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Title: The China Painter Instruction Book
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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                             CHINA PAINTER

                            INSTRUCTION BOOK


                            [Second Edition]

                              PUBLISHED BY

                           THAYER & CHANDLER


Copyright 1914, by Thayer & Chandler.


                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

                   Color Mixing                    3
                   Color Combinations              5
                   Conventional Style              7
                   Flower Painting                15
                   Leaf Painting                  16
                   Fruit Painting                 17
                   Figure Painting                20
                   Tinting                        23
                   Ground Laying                  24
                   Dusting                        27
                   Outlining                      28
                   Cutting Out                    30
                   Pads and Dabbers               31
                   Slow or Quick Drying Colors    32
                   Paste or Relief Work           33
                   Gold                           35
                   Gold Burnishing                37
                   Lustres                        38
                   Matt Colors                    42
                   Banding                        43
                   Oxidizing of Colors            45
                   Glazing of Underfired Colors   46
                   Chipping of Colors             47
                   Enamel Work                    49
                   China Repairing                52
                   Firing China                   54



                       MIXING OF THE CHINA COLORS

There are many things of which the beginner in china painting should be
reminded. It is most essential that he has clean tools and well mixed
colors before attempting any work. To be sure poorly ground colors are
more quickly and more easily prepared, but nothing but the very poorest
results can be obtained from such haste.

After placing a small quantity of powder color on a clean slab and
enough mixing medium to make a thick paste, blend the two together with
a small palette knife, working with a rotary motion. See well to it
that no particles are left. When blending, keep the palette knife as
flat as possible, as there is danger of breaking it if bent too much.
Mix well until the color is a smooth paste. It will be found well to
put a small amount of the mixing medium in a small dish and use from
that, rather than pouring it from bottle.

When thoroughly mixed, put the color on one side of the palette. Blend
another color and place next to the other one on the palette. Proceed
in this way until all the tints wanted are prepared. It will be found
that some colors take longer than others to grind, owing to their stony
nature. In this case a little patience is necessary for best results.

Have a clean cup of turpentine and a small dish with a few drops of
light working medium at hand. Use a clean, square brush. Take the color
desired, rub down on the palette so as to have all of the brush moist
with it, and apply to the china, of course it is understood that before
beginning the work, the design has been carefully drawn on the china,
either with a wax pencil or India ink and pen. This drawing will
disappear in firing.

If the design is carefully drawn on the china, it will assist the
decorator in easily placing the tints where they belong.

Wash your brush in turpentine, when changing colors, and be sure to
press the turpentine out with a cloth before dipping the brush into
another color.

Care should be taken to see that all colors are applied evenly, always
using the brush flat.

Never hesitate to erase the design and repaint the china, in case it is
not entirely satisfactory. This may seem a little discouraging but the
result will reward one for the additional labor.

It is very necessary to clean all brushes and palettes used, when
through working. Brushes become hard when colors are allowed to dry in

Throughout this work we devote special chapters to the various features
of china painting such as lining, mixing of colors, etc., and with this
lesson we feel that the beginner has a fair start; she will soon learn
what the different combinations of colors will produce. For instance,
blue and purple or blue and ruby make violet. Blue and yellow make a
green, green and a little black make gray, reds mixed with black make
brown. Do not mix lustre colors as results will not be satisfactory.


                           COLOR COMBINATIONS

One feature of china painting that requires much study and
consideration is the combining of colors. A design that would be most
attractive if the colorings harmonized, would be almost a failure
otherwise. Browns go well with nearly all colors, but not as well with
greens and blues as with some others. Clear blues, with perhaps the
exception of the darkest blues and Copenhagen, are not very
satisfactory for borders. A border of this combination, however, is
very effective. A beautiful shade can be produced by combining yellow
brown, finishing brown, ivory yellow and just a little touch of gold.

Violet of iron and auburn brown on a grayish ground, combine very well.

Pearl gray with Copenhagen blue gives a soft effect. Ivory goes well
with yellow-greens, and violets with grayish tones.

A piece of china done in yellow tones, with say a conventional motif
decoration, or yellow flowers, looks well with a scroll of gold worked
into it, and should have a yellow background. If delicate effects are
desired, yellow cannot be used successfully. For soft backgrounds,
auburn brown, violet of iron, new green, olive green and Copenhagen
blue are very good.

A design in gold on a broad border of Copenhagen is both beautiful and
effective. There are few decorations stronger than this. For Turkish
effects peacock and Sultan green are used principally. A little yellow,
green, blue, black, red and dark brown can be used with success in this
style of decoration.

A design in silver is very attractive on either a dark gray or green

Strong and decided contrast in colors, almost always produces pleasing
results. Among the best are black and yellow, black and red and black
and yellow-green. Rose and red do not go well together. Neither does
blue or blue-green go well with red, but red and olive green contrast
well. For a beautiful dark blue, mix banding blue with about one-fifth
part of hair black. Ivory yellow or light green look well on a dark
green band, and gold on maroon. To produce a good maroon use ruby
purple and one-sixth part of peacock green.

A very beautiful color that we can hardly name, comes from mixing three
parts of peacock green with one part of crimson purple. The result is
about a deep steel blue.

If a dark green ground is treated with ruby or crimson purple, before
the second firing, it produces a very warm effect.

Combine one-fourth of Russian green with Copenhagen blue and you have
dark gray.

Yellows destroy red and should never be mixed.

A very delicate blue-gray can be produced by mixing turquoise blue and
about one-sixth of black. Use more or less of black as desired.

Violet and brown makes a striking color. A light wash of hair brown or
Meissen produces a tan.




The old-fashioned naturalistic style of china decoration is a thing of
the past. One sees almost nothing of that sort in the metropolitan
exhibitions, because patrons of Keramic art are weary of a type which
admits of so little variety and individuality.

Flowers and fruit have gradually been shaped into designs, and these in
many cases are so conventionalized that they have lost almost all
resemblance to the original form.

There can be no doubt that conventional work has come to stay, and
there is a distinct gain in this. Endless opportunities are opened for
the artist to show character in both composition and color.

The china painter of yesterday spent her time almost entirely on color.
The natural flowers were often placed almost anywhere on the china and
were admired for color and treatment alone.

No wonder Keramics was not considered an art!

To-day the artist _thinks_ before she touches the color work.

A design should suggest the shape to which it is to be applied, and
proportion plays an important part. A plate, for instance, with too
wide a band is a pitiful thing, and a design that is not properly bound
together is to be shunned.

A low stocky looking piece may be treated with a motif used once on
either side and connected with a gold or color band. It is a common
mistake to try to bind the body of a teapot, or similar article, and
the spout and handle! The two latter are entirely separate and demand
other treatment.

Plenty of plain background will enhance the effect of the design. One
can easily overload a piece of china with a design good in itself but
too elaborate and large.

The first law of conventional design is that each form must be
outlined. When this is done the decorator should have a comparatively
easy time, and a remarkably interesting one, for conventional work is
adapted especially to wonderful color combinations.

The colors, as a rule, are more effective when laid on in flat tones.
Shading is not at all common in strictly conventional work, and one
does not necessarily adhere to the colors nature has chosen for the
object which suggested the design.

Enamel and lustre are especially fitting to conventional design, and
gold may often be used for flower or leaf form where in naturalistic
painting it would be entirely out of place.

For a long time keramic artists looked askance at the new style because
of the amount of work required in outlining. This was a tedious affair
involving a fine brush or pen, paint or ink, which refused to work
right, and endless endurance.

All this has been overcome by means of new process outline designs
which fire into the china distinctly and form a black outline around
the painting. Those who are ambitious may now make a reputation without
ruining their eyesight or taxing their patience.


_Conventional Single Yellow Rose._ Primrose Yellow shaded with Apple
Green toward centre; stamens may be Gold or Dark Brown. Light leaves
are painted with Moss Green shaded with Shading Green and dark leaves
may be laid in with a mixture of Apple Green and a very little Deep
Purple. Stems are painted with Auburn Brown. A good background for this
scheme is Gray Green lightly applied.


_Conventional Wild Rose._ Paint with Sweet Pea Pink with very delicate
application of Apple Green toward centre. Stamens are painted with Ruby
and center dot may be Gold. Leaves are laid in with a mixture of Apple
Green and very little Deep Purple. Roman Gold or Turquoise Lustre is
effective as a background for inside if design will admit. For outside
of design, or general background, use Oriental Ivory.


_Conventional Double Pink Rose._ Use Sweet Pea Pink and shade with
Standard Pink in centre. A very pleasing color scheme for leaves is
Yellow Green Lustre shaded with Dark Green Lustre. A Pearl Gray
background is suitable for this combination.


_Conventional Rose._ These may be treated in either Lustre colors or
regular powder colors. A suitable color treatment for lustre decoration
is as follows: Lay in a flat wash of Orange or Yellow-Brown Lustre
except in centre, this may be Gold. For leaves use a wash of Light
Green and shade with Dark Green Lustre. Stems may be Brown or Dark
Green. Mother of Pearl is a suitable background for this treatment. For
regular powder color treatment, apply thin wash of Sweet Pea Pink with
a touch of Standard Pink in centre. Leaves may be painted in with Apple
Green shaded with Shading Green. Stems may be Auburn Brown or Apple
Green mixed with just a touch of Deep Purple. Oriental Ivory or Gray
for Flesh is suitable for background. Either tint will harmonize. The
color for roses can be varied to suit individual taste. Primrose
Yellow, Blood Red and Rose are all suitable colors.


_Conventional White Primrose._ Let the plain White China answer as
white flowers, touch centres with Pompadour. Stamens may be of Gold. A
good background for such a color scheme is Pompadour with a touch of
Albert Yellow, and Sea Green with a touch of Black mixed with it.
Standard Pink, Primrose Yellow, Violet and Blood Red may be used for
the flowers if preferred. If bright colors are used, keep background
toned down with Gray.


_Conventional Hawthorne Berry._ For berry, use a mixture of Standard
Pink and Yellow Red. Centre may be Black. Leaves should be painted with
Moss Green shaded with Shading Green or Apple Green mixed with just a
little Deep Purple. Auburn Brown can be used for stems. A flat band to
harmonize with such decorations may be laid in with a mixture of Empire
Green and Russian Green. Hawthorne berries and leaves may be treated in
Lustres as follows: Berries, Silver Lustre centres shaded with Dark
Green Lustre. Background, Mother of Pearl Lustre.


_Conventional Columbine._ The colors of this flower are so varied so we
will of necessity treat only a few. Banding Blue (pale) or Sevres Blue
are both very suitable for Blue tints, Primrose Yellow and Albert
Yellow tints. Rose, Sweet Pea Pink for Pink tints, and Violet for
Violet tints. A very light application of Violet should be applied for
light tones and a mixture of Violet and a little Banding Blue for
darker tones. Use Best Black for stamens. Leaves are laid in with a
light wash of Apple Green and shaded with Shading Green. Gray Green and
Oriental Ivory are both suitable for backgrounds. Combinations of
Violet Lustre and Mother of Pearl Lustre are also effective for
background tinting.


_Conventional Poinsettia._ Flower should be laid in with Yellow Red
shaded with Blood Red toward centre; Yellow Brown is used for stamens.
Leaves are painted with Moss Green or Yellow Green shaded with a
mixture of Apple Green and very little Deep Purple or Shading Green.
Copenhagen Blue may also be used for leaves in extreme shadow.


_Conventional Cyclamen._ Apply a wash of Standard Pink for flowers.
Blood Red may be used for Deep Red effects. Leaves may be painted with
a mixture of Apple Green and a touch of Deep Purple or with clear Olive
Green. Background for this combination may be Roman Purple or Violet
Lustre. For yellow flowers use Primrose Yellow mixed with Albert
Yellow, with back petals of pale Meissen Brown. Leaves may be laid in
with Moss Green and stems with Shading Green. Roman Gold makes an
effective background for above the design and Oriental Ivory for below.


_Conventional Grapes._ A light wash of Roman Purple should be used for
large berries and darker application for smaller berries. Silver Lustre
may be used for small berries at the bottom of cluster. To work up the
design in semi-lustre effect, Silver Lustre may be used for leaves, and
stems laid in with Black. Royal Copenhagen Gray background.


_Conventional Apples._ Apply wash of Primrose Yellow, shade with Yellow
Red. Another effective combination is Yellow Red shaded with Blood Red.
Leaves may be painted Moss Green shaded with Shading Green. Stems
should be painted with Auburn Brown. For background use Copenhagen
Gray, shaded into pale Violet mixed with a touch of Black. A very
pretty lustre effect is to lay in some of the fruit with Orange Lustre
and others in Roman Gold. The leaves may be painted with both Lustre
and painting Tints—some may be Orange Lustre and others Meissen Brown
color. Stems should be Auburn Brown. An artistic background would be
either clear Oriental Ivory or Oriental Ivory mixed with a touch of
Black. It must be borne in mind that these color schemes are intended
to be used strictly in connection with conventional New Process Black
Outline designs. They are not intended as suggestions for natural style
painting. It is not advisable to make use of these instructions unless
in connection with black outlines.


_Conventional Oranges._ An appropriate conventional style decoration
for oranges would be to lay in the foremost one in Roman Gold and those
showing only partially in Yellow Brown Lustre. The flowers may be left
plain White with touch of Gold in centre. Use Green Lustre for leaves
and Dark Empire Green and Auburn Brown may be used for stems. In
background of Celestial Turquoise put in a few touches of Meissen Brown
next to fruit and under leaves. Warm Gray or Oriental Ivory with touch
of Black mixed with it may also be used for background.


_Conventional Poppies._ For a cluster design the centre flower may be
painted with Light Carnation, others with Sweet Pea Pink. Poppy Red and
Yellow Red are also suitable tints. Stamens should be painted with
Black or Violet mixed with Black. Seed pods may be painted with Gray
Green tipped with Black. Leaves and stems may be laid in with Apple
Green shaded with Shading Green. For background use Oriental Ivory
mixed with touch of Black. For lustre decoration use Rose Lustre for
centre flower and a thinner application for outside flowers. Seed pods
may be Gray Green painting color and stamens Gold. Leaves may be
painted with either Light Green Lustre or Apple Green painting color.
Stems should be the same. Background of Mother of Pearl Lustre or
Oriental Ivory painting color.


_Bittersweet._ Some of the berry forms Yellow-Red, others Albert Yellow
mixed with Pompadour. Moss Green is a very good tint for upper leaves
and Apple Green mixed with a touch of Deep Purple for lower leaves; a
touch of Black may be added to this mixture for darkest leaves. Auburn
Brown should be used for stems. Background of Oriental Ivory mixed with
a touch of black is effective for such an arrangement. If the design is
a panel effect bordered with bands, Gold may be used to good advantage
for bands.


_Tulips._ If the design be a cluster, the larger flowers may be painted
with pale Primrose Yellow shaded with Yellow Green at base. If any
petals turn or curl back into the background these may be laid in with
Violet of Iron. Sweet Pea Pink and combinations of White and Pink
(striped) may be used with good effect for other flower forms. Stamens
may be painted in with black. For leaves use Yellow Green or Gray-Green
at top, shaded into Royal Green, and at base use Shading Green. For
background use Royal Copenhagen Gray from a very light tone at top
shaded into deeper tones at bottom.


_Nasturtiums._ This popular motif may be painted in a great variety of
color schemes. For Yellow flowers use Primrose Yellow (various shades).
Ivory Yellow and light application of Yellow-Brown. Pinks and Blood Red
may be used for other shades and mixture of Blood Red and Auburn Brown
for Mahogany shades. Light leaves may be laid in with Apple Green mixed
with Gray Green and deeper ones with a mixture of Apple Green and a
touch of Deep Purple. Moss Green mixed with Gray-Green is also a good
combination. For background use Auburn Brown next to the design,
blended into Oriental Ivory.




                            FLOWER PAINTING

It would be impossible in this small work to go into detail of this
subject, considering the number of flowers we would have to deal
with—consequently we will deal only with the most popular subjects.
When painting an American beauty rose, paint the center and shadows in
crimson purple, mixed with about one-sixth part of darkest green. The
half shadows are done in crimson purple, leaving the lighter parts
white. Use colors of medium thickness. The piece is then ready for the
first firing.

Next go over the light parts with American beauty color, but treat the
shadows with crimson purple. Be especially careful about keeping the
shape of the rose as true as possible. Use crimson for the detail work
of the petals. Fire the second time.

If a third firing seems necessary, retouch, using the same colors.

When very delicate shades are desired, in rose painting, a light
dusting of brown-green toward the centre will prove effective. Some of
it can be dusted over the background. This should be done before the
second firing. The centre of a rose should always be a pure rose color.
If colors are applied too thickly, they are sure to chip off. It has
been learned by experience that dark greens are the most satisfactory
to use with purple or ruby when dark effects are needed. Blacks and
browns mixed with purple usually oxidize.



                             LEAF PAINTING

The average artist pays too little attention to the foliage in flower
painting. He starts out to paint a flower and the leaves seem like a
secondary consideration. Any handling is often thought to be good
enough. This is a great mistake, as the treatment of the leaves may be
the making or marring of a decoration. Many people are of the opinion
that they are very easy to paint. This is another mistake. They are
just as difficult and require as careful handling as the flowers or
fruit itself. It would be very hard to give definite instructions on
this subject. The many varieties with their various beautiful edges and
veinings, need individual handling, just as much as flowers do. The
shape of the article on which the decoration is placed, has much to do
with the handling.

There are, however, a few rules that will generally apply.

Leaves must present a crisp appearance. To accomplish this, the color
should be applied with as few strokes as possible. All detail work must
be left for the second firing. Large regular leaves can be completed
with two strokes—using the dark color for one and lighter color for the

The student should aim to make irregular leaves as simple as possible.
It stands to reason, however, that more strokes will be necessary for
these than for regular ones. In china painting, lights are
supplementary. It is the shadows that give real character to the
subject. These should be fired first, and the lights second.



                             FRUIT PAINTING

One of the important points of fruit—and flower painting as well—is the
proper form of leaves. Some decorators fall into the habit of painting
leaves of blackberries, currants, grapes, plums, etc., all in the same
irregular and ragged manner for which there is no excuse other than
lack of experience or painting leaves from memory. Above all we advise
the student to study the different leaves carefully. There is such a
variety of fruits and flowers that volumes could be written in
describing them, so we will confine our efforts to instructions on
painting the fruits most commonly used as designs for china painting.
These are blackberries, cherries, currants, plums, grapes and a few
other varieties. _Blackberries_ and _wild cherries_ are laid in with a
wash of black for the first firing, which should be applied only on the
dark side of the berries. The light part and the highlight should be
left pure white. For second firing, apply a wash of banding blue and
black with a little purple added to give it warmth. Wipe out one or two
sharp highlights just above center of berry to give it fullness and
transparency; the piece is then ready for second fire. Should a third
fire be required, be careful not to use too much black as dark colors
are apt to blister if applied too heavily.

Another combination for a beautiful dark color is first apply a wash of
dark green over the dark part of the berry for first firing and going
over it with a wash of crimson purple for second fire. You must not
omit wiping out highlights which are especially noticeable on fruits
with smooth skin.

_Red Cherries._ For painting red cherries, use dark pompadour for the
dark parts and poppy red for the lighter portion. Violet or iron is a
good color to use for deep cherries.

_Currants._ For currants, dark pompadour is a good color to use, but it
should be kept thin and the highlights must not be forgotten. Currants
of a lighter red may be painted with poppy red.

_Plums._ Crimson purple and banding blue are used in painting
plums—about three parts of blue to one of crimson purple. This same
combination may be used for second firing, with a light wash of black
for deepest shadows.

_Grapes._ For painting dark blue grapes, use a mixture of about two
parts banding blue to one part each purple and black. A strong contrast
between light and shade should be an essential. Red grapes are treated
the same as those above, but here violet of iron should be used for
shadows, and dark pompadour mixed with about one-eighth part ruby for
lighter portion. These applications should be applied very lightly.

_Green Grapes._ Shadows of green grapes should be laid in with a light
wash of olive green. The light parts are left white. A delicate stroke
of egg yellow around the under side of berry will give transparency to
the fruit. The reddish tones may be added with a mixture of poppy red
and pompadour for second firing.

_Strawberries._ It will be noted that dark pompadour is a very useful
color for fruits. The shadows in the strawberries should also be laid
in with this color and the light parts with a very light application of
light pompadour. It will not be amiss to remind the decorator that in
china painting all deep shadows are painted in for first firing and the
lighter tints applied for second and third firings.

_Crab Apples._ Paint in the dark parts with brown green, and a light
wash of yellow brown and yellow green over the light parts for first
firing. Add the reddish tone with a mixture of dark pompadour and
yellow red, and refire.

_Oranges._ Oranges are usually painted with yellow brown. Shadows are
obtained by laying one application over another, and blending out the
color thinly for lights.

_Red Raspberries._ These are laid in with dark pompadour for both light
and dark parts.

_Gooseberries._ Lay in the shadows of the tints with moss green and
apply wash of apple green over the light parts. Ripe gooseberries have
a pinkish cast. To obtain this tint, a light dusting of peach blossom
over a very light application of light pompadour will produce a
delicate pink, very suitable for this purpose.

_Peaches._ The greenish cast in the outer edge of dark shadows of
peaches, is laid in with brown green. This color should be blended with
the light parts with a wash of bluish violet color. For the pink tones
of the fruit apply a light wash of dark pompadour and the painting is
ready to fire.

For the second firing, paint over the entire fruit with a mixture
consisting of one part of yellow brown and two parts of ivory yellow.
Then strengthen the reddish tints and the shadows.

Do not attempt to work too fast by using the colors too thick. China
colors should be used sparingly. The strength of tints is obtained by
frequent firings.

Flowers or fruit painted with repeated applications of color will
appear soft, glossy and transparent.

“Dusting of colors,” which has been treated under separate heading,
will be invaluable in obtaining the delicate blendings so necessary in
all natural styles of decoration.

After fruit and grounds have been painted, light dusting of powder
colors such as delicate yellow browns, greens and light pinks may be
applied with cotton rubbing lightly over fruit and background to
produce a soft, harmonious relation of tints.



                            FIGURE PAINTING

The art of figure painting is somewhat difficult compared with the
other styles of china decoration, and has been made more so by the
introduction of many unnecessary colors and methods of applying them.
The beginner who has tried to follow these complicated methods has
become discouraged in this very interesting and valuable art of china
painting. Figure painting on china has been greatly admired and if a
simplified and understandable method were taught, it would become one
of the most popular styles of decoration.

Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Renaissance decorations of pottery are all
very beautiful, and in these we find figures as the motif, painted both
in conventional and in natural style. These decorations do not seem to
have been generally followed, although quite easy to produce. But in
this chapter we will consider flat figure painting. This being
supplementary, it will be found to be the easiest way to produce
figures in their natural colors.

In this work, the first requisite is to have the drawing on the china
absolutely correct. This can be traced from a drawing on paper on to
the vase and special attention should be paid to having clean cut,
perfect lines.

In handling the subject of flesh tones we will speak first of the face,
and by the use of the same process, all flesh colorings, even full
nudes can be painted.

Having drawn the features as lightly as possible, outline them with
flesh shadow very lightly. Then proceed to the shadows of the face.
These must be done very smoothly with the same color. On the edge of
the shadow add a little flesh gray toward the lighter part of the face.
This neutral tone, between the light and shadow, is seen on a person
with a good clear complexion. These colors should not be mixed but
blended well and carefully. The gray should be a pure tone although
very light, as the figure will be spoiled if it is too heavy, for in
firing it will be inclined to turn green. Outline the lips faintly with
flesh tint and in the same way apply the color desired for the eyes and
hair. To be explicit we would say that flesh shadows and flesh gray
only are used to paint a face—and the lights left white. All the work
must be done while the colors are fresh, and done smoothly so that they
will be well blended. If these details have been carefully observed—the
article is ready for firing.

To prepare the decoration for a second firing wash the face all over
with a light coat of flesh-soft-tint and then touch the shadows with
flesh shadow, while the wash used is still moist.

The gray tone should not be used a second time as the first application
will show through the flesh tint as a soft warm gray. Retouch and
strengthen wherever it is found necessary, and cover the lips with a
touch of flesh-soft-tint. Remove all the little high lights, and the
article is ready for a second firing. Pay attention to this suggestion.
For first firing always use flesh shadow and flesh gray and for second
firing use flesh shadow and flesh-soft-tint.

For third firing, shadows should be touched up with flesh shadow; touch
up the cheeks with a light application of flesh-soft-tint, and use the
same color to shade the lips. Hair, eyes, etc., may be now finished and
the piece fired.

It is plain from this short explanation that a method of figure
painting could not be more simple and productive of good results. The
student is not apt to become confused when only these flesh colors are

Flesh gray mixed with flesh-soft-tint makes a darker tone, suitable for
shadows of the eyes, etc. Flesh shadows may be added to the above
mixture. With a little practice it will be found that by this method of
figure painting satisfactory results are obtained in a very short time.
The following suggestions should be observed when painting hair for
faces of light complexion: Apply a wash of flesh shadow, for shaded
parts only, for first firing, leaving the lights pure white; for second
firing, a wash of yellow brown should be applied over both light and
dark parts and the shadows retouched. Dark hair is painted in the same
manner, using hair black softened slightly by adding one-sixth part
banding blue. Flesh gray is used for painting gray eyes, and finishing
brown for dark eyes. Chestnut colored hair is painted with hair brown
or finishing brown. The various colors for painting hair as treated
above may be mixed with other colors to suit the preferences of the

It is well to remind the decorator here that the one great fault that
the artist has to guard against is, using too strong a red for faces.
Use flesh tones and light grays sparingly and bear in mind, never use
yellow as it produces a disagreeable effect. Nude figures are painted
according to the same methods as explained for painting faces.
Brunettes require stronger shadows and grays, but the flesh-soft-tint
is used for both light and dark complexions.





In tinting china, the best results are always obtained by using freshly
mixed colors. They work more easily and smoothly. A broad tinting brush
or square shader should be used for this work—one color or a
combination of colors may produce a tint. Apply the color as smoothly
as possible, but if it is found to be not quite even, pad it with a
cloth or pad. Some colors contain more grit than others—and are more
difficult to pad. In applying such colors as yellow-brown, brown-green,
apple-green, dark pompadour and pink, it is necessary to dampen the pad
with mixing oil. When using the smoother tints, it will only be
necessary to tint the pad, by touching it to the color. The effect will
be improved and deepened by a dusting of colors when the tint is about

The term “flushing” is sometimes used when tinting is used for a




There is probably no feature in the painting of china that gives the
student more anxiety than the art of ground-laying.

He is confronted by many difficulties, but when the art is mastered,
feels well paid for all his work. The beautiful results are sufficient
reward. A perfectly even and lustrous ground is obtained by applying
powdered colors over a well padded wash of tinting oil. The results are
more satisfactory than a well padded ground made of color mixed with
oil before applying.

The best quality of grounding or tinting oil is the first essential. In
fact it is upon this, to a great degree, that the success of the work
depends. A tinted oil is usually used. Pour into a small dish the
desired amount of oil. See that no lumps or bubbles are in it. Then
with a clean square tinting brush apply the oil quickly over the
surface to be laid with color. It is not necessary that the work should
be very carefully done—but care should be taken to see that all the
space is covered. Have ready for use two medium soft pads, free from
lint. Pad the oil over and over again with one pad until it looks like
a smooth soft tint, then repeat with the second pad. This second
padding may not be necessary, but it cannot do any harm and it
certainly will improve the smoothness of the oil. Here the decorator is
cautioned to see that the oil is perfectly even, free from spots and
scratches, as these faults would be noticeable after the color is
applied. It is best to wipe off all the oil and make another
application instead of trying to correct a fault on the padded oil.

After the oiled china has stood for half an hour or so, the powdered
colors can be applied.

Have plenty of color on a plate and, holding the piece of china over
it, take up with a piece of soft cotton as much color as it will hold,
and drop it over the part of the china to which the oil has been
applied. Care should be taken to hold the piece flat that is to be
decorated, for if it is held upright, the color will naturally drop
off. A good amount of color should be kept on the cotton while applying
tint. After the oil is covered, dust with clean cotton several times.
If any superfluous color remains, remove it with a soft brush.

Now turn to our chapter of cutting out. If anything of this nature
needs to be done, now is the time to do it.

After firing this ground should be heavy and have a strong glaze.

By adding turpentine to the oil and mixing well a medium, heavy or
light ground can be obtained. By the use of turpentine the oil is made
lighter and less color adheres to it.

Sometimes the powder colors will be found hardened from packing in the
vials and come out in hard pieces. Pulverize these pieces well and sift
them through a cheese cloth if necessary. Various colors can be blended
together beautifully on grounds by applying the lighter tint first and
carrying it over slightly onto the part which is to be tinted with dark
colors. In applying the darker colors use sparingly as it approaches
the lighter tint and avoid leaving a sharp line. Blend the two colors
together until the combination is of very smooth and soft appearance.

The more turpentine mixed with tinting oil the thinner will be the coat
of powder adhering to it, naturally a lighter ground is the result. For
purple, violet color, maroons and pinks use light oil for grounds. It
is difficult to remedy a scratch or imperfection on dusted grounds. If
it is done with moist color and brush, bear in mind that dry powder
applications fire much darker than colors applied moist with brush, and
gauge the color accordingly.

For a brilliant effect, dust the unfired background with a flux or
glaze. For warm colors such as browns, red and flesh tones, this is not
necessary, but it will improve dark greens and blues. It is unsafe to
try to paint over dry unfired grounds. To lay grounds in Matt colors,
proceed in this manner. Use a little turpentine with the oil for Matt
color dry grounds. These colors are opaque and it will not be
noticeable if there is a slight variation in thickness in applying
them. It is advisable, however, to have just a medium application.



In other chapters we have explained the process of dusting in
underglaze work and ground laying, but the particular feature of it to
be dealt with now is its use in altering and strengthening tints that
have been applied with wet colors. This process is very similar to that
used for underglaze work. For illustration, we will assume that you
have a decoration in green or light ivory—and that you desire a warmer
tint. In this case any warm color such as yellow-brown or yellow-red
can be dusted on the decorations that are already dry. The color may be
applied with a dry brush or piece of cotton and rubbed very gently. A
small amount will adhere to the china—and thus the desired effect will
be obtained. Any number of colors can be applied in this way and
blended well together. Heavy grounds can be strengthened by the use of
dark colors, such as browns, purples, greens and blues. While the
delicate tones are softened by the use of lighter shades.

In the painting of flowers, dusting is often used to soften or darken
them. This process, however, is not always confined to the flower
alone, but is used to blend the rose, or whatever the flower may be,
with the background. It has a very softening and pleasing effect.

In figure painting, dusting a flesh tone on the cheek will improve it
very much.

An artist will feel well repaid for time devoted to investigating the
many possibilities of this branch of painting, for crude and uneven
work can be remedied by this process.

Gold or silver must _not_ be applied after an article has been dusted
in this way. The metal is usually tacky and may retain some of the
little particles, and this would mar the brilliancy of either metal.




For outlining china, this method—which saves one or two firings—can be
used and will be found most practical.

Mix whatever dry color you wish, with water and add a couple of drops
of mucilage or sugar syrup. Mix well with palette knife. Use this
mixture as you would water colors—and outline the design with a lining
brush. The lines will dry very quickly and in case you want to erase
them, use water. Then, too, if the color dries on the palette, water
should be used—and mix well. These outlines will remain perfectly, and
you can paint and repaint over them—there being no danger of rubbing
off and will show through oil mixed colors.

If the background is applied with regular mixed colors—and the design
cut out and tinted, you can have a piece of decorated china complete
with one firing. The outlines will fire clearly, but if outlined in
India ink they would have disappeared.

When this method of outlining is used, a brush should be used instead
of a pen. When using a pen in outlining, mix the colors with mixing
oil—to about the consistency of that would be used in painting. Dilute
this sufficiently with diluting medium, so that it will flow readily
from the pen. Experience will soon teach you the right consistency. It
is just as undesirable to have it too thin as too thick.

For small lines use a fine pen and a coarse one for heavier work. A
small brush can be used successfully.

India ink is used for outlining china for decorating. This disappears
in firing. It does not injure the gold or colors—but the ink lines can
be seen when lustres are applied over them. When the ink is perfectly
dry, the china colors can be applied.

To make a broad outline, paint the line with grounding oil that has
been mixed very well with a small amount of lampblack. Draw the lines,
then dust the powdered color over them. You can be sure of obtaining a
perfectly even color effect, if the banding is done in this way. When
outlining with gold, use a mixture of pure Roman gold and diluting
medium. When mixed with a diluter, Roman gold may be applied with
either a pen or a brush. Do not use turpentine or liquid bright gold.

Burnish silver can be handled in the same way.

When using liquid bright gold or lustre, you can use a brush or pen,
whichever you choose.

Outlining in color can be done over fired colors, golds, silvers and
lustres, but be careful not to apply it too heavily or it will flake

You can outline in color over unfired dry tints and unfired, well dried
Roman gold. The powder must be mixed with water when used over unfired
lustres. The lustres would be spoiled if turpentine or oil was used as
they spread too easily. The best thing to use in gold outlining is
diluting medium with powder gold, but lavender oil is very good.


                              CUTTING OUT

Sometimes it is necessary to wipe out a design from a background. In
this case the following suggestions are recommended:

The design to the “cut out” must be seen from underneath the tint. A
design to be wiped out of a tinted background must necessarily be drawn
in with India ink. For dusted grounds the oil should be wiped off the
ink lines with a pointed stick so that the tint will not adhere to the

Dusted backgrounds require about twenty-four hours to dry, but by
artificial heat the time is considerably shortened. To remove the tint
covering the design, make a mixture of oil of cloves and a few chips of
soap. Apply a light coat and be careful that it does not spread beyond
the lines. The color requires about five minutes to soften and may then
be removed with a piece of cloth over the finger tip. Do not try to
remove the tint until the design is perfectly dry. Use care in removing
the color so as not to drag it over onto the background, change cloth
frequently so that you are constantly working with cloth free from oil
and color.

Designs may be “cut out” from powdered background by using a stick and
scraping off the tint. It should be done while the tint is still fresh.
The former method, however, is more satisfactory, tar oil may be used
instead of oil of cloves if preferred.


                            PADS AND DABBERS

To help in the making of even grounds, pads and dabbers are used. They
are also used for flushing combined colors. These can be made of any
soft material, such as cheese cloth, silk, etc. The softer the material
is, the more satisfactory the work will be. A medium hard ball of
cotton can be covered with the material and used for this purpose. Be
sure to see that the material is without wrinkles. Singe all lint off
of the dabber with a lighted match. In padding color dab quickly and
lightly, working the tint evenly by light, gentle tapping. A silk
dabber is more desirable and there is no better material for the
purpose than an old handkerchief or any soft piece of silk that has
been frequently washed. Fine cheese cloth will do, especially on heavy

Cheese cloth will permit the cotton to absorb some of the oil and it
does not retain much of the tint. Professional decorators of china use
this method in tinting. Color should not be padded while very fresh as
a large part of it would be taken up by the pad. More satisfactory
results are obtained by allowing the tint to become slightly “tacky”
before padding. For best results in spreading heavy tints, fitch hair
stippling brushes or dabbers are used before using cloth pads.

If the pad produces an uneven or grainy effect, rub the superfluous
color from it with a piece of paper. Moisten the dabber lightly with
oil before proceeding with the work. When tinting with banding blue,
yellow-brown, grays or pinks a little more oil should be applied to the
pad. Fine cotton or lamb’s wool are suitable for making pads.


                      SLOW OR QUICK DRYING COLORS

Almost every student experiences difficulty, at times, with the
uncertainty of colors drying in the way desired. Sometimes they will
dry too rapidly and at others not fast enough.

It is well to use diluting medium to keep the colors moist, but use a
regular mixing medium with colors. Oil of lavender is not practical as
it dries quickly. Mixing oil is too thick.

Slow drying colors are essential in painting broad grounds. Very often
time is needed for changes in designs. It is always necessary to have
something to moisten the brush with while working—any diluting medium
can be used then. Only a very little is necessary and no other oil
_need_ be used. For very slow drying add a drop or two of oil of cloves
when mixing the colors. Naturally, the colors will remain moist
according to the amount used. Should too much be used, the colors will
run. Sweet oil is also used, but less should be used than of the oil of
cloves or the colors may remain moist for several days.

Turpentine or oil of lavender are the mediums used for quick drying.
Colors will dry quickly and thoroughly, if a little turpentine is added
and mixed well with the colors that have been previously well mixed. To
dry colors or keep them from running, a little steam will be effectual.

Perhaps it will be only necessary to breathe on the surface.



                     PASTE OR RELIEF WORK FOR GOLD

The beginner is confronted frequently with two difficulties in paste
decoration. These are flattening of the paste after the application,
and chipping off. These can usually be traced to one of two things: the
use of the wrong quality of oil or to using too much.

Unsatisfactory results will always be obtained if the paste is
insufficiently ground. It is well to grind it well with turpentine.
Allow it to dry, and then mix with oil—a horn or steel knife can be

Some of the professionals who do the finest work for the English and
French manufacturers, mix their paste with two parts of fat oil and one
part of oil of tar. The paste should be mixed to a half thick
consistency with the oil that is to be used, and worked until it is
smooth. Special care should be taken to following these instructions.

The paste now being about like freshly mixed china colors, stir with a
knife and breathe upon it. Keep stirring until it is hard and gathers
to the knife in a stringy way.

Reducing the paste to the right consistency is the most important
feature of the work. It should be of such consistency that when taken
up it will keep in good shape while hanging to the paste brush.

If a small amount of water should be used instead of breathing upon it,
great care should be used not to use too much. Too much humidity will
cause the paste to become stiff.

A single long stroke produces the best results in laying paste lines.
Frequent touches produces an uneven line which will mar the beauty of
paste work. Be sure to lay the paste high and round like a thin cord.
If it should flatten, too much oil has been used; breathe upon it again
until proper consistency is obtained.

Keep paste in as small and round a heap as possible while it is being
used. It is best to mix fresh paste for each day’s work. If you should
wish to remix paste, use as little oil as possible.

To straighten an uneven line cut the end of a brush handle to a sharp
edge and smooth or move the line in place. A brush moistened with
turpentine will sometimes do the work satisfactorily. Do not let the
brush become clogged with paste while working. Clean it frequently by
wiping it on a cloth. Dresden paste brushes are best for this work.
Paste may be applied over fired colors or lustre if desired. Be sure
the paste is well dried (not artificially) before firing. To obtain the
best results paste should be fired before gold is applied. However, in
case of emergency gold may be applied over unfired paste provided it is
perfectly dry and hard.

If paste should, for any reason chip off, the space should be filled in
with fresh paste. Dry thoroughly and apply gold—then fire as before.
Unfluxed gold should be used over paste. For silver paste decoration,
two applications of silver are necessary for best results.



A brush used for gold should be used for that purpose only. Use
turpentine or oil of lavender for moistening the brush—and after it has
been rubbed well into the paste the latter will turn a thick brown
color. Pour a very little turpentine on the paste if it is too dry and
work well with a palette knife. A drop of liquid bright gold will
soften Roman gold quickly. Don’t use turpentine if you use liquid gold.

Another way (although perhaps not quite as good a way) to soften gold
quickly is to warm it over a flame, then add a little turpentine. The
objection to this process is, that after it has cooled it is harder—and
the results are not as satisfactory.

We find in gold work, it is safe to use liquid bright gold for the
first firing and Roman gold for the second. Liquid bright makes a good
foundation for Roman gold and makes a good wearing combination. It is
not well to use unfluxed gold on hard china as it rubs off very easily.
Roman gold is used for this china and hard or unfluxed gold on the
softer wares, such as Belleek.

Gold requires a medium firing—and when practical it should be applied
in the last two firings. If an article that is decorated with gold
requires refiring on account of some defect in the other decorations,
the gold will need to be gone over again or you may have to give the
piece an extra firing for the gold.

If gold is overfired it will fade white; on the other hand, if it is
underfired it will rub off in burnishing.

It is very necessary to remember one thing in burnishing gold. If any
of the glass fibers are allowed to remain on the decoration when the
article is undergoing a second firing, they will eat the colors, and
the work will be nearly if not quite spoiled.

It is unwise to burnish an article near where you are working, as the
particles get into the colors and act the same when the colors are

Wash each article after burnishing. After each firing of an article,
burnish the gold, for handling, or moisture from the hands, or dust are
sure to show. Lustres are applied after the gold is burnished.

There are many reasons for gold looking dirty. Sometimes it is due to
the china being dusty. Maybe the brushes were not clean or a poor
quality of turpentine was used. Gold will not stand too much mixing,
consequently it is well to have only the amount needed on the slab.

After the student has had some experience in handling gold, he will
probably be able to apply it over unfired paste. The paste, however,
must be absolutely dry. But the safest way to obtain the best results
is to fire the paste first. Care should be taken not to apply the gold
too thick or it will blister and peel off.

If liquid bright gold is used with Roman gold use no turpentine. In
fact never use turpentine with liquid bright gold.

When it is found necessary to remove fired gold, it can be done with
liquid china eraser.

Gold can be applied very evenly to the edges of round articles with the
tip of the finger.

After silver has been fired, gold can be applied and vice versa, as one
metal acts as a foundation for the other.

Mix one part of silver with two parts of unfluxed gold and you have
green gold. For platinum effects mix liquid bright silver with Roman

Nothing but unfluxed gold should be used with Belleek ware.



                            GOLD BURNISHING

The appearance of Roman gold when it comes from the kiln is Matt or
dull. In order to bring out its natural brilliancy, scouring or
burnishing is necessary. This can be done with a spun glass brush made
for this purpose, or it can be burnished with a special sand. In case
an article has to be refired, be sure to remove all of the glass fibres
as they would ruin the decorations. The beauty of the unburnished gold
will be destroyed by moisture from the fingers. If sand is used,
moisten a soft cloth with water, and after dipping it in sand, rub the
gold gently. After the gold is polished, the china can be washed. The
china is underfired if the gold comes off in burnishing. The gold can
be burnished more easily and more evenly if a coat of liquid gold is
used in the first firing and Roman gold on the second.




Cleanliness is one of the first requisites for success in using
lustres. The brushes should be cleansed with Gold-Essence or Alcohol
from all traces of one color before using another, and should not be
allowed to dry containing any color. The corks should never be changed
from one vial to another as the least contact of tints in the unfired
state is liable to spoil the whole vial. The vial should be corked at
once when not in use as the liquid evaporates rapidly; this will also
guard against dust and upsetting.

A soft camel’s-hair brush, that can be dipped into the vial, will be
needed; also a wad of cotton enclosed in a piece of silk to form a pad
as for ordinary tinting.

Use great care in handling pieces tinted with lustre colors. Clean the
china thoroughly, using alcohol, being careful to leave no finger marks
on the piece. Dust in the brush, in the kiln or on the china will make
blemishes. See that the work is not exposed to any dampness. After the
work is completed handle as little as possible and if necessary to be
wrapped, use tissue paper, not cotton. It is best to apply the lustre
in the last firings. An even tint is obtained by several applications,
but always fire for each application of the lustre. A second coat on an
unfired coat of lustre will produce a blotchy effect.

If lustre has fired spotty or in an unsatisfactory manner the fault can
usually be corrected by applying another wash of the same color or a
darker tint. A generous application of Mother of Pearl lustre will also
remedy the defect. If lustre should fire too light, apply another wash
of the same color and refire.

Lustres dry quickly and therefore should be padded without delay.
Always have the dabber ready so that there will be no time lost after
the color is applied. A good plan would be to apply lustre over a part
of the surface and quickly pad it smoothly, then apply the lustre over
the balance and finish by padding. To retard drying, mix a very little
oil of lavender with the lustre, on the palette. This will also assist
in padding the lustre more successfully. It is difficult to apply
lustre smoothly with a brush inside of cups and small bowls. To obviate
this pour a small quantity into the bowl and spread it with a silk
dabber. Be sure that the lint has been singed from dabber. Firing of
lustres require a great deal of care. The piece should be placed in the
kiln in such a way that no dust can fall on it. Be careful in drying
lustres as the color will pulverize if the heat is too strong. On
lustre and gold decorations care must be exercised in burnishing the
gold so as not to rub the lustre, as it is very easily scratched.
Lustre applied too thick is liable to crack and if applied over fired
color will lose its brilliancy unless the color is a very light tint.
Fired tints and lustres can be removed with hydrofluoric acid.

Lustres should have a medium fire. Deep color effects are obtained by
repeated applications and firings. If lustre color is to be applied
over gold, see that the gold is burnished. It is not advisable to apply
painting colors over lustres as the combination is not a success.
Lustres applied over fired Matt colors will produce a rich metallic
effect which harmonizes beautifully with gold and paste work. A variety
of metallic effects can also be obtained by applying a greenish bronze
tone. Ruby will produce a strong dark metallic effect, and orange over
gold produces a bluish purple bronze tone. Lustres applied over liquid
bright gold will be very brilliant, but richer effects are obtained
over Roman gold.

Silver lustres over light fire tints will have a frosted appearance,
which is very effective combined with turquoise enamels and gold and
paste work. A deep, rich maroon effect can be procured by painting two
coats of purple lustre over liquid bright silver. Orange lustre over
ruby will produce a strong scarlet color. Orange over blue, dark green
or olive, will produce greenish tints. Over iridescent rose, a good
bronze tone is obtained. Over gold, it will produce a purplish bronze

Yellow is generally used for mixtures with blues, greens and grays to
produce lighter tones. It is a light color and is mostly used for this
purpose and for backgrounds. For a strong yellow effect give several
applications and firings.

A single application of light green is a greenish gray. A more intense
effect results from several applications. Light green lustre is very
popular as a tint used in connection with gold. That is, it is applied
after the gold is fired. Rose over liquid bright gold produces a strong
metallic effect. If pink or rose is overfired it will have a purplish
tone. A soft pearl effect is obtained from a light wash of yellow or
light green over fired rose. A background of rose is most effective for
paste and gold work.

Blending of blue, pink and gray are found in iridescent rose which can
be used with very satisfactory results for a background, and inside of
cups and bowls. Padding is not necessary as the more irregular the tint
is applied the more striking will be the effect.

Copper, dark green, steel blue and purple must be well protected from
dust and humidity, or they will become spotted in firing.

Opal and Mother of Pearl will not always fire successfully. They are
not, however, wholly unreliable, but have a tendency to fire off.

Yellow pearl is one of the very beautiful iridescent colors, with a
variety of light and deep tones.

Two fired applications of ruby purple will make a very deep tone. It is
very effective when used with paste and gold work. A fine iridescent,
deep green background for gold, is obtained by firing light green over

Steel blue, as a rule, is a very pleasing transparent color, but it
will sometimes fire iridescent dark greenish gray. It combines well
with silver and black for conventional designs. A wash of yellow over
steel blue will give an oxidized silver effect.

Copper is used successfully over gold lustre. Very pleasing
combinations of colors are produced by applying enamels over unfired
lustres. They assume a pinkish cast in firing.

Copper decorations on lustres are more satisfactory if the lustre is
fired. It can, however, be applied over unfired lustre if it is
perfectly dry. Lustre applied over India ink will fire off. Very
pleasant and delicate effects are obtained by outlining with gold and
pen over lustres.


                              MATT COLORS

Matt colors are opaque and are usually used for backgrounds, in which
case they are usually applied by the dusting process, although they may
be used exactly as china colors are. After being fired the surface
assumes a velvety effect and looks like unscoured gold. Sometimes they
are used with ordinary colors. They can be mixed with them but when
used in this way they are inclined to lose some of the natural
dullness. These colors will stand an unusual amount of firing without

Matt colors can be mixed with white and used the same as oil colors.

If a fine bronze effect is desired, it may be had by stippling gold
over fired Matt colors.

It frequently happens that after these colors have been fired, they
will rub off, especially, if they have been laid on too thick. In this
case make a mixture of a small amount of vitrifiable china tint and the
Matt color, making a light wash, and this will fasten the ground. This
wash may be blown or stippled on. It may be applied with a shader if
the colors are not too soft.

Paste and gold may be applied over fired Matt colors. Roman or unfluxed
gold may be used over paste, but unfluxed gold must be used if applied
directly on the color.

As these colors are opaque no design will show through when fired.
Consequently if any design is to be applied to these colors, it must be
cut out. (See cutting out.) Vitrified china colors are used over fired
Matt tints—and silver can be used over Matt colors.

These colors cannot be used successfully on such articles as table
ware, as they will not stand a great amount of washing. They retain
grease, etc., and would soon lose their beauty.

Matt colors are made by adding a certain amount of oxide of zinc to
china colors. A little experimenting will tell the decorator what
proportions to use. Grind these well together with turpentine—and dry
before using. Different makes require different proportions.




A steady hand and practice are necessary to acquire good results in
banding and lining. The best results are obtained with the “Star”
Banding Wheel. Operation of the wheel is very simple. Three centering
buttons move together automatically, bringing the article to the exact
center and holding it in an unmovable position. These are adjustable
and can be raised to hold in position bowls, vases, etc. A large amount
of valuable time is saved by using the “Star” Banding Wheel. It is
easily manipulated by the most inexperienced and is practically

Do not move the brush around the china. By resting your arm on a
support you can turn the banding wheel slowly and keep the brush in a
steady position, and touch the china lightly.

A good brush is necessary to make a band, but a thin one is used to
make a small line.

The colors must be kept in a half liquid state. In this state they flow
easily and an even line is the result. The brush should pass over the
same line several times.

Bands are made with grounding oil so they may be dusted with powder—the
same as in the ground-laying process. This is preferable to using wet
colors for a broad band. With this process the band is even and glazy.
A cut liner is used for lines and edges. This brush is best for this
work as it carries the large quantities necessary for a long line.

Perfect lines must be made with one stroke—as several short strokes are
sure to appear blotchy. When lines are made of gold or silver, the
metal used should be more liquid than when used in painting.

A compass, with a ruling pen, can be used for making lines. China color
made liquid with diluting medium is used.

Lines may be drawn around the edges of bowls, plates, saucers, etc.



                          OXIDIZING OF COLORS

Different metals are used as a basis in producing various colors. Iron
is the basis for flesh tints, reds and browns. Less iron (in
proportion) is used for yellow and green.

Gold and tin are used as the basis for pinks, roses, carmines, blues,
purples and violets. In mixing colors of iron basis with those of gold
and tin basis the lustre and brilliancy is sometimes impaired.
Experience will show that purple (which has gold or tin as basis) mixed
with black or brown (iron basis) sometimes loses its glaze, on the
other hand the same purple will, as a rule, keep its glaze if mixed
with dark green, owing to the fact that greens have a smaller per cent
of iron. The combining of the two basic metals causes the oxidization,
and this difficulty is hard to remedy. A scroll of gold or silver is
quite a help in this dilemma, they being opaque, defects are easily
covered. Satisfactory tints can be procured by mixing colors of iron
basis as one class and those of gold and tin basis as another.

A piece of china will sometimes come from the kiln with a perfect
glaze, but soon loses its lustre and becomes Matt. This may be due to
the fact that the color is too heavy and not fired long enough.

The china being porous absorbs the natural moisture in the air and
appears to be oxidized. This can be removed with soap and water.
Refiring will prevent a recurrence of this condition.

Special care should be taken with such colors as purples and browns,
that too much oil is not used in mixing. It has a tendency to produce a
dull, undesirable appearance. Keep the colors as dry as possible.


                      GLAZING OF UNDERFIRED COLORS

Even though every precaution known to the art has been observed, the
artist will be puzzled in taking from the kiln pieces that have been
fired in a way anything but satisfactory or as he expected. It is
frequently the case that his best pieces are underfired. Knowing the
danger of _over_ firing, he is liable to make this mistake. Should this
happen, it is not well to refire china without going over the work with
a thin coat of color. This should be fired at the same heat as would be
used in the ordinary glaze. In case you do not need to go over the
whole decoration, the fired colors could be covered lightly with a coat
of enamel oil, or mixing oil and turpentine. Let this coat dry, padding
it well, after which dust it with white flux or ivory glaze. The
desired glaze will be produced by the powder adhering to the oil. Fire
again with ordinary heat.

A glaze cannot be produced on underfired china by using a coat of
lustre, but instead it will be found that this china will absorb the
glazy substance of the lustre. This has a tendency to change the colors
and produces a frosted effect.

Sometimes white lustre will retain its glaze over a lightly fired tint,
but we suggest that the decoration be retouched after the colors are
very dry, and powder it with ivory glaze. Pure glazes or fluxes mixed
with oil should never be applied over the unglazed decoration—as it
will invariably destroy the colors. A rough surface can be improved by
rubbing it gently with very fine emery paper.

You will find that a good oil for glazing is made by the turpentine in
the cup, that you use for washing brushes. The glazy qualities are
produced by the fluxes of the colors. Great care should be taken to see
that this oil is clean. After giving the underfired decoration a light
wash, pat well. Fire in the usual way after it is thoroughly dry, and a
very satisfactory glaze will be obtained.


                           CHIPPING OF COLORS

There are many reasons for colors chipping, but it is probably due more
frequently to the careless application of color than to any other cause.

Sometimes, and in fact quite frequently, it is due to imperfections in
the china. A frequent imperfection is that the glaze is very thin and
in firing the colors cannot adhere to it.

Less trouble, however, is experienced with the light colors, such as
yellows, grays, blues, reds and light greens. While in the darker
colors, the browns, dark greens, purples, etc., it is found that they
are more liable to chip off.

Then too very hard china gives more trouble than a softer ware, such as
English or Belleek.

Artists frequently think that thick colors will produce heavier tints.
This is not so. The mistake is a bad one. The colors will not only chip
off very soon, but will lose their brilliancy. The only sure way to
meet with satisfactory results is to apply the color very evenly,
avoiding lumpy strokes.

If colors are well mixed and perfectly smooth and free from grit, there
is very little danger of chipping.

The most objectionable feature in china painting, and we might say
hopeless one, is chipping, as there is really no good way to remedy it.
The nearest thing to a solution that we can offer is to fill in the
chipped place and refire—but the glaze will never be quite the same.
The great danger in refiring is that some other part of the decoration
may be marred in the same way. Whenever the chipping occurs in a place
that can be covered with enamel or paste and gold, it is best to remedy
it in this way.

One way to remedy it, and to avoid the necessity of an extra firing, is
to mix the powdered color with copal varnish and apply it thickly over
the chipped places. This looks fairly well and will remain brilliant
for some time.

Another difficulty that may be experienced is blistering. The cause of
this is bad oil. In this case the color will not chip off, but it will
shrink. This condition is hard to remedy but a small amount of oil of
cloves added to the mixing medium will prevent it.

In decalcomania or transfer work, blistering happens very frequently.
This happens because the transfers have not been washed sufficiently,
and thoroughly dried before applying. This may be prevented if a wash
of oil of cloves is used, over the dry transfer, dabbing it on with a
slightly moistened pad. It is absolutely necessary that the transfers
should be free from any trace of moisture.




                              ENAMEL WORK

One of the most essential features in this work is to have the enamel
of the right consistency. There are many good enamels in the market but
we have found that Aufsetzweiss in tube or powder form, makes a very
satisfactory white enamel.

Dilute most enamels with turpentine to a semi-fluid state. Before
applying, breathe on the mixture until it is reduced to the proper
consistency, which means that it should be in such shape that it can be
applied in a long, free stroke. At the same time it should be thick
enough to lie high and round on the china. The beauty of the decoration
depends on this feature. Considerable of experimenting on the part of
the student will be necessary in order to perfect himself in this work.
Enamel in powder form must be thoroughly mixed with the turpentine,
after which a little fat oil should be added.

Very poor work is sure to be the result if enamel is either too thick
or too thin. If too thin it will be flat and if too thick it will chip
off. It is about the right consistency, if it will remain in shape when
a little is piled up.

When applying enamel, do not allow the brush to touch the china. Right
here it might be well to advise the student that it is better to do the
work over than to attempt to correct any errors by repeating strokes.

For enamelling, use a sable brush. Take up a sufficient quantity of the
mixture so that some will hang to the brush. The student should aim to
make high, round lines and dots. Sometimes the dots appear pointed, but
after the work is fired, they will be round.

When working with enamel, it is inclined to harden. In case it does,
add a drop of turpentine, breathe upon it and it is ready to use again.
Sometimes enamel will chip in firing. In this case scrape it off and
apply again.

Enamel that is too oily will chip—so it should be dried with a piece of
silk. There are other causes for enamel chipping. Too many firings and
insufficient mixing will cause it. Enamel should not be fired more than
twice. Do not use it unless freshly mixed. There is little danger of
these colors chipping off of Belleek or any soft glazes. Enamels are
not likely to chip, if it is allowed to dry well before firing,
provided that all the suggestions in this chapter have been observed.

A good tinted enamel can be produced by adding one-fifth part of the
color to four-fifths of white enamel and mixed very thoroughly. These
colors dry darker than when applied—so they should be mixed
accordingly. Blue, green, pink and ruby produce good colors—but reds
and browns do not.

Another method is to tint white enamels by washing lightly with color.
White enamels can also be applied over unfired colors or fired gold. If
used over unfired lustre colors it will turn reddish. White enamel
fires very well though, over fired lustres.

Flat enamels are produced in a slightly different way from the raised
enamels. Mix the white enamels according to the directions given
before—and add to it one-fifth of the color to be used and one-eighth
of flux. This is then diluted with oil of lavender. Use sufficient to
reduce it to a fluid state—and mix well, a square brush is the best for
this work. Let the enamel flatten itself naturally. After this is fired
the ground appears higher.

One firing is all that is needed for flat enamels.

When several flat enamels are to be applied to one article, the
greatest of care should be taken to see that one color does not run
over the other. They should be separated by heavy lines—and each one

Peach blossom or ruby are used for pink enamel. Albert yellow for
yellow, peacock or Russian green for green and blue green, or turquoise
blue for blue. Some colors that cannot be produced are bought prepared
ready for use.

Enamels should not be fired heavily. Add one-sixth of china cement to
enamels and you have an excellent filling for cracks and nicks in china.

Glass enamels give better satisfaction when mixed with water rather
than oil. Mixed in this way, the danger of chipping is reduced to a
minimum. These enamels are made by mixing Matt colors with white
enamel. Handled in this way the enamels seldom bubble.



                            CHINA REPAIRING

To repair a piece of china that has been cracked through and through,
use “cement to be fired,” mixed with water, until nearly liquid. Apply
it to the crack repeatedly, so as to let the china absorb as much of it
as possible; then wipe away all the surplus, and fire. This cement
contains quite a good deal of flux, and will affect any color covered
with it. It will always prove satisfactory when applied nowhere except
just inside of the cracks.

If the article to be repaired is broken into many pieces, tie them
together with asbestos cord before applying the cement to be fired, and
fire with the asbestos. Asbestos will not leave a mark on hard china,
and only a slight one on Belleek ware; but even this can be prevented
by firing very lightly, and the cement will be quite as effective.

It must be remembered that this cement has no body and will do nothing
toward filling in a space; it melts completely and holds the pieces
together. If the crack is wide, apply the cement first, as explained
before; let it dry, and then fill in the crack with enamel mixed with
either oil or water.

To imitate the color of the decoration through which the crack comes,
add a bit of the desired color to the enamel, being careful to remember
that tinted enamels are rather darker after firing than before.

Fill in a nick with enamel mixed with one-tenth of flux. After this is
fired, it may be covered with paste and gold, and the fault will be
completely obliterated.

By mixing one part of flux to nine parts of very finely grated china, a
good filling will be produced for large cracks, or for places from
which small pieces of china are missing. It must be very carefully
applied, and dried before firing.

Paste and gold work will cover up cracks very nicely.

Unless the china is actually apart, the cement need be applied to only
one side.

For a cracked vase, apply the cement by letting it run along the inside
of it only, but on a platter, apply it on the outside, or, if desired,
on both sides.

Black spots and pin holes can be filled in with enamel.

China can also be repaired by using a cold cement, which should not be
fired. Apply the cement with a stick, on the edges of both pieces, and
put them together very carefully. Set the china aside, so that it will
remain undisturbed until dry. If there are many pieces, join two or
three, and let them dry, and gradually add on the others until the
article is complete. Allow two days for an ordinary good drying,
without artificial means, before handling.

A strong cold cement is made by mixing two parts of cheese to one part
of powdered lime, adding water until the mixture is of a semi-liquid
consistency. Mix and grind it with a knife until it has become tacky.
Apply this to the edge of the china, and join the pieces carefully,
allowing one day for it to dry.

Many large crockery houses use this cement exclusively, and find it
very satisfactory.




                              FIRING CHINA

If the kiln is raised upon a box or platform from 10 to 20 inches high,
it is more convenient to stack, and also to regulate the burner. Have
the box covered with a piece of zinc or sheet iron. Connect with the
chimney in the most direct way, using 7 in. pipe which must not taper.
If the chimney hole should be smaller, have it enlarged to this size.
Set the brackets in the support upon the side of the kiln. Fill the can
with kerosene oil and place upon the bracket adjusting the funnel so
that the oil will drop into it. Place a small piece of asbestos fibre
as large as a thimble in the iron tray in the bottom of the burner, and
keep the slide in the burner well open.

_Kilns are shipped with the clay in a green state in order to insure
safe transportation_, and must be fired in order to dry out any
moisture _before_ firing china.

Turn on the oil in a fast drop and apply a lighted match or taper to
the asbestos fibre, which has become saturated with oil and will light.
Allow the oil to flow in a broken stream for about 15 minutes. By this
time the burner has become hot and will consume more oil. At first, the
bottom of the pan need not be more than one-half covered, _always
exercising care not to feed it too fast in the beginning_. As the kiln
becomes hotter, the oil may be increased gradually and a red glow will
be seen through the mica window in the door. This will gradually
increase until the whole interior is red, also the flames may be seen
through the mica window at the top. From this time the oil may be
turned on as fast as the burner will consume it without overflowing.
Usually the first time it is fired it is best to allow the kiln to run
slowly for four or five hours or longer if necessary, and until it
shows a good red throughout the inside, and hotter than for firing

The China may be stacked in any manner which is convenient. Trays and
plates may be placed on edge with small stilts between, although the
expert firer may stack safely on edge without stilts as long as the
glazed surface of one piece is touched only by an unglazed bottom or
rim of the one next. If plates are piled one above the other, it is
always safer to have medium sized stilts between them. In case of a
large Jardiniere, Vase, or Punch Bowl, place a large stilt beneath. It
is frequently convenient to stack large pieces on the side, in which
case they may be raised a little in the same way. Stack the china so
that it will not wedge at any place, and so that ventilation of air may
circulate about the pieces. Cups and saucers and small articles may be
stacked in any possible position separated by small stilts. If you wish
to use the shelves place the supports in the kiln so that they rest
securely, and place the shelves upon them. Very few firers make use of
them after they have become accustomed to stacking without.

It is not necessary to heat the kiln each time before firing, as
moisture is not expelled from fire-brick into the oven as it is from an
iron firepot. Allow the oil to flow in a small or broken stream for
about 15 minutes, and then increase a little. _The main point is to
feed the oil very slowly at first until the burner_ has become hot,
when it may be increased gradually. The first red will show in about 40
minutes. From this time on, the oil may be increased as fast as the
burner will consume it without overflowing. After the interior of the
kiln has been thoroughly red for some time it will grow paler in tone
and a glow commonly called Sunshine will spread over it. This is the
point to turn off the oil, and stop the fire. You can see whether the
gold has changed color, and whether the pieces are glazed, especially
any dusted tints. If your colors come out dull, and if your rose or
carmines are brick color instead of a clear pink, or if your gold rubs
off, you may know that you have not fired long enough. If your pinks or
carmines have turned purple, you have overfired. A few trials will
enable you to know for yourself, just the right length of time.

It takes from one hour and fifteen to an hour and thirty to forty-five
minutes. The time varies, depending upon the draught and the way the
oil has been fed.

The mistake is too often made, of firing by time entirely, instead of
being guided by the appearance of the kiln. After having fired several
times, one will have ascertained pretty nearly just how long their kiln
takes to fire, and this time is not apt to vary greatly. Yet on some
days, depending upon different conditions, it may take a trifle longer
or less time, and so let your reason, rather than the clock, dictate
the proper firing.

The hole under the door is intended for a peep hole, to see the
condition of the fire in the combustion chamber, and should be left
closed. When the chimney draft is not good a carbon may form over the
burner in this combustion chamber, and by the use of a small poker
through this hole it may be removed and taken out through the burner
without stopping the firing.

If the kiln does not seem to respond properly, and in a reasonable
length of time, you will, doubtless, find that there in insufficient
draught in the chimney. This is a most important consideration, and if
there is any cause, such as a stove, or fire-place connected with the
same flue which cuts the draught, it must be removed. If attached to
the same flue as a furnace or stove, the latter must be entirely cut
off _when the fires are out in the summer_.

Sometimes it is necessary to have the chimney lengthened or pipe added
to the top, especially if there are tall buildings or trees nearby. The
chimney or additional pipe should not have a hood or covering of any
kind. In every case, an imperfect draught is the only cause which
prevents perfect success from the start. When these conditions are
right, little or no carbon will be formed. If an accumulation of carbon
forms in the chamber above the burner, it is because the draught is
poor, and must be increased. By continuing to fire with a poor draught,
you run the risk of filling the tubes and choking the kiln, which must
then be cleared out before firing again, even if the draught is

After firing a few times, frequently after the first firing, small heat
checks or cracks will appear in the different tubes or linings of your
kiln. This occurs in all fire-brick kilns and has no serious
significance. With kerosene oil as a fuel, no injurious gases are
formed, and no harm will come to the most delicate ware. You may fire
it with perfect safety, even if the small cracks are not filled. After
a time as the cracks become larger, and seem of some consequence, they
may be filled with a paste made of fire-clay and water. Do not merely
plaster this paste over the outside, but force it well into the cracks.
In this way the kiln will last indefinitely. Cracks are less liable to
come if a little care is exercised not to cool the kiln too fast, and
not to open the door while it is hot.

About three or four hours should be allowed for cooling, and in opening
the door be careful not to subject the china to a sudden cool draught.
Open the door only very gradually, leaving a mere crack at first, then
a little larger space, etc. The sudden draught of cool air might cause
the china to craze and crack.

A piece of soft glazed ware, if taken from the kiln while still too
warm, is apt to show a crackled or crazed glaze, and you will hear the
little crackling sound produced by the sudden contraction of the glaze.



                 =Hibbard Powder China Colors in Vials=


                        =No Better Quality Made=


                   Best Black                     10c
                   Outlining Black                10c


                   Baby Blue                      10c
                   Banding Blue                   10c
                   Copenhagen Blue                10c
                   Deep Blue Green                10c
                   Royal Blue                     15c
                   Turquoise Blue                 10c


                   Auburn Brown                   10c
                   Brown Green                    10c
                   Chestnut Brown                 10c
                   Deep Red Brown                 10c
                   Finishing Brown                10c
                   Hair Brown                     10c
                   Meissen Brown                  10c
                   Yellow Brown                   10c


                   Gray for Flesh                 15c
                   Pearl Gray                     10c
                   Royal Copenhagen Gray          10c


                   Apple Green                    10c
                   Brown Green                    10c
                   Darkest Green                  10c
                   Deep Blue Green                10c
                   Empire Green                   10c
                   Gray Green                     10c
                   Moss Green                     10c
                   Myrtle Green                   10c
                   Olive Green                    10c
                   Peacock Green                  10c
                   Royal Green                    10c
                   Russian Green                  10c
                   Shading Green                  10c
                   Yellow Green                   10c


                   American Beauty                24c
                   Rose                           12c
                   Peach Blossom                  12c
                   Standard Pink                  20c
                   Sweet Pea Pink                 10c

                          PURPLES AND VIOLETS

                   Crimson Purple, best           36c
                   Dark Violet                    12c
                   Dp. Violet of Gold             28c
                   Royal Purple                   20c
                   Ruby Purple, brilliant         36c
                   Violet                         15c
                   Violet of Iron                 15c


                   Blood Red                      12c
                   Carnation                      10c
                   Deep Red Brown                 10c
                   Pompadour                      10c
                   Poppy Red                      10c
                   Yellow Red                     12c


                   Relief White (Aufsetzweiss)    12c
                   White Enamel                   12c


                   Albert Yellow                  10c
                   Egg Yellow                     10c
                   Imperial Ivory                 10c
                   Ivory Glaze, for dusting       10c
                   Ivory Yellow                   10c
                   Lemon Yellow, rich             10c
                   Oriental Ivory                 10c
                   Primrose Yellow                10c
                   Trenton Ivory                  10c


                   Flux                           10c

                         PASTE FOR RAISED GOLD

                   Vial                           16c


                        =Hibbard Lustre Colors=


Lustre Colors are very effective in conventional style decoration. In
connection with powder or regular painting colors, part of the design
may be Lustre, either flowers, leaves or parts of background that
require special treatment to bring out the beauty of the design may be
treated with Lustre if brilliant effect is desired. See chapter on use
of Lustres for complete color treatment and chapter on conventional
style painting for uses to which lustres may be applied.

                                     ½ Bottle   Bottle   Ounce
          Copper                        $0.30     ....   $3.00
          Dark Green                     ....      .23    1.00
          Gold Lustre                     .30     ....    3.00
          Iridescent Rose                ....      .24    1.00
          Light Green                    ....      .13     .60
          Mother of Pearl                ....      .13     .60
          Mother of Pearl, bluish        ....      .13     .60
          Mother of Pearl, greenish      ....      .13     .60
          Opal                           ....      .13     .60
          Orange Red                     ....      .11     .50
          Platinum                        .48     ....    4.95
          Ruby                            .48     ....    4.50
          Silver Lustre                   .45     ....    4.95
          Steel Blue                      .27     ....    2.50
          Violet                          .24     ....    2.25
          Yellow                         ....      .11     .50
          Yellow Brown                   ....      .11     .50
          Essence for thinning           ....      .08     .45


                            =Hibbard Medium=



Hibbard Medium is a combination of oils in proportions best suited for
mixing smoothly colors in either powder or paste form. Gives the
necessary time to blend tints and pad ground perfectly smooth. For
painting, mix color and medium into a compact smooth mixture with
palette knife. Can be used with any make of colors and oils. It is not
surpassed by any preparation on the market, but is priced way below
other makes.

                       1-ounce bottle        $0.12
                      16-ounce bottle (pint)  1.35


                             =Hibbard Gold=

                            Manufactured by
                           THAYER & CHANDLER

                       [Illustration: Jar No. 6]

Hibbard gold gives you the best value you have ever seen in gold for
china painting. Other golds on the market are made by a manufacturer
who sells to a jobber; the jobber sells to the retail merchant and from
the retail merchant it reaches the painter. Don’t pay retail price for
gold. Remember, in buying gold from us, it comes direct from the
producer. We are in a position to give you more for your money than any

Hibbard gold is put up in boxes and air tight screw top porcelain jars
made especially for this purpose. Boxes have new metal HIBBARD GOLD
PROTECTOR cover which fits over the gold in contact with glass slab
keeping the gold moist and free from dust. Gold in jar is so well
protected from dust and air that there is practically no waste or
deterioration; it will keep indefinitely.

                 Jar No. 1. Roman or Unfluxed    $0.55
                 Jar No. 3. Equal to three boxes  1.50
                 Jar No. 6. Equal to six boxes    2.90

                          IN BOX ON GLASS SLAB

                 Per box, Roman or Unfluxed      $0.55
                 6 boxes, Roman or Unfluxed       3.20
                 12 boxes, Roman or Unfluxed      6.35


                  =Hibbard New China Painting Outfit=

Hibbard outfits have improved the standard of china painting sets very
materially and have new features which make these the best outfit
values ever offered. New Process Outline Designs are strictly
up-to-date and not found in other outfits. Selection of colors and
material was made by professional china painter. Useless and
out-of-date colors, etc., have no place in Hibbard outfits.


                          HIBBARD OUTFIT No. 2

Polished wood box, 9½ × 6½ inches, containing list of material as
enumerated below:

              1 Vial Yellow Brown
              1 Vial Auburn Brown
              1 Vial Yellow Green
              1 Vial Peacock Green
              1 Vial Best Black
              1 Vial Banding Blue
              1 Vial Albert Yellow
              1 Vial Poppy Red
              1 Vial Rose
              1 Vial Violet
              1 Vial Lemon Yellow
              1 Vial Pompadour
              1 Steel Palette Knife
              1 Tinting Brush, No. 10
              1 Square Shader, No. 6
              1 Square Shader, No. 3
              1 Pointed Shader, No. 2
              1 Fine Outliner, No. 2
              1 Bottle Mixing Medium
              1 Bottle Turpentine
              1 Bottle Outlining Ink
              1 Mixing Palette, in tin holder
              5 Brush Handles
              1 Sheet Tracing Paper
              1 Sheet Graphite Paper
              1 Plate Divider
              1 Instruction Book
              12 new Process Outline Designs

              Outfit No. 2, net wholesale price      $2.98


                          HIBBARD OUTFIT No. 3

Polished wood box, 12 × 9 inches, containing following large assortment
of high-grade material:

              1 Vial Best Black
              1 Vial Banding Blue
              1 Vial Copenhagen Blue
              1 Vial Yellow Brown
              1 Vial Auburn Brown
              1 Vial Yellow Green
              1 Vial Apple Green
              1 Vial Deep Blue Green
              1 Vial Brown Green
              1 Vial Poppy Red
              1 Vial Rose
              1 Vial Ruby Purple
              1 Vial Blood Red
              1 Vial Albert Yellow
              1 Vial Lemon Yellow
              1 Vial Imperial Ivory
              1 Vial Violet
              1 Vial Oriental Ivory
              1 each square shaders, Nos. 2, 4, 6, 8
              1 each pointed shaders, Nos. 3, 5, 7
              1 each long pointed shaders, Nos. 2, 4, 6, 8
              12 Brush Handles
              1 Tinting Brush
              1 Steel Palette Knife
              1 Sketching Pencil
              1 Covered China Palette
              1 Mixing Palette, Japanned tin
              1 Bottle Mixing Medium
              1 Bottle Turpentine
              1 Bottle Outlining Ink
              1 Sheet Tracing Paper
              1 Sheet Graphite Paper
              1 Box of Hibbard’s Roman Gold
              1 Plate Divider
              1 Instruction Book
              18 New Process Outline Designs

              Outfit No. 3, net wholesale price      $6.70


                          Transcriber’s note:

    Underscores have been used to denote italic passages; equals signs
    represent bold text.

    Page 5, ‘green’ changed to ‘greens,’ “with greens and blues”

    Page 6, ‘turqoise’ changed to ‘turquoise,’ “by mixing turquoise

    Page 6, Conventional Style Painting illustration moved to page 7

    Page 9, comma inserted after ‘Yellow,’ “Albert Yellow, and Sea

    Page 10, comma added after ‘Berries,’ “Berries, Silver Lustre

    Page 18, ‘Currents’ changed to ‘Currants,’ “Currants of a lighter

    Page 21, ‘flesh-shadow’ changed to ‘flesh shadow,’ “touched up with
    flesh shadow;”

    Pages 21 and 22, all instances of ‘soft-flesh-tint’ changed to

    Page 24, ‘ground laying’ changed to ‘ground-laying,’ “the art of

    Page 25, ‘decorater’ changed to ‘decorator,’ “Here the decorator is

    Page 25, comma inserted after ‘medium,’ “medium, heavy or light

    Page 28, ‘drys’ changed to ‘dries,’ “if the color dries”

    Page 31, ‘Then’ changed to ‘When,’ “When tinting with”

    Page 32, ‘and’ changed to ‘any,’ “any diluting medium can be used”

    Page 32, ‘of’ inserted, “oil of lavender”

    Page 34, ‘a’ inserted, “end of a brush handle”

    Page 34, ‘is’ changed to ‘are,’ “two applications of silver are

    Page 36, ‘gold’ inserted, “If liquid bright gold is used”

    Page 38, ‘no’ changed to ‘not,’ “use tissue paper, not cotton.”

    Page 39, ‘hydrofloric’ changed to ‘hydrofluoric,’ “removed with
    hydrofluoric acid.”

    Page 43, ‘star banding wheel’ changed to ‘the “Star” Banding
    Wheel,’ “with the “Star” Banding Wheel”

    Page 43, ‘The operation of’ changed to ‘Operation of the,’
    “Operation of the wheel is very simple.”

    Page 43, ‘the’ inserted, “by using the “Star” Banding Wheel.”

    Page 44, ‘botchy’ changed to ‘blotchy,’ “are sure to appear

    Page 45, comma inserted after ‘roses,’ “pinks, roses, carmines,

    Page 45, ‘matt’ changed to ‘Matt,’ “loses its lustre and becomes

    Page 51, ‘that’ inserted after ‘colors,’ “colors that cannot be
    produced are bought”

    Page 51, ‘getter’ changed to ‘better,’ “enamels give better

    Page 51, ‘Beleek’ changed to ‘Belleek,’ “a slight one on Belleek

    Page 64, full stop inserted after ‘Nos,’ “1 each square shaders,
    Nos. 2, 4,”

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translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.