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Title: Choffard
Author: Salomons, Vera
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  [Illustration: Tail-piece from “Contes et nouvelles en vers”
  by La Fontaine, 1762.]


  [Illustration: Choffard’s visiting card]

  XVIIIth CENTURY FRENCH BOOK-ILLUSTRATORS



  CHOFFARD



  BY

  VERA SALOMONS


  ILLUSTRATED WITH 29 PHOTOGRAVURES FROM
  NEGATIVES BY THE AUTHOR



  LONDON
  JOHN & EDWARD BUMPUS LTD.
  MCMXII


  (ALL RIGHTS RESERVED)


  CHISWICK PRESS: CHARLES WHITTINGHAM AND CO.
  TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



  TO

  MY MOTHER

  THE PRESENT LITTLE VOLUME

  IS AFFECTIONATELY

  INSCRIBED

------------------------------------------------------------------------



  TO THE READER


You may never have heard of Choffard and never have seen his work, but
if any production from his hand should be brought before your eyes,
however insignificant, and you fail to admire it, then it is to confess
that no artistic corner exists in your soul!

Of all the vignettists, Choffard is the freshest, most ingenious, and
charming. Elegance exists in all his productions equalled, perhaps, by
no other artist.

None act so well a love scene on the stage as those who love each other
in real life, so with all things and with book writing in particular.
To love an artist, gives the author a hand unfettered in dealing with
his work; it becomes no longer a forced history of his art, but a work
of affection free from affectation.

The author of this little book is a true admirer of Choffard and you
may accept the contents as a faithful representation of the artist and
his work. I therefore trust that after you have perused the pages which
follow, if not already an admirer of Choffard, you will have become one.

                                                                 D. S.

BROOMHILL,

    TUNBRIDGE WELLS.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



  PREFACE


Most biographers are so self-confident that they believe the subject of
their book will prove interesting to others; the present writer is no
exception to the rule and trusts that the following pages may help, in
a small degree, to attract the reader’s attention to the work of
Pierre-Philippe Choffard.

The 1762 edition of La Fontaine’s “Contes et nouvelles en vers,” which
is illustrated by Eisen’s masterpieces and by some of Choffard’s
exquisite etchings, is the work of that period best known to British
book-lovers; possibly in a measure due to the free character of the
stories, yet probably owing to these beautiful plates by Choffard and
Eisen. It seems, therefore, fair to assume that art lovers of to-day,
who interest themselves in French illustrated books of the eighteenth
century, may care to know something more about the artist whose lovely
work is a source of so much pleasure and admiration to them.

The achievements of Choffard do not occupy the high place they deserve
in this country; as a whole, they are too little known to do so, and
collectors find such difficulty in obtaining impressions of his
etchings in a fine state, that this draughtsman’s great gifts are
frequently misjudged in consequence.

One of the best proofs, although commonplace evidence, of the enduring
charm which French eighteenth-century design possesses, is that the
most admired present day catalogues and business cards are those with
reproductions of designs by artists of that period, Choffard’s work
being constantly found amongst them.

The author wishes gratefully to acknowledge the kind advice her father
has given her on a few difficult points and the valuable assistance he
afforded her, by generously allowing the writer to verify the greater
part of the volumes mentioned in this booklet, by means of his library.
For the description of those works that the author has been unable to
see in the above-mentioned collection or in museums she has referred to
“Les Graveurs du dix-huitième siècle” by MM. Portalis and Béraldi, and
the other equally excellent reference book “Guide de l’Amateur de
livres à gravures du XVIIIe. siècle” by Henry Cohen.

                                                               V. S.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



  CONTENTS

                                       PAGE

  THE LIFE OF CHOFFARD                    9

  THE ART OF CHOFFARD                    19

  CATALOGUE OF THE BEST-KNOWN BOOKS      37
    ILLUSTRATED BY CHOFFARD

  ADDENDA TO CATALOGUE OF BOOKS          97

  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS                 101

  INDEX OF THE WORKS MENTIONED IN       107
    THE CATALOGUE OF BOOKS
    ILLUSTRATED BY CHOFFARD

  PLATES                                115

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: Head-piece from Choffard’s book entitled “Notice
historique sur l’art de la gravure en France”]

  THE LIFE OF CHOFFARD


So little is known concerning Pierre-Philippe Choffard himself, that it
is difficult to give many facts about his life or even to state with
confidence that the year 1730 is that of the great artist’s birth,
since Heinecken gives 1729 and other writers mention 1736 as being the
date.

Pierre-Philippe’s artistic talent was perceptible at a very early age,
for when his father died, leaving wife and child impecunious, we hear
that the little boy of ten was in the habit of amusing himself by
making floral and conventional designs on the margins of his books, or
more probably exercise-books, considering his parents had, evidently,
never possessed large means and all literature was somewhat costly in
those days. The widow, at that time, suffered business losses which
caused her to take young Choffard away from the school he attended, and
she wisely placed him in the studio of Dheulland who was an engraver of
maps, plans, and other geometrical drawings. No doubt the rising genius
found this kind of engraving very wearisome, and to make his work more
congenial, he ornamented the borders, in which the maps were framed,
with his own unique designs.

The boy is also said to have been aided by lessons from Nicolas
Edelinck, who was very old; also from Balechou and Cochin; or, may be,
the example of these artists’ works emulated the youth. While yet
juvenile Choffard received tuition from Babel, an engraver of
decorative ornamentation. Pierre-Philippe’s style and charm of drawing,
however, were formed by himself alone, and no master before or since
his time has excelled Choffard in the airy atmospheric vitality he
imparts into all his magic pencil has chosen to portray, either in the
realms of fantasy, in the realities of still life, or even in the
rendering of that which his colleagues designed.

The artist must have had as much charm of personality as his
achievements had of originality; indeed, it is remarkable to find that
whenever his name appears, in memoirs or elsewhere, only good epithets
are applied to this self-made artist, who had no social standing and
yet was appointed draughtsman and engraver to the Imperial court and to
the Spanish throne, whilst the rulers of his native land appear to have
given Choffard no post, although he was member of several academies.

When one glances at the views of Prague and the little engravings of
English and Scottish towns, it makes one wonder whether he ever
travelled abroad, or if Choffard executed these vignettes from other
artists’ drawings without stating so. From his “Notice sur l’art de la
gravure,” which the draughtsman published a few years before his death,
it would appear that he never crossed the Channel, or Choffard would
have mentioned his personal experience, instead of giving that of
friends, but it cannot be positively asserted that the artist never
traversed the French frontier.

Ponce tells us that should some friend of Choffard’s evince difficulty
in drawing any portion of a composition in perspective, or if the
decoration of a plate proved troublesome and they chanced to ask his
advice: “Bring me your work,” he would good naturedly say, “and leave
it with me so that I may consider it at leisure.” The friend, on his
return, could be positive of finding the difficulty overcome. And was
Choffard often known to accept adequate, if any, remuneration for such
work? We can draw our own conclusions, knowing his generous character.

His company was enjoyed and appreciated by the most illustrious
contemporary painters and engravers, and Wille mentions meeting
Choffard in company with de Launay, Lempereur, and Saint-Aubin on one
occasion, and another day Choffard, Flipart, Chardin, Roslin, and Vien
dined at the same table as Wille. Billiards was a pastime our artist
much enjoyed, and on one occasion, when he and his intimate friend
Basan and Bervic were staying with Miger at Bagneux, the host’s three
guests stayed up all one Saturday night playing billiards. Miger amused
himself by celebrating the incident in the following lines:

  Basan, Bervic et vous, Choffard, qu’on croyait sage,
  Voyez jusqu’où du jeu vous a porté la rage;
  Autour de ce billard, du soir jus’qu’au matin,
  L’Aurore en se levant, vous vit la queue en main;
  Et tandis qu’à la messe on disait le symbole,
  Chacun de vous, bâillant, disait: “Je carambole.”

If a sketching party were arranged, naturally the popular artist was
included among its members. Little surprising is it that his popularity
increased as steadily as his fame flourished, for this is the state in
which an eye-witness describes him arriving at a friend’s country home,
with “le petit pain en poche pour le dogue de la porte, les gimblettes
pour le petit chien, les bonbons pour les enfants, les fleurs ou le
flacon pour la maîtresse de la maison et le gros écu pour les
doméstiques.” What artist’s means could stave such a flow of
generosity? Is it because the giver always saw the bottom of his purse
that his name appears as engraver of mechanical drawings such as those
in Berthoud’s “Essai sur l’horlogerie,” and sometimes as the reproducer
of brother artist's inferior designs? Yet another cause prevented the
greatest “graveur de l’accessoire” from accumulating means—he loved
art so passionately that no time, no remuneration, no trouble, no
patience, and no difficulties were considered; his work’s success was
Choffard’s only thought.

It is interesting to notice how keen the artist was that the plates
should be satisfactorily printed on a special kind of paper for an
edition of “Les trois femmes.” The long letter relating to this happens
to be in existence, and no doubt many another, even more lengthy and
detailed, was written by Choffard, who generously dealt out valuable
advice to author and publisher. In this instance, as no doubt in all
Choffard’s correspondence, the proposals he makes are worded so
tactfully as to leave the reader under the impression that the artist
is quite willing for his advice to be disregarded. Choffard’s sensitive
refinement must indeed have been visible in many ways besides in his
art.

Although “enfant des quaies,” as he called himself, yet this
self-educated genius had innate refinement and possessed a marvellous
power of discrimination and judgement how best to treat delicate
passages, intricate subjects, and uninteresting themes, whether the
composition had to be confined to the minute dimensions of a tiny
fleuron or whether the subject was to occupy a folio page.

“Notice sur l’art de la gravure en France” came from the pen of
Choffard. The engraver resented his own art lacking an historian, and
therefore became its champion. Had not voluminous books been published
on painting and sculpture, yet the sister art had only incidental
remarks passed upon it? To fill this void, there appeared in 1804 a
little volume written concisely by an eminently capable judge of the
talents of past and contemporary engravers. Choffard shows remarkable
fairness in dealing with draughtsmen of different styles, of many
lands, and of varied temperaments, and is broad-minded in all matters
where our countrymen are not concerned. It is only natural that a
Frenchman should look on his British neighbours with a frown in the
eventful year when Napoleon was elected emperor! Great as were
Choffard’s anti-British prejudices, it must be admitted that they did
not prevent him from praising the talent of Ryland, and of mentioning
the names of many other British engravers. Now and again, in perusing
the pages of the little book, one alights on a date which is at
variance with our modern historians’ statements, a fact that is hardly
worthy of mention, considering exactitude troubled eighteenth-century
writers far less than it does contemporary biographers in these
scientific days.

The charming vignette Choffard executed for his volume is said, by
some, to represent the artist, as a young man, in his studio and would
suffice to make the book live and be collected, whatever may be its
literary merits or demerits. It is curious to note that a host of the
artist’s illustrations are contained in works wholly unworthy of
Choffard’s great results, or else they illustrate literature that is
very little read in modern times.

Pierre-Philippe Choffard was an exceptionally prolific artist, and, as
has been said before, loved his work passionately. An hour before his
death he still had his thoughts bent on art and sent to fetch paper on
which to draw a reduction of a picture by Legrand. The dying artist had
formed the resolution to write a more extensive work than his first
successful “Notice” on the art of engraving, and this reduced plate
would have been contained within its pages had fate been kinder.

On the seventh day of the month of March in the year 1809 the world
lost its greatest “maître ornemaniste” by the death of Pierre-Philippe
Choffard.

The eighteenth century was a period when letter-writing, diaries, and
memoirs were greatly in vogue; yet rarely on these milestones of the
past appears the name of Choffard, proving how uneventful must have
been his life. Notwithstanding this probable fact, we cannot but regret
that our artist did not leave his life impressions, which would have
been full of interest, since he met and associated with all the leading
talent of his day.

[Illustration: Tail-piece from “Contes et nouvelles en vers” by La
Fontaine, 1762]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: Head-piece in “Dictionnaire des graveurs, etc.” by
Basan, 1789]


  THE ART OF CHOFFARD


The greatest and most permanent monuments of fame that any man can
raise to his own memory are those he builds for himself. The colossal
masterpiece that stands outlined against the horizon of Choffard’s
career is his etchings for “Les Métamorphoses d’Ovide.” These
thirty-seven little pictures that his needle bequeathed to posterity
can best proclaim their own praises; five of them are from drawings by
Monnet, the other plates are entirely by Choffard. It would be an
impossible and a useless task for me to attempt to do Choffard’s
masterpieces justice in words, for the artist’s inventive power is so
remarkable, the delicacy of his touch so fairy-like, his compositions
so delightful to the eye and pleasing to our sense of balance, and the
marvellous brilliancy and effect of sunshine are so exquisite, that not
the connoisseur alone discerns Choffard’s genius, but even the
uninitiated pause in deep admiration before his superb vignettes.

Unfortunately much of Choffard’s finest work is other than the
decoration of literature, and can, therefore, find no place within the
space of these few pages. The draughtsman was so fond of his art that
whatever purpose his drawing was to serve, all his efforts were
expended on it; thus we find some of his finest pieces are trade-cards,
ball-tickets, designs commemorating events such as marriages,
visiting-cards, little screens, diplomas and medals, and it seems very
probable that in his youth, the “enfant des quais” executed much that
we, nowadays, are unable to affirm is from his hand, although in his
style, for it is modestly left unsigned, and it may here be noted that
Arrivet often approached Choffard in his style of designing floral
borders.

Jean-Georges Wille was amused as he entered in his journal:
“Monseigneur le Prince de Nassau-Saarbrück proposed for me to engrave
his arms; it made me laugh; but I excused myself by proposing M.
Choffard who is good at ornamentation.” If we look at book-plates of
Choffard’s creation, or at the little dedication-plate to the Comte
d’Artois in de Piis’ “Chansons nouvelles,” one is able to realize how
just the great portrait engraver’s recommendation was. The reproduction
here given of this small dedication-page gives but a slight idea of the
original in a fine state, for no reproduction can possibly render
justice to Choffard’s etched or engraved work. It is astonishing, even
with the originals, what an extraordinary difference it makes to the
picture, whether the proof is brilliant or a late impression, so is it
surprising that mechanical reproductions give but a notion of that
which they represent, where brilliancy and delicacy of touch are of
infinite value. Every collector ought to be especially careful in
avoiding proofs printed from worn or retouched plates, for they do not
produce the artistic harmonies the draughtsman strove for and succeeded
in achieving.

The majority of Choffard’s book-illustrations consists of designs by
other artists which he has reproduced, but as Choffard was a prolific
draughtsman, posterity nevertheless possesses a number of volumes
wherein design and engraving are both of his own execution. In etching
or engraving, Choffard’s personal, brilliant touch is almost invariably
apparent, whether in reproducing the work of another, or in his own
compositions; thus other artists’ works had their beauty enhanced by
their translator, whereas in the few cases where Choffard left the
engraving of his compositions to a strange hand, their character and
vitality were weakened. Is this because Choffard was the best engraver
of his day? No, several there are who could claim this place with equal
right. A drawing by Choffard which is also his own etching, and the
identical design if reproduced or only terminated by another, would
show the same difference as there is between a letter written by hand
or by a typewriter. In the one instance we only see the meaning which
numberless lines depict, in the other case each line conveys a message,
every curve speaks, no dot is meaningless, every touch is expressive of
the character and mood of the individual. It must not be concluded from
these remarks that Choffard maintained this exalted standard of work
uninterruptedly during his long career, for occasionally, especially
towards its close, one encounters plates signed “P. P. Choffard” and
yet they do not bear that seal of charm and freshness which we are wont
to expect from this genius. Pierre-Philippe Choffard, however, has not,
like some artists, a given period during which he executed mediocre
plates; in fact, none of his work could rightfully be dubbed
indifferent or bad.

On the whole this draughtsman’s illustrations are of medium dimensions,
but the fine tail-piece to the “Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce” and the
fleuron on the dedication-page of the “Galerie du Palais-royale” are
both of them good examples of his large original work. The latter,
although etched by Choffard, is terminated by Guttenberg. Other lovely
examples of this kind are the fleuron for the dedication to the Queen
in Saint-Non’s “Voyage pittoresque des Royaumes de Naples et de la
Sicile,” and the two tail-pieces Choffard also executed for this book.
The remarkable one that represents Messina before the earthquake that
took place there in 1783, pictures the view of the town on a torn sheet
of paper, and through the rent is seen a tree, a branch of which
protrudes and overlaps a part of the picture; while a smoking torch is
placed below the view, so as to give the tail-piece the appearance of a
kind of allegorical prediction of the catastrophe that was to befall
the ill-fated city. This composition is an exceptional piece of
artistic ingenuity, invention, and skill in placing everything in the
most advantageous manner, while yet giving each item its true colour
value; these qualities, however, are salient in all Choffard’s good
work.

Unlike Marillier and Eisen, Choffard’s drawings, for the most part, are
not wonderfully minutely treated, for the inventor was accustomed to
transferring his own design on to the copper and therefore frequently
dispensed with great finish in his drawings. Many of Choffard’s
illustrations are pure etchings, such as those in the 1762 edition of
La Fontaine’s “Contes et nouvelles en vers,” but like these, his pure
etchings are usually from his own sketches. Even those drawings of
Choffard which have been engraved by a stranger have, in many cases,
been preliminarily etched on the copper-plate by Choffard himself.

There are so many angles from which the various aspects of Choffard’s
career may be gauged, that it would be interesting to speculate as to
the place his talents would occupy to-day, if Choffard lived now
instead of being our ancestors’ contemporary. Some may think that his
light would not shine so brightly in the twentieth century, since there
is no Eisen or other great illustrator with whom to intermix his plates
and thus help to form a contrast of exquisite illustration, each
enhancing the other draughtsman’s style. This is an error. Were such a
master as Choffard to exist in these materialistic days, he would be
admired ten-fold more than artists now praise the talent of this
draughtsman of bygone times; no Moreau, Cochin, Eisen, Marillier, or
Gaucher now live to dispute the laurels with him, and Choffard would
stand alone, not only the recognized “maître ornemaniste” but also the
champion vignettiste, illustrator, designer, and engraver of our days.

Even during the eighteenth century he was marked out as a fine engraver
of illustrations, and he likewise successfully engraved estampes and
portraits. The likeness of La Rochefoucauld serves as an excellent
example of Choffard’s skill in handling the burin, and this small
portrait alone, would suffice to place him equal with that king of
miniature portrait engraving—Gaucher. The “Maximes et réfléxions
morales,” to which this plate forms a frontispiece, bears the date 1778
on the title-page, whereas La Rochefoucauld’s portrait is dated a year
later, by Choffard. A post-dated illustration is a circumstance
frequently encountered in French books of the eighteenth century, and
it is often difficult to decide whether the volume itself was published
later than is stated or if the plates were issued for insertion in the
book after its publication. Both methods are known to have been
practised, and it is of little consequence to collectors whether the
illustrations were or were not contained in the book at the time of
issue, considering certain works are deemed incomplete if they do not
comprise the post-dated plates which properly belong to that particular
work. There are also portraits that were published separately and yet
are usually found in books; connoisseurs do not in these cases regard
certain volumes as complete when such a portrait, or more, are absent,
because it has been the custom, among collectors, to add this special
picture, or pictures, to the copy of a work to which the plates apply,
when they were obtainable, and thus the best-known copies of such books
contain them. This is the case with Président Hénault’s “Histoire de
France.”

It may also be remarked that illustrations executed for one book were
often used for several other works. Those plates that found favour in
the sight of connoisseurs were sometimes copied, or worn plates were
retouched and issued as originals; therefore the collector of to-day
must be very cautious lest he buys a book on old paper with plates
professing to be by the artist whose name they bear, but which are
nevertheless from faked plates or are forgeries. Another peculiarity of
some books of that period, is the way in which they were issued; an
edition was divided between several publishers either because they all
desired to have a hand in the issue or perhaps to lessen the risks.
This accounts for the reason why some books appear under the names of
different publishers, although the volumes themselves are identical.
The 1767-1771 edition of “Les Métamorphoses d’Ovide” appeared under the
names of five different publishers, each placing his own name in the
particular copies for which he subscribed. Furthermore it would appear
that at times, a publisher would place a title-page in his copies with
as marked a difference as that of altering the name of the work itself.
For instance “Les jeux de la petite Thalie,” by Gravelot, also appeared
under the title of “Almanach utile et agréable de la loterie de l’école
royale militaire pour l’année 1759 et 1760” with the frontispiece
changed.


Eaux-fortes and proofs before letters of Choffard’s plates exist in
almost every instance, and they command a much greater price than
impressions after letters. Naturally first proofs are usually far more
brilliant than later ones and are deservedly prized by collectors.
Nevertheless a prohibitive value is frequently placed on certain rare
states and on scarce eaux-fortes, which makes one realize how true
Seymour Haden’s remark is, when applied to this case: “First comes the
biographer and cataloguer with wearisome precision to describe
different states of a plate and then the dealer to persuade that the
first two of these ‘states’ are worth three times more money than the
perfected plate; a grave misconception.” From the artist’s point of
view, undoubtedly, this is an absurd misconception, but a collector or
a student naturally regards the various stages of the masterpiece’s
progress as an interesting adjunct to the enjoyment and appreciation of
the finished work.

The book known as the “Fermiers généraux” edition of the “Contes et
nouvelles en vers,” by La Fontaine, is justly regarded as containing
some of the most beautiful examples of Choffard’s work, for every
little picture, so different in theme, is a revelation of the artist’s
extraordinary powers. There is tender love for his art in every stroke
that caressingly models the allegorical figures whose graceful contours
repose on transparent clouds, also in the floral designs, minute genre
pictures bordered by drapery and flowers, and in a medal with the
artist’s portrait amidst garlands and clouds and a multitude of other
picturesque combinations that are contained within the two volumes. But
perhaps the most ingenious little vignettes are those that treat of
commonplace things, of vulgar, raw substances such as a piece of meat
or dead fish in a net. The subjects sound almost repulsive; there are
not even the beautiful hues of the rainbow trout to relieve the
coarseness and crudeness of the subject! It is in cases such as these
that Choffard’s unique talents are forcibly apparent, for instantly one
admires the little pictures, regardless of the subject which is
represented so attractively as to form an artistic composition.

“Le jugement de Paris” and the two editions of “Les Saisons” also
contain well-known illustrations by Choffard. These latter are usually
considered to rank among his “chef-d’œuvres,” although it seems
doubtful whether they equal his real masterpieces. They appear to
represent the subjects in cameo form, whereas the little medallions
just fail to give that effect, thus leaving us to decide for ourselves
the meaning of the deep shadow outlining the small figures.

The words “plan of London” convey no idea of an artistic illustration,
and yet Choffard executed a delightful vignette with the metropolis’
highways, streets, houses, and river distinctly mapped out in the
centre of an ornamental frame. Berthoud was fortunate when he obtained
a charming fleuron by Choffard for his “Histoire de la mesure du temps
par les horloges,” for who but the “maître ornemaniste” would have
succeeded in forming a delightful “ensemble” with rectangular clocks
and scientific instruments?

The little battle scenes which illustrate “Préjugés militaires” are
exquisitely composed, and are excellent examples of the delicacy and
depth with which Choffard etched. His talents in this line are also
exceptionally remarkable in the head-piece containing Basan’s engraved
portrait, which forms the centre of the composition, on each side of
which are the great publisher’s studio and study.

In the pages of “L’histoire de la maison de Bourbon” Choffard’s genius
shines forth with brilliant vigour. Each tail-piece, so similar in
subject yet very different in design, is an allegorical composition
aptly illustrating the chapter it terminates. When these fleurons and
tail-pieces are in proof and the complete impression of the
copper-plate is shown, there are words engraved “à la pointe” on the
extreme top edge of the plate. In a few cases they only note the volume
and page in the book that the picture is to occupy, but above the proof
of the tail-piece here reproduced are the words:

“To^{e.} V. Page 354 La Perfidie entoure de pieges les Armes de France
et de Navarre, et elle s’efforce d’eloigner Bourbon du Trone, agité de
fureur, le fanatisme employe contre ce Prince le fer, et le poison.”
(In the original, as quoted, many accents are omitted.)

There appear to be no proofs in an earlier state than with these
letters “à la pointe,” or if any exist, they are practically unique.

One of the five fleurons by Choffard for Rousseau’s works is reproduced
in this book, and is here followed by the same illustration with the
figure draped. This latter is a later state and was never published nor
is it cited in any catalogue. Plates in the early state are frequently
encountered with points differing from the final ones, due, no doubt,
to the artist, author, or publisher wishing for some alteration in the
design; these differences are at times very perceptible and at others
hardly noticeable. It also sometimes happens that the earlier state was
selected for publication, as in this case.

Could there be any more appropriate conclusion to this chapter than
Baron Roger Portalis’ just eulogy on Choffard’s art?

“Son exécution est brillante et précieuse, son burin à la fois ferme,
transparent et léger; s’il a rarement été chargé de la composition des
principaux sujets dans les grandes illustrations des ouvrages de son
temps, et si sa collaboration n’a guère été que le complément des
travaux des Eisen, des Moreau, des Cochin, des Monnet, il faut dire que
le complément a singulièrement fait valoir et quelquefois fait pâlir
l’œuvre principale. Du reste, il a souvent interprété ses grands
collaborateurs avec un art, une fidélité et une richesse de tons dont
ils dû être fort satisfaits, et on peut répéter de lui ce beau titre
qui lui a été donné jadis de graveur coloriste.” Those who to-day look
upon Choffard’s work in an unprejudiced light cannot do otherwise than
feel the force of the above words and re-echo them from their hearts.

[Illustration: “Traité du beau essentiel dans les arts, appliqué
particulièrement à l’architecture, etc.” by Briseux, 1752]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: Tail-piece from “Contes et nouvelles en vers” by La
Fontaine, 1762]


  CATALOGUE OF THE BEST
  KNOWN BOOKS ILLUSTRATED
  BY CHOFFARD


A ELLE. SIX ROMANCES, avec accompagnement de piano. _A Paris, chez
Pleyel, prix 6 f. 4to._ The ornamental title-page is engraved by
Choffard after J. Guérin.

ALMANACH DU CHASSEUR (par Goury de Changrand). _Paris, Pissot, 1772 and
1773, 12mo._ A frontispiece by Choffard.

AMUSEMENTS D’UN CONVALESCENT, dédiés à ses amis. _Paris, 1761, 8vo._ A
vignette on the title-page by Gravelot, engraved by Choffard.

ANVILLE (D’). TROISIÈME PARTIE DE LA CARTE D’EUROPE, contenant le Midi
de la Russie, la Pologne et la Hongrie, la Turquie, etc. Publiée sous
les auspices de Monseigneur Louis-Philippe Duc d’Orléans, etc. 1759.
One cartouche drawn by Gravelot, engraved by Choffard.

D’Anville was Gravelot’s elder brother.

ARGENVILLE (DEZALLIER D’). ABRÉGÉ DE LA VIE DES PLUS FAMEUX PEINTRES,
etc. _Paris, de Bure, 1745, 2 vols., 4to._

SUPPLÉMENT À L’ABRÉGÉ, etc. _Paris, de Bure, 1752, 4to._ In all 3 vols.
A frontispiece, 3 vignettes, one tail-piece, and 254 portraits or
ornamental frames for portraits. The tail-piece is by Choffard.

ARIOSTE. ORLANDO FURIOSO DI LUDOVICO ARIOSTO. _Birmingham, Baskerville,
1773, 4 vols., large 8vo._ A portrait and 46 illustrations. One plate
is engraved by Choffard after Monnet.

A fine edition. Some very scarce copies contain plates before letters,
with the exception of those engraved by Bartolozzi. 100 large paper
copies were issued 4to size.

ARSACE ET ISMÉNIE, HISTOIRE ORIENTALE. _Royal 8vo_. The title-page is
designed by Choffard and Le Mire engraved it.

ARTE Y PUNTUAL EXPLICACION DEL MODO DE TOCAR EL VIOLIN, etc., compuesto
por D. Joseph Herrado ... quien le dedica al Exc^{mo.} S^r D^n
Francisco Ponce de Leon ... La M^{ca} y L^{tra} gravada por M^{elle}
Vendome.

A title-page, on one copy of which are written the words “Joannes a
cruce faciebat Parisiis 1759,” “P. P. Choffard ornamenta.”

ATLAS TOPOGRAPHIQUE DES ENVIRONS DE PARIS, dédiés et présenté au Roy
par son très-humble et très-obéissant serviteur ... Lattré. A
decorative title-page by Choffard.

BACHELIER. COLLECTION DE CUL [sic] DE LAMPES [sic] ET FLEURONS,
inventés et dessinés par Mr. Bachelier, peintre du Roy, tirée de la
grande edition in-folio des Fables de la Fontaine, et gravés par P. P.
Choffard. Distribués en quatre suites; Avec privilege du Roy. Ier.
suite. _A Paris chés [sic] la Ve. Chereau rue St. Jacques au 2 Pilliers
d’Or. Royal 8vo._ A fleuron on the title-page and 5 plates engraved by
Choffard after Bachelier. There are 2 or 3 separate designs on several
of the sheets.

This suite and the next one mentioned, are not the actual illustrations
that appear in the folio “La Fontaine,” although the title states so.
Those contained in the 1755-1759 edition are not from copper-plates,
but are wood-engravings, executed by Papillon, for the most part. These
woodcuts are evidently copies of the designs which Choffard engraved
after Bachelier.

BACHELIER. 2me. SUITTE [sic] DE CULS DE LAMPES [sic] ET FLEURONS,
inventés et dessinés par Mr. Bachelier Ptre. du Roy, tirée de la grande
edition in-folio des Fables de la Fontaine, et gravés par P. P.
Choffard. Avec privilége du Roy. _A Paris, chéz la Ve. Chereau rue St.
Jacques aux 2 Pilliers d’Or. Royal 8vo._ A fleuron on the title-page
and 5 plates by Bachelier engraved by Choffard. There are 2 separate
designs on some of the sheets.

The same remarks apply to this suite as well as to the last.

BASAN. RECUEIL D’ESTAMPES GRAVÉES D’APRÈS LES TABLEAUX DU CABINET DE
MONSEIGNEUR LE DUC DE CHOISEUL, par les soins du sieur Basan. _A Paris,
chés [sic] l’Auteur, rue et hotel serpente, 1771, 4to._ A title-page,
dedication-page, one portrait, and 128 plates. The title-page is by
Choffard.

The numbering of the plates goes up to number 123; the figures 68, 69,
76, 78, and 101 are repeated; these duplicate numbers have an asterisk
against them.

The Duc de Choiseul sold his beautiful collection of pictures after
falling into disgrace at court in 1770.

BASAN. CATALOGUE RAISONNÉ DES DIFFERENS OBJETS DE CURIOSITÉ DANS LES
SCIENCES ET DANS LES ARTS QUI COMPOSOIENT LE CABINET DE FEU M.
MARIETTE, etc., par F. Basan, graveur. _A Paris, 1775, 8vo._ A
decorative title-page, a frontispiece, and 4 etchings. The fine
frontispiece is by Cochin, engraved by Choffard, and exists before
letters.

Only 12 copies of this book were printed on holland paper.

BASAN. CATALOGUE D’UNE BELLE COLLECTION DE DESSINS ITALIENS, FLAMANDS,
HOLANDAIS ET FRANÇOIS, etc., le tout rassemblé avec soins et dépenses
par M. Neyman, amateur à Amsterdam, etc., par Fr. Basan. Le présent
catalogue est orné d’un frontispice par le sieur Choffard, et de XIV.
[sic, read 19] estampes gravées à l’eau-forte par Weisbrodt,
Duplessi-Bertaux et Le Veau, d’après des dessins capitaux d’Adrien van
Velde, etc. _Paris, Basan et Prault, 1776, 8vo._ Decorative title-page
by Choffard.

BASAN. COLLECTION DE CENT VINGT ESTAMPES GRAVÉES D’APRÈS LES TABLEAUX
ET DESSINS QUI COMPOSOIENT LE CABINET DE M. POULLAIN receveur général
des domaines du Roi, décédé en 1780, etc., exécutées sous la direction
du sieur Fr. Basan, graveur, etc. _Paris, Basan et Poignant, 1781,
4to._ A fleuron on the dedication-page by Choffard, an ornamented
title-page and illustrations by other artists.

The illustrated title-page used in the “Catalogue Neyman” is repeated
in this volume, with the title altered to suit the book. The artist’s
signature without the date is on this plate, whereas in the “Catalogue
Neyman” the plate is dated.

BASAN. DICTIONNAIRE DES GRAVEURS ANCIENS ET MODERNES, DEPUIS L’ORIGINE
DE LA GRAVURE, par F. Basan, graveur; seconde édition mise par ordre
alphabétique, considérablement augmentée et ornée de cinquante estampes
par différents artistes célébres, ou sans aucune au gré de l’amateur.
_Paris, chez l’auteur, Cuchet, Prault, 1789, 2 vols., 8vo._ 3 pretty
head-pieces by Choffard: one on the dedication-page, another on the
first page of the catalogue in volume i; the third is in the second
volume and is a little masterpiece. This latter was reprinted in
Regnault’s catalogue of Basan’s collection; it represents Basan’s study
on one side and his studio on the other. In the centre of the
composition, which is dated 1790, Choffard has placed a framed portrait
of his friend Basan. These 3 vignettes exist in proofs before text and
in various other states.

Most of the other illustrations are borrowed from different works.

The vignette containing Basan’s portrait is dated 1790, the other
head-pieces are dated 1789. Evidently the second volume of the book (if
not both parts) did not appear until 1790, considering the head-piece
thus dated is printed in the text and would therefore not have been
added after the volume’s issue.

This little portrait of Basan was used again for the re-issue of the
same book—_Paris, Blaise_, 1809.

BELLIN. Essai Géographique sur les Isles Britanniques, etc., pour le
service des vaisseaux du Roi, etc., par M. Bellin, etc. _A Paris, de
l’imprimerie de Didot, 1757, 4to._ An engraved title-page, a fleuron on
the title, one vignette, 11 head-pieces, 22 tail-pieces, and 5 maps.

The little views and plans by Choffard are charming and are far
superior to the other illustrations in this volume. The vignette
representing “Plan de Londres” and 4 tail-pieces are signed by
Choffard, the frames of several of the other tail-pieces and the little
view of Windsor, which forms a _cul-de-lampe_, may also be attributed
to him. Choffard’s border for the title-page is used for the same
purpose in “Description géographique des débouquemens de Saint
Domingue” by the same author.

BELLIN. DESCRIPTION GÉOGRAPHIQUE DES ISLES ANTILLES, possédées par les
anglais, etc. _A Paris, de l’Imprimerie de Didot, 1758, 4to._ An
engraved title-page, 12 maps, and 10 head-pieces. The frame for the
title-page and one head-piece are by Choffard.

BELLIN. DÉSCRIPTION GÉOGRAPHIQUE DE LA GUYANE, etc. Dressées au Dépost
des Cartes et Plans de la Marine par ordre de M. le Duc de Choiseul,
Colonel Général des Suisses et Grisons, Ministre de la Guerre et de la
Marine, etc. _A Paris, de l’imprimerie de Didot, 1763, 4to._ A frame on
the title-page, a head-piece to the “avertissement,” one head-piece and
10 plates representing natives, animals, plants, etc., and 20 maps or
plans.

The frame round the title is signed “Croisey Sc.,” and is similar to
that in “Description géographique des isles Antilles,” which is signed
“P. P. Choffard fecit 1758.” “Déscription géographique de la Guyane”
has the same title-border as the other book, only it is reversed and
has a slight alteration in the top of the design. The head-piece to the
“avertissement” is also the same as that in “Description géographique
des isles Antilles,” in which book it is signed “P. P. Choffard fecit
1758,” whereas in “Déscription géographique de la Guyane” it is signed
“P. R. Rameau fecit 1762,” and is reversed; it is also a little larger,
owing to the fact that there is slightly more space between the
vignette and the border, and a muzzle of a cannon, etc., are added.
Probably Rameau copied Choffard’s plate. This head-piece is also in
“Description géographique du Golfe de Venise et de la Morée.”

BELLIN. DESCRIPTION GÉOGRAPHIQUE ET HISTORIQUE DE L’ISLE DE CORSE,
etc., par le Sieur Bellin, ingénieur de la Marine. _A Paris, de
l’imprimerie de Didot, 1769, 4to._ A head-piece, 2 ornamental borders,
and many maps.

The head-piece is by Choffard and appears in “Description géographique
des débouquemens qui sont au nord de l’isle de Saint Domingue” and in
“Description géographique du Golfe de Venise et de la Morée.”

BERQUIN. ŒUVRES COMPLÈTES DE BERQUIN, nouvelle édition rangée dans un
meilleur ordre. _Paris, Renouard, an XI. [1803]. 17 vols., crown 8vo._
204 illustrations. The decorative title-page to the “Idylles” is drawn
by Monsiau and engraved by Choffard.

Published on vellum paper; 3 copies are mentioned as being printed on
pink paper.

BERTHOUD (FERDINAND). L’ART DE CONDUIRE ET DE RÉGLER LES PENDULES ET
LES MONTRES, etc. _A Paris, chez l’auteur, chez Michel Lambert, 1759,
12mo._ 4 engravings of mechanical plates by Choffard.

BERTHOUD (FERDINAND). ESSAI SUR L’HORLOGERIE. _Paris, 1763, 2 vols.,
4to._ 38 engravings of mechanical drawings by Choffard.

BERTHOUD (FERDINAND). TRAITÉ DES HORLOGES MARINES, etc. _A Paris, chez
J. B. G. Musier fils, libraire, 1773, 4to._ A fleuron on the title-page
by Choffard, a vignette with Louis XV’s portrait above the dedication
by Cochin, engraved by Choffard and 27 mechanical drawings engraved by
Choffard.

The fleuron also appears on the title-pages of ECLAIRCISSEMENS SUR
L'INVENTION ... DES NOUVELLES MACHINES PROPOSÉES EN FRANCE, POUR LA
DÉTERMINATION DES LONGITUDES EN MER PAR LA MESURE DU TEMPS, etc. _A
Paris, chez J. B. G. Musier fils, libraire, 1773, 4to_, and TRAITÉ DES
MONTRES À LONGITUDES, etc. _A Paris, de l'Imprimerie de Ph.-D. Pierres,
Premier imprimeur du Roi, 1792, 4to._

BERTHOUD (FERDINAND). DE LA MESURE DU TEMPS PAR LES HORLOGES DANS
L’USAGE CIVIL, etc. _A Paris, de l’imprimerie de A.-J. Baudelot & J.-M.
Eberhart, Fructidor, l’An V. de la République (1797 vieux style), 4to._
9 mechanical drawings engraved by Choffard.

BERTHOUD (FERDINAND). HISTOIRE DE LA MESURE DU TEMPS PAR LES HORLOGES,
par Ferdinand Berthoud, Mechanicien de la Marine, etc. _A Paris, de
l’Imprimerie de la République, an X (1802 v. s.), 2 vols., 4to._ A
fleuron repeated on the title-page of each volume and many diagrams and
plates.

The fleuron, which is by Choffard, represents an ornamental slab on
which clocks, a gyroscope, and other scientific instruments are placed.
The little vignette is one of the numerous examples of the artist’s
skill in rendering inartistic subjects pleasing to the eye. Not only
has he placed the various instruments in foreshortened positions and
broken their stiff outlines by allowing books and scrolls to lie about
in agreeable disorder, but a charming little view of the Place Carousel
forms the background, thus completing the picture.

BLIN DE SAINMORE. LETTRE DE SAPHO À PHAON, précédée d’une épître à
Rosine, etc., par M. Blin de Sainmore. _Paris, Sébastien Jorry, 1767,
8vo._ 3 illustrations, including a tail-piece by Choffard.

The latter, touched up and dated 1801, appears in Basan’s “Dictionnaire
des Graveurs.” This book, together with other opuscules of Blin de
Sainmore, was republished under the title of “Héroïdes” or “Lettres en
vers,” _Paris, S. Jorry,_ 1767, 5 _vols., 8vo_, and contains the same
plates. There are some holland paper copies.

BOCCACE. IL DECAMERONE DI M. GIOVANNI BOCCACCIO. _Londra (Paris), 1757,
5 vols., 8vo._ Profusely illustrated. There are 4 tail-pieces Choffard
engraved after Gravelot.

The first proofs are marked with a “paraphe” on the lower part of the
back of each plate and it looks like a small script monogram. The
volumes containing these are most sought after. All copies are on
holland paper. There exist proofs before the artists’ names and in
various other states. The pictures in the Italian edition are accepted
as the first impressions from the plates. There are, however, copies of
the French edition which contain proofs with the “paraphe” and they
were placed in the volumes at the time of issue.

The French edition of this book, “Le Décameron de Jean Boccace, traduit
par Le Maçon,” _Londres (Paris), 1757, 5 vols., 8vo_, contains the same
plates and tail-pieces as in the Italian edition. This translation,
published by the same editors as those of the Italian edition, is much
sought after, although the proofs of the full-page plates and
especially of the tail-pieces, are not as fine. There was one issue on
large paper, which is less good than the small paper copies. Some
collectors put full-page plates of the Italian edition into their copy
of the French edition; nevertheless, they cannot hide the inferiority
of the tail-pieces. These latter are even repeated in several parts of
the book and are not put at the same places as in the original edition.
Note that the full-page plate which belongs to the first “Nouvelle” of
the eighth “Journée” is different in the French edition from that in
the Italian one.

There are several re-issues of this work, which are very inferior to
that of 1757.

BOCCACE. ESTAMPES GALANTES DES CONTES DU BOCCACE. _A Londres, 1759,
4to._ A title-frontispiece and 20 plates designed by Gravelot. Choffard
engraved the title-page.

BOCCHERINI (Luigi). DOUZE NOUVEAUX QUINTETTI; pour deux violons, deux
violoncelles et alto, par Luigi Boccherini, etc., œuvre 37, Prix 9 fr.
_A Paris, chez Ignace Pleyel, etc., large 4to._ Title-page by Choffard.

BRISEUX. TRAITÉ DU BEAU ESSENTIEL DANS LES ARTS, APPLIQUÉ
PARTICULIÈREMENT À L’ARCHITECTURE, etc., par le sieur C. E. Briseux,
architecte. _Paris, chez l’auteur et chez Chereau, 1752, 2 vols., 4to._
6 tail-pieces by Choffard and 2 architectural drawings engraved by the
same artist. One tail and a head-piece are in Choffard’s style, but are
unsigned. This draughtsman may likewise have engraved some of the
architectural plates that bear no signature. Also many plates by other
artists.

A sumptuous book with the text engraved.

BUSSY-RABUTIN. HISTOIRE AMOUREUSE DES GAULES. _(Paris), 1754, 5 vols.,
12mo._ 5 engraved title-pages designed by Choffard; 2 of them are
engraved by Legrand.

CABINET DES FÉES, ou collection choisie des contes de fées et autres
contes merveilleux, ornées de figures. _Genève, Barde, Manget et Cie,
et Paris, 1785-1789. 41 vols., 8vo._ 120 plates by Marillier, of which
Choffard engraved one.

Since there are 3 plates in each volume the book ought to contain 123
illustrations; but it must be noted that volume 37 has no pictures.
There are 2 plates which are missing in most copies. The one belongs to
“Barbe-Bleue,” and has “Dans ce moment on heurta si fort à la porte”
inscribed on it, and the other bears the words “Le Petit Poucet s’étant
approché de l’Ogre.” These two plates appear to have been replaced by
the two others that illustrate these “contes” in all the ordinary
copies of the book. The plates in the 12mo edition are later
impressions than those in the 8vo. one.

The pictures are very commonly found bound without the text, and
collectors appear to prefer them in this form.

CARTES ET TABLES DE LA GÉOGRAPHIE PHYSIQUE OU NATURELLE, cet ouvrage
approuvé et publié sous le priv^{ge.} de l’Ac. se trouve à Paris sur le
quai de l’Horloge. A frame by Choffard.

CATALOGUE DES CHEVALIERS, COMMANDEURS ET OFFICIERS DE L’ORDRE DU
SAINT-ESPRIT, avec leurs noms et qualité depuis l’institution jusqu’à
présent. _Paris, de l’imprimerie de Ballard, 1760, folio._

The publishers appear to have issued this book, in 1760, with a varying
number of illustrations.

The following is the description of the illustrations in a very fine
copy: a frontispiece by Boucher, engraved by L. Cars, a fleuron on the
title-page, 1 head-piece, 5 head-pieces with portraits of French kings,
16 tail-pieces, some being repetitions of the same designs, and 5
ornamental letters. All the illustrations, excepting the frontispiece,
bear the initials “H. G.” (Hubert Gravelot) and “L. C.” (L. Cars).
Choffard, however, engraved them under Cars’ direction, in spite of
them not being signed by Choffard, who likewise etched the two
ornamental letters H and the three Ls, and Choffard designed the very
small fleurons that are contained within the frame of these letters,
which are charming.

CATALOGUE DES PLANCHES GRAVÉES QUI COMPOSENT LE FONDS DE BASAN. 1805.

This book contains a charming oblong vignette by Choffard, representing
Basan’s gallery, in which “amateurs” are sitting and strolling.

CAZOTTE. ŒUVRES BADINES ET MORALES DE M.... _Amsterdam et Paris, chez
Esprit, 1776, 2 vols., 8vo._ 2 plates by Cochin, engraved by Choffard
and Prévost.

CHANGRAN (DE). MANUEL DU CHASSEUR, etc., par M. de Changran. _A Paris,
chez Saugrain et Lamy, libraires, 1780, 12mo._ An etched title-page by
Choffard.

CHARRIÈRE (MME. DE). LES TROIS FEMMES, par Mme. de Charrière, auteur
des lettres écrites de Lausanne, etc. _Paris, Nepveu, libraire, passage
des Panoramas 26, 1809, 8vo._ A frontispiece and 6 plates by Legrand.
The frontispiece and 3 illustrations are etched by Duplessis-Bertaux
and finished by Choffard.

CHATEAUBRIAND. ATALA-RENÉ, par Fr. Aug. de Chateaubriand. _A Paris,
chez Le Normant, 1805, 12mo._ 6 plates by Barth. Garnier, 3 of which
are engraved by Choffard.

This is the original edition and exists on vellum paper with plates
before letters. There are also large paper copies.

CHÉREAU. DIVERSI TROFEI DE B. BOSSI ET P. P. CHOFFARD. 2 books, each
containing 6 designs.

Chéreau published them, therefore they appear under his name.

MM. Portalis and Béraldi say that, similar to the suite next mentioned,
there is some manipulation on the part of the publisher. No doubt these
plates, which are very poor impressions, are either copies of the
originals by Choffard or are from faked plates. ·

CHÉREAU. Six books of “cartouches” by Choffard were published by
Chéreau. They ought to be mentioned, though they are of very minor
importance, considering the six plates, that each book contains, are
only copies of the “cartouches” which Choffard executed for Robert de
Vaugondy’s atlas and for other maps.

CHOFFARD. LIVRE D’ÉCUSSONS ET CARTELS, dessinés par P. P. Choffard. _A
Paris, rue St. Jacques, aux deux pilliers d’or._ 7 oblong plates,
containing 10 designs.

CHOFFARD. NOTICE HISTORIQUE SUR L’ART DE LA GRAVURE EN FRANCE, par P.
P. Ch..., dessinateur et graveur, ci-devant de plusieurs Académies
royales, membre de l’Athénée des Arts. _A Paris, chez Pichard,
libraire, Pélicier, libraire, an XII—1804. 8vo._

The pretty head-piece etched by the author is said, by some, to
represent Choffard, as a young man, in his studio.

Some copies of this book bear the name of “Richard” as publisher.

CHOISEUL-GOUFFIER (COMTE DE). VOYAGE PITTORESQUE DE LA GRÈCE. _Paris,
1782-1809, 2 vols., folio._ A portrait, 1 large fleuron on the
title-page, 12 large fleurons and tail-pieces, and 89 plates.

One head-piece and a tail-piece, both very fine and belonging to the
first chapter, are engraved by Choffard; the head-piece is after Monnet
and the tail-piece is designed and reproduced by Choffard.

The publication of this sumptuous work was interrupted by the
Revolution and the second volume appeared in separate parts between the
years 1809 and 1825. The first volume is the only one that is
collected, the second being very inferior.

CORNEILLE. THÉÂTRE DE P. CORNEILLE, etc. Nouvelle édition augmentée.
_Genève (Berlin), 1774, 8 vols., 4to._

The 35 illustrations found in “Théâtre de Pierre Corneille, avec
commentaires (par Voltaire),” etc. _(Genève), 1764, 12 vols., 8vo_, are
republished framed in this edition. Gravelot designed these frames, and
the one round Corneille’s portrait is engraved by Choffard.

COUCHÉ. GALERIE DU PALAIS-ROYAL, gravée d’après les tableaux des
différentes écoles qui la composent, etc. _Paris, J. Couché et
Bouilliard, 1786-1808, 3 vols., large folio._ A fleuron on the
dedication-page and 355 illustrations.

The fine design on the dedication-page is by Choffard, who also etched
it, the engraving work upon the plate being done by Guttenberg. A
certain number of copies were printed on “colombier” paper, with plates
before letters (with the titles printed separately on tissue paper) and
12 copies on “vélin jésus” paper, likewise containing plates before
letters.

The pictures of the Palais-Royal were dispersed during the Revolution
and sold in England.

CUVILLIÉS. CAHIERS DE PROJETS D’ARCHITECTURES. Serie C.

Architectural plans, etc., and a cartouche enclosing the dedication to
“Son Altesse S. E. de Bavière.”

DELILLE (L’ABBÉ). LES JARDINS, poème, par Jacques Delille, nouvelle
édition considérablement augmentée. _Paris, Levrault frères, an
IX—1801. 12mo._ 4 plates by Monsiau, 2 of which Choffard has engraved.
Published on ordinary and on vellum paper.

Plates before letters exist.

DÉSORMEAUX. HISTOIRE DE LA MAISON DE BOURBON. _Paris, imprimerie
royale, 1779-1788, 5 vols., 4to_. A frontispiece, a decorative
dedication-page, 5 fleurons on the title-pages, 14 framed portraits, 21
vignettes, and 21 tail-pieces.

A magnificently illustrated work.

The beautiful tail-pieces, which are all by Choffard, show how clever
this artist is in avoiding similarity even when the subjects seem to
necessitate repetition, since similar trophies are introduced into
nearly every tail-piece without any positive resemblance, showing great
ingenuity on the part of the artist.

Each portrait is in a differently decorated frame designed by Choffard,
who also etched and possibly engraved them. These portraits are
supposed not to have been published with the edition, since early
copies are found without them.

DUBOS. ROMANCE par M. Dubos, jne. professeur au Lycée impérial. A
vignette by Moreau, engraved by Choffard.

ÉGLISE SAINTE GENEVIEVE (PLAN, COUPE ET ÉLÉVATION PERSPECTIVE DE LA
NOUVELLE) _construite d’après les desseins de J. G. Soufflot, etc.,
18mo._

A title-page, 1 plan and 2 very small views, all of which are framed by
the same design, and are unsigned, although they are by Choffard.

Some proofs of the view of the interior of the church bear the title
“Nouvelle Eg^{ise.} S^{te}-Genevieve,” and others have the words “Vue
intérieure” printed on the tablet at the top of the frame; the details
of the church differ in these two proofs.

This little book was published on the occasion of the inauguration of
the new church of Sainte Genevieve, now usually known as the Panthéon.
In 1754 Louis XV, finding himself seriously ill, vowed that if, through
the intercession of Sainte Genevieve, he recovered, he would raise to
her honour a new and sumptuous temple. Restored to health the king kept
his word and on the 6th of September 1764 the first stone of the church
was laid by him.

The edifice was advanced and the dome was being constructed, when the
masonry began to crack and the architect, Soufflot, realized that his
building threatened to collapse. Full of despair and amidst the sneers
of his critics, Soufflot died in 1780 and was succeeded by Rondelet.

ERLACH (RODOLPHE DE). CODE DU BONHEUR, etc. _Paris et Genève, 1788, 6
vols., 8vo._ A fine frontispiece engraved by Choffard.

This book is dedicated to Catherine II.

ETRENNES GALANTES, _chez Vallayer, Marchand bijoutier,_ 1751. The
vignette with two very small frames adjoining, the right-hand one of
which bears the words “Etrennes galantes,” is partly by Choffard. A
little cupid is included in the composition and Jombert attributes the
engraving of his face to Cochin and the rest of the vignette to
Choffard.

ETRENNES GALANTES. 12_mo._ Title-page by Choffard, mostly engraved by
Cochin.

N.B.—This is another issue.

FÉNELON. LES AVENTURES DE TÉLÉMAQUE. There exists an engraved
title-page which has a little portrait of Fénelon in the upper part.
The decorative portion of this plate is engraved by Choffard. This
engraving is usually found in the editions of 1783 and 1785.

GRAFFIGNY (MME. DE). LETTRES D’UNE PÉRUVIENNE, par Mme de Graffigny,
traduites du français en italien par M. Deodati avec le texte en
regard. _Paris, imprimerie de Migneret, 1797, 8vo._ A portrait of the
author and 6 plates by Le Barbier; one of these is engraved by Choffard.

Some copies were published 4to size, containing plates before letters
and the _eaux-fortes_.

GRAVELOT AND COCHIN. ALMANACH ICONOLOGIQUE OU DES ARTS, pour l’année
1765 and for the following years until 1781. _Paris, chez Lattré,
graveur, rue Saint-Jacques, 17 vols., 18mo._ There is one portrait and
each volume contains a calendar for the year in which it was published,
illustrated by a frontispiece common to all, an engraved title-page and
12 plates. The total number of illustrations in all the volumes is 204
plates and 17 engraved title-pages, 5 of the latter being repeated. All
illustrations are by Cochin and Gravelot; Choffard engraved 10 plates
and a decorative title-page after the latter.

There was a trial edition published in 1764; only exceedingly few
copies of it exist. This trial almanack is the same as the one issued
in 1765. It is by Gravelot, and two of the plates are engraved by
Choffard.

The correct edition should have the name of “Lattré” on the title-page.

GRAVELOT AND COCHIN. ICONOLOGIE PAR FIGURES ou traité complet de la
science des allégories en 350 figures gravées d’après les dessins de
MM. Gravelot et Cochin, avec les explications relatives à chaque sujet,
etc. _Paris, Lattré, graveur, (1781), 4 vols., 12mo, or, when large
paper, 8vo._ The illustrations are the same as in the almanacks just
mentioned, but are placed in a different order.

This re-issue (of the plates of the “Almanach Iconologique”) is far
less rare than the original almanacks, but the plates are still fairly
good.

HELMAN. FAITS MÉMORABLES DES EMPEREURS DE LA CHINE, etc. _Paris, chez
l’auteur, 1788, 4to._ 24 plates, an engraved title-page and a
head-piece above the dedication to the Comtesse de Provence. This last
vignette is engraved by Helman after Monnet, but MM. Portalis and
Béraldi attribute the _eau-forte_ of it to Choffard.

See “VICTOIRES ET CONQUÊTES DE L’EMPEREUR DE LA CHINE.”

HÉNAULT (LE PRÉSIDENT). NOUVEL ABRÉGÉ CHRONOLOGIQUE DE L’HISTOIRE DE
FRANCE, etc. _Paris, Prault, 1768, large 4to, one volume usually bound
in two parts._

The portrait of Marie Leczinska, engraved by Gaucher after Nattier and
framed by a floral decoration by Choffard, forms the exquisite
head-piece on the dedication-page. The book also contains illustrations
by other artists. The frame alone, of the dedication head-piece, exists
in _eau-forte_.

HISTOIRE ANCIENNE. A vignette engraved by Choffard after Monnet.

HISTOIRE DE LOUIS XV. PAR MÉDAILLES. _De l’Imprimerie royale,
1753-1757, folio._ 20 handsome allegorical frames, all of different
design, drawn and engraved by Choffard under the direction of Cochin
fils.

Twenty-two plates are known to exist, but the whole series was never
completed, nor was the work ever published.

IDÉE GÉNÉRALE DE LA VILLE DE RHEIMS. A head-piece by Choffard.

IMBERT. LE JUGEMENT DE PARIS, poème en IV chants, par M. Imbert.
_Amsterdam (Paris), 1772, 8vo._ 4 charming vignettes by Choffard and a
title-page and 4 plates by Moreau, which are also pretty.

JANVIER. Choffard executed many cartouches for atlases by Janvier.

LA FONTAINE. FABLES CHOISIES, mises en vers par J. de La Fontaine.
_Paris, Desaint et Saillant, 1755-1759, 4 vols., folio._ A portrait and
275 illustrations. 2 plates are engraved by Choffard after Oudry.

In the prized edition the plate for the fable “Le singe et le léopard”
has not got the name of the fable inscribed on the flying banner. There
are copies on ordinary bluish paper, but the plates of these are poor
impressions.

The woodcut tail-pieces were executed by Papillon and others, from
Bachelier’s designs, which had been etched by Choffard as separate
suites of plates. See Bachelier.

LA FONTAINE. CONTES ET NOUVELLES EN VERS par M. de La Fontaine.
_Amsterdam (Paris), 1762, 2 vols., 8vo._ 2 portraits, a large
tail-piece containing a portrait of Choffard by himself and 57 other
etchings by Choffard and 80 plates by Eisen. 140 illustrations in all.

Choffard’s work for this book consists of 2 head-pieces, 2 fleurons, 2
fleurons on the title-pages, and 52 tail-pieces. He also engraved 1
plate after Eisen.

Among the beautifully illustrated books of the eighteenth century only
“Les Métamorphoses d’Ovide,” 1767-1771, can vie with this edition of La
Fontaine. They are both magnificently illustrated and published in
sumptuous style. This work contains some of Eisen’s masterpieces and
Choffard’s contributions are among his most charming book illustrations.

Six plates, originally “découvertes,” were subsequently “couvertes.”

In correct copies Choffard’s portrait should, like the proofs, not have
shading lines round the border of the medallion where the lettering is.
This vignette forms the tail-piece to “Le Rossignol.”

Choffard’s charming etchings exist in various states.

This edition is known as that of the “fermiers généraux,” as they
defrayed all expenses. This was an association, or kind of syndicate,
which collected the taxes for the Government and guaranteed to pay over
a certain sum. Evidently, what could be collected beyond went as bonus
to the associated members. It is supposed that to obtain the favour of
the court to continue the monopoly, handsome presents had to be given.
Whatever else may have been presented, this edition was produced for
the purpose, and presentation copies were especially bound, usually in
blue, red, or green morocco, by Derome, with “dentelles” as a rule, and
a tooled back designed by Gravelot. These copies, however, do not
always contain the plates “découvertes.”

There exist many reprints of this famous edition, some of which contain
Choffard’s vignettes reversed. Some copies of the 1792 imitation bear
the date 1762, but it is detected as a forgery by the poorness of the
impressions.

LA FONTAINE. CONTES ET NOUVELLES EN VERS, par Jean de La Fontaine.
_Paris, de l’imprimerie de P. Didot, l’an III de la République, 1795, 2
vols., 4to._ A fine fleuron by Choffard on the title-page of volume i.
and repeated in the second one.

This beautiful edition was never completed owing to the lack of
subscribers due to the Revolution. The volumes were to have contained
80 plates. A number of the plates were ready or nearly finished, and
these can only be added to the work, since they were not published with
it. In all, 38 subjects are obtainable, but no complete set is known.
The ordinary copies contain 20 plates, most of them being after
Fragonard.

LA ROCHEFOUCAULD (LE DUC DE). MAXIMES ET RÉFLEXIONS MORALES. _A Paris,
de l’Imprimerie royale, 1778, 8vo._ Portrait of the author finely
engraved by Choffard after the enamel by Petitot.

“Gravé en 1779 par P. P. Choffard Des. et Grav. de S. M. Imp. et du Roi
d’Espagne” is how the engraver signed himself on the right-hand side of
this little _chef-d’œuvre_.

The portrait is absent in many copies, but the book is considered
incomplete without it.

It is no uncommon thing for the plates to be post-dated in
eighteenth-century volumes; in this particular case it would be
difficult to decide if the plate was published later than the book it
was to illustrate, or whether the work containing the frontispiece was
issued in 1779 in spite of 1778 being printed on the title-page. This
portrait does not appear to have been published wholly without
connection with the book it usually illustrates, like some portraits
contained in volumes of that period were.

LE GENDRE. DESCRIPTION DE LA PLACE DE LOUIS XV QUE L’ON CONSTRUIT À
REIMS, etc. _A Paris, de l’imprimerie Prault, 1765, atlas folio._ One
head-piece, a plan, 2 plans with elevations, 2 views and 3 other plates.

The beautiful head-piece is by Choffard, who also engraved 2 views and
2 plans with elevations.

LIGNE (PRINCE DE). PRÉJUGÉS MILITAIRES, par un officier autrichien. _A
Kralovilhota, 1780, 2 vols., 8vo._ A head-piece on the dedication-page,
1 tail-piece, and 14 little battle scenes which form head-pieces.
Choffard drew and etched all.

The vignettes are little gems of the art of miniature etching, and
their composition, although on such a small scale, is handled with the
artistic judgement of a thorough master of the art.

N.B.—In all reference books 15 battle views are mentioned in error.

LOUVET DE COUVRAY. LES AMOURS DU CHEVALIER DE FAUBLAS, par J.-B.
Louvet. 3e. édition, revue par l’auteur. _Se vend à Paris, chez
l’auteur, rue de Grenelle Germain, vis-à-vis la rue de Bourgogne,
ci-devant hôtel de Sens, no. 1495, et chez les marchands de nouveautés.
An VI de la République (1798). 4 vols., 8vo._ Illustrated by 27 plates,
one of these is engraved by Choffard after Demarne.

There are copies on vellum paper in which the plates should be found
before letters with the artists’ names “à la pointe.”

Although very rare, the _eaux-fortes_ of these plates exist.

The third is the best edition and the one sought after.

LUCRÈCE. DE LA NATURE DES CHOSES, traduction de La Grange. _De
l’imprimerie de Didot le jeune, Paris, chez Bleuet, l’an deuxième de la
République (1794), 2 vols., 4to, vellum paper._ 1 frontispiece placed
in each volume and 6 plates by Monnet; one of these is engraved by
Choffard. This plate is framed and proofs of the frame alone exist, as
well as others containing the vignette.

This book was also published in 3 volumes, large 4to, vellum paper,
with the same plates, but the frontispiece, unsigned, is only placed in
the first volume. This edition consisted of 50 copies.

OVIDE. LES MÉTAMORPHOSES D’OVIDE, en latin et en françois, de la
traduction de M. l’abbé Banier, de l’Académie royale des inscriptions
et belles-lettres, avec des explications historiques. _Paris, Hochereau
(or Despilly, or Barrois, or Delalain, or Guillyn), 1767-1771, 4 vols.,
4to._ A frontispiece, 3 dedication-pages, 4 fleurons on the
title-pages, 30 vignettes, a tail-piece at the end of the last volume
and 140 plates.

Choffard’s work for this book consists of 30 head-pieces, 5 are
etched after Monnet and 25 invented and etched by Choffard, a
title-frontispiece, the frame for the dedication to the Duc de
Chartres, 4 fleurons on the title-pages and a large tail-piece at the
end of the fourth volume. MM. Portalis and Béraldi also attribute to
the “maître ornemaniste” the design of the frames that contain the
vignettes.

These etchings exist in various unfinished states, artist’s proofs and
proofs before letters. In the exquisite frame round the dedication
there is a slight difference between the design of the proofs before
letters and those after: early states bear the fleur-de-lis crown on
the ball itself, whereas later impressions have the crown placed
outside, above the ball.

This book contains fine illustrations of nine artists: Boucher,
Choffard, Eisen, Gravelot, Leprince, Monnet, Moreau, Parizeau, and
Saint-Gois and since these beautiful drawings were reproduced by the
greatest engravers France possessed, the artistic value of the four
volumes is remarkable.

The plates, which are not by Choffard, exist before letters; there are
also 6 “découvertes” ones, but these are exceedingly scarce.

A few copies of this book exist with the illustrations coloured, but
they are not so fine as the uncoloured ones, for the plates were
evidently only painted to please certain purchasers of the period and
were not printed purposely for colouring.

The five publishers who shared the issue had their own names printed in
their respective copies; thus the first and correct edition is issued
under five different publishers’ names; all copies are of equal
excellence, in spite of many collectors preferring “Hochereau.”

In some copies liber 8 comes after liber 9.

“_Les Métamorphoses d’Ovide gravées sur les desseins des meilleurs
peintres français. Par les soins des S^{rs.} le Mire et Basan graveurs.
A Paris, chez Basan rue du Foin S. Jacques. Le Mire rue S. Etienne des
Grès. Avec privilege du Roi_,” is engraved on the ornamental
frontispiece that forms the half-title to volume i. Thus we know that
it is to Basan’s and Le Mire’s care that we owe the most magnificently
illustrated French book of the eighteenth century.

There is a re-issue of this book which is such a marvellous imitation
of the original, that it would be easy for any but the most experienced
to be deceived. Most of the plates are not quite so brilliant and the
paper used is not as good as that of the first edition. But in many
copies of the second edition the plates, or some of them, are of the
first issue and not of a second one. Volume 4 of this reprint bears the
date 1770, whereas the last volume of the good edition is dated 1771,
and the third volume page 215 has 209 printed in error.

OVIDE. LES MÉTAMORPHOSES D’OVIDE traduction nouvelle avec le texte
latin, suivie d’une analyse de l’explication des fables, etc., par M.
G.-T. Villenave, ornée de gravures d’après les dessins de MM. Le
Barbier, Monsiau et Moreau. _Paris, Gay et Guestard (imprimerie de
Didot l’aîné), 1806, 4 vols., large 4to or 8vo, vellum paper._ 144
illustrations. Choffard engraved one plate after Monsiau.

Proofs and _eaux-fortes_ exist of all the plates, with the exception of
two.

PALISSOT. ŒUVRES DE M. PALISSOT, nouvelle édition. _Liège, Plomteux,
1777, 7 vols., 8vo._ A portrait of the author engraved by Choffard
after Monnet and 18 plates by Monnet and Méon.

The engraving of the 10 illustrations by Monnet, although not signed by
Choffard, is attributed to him by MM. Portalis and Béraldi.

The plate for the “chant I.” after Monnet, is supposed to represent
Baculard d’Arnaud having his portrait painted.

There is a subsequent edition of this book, ŒUVRES COMPLÈTES DE M.
PALISSOT. _Liège et Paris, Bastien, 1778-1779, 7 vols., 8vo_,
containing the same plates.

PIIS (DE). CHANSONS NOUVELLES. _Paris, imprimerie de Ph.-D. Pierres,
1785, 12mo._ An ornamental dedication-page by Choffard, 12 vignettes by
Le Barbier and 21 pages of engraved music.

One of the most gracefully illustrated little volumes ever published.
Choffard’s charming design for the dedication is similar in style to
that of some of his book-plates.

The little book ought to contain De Piis’ portrait engraved by Gaucher
after H. J. François, although it is not positive whether it was
published in the volume at the time of issue.

Five of Le Barbier’s illustrations appear again in “Les Bijoux des neuf
sœurs,” _A Paris, chez Defer de Maisonneuve, 1790, 2 vols., 12mo_, but
in this book they are framed. These framed plates exist also in proof
form.

PLEYEL ET DUSSEK. MÉTHODE POUR LE PIANO-FORTE, par Pleyel et Dussek,
prix 12 fr. _A Paris, chez Pleyel, 4to._ The decorated title-page is by
Choffard.

PONCE. DESCRIPTION DES BAINS DE TITUS ou collection de peintures
trouvées dans les ruines des thermes de cet empereur et gravés sous la
direction de M. Ponce (avec des explications par le docteur Felice).
_Paris, 1786, atlas folio._ 60 plates; below one are the words, “P.
Choffard Direxit.”

RACINE. ŒUVRES DE JEAN RACINE, avec des commentaires par M. Luneau de
Boisgermain. _Paris, Cellot, 1768, 7 vols., 8vo._ One portrait of the
author by Santerre engraved by Gaucher; the frame round it is designed
by Gravelot and engraved by Choffard. Also 12 plates by Gravelot.

A fine edition, of which there are copies on holland paper with plates
before letters. It may be noted, however, that the illustrations very
rarely have the “légende” beneath them.

There is a re-issue containing very poor impressions off the same
plates: _Paris, de l’imprimerie de Pougin, an IV. (1796), 7 vols.,
12mo._

RACINE. ŒUVRES DE JEAN RACINE, avec des commentaires par J. L.
Geoffroy. _Paris, Genets jne., 1808, 7 vols., 8vo._ 7 fleurons on the
title-pages, 3 portraits, and 12 plates.

Six fleurons on the title-pages are designed by Garnier, engraved by
Choffard. The vignette on that of the sixth volume is entirely by
Choffard and represents the “Abbaye de Port Royal des Champs.” 6 of the
plates are engraved by Choffard after Garnier.

Some copies of this book contain plates before letters.

REGNAULT. (L. F.). CATALOGUE RAISONNÉ D’UN CHOIX PRÉCIEUX DE DESSINS,
ET D’UNE NOMBREUSE ET RICHE COLLECTION D’ESTAMPES ANCIENNES ET
MODERNES, EN FEUILLES, EN RECUEILS ET EN ŒUVRES, LIVRES À FIGURES,
SCIENCES ET ARTS, TABLEAUX ET AUTRES OBJETS CURIEUX QUI COMPOSAIENT LE
CABINET DE FEU PIERRE-FRANÇOIS BASAN PÈRE, GRAVEUR ET ANCIEN MARCHAND
D’ESTAMPES, par L. F. Regnault, peintre et graveur. _Paris, chez
l’auteur, an VI de la République, 8vo._ A frontispiece and a head-piece
by Choffard.

The allegorical frontispiece represents Basan in his study, surrounded
by his books and _objets d’art_ and mythological personages; below this
plate are the words: “A la mémoire de P. Frs. Basan. P. P. Choffard ft.
L’an VII.... 98.” It exists without the “98” and in various other early
states.

In all reference books they have omitted to mention that the little
vignette is the same as that in volume ii of Basan’s DICTIONNAIRE DES
GRAVEURS, 1789. Both illustrations are repeated in the 1809 edition of
Basan’s DICTIONNAIRE DES GRAVEURS.

Regnault’s book contains an article on Basan.

ROUSSEAU (JEAN-JACQUES). LETTRES DE DEUX AMANTS, HABITANTS D’UNE PETITE
VILLE AU PIED DES ALPES. _Amsterdam, Rey, 1761, 6 parts in 4 vols.,
12mo._ 12 plates by Gravelot, 2 of which are engraved by Choffard.

This is the original edition of LA NOUVELLE HÉLOÏSE.

ROUSSEAU (JEAN-JACQUES). LA NOUVELLE HÉLOÏSE, OU LETTRES DE DEUX
AMANTS, HABITANTS D’UNE PETITE VILLE AU PIED DES ALPES, recueillies et
publiées par J. J. Rousseau, nouvelle édition, corigée et augmentée de
figures en taille-douce et d’une table des matières. _Neuchâtel et
Paris, chez Duchesne, 1764, 4 vols., 12mo and 8vo._ A frontispiece by
Cochin and the same illustrations as in the preceding book, excepting
the twelfth plate, which is engraved by De Longueil.

ROUSSEAU (JEAN-JACQUES). COLLECTION COMPLÈTE DES ŒUVRES DE J.-J.
ROUSSEAU. _Londres (Bruxelles), 1774-1783, 12 vols., 4to._ One
portrait, 12 fleurons on the title-pages and 37 plates.

The fleurons on the title-pages of five volumes, all different, are by
Choffard. Also two plates are engraved by him after Moreau and Cochin.

Plates before letters are very scarce indeed and so are the
_eaux-fortes_. Several of the volumes bear earlier dates printed on the
title-pages than those engraved on the illustrations in the books. On
the title-page of volume nine is the date “MDCCLXVI” instead of
“MDCCLXXVI” as it should be. This error occurs in the particular copy
examined, but may, perhaps, only occur in certain copies. The plate
Choffard engraved after Cochin for “Emile” was again engraved by him in
a reduced size for the octavo edition.

ROUSSEAU (JEAN-JACQUES). ŒUVRES DE J.-J. ROUSSEAU, citoyen de Genève,
édition orné de figures, etc. _Paris, Defer de Maisonneuve (Imprimerie
de Didot jeune), 1793-1800, 18 vols., large 4to, vellum paper._ A
portrait, 5 frontispieces and 29 plates. Two of these latter are
engraved by Choffard after Monsiau.

The illustrations exist in the _eau-forte_ and before letters.

SAINT-LAMBERT. LES SAISONS, poème. _Amsterdam, 1769, 8vo._ One fleuron
on the title-page, 4 etched head-pieces by Choffard and 5 plates by Le
Prince and Gravelot.

The illustration by Le Prince for the “Printems” [sic] is badly
engraved by Watelet in this edition. The engraver’s signature is
followed by the date 1768. Choffard has reproduced this plate
beautifully and dated it 1767.

Re-issued in 1771 as third edition and in 1773 as fifth edition, with
the same plates.

SAINT-LAMBERT. LES SAISONS, poëme, septième édition. _Amsterdam, 1775,
large 8vo_, and CONTES, POÉSIES FUGITIVES ET FABLES ORIENTALES. Five
plates by Moreau and a fleuron and 4 head-pieces by Choffard. These are
very slightly larger than those in the edition just mentioned and have
small differences in the designs, also Choffard did not etch these
plates quite so delicately.

The two reproductions given in this book will show how slight a
variation there is in the treatment of the same subject for these two
editions.

SAINT-NON (L’ABBÉ RICHARD DE). VOYAGE PITTORESQUE, OU DÉSCRIPTION DES
ROYAUMES DE NAPLES ET DE SICILE. _Paris (Clousier imprimeur),
1781-1786, 4 parts in 5 vols., folio._ This work is profusely
illustrated by many artists.

Choffard engraved 18 plates; these have several subjects on each one.
He also engraved a fleuron on the dedication-page to the Queen and 2
tail-pieces after his own designs; 2 fleurons on the title-pages after
Fragonard and 2 tail-pieces and a head-piece by Paris are likewise
engraved by Choffard.

These illustrations are some of the most beautiful Choffard ever
invented and engraved after his compatriots.

A fine lavishly illustrated book, the expenses of which were defrayed
by the author, whom it ruined.

The plate of the “Phallus” (vol. 2, page 52) and 14 plates of medals of
Sicilian towns are often missing, but should be contained in the book.

SELLIUS ET DUJARDIN. HISTOIRE GÉNÉRALE DES PROVINCES-UNIES. _Paris,
Simon, 1754-1770, 8 vols., 8vo._ Eight vignettes by Choffard and Eisen,
engraved by Le Mire, several maps with cartouches by Choffard, a
frontispiece and a vignette on the dedication-page by Eisen and 18
portraits engraved by Flipart.

STIEBELT (D.). GRANDE SONATE POUR LE PIANO FORTE, composée et dediée
par D. Stiebelt à Madame Bonaparte. _A Paris chez Melle. Erard, A Lyon
chez Gamier, prix 6, large 4to._ The title-page is by Choffard.

TABLEAUX HISTORIQUES DE LA RÉVOLUTION FRANÇAISE (Collection complète
des), composée de 113 numéros en trois volumes. (Texte par l’abbé
Fauchet, Champfort, Guinguené et Pagès). _A Paris, chez Aubert, éditeur
et seul propriétaire, rue Saint-Lazare, Chaussée-d’Antin 42; imprimé
par Didot l’aîné et terminé par Charles, rue de Seine, an XIII de la
République française (1804), 3 vols., folio, vellum paper._ Three
frontispieces, 183 plates and 66 medallion portraits.

Choffard has engraved one of the plates which Duplessi-Bertaux etched.
The first volume and half of the second had appeared in l’an VI (1798),
when the editors were forced to modify the plan of their work and to
reprint certain portions and to make it into three volumes in order to
meet the current political requirements.

TABLEAUX HISTORIQUES DES CAMPAGNES D’ITALIE, depuis l’an IV., jusqu’à
la bataille de Marengo, etc. Les vues ont été pour la plupart prises
sur les lieux mêmes et les estampes sont gravées d’après les dessins
originaux de Carle Vernet. _Paris, de l’imprimerie de Herhan et Didot,
chez Auber et Nicolle, 1806, folio, vellum paper._ Twenty-nine plates
and a map. One plate is etched by Duplessi-Bertaux and finished by
Choffard.

Some copies contain plates before letters.

TÉRENCE. LES COMÉDIES DE TÉRENCE, traduction nouvelle, avec le texte
latin à côté et des notes par M. l’abbé Le Monnier. _Paris, Jombert,
1771, 3 vols., 8vo._ A frontispiece and 6 plates by Cochin; 2 of these
are engraved by Choffard.

There are holland paper copies with plates before letters.

TROUVILLE (J. B. DE). L’HYDRAULIQUE NATURELLE, ou l’art d’élever les
eaux sans mécanique, par J. B. de Trouville, ingénieur.

The allegorical title-page is by Choffard.

VAUGONDY (ROBERT DE). ATLAS UNIVERSEL, etc. _Paris, 1757, folio._

This atlas contains over 100 maps, the titles of which are inscribed in
cartouches; about 50 of these are by Choffard, engraved by Elisabeth
Haussard.

VICTOIRES ET CONQUÊTES DE L’EMPEREUR DE LA CHINE, représentées en 16
planches gravées à Paris, de 1770 à 1774, sous la direction de Cochin,
par Aliamet, Choffard, Le Bas, etc., d’après les dessins exécutés à
Pékin par ordre de l’empereur Kien-Longh, _folio_. Two plates are
engraved by Choffard.

The East India Company arranged for France to engrave this suite of
plates for the Emperor of China and applied to the Marquis de Marigny,
who asked Cochin to direct the engraving of the pictures after drawings
by the P. P. jésuites Attiret, Damascus, and Castillon. This book is
very scarce indeed, for all the copies were sent to China with the
exception of one or two that were given as presents. On page 58 of
Choffard’s “Notice sur l’art de la gravure” he speaks very highly of
this work and is exceedingly proud that the Emperor of China should
have asked France to engrave plates for him. There is a reduction of
this suite of plates which is engraved by Helman. _See_ Helman.

VOLTAIRE. TANCRÈDE, tragédie par M. Voltaire. _A Genève, chez les
frères Cramer, 1761, 8vo._ A satirical frontispiece by Gravelot,
engraved by Choffard.

This plate is very rare, it having been suppressed in many copies.

VOLTAIRE. LA PUCELLE D’ORLÉANS, poème en vingt et un chants par
Voltaire; édition ornée de figures gravées par les meilleurs artistes
de Paris. _Paris, Didot le jeune, an III (1795), 2 vols., large 4to,
vellum paper and also holland paper_. A portrait and 21 plates; one of
these is engraved by Choffard after Le Barbier.

Copies containing _eaux-fortes_ and plates before letters exist.

ZANNONI (RIZZI). ATLAS GÉOGRAPHIQUE ET MILITAIRE ou théâtre de la
guerre présente en Allemagne, etc., par M. Rizzi Zannoni, etc. _A
Paris, chez Ballard, Imprimeur du Roy, etc._ A frame round the title by
Choffard.

ZANNONI (RIZZI). CARTE GEO-HYDROGRAPHIQUE DU GOLFE DU MEXIQUE ET DE SES
ISLES, etc. Par M. Rizzi Zannoni. _A Paris, chez Lattré, small 4to._ A
decorative title-page by Choffard.

This book is evidently very scarce, as it is not cited in reference
books, and having only seen the title-page, it cannot be stated whether
there are other illustrations in the volume.

[Illustration: Tail-piece from “Contes et nouvelles en vers” by La
Fontaine, 1762]

------------------------------------------------------------------------



  ADDENDA TO CATALOGUE
  OF BOOKS


ATLAS MODERNE OU COLLECTION DE CARTES SUR TOUTES LES PARTIES DU GLOBE
TERRESTRE PAR PLUSIEURS AUTEURS. _A Paris, chez Lattré et chez
Delalain, small folio._ A title-page and 73 maps; six of these have
cartouches signed by Choffard. There are many others unsigned or
bearing Arrivet’s or Marillier’s signature.

_Paris, Hérissant_, 1762, is printed on a later edition.

ALMANACH. ETRENNES GÉOGRAPHIQUES. ROYAUME DE FRANCE DIVISÉ PAR
GÉNÉRALITÉS, SUB-DIVISÉ PAR ÉLECTIONS, DIOCÈSES, BAILLIAGES, etc., par
L.-A. Ducaille, gravé par Lattré. _Paris, Ballard, libraire, et aux
Spectacles, 1760, 18mo._ An ornamental title-page by Choffard and a
frontispiece and maps by other artists.

BEAURAIN (CHEVALIER DE). HISTOIRE MILITAIRE DE FLANDRE, DEPUIS L’ANNÉE
1690. JUSQU’EN 1694. INCLUSIVEMENT, etc., par le Chevalier de Beaurain.
_Paris, chez Le Chevalier de Beaurain, Ch. Nic. Poirion, Ch. Ant.
Jombert, 1755, 2 vols., folio._

Volume I contains a frontispiece, 5 head-pieces and 5 tail-pieces. The
last tail-piece in the volume is designed by Choffard, who also etched
it, with the exception of the medal in the centre of the composition,
which is engraved by Menil.

Volume II consists of 5 parts, starting by number I and contains an
ornamental title-page and maps.

FÉNELON. LES AVENTURES DE TÉLEMAQUE par Fénelon. _De l’Imprimerie de
Monsieur, 1785, 2 vols., folio._ The woodcut of the arms of Monsieur,
which is on the title-page of each volume, is engraved after Choffard.

This edition has a title-frontispiece, 72 plates, and 24 frames
containing summaries and tail-pieces.

HÉRÉ. PLANS ET ELEVATIONS DE LA PLACE ROYALE DE NANCY ET DES AUTRES
EDIFICES QUI L’ENVIRONNENT BÂTIES PAR LES ORDRES DU ROY DE POLOGNE DUC
DE LORRAINE. Dédiés au Roy de France par Héré premier architecte de sa
Majesté polonoise. _Paris, François, graveur, 1753, folio._ An
ornamental title-page, a frontispiece, a dedication page, and 13 folded
architectural plates.

Choffard designed and etched the title-page; the frame round the
dedication is etched by Choffard after François.

JANEL. RECUEIL DE DILIGENCES, BERLINES, ET CAROSSES INVENTÉS ET
DESSINÉS PAR JANEL. _Paris, Chéreau, oblong folio._ 6 parts each
containing 6 plates; these 36 illustrations were engraved under
Choffard’s direction.

JOMBERT (CHARLES-ANTOINE). L’ARCHITECTURE MODERNE OU L’ART DE BIEN
BÂTIR, POUR TOUTES SORTES DE PERSONNES, divisés en 10 livres. _Paris,
1764, 4to._ A frontispiece, head-pieces and architectural drawings by
Choffard and other artists.

LA TOUR (ABBÉ DE). TROIS FEMMES, NOUVELLE. Seconde édition ornée de
sept estampes dessinées par Legrand, et gravées à Paris par les
meilleurs artistes. _Leipsic, Pierre Philippe Wolff, 1798, 12mo._ A
frontispiece and 6 plates by Legrand, engraved by Choffard, Couché, and
Duplessi-Bertaux.

These plates appear in “Recueil de nouvelles et autres écrits divers,”
by the Abbé de la Tour, Leipsig, Pierre Philippe Wolff, 1798-1799, 3
vols., 12mo. They are also published in “Les trois femmes,” by Madame
de Charrière.

See CHARRIÈRE.



  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


  All the reproductions are from illustrations etched or engraved by
Choffard after his own designs and are practically the size of the
originals, unless otherwise stated.

The frontispiece of this book is a tail-piece from “Contes et nouvelles
    en vers” by La Fontaine, 1762.

The reproduction facing the frontispiece is after Choffard’s visiting
    card.

The head-piece from Choffard’s book entitled “Notice historique sur
    l’art de la gravure en France,” 1804, is here used as a head-piece
    to “The life of Choffard.” This little composition is supposed, by
    some, to represent the artist himself, when a young man, in his
    studio.

A tail-piece from “Contes et nouvelles en vers” by La Fontaine, 1762,
    here forms a tail-piece to “The life of Choffard.”

A head-piece in “Dictionnaire des graveurs, etc.” by Basan, 1789, is
    here placed as a head-piece to “The art of Choffard.”

A tail-piece of “Traité du beau essentiel dans les arts, appliqué
    particulièrement à l’architecture, etc.” by Briseux, 1752, is here
    used as a tail-piece to “The art of Choffard.” Much reduced.

The head-piece to the “Catalogue of Books” is a tail-piece from “Contes
    et nouvelles en vers” by La Fontaine, 1762.

A tail-piece from “Contes et nouvelles en vers” by La Fontaine, 1762,
    is here used for the same purpose for the “Catalogue of Books.”

 1.  A vignette from “Essai géographique sur les isles britanniques, etc.”
     by Bellin, 1757. Nearly the actual size.

 2.  Tail-piece from “Contes et nouvelles en vers” by La Fontaine, 1762.

 3.  Head-piece from “Les métamorphoses d’Ovide,” 1767-1771.

 4.  Head-piece from “Les métamorphoses d’Ovide,” 1767-1771.

 5.  A drawing by Choffard for the tail-piece in “Les métamorphoses
     d’Ovide,” 1767-1771 edition. Reduced.

 6.  Eau-forte of the tail-piece, just mentioned, in “Les métamorphoses
     d’Ovide,” 1767-1771 edition. Reduced.

 7.  Finished plate of the last mentioned tail-piece. Reduced.

 8.  Frontispiece of a subsequent edition of “Les métamorphoses d’Ovide.”
     It is a combination of the decorated half-title and a fleuron in the
     1767-1771 edition of the same book. Reduced.

 9.  Vignette above the dedication to Queen Marie Leczinska in “Nouvel
     abrégé chronologique de l’histoire de France, etc.” by Président
     Hénault, 1768. The portrait is engraved by Gaucher after Nattier and
     the setting is by Choffard.

 10. Head-piece from “Les saisons” by Saint-Lambert, 1769.

 11. Head-piece from “Les saisons” by Saint-Lambert, 1775.

 12. Head-piece from “Le jugement de Paris” by Imbert, 1772.

 13. Fleuron on the title-page of volume vii of “Collection complète des
     œuvres de J.-J. Rousseau,” 1774-1783.

 14. The same illustration as the preceding one, only draped. This plate
     was never published and is cited nowhere.

 15. Decorative title-page of “Catalogue du cabinet de Mr. Neyman” by
     Basan, 1776. Slightly reduced.

 16. Fleuron on the title-page of volume i of “Histoire de la maison de
     Bourbon” by Désormeaux, 1779-1788.

 17. Tail-piece from “Histoire de la maison de Bourbon” by Désormeaux,
     1779-1788. Slightly reduced.

 18. Head-piece from “Préjugés militaires” by the Prince de Ligne, 1780.

 19. Dedication vignette in “Chansons nouvelles” by de Piis, 1785.

 20. Head-piece in volume ii of “Dictionnaire des graveurs, etc.” by
     Basan, 1789.

 21. Fleuron on the title-page of “Histoire de la mesure du temps par les
     horloges” by Ferdinand Berthoud, 1802.



  INDEX OF THE WORKS MENTIONED
  IN THE CATALOGUE OF BOOKS
  ILLUSTRATED BY CHOFFARD


                                                                      PAGE

 A elle                                                                 37

 Abrégé de la vie des plus fameux peintres                              38

 Almanach du chasseur                                                   37

 Almanach iconologique                                              67, 68

 Amours du Chevalier de Faublas, Les                                    76

 Amusements d’un convalescent                                           37

 Architecture moderne, L’                                              100

 Arsace et Isménie                                                      39

 Art de conduire et de régler les pendules, L’                          48

 Arte y puntual explicacion del modo de tocar el violin                 39

 Atala-René                                                             58

 Atlas géographique et militaire                                        95

 Atlas moderne                                                          97

 Atlas topographique des environs de Paris                              39

 Atlas universel                                                    93, 59

 Aventures de Télémaque, Les                                        66, 98


 Bijoux des neuf sœurs, Les                                             83


 Cabinet des Fées                                                       54

 Cahiers de projets d’architectures                                     62

 Carte géo-hydrographique du Golfe du Mexique                           96

 Cartes et tables de la géographie                                      55

 Catalogue des chevaliers, etc., de l’ordre du Saint-Esprit             56

 Catalogue ... des différens objets: ... qui composoient le             42
 cabinet de feu M. Mariette

 Catalogue des planches gravées qui composent le fonds de Basan         57

 Catalogue ... d’un choix ... de dessins, etc., qui composaient         85
 le cabinet de feu P.-F. Basan père

 Catalogue d’une belle collection de dessins, etc., le tout         42, 43
 rassemblé ... par M. Neyman

 Chansons nouvelles                                                     82

 Code du Bonheur                                                        65

 Collection complète des œuvres de J.-J. Rousseau                       87

 Collection de culs de lampe et fleurons                                39

 Collection de cent vingt estampes, etc., qui composoient le            43
 cabinet de M. Poullain

 Comédies de Térence, Les                                               92

 Contes et nouvelles en vers                                        71, 73


 Décameron, Le                                                          52

 Decamerone, Il                                                         51

 De la mesure du temps par les horloges                                 49

 De la nature des choses                                                77

 Description de la Place de Louis XV                                    75

 Description des bains de Titus                                         83

 Description géographique de la Guyane                                  46

 Description géographique des débouquemens de Saint Domingue        45, 48

 Description géographique des isles Antilles                        46, 47

 Description géographique du Golfe de Venise                        47, 48

 Description géographique, etc., de l’isle de Corse                     47

 Dictionnaire des graveurs                                          43, 51

 Diversi trofei                                                         58

 Douze nouveaux quintetti                                               53


 Eclaircissemens sur l’invention ... des nouvelles machines             49

 Église Sainte Genevieve                                                64

 Emile                                                                  88

 Essai géographique sur les isles britanniques                          45

 Essai sur l’horlogerie                                                 48

 Estampes galantes des contes du Boccace                                53

 Etrennes galantes                                                  65, 66

 Etrennes géographiques                                                 97


 Fables choisies                                                        70

 Faits mémorables des empereurs de la Chine                             68


 Galerie du Palais-Royal                                                61

 Grande sonate pour le piano forte                                      91


 Héroïdes                                                               51

 Histoire amoureuse des gaules                                          54

 Histoire ancienne                                                      69

 Histoire de la Maison de Bourbon                                       62

 Histoire de la mesure du temps par les horloges                        50

 Histoire de Louis XV. par médailles                                    69

 Histoire générale des provinces-unies                                  90

 Histoire militaire de Flandre                                          98

 Hydraulique naturelle, L’                                              93


 Iconologie par figures                                                 67

 Idée générale de la ville de Rheims                                    70

 Idylles                                                                48


 Jardins, Les                                                           62

 Jugement de Paris, Le                                                  70


 Lettre de Sapho à Phaon                                                51

 Lettres de deux amants                                                 86

 Lettres d’une péruvienne                                               66

 Lettres en vers                                                        51

 Livre d’écussons et cartels                                            59


 Manuel du chasseur                                                     57

 Maximes et réflexions morales                                          74

 Métamorphoses d’Ovide, Les                                     77, 81, 71

 Méthode pour le piano-forte                                            83


 Notice historique sur l’art de la gravure en France                59, 94

 Nouvel abrégé ... de l’histoire de France                              69

 Nouvelle Héloïse, La                                                   86


 Œuvres badines et morales                                              57

 Œuvres complètes de Berquin                                            48

 Œuvres complètes de M. Palissot                                        82

 Œuvres de Jean Racine                                              83, 84

 Œuvres de J.-J. Rousseau                                               88

 Œuvres de M. Palissot                                                  81

 Orlando furioso                                                        38


 Plans et élévations de la Place royale de Nancy                        99

 Préjugés militaires                                                    75

 Pucelle d’Orléans, La                                                  94


 Recueil d’estampes gravées d’après les tableaux du cabinet de          41
 Monseigneur le Duc de Choiseul

 Recueil de diligences, etc.                                            99

 Recueil de nouvelles et autres écrits divers                          100

 Romance                                                                63


 Saisons, Les                                                       88, 89

 2me. Suite de culs de lampe et fleurons                                40

 Supplément à l’abrégé de la vie des plus fameux peintres               38


 Tableaux historiques de la révolution française                        91

 Tableaux historiques des campagnes d’Italie                            92

 Tancrède                                                               94

 Théâtre de P. Corneille                                                61

 Traité des horloges marines                                            49

 Traité des montres à longitude                                         49

 Traité du beaux essentiel dans les arts                                54

 Trois femmes                                                          100

 Trois femmes, Les                                                 58, 100

 Troisième partie de la carte d’Europe                                  38


 Victoires et conquêtes de l’Empereur de la Chine                       93

 Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce                                         60

 Voyage pittoresque, ou déscription des royaumes de Naples et           89
 de Sicile



  PLATES


[Illustration: A VIGNETTE FROM “ESSAI GÉOGRAPHIQUE SUR LES ISLES
BRITANNIQUES, ETC.,” BY BELLIN, 1757. NEARLY THE ACTUAL SIZE.]

[Illustration: TAIL-PIECE FROM “CONTES ET NOUVELLES EN VERS,” BY LA
FONTAINE, 1762.]

[Illustration: HEAD-PIECE FROM “LES MÉTAMORPHOSES D’OVIDE,” 1767-1771.]

[Illustration: HEAD-PIECE FROM “LES MÉTAMORPHOSES D’OVIDE,” 1767-1771.]

[Illustration: A DRAWING BY CHOFFARD FOR THE TAIL-PIECE IN “LES
MÉTAMORPHOSES D’OVIDE,” 1767-1771 EDITION. REDUCED.]

[Illustration: EAU-FORTE OF THE TAIL-PIECE, JUST MENTIONED, IN “LES
MÉTAMORPHOSES D’OVIDE,” 1767-1771 EDITION. REDUCED.]

[Illustration: FINISHED PLATE OF THE FOREGOING TAIL-PIECE. REDUCED.]

[Illustration: FRONTISPIECE OF A SUBSEQUENT EDITION OF “LES
MÉTAMORPHOSES D’OVIDE.” IT IS A COMBINATION OF THE DECORATED HALF-TITLE
AND A FLEURON IN THE 1767-1771 EDITION OF THE SAME BOOK. REDUCED.]

[Illustration: VIGNETTE ABOVE THE DEDICATION TO QUEEN MARIE LECZINSKA
IN “NOUVEL ABRÉGÉ CHRONOLOGIQUE DE L’HISTOIRE DE FRANCE, ETC.,” BY
PRÉSIDENT HÉNAULT, 1768. THE PORTRAIT IS ENGRAVED BY GAUCHER AFTER
NATTIER AND THE SETTING IS BY CHOFFARD.]

[Illustration: HEAD-PIECE FROM “LES SAISONS,” BY SAINT-LAMBERT, 1769.]

[Illustration: HEAD-PIECE FROM “LES SAISONS,” BY SAINT-LAMBERT, 1775.]

[Illustration: HEAD-PIECE FROM “LE JUGEMENT DE PARIS,” BY IMBERT, 1772.]

[Illustration: FLEURON ON THE TITLE-PAGE OF VOLUME VII OF “COLLECTION
COMPLÈTE DES ŒUVRES DE J.-J. ROUSSEAU,” 1774-1783.]

[Illustration: THE SAME ILLUSTRATION AS THE PRECEDING ONE, ONLY DRAPED.
THIS PLATE WAS NEVER PUBLISHED AND IS CITED NOWHERE.]

[Illustration: DECORATIVE TITLE-PAGE OF “CATALOGUE DU CABINET DE MR.
NEYMAN,” BY BASAN, 1776. SLIGHTLY REDUCED.]

[Illustration: FLEURON ON THE TITLE-PAGE OF VOLUME 1 OF “HISTOIRE DE LA
MAISON DE BOURBON,” BY DÉSORMEAUX, 1779-1788.]

[Illustration: TAIL-PIECE FROM “HISTOIRE DE LA MAISON DE BOURBON,” BY
DÉSORMEAUX, 1779-1788. SLIGHTLY REDUCED.]

[Illustration: HEAD-PIECE FROM “PRÉJUGÉS MILITAIRES,” BY THE PRINCE DE
LIGNE, 1780.]

[Illustration: DEDICATION VIGNETTE IN “CHANSONS NOUVELLES,” BY DE PIIS,
1785.]

[Illustration: HEAD-PIECE IN VOLUME II OF “DICTIONNAIRE DES GRAVEURS,
ETC.,” BY BASAN, 1789.]

[Illustration: FLEURON ON THE TITLE-PAGE OF “HISTOIRE DE LA MESURE DU
TEMPS PAR LES HORLOGES,” BY FERDINAND BERTHOUD, 1802.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

   Transcriber’s notes

1. Silently corrected typographical errors and inconsistencies;
   retained non-standard spelling.

2. Added one line in the TOC to include the Index

3. Italic text in the original is delimited by _underscores_.





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