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Title: Chambers's Journal of Popular Literature, Science, and Art, No. 702 - June 9, 1877
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chambers's Journal of Popular Literature, Science, and Art, No. 702 - June 9, 1877" ***

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[Illustration:

CHAMBERS'S JOURNAL

OF

POPULAR

LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND ART.

Fourth Series

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS.

NO. 702.      SATURDAY, JUNE 9, 1877.      PRICE 1½_d._]



THE BOARDING-OUT SYSTEM.


Forty years ago or thereabouts, we happened to make a visit to
an hospital for pauper orphan children in a large city. It was
a dismal spectacle. The little creatures, seated on forms, and
dressed in a poor garb, had a woe-begone appearance. Their faces
were pallid, and a number of them had sore eyes. The sentiment
which arose in our mind was that the whole affair was unnatural,
and morally and physically unwholesome. Here was a spacious mansion
kept up for the accommodation of some hundreds of poor children
whom destiny had deprived of their parents. Treated well, as it was
thought, according to regulations, they were evidently unhappy, and
pined for that species of freedom which is only to be obtained by
children brought up within the domestic circle.

Since that time, so far as Scotland is concerned, there has
been a considerable revolution in the matter of juvenile pauper
management. The plan of immuring a horde of orphan pauper children
in large buildings under the charge of nurses and teachers is
pretty generally abandoned, not so much on the score of economy
as of common-sense. Nature has clearly ordained that children are
to be reared, instructed, and familiarised with the world under
the direct charge and responsibility of their parents. That has
been the way since the beginning, and it will be so till the end
of time. The family system is the foundation of everything that is
valued in our institutions. Our whole structure of society rests
on it. Any attempt to rear children artificially on a wholesale
principle, is necessarily defective, will prove abortive, and be
attended, one way and another, with bad effects.

Unfortunately there are exceptions to a sweeping rule. There can
be no family system where parents are removed by death, or what is
more dreadful, where the parents are so grossly dissolute as to
be unfitted for their appropriate duties. In either case arises
the question as to what is to be done with children who are so
haplessly thrown on public charity. An answer to this brings us
to the root of the matter. If at all possible, we must find
foster-parents who will do the duty of real ones to the children
assigned under proper precautions to their custody. We are aware
that this may not be always practicable, and where it is not,
the grouping of children in some kind of asylum must still be
perpetuated. Some countries appear to be more favourable than
others to the plan of boarding out children with foster-parents.
For the plan to have a chance of success, there must be a prevalent
intelligence, with a sense of moral responsibilities, and that
special condition as concerns means of livelihood which would
induce a family to board a child alien to them in name and birth.

In certain parts of Scotland, the plan of boarding out pauper
children has been so peculiarly successful, that we purpose to give
some account of it. The children so treated are not all orphans;
some are children deserted by worthless parents; some are the
children of sick, infirm, or lunatic parents; some are the children
of parents who are in prison or are convicts. In all cases, deep
considerations of humanity have guided the poor-law authorities in
dealing with them. Throughout Scotland at 1st January 1875, the
number of pauper children boarded out was 4512, among whom there
was nearly an equality of boys and girls. The cost of each did not
exceed ten pounds per annum; that is to say, for the sum of about
four shillings a week a child is respectably brought up in the
house of a foster-parent. This sum covers cost of bed and board,
school fees, and extras of all kinds. The child participates in the
ordinary meals of the family; it goes to the nearest school with
its companions, plays about with them, and acquires a knowledge
of country life along with a love of natural scenery. Instead
of being confined in a dull mansion under a dismal routine of
discipline, with the chance of acquiring bad or at least narrow
notions, the boarded-out child grows up a stout country lad or
lass, and is endued with such general intelligence as is likely to
pertain to the class amidst whom he or she moves. By these means,
the boarded-out pauper children cease to be paupers. Forgetting
their unfortunate origin, they drop insensibly into the general
population. The catastrophe of orphanism or deserted infancy is
robbed of its horrors. Surely, this must be deemed one of the
greatest triumphs of humanity.

Of course, the thing could not be done unless under a scrupulous
system of management and general supervision. The parochial board,
with whom rests the administration, needs to exercise the greatest
vigilance in selecting families to whom children may be assigned.
Agricultural labourers and small shopkeepers in country villages
are, we believe, considered to be eligible, should character and
everything else bear investigation. Nor, though boarded out, are
the children lost sight of by the poor-law authorities. They are
subject to the visits of Inspectors, who report on their condition.
In a number of cases, the children are boarded with relatives, who
may be supposed to take some special interest in them, and are not
disinclined to accept a lesser board than would have to be paid
to strangers. Yet the parochial boards do not appear to view with
favour the practice of boarding children with relatives who are
perhaps aged and infirm, or are in receipt of parochial relief on
their own account. The person thoroughly suitable should be in
middle life, engaged in active duties, and fit to act the part of
a foster-parent. For the success of his endeavours he should be
aided in every reasonable way. The child put under his charge must
not wear clothes bearing the pauper stamp, but be dressed like
the other children in the place. An Inspector reports on the good
effects produced by the removal of pauper uniform. 'The hang-dog
look of pauperism gradually disappeared from the faces of the
children--they saw themselves treated as other children, and soon
became as others.'

In the Reports of the Inspectors generally, we have many pleasing
instances of the social value of the boarding-out system. The
significant fact strongly brought out is that the children do not
return to pauperism. 'When they leave school, the boys learn trades
or become farm-servants, and the girls go to service like other
country girls, and many of them get respectably married. When the
children go to service, the family relationship is still kept up,
and they return to their foster-parents as other children do to
their homes, bringing at term-times, when they get their wages,
presents of tea and sugar, articles of clothing, and other tokens
of affectionate regard.' We learn that in some cases the children
adopt the name of the family with whom they are boarded, and as
a rule they are not distinguishable from the younger members of
the family. Did our space permit, many valuable particulars could
be added. Those who take an interest in this important question
in social economics may be referred to an able and handy digest,
'Pauperism and the Boarding-out of Pauper Children in Scotland, by
John Skelton, Advocate' (Blackwood and Sons, 1877). The system, it
is to be observed, bears no resemblance to that vicious practice
of farming-out children, which has been productive of so much
demoralisation and infant mortality. In the boarding-out of
pauper children as described in the work of Mr Skelton, and now
very general in Scotland, the care that is taken in selecting
foster-parents, and the constant supervision to which they are
subjected, give to the system its peculiar value. Whether such
a system would be applicable to all parts of the United Kingdom
is perhaps doubtful. It is at any rate important to know that in
Scotland it has been eminently successful, and is the theme of
praise by authorities on the subject. The Inspector of the poor of
Glasgow tells us that it has been in use in that city for upwards
of a hundred years. How suggestive is this remarkable fact--how
curious to find that in this as in some other valued public
institutions, a thing may flourish and be spoken of approvingly for
upwards of a century in one end of Great Britain, and yet be hardly
known in another, or if known, be only treated with scepticism and
indifference.

    W. C.



THE LAST OF THE HADDONS.

CHAPTER XXVII.--PHILIP.


I arrived at the Grayleigh Station about seven o'clock in the
evening, and walked slowly and enjoyably across the fields,
altogether forgetting my dress-troubles as I watched the effects
of the red sunset, a more than usually beautiful one. 'I must
treat myself to just one look at the dear old beeches, in this
light,' I murmured; forgetting fatigue and every other discomfort
as I turned from the stile and went down the lane towards the
woods. I was standing in mute contemplation of the sunset effects
upon the different trees. The air was calm and still; not a leaf
moved, as the sunlight stole amongst the majestic trees, crowning
one, and robing another from head to foot with its red glory. I
was accepting the rebuke with bowed head and clasped hands, when
suddenly a sweet, low, girlish laugh--Lilian's laugh--rang out in
the stillness, near me.

'There! I told you how it would be. I am not artist enough for
that!'

'Try again,' returned a man's voice, clear and strong and in its
way as musical as her own.

Whose voice--whose? For a moment I felt as though I were transfixed
to the spot where I stood; then with trembling hands, softly parted
the thickly covered branches which intervened between me and the
speakers. Philip! My heart had already told me that it was he; and
one swift glance shewed me that it was the Philip of my dreams--so
improved as to bear only an ideal resemblance to the boy-lover I
had parted with. He had developed grandly during the nine years
we had been separated. Taller and larger in figure, his handsome
bronzed face adorned with an auburn beard, whilst his gray eyes
retained their old frank kindliness of expression, he looked the
personification of manly strength, physical and mental.

Impulsively I advanced a step or two, then shyly and nervously
shrank back again, clinging to the low outspreading branches of
the tree. Presently, when my foolish heart did not beat quite so
wildly--presently.

'Yes; that is better. Now a few bold strokes athwart the horizon.
Have you not a coarser brush?'

'Yes. I will run in and fetch one.'

'Cannot I, Miss Maitland? Allow me.'

'O no; auntie could not tell you where to find it.' And away she
ran, in the opposite direction to where I stood.

Without a moment's pause, in my anxiety for our meeting to take
place whilst he and I were alone, I stepped hastily forward. He was
examining Lilian's drawing, when he caught the sound of my footstep
and looked up. His eyes met mine--ah Philip! ah me!--with the grave
calm gaze of a stranger!

I stood utterly powerless to move or speak; and perhaps I looked
more than ever unlike my past self in that moment of bitter
anguish. But suddenly the truth flashed upon him.

'Great heavens--_Mary!_' he ejaculated, catching me in his arms as
I swayed towards him.

I was still speechless; and looking down into my face, he added
gently, it seemed to me sorrowfully: 'My poor Mary!'

'Am I so changed as that, Philip?' I murmured in a low broken voice.

'I--I fear you have gone through more than you would allow me to
know about,' he replied, reddening. Adding a little confusedly:
'How was it that I did not find you at home, Mary?'

'I did not expect you quite so soon as this,' I stammered out quite
as confusedly. 'You said a month or six weeks, and it is only three
weeks since I received your letter.'

'I--found myself free sooner than I expected; and of course set
my face homewards at once. I arrived at Liverpool last evening,
and travelled all night, in order to be here in good time in the
morning.'

'Did you get here this morning?'

'Yes; you had only left half an hour or so when I arrived. I should
have met you, they told me, had I not taken the wrong turning from
the stile.'

'Had--you a pleasant voyage?' I asked, terribly conscious that this
was not the kind of talk which might be expected between him and me
at such a moment.

I think he was conscious of this also. He stood a moment without
replying, then every line in his face seemed to grow set and firm,
and he said gravely: 'How is it that your friends here do not know
that I have come to claim my wife, Mary?'

'I put off telling them from time to time,' I replied in a low
voice; 'but I fully intended telling them this evening.'

'Let us go in at once,' he said hurriedly.

He drew my hand under his arm, keeping it firmly clasped in his
own, and we went silently towards the cottage. Lilian was turning
over the contents of a box in search of the brush she wanted,
and Mrs Tipper was nodding over her knitting, fatigued with her
day's exertion. Neither saw us approach, and both looked up with
astonished eyes when we entered the room; and without a moment's
pause, Philip introduced me to them as his promised wife.

'We have been engaged for the last ten years,' he said hurriedly,
'and I have just been taking Mary to task for not having told you
so.'

'Dear Mary, dear sister, when you ought to have known how much good
it would have done us to know!' said Lilian with tender reproach.

'Better late than never, my dear,' cheerfully put in dear old Mrs
Tipper, eyeing me rather anxiously, I fancied.

The ground seemed to be slipping from beneath my feet and
everything whirling round. I suppose I was looking very white
and ill, for Philip gently placed me on the couch, and Lilian
knelt by my side, murmuring tender words of love, as she chafed
my hands, whilst Mrs Tipper was bending anxiously over me with
smelling-salts, &c. But I shook my head, and tried to smile into
their anxious faces, as I said: 'I am not given to fainting, you
know--only a little tired.'

'The truth is, you have sacrificed yourself for us all this time,
and it is now beginning to tell upon you!' said Lilian. Turning
towards Philip, she added: 'We have all needed her so much, and she
has been so true a friend to us in our time of trouble, that she
has forgotten herself, Mr Dallas.'

He murmured something to the effect that he could quite understand
my doing that.

'But of course it will all be very different now,' said Lilian. 'It
will be our turn; and we must try what we can do to pay back some
of the debt we owe to her.--Now, don't look fierce, Mary; it's not
the least use, for petted you will have to be.'

'Then I am afraid fierce I shall remain,' I replied, trying to
speak lightly.

'That is more like yourself, dear. You are feeling better now, are
you not?' asked Lilian.

'O yes, quite well; only a little tired from walking farther than I
need have done,' was my reply.

'To think of my talking "Mary" to you all day without knowing you
were more than friends!' said Lilian, looking up smilingly into
Philip's face. 'I know now why you bore the waiting so patiently,
and why we got on so well together.--I felt at home with Mr Dallas
at once, Mary. I think we both felt that we two ought to be
friends.--Did we not?'

He bowed assent.

'And you must please try to like me more than an ordinary friend,
Mr Dallas, or I shall be jealous. Mary is my sister, you know, or
at least you will know by-and-by; and we cannot be separated for
very long; so you must be considerate.'

'Philip knows more about you than you do about him, Lilian,' I put
in.

'I am glad he knows about me, of course, Mary; but it will take a
little time to quite forgive your reticence about him.--Will it
not, auntie?'

'Auntie' thought that forgiveness might just as well come soon
as late, in her simple placid way. Then, to my great relief, a
diversion was caused by tea being brought in. If Philip had not won
the heart of his dear little hostess before, he would have won it
now by his hearty appreciation of the good things set before him.
I quite understood why, for the first time since Becky had been
at the cottage, her mistress had some cause to complain of her
awkwardness. Becky's whole attention was concentrated upon Philip;
and she placed things on the table in a somewhat hap-hazard
fashion, gazing at him the while with curious speculative eyes.

Afterwards they commenced asking Philip questions about his voyage
and so forth; and the conversation became less personal. He gave
us an amusing account of his passage, humorously describing the
peculiarities of life on board ship. Then as night drew on, Mrs
Tipper very earnestly pressed the hospitalities of the cottage upon
him. Of course he would be her guest--a room was already prepared,
and she knew that she need not apologise to him for its homeliness.
She had, I found, arranged to give up her own room for his use, and
share Lilian's. But he explained that he was going back to an hotel
in town, having arranged to stay there for the present.

'I am afraid I shall very frequently trespass upon your kindness
nevertheless, Mrs Tipper. You will only get rid of me by giving up
Mary, now.'

At which Lilian laughingly replied, _that_ would be paying too
dearly for getting rid of him. 'The better way would be to put up
with you, for Mary's sake, and so secure you both.'

In truth, Lilian was a great deal more cheerful, I might say merry,
than I had seen her for many a long day, in her unselfish rejoicing
over my happiness. And the sweet, girlish, modest freedom--the
freedom which is so diametrically opposite to fastness--of her
manner with Philip, was so pleasant to witness! It was the kind
of playfulness which is so charming in a sister towards an elder
brother, and which so well became her.

When at length Philip was obliged to take his departure, in order
to catch the last up-train from Graybrook, he bade me, in the
matter-of-course way which seems so delightful in those we love:
'Come out and set me on my way, Mary; just as far as the stile, if
you feel rested enough.'

Yes; of course I felt rested enough. I went out with him into
the starlit lanes, walking silently on by his side, happy in the
belief that _his_ thoughts also were too deep for words. How could
words express _my_ proud humility--the deep tender joy--the love
half-afraid of its own strength which I felt! Would he _ever_
know the heights and depths of my love? Would a lifetime be long
enough to express it? With it all, I was conscious of a shyness
and awkwardness of manner, born of the indescribable feeling which
accompanies, and gives a tinge of pathos to, great happiness in
some minds. What was I, to be so blessed? What other women find
their ideal fall short of the reality, as I was doing? Noble and
true as I knew him to be, I had not hitherto, I think, sufficiently
appreciated the geniality of Philip's temperament and his keen
sense of humour. I do not know whether it was more noticeable
in contrast with Robert Wentworth, who certainly impressed one
with the idea that he was older than he was; whilst Philip seemed
younger than his age. His fine physique too. How very handsome he
was, in the best way, and how grandly careless about it! The most
cynical observer could not have detected the slightest trace of
conceit or self-consciousness in his tone or bearing. In fine,
his was the rare combination of physical and mental power. Whilst
he possessed the _gaieté de cœur_ almost of a boy, an appeal to
his intellect would call forth the cool vigorous reasoning of a
well-informed thinker.

He had won his way to wealth by dint of intelligence, persistence,
and temperate living, in a climate which gives some excuse for, if
it does not foster, all kinds of excess, and returned strong in
mind and body to reap the fruits of his labour. Moreover, he had
not been tempted to continue accumulating wealth for its own sake,
nor acquired the huxtering spirit which self-made men so frequently
do acquire.

'I think I must not go any farther, Philip,' I said, as we reached
the stile. 'You have only to cross the two fields, and turn to the
right when you get into the road--that leads direct to the station.'

For a moment he made no reply, and something, I hardly knew what,
brought vividly back to my mind the remembrance of another who had
stood there on such a night as this, silent beneath the stars--a
remembrance which struck upon my happiness as might a sudden
sword-thrust upon an enraptured dreamer.

He gathered my hands into his own, and looking down into my face,
said in a low earnest voice: 'There can be no necessity for delay
between you and me, Mary. When will you let me take you away from
here?'

'Take me away from here?' I repeated, rather startled by the
suddenness of the proposal.

'I mean, when will you marry me, Mary?'

'We will talk about that by-and-by,' I replied, overwhelmed with
happiness again, yet afraid lest I might shew it more plainly than
it is womanly to do if I said more.

'Why should there be any delay between you and me? I--beg of
you not to make any unnecessary delay, Mary. You ought to have
been my wife long ago. I know you would prefer a quiet wedding,
and--afterwards--wouldn't you like to travel a few months before
settling down? You used to have a fancy for seeing some of the old
continental towns.'

I could only whisper that it would be very delightful--with
him--lowering my head until my cheek rested upon his hand. Then to
keep my reeling senses firm, I looked up into his face and made a
little attempt at a jest about his not knowing me when first we met.

'Only for a second,' he replied. And even in that light I could
see that his colour was heightened. He looked pained too; and I
certainly had not meant to pain him. Amongst my failings was not
that of the desire to be always trying little wiles to test those
I love, as we women are sometimes accused of doing. I had used the
words solely in jest and to steady myself.

'Only for a second,' he repeated; adding gently, 'and we will soon
have you blooming again, Mary.'

Blooming again! I caught in my breath with a little half-sob. Then
making a strong effort, telling myself that I must and would behave
better than a love-sick hysterical girl, I lightly replied: 'What
if my blooming days are over, Philip?'

He bent lower down, to get a better look into my face, as he said:
'Nonsense! What makes you talk in that strain? It is not fair to
me.' Then he added more gravely: 'You have always told me that your
friends here are real ones, Mary; and they seem to be very much
attached to you. It was very pleasant to hear them talk of you in
your absence.'

'They are everything and more than I have described them to be,
Philip. Mrs Tipper has been like a dear old mother to me; and
Lilian--the best and truest thing I can say about Lilian is, that
she is what she looks. No one could be mistaken about Lilian. Hers
is the kind of loveliness which takes its expression from the mind.'

'Yes; it is just that. The fellow who could not appreciate her
deserves to lose her.' I had given him an account of Lilian's
troubles in my letters; indeed he was well acquainted with all that
was connected with my life at Fairview. 'I only regret that I was
not in England at the time. I suppose it is too late now for'----

'It is too late for any kind of intervention now; but if vengeance
is in your thoughts, you may rest content. It will be, I think,
quite punishment enough to be the husband of the girl he has
married, with the remembrance of Lilian. He certainly loved Lilian.'

'Ah, that is something! When were they married?'

'About three weeks ago,' I told him. And then we got talking over
the Farrar history, until the chiming of a distant clock reminded
us that he had but twenty minutes in which to reach the railway
station, in order to catch the last up-train.

'I shall do it!' he ejaculated; and with a parting word and hurried
kiss he vaulted over the stile, and ran across the field, turning
once on the way to wave his hand to me.



SUBMARINE CABLES.

LAYING.


Before the days of steam-ships it would have been almost if not
quite impracticable to lay ocean cables; for in order to do so with
accuracy and success, it is necessary to be independent of wind
and weather as far as possible. The course and speed of the ship
must be under the control of the navigator, not at the mercy of the
winds and currents, so that he may economise cable, and prevent
undue strain upon it as the depth varies. Then too it is necessary
that the ship should answer swiftly and surely to his will; that
she should vary her speed, stop, or turn round, as promptly as
he desires. The telegraph-ship is the helot of her cargo, and
should be completely subservient to the work of laying the cable.
A well-found steam-ship answers all requirements. Up till a few
years ago no specially built telegraph-ship existed. The majority
of cables have been laid from ordinary iron screw-steamers, fitted
with tanks to contain the cable and paying-out gear. Recently,
however, the steam-ships _Hooper_ and _Faraday_ (the first
belonging to Messrs Hooper, the other to Messrs Siemens) were
specially constructed as telegraph-ships for their respective
owners. These vessels are very much on a par in size and carrying
capacity. The _Faraday_ is a ship of five thousand tons burden,
and capable of carrying fifteen hundred miles of main or deep-sea
cable. She is fitted with screws both fore and aft, so that her
motion can be reversed without turning her in the water. She can
thus, without changing her position, begin hauling in a cable
which she had previously been paying out. Both of these ships are
fitted with three large iron water-tight tanks for containing the
cable--one fore, one amidships, and one aft. The depth of these
tanks varies from thirty to forty-five feet, and they are upwards
of fifty feet in diameter. The _Hooper_ has laid the Brazilian
coast cables, and the _Faraday_ the Direct United States Atlantic
cable. Besides the tanks for holding the cable, the only other
peculiarities of a cable-ship, as distinct from other steamers, are
the heavy deck machinery for paying out the cable and for picking
it up if necessary; the electrical testing-room; and the stock of
large iron buoys she carries lashed to her gunwales for use in
laying.

The cable-ship having been moored alongside the works where the
cable is stored, shipment begins. The cable presents three aspects
of increasing thickness, namely the shore-end, intermediate, and
main; and thus graduated it is payed out of the tanks in the works
into the tanks of the ship. When all is aboard, the tanks are
filled with salt-water till the cable is soaked, and the ship puts
to sea.

During her voyage to the place from which she is to start laying,
electrical tests are taken daily of the cables on board, to see
that they continue sound, and the machinery for laying is got
ready. The souls on board may be divided into three classes.
The _engineers_, or those in charge of the mechanical work of
the laying, and their helps 'the cable-hands,' who do the rough
work in the tanks and on deck, or in putting out buoys from the
ship. The _electricians_, or those in charge of the electrical
work of the laying, whose duty it is to see that the cable is all
right electrically. The _navigators_, or those in charge of the
sailing of the ship, including captain, officers, and seamen. The
engineer-in-chief is generally the head of the entire expedition;
he requires reports from the chief electrician, and instructs the
captain where to put the ship.

Before laying a submarine cable between the proposed places it is
extremely important to take soundings and otherwise survey the
ocean, so as to determine the exact route the cable should take. A
cable is too costly to be flung away anywhere on the sea-bottom,
and the sea-bottom is sometimes of a very unfavourable character.
It may be said that too little attention has hitherto been paid
to this point in cable-_laying_. Expensive cables have been
manufactured at home, with their relative lengths of shore-end,
intermediate, and main determined by formula or usage, and then hid
away in seas whose character had been largely taken for granted;
the consequence being that weighty and very costly shore-end has
been deposited in mud soft as butter where it would be out of
harm's way; while unprotected main has been laid along the jagged
surface of coral reefs. The depth and nature of the bottom, the
strength and direction of currents, the temperature at the bottom,
should all be ascertained beforehand by a special ship appointed
to survey the proposed track of the cable. The best route for the
cable is then laid down on the charts, as a guide to the navigator
and engineers engaged in the laying.

Great improvements have recently been made in the method of taking
deep-sea soundings. The ordinary plan is to carry the lead-line (a
strong line or small rope of fine tanned Manilla yarn) from the
stern along the ship's side to the bows, and there drop the lead
into the sea. As it sinks the rope runs out off the drum on which
it is coiled, and when the lead strikes bottom the running ceases.
The introduction of fine steel pianoforte-wire for the rope, by Sir
William Thomson, is a great improvement upon this clumsy method.
The wire sinks quickly through the water, and is pulled in again
with a very great saving of time and labour. But the most ingenious
of all contrivances for finding the depth of the sea is Siemen's
Bathometer, a very recent invention. The bathometer simply stands
in the captain's cabin like a barometer, and indicates the depth
of the sea over which the ship is passing, just as a barometer
indicates the height of the atmosphere above. The action of this
ingenious contrivance depends on the attraction of the earth on a
column of mercury. This attraction is proportional to the earth's
density, and the relative distance of its crust from the mercury
column. Earth being denser than water, exercises a greater downward
attraction on the mercury. If then there are say a hundred fathoms
of water just under the mercury instead of a hundred fathoms of
earth or rock, there will be less downward attraction on it. Taking
advantage of this law, the mercury column is adjusted so as to
indicate the power of the attraction and give the depth of water it
corresponds to.

Arrived at the place from which the cable is to be laid, the first
thing done is the laying of the shore-end from the ship at her
anchorage to the cable-hut on the beach. The cable-hut is generally
a small erection of galvanised iron or stone and lime to contain
the end of the cable and a few instruments. Cables are never if
possible landed in harbours, or where there is danger from anchors.
A suitable retired cove is generally selected, not far distant
from the town where the telegraph office is, and a short land-line
connects the end of the cable to the office. In the cable-hut the
land-line and cable meet and are connected together.

The distance from the ship to the cable-hut is accurately measured
by the ship's boats or steam-launch, so as to fix the amount of
shore-end necessary to reach the shore. This is then coiled in a
flat barge or raft, and payed out by hand as the launch tugs the
raft ashore. When the water becomes too shallow for the raft to
float, the men jump into the water and drag the heavy end ashore. A
trench has been cut in the beach up to the cable-hut, and into this
the end is laid. In a few moments a test from the cable-hut to the
ship announces that the shore-end is successfully fixed.

Everything is now ready for the ship to begin paying out. The
anchor has been got up; the paying-out gear is all in working
order; the men are all at their appointed places. The cable is
being held fast at the ship's stern, and the running out by its own
weight is prevented. But directly all are aboard again, the word is
given, the screw revolves, the cable is let go at the stern, and
the real work of paying out begins.

The cable passes from the tank to the stern of the ship, and from
thence to the bottom of the sea. The weight of that part which
hangs in the water between the ship and the bottom pulls it out of
the ship as the latter moves along. If the ship were stationary,
still the cable would run out, but then it would simply coil or
kink itself up on the bottom. The object is, however, to lay
it evenly along the bottom, neither too tight nor too slack, so
as at once to economise cable, and to allow of its being easily
hooked and hauled up again from the bottom without breaking from
over-tightness. The speed of the ship has therefore to be adjusted
to the rate at which the cable runs out. It should be a little
under the rate of the paying out, so that there is a slight excess
of cable for the distance travelled over. Now the rate at which
the cable runs out from the ship is greater, the greater the
depth; therefore the speed of the ship must be varied as the depth
changes. The rate at which the cable runs out, however, is not
entirely dependent on the depth. It can be controlled on board by
mechanism. The cable can be held back against the force pulling
it overboard. But there is a limit to the extent to which it may
be held back, and the tension on it must not be so great as to
overstrain it. It is necessary, therefore, to know what tension
there is on the cable at any time. To achieve this, two apparatus
are used: the friction brake (for holding the cable back) and the
dynamometer (for indicating its tension).

The cable is made to run cleanly out of the tank by being
allowed to escape through a funnel-shaped iron framework called
a 'crinoline.' This prevents it from lashing about or flying off
as the ship rolls. It then passes over pulleys to the paying-out
drum, round which it is passed several times. The paying-out drum
is controlled by an Appold's friction brake, which is simply a
belt or strap of iron with blocks of wood studded to it clasping
the periphery of the drum and restraining its revolution by the
friction of the wooden blocks. The tighter the belt is made to
clasp the drum, the greater the friction on the drum, and the
greater the force required to make it revolve. After passing
several times round the drum, so as to get a good hold of it, the
cable passes through the dynamometer to the sheave or grooved
pulley projecting from the stern, and from thence it passes to the
water. The dynamometer is simply a 'jockey pulley' riding on the
cable; that is to say the cable is made to support a pulley of a
certain weight; and according as the tension on the cable, due to
the weight of cable in the water, is greater or less, so will the
weight of this jockey pulley supported by the cable cause the cable
to bend less or more. Although this jockey pulley is the essential
part of the dynamometer, there are three pulleys altogether, two
fixed pulleys at the same level, with the riding pulley between.
The cable passes _over_ both the fixed pulleys and _under_ the
riding pulley. The weight of the latter bends the cable into a V
shape; and as explained above, the depth of this V is greater as
the tension on the cable is less. In short the tension of the cable
can be told from the depth of the V, which is therefore graduated
into a scale of tensions.

By regulating the friction on the brake the cable can be held back,
under restrictions of tension indicated by the dynamometer, and the
speed of the ship adjusted to give the proper percentage of slack.
Sixteen per cent. for a depth of two thousand fathoms is a usual
allowance. The slack should vary with the depth, because of the
possibility of having to hook the cable and raise it up from the
bottom to the surface to repair it. The revolutions of the drum,
the tension on the cable, the number of turns of the ship's screw,
are constantly observed night and day as the laying goes on.

In the electrical testing-room the same watchful activity prevails.
A continuous test is kept applied to the cable, to see that its
insulating power keeps steady; in other words, to detect any
'fault' that may occur in the cable which is being laid. This
is done by charging the cable throughout, from the end on board
the ship to the end left behind in the cable-hut, with a current
of electricity, and observing on a galvanometer (an instrument
described in a recent paper) the amount of electricity which
leaks through the gutta-percha from the copper wire inside to
the sea-water outside. To shew that the copper wire too keeps
continuous from ship to shore, a pulse of electricity is sent
along the cable at stated intervals, usually every five minutes.
This is either sent from the ship to the cable-hut, or from the
cable-hut to the ship by the electricians left on duty there. The
_resistance_ too of the copper conductor is regularly taken at
times, to see whether the conductor remains intact; for the pulse
test only shews that it is continuous, and would not shew, for
instance, that it had been half broken through.

The navigators of the ship are meanwhile as busy as the rest on
board. It is important to keep the ship as nearly as possible up
to the prescribed course marked on the chart, and in any case to
determine accurately her place whatever it may be, so that the
precise position of the cable on the bottom may be known, in order
to facilitate future repairs, if necessary. Observations of the sun
and other heavenly bodies are therefore made as often as feasible,
and the navigation of the ship very carefully attended to.

If a fault should be reported from the testing-room, the engines
are at once reversed and the ship stopped. The length of cable
being payed out is cut in two within the ship, and that section
still on board is tested first. If the fault is found to be there,
a new length of cable is jointed on to the section in the sea, and
the laying is again proceeded with. If, however, the fault is in
the section already laid, special tests must be applied to locate
the fault. If it should be proved to be but a few miles from the
ship, she is 'put about;' the end of the section is taken to the
bows, where the picking-up gear is situated, and the cable is
hauled in slowly from the sea by the help of a steam-winch, the
ship going slowly back the way she has come as the cable comes on
board. This goes on until the fault is reached and cut out. If
the fault should be proved to be twenty or more miles away, the
end of the cable is buoyed, and the ship proceeds backward to the
locality of the fault. Here she grapples for the cable, hooks it,
and draws it up to the surface, where it is cut and the two parts
tested separately. The flaw is then cut out of the faulty part and
the cable made good. She then returns to her buoy, picks up the end
there, joints on the cable on board to be paid out, and continues
her voyage.

Arrived at her destination, the shore-end there is landed to its
cable-hut. A test taken from there and signals exchanged between
the two cable-huts proclaim the completion of her work. It only
remains to test the cable daily for a specified period, generally
thirty days; and if during this trial time it remains good and
sound, it passes into the hands of the Company for whose use it
has been laid, and is then employed for regular traffic and public
benefit. In a concluding article we will describe the _working_ of
submarine cables.



THE ROMANCE OF A LODGING.

IN TWO CHAPTERS.--CHAPTER II.


'Well, Fred, what will you say to all my sermons on extravagance,
when I tell you that I have actually taken the landlady's
first-floor rooms for a month; and that without any view to your
advantage, which has hitherto actuated my movements? You will say
it is only a preliminary step to my employing the artist--who by
the way is not an artist after all--to take my portrait!'

Thus did Mrs Arlington announce her plans next morning at breakfast
to Fred, who offered no remonstrance. It was enough for him that
she chose to do it; he was too well satisfied and accustomed to her
guidance and good sense not to fall in readily with everything she
did, as the best possible that could be done; and so he assented
without a remark.

'You don't scold me, Fred! I expected your reproaches; but they
will come later; you are too engrossed at the present moment with
the prospect of the examination before you to-day; but I have no
fear for you; so have none for yourself.'

'What will you do while I am away?'

'Stay where I am; study the pictures; read the backs of all the
books through the glass doors of the bookcase; and think what a
churl the owner is to have locked them up. And this amusement over,
I shall go in search of a piano; we cannot live for a whole month
without one; can we? So I shall order it to be sent on Wednesday
morning to our new quarters.'

'Suppose the "gentleman" unlocks his, and sets up an opposition
tune; the jumble of melodies will be the reverse of harmonious.'

'Possibly; but then, you phlegmatic youngster, you wouldn't keep me
without such a resource, for fear of an occasional discord! Let us
hope the gentleman in question will give place to the ladies, and
be amiable enough to listen without creating a discord; or he may
decamp altogether, if he does not approve of our performances.'

'But tell me what has put it into your head to stay a whole month
in London? I thought you said we had only funds for a week.'

'Well, my dear boy, it is just this: I have been thinking that
we may as well wait and hear the issue of the examination; as in
the event of your being among the successful candidates, of which
I have very little doubt, you would be ready to go to Sandhurst
without having to incur the double expense of the journey home and
back again. Besides, I should like to see the last of you before
I sink into my future oblivion, with no further call in the world
upon my time and attention beyond writing to you.'

'What nonsense you can talk, mother, when you once begin! I suppose
you expect me to believe you are one of the sort that is allowed to
go into oblivion. I bet you ten to one some fellow will be wanting
to marry you when I am at college!'

'Hush, Fred!' she said, with a solemnity of manner she well knew
how to assume, that effectually quenched any conversation the
subject of which she did not approve. 'It is time you started.'

'Forgive me; and good-bye,' he said, with a smile, as he prepared
to go.

Wishing him 'God-speed,' she saw him depart, and then rung for the
landlady.

'There is no difficulty, I hope, about the rooms?' she asked.

'None whatever, ma'am. I've told the lady; and they leave to-night.'

'Thank you. I wished to know positively before I ordered a piano.
I suppose there is no objection to my having one, since there is
another in the house?'

'None whatever, ma'am. Leastways Mr Meredith is mostly playing and
singing when he isn't reading or painting, or at his meals; so that
I am well accustomed to the sound by this time. I like it when he
plays lively music. But dear me, ma'am! there are times when his
spirits are low, or so I take it to be, and then he plays such
dreary doleful tunes, it is for all the world as bad as the Old
Hundred on them barrel-organs.'

'He is not married, then?'

'O my! no; not he; nor never likely to be,' she exclaimed,
repudiating the idea of losing her lucrative lodger under such
unfortunate circumstances. 'His man James says as how he once
painted that there lovely faced young creature to remind him that
women were one and all as false as---- I wouldn't like to offend
your ears, ma'am, by naming the unholy gentleman as he likens them
to; which I took to be no great compliment to myself, seeing I am
a woman as was never false to none, which is saying a good deal,
seeing how selfish and tiresome men are, as a rule, that it needs
us women to be born saints and angels to put up with them.'

'I am afraid I can't quite agree with you there,' said Mrs
Arlington, smiling. 'I rather think we give as much trouble as we
get, and a little more sometimes.'

       *       *       *       *       *

Wednesday morning saw her installed in the rooms above, which she
busied herself in arranging tastefully, with a view to making their
lengthened sojourn comfortable. Towards evening the piano came, and
she was just about to try it, when an unusual bustle below-stairs
announced the arrival of the gentleman, Mr Meredith. He was
evidently a person of consideration in the eyes of the household;
such hurrying to and fro and up and down to have everything as he
would like, had not before been experienced.

'Glad to see you home, sir,' said Mrs Griffiths, courtesying, and
beaming with pleasure.

'Thank you. Have the rooms been occupied?'

'Yes, sir.'

'I should say you ought rather to be sorry I have come, then.'

'Not at all, sir. I've been able to accommodate the lady up-stairs;
and right glad I was that she came when she did, for she has got no
troublesome hussy of a maid to come bothering about my kitchen.'

'The same old story, Mrs Griffiths!' he remarked, as he smiled
pleasantly at her inability to hide her ruling mania; 'and now
please let me have dinner as soon as you can, as I have an
engagement this evening.'

He walked round the room, placing his desk and other articles
he had brought with him in order; examined his pictures, to see
that they had not undergone ruthless treatment at the hands of
deputy-lodgers during his absence. After looking at them all he
paused opposite the portrait of the young girl, and exclaimed
mentally: 'Yes, there you are still, heartless mocker! just as you
looked when you defied me and flung back my love in scorn. And
yet--and yet--perhaps had I but been a little gentler, I might have
softened you!' he cried in remorseful thought as he turned away;
and the look of genuine regret he wore shewed how deep had been
the wound that had the power still to call up a thrill of pain.
'Yes, I tried to break her proud spirit and make it subservient to
mine, and I broke my heart instead! She was but young; I ought to
have known better; but I was hard and determined, and could brook
no opposition to my will. I had studied life, and established my
views on most points, until I grew intolerant--a disease natural
to culture as well as creed--and could ill bear to have my opinion
questioned, especially by those who aspired to my friendship or
affection: it interfered with my visions of harmony. Harmony! It
was but a monotonous dreary unison I was cultivating, to foster my
intense self-love. Bitter delusion! And from her, above all others,
I demanded a slavish bending of her will to mine. I was jealous of
her possessing an individuality or free right of being or thought
apart from me. I was not content with her affection; I wanted
her blind worship. No wonder her proud spirit revolted at such a
prospect of bondage, and flung me and my love far from me. She was
wise and right, and I was too headstrong to humble myself to sue
for her forgiveness, or seek to win her by a nobler course. My
heart was a flint, which it needed _her_ loss to soften, for I have
never seen another like my darling! Yes, my poor girl, I was unjust
and cruel, and Providence was kind to you in rousing you to resist!'

In such a strain did his thoughts run, as he sat waiting for
dinner, of which he partook in no very elated mood. When the spirit
wanders in the sad lone land of irreparable regret, and surveys
with the light of experience how different all _might_ have been,
had our hearts and wills been differently tuned to action, it is
then our footsteps linger, painfully borne down by a weight, well
nigh fatal to that courage which bids us bury our dead out of
sight, and wander no more amid the graves of the past, but live
afresh in the light of a new and better day, with high hope and
stern resolve.

Something of this he had done, but not all, for the torment of
self-reproach was at times powerful to waste his endeavours in
fruitless action or torpid reverie. He was about to sink into the
latter at the close of dinner, as, left alone with his coffee and
cigar, he sat meditating on the past which he had invoked, when
he was startled by the sound of music and the strains of a melody
which seemed to float to him across the distant years, and reawaken
his heart's sweetest and bitterest memories. Ah! how well he
remembered it. It was one he had written and composed for _her_ of
whom he had been thinking; and when she sang it to him, he could
scarce restrain his tears; but there came a little 'rift within
the lute' one day, that soon 'made all the music mute.' Some
slight alteration that she had asked for, jarred upon his sense of
its perfection--and his own--and he refused half haughtily, which
she resented; words succeeded words, until that was said which
could never be forgiven or undone; and then she asked to have her
freedom back, and he gave it: yes, he gave it! and had never seen
or heard of her after, until now--he hears the echo of the melody;
but the voice--'Can that voice be hers?' he cries passionately.
Starting up in his chair he listens, with every nerve vibrating to
the sound, until it is finished. 'My own song!' he exclaims aloud;
and then he rings the bell nervously and summons the landlady. 'Who
is your new lodger?' he inquires with assumed calmness.

'Mrs Arlington, sir.'

'Arlington? Arlington?' he mutters. 'Never heard of her. What is
she like?'

'A tall sweet-looking lady, sir: I was that taken with I hadn't it
in my heart to turn her from the door the night she come here; so I
gave her your rooms for a couple of days, for her son and herself.'

'Son! did you say? How old?'

'About sixteen, I should reckon: he has come up for his
examinations.'

'No; it is not she,' he thought sadly; 'she could never have had
a son so old. But it may be some friend of hers. How else came
she by that song, I must find out.--Thank you, Mrs Griffiths,' he
said aloud; 'you did quite right to let the rooms; and since she
is such a favourite with you, you are welcome to the newspapers
for her. Perhaps you had better take them to her every day with my
compliments.'

'Thank you, sir; I am sure you are most kind; and I'll tell her
what you say.'

       *       *       *       *       *

'I never will believe, ma'am, half as these good gentlemen say who
profess so loud against womenkind. Here Mr Meredith down-stairs, as
James says swears against a petticoat even if he sees it hanging in
a shop-window, which is most unfeeling-like, to say the least of
it--here's he been a begging I'll bring you the newspapers every
day, with his compliments!'

'Indeed! That is very thoughtful of him,' said Mrs Arlington,
smiling at her landlady's enthusiastic sense of victory. 'Pray give
him my compliments, and say how very much obliged I feel. What did
you tell me his name was?'

'Meredith, ma'am.'

'Of what family, do you know?'

'That's more than I can say, ma'am. Families, to my mind, is like
flowers--a great lot all alike, but divided into so many branches,
it were always a puzzle I stopped at. I call a pink a pink, and a
carnation a carnation; though the gardener where I lived in service
could tell you they were different branches of one family, with a
long Latin name, as I never could see not the least bit of good to
remember. So I just follow the same plan with families, call them
by the names as they hold at birth and baptism; and I only know my
gentleman by the label on his box: "Mr Firman Meredith." But if you
were pleased to wish to know, I'll ask his man James.'

'Not on any account,' said Mrs Arlington; 'I am not in the least
curious; I merely asked for asking's sake. Give my compliments and
thanks, nothing more.'

The newspapers paid their regular daily visit for a week, during
which time Mrs Arlington never once touched the piano when she knew
that Mr Meredith was at home; although he had purposely remained
indoors, hoping he might again hear the song which so roused his
memory on the evening of his arrival; but after seven nights of
waiting and disappointment, and ineffectual efforts to catch a
glimpse of the lady, who did not go out once during that time, he
grew so restless and impatient, that in desperation he summoned the
landlady once more to his assistance.

'Well, Mrs Griffiths, is your lodger gone or dead? She is a very
silent person.'

'O dear, no, sir,' said the landlady, smiling. 'She took the rooms
for a month, certain; but she's been suffering from a cold; and the
young gentleman has been away most days at his examinations; but
he's that quiet you'd never know he was in the house but for his
boots.'

'Had she any visitors the first evening I arrived?'

'None, sir. She hasn't told any of her friends, I imagine, that she
is here; as it is not to be supposed as how such a well-to-do lady
as she seems is without a whole score of friends, as would keep me
busy at the door if they only knew where she was.'

'Do you think she objects to visitors then?'

'How can I say, sir? Were you pleased to wish to call?' she
inquired somewhat slily. 'I'll speak to the lady, and find out if
it would be agreeable, if you like, sir?'

'Please yourself about that,' he returned with feigned
indifference. 'If I can be of any service to her or her son, beyond
the newspapers, I shall be happy to call.'

'You are very good, sir, I am sure, and I'll tell her. She was most
grateful for the newspapers.'

       *       *       *       *       *

With a glow of triumph on her face, Mrs Griffiths next morning
appeared before Mrs Arlington. It was now her settled conviction
that her theories concerning the unreality of the enmity of certain
men for women was as 'true as gospel,' to use her own phrase;
and as there is nothing dearer to human nature, from the deepest
philosopher even to a speculating landlady, than to feel that they
have hit upon an infallible vein of truth, her rejoicing was very
natural.

She had been planning all the way up the stairs how she might
best introduce such a delicate topic with due acceptance, for Mrs
Arlington was a lady, she felt, who was not to be taken liberties
with; but impulse overruled discretion, and she burst out plumply
with the question: 'Would you please to like the gentleman to call?
I think, ma'am, for all he feigns to hate _us_, he's about dying to
come up.'

Mrs Arlington fairly laughed aloud at the partnership in the
compliment assumed by her good-natured landlady. 'What do you say,
Fred?' she inquired, appealing to her son, as though declining the
matter for herself.

'By all means have him up. We _should_ be Goths to accept his
papers, and say "No, thank you," to himself.'

'You can tell him then, Mrs Griffiths, that we shall be happy to
see him this afternoon.'

'_You_ will, you mean,' said Fred. 'You know I promised Cathcart to
go out with him, at yesterday's exam., and spend the afternoon upon
the Serpentine, after our week's fag.'

'Very well; then I will receive him. _Tant mieux._ I can judge if
he is likely to prove a desirable friend for you, Fred.'

With the afternoon came Mr Meredith's servant with his master's
card, requesting to know if Mrs Arlington could receive him.

Having granted the permission, her face betrayed unwonted
agitation, which it required all her nerve to control before the
door opened and he entered. He had advanced half-way up the room
to where she stood waiting to receive him, when their eyes met,
and flashed one mutual heart-stirring glance of recognition, which
she was the bravest to bear, as he started exclaiming: 'Gertrude
Bancroft!'

'Firman Meredith!' she cried, but with calmness, for she at least
was in a measure the more prepared of the two. They shook hands;
nay more; they met as we meet the loved and mourned, after years
of parting; and then she whispered, as she held his hand: 'I
am Gertrude, but not the proud, soulless, imperious girl whose
portrait you have so faithfully preserved. I am now Gertrude
Arlington, whose life, I hope, has not been altogether spent in
vain. And yet mine was not the whole wrong; was it Firman?'

'No; my poor girl; God knows it was not. To myself alone I take all
blame.'

'Nay; I cannot allow that.'

'But it is the truth all the same,' he sighed. 'Had you yielded to
my will, I might have slain you with my cruel stony heart; when you
resisted, as you must have done, matters might have ended I know
not how. Indeed, I might have destroyed you, as surely as he who
takes weapon of steel or drops of poison to rid himself of her of
whom he has wearied! A merciful God saved you from such a fate, and
me from the worse one of causing it.'

'You judge yourself too harshly, Firman; I have no such thought
about you.'

'Not so, Gertrude, believe me. There are many gone to their rest
who, if they could return, would tell you "he speaks truly:" poor
souls, who have gone to their graves thanking God for their release
from a life which left them nothing to hope for but death!'

'Then, Firman, there is nothing to regret between us; for across
the gulf of precious years, wherein we have each learned so much,
we can clasp hands faithfully as truest friends. May I tell you,
it was for this I remained; for I recognised the sting I had left
in your heart when I saw the pencil sketch of the portrait you had
made; and I thought that if we could meet once more, and leave
happier impressions than those remaining, it would be wise and
right to thus overcome past evil with future good. And now once
more you are my friend; are you not?'

'And nothing more! Ah, Gertrude, have you no dearer name to promise
me, after all these years of sorrow and loneliness without you?' he
pleaded.

'Yes; my whole life shall be yours, if you think I can make you
happy,' she murmured; 'but not unless--have no misgivings, Firman.'

'Happy! That is a poor word to express the intensity of my
gratitude for this meeting, and your promise that we shall never
part again. Oh! I too have a past to repair, of which I hope your
future life may be the witness! You _are_ my Gertrude; and yet, now
I look well at you, you are not mine, for your face has altered,
and wears a softened look, different from the old Gertrude.

'Let us forget her altogether, and paint me afresh as I am--a
woman, who for years has prayed for nought else but what is born
of a humble, tender, loving heart. If you find I possess it, then,
Firman, our long parting has not been in vain. But now we have much
to tell each other of our past lives.'

'I shall feel more interested in planning our future,' he remarked,
smiling.

'Ah, well, whatever we may arrange about that, I shall consider it
a point of honour not to rob Mrs Griffiths of her pet lodger! It
would be base of me to requite the good Samaritan by running off
with the ass!' she added merrily; 'so we must keep her rooms for
the present.'

'I'll take the whole house, if that is all, and then you will be
obliged to stay altogether; for where I am, there you must be also.'

'And I leave it to you to tell Fred, my boy,' she added with a
pretty blush, 'for I feel a guilty cheat towards him; he has looked
upon me as his mother, I may say, for so many years, I shall seem
like a deserter.'

'Say rather you _have_ been one, and are now returning to your
colours.'

'Strange to say, Fred was struck with the portrait, but found no
resemblance to the original.'

'Because you are no longer the same woman; the original has gone.'

And thus were happily reunited for life two who, though severed for
a while, had been all along intended for each other--this was the
Romance of the lodging.



ROUGHING IT.


The explorer traversing a hitherto unknown country, the soldier
engaged in a campaign, the hunter, the trader, and the settler
in the borderlands of civilisation, have every day and sometimes
every hour to supply by their own ingenuity needs which for us are
satisfied by the simple expedient of sending to a well-stocked shop
for what we require, or calling in a skilled workman to do a job
for us. Accustomed as we have been all our lives to procuring our
bread and meat from the baker and butcher, sleeping every night in
comfortable bedrooms, trusting for protection to 'Policeman X' and
his brethren of the blue coat and helmet, and making our journey by
rail at fifty miles an hour--we can hardly realise the position of
a man who is thrown on his own resources for food and shelter in a
wild country, where perhaps his road lies over scorched plains or
through dense forests. Yet if he only knows how to set about it,
such a man can live and travel or do his work in comparative safety
and comfort. Even on his own ground the uncivilised is inferior to
the civilised man, for the latter has learned or can learn from the
savage all that is most useful in a wild country, and can add this
local knowledge to the resources which civilisation has placed at
his command. His natural physical powers are generally superior
to those of an uncultured people, and he can supplement them by
aids derived from art. What is the piercing sight of an Indian or
an Arab scout to the power of a good field-glass or telescope? And
in the chase or the fight the assegai or the flint-lock musket
stand but a poor chance against the rifle. Moreover the savage
knows only a few shifts or 'dodges' peculiar to his own people; but
the explorer has at his command at once the arts of civilisation
and those of hundreds of uncivilised tribes. He learns from the
Eskimo to traverse the snow on snow-shoes, or make long journeys
with the dog-sledge; he takes the canoe of the Indian, and the
Malayan outrigger; he can build a half-buried hut like a Tartar,
or a palm-leaf cottage like a negro; he learns from the Guacho to
stop a wild-horse with the lasso; and in the pursuit of game, the
traditional lore of the trappers and hunters of every land is at
his service. If he is strong, active, and hardy, and can use a few
tools, he can learn in this way a hundred 'shifts and expedients,'
either from oral instruction, or from books such as that which
lies before us: _Shifts and Expedients of Camp Life, Travel, and
Exploration_. By W. B. Lord, R.A., and T. Baines, F.R.G.S. _Field_
Office. (30s.)

We have seen other works of the same kind, but none so complete
as this. To the explorer, the soldier, the settler, and the
missionary, it will be invaluable; and even stay-at-home people
who lead an active life in the country, will gather many valuable
hints from it. To all it will be of interest, on account of its
numberless anecdotes of successful struggle with difficulties of
every kind, sketches of the arts and customs of uncivilised man,
and notes on the topography of many lands and the natural history
of their winged and four-footed inhabitants. Here we are told
how to set about building a boat of wood or skin; how to make a
birch-bark canoe; how to repair a broken axle or wagon-wheel; how
to cross a bridgeless river; how to build a hut or pitch a tent;
to picket horses and secure camels; to trap wild beasts or snare
birds; to find a dinner where there are no shops, and to cook it
without a kitchen. These are a few of the many subjects treated by
our authors, who are themselves veteran travellers and explorers,
and have learned in the field much of the knowledge which they here
communicate to others.

It would seem that one of the chief difficulties in organising an
exploring expedition is to decide upon the stores and provisions
to be carried. If there is not enough of these, the party may be
crippled far from its base of operations; if there is too much, its
movements will be seriously impeded by the necessity of transport.
Much depends upon the nature of the country. One of the Australian
expeditions which had to traverse districts where food of all
kinds was scarce, had to carry an enormous amount of stores, the
first item in the list being seventeen thousand pounds of flour;
but then the party consisted of twenty-one men. Generally an
explorer is in the best position who can start off with only one
or two white followers, the rest of his party being hired natives,
well used to the ways of the country; and we believe the most
successful explorers have been those who, as far as white men
are concerned, have worked alone or almost alone. Livingstone's
success is a good proof of this. Mr Lord suggests that in countries
where riding is practicable, explorers should make up their minds
to eat horse-flesh occasionally, and start with a good train of
pack-horses, each horse being shot and eaten as soon as its burden
is disposed of. He does not appear to have ever tried the plan
himself; and we fear that at the end of a long march the flesh
of a hard-worked pack-horse would be a very poor substitute for
roast-beef. It is a pity that oxen cannot be used as pack-animals.
They are turned to a stranger purpose in South Africa, where the
Hottentots and Kaffirs saddle and ride them; and one of the authors
of this book of travel tells us that he has more than once had a
very comfortable ride on one of these horned steeds.

The Tartars use dogs to carry packs; in the far north they do the
chief work in pulling the sledges, though the Laplanders chiefly
use the reindeer for this purpose. The Eskimo sledge-dogs are
fine strong animals, nearly allied to the wolf; and Messrs Lord
and Baines give some amusing hints about their management. The
sledge-driver must never leave his sledge without securing it
to a spear driven into the snow, or the dogs will perhaps start
off of their own accord and distance all pursuit. They are very
quarrelsome; but generally in every team there is one master-dog,
with a very determined will and strong sharp teeth; and when
he sees the others fighting, he will dash in amongst them, and
vigorously assist his master in restoring order. When rough ice
is to be traversed, the dogs' paws are protected by little bags
or moccasins of hide. They are not fed till the day's work is
over; and great care has to be taken that each gets his proper
share, for 'some are so desperately artful and cunning that they
do all in their power to delude their master into a belief that
instead of having had their full allowance, it is yet to come.'
The Lapland sled or _kerres_ is different from the low flat Eskimo
dog-sledge. It is shaped something like a big shoe, and is drawn
by the reindeer, which is used in the same way in Siberia, and
also for riding and carrying packs. In many countries summer sleds
are used. One of the easiest to make is formed of a forked branch,
with pieces of wood nailed across the fork, the horse or mule being
harnessed to the pointed end. This is often used by the settler for
dragging loads of all kinds over level ground.

These forked branches and sticks can be turned to an endless number
of uses. Grindstones are mounted between them; they form yokes for
hanging weights over the shoulders; hooks for suspending small
objects in the hut or tent; racks for arms and harness. In many
countries the native plough is formed of two forked branches tied
together and dragged by one man, while another holds it down, and
thus scratches a furrow in the ground. The frontier settler has
sometimes to be content with a similar contrivance, made on a
larger scale, of bigger branches, and drawn by a couple of his oxen.

Some of the architectural 'shifts' are very interesting, for there
is a wide field for ingenuity in the construction of hut and boat.
In the tropics, huts are very easily constructed by building up
a framework of poles, branches, or bamboos, the sticks being not
nailed but lashed together where they cross; this rough outline
of walls and roof is then filled in with mats, bundles of rushes,
or the broad leaves of the fan-palm. Another method is to build
the hut of slabs ingeniously formed out of a very unpromising
material--long reeds. A few sticks are cut and laid parallel to
each other on the ground; then across these a thick bed of reeds
is carefully arranged; another stick is laid on this bed, exactly
over each of the sticks below; the projecting ends of each pair
of rods are then tied together; and the solid mass of reeds
thus secured can be raised on its lower edge and supported by
props or by other slabs meeting it at an angle, much as children
build houses of cards. In this way very serviceable stables and
outhouses are often made in India. Having erected his light hut
or pitched his tent, the traveller, if he is making a prolonged
halt, proceeds to furnish it. Planks and boxes supply seats; and
if there is a pole in the centre, a serviceable table can be made
by fixing a wagon-wheel on it about two and a half feet from the
ground, the pole passing through the centre of the wheel, and the
spokes being covered with a few small boards. A comfortable bed
is easily improvised. Livingstone had a new one made every night
under his own supervision. This was his plan. First, he had two
straight poles cut, two or three inches in diameter, which were
laid parallel to each other at a distance of two feet apart; across
these poles were placed short sticks, saplings three feet long;
and over these was laid a thick pile of long grass; then came the
usual waterproof ground sheet and the blankets. 'Thus,' writes
Stanley, 'was improvised a bed fit for a king.' The wagon used by
the colonists at the Cape is very like a long hut on wheels, and
forms a very comfortable sleeping-place; while a large tent can
be made by halting the wagon, driving in a few poles near it, and
stretching the tent canvas from these to the wagon-roof. It has
been proposed too that this roof should be an inverted boat of
waterproof canvas, which could be removed at pleasure and used in
crossing rivers. The wagon is so large that this seems to be quite
a practicable idea.

Every explorer and traveller must carry some kind of a boat or
canoe with him. If he is without one, the natives will often make
most extortionate demands for the hire of their own to him; but if
he has one, no matter how small, he can bargain on much more equal
terms. But even if no boats can be procured, the mere crossing of a
river can always be effected by means of rafts. These can be made
of almost anything; casks, boxes, planks, reeds, bamboos, all can
be pressed into the service; but we are told, it must be borne in
mind 'that the cargo a raft can carry above water is always small,
and not at all like the mountain of treasure invariably represented
on that of Robinson Crusoe.' These rafts are often constructed of
very strange materials. On the Nile they are made of jars, which
are thus brought down the river to be sold at Cairo. On many of
the African rivers they are made of bundles of sedge-grass; and
lying down on these, the hippopotamus hunters approach the huge
beast; the raft looking so like a natural accumulation that he does
not attempt to get out of the way till it is too late. On such a
raft, made on a larger scale, the Swedish naturalist Lindholm and
his assistant successfully descended one of the rivers that feed
Lake Ngami. The voyage was a strange one. The raft was built in a
quiet nook by throwing hundreds of bundles of sedge across each
other, without any other fastening than their natural cohesion and
entanglement. On this huge floating mass a hut was built, and the
two adventurers then poled it out into the stream, and it went
down the current at the rate of about forty or fifty miles a day.
Occasionally it took the ground at the bottom, but when a little
of the grass tore off, it floated clear again. As the lower layers
became sodden and pressed together, fresh grass had to be cut every
day and laid on top, till at last there was six feet of the raft
under water. Occasionally overhanging branches tore off some of the
grass, and once a large projecting trunk lay so close to the water
that it 'swept the decks fore and aft.' The hut was destroyed, and
with much of its contents was carried away into the river; but the
travellers saved themselves by climbing over the bough, and then
repaired the damage and resumed their voyage. Sir Samuel Baker
constructed a much more singular raft to cross the Atbara River in
Equatorial Africa. A bedstead supported by eight inflated hides
formed the basis of the structure; and on this was secured a large
sponging bath three feet eight inches in diameter, which formed a
dry receptacle for the ammunition and other baggage.

One of the most remarkable features of uncivilised life is the
power savages shew of tracking men and beasts over immense
distances. Many travellers have spoken of this as something almost
miraculous, yet it is only the result of careful observation of
certain well-known signs; and we have here before us a collection
of very common-sense hints on the subject. In countries like ours
every trace of foot-print or wheel-track on roads and paths is soon
obliterated or hopelessly confused; but it is otherwise in the
wilderness, where neither man nor beast can conceal his track. In
Kaffirland, when cattle are stolen, if their foot-prints are traced
to a village, the headman is held responsible for them, unless he
can shew the same track going out. A wagon-track in a new country
is practically indelible. 'More especially,' say our authors, 'is
this the case if a fire sweeps over the plain immediately after,
or if the wagon passes during or after a prairie fire. We have
known a fellow-traveller recognise in this manner the tracks his
wagon had made _seven years before_, the lines of charred stumps
crushed short down remaining to indicate the passage of the wheels,
though all other impressions had been obliterated by the rank
annual growth of grass fully twelve feet high.' Sometimes the
original soil being disturbed, a new vegetation will spring up
along the wagon-track, and thus mark out the road for miles. Even
on hard rock a man's bare foot will leave the dust caked together
by perspiration, so that a practised eye will see it; and even
if there is no track, a stone will be disturbed here and there,
the side of the pebble which has long lain next the ground being
turned up. If it is still damp, the man or beast that turned it
has passed very recently. If a shower of rain has fallen, the track
will tell whether it was made before, during, or after the shower;
similar indications can be obtained from the dew; and another
indication of the time that has elapsed since a man passed by is
furnished by the state of the crushed grass, which will be more or
less withered as the time is longer or shorter. Other indications
are drawn from the direction in which the grass lies; this tells
how the wind was blowing at the time the grass was crushed; and by
noting previous changes of the wind, one learns the time at which
each part of the track was made. Much too can be learned from the
form of the foot-prints. Savages generally turn their toes in, in
walking; white men turn theirs out. A moccasin print with the toes
turned out would indicate that a white man in Indian walking-gear
had gone by; and almost every foot has a print of its own, which
enables an experienced tracker to follow a single track amongst
a dozen others. Similarly the character of the print will tell
whether the man who made it walked freely or was led by others;
whether he was in a hurry or travelling slowly; whether he carried
a burden; and if he were sober or tipsy. A horse-track is equally
well marked. It tells when the horse galloped, where he walked,
when he stopped to feed or drink; and a scattering of sand and
gravel will tell when he was startled by any strange sight. In
all this two things are needed--sharp sight and careful training.
The elephant often makes a very curious track as he walks; if he
suspects danger, he scents the ground with the tip of his trunk,
and this makes a well-marked serpentine line in the dust. Elephants
have changed their tactics since rifle-pits were introduced.
Formerly, when their chief danger was a pitfall, the leader of the
herd felt the ground inch by inch; and if he detected the covering
of a trap, tore it off and left it open. Now they rely much more
on scent, and in this way, often from a great distance, detect
the hunter lurking near their drinking-places. If so, they will
sometimes travel fifty or a hundred miles to another stream or
pool.--Such is a specimen of this generally amusing book.



FANCHETTE, THE GOAT OF BOULAINVILLIERS.

AN EPISODE OF THE SIEGE OF PARIS.


While the German army inclosed in its iron grasp the most brilliant
and pleasure-loving city of Europe, transforming in a moment its
epicurean population into a people of heroes, the environs once so
gay and so beautiful had experienced a change almost as great. Most
of the detached villas were deserted, or occupied by the enemy,
and the villages whose regular inhabitants had either taken refuge
in Paris or fled to a distance, were repopulated by a singular
assemblage of individuals belonging to all classes of society, and
bound together only by the tie of a common nationality, and the
necessity of finding a shelter and providing for their daily wants.

The hamlet of Boulainvilliers, which had been thus abandoned, had
received an entirely new colony, and its beautiful avenue carpeted
with turf of the most lovely green, had all the appearance of a
camp. As long as the season would permit, cooking was carried on
in the open air, and groups were constantly to be seen surrounding
the fires and exchanging accounts of their mutual misfortunes.

A painter of Fleurs, bearing the English or rather Scotch name of
MacHenry, was among these refugees. He had brought with him from
Colombes, where he had before resided, a remarkably beautiful white
goat called Fanchette. This creature, to which her master was much
attached, figures in the most of his pictures. Light and graceful
as a gazelle, she is represented sometimes cropping delicately the
green branches of the hedgerows and bushes, sometimes entangled in
a maze of brier-roses, their pink blossoms and green leaves falling
around her in elegant garlands, and contrasting well with the snowy
whiteness of her skin.

Fanchette was a universal favourite; and few there were at
Boulainvilliers who would not have deprived themselves of a morsel
of the bread sometimes so hard to procure, that they might reserve
a mouthful for the goat, which, however, the saucy thing would only
accept from her particular friends.

The grace and rare intelligence of the animal frequently relieved
the miseries of the siege. All were surprised at the wonderful
education her master had succeeded in giving her. He had even
taught her something of his art; and it was really extraordinary to
see the sensible creature busily employed in arranging pebbles on
the ground, so as to form a rude resemblance to a human profile,
often grotesque enough, but still such as one occasionally sees
on human shoulders; and looking at her work, one could not help
thinking that after all the _lower animals_ are perhaps not so far
inferior to us as we suppose.

The art with which Fanchette selected from a bunch of flowers
each one that was named to her was really marvellous. Roses,
wallflowers, tulips, camellias, were promptly chosen from the
number, and it was rare indeed that she made the least mistake. Two
centuries ago they would have burned the poor beast for a witch.

The exercise which she preferred to all others consisted in
catching on her horns a series of brass rings which her master
threw up in the air. This she did with the greatest address; and
when she had got a dozen or so of them encircling her brow like a
diadem, she would begin jumping and galloping and shaking her head
to make them jingle, till, over-excited by their rough music, she
would end by dancing in the most fantastic style on her hind-feet,
till tired at length with her exertions, she would bound towards
her master and throw the rings at his feet.

Among those who had found refuge in the hamlet was a child of five
years old, called Marie, the daughter of a peasant whose farm had
been burned by the invaders. She was an object of general interest
in the little colony on account of her gentle manners, and the
sweet but suffering expression of her pale infantine features.
A year or two previously she had been so severely bitten in the
arm by a vicious dog that the limb had to be amputated, and her
delicate constitution had never recovered the shock. Fanchette
soon took a great fancy to the little girl; and the doctor having
advised her to be fed as much as possible upon milk, MacHenry
offered that of the goat. It was beautiful to see the pleasure with
which the affectionate creature took upon herself the office of
nurse, and the avidity with which the child sucked in the grateful
nourishment which was giving her new life. Fanchette became every
day more and more attached to Marie. She rarely left her, except
when wanted by her master for some new study; and when it was
ended, and MacHenry set her at liberty, saying: 'Now be off to
Marie,' with what joy the creature bounded away, and how rejoiced
was the little one to have again by her side her darling Fanchette!
Nestling her head under the child's hand, a world of loving things
were interchanged in their mute caresses.

It once happened that a lady having in her hand a crown of
artificial ivy which she had picked up somewhere, probably the
_débris_ of a school _fête_ during happier times, placed it on
the head of the little Marie. Fanchette, rising on her hind-legs,
examined it with comical curiosity; and having made up her mind on
the subject, scampered off to an old tree close by, around whose
trunk the real ivy twined in thick and glossy wreaths, butted at
it with her horns, twisting it round them, and tearing off long
trailing garlands. She then ran back in triumph to throw her
treasures at the child's feet, saying as clearly as if she had the
gift of speech: 'Look! This is better than the coarse imitation
they have decked you with; this is the real thing!'

Another day the child was looking at herself in a mirror, and
Fanchette immediately began to do the same. The expression of
sadness and wonder in her eyes seemed to say so plainly: 'Why are
Marie and I so different? If I were like her I could speak to her,
and then we should love each other still better!'

One evening Marie, who was sitting by her mother's side, began to
fidget and complain of an uneasy sensation in her back. Her mother,
busily engaged with some work, and thinking the child was only
disposed to be troublesome, examined it slightly, and told her to
be quiet; but the poor little thing continued to complain, when,
the mother getting out of temper, gave her a sharp slap. Fanchette,
who was present at this scene, presented her horns in a threatening
attitude to the woman, and gently stroked the shoulders of her
little friend with her foot. At the sight of the dumb animal's
eloquent appeal, the woman began to relent, and calling the child
to her, examined more carefully the state of things, when she
found, to her horror, one of those large and poisonous caterpillars
called in French 'processionnaires,' which had painfully irritated
the delicate skin of the child.

It was about this time that MacHenry, continuing his artistic
labours in spite of all the difficulties of the situation, resolved
on taking for the subject of a new picture his goat Fanchette
nursing the little Marie. Fanchette lent herself with her usual
intelligence and docility to his wishes; and Marie was represented
lying among grass and flowers with her four-footed friend bending
over her. This picture, which was afterwards regarded as one of
MacHenry's best works, obtained the most signal success at the
Paris Exhibition of Modern Art--the truthfulness of the design, the
freshness of the colouring, and the grace of the composition being
equally striking.

But these bright autumn days soon passed away, and many may
recollect the bitter cold of the sad Christmas of that dismal
winter. Poor little Marie suffered so severely from it, that
after a vain attempt to recall some warmth by lighting a fire of
brushwood, the only fuel that could be procured, her mother, as a
last resource, put her into her little bed, in the hope that by
heaping upon her all the clothing she could procure, the child
might regain a little heat; but it was in vain: no heat came, and
the blood had almost ceased to circulate in her frozen limbs.
At this moment Fanchette arrived, and without waiting for an
invitation, sprang upon the bed. It was in vain they tried to drive
her away; she only clung the closer to her nursling, and covering
the child with her body, soon restored her to warmth and animation.

There was one among the temporary inhabitants of Boulainvilliers
for whom Fanchette entertained an unmitigated aversion; this was
a knife-grinder of the name of Massicault. His appearance was
certainly not calculated to produce a favourable impression, for
his features were repulsive and his expression disagreeable. A
low forehead, a scowling eye, and a short thick-set figure were
the principal physical traits of this personage; nor were they
redeemed by those of his moral character. He had for his constant
companion a large ill-favoured bull-dog with a spiked collar, who
seemed to share all the evil instincts of his master. Every one
wondered how the knife-grinder managed to feed this animal at a
time when it was so hard to find the merest necessaries of life for
human beings--and that too without ever seeming to do a hand's turn
of work; for all day long he was lounging about, and it was rare
indeed to hear the noise of his wheel. When any one--alarmed at
the threatening aspect of the brute, who never failed to growl and
shew his fangs when approached--asked his master to call him off,
Massicault used only to reply with an ill-natured laugh: 'He has
not begun yet to eat such big morsels as you; but there's no saying
what he may do one of these days!'

MacHenry was sorry that his goat partook of the general dislike to
this man. He would have rather wished that she should have tried by
her winning caresses to soften his rugged nature, and bring him to
love the gentle creature that had gained all other hearts; but as
we shall see in the sequel, things turned out very differently.

On one of the last fine days of that sad year, a crowd having
gathered round her while her master was amusing himself by
exhibiting her intelligence in the selection of the fruit and
flowers he named, in which she acquitted herself with her usual
sagacity, MacHenry bade her fetch an apple. There were some still
hanging on a tree in a neighbouring garden; but instead of running
off as usual to the well-known place, she went right up to the
knife-grinder, and pushing aside with her paws the skirts of his
coat, displayed two pockets stuffed with something, which the
crowd, amid shouts of laughter, declared to be stolen apples. The
artist tried to call off his goat, and the man drove her away with
curses; but two vigorous peasants immediately laid hold of him, and
insisted on seeing the contents of the suspicious pockets; which
proved to be, as all had supposed, apples stolen from the tree in
question. The discovery only increased the rage of Massicault, who
swore with the most fearful oaths that he had never touched one of
them, and that the apples found in his possession had been given
to him by a friend. Though none believed him, several, in order
to get rid of a disagreeable affair, feigned to do so, and he was
finally let off; but many thought they had thus got a clew to the
authorship of several robberies recently committed to the prejudice
of different members of the little community.

This misadventure excited in the knife-grinder a violent hatred
against Fanchette, which was heartily shared by his worthy
companion the bull-dog. The latter was an object of special terror
to poor little Marie. Fanchette seemed to understand the fears of
the child, and whenever the dog approached her, she would lower
her horns, as if to protect her nursling and defy her enemy.
These demonstrations of valour were generally successful, the dog
slinking off with glaring eyes and drooping tail.

One day Fanchette nestled up close to her master, putting her foot
upon his arm, and having succeeded in gaining his attention, ran
off to a particular spot, where she stopped to sniff the grass, and
then trotting back, she renewed several times the same manœuvre.
MacHenry, persuaded that something extraordinary must be the
matter, rose and followed her. When she reached the spot, putting
aside like a terrier dog the long herbage with her feet, she
displayed to view a leather pocket-book, which the artist picked up
and examined. An instant sufficed to shew that it belonged to the
knife-grinder, and its contents proved that this man was one of the
numerous spies the Germans had constantly and everywhere in their
service. He found besides in this pocket-book, pushed under the
covering, the picture of a child, one of those common photographs
which have no other merit than a certain resemblance.

The very day that this pocket-book was found a frightful scene took
place. Little Marie was sitting on a low stool eating a morsel of
bread, which she was sharing with Fanchette, when the bull-dog
chanced to pass. The animal stopped for a moment, and looked at
her; then as if overcome by the temptation, he suddenly darted at
her and snatched at the bread. He was prevented, however, by the
goat, and with a toss of her horns she sent the ferocious beast
sprawling to some distance; but he was only stunned, not seriously
hurt; and furious at his repulse, he sprang upon the poor goat,
seized her by the throat, and shook her with rage. Marie uttered
piercing shrieks, and MacHenry having got hold of a stick, ran to
the rescue. A sharp blow on the head caused the dog to lose his
grip of poor Fanchette, and turn against his new enemy, seizing
him by the shoulder; but a peasant coming to the assistance of
the artist, forced the dog again to let go; and limping off and
growling, he at last took refuge beside his master, who all the
while had been an unmoved spectator of the scene.

Great was the general grief at the sight of poor Fanchette
motionless on the grass, bleeding profusely from the wound in her
throat; and strong the indignation excited by the ferocity of the
dog and the conduct of its brutal master. Many were the threats
muttered against both; and there is little doubt that the dog at
least would soon have paid the penalty he deserved had Fanchette's
wound been mortal; but on examination it was found to be less
serious than it appeared, and her master's care of her soon
effected a complete cure. The inhabitants of the hamlet, however,
resolved not to let slip the opportunity for getting rid of the
obnoxious knife-grinder. This ill-favoured individual was received
whenever he shewed himself with cries of 'Be off and quickly too,
and be thankful we do not throttle your wretch of a dog first.'

Unable to resist the general storm of indignation, the man and his
worthy companion were about to take their departure; but they had
hardly reached the entrance of the village, when they were met by
a party bringing along with them an orphan boy of about six or
seven years of age, whose parents had been found murdered some days
previously in one of the detached cottages of the neighbourhood,
which some still ventured to inhabit. The child, at the sight of
the knife-grinder and his dog, uttered a loud cry and covered his
eyes with his hands.

'What is the matter, my poor little fellow?' asked one of the
by-standers. At length he was able with difficulty to reply, his
words interrupted with deep sobs: 'That man! that dog! It was they
that killed my mother! I saw it all from behind the curtain in
which I was hid.'

Every one looked in astonishment at his neighbour, not knowing
whether to believe the strange assertion of the child; when
MacHenry produced the pocket-book and informed those around him
of its contents. The child immediately cried out that it was his
mother's; and had any doubt remained it would have been dispelled
by looking at the portrait that was contained in it, for its
resemblance to the poor little boy was striking.

In presence of such proof, there could be no hesitation, and two
men immediately set off in pursuit of the fugitive; but he had
already got a considerable advance, and fear lent him wings, so
that before they could reach him he had gained the protection
of the German outposts. He did not succeed, however, in evading
the fate he merited, for shortly after the news arrived that the
wretched man had fallen into the hands of a detachment of French
_francs-tireurs_, and having been convicted of being concerned in
the burning of a farm, was immediately condemned and shot.

MacHenry adopted the orphan boy, and never had cause to repent of
his generous action. 'I have now two children,' he used gaily to
say; 'for my gentle intelligent Fanchette is almost as dear to me
as if she were a human creature!'



LIME-JUICE.


Some interesting facts have been communicated to us, arising out of
the publication of our recent article on 'Lime-Juice' (March 24,
1877). It appears that some years ago Messrs Sturge of Birmingham
established a Company for developing the resources of the island
of Montserrat in the West Indies. Attention was directed chiefly
to the production of genuine lime-juice, mainly for the extraction
therefrom of citric acid, of which Messrs Sturge are extensive
manufacturers in this country. With this object in view, they
paid sedulous attention to the maintenance of extensive lime-tree
plantations. All the ripe sound fresh fruit is selected first,
for the production of lime-juice, while the remainder becomes
available for citric acid. The juice is bottled immediately on its
arrival in this country. In 1874 the Company were the owners of no
less than five hundred lime-trees in full bearing in the little
island of Montserrat; and the number has since been increased by
the conversion of unprofitable sugar-plantations into profitable
lime-tree plantations. The collection and manipulation of the ripe
limes give healthy employment to large numbers of women and young
persons.

When Dr Leach, medical officer on board the _Dreadnought_, called
public attention in 1866 to the recent appearance of scurvy in
merchant-ships, he induced the Board of Trade to take up the
matter seriously. This led to the passing of an Act in 1867,
ordering the provision of lime-juice or lemon-juice in every
merchant and passenger ship, and its use every day by every
person on board. It is, however, known that lemon-juice is not so
effective as lime-juice as an anti-scorbutic; and that, moreover,
the best lime-juice does not require to be 'fortified' with ten
or fifteen per cent. of alcohol to preserve it, which appears to
be necessary for lemon-juice and inferior lime-juice. In the navy
more strictness is observed. Lime-juice _only_ is permitted; it
must be prepared from ripe sound fruit, gathered in particular
months of the year; and must bear analytical tests touching its
citricity, flavour, and condition. As a consequence, scurvy is
now almost unknown in the royal navy, except in the case of the
recent Arctic Expedition, the particulars of which will no doubt
be fully investigated and set forth by the Admiralty Committee
duly appointed for that purpose. The navy is, we believe, supplied
invariably with the best lime-juice only, to the exclusion of
lemon-juice, and also to the exclusion of such juice of the real
lime as requires, on account of its poorness of quality, to be
fortified or 'doctored' with strong crude spirit. Very likely, in
this as in so many other instances, cheapness is at the bottom of
the whole affair: mercantile lemon-juice (even if called by the
name of the lime) being cheaper than navy lime-juice. If so, it
affords a sad instance of the misuse of the good word economy;
for it certainly is not economical to imperil the health of the
crews in trading-ships, and of passengers in emigrant-ships, by
the use of that which is 'cheap and nasty.' Something there is in
the common juice which renders it very unpalatable to the men, who
often shirk their prescribed dose unless strictly watched. Let us
hope that the Report of the Arctic Committee will strengthen the
hands of the Board of Trade to deal with this matter.



AFFECTION IN BIRD-LIFE.


A correspondent having read our recent article on Bird-affection,
kindly sends us the following singular instance of intelligence
and affection on the part of a duck. 'We have,' he tells us, 'two
white ducks; the one designated Mr Yellowbill being wonderfully
intelligent, yet fond of fun. My little son and he have great
games together. The lad throws out an india-rubber ball a longer
or shorter distance, leaving it for the bird to decide whether it
shall be pursued with a flying or a running movement. In either
case, the ball is swiftly seized by duckie, and returned to the
thrower, who keeps up the game until both have had enough of it.
Another peculiarity of Mr Yellowbill may be mentioned. At the
splashing of water from an adjacent well he is aroused, and will
instantly fly towards the scene of action, plunge in, bathe, jump
out, flap his wings joyfully, and "like a bird," take himself
off again. But the story of affection for his kind must now be
told. The other day, when swinging on a gate, my little boy felt
something tugging at his trousers, and on looking round discovered
the duck, who, he supposed, invited him to a game at ball. So down
he got, and caressed his feathered friend as the preliminary. The
duck, however, continued pulling away in so unusual and persistent
a manner that the lad decided to go whither he was led; and lo! at
the corner of an outbuilding was found poor Mrs Yellowbill, lame
of a leg and quite unable to waddle along. Meanwhile her husband
continued to manifest the greatest concern about her, yet did
not forget his manners and grateful acknowledgments, but bowed
and better bowed to those around who had now come to the rescue;
shewing that even a duck may act and feel as a gentleman. The cause
of hurt referred to has not been ascertained; but happily Mrs
Yellowbill is now quite well, and her husband is as lively as ever.'



LENACHLUTEN,

A WATERFALL IN ARGYLESHIRE.


    'Mong crags where the purple heather grows,
    'Mid rocks where blooms the mountain rose,
    Onward the river calmly flows
                        To Lenachluten.

    The waters dash on the rocks beneath
    In a mad wild rush, they surge and seethe,
    While dancing spray with a snowy wreath
                        Crowns Lenachluten.

    Thus ever the stream of life flows on,
    With faces happy and faces wan,
    A moment here on this earth, then gone,
                        Like Lenachluten.

    Some lives pass on like a peaceful dream;
    Untouched by sorrow or care, they seem
    To glide as the river whose waters stream
                        Towards Lenachluten.

    Others career on their restless way;
    Whate'er betide, they are ever gay,
    As gleams the sparkling sunlit spray
                        On Lenachluten.

    Some lives with folly and sin are fraught;
    They dim earth's beauty with stain and spot,
    As surges the scum, an ugly blot
                        On Lenachluten.

    And now and again a genius bright
    Dazzles the earth with his spirit's flight,
    As shimmers the rainbow's tinted light
                        O'er Lenachluten.

    H. K. W.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed and Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, 47 Paternoster Row,
LONDON, and 339 High Street, EDINBURGH.

       *       *       *       *       *

_All Rights Reserved._





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