yellow. Anterior wings dark green next the shoulders, softening to a nut
  brown as it runs along the anterior edges; the tips cream-coloured, from
  whence run two faint lines to the middle of the posterior edges; and also
  a lightish bar running in the same direction. Along the external edges
  they are of a delicate, soft, nut brown colour, and near the middle of
  each is a small black spot, placed near the anterior edge. Posterior
  wings black next the body, but nut brown along the external edges (about
  half way); the abdominal corners and adjoining parts being cream colour,
  as are the cilia and anterior edges.

  _Under Side._ Breast, sides, and abdomen deep golden yellow; the middle
  of which and the legs are ash-coloured. Wings deep yellow. The anterior,
  next the body, greenish black, and cream-coloured next the tips. The
  posterior having several faint, dark, and undulated lines crossing them
  from the anterior to the abdominal edges.


GLAUCOPIS COARCTATA [female].

Plate XXVII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia? FAMILY: Ægeriidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. GLAUCOPIS, _Fabricius_. (syst. Gloss.) Zygæna, _Fabr. Olim._
  Sphinx P. _Drury_.

  GLAUCOPIS COARCTATA. Alis flavo-hyalinis, marginibus maculâque anticarum
  fuscis, abdomine basi coarctato, maculis aureo-coerulescentibus. (Expans.
  Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx coarctata, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Cramer Ins. tab._ 4. _f._
  F. G.

  Zygæna caudata, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 403. _No._ 58. _Gmel.
  Linn. S. N._ 2398. 147. _Pallas Spicel. Zool._ 1. _tab._ 2. _fig._ 8.
  [male].

  HABITAT: Bay of Honduras (_Drury_). "In America meridionali" (_Fabr._).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ pectinated, and thickest in the middle. Head black,
  with a blue spot in front. Neck blue. Thorax black, with an orange spot
  on each shoulder. Abdomen black; smallest next the thorax, with a row of
  golden blue spots on each side, and another at top; at the extremity is
  placed a hairy bristle, about a quarter the length of the abdomen. Wings
  yellowish, and transparent. The anterior having a black narrow border
  running round all their edges, except the anterior ones; and in the
  middle of each is an oblong black spot, joining to the anterior edge,
  which reaches almost half across the wing. Posterior wings with a black
  border along the abdominal edges and the upper corners; the anterior and
  external edges having none.

  _Under Side._ Palpi externally white, but internally black. Tongue curled
  up. Breast black, the sides being blue. Legs black. Thighs white within,
  and blue without. Abdomen, next the thorax, {51}white; the remainder
  being black, with four white spots on each side; that next the anus being
  the smallest. Wings as on the upper side; except the anterior, which have
  a yellowish border running along the posterior edges.

The extremity of the body of the male is furnished with a villose tail, as
long as the body.


AGLAOPE PLUMIPES.

Plate XXVII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia? FAMILY: Ægeriidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. AGLAOPE, _Latr._ Sphinx, _Drury_.

  AGLAOPE PLUMIPES. Nigricans, thorace maculis abdomineque fasciis albis,
  alis immaculatis, tibiis posticis plumosis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx plumipes, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Bay of Honduras.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black, but whitish at the tips; being thickest in
  the middle. Head black, with a white spot in front between the antennæ.
  Neck black, with three white spots on it. Thorax black, with several
  white spots thereon. Abdomen black, with several narrow white rings.
  Wings dark brown, immaculate.

  _Under Side._ Palpi white. Tongue spiral. Breast black, spotted with
  white on its sides. Abdomen black, having one broad white ring on it, and
  several narrow ones. Legs long and black. Thighs white. Hinder legs
  furnished with tufts of hairs of a black colour, placed in such manner as
  to resemble the shaft of an arrow; the legs, above and below these tufts,
  being white. Wings coloured as on the upper side.


DEILEPHILA ALECTO.

Plate XXVII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. DEILEPHILA, _Ochs._ Spectrum P. _Scop._ Sphinx P. _Linn._

  DEILEPHILA ALECTO. Alis anticis griseis, strigis nonnullis obliquis
  apicalibus obscurioribus; posticis rubris basi margineque atris. (Expans.
  Alar. 3 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Alecto, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 802. _No._ 20. _Cramer, tab._
  137. _fig._ D. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 376. _No._ 59. _Gmel. Linn. S.
  N._ 2384. 20.

  HABITAT: Madras.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ white above, brown underneath; hooked at the
  extremities. Head and thorax olive brown, with a white stripe running on
  each side from the front to the shoulders. Abdomen greyish brown; having
  a black spot on each side, near the thorax. Anterior wings soft olive
  brown; having a dark line running from the tips to the posterior edges,
  near the middle. Posterior wings, next the shoulders, black; the
  remainder being red, except the abdominal edges and corners, which are
  cream-coloured; and a brown margin running along the external edges.

  _Under Side._ Breast, sides, legs, and abdomen yellowish clay-coloured.
  Wings dark orange, margined with faint brown.


{52}PLATE XXVIII.

[Illustration]

DEILEPHILA CLOTHO.

Plate XXVIII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. DEILEPHILA, _Ochs._ Spectrum P. _Scop._ Sphinx P. _Linn._

  DEILEPHILA CLOTHO. Alis cinereo-olivaceis, lineâ rectâ e margine postico
  ad apicem ductâ nigrâ; posticis nigris externè fuscis, angulo ani
  pallidiori. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc.)

  SYN. Sphinx Clotho. _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Sphinx Butus, _Cram. tab._ 152. A.

  Sphinx Gnoma, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 376. _No._ 61. (nec Clotho,
  _Fabr. loc. cit. No._ 60.)

  HABITAT: Madras.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ cream-coloured. Head brown olive, with a
  cream-coloured stripe running on each side to the abdomen. Thorax brown
  olive. Abdomen paler, having a black spot on each side near the thorax.
  Anterior wings light olive brown, with a line running from the tips to
  the middle of the posterior edges, and a small black spot next the
  shoulders. Posterior wings, next the body, black; but along the external
  edges brown, and palest at the abdominal corners.

  _Under Side._ Tongue curled up. Breast and sides cream-coloured. Abdomen
  darker. Wings yellowish clay-coloured and freckled. The anterior having a
  dark cloud in the middle of each, near the shoulders; and the posterior
  having a faint indented line crossing them from the anterior to the
  abdominal edges.


ÆGERIA TIBIALIS.

Plate XXVIII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia? FAMILY: Ægeriidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. ÆGERIA, _Fabr._ Sesia, _Latr._ Sphinx, _Drury_. Zygæna, _Fabr._

  ÆGERIA TIBIALIS. Alis anticis fuscis immaculatis, posticis hyalinis;
  tibiis posticis plumosis testaceis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 1½ lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx tibialis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Zygæna tibialis, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 404. _No._ 62. _Gmel. Linn.
  S. N._ 2399. 151.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black, slightly pectinated; being thickest towards
  the extremities, and ending in a point; where, by the assistance of a
  microscope, may be observed a small tuft of hairs. Head ash-coloured.
  Thorax and abdomen dark hair colour; the latter being encircled with
  small white rings. Anterior wings narrow, and of a dark hair colour,
  without any marks or spots. Posterior hyaline. Cilia dark brown.

  _Under Side._ Palpi yellowish. Tongue curled up. Breast and abdomen
  yellowish, having some grey hairs placed between them. Fore and middle
  legs dark brown. Hinder legs remarkably hairy; being scarlet on the out
  sides, and black on the inner and under sides, with some white tufts
  intermixed. Wings as on the upper side.


{53}GLAUCOPIS PHOLUS.

Plate XXVIII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Zygænidæ.

  GENUS. GLAUCOPIS, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ (Zygæna, _Fabr. olim._)

  GLAUCOPIS PHOLUS. Atra, alis omnibus basi fulvis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 3
  lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Pholus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Zygæna Pholus, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 406. _No._ 27. _Gmel. Linn. S.
  N._ 2399. 155. (Sphinx).

  HABITAT: New England, New York, Maryland, Virginia, Carolina.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black, and thickest in the middle. Head, eyes,
  thorax, and abdomen black. Shoulders and half the superior wings deep
  orange yellow; the apical half black. Posterior wings, next the body,
  paler yellow; the remaining two-thirds black.

  _Under Side._ Tongue curled up. Breast, sides, abdomen, and legs black.
  Wings coloured as on the upper side, but not quite so brilliant.


GLAUCOPIS? ASTREAS.

Plate XXVIII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Zygænidæ.

  GENUS. GLAUCOPIS, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ (Zygæna, _Fabr. olim._)

  GLAUCOPIS? ASTREAS. Alis subhyalinis albidis, maculâ mediâ apiceque
  fuscis, thorace nigro maculato, abdomine roseo. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc.)

  SYN. Sphinx Astreas, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Noctua Astrea, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 2. _p._ 19. _No._ 35. _Gmel. Linn.
  S. N._ 2534. 593.

  HABITAT: Bengal (_Drury_). New Holland (_Fabricius_).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ filiform, light brown, being thickest in the
  middle. Head cream-coloured, spotted with black. Neck the same, with a
  red cleft in the middle, and a black spot on each side. Thorax
  cream-coloured, spotted with black. Abdomen scarlet. Anterior wings
  transparent, whereof a third next the tips is opake and of a light hair
  colour, running about half way up the anterior edge of each wing; where
  is a streak of the same colour running half way across the wing. Anterior
  and posterior edges dark cream-coloured. Posterior wings transparent, the
  anterior edges and upper corners being dark cream-coloured.

  _Under Side._ Palpi white externally, but red within; the extremities
  being black. Tongue curled up. Breast white, with a black spot on each
  side. Legs red. Under sides of the thighs white. Abdomen cream colour;
  having a narrow white streak on each side, whereon are several black
  spots. Wings coloured as on the upper side.

This insect is evidently the type of a subgenus, sufficiently distinct from
any of the preceding.


{54}SYNTOMIS FENESTRATA.

Plate XXVIII. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia? FAMILY: Zygænidæ.

  GENUS. SYNTOMIS, _Illig. Latr._ Zygæna, _Fabr._ Sphinx, _Drury_.

  SYNTOMIS FENESTRATA. Alis fuscis, anticarum maculis quatuor, posticarum
  unicâ hyalinis, abdomine fulvo nigroque annulato. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 2
  lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx fenestrata, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Zygæna fenestrata, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 392. _No._ 21. _Gmel.
  Linn. S. N._ 2394. 119. (Sphinx).

  HABITAT: China.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ filiform, black, white at the tips, and thickest in
  the middle. Head tawny yellow. Neck black. Thorax and abdomen tawny
  yellow; the former having three black spots thereon, and the latter
  encircled with six black rings. Anterior wings having four transparent
  spots in each; the two next the shoulders being divided only by the
  nerves, in one of which appears two dark spots, one next the shoulders,
  and the other a quarter of an inch from it, crossing the transparent
  part. All the edges of these wings are very dark brown, the external and
  posterior ones being broadest. Posterior wings also having one large
  transparent spot in each; all the edges of these wings brown, the
  external and anterior ones being broadest, nerves yellow.

  _Under Side._ Tongue curled up. Sides, breast, and abdomen yellow, with
  black rings. Legs dark brown and yellow. Wings as on the upper side.


GLAUCOPIS? PHALÆNOIDES.

Plate XXVIII. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Zygænidæ.

  GENUS. GLAUCOPIS, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ (zygæna, _Fabr. Olim._)

  GLAUCOPIS? PHALÆNOIDES. Alis anticis cinereis apicem versus
  subpellucidis, posticis parvis truncatis maculâ basali obscurâ. (Expans.
  Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Phalænoides, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Bay of Honduras.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ pectinated and grey, being smallest at the
  extremity, which is white. Head grey. Neck white. Thorax ash-coloured.
  Abdomen pale yellow. Anterior wings ash-coloured next the shoulders, and
  along the anterior and posterior edges; the remaining parts being nearly
  transparent. Posterior wings singularly shaped; ash-coloured next the
  body, but the anterior parts are subpellucid. On these parts is placed a
  small triangular spot, of different colours when held in different
  directions, in some being yellow, in others ash-coloured.

  _Under Side._ Tongue curled up. Breast yellow. Sides and abdomen white.
  Anterior wings appearing more pellucid than above. Anterior and external
  edges white; and near the shoulders is placed a white oval spot on each.
  Posterior wings ash-coloured, but round the edges are white; appearing to
  be less pellucid than on the upper side. The triangular spot is scarcely
  discernible on this side.


{55}PLATE XXIX.

[Illustration]

SPHINX ACHEMON.

Plate XXIX. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ.

  GENUS. SPHINX, _Auct._

  SPHINX ACHEMON. Alis anticis griseo-fuscis maculis tribus marginalibus et
  apicalibus brunneis, posticis roseis externe fuscis, maculis nigris
  submarginalibus. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Achemon, _Drury_, _Append. vol._ 2.

  Sphinx Crantor? _Cramer_, _tab._ 104. _fig._ A. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 375.
  58.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ reddish ash-coloured. Head and thorax greyish
  brown, with a large patch of a deep chocolate on each shoulder. Abdomen
  grey brown, but lighter on the sides. Anterior wings, next the shoulders,
  grey brown; but of a dark olive brown towards the tips and external
  edges. Near the middle of the posterior edges is placed a large square
  spot, of a deep chocolate colour: at the lower corners is a small
  triangular one; and a third somewhat larger than the last at the tips.
  Posterior wings rose-coloured next the shoulders and anterior edges, but
  grey-brown along the external edges; having a short row of black spots
  lying parallel thereto, and rising from the abdominal corners.

  _Under Side._ Breast and abdomen grey brown, but lighter than on the
  upper side. Wings rusty red, immaculate, except a dark border running
  along the external edges; and also a faint narrow line crossing them,
  from the anterior to the abdominal edges.


MACROGLOSSA PASSALUS.

Plate XXIX. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. MACROGLOSSA, _Ochs._ Sesia P. _Fabr._ Sphinx P. _Drury_.

  MACROGLOSSA PASSALUS. Alis anticis badio fuscis, in medio fasciâ latâ
  pallidiori, posticis luteis margine lato fusco. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

  SYN. Sphinx Passalus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Sphinx Pandora, _Fab. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 380. _No._ 6.

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). India orientalis (_Fabricius_).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ brown, and thickest near their extremities. Head
  and thorax greyish-brown, with a dark line running down the middle.
  Abdomen red brown, with two yellow spots on each side. Tail broad and
  hairy. Anterior wings, next the body, dark chocolate, occupying a third
  part; next to this they are of a light red brown, growing darker as it
  approaches the tips. Inferior wings yellow next the shoulders; the apical
  half being of a fine dark chocolate.

  _Under Side._ Head white. Tongue curled up. Breast and thighs yellow
  clay-coloured. Legs, sides, and abdomen dark clay-coloured. Wings, next
  the body, yellow clay-coloured; the remaining parts being red brown, with
  a faint darker border along the external edges.


{56}GLAUCOPIS? PULCHRA.

Plate XXIX. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia? FAMILY: Zygænidæ.

  GENUS. GLAUCOPIS, _Fabr. Latr._ Sphinx, _Drury_.

  GLAUCOPIS PULCHRA. Alis anticis nigris, strigis sex fulvis; posticis
  nigris basi fulvis; abdomine fulvo annulato. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Sphinx Pulchra, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: China.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black, and smallest at their extremities. Head
  yellow. Thorax the same, streaked longitudinally with black. Abdomen
  black, having one ring near the middle; the extremity of the tail being
  yellow. Anterior wings black, with six yellow spots and streaks on each;
  one streak being the longest, running parallel and near to the posterior
  edge; another is placed on the edge itself. The space between these
  streaks and the anterior edge is occupied by the remaining four spots;
  the foremost being much narrower than the others. Posterior wings yellow
  next the shoulders, with a broad black margin running along the external
  edges.

  _Under Side._ Tongue curled up. Breast and sides yellow. Legs black.
  Thighs yellow. Abdomen yellow; the extremity black, with two yellow
  rings. Wings as on the upper side, but the colours less brilliant.


SPHINX BRONTES.

Plate XXIX. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ.

  GENUS. SPHINX, _Auct._

  SPHINX BRONTES. Alis griseis puncto discoidali albido, strigisque
  transversis undatis fuscis, posticis nigricantibus margine interno et ad
  angulum ani pallidioribus. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc.)

  SYN. Sphinx Brontes, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: New York.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ white within, brown outside. Head and neck dark
  brown. Thorax and abdomen grey; on the hinder part of the former are two
  black spots, and on each ring of the latter are two small black streaks,
  placed on its sides, down to the tail. Anterior wings grey, with a white
  spot in the middle of each near the anterior edges, and a small white
  cloud next the tips; having several curved and indented black lines
  crossing them from the anterior to the posterior edges, some being faint,
  others very distinct; cilia brown, spotted with white. Posterior wings
  very dark brown; but along the abdominal edges and corners grey; cilia
  white and brown.

  _Under Side._ Breast white. Legs mottled. Abdomen white, with four
  reddish spots placed along the middle. Anterior wings dark grey brown,
  without any marks on them, except at the tips, where is placed a narrow
  white streak joining to the anterior edges. Posterior wings dark grey
  brown; but next the abdominal edges white, without any marks on them,
  except two faint lines crossing them from the anterior edges to the
  abdominal corners.


{57}PLATE XXX.

[Illustration]

TRICHIUS (ARCHIMEDIUS) DELTA.

Plate XXX. fig. 1, natural size--fig. 2, magnified.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Cetoniidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. TRICHIUS, _Fabr._ Scarabæus P. _Drury_. SUBGENUS: Archimedius,
  _Kirby in Zool. Journ. No._ 10.

  TRICHIUS (ARCHIMEDIUS) DELTA. Thorace nigro, triangulo albo, elytris
  testaceis puncto fusco. (Long. Corp. 5 lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Delta, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Syst. Ent. p._ 41.
  7. _Syst. El._ II. _p._ 133. 14. (Trichius D.) _Oliv. Ent._ 1. 6. _p._
  64. _t._ 11. _fig._ 107.

  HABITAT: Virginia, North America.

  Head rather large and quadrangular; black and cream-coloured on the upper
  part, red brown near the mouth. Eyes large, black, and prominent. Antennæ
  red brown. Thorax margined with cream colour, the extreme edge being
  black; having a black circular patch thereon, and a cream-coloured
  triangular mark within it. Scutellum cream, surrounded or edged with
  black; having a black streak down its middle, and just below it the
  suture is cream colour. Elytra dull orange, with a black spot near the
  middle of each. Body and abdomen ash-coloured. Thighs and tibiæ tawny
  orange. Tarsi 5-jointed; the hinder ones being remarkably long.


CHASMODIA? VIRENS.

Plate XXX. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Rutelidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. CHASMODIA? _MacLeay_. Cetonia P. _Fabr._ Scarabæus P. _Drury_.

  CHASMODIA? VIRENS. Ferrugineo-flavescens, elytris virescentibus, sterno
  cornuto. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus virens, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Herbst. Col._ III. _p._
  162. _t._ 27. _f._ 2. (Melolontha v.)

  Cetonia smaragdula, _Fabr. Syst. Eleuth._ II. _p._ 143. 44. _Syst. Ent.
  p._ 45. _No._ 11. _Schon. Syn. Ins._ 3. 157. (Hoplia sm.)

  HABITAT: South America, _Schonherr_. "America, Mus. Dr. Hunter"
  (_Fabr._).

  Head and thorax brown olive, the former margined. Elytra olive, not
  covering the abdomen. Anus yellowish brown. Abdomen dark brown, the sides
  and middle being lighter. Legs dirty olive. Sternum long, extending
  beyond the fore legs. Tarsi short.


CETONIA (GNATHOCERA) AFRICANA.

Plate XXX. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Cetoniidæ.

  GENUS. CETONIA, _Fabricius_. Scarabæus P. _Drury_. SUBGENUS: Gnathocera,
  _Kirby, Gory & Percheron_, (mon. Ceton.).

  CETONIA (GNATHOCERA) AFRICANA. Ænea nitens, capitis spinâ incumbente,
  sterno porrecto, elytris punctis nigris, striatis. (Long. Corp. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Africanus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Syst. Ent. p._
  48. 25. _Syst. El._ 2. _p._ 149. 73. (Cetonia Afr.) _Oliv. Ent._ 1. 6.
  _p._ 31. _t._ 8. _f._ 70.

  Cetonia Smaragdina, _Herbst. Col._ III. _p._ 258. 47. _t._ 32. _f._ 5.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  Entirely of a fine green colour, except the tarsi, which are black. The
  colour, which is very brilliant, appears not to be reflected from the
  surface, but seems as if covered with a fine transparent {58}varnish.
  Head quadrangular, margined and furrowed. Thorax smooth and finely
  polished. Scutellum large and triangular. Elytra slightly striated, with
  punctures, and margined. Sternum long and slender. Tibiæ with two spurs.

This species, according to Mr. Smeathman, frequents flowers; thus
resembling in its habits the British species of the family to which it
belongs.


DYNASTES ÆGEON.

Plate XXX. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Dynastidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. DYNASTES, _MacLeay_. Geotrupes, _Fabr._ Scarabæus P. _Linn._
  Scarabæus, _Latreille_.

  DYNASTES ÆGEON. Rufus, thoracis cornu brevi incurvo subtus barbato,
  capitis recurvo subulato. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Ægeon, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Ent. Syst. p._ 4.
  _No._ 4. _Syst. Eleuth._ 1. _p._ 5. _No._ 8. (Geotrupes Æg.) _Oliv. Ent._
  1. 3. _p._ 26. _No._ 26. _t._ 1. _f._ 4. _Jabl. Nat. Syst._ 1. _p._ 228.
  _No._ 6. _t._ 1. _f._ 4. _Sch. Syn. Ins._ 1. _p._ 4. _No._ 13.

  HABITAT: "In Indiis" (_Fabricius_). Peruvia (_Dejean._).

  Head small and black, from whence springs a horn that bends towards the
  body. Eyes red brown. Thorax red brown, with a black margin; having a
  short thick horn issuing from it, that inclines towards the head: it has
  also a faint black spot on each side. Scutellum black and triangular.
  Elytra red brown; the margins and suture being black. Abdomen black,
  covered with olive brown hairs. Legs black. Hinder and fore tibiæ with
  three short spines, placed on the external part of each; and with two
  spurs, those of the middle ones being shortest. Ungues having a single
  hair issuing from between the hooks, forked at the end.


DYNASTES GERYON.

Plate XXX. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Dynastidæ.

  GENUS. DYNASTES, _MacLeay_. Geotrupes, _Fabr._ Scarabæus P. _Linn._

  DYNASTES GERYON. Thorace excavato tricorni; lateralibus compressis
  unidentatis; capitis recurvo sumplici. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 7½ lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Geryon, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Syst. Ent._ 1. _p._
  9. _No._ 21. _Syst. Eleuth._ 1. _p._ 11. _No._ 31. (Geotrupes G.)
  _Schonh. Syn. Ins._ 1. _p._ 10. 41. _Oliv. Ent._ 1. 3. _p._ 30. _t._ 24.
  _No._ 208.

  HABITAT: "In Indiis" (_Fabr._).

  Head small, and margined in front; being furnished with a single horn
  that bends towards the thorax. Thorax margined, and dark brown (the
  general colour of the insect); being armed with three remarkable horns,
  whereof two are placed in front, one on each side; being very strong and
  broad one way, but thin the other, and branched at their extremities. The
  other horn is placed on the hinder part of the thorax, being short and
  thick at bottom, but sharp and pointed at top; springing from a
  protuberance that almost covers the escutcheon, which is small and
  triangular. All these horns are immoveable, and their situations occasion
  a most remarkable hollowness or cavity in the thorax, which {59}is smooth
  and shining; but the protuberance, next the scutellum, is full of
  punctures, and the edge notched. Elytra shining, punctured, and slightly
  striated. Abdomen and legs red brown, and hairy; the hinder ones being
  remarkably thick and strong, with two broad tibial spurs. The middle and
  fore tibiæ are strongly dentated, each being furnished with a thick spur.
  Anterior tibiæ with the first joint long and slender, but in the middle
  and hinder tibiæ, exceeding thick and strong.


PLATE XXXI.

[Illustration]

LAMIA (STERNOTOMIS) MIRABILIS.

Plate XXXI. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Lamiidæ.

  GENUS. LAMIA, _Fabr._ Cerambyx P. _Linn._ (SUBGENUS: Sternotomis,
  _Perch._)

  LAMIA (STERNOTOMIS) MIRABILIS. Nigra, thorace spinoso, antice fasciis,
  elytris punctis viridibus, his basi mucronatis. (Long. Corp. 10½ lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx Mirabilis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Lamia pulchra, _Fabr. Syst. Eleuth._ 2. 285. 25. _Syst. Ent._ 171. 6.
  (nec C. pulchra, _Drury_, _vol._ 1. _t._ 32. _f._ 6.) _Oliv. Ent._ 488.
  115. _t._ 22. _f._ 167.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  Varied with beautiful green and black colours, the former exceedingly
  bright. Head green, with two others running downwards from the eyes. Jaws
  with the upper part green, the extremities black, with four green palpi.
  Antennæ black, ten-jointed, the basal joint being thickest. Thorax green,
  with black streaks running round it, the sides terminating in an obtuse
  point. Scutellum very small, black, and triangular. Elytra black and
  margined, beautifully streaked and spotted with green: the former running
  across the anterior part, the latter placed near the extremities. Abdomen
  green, with black rings. Legs green, streaked with black. Tarsi green at
  top, brown beneath.


LAMIA (AGAPHANTIA) BIPUNCTATA.

Plate XXXI. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Lamiidæ.

  GENUS. LAMIA, _Fabr._ Cerambyx P. _Linn._ (SUBGENUS: Agaphantia, _Serv._)

  LAMIA (AGAPHANTIA) BIPUNCTATA. Grisea; thorace spinoso, frontis cornu
  porrecto apice emarginato incurvo, elytris puncto nigro posticé flavo.
  (Long. Corp. fere 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx bipunctatus. _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Lamia fronticornis, _Fabr. Sp. Ins._ 1. 216. 2. _Syst. Eleuth._ 2. 281.
  3. _Oliv. Ent._ 4. 67. 79. 163. _t._ 8. _f._ 54.

  Cerambyx notatus, _Voet. Col. Ed. Panz._ 3. 32. 46. _t._ 11. _f._ 46.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  General colour brownish grey. Head deep and grey; one of the sexes having
  a remarkable thick and strong tubercle issuing from the middle of the
  face, terminating in two black acute angles, like horns. Mouth armed with
  two strong black jaws, and four grey palpi. Antennæ grey, and longer than
  the insect. Thorax grey, the sides terminating in a thick spine; having a
  broad, white streak crossing it on each side, and extending along the
  abdomen, beyond the middle legs, narrowing to its extremity. Scutellum
  small and triangular. Elytra grey and margined, having two round black
  spots on each, the {60}largest placed about the middle near the suture;
  the other (a small one) is on this side joined to the margin. A
  cream-coloured spot is situated just below the former, which extends from
  thence to the lateral margin. Legs grey, without any spines or marks.


LAMIA (ACANTHOCINUS) SPINOSA.

Plate XXXI. fig. 3.

  _Order_: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Lamiidæ.

  GENUS. LAMIA, _Fabr._ Cerambyx P. _Linn._ (SUBGENUS: Acanthocinus,
  _Meg._)

  LAMIA (ACANTHOCINUS) SPINOSA. Fusca, griseo-variegata; thorace spinis
  quatuor, elytrisque seriebus quatuor longitudinalibus spinarum. (Long.
  Corp. 1 unc. 1½ lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx spinosus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Sch. Syn. Ins._ 3. 381.
  (Lamia s.)

  HABITAT: (----? _Drury_). South America?

  Head and antennæ brown, the latter about the length of the insect. Thorax
  lighter brown and rough, terminating on the sides in two very long and
  sharp spines, bending upwards; on the middle are two others that are more
  obtuse and thick, with a small bump or rising behind them. Scutellum
  black. Elytra brown on the middle and sides, but at their extremities
  grey, terminating in two long spines. A row of small but sharp spines
  runs on each side the suture, from the middle almost to the scutellum;
  and along the sides runs another row from the anterior corners almost to
  the extremities. Six others are placed on each side the scutellum,
  running towards the middle in regular order; and on the remaining parts
  of the wing cases are placed a great number of small pustules, that are
  to be discerned only by the help of a microscope. Legs brown. Tibiæ
  marked with grey.


LAMIA PUNCTATOR.

Plate XXXI. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Lamiidæ.

  GENUS. LAMIA, _Fabr._ Cerambyx P. _Linn._

  LAMIA PUNCTATOR. Atra; elytris albo punctatis, antennis longis, thorace
  spinoso. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Lamia punctator, _Fabr. Sp. Ins._ 1. 221. 30. _Syst. Eleuth._ 2.
  298. 95. _Oliv. Ent._ 4. 69. 88. _t._ 8. 50. _a. b._

  Cerambyx chinensis, _Forster Cent. Ins._ 39.

  Cerambyx farinosus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. (nec _Linn. S. Nat._ 1. 2.
  626.)

  HABITAT: China.

  General colour black. Head and antennæ black, the latter longer than the
  insect; the seven last articulations being black and white. Thorax rough
  and uneven at the top; the sides terminating in a thick, strong spine.
  Scutellum small and grey. Elytra shining black; the anterior part being
  rough with small pustules, having a number of small white spots sprinkled
  all over them. Abdomen greyish. Legs black. Tarsi grey, the under-part
  being brown.


{61}CERAMBYX (ROSALIA) ALPINA.

Plate XXXI. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Cerambycidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. CERAMBYX, _Linn. Drury_. (SUBGENUS: Rosalia, _Serville_.)

  CERAMBYX (ROSALIA) ALPINA. Subcoerulescens, elytris fasciâ mediâ
  maculisque quatuor atris. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx alpinus, _Linn. Fn. Su._ 654. _Syst. N._ 1. 2. _p._ 628.
  35. _Fabr. Syst. Eleuth._ 2. 272. 30. _Panzer F. I. G._ 2. 22. _Serville
  Ann. Soc. Ent. de France_, 2. 561. (Rosalia a.)

  HABITAT: Hungary (_Drury_). The mountainous districts of Continental
  Europe.

  General colour beautiful blueish grey, partaking much of a lead colour.
  Head grey. Eyes black. Antennæ longer than the insect, grey; the ends of
  the first four joints having tufts of black hair surrounding them. Thorax
  grey and cylindrical, with a small black spot at the top; the sides
  having a short spine, and a little swelling beneath it. Scutellum small
  and triangular. Elytra grey and margined, with three beautiful black
  spots, like velvet, on each; the middle one being largest, and crossing
  the wing cases entirely, the smaller one being placed near the anus. Legs
  blueish grey, but at the tips of the femora and tibiæ black. Tarsi ash
  grey at top, underneath brown.


PLATE XXXII.

[Illustration]

CETONIA MARGINATA.

Plate XXXII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Cetoniidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. CETONIA, _Fabricius_. Scarabæus P. _Drury_.

  CETONIA MARGINATA. Glabra, atra, thoracis elytrorumque marginibus rufis.
  (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 1½ lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus marginatus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Syst. Ent. p._
  46. 15. _Syst. El._ II. _p._ 145. 50. (Cetonia m.) _Oliv. Ent._ 1. 6.
  _p._ 26. _t._ 5. _f._ 34. _Palisot de Bauvois Ins. d'Afr. & d'Amer._ 1.
  11. _p._ 27. _t._ 5. _f._ 1. & 2 _var. De Geer Ins._ iv. _t._ 19. _f._
  10.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  Head small, squarish, and margined in front and the sides; shining black.
  Thorax and elytra soot-coloured and velvety, being surrounded along the
  sides with an orange border. Scutellum triangular, and rather large.
  Abdomen and breast black. Sternum small. Abdominal scales small, but
  distinct. Anterior tibiæ with three spurs, the others with two. Tarsal
  joints spined within, excepting those belonging to the fore legs, which
  are unarmed.

According to Mr. Smeathman, this beetle frequently settles on the thatch of
houses, whence he is of opinion, that it is fond of dried palm leaves,
"where it deposits its eggs." Afzelius however, who subsequently studied
the Entomology and Botany of Sierra Leone with great attention, says,
"Inveni hanc speciem in Sierra Leona mensibus Aprilis et præcipue Majo
copiose in Cassia rugosa, mihi, et in foliis Ficus oblongæ, mihi. Eam in
Jatropha Curcas (non autem Gorcas, ut ait Fabricius) nunquam observare
licuit. Mas abdomine subtus medio sulcato, femina medio convexo." (Schonh.
Syn. Ins. iii. p. 128.)


{62}MELOLONTHA OCCIDENTALIS.

Plate XXXII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Melonthidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. MELOLONTHA, _Fabricius, &c._ Scarabæus P. _Linnæus_.

  MELOLONTHA OCCIDENTALIS. Testaceus, thorace pubescente, elytris lineis
  quatuor parallelis, albis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 1½ lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus occidentalis, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 11. _p._ 555. 62.
  _Herbst. Col._ III. _p._ 72. 19. _t._ 23. _f._ 8. _Sch. Syn. Ins._ 3.
  169. 16. (Melolontha occ.) (Excl. Syn. _Fabricius_.) _De Jean Cat. Col.
  Ed._ 2. _p._ 159.

  HABITAT: Jamaica (_Drury_). Carolina (_Linn._).

  Head red brown, squarish, and margined, covered with short grey hairs.
  Thorax red brown, covered with short grey hairs, and with a white streak
  crossing it in the middle. Scutellum small, white, and triangular. Elytra
  red brown and margined, each being marked with three longitudinal white
  lines; one placed near the lateral margin, the other two in the middle.
  Suture white. Anus extending beyond the wing cases. Abdomen red brown,
  with grey rings. Legs red brown. The anterior tibiæ are furnished with
  three spurs, one sharp and small, the others thick and blunt. The other
  tibiæ are furnished with two sharp spurs. Ungues having an immoveable
  smaller one between them, and also two small spines, like hairs,
  springing from its root or base.


GOLIATHUS MICANS.

Plate XXXII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Cetoniidæ.

  GENUS. GOLIATHUS, _de Lamarck_. Cetonia P. _Fabr._ Scarabæus P. _Drury_.

  GOLIATHUS MICANS. Viridis nitens, clypeo porrecto recurvo bifido, tibiis
  anticis internè serratis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Micans, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Syst. Ent. p._ 42.
  _No._ 1. (Cetonia m.) _Syst. El._ II. _p._ 136. 6. _Oliv. Ent._ 1. 6.
  _t._ 1. _f._ 2. _a. b. Herbst. Col._ III. _p._ 201. 3. _t._ 28. _f._ 3.
  _Guérin. Icon. R. An. Ins._ _pl._ 26. _f._ 5. _Gory & Percheron Mon.
  Ceton. pl._ 25. _f._ 1.

  HABITAT: Calabar, on the West Coast of Africa, about 5 or 6° North Lat.
  (_Drury_). Senegal (_Gory_).

  Head green and nearly square; the surface irregular and uneven. The
  corners are pointed, forming two black obtuse angles. From the front of
  the head issues a small black and thick protuberance, like a horn, that
  divides into two branches, each of which terminates in a sharp point. All
  the remaining parts, except the tarsi, are of a fine lively green,
  differing in shades according to the manner in which it is held to the
  light; and appearing to be so highly polished, that the colour seems
  reflected from a part beneath the surface. Scutellum large and
  triangular. Sternum small. Abdominal scales small and close. The fore
  legs are very long and slender, the tibiæ being dentated. Elytra having
  two small swellings near their extremities, and furnished at the suture
  with two short thick spines; the anus extending beyond them. Anterior
  tarsi having a small tuft of brown hair placed on the last joints, next
  the ungues.


{63}HOPLIA COERULEA.

Plate XXXII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Melolonthidæ,
  _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. HOPLIA, _Illiger_. Melolontha p. _Fabricius_. Scarabæus p.
  _Drury_.

  HOPLIA COERULIA. Supra coeruleo, subtus argenteo-squamosa nitens, clypeo
  integro. (Long. Corp. circ. 5 lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus coeruleus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Herbst. Col._ III.
  _p._ 121. 73.

  Scarabæus farinosus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 555.

  Melolontha farinosa, _Fabr. Ent. Syst. p._ 38. 31. _Syst. Eleuth._ II.
  177. 29. _Panzer Faun. Ins. Germ._ 28. 16. _Guérin Icon. R. An. Ins. t._
  25. (Hoplia far.)

  Melolontha squamosa, _Olivier Ent._ 1. 5. _p._ 66. 90. _t._ 2. _f._ 14.
  a. c. (nec. _Fabr._)

  Hoplia formosa, _Latr. Gen. Cr. & Ins._ 2. _p._ 116. 2. _Schon. Syn.
  Ins._ 3. 158. (errore typic. pro farinosa.)

  HABITAT: South of Europe, France (_Drury_).

  All the upper parts of this insect are of a beautiful brilliant sky blue.
  The under parts are of a silvery pale green. Head somewhat quadrangular,
  and margined. Thorax and upper parts covered with a short fine down or
  hair. Scutellum triangular. Elytra margined, and at their extremities
  having two tubercles, the anus extending beyond them. All the under parts
  are covered with short hair, like down, of a silvery green colour.
  Abdominal scales large and distinct. Sternum not produced. Tarsi red
  brown, the posterior having only a single unguis.

Taken in the greatest profusion near Sevres by M. A. Gory.


CETONIA CORDATA.

Plate XXXII. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Cetoniidæ.

  GENUS. CETONIA, _Fabricius, &c._ Scarabæus p. _Linn. &c._

  CETONIA CORDATA. Testacea, thorace lineis punctisque duobus, elytris
  maculis quatuor transversis nigris. (Long. Corp. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus cordatus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. (1773).

  Cetonia olivacea, _Fabr. Syst. Ent. p._ 47. 26. _Syst. El._ II. _p._ 147.
  59. _Oliv. Ent._ 16. _p._ 37. 41. _t._ 8. _f._ 69. a.

  Cetonia Tigris, _Herbst. Col._ III. _p._ 243. 30. _t._ 30. _f._ 8.

  HABITAT: New York.

  Head sooty black, having a cordate mark of a dark orange brown colour.
  Thorax orange brown, with two black marks crossing it, and a black
  lateral spot. Scutellum triangular and orange brown. Elytra orange brown,
  with four black bars, of different shapes, crossing them, and reaching
  almost from side to side; the first being situated next the thorax, and
  interrupted by the escutcheon, the margin and suture being black. Anus
  extending beyond the wing cases. Abdomen orange brown, with small black
  rings. Sternum short and yellow. Abdominal scales small and close. Legs
  orange brown.

Mr. Smeathman informed Mr. Drury that this insect, in its natural state, is
black and yellow, and not black and orange-brown, as described above; its
yellow colour soon fading after death, so that it seldom arrives in Europe
in its natural colours.


{64}PLATE XXXIII.

[Illustration]

BARIDIUS? OVALIS.

Plate XXXIII. fig. 1. natural size--2. magnified.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Rhyncophora. FAMILY: Curculionidæ. SUBFAMILY:
  Cholides.

  GENUS. BARIDIUS? _Schonherr._ Baris, _Germar_, _Dejean_. Curculio p.
  _Drury_.

  BARIDIUS? OVALIS. Fuscus, thoracis marginibus, elytrorumque basi et
  maculis quatuor lateralibus transversis albidis. (Long. Corp. lin. 5.)

  SYN. Curculio ovalis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (Exclus. Syn. _Linn._)

  HABITAT: Jamaica (_Drury_).

  Head small, round, and black, being furnished with a beak as long as the
  thorax. Antennæ inserted near the end of the beak, consisting apparently
  of nine articulations, that next the beak being longest. Thorax dark
  brown, the sides cream-coloured. Elytra dark brown, with three large
  cream spots on each, placed lengthways. Legs black, with cream spots and
  hairs on them. Each of the femora is furnished with a single spine.

Drury has incorrectly given this West Indian insect as identical with the
northern European species, Curculio ovalis of Linnæus. Not having seen the
insect I place it in the genus Baridius with doubt; it seems also somewhat
allied to Ameris Pavo.


CALANDRA SERRIROSTRIS [female]?

Plate XXXIII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Rhyncophora. FAMILY: Curculionidæ. SUBFAMILY:
  Calandrides.

  GENUS. CALANDRA, _Fabr._ Rhyncophorus, _Herbst_. Curculio p. _Linn._

  CALANDRA SERRIROSTRIS [female]? Obscura rufa; thorace lineis duabus
  magnis dorsalibus, elytris substriatis. (Long. Corp. rostro incl. 2 unc.
  6 lin.)

  SYN. Calandra serrirostris [male]? _Fabr. Syst. Eleuth._ 2. 429. _Oliv.
  Ins._ 83. _tab._ 17. _f._ 211.

  Curculio longipes, _Drury, Append. vol._ 2. (nec. _Fabr. Syst._ Ent. 2.
  395.)

  HABITAT: Island of Johanna, near Madagascar.

  General colour dark red brown. Head as long as the thorax, terminating in
  a slender beak, three-fourths of an inch long. Antennæ apparently
  8-jointed, that next the head being nearly as long as all the rest.
  Thorax marked longitudinally, with four black stripes or bars. Scutellum
  very narrow and triangular. Elytra marked longitudinally with several
  black narrow striæ, and are shorter than the abdomen. Legs very long,
  especially the anterior pair. Tibiæ with sharp hook-like spurs, those of
  the fore-legs being longer than the rest.

The insect described by Fabricius under the name adopted above is
distinguished from that here figured, by having the "Rostrum porrectum,
rectum, dorso apice serratum, dente elevato compresso." Its habitat is also
distinct, being from Java. It may possibly be a male, and that figured by
Drury a female.


{65}PREPODES? CAMELEON var.

Plate XXXIII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Rhyncophora. FAMILY: Curculionidæ, SUBFAMILY:
  Brachyderides.

  GENUS. PREPODES, _Sch_.? Chlorima, _Dej._ Curculio p. _Drury_.

  PREPODES? CAMELEON, VAR. Obscure aureo-cupreus, elytris striatis. (Long.
  Corp. 1 unc. 1½ lin.)

  SYN. Prepodes? Cameleon, _Sch. Syn. Ins. Curc._ 2. 18. 4. var. [Greek:
  b]. _Fabr. Syst. El._ 2. 532. 147. (Curcul. c.) _Herbst. Col._ vi. _p._
  115. _No._ 77. _t._ 67. _f._ 8.

  Curculio rufescens, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Herbst. Col. t._ 67. _f._ 9.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  General colour dull golden copper. Head as long as the thorax, resembling
  a beak. Scutellum very small. Elytra slightly striated, terminating at
  their extremities like the end of a boat. Tibiæ slightly hairy.


PREPODES? CAMELEON var.

Plate XXXIII. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Rhyncophora. FAMILY: Curculionidæ. SUBFAMILY:
  Brachyderides.

  GENUS. PREPODES, _Sch._? Chlorima, _Dej._ Curculio p. _Drury_.

  PREPODES? CAMELEON VAR. Capite thoraceque nigris, hoc subtus
  aureo-viridi, elytris nigris suturâ punctisque aureo-viridibus. (Long.
  Corp. 1 unc. 1 lin.)

  SYN. Prepodes? Cameleon, _Schon. loc. cit. supr._ var. [Greek: g] _Fabr.
  Syst. El._ 2. 532. 147. (Curcul. c.) _Herbst. Col._ vi. _p._ 115. _No._
  77. _t._ 67. _f._ 8.

  Curculio similis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Herbst. Col. t._ 67. _f._ 10.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head black, and long, resembling a beak. Thorax black at top, but
  underneath of a fine golden green. Scutellum very small. Elytra black,
  speckled with golden green. Suture golden green. Abdomen black, the sides
  golden green. Legs black. Thighs plain and smooth.


PLATE XXXIV.

[Illustration]

ENTIMUS IMPERIALIS (THE DIAMOND BEETLE).

Plate XXXIV. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Rhyncophora. FAMILY: Curculionidæ. SUBFAMILY:
  Entimides.

  GENUS. ENTIMUS, _Germar_. Curculio, _Linn. Latr. &c._

  ENTIMUS IMPERIALIS. Oblongo ovatus; niger, thorace lineâ dorsali
  viridi-argenteâ impresso; elytris regulariter sat rude punctato-striatis,
  punctis squamulis viridi-aureis repletis, interstitiis angustis,
  subcostatis denudatis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Curculio imperialis, _Forster, Cent. Ins. p._ 34. _Drury, App. vol._
  2. _Fabr. Syst. El._ 2 _p._ 508. 3. _Oliv. Ent._ 5. 83. _p._ 293. _t._ 1.
  _f._ a. b. c. _Schon. Syn. Ins. Curcul._ 1. 455. 2.

  HABITAT: Brazil.

  Head black, and covered with minute scales, of a beautiful golden green
  colour, forming two longitudinal black streaks, and three green ones.
  From this part proceeds a thick short beak, streaked with black and
  green. Antennæ black. Thorax golden green, with two broad longitudinal
  black lines on the {66}top, and a narrow green one between them; the
  green colour being thickly beset with small black spots. Scutellum very
  small and green. Elytra next the thorax, almost quadrangular, narrowing
  to their extremities, the ground colour being black and shining, and
  ornamented with a great number of small round hollow punctures, or dents,
  of a golden green, which are smaller on the sides and extremities than
  the top, being regularly placed in grooves, so as to compose not less
  than eleven striæ (including the suture) on each elytron. Abdomen green,
  with silvery rings. Legs black, and covered with green hairs; the thighs
  being plain. Tarsi brown underneath.


RHINA BARBIROSTRIS [female].

Plate XXXIV. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Rhyncophora. FAMILY: Curculionidæ. SUBFAMILY:
  Rhyncophorides, _Sch._

  GENUS. RHINA, _Latreille_. Curculio, _Drury_.

  RHINA BARBIROSTRIS. Nigricans; thorace rotundato tuberculato, elytris
  striatis et punctatis; tibiis anticis subtus 4-dentatis. (Long. Corp. 1
  unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Curculio barbirostris, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 418. 105. _Latreille
  Gen. Crust. &c._ 2. 269. (Rhina barb.) [male].

  Curculio niger, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. [female].

  Rhina verrirostris, _Illiger_, [female]

  HABITAT: The Island of Johanna, near Madagascar.

  General colour black. Head short and round, terminating in a small narrow
  beak, almost the length of the thorax; in the middle of which are placed
  the antennæ. Eyes entirely surrounding the head, meeting at top and
  underneath. Thorax round and rough, being full of small tubercles; having
  a posterior margin. Scutellum small and triangular. Elytra striated, full
  of small punctures or holes, and covering the anus. Femora smooth.
  Anterior tibiæ furnished with four teeth, the hinder ones with three.
  Tarsi brown beneath.

The male has the rostrum more elongated and furnished with long hairs,
somewhat like a bottle brush. It is figured by Olivier, Entomol. Vol. 5.
Charans, pl. 4. f. 37. a. b.


BRACHYCERUS ORNATUS.

Plate XXXIV. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Rhyncophora. FAMILY: Curculionidæ. SUBFAMILY:
  Brachycerides.

  GENUS. BRACHYCERUS, _Fabr._ Curculio, _Linn. &c._

  BRACHYCERUS ORNATUS. Ovatus, niger thoracis dorso valde inæquali
  sculpturato, spinâ laterali obtusâ tuberculatâ, elytris seriatim
  tuberculatis, interjectis maculis subimpressis rotundatis ferrugineo
  squamosis, femoribus puncto rufo-squamoso. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Curculio ornatus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Brachycerus apterus, _Herbst. Col._  7. _p._ 75. _No._ 1. _t._ 101. _f._
  1.

  Brachycerus granosus, _Schonherr Syn. Ins. Curcul._ 1. _p._ 387. _No._
  2.?

  HABITAT: (----? _Drury_). Cape of Good Hope (_Schonherr_).

  Head very short and entirely occupied by the eyes, which are black and
  meet underneath. From this part issues a strong thick beak, black and
  rough, with the antennæ placed in the middle; the upper part being full
  of small holes or punctures. Thorax dark red, with a number of black
  excrescences on {67}the middle and sides; the latter ending in two thick
  pointed tubercles. Scutellum obsolete. Elytra dark red, and full of black
  round tubercles, some very small, others larger, placed longitudinally in
  striæ, extending so low along the sides, as nearly to meet underneath.
  Legs black and full of punctures. Thighs streaked with red. Tarsi brown
  underneath.


HIPPORHINUS? MURICATUS.

Plate XXXIV. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Rhyncophora. FAMILY: Curculionidæ, SUBFAMILY:
  Entimides?

  GENUS. HIPPORHINUS, _Schonherr_. Curculio p. _Drury_.

  HIPPORHINUS? MURICATUS. Fuscus; thorace cylindrico nigro-pustulato;
  elytris marginatis, striatis, interstitiis tuberculis elevatis rotundatis
  seriatim dispositis; femoribus ad apicem dente magno obtuso armatis.
  (Long. Corp. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Curculio muricatus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Bay of Honduras, America (_Drury_).

  Head small. Eyes entirely surrounding the head, meeting underneath and at
  top. Beak long, black, and slender, the antennæ being placed near the
  extremity. Thorax brown, cylindrical, and covered with a great number of
  small black pustules. Scutellum triangular. Elytra brown, margined, and
  striated or furrowed; being thick beset with a great number of high,
  round pustules, regularly placed in rows from the thorax to the anus;
  some being large, others very small. Femora furnished near the tips with
  a thick obtuse spine. Tibiæ with a single smaller spur.


SAGRA FEMORATA.

Plate XXXIV. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Eupoda. FAMILY: Crioceridæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. SAGRA, _Fabricius_. Tenebrio p. _Drury_.

  SAGRA FEMORATA. Viridi-ænea, femoribus tibiisque posticis dentatis.
  (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Tenebrio femoratus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Mant._ 1. _p._
  66. (Alurnus f.) _Syst. Eleuth._ 2. 26. 1. (Sagra f.) _Herbst. Col._ 7.
  266. _t._ 112. _f._ 6. _Weber Obs. Ent. p._ 60. 1.

  Tenebrio viridis, _Sulzer Gesch. der Ins. t._ 7. _f._ 8.

  HABITAT: (----? _Drury_). India (_Fabricius_).

  General colour golden, blueish, green. Head small, flat, and square, with
  four palpi. Antennæ black, the two terminal joints being larger and
  longer than the rest. Thorax about twice the breadth of the head, and a
  third part longer, not cylindrical, but flattish and smooth. Scutellum
  small and triangular. Elytra twice the breadth of the thorax, smooth and
  margined. Thighs thick and strong, the hinder ones having a short thick
  obtuse spine placed near the tips. Posterior tibiæ long, thin, and
  grooved underneath, thickest next the tips, where are placed three short
  and strong spines, one in the middle, the others on the sides. Tarsi very
  flat and brown underneath.


{68}PLATE XXXV.

[Illustration]

LAMIA (POLYRHAPHIS) CANCRIFORMIS.

Plate XXXV. fig. 1. (or the upper figure).

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Lamiidæ.

  GENUS. LAMIA, _Fabr._ Cerambyx, _Linn._ (SUBGENUS: Polyrhaphis, _Serv._)

  LAMIA (POLYRHAPHIS) CANCRIFORMIS. Thorace multidentato; dorso plano,
  elytris pustulatis, tibiisque anticis unidentatis. (Long. Corp. fere 1
  unc.)

  SYN. Cerambyx cancriformis, _Fabr. Sp. Ins._ 1. 209. 4. _Syst. Ent._ 165.
  4. _Syst. Eleuth._ 2. 289. 40. (Lamia c.)

  Cerambyx pustulatus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  General colour grey brown. Head furnished with strong mandibles. Antennæ
  (with the basal joint very thick) much longer than the insect. Thorax
  rough, gibbous, and full of small pustules, two of which form an obtuse
  spine on the sides. Scutellum small and triangular. Elytra margined, and
  full of small pustules, having two spines fixed at their extremity, near
  the suture. Fore-legs long. Tibiæ with a single spur. Femora clavate.


LAMIA (MONOCHAMUS) DENTATOR?

Plate XXXV. fig. 2. (or the left-hand figure).

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Lamiidæ.

  GENUS. LAMIA, _Fabr._ Cerambyx, _Linn. &c._ (SUBGENUS: Monochamus,
  _Meg._)

  LAMIA (MONOCHAMUS) DENTATOR. Thorace spinoso, fusco cinereoque varia.
  (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 1½ lin.)

  _Syn._ Lamia dentator, _Fabr. Syst. El._ 2. _p._ 294. 70. _Haworth in
  Ent. Trans._ 1. _t._ 1?

  Cerambyx carolinensis, _Oliv. Ent._ 4. 67. _p._ 85. _t._ 12. _f._ 88.?

  Cerambyx notatus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: See Observation below.

  Head grey brown. Antennæ grey brown, and about the length of the insect.
  Palpi four, and just above the mouth are placed, on each side the head,
  two protuberances. Thorax grey brown, dappled with black; having on each
  side a short thick spine. Scutellum small and triangular. Elytra grey
  brown, dappled with small black streaks, and extending beyond the anus.
  Abdomen, breast and legs grey brown, like the rest of the insect.

The insect figured by Drury is stated to have been received from Norway. No
Longicorn beetle, corresponding with Drury's insect has been ascertained to
be a native of that country, or indeed of Europe. Hence, as this figure
very nearly corresponds with the American Lamia dentator of Fabricius, I am
inclined to believe that Drury's specimen had been imported from North
America, in the same manner as the specimen described and figured by Mr.
Haworth in the Transactions of the former Entomological Society, and which
was taken near London. I have, however, marked the synonyms with doubt,
this figure having been overlooked by all subsequent authors.


{69}ELATER AURATUS.

Plate XXXV. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Serricornes. FAMILY: Elateridæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. ELATER, _Linn. &c._

  ELATER AURATUS. Cyaneo aut viridi-nitidus subtus cupreus, elytris
  acuminatis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Elater auratus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. (1773). _Linn. Syst. Nat._
  (_Gmel._) 1. iv. 19. 14.

  Elater fulgens, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 1. 11. _p._ 220. 22. 17. (1792.)
  _Syst. Eleuth._ II. 226. _Oliv. Ent._ 2. 31. 12. _t._ 4. _f._ 43.
  _Herbst. Col._ ix. _p._ 343. _t._ 158. _f._ 12.

  HABITAT: China.

  Head green. Antennæ black, and shorter than the thorax; having at each
  joint some short hairs. Thorax green, and margined, appearing as if
  finely polished; the hinder corners being pointed, and forming obtuse
  angles. Scutellum round and shining. Elytra likewise green, shining, and
  margined; their extremities terminating in two sharp points. Under side
  shining green, except the tarsi, which are black.

This beautiful insect may be regarded as the most brilliant species
belonging to the family, Elateridæ, the majority of which are of dull and
uniform colours, thus affording a strong contrast to the splendid family of
Buprestidæ, to which they are very nearly allied. The family Elateridæ are
all, as Drury observes, provided with an instrument which extends along the
breast, about the thickness of the thighs, to the abdomen, where the end of
it is received into a groove, forming a spring, by which the creature, when
laid on its back, can jump to a considerable height, from which
circumstance it has received the name of Elater.


LAMIA (ACANTHODERES) ARANEIFORMIS.

Plate XXXV. fig. 4. (or the bottom figure).

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Lamiidæ.

  GENUS. LAMIA, _Fabr._ Cerambyx p. _Linn._ (SUBGENUS: Acanthoderes,
  _Serv._)

  LAMIA (ACANTHODERES) ARANEIFORMIS. Thorace spinoso tuberculatoque elytris
  porosis, maculâ marginali fuscâ, antennis longis. (Long. Corp. fere 1
  unc.)

  SYN. Cerambyx araneiformis, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 625. _Oliv. Ent._ 4.
  67. 64. _t._ 5. _f._ 34. _Fabricius Syst. Eleuth._ 2. 288. 37. (Lamia a.)
  _Sloane Hist. Jamaica_, 2. 209. 19. 2. _t._ 237. _f._ 24. _Serville Ann.
  Soc. Ent. Fr._ 1835. 30. (Acanthoderes a.)

  HABITAT: Antigua (_Drury_). "In America Meridionali" (_Fabr._).

  Head dark brown. Antennæ longer than the insect; the sixth joint being
  furnished with a small tuft of hairs. Thorax brown, very rough and
  uneven, occasioned by the many bumps or swellings on it; two of which,
  like thick spines, are situated on the sides. Scutellum small. Elytra
  brown, and full of small pustules. In the middle are two oblong black
  streaks, placed next the suture. Legs brown, femora very thick. Tarsi
  yellow underneath, and pilose; those of the fore-legs being very hairy.


{70}PLATE XXXVI.

[Illustration]

BLATTA NIVEA.

Plate XXXVI. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Cursoria. FAMILY: Blattidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. BLATTA, _Linn. &c._

  BLATTA NIVEA. Alba, capite antennisque flavis thoracis dorso margineque
  interno elytrorum flavescentibus. (Long. Corp. lin. 12.)

  SYN. Blatta Nivea, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. _De Geer Ins._ 3. _t._ 44.
  _f._ 10. _Herbst. Arch. t._ 49. _f._ 8. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. _p._ 8.

  HABITAT: New York (_Drury_). "In America insulis" (_Fabr._).

  Head and antennæ yellow. Thorax and abdomen pale green. Wings and
  wing-cases of a transparent white; the latter having a yellow streak on
  the anterior margin, which seems to extend along the margin of the
  thorax. Legs, and the under side of the abdomen, pale yellowish green.

The family Blattidæ, corresponding with the Linnæan genus Blatta, may be
regarded as containing one of the most obnoxious assemblages of our insect
enemies. Of this family, this and the two following figures represent
different species. The observations upon the economy of this family,
published by our author in the preface to this work, present the most
complete account of the ravages and obnoxious qualities of this tribe which
has hitherto been published. They are as follows:--

"The _cock-roaches_ are another race of pestiferous beings, equally noisome
and mischievous to natives or strangers, but particularly to collectors.
These nasty and voracious insects fly out in the evenings, and commit
monstrous depredations; they plunder and erode all kinds of victuals, drest
and undrest, and damage all sorts of clothing, especially those which are
touched with powder, pomatum, and similar substances; every thing made of
leather, books, paper, and various other articles, which, if they do not
destroy, at least they soil, as they frequently deposit a drop of their
excrement where they settle, and some way or other, by that means damage
what they cannot devour. They fly into the flame of candles, and sometimes
into the dishes; are very fond of ink and of oil, into which they are apt
to fall and perish. In this case they soon turn most offensively putrid, so
that a man might as well sit over the cadaverous body of a large animal, as
write with the ink in which they have died. They often fly into persons'
faces or bosoms, and their legs being armed with sharp spines, the pricking
excites a sudden horror not easily described. In old houses they swarm by
myriads, making every part filthy beyond description wherever they harbour,
which in the day time is in dark corners, behind all sorts of clothes, in
trunks, boxes, and, in short, every place where they can lie concealed. In
old timber and deal houses, when the family is retired at night to sleep,
this insect, among other disagreeable properties, has the power of making a
noise which very much resembles a pretty smart knocking with the knuckle
upon the wainscotting. The Blatta Gigantea of Linnæus in the West Indies
are therefore frequently known by the name of Drummers. Three or four of
these noisy creatures will sometimes be impelled to answer one another, and
cause {71}such a drumming noise, that none but those who are very good
sleepers can rest for them. What is most disagreeable, those who have not
gauze curtains are sometimes attacked by them in their sleep. The sick and
dying have their extremities attacked, and the ends of the toes and fingers
of the dead are frequently stripped of both skin and flesh."


BLATTA (BLABERUS) GIGANTEA?

Plate XXXVI. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Cursoria. FAMILY: Blattidæ.

  GENUS. BLATTA, _Linn. &c._ (SUBGENUS: Blaberus, _Serville_.)

  BLATTA (BLABERUS) GIGANTEA? Livida, thoracis clypeo maculâ quadratâ
  fuscâ, capite ferrugineo, elytris vittâ fuscâ longitudinali. (Long. Corp.
  cum elytris 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Blatta Gigantea? _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. _p._ 687. 1. _Fabr. Ent.
  Syst._ 2. 6. 1. _Serville Revis. Orthopt. p._ 11. 1. _Oliv. Encyl. No._
  1.

  HABITAT: Jamaica (_Drury_). America, Asia (_Fabricius_). Cayenne
  (_Serville_).

  Head red brown, and withdrawn under the thorax, which covers it like a
  hood. Antennæ brown, and shorter than the body. Thorax thin like a scale,
  and of a dusky livid colour, the middle being brown, almost black. Wings
  and wing-cases livid and thin; the latter having a brown streak, half an
  inch long, running from the shoulders along the middle. Abdomen brown,
  with two points at the extremity. Legs brown, the shins being full of
  spines.

Fabricius, Serville, &c. have referred this figure to the Linnæan Blatta
gigantea, with the description of which it indeed corresponds; although, as
Drury observed, it is considerably smaller than that species. Drury states
that this is one of the species which is very frequent in houses in the
West Indies, and is called the Drummer, from the noise it makes by beating
against the wainscot.


BLATTA (POLYPHAGA) ÆGYPTIACA?

Plate XXXVI. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Cursoria. FAMILY: Blattidæ.

  GENUS. BLATTA, _Linn. &c._ (SUBGENUS: Polyphaga, _Brullé_.)

  BLATTA (POLYPHAGA) ÆGYPTIACA? Obscurè fusca, thoracis margine antico
  elytrorumque margine externo basali albidis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.
  fere.)

  SYN. Blatta Ægyptiaca? _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 687. 2. _Gronov. Zooph._
  637. _t._ 15. _f._ 3. _Ahrens Fauna Ins. Eur. f._ 1. _tab._ 13. _Fabr.
  Ent. Syst._ 2. _p._ 6.

  HABITAT: Jamaica (_Drury_). Egypt (_Linnæus_).

  Head and antennæ dark brown. Thorax dark brown, and surrounded, except on
  the hinder side, with a cream-coloured margin. Wings and wing-cases brown
  and thin, the latter having a cream-coloured streak along the anterior
  margin, about a quarter of an inch long. Abdomen and legs brown. The
  thighs and tibiæ being furnished with many spines.

{72}I have added a mark of doubt to the specific denomination of this
insect on account of the different habitats given by Drury and Linnæus,
although it agrees with the description of Blatta Ægyptiaca given by the
latter author.


PENTATOMA FLAVICOLLIS.

Plate XXXVI. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Hemiptera. SUBORDER: Heteroptera. SECTION: Geocorisa, _Latr._
  FAMILY: Scutati, _Burm._ Pentatomidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PENTATOMA, _Latr._ Cimex, _Fabr. Burm._

  PENTATOMA FLAVICOLLIS. Thorace spinoso dentatoque, supra viridis, capite
  thoracisque antico scutelloque basi flavis. (Long. Corp. 10½ lin.)

  SYN. Cimex flavicollis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Cimex albicollis, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 4. 98. 75. _Syst. Rh._ 160. 26.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head and antennæ dusky livid yellow. Thorax green, the fore part being
  livid, and the edges serrated; the sides terminating in two spines. The
  fore-part of the scutellum is livid, the hinder part green. Wing cases
  green, next the body, the extremities being transparent. Abdomen and legs
  livid, the under side the same; fore-legs tinged with green. Rostrum
  slender, extending to the hinder legs.


RAPHIGASTER INCARNATUS.

Plate XXXVI. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Hemiptera. SUBORDER: Heteroptera. SECTION: Geocorisa, _Latr._
  FAMILY: Scutati, _Burm._ Pentatomidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. RAPHIGASTER, _Laporte_. Cimex, _Drury_.

  RAPHIGASTER INCARNATUS. Supra sanguineus; capite scutelli maculis duabus,
  elytris unicâ, membranâque apicali nigris. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Cimex incarnatus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Cimex nigripes, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 4. 106. 101. _Syst. Rh._ 149. 17.
  (Edessa n.) _Wolff. Cim._ 1. 11. 11. _t._ 2. _f._ 11. _Stoll. Cim._ 2. 2.
  _f._ 10. _Donovan Ins. India_, _pl._ 14. _fig._ 1.

  HABITAT: China.

  Head small, and dark blue. Antennæ broken. Thorax deep orange, verged in
  front with blue. Scutellum orange, with the fore part blue. Rather more
  than half the wing-cases, next the body, orange, with a large blue spot
  in the middle of each; the extremities are of a brassy olive, and
  striated. Abdomen orange, with a border on its sides of cream, and blue
  spots; the under side of it being cream colour, with four blue spots on
  each side. Legs dark blue. Rostrum small and short, unless it has been
  broken off.


{73}ARILUS SERRATUS.

Plate XXXVI. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Hemiptera. SUBORDER: Heteroptera. SECTION: Geocorisa. FAMILY:
  Reduviidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. ARILUS, _Hahn. Burm._ Prionotus, _Laporte_. Reduvius, _Fabr._

  ARILUS SERRATUS. Fuscus, elytris subferrugineis, rostro, antennis
  tibiisque fulvis, scutello cristato serrato. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Cimex serratus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 722. 62. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 4.
  205. 42. _Syst. Rh._ 266. 2. (Reduvius s.) _Stoll. Cim._ 2. _t._ 1. _f._
  6.

  Cimex carinatus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: St. Vincent (_Drury_). America (_Fabr._).

  Head very small, and black. Neck long and slender. Eyes small. Antennæ
  orange-coloured; as long as the insect. Thorax very small and black in
  front; the hind part exceeding large, and of a rusty dark brown, the
  middle rising circularly and erect, with many points like teeth on its
  edges; the sides being extended beyond the body, and appearing like
  angles with their points cut off. Corium of the wing-cases dusky brown,
  the membrane of a brassy olive colour. Abdomen black. Legs orange, the
  thighs being black; from the front of the head issues a slender
  orange-coloured beak, which reaches to the fore legs.

This large and remarkable species of winged bug is commonly known in the
West Indies under the name of the Wheel-bug, and is stated by Messrs. Kirby
and Spence to possess the power of communicating an electric shock to the
person whose flesh it touches. "The late Major-General Davies, of the Royal
Artillery, once informed me, that when abroad, having taken up this animal
and placed it upon his hand, it gave him a considerable shock, as if from
an electric jar, with its legs, which he felt as high as his shoulders; and
dropping the creature, he observed six marks upon his hand where the six
feet had stood." (Intr. to Ent. 1. 110.)

There appear to be several species confounded under the specific name of
serratus. The one figured by our author is well distinguished by the colour
of its rostrum and tibiæ, which are fulvous or orange-coloured. (Fabricius
calls them yellow "flavis," and Burmeister red "rufis.") I have received
this species from Valparaiso. Another species having brown tibiæ, of a
narrower form, rather smaller than the preceding, and having fewer teeth
upon the scutellar crest, is very abundant in Pennsylvania. It may be
distinguished by the following character:--

  Arilus denticulatus, _Westw._ fuscus, tibiis concoloribus, rostro
  antennisque obscurè rufescentibus cristâ scutellari circiter
  10-denticulatâ. Long. Corp. 13 lin.

  Habitat in America septentrionali (Comm. Dom. Peale).

The sting of these insects produced by the short and powerful proboscis is
accompanied with very considerable pain. Mr. Smeathman informed Mr. Drury
that he had been stung by the largest wasps of Africa, as well as by these
bugs, and thought the pain inflicted by the latter much more severe, though
the effect does not remain so long. The {74}pain is doubtless caused by
that pungent volatile fluid which affects our smell so much when we catch
those insects, with which they are abundantly supplied, and which they emit
with considerable force.


PLATE XXXVII.

[Illustration]

CICADA MACULATA.

Plate XXXVII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Hemiptera. SUBORDER: Homoptera. FAMILY: Cicadidæ.

  GENUS. CICADA, _Linn._

  CICADA MACULATA. Atra, thorace elytris alisque flavo maculatis. (Expans.
  Alar. 3 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Cicada maculata, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Germar in Silberm. Rev.
  Ent. Donovan Ins. China._

  Tettigonia maculata, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 20. 12. _Syst. Rhyng._ 37. 18.

  HABITAT: China.

  _Upper Side._ Head black. Eyes yellow brown, round, and projecting from
  the head a little; between them are two small orange spots. Antennæ small
  and short. Thorax black, with four orange spots in a row, placed across
  it, and behind them two others. Abdomen black, consisting of seven annuli
  or rings, besides the tail part, the last of which is edged with orange.
  Anus orange-coloured, and furnished with a bristle for oviposition. Wings
  black, spotted, and streaked with orange; the anterior having a row of
  streaks along the external edges, and five distinct orange spots crossing
  the middle, near the shoulders: the posterior having a large orange patch
  on the abdominal edges, and a small round spot above it, with five small
  fainter ones placed along the external edges.

  _Under Side._ Head black, terminating in a long slender beak, which
  extends between the legs, to the abdomen; two small orange spots are
  placed just below the eyes. Thorax with an orange spot on each side. Legs
  and abdomen black; the latter having six orange spots, three on each
  side. Wings as on the upper side.

The larger species of this family are often mistaken for locusts and
grasshoppers, in consequence of the loud chirping noise which they make,
and which is sometimes so strong that Mr. Smeathman had no doubt that it
might be heard a mile. They are occasionally, he continues, very numerous
in the woods, where they make the hills and vallies ring, continuing their
noise for hours together; at other times, when they are more scarce,
bursting forth only at intervals. This chirp or whistle is in general harsh
and dissonant, though sometimes, like Thomson's Stock Dove, their note,

 "Discordant heard alone, aids the full concert."

Amongst the planters and English settlers of the West Indies they are
however called the razor-grinders, their noise being by these persons
likened to that made in grinding knives and razors. Kalm evidently alludes
to these insects in his Tour of North America, where he says in some places
they make so much noise, that unless two persons meeting together can speak
louder than the insect can chirp, they cannot hear each other.


{75}CICADA STRIDULA.

Plate XXXVII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Hemiptera. SUBORDER: Homoptera. FAMILY: Cicadidæ.

  GENUS. CICADA, _Linn._

  CICADA STRIDULA. Villosa prasineo-fusca, nigro-maculata, abdomine nigro;
  elytris griseis, maculis ovatis ante marginem posticum 7, hyalinis; alis
  luteis versus apicem nigris, omnibus margine latiori hyalino. (Expans.
  Alar. fere 3 unc.)

  SYN. Cicada stridula, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 706. 12. _Stoll. Cicada_,
  _fig._ 15. _Germ. in Thons. Arch._ II. 2. 12. 19. _Silb. Rev. Ent._ II.
  76. 54.

  Cicada capensis, _Linn. Syst. N._ 1. 2. 706. 13.

  Cicada Catenata, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Cape of Good Hope.

  Head short, thick, and of a yellowish brown, with a black stripe down the
  middle. Eyes round, and projecting. Ocelli distinct. Thorax yellow brown.
  Abdomen nearly black. Anterior wings yellow brown next the body, but
  darker in the middle; the external edges being transparent; above which
  is a row of transparent spots, placed between the tendons of the wings.
  Posterior wings yellowish, having a transparent border along the external
  edges, and a dark cloud placed at the upper corners. Legs yellow brown;
  rostrum extending between them, to the middle of the abdomen.


APHANA LANATA.

Plate XXXVII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Hemiptera. SUBORDER: Homoptera. FAMILY: Fulgoridæ.

  GENUS. APHANA, _Burmeister_. Aphæna, _Guérin_. Cicada, _Drury_.

  APHANA LANATA. Fusca, capitis cornu tenui, ano farinoso, elytris nigris
  apice rubris undique albo irroratis, alis fuscis albo latè marginatis.
  (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Cicada lanata, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. (Exclus. Syn. _Linn._)

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  The colours of this insect appear to have been faded. Head red brown,
  having on the top a small moveable horn, like a bristle, which the insect
  can raise at pleasure. Eyes dark. Thorax and abdomen dark brown. Anus
  white. The ends of the anterior wings are red brown; from whence, to the
  shoulders, they appear of a dead black, spotted with small white spots;
  but when the insect was living, probably the black part was of a fine
  mazarine blue. The external edges of the posterior wings are transparent;
  the abdominal edges white, and the middle part black, spotted with white,
  like the superior. Breast, beak, and legs, red brown. Abdomen, on the
  under side the same, being edged with scarlet.

This insect has a white substance issuing from the anus resembling the
downy part of a feather, or that which joins the quill.--Add. vol. 2.


{76}SCOLIA? MUTILLÆFORMIS.

Plate XXXVII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Fossores? FAMILY: Scoliidæ?

  GENUS. SCOLIA? _Fabr. Latr._ Sphex, _Linn. Drury_.

  SCOLIA? MUTILLÆFORMIS. Nigra, capite thoraceque fulvo pilosis, alarum
  apicibus fuscis. (Long. Corp. 7½ lin.)

  SYN. Sphex mutillæformis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Senegal.

  Head and thorax red brown, and hairy. The former furnished with two jaws,
  and tongueless. Eyes and antennæ black, the latter shorter than the
  thorax. Wings transparent; the anterior being cloudy at their
  extremities, and along the anterior edges. Abdomen, and hinder part of
  the thorax, black and hairy. All the legs full of bristles; the hinder
  ones having two long spines at the tarsi and tibial joints. One of the
  sexes is much larger than the other.

Mr. Kirby (Monographia Apum Angliæ, Vol. II. p. 377.) has given this figure
as a synonym of Andrena thoracica. This can however scarcely be correct,
for not only does the locality given by Drury seem sufficiently to indicate
a species distinct from our English insect, but the colour of the head is
also different. Moreover, it appears to me that the description given by
Drury, united to the curved antennæ which appear to be faithfully
represented in the figure, and especially the character of the legs, are
evidently intended for a fossorial rather than a melliferous Hymenopterous
insect.


LEPISMA COLLARIS.

Plate XXXVII. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Thysanura, _Leach_. Aptera, P. _Linn._ FAMILY: Lepismidæ.

  GENUS. LEPISMA, _Linn._

  LEPISMA COLLARIS. Obscure plumbea, fasciâ collaris apiceque abdominis
  argenteo-niveis, caudâ triplici villosâ. (Long. Corp. cum seta interm. 12
  lin.)

  SYN. Lepisma collaris, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 64. _No._ 5.

  Lepisma saccharia, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. (nec _Linn._)

  HABITAT: Antigua (_Drury_). "In Americæ meridionalis insulis" (_Fabr._).

  Head small and hairy, being concealed beneath the thorax. The upper part
  shines like silver. Mouth of a greyish colour, and furnished with four
  palpi, whereof two are long and the other two short and thick. Eyes not
  to be discerned. Antennæ about half the length of the insect; small, and
  filiform, but full of joints. Thorax and abdomen dark lead-coloured,
  shining like polished metal; being furnished along their sides with short
  hairs. The former has a cream-coloured stripe crossing it from side to
  side; it is also margined. In some specimens, the middle part of the
  abdomen, from the thorax to the tail, is of a silvery white; but in
  others the last ring only is so. At the extremity of the abdomen are
  placed three tails, of equal lengths, like bristles, but very hairy.
  These tails are in length about one-third of the whole insect; and, when
  the creature is alive, are always carried in the position {77}represented
  in the figure. The middle one seems immoveable, the others are not. All
  the under part of the insect appears of a shining, silvery, white colour;
  and near the extremity of the abdomen are placed four little horny
  filaments, two on a side. Legs silvery. Thighs and tibiæ broad and thin.


MILESIA VIRGINIENSIS.

Plate XXXVII. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Diptera. SECTION: Athericera. FAMILY: Syrphidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. MILESIA, _Latreille_. Musca, (_Drury_).

  MILESIA VIRGINIENSIS. Fulva, thorace 2- abdomine 6-fasciato, hujus
  fasciis 1 et 2, 3 et 4, 5 et 6, lineâ longitudinali connexis. (Long.
  Corp. fere 1 unc.)

  SYN. Musca Virginiensis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Milesia ornata, _Fabr. Syst. Antl._ 188. _Wiedemann Ausseur. Zw. Ins._ 2.
  106.

  HABITAT: Virginia.

  Eyes black. Front of the head cream-colour. Antennæ like short hairs.
  Thorax and abdomen yellow, with black rings. Wings transparent. Legs
  yellow, and furnished with small hooks at their extremities. Breast
  black, with yellow spots and patches. Ocelli distinct.


CÆLIOXYS? ANNULARIS.

Plate XXXVII. fig. 7.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Mellifera. FAMILY: Apidæ.

  GENUS. CÆLIOXYS? _Latreille_. Apis, _Drury_.

  CÆLIOXYS? ANNULARIS. Atra, capite marginibusque posticis segmentorum
  abdominalium cinereis, antennis atris, pedibus fuscis. (Magn. Apis
  mellific.)

  SYN. Apis Annularis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: New York.

  Head ash-coloured. Eyes brown. Ocelli distinct. Tongue very distinct.
  Antennæ black, and the length of the thorax, which is black likewise.
  Abdomen black, with ash-coloured rings, both above and underneath,
  terminating in a sharp point. Legs brown; the fore-ones being nearly as
  long as the hinder.


PLATE XXXVIII.

[Illustration]

STIZUS SPECIOSUS.

Plate XXXVIII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Fossores. FAMILY: Bembecidæ.

  GENUS. STIZUS, _Latr. Jurine_. Sphex, _Drury_. Vespa Et Larra p. _Fabr._

  STIZUS SPECIOSUS. Ferrugineus, abdomine atro fasciis tribus interruptis
  flavis. (Long. Corp. fere 1 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Sphex Speciosus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. (1773.)

  Vespa tricincta, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 254. 5. (1793.) _Syst. Piez._ 254.
  5.

  HABITAT: North America.

  Head greenish brown: on the top are three little eyes. Mouth furnished
  with jaws. Eyes large, oblong, and dark brown. Antennæ shorter than the
  thorax. It has no tongue. Thorax greenish brown. {78}Anterior wings
  extending beyond the abdomen, being thin and diaphanous. Abdomen
  furnished with a sting, and entirely black, except the first three rings,
  which are party-coloured, and mixed with yellow; the middle one being
  surrounded with that colour. Legs dusky orange, but when living they were
  probably of a yellow colour. Breast black, but covered with hairs, making
  it appear of a greyish hue.

This is the largest and finest species of the genus to which it belongs.
Drury, contrary to his usual practice, is silent as to its habitat, and
Fabricius states America generally. I have received it from Mr. Titian R.
Peale of Philadelphia. That it is identical with the Vespa tricincta of
Fabricius I am enabled to state by an examination of the individual
contained in the Banksian Collection, now belonging to the Linnæan Society
of London, which was described by Fabricius.


TREMEX COLUMBA.

Plate XXXVIII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Terebrantia. FAMILY: Siricidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. TREMEX, _Jurine_. Sirex, _Linn. Drury._

  TREMEX COLUMBA. Fusca, abdomine nigro lateribus flavo-marginatis alis,
  nigris. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Sirex Columba, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 929. 2. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2.
  105. 3. _Syst. Piez._ 49. 3.

  Sirex cinctus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Sirex pensylvanicus, _De Geer Mem._ 3. _pl._ 30. _f._ 13.

  HABITAT: North America, New York.

  Head and thorax brown orange, the former furnished with two jaws. Ocelli
  distinct. Antennæ 16-jointed, of the length of the thorax, which does not
  appear separated from the abdomen. Eyes narrow and oblong. Abdomen black,
  and fringed with yellow; being as broad and thick at the extremity as the
  middle. Wings dark brown (almost black) and narrow, but not folded. From
  the upper part of the abdomen, near the middle, issues a tube which
  covers, like a groove, a rough serrated bristle, being the instrument
  through which the creature ejects its eggs. Legs brown orange, having a
  strong tibial spur on each leg.


FORMICA RUBRIPES.

Plate XXXVIII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Heterogyna. FAMILY: Formicidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. FORMICA, _Auct._

  FORMICA RUBRIPES. Brunnea, capite nigro pedibusque brunneo-rubris. (Long.
  Corp. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Formica rubripes, _Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourn. p._ 112.

  Formica barbara, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. (nec _Linn._)

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  Antennæ small, filiform, and about the length of the thorax. Head very
  large, flattish, but rounded at top, and of a dirty black. Eyes small,
  round, and placed at the back part of the head. {79}Thorax small and
  brown. Abdomen the same colour, and smaller than the head, with a small
  erected scale placed between it and the thorax. Legs red brown, having a
  long tibial spur in the four hinder legs.

Drury referred this species to the Formica barbara of Linnæus, which is not
only distinct in the colour of the head, which is red, but also in having
two knots at the base of the abdomen, whence it belongs to the genus
Myrmica.

The reader will find some interesting general details relative to the
habits of the exotic species of the family to which this insect belongs, in
the following observations which were published in the preface to the third
volume, in the former edition of this work.

"The various species of _ants, cock-roaches, and other voracious vermin_,
are so numerous as to be one of the greatest plagues the collector abroad
has to encounter, insomuch that it is barely possible to preserve dried
insects, and other animals, with the utmost care and the closest boxes,
much less living ones, which require light and air: for as soon as
caterpillars are brought out of the woods, and placed within doors, with an
intention of breeding them, they seem to be, as in fact they are, out of
the order of nature, and quickly fall victims to the rapacity of those
agents whose province it is to remove animal or vegetable bodies, which
having arisen to maturity, or lost the principles of life, are on their
progress toward a slow dissolution, a state of useless inanimation or
noxious putrescence. Indeed among these none are more useful in this point
of view than the _ants_; but, considered as _noxious vermin_, and capable
of destroying animals, or, in many instances, of preventing and frustrating
human industry, we know perhaps of none more formidable. These insects,
whether considered as the efficient servants of nature, keeping clean and
wholesome the face of the creation, or as the ministers of Almighty Power
preserving a due equality between animals and vegetables, perform, without
exemption or reserve, his high behests. Like the angel of heaven, they walk
steadily forward in the line ordained them, and spare neither magnitude nor
beauty, neither the living nor the dead, but sweep away all kinds of animal
substances with undeviating rigour and rapacious perseverance.

"Sometimes they proceed, like those I have mentioned in the preface to my
first volume, driving all the inhabitants out of a town in a few hours, to
a scene of which Mr. Smeathman was an eye-witness; and in other instances,
as within the last twenty years, in some of the Caribbee Islands, like a
slow but irresistible fire, they gradually, in two or three years, take
possession of the land, and carry death and destruction to every kind of
animals; so that not only pigeons and fowls, lambs and kids, but even
calves and foals, which have been brought forth in the night, have been
destroyed before the rising of the sun; and the inhabitants themselves,
though they placed the posts of their beds in troughs of water, were driven
out of them by these inevitable disturbers. This slow but enormous increase
of ants in some of the sugar islands was unknown before the conclusion of
the last peace; since which time they seem, in conjunction with some other
insects, to have taken possession of many valuable sugar estates, and, by
sucking the canes, have rendered {80}them incapable of yielding any of that
rich juice from whence this vegetable salt is extracted.

"In consequence of this mischievous quality, estates which, by their usual
produce, have cleared to the proprietors eight or ten thousand pounds a
year, when overrun by these vermin, have not been able to pay the expense
of cultivation, except the produce has been changed by planting cotton or
indigo, which have been found to suffer much less from their depredations;
but, unhappily, most of the planters were ruined before they could submit
to give up the cultivation of sugar, which is by much the most profitable.

"It is not to be supposed, that hot countries are at all times infested to
this degree. They never are, however, without an astonishing number of
these insects, which no art, labour, or expense, can totally exclude from
the dwellings of the inhabitants. The number of different species is not
yet known, and is so great, added to the minuteness of most of them, that
it probably never will be discovered with any degree of certainty. There
are not less than fifteen or twenty species, which find their way into the
houses. These are not only to be distinguished by their size, figure, and
colour, but by their different properties. Some are near an inch long, from
which, to that of being scarce visible to the naked eye, are various sizes.
Some are long and slender, others short and thick; some are elegantly
shaped and highly polished; while others are, according to vulgar
apprehensions, deformed, armed with spines, and covered with bristly or
coarse and rough skins. Some species also are black as the deepest jet;
others of the deepest brown, or of different shades till they approach to
yellow; and not a few are variegated, having some of the prismatic colours
in full glow. They vary as much in their nature and dispositions: some
destroy fresh collected plants; and, in spite of weights laid upon the
books in which they are placed to dry, get in, cut the leaves and flowers
in pieces, and carry them away. Others, of different species, attack all
sorts of victuals, particularly sweet things, such as sugar and fruits. Mr.
Smeathman has had large sugar-dishes emptied by these insects in one night,
when the least opening has been left; and it is not easy to make any tin
canister, or other vessel, close enough to exclude these insidious
plunderers; so that the loss sustained in this article is often very great.
Some of them will assail the side-boards, and cover every wine-glass that
has had wine or punch left in it; nay, innumerable multitudes will even
attack the liquors on your table, and, if you are not attentive, drown
themselves in the very bowls and bottles before you. Some stragglers
frequently disturb you by creeping over your skin, and interrupt your sleep
or your meditations by biting, which, however, give pain but for a moment;
while others, though of the smallest size, with a sort of malignant
vengeance, creep under your clothes, and, by means of stings invisible to
the unassisted eye, inject a most acrid venom, which causes a pain as sharp
as a small spark of fire, lasting for some hours, and even a day or two
after being stung, the pain of which is much increased by irritating the
part. Some of the larger sorts also cause by their stings a pain which, for
some moments, is scarcely less than that of a bee of the same size; but it
{81}ceases in a few minutes, without leaving any inflammation behind. The
different manners of this large and sagacious tribe of insects are,
according to my friend's account, exceedingly various and amusing, but much
too long for this occasion; neither would it be proper for me to enter
farther into an account of them, as that gentleman purposes to treat
minutely on their various histories in his Voyages and Travels: a book
which, he informs me, is in some forwardness, and will doubtless afford
great entertainment and information to the curious part of mankind."


RAPHIGASTER VALIDUS.

Plate XXXVIII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Hemiptera. SUBORDER: Heteroptera. SECTION: Geocorisa, _Latr._
  FAMILY: Scutati, _Burm._ Pentatomidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. RAPHIGASTER, _Laporte_.

  RAPHIGASTER VALIDUS. Pallidus, capite, pustulis duabus pronoti et
  dentibus lateralibus obtusis, scutello (apice excepto) elytrisque
  chalybeis, abdominis lateribus nigro maculatis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Cimex variegatus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Cimex validus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 1. (_pl._ 45. _fig._ 6. _eadem_).
  _Klug. Burm. vol._ 2. _p._ 365.

  Edessa Tarandus, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 4. 93. _Syst. Rhyng._ 147.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head dark mazarine blue, and small. Eyes and antennæ black. Thorax
  cream-coloured, with two large blue spots upon it; each of its sides
  being armed with a strong blue spine. Scutellum triangular, and dark
  blue, the extremity cream-coloured. Abdomen red, with black streaks
  crossing its margin. Hemelytra blue half way, the other half opake and
  brown. Wings membranaceous and brown. Rostrum black. Under side of the
  insect red (except the extremities of the legs, which are black), having
  four triangular black spots running down the middle, and some others
  placed on the sides.

This fine insect was noticed in the synoptical appendix to the second
volume, under the name of Cimex variegatus, the same name having been also
inadvertently applied to the insect figured in Vol. I. Pl. 45. Another
figure of the same insect, but with the wings closed, is given in the third
volume, Pl. 45. Fig. 6. in the synoptical appendix of which volume it is
noticed, under the name of Cimex validus. It is therefore probable that our
author was not aware of the specific identity of the two figures. To avoid
the inconvenience arising from having two species bearing the same name,
Cimex variegatus, I have adopted the name proposed in the third volume.


TETTIGONIA SANGUINEA.

Plate XXXVIII. fig. 5. Natural Size.--6. Magnified.

  ORDER: Hemiptera. SUBORDER: Homoptera. FAMILY: Cercopidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. TETTIGONIA, _Latr. Germ._ (nec _Fabr._) Cicada, _Linn. Drury_.

  TETTIGONIA SANGUINEA. Capite thoraceque luteo-fuscis, elytris sanguineis
  apice stramineis, alis fuscentibus. (Expans. Alar. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Cicada sanguinea, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  {82}Head yellowish brown. Antennæ small, and thread-like; being shorter
  than the thorax. Rostrum extending along the breast to the abdomen,
  exceedingly small like a hair. Thorax yellowish brown. Abdomen black.
  Hemelytra red, the tips being yellow. Wings blackish brown. Under side of
  the insect ash-coloured.


FORMICA BIHAMATA.

Plate XXXVIII. fig. 7. Natural Size.--8. Magnified.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Heterogyna, _Latr._ FAMILY: Formicidæ,
  _Leach_.

  GENUS: FORMICA, _Linn._

  FORMICA BIHAMATA. Nigra, thorace ferrugineo antice quadrispinoso, squamâ
  altissimâ spinis duabus arcuatis. (Long. Corp. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Formica bihamata, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 361.
  49. _Syst. Piez._ 411. 66. _Latreille Hist. Nat. Fourm._ 127. _Oliv. Enc.
  Méth. Ins._ 6. 499.

  HABITAT: Island of Johanna, near Madagascar.

  Antennæ longer than the thorax, the first joint almost equal to the
  remainder. Eyes small, and placed very backward. Head black and small,
  armed with very strong and sharp jaws. Thorax brown, having on the fore
  part two spines, one on each side bending outwardly; on the top are
  likewise two more, bending towards the abdomen. The peduncular scale is
  very large and erect, standing very high, and branching at top into two
  hooks, which bend in opposite directions. Abdomen round, and larger than
  the head; the fore part being brown, the hinder black. Legs black, the
  hinder ones being longest.


PLATE XXXIX.

[Illustration]

VESPA ORIENTALIS.

Plate XXXIX. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Diploptera. FAMILY: Vespidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. VESPA, _Linn. &c._

  VESPA ORIENTALIS. Ferruginea, abdomine fasciâ flavâ ante apicem utrinque
  bipunctatâ. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Vespa orientalis, _Linn. Mant._ 540. _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ 254. 4.

  Vespa turcica, _Drury, App. vol._ 3.

  HABITAT: Smyrna (_Drury_). "In Oriente" (_Linn._).

  Front of the head yellow. Eyes brown. Antennæ the length of the thorax.
  Ocelli distinct. Jaws black. Tongue not to be discovered. Thorax and
  abdomen brown chesnut; the third and fourth rings of the latter yellow.
  Wings thin, but not transparent. Legs brown; the anterior with a single
  and the four posterior with two tibial spurs.

Drury observes of this and the next insect, that "they make nests like the
mason-fly described in Vol. I. Pl. 44. Fig. 6." The correctness of this
statement may however be questioned as regards both of the insects in
question, which, from their evident relationship to the common English
hornet (Vespa Crabro Linn.) must surely possess similar habits to those of
that insect.


{83}SCOLIA 4-MACULATA.

Plate XXXIX. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Fossores. FAMILY: Scoliidæ.

  GENUS. SCOLIA, _Fabr. Latr._ Sphex, _Linn._ Vespa, _Drury_.

  SCOLIA 4-MACULATA. Hirta, nigra, fusco-pubescens, abdomine nigro maculis
  quatuor fulvis, alis obscuris. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Scolia 4-maculata, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 229. 4. _Syst. Piez._ 240.
  5.

  Vespa maculata, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica (_Drury_). North America (_Fabr._).

  Head brown. Antennæ the length of the thorax, which is also brown. Wings
  nearly transparent. Abdomen black, with four yellow spots placed on the
  upper side. Legs brown.

I have employed the Fabrician specific name in preference to that
precedently employed by Drury, as being more appropriate, there being other
species of the genus named 6-maculata and 2-maculata.


BOMBYLIUS PLUMIPES.

Plate XXXIX. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Diptera. SECTION: Tanystoma. FAMILY: Bombyliidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. BOMBYLIUS, _Linn. &c._

  BOMBYLIUS PLUMIPES. Flavido hirtus, alarum basi costâque brunneis, tarsis
  posticis basi lobatis. (Long. Corp. 5½ lin.)

  SYN. Bombylius plumipes, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Wiedemann Auss. Zw. Ins._
  1. 351.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head brown; and from the mouth extends a very slender proboscis, through
  which the insect obtains its food; being almost as long as the whole
  body. Antennæ short, and like hairs. Wings transparent, but along the
  anterior edges brown. Legs long, the hinder ones furnished at the base of
  the tarsi with two remarkable flaps.


PEPSIS COERULEANA.

Plate XXXIX. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Fossores. FAMILY: Pompilidæ.

  GENUS. PEPSIS, _Fabr. Latr._ Sphex, _Linn. Drury_.

  PEPSIS COERULEANA. Nigra, alis coerulescenti-nitidis, pedibus aurantiis.
  (Long. Corp. lin. 12.)

  SYN. Sphex coeruleana, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Bight of Benin, Coast of Africa.

  Head, antennæ, and eyes black. Ocelli distinct. It is tongueless, with
  four palpi. Jaws strong. Wings fine deep mazarine blue, not folded, but
  lying flat. Thorax and abdomen black. Legs orange-coloured; the fore ones
  being furnished with a single tibial spur, the rest having two that are
  rather long.

{84}This insect, according to Mr. Smeathman, makes a clicking noise when it
flies, like a rocket, which may be heard at twenty yards distance. It is a
very strong and rapacious insect, and is often seen flying from bush to
bush with a grasshopper in its claws at least twice its own size, and which
is evidently destined to be deposited in its nest, and to become the food
of the future progeny of the Pepsis.

"There is a species like this found in the West Indies, with orange antennæ
and black legs; also another that is entirely black."--_Drury._


MANTIS (THESPIS) PARVA.

Plate XXXIX. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Cursoria. FAMILY: Mantidæ.

  GENUS. MANTIS, _Linn._ SUBGENUS: Thespis, _Serville_.

  MANTIS (THESPIS) PARVA. Pallidè olivaceo-fusca, prothorace longo
  cylindrico, pedibus gracilibus simplicibus. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 4½ lin.)

  SYN. Mantis parva, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Oliv. Encycl. No._ 48.
  _Serville Revis. Orthopt. p._ 28. (Thespis p.)

  Mantis minuta, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 24.?

  HABITAT: America.

  When this insect was living it was probably of a light green colour; but
  it is now entirely of a dusky olive. Head small. Eyes round, and placed
  at a distance from each other. Antennæ small, and thread-like, and about
  half the length of the insect. Thorax long and slender. Tegmina thin,
  narrow, and diaphanous, of the same length with the wings; but narrower,
  and placed at a little distance from them. Wings also thin and
  diaphanous, and when closed extending to the anus. Abdomen slender and
  rounded. Legs small and long, the hinder ones being formed rather for
  running than jumping; the fore ones having thread-like tarsi.


PEPSIS RUBRA.

Plate XXXIX. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Fossores. FAMILY: Pompilidæ.

  GENUS. PEPSIS, _Fabr. Latr._ Sphex, _Linn. Drury_.

  PEPSIS RUBRA. Corpore pedibusque nigro cyaneis, antennis nigris, alis
  rufis apice albis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Sphex rubra, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Pepsis Speciosa, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 217. 83. _Syst. Piez._ 215. 45.
  _Pal. Beauv. Ins. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Hym. Pl._ 2. _f._ 5.

  HABITAT: Antigua (_Drury_). Saint Domingo (_Pal. Beauv._).

  Head and antennæ black; it has four palpi, no tongue, but strong jaws.
  Ocelli distinct. Thorax, abdomen, and all the legs deep mazarine blue,
  nearly black. Wings red; the tips being transparent. Legs furnished with
  spines at the tips of the tibiæ; the fore ones having only one, all the
  rest two.

Fabricius (Syst. Piez. 214. 33.) refers this figure to the Sphex coerulea
of Linnæus, which differs in having the wings ferruginous but black at the
base ("basi nigræ," Linn.) and {85}white at the tips, and in the antennæ,
being ferruginous at the tips. It is to be observed that Linnæus has
described two species under the name of Sphex coerulea, the first belonging
to the genus Pelopæus, and being the Sphex cyanea of Fabricius; and the
second, above noticed, and being the auripennis of De Geer, which latter
name, in order to prevent all confusion arising from the employment of the
name of coerulea, it would be desirable to adopt.


PELOPÆUS PETIOLATUS.

Plate XXXIX. fig. 7.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Fossores. FAMILY: Sphegidæ.

  GENUS. PELOPÆUS, _Latr. Fabr._ Sphex, _Drury_.

  PELOPÆUS PETIOLATUS. Fuscus, thorace abdomineque nitidis brunneis.
  (Expans. Alar. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Sphex petiolatus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head and antennæ brown. Thorax and abdomen shining dark brown, and
  separated by a rather long peduncle. Wings brown and thin. Legs also
  brown; the fore ones having a single tibial spur, the rest having two.


SPHEX PENSYLVANICA.

Plate XXXIX. fig. 8.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Fossores. FAMILY: Sphegidæ.

  GENUS. SPHEX, _Linn. Latr. &c._ Pepsis, _Fabr. Pal. Beauv._

  SPHEX PENSYLVANICA. Nigra, abdomine petiolato atro, alis subviolaceis.
  (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Sphex Pensylvanica, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 941. _Fabr. Syst.
  Piez._ 211. 15. (Pepsis v.) _Paul. Beauv. Ins. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Hym.
  pl._ 3 _fig._ 4.

  Sphex coerulea, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (nec _Linn. Syst. N._)

  HABITAT: New York.

  Head and antennæ black. Ocelli distinct. Mouth furnished with jaws, but
  no tongue to be discerned. Thorax and abdomen dark mazarine blue, almost
  black; the former is hairy, and separated from the latter by a slender
  peduncle. Wings brown and thin. Legs dark blue; the fore ones with a
  single tibial spur, all the rest having two.


PLATE XL.

[Illustration]

TRUXALIS BRASILIENSIS.

Plate XL. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Saltatoria. FAMILY: Locustidæ.

  GENUS. TRUXALIS, _Fabr._ Gryllus P. _Drury_.

  TRUXALIS BRASILIENSIS. Elytris pallide fulvescentibus, vittâ
  longitudinali mediâ virescenti, nigro irregulariter marginatâ, alis
  hyalinis dimidio anali roseo. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Gryllus brasiliensis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Rio Janeiro, Brazil.

  {86}Head long, conical; the mouth seeming placed in the breast. Eyes
  oblong, situated at the upper part near the extremity of the head; there
  is also an ocellus placed between them on the under side, which is
  observable in all those whose heads are shaped like this. Antennæ as long
  as the head, and shaped like a three-edged sword. Thorax striped with
  green, brown, and white. Abdomen light brown, and streaked with black at
  top, but on the sides white. Tegmina light sand-coloured; having in the
  middle a narrow longitudinal line, indented with green and black. Wings
  transparent, and prettily dappled; being of a beautiful red colour next
  the body, which becomes fainter as it approaches the disk of the wings.
  Hind legs long, and formed for leaping; the others are short. Tibiæ
  furnished with sharp spines.

Fabricius refers this figure to the Truxalis nasutus Linn. which is found
in Africa, and Mr. Smeathman also informed Mr. Drury that the species here
figured is found in Africa, in the savannahs, and that its flight is very
rapid. I have considered them on the contrary as specifically distinct.


PHLOEA CORTICATA.

Plate XL. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Hemiptera.  SUBORDER: Heteroptera.  SECTION: Geocorisa.  FAMILY:
  Longilabres, _Latr._ Scutati, _Burm._

  GENUS. PHLOEA, _St. Farg. & Serv., Lap._ Cimex, _Drury_. Phloeocoris,
  _Burmeister_.

  PHLOEA CORTICATA. Supra grisea, tuberculis multis rufo-fuscis subnitidis
  adspersa, subtus nigra appendiculis marginalibus griseis, laciniis
  capitis convergentibus. (Long. Corp. 11 lin.)

  SYN. Cimex corticatus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Laporte Hemipt. p._ 56.
  (Phloea c.) _Burmeister Rh._ 2. 371. 1. (Phloeocoris c.) _Guérin Icon. R.
  An. Ins._ 55. _f._ 5.

  Phloea cassidoides, _St. F. & Serv. Enc. Méth._ 10. _p._ 111.

  Aradus laminatus, _Kirby & Spence Introd. to Ent._ 3. 617. & 718.

  HABITAT: Brazil.

  Body exceedingly thin and flat in proportion to its breadth. Head
  triangular. Antennæ about one-fourth the length of the insect; the
  extremities being a little thicker than the other parts. Eyes small and
  round. Rostrum extending to the middle of the abdomen. All the parts
  exhibited in the plate are of a sandy olive colour, and serve as a shield
  or covering to the thorax, abdomen, legs, &c. which are hid beneath it.
  Scutellum large and triangular. Hemelytra entirely opaque and small, not
  covering the abdomen by a considerable space. Wings membranous. Legs
  smooth and dappled.


SCOLIA FLAVIFRONS?

Plate XL. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Fossores. FAMILY: Scoliidæ.

  GENUS. SCOLIA, _Fabr. Latr. &c._

  SCOLIA FLAVIFRONS? Atra, fronte flavâ, abdomine maculis quatuor flavis.
  (Long. Corp. fere 2 unc.)

  SYN. Scolia flavifrons, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ 229. _No._ 5.

  Sphex maculata, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Coast of the Morea.

  {87}Head brown orange-coloured. Eyes oblong and dark brown. Antennæ
  thickest towards their extremities. Ocelli distinct. Mouth black,
  furnished with two jaws, but having neither tongue nor palpi. Thorax
  black, with a brown orange spot on the top, and two others next the head.
  Abdomen black and hairy; the second and third segments having two orange
  spots on them; the fourth, fifth, and sixth being ringed with orange.
  Under side black, with some orange hairs near the anus. Wings plain and
  flat, not folded, of a yellowish colour, and almost diaphanous. Legs
  black and hairy. Tarsi and articulations furnished with strong hairs and
  spines, which entirely surround them.


PELECINUS POLITURATOR.

Plate XL. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Pupivora. FAMILY: Evaniidæ?

  GENUS. PELECINUS, _Fabr. Latr._ Ichneumon, _Drury_.

  PELECINUS POLITURATOR. Niger, antennis annulo medio albo, tibiis posticis
  sericeo-dilatatis. (Long. Corp. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Ichneumon Polyturator (errore pro politurator), _Drury, App. vol._
  2.

  Pelecinus Polycerator, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ 111. 1. _Say American
  Entomology, vol._ 1. _pl._ XV.

  HABITAT: Jamaica (_Drury_). "Not uncommon in various parts of the United
  States" (_Say_). India (_Fabricius_, incorrectly).

  Head small and black. Eyes oblong and dark brown. Antennæ black and
  filiform, having two yellow spots on them near their extremities. Ocelli
  distinct. Mouth with two jaws, but no tongue, and furnished with four
  palpi, two of which are long, slender, and filiform; the others are very
  short. Thorax black like pitch, and shining, as if finely polished; as is
  every part of the insect. Abdomen exceeding long and black, consisting of
  six articulations; the last being very short and pointed. Legs small and
  black; the hinder tibiæ being remarkably thick and strong in proportion
  to the other parts.

The late lamented Mr. Say, who may justly be regarded as the Linnæus of
America, says of this truly singular insect, that its flight is slow and
awkward, and when taken it endeavours to force the point of the abdomen
through the skin of the hand, but its strength is not adequate to the task.
The whole abdomen resembles a much elongated pedicle, from which the
abdomen itself, or dilated portion, has been accidentally removed.


PLATE XLI.

[Illustration]

LOCUSTA OBSCURA.

Plate XLI. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Saltatoria. _Family_: Locustidæ.

  GENUS. LOCUSTA. Gryllus (Locusta) _Linn._ Gryllus, _Fabr._ SUBGENUS:
  Locusta proper. Oedipoda, _Serv._

  LOCUSTA OBSCURA. Thorace lævi; elytris fuscis; alis disco rubro, fasciâ
  nigrâ, apice hyalinâ. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Gryllus obscurus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 701. 50. _De Geer Ins._
  3. 492. 8. _t._ 41. _f._ 4. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 58. 47.

  HABITAT: Cape Coast, Africa.

  {88}Antennæ brown and filiform, the length of the thorax. Head
  clay-coloured, rounded. Thorax smooth, brown, and angulated. Tegmina
  clay-coloured. Wings next the body red, and surrounded with a broad black
  bar running up to the anterior edge, the tips being transparent. Legs
  clay-coloured. Hinder femora broad, and prettily chequered on the
  outside, the inside being black. Posterior tibiæ red and spined.


GRYLLUS (PHYLLOPTERUS) MYRTIFOLIUS.

Plate XLI. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Saltatoria. FAMILY: Gryllidæ (Locustaires,
  _Latr. &c._)

  GENUS. GRYLLUS. Sect. Gryllus (Tettigonia), _Linn._ Locusta, _Latr._
  SUBGENUS. Phylloptera, _Serv._

  GRYLLUS (PHYLLOPTERUS) MYRTIFOLIUS. Thorace subtetragono, lævi; alis
  deflexis elytris longioribus, oviductu brevissimo recurvo. (Expans. tegm.
  1 unc. 6 lin. Alar. 2 unc.)

  SYN. Gryllus Myrtifolius, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 696. 18. _Fabr. Ent.
  Syst._ 2. _p._ 34. _De Geer Mem. vol._ 2. _pl._ 41. _f._ 2. _Stoll.
  Sauter. pl._ a. 5. _fig._ 16. _Serville Revis. Orth. p._ 45.

  HABITAT: New York (_Drury_). America (_Fabr. &c._).

  Antennæ small and filiform. Head dusky yellow. Thorax and abdomen brown,
  but when the insect was living were probably green; the former has a
  yellow stripe on each side. Tegmina green, and narrowing towards the
  tips. Wings thin, transparent, and of a greenish hue. Legs green; the
  hinder ones being very long, with the tibiæ spined.


LOCUSTA (RUTIDODERES) CENTURIO.

Plate XLI. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Saltatoria. FAMILY: Gryllidæ (Locustaires,
  _Latr. &c._)

  GENUS. LOCUSTA. Gryllus (Locusta), _Linn._ Acrydium, _Latr._ SUBGENUS:
  Rutidoderes, _Westw._

  LOCUSTA (RUTIDODERES) CENTURIO. Pallidè olivaceo-fulvescens, elytris
  nigro numerosè punctatis, alis sanguineis margine nigro et interno nigro
  tesselatis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Gryllus Centurio, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: The Bay of Honduras, America.

  Head dusky olive brown. Antennæ yellow, the tips black. Eyes red brown.
  Thorax olive brown, having a sharp indented ridge on the top, and one on
  each side; that on the top being black. Abdomen dark brown. Tegmina pale
  olive, spotted all over with darker spots of various shapes. Wings
  scarlet; the edges, except the abdominal, black; which, at the tips, and
  along the external edges, forms a kind of lattice work, breaking in upon
  the black division. Legs yellowish brown, the hinder tibiæ being spinose;
  tarsi with a cup-like pulvillus between the claws.

Gryllus reticulatus (Fabr. sp. Ins. 1. p. 362. No. 7.) figured by Donovan
in his Insects of India, Pl. 12. Fig. 1., and said to be from Bengal, is
very closely allied to, if indeed it be not identical with, the species
here figured.


{89}LOCUSTA (PHYMATEA) PUNCTATA.

Plate XLI. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Saltatoria. FAMILY: Gryllidæ (Locustaires,
  _Latr. &c._)

  GENUS. LOCUSTA. Gryllus (Locusta), _Linn._ Acrydium, _Latr._ SUBGENUS:
  Phymateus, _Thunberg_.

  LOCUSTA (PHYMATEA) PUNCTATA. Thorace verrucoso atro, elytris atris flavo
  punctatis, alis atris, abdomine rufo annulato. (Long. Corp. cum alis
  claus. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Gryllus punctatus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 51.
  19. _Thunberg Mem. Acad. Imp. St. Petersb. p._ 258. _Stoll. Sauter. pl._
  7. b. _f._ 24. A. _Donovan Ins. India_, _pl._ 12. _fig._ 2.

  HABITAT: East India.

  Antennæ black, and longer than the thorax. Eyes small, round, and red
  brown. Head black at top, the middle being yellow; the lower part, with
  the mouth, black. Thorax rough and margined, full of spines and
  tubercles, both at top and on the sides; the former being black, the
  latter yellow. Breast black. Abdomen the same, ringed with red. Tegmina
  black, prettily spotted with yellow; the spots next the tips being
  smallest. Wings entirely black. Anus red. Legs black; the hinder thighs
  being marked on the outside with yellow.


PLATE XLII.

[Illustration]

LOCUSTA COERULEA.

Plate XLII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Saltatoria. FAMILY: Locustidæ.

  GENUS. LOCUSTA. Acrydium, _Latr._ Oedipoda, _Serv._

  LOCUSTA COERULEA. Obscurè viridis, alis posticis hyalinis coeruleis,
  angulo externo nigro, femoribus medio flavis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 3
  lin.)

  SYN. Gryllus coeruleus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Calabar, Western Coast of Africa, 6° North L.

  Head dark dirty green. Antennæ ----? Thorax dirty green and smooth,
  without any tubercles. Tegmina dark green, and opake. Wings thin and
  blue; the tips being much darker. Abdomen dark green. Legs the same, the
  hinder femora striped on the outside with yellow and light green, but on
  the inside entirely yellow; the tips being black.


LOCUSTA (RUTIDODERES) MILES.

Plate XLII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Saltatoria. FAMILY: Gryllidæ (Locustaires),
  _Latr. &c._

  GENUS. LOCUSTA. Gryllus (Locusta), _Linn. &c._ Acrydium, _Latr._
  SUBGENUS: Rutidoderes, _Westw._

  LOCUSTA (RUTIDODERES) MILES. Fusca, capitis lineis duabus marginalibus
  margineque postico thoracis flavis, elytris brunneis, alis nigris maculis
  duabus magnis sanguineis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Gryllus Miles, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Bay of Honduras, America.

  Head green. Face striped on each side with yellow. Antennæ black. Thorax
  dark green; posterior edges yellow. Abdomen black, but when the insect
  was living, probably green. Tegmina entirely red brown. Wings black, with
  a scarlet patch near the tips, running from the anterior almost {90}to
  the posterior edges; another considerable part of the wings is likewise
  scarlet, running from the body to the middle, and from thence to the
  abdominal corners; the posterior and anterior edges being black. Legs
  dark green, almost black, and variously spotted with yellow: the fore and
  middle ones having a spot on each femur and tibia, the hinder ones having
  three on each femur, and two on each tibia.


GRYLLUS (GRYLLACRIS) TESSELATUS.

Plate XLII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Saltatoria. FAMILY: Gryllidæ.

  GENUS. GRYLLUS (Locusta), _Latreille_. SUBGENUS: Gryllacris, _Serville_.

  GRYLLUS (GRYLLACRIS) TESSELATUS. Fusco-fulvescens, alis diaphanis nigro
  undique tesselatis. (Expans. elytr. 2 unc. 6 lin. Alar. 3 unc.)

  SYN. Gryllus tesselatus, _Drury_, _App. vol_. 2.

  Gryllacris maculicollis [male]? _Serville Revis. Orthopt. p_. 42.

  HABITAT: Island of Johanna, near Madagascar.

  General colour brownish yellow. Head smooth. Eyes rather prominent and
  dark brown, with a whitish streak between them. Antennæ the length of the
  insect. Mouth furnished with four palpi, knobbed at the extremities.
  Thorax margined, and a little indented. Scutellum, which is not seen when
  the wings are closed, whiteish and triangular. Tegmina thin, and full of
  tendons. Wings nearly diaphanous, and prettily speckled with cross marks
  in a zigzag manner. Legs strong; the hinder ones formed for leaping.
  Tibiæ armed with spines, pointing downwards; those on the hinder ones
  being shortest. Abdomen very singularly formed, the last segment
  terminating in a kind of horny beak which curls inwards, but widens and
  expands at the extremity, so as to appear like a knob or club; and close
  above it, but on the upper part of the abdomen, are four filaments about
  the size of the antennæ; two of them being longer than the other,
  extending to the very extremity of this part. (See Fig. IV.)

The antennæ in this subgenus are of very great length, being many times
longer than the whole body. The specimen, therefore, figured by Drury was
evidently mutilated in these organs.


PLATE XLIII.

[Illustration]

ACHETA (SCHIZODACTYLA) MONSTROSA.

Plate XLIII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Saltatoria. FAMILY: Achetidæ.

  GENUS. ACHETA, _Fabr._ Gryllus, _Latr._ SUBGENUS: Schizodactylus,
  _Brullé_.

  ACHETA (SCHIZODACTYLA) MONSTROSA. Elytris alisque caudatis convolutis,
  corpore luteo-fusco punctis nigris. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Gryllus monstrosus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2.
  29. 2. (Acheta m.)

  Schizodactylus monstrosus, _Aud. & Brullé Hist. Nat. Ins. tom_. ix. _s.
  g._ 24. _Donovan Ins. India_, _pl._ 12. _fig._ 3.

  HABITAT: India (_Fabricius_).

  Antennæ considerably longer than the body, filiform. Mouth furnished with
  strong jaws, and four palpi; two of which are very long. General colour
  dusky olive brown. Wings and tegmina extending {91}as far beyond the body
  as its own length, and curling in a most singular manner, being very
  curiously folded together. Body with two short tails placed at its
  extremity. Legs longer than usual with insects of this kind; each of the
  thighs being furnished with spines, and also the tips of the tibiæ. Tarsi
  four-pointed, besides the claws; those of the fore and middle legs having
  on each side two small appendages like flaps. Hinder tarsi furnished on
  each side with five of these flaps, some of which appear moveable, others
  fixed, as represented in the plate.


ACHETA MEMBRANACEA.

Plate XLIII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Saltatoria. FAMILY: Achetidæ.

  GENUS. ACHETA, _Fabr._ Gryllus Acheta, _Linn._ Gryllus, _Latr._

  ACHETA MEMBRANACEA. Luteo-fusca, pronoti annulis duobus nigris, alis
  corpore longioribus, tarsis posticis quinque spinosis. (Long. Corp. 2
  unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Gryllus membranaceus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Bay of Honduras, Musquito Shore.

  Antennæ long, filiform. General colour yellowish brown. Thorax with two
  rings, almost black. Wings extending beyond their cases, terminating in
  two tails that are folded; each representing a two-edged sword. Abdomen
  furnished with two bristles. At the tips of the hinder tibiæ are placed
  five spines, one being quite small; the middle ones have four, that are
  small; and the fore ones one.

From the information furnished to Mr. Drury by Mr. Smeathman we learn that
the children in Africa are, at the proper season, very busily employed
digging out of the ground the females, when full of eggs, of a species
exactly the size and form of this, on which they make an agreeable repast,
roasting generally the whole animal, but eating only the eggs, which are
contained in a bag, and resemble part of the roe of a large fish, deeming
it very delicate food. These, like the European crickets, make a continual
and noisy chirping all day long; and the open parts of the country are
never without this music, which ceases neither night nor day. Some sing
only in the day, others only in the night, and others again are never
silent. Of those which sing only in the night, one small species, about the
size of the Gryllus Campestris of Linnæus, sallies out of its retreat early
in the evening, making so loud and shrill a chirping that it may he said to
pierce the ear; and, as certainly as it sings within doors, it silences a
whole company. It fills a large room so completely with its note, which is
something like the sound caused by rubbing a tobacco-pipe round the edge of
a wine-glass, that those unaccustomed to it cannot tell how to direct their
search after it. When they are looking for it, the noise will sometimes
cease for half a minute, and begin again, when the searchers will be as
much at a loss as ever. The black people, however, who have perhaps the
most accurate ears in the world, readily find them, and generally without
mercy put an end to their lives and their notes together. Different species
sing their wild notes among the distant banks, and are heard in the rivers
through the mangroves, though those trees often form a thick wood between
the navigable {92}parts of the river and the dry land of a quarter or half
a mile deep. The mountains and the woods also echo with them all the night
long, and the full concert is very distinctly heard on board the ships,
during a calm night, as they lie at their usual anchorages in the bays and
creeks on the sea coasts.


PLATE XLIV.

[Illustration]

LOCUSTA (RUTIDODERES) DUX.

Plate XLIV.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Saltatoria. FAMILY: Gryllidæ (Locustaires,
  _Latr. &c._)

  GENUS. LOCUSTA. Gryllus (Locusta), _Linn._ Acrydium, _Latr._ SUBGENUS:
  Rutidoderes, _Westw._

  LOCUSTA (RUTIDODERES) DUX. Thorace carinato scabro; elytris viridibus,
  alis rufis fusco-maculatis. (Expans. 7 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Gryllus dux, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Oliv. Encycl. Méth. No._ 4.
  (Acrydium D.) _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 47. 4. _Serville Revis. Orthopt._ 92.

  HABITAT: Bay of Honduras (_Drury_). Brazil (_Serville_).

  Head dusky yellowish olive. Eyes prominent. Antennæ black, and of equal
  thickness throughout; consisting of twenty-seven articulations, being a
  little longer than the thorax, which is of a dusky olive, and ending
  upwards in a sharp ridge, which is dentated and uneven. Tegmina dusky
  green, with a great many faint dark spots on them. Wings red, and edged
  with black; having a great number of dark spots on them of different
  shapes and sizes, many of which appear like beards of arrows. Abdomen
  large and green. Thighs reddish brown, chequered with white. Legs the
  same, the spines being black.


PLATE XLV.

[Illustration]

LIBELLULA LUCIA.

Plate XLV. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. LIBELLULA, _Auct._

  LIBELLULA LUCIA. Thorace olivaceo lineis duabus lateralibus apiceque
  flavis, alis hyalino-subflavis, strigâ subcostali maculâque versus basin
  fasciâque triangulari mediâ fuscis, stigmate albo, nigro terminato.
  (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

  SYN. Libellula Lucia, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Libellula variegata, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 382. 40. (nec _Linn. Syst.
  Nat._ 904. 18. ex Indiis.) _Pal. Beauv. Ins. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Neur. pl._
  2. _fig._ 4.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  Front of the head green. Eyes contiguous. Thorax dark green; being
  striped obliquely on the sides with two yellow streaks, and another on
  the top. Abdomen yellowish green, with two dark stripes running
  longitudinally on the sides. Legs dark green. Wings transparent, with a
  slender white streak near the tips of each, and a small black spot
  joining thereto, which are placed on the anterior edges; from the small
  edges, near the middle of each wing, a small dark cloud arises that
  crosses the wings, those of the superior running lowest. Near the body
  another small cloud is placed, being largest and strongest in the
  superior wings; the fore part of which is embellished with two slender
  black streaks running parallel, and near to the anterior edges.


{93}AGRION CAIA.

Plate XLV. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.
  SUBFAMILY: Agrionides.

  GENUS. AGRION, _Fabr._ Calepteryx, _Leach_. Libellula p. _Drury_.

  AGRION CAIA. Cuprea, abdomine nigro, alis hyalinis basi sanguineis,
  posticis etiam maculâ parvâ apicali sanguineâ. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3
  lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Caia, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: South America.

  Front of the head blueish black. Eyes distant. Thorax copper
  gold-coloured. Abdomen black and slender. Legs black. Wings transparent,
  but next the body are of a fine lively red; the posterior having a small
  spot of that colour placed at their tips.

This insect is nearly allied to Agrion Brightwelli, Kirby (Linn. Trans.
vol. 14. t. 3. fig. 5.) which is also an inhabitant of Brazil.


LIBELLULA MARCIA.

Plate XLV. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. LIBELLULA, _Auct._

  LIBELLULA MARCIA. Coerulea aut ænea nitida, alis albido-flavis, anticis
  maculis duabus apiceque fuscis, posticis strigis duabus basalibus, fasciâ
  undatâ anali, maculis tribus apiceque fuscis, basi flavis. (Expans. Alar.
  2 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Marcia, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Libellula Murcia, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 376. 11.

  HABITAT: The Island of Johanna, near Madagascar.

  Head black. Eyes contiguous. Thorax and abdomen dark blue, but now much
  faded. Wings transparent and of a yellowish hue, with a small dusky cloud
  on each tip. The anterior having two small brown spots (almost black) on
  each; one at the middle of the anterior edge, the other near the body.
  Posterior wings broad and deep; the anterior edges next the body being
  finely ornamented with dark brown spots and clouds, that extend along
  that part for about half an inch: two small dusky spots are placed near
  the centre of each; and at the abdominal corners is a long waved spot of
  a fine dark brown, extending along the posterior edges; the space between
  it and the anterior edges being of a deeper yellow than the other parts
  of the wings.


LIBELLULA DOMITIA.

Plate XLV. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. LIBELLULA, _Auct._

  LIBELLULA DOMITIA. Luteo-rufescens, abdomine maculis dorsalibus flavis,
  alis fulvis stigmate nigricanti. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Domitia, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  {94}Front of the head yellow. Eyes contiguous. Thorax and abdomen pale
  reddish brown; the former striped obliquely with green on its sides, the
  latter spotted with yellow on the top. Legs dusky yellowish green. Wings
  brownish yellow, with a small dark streak (almost black) placed on the
  anterior edges of each, near the tips.


AGRION TITIA.

Plate XLV. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.
  SUBFAMILY: Agrionides.

  GENUS. AGRION, _Fabr._ Calepteryx, _Leach._ Libellula p. _Drury_.

  AGRION TITIA. Atra; dimidio basali alarum anticarum fusco, plagâ magnâ
  internâ sanguineâ, apice fusco; posticis fuscis maculâ hyalinâ
  subapicali. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Titia, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Bay of Honduras.

  Head, thorax, and abdomen black. Eyes distant. Legs black. Anterior wings
  next the body red; which is surrounded, except on the posterior edges,
  with dark brown, occupying half the wings; the other half is transparent,
  with a dusky spot at the tips. When the insect is placed on a dark
  ground, the transparent parts of the wings appear to be surrounded with a
  small narrow edging of a grey colour. Posterior wings dark brown, with a
  transparent spot on each, situated about an eighth of an inch from the
  tips.


PLATE XLVI.

[Illustration]

LIBELLULA VARIEGATA.

Plate XLVI. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. LIBELLULA, _Linn. &c._

  LIBELLULA VARIEGATA. Alis flavis fusco maculatis et undulatis, posticis
  versus apicem maculâ magnâ fuscâ, puncto flavo; apice albo. (Expans.
  Alar. 3 unc.)

  SYN. Libellula variegata, _Linn. Am. Acad._ 6. 412. 86. _Syst. Nat._ 1.
  2. 904. 18.

  Libellula Histrio, _Fabr. Mant. Ins._ 1. 337. 24. 10.

  Libellula Indica, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 376. _Guérin Icon. R. An. Ins.
  pl._ 60. _fig._ 1.

  Libellula Arria, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: China, India.

  Front of the head black. Eyes contiguous. Thorax and abdomen black.
  Anterior wings transparent for about two-fifths next the extremities,
  having a small black streak on the anterior edges near the tips; the
  remaining part of these wings dark yellow, with a broad, irregular, dark
  brown bar crossing the middle, and a spot of the same colour placed
  between that and the body. Posterior wings very deep, and of the same
  dark yellow with the anterior, except the tips, which are transparent;
  and joining thereto is a large dark brown patch, with an oval yellow spot
  near its centre: an irregular, waved, dark brown bar runs along the
  posterior edges, beginning at the abdominal corners and ending about the
  middle of the wings: another waved bar runs along the anterior edges,
  beginning at the body and ending also at the middle of the wings; the
  extremities of the two bars nearly meeting, or joining together.


{95}LIBELLULA FULVIA.

Plate XLVI. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. LIBELLULA, _Linn. &c._

  LIBELLULA FULVIA. Luteo-testacea; alis fulvescentibus strigâ subcostali
  basali fuscâ stigmateque fusco. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 4½ lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Fulvia, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: China.

  Front of the head dark yellow. Eyes contiguous. Thorax and abdomen tawny
  orange, the former being of a pale clay colour underneath. Wings dark
  tawny orange; and on the anterior edges of each, next the body, runs a
  narrow dark brown streak, about half an inch long: on the same edges
  also, near the tips, is another small streak, appearing of a dark brown
  colour when the insect is placed on a white ground, but when placed on a
  dark one is of a light clay colour: the posterior edges, next the
  abdominal corners, are also dark brown.


LIBELLULA TULLIA.

Plate XLVI. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. LIBELLULA, _Auct._

  LIBELLULA TULLIA. Coeruleo-nigra, alarum dimidio basali fusco, apice
  cinerascenti-hyalino stigmate nigro. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Tullia, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Bombay.

  Head black. Eyes contiguous. Thorax and abdomen black; but when the
  insect was living, were probably mazarine blue. About three-fifths of the
  wings, next the body, are of a very dark brown; the remainder being grey,
  almost transparent, with a small streak on the anterior edges of each,
  near the tips.


LESTES PAULINA.

Plate XLVI. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.
  SUBFAMILY: Agrionides.

  GENUS. LESTES, _Leach_. Libellula p. _Drury_.

  LESTES PAULINA. Thorace griseo, lineis nigris, abdomine nigro griseo
  annulato; alis hyalinis apice fuscis, stigmate nigro. (Expans. Alar. 2
  unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Paulina, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Bay of Honduras.

  Head black. Eyes distant. Antennæ very short and thick. Thorax grey, and
  striped obliquely on the sides with black. Abdomen black, long, and
  slender; each articulation being grey. Legs grey, being striped at top
  with black. Wings transparent, except at the tips, where they are of a
  very dark brown; having a small black spot placed on the anterior edges
  of each near their extremities.


{96}PLATE XLVII.

[Illustration]

LIBELLULA AXILENA.

Plate XLVII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. LIBELLULA, _Auct._

  LIBELLULA AXILENA. Capite maculis 5 albis, thoracis dorso lateribusque
  virescentibus, abdominè luteo dorso fusco; alis albis hyalinis strigâ
  parvâ subcostali basali, margineque tenui (pone medium) nigris stigmate
  albo. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Lydia, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. (nec _vol._ 1. _pl._ 47.
  _fig._ 1.)

  HABITAT: Virginia.

  Mouth white. Eyes contiguous. Antennæ short and small, but distinct and
  plain when viewed through a microscope. On the back part of the head are
  situated five white spots. Thorax golden brown at top, the sides being of
  a pale green. Abdomen black at top, the sides being of a tawny orange;
  beneath pale green. Wings transparent; each having a very narrow dark
  brown border, beginning at the middle of the anterior edges and running
  round the tops, where it ends: a very narrow black streak also is placed
  near these edges, close to the body, from whence it seems to issue, being
  about a quarter of an inch in length.

Our author having inadvertently applied the same name to this handsome
species which he had given to that figured in vol. 1. pl. 47. fig. 1, I
have been compelled to give this a new specific denomination.


LIBELLULA EPONINA.

Plate XLVII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. LIBELLULA, _Auct._

  LIBELLULA EPONINA. Alis flavescentibus fasciis subtribus nigris. (Expans.
  Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Eponina, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Syst. Ent._ 2.
  382. _No._ 39.

  HABITAT: Boston, New England (_Drury_). Carolina (_Fabr._).

  Mouth white. Eyes contiguous. Thorax and abdomen dark brown, the latter
  being clouded with black. Wings of a yellowish hue, each having two dark
  brown bars crossing them, one a little distance from the tips, the other
  near the middle of the wing; between the latter and the body is placed a
  dark brown spot with a streak above it, those on the inferior wings being
  largest and most distinct.


LIBELLULA PORTIA.

Plate XLVII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. LIBELLULA, _Auct._

  LIBELLULA PORTIA. Coerulescenti-nigra, alarum dimidio antico
  fusco-coerulescenti nitido, postice bi-emarginato. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc.
  9 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Portia, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Libellula marginata, _Pal. Beauv. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Neur. pl._ 2. _fig._
  5. _Fabr. Ent Syst._ ii. _p._ 380.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  {97}Head black. Eyes contiguous. Thorax and abdomen blue. Wings partly
  dark brown (almost black) and transparent, the anterior edges from the
  body to the tips being dark brown, and the posterior edges transparent.
  Posterior wings longest, a circumstance observable only in those whose
  wings next the body are broad and deep.


LIBELLULA SOPHRONIA.

Plate XLVII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. LIBELLULA, _Auct._

  LIBELLULA SOPHRONIA. Fusca-rufescens, alis fulvescentibus apice hyalinis.
  (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 7½ lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Sophronia, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: China.

  Head pale clay-coloured. Eyes contiguous. Thorax and abdomen dark brown,
  the former being of a pale clay colour underneath. Wings finely
  reticulated, and of a brownish yellow, with a transparent spot at the
  tips; a small narrow black streak is also placed near the anterior edges
  of each, appearing to issue from the body, being about half an inch in
  length.


PLATE XLVIII.

[Illustration]

LESTES LUCRETIA.

Plate XLVIII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.
  SUBFAMILY: Agrionides.

  GENUS. LESTES, _Leach_. Libellula p. _Drury, &c._

  LESTES LUCRETIA. Thorace fusco vittis pallidis, abdomine coeruleo
  longissimo; alis reticulatis nubilâ apicali. (Long. Corp. 6 unc. Expans.
  Alar. 5 unc.)

  SYN. Libellula Lucretia, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Agrion linearis, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 388. 5. _Sulzer Hist. Ins. t._ 24.
  _fig._ 1.

  HABITAT: Cape of Good Hope, _Dr. Fothergill_ (_Drury_). India, _Dr.
  Fothergill_ (_Fabricius_).

  Eyes very large and globular, projecting as it were from the head, and
  placed at a distance from each other. Antennæ rather long and distinct,
  resembling a small fibre issuing from a thick stalk. Ocelli distinct.
  Thorax probably dark blue when the insect was living, but being now
  faded, and appearing of a dead black, it is also striped with white on
  the sides. Wings reticulated and transparent, the superior being tipped
  with white, and the inferior having a small black streak on the anterior
  edges, near the tips. Abdomen uncommonly long, being five inches and a
  half, and of a dark shining mazarine blue. Legs remarkably short for the
  size of the insect.

"In the 4th volume of Seba's Museum, Tab. 68, are two figures somewhat like
this (being the only ones I ever saw in any author) but are entirely
different; the extremities of all the wings being tipped with black, and
the bodies consisting of many more articulations than this; the eyes also
are not so large and globular, and the feet are shorter."--_Drury._


{98}XYLOCOPA LATIPES.

Plate XLVIII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Mellifera. FAMILY: Apidæ.

  GENUS. XYLOCOPA, _Fabr._ Apis, _Drury, Linn._

  APIS LATIPES. Hirsuta atra, tarsis anticis explanatis flavis, intus
  ciliatis. (Magn. Bomb. terrestr. major.)

  SYN. Apis latipes, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 314. 1.
  _Syst. Piez._ 337. 1.

  HABITAT: The Island of Johanna, near Madagascar (_Drury_). China
  (_Fabr._).

  Eyes large, having the ocelli placed between them, just above the
  antennæ. Antennæ jointed in the middle, i.e. at the end of the long basal
  joint, which is broad and flat at the tip. Tongue horny and thick at top,
  ending in a sharp point. Thorax shining and dark blue, covered on the
  front with black hairs. Abdomen dark blue, the sides being hairy. Wings
  dark blue and opake. Breast dark blue and hairy. Fore legs longer than
  the others, and very hairy, the femora and tibiæ being black; the first
  articulation of the tarsi being composed of a thin horn-like substance of
  a light yellow colour, concave and hollow within, but flat on the top or
  upper part; from the hinder side or edge whereof proceed many long hairs
  of the same colour.

According to Mr. Smeathman these bees are very injurious to wooden houses,
the posts of which they bore and perforate in various directions, so as to
weaken them very much. The holes they make are half an inch in diameter.
Drury hazards the conjecture, that the curiously dilated anterior tarsi,
and the long hairs with which it is furnished, appear to be useful to the
creature for containing the substance of which these insects compose their
nests. This, however, is but mere conjecture; since it is the males only
which possess this curious construction; and this sex takes no share in the
construction or provisioning of the nest in any species of bees with whose
economy we are hitherto acquainted. There are certainly several distinct
species confounded together under the common name of Xylocopa latipes.


SYNAGRIS CORNUTA [male].

Plate XLVIII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Diploptera. FAMILY: Vespidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. SYNAGRIS, _Latr. Fabr._ Vespa, _Linn._ Apis, _Drury_.

  SYNAGRIS CORNUTA. Ferruginea, abdomine alisque nigris, mandibulis
  porrectis capite longioribus. [male]. (Long. Corp. cum mand. 1 unc. 4½
  lin.)

  SYN. Vespa cornuta, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 951. 20. _Fabr. Syst. Piez._
  252. 1. _Latr. Hist. Nat._ 3. 360. (Synagris c.) _Griffith Animal
  Kingdom, Insects_, _pl._ 106. _&_ 107. _fig._ 1. _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.
  (Apis c.)

  HABITAT: Africa (_Fabr._). Anamaboe (_Drury_).

  Front of the head dark orange, the hinder part brown. Antennæ dark orange
  brown, and about the length of the thorax; the basal joint elongated.
  Ocelli distinct. From the front of the head proceed two slender horns,
  about three-eighths of an inch in length, of a solid bony substance,
  bending at the extremities toward each other, which the insect can open
  and close together horizontally, and which are the mandibles greatly
  developed. The base of these horns extends downwards, and forms a kind of
  {99}hollow beak, terminating in a point which encloses the tongue, and
  serves as a guard or fence to secure it from external injuries. Thorax
  and legs orange brown. Abdomen probably of a dark mazarine blue [?] when
  the insect was living, but is now of a dead black. Wings brown, opake,
  and shining.


PLATE XLIX.

[Illustration]

PHASMA (PLATYCRANA) JAMAICENSIS.

Plate XLIX. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Cursoria. FAMILY: Phasmidæ.

  GENUS. PHASMA, _Fabr._ Mantis, _Drury_. SUBGENUS: Platycrana, _Gray_.

  PHASMA (PLATYCRANA) JAMAICENSIS. Linearis viridis, alis pallidè roseis
  costâ tenui viridi. (Long. Corp. 3 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Mantis Jamaicensis, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2.
  15. 11. (Mantis J.) _Gray Syn. Phasm._ _p._ 38. (Platycrana J.)

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head green. Eyes small and black. Antennæ filiform and long. Thorax and
  abdomen green, long, and slender. Tegmina very small, and striped with
  green, the anterior edges being yellow. Wings very thin and membraneous,
  being of a pale blush or pink colour; but along the anterior edges are
  thick and green. Legs green; but at the articulations are of a yellowish
  hue. Femora furnished with spines; those on the fore ones being smallest.
  Tarsi of the ordinary form.


MANTIS CINGULATA.

Plate XLIX. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Cursoria. FAMILY: Mantidæ.

  GENUS. MANTIS, _Linn. &c._

  MANTIS CINGULATA. Luteo-fusca, elytris subolivaceis maculis duabus
  obliquis discoidalibus, alis fuscis basi et versus apicem pallidioribus,
  abdomine pallido nigro annulato. (Long. Corp. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN.. Mantis Cingulata, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Mantis Domingensis, _Pal. Beauv. Ins. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Orthopt. pl._ 12.
  _f._ 2.?

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head brown yellow. Eyes rounded, and distant. Antennæ (in Drury's
  specimen) wanting. Thorax long and slender, flat at bottom and rounded at
  top. Tegmina pale greenish colour, with a nerve running down the middle
  like the leaf of a tree, extending, when closed, the length of the
  abdomen, being margined along the edges. Wings very thin and brown; but
  along the anterior edges thick and yellow. Abdomen yellowish, with black
  rings, and broad at the middle, but narrow where it joins the thorax.
  Fore legs yellow brown, with a black spot at the tips of the femora on
  the inner side. Trochanters flat and thin. Femora furnished with two rows
  of spines, and a groove between them to receive the tibiæ, which are
  furnished at the extremity with a strong spine bending inwardly, and
  likewise on each side with a row of small and shorter spines, regularly
  placed and very even. From this articulation proceed the slender tarsi,
  the first joint being the longest. The middle legs have a small flap, or
  membrane, placed near the tips of the tibiæ, on the first articulation of
  the bearers; with two small spines at the joints of the same
  articulations, both of these and the hinder legs.


{100}PLATE L.

[Illustration]

PHASMA (DIAPHERODES) GIGAS.

Plate L.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Cursoria. FAMILY: Phasmidæ.

  GENUS: PHASMA, _Fabr._ Mantis, _Drury_. SUBGENUS: Diapherodes, _Gray_.
  Cyphocrana, _Serville_.

  PHASMA (DIAPHERODES) GIGAS. Aptera, capite thoraceque spinosis, hoc
  lateribus serratis, elytris brevissimis, femoribus subtus angulatis.
  (Long. Corp. 7 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Mantis gigas, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. (1773.) (nec _Fabr. Ent. Syst.
  Suppl. No._ 6. _Oliv. Encyl. No._ 2. _Serv. Rev. Orthopt. p._ 33.) _Gray
  Syn. Phasm. p._ 33. (Diapherodes G.)

  Mantis angulata, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 13. (1793.)

  HABITAT: St. Vincent.

  General colour brown, but probably green when alive, becoming brown by
  the spirits in which it was preserved. Antennæ about three inches long,
  and composed of a great number of articulations (not less than fifty)
  being thickest at their roots, from whence they diminish a little to
  their extremities. Head oblong, with two short thick spines on the top,
  near the front. Eyes small, round, black, and distant. Four palpi, each
  4-jointed; that next the mouth being the shortest. Mouth appearing not to
  be furnished with strong teeth or jaws, but seeming rather formed for
  macerating tender plants. Neck and thorax having a great many short thick
  spines on them; particularly the latter, which has a ridge on each side,
  full of spines like the teeth of a saw, extending to the abdomen. "It is
  evident this species is furnished with wings when arrived to its complete
  state, by the rudiments observable in this; which, though they are
  exceeding small, are a sufficient proof it is not wingless." Abdomen
  composed of seven articulations; the last being divided into three
  smaller ones, from whence springs from the under part an instrument that
  extends about half an inch beyond the tail, being shaped like a
  three-edged sword; each side being hollowed and grooved like that weapon.
  When first received, the abdomen was considerably broader than it is now,
  being then nearly the breadth of a man's thumb; but now is contracted
  one-fourth, and in proportion every other part is less, except the head.
  The hind legs are longer than the rest; but are not formed, like the
  locust tribe, for leaping. The under part of the thighs are furnished
  with short thick spines; those on the hinder ones being the strongest,
  and most conspicuous. The tips of the femora are furnished with two thick
  strong spines, which are placed on each side the joint. The tibiæ are
  short and thick. The tarsi consist of five articulations besides the
  claws; the bottom of each having a valve or sucker to it; those placed
  between the hooks being considerably larger than the others, by which the
  creature is enabled to climb up any thing perpendicularly that has a
  smooth surface.


END OF VOL. II.


G. NORMAN, PRINTER. MAIDEN LANE, COVENT GARDEN.



NOTES.

[1] Trans. Linn. Soc. Vol. 7.

[2] Quoted in the British Cyclopædia of Natural History, Vol. 1. p. 748.

[3] Neither in Abbot's figure, nor in my specimens of this larva, is there
    any appearance of hair upon the body, and it cannot be supposed that a
    variation in the nature of the food could have the effect of clothing
    some specimens with hair whilst the rest are naked.

[4] Mr. Swainson's figure of Leilus orientalis is incorrect in this
    respect.

[5] Sphinx Vespiformis, an Essay, table opposite p. 31.

[6] Anomalie du Genre Urania par M. Boisduval. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1834,
    p. 248.

[7] Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. vol. i.

[8] Figured by Lewin in his Lepidopt. of New Holland, and republished by
    Guérin Icon. Règne. An. Ins. pl. 83. fig. 2.





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