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Title: Journal of Entomology and Zoology: Volume 6, Number 4, December 1914
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Journal of Entomology and Zoology: Volume 6, Number 4, December 1914" ***

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Transcriber Note

Italic text is denoted by _underscores_ and bold text by =equal signs=.

  VOLUME SIX                                                 NUMBER FOUR




                            DECEMBER, 1914

                        PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY
                    CLAREMONT, CALIFORNIA, U. S. A.


  Pseudoscorpions in the Claremont-Laguna Region--_Margaret M. Moles_  187

  Some Points in the Nervous System of a Large Deep Water Crab--_Wm.
    A. Hilton_                                                         198

  A New Pseudoscorpion From California--_Nathan Banks_                 203

  A Nebalia From Laguna Beach--_R. La Follette_                        204

  Starfish of Laguna Beach                                             209

  Barnacles of Laguna Beach                                            212

  Notes on the Eggs of Some Laguna Beach Invertebrates--_P.A. Lichti_  215

  Preliminary Notes on Some Marine Worms Taken at Laguna Beach--_W. F.
    Hamilton_                                                          217

  Studies in the Comparative Size of the Red Blood Corpuscles of
    Birds--_Chi Tsau Wang_                                             221

  Caprellidæ From Laguna Beach--_R. La Follette_                       222

  Short Notes                                                          233

  Additional Notes on the Birds of Laguna Beach--_Leon L. Gardner_     235

  A New Dipterous Gall on Stanleya--_T. D. A. Cockerell_               240

  Hydroids of Laguna Beach--_Prof. A. M. Bean_                         242

  Summer School at Laguna Beach                                        245

Entered at Claremont, Cal., Post-Office Oct. 1, 1910, as second-class
matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879

Journal of Entomology and Zoology


_Subscription_ $1.00 to domestic, $1.25 to foreign countries.

This journal is especially offered in exchange for zoological and
entomological journals, proceedings, transactions, reports of
societies, museums, laboratories and expeditions.

The pages of the journal are especially open to western entomologists
and zoologists. Notes and papers relating to western and Californian
forms and conditions are particularly desired, but short morphological,
systematic or economic studies from any locality will be considered for

Manuscripts submitted should be typewritten on one side of paper about
8 by 11 inches. Foot notes, tables, explanations of figures, etc.,
should be written on separate sheets. Foot notes and figures should be
numbered consecutively throughout. The desired position of foot notes
and figures should be clearly indicated in the manuscript.

Figures should be drawn so that they may be reproduced as line cuts so
far as possible. An unusually large number of half tones must be paid
for in part by the author. Other more expensive illustrations will be
furnished at cost. Figures for cuts should be made to conform to the
size of the page when reduced, that is, 5 by 7½ inches or less. The
lettering should be by means of printed numbers and letters pasted on
the drawings, in most cases.

Authors of articles longer than a thousand words will receive fifty
reprints of their publications free of cost. If more than this are
desired, the order should be given with the return of the proof sheets.
Extra copies and special covers or special paper will be furnished at
cost. Authors of short contributions will receive a few extra copies of
the number containing their articles.

Manuscripts should be sent by express or registered mail.

Address all communications to

  The Journal of Entomology and Zoology

  William A. Hilton, Editor

  Claremont, California, U. S. A.


  VOLUME VI, 1914


Contents of Volume VI

Volume VI, Number 1

=Kuwana, S. I.=

  Coccidæ of Japan, 1.

=Alexander, C. P., and Lloyd, J. T.=

  The Biology of the North American Crane-Flies (Tipulidæ Diptera), 12.

=Hilton, William A.=

  The Central Ganglia of Xenylla, 38.

=Moles, Margaret Lyons=

  A New Species of Pseudoscorpion from Laguna Beach, Cal., 42.

=Bacon, Gertrude=

  Neanura Gigantea Tull in Southern California, 45.

Shorter articles, 48.

  Wants and Exchanges, 52.

Volume VI, Number 2

=Banks, Nathan=

  New Acarina, 55.

=Funkhouser, W. D.=

  Some Philippine Membracidæ, 67.

=Essig, E. O.=

  The Second Protodiaspis, 76.

=Moles, Margaret Lyons=

  A Pseudoscorpion from Poplar Trees, 81.

=Bacon, Gertrude A.=

  A New Species of Tullbergia, 84.

=Gardner, Ray Earl=

  Some Notes on the Distribution of Cinura in the Vicinity of
      Claremont, with Description of a New Species, 86.

=Felt, E. P.=

  Aplonyx Sarcobati N. Sp., 93.

=Hilton, William A.=

  The Nervous System of Neanura Gigantea Tull, 95.

  Shorter Articles, 98.

  Wants and Exchanges, 102.

Volume VI, Number 3

=Alexander, Charles Paul=

  Biology of the North American Crane-Flies (Tipulidæ Diptera), 105.

=Ewing, H. E.=

  The Geographical Distribution of Our Common Red Spider, Tetranychus
      Telarius Linn., 121.

=King, Geo. B.=

  The Eleventh Kermes (Coccidæ) from California, 133.

=Hilton, William A.=

  The Central Nervous System of the Pycnogonid Lecythorhynchus, 134.

=Bacon, Gertrude Auld=

  The Distribution of Collembola in the Claremont-Laguna Region of
      California, 137.

  Wants and Exchanges, 185.

Volume VI, Number 4

=Moles, Margaret M.=

  Pseudoscorpions in the Claremont-Laguna Region, 187.

=Hilton, Wm. A.=

  Some Points in the Nervous System of a Large Deep Water Crab, 198.

=Banks, Nathan=

  A New Pseudoscorpion from California, 203.

=La Follette, R.=

  A Nebalia from Laguna Beach, 204.

  Starfish of Laguna Beach, 209.

=Hughes, Miss S. P.=

  Barnacles of Laguna Beach, 212.

=Lichti, P. A.=

  Notes on the Eggs of Some Laguna Beach Invertebrates, 215.

=Hamilton, W. F.=

  Preliminary Notes on Some Marine Worms Taken at Laguna Beach, 217.

=Wang, Chi Tsau=

  Studies in the Comparative Size of the Red Blood Corpuscles of Birds,

=La Follette, R.=

  Caprellidæ from Laguna Beach, 222.

  Short Notes, 233.

=Gardner, Leon L.=

  Additional Notes on the Birds of Laguna Beach, 235.

=Cockerell, T. D. A.=

  A New Dipterous Gall on Stanleya, 240.

=Bean, Prof. A. M.=

  Hydroids of Laguna Beach, 242.

  Summer School at Laguna Beach, 245.

Index to Volume VI

    Acarina, 55.
    Achorutes, 165.
      californica, 165.
      citri, 166.
    Actitis macularius, 237.
    Ægialitis novisa, 237.
      semipalmata, 237.
    Aglaophenia inconspictus, 243.
    Aglaophenia struthionides, 243.
    Alexander, C. P., 12, 105.
    Ammodramus savannarum bimaculatus, 238.
    Anisomera longicornis, 21.
    Antenella avalonia, 243.
    Aplonyx sarcobati, 93.
    Aphoruridæ, 168.
    Aphorura, 170.
      lutea, 170.
      montis, 171.
    Arrhenica spinosa, 27.
    Asterina miniata, 211.
    Astroglinus tristis salicamans, 238.
    Asteropecten erinoceus, 211.
    Atemnus hirsutus, 203, 195.

  Bacon, G. A., 45, 84, 137.
  Balanus nubilus, 213.
    tintinnabulum californicus, 212.
  Banks, Nathan, 55.
  Barnacles, 212.
  Bdellidæ, 55.
  Bdella utilis, 55.
  Bean, A. M., 242.
  Birds, Laguna Beach, 235.
  Buteo borealis colurus, 237.

  Caligonus terminalis, 57.
  Canestrinidæ, 61.
  Canestrinia blattophaga, 61.
  Campanulariidæ, 244.
  Campodea montis, 86.
    kelloggi, 91.
    folsomi, 91.
  Caprellidæ, 222.
    æquilibra, 224.
    geometrica, 222.
    septentrionalis, 223.
  Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornatus, 237.
  Centrochares horrificus, 69.
  Centrotoscelus, 72.
    typus, 73.
  Ceryle alcyon, 238.
  Chelanops acuminatus, 193.
    lagunæ, 42, 193.
    paludis, 81, 193.
    pallipes, 193.
    serratus, 193.
  Chelifer cancroides, 187.
    fuscipes, 188.
    scabrisulus, 192.
  Cheyletidæ, 56.
  Cheyletus cocciphilus, 56.
  Chloræmidæ, 219.
  Cinura, 86.
  Cirratulidæ, 219.
  Cirratulus robustus, 219.
    spirobranchus, 219.
  Clymenella rubrocincta, 219.
  Coccidæ of Japan, 1, 48, 133.
  Cockerell, T. D. A., 240.
  Collembola, 137.
  Corpuscles, birds, 221.
  Corvus corax sinuatus, 238.
  Crane flies, 12, 105.
  Cryptaspidia pubera, 69.
    tagalica, 69.
  Cunaxa aramata, 55.
  Cyphodeirus, 162.
    albinus, 162.

  Diptera, 12, 105.
  Disparipes apicola, 61.
  Drepanura, 154.
    californica, 155.

  Eggs, invertebrates, 215.
  Entomobrya, 155.
    binoculata, 157.
    chitellaria, 158.
    laguna, 160.
    multifasciata, 158.
    sexoculata, 156.
  Entrychocampa wilsoni, 92.
  Eriocera, 12.
    fultonensis, 30.
    longicornis, 21.
    macquart, 12.
    spinosa, 27.
  Eriococcus festucæ, 2.
  Essig, E. O., 76.
  Eunicidæ, 218.
  Euphrosyne aurantiaca, 218.
  Euphrosynidæ, 218.
  Eusmatura pamoicensis, 236.
  Evalljapyx propinquus, 92.
  Ewing, H. E., 121.

  Felt, E. P., 93.
  Fish, Laguna Beach, 233.
  Funkhouser, W. D., 67.

  Gardner, L. L., 235.
  Gardner, R. E., 86.
  Gargara, 69.
    luteipennis, 71.
    nigro-fasciata, 70.
    nitidipennis, 71.
    pulchripennis, 70.
    tuberculata, 70.
    varicolor, 69.
  Gavia, 235.
    immer, 235.
    pacifica, 236.
  Glyceridæ, 219.

  Haliætus leucocephalus leucocephalus, 237.
  Halosydna, 217.
    californica, 217.
    insignis, 217.
  Hamilton, W. F., 217.
  Harmothoe hirsuta, 218.
  Hemipodia borealis, 219.
  Hermellidæ, 219.
  Heteractitis incanus, 237.
  Hilton, W. A., 38, 95, 134, 198.
  Himantopus mexicanus, 236.
  Hirundo erythrogastra, 238.
  Hughes, S. P., 212.
  Hydroids, 242.

  Ideobisium threveneti, 196.
  Ideoroncus obscurus, 196.
  Isotoma, 145.
    aquæ, 147.
    aspera, 149.
    besselsii, 148.
    bidenticula, 147.
    catena, 152.
    minima, 149.
    palustris, 153.
    viridis, 150.

  Japan, Coccidæ of, 1.
  Japygidæ, 92.

  Kermes branigani, 100.
    mirabilis, 133.
    sasseri, 48.
  King, Geo. B., 48, 100, 133.
  Kuwana, S. I., 1.

  La Follette, R., 204, 222.
  Laguna Beach, 245.
  Larus heermanni, 236.
  Lecanium pseudomagnoliarum, 7.
  Lecanium magnoliarum, 7.
  Lecythorhynchus, 134.
  Lepas anatifera, 214.
    fasciculatus, 214.
  Lepidasthenia gigas, 217.
  Lepismidæ, 92.
  Leptrocentrus reponens, 69.
  Lichti, P. A., 215.
  Linckia columbiæ, 209.
  Liogma nodicornis, 105.
  Lloyd, J. T., 12.
  Lumbriconereidæ, 218.
  Lumbriconereis erecta, 218.

  McFadden, E. T., 50.
  Macrorhamphus griseus scolopaceus, 236.
  Macrocheles sublaevis, 59.
  Map--Claremont-Laguna, 144.
  Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi, 238.
  Membracidæ, 57.
  Mergus serrator, 236.
  Mitella polymerus, 213.
  Mola mola, 233.
  Moldanidæ, 219.
  Moles, M. L., 42, 81, 187.
  Mycochanes richardsoni richardsoni, 238.
  Neanura, 168.
    gigantea, 45, 95.
  Nebalia, 204.
  Nematoda, 220.
  Nemertinea, 220.
  Nereidæ, 218.
  Nereis agassizi, 218.
    virens, 218.
  Nervous system, 38, 95, 134, 198.

  Obisium macilentum, 195.
  Ordemia deglandi, 236.
    perspicillata, 236.
  Ophiomegistus, 58.
    luzonensis, 58.
  Orthasterias gonolena, 209.
  Otus asio bendirei, 237.

  Pandion haliætus carolinensis, 237.
  Pennariidæ, 242.
  Parasitidæ, 58.
  Parasitus inaegualis, 59.
  Perrisia stanleyæ, 241.
  Phenacoccus azaleæ, 1.
  Phyllodocidæ, 218.
  Pisaster capitatus, 209.
  Pisaster ochraceus, 209.
  Pionosyllis elongatus, 217.
  Plumulariidæ, 243.
  Plumularia lagenifera, 243.
    setacea, 243.
  Poduridæ, 164.
  Polyaspis lamellipes, 58.
  Polychaeta, 217.
  Polynoidæ, 217.
  Popirius, 144.
  Porichthys notatus, 233.
  Protodiaspis, 76.
    agrifolia, 76.
  Pseudoscorpion, 42, 81, 187.
  Pseudosira, 164.
    domestica, 164.
  Pulvinaria, 3.
    citricola, 3.
    idesiæ, 6.
    okilsuensis, 5.
    photiniac, 4.
  Pycnogonida, 134.
  Pyrgonota bifoliata, 67.

  Rivers, J. J., 98.
  Rhyncholophidæ, 56.
  Rhyncholophus moestus, 56.

  Sabellidæ, 219.
  Sabellaria californica, 220.
  Schmardanella californica, 219.
  Sea urchins, 234.
  Serpulidæ, 219.
  Sertularia fuscata, 243.
    tricuspidata, 243.
  Sertulariidæ, 243.
  Sinella, 145.
    curviseta, 145.
  Sipylus nodipennis, 72.
  Smynthuridæ, 143.
  Smynthurus, 144.
  Spider, 121.
  Starfish, 209.
  Syllidæ, 217.

  Tarsonemidæ, 60.
  Tarsonemus approximatus, 60.
    assimilis, 60.
  Terrebellidæ, 219.
  Tetranychidæ, 57.
  Tetranychus simplex, 57.
    telarius, 121.
  Tipulidæ, 12, 105.
  Tomocerus, 161.
    bidentatus, 162.
    vulgaris, 161.
  Tricentrus, 67.
    convergens, 68.
    fairmairei, 67.
    pilinervosus, 68.
  Tubularia, 242.
  Tullbergia, 84, 171.
    collis, 172.
  Turbellaria, 220.

  Wang, Chi Tsau, 221.
  Worms, 217.

  Xenylla, 38, 166.
    collis, 167.
    paludis, 168.
  Xylococcus napiformis, 1.

Pseudoscorpions in the Claremont-Laguna Region


Many individuals may be found in a certain vicinity. In the valleys
where oak and sycamore trees grow abundantly there can be found as many
as seventy-five on the lower trunk of one tree. They are all of one or
two species. In all the student collections that have been carried on
here in college for the last ten years there have never been more than
four or five species collected. It was only through special collection
that the other species were found. Very few were found under stones,
where they are so often spoken of as living, and few were found among
fallen leaves. Some were collected in rotten poplar and pine logs. In
the marshy ground at Chino they were found under leaves and stones and
were very abundant on the poplar trees.

The distribution of the pseudoscorpions extends from an altitude of
5000 down to within ten feet of the ocean.

Concerning their habits of living little can be found. Many small
spiders were found in their claws, also the small mites that live
underneath the bark of trees. Several experiments were tried with some
that were brought into the laboratory. The results were:

1. The pseudoscorpions would not go into Eucalyptus bark.

2. They could not live in a glass dish if water was not placed in it
somewhere. If water was left out, they would dry up within twenty-four

3. They avoided the sunlight and would go under cover.

4. They would remain in one spot without moving for a day at a time.

_Chelifer cancroides_ Linn

_Description_: Length--including mandibles, 3 mm.; pedipalps, 4 mm.;
claw, 1.5 mm. Color--Pedipalps, dark reddish brown; cephalothorax, dark
reddish brown; abdomen, lighter than the palps and cephalothorax; legs,
light yellow brown.

_Cephalothorax_: Evenly rounded in front; one distinct median suture,
two distinct eye spots.

_Abdomen_: Twice as long as it is broad and divided into eleven
distinct sutures. All of the scuta about the same size except the last
one, which is a great deal shorter and broader than the rest. Each
scutum is provided with two strong, spiny hairs on the outer edge.

The whole body is heavily granulated, the cephalothorax having
knob-like protuberances all along the edges.

_Pedipalps_: Larger than the whole animal. Coxa, smooth; trochanter
with large protuberance ending in a heavy spine on the outer edge.
Femur longer than cephalothorax, pedicellate. Tibia, concave on inner
edge, pedicellate, shorter than femur. Trochanter, femur and tibia
strongly granulated and sparsely covered with almost clavate hairs.
Claw of good size, finger a little shorter than the hand. Hand evenly
convex on outer and inner edges. Finger slightly curved, smooth, with
many long simple tactile hairs.

_Mandibles_: Small, fixed finger provided with many small teeth.
Serrula attached throughout length of moveable finger. Spinnerets long
and transparent. Mandibles are provided with five or more heavy long

_Flagellum_: Divided into four separate parts.

_Legs_: First two with trochantins, claws simple, legs covered with
almost clavate hairs.

_Habitat_: Barns or buildings of this community; also found in some
of the common trees, such as the oak and sycamore. This was collected
in Whittier, Claremont, Lytle Creek and San Antonio canyons, and the
smaller canyons near Claremont.

_Chelifer fuscipes_ Banks. Figs. 1 and 2

_Description_: Length of animal, including mandibles, 4 mm.; pedipalps,
5.5 mm.; claw, 2 mm. Color--Pedipalps, reddish brown; cephalothorax,
reddish brown; abdomen and legs, light brown.

[Illustration: Figure 1. _Chelifer fuscipes_ Banks. From below and
above. ×25.]

[Illustration: Figure 2. _Chelifer fuscipes_, third leg and mandible
much enlarged.]

_Cephalothorax_: As long as it is broad. Upper edge almost truncate,
yet rounded; sides evenly convex, lower edge almost straight.
Cephalothorax finely granulate and heavy, simple spine-like hairs
placed in a definite order. One distinct median suture. Two eye spots.

_Abdomen_: Half as broad as it is long and divided into twelve scuta.
The outer edges of each scutum are prolonged into curved hooked spines.
The first scutum is the shortest and broadest, and has the heavier
spine or hook, while the last two segments often lack the hook. The
abdomen is finely granulate and at the lower edge of each scutum there
are eight heavy, short, simple hairs.

_Pedipalps_: Longer than body, coxa smooth, trochanter with large
protuberance ending in a strong spine on outer side; femur longer than
cephalothorax, slightly concave on inner edge, convex on outer edge.
Tibia pedicellate, shorter than femur. The trochanter, femur and tibia
are all granulate and sparsely covered with short, simple hairs. Claw
large, hand broad, smoothly convex on both sides; finger as long as the
hand and slightly curved. It is also provided with long, tactile hairs.

[Illustration: Figure 3. Pedipalp of _Chelanops serratus_ n. sp. ×50.]

_Mandibles_: Small for size of animal; fixed finger provided with small
teeth. Serrula attached throughout the length of moveable finger.
Flagellum divided into small parts. Spinnerets small and transparent.

_Legs_: First three legs with trochantins, claws simple, legs covered
with simple hairs.

_Habitat_: Sycamore canyons, Laguna Beach, Whittier Hills, Cucamonga
canyon, Arrowhead canyon, Lytle Creek canyon, Evey's canyon, San
Antonio canyon, and from oak and sycamore trees around the college

_Chelifer scabrisulis_ Simon

I will not describe the details of this species, because it is so much
like the last described, differing from _C. fuscipes_ by not having
the prolonged hooks like spines, on the outer edges of each abdominal
scutum. The color differs from the other two. The abdomen and legs are
light brown. The cephalothorax and palps are a little darker yellowish

The habitat of this species was the same as that of _C. fuscipes_. When
collecting, they were generally found together.

_Chelanops oblongus_ Say

_Description:_ Length of body, including mandibles, 5 mm; abdomen,
4 mm.; pedipalps, 4.5 mm.; claw, 2 mm. Color--Cephalothorax, light
reddish brown, pedipalps darker, abdomen yellow with dark brown spots,
legs pale yellow.

_Cephalothorax:_ Very short for length of body. Front margin truncate,
sides almost straight, lower margin slightly convex, smooth and shiny
and provided with many short hairs.

_Abdomen:_ Four times as long as it is wide; sub-parallel sides. Each
scutum with a dark spot on each side and each dark spot surrounded by
long, simple hairs arranged in a definite order.

_Pedipalps:_ Nearly as long as the body, coxa smooth, trochanter stout
and short; femur pedicellate, broadest part being near base, as long
as the cephalothorax, inner edge slightly concave, outer edge strongly
convex; tibia shorter than femur, pedicellate, strongly convex on inner
edge, on outer edge slightly concave near base, but strongly convex

_Claw:_ Large, finger very stout and curved, shorter than the hand.
Hand very broad, very convex on outer edge, only slightly so on inner
edge. The trochanter, femur and tibia are covered with stout simple
hairs of varying length.

_Mandibles:_ Small and short, serrula attached throughout length of
finger, spinnerets small and transparent.

_Legs:_ Short and stout, covered with short, stout, simple hairs.

_Habitat_: This has been reported from Palm Springs, but one specimen
was found within our area at Brown's Flats, at about four thousand feet
elevation, in an old pine log.

_Chelanops pallipes_ Banks

Similar to _C. dorsalis_, but fingers longer than hand and very
slender; tibia also slender, less convex on the inner side, hard parts
with clavate hairs. Three millimeters long. (From Banks.)

_Habitat_: Los Angeles and vicinity, but has not yet been found in our
immediate region.

_Chelanops acuminatus_ Simon

Cephalothorax and palpi reddish brown, with short but not clavate
hairs; no eye spots; pedipalps rather short, hand evenly convex on
inner side at base, fingers much shorter than the hand and quite stout.
3 mm. long. (From Banks.)

_Habitat_: Claremont and Los Angeles.

_Chelanops lagunæ_ Moles

This species was described in the March number of this Journal, 1914.

It differs chiefly from _C. dorsalis_ Banks by having two eye spots. It
is a smaller species. This small species was found in Sycamore canyon,
near Laguna Beach.

_Chelanops paludis_ Moles

This species was described in the June, 1914, number of this Journal.

The very broad form of the abdomen is characteristic.

This was found on poplar trees and in poplar logs in the Chino swamp.

_Chelanops serratus_ n. sp. Fig. 3

_Description_: Length--Pedipalps, 3 mm. Impossible to take measurements
of other parts, for slide was so poorly made, but the body was small.
Color--Cephalothorax and pedipalps, strong yellow brown; legs and
abdomen, light yellow.

_Cephalothorax_: As long as it is broad, sides evenly convex, upper
margin straight, one distinct median suture; no eye spots; surface of
cephalothorax very granular.

[Illustration: Figure 4. _Ideoroncus obscurus_ Banks. Forward part of
the animal from above. ×25.]

_Abdomen_: Badly curled up; scuta entirely covered with short almost
clavate hairs.

The naming of this species is based on the short "saw-like" hairs that
are all over the body. They are not globular on the end, as the clavate
hairs, but have "saw-like" edge.

_Palps_: Short and stout, coxa smooth, trochanter as usual, femur
shorter than cephalothorax; pedicellate, inner margin almost straight
at base, then suddenly concave to tip, outer margin evenly but not
strongly convex; tibia broad, pedicellate, suddenly enlarging on inner
side near base, outer margin evenly convex. Trochanter, femur, tibia
strongly granulate and sparsely covered with these "saw-like" hairs.

_Hand_: Broad as it is long, greatly swollen on inner margin near base;
fingers slightly curved and as long as the hand.

_Mandibles_: Small; spinnerets small and transparent; serrula attached
throughout the length of the moveable finger.

_Legs_: The two anterior legs with trochantins; legs covered with many

This specimen was found on the window pane of the Pomona College
greenhouse. A fly (_Musca domestica_) lit on the pane and the
pseudoscorpion caught its legs and clung while the fly crawled about.
This is the only one of its kind that has been found.

_Atemnus hirsutus_ Banks

Described by Banks in this number of the Journal. Only one specimen of
this species was taken. This is the species found nearest the ocean.
The broad hand is quite evident. Found ten feet from the ocean, among
stones, at Laguna Beach.

_Obisium macilentum_ Simon

_Description_: Pale yellowish brown, legs paler; hard part shining;
cephalothorax one-fourth longer than broad. Sides parallel; mandibles
about one-half the length of the cephalothorax; pedipalps very long
and slender, with long, fine, scattered hairs. Femur as long as the
cephalothorax. Fingers longer than hand.

_Habitat_: Claremont.

_Ideobisium threveneti_ Simon

_Description_: Length of animal, including mandibles, 4 mm.; length
of palps, 3.5 mm.; length of abdomen, 3 mm.; length of claw, 1.5 mm.
Color--Cephalothorax and palps, dark reddish brown; abdomen, lighter
than cephalothorax; legs, pale yellow.

_Cephalothorax_: As long as it is broad, upper margin truncate, sides
nearly straight, lower margin straight; no suture; four distinct eye
spots; eyes on each side almost touch each other.

_Abdomen_: Elongate, three times as long as it is broad; scuta entire.

_Palps_: Coxa smooth; trochanter small; femur long, outer edge
almost straight, inner edge slightly convex; tibia short and stout,
pedicellate, convex on inner and outer surface.

_Claw_: Not large; finger as long as hand and not curved very much;
hand, broad, evenly convex on inner and outer edges.

_Legs_: Lack trochantins, III and IV stouter than I and II; mandibles
large; serrula not attached throughout length of moveable finger;
spinnerets long and transparent.

_Habitat_: Claremont, Ice House Canyon, under leaves.

_Ideoroncus obscurus_ Banks

_Description_: Length of animal, including mandibles, 3 mm.; length of
pedipalps, 3 mm. Color--Cephalothorax and pedipalps dark yellow brown;
abdomen and legs very light yellow.

_Cephalothorax_: A little longer than broad; front margin slightly
truncate, rounded; sides so slightly convex as to be almost straight;
lower margin slightly recurved; no transverse sutures; one pair of eyes.

_Abdomen_: Elongate and slender; scuta entire; both abdomen and
cephalothorax with a few simple scattered hairs.

_Palps_: Long and slender; coxa smooth; trochanter lacks large
protuberance of many of the Cheliferidæ; femur hardly as long as
cephalothorax, very slender and not pedicellate; tibia shorter and
broader than femur, pedicellate, convex on inner edge, only slightly so
on outer edge; trochanter, femur, and tibia covered with short, stout
simple hairs; claw long and slender; finger little longer than hand,
and only slightly curved; hand twice as long as broad; hand and claw
covered with long, simple hairs; mandibles large, serrula attached only
at base; spinnerets long and transparent.

_Legs_: The femur and tibia of the first two pairs of legs rather
stout; no trochantins; covered with simple hairs.

_Habitat_: Found in oak trees in the wash around Claremont.

This differs slightly from that described by Banks in that:

1. The upper margin of the cephalothorax is not rounded, but truncate.

2. The fingers of the claw are not shorter than the hand.

3. The femur and tibia of the first two pairs of legs are not stout.

(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College_)

Some Points in the Nervous System of a Large Deep Water Crab


During the summer of 1914 several living specimens of the large crab
_Loxorhynchus grandis_ Stimp. were obtained at Laguna Beach. One of
these was kept for some time in a tank of sea water, and its general
movements were observed as it walked about on the bottom or attacked
the sharks or other fish in the aquarium. Its movements were slow and
its senses seemed not very acute in this situation.

A gross and microscopical examination of the nervous system gave much
the appearance of these organs in other decapods, but the remarkably
small size of the brain or head ganglion was especially noticeable. The
nerves connected with this ganglion were long and slender. The optic
was large, the tegmental a little smaller and the first antennal about
as large as this last. Closely associated with the optic was the small
oculomotor, and near the connectives the small second antennal. Other
small nerves were connected with the brain, whose courses were not
traced, including a pair of small frontal nerves.

The connectives with the thoracic-abdominal ganglion were long and
slender, with each its small ganglion a short distance from the brain.
A cross connection between these connectives was not seen. It may have
been broken in the dissection.

The thoracic-abdominal ganglion has many nerves connected with it, as
shown in the figure; the largest of these were traced to the legs and
upper thoracic appendages. The legs are large and heavy and the nerve
trunks in them are large; their combined bulk would probably be many
times that of the ventral ganglion.

So far as studied, the internal arrangement of tracts and cells does
not differ materially from the classic descriptions of Bethe in another
species. One thing especially noteworthy is the fact that the nerve
cells do not seem especially large, nor are the large ones numerous.

[Illustration: Figure 1]

The nerve cells and fibers were studied in preparations fixed in
Flemming's fluid and stained with iron hematoxylin. As in forms
previously studied, the general structure of the ganglion in a way
duplicates the structure of the nerve cells, in that a general
reticulum forms a framework for the other structures in both. It is
hard in individual cases to distinguish the supportive structures from
the conductive, but the fibers and fibrils in or outside of the nerve
cells run in longer straight lines--that is, they do not form so much
of a meshwork, although they may branch and intertwine to some degree
both within and outside the nerve cells. Large strands or fibers from
nerve cells run as fibers, then divide into smaller masses of fibrils,
and at last break up into numerous fibrils. The usual demonstration
of nerve cells with their branches as shown by the Golgi or methylene
blue methods, I believe, shows only the _larger_ and _smaller_ branches
from nerve cells, and the smallest branches where the fibers break into
fibrils are not shown at all.


In this and other arthropods which I have studied, it seems to me to
be quite characteristic of the nervous system that many parts show
fine fibrillæ more clearly than they are seen in vertebrates. This
may in part be due to the nature of the insulating and supportive
apparatus. As in _Carcinus_, described by Bethe, the optic tract
enters the mesal side of the globulus and splits up into smaller and
smaller parts, and is at last lost in the minute network of fibrils
and supporting substance. Large bundles from the outside may be seen
as dark masses here and there. These last are held in place in the
section by many connecting strands which join the fibers from all
sides. Some may be conducting fibrils, but it is hard to distinguish
these from supportive. Probably most of the conducting fibrils leave at
or near the termination of the thicker part of the fiber. The denser
parts of the nervous system of this and other arthropods, such, for
instance, as the material of the globulus, are composed for the most
part of ultimate fibrillæ whose relationships at these points can only
be conjectured at present because of their minuteness, their great
abundance, and because of the intermingling of supportive or other
materials of several little understood sorts. An extensive comparative
study of these denser masses with various reagents should yield some
interesting results.

Tigroid substance, mostly in the form of dots and flakes, was
recognized, but not studied by special stains. The cells are surrounded
by a dense capsule of connective substance, and in some cases the
peripheral zone of the cell next the capsule is light. In some, this
light zone is speckled with dark dots or lines. Some of these may be
the ends of fibrillæ--in fact, some fibrils were traced--others may be
tigroid substance, or possibly the bodies recognized by Poluszynski in
some Crustacea, although his are stained by other methods.


  _Bethe, A._                   1898

Das Nervensystem von Carcinus maenas. Arch. f. Mic. Anat. Bd. 51.

  _Poluszynski, G._                 1911

Untersuchungen über den Golgi-Kopsch'schen apparat und einige andere
Strukturen in dem Ganglionzellen der Crustaceen. Bull. Acad. Sc.

  Figure 1. Outline of the cephalothorax of _Loxorhynchus_, showing
            the position and size of the nervous system. One-half
            natural size.

  Figure 2. Brain of _Loxorhynchus_ from above. ×10. o, Ocular
            nerve; m, oculomotor; t, tegmental nerve; a, first antennal
            nerve; b, second antennal; c, connective.

  Figure 3. Nerve cell with fibrils from the brain. ×900.

  Figures 4 and 5. Nerve cells near each other in the brain fibrils
            are shown. ×900.

  Figure 6. Neuroblast from a doso-median mass of the brain. ×900.

  Figure 7. Neuroglia cell with branches from the brain. ×900.

  Figure 8. Two fibres breaking into fibrils. From the brain. ×900.

(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College._)

A New Pseudoscorpion from California


Professor Hilton recently sent me a pseudoscorpion taken on the beach
near water, which proves to belong to the genus _Atemnus_. Our common
Florida _Atemnus_ also occurs on the sea beach. The Californian species
differs from the Florida form in having a larger hand and more hairy

_Atemnus hirsutus_ n. sp.


Pale yellowish; cephalothorax a little longer than broad behind,
narrowed in front, sides slightly sinuate, clothed with short, simple
bristles; mandibles not one-third the length of the cephalothorax,
with a short stylet; abdomen elongate, cylindrical, the segments with
apical and preapical rows of simple bristles; legs rather large,
with many simple bristles, all showing trochantins. Pedipalpi large,
clothed with many fine simple hairs and bristles; the trochanters
bituberculate behind near tip; the femur about as long as the width of
the cephalothorax, of nearly equal width throughout; the tibia about
as long as femur, a little broader beyond the middle, about equally
convex on each side; hand extremely broad at base, barely shorter than
the tibia; fingers as long as the hand, much curved, each with some
tooth-like granules and a fine toothed ridge on the apposed sides.

From Laguna Beach, California, ten feet from the ocean. (Hilton.)

A Nebalia from Laguna Beach


Among the many marine forms collected and studied at Laguna Beach
this summer were several Nebalia, which were taken by Mr. Lichti from
a holdfast cast up on the beach. A specimen was sent to the National
Museum at Washington, where it was classified as _Nebalia bipes_ O.
Fab. A brief description of the animal will be given in this paper.

_Nebalia bipes_ O. Fab. (Plate I, Fig. 1) belongs to the order
Phyllocarida, which is the linking order between the Branchiopoda
and Copepoda on one hand and the Schizopoda and Decapoda on the
other. There are only three genera, and the commonest of these is
_Nebalia_. So far as I know this form has never before been reported
from this region. The specimen here described was 9 mm. in length and
a whitish flesh color. It was transparent in the living animal. The
body is divided into a head, thorax and abdomen, having the normal
malacostracan number of segments, except the abdomen, which is made up
of eight, the last bearing caudal styles. There is a bivalved cephalic
carapace extending back to the fourth abdominal segment and terminating
in front in a movable rostrum. The eyes are large, round and raised on
movable stalks.

There are two pairs of antennæ (Plate II, Fig. 2), the first pair
being four-jointed, the last joint rather broad and armed with many
hairs along the outer margin. The other joints have a few hairs on
the articulating margin. The flagellum rises from the fourth joint,
behind the fifth and has fourteen joints, each one armed with several
hairs on the outer margin of the articulation. The second antennæ are
slightly larger than the first and made up of three joints with a brush
of plume hairs at the caudal end of the second joint. The flagellum is
fourteen jointed. The mandible has a two-jointed palp (Fig. 3), with
numerous hairs along the outer margin. The second maxilla also has a
palp extending back under the carapace with the function of keeping the
carapace free from foreign bodies.

The thoracic feet (Fig. 3) are about 1.5 mm. in length, eight in number
and biramous. The outer margins are heavily covered with hair, while
the inner margins are comparatively smooth. The first four abdominal
appendages (Figs. 5, 6) are much larger than the thoracic feet,
being 2.5 mm. in length, and are used for swimming, like those of
the copepods. They are also biramous, the back margin and tip having
numerous hairs along the edge, while the inner margins are lined with
many plumous hairs. The first appendage (Fig. 5) is somewhat heavier
than the fourth (Fig 6), but the hairs and spines are arranged in the
same relative position. The fifth appendage (Fig. 7) is two-jointed
uniramous and small, .9 mm. long. The sixth is one jointed and smaller

The eight abdominal segments taper off in size and the last bears a
pair of caudal styles (Fig. 8) which are lined with sharp spines along
their outer margins. The ends of the styles are armed with two long,
sharp spines.

(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College._)


Magnification 25 Times

Figure 1. _Nebalia bipes_.


Magnification 25 Times

  Figure 2. Antennæ.
  Figure 3. Mandibular palp.
  Figure 4. Thoracic appendage.
  Figure 5. First abdominal appendage.
  Figure 6. Fourth abdominal appendage.
  Figure 7. Fifth abdominal appendage.
  Figure 8. Caudal styles.

[Illustration: Plate I, Figure 1]

[Illustration: Plate II]

Starfish of Laguna Beach

The following is a fairly complete list of shore forms of starfish at
Laguna. All but the last one mentioned were photographed by Miss Clency
at Laguna Beach.

_Linckia columbiæ_ Gray. Fig. 1

A large number of these were collected under stones and in tide pools
near shore. A number were found with six arms, and often the arms were
very irregularly developed. The power of regeneration is very marked,
as may be determined from the appearance of even a small number of

_Orthasterias gonolena_ Verrill. Fig. 2

This is the "soft starfish." Clark has called it _Asterias forreri_.
Fisher (in first Laguna report) called it _A. sertulifera_. Verrill
considers it different from either of these last two. We must thank Dr.
Clark for this information, as well as for the identification of the
remaining species of starfish.

This form is fairly common in the tide pools and under stones not far
from shore.

_Pisaster capitatus_ Stimpson. Fig. 3

This is our most beautiful species, but is not as common as the next
species with which it is often found. On the points and especially
among the mussel beds this species may be found. Its colors during life
are beautiful with their delicate shades.

_Pisaster ochraceus_ Brandt. Fig. 4

This is our most common species on the rocky points and among the
barnacles and mussels, where they may be found by the dozen. The color
variations are quite marked, some being a light red brown, others a
darker shade. Some specimens of large size were obtained.


_Astropecten erinaceus_ Gray. Fig. 5

This beautiful starfish, with its pearl gray shades, is a deeper water
form than the others. A few were found in the living condition cast up
on the shore, and some were obtained from the fishermen, but they were
not often found.

_Asterina miniata_ Brandt. Fig. 6

These broad armed starfish were found quite often in the tide pools
near shore; usually of a deep orange color, they were sometimes much
lighter than this.

  W. A. H.

(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College_)

Barnacles of Laguna Beach



Five species of barnacles were found last summer at Laguna Beach. For
the identification of the first two of these, we must thank Dr. H. A.
Pilsbry of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.

[Illustration: Figure 1]

_Balanus tintinnabulum californicus_ Pils. Fig. 1

The most common of the acorn barnacles; found abundantly on rocks,
mussels, etc. There are six valves or plates; the rostrum, carina, and
two latera on each side. These plates are delicately marked with pink
stripes. The connecting pieces are often transversely lined. This is
the largest of the common acorn barnacles; the average height is about
an inch.

[Illustration: Figure 2]

_Balanus nubilus_ Darwin. Fig. 2

This is one of the small acorn barnacles, also very numerous on the
rocks at tide level. Here the plates, usually six in number, although
in some the lateral plates are divided, are closely joined to each
other without connecting pieces.

[Illustration: Figure 3]

[Illustration: Figure 4]

_Mitella polymerus_ Sowerby. Fig. 3

This is a very abundant species, and is found in great masses on
the rocks near the tide level. It is readily known by the numerous
irregularly arranged scales at the base of the capitulum. The valves
are usually much worn, and many cases of regeneration have been noted.
The peduncle is covered with fine scales.

_Lepas anatifera_ Linnæus. Fig. 4

This is a fairly abundant goose barnacle, found in holdfasts of kelp
and occasionally on driftwood and floating objects. The size varies
from a few millimeters to almost an inch in length. The distinguishing
characters are the very fine striations on the valves, the presence of
an umbonal tooth on the right scutum, and the proximity of the base of
the carina to the scutum. The valves are a delicate pale blue color and
the peduncle a deep purplish brown.

[Illustration: Figure 5]

_Lepas fasciculatus_ Elis and Solander. Fig. 5

Two specimens were found by Mr. Lichti upon the beach at Green Bay,
Laguna Beach, in September of this year. Others have been collected
from the Laguna region.

It is a light pelagic form, with paper-like plates and angularly bent
carina, with a prominent umbo.

Notes on the Eggs of Some Laguna Beach Invertebrates


During the past summer a large number of species and individuals were
examined for eggs. Some of these fragmentary notes may be of use to
others who may carry the study further.

The serpent stars were not especially studied for the eggs, but
during July several hundred were collected from various places. These
were mostly of one species. About one-third of these contained well
developed ova. On July 14th and 20th, six individuals of the genus
_Ophiothrix_ deposited eggs in the aquarium jars. During August three
out of twenty specimens had ova well developed, many may have been

Comparatively few female sea urchins were found. Out of 50 individuals
opened, 36 were males, six females, and the rest young. Miss Wang also
found that the males were more numerous than the females as they were
collected, four to one. Miss Wang was able to keep the sperm alive for
96 hours in the laboratory before we had running salt water.

In the common shore goose-neck barnacle _Mitella_, ova and segmentation
stages were found during the summer.

The common rock crab, _Pachygrapsus_, was examined many times during
July and very few adult females were without eggs. During the same day
mature ova and advanced embryos were found. August 10th, about half
the females were without eggs. On September 4th, about two-thirds were
without eggs. The early summer seems the more active spawning season.

A live female deeper sea crab, _Loporhynchus_, was caught on June 25th.
The enormous mass of eggs was unsegmented and failed to segment in the
laboratory, although the animal was kept alive for some time. On July
20th, another female was caught, the embryos were well advanced and it
was possible to see the heart beat under the microscope. They lived
only a few hours.

The sand crabs of the genus _Eremita_ were found laying their eggs
all summer. Some hundreds were examined, and it was found that up
to September egg masses were nearly always found with the females.
In the whole season, out of 236 examined, only 11 in September were
without eggs. It was found that while the eggs on the swimmeretts were
developing into crabs another egg mass was being formed in the ovaries,
this last reached maturity about the same time that the young crabs on
the swimmeretts hatch.

A species of _Cypris_ was found in a pool about 1½ miles up Laguna
canyon. These had many eggs on July 1; by July 17 no eggs were found.

A number of species of isopods and amphipods were found to have eggs
during the summer, and during September it was very easy to obtain
_Ligyda_ with eggs or young, although the proportion of young stages
was becoming less.

Members of the genus _Caprella_ were found with eggs at different times
during the summer and up into the fall.

Of the pycnogonids, the following genera were found with eggs during
the summer: _Lecythorhynchus_, _Ammothella_ of two species; _Halosoma_,
_Pycnogonium_, _Palene_, _Tanystylum_ of two species.

A number of chitons were examined, but with negative results. Probably
many were young.

Some of the bivalved forms were examined, but the character of the
period of reproduction is not yet determined.

The sea hare, _Aplysia_, laid its eggs in the aquarium jars during the
middle and late summer.

Many of the species of nudibranchs collected during the summer were
found to deposit eggs in the laboratory. One species, a light brown
form, was found abundantly in kelp holdfasts. They laid coiled
ribbon-like masses of eggs.

Eight different individuals of the genus _Doris_ deposited eggs in the

On July 28, two of the genus _Hermissenda_ and one _Spurilla_ (?)
deposited eggs.

_Laila_ and several unknown forms deposited eggs in the laboratory
during the first part of September.

(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College_)

Preliminary Notes on Some Marine Worms Taken at Laguna Beach


During the summer of 1914 I made a collection of some 230 bottles of
annelids. It was thought best that I should publish a list of the
families and of such species as I have succeeded in identifying.



  Are quite abundant among the finer sea mosses.

  _Pionosyllis elongata_ Johnson.

  Found among goose-neck barnacles west of the Laboratory and in
  seaweed tangles. White with bright red eggs coloring posterior end.
  Taken June 26, 1914.

  Two other forms are common in the finer sea moss.


  Are of frequent occurrence on rocks and in seaweed tangles. I have
  identified four species.

  _Halosydna insignis_ Baird.

  The most common and variable polynoid at Laguna. Color of elytra
  yellowish gray to bright red. Length from 18 to as much as 47 mm.

  _Halosydna californica_ Johnson.

  Less abundant. Similar in distribution. More slender and of a lighter

  _Lepidasthenia gigas_ Johnson.

  This interesting form was taken from a large mass of the tubes of
  _Vermetus_ (_squamigerus?_) (gasteropod). Heretofore, as far as I
  know, it has only been recorded as a tube commensal with a large
  _Amphitrite_. My specimen was not commensal, but was hidden among
  the mollusc tubes. The color was recorded as a "light, unsaturated
  yellow, elytra darker yellow, body irridescent below." The setæ
  project only their tips beyond the parapodia, differing only in this
  respect from Johnson's figures. I could not find any asymmetrical
  somites, judging from the elytrophores. The elytra were all gone and
  the specimen was poorly preserved.

  _Harmothoe hirsuta_ Johnson.

  A single specimen 25 mm. long, badly mutilated and in a poor state
  of preservation was taken in seaweed between tide-marks. Two other
  species were taken from a similar location, but I have not identified
  them yet.


  Three unidentified kinds inhabiting seaweed tangles and holdfasts are
  in the collection.


  _Euphrosyne aurantiaca_ Johnson.


  Are common in the atokous state, and one "heteronereid" was brought
  in from an unknown location.

  _Nereis agassizi_ Ehlers.

  Specimens which agree closely with figures by Johnson are found very
  abundantly in seaweed tangles.

  _Nereis virens_ Sars.

  A single specimen was taken in wave-washed sand three miles south of
  the Laboratory.

  There is another species, resembling _Nereis procera_ which I have
  not yet identified.

  Two specimens of this beautifully brilliant orange annelid were taken
  on holdfasts.


  I found few of these, but such as I did find were in burrows in a
  soft shale ledge or in sand under large stones.


  _Lumbriconereis erecta_ (?) Moore.

  I am not sure of this determination. The setæ are identical, but the
  parapodia are not quite the same as those figured by Moore. The worm
  is very abundant in the sand under large stones. One or two similar
  species are common in seaweed and under mussels.


  Two species of this family were found in the sand under large stones.

  _Hemipodia borealis_ Johnson.

  Found under a large rock, buried in the sand. One very large and
  active glycerid was found in the same locality. I have not identified


  Found in the roots of eel-grass, in holes in a soft shale ledge or in
  the sand under large stones.

  _Cirratulus robustus_ Johnson.

  _Cirratulus spirabranchus_ Moore.

  Found in abundance in the above places.


  Found with the _Cirratulidæ_.

  _Schmardanella californica_ Moore.

  Is very abundant in the matted roots of "eel-grass."

  Two other forms are quite abundant wherever _Cirratulus_ is found.


  Found on holdfasts.

  _Clymenella rubrocincta_ Johnson.

  Fairly common.


  I have a half dozen of these from holdfasts.


  Small sabellids are common in holdfasts and seaweed masses.


  The calcareous tubes of these animals are seen everywhere below half
  tide, on rocks, in holdfasts and on kelp (spirobis). I have six
  different serpulids.


  There are probably two species of this family common at Laguna.

  _Sabellaria californica_ Fewkes.

  This form was found in large colonies in the protected crevasses of
  cliffs west of the laboratory. The colonies are some twenty feet
  long, two feet wide and ten inches thick. The tubes are of loosely
  agglutinated sand and are crowded very closely together with their
  mouths evenly disposed over the surface of the colony.

  Another species lives singly in very hard, thick sand tubes. Some
  specimens have algæ growing on their opercula.


I have three kinds of these "flat worms" in my collection. They are
found under partly submerged stones.


There are seven different nemertines in the collection. They are
recorded from holdfasts, seaweed tangles and from among vermetus tubes.


There are two or three different marine nematodes in the collection.
They are most common in the finer moss.


There are two kinds of sipunculids, which seem quite distinct. Taken
from eel-grass roots, from under rocks and mussels.

The specimens were identified from the following papers:

  _Fewkes, J. W._                    1899

  New Invertebrata from the Coast of California. Bull. Essex inst. xxi,
  99-146, pls. 1-7 (2) figs. in text.

  _Johnson, H. P._                     1897

  A Preliminary Account of the Marine Annelids of the Pacific Coast,
  with Descriptions of New Species. Proc. Cal. ac. sc. (3), i, 153-198,
  pls. 5-10.

  --------                     1901

  The Polychætæ of the Puget Sound Region. Proc. Bost. soc. nat. hist.,
  xxix, 381-437, pls. 1-19.

  _Moore, J. P._                      1904

  New Polychætæ from California. Proc. acad. nat. sci., Philadelphia,
  56-484-503, pls. 37-38.

(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College._)

Studies in the Comparative Size of the Red Blood Corpuscles of Birds


The blood corpuscles of a large number of vertebrates were studied at
Laguna Beach during the past summer. Some of the sizes of cell and
nucleus are given below. The blood was obtained as fresh as possible;
in no case was the blood obtained longer than twenty-four hours after
death. The corpuscles were measured by the ocular micrometer and
checked by the aid of a camera lucida.

                                          Average Size of   Average Size of
                                         Corpuscle Microns  Nucleus Microns
  Common Name
        Scientific Name                   Length  Breadth   Length  Breadth
  Western Gull
        Larus occidentalis                 14.70    8.82      6.53    3.27
  Heermann Gull
        Larus heermanni                    14.05    7.84      6.21    2.77
  Great Blue Heron
        Ardea herodias                     13.72    8.82      6.53    3.27
  Red-breasted Merganser
        Mergus serrator                    13.07    7.51      6.86    2.77
  Arkansas Kingbird
        Tyrannus verticalis                12.77    9.47      5.55    3.10
  California Road Runner
        Geococcyx californianus            12.09    9.15      5.27    3.27
  Long-billed Dowitcher
        Macrorhamphus griseus scolopaceus  12.41    8.49      5.24    2.46
  Least Tern
        Sterna antillarum                  11.76    8.46      6.21    2.94
  Semipalmated Plover
        Ægialitis semipalmata              11.43    6.21      5.24    2.77
  Arizona Hooded Oriole
        Icterus cucullatus nelsoni         11.27    8.49      4.41    2.94
  San Diego Song Sparrow
        Melospiza melodia cooperi          10.94    8.33      5.27    2.53
  Least Vireo
        Vireo pusillus pusillus            10.45    9.47      5.55    2.77
  California Woodpecker
        Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi     10.45    6.53      5.24    2.77
  Belding Marsh Sparrow
        Passerculus beldingi               10.08    6.86      4.90    2.77
  Willow Gold Finch
        Astragalinus tristis salicamans     9.80    6.79      6.04    2.94
  California Horned Lark
        Otocoris alpestris actia            9.47    6.21      4.25    2.12
  Western Lark Sparrow
        Chondestes grammacus strigatus      8.49    5.55      5.24    3.10

_(Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College)_

Caprellidæ from Laguna Beach


This paper is a preliminary article on the Caprellidæ of Laguna Beach,
and deals with species that have so far been identified. Because
of great variation, due to age, it is very difficult to place the
different forms.

_Caprella geometrica_ Say

Mayer places _C. geometrica_ as one of eighteen or twenty varieties
of the species _acutifrons_, but I have thought it best to follow
some of the other writers and use _geometrica_ as the species name,
as my specimen closely resembles the species which seems to be _C.
geometrica_ in several accounts.

The specimen here described is an adult male. The peræon (Plate I, Fig.
1) is robust and covered with many blunt tubercles. In this respect it
varies from the specimens described by others who say the peræon is
smooth. The young are comparatively smooth and develop tubercles on
the caudal segments first. Cephalon furnished with a sharp anteriorly
directed dorsal tooth. First segment shorter than the second, which is
triangular in shape; third and fourth broad and a little shorter than
the second; fifth, sixth and seventh each growing smaller respectively
and truncate at the tip. Antennæ, stout; superior pair not half as long
as the body, first joint short and twice as thick as the second but
only half as long, third joint shorter than first; flagellum as long as
the peduncle and composed of 15 or 16 joints, inferior pair extending
to about the middle of the flagellum of the superior, joints long and

First gnathopod (Fig. 2), attached far forward, convex in shape and
tapering slightly toward the finger, which was long as the palm and
narrow; palm armed with tooth-like spine at the base and many hairs.
Second gnathopod (Fig. 3), attached just posterior to the middle of
the second pereiod, basal joint short and thick, not half as long as
the palm; inner margin of the hand concave, armed with a tooth on the
dorsal lobe and a broad, truncate tooth near the base of the finger, as
well as numerous hairs; finger sharply concave on the inner margin for
about half its length. Branchia nearly round. Third, fourth and fifth
peræopods (Fig. 4) similar in structure, short, stout, and armed with
stiff hairs; hand nearly as long as rest of the extremity; palm broad
and armed with numerous hairs, inner margin slightly concave, with two
serrate teeth at the base.

Length of specimen, 13 mm.

Color varying from a bright red to white.

Several specimens taken at Laguna Beach the latter part of July, from
the Rhodophyceæ on the rocks.

The young of this species were very abundant at Laguna Beach, and I
will give a short description of one because of the great variation
from the adult. Plate II shows a young male with the antennæ inverted
showing the setæ on the ventral side. The first five segments are of
nearly equal length; peræon smooth; superior antennæ nearly half as
long as the body, with inferior nearly as long as superior; flagellum
with six to nine joints. Maxillipeds (Plate III, Fig. 5) with inner
plate reaching apex of first joint of palp, armed with two teeth and
spines; outer plate reaching apex of second joint of palp and armed
with three small teeth. Upper lip (Fig. 6) bilobed, finely ciliated.
First maxillæ (Fig. 7) two-jointed, palp and second joint armed with
spines. Second maxillæ (Fig. 8) armed with a few hairs on the tip.
Mandible (Fig. 9) has cutting plate made of five strong, unequal teeth;
teeth of secondary plate nearly equal. First gnathopod attached far
forward, triangular in shape and fringed with hairs. Second gnathopod
(Fig. 11) attached the same as in adult, palm convex on inner margin,
instead of concave as in adult, and armed with two small teeth near
inner margin at the base; finger is concave and uniform in outline.

_Caprella septentrionalis_ Kroyer

The specimen here described differs slightly from those described by
Mayer, Holmes, Sars and others, yet I do not think the differences
great enough to demand the naming of a new species.

The peræon (Plate IV, Fig. 12) is comparatively smooth, first two
segments long, as long as the rest of the body; cephalon angularly
produced in front into a very short, blunt spine. Figure 13 shows a
specimen with a body somewhat broader. The superior antennæ are about
half as long as the body, first joint broader than second, but shorter;
second joint longest of all; third longer than first, and narrower
than second; flagellum shorter than the peduncle and made up of about
twelve joints. Inferior antennæ slightly shorter than the peduncle of
the superior. Mandible (Fig. 14) cutting edge denticulate, with five
irregular teeth, spine row having three large, feathery spines; molar
tubercle strong and prominent. First gnathopod attached far forward,
against the maxillipeds; hand triangular, fringed with hairs on the
inner margin and one spine tooth near the base. Second gnathopod (Figs.
15, 16) attached near the posterior extremity of the second pereiod,
basal joint nearly as long as the hand, inner margin of hand lying in
a straight line and armed with two teeth near the base of the palm,
one on the lobe and the other to one side. Another long tooth is near
the base of the finger and is separated from a large, broad tooth by a
deep suture; inner margin of the finger irregular. Third, fourth and
fifth peræopods are similar in structure and not as stout as those of
_C. geometrica_; hands powerful and armed with three clumps of spines
on small prominences; differing in this respect from those described by
Mayer, Sars and others in that they lack the pair of serrated spines at
the base of the palm. Finger stout and half as long as the palm.

Length of specimen, 12 mm.

Color white or flesh color.

The specimens were collected during the latter part of July at Laguna
Beach, from the seaweed in the inner tide pools.

_Caprella æquilibra_ Say

The peræon (Plate IV, Fig. 12) is comparatively smooth, with the
cephalon devoid of a horizontal spine; the first three segments are
long and narrow, of nearly equal length, the fourth a little longer
than the third, the fifth twice as long as the sixth and seventh
combined. The branchia are ovate in shape and moderate in size. Between
the bases of the second gnathopods is a sharp projection (Fig. 13), and
on each side another spiniform process pointing anteriorly. Superior
antennæ slightly over half as long as the body, first joint about half
as long as the second, but broader; second twice as long as the first,
and third a little longer than the first, but narrower; flagellum
with sixteen or seventeen joints and about as long as the peduncle.
Inferior antennæ reaching just beyond the peduncle of the superior.
First gnathopod small, attached far forward, palm triangular in shape,
tapering toward the finger, which reaches back entirely over the inner
margin of the palm, armed with two sharp spine-like teeth at the base
of the palm, and scattered hairs. Second gnathopod (Fig. 14), attached
at the posterior end of the segment, basal joint quite short; other
joints have their lobes ending in spine-like processes; palm slightly
convex on the inner margin, with a spined lobe about a third of the way
along, and a blunt tooth two-thirds of the way along separated from a
broad tooth by a deep sinus; claw regularly concave; whole gnathopod
with but few hairs. Third, fourth and fifth peræopods (Fig. 15) similar
in size and structure; palm thick, with two serrate teeth a third of
the distance from the base.

Length of specimen, 12 mm.

Color a dark brown to flesh color.

Two specimens taken on a holdfast that was thrown up on the beach at
Laguna Beach during July, 1914.


  _Bate, C. S._                                                   1862
      Catalogue of Amphipodous Crustacea, pp. 357, 362.

  _Holmes, S. J._                                                 1903
      Synopses of North American Invertebrates, xviii, The
        Amphipoda. The American Naturalist, vol xxxvii,
        No. 436, p. 291.
      Bulletin of Bureau of Fisheries, vol. xxiv, Amphipoda of
        Southern New England, p. 526.

  _Mayer, P._                                                     1882
      Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neaples, vi, Monographie,
        pp. 45-50.

  _Mayer, P._                                                     1890
      Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neaples, xvii, Monographie,
        pp. 48-57.

  _Mayer, P._                                                     1903
      Siboga-Expeditie, xxxiv, Monographie, pp. 79-92.

  _Sars, G. O._                                                   1895
      An account of the Crustacea of Norway, vol. i, Amphipoda,
        p. 663.

  _Say_                                                           1817
      Journal of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia,
        pp. 390-391.

(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College_)


Plate I

_C. geometrica_ (adult). ×25

  Figure 1. Body showing length of segments
  Figure 2. First gnathopod.
  Figure 3. Second gnathopod.
  Figure 4. Fifth peræopod.

Plate II

_C. geometrica_ (young male). ×40

Plate III

_C. geometrica_ (young male)

  Figure 5. Maxillipeds. ×300.
  Figure 6. Lip. ×300.
  Figure 7. First maxillæ. ×300.
  Figure 8. Second maxillæ. ×300.
  Figure 9. Mandible. ×300.
  Figure 10. First gnathopod. ×175.
  Figure 11. Second gnathopod. ×175.

Plate IV

_C. septentrionalis_

  Figures 12, 13. Bodies, showing length of segments. ×25.
  Figure 14. Mandible. ×110.
  Figures 15, 16. Second gnathopods. ×25.

Plate V

_C. æquilibra_ Say

  Figure 12. Body showing length of segments. ×50.
  Figure 13. Projection at base of second gnathopod. ×150.
  Figure 14. Second gnathopod. ×150.
  Figure 15. Fifth peræopod. ×150.

[Illustration: Plate I]

[Illustration: Plate II]

[Illustration: Plate III]

[Illustration: Plate IV]

[Illustration: Plate V]

Record of Two Fish, Not Before Mentioned, from Laguna

During the summer of 1914 no special effort was made to collect fish,
but the two following species were taken:

_Porichthys notatus_ Girard

A specimen of this interesting but rather common Californian fish was
taken in a tide pool and kept for some time alive in the aquarium. This
is sometimes called "Midshipman," because of the bright metallic spots
over the head and body, like the buttons on a midshipman's uniform of
years ago. These spots are provided with a lens, connective tissue
capsule and a reflector, and are supposed to be luminous.

_Mola mola_ Linnæus

A small specimen of this head-fish, or sunfish, was brought to us by
the fisherman.

  W. A. H.

Note on the Sea Urchins of Laguna Beach

Due to the kindness of Dr. H. L. Clark of Harvard, we are able now to
have some clearer idea about the number of species of sea urchins found
at Laguna.

_Strongylocentrotus purpuratus_ Stimp

This is our most common species. It occurs by the hundreds in some of
the larger tide pools, such as those near Seal Rocks. Judging from the
specimens sent to Dr. Clark, the rather common greenish form, which
we supposed to be distinct at first, is simply a younger form of the
same species. This greenish form is more often found nearer shore under
stones, where quite small individuals are abundant.


  Figure 1. _Strongylocentrotus purpuratus_ Stimp. Photo by Miss Clency.
  Figure 2. _Strongylocentrotus franciscanus_ A. Agassiz. Photo
              by Hamilton.

_S. franciscanus_ A. Agassiz

These larger urchins are not so common as they may have been. Larger
specimens may be obtained under rock ledges in deep water. Smaller
forms of the same species, which seem to have long reddish spines, may
be found in the tide pools, but are not common.

  W. A. H.

Additional Notes on the Birds of Laguna Beach


In accordance with the general plan of the Laguna Marine Laboratory, a
part of the work was with the birds of the locality.

As mentioned in the First Annual Report of the Laboratory, Laguna
Lakes, about four miles up Laguna Canyon; Balboa, eight miles up the
coast, and the surrounding rocky wild hills of Laguna, afford rich and
varied collecting. Perhaps the richest area of bird life lies between
Laguna and Balboa, in the Irvine Ranch. This is a large tract of land
comprising many thousands of acres, extending about seven miles up the
coast from Laguna and eleven miles inland. The canyons here are steep
and, in some localities, very wooded in contrast to the more open
canyons farther down the coast. For years this land has been given
over to cattle grazing, and the Irvine company, in order to safeguard
the stock, have allowed no one, except their own range riders, to
enter the property. In the years 1911 and 1912 this was a state game
preserve, and there is considerable rumor among local residents that it
was stocked with some kind of pheasants. However, I have neither seen
nor heard of a specimen taken. In all events, the protection afforded
the birds has been taken advantage of, and quail, road-runners, many
species of hawks and all of the smaller birds thrive in abundance and

The fifteen days of collecting were spent largely in covering as large
an area as possible, to obtain the widest range of representative
species, with field notes, etc., to be placed in the Laboratory
building, as a nucleus for greater collections and for the benefit of
the local residents or summer visitors who are interested in the work
of the College.

The additions to the first list, published in the First Annual Report,
as mentioned before, are as follows:

_Gavia immer_ (Brünnich) Common Loon

A specimen taken in Balboa Bay, July 6, 1914. This is rather an unusual
record, as the Loon is only a winter visitant; however, some are known
to remain throughout the summer. Mr. Swarth tells me that this specimen
had lost the power of flight during its molt. He thinks this seems to
indicate that Loons lose the ability to fly during molting, as do the

_Gavia pacifica_ (Lawrence.) Pacific Loon

June 27, I found a dead Pacific Loon cast up on the beach. The specimen
was in very worn and oddly colored plumage. On examination Mr. Swarth
said it was a partial albino and had skipped a regular molt.

_Larus heermanni_ Cassin. Heermann Gull

Abundant about the Bay at Balboa.

_Mergus serrator_ Linn. Red-breasted Merganser

A female taken July 6, 1914. This is a very late record for this bird,
since it leaves mostly in April. It was found resting on a sand spit in
Balboa Bay.

_Oidemia perspicillata_ (Linn.) Surf Scoter

Common along the coast from Laguna to Balboa.

_Oidemia deglandi_ Bonaparte. White-winged Scoter

Occurring with the preceding species.

_Erismatura jamaicensis_ (Gmelin). Ruddy Duck

Occurring at the tule lake in Laguna Canyon.

_Himantopus mexicanus_ (Müller). Black-necked Stilt

One taken at Laguna Lakes, now mounted and in possession of J. N. Isch,
Laguna Beach.

_Macrorhamphus griseus scolopaceus_ (Say)

Long-billed Dowitcher

A specimen taken on the sand spits in Balboa Bay, July 6, 1914. This
appears to be an early fall migration record.

_Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornatus_ (Brewster)

Western Willet.

Abundant in August, less common in July. Often in company with
Hudsonian curlews (_Numenius hudsonicus_) along the coast. One taken as
early as July 6.

_Heteractitis incanus_ (Gmelin). Wandering Tattler

Found in August along the rocky coast by Arch Beach (down the coast
from Laguna).

_Actitis macularius_ (Linn). Spotted Sandpiper

Common along the beach in August.

_Ægialitis semipalmata_ (Bonaparte). Semipalmated Plover

A small flock found at Balboa July 13.

_Ægialitis novisa_ Cassin. Snowy Plover

One taken between Laguna and Balboa.

_Buteo borealis calurus_ Cassin. Western Red-tail

Fairly common in the hills. There seemed to be several different
species of hawks at Laguna, but as they were very shy and most of them
took refuge in the forbidden territory of the Irvine Ranch, none of the
larger ones were obtained.

_Haliætus leucocephalus leucocephalus_ (Linn.) Bald Eagle.

There are five Bald Eagles that are commonly seen along the beach near
Laguna. When followed, they are always found to come to rest on the
high, rocky west slope of Aliso Canyon (down the coast from Laguna).
The owner of the canyon, Mr. Joe Thurston, tells me that for years a
pair has bred there, and these other three are young that did not leave
the vicinity. He is very jealous of their safety, and it is to be hoped
they may always be kept there as a natural attraction. This is one of
the few breeding points along the coast from which the Bald Eagle has
not been driven. In March, 1895, Mr. E. Davis took two fresh eggs of
the Bald Eagle near Laguna Beach. It would be very interesting to know
whether or not he obtained them from the same canyon; if so, this must
be a very old breeding place.

_Pandion haliætus carolinensis_ (Gmelin). Osprey

One shot from a flagstaff in the center of town. The date is uncertain,
but appears to be about 1905. The specimen is now mounted and in the
possession of Mr. J. N. Isch of Laguna.

_Otus asio bendirei_ (Brewster). California Screech Owl

Fairly common in the timbered canyons.

_Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea_ (Bonaparte). Burrowing Owl

Common in upper Aliso Canyon, which is more open and very hot and arid.

_Ceryle alcyon_ (Linn.) Belted Kingfisher

I noted two birds which were undoubtedly of this species along a rocky
stretch of the coast, but was unable to collect one.

_Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi_ Ridgway. California Woodpecker

I obtained two specimens of this species from a flock in Nigger Canyon.
This seems to be a very low altitude at which to find these birds.

_Myiochanes richardsoni richardsoni_ (Swainson).

Western Wood Pewee

I collected two of this species in the willow bottoms July 25, 1912,
which seems to be an indication that they are summer residents.

_Corvus corax sinuatus_ Wagler. Raven

Irregular along the coast. One collected July 19.

_Astraglinus tristis salicamans_ (Grinnell). Willow Goldfinch

Common in the willow bottoms.

_Ammodramus savannarum bimaculatus_ Swainson

Western Grasshopper Sparrow

Very common in one particular grassy glade at the top of the ridge
around Laguna, also at the tule lakes. I took a young bird June 27,
which seems to indicate the birds were breeding there. This is one of
the few breeding records for Southern California.

_Hirundo erythrogastra_ Boddaert. Barn Swallow

Common along the rocky cliffs; some breeding in July.

This concludes the additional list. There is one other breeding record
worthy of note. In Nigger Canyon (Irvine Ranch) there is a Great Blue
Heron nesting colony. Although such colonies were at one time common
along the coast, they are now becoming rare. The colony is situated
in a large clump of sycamore trees, in the bottom of the canyon, some
half mile or more inland. There are about thirty nests, quite white
with bird lime; the trees and ground also are well covered, showing
the permanency of the site. On June 26, 1914, I visited the colony
and found very young birds, but no eggs. The whole place was filled
with a peculiar stench, while the croakings of the old birds, coupled
with the frightened squawks of the young, and the invisible, choking
powder down, made the place quite undesirable. The old birds were very
bold, but not pugnacious, and while the examination of the nests went
on retired to nearby trees to watch the proceedings, while the young
crowded out to the uttermost branches, keeping up a continual racket.

Owing to the protection afforded by the Irvine ranch, the colony has
thrived and probably will for an indefinite period.

(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College._)

A New Dipterous Gall on Stanleya


[Illustration: Figure 1. A, Apical part of wing. B, Male genitalia. C,
Segment of male antenna.]

[Illustration: Figure 2. A, Breastbone of larva. B, Spines at caudal
end of larva. C, Skin of larva. D, Gall.]

On June 18, 1914, my wife and I found a hitherto undescribed gall on
_Stanleya glauca_ Rydberg, a remarkable cruciferous plant growing about
four miles north of Boulder, Colorado. Thinking to rear the adults,
the galls were placed in a bottle with some earth and watched for a
long time, but nothing appeared. Supposing the effort to have been
unsuccessful, I set the bottle aside; but long after discovered that
adults had eventually emerged, but had died and were covered with mold.
I was able to rescue sufficient fragments to make the drawings given
herewith, which, together with the larval characters, serve very well
to indicate the genus, with enough of the specific characters for ready
recognition. The species may be called

_Perrisia Stanleyae_ n. sp. (Cecidomyiidæ)

_Gall_: A swollen flower of _Stanleya glauca_, containing many pallid
larvæ. The sepals are thickened and enlarged.

_Larva_: With the skin strongly verrucose; breastbone of the same
general type as that of _P. fructicola_ Kieffer; caudal end with strong

_Male_: The characteristic genitalia and antennal joint are figured.

Hydroids of Laguna Beach



The identification of the hydroids included in this list was undertaken
while making a general collection of the marine forms of the Laguna
Beach region. The specimens were taken mostly from the miscellaneous
shore collections, and there is no claim to exhaustiveness. They were,
however, examined as fresh material, and nearly always with the living
polyp still present. There was abundant promise of opportunity for the
study of ecological and developmental problems, of which I was unable
at that time to take advantage.

The region covered included a strip of shore line of about two miles
in extent. Part of this is sandy beach which after a heavy tide would
often be covered by the laminæ and holdfasts of _Macrocystis_ and other
kelps, to which hydroids were generally attached. The remainder of the
shore was rocky and of a remarkably varied conformation, including tide
pools, deep channels, rock tables, mussel beds, and short stretches of
sand and pebbly beach. Scarcely any attempt was made at dredging, and
the shore itself was by no means completely searched.



_Tubularia_ sp.

This single representative of the Gymnoblastea more nearly corresponds
to the _T. marina_ described by Torrey, '02. It is, however, much
smaller, the erect branches being scarcely ever as much as 15 mm. in
length, instead of 30-50 mm. The proximal tentacles are 28 and 29 in
number, instead of 22-26, described for _T. marina_. There is very
little appearance of annulation of the stem, and no evidence of the
"stem increasing in diameter distally." The habitat is also different.
_T. marina_ is given as growing "between tides on the lee side of rocks
exposed to the breakers of the open sea." The tubularian in question,
however, was found only clustered in among the rootlike holdfasts
of the _Macrocystis_ at a depth of four to six fathoms. Moreover _T.
marina_ is not reported as occurring farther south than Pacific Grove.
There seems to be some reason for considering this a new species, but
further investigation, and perhaps a study of comparative material,
will be necessary to determine its systematic position.



_Sertularella tricuspidata_ (Alder)

_Sertularia furcata_ (Trask)

Both of the above forms were found on the washed-up holdfasts of


_Aglaophenia inconspicua_ (Torrey '02)

Torrey's description gives "hydrocladia 3-4 mm. long." Out of a large
number examined, however, I found none with hydrocladia more than 1.5

_Aglaophenia struthionides_ (Murray)

Both _A. inconspicua_ and _A. struthionides_ were taken from the red
algæ brought in by the tides.

_Plumularia setacea_ (Ellis)

This form appears to have a wide variation in its bathymetric
distribution. Specimens were collected from the mussels which are
uncovered at mid-tide, and from the carapace of _Loxorhynchus grandis_,
a deep-sea crab that is only rarely brought to shore by the highest

_Plumularia lagenifera_ (Allman)

Found on kelp holdfasts.

_Antenella avalonia_ (Torrey)

Taken in tow-net from floating red algæ.


Mention may be made here of one of the Campanulariidæ recently sent me
by Professor Hilton of Pomona College, to whom thanks are due for many
courtesies. It does not appear to be any species yet reported from this
coast. Its identification, or at least an adequate description, must,
however, be postponed for a future paper.

Summer School at Laguna Beach


During the six weeks of summer school of the past season (1914) there
were in attendance about thirty students and investigators, some of
whom remained until the middle of September. In addition to these there
were several hundred visitors to the aquarium and laboratory, in spite
of the bad condition of the roads. After the middle of the summer
running salt water was piped to the laboratories and aquaria, so that
it was much easier to keep specimens alive. Yet even before this many
interesting forms were on exhibition. At all times there were numerous
marine animals for study, as well as many living land species, such
as tarantulas, lizards, frogs, a large turtle and a number of snakes.
Several rattlesnakes were kept in a box in the front of the building
until the end of the summer. Several of the largest rattlesnakes were
an unending source of interest. One day several people were able to
observe a king snake swallow a slightly smaller rattler.

[Illustration: IN LAGUNA CANYON]


From day to day a varied display of marine forms was to be found in
the aquarium; at different times rare and curious fish, starfish, sea
urchins and devilfish, while now and then some of the larger specimens,
such as sharks and rays, were brought in. Some of these were kept
alive in the large cement floor tank or in the larger jars. Great
quantities of smaller specimens were no less interesting, such as sea
spiders, serpent stars of many beautiful colors and markings, brilliant
nudibranchs, large abalones, curious small crabs and, in fact, all the
interesting or beautiful specimens that could be found.

[Illustration: A COVE ABOVE LAGUNA]



Each week, until September, the public was also invited to attend the
evening lectures. These were usually of a general nature relating to
the life of the sea, but some told of land forms as well, and one was
on the Hopi Indian Snake Dance.


The chief work of the laboratory during the first six weeks was in
connection with the Summer School. There was a class of nine in General
Biology, twelve in General Zoology, and five in General Entomology.
There were, in addition, from six to twelve doing special work for a
longer or shorter period. Students from three Pacific coast colleges
were in attendance, although most of the students and advanced workers
were from Pomona College. Two or three studied special Histological or
Embryological topics, but the majority were interested in faunal and
distributional problems. As announced at an earlier time, the Laguna
station is but an extension of the Biological part of Pomona College,
and the plan for special work includes a survey of the whole region
from the mountains to the sea. With this in mind, many explorations
have been begun, and the aid of specialists in various fields is
sought, so that we may first of all know the living forms that inhabit
this varied and interesting section of California. We hope that a
better knowledge of the species in the different groups here may lead
to more extensive observations both by advanced students from the
College and by others.


Together with the special and general work of the students, collections
of marine and land animals were obtained all through the summer. Some
of these were for the local collection, others to aid in the work of
the survey. Among the collections made were many species of sponges,
hydroids, polyzoans, pycnogonids, marine worms, Crustacea of several
groups and, in fact, nearly all the shore forms that could be obtained
between tides or a short distance from shore with a small boat. There
were also extensive collections of insects and spiders from the hills
and from up and down the coast.


For the study of marine and land animals Laguna has proved itself
once more well adapted to our uses. The high hills come down near
the ocean at several points, and there are miles of interesting and
varied coast line in both directions from the laboratory. All summer,
students in small or larger parties tramped over the hills and through
the many interesting canyons to the lakes, to the Mission of San Juan
Capistrano, or to Balboa and the mud flats. Saturday was the regular
field day, and the longer tramping trips were then taken, but very
often of an evening groups of students enjoyed beach suppers or picnics
in some canyon or up in the hills.

That Laguna and its surroundings is a region of great interest and
beauty is evinced by the fact that a number of artists make it their
home, while it is visited by many others. The trail to Balboa, along
the beach or the cliffs, is wonderfully varied and beautiful, while
the drive from Laguna to San Juan Capistrano, except for the lack of
villages and ruins, might well be considered a part of the famous
Amalfi Sorrento drive in Italy.

During the summer of 1915 courses in general as well as special zoology
will be given. General entomology may also be studied with advantage.
For those who are just beginning biological work there may be special
exercises arranged, as last summer.

There are eight private rooms in the laboratory for special workers.
Some of these will be available for investigators who may wish to
follow out problems of their own or those suggested by the work of the
station. Write

                                             W. A. Hilton, _Director_,
                                Pomona College, Claremont, California.

Wants and Exchanges

Subscribers and others are urged to use these columns to make their
wants known. As the Journal goes to all parts of the world we hope to
make this a very useful feature of the publication. Exchange notes are
free to subscribers.

Wanted--Myriopods from all parts of the world. Will name, exchange
or purchase. R. V. Chamberlin, Mu. Comp. Zoology, Harvard Univ.,
Cambridge, Mass.

Will exchange insects of any order from Southern California, for
Microlepidoptera from any part of North America, preferably pinned,
with complete data concerning capture. Fordyce Grinnell, Jr., Pasadena,

Coccidæ--California Coccidæ exchanged for specimens from all parts of
the world. E. O. Essig, Secretary State Commission of Horticulture,
Sacramento, Cal.

Wanted--Cephalopods (in alcohol); Chitons (in alcohol or dry); shells
of West American Mollusca; zoological literature. Offered: West
American and other molluscan shells; zoological pamphlets, mainly on
the Mollusca. S. S. Berry, 502 Cajon St., Redlands, California.

California Syrphidæ, Aphididæ to exchange for non-California Syrphidæ.
W. M. Davidson, Walnut Creek, Cal.

Wanted--For exchange, papers on marine and fresh-water Protozoa. Albert
L. Barrows, Department of Zoology, University of California, Berkeley,

Wanted--Information on any mite-papers for sale or exchange that have
an economic bearing. H. V. M. Hall, Room 8, Court House, San Diego, Cal.

Wanted--Specimens and separates relating to the pseudoscorpions, in
exchange for local species. M. Moles, Claremont, Cal.

Wanted--Literature and determined specimens of Collembola, in exchange
for local forms and literature. G. Bacon, Claremont, Cal.

Wanted--Determined specimens of Thysanura in exchange for local
species. R. Gardner, Claremont, Cal.

Wanted--Separates relating to the nervous system and sense organs of
the invertebrates in exchange for reprints by a number of authors on
this and other topics relating to the anatomy of invertebrate animals.
W. A. Hilton, Claremont, Cal.

Tabanidæ from all parts of North America to exchange for Tabanidæ from
the Western United States and Mexico and Central America. Jas. G. Hine,
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Sarcophagidæ from all parts of the world bought or exchanged, according
to arrangement. North American material determined. R. R. Parker, Ent.
Lab., Mass. Agri. College, Amherst, Mass.


       Journal of Entomology and Zoology--_Advertising Section_


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  Founded 1862                                    Incorporated 1890

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Address: =Ward's Natural Science Establishment=, 84-102 College Ave.,
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This work aims to give help to everyone who uses the microscope,
whether he is a beginner or an advanced worker.

_Comstock_----A Manual for the Study of Insects

  By JOHN HENRY COMSTOCK, Professor of Entomology in Cornell
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  the text, and six full page plates. Nearly all of the figures were
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This handbook is designed to meet the needs of teachers in the public
schools and of students in high schools and colleges.

_Needham_----General Biology

A book of outlines and practical studies for the general student

  By JAMES G. NEEDHAM, Professor of Limnology and General Biology in
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This book is expressly designed to help the general student obtain a
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  By ANNA BOTSFORD COMSTOCK, Lecturer in Nature-Study in Cornell
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  illustrations. Prices, postpaid: Bound in one volume, $3.65; bound in
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A handbook of Nature-Study for teachers and parents, based on the
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                         1135 Newberne Avenue

                       RALEIGH, N. C., U. S. A.

  Twenty-one years' experience      Price List on Application


                          Entomological News

   A forty-eight page illustrated magazine, published monthly except
      August and September, devoted to the study of INSECT LIFE.
            It contains a list of the titles of the current
            Entomological Literature, and also articles by
            the leading Entomologists in the United States
               and Canada. Valuable information for the
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                _Illustrated Catalogues on Application_


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                       Laguna Marine Laboratory

                          SUMMER SCHOOL 1915

               _The following Courses will be offered_:

  GENERAL BIOLOGY, an introductory course.

  GENERAL ZOOLOGY, a study of the chief animal groups, with special
  reference to marine forms.

  ENTOMOLOGY, a special study of insects, their structure, life
  histories and relationships.

In addition to these, special work in microscopic technique,
embryology, or special zoology may be given to those who are prepared.

Teachers and others are urged to come and spend the Summer with us.

A limited number of private laboratories will be available for special

  For further information address W. A. HILTON, Department of Zoology
                 Pomona College, Claremont, California


Pomona College

Located in one of the most healthful and beautiful parts of the west
coast. The mountains reach an elevation of ten thousand feet within a
few miles of the college and these with the nearby ocean afford many
special advantages for the study of things not in books. The college is
a small one of the New England type with high standards of scholarship.
A large proportion of the graduates go on with advanced work in the
large universities. In addition, well-manned departments of music and
art afford exceptional advantages.

For further information, address

  Secretary of Pomona College
  Claremont, California

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber Note

The "Index to Volume VI", lists Entomobryidæ without a page reference.
This Family may be in a different Number than the current text.

On page 222, the word "pereiod" may be a typo for "pereiopod".

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Journal of Entomology and Zoology: Volume 6, Number 4, December 1914" ***

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