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Title: The Circle of Knowledge - A Classified, Simplified, Visualized Book of Answers
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Circle of Knowledge - A Classified, Simplified, Visualized Book of Answers" ***

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  Transcriber’s Notes:

  Italics and bold face in the printed work have been transcribed as
  _italics_ and =bold face=, respectively. Fractions are given as, for
  example, 1/2 and 1-1/2. D^R represents a D followed by a superscript

  Depending on the hard- and software used to read this text and their
  settings, not all symbols and characters may display as intended or
  display at all, and some tables may not line up properly.

  More Transcriber’s Notes and a list of corrections and changes made
  may be found at the end of this text.



  _=Easy to Read; Easy to Understand; Easy to Retain=_



  Exclusive Publishers for Canada and



  Copyright, 1916, by

  Copyright, 1917, by

  All Rights Reserved


All books that are really worth while may be divided into four classes:
first, books of _information_; second, books of _inspiration_; third,
books of _entertainment_; fourth, books of _excitement_. By far the most
important and practical of these classes is the first. The next in
importance is the second; while rather trivial importance attaches to
the third and fourth.

THE CIRCLE OF KNOWLEDGE preëminently belongs to the first; but it is
also designed to be both inspiring and entertaining. In its methods of
presentation and in its editorship it typifies the modern, progressive
spirit. Behind it lies a quarter of a century of successful editorial
experience in selecting, adapting, and translating from highly technical
treatises into simple, clear, understandable language the essentials as
well as important sidelights of human knowledge. Its purpose is to
answer the why, who, what, when, where, how, of the vast majority of
inquiring minds, both young and mature, and to stimulate them to still
further questionings. For it is only through this self-questioning
process of the active mind that individual progress is possible.

It is a fact of singular interest that every human being born into the
world must independently go through practically the same educative
processes from childhood to maturity. No matter how great the storehouse
of the world’s past knowledge, or how marvelous the multitude and wonder
of new discoveries in every department of human endeavor, each
individual must acquire and learn for himself the selfsame facts of
nature, history, science, literature, human culture, and everyday needs.

In the present work special effort has been made to separate essentials
from non-essentials; to distinguish human interest subjects of universal
importance from those of minor concern; to present living facts instead
of dead verbiage; and to bring the whole within the understanding of the
average reader, without regard to age, in an acceptable and interesting
form. The use of graphic outlines and tables; maps, drawings, and
diagrams; the pictured works of great painters, sculptors, and
architects--all combine in vizualizing and vitalizing both the useful
and cultural knowledge of past and present. Indeed it is difficult to
conceive how the purely pictorial interest of the work could be
surpassed, with its veritable picture galleries illustrating the pageant
of man’s progress; while the entire field of knowledge, from the
measureless universe of space down to the simple fancy of a child, is
sketched in its practical and essential outlines.

Never has there been greater demand for books of knowledge of the
present type. The busy reader or consulter soon tires of the diffuse
book or set of books of interminable words. He wants conciseness,
directness, reasonable compass, reliability, with up-to-date treatment
of topics of permanent usefulness. Above all he wants something that
appeals to the eye, and, through the interest of its form and subject
matter, stimulates thought and the imagination. While simplicity and
clearness are undoubted virtues, great care has been exercised to
prevent them from degenerating into those childish forms, all too
frequent in certain books, that rob real knowledge of almost its entire

The best sources in the world of books have been laid under tribute in
the preparation of this work, wisely supplemented by the wide experience
of many eminent, practical, and progressive men and women--masters in
their respective fields. It is earnestly hoped that this joint product
will create for it a large sphere of usefulness and numerous satisfied


  The Editor desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to the following
  distinguished educators, scientists, writers and publicists for
  helpful suggestions, counsel, contributions, or revisions connected
  with the various departments of THE CIRCLE OF KNOWLEDGE.


  President University of Virginia; Editor-in-Chief _Library of
  Southern Literature_; author of _Obligations and Opportunities of
  Citizenship_, etc.


  Educator and Historian; author of _Institutes of General History_,
  _History of the United States_, etc.


  Late President University of Michigan; author of _The Higher
  Education_, _Progress in International Law_, etc.


  Cornell University; author of _Plant Breeding_, _Manual of
  Gardening_, _Cyclopedia of American Horticulture_, etc.


  University of Pennsylvania; author of _Text-book of Chemistry_,
  _Text-book of Physics_, etc.


  Late President Oberlin College; author of _Christian Evidences_,
  _Lectures_, etc.


  University of Nebraska; author of _Essentials of Botany_, _Botany
  for High Schools and Colleges_, _Elementary Botany_, etc.


  University of Kansas; author of _The Story of Human Progress_,
  _Outlines of Sociology_, etc.


  Jurist, Publicist; Associate Justice U. S. Supreme Court; author of
  _American Citizenship_, _The Twentieth Century_, etc.


  President N. Y. University; former U. S. Commissioner of Education;
  author of _The Making of our Middle Schools_, _Origin of American
  State Universities_, etc.


  Late editor New York _Christian Advocate_; author of _Travels in
  Three Continents_, _The Land of the Czar_, etc.


  Columbia University; author of _The Civil War and the Constitution_,
  _Political Science and Comparative Constitutional Law_, etc.


  Colorado School of Mines; Geologist for Colorado Geological Survey;
  author of _A Pocket Handbook of Minerals_, etc.


  Editor _Popular Science Monthly_; author of _School and Society_,
  _American Men of Science_, etc.


  President Notre Dame University; author of _Priests of Holy Cross_,


  Harvard University; author of _History of United States_, _English
  History for American Readers_, etc.


  Department of Psychology and Literature, Buffalo State Normal
  School; author of _Talks to Teachers_, _Outlines of Literature_,


  Former Secretary Kansas Department of Agriculture; author of _Swine
  Husbandry_, _Alfalfa_, _The Farmer’s Encyclopedia_, etc.


  U. S. Minister to Denmark; author of _Lectures on English
  Literature_, _Modern Novelists_, etc.


  President Emeritus Harvard University; author of _Educational
  Reform_, _The Durable Satisfactions of Life_, etc.


  Harvard University; author of _Synopsis of the History of
  Continental Europe_, _Mediæval Europe_, etc.


  University of Minnesota; Geologist of Minnesota; author of numerous
  Reports and Technical Papers on Geology.


  Tulane University; author of _History of French Literature_,
  _Louisiana Folk Tales_, _History of France_, etc.


  Author of _History of Sculpture_, _Mediaeval Art Inventions of the
  Vatican_, etc.; co-author Sturgis, _History of Architecture_, etc.


  Shakespearean Scholar, Critic; author of _The Variorum Shakespeare_,


  Ex-President Amherst College; author of _Land and Law as Agents in
  Educating the Indian_, _International Arbitration_, etc.


  Amherst College; author of _Practical Elements of Rhetoric_,
  _Working Principles of Rhetoric_, _The Idylls of the Ages_, etc.


  Meadville Theological School; author of _Profit Sharing_, _A
  Dividend to Labor_, _Methods of Industrial Peace_, etc.


  Harvard University; author of _Greek Grammar_, _Syntax of the Moods
  and Tenses of the Greek Verb_, etc.


  Lecturer, Educator; author of _Moral Education_, _Self-Culture
  through the Vocation_, etc.


  President Armour Institute; author of _Paths to Power_, _Higher
  Ministries of Recent English Poetry_, etc.


  President Clark University; author of _Adolescence_, _Youth--Its
  Education_, _Regimen and Hygiene_, etc.; editor of the _American
  Journal of Psychology_, _The Pedagogical Seminary_, etc.


  Diplomat, Historian; co-author of _Life of Abraham Lincoln_,
  _Castilian Days_, etc.


  University of Chicago; minister of Sinai Congregation, Chicago;
  associate editor _Jewish Encyclopedia_; author of many articles on
  religion, etc.


  Dean Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.; author of _The
  Episcopal Church_, _The Pursuit of Happiness_, etc.


  Art Critic _New York Globe_; Art Editor _New Encyclopedia
  Britannica_; author of _Painting in the Nineteenth Century_, etc.


  Registrar of the High Court of Justice of Ontario; editor of the
  _Ontario Mechanics Lien Act_, etc.


  Yale University; author of _Great Epochs in Art History_, _Old
  England: Its Art, Scenery and People_, etc.


  Jurist, Lecturer; Justice Supreme Court of La.; author of _Studies
  in Civil Law_, etc.


  University of California; author of _Limits of Evolution_,
  _Philosophy: Its Fundamental Concepts and Methods_, etc.


  Dean Washburn College of Law; author of Hughes’ _Cases on Evidence_,
  _Outline of Criminal Law_, _Commercial Law_, etc.


  Late Chancellor American University; author of _History of the
  Christian Church_, etc.


  President Bowdoin College; author of _The Teacher’s Philosophy In
  and Out of School_, _The Quest of the Best_, etc.


  University of Pennsylvania; author of _Civilization of Babylonia and
  Assyria_, _The Study of Religion_, etc.


  New York University; author of _The Trust Problem_, _Citizenship and
  the Schools_, _Government Action for Social Welfare_, etc.


  Leland Stanford Jr. University; author of _Science Sketches_,
  _Footnotes to Evolution_, _Animal Life_, _Food and Game Fishes of
  North America_, etc.


  Director Chemical Laboratory, Harvard University; translator of
  Haber’s _Thermodynamics of Technical Gas Reaction_; author of many
  papers on chemical subjects.


  Librarian and Historian; author of _History for Ready Reference_,
  _Literature of American History_, etc.


  Historian; author of _Studies in Church History_, _Superstition and
  Force_, etc.


  University of Illinois; author of _Trade and Commerce_, and of many
  articles on commerce and industry.


  Ex-President Iowa State University; author of _Textbook of Botany_,


  Ethnologist, Scientist; author of _Origin of Inventions_, _Woman’s
  Share in Primitive Culture_, etc.


  Harvard University; author of _Psychology and the Teacher_, _The
  Eternal Values_, _American Problems_, etc.


  Educator, Lawyer; Ex-President George Washington University;
  associate counsel Interstate Commerce Commission; etc.


  Lawyer, Diplomat, Novelist; U. S. Ambassador to Italy; author of
  _Social Life in Old Virginia_, _Robert E. Lee: Man and Soldier_,


  Harvard University; Musician, Composer; author of _Realm of Fancy_,
  _Song of Promise_, etc.


  Harvard University; author of _Self-Cultivation in English_, _The
  Teacher_, _Trades and Professions_, etc.


  Yale University; Composer; author of the operas _Mona_, _Fairyland_,
  and much other music.


  Co-editor _New International Encyclopedia_, editor of _Harper’s
  Classical Dictionary_, etc.


  Late Chief of Bureau of American Ethnology; author of _Studies in
  Sociology_, _The Cañons of the Colorado_, etc.


  Ex-President Johns Hopkins University; author of _The Elements of
  Chemistry_, _Classical Experiments_, etc.


  Late Professor Johns Hopkins University; author of _Mechanical
  Equivalents of Heat_, _The Solar Spectrum_, etc.


  Iowa State University; Botanist; author of numerous scientific


  Late Librarian of Congress, Critic; editor of _Library of Choice
  Literature_, _Book for All Readers_, etc.


  Late Professor Cornell University; author of _History of the Steam
  Engine_, _Materials of Construction_, etc.


  Harvard University; author of _The Religion of Israel_, _Judaism and
  Christianity_, _Quotations in the New Testament_, etc.


  Rutgers College; author of _New Guides to Old Masters_, _Studies in
  Pictures_, etc.


  Brown University; Scientist; author of _Sociology and Economics_,
  _Pure Sociology_, etc.


  University of Michigan; co-editor of _The Dictionary of Philosophy_,
  _Dictionary of Theology_, _Religion and Ethics_; author of
  _Introduction to Kant_, _Contemporary Theology and Theism_, etc.


  President University of California; author of _Introduction to the
  History of Language_, _Life of Alexander the Great_, etc.


  Publicist, U. S. Senator; author of _Permanent Influence of Thomas
  Jefferson on American Institutions_, etc.


  Lawyer, Novelist, Critic; author of _The Virginians_, _Biography of
  U. S. Grant_, etc.


  Director Carnegie Institute; Scientist; author of _Higher
  Mathematics_, etc.


  Educator, Economist, Statistician; author of _The Industrial
  Evolution of the United States_, etc.


  Oberlin College; author of _Man and the Glacial Period_, _Science
  and Religion_, etc.





  =⁂Books of Reference about the Heavens.=--Campbell: _Handbook of
  Practical Astronomy_. Young: _Elementary Astronomy_, _Manual of
  Astronomy_, and _General Astronomy_. Ball: _Story of the Heavens_.
  Turner: _Modern Astronomy_. Newcomb: _Popular Astronomy_. Todd: _A
  New Astronomy_. Gregory: _Vault of Heaven_.



  =⁂Books of Reference about the Earth.=--Dawson: _Story of the
  Earth_. Lyell: _Principles of Geology_. Geikie: _Primer of Geology_.
  Shaler: _Sea and Land_. Scott: _Geology_. Geikie: _Text-Book of
  Geology_. Chamberlin and Salisbury: _Geology_. Le Conte: _Elements
  of Geology_. Dana: _Manual of Geology_. Miers: _Mineralogy_. Dana:
  _Text-Book of Mineralogy_ and _System of Mineralogy_ (most
  comprehensive work in English). Brush and Penfield: _Determinative
  Mineralogy_. Rosenbusch-Iddings: _Rock-Making Minerals_. Hatch:
  _Petrology_. Butler: _Pocket Handbook of Minerals_. Mill: _Realm of
  Nature_. W. M. Davis: _Physical Geography_. Tarr: _Physical



  =⁂Books of Reference about the Vegetable Kingdom.=--Gray: _New
  Manual of Botany_. Bessey: _Synopsis of Plant Phyla_. Small: _Flora
  of the Southeastern United States_. Coulter and Nelson: _New Manual
  of the Botany of the Central Rocky Mountains_. Gray: _Synoptical
  Flora of North America_. Britton: _Manual of the Flora of the
  Northern States and Canada_. Strasburger, Noll, Schenck and Karsten:
  _Textbook of Botany_. Pfeffer: _Physiology of Plants_. Ward:
  _Disease in Plants_. Schimper: _Plant Geography_. Campbell:
  _Evolution of Plants_. Green: _Landmarks of Botanical History_.
  Sach: _History of Botany, 1530-1860_. Green: _History of Botany,
  1860-1900_. Baker: _Elementary Lessons in Botanical Geography_.



I. Wild Animals:

(_i_) THE SEALS; (_j_) THE WHALES.










II. Domesticated Animals:




III. Pronouncing Dictionary of Scientific Terms concerning Animals.

  =⁂Books of Reference about Animals.=--Rolleston: _Forms of Animal
  Life_. Huxley: _Anatomy of Invertebrated Animals_ and _Anatomy of
  Vertebrated Animals_. Lankester: _Treatise on Zoölogy_. Parker and
  Haswell: _Text-Book of Zoölogy_. Kingsley: _The Standard Natural
  History_ and _Elements of Comparative Zoölogy_. Newton: _A
  Dictionary of Birds_. Headley: _The Structure and Life of Birds_.
  Wilson: _American Ornithology_. Audubon: _Ornithological Biography_.
  Coues: _Key to North American Birds_. Chapman: _Handbook of Birds of
  East North America_. Bendire: _Life Histories of North American
  Birds_. Comstock: _Insect Life_. Packard: _Text-Book of Entomology_
  and _Guide to Study of Insects_. Howard: _The Insect Book_. Beddard:
  _Text-Book of Zoögeography_. A. Heilprin: _The Geographical and
  Geological Distribution of Animals_.





  =⁂Books of Reference about Man.=--Prichard: _Researches into the
  Physical History of Mankind_. Latham: _Natural History of the
  Varieties of Man_. Waitz: _Anthropology_. Darwin: _The Descent of
  Man_. Huxley: _Essays_ and _Man’s Place in Nature_. Quatrefages:
  _Classification des Races Humaines_. Peschel: _The Races of Man_.
  Tylor: _Anthropology_. Lubbock: _Prehistoric Times_. Ratzel:
  _History of Mankind_. Keane: _Ethnology and Man. Past and Present_.
  Deniker: _The Races of Man_. Hutchinson: _The Living Races of

BOOK OF NATIONS: Geographical, Historical, Descriptive

I. Extinct Nations of the Past.


II. Living Nations of To-day.

NATIONS: IN EUROPE, Spain and Portugal -- Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden,
Denmark) -- The Netherlands -- Switzerland -- The Balkan States
(Bulgaria, Roumania, Turkey, Greece, Servia); IN ASIA, China -- Persia
-- Turkey; IN AMERICA, Brazil -- Argentina -- Chile -- Mexico -- Canada.

III. Tables and Charts.


IV. Historical Charts and Tables, Maps and Plans.

  =⁂Books of Reference about the Nations.=--HISTORY--Freeman: _General
  Sketch_. Haydn: _Dictionary Dates_. Rawlinson: _Manual of Ancient
  History_. Peck: _Harper’s Classical Dictionary_. Duncker: _History
  of Antiquity_. Brugsch-Bey: _Egypt under the Pharaohs_. Ewald:
  _History of Israel_. Allen: _Hebrew Men and Times_. Ranke:
  _Universal History_. Fisher: _Outlines of Universal History_.
  Mommsen: _History of Rome_. Gibbon: _History of the Decline and Fall
  of the Roman Empire_. Grote: _History of Greece_. Duruy: _History of
  Rome_. Merivale: _General History of Rome_. Lecky: _History of
  European Morals_. Hallam: _Middle Ages_. Guizot: _History of
  Civilization_. Sybel: _History of the Crusades_. Cox: _The
  Crusades_. Emerton: _Mediaeval Europe_; _Introduction to the Study
  of the Middle Ages_. Harding: _Essentials in Mediaeval and Modern
  History_. Gieseler: _Church History_. Alzog: _Manual of Universal
  Church History_. Clarke: _Events and Epochs of Religious History_.
  Fisher: _History of the Reformation_. Ranke: _History of the Popes_.
  Dyer: _History of Modern Europe_. Fyffe: _History of Europe_. Sybel:
  _History of the French Revolution_. Acton: _Cambridge Modern
  History_. Larned: _Topical Outlines of Universal History_.

  ATLASES.--Bartholomew: _Atlas_. Rand-McNally: _Atlas_; _Century
  Dictionary and Atlas_. Johnson: _Historical Atlas_. McClure:
  _Historical Church Atlas_.

  GAZETTEERS.--Blackie: _Imperial Gazetteer_. Longman: _Gazetteer of
  the World_. Lippincott: _Gazetteer_. Baedecker: _Guides_.

  GOVERNMENT AND LAW.--Aristotle: _Politics_. Bluntschli: _Theory of
  the State_. Burgess: _Political Science and Comparative
  Constitutional Law_. Freeman: _Comparative Politics_. Goodnow:
  _Comparative Administrative Law_. Lalor: _Cyclopedia of Political
  Science_. Locke: _Treatises of Government_. Maine: _Popular
  Government_. Montesquieu: _Spirit of Laws_. Morley: _Ideal
  Commonwealths_. Plato: _Republic_. Rousseau: _The Social Contract_.
  Sidgwick: _Elements of Politics_. Spencer: _Man vs. the State_.
  Wilson: _The State_. Bryce: _The American Commonwealth_. Hart:
  _Actual Government_. Robinson: _Elements of American Jurisprudence_.
  Thompson: _English and American Encyclopedia of Law_. Burdick: _The
  Essentials of Business Law_. Lowell: _Governments and Parties in
  Continental Europe_. Goodnow: _Comparative Administrative Law_.
  Dicey: _The Law of the Constitution_.




  =⁂Books of Reference.=--LANGUAGE.--Sayce: _Introduction to the
  Science of Language_. Whitney: _Language and the Study of Language_.
  Paul: _Principles of the History of Language_. Muller: _Science of
  Language_. Skeat: _Philosophy_. Jesperson: _Progress in Language,
  with Special Reference to English_. Giles: _Manual of Comparative
  Philosophy for Classical Students_. Oertel: _Lectures on the Study
  of Language_. Sweet: _Primer of Spoken English_. Skeat:
  _Etymological Dictionary of the English Language_. Sweet: _Grammar,
  Logical and Historical_. Lewis: _Applied English Grammar_. Genung:
  _Practical Elements of Rhetoric_. Gummere: _Poetics_. Wendell:
  _English Composition_. Palmer: _Self-Cultivation in English_.
  Kittredge: _Words and their Ways in English Speech_. Trench: _Study
  of Words_. Fernald: _Synonymns and Antonymns_.

  LITERATURE.--Jevons: _History of Greek Literature_. Mahaffy: _Greek
  Literature_. Crutwell: _History of Roman Literature_. Fortier:
  _History of French Literature_. Robertson: _History of German
  Literature_. Garnett: _Short History of Italian Literature_.
  Symonds: _Italian Renaissance_. Horn: _History of Scandinavian
  Literature_ and _Jewish Encyclopedia_. Morley: _Library of English
  Literature_. Brooke: _History of English Literature_. Ward: _English
  Poets_. Gosse: _Short History of English Literature_. Tyler:
  _History of American Literature_. Matthews: _History of American
  Literature_. Stedman: _An American Anthology_. Johnson: _Elements of
  Literary Criticism_. Warner: _Library of Universal Literature_.

  DICTIONARIES.--Webster: _New International Dictionary_. Worcester:
  _Dictionary of the English Language_. Funk and Wagnalls: _Standard
  Dictionary_. Whitney: _The Century Dictionary_. Murray: _Oxford
  English Dictionary_. Wright: _Dialect Dictionary_.



  =⁂Books of Reference.=--BIOLOGY.--Brooks: _Foundations of Zoology_.
  Morgan: _Animal Behavior_. Pearson: _The Grammar of Science_.
  Spencer: _Principles of Biology_. Thomson: _The Science of Life_.
  Verworn: _General Physiology_. Weismann: _The Germ-Plasm_.

  PHYSICS.--Ames: _General Physics_. Ames and Bliss: _Manual of
  Experiments_. Hoadley: _Measurements in Magnetism and Electricity_.
  Preston: _Theory of Heat_ and _Theory of Light_. Poynting and
  Thomson: _Heat_. Tyndal: _Light_. Schuster: _Theory of Optics_.
  Barker: _Physics_. Merrill: _Theoretical Mechanics_. Helmholtz:
  _Sensations of Tone_. Kapp: _Electric Transmission of Energy_.
  Crocker: _Electric Lighting_. Sewell: _Elements of Electrical
  Engineering_. Jackson: _Elements of Electricity and Magnetism_ and
  _Alternating Currents and Alternating Current Machinery_.

  CHEMISTRY.--Remsen: _Introduction to the Study of Chemistry_ and
  _Inorganic Chemistry_. Roscoe: _Lessons in Elementary Chemistry_.
  Wurtz: _Elements of Modern Chemistry_. Ostwald: _Inorganic
  Chemistry_. Alexander Smith: _Laboratory Outline of General
  Chemistry_ and _General Inorganic Chemistry_. Wiley: _Chemistry of
  Foods_ and _Agricultural Chemistry_. Roscoe and Schorlemmer:
  _Treatise on Chemistry_. Watts: _Dictionary of Chemistry_. Thorp:
  _Industrial Chemistry_.

(Abridged in the Concise Edition.)



  =⁂Books of Reference.=--Morris: _Treatise on Anatomy_. Gray:
  _Anatomy_. Davidson: _Human Body and Health_. Martin: _Human Body_.
  Huxley and Youmans: _Elements of Physiology and Hygiene_. Wilson:
  _The Cell in Development and in Inheritance_. Thomson: _Heredity_.
  Loeb: _Comparative Physiology of the Brain and Comparative
  Psychology_. Sternberg: _Manual of Bacteriology_.

(Abridged in the Concise Edition.)



specially treated; (_b_) PRESENT-DAY BIOGRAPHIES.

(The Biographical Chart only is included in the _Concise_ edition.)

  =⁂Books of Reference.=--Philips: _Dictionary of Biographical
  Reference_. Vincent: _Dictionary of Biography_. Thomas: _Dictionary
  of Biography_. Appleton: _Dictionary of American Biography_;
  _Dictionary of National Biography_; _Who’s Who in Great Britain_;
  _Who’s Who in America_. Ruoff: _Masters of Achievement_; _American
  Statesmen Series_; _American Men of Letters_; _English Statesmen
  Series_; _English Men of Letters_. Smith: _Dictionary of Christian

(Omitted in the Concise Edition.)



  =⁂Books of Reference.=--PRIMARY EDUCATION.--Arnold: _Rhythms_.
  Barnard: _Kindergarten and Child-Culture Papers_. Blow: _Educational
  Issues_; _Letters to a Mother_; _Symbolic Education_. Froebel’s
  translated _Mother-Play Songs_. Froebel: _Education of Man_;
  _Education by Development_; _Last Volumes of Pedagogics_;
  _Pedagogics of the Kindergarten_. Hailman: _Laws of Childhood_.
  Harrison: _A Study of Child-Nature_; _Kindergarten Building Gifts_;
  _Misunderstood Children_; _Two Children of the Foothills_. Hughes:
  _Educational Laws_. Peabody: _Kindergarten Lectures_. Snider:
  _Commentary on Froebel’s Mother-Play Songs_; _Life of Froebel_;
  _Psychology of the Play-Gifts_. Vanderwalker: _The Kindergarten in
  American Education_. Von Bulow: _The Child_; _Reminiscences of

(Abridged in the Concise Edition.)


Color Plates


(Only six Color Plates are included in the single volume edition)

Diagrams, Maps and Charts


Other Full Page and Text Illustrations

  These include hundreds of beautiful and instructive reproductions
  illustrative of the heavens, earth, minerals, plants and plant
  products, animal life, races and peoples, famous examples of
  architecture, scenes in great cities, historic shrines and ruins,
  mythology, science, marvels of mechanism, great works of
  engineering, monuments, industries, etc., as well as numerous
  photographic and art pictures of famous persons and episodes in the
  history of progress.


_Descriptive and Explanatory_










      1. Crowded group of stars seen in the constellation Hercules.
      2. Beautiful circular group of stars in Aquarius. Very brilliant
         toward the center.
    3-4. Fan-shaped groups of stars, frequently to be observed.
      5. Round nebula of Ursa Major.
      6. A fine star in Gemini with a great, oval atmosphere.
      7. Star in Leo Major in the middle of nebula with very pointed
    8-9. Nebulæ with luminous trains like the tail of a comet.
     10. Two stars in Canes Venatici joined by elliptical nebula.
     11. Elliptical nebula in Sagittarius with a star in each of the
  12-13. Round nebula in Auriga with three stars in a triangle.
     14. Great nebula in Andromeda.
     15. Comet of 1819, of remarkable size.
  16-17. Great comet of 1811.
     18. Surface of the planet Mars, showing the supposed continents and
     19. Disk of the great planet Jupiter with its dark streaks and
     20. The wonderful planet Saturn with its remarkable rings.

=Explanation of Figures in Diagram=

=Rate at which the Planets Travel=]




In the above picture we have represented the planets of the Solar System
as we should see them from the earth if the human eye could grasp a
space of such immensity. The spectator is supposed to be standing on the
earth, and the moon is in the foreground, 240,000 miles away. The
planets are in their order outward from the sun, and vary in distance
from 40,000,000 miles, in the case of Mars, to 2,700,000,000 miles in
the case of Neptune. From the bottom upward, the planets are Mercury,
Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and its rings, Uranus and Neptune.]


The earth upon which we live is only one of many worlds that whirl
through space. If we are to understand our own world, we must first
learn something about the worlds in the skies. These bodies are arranged
in groups, or systems, sweeping through circuits that baffle
measurement; and such is the magnitude of the boundless space they
occupy that our entire solar system is only a point in comparison. To
this vast expanse of worlds, and systems and space we give the general
name _Universe_.


First in importance to us in this immense space filled with stars is
what astronomers call the Solar System, so-called because the sun is its
center. It contains the planets, eight in number, of which our earth is
one. They have been named after the ancient deities; the two interior
ones, Mercury and Venus, and the exterior ones, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,
Uranus, and Neptune; the first three being smaller than our earth, and
the remainder a great deal larger.

Mercury and Venus are known to be _interior_ planets, that is, planets
between us and the sun, because they appear to swing on either side of
the sun. Mercury very seldom leaves the sun sufficiently to rise so
early before the sun, or set so late after him, as to be visible. Venus,
however, gets so far away as to be seen long after sunset or before
sunrise, and is called the Evening or Morning star, accordingly.

Besides the planets there are other members of the system, namely,
_comets_ and _falling stars_, which will be mentioned again more fully
hereafter. All these bodies form a sort of family, having the sun for
their head. The illustrations and drawings on separate pages give a view
of the entire system.

COMPARATIVE SIZE. The size of the planets, in general, increases with
their distance from the sun. The four composing the first group are all
comparatively small, the earth being the largest. Those of the second
group are all of great size. Jupiter, the largest, is not less than
1,390 times as large as the earth; but as it is much less dense, the
amount of matter it contains is only a trifle more than 337 times that
of the earth. All the planets together equal but one seven-hundredth
part of the mass of the sun.

The SATELLITES, except our moon, and the two satellites of Mars, belong
wholly to the second group of planets. Jupiter has eight; Saturn eight
and several revolving rings; Uranus has four, and possibly more; while
Neptune, so far as known with certainty, has but one.


ROTARY MOTION. The sun, all the primary planets, and their satellites,
as far as known, rotate from west to east. Each rotation constitutes a
day for the rotating body. The central line of rotary motion is called
the axis of rotation, and the extremities of the axis are called the

REVOLUTION AROUND THE SUN. All the primary planets and asteroids revolve
around the sun in the direction of their rotation, that is from west to
east; and the planes of the orbits in which they revolve coincide very
nearly with the plane of the sun’s equator. One revolution around the
sun constitutes the year of a planet.

All the satellites, except those of Uranus and perhaps Neptune, also
revolve from west to east.

Most of the comets revolve around the sun in very irregular and
elongated orbits, only a few having their entire orbit within the
planetary system. Some so move that after having entered our system and
made their circuit around the sun, they seem to leave it, never to

[Illustration: The Egyptian Planisphere containing the Zodiacal signs,
with the Southern constellations, according to Kircher.]

[Illustration: The Egyptian Planisphere containing the Zodiacal signs,
with the Northern constellations, according to Kircher.]

Since the orbits of the planets are in most cases not far removed from
the plane of the ecliptic, they are to be seen in a comparatively narrow
belt of the heavens called,

  THE ZODIAC. The belt of the sky which occupies 8° on each side of
  the ecliptic is called the Zodiac, and it is within this belt that
  the moon and the chief planets confine their movements, as none of
  their orbits is inclined to that of the earth by more than 8°. The
  Zodiac, which circles the celestial sphere, is divided into twelve
  signs each of which occupies 30°, and roughly coincides with a
  constellation. The following lists give the signs of the Zodiac,
  with the seasons in which the sun passes through each of them:

  Spring: Aries the Ram; Taurus the Bull; Gemini the Twins.

  Summer: Cancer the Crab; Leo the Lion; Virgo the Virgin.

  Autumn: Libra the Balance; Scorpio the Scorpion; Sagittarius the

  Winter: Capricornus the Goat; Aquarius the Water-bearer; Pisces the

  Owing to the precession of the equinoxes, the signs of the Zodiac do
  not now correspond with the constellations of which they bear the
  names. Thus the sign Aries, in which the sun is seen on March 21st
  as it passes the vernal equinox, with which the solar year begins,
  is now in the constellation of Pisces, and in the course of the next
  23,000 years it will move steadily backward through the
  constellations until it returns to the Ram, where it stood when its
  name was first given to it.


The laws under which the planets move were discovered through the genius
of John Kepler, and are known as Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion.
Kepler derived these laws from observation only, but Newton first
explained them by showing that they were the necessary consequences of
the laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation.

  KEPLER’S FIRST LAW states: “The earth and the other planets revolve
  in ellipses with the sun in one focus.”

  KEPLER’S SECOND LAW states: “The radius vector of each planet moves
  over equal areas in equal times.”

  KEPLER’S THIRD LAW states: “The squares of the periodic times of the
  planets are in proportion to the cubes of their mean distances from
  the sun.”


The diagram on the top illustrates the ellipse, and explains the first
and second laws. The picture-diagram on the bottom illustrates the
second law, which is that, as the planet moves round the sun, its radius
vector describes equal areas in equal times. That is to say, a planet
moves from A to B in the same time as it takes to move from C to D.]

  These laws cannot be fully understood without some acquaintance with
  mathematics. They may, however, be briefly explained for the
  comprehension of the non-mathematical reader. The figure in the
  diagram is an ellipse--what is known in popular language as an
  oval--which is symmetrical about the line AB, known as its major
  axis. It has two foci, S and S₁. The fundamental law of the ellipse
  is that if we take any point P on it, and join this point by a
  straight line to the two foci, then the sum of these two lines SP
  and S₁P is always the same--SP + S₁P = C.

  The second law is rather less easy to understand. The _radius
  vector_ is the line joining the sun to the planet at any moment; if
  we suppose the sun to be at the focus S, and P to be the planet, the
  radius vector at various positions of the planet will be represented
  by the lines SP, SP₁, SP₂, and so on. If the positions P, P₁, P₂,
  and so on, represent those which the planet occupies after equal
  periods of time--say, once a month--then the sectors of the ellipse
  bounded by each pair of lines, SP and SP₁, SP₁ and SP₂, will be
  equal. If a planet were to move in a circle round the sun, it is
  obvious that this law would imply that it moved with a uniform
  speed; but since the curvature of the ellipse varies in every part
  of its course, so must the speed of the planet, in order that its
  radius vector may describe equal areas in equal times. The planet
  will, in fact, be moving faster when it is near the sun, as at P,
  than when it is far off from the sun, as at P₂.

  The third law shows that there is a definite numerical relation
  between the motions of all the planets, and that the time which each
  of them takes to complete its orbit depends upon its distance from
  the sun.

On his discovery of his third law Kepler had written: “The book is
written to be read either now or by posterity--I care not which; it may
well wait a century for a reader, as God has waited six thousand years
for an observer.” Twelve years after his death, on Christmas Day, 1642,
near Grantham, England, the predestined “reader” was born. The inner
meaning of Kepler’s three laws was brought to light by Isaac Newton.


The great luminary which warms, lights, and rules the solar system is,
like the majority of its fellow stars, a gigantic bubble. In other
words, it is a globe of glowing gas, which is nowhere solid, though the
immense pressure which must exist in its interior probably causes this
gas to assume there a density greater than that of any solid which we


DIMENSIONS OF THE SUN. The sun appears to human vision as a brilliant
globe of a little more than half a degree in diameter. It is about the
same apparent size as the moon, since the size of the sun is to that of
the moon very nearly in the same proportion as their relative distances
from the earth. In reality, however, the sun is a gigantic orb, so huge
that if the earth were at its center the whole orbit of the moon would
lie well within its circumference. The diameter of the sun is about
866,500 miles.

The mass of the sun is about 332,000 times that of the earth, but its
specific gravity is only about a quarter that of the earth, 1.41, if
that of water be taken as unity. The mean distance of the sun from the
earth is about 92,800,000 miles; but, as the earth’s orbit is not
circular but elliptic, this distances varies by about 3,000,000 miles,
being smallest in January and greatest in July.

THE PHYSICAL CONDITION of the sun is very different from that of the
earth, though we know it is composed of very similar materials. The
white-hot surface that we see, called the _photosphere_, is believed to
be largely a shell of highly heated metallic vapors surrounding the
unseen mass beneath. Dark spaces seen in the photosphere are known as
_sun-spots_, and these are often surrounded by brighter patches, termed
_faculæ_. Above the photosphere a shallow envelope of gases, rising here
and there into huge prominences, and known as the _chromosphere_, is
seen in red tints when the sun is totally eclipsed. Beyond the
chromosphere, there is also seen, at the same time, a faint but far more
extensive envelope called the _corona_.

[Illustration: This diagram illustrates the theory that sun-spots are
formed by fragments struck from Saturn’s rings (which are in themselves
nothing more than a great meteoric swarm) by the swarm of meteors known
as the Leonids, which fragments fall into the solar furnace at a speed
of four hundred miles a second.]

The sun’s rays supply light and heat not only to the earth, but also to
the other planets which revolve round it. Its attraction confines these
planets in their orbits and controls their motions.


THE MOON, the satellite of the earth, is the nearest to us of all the
heavenly bodies, being at a mean distance of 240,000 miles. Its diameter
is 2,153 miles and, its density being little more than half that of the
earth, the force of gravity at its surface is very much less than that
at the surface of the earth. A body which weighs a pound here would only
weigh about two and one-half ounces if taken to the moon.


In this diagram the markings on the earth and Mars are to scale, the
orbits of the planets are seen in perspective and the measurements are
according to Prof. Percival Lowell.]

THE MOON’S ORBIT. Her path is approximately an ellipse with the earth in
one focus. Its apparent motion in the sky is from west to east, but she
moves much faster than the sun, taking about twenty-seven days eight
hours to travel all round the earth. The time between two successive new
moons (synodic period or lunation) is twenty-nine and one-half days. The
reason of the difference is that the sun moves slowly in his annual
course through the stars in the same direction as the moon, which
therefore in its revolution round the earth has to overtake him when it
returns. The moon rotates on its axis in the same time as it performs a
revolution in its orbit; hence the same half is always turned toward us.

When the moon in her orbit lies between the sun and the earth, she is
said to be in _conjunction_ with the sun; when the earth is between the
moon and the sun, the moon is said to be in _opposition_ to the sun. At
either of the two points midway from conjunction and opposition, i. e.
90° from conjunction or opposition, the moon is said to be in

THE PHASES OF THE MOON. Except at opposition--i. e. when the earth is
between the moon and sun--the whole of the moon’s disc does not appear
bright to us, and the amount of the bright surface seen by us is found
to depend on the relative positions of moon and sun. Half of the moon is
always illuminated by the sun; but when it is in conjunction between the
earth and sun the whole of the bright surface is on the side away from
us; so that the moon is invisible. As it moves farther from the line
joining earth and sun, a small portion of the bright side comes into
view as a narrow crescent. This increases till half the disc is
illuminated, when the lines joining earth and moon and earth and sun are
at right angles. From this time the moon loses its crescent shape and
becomes convex on both sides, or gibbous (Lat. _gibbus_, a hump)--the
maximum brightness, or full moon, occurring when sun and moon are on
opposite sides of the earth. After this the moon becomes gibbous, then
crescent, and vanishes before the time of new moon.

It is worthy of note that the moon is higher in the heavens and longer
above the horizon in the winter than in summer. This is owing to the
plane of its orbit being at night high towards the south in winter and
low in summer, as is the ecliptic. The moon’s orbit, like that of other
planets, is elliptical, but irregular. When nearest to the earth, she is
said to be in _perigee_; when at the greatest distance, in _apogee_.


In the above diagram, the earth is in the center, and the circle ACFH
the orbit of the moon. Since the inclination of the plane of the moon’s
orbit to the plane of the ecliptic is only a few degrees, we may neglect
it in this case, and suppose the two planes to coincide. Let the sun lie
in the direction ES. Since the distance of the sun from the earth is
about three hundred and eighty-seven times the distance of the moon from
the earth, the lines ES, HS, BS, etc., drawn to the sun from different
points of the moon’s orbit, may be considered to be sensibly parallel.
Let us first suppose the moon to be in conjunction with the sun at the
point A. Here only the dark portion of the moon is turned towards the
earth, and the moon is therefore invisible. This is called new moon. As
the moon moves on towards B, the enlightened part begins to be visible,
and when it reaches C, half the enlightened part is visible, and the
moon is at its first quarter. When the moon is at F, in opposition to
the sun, all the illuminated part is turned towards the earth, and the
moon is full. The moon wanes after leaving F, passes through its last
quarter at H, and finally becomes again invisible at A.]

SURFACE OF THE MOON. The moon is an opaque, cold globe, covered with
mountains, extinct volcanoes, and plains. She has neither water nor
atmosphere, and always presents the same surface to the earth in
consequence of rotating on her axis in the same time as she revolves
round the earth. Moonlight is only reflected sunlight, the illuminated
hemisphere being always turned towards the sun.

The face of the moon has been studied and mapped on a large scale. Its
chief features are three in number: (1) the numerous _volcanic
craters_, such as Tycho and Copernicus, which are mostly named after
distinguished men of science; (2) the wide, dark plains which are known
as _seas_, because they were formerly thought to consist of water; (3)
the curious systems of _bright streaks_, which radiate from many of
these craters, of which the most remarkable extend in all directions
from the great crater Tycho, near the moon’s south pole, and are
conspicuous even to the naked eye at the time of full moon.

THE MOON AND THE TIDES. The moon has long been known to have an effect
upon the tides, and may perhaps influence the winds. It is of enormous
importance to navigators for the determination of longitude, and hence
its movements have been investigated with the greatest care and


By reason of its power of attraction, it is well recognized that the
Moon exercises a greater influence on the side of the earth which is
nearest to it. In consequence the earth is subject to a stress or pull
that tends to lengthen it out toward the moon, and then to recede as the
earth turns away on its axis.]

THE PLANET MARS. Nearest to the earth, with the single exception of
Venus, resembles the earth more closely than any other of the planets,
and is most favorably situated for our observation of all the heavenly
bodies, except the moon. It is a globe rather more than half the size of
the earth. When Mars comes nearest to the earth its distance from us is
about 35,000,000 miles. At these favorable moments its brightness is
about equal to Jupiter, and only surpassed by that of Venus. Mars has a
very pronounced red color, which is supposed to be due to the prevalence
of a rock like our red sandstone on its surface, or possibly to the
color of its vegetation.

Its density is much less--about three-quarters that of the earth; so a
pound weight placed on its surface would not weigh much more than six
ounces, and a ponderous elephant would, if there, be able to jump about
with the agility of a fawn.

The heat and light which Mars receives from the sun, therefore, vary
enormously, and so cause a difference in the lengths of winter and
summer in his north and south hemispheres, the seasons in the north
hemisphere being far more temperate than those in the south. Viewed with
the telescope, large dark green spots are seen, the rest of the surface
being of a ruddy tint, except at the two poles, where two white spots
are observed and considered to be due to large masses of snow and ice.
It has been supposed that the greenish spots are oceans, and the ruddy
parts land. The spectroscope has shown that watery vapor is present in
Mars’ atmosphere, and appearances like huge rain-clouds sometimes
obscure a part of the planet for a considerable period. Physical
processes seem to go on there much the same as on our planet; hence many
believe that Mars is inhabited and forms, in fact, a miniature picture
of the earth.

JUPITER. By far the largest of the planets is second in brilliancy to
Venus, unlike which, however, it is a “superior” planet, having its
orbit outside that of the earth. It is about five times as brilliant as
Sirius, the brightest of the fixed stars.

The planet is a beautiful object when viewed with a telescope; it is
probable that the markings are entirely due to its atmosphere, and that
the actual surface of the planet is rarely visible. Jupiter has hardly
yet cooled from the condition of incandescence, and it is only slightly
solidified. It possesses eight satellites, four of which were discovered
by Galileo when he applied the telescope first to the investigation of
the heavens. By means of these satellites the first observations of the
velocity of light were made. A fifth was discovered in 1892 at the Lick

SATURN was recognized as a planet by the ancients, and was the outside
member of the solar system as known by them. His diameters at the
equator and poles differ considerably, the protuberance at the equator
giving him there a diameter of 74,000 miles, while at the poles it is
only 68,000. In size Saturn is the largest of the planets except
Jupiter, being in fact seven hundred times larger than our earth, but
his density is so small that he would be able to float on water far more
easily than an iceberg. From this it follows that he cannot consist of
solid or liquid matter, and in fact we can only view a mass of clouds
intensely heated within, the whole being probably a planet in the early
stage of development--younger even than Jupiter.

The most remarkable characteristic of Saturn, which makes him an object
of such interest in the sky, is his possession of a luminous ring. The
ring is only luminous on account of its reflection of the sun’s light;
hence is invisible to us when, for instance, we are endeavoring to look
at the ring from below while the sun is shining above. It also sometimes
happens that the plane of the rings passes through the sun or through
the center of the earth, in which case only the thin edge of the rings
can be seen. The ring is divided into two parts, the inner being the
wider, while another faint division appears to divide the outer part
into two smaller rings. In 1850 another ring was discovered; this is
quite different from the outer rings, being dark, and generally known as
the dusky ring of Saturn. The outer ones, though far from solid, can
receive a shadow of Saturn, and themselves cast one on his disc. The
rings are not continuous masses of matter, but consist of countless
myriads of tiny satellites, so close together that to the observer they
appear as one body. The planet has eight satellites which seldom pass
behind or in front of the planet’s disc, and therefore are not objects
of great interest.

URANUS is the next planet beyond Saturn. His mass is about fifteen times
as much as that of the earth, an amount which makes him more than
outweigh Mercury, Venus, the Earth, and Mars combined. All astronomers
do not agree in their estimation of these numbers, Uranus being too far
away for measurements to be more than approximate. Gravity on his
surface is only three-quarters of what it is here. Uranus has four
satellites, and possibly faint rings like those which encircle Saturn.

NEPTUNE is farthest from the sun, the distance between the two bodies
being about 2,750,000,000 miles. At this immense distance it will,
according to Kepler’s laws, take a long time to travel once around its
orbit, and this time has been found to be one hundred and sixty-five of
our years. Although it is ninety-seven times as large as the earth, yet,
on account of its enormous distance from us it can only just be seen,
even with a powerful telescope. Neptune possesses one satellite, which
moves around the planet in rather less than six days.

MERCURY is the smallest planet, except the planetoids, in the solar
system, and the one nearest the sun. It is never seen for more than two
hours before sunrise or after sunset, and is not always visible then;
but when it does appear, it is extremely brilliant. Even when it is most
distant the sun appears four and a half times as big to it as it does to
us, and when the two are at their nearest, this small planet gets ten
times as much light and heat as we do. It is, however, so small and
difficult to observe, that comparatively little is known of it.

VENUS appears to us as the most brilliant of all the planets, sometimes
heralding the sun’s approach in the morning and sometimes following him
at night. Hence she has been called the “morning” and the “evening”
star; and the ancient Greeks, believing her to be two bodies, and not
one, called her Hesperus (Vesper) when she appeared at night, but
Phosphorus when she preceded the dawn, this last name having been
translated in the Latin, Lucifer. We know very little of the actual
surface of Venus, for her envelope of clouds remains constantly in front
of us to baffle curiosity, and never lifts to give us a glimpse of the
planet beneath. These clouds send on to us the light they borrow from
the sun, and shine to us with a brilliant silvery lustre interrupted
here and there with shadowy markings of short duration. But when Venus
shines to us in crescent-form, certain spots near the ends of the horns
can be seen more definitely, and the effects of light and shadow round
these points suggest that they are lofty peaks, reaching above the

THE MINOR PLANETS OR ASTEROIDS. The space between Mars and Jupiter is
occupied by a strange and numerous swarm of _minor planets_ or
_asteroids_. The first of these singular bodies was discovered by an
Italian astronomer, Piazzi, on the first night of the nineteenth
century. Three others were discovered within the course of the next
seven years, and the number now known is upward of 600, most of which
have been recognized by the record of their motion on photographs of the
sky. The four asteroids first discovered, Ceres, Pallas, Juno, and
Vesta, are naturally the largest, ranging in diameter from four hundred
to one hundred and eighteen miles.

Vesta, though not the largest, is considerably the brightest of the
minor planets, and is occasionally visible to the naked eye. None of the
other asteroids has a diameter so great as one hundred miles, and
probably the majority of them are only ten or twenty miles in diameter.


In addition to the planets and their satellites, the sun is attended by
numerous other bodies, moving with far less regularity, and generally
much less conspicuous in the heavens. These are known as _comets_ and
_meteorites_ or _shooting stars_. One of the most interesting of recent
astronomical discoveries is that an intimate physical connection exists
between these two classes of bodies.

COMETS. Comets have been known from the earliest times, because every
now and then a very large and conspicuous one hastens up to the sun from
the remote regions of space, and perplexes monarchs with the fear of
change. They are called _comets_, from the Latin _coma_, meaning hair,
because when they are bright enough to be seen with the naked eye they
look like stars attended by a long stream of hazy light, which was
thought to resemble a woman’s hair flowing down her back. This train of
light is known as the comet’s _tail_. Such bright comets are sometimes
as brilliant as Venus; their tails have been known to stretch halfway
across the visible sky.

These comets are very beautiful and conspicuous objects, which usually
appear in the sky without any warning from astronomers, and invariably
create a great popular sensation. By far the greater number of comets,
however, are only visible through a telescope, and it is rare that a
year passes without at least half a dozen of these being reported. Up to
the present time nearly a thousand comets of all sizes have been
recorded. Not more than one in five of these visitors is visible to the
naked eye.

COMETARY ORBITS. In all cases in which a comet has been observed
sufficiently often for its orbit to be calculated, it is found that it
moves in one of the curves which are known to the geometer as conic
sections. Less than a hundred of the known comets move like the planets
in _elliptical_ orbits, and consequently their periodical return to
visibility can be predicted. As a rule the eccentricity of these
cometary orbits is very much greater than that of any planetary orbit,
which means that the comet approaches fairly close to the sun at one end
of its orbit, but at the other flies away far beyond the outermost
planet, and for a long period disappears from the view of our most
powerful telescopes.

The great majority of comets have only been seen once, and their orbits
appear to be either _parabolic_ or _hyperbolic_. Neither of these is a
closed curve, and what seems to happen in such cases is that a comet
travelling in such an orbit dashes up to the sun from the remote parts
of space, swings round it, often at very close quarters, and flies away
again forever. Only those comets which have elliptical orbits can be
said to belong to the solar system. The others are visitors from space,
which in the course of their motion come near the sun and are deflected
by it, but then fly away until after a lapse of ages they perhaps come
within the sphere of another star’s attraction. Of the comets which move
in elliptical orbits, about twenty have been observed at more than one
return to the sun. Some of these complete their orbits in quite a short
period, like Encke’s comet, which has the shortest period of all, less
than three and a half years; the longest periodical comet is known as
Halley’s, which returns to the sun after seventy-six years, and last
appeared in 1910; it is a bright and conspicuous object.

THE CONSTITUTION OF COMETS. The nature of comets was long in doubt, and
even today their physical characteristics are not fully understood. They
are certainly formed of gravitational matter, because they move in
orbits which are subject to the same laws as those of the planets. But
they also appear to be acted upon by powerful _repulsive forces_
emanating from the sun, to which is due the remarkable phenomenon of
cometary tails. Perhaps there is not much exaggeration in the statement
once made by a well-known astronomer that the whole material of a comet
stretching halfway across the visible heavens, if properly compressed,
could be placed in a hatbox. The old fear that the earth might suddenly
be annihilated by a comet striking it is thoroughly dispelled by modern
investigation, which leads us to believe that the worst results of such
an encounter would be an extremely beautiful display of shooting stars.

METEORS, or FIREBALLS, are bodies which do not belong to the earth, but
come from other parts of space into our atmosphere, and are seen as
bright balls of fire crossing the sky, with a train of light behind.
Suddenly they are seen to go out, and very often a fall of stones
occurs. Sometimes they are observed to break in two, and loud explosions
like thunder are heard. They move very fast--ten or twelve miles per
second, and are visible when between forty and eighty miles above the

Other meteors dart across the sky and disappear, all in a very short
time. These are known as shooting stars, and are sometimes big and
bright, like planets. It is estimated that about six or eight meteors
which drop stones come into our atmosphere every year; but some
20,000,000 of small bodies pass through the air every day--these would
all appear as shooting stars if they occurred at night.

At some periods of the year there are so many shooting stars that they
appear like a shower of fire. On November 14th this happens, the shower
being greatest every thirty-three years. A stream of meteors is
travelling round the sun, and every thirty-three years the earth just
comes through them. Meteoric showers also occur about August 9th to
11th, and smaller ones in April.

The luminosity of meteors is due to the intense heat caused by the
resistance of the air to their passage, and in support of this theory it
is found that meteoric stones are always covered, either wholly or in
part, with a crust of cement that has recently been melted.


We shall now study the so-called fixed stars, those stars, namely, which
preserve the same relative position and configuration from night to
night, only varying, and that with perfect regularity, in the times at
which they reach the meridian. For this reason they have been known from
the dawn of astronomy as fixed stars, in contrast with the planets or
wandering stars.

The observer who watches the nightly changes in the sky with close
attention will soon perceive that all these fixed stars appear to move
in circles or parts of circles. Some of them describe larger circles
than others, and the further south a star is when it passes the
meridian, the larger circle will it describe.

It cannot be too often repeated that this motion of the stars is only
apparent, being due to the real rotation of the earth, along with the
observer on its surface, in the contrary direction. It is estimated that
there are about three thousand stars visible to the naked eye in our
latitude, though not all these are visible at the same time, many of
them being below the horizon, while others are elevated in the sky at
different times and seasons.


In beginning our study of the stars, let us put ourselves in the
position of the earliest observers. Let us first, like them, watch the
stars, and see how they appear from night to night.

We see, at the first glance, that the stars vary much in brightness. The
brightest ones--like Sirius, Capella, Arcturus, and Vega--are called
stars of the _first magnitude_. Those less brilliant, like the six
brightest of “the Dipper,” are said to be of the _second_ magnitude. All
the stars which can be seen with the unaided eye are thus divided into
six classes or _magnitudes_, according to their brightness.

CONSTELLATIONS. We also see that the stars are not uniformly distributed
over the sky. They seem to be arranged in groups, some of which take the
form of familiar objects. Every one knows the seven bright stars which
are called “the Dipper.” Another group resembles a _sickle_, another a
_cross_, and so on. All the stars in the heavens have been divided into
groups called constellations. Many of these were recognized and named at
a very early period.

We should become familiar with these constellations in order to study
the stars with any profit.

It is necessary, in the first place, to have some way of designating the
stars in each constellation. Many of the brighter stars have proper
names as Sirius, Arcturus, and Vega; but the great majority of them are
marked by the letters of the Greek alphabet. The brightest star in each
constellation is called α (alpha); the next brightest, β (beta); the
next, γ (gamma); and so on. The characters and names of the Greek
alphabet are as follows:

  α, Alpha.
  β, Beta.
  γ, Gamma.
  δ, Delta.
  ε, Epsilon.
  ζ, Zeta.
  η, Eta.
  θ, Theta.
  ι, Iota.
  κ, Kappa.
  λ, Lambda.
  μ, Mu.
  ν, Nu.
  ξ, Xi.
  ο, Omicron.
  π, Pi.
  ρ, Rho.
  σ, Sigma.
  τ, Tau.
  υ, Upsilon.
  φ, Phi.
  χ, Chi.
  ψ, Psi.
  ω, Omega.

These letters are followed by the Latin name of the constellation. Thus
Aldebaran is called α Tauri; Rigel, β Orionis; Sirius, α Canis Majoris.

If there are more stars in a constellation than can be named from the
Greek alphabet, the Roman alphabet is used in the same way; and when
both alphabets are exhausted, numbers are used.

CIRCUMPOLAR CONSTELLATIONS. One of the most important constellations,
and one easily recognized, is the Great Bear, or Ursa Major. It is
represented in Plate 1 on the Star Chart. It may be known by the seven
stars forming “the Dipper.” The Bear’s feet are marked by three pairs of
stars. These and the star in the nose can be readily found by means of
the lines drawn on the chart. It may be remarked here, that in all
cases the stars thus connected by lines are the leading stars of the
constellation. The stars α and β are called the Pointers. If a line be
drawn from β to α, and prolonged about five times the distance between
them, it will pass near an isolated star of the second magnitude known
as the Pole Star, or Polaris. This is the brightest star in the Little
Bear, or Ursa Minor (Plate 2). It is in the end of the handle of a
second “dipper,” smaller than the one in the Great Bear.

On the opposite side of the Pole Star from the Great Bear, and at about
the same distance, is another conspicuous constellation, called
Cassiopeia. Its five brightest stars form an irregular W, opening
towards the Pole Star (Plate 2).

About half-way between the two Dippers three stars of the third
magnitude will be seen, the only stars at all prominent in that
neighborhood. These belong to Draco, or the Dragon. The chart will show
that the other stars in the body of the monster form an irregular curve
around the Little Bear, while the head is marked by four stars arranged
in a trapezium. Two of these stars, β and γ, are quite bright. A little
less than half-way from Cassiopeia to the head of the Dragon is a
constellation known as Cepheus, five stars of which form an irregular K.

These five constellations never set in our latitude, and are called
circumpolar constellations.

CONSTELLATIONS VISIBLE IN SEPTEMBER. At this time the Great Bear will be
low down in the northwest, and the Dragon’s head nearly in the zenith.
If we draw a line from ζ to η of the Great Bear and prolong it, we shall
find that it will pass near a reddish star of the first magnitude. This
star is called Arcturus, or α Boötis, since it is the brightest star in
the constellation Boötes. Of its other conspicuous stars, four form a
cross. These and the remaining stars of the constellation can be readily
traced with the aid of Plate 3.

Near the Dragon’s head (Plate 4) may be seen a very bright star of the
first magnitude, shining with a pure white light. This star is Vega, or
α Lyræ.

If we draw a line from Arcturus to Vega (Plate 3), it will pass through
two constellations, the Crown, or Corona Borealis and Hercules. The
former is about one-third of the way from Arcturus to Vega, and consists
of a semicircle of six stars, the brightest of which is called Alphecca
or Gemma Coronæ,--“the gem of the crown.”

Hercules is about half-way between the Crown and Vega. This
constellation is marked by a trapezoid of stars of the third magnitude.
A star in one foot is near the Dragon’s head; there is also a star in
each shoulder, and one in the face.

Just across the Milky Way from Vega (Plate 5) is a star of the first
magnitude, called Altair, or α Aquilæ. This star marks the constellation
Aquila, or the Eagle, and may be recognized by a small star on each side
of it. These are the only important stars in this constellation.

In the Milky Way, between Altair and Cassiopeia (Plate 4), there is a
large constellation called Cygnus, or the Swan. Six of its stars form a
large cross, by which it will be readily known. α Cygni is often called
Deneb. It forms a large isosceles triangle with Altair and Vega.

Low down in the south, on the edge of the Milky Way (Plate 6), is a
constellation called Sagittarius, or the Archer. It may be known by
five stars forming an inverted dipper, often called “the Milk-dipper.”
The head is marked by a small triangle. The other stars, as seen by the
map, may be grouped so as to represent a bow and an arrow.


Low in the southwest is a bright red star called Antares, or α

The space between Sagittarius and Hercules and Scorpio is occupied by
the Serpent (Serpens) and the Serpent-bearer, or Ophiuchus (Plates 6 and
7). The head of the Serpent is near the Crown, and marked by a small
triangle. The head of Ophiuchus is close to the head of Hercules, and
may be known by a star of the second magnitude. Each shoulder is marked
by a pair of stars. His feet are near the Scorpion.

Nearly on a line with Arcturus and γ Ursæ Majoris (Plate 1), and rather
nearer the latter, is an isolated star of the third magnitude, called
Cor Caroli, or Charles’ Heart. This is the only prominent star in the
constellation of Canes Venatici, or the Hunting Dogs.

Cassiopeia is almost due east of the Pole Star. A line drawn from the
latter through β Cassiopeiæ and prolonged, passes through two stars of
the second and third magnitude. These, with two others farther to the
south, form a large square, called the Square of Pegasus. Three of
these, as seen by the chart (Plate 5), belong to the constellation
Pegasus, or the Winged Horse. α Pegasi is called Markab, and β is called
Algenib. The bright stars in the neck and nose can be found by the


The fourth star in the Square of Pegasus belongs (Plate 8) to the
constellation Andromeda. Nearly in a line with α Pegasi and this star
are two other bright stars belonging to Andromeda. The stars in her belt
may be found by the chart.

Following the direction of the line of stars in Andromeda just
mentioned, and bending a little towards the east, we come to Algol, or β
Persei, a remarkable variable star. This star may be readily recognized
from the fact, together with β and γ Andromeda and the four stars in the
Square of Pegasus, it forms a figure similar in outline to the Dipper in
Ursa Major, but much larger. If the handle of this great Dipper is made
straight instead of being bent, the star in the end of it is α Persei,
of the second magnitude. This star has one of the third magnitude on
each side of it. The other stars in Perseus may be found by the chart.

Just below θ in the head of Pegasus (Plate 9) are three stars of the
third and fourth magnitudes, forming a small arc. These mark the urn of
Aquarius, the Water-bearer. His body consists of a trapezium of four
stars of the third and fourth magnitudes. Small clusters of stars show
the course of the water flowing from his urn.

This stream enters the mouth of the Southern Fish, or Piscis Australis.
The only bright star in this constellation is Fomalhaut, which is of the
first magnitude, and at this time will be low down in the southeast.

To the south of Aquarius is Capricornus, or the Goat. He is marked by
three pairs of stars arranged in a triangle. One pair is in his head,
another in his tail, and the third in his knees.

Near Altair (Plate 5), and a little higher up, is a small diamond of
stars forming the Dolphin, or Delphinus.

A little to the west of the Dolphin, in the Milky Way, are four stars of
the fourth magnitude, which form the constellation Sagitta, or the

CONSTELLATIONS VISIBLE IN OCTOBER. If we look at the heavens at eight
o’clock on the 15th of October, we shall see that all the constellations
described above have shifted somewhat towards the west. Arcturus and
Antares have set. In the east, below Andromeda (Plate 10), we see a pair
of bright stars, which are the only conspicuous ones in the
constellation Aries, or the Ram.

About half-way between Aries and γ Andromedæ are three stars which form
a small triangle. This constellation is called Triangulum, or the

Between Aries and Pegasus is the constellation Pisces, or the Fishes.
The southernmost Fish may be recognized by a pentagon of small stars
lying below the back of Pegasus. There are no conspicuous stars in the
other Fish, which is directly below Andromeda.

CONSTELLATIONS VISIBLE IN NOVEMBER. At eight o’clock in the evening on
the 15th of November, we see at a glance that the constellations with
which we have become acquainted have moved yet farther to the westward.
Boötes, the Crown, Ophiuchus, and the Archer have set; Pegasus,
Cassiopeia, and Andromeda are overhead; while new constellations appear
in the east.

We notice at once (Plate 11) a very bright star in the northeast,
directly below Perseus. This is Capella, or α Aurigæ. There are five
other conspicuous stars in Auriga, or the Charioteer; and with Capella
they form an irregular pentagon.

Somewhat to the eastward (Plate 12), and a little lower down, is a very
bright red star. This is Aldebaran, or α Tauri. It is familiarly known
as the Bull’s eye. It will be noticed by the map that it is at one end
of a V which forms the face of the Bull. This group is known as the
Hyades. Somewhat above the Hyades is a smaller group, called the
Pleiades,--more commonly known as the Seven Stars, though few persons
can distinguish more than six. The bright star on the northern horn, or
β Tauri, is also in the foot of Auriga, and counts as γ of that

All the space between Taurus and the Southern Fish, and below Aries and
Pisces (Plate 13), is occupied by Cetus, the Whale. The head is marked
by a triangle of rather conspicuous stars below Aries; the tail, by a
bright star of the second magnitude, which is now just about as far
above the horizon as Fomalhaut. On the body there are five stars,
forming a sort of sickle. About halfway between this sickle and the
triangle, in the head, is σ Ceti, which is also called Mira, or the
wonderful star.

CONSTELLATIONS VISIBLE IN DECEMBER. At eight o’clock in the evening in
the middle of December, we shall find that Hercules, Aquila, and
Capricornus have sunk below the horizon; while Vega and the Swan are on
the point of setting. The Great Bear is climbing up in the northeast. In
the east we behold by far the most brilliant group of constellations we
have yet seen. Capella and Aldebaran are now high up; and below the
former (Plate 12) is the splendid constellation of Orion. His belt, made
up of three stars in a straight line, will be recognized at once. Above
this, on one shoulder, is a star of the first magnitude, called
Betelgeuse, or α Orionis. About as far from the belt, on the other side,
is another star of the first magnitude, called Rigel. There are two
other fainter stars which form a large trapezium with Betelgeuse and
Rigel. The three small stars below the belt are upon the sword.

Below Orion (Plate 14) is a small trapezium of stars which are in the
constellation of Lepus, or the Hare. The head is marked by a small
triangle, as seen on the map.

To the north of Orion, and a little lower down (Plate 12), are two
bright stars near together, one of the first and the other of the second
magnitude. The latter is called Castor, and the former Pollux. These
stars are in the constellation of Gemini, or the Twins. A line of three
smaller stars just in the edge of the Milky Way marks the feet, and
another line of three the knees. Pollux forms a large triangle with
Capella and Betelgeuse.

CONSTELLATIONS VISIBLE IN JANUARY. At eight in the evening on the 15th
of January, Vega, Altair, the Dolphin, Aquarius, and Fomalhaut have
disappeared in the west; Deneb and the Square of Pegasus are near the
horizon; while Capella and Aldebaran are nearly overhead. Two stars of
exceeding brilliancy have come up in the west. The one farthest to the
south (Plate 14) is the brightest star in the whole heavens. It is
called Sirius, or the Dogstar; and is in the constellation of Canis
Major, or the Great Dog, which can be readily traced by the lines on the

The other bright star is between Sirius and Pollux (Plate 12), and is
called Procyon. It is in Canis Minor, or the Little Dog. The only other
prominent star in this constellation is one of the third magnitude near

Procyon, Sirius, and Betelgeuse form a large equilateral triangle.

Orion and the group of constellations about it constitute by far the
most brilliant portion of the heavens, as seen in our latitude. There
are, in all, only about twenty stars of the first magnitude, and seven
of these are in this immediate vicinity.

CONSTELLATIONS VISIBLE IN FEBRUARY. If we look at the heavens at the
same time in the evening about the middle of February, we shall miss
Cygnus and Pegasus from the west. Auriga and Orion are nearly overhead.

Southeast of the Great Bear (Plate 15) is a red star of the first
magnitude, called Regulus, in the constellation of Leo, or the Lion.
There are five stars near Regulus, which together with it form a group
often called the Sickle. The star in the tail is Denebola, which makes a
right-angled triangle with two others near it.


Between Leo and Gemini is the constellation Cancer, or the Crab. It
contains no bright stars, but a remarkable cluster of small stars called
Præsepe, or the Beehive.

Below Regulus (Plate 14) is a bright red star of the second magnitude,
called Cor Hydræ, or the Hydra’s Heart. The head of Hydra is marked by
five small stars. The coils of the monster can be traced by the map. A
portion of the constellation is on Plate 16.

CONSTELLATIONS VISIBLE IN MARCH. At the middle of March, the heavens
will have shifted round somewhat towards the west; but all the
conspicuous constellations of the preceding month are still visible,
while no new ones at all brilliant have come into view.

If we draw a line from the end of the Great Bear’s tail to Denebola, it
will pass through two constellations,--Canes Venatici, described above;
and Coma Berenices, or Berenice’s Hair, a large cluster of faint stars.
(Plate 15).


1. Double nebula in Gemini. 2. Double nebula of great brilliancy in Coma
Berenicis. 3. Small double nebula. 4. Curiously shaped nebula in
Ophiuchus. 5. Two nebulous spots in Canes Venatici. 6. Remarkable
veil-like nebula in Lyra. 7. Elliptical nebula in Perseus. 8. Nebulous
spot in Sagittarius, split into three pieces; a double star in center.
9. Large curiously-shaped nebula in Rober Caroli, filled with minute
stars. 10. Great nebula in Andromeda, visible to the eye. 11. Nebula in
Cetus. 12. Elongated nebula in Cygnus. 13. Brilliant round spots in
Sagittarius. 14. Round spots in Andromeda. 15-16. Spots in Orion and
Ursa Major. 17. Most remarkable of all nebula, in Orion. 18. Great oval
nebula in Vulpes, containing two darker nebulae. 19. Nebulous figure in
Canis Venaticus. 20. Nebular clouds in the Southern hemisphere.]

CONSTELLATIONS VISIBLE IN APRIL. At the middle of April, Aries and
Andromeda have set; Taurus, Orion and Canis Major are sinking towards
the west; the Great Bear and the Lion are overhead; Arcturus has risen
in the northeast (Plate 16); and some way to the south of this is seen a
star of the first magnitude, which forms a large triangle with Arcturus
and Denebola. It is called Spica Virginis, and is the chief star in the
constellation Virgo, or the Virgin. The stars on the breast and wings
can be found with the aid of the map.

South of Virgo is a trapezium of four stars, which are in the
constellation of Corvus, or the Crow.

CONSTELLATIONS VISIBLE IN MAY. At the middle of May, Taurus, Orion, and
Canis Major have set; Vega has just come up in the northeast; and
between Vega and Arcturus we again see Hercules and Corona. Below Spica
are two stars of the second magnitude, belonging to the constellation
Libra, or the Balance. Another star of the fourth magnitude forms a
triangle with these, and marks one pan of the balance. (Plate 7).

CONSTELLATIONS VISIBLE IN JUNE. In June we shall find that Canis Minor,
Perseus, Auriga, and Gemini have either set, or are on the point of
setting; Arcturus is overhead; Cygnus and Aquila are just rising.
Ophiuchus is well up; and low in the southeast we see again the red star
Antares, in the constellation Scorpio, or the Scorpion (Plate 6). There
is a star of the third magnitude on each side of Antares, and several
stars of the third and fourth magnitudes in the head and claws. The
configuration of these stars is much like a boy’s kite with a long tail.
Scorpio is a very brilliant constellation, and is seen to better
advantage in July and August.

important constellations visible in our latitude. Those which are seen
in July and August are mainly those described under the last two or
three months, and under September.

constellations near the South Pole of the heavens which never rise in
our latitude, just as there are certain ones near the North Pole which
never set. These are called the southern circumpolar constellations.


  The following table gives the constellations visible at eight
  o’clock in the evening about the middle of each month. The stars
  opposite the names of the constellations indicate those visible in
  the month designated at the top.

  |                                           |S|O|N|D|J|F|M|A|M|J|J|A|
  |                                           |e|c|o|e|a|e|a|p|a|u|u|u|
  |           NAME OF CONSTELLATION           |p|t|v|c|n|b|r|r|y|n|l|g|
  |                                           |t|.|.|.|.|.|.|i| |e|y|.|
  |                                           |.| | | | | | |l| | | | |
  |=Ursa Major= (_er´sa mā´jor_). The Greater | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |Bear.                                      |*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|
  |=Ursa Minor= (_er´sa mī´nor_). The Lesser  | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |Bear.                                      |*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|
  |=Draco= (_drak´ō_). Dragon.                |*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|
  |=Cassiopeia= (_kas-si-o-pē´a_). Lady’s     | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |Chair.                                     |*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|
  |=Cepheus= (_sē´fe-us_).                    |*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*|
  |=Bootes= (_bo-ō´tēz_). The Oxdriver or     | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |Plowman.                                   |*| | | | | | |*|*|*|*|*|
  |=Corona Borealis= (_kō-rō´na bō-rē-ā´lis_).| | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |The Northern Crown.                        |*|*| | | | | | |*|*|*|*|
  |=Ophiuchus= (_of-i-u´kus_). The Serpent    | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |Bearer.                                    |*| | | | | | | | |*|*|*|
  |=Sagittarius= (_saj-i-tā´ri-us_). The      | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |Archer.                                    |*| | | | | | | | | |*|*|
  |=Hercules= (_her´ku-lēz_).                 |*|*| | | | | | |*|*|*|*|
  |=Lyra= (_lī´ra_). The Lyre.                |*|*|*| | | | | | |*|*|*|
  |=Aquila= (_ak´wil-a_).                     |*|*|*| | | | | | | |*|*|
  |=Delphinus= (_del´fin-us_). Dolphin.       |*|*|*| | | | | | | |*|*|
  |=Capricornus= (_kap-ri-kor´nus_). The Goat.|*|*|*| | | | | | | | |*|
  |=Cygnus= (_sig´nus_). The Swan.            |*|*|*|*| | | | | |*|*|*|
  |=Sagitta= (_saj´it-ta_). The Arrow.        |*|*|*| | | | | | | |*|*|
  |=Aquarius= (_a-kwā´ri-us_). The Water-     | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |bearer.                                    |*|*|*|*| | | | | | | | |
  |=Piscis Australis= (_pis´sis aw-strā´lis_).| | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |The Southern Fish.                         |*|*|*|*| | | | | | | | |
  |=Pegasus= (_peg´a-sus_). The Winged Horse. |*|*|*|*|*| | | | | | | |
  |=Andromeda= (_an-drom´e-da_).              |*|*|*|*|*|*|*| | | | | |
  |=Perseus= (_per´sus_).                     |*|*|*|*|*|*|*|*| | | | |
  |=Aries= (_a´ri-ēz_). Ram.                  | |*|*|*|*|*|*| | | | | |
  |=Pisces= (_pis´sēz_). Fishes.              | |*|*|*|*| | | | | | | |
  |=Cetus= (_sē´tus_). The Whale.             | | |*|*|*|*| | | | | | |
  |=Triangulum= (_trī-ang´u-lum_). The        | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |Triangle.                                  | | |*|*|*|*|*| | | | | |
  |=Auriga= (_aw-ri´ga_). The Waggoner or The | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |Charioteer.                                | | |*|*|*|*|*|*|*| | | |
  |=Taurus= (_tau´rus_). The Bull.            | | |*|*|*|*|*|*| | | | |
  |=Lepus= (_lep´us_). The Hare.              | | | |*|*|*|*| | | | | |
  |=Orion= (_ō-ri´on_). Giant and Hunter.     | | | |*|*|*|*|*| | | | |
  |=Gemini= (_jem´i-ni_). The Twins.          | | | |*|*|*|*|*|*| | | |
  |=Canis Major= (_kā´nis mā´jor_). The Great | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |Dog.                                       | | | | |*|*|*|*| | | | |
  |=Canis Minor= (_kā´nis mī´nor_). The Little| | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |Dog.                                       | | | | |*|*|*|*|*| | | |
  |=Cancer= (_kan´ser_). The Crab.            | | | | | |*|*|*|*|*| | |
  |=Hydra= (_hī´dra_). The Snake.             | | | | | |*|*|*|*|*| | |
  |=Leo= (_lē´ō_). The Lion.                  | | | | | |*|*|*|*|*|*| |
  |=Coma Berenices= (_kō´ma ber-e-nī´sēz_).   | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |Hair of Berenice.                          | | | | | | |*|*|*|*|*|*|
  |=Canes Venatici= (_ka´nēz vē-nā´ti-si_).   | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  |The Hunter’s Dogs.                         | | | | | | |*|*|*|*|*|*|
  |=Virgo= (_ver´gō_). The Virgin.            | | | | | | | |*|*|*|*|*|
  |=Corvus= (_kor´vus_). The crow.            | | | | | | | |*|*|*|*| |
  |=Libra= (_li´bra_). Balance.               | | | | | | | |*|*|*|*| |
  |=Scorpio= (_skor´pi-ō_). The Scorpion.     | | | | | | | | | |*|*|*|


Everyone knows the Milky Way. It is one of the most striking sights of a
clear night, for only on clear, moonless nights can we see its cloudy
track of light across the heavens. More than any other celestial object
it affects us with a sense of mystery and of unknown destiny as, indeed,
it has affected men at all times and in all countries. To the American
Indian it was the “path of souls.” In ancient mythology it had various
meanings: thus, it was the highway of the gods to Olympus; or it sprang
from the ears of corn dropped by Isis as she fled from her pursuer; or
it marked the original course of the sun, which he later abandoned. In
mediæval times it became associated by pilgrims with their own journeys.

It stretches like a vast ragged semicircle over the sky. Indeed, it
traces a rough circle, for this line is continued over the southern
hemisphere also. The circle is, however, very far from being smooth or
even; the path is full of irregularities. It varies in width to an
extent of about thirty degrees, and varies also considerably in
brightness. Its total area has been estimated to cover rather less than
one-fourth of the whole northern hemisphere of the sky, and to cover
about one-third of the southern hemisphere. Its track lies through the
constellations Cassiopeia and Auriga; it passes between the feet of
Gemini and the horns of Taurus, through Orion just above the giant’s
club, and through the neck and shoulder of Monoceros. It passes above
Sirius into Argo, here entering the southern hemisphere, and through
Argo and the Southern Cross into the Centaur. In the Centaur the Milky
Way divides into two streams, in a manner which suggests the divided
course of a river around an island, a dark rift between the two luminous
streams representing the island.

It is a very long island, however, for the double conformation of the
Milky Way extends over one-third of its entire course--that is to say,
one hundred and twenty degrees of the circle. The divergent branches
reunite in the northern hemisphere in the constellation Cygnus. The
brighter stream passes through Norma, Ara, Scorpio and Sagittarius;
along the bow of Sagittarius into Antinous, here entering the northern
hemisphere again; then through Aquila, Sagitta, and Vulpecula it arrives
at Cygnus and reunion with the branch which left it in Centaur. From
Cygnus the stream, now single, passes through Lacerta and the head of
Cepheus to the point whence we started, in Cassiopeia.

As we follow the Milky Way throughout its course, we find it continually
sending out streaming appendages of nebulous appearance towards
clusters, nebulæ, or groups of stars. In Norma it sends out a
complicated series of nebulous streaks and patches, covering the
Scorpion’s tail, spreading faintly over the leg of Ophiuchus, and
extending beyond, as if to meet a corresponding branch sent off from the
region of Cygnus in the northern hemisphere. The latter is a very bright
and remarkable streak, running south through Cygnus and Aquila, to
become lost in a dim and sparsely starred region. From Cassiopeia a
vivid branch proceeds to the chief star of Perseus, and faint streaks
appear to continue the “feeler” towards the Hyades and the Pleiades.
There are many other “feelers” of the same kind, and they are all of
great interest, because they seem to show some sort of influence
exercised by the Milky Way upon the whole starry universe.

theories as to the nature of the Milky Way have been put forward at
various times. Anaxagoras thought it might be due to the shadow of our
globe; Aristotle, that it was some kind of mist due to the exhalation of
vapors from the earth.

But a grander and truer conception of its nature and situation, removed
far from the earth and independent of any terrestrial cause, had early
come to several minds. Pythagoras and Democritus both formed the
conjecture that its shimmer might be due to innumerable stars, and
Galileo’s telescope confirmed their theory.

As we have seen, the Milky Way is by no means a simple stream of stars;
with careful observation, even the naked eye can perceive something of
its irregular detail, when the atmosphere is unusually clear, and there
is no moon. Viewed under these conditions through a good telescope, the
effect of the Milky Way, when made to pass progressively before the
vision, is one of unexampled grandeur and sublimity.



These two drawings show the two semi-circles of the Milky Way as they
extend from the regions of the Polar Star to the region of the Southern
Cross on each side of the apparent sphere of the heavens. It will be
noticed that the bright stars congregate near its region, and that there
is a characteristic harmony in the way in which the wisps appear to
project into space, suggesting some common cause for this appearance
throughout the whole galaxy.]

The general effect has been well likened to that of an old, gnarled
tree-trunk, marked with knots and curving lines, and riddled with dark
holes and passages, linked together by shimmering wisps or arches. This
general effect is practically lost as the detail becomes clear in a
telescopic view. The detail is extremely various. At one point it may
consist of separate stars scattered irregularly upon a background of
darkness; at another, of star-clusters, sometimes following one upon
another in long, processional line; at another, the stars seem to
collect in small, soft clouds, presenting the appearance, as the
telescope sweeps over them, of drifting foam.

another point the track may be involved in nebulosity in which many
stars appear to be imbedded. Perhaps the most characteristic features
are several which have already been remarked as conspicuous in
star-clusters or nebulæ, such as lines of stars, dark lanes or rifts,
and dark holes. The lines of stars, which are evidently connected by
some actual physical relation, are either straight, curved, radiated, or
in parallels. In Sagittarius is a very striking collection of about
thirty stars resembling in form a forked twig with a curved hook at the
unforked end. The dark rifts in the Milky Way show the same features as
those in star-clusters. Sometimes they are parallel; sometimes they
radiate like branches from a common center; sometimes they are lines
with bright stars; sometimes they are quite black, as if utterly void;
sometimes slightly luminous, as if powdered with small stars.

It can be by no accident or chance that in the vast edifice of the
heavens objects of certain classes should crowd into the belt of the
Milky Way, and other classes avoid it; it points to the whole forming a
single growth, an essential unity. For there is but one belt in the
heavens, like the Milky Way, a belt in which small stars, new stars, and
planetary nebulæ find their favorite home; and that belt encircles the
entire heavens; and similarly that belt is the only region from which
the white nebulæ appear to be repelled. The Milky Way forms the
foundation, the strong and buttressed wall of the celestial building;
the white nebulæ close in the roof of its dome.


It has already been observed that a number of stars are arranged in
clusters of groups, while others, like our own sun, are at vast
distances from their nearest neighbors. Some of these clusters, of which
the Pleiades afford the best example to the naked eye, can be resolved
by a keen eye into separate stars; some, like Præsepe in Cancer, which
only show to the naked eye as a hazy spot of light, break up in a good
field-glass into clusters of stars; but the majority of stellar clusters
require a powerful telescope for their resolution.

It was long ago noticed that, the more powerful a telescope was, the
greater was the number of these hazy spots of light which it would
resolve into clusters of stars. Consequently the opinion was formed that
all the hazy little clouds or nebulæ which are so prevalent throughout a
large part of the sky were simply clusters of stars, so far away that
their light merged into a single impression on the eye. A great number
of these nebulæ were only resolved by large telescopes; many were found
to be irresolvable by any telescope. It was simply concluded from this
that they were still more distant than the clusters which had yielded to
the resolving powers of the telescope; and it was further supposed that
each of these clusters of stars might be a separate universe or galaxy,
comparable in extent and importance with our own universe, bounded by
the vast girdle of the Milky Way.

THE NEBULAR HYPOTHESIS. This grand conception of innumerable universes
scattered throughout space was speedily destroyed by the spectroscope,
which distinguishes with entire certainty between the light sent to us
from a solid star and that emitted by a gas. When it was turned upon the
nebulæ which had been supposed in reality to be star-clusters so distant
that no telescope could resolve them, it showed unmistakably that these
nebulæ were not star-groups, but simply masses of incandescent gas.

Besides, nebulæ vary greatly in form and appearance; some are clearly
clusters of stars, others are perfectly hazy. A round or oval form is
sometimes exhibited, with a gradual condensation towards the center, and
a number of stars standing in the center of a nebulous haze can be
observed. Such observations on nebulæ caused Kant and Laplace to suggest
a theory--now known as the nebular theory--as to the formation of
worlds. They considered that the solar system, for example, originally
existed as uncondensed nebulous matter. This gradually condensed towards
the center, forming the nucleus of the sun, and later the outer parts
separated into distinct parts, each part condensing into a planet. The
different forms of nebulæ observed in the heavens are then supposed to
be systems in different stages of development.


Many of the stars shine with colored light, as red, blue, green, or

These colors are exhibited in striking contrast in many of the double
stars. Combinations of blue and yellow, or green and yellow, are not
uncommon; while in fewer cases we find one star white and the other
purple, or one white and the other red. In several instances each star
has a rosy light.

The following are a few of the most interesting colored double stars:

                   Color of      Color of Smaller
  Name of Star    Larger One           One

  γ Andromedæ     Orange          Sea-Green.
  α Piscium       Pale Green      Blue.
  β Cygni         Yellow          Sapphire Blue.
  η Cassiopeiæ    Yellow          Purple.
  σ Cassiopeiæ    Greenish        Bright Blue.
  ζ Coronæ        White           Light Purple.
  ι Cancri        Orange          Blue.
  α Herculis      Orange          Emerald Green.

Single stars of a fiery red or deep orange color are common enough. Of
the first color may be mentioned Aldebaran, Antares and Betelgeuse.
Arcturus is a good example of an orange star. Isolated stars of a deep
blue or green color are very rarely found; among the conspicuous stars,
β Libræ appears to be the only instance.

It is now a well-established fact that the stars change their color.
Sirius was described as a fiery red star by the ancients, is now decided
green color.



  Individual                                   Constellation in
    Name            Meaning                       Which Found

  Achernar    The End of The River            α Eridani.
  Alcor       The Near One                    80 Ursæ Majoris.
  Alcyone     Daughter of Atlas and Pleione   η Tauri.
  Aldebaran   The Follower                    α Tauri.
  Algenib     The Side                        γ Pegasi.
  Algol       The Demon Star                  β Persei.
  Alioth      The Tail (of the Sheep)         ε Ursæ Majoris.
  Altair      The Soaring Eagle               α Aquilæ.
  Antares     The Rival of Mars               α Scorpii.
  Arcturus    The Watcher of the Bear         α Boötis.
  Bellatrix   The Woman Warrior               γ Orionis.
  Betelgeux   The Shoulder of the Giant       α Orionis.
  Canopus     The Pilot of Menelaus           α Argûs.
  Capella     The Goat                        α Aurigæ.
  Caph        The Hand                        β Cassiopeiæ.
  Castor      Son of Zeus and Leda            α Geminorum.
  Cor Caroli  Charles’ Heart                  α Canum Ven.
  Deneb       The Tail                        α Cygni.
  Denebola    The Lion’s Tail                 β Leonis.
  Dubhe       The Bear                        α Ursæ Majoris.
  Fomalhaut   The Fish’s Mouth                α Piscis Australis.
  Markab      The Saddle                      α Pegasi.
  Mira Ceti   The Wonderful Star of Cetus     ο Ceti.
  Mizar       The Girdle                      ζ Ursæ Majoris.
  Polaris     The Pole Star                   α Ursæ Minoris.
  Pollux      Son of Zeus and Leda            β Geminorum.
  Procyon     Before the Dog                  α Canis Minoris.
  Regulus     The Little King                 α Leonis.
  Rigel       The Foot                        β Orionis.
  Sirius      Chief                           α Canis Majoris.
  Spica       The Ear of Corn                 α Virginis.
  Vega        The Swooping Eagle              α Lyræ.


When the earth is between the moon and the sun in a line, the moon lies
in the shadow of the earth, and so suffers temporary obscuration; a
_lunar eclipse_ then takes place. When the moon passes between the earth
and the sun, the latter is at certain places on the earth obscured by
the dark body of the moon, and a _solar eclipse_ takes place.

LUNAR ECLIPSES. The shadow cast by the earth is conical, and may be
shown to extend about one million miles from its surface. At a distance
of a quarter of a million miles away the width of this shadow is about
six thousand miles; and if the moon passes into it at that approximate
distance from the earth, its disc of two thousand miles diameter may be
partially or totally obscured. The moon and sun may be on opposite sides
of the earth, and yet the former not in shadow. This is due to the fact
that the moon’s orbit round the earth is not exactly in the same plane
as that of the earth’s orbit round the sun. If it were so, we should
have total eclipses at every full moon; but since the two planes are
inclined to each other at an angle of 5° 9′, eclipses will occur when
the moon is at or near its _nodes_ or positions of coincidence with the
plane of the ecliptic. Partial eclipses are produced when only a portion
of the moon passes into shadow; annular eclipses such as are sometimes
observed in the case of the sun cannot occur with the moon.





On its way through space the moon passes sometimes between the sun and
the earth, shutting off the sunlight from the earth, as shown in the top
picture. The drawing in the middle shows us that the moon does not hide
the sunlight from the whole of the earth, but only from a part of it.
But in the part from which the sun is hid the moon’s shadow makes day so
dark that we can see the stars. We call this an eclipse of the sun.
Sometimes, too, the earth passes between the moon and the sun so as to
cut off all sunlight from the moon, as shown in the bottom picture. We
call this an eclipse of the moon.]

SOLAR ECLIPSES. The shadow cast by the moon is also conical, and extends
over a slightly varying distance of about a quarter of a million miles
from the moon’s surface. This being the approximate distance of the moon
from the earth, it is seen that when the moon is between the earth and
the sun the shadow may reach the earth. The extreme limit of the shadow
may range from twenty-three thousand miles short of the earth, in which
case an entire eclipse of the sun is impossible, to fifteen thousand
miles beyond the earth. In the latter case a circular shadow will be
projected on the surface of the globe, travelling onwards slowly in the
direction of the motion of the moon. Within this shadow or _umbra_ the
body of the sun cannot be observed, and a total eclipse prevails. A
circular region exists round this shadow, in which only part of the sun
is visible; this region is therefore partly in shadow, and is called the
_penumbra_. Outside the penumbra the whole sun may be viewed; the moon’s
shadow is not nearly large enough to render a solar eclipse co-existent
over all parts of the earth’s face towards the sun.


To the Greeks the starry heavens were an illustrated mythological poem.
Every constellation was a picture, connected with some old fable of gods
or heroes.

The two Bears have one story. Callisto was a nymph beloved by Jupiter,
who changed her into a she-bear to save her from the jealous wrath of
Juno. But Juno learned the truth, and induced Diana to kill the bear in
the chase. Jupiter then placed her among the stars as Ursa Major, and
her son Arcas afterwards became Ursa Minor. Juno, indignant at the honor
thus shown the objects of her hatred, persuaded Tethys and Oceanus to
forbid the Bears to descend, like the other stars, into the sea.

According to Ovid, Juno changed Callisto into a bear; and when Arcas, in
hunting, was about to kill his mother, Jupiter placed both among the

Ursa Minor was also called Phœnice, because the Phœnicians made it their
guide in navigation, while the Greeks preferred the Great Bear for that
purpose. It was also known as Cynosura (dog’s tail) from its resemblance
to the upturned curl of a dog’s tail. The Great Bear was sometimes
called Helice (winding), either from its shape or its curved path.

Boötes (the Herdsman) was also called Arctophylax and Arcturus, both of
which names mean the guard or keeper of the bear. According to some of
the stories, Boötes was Arcas; according to others, he was Icarus, the
unfortunate son of Dædalus. The name Arcturus was afterwards given to
the chief star of the constellation.

Cepheus, Cassiopeia, Andromeda, Perseus, and Pegasus are a group of
star-pictures illustrating a single story.

Cepheus and Cassiopeia were the king and queen of Ethiopia, and had a
very beautiful daughter, Andromeda. Her mother boasted that the maiden
was fairer than the Nereids, who in their anger persuaded Neptune to
send a sea-monster to ravage the shores of Ethiopia. To appease the
offended deities Andromeda, by the command of an oracle, was exposed to
this monster. The hero Perseus rescued her and married her.

Pegasus, the winged horse, sprang from the blood of the frightful
Gorgon, Medusa, whom Perseus had slain not long before he rescued
Andromeda from the sea-monster. According to the most ancient account,
Pegasus became the horse of Jupiter, for whom he carried the thunder and
lightning; but he afterward came to be considered the horse of Aurora,
and finally of the Muses. Modern poets rarely speak of him except as
connected with the Muses.

The Dragon, according to some of the poets, was the one that guarded the
golden apples of the Hesperides; according to others, the monster sacred
to Mars which Cadmus killed in Bœotia.

The Lyre is said to be the one which Apollo gave to Orpheus. After the
death of Orpheus, Jupiter placed it among the stars at the intercession
of Apollo and the Muses.

The Crown was the bridal gift of Bacchus to Ariadne, transferred to the
heavens after her death.

Aquila is probably the eagle into which Merops was changed. It was
placed among the stars by Juno. Some, however, make it the Eagle of

Cygnus or Cycnus, according to Ovid, was a relative of Phaëthon. While
lamenting the unhappy fate of his kinsman on the banks of the Eridanus,
he was changed by Apollo into a swan, and placed among the stars.

Sagittarius was said by the Greeks to be the Centaur Cheiron, the
instructor of Peleus, Achilles and Diomed. It is pretty certain,
however, that all the zodiacal constellations are of Egyptian origin,
and represent twelve Egyptian deities who presided over the months of
the year. Thus Aries was Jupiter Ammon; Taurus, the bull Apis; Gemini,
the inseparable gods Horus and Harpocrates; and so on. The Greeks
adopted the figures, and invented stories of their own to explain them.

Scorpio, in the Egyptian zodiac, represented the monster Typhon.
Originally this constellation extended also over the space now filled by

Ophiuchus represents Æsculpius, the god of medicine. Serpents were
sacred to him, probably because they were a symbol of prudence and
renovation, and were believed to have the power of discovering herbs of
wondrous powers.

Aquarius, in Greek fable, was Ganymede, the Phrygian boy who became the
cup-bearer of the gods in place of Hebe.

Taurus, as has been stated above, was the Egyptian Apis. The Greeks made
it the bull which carried off Europa. The Pleiades are usually called
the daughters of Atlas, whence their name Atlantides. Milton speaks of
them as “the seven Atlantic Sisters.”

According to one legend the seventh was Sterope, who became invisible
because she had loved a mortal; according to another, her name was
Electra, and she left her place that she might not witness the downfall
of Troy, which was founded by her son, Dardanus.

The Hyades, according to one of several stories, were sisters of the
Pleiades. The name probably means “the Rainy,” since their rising
announced wet weather.

Cetus is said by most writers to be the sea-monster from which Perseus
rescued Andromeda.

Orion was a famous giant and hunter, who loved the daughter of Oinopion,
King of Chios. As her father was slow to consent to her marriage, Orion
attempted to carry off the maiden; whereupon Oinopion, with the help of
Bacchus, put out his eyes. But the hero, in obedience to an oracle,
exposed his eye-balls to the rays of the rising sun, and thus regained
his sight. The accounts of his subsequent life, and of his death, are
various and conflicting. According to some, Aurora loved him and carried
him off; but, as the gods were angry at this, Diana killed him with an
arrow. Others say that Diana loved him, and that Apollo, indignant at
his sister’s affection for the hero, once pointed out a distant object
on the surface of the sea, and challenged her to hit it. It was the head
of Orion swimming, and the unerring shot of the goddess pierced it with
a fatal wound. Another fable asserts that Orion boasted that he would
conquer every animal; but the earth sent forth a scorpion which
destroyed him.

Canis Major and Minor are the dogs of Orion, and are pursuing the Hare.

The Twins, Castor and Pollux, the sons of Jupiter and Leda, are the
theme of many a fable. They were especially worshipped as the protectors
of those who sailed the seas, for Neptune had rewarded their brotherly
love by giving them power over winds and waves, that they might assist
the shipwrecked.

Leo, according to the Greek story, was the famous Nemean lion slain by
Hercules. Jupiter placed it in the heavens in honor of the exploit.

The Hydra also commemorates one of the twelve labors of Hercules--the
destruction of the hundred-headed monster of the Lernæan lake.

Virgo represents Astræa, the goddess of innocence and purity, or, as
some say, of justice. She was the last of the gods to withdraw from
earth at the close of “the golden age.”

Libra, or the Balance, is the emblem of justice, and is usually
associated with the fable of Astræa.

Argo Navis is the famous ship in which Jason and his companions sailed
to find the Golden Fleece.

This slight sketch of the leading fables connected with the
constellations will serve to show how completely the Greeks
“nationalized the heavens.”


=Astronomy= (_as-tron´om-i_). The science which treats of the heavenly
bodies, explaining the motions, times and causes of the motions,
distances, magnitudes, gravities, light, etc., of the sun, moon, and
stars, the nature and causes of the eclipses of the sun and moon, the
conjunction and apposition of the planets, and any other of their mutual
aspects, with the times when they did or will happen.

       *       *       *       *       *

=Aberration= (_ab-er-ā´shun_). A small apparent motion of the fixed
stars, occasioned by the progressive motion of light and the earth’s
annual motion in its orbit. By this they sometimes appear twenty seconds
distant from their true situation.

=Amplitude= (_am´pli-tud_). An arc of the horizon intercepted between
the true east and west points and the center of the sun, or a star at
its rising or setting.

=Anomaly= (_an-om´al-i_). The angular distance of a planet from its
perihelion, as seen from the sun; either true, mean, or eccentric.

=Aphelion= (_af-ēl´yun_). That point of a planet’s orbit which is most
distant from the sun.

=Apogee= (_ap´o-jē_). That point in the orbit of the moon which is at
the greatest distance from the earth.

=Apparition= (_ap-par-ish´un_). The first appearance of a star or other
luminary after having been obscured.

=Ap´pulse=. The approach of a planet towards a conjunction with the sun
or any of the fixed stars.

=Apsis= (_ap´sis_). The two points of a planet’s orbit in which it is at
its greatest and least distance from the sun.

=Aquarius= (_a-kwā´ri-us_). The eleventh sign of the zodiac, which the
sun enters about the 21st of January.

=Asteroids= (_as´ter-oids_). The small planets that circulate between
the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

=Ax´is= (_ax´is_). The imaginary line passing through the center and
poles of the earth, on which it performs its diurnal revolutions from
west to east.

=Azimuth= (_az´im-uth_). An arc of the horizon intercepted between the
meridian of the place and the vertical circle passing through the center
of a celestial object.

=Can´cer=. The fourth sign of the zodiac, being that of the summer
solstice, which the sun enters about the 21st of June.

=Capricorn= (_kap´ri-korn_). The tenth sign of the zodiac, which the sun
enters about the 21st of December, at the winter solstice.

=Colure= (_kol´ur_). Two great circles, supposed to intersect each other
at right angles in the poles of the world, one of them passing through
the solstitial and the other through the equinoctial points of the
ecliptic, viz., Cancer and Capricorn, Aries and Libra, dividing the
ecliptic into four equal parts.

=Coma= (_kō´ma_). A dense, nebulous covering, which surround the nucleus
or body of a comet.

=Com´et=. A member of the solar system, commonly consisting of three
parts: the nucleus, the envelope or coma, and the tail; but one or more
of these parts is frequently wanting.

=Conjunc´tion=. The meeting of two heavenly bodies in the same point or
place in the heavens.

=Constella´tion=. A number of stars which appear as if situated near
each other in the heavens, and are considered as forming a particular

=Cynosure= (_sin´o-shōōr_ or _sī´_). A name of the constellation Ursa
Minor, or the Lesser Bear, which contains, in the tail, the pole star by
which mariners are guided.

=Declination= (_dek-lin-a´shun_). Distance of any object from the
celestial equator, either northward or southward.

=Disk=. The face or visible projection of a celestial body, usually
predicated of the sun, moon, or planets; but the stars have also
apparent disks.

=Eclipse´=. An obscuration or interception of the light of the sun,
moon, or other luminous body.

=Eclip´tic=. The great circle of the heavens which the sun appears to
describe in his annual revolution.

=Equa´tor=. The great circle of the sphere, equally distant from the two
poles of the world, or having the same poles as the world.

=Equinox= (_ē´kwi-noks_). The precise time when the sun enters one of
the equinoctial points, making the day and night of equal length.

=Faculae= (_fa´ku-lē_). Certain spots sometimes seen on the sun’s disk,
which appear brighter than the rest of his surface.

=Fixed Stars=. Those which retain the same or very nearly the same
position with respect to each other.

=Gal´axy=. The Milky-Way.

=Gemini= (_jem´i-nī_). The third sign or constellation in the zodiac,
which the sun enters about the 21st of May.

=Geocentric= (_jē-o-sen´trik_) =Par´allax=. The apparent change of a
body’s place that would arise from a change of the spectator’s station
from the surface to the center of the earth.

=Ha´lo=. A luminous circle, usually prismatically colored round the sun
or moon, and supposed to be caused by the refraction of light through
crystals of ice in the atmosphere.

=Heliocentric= (_hē-li-o-sen´trik_) =Par´allax=. The arc of the great
circle of the celestial sphere, drawn from the heliocentric to the
geocentric place of a body.

=Heliometer= (_hē-li-om´e-ter_). An instrument for measuring with
exactness the apparent diameter of the sun, moon, planets, etc.

=Hori´zon=. A circle touching the earth at the place of the spectator,
and bounded by the line in which the earth and skies seem to meet.

=Le´o= (Lat., the Lion). The fifth sign of the zodiac which the sun
enters about the 22d of July.

=Libra= (_lī´bra_), the Balance. The seventh sign of the zodiac, which
the sun enters at the autumnal equinox, in September.

=Luna´tion=. The period of a revolution of the moon round the earth, or
the time from one new moon to the next.

=Maculae= (_mak´u-lē_). Dark spots on the surfaces of sun and moon, and
on some of the planets.

=Moon=. A secondary planet or satellite of the earth, whose light,
borrowed from the sun, serves to dispel the darkness of night.

=Nadir= (_nā´dir_). The point of the heavens or lower hemisphere
directly opposite the zenith.

=Neb´ulae= (_neb´u-lē_). Misty appearances among the stars, usually, but
not always, resolved by telescope into myriads of small stars.

=Nodes= (_nōdes_). The two points in which the orbit of a planet
intersects the ecliptic.

=Nuta´tion=. A vibratory motion of the earth’s axis, arising from
periodical fluctuations in the obliquity of the ecliptic.

=Occulta´tion=. The hiding of a heavenly body from our sight by the
intervention of some other of the heavenly bodies.

=Or´bit=. The path described by a heavenly body in its periodical

=Par´allax=. The change of place in a heavenly body in consequence of
being viewed from different points.

=Penum´bra=. A partial shadow or obscurity on the margin of the perfect
shadow in an eclipse, or between the perfect shadow, where the light is
entirely intercepted, and the full light.

=Perigee= (_per´i-jē_). That point in the orbit of the sun or moon in
which it is at the least distance from the earth.

=Perihelion= (_per-i-hē´li-on_). That part of the orbit of a planet or
comet in which it is at its least distance from the sun.

=Plan´et=. The name given to a few bright and conspicuous stars which
are constantly changing their apparent situations in the celestial

=Precession= (_pre-sesh´un_) =of the Equinoxes=. A continual shifting of
the equinoctial points from east to west.

=Radius Vector=. An imaginary line joining the center of the sun and the
center of a body revolving about it.

=Retrocession= (_rē-tro-sesh´un_) =of the Equinoxes=. The going backward
of the equinoctial points.

=Sagittarius= (_saj-i-tā´ri-us_). One of the twelve signs of the zodiac,
which the sun enters about November 22.

=Sat´ellite=. A small planet revolving round another planet.

=Scor´pio=. The eighth sign of the zodiac, which the sun enters about
October 23.

=Selenography= (_sel-en-og´raf-i_). The description of the surface of
the moon.

=Sign=. The twelfth part of the ecliptic.

=Solstice= (_sol´stis_). The time when the sun, in its annual
revolution, arrives at that point in the ecliptic farthest north or
south of the equator, or reaches its greatest northern or southern

=Star=. An apparently small, luminous body in the heavens, that shines
in the night, or when its light is not obscured by clouds or lost in the
brighter effulgence of the sun.

=Sun=. The central body of our system, about which all the planets and
comets revolve, and by which their motions are regulated and controlled.

=Taurus= (_taw´rus_). The second sign of the zodiac, which the sun
enters about the 20th of April.

=Virgo= (_ver´go_). The sixth sign of the zodiac, which the sun enters
in August.

=Ze´nith=. The point in the heavens directly overhead.














  |=Life Ages of |=Pictorial Diagram Showing|=Rocks and Strata to      |
  |the Earth=    |the Corresponding Forms of|which they belong=        |
  |              |Animal and Plant Life, and|                          |
  |              |Rock Strata in the Earth’s|                          |
  |              |Crust.=                   |                          |
  |=Cenozoic=,   |                          |Alluvium, Gravel, |=Ceno- |
  |or Recent     |                          |Mud, Sand, Clay,  |zoic=  |
  |Life. Age     |                          |Marl, Limestone.  |       |
  |of Mammals.   |                          |                  |       |
  +--------------+                          +------------------+-------+
  |=Mesozoic=,   |                          |Chalk, Gault,     |=Meso- |
  |or Middle     |                          |Green Sand, Oo-   |zoic=  |
  |Life. Age     |                          |lite, Clays and   |       |
  |of Reptiles.  |                          |Limestone, China  |       |
  |              |                          |Clay, Shales,     |       |
  |              |                          |Cement, Sandstone,|       |
  |              |                          |Pervian.          |       |
  +--------------+                          +------------------+-------+
  |=Paleozoic=,  |      [Illustration]      |Coal Massives,    |=Paleo-|
  |or Old Life.  |                          |Upper and Lower.  |zoic=  |
  |Age of In-    |                          |Millstone, Grit,  |       |
  |vertebrates.  |                          |Mountain, Lime-   |       |
  |Age of Fishes.|                          |stone, Old Red    |       |
  |Age of        |                          |Sand Stone, Iron  |       |
  |Acrogens.     |                          |Ore, Gypsum, Gas, |       |
  |              |                          |Lead, Zinc, Phos- |       |
  |              |                          |phate, Marble,    |       |
  |              |                          |Sandstone, Shales,|       |
  |              |                          |Copper.           |       |
  +--------------+                          +------------------+-------+
  |=Proterozoic=,|                          |Copper, Silver,   |=Pro-  |
  |or Earlier    |                          |Lake Superior Iron|tero-  |
  |Life. Earliest|                          |Ores, and many    |zoic=  |
  |Forms of Life.|                          |Metals. Granite,  |       |
  |              |                          |Schists. Emery,   |       |
  |              |                          |Gems, and Building|       |
  |              |                          |Stone.            |       |
  1. Sivatherium, (_siv-a-thē´-ri-um_). 2. Mastodon, (_mas´tō-don_).
  3. Elephas, (_el´e-fas_). 4. Palæotherium, (_pā-lē-ō-thē´-ri-um_).
  5. Pterodactyl, (_ter-ō-dak´tīl_). 6. Ammonites, (_am´mo-nitz_).
  7. Plesiosaurus, (_plē-zi-ō-saw´rus_). 8. Ichthyosaurus, (_ik-thi-
  ō-saw´rus_). 9. Carboniferous, (_kär’bŏn-ĭf´ēr-ŭs_) fern.
  10. Lepidodendron, (_lep-ī-dō-den´dron_). 11. Calamites, (_kal´a-mits_
  or _kal´a-mī´tēz_). 12. Labyrinthodon, (_lab-i-rin´thō-don_).
  13. Acanthodus, (_a-kan-thō´dus_). 14. Diplacanthus, (_dip-la-kan´
  thus_). 15. Lepidosteus, (_lep-i-dos´te-us_). 16. Climatius, (_clī-
  măi´tē-us_). 17. Zosterites, (_zos-ter-i´tēz_). 18. Goniatites, (_gō-
  ni-a-tī´tēz_). 19. Strophomena, (_strō-phŏm´ĕ-na_).


  Science tells us that the Earth was once a shining star, a globe of
  liquid fire. As it cooled down, a crust formed over its surface,
  composed chiefly of rocks and metals. This crust was rent by the
  force of the gases shut up within, and thus the mountains, valleys,
  gorges, and volcanoes were formed. The Earth, indeed, is still
  upheaving and subsiding, but so slowly that we rarely feel it.
  Through these agencies the distribution of land and water on the
  surface of the earth has undergone great changes. The shape of the
  Earth is that of a sphere somewhat flattened at the poles, and it
  has a diameter of about 8,000 miles. The solid crust is called the
  _lithosphere_--which is surrounded by an envelope of air--the
  _atmosphere_--and in part by an envelope of water--the


Beneath the rocky crust of the earth, thirty-five miles in thickness,
there is a broad belt of heavier material to a depth of nine hundred
miles. Within this shell lies the great metallic core.]


Our first glimpse of the earth as a planet shows it as a nebulous star,
still intensely hot, and with no solid nucleus, rotating on its own
axis, and at the same time revolving around the sun in a nearly circular


At first it seems hardly possible that the earth could have been a star.
But, if we go down beneath the surface of the earth, we find that at a
depth of forty or fifty feet there is very slight variation in
temperature. When we go yet deeper, as in mines, we find that the earth
grows hotter as we descend. The temperature increases on an average
about one degree Fahrenheit for every sixty-four feet descent. But this
amount is variable according to the locality, geological formation, and
dip of strata. In the Calumet and Hecla Mine, observations show an
increase of one degree in about every one hundred and twenty-five feet.
At Paris, the water from a depth of 1794 feet has a temperature of
eighty-two degrees; at Salzwerth, in Germany, from a depth of 2144 feet,
a temperature of ninety-one degrees. Natural hot springs, rising from
unknown depths, are sometimes scalding hot. One in Arkansas has a
temperature of one hundred and eighty degrees.

At a depth of twenty miles, with this continual increase of temperature,
the ground must be fully red-hot; and not very much farther down the
heat must be sufficient to melt every known substance. The solid earth,
then, is merely a thin crust, covering a sea of liquid fire below. The
streams of lava poured forth from volcanoes are a proof of the existence
of this molten mass beneath our feet.


If we examine the solid crust of the earth we shall not long be at a
loss in regard to the origin of this internal heat. We are all familiar
with the burning of coal. Now coal is mainly a substance called
_carbon_, and when it burns it unites with _oxygen_, one of the gases in
the air. Many rarer substances, such as silicon, and the metals
magnesium, calcium, and sodium, are even more inflammable than carbon,
and in burning give rise to solid products. Now the rocks in the earth
are found to be made up almost wholly of these very inflammable
substances combined with oxygen. The solid portions of the earth, then,
are nothing but the ashes and cinders of a great conflagration. Even the
waters are made up of hydrogen, one of the most inflammable substances,
united with this same oxygen, and, strange as it may seem, they too, are
the products of combustion. When, therefore, the materials of which the
earth is formed were burning, our planet must have been a fiery star,
and the great heat must have reduced all the products of the
conflagration to a liquid state.


When the fire went out for lack of fuel the mass began to cool at the
surface, and a solid crust was finally formed, which with the lapse of
time became thicker and thicker. This crust shut in the steam and gases
generated in the fiery ocean underneath; and these, acting upon the
crust with enormous pressure, heaved it into ridges. At times the strain
caused the crust to crack, and forced the melted mass up through it, and
in this way hills and mountains were formed. The thicker the crust the
greater the strain it would bear before it gave way, and the greater the
amount of molten matter driven out through the rent. The highest
mountains, then, are the last that were uplifted. In some cases the
openings thus made in the crust were never completely closed, and thus
volcanoes were formed. These act like safety-valves, and prevent the
forces within from accumulating sufficiently to cause fresh rents. But
notwithstanding the relief thus given to the pent-up forces, they still
manifest themselves in earthquakes.


Like all other planets, the earth is a solid sphere that has undergone a
slight flattening at the opposite extremities or poles of the axis of
revolution. More accurately, it is an oblate spheroid generated by the
rotation of an ellipse about its minor axis. Such a figure would be
assumed by a sphere of liquid rotating about a diameter, centrifugal
force acting most vigorously at the equator, and tending to overcome the
internal forces that keep the molecules together.


The smallest diameter of the earth is that measured from pole to pole
along the axis of rotation; this is 7,899.6 miles, or about 500,000,000
inches. The greatest diameters are those measured between opposite
points on the equator; these are 7,926.6 miles, and, therefore, show
that the eccentricity of the earth, or the extent of its departure from
the perfect sphere, is very slight.

The circumference of the earth, measured along the equator, is 24,899
miles; the area is 197,000,000 square miles; and the volume is
260,000,000,000 cubic miles. Experiments on the comparative attraction
of the earth show that its density is about five and one-half times
that of pure water. Its mass is, therefore, approximately six thousand
trillion tons.


The ordinary proofs of the sphericity of the earth are: (1) It can be
circumnavigated; (2) the appearance of a vessel at sea always indicates
a nearer convexity of the earth’s surface; (3) the sea-horizon is always
depressed equally in all directions when viewed from an elevation; (4)
the elevation of the pole star increases as we travel northwards from
the equator; (5) the shadow of the earth on the moon during a lunar
eclipse is spherical.


The earth rotates uniformly about its axis. The time taken to make a
complete revolution of three hundred and sixty degrees is called a
sidereal day, for it is the interval of time between consecutive
transits of any distant star across any meridian of the earth. The time
between consecutive transits of the sun across any meridian is called a
solar day; the average of these throughout the whole year is called a
mean solar day, and is the practical standard of time adopted by
civilized nations. The ordinary proofs that the earth rotates are: (1)
Bodies falling from a great height have an easterly deviation; (2)
Foucault’s pendulum experiment; (3) a gyroscope delicately balanced so
as to be free to change the direction of its axis in any way will, if
rotated, exhibit an apparent deviation; (4) in northern hemispheres a
projectile deviates to the right, in southern hemispheres to the left;
(5) the trade winds; (6) Dove’s law of wind-change.

The speed of a body on the equator, due to the diurnal rotation, is
about 1,000 miles an hour. The centrifugal force due to this speed
diminishes the weight of bodies; if the earth rotated in an hour, they
would be thrown off from the surface at the equator.

The axis of the earth is not perpendicular to the ecliptic, but at angle
of 66° 32′ to it; the equator is, therefore, inclined to it at an angle
of 23° 28′. This unsymmetrical placing of the bulging portions of the
earth causes a slow wobbling, or precession of its axis, in the same
sort of way as a spinning top will wobble when pushed over on one side.
There is also a slight vibration or “nodding” motion of the earth’s
axis, known as nutation. The period of each precession is about
twenty-one thousand years; if the earth’s orbit occupied a constant
position in its plane, the periods would be twenty-six thousand years
each. These motions have considerable influence on climate, the modern
theories of the Ice Age being connected with the known facts of
precessional motion.


The great bulk of the earth consists of the _lithosphere_, or solid
globe of rocks, with which geology properly deals. It is on the part of
this lithosphere, composing a little more than a quarter of the earth’s
whole area--55,500,000 square miles--which rises above the seas and is
called land, that mankind lives.

The central core is a globe of about 7600 miles in diameter, which is
composed of iron and other elements, probably not forming compounds, in
the gaseous state, but exposed to such tremendous pressure that it
behaves as a solid and extremely rigid body. Outside this core is a
shell of liquid matter which consists of all the rocks which we know at
the surface in a state of fusion, perhaps one hundred miles in
thickness. Upon this magma floats the solid crust, thirty or forty miles
thick, which is composed of various rocks, breaking down at the surface
into soil. Three-fourths of the surface of this crust are covered by the
water of the oceans, the hydrosphere, the rest being dry land. Outside
all comes the atmospheric mantle, chiefly composed of air, which
supports life, acts as a blanket to keep the earth warm, and as a shield
against the blows of meteorites.


An examination of the Earth’s crust shows us that it is constructed of
numerous strata of rocks, some of limestone, some of sandstone, and some
of clay; and some are very hard, others soft and crumbling, and readily
worn away by the action of running streams or the waves of the ocean. To
these several substances which form the materials of the earth’s crust
we give the name _rock_. Hence we see that while in ordinary language
the word rock denotes a great mass of hard stone, in geology a rock is
any mass of natural substance forming part of the earth’s crust. In this
sense, loose sand, gravel, and soft clay are as much rocks as hard
limestone and granite.

[Illustration: =Granite=






Rocks are formed of various materials called minerals. If we take a
piece of sandstone rock, or a piece of granite, we shall probably be
able to notice that the rock is made up of different substances.

On looking at a piece of _sandstone_, for example, especially if we use
a magnifying glass, we see that it is composed of little rounded grains
of a glassy-looking substance cemented together. In some specimens these
grains are larger than in others. This cementing material is not the
same in all sandstones, but in our specimen it is formed of _calcium
carbonate_, for when we drop a little diluted hydrochloric acid on the
rock there is an effervescence. The cementing material is dissolved, but
the little rounded grains, which consist of _quartz_, are not affected
by the acid. The sandstone, then, consists of quartz grains cemented
together by calcium carbonate. It is called a calcareous sandstone.

Now take a piece of granite, and break it with a hammer to get a
clean-cut face. On looking at this face we see that the rock is made up
of _three_ different substances.

One of these has a glassy appearance like the grains in the sandstone,
and is so hard that we cannot scratch it with a knife. This is _quartz_.
Another of the substances is of a dull white or pinkish color. It lies
in long, smooth-faced crystalline patches, which easily break along a
number of smooth parallel surfaces having a pearly lustre. It can be
scratched with difficulty by the point of a knife. This substance is
called _felspar_. The third substance consists of bright glistening
plates, sometimes of a dark color, which can be easily scratched, and
which readily split into transparent leaves. This is _mica_. Notice that
these substances do not occur in any definite order, but are scattered
about through the stone irregularly, the felspar occurring in some
specimens in larger crystals than in others.


Hence we see that granite consists of a mixture of three substances,
called quartz, felspar, and mica, the felspar being in greatest
quantity. Each of these substances possesses properties more or less
peculiar to itself, such as hardness, solubility in acids, specific
gravity, crystalline form, way of splitting, etc. Hence, each of these
substances has a _definite chemical composition and constant physical
properties_ which define them as _minerals_.

This definition may be understood to include such substances as coal and
chalk, which are the mineralized remains of plants and animals
respectively. Even water and gases of the atmosphere may be said to
belong to the mineral kingdom of nature, as plants and their parts are
said to belong to the vegetable kingdom, and animals and their parts to
the animal kingdom.


The total number of rock-forming minerals is very large, but many of
them are very rare, and form but a very small part of the earth’s crust.

The most abundant materials or earths of which rocks are composed are
_silica_, _lime_ and _aluminum_. Silica or flint is very universally
diffused. It is found almost pure in quartz, opal, chalcedony, rock
crystal, and the flinty sand of the sea-shore. Lime is also a very
generally distributed earth, and is usually found in the form of
carbonate. Under the several names of marl, limestone, oolite, and chalk
it constitutes mountains, and even ranges of mountains. Aluminum is
likewise very abundant, and of great importance to mankind. It enters
largely into the clayey or argillaceous earths, and forms part of
various kinds of rock which possess the property of not permitting water
to pass through its substance--a property which renders it of
inestimable value both for natural and artificial reservoirs of water.


The larger number of elements play so small a part in the constitution
of the earth that they may be neglected by the geologist. The following
list includes the elements of which ninety-nine per cent of the earth’s
crust, as known to us, is composed, with their relative proportions, as
indicated by Clarke’s laborious analyses of a very large number of
typical rocks:

           | SYMBOL |EARTH’S CRUST
           |        |WHICH IT FORMS
  Oxygen   |   O    |    47.02
  Silicon  |   Si   |    28.06
  Aluminum |   Al   |     8.16
  Iron     |   Fe   |     4.64
  Calcium  |   Ca   |     3.50
  Magnesium|   Mg   |     2.62
  Sodium   |   Na   |     2.63
  Potassium|   K    |     2.32
  Hydrogen |   H    |     0.17
  Carbon   |   C    |     0.12
           |        |    -----
           |        |    99.24
  The ten elements given above form
  99.24 of the earth’s solid crust.


The beds or layers which form the crust of the earth are divided into
three classes: (1) _Sedimentary_, or stratified; (2) _Igneous_, or
unstratified; (3) _Metamorphic_, or transformed.


Sedimentary rocks are such as give evidence of having been formed by
successive deposits of sediment in water. They include sandstones or
freestones, limestones, clays, etc. The material for these must have
been derived from some original source, and in many instances this may
be traced to the disintegration of older rocks. Thus gneiss appears to
be formed by the disintegration of granite. The great class of
sedimentary rocks may be divided into three smaller divisions. These
divisions, with the chief rocks of each division, may be tabulated as

  (a) Mechanically formed rocks from detrital sediments:
  Conglomerates, sandstones, clay, and shale.

  (b) Organically formed rocks from animal and plant remains:
  Limestones, chalk, coral, peat, and coal.

  (c) Chemically formed rocks from material once in solution:
  Limestones, stalactites, gypsum, rock-salt and sinter.

Most of the stratified rocks contain fossils; and since each group
contains certain kinds peculiar to itself, it is by means of these
organic remains that their relative ages have been determined.

Although the lowest stratified rocks are more ancient than those which
have been deposited above them, the layers or beds do not always retain
a horizontal position. Were such the case, it could only be by deep
cuttings that we should arrive at the older strata. We however find
that, owing to some convulsion of nature, stratified rocks have been
thrown out of their original position, and thus crop out to the surface.
Not only is facility thus afforded us to become acquainted with the
nature of the lower rocks, but many of the most valuable products of the
earth are by this means rendered accessible to man.


A million years ago, a little stream trickled down a mountain-side,
carrying with it grains of sand and stones which fell to the bottom of
the sea. In the sea swam a great and wonderful creature called an
ichthyosaurus. One day the great creature died, or probably it was
killed in battle with another strange monster, and its body fell to the
bottom of the sea among the shells and seaweed. Meanwhile, the stones
and sand brought down by the stream continued to fall upon the bed of
the sea until at last the great reptile’s body was buried, and the lower
layers became pressed into hard rock by the weight on top. One day an
elephant going to the river to drink broke off his tusk, and this was
carried down by the river and sank in the sea. Another day a bird was
drowned, and this, too, fell upon the ocean-bed. Dead fishes and shells
also sank, and all were buried by the never-ceasing shower of mud and
earth and sand and stones. Ages after the ichthyosaurus died, men began
to live on the earth, and one day a man who had made a boat went out to
fish. Trying to spear a big fish, the head of his harpoon broke off and
fell to the bottom of the sea. In course of time this also was buried in
the mud. The bottom of the sea crept higher and higher, till at last it
became dry land. Then one day men began to dig, and the world’s
wonderful story was revealed as we read it here. First the spear-head
was found, then the tusk, the bird’s skeleton, the shells, the fish, and
at last the skeleton of the great sea reptile, all turned to stone and
become _fossils_, a word that means “something dug up.”]

The greater number of these beds contain organic remains, i. e., the
remains of animals and plants, which are termed fossils. Among these the
most numerous are the remains of marine animals, and in some instances
shells and corals occur in such abundance as to form the principal part
of extensive beds. Every part of the earth exhibits similar, or nearly
similar formations; and not only are marine fossils met with in the
interior of continents, and at great elevations above the sea, but a
vast variety of plants, corals, shells, fish, reptiles, etc., are found,
of species dissimilar to any at present on the land or in the waters.
Besides rocks, we meet with earthy formations on the surface. These
include such loose materials as are disintegrated or worn away from
rocks, and form, when combined with decayed animal and vegetable matter,
the soil of meadows and arable lands.

IGNEOUS, OR UNSTRATIFIED ROCKS are such as appear to be of igneous
origin, or to have been formed by the action of fire or intense heat.
They are called unstratified, because instead of having been deposited
in successive layers, like the stratified rocks, they seem to have been
formed by the fusion or melting of the materials of which they are
composed, and the subsequent cooling and hardening of the melted matter
into one great mass. Granite, basalt, lava, etc., are examples of this
class of rocks, and represent respectively the sub-classes of plutonic,
trap, and volcanic rocks. Plutonic rocks are those which have cooled
under the pressure of overlying rocks; trap rocks, those which have
cooled under that of deep water; and volcanic rocks, such as have cooled
in the air.

Though granite is the most useful of the igneous rocks, basalt is
probably the most interesting because of the wonderful formations it
discloses. It is a dense basic lava of a dark color, that breaks with a
conchoidal or shell-like fracture, and shows a finely grained or
hemi-crystalline texture in a glassy base. The basalt rocks are found
both as intrusive masses and as sheets that have been poured out on the
surface. Many of these lava sheets of basalt in slowly cooling and
solidifying acquired a columnar structure, the columns often having a
more or less hexagonal shape, though the number of sides varies. Fine
examples of these columnar basalts occur at Fingal’s cave in the island
of Staffa, at the Giant’s Causeway in the north of Ireland, and on the
shores of Lake Superior.

METAMORPHIC, or Transformed rocks, include altered rocks of either
sedimentary or igneous origin, in which the acquired are more prominent
than the original characteristics. Igneous rocks have, in many cases,
forced their way up through stratified rocks. These igneous formations,
while still in a molten state, in coming in contact with the aqueous or
stratified rocks, have usually changed the character of those portions
immediately near them. The chief changes of structure effected by
metamorphic action are crystallization and foliation. Examples of
metamorphic rocks are marble, quartzite, slate, gneiss, and the schists.


In some localities fissures in rocks are found to contain metallic
substances. Such fissures are frequently found partially filled with
calcareous spar which forms the matrix in which the metals are inclosed.

Metallic veins are supposed to be partially filled by mechanical means,
the particles of metallic substances being conveyed into them by the
action of water or some other power, and partly by chemical action, or
by sublimation or fumes rising from below.

Some metallic deposits appear to occur in situations where igneous rocks
have intruded themselves. Gold is supposed to be found almost invariably
under such circumstances. Such appears to be the case in the rich
deposits near the Ural mountains, and also in California and in
Australia. In all these places it is met with in quartz. It is in
pebbles or sand of the same rock that it occurs in the beds of rivers,
and in some cases is found spread over a large extent of country.

Copper, though frequently met with in veins, is also found in extensive
masses or beds, interposed between layers of rock. The same remark
applies to tin, lead, and silver. Iron is also met with in beds, and
also in nodules or rounded masses, which occur in great abundance among
some kinds of rock. The last-named is the most universally diffused of
all metals, and the most useful.


Giving the geological ages, rock systems, strata and the development of
life, with their relative positions and order of succession, according
to the latest scientific knowledge. Many attempts have been made to
compute from geological, physical, and other data the length of the
period during which the earth has been in a solid state.

Geologists, however, are disinclined to accept any period much less than
100,000,000 years as sufficient for the elaboration of the present
structure of the earth. It is indisputable that many millions of years,
probably thirty or forty, must have elapsed while the great sedimentary
rocks were being deposited. With respect to the larger features of the
earth’s surface, it is likely that two different kinds of movement are
responsible. Where the contraction of the earth has caused a lessening
of the support below the surface, there has been a subsidence of great
areas. In the second place, where the rigid crust has been able to
contract into a smaller space, great mountain ridges and folds have been
formed. The subsidences which caused the ocean took place at different
ages. The Atlantic Ocean probably dates from middle Cenozoic times; the
Indian Ocean may be older; the Pacific suffered great modifications in
comparatively recent times.

  |=Life Ages   |  =Rock Systems=  |    =Series of    |  =Characteristic  |
  |of the Earth=|                  |   Rock Strata=   |       Rocks=      |
  |             |                  |Recent, or Human. |Alluvium, sand,    |
  |             |                  |                  |gravel, mud, clay, |
  |             |                  |                  |marl, loess.       |
  |             |                  |                  |                   |
  |             |                  |=Pleistocene=     |Drift, boulder     |
  |             |                  |(_plīs´tŏ-sēn_),  |clay, gravel,      |
  |             |=Quaternary=      |or “most recent.” |loess, silt, gla-  |
  |             |(_kwa-ter´na-ri_) |Glacial Period.   |cial deposits and  |
  |             |or “fourth.” Once |                  |other formations   |
  |             |supposed to be the|                  |formed during      |
  |             |_fourth_ sedimen- |                  |glacial period.    |
  |             |tary system. Age  |                  |                   |
  |             |of man.           |=Pliocene=        |In East and West,  |
  |             |                  |(_plī´ō-sēn_), or |land deposits pre- |
  |             |                  |“more recent.”    |dominate. Marine   |
  |             |                  |                  |sands, clays, marls|
  |             |                  |                  |on Atlantic and    |
  |             |                  |                  |Pacific coasts.    |
  |             |                  |                  |Igneous rocks in   |
  |             |                  |                  |West.              |
  |             +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |             |                  |=Miocene= (_mī´ō- |On Atlantic coast: |
  |=Cenozoic=   |                  |sēn_), or “less   |sand, clay, shell  |
  |(_se´nō-zō´- |                  |recent.”          |marl, diatomaceous |
  |ik_), or     |                  |                  |earth. In West:    |
  |“Recent      |                  |                  |sandstone, shale,  |
  |life.”       |                  |                  |and diatomaceous   |
  |             |                  |                  |material. Extensive|
  |_Estimated   |                  |                  |volcanic formations|
  |Age of       |                  |                  |in Rocky Mountains |
  |Period_,     |                  |                  |and Great Basin    |
  |=3,000,000=  |                  |                  |region.            |
  |_years_.     |                  |                  |                   |
  |             |                  |=Oligocene=       |Limestone in       |
  |             |                  |(_ŏl´ĕ-gō-sēn_),  |Caribbean region,  |
  |             |=Tertiary= (_ter´-|or “a little more |and deposits in    |
  |             |shi-a-ri_), or    |recent.”          |West. Marine and   |
  |             |“third”. Once     |                  |fresh water beds on|
  |             |supposed to be the|                  |west coast. Many   |
  |             |_third_ sedimen-  |                  |coal beds in Puget |
  |             |tary system, or   |                  |Sound.             |
  |             |Age of mammals.   |                  |                   |
  |             |                  |=Eocene= (_ē´-ō-  |In Eastern States: |
  |             |                  |sēn_), or “dawn of|clays, sands,      |
  |             |                  |recent.”          |greensand marls.   |
  |             |                  |                  |In West: conglom-  |
  |             |                  |                  |erate, sandstone,  |
  |             |                  |                  |shale, diatomaceous|
  |             |                  |                  |shale and igneous  |
  |             |                  |                  |formations are de- |
  |             |                  |                  |veloped. Many coal |
  |             |                  |                  |beds in Puget      |
  |             |                  |                  |Sound. Fresh water |
  |             |                  |                  |beds in western    |
  |             |                  |                  |interior.          |
  |             |                  |{Upper.           |In East: sand,     |
  |             |                  |{                 |clay, and greensand|
  |             |                  |{                 |marl. In West:     |
  |             |                  |{                 |sandstone, shale,  |
  |             |                  |{                 |limestone, chalk,  |
  |             |                  |{                 |extensive coal     |
  |             |=Cretaceous=      |{                 |beds, various      |
  |             |(_krē-ta´-she-us_)|{                 |igneous rocks.     |
  |             |or “bearing       |{                 |                   |
  |             |chalk.”           |{Lower.           |Clay, sand, gravel |
  |             |                  |{                 |on Atlantic coast  |
  |             |                  |{                 |and Gulf. Sedi-    |
  |             |                  |{                 |mentary and igneous|
  |             |                  |{                 |rocks on west      |
  |=Mesozoic=   |                  |{                 |coast. Some non-   |
  |(_mĕs-ō-zō´- |                  |{                 |marine beds in     |
  |ic_), or     |                  |{                 |Texas.             |
  |“Middle      +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |life.”       |                  |{Upper.           |Probably not repre-|
  |             |=Jurassic= (_jȯȯ- |{                 |sented in East.    |
  |_Estimated   |ras´sik_), or like|{                 |Sandstones, lime-  |
  |Age of       |the mass of the   |{Middle.          |stones and shales  |
  |Period_,     |Jura Mountains.   |{                 |in West. Some “red |
  |=9,000,000=  |Age of Reptiles.  |{                 |beds” in western   |
  |_years_.     |                  |{Lower.           |interior.          |
  |             |                  |                  |                   |
  |             |                  |{Upper.           |In East sediments  |
  |             |                  |{                 |formed in shallow  |
  |             |                  |{                 |troughs between re-|
  |             |                  |{                 |cently formed moun-|
  |             |=Triassic=        |{                 |tains. Considerable|
  |             |(_trĭăs´ĭk_), or  |{                 |bodies of igneous  |
  |             |in a triple       |{Middle.          |rock, traps, and   |
  |             |series.           |{                 |other flows and    |
  |             |                  |{                 |dikes. “Red beds”  |
  |             |                  |{                 |in West with salt  |
  |             |                  |{                 |and gypsum. Some   |
  |             |                  |{                 |igneous rocks on   |
  |             |                  |{Lower.           |west coast.        |
  |             |                  |=Permian= (_per´- |In East fresh water|
  |             |                  |mē-ăn_), like     |sediments including|
  |             |                  |those at Perm,    |coal; in West “red |
  |             |                  |Russia.           |beds” probably of  |
  |             |                  |                  |continental origin.|
  |             |                  |                  |Some marine sedi-  |
  |             |                  |                  |ments; salt and    |
  |             |                  |                  |gypsum in red beds |
  |             |                  |                  |in Kansas.         |
  |             |                  |                  |                   |
  |             |=Carboniferous=   |=Pennsylvanian=,  |In Eastern States  |
  |             |(_kăr-bŏn-if´-er- |like those of     |grits, sandstones, |
  |             |us_), or coal-    |Pennsylvania.     |shales, limestone  |
  |             |bearing. Age of   |                  |and coal. In       |
  |             |Amphibians.       |                  |Western States much|
  |             |                  |                  |limestone; no coal.|
  |             |                  |                  |Igneous rocks on   |
  |             |                  |                  |west coast.        |
  |             |                  |                  |                   |
  |             |                  |=Mississippian=,  |Limestones pre-    |
  |             |                  |or Lower Carboni- |dominate with sand-|
  |             |                  |ferous.           |stones near base   |
  |             |                  |                  |and shales near top|
  |             |                  |                  |of series. Igneous |
  |             |                  |                  |rocks in           |
  |             |                  |                  |California.        |
  |             +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |             |=Devonian= (_de-  |{Upper.           |Sedimentary rocks, |
  |=Paleozoic=  |vō´ni-an_) like   |{                 |limestones, sand-  |
  |(_pāl-æ-ô-   |those of Devon-   |{Middle.          |stones, shales;    |
  |zō´ic_), or  |shire, England.   |{                 |igneous rocks in   |
  |“Old life.”  |Age of Fishes.    |{Lower.           |Maine, Nova Scotia,|
  |             |                  |{                 |and New Brunswick. |
  |_Estimated   +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |Age of       |                  |{                 |Sedimentary rocks  |
  |Period_,     |                  |{=Ontarian= (_on- |predominate; con-  |
  |=24,000,000= |=Silurian= (_si-  |{tā´rē-ăn_), place|glomerates, sand-  |
  |_years_.     |lū´ri-an_), in the|{name.            |stones, shales,    |
  |             |land of the       |{                 |limestones, salt,  |
  |             |Silures, England. |{=Champlainian=   |gypsum. Igneous    |
  |             |Age of In-        |{(_shăm-plān´ē-   |rocks in Nova      |
  |             |vertebrates.      |{ăn_), place name.|Scotia, New Bruns- |
  |             |                  |{                 |wick, and Maine.   |
  |             +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |             |                  |{=Cincinnatian=   |Chiefly limestone  |
  |             |=Ordovician= (_ŏr-|{(_sĭn-sĭn-năt´-ē-|with subordinate   |
  |             |dŏ-vīsh´ăn_), a   |{ăn_), place name.|sandstone and      |
  |             |place name in     |                  |shale. Rocks great-|
  |             |Wales.            |{=Mohawkian= (_mō-|ly folded in New   |
  |             |                  |{hŏk´ē-ăn_), place|York, in Taconic   |
  |             |                  |{name.            |Mountain region.   |
  |             +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |             |                  |{                 |Mainly sandstones  |
  |             |                  |{=Saratogan=      |with some shales,  |
  |             |                  |{(_săr-ă-tō´găn_),|and in Western     |
  |             |                  |{place name.      |States considerable|
  |             |=Cambrian= (_kam´-|{                 |limestone. At some |
  |             |bri-an_), from    |{=Acadian= (_ä-   |places rocks are   |
  |             |Cambria, the old  |{kād´ē-ăn_), place|changed by pres-   |
  |             |name for Wales.   |{name.            |sure, especially in|
  |             |                  |{                 |the Appalachian    |
  |             |                  |{=Georgian= (_jōr´|Mountains. Upper   |
  |             |                  |{gē-ăn_), place   |Cambrian covered   |
  |             |                  |{name.            |larger area than   |
  |             |                  |{                 |lower Cambrian.    |
  |             |                  |{=Keweenawan=,    |A great series of  |
  |             |                  |{(_kē´wē-năh-     |sandstones, lime-  |
  |             |                  |{wān_), pertaining|stones and shales, |
  |             |                  |{to Keweenaw Pen- |in middle portion  |
  |             |                  |{insula, Michigan.|of which are many  |
  |=Proterozoic=|                  |{                 |enormous flows of  |
  |(_prō-ter-ō- |                  |{                 |lava.              |
  |zō´ik_) or   |=Algonkian= (_ăl- |{                 |                   |
  |“Former      |gŏn´kē-ăn_), from |{=Huronian= (_hu- |Three great series |
  |life.”       |district of       |{rō´nē-ăn_),      |of sedimentary     |
  |             |Algonquin         |{rocks on borders |rocks, sandstone,  |
  |_Estimated   |Indians, north of |{of Lake Huron.   |shale and lime-    |
  |Age of       |St. Lawrence.     |{                 |stone, and iron    |
  |Period_,     |                  |{                 |formation. Contains|
  |=18,000,000= |                  |{                 |also many great    |
  |_years_.     |                  |{                 |igneous bodies,    |
  |             |                  |{                 |acidic and basic.  |
  |             |                  |{                 |Lower members much |
  |             |                  |{                 |metamorphosed by   |
  |             |                  |{                 |pressure.          |
  |             |                  |{=Laurentian=     |Granitic rocks and |
  |             |                  |{(_law-ren´shi-   |gneisses that are  |
  |             |                  |{an_), pertaining |believed to be     |
  |             |                  |{to rocks along   |granitic rocks     |
  |             |                  |{the St. Lawrence |metamorphosed by   |
  |             |                  |{River.           |pressure. Formerly |
  |             |                  |{                 |supposed to be     |
  |             |                  |{                 |older than Keewatin|
  |=Archaeozoic=|                  |{                 |and regarded as the|
  |(_ar´kē-o-zō´|                  |{                 |“original crust of |
  |ic_), “With- |                  |{                 |the earth.”        |
  |out life.”   |=Archean= (_är-   |{                 |                   |
  |             |kē´-ăn_),         |{=Keewatin= (_kē- |A great schist     |
  |_Estimated   |“oldest.”         |{wā´tĭn_), rocks  |series made up of  |
  |Age of       |                  |{in a district of |lava flows, tuffs, |
  |Period_,     |                  |{Manitoba, Canada.|and volcanic ashes.|
  |=18,000,000= |                  |{                 |With these are sub-|
  |_years_.     |                  |{                 |ordinate sedimenta-|
  |             |                  |{                 |ry rocks; sand-    |
  |             |                  |{                 |stone, shale, lime-|
  |             |                  |{                 |stone, and iron ore|
  |             |                  |{                 |formations nearly  |
  |             |                  |{                 |everywhere greatly |
  |             |                  |{                 |metamorphosed by   |
  |             |                  |{                 |pressure. Includes |
  |             |                  |{                 |the oldest rocks   |
  |             |                  |{                 |known.             |

  |=Life Ages   |  =Rock Systems=  |    =Series of    |  =Forms of Life=  |
  |of the Earth=|                  |   Rock Strata=   |                   |
  |             |                  |Recent, or Human. |Man predominant.   |
  |             |                  |                  |                   |
  |             |                  |=Pleistocene=     |Mammoth, mastodon, |
  |             |                  |(_plīs´tŏ-sēn_),  |bear, bison, rein- |
  |             |=Quaternary=      |or “most recent.” |deer, musk-ox.     |
  |             |(_kwa-ter´na-ri_) |Glacial Period.   |Possibly man was   |
  |             |or “fourth.” Once |                  |living but that is |
  |             |supposed to be the|                  |uncertain.         |
  |             |_fourth_ sedimen- |                  |                   |
  |             |tary system. Age  |=Pliocene=        |Plants and animals |
  |             |of man.           |(_plī´ō-sēn_), or |much as today,     |
  |             |                  |“more recent.”    |aside from human   |
  |             |                  |                  |and domestic       |
  |             |                  |                  |species.           |
  |             +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |=Cenozoic=   |                  |=Miocene= (_mī´ō- |Land animals in-   |
  |(_se´nō-zō´- |                  |sēn_), or “less   |clude elephants,   |
  |ik_), or     |                  |recent.”          |camels, deer, oxen,|
  |“Recent      |                  |                  |horses, true apes, |
  |life.”       |                  |                  |etc. Marine animals|
  |             |                  |                  |much like those to-|
  |_Estimated   |                  |                  |day. Among plants, |
  |Age of       |                  |                  |grasses become im- |
  |Period_,     |                  |                  |portant; deciduous |
  |=3,000,000=  |                  |                  |trees increase.    |
  |_years_.     |=Tertiary= (_ter´-|                  |                   |
  |             |shi-a-ri_), or    |=Oligocene=       |Ancient dogs, cats,|
  |             |“third”. Once     |(_ōl´ĕ-gō-sēn_),  |rabbits, squirrels,|
  |             |supposed to be the|or “a little more |camels, and horses |
  |             |_third_ sedimen-  |recent.”          |were represented.  |
  |             |tary system, or   |                  |                   |
  |             |Age of mammals.   |                  |                   |
  |             |                  |=Eocene= (_ē´-ō-  |Mammals flourished,|
  |             |                  |sēn_), or “dawn of|including rodentia,|
  |             |                  |recent.”          |carnivera, eden-   |
  |             |                  |                  |tates, lemuroids,  |
  |             |                  |                  |birds, reptiles,   |
  |             |                  |                  |etc. Flora included|
  |             |                  |                  |figs, palms,       |
  |             |                  |                  |bananas; willows,  |
  |             |                  |                  |chestnuts, oaks,   |
  |             |                  |                  |etc.               |
  |             |                  |{Upper.           |Reptiles predomi-  |
  |             |                  |{                 |nate: turtles,     |
  |             |                  |{                 |lizards,           |
  |             |                  |{                 |crocodiles, flying |
  |             |                  |{                 |reptiles, etc. Many|
  |             |                  |{                 |waterbirds. Angio- |
  |             |=Cretaceous=      |{                 |sperms predominate:|
  |             |(_krē-ta´-she-us_)|{                 |larch, beech,      |
  |             |or “bearing       |{                 |walnut, tulip      |
  |             |chalk.”           |{                 |trees, etc.        |
  |             |                  |{                 |                   |
  |=Mesozoic=   |                  |{Lower.           |Reptiles abound.   |
  |(_mĕs-ō-zō´- |                  |{                 |Flora includes     |
  |ic_), or     |                  |{                 |cycadeous, coni-   |
  |“Middle      |                  |{                 |fers, horsetails;  |
  |Life.”       |                  |{                 |angiosperms appear.|
  |             +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |_Estimated   |                  |{Upper.           |Ammonites, belem-  |
  |Age of       |=Jurassic= (_jȯȯ- |{                 |ites continue in   |
  |Period_,     |ras´sik_), or like|{                 |great variety.     |
  |=5,000,000=  |the mass of the   |{Middle.          |Reptiles numerous  |
  |_years_.     |Jura Mountains.   |{                 |and varied types.  |
  |             |Age of Reptiles.  |{                 |Flying reptiles and|
  |             |                  |{Lower.           |reptile-like birds |
  |             |                  |{                 |appear.            |
  |             |                  |                  |                   |
  |             |                  |{Upper.           |Reptiles of enor-  |
  |             |=Triassic=        |{                 |mous size dominate |
  |             |(_trĭ-ăs´ĭk_), or |{                 |the land and sea.  |
  |             |in a triple       |{Middle.          |Mammals appear.    |
  |             |series.           |{                 |Ammonites and      |
  |             |                  |{                 |belemites dominate |
  |             |                  |{Lower.           |invertebrate life. |
  |             |                  |=Permian= (_per´- |Reptiles become    |
  |             |                  |mē-ăn_), like     |prominent in number|
  |             |                  |those at Perm,    |and variety; in-   |
  |             |                  |Russia.           |habit fresh water, |
  |             |                  |                  |salt water and     |
  |             |                  |                  |land.              |
  |             |                  |                  |                   |
  |             |=Carboniferous=   |=Pennsylvanian=,  |Plants abound.     |
  |             |(_kăr-bŏn-if´-er- |like those of     |Marked development |
  |             |us_), or coal-    |Pennsylvania.     |of land animals,   |
  |             |bearing. Age of   |                  |including insects, |
  |             |Amphibians.       |                  |spiders and scorpi-|
  |             |                  |                  |ons. Lizards become|
  |             |                  |                  |important. Amphibi-|
  |             |                  |                  |ans reach climax.  |
  |             |                  |                  |                   |
  |             |                  |=Mississippian=,  |Crinoids greatly   |
  |             |                  |or Lower Carboni- |developed. Am-     |
  |             |                  |ferous.           |phibians appear.   |
  |             |                  |                  |Plant life expands.|
  |             +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |             |                  |{Upper.           |Rapid changes in   |
  |             |                  |{                 |animal kingdom;    |
  |             |=Devonian= (_de-  |{                 |shifting habitat;  |
  |             |vō´ni-an_) like   |{                 |extensive develop- |
  |             |those of Devon-   |{Middle.          |ment of fishes;    |
  |=Paleozoic=  |shire, England.   |{                 |sharks flourish.   |
  |(_pāl-æ-ô-   |Age of Fishes.    |{                 |Plants are mainly  |
  |zō´ic_), or  |                  |{                 |small leaf and reed|
  | “Old Life.” |                  |{Lower.           |types.             |
  |             +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |_Estimated   |                  |{=Ontarian= (_on- |Vertebrates appear;|
  |Age of       |=Silurian= (_si-  |{tā´rē-ăn_), place|low forms of       |
  |Period_,     |lū´ri-an_), in the|{name.            |fishes. First reef |
  |=24,000,000= |land of the       |{                 |building corals.   |
  |_years_.     |Silures, England. |{=Champlainian=   |Crinoids and bra-  |
  |             |Age of In-        |{(_shăm-plān´ē-   |chiopods, important|
  |             |vertebrates.      |{ăn_), place name.|Cephalopods con-   |
  |             |                  |{                 |tinue to dominate. |
  |             +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |             |                  |{=Cincinnatian=   |Much as in the Cam-|
  |             |                  |{(_sĭn-sĭn-năt´-ē-|brian. Remains are |
  |             |                  |{ăn_), place name.|more abundant.     |
  |             |=Ordovician= (_ŏr-|{                 |Species more numer-|
  |             |dŏ-vīsh´ăn_), a   |{=Mohawkian= (_mō-|ous; insects were  |
  |             |place name in     |{hŏk´ē-ăn_), place|present. Verte-    |
  |             |Wales.            |{name.            |brates appear. Low |
  |             |                  |{                 |forms of fishes.   |
  |             |                  |{                 |Trilobites reach   |
  |             |                  |{                 |climax.            |
  |             +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |             |                  |{=Saratogan=      |All great divisions|
  |             |                  |{(_săr-ă-tō´găn_),|of animal kingdom  |
  |             |                  |{place name.      |except vertebrates |
  |             |=Cambrian= (_kam´-|{                 |are represented;   |
  |             |bri-an_), from    |{=Acadian= (_ä-   |trilobites, bra-   |
  |             |Cambria, the old  |{kād´ē-ăn_), place|chiopods, sponges, |
  |             |name for Wales.   |{name.            |graptolites, etc.  |
  |             |                  |{                 |Little evidence of |
  |             |                  |{=Georgian= (_jōr´|vegetation, but it |
  |             |                  |{gē-ăn_), place   |must have abounded |
  |             |                  |{name.            |as food for        |
  |             |                  |{                 |animals.           |
  |=Proterozoic=|                  |{=Keweenawan=,    |Fossils rare or    |
  |(_prō-ter-ō- |                  |{(_kē´wē-năh-     |wanting.           |
  |zō´ik_) or   |=Algonkian= (_ăl- |{wān_), pertaining|                   |
  |“Former      |gŏn´kē-ăn_), from |{to Keweenaw Pen- |                   |
  |Life.”       |district of       |{insula, Michigan.|                   |
  |             |Algonquin         |{                 |                   |
  |_Estimated   |Indians, north of |{=Huronian= (_hu- |Rocks contain clear|
  |Age of       |St. Lawrence.     |{rō´nē-ăn,_),     |evidence of low    |
  |Period_,     |                  |{rocks on borders |forms of life.     |
  |=18,000,000= |                  |{of Lake Huron.   |                   |
  |_years_.     |                  |{                 |                   |
  |             |                  |{=Laurentian=     |Since the rocks are|
  |=Archaeozoic=|                  |{(_law-ren´shi-   |of igneous origin, |
  |(_ar´kē-o-zō´|                  |{an_), pertaining |they contain no    |
  |ic_), “With- |                  |{to rocks along   |organic remains.   |
  |out Life.”   |                  |{the St. Lawrence |                   |
  |             |=Archean= (_är-   |{River.           |                   |
  |_Estimated   |kē´-ăn_),         |{                 |                   |
  |Age of       |“oldest.”         |{=Keewatin= (_kē- |No fossils found,  |
  |Period_,     |                  |{wā´tĭn_), rocks  |but carbonaceous   |
  |=18,000,000= |                  |{in a district of |schists and lime-  |
  |_years_.     |                  |{Manitoba, Canada.|stones are believed|
  |             |                  |{                 |to indicate the    |
  |             |                  |{                 |presence of life.  |

  |=Life Ages   |  =Rock Systems=  |    =Series of    |  =Chief Economic  |
  |of the Earth=|                  |   Rock Strata=   |     Products=     |
  |             |                  |Recent, or Human. |Clay, peat, bog    |
  |             |                  |                  |iron ore, marl,    |
  |             |                  |                  |gold placers.      |
  |             |=Quaternary=      |                  |                   |
  |             |(_kwa-ter´na-ri_) |=Pleistocene=     |Clay, gravel,      |
  |             |or “fourth.” Once |(_plīs´tŏ-sēn_),  |gold placers.      |
  |             |supposed to be the|or “most recent.” |                   |
  |=Cenozoic=   |_fourth_ sedimen- |Glacial Period.   |                   |
  |(_se´nō-zō´- |tary system. Age  |                  |                   |
  |ik_), or     |of man.           |=Pliocene=        |Gold (in part      |
  |“Recent      |                  |(_plī´ō-sēn_), or |placers), coal,    |
  |life.”       |                  |“more recent.”    |oil, gas.          |
  |             +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |_Estimated   |                  |=Miocene= (_mī´ō- |Silver, gold, coal,|
  |Age of       |                  |sēn_), or “less   |oil, gas, phosphate|
  |Period_,     |                  |recent.”          |rock, diatomaceous |
  |=3,000,000=  |=Tertiary= (_ter´-|                  |earth.             |
  |_years_.     |shi-a-ri_), or    |                  |                   |
  |             |“third”. Once     |=Oligocene=       |Copper, silver.    |
  |             |supposed to be the|(_ōl´ĕ-gō-sēn_),  |                   |
  |             |_third_ sedimen-  |or “a little more |                   |
  |             |tary system, or   |recent.”          |                   |
  |             |Age of mammals.   |                  |                   |
  |             |                  |=Eocene= (_ē´-ō-  |Gold, zinc, lead,  |
  |             |                  |sēn_), or “dawn of|coal, oil, gas.    |
  |             |                  |recent.”          |                   |
  |             |=Cretaceous=      |{                 |Coal, oil, gas,    |
  |             |(_krē-ta´-she-us_)|{Upper.           |copper, gold, china|
  |             |or “bearing       |{                 |clay, fire clay,   |
  |             |chalk.”           |{Lower.           |cement building    |
  |=Mesozoic=   |                  |{                 |stone.             |
  |(_mĕs-ō-zō´- |                  |{                 |                   |
  |ic_), or     |                  |{                 |                   |
  |“Middle      +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |Life.”       |=Jurassic= (_jȯȯ- |{Upper.           |Oil, gold.         |
  |             |ras´sik_), or like|{                 |                   |
  |_Estimated   |the mass of the   |{Middle.          |                   |
  |Age of       |Jura Mountains.   |{                 |                   |
  |Period_,     |Age of Reptiles.  |{Lower.           |                   |
  |=5,000,000=  |                  |                  |                   |
  |_years_.     |                  |{Upper.           |Salt, gypsum, a    |
  |             |=Triassic=        |{                 |little coal in     |
  |             |(_trĭ-ăs´ĭk_), or |{Middle.          |Virginia, copper,  |
  |             |in a triple       |{                 |building stone.    |
  |             |series.           |{Lower.           |                   |
  |             |                  |=Permian= (_per´- |Salt and gypsum;   |
  |             |                  |mē-ăn_), like     |some coal in       |
  |             |                  |those at Perm,    |Eastern States.    |
  |             |                  |Russia.           |                   |
  |             |                  |                  |                   |
  |             |=Carboniferous=   |=Pennsylvanian=,  |Coal, oil, gas,    |
  |             |(_kăr-bŏn-if´-er- |like those of     |iron ore, fire     |
  |             |us_), or coal-    |Pennsylvania.     |clay, phosphate    |
  |             |bearing. Age of   |                  |rock.              |
  |             |Amphibians.       |                  |                   |
  |             |                  |                  |                   |
  |             |                  |=Mississippian=,  |Oil, gas, lead,    |
  |             |                  |or Lower Carboni- |zinc, building     |
  |             |                  |ferous.           |stone, cement rock.|
  |             +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |             |=Devonian= (_de-  |{Upper.           |                   |
  |             |vō´ni-an_) like   |{                 |Gas, oil, iron ore,|
  |             |those of Devon-   |{Middle.          |phosphate rock.    |
  |=Paleozoic=  |shire, England.   |{                 |                   |
  |(_pāl-œ-ô-   |Age of Fishes.    |{Lower.           |                   |
  |zō´ic_), or  +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  | “Old Life.” |                  |{=Ontarian= (_on- |Iron ore, gas,     |
  |             |=Silurian= (_si-  |{tā´rē-ăn_), place|salt, gypsum,      |
  |_Estimated   |lū´ri-an_), in the|{name.            |cement rock.       |
  |Age of       |land of the       |{                 |                   |
  |Period_,     |Silures, England. |{=Champlainian=   |                   |
  |=24,000,000= |Age of In-        |{(_shăm-plān´ē-   |                   |
  |_years_.     |vertebrates.      |{ăn_), place name.|                   |
  |             +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |             |                  |{=Cincinnatian=   |Oil, gas, lead,    |
  |             |=Ordovician= (_ŏr-|{(_sĭn-sĭn-năt´-ē-|zinc, phosphate    |
  |             |dŏ-vīsh´ăn_), a   |{ăn_), place name.|rock, manganese,   |
  |             |place name in     |{                 |marble.            |
  |             |Wales.            |{=Mohawkian= (_mō-|                   |
  |             |                  |{hŏk´ē-ăn_), place|                   |
  |             |                  |{name.            |                   |
  |             +------------------+------------------+-------------------+
  |             |                  |{=Saratogan=      |Lead, zinc, barite,|
  |             |                  |{(_săr-ă-tō´găn_),|copper.            |
  |             |                  |{place name.      |                   |
  |             |=Cambrian= (_kam´-|{                 |                   |
  |             |bri-an_) from     |{=Acadian= (_ä-   |                   |
  |             |Cambria, the old  |{kād´ē-ăn_), place|                   |
  |             |name for Wales.   |{name.            |                   |
  |             |                  |{                 |                   |
  |             |                  |{=Georgian= (_jōr´|                   |
  |             |                  |{gē-ăn_), place   |                   |
  |             |                  |{name.            |                   |
  |             |                  |{=Keweenawan=,    |Copper, silver.    |
  |=Proterozoic=|                  |{(_kē´wē-năh-     |                   |
  |(_prō-ter-ō- |                  |{wān_), pertaining|                   |
  |zō´ik_) or   |                  |{to Keweenaw Pen- |                   |
  |“Former      |=Algonkian= (_ăl- |{insula, Michigan.|                   |
  |Life.”       |gŏn´kē-ăn_), from |{                 |                   |
  |             |district of       |{=Huronian= (_hu- |Principal iron ores|
  |_Estimated   |Algonquin         |{rō´nē-ăn,_),     |of Lake Superior   |
  |Age of       |Indians, north of |{rocks on borders |region; also       |
  |Period_,     |St. Lawrence.     |{of Lake Huron.   |copper, nickel,    |
  |=18,000,000= |                  |{                 |silver, cobalt,    |
  |_years_.     |                  |{                 |gold. Building     |
  |             |                  |{                 |stone and ornamen- |
  |             |                  |{                 |tal stone.         |
  |             |                  |{=Laurentian=     |Iron ores, precious|
  |=Archaeozoic=|                  |{(_law-ren´shi-   |metals, gems,      |
  |(_ar´kē-o-zō´|                  |{an_), pertaining |apatite, rare      |
  |ic_), “With- |                  |{to rocks along   |earths, graphite,  |
  |out Life.”   |                  |{the St. Lawrence |asbestos.          |
  |             |=Archean= (_är-   |{River.           |                   |
  |_Estimated   |kē´-ăn_),         |{                 |                   |
  |Age of       |“oldest.”         |{=Keewatin= (_kē- |Emery, building and|
  |Period_,     |                  |{wā´tĭn_), rocks  |ornamental stones. |
  |=18,000,000= |                  |{in a district of |                   |
  |_years_.     |                  |{Manitoba, Canada.|                   |





The proportion of land to water upon the earth is as 27 to 72, or
roughly _one-fourth_ to _three-fourths_; the land covering fifty-three
million square miles, the sea one hundred and forty-four million. The
land consists of six great bodies called continents, and a multitude of
small fragments called islands, which skirt the shores of the continents
or dot the broad expanse of the sea.


By far the greatest proportion of land is in the northern hemisphere,
and in temperate latitudes. Broadly speaking, the northern hemisphere is
the hemisphere of land, and the southern hemisphere is the hemisphere of
ocean. The earth could be bisected in such a way that one hemisphere
contained almost no land, while the other was composed almost equally of
land and water.


The greater part of the land on the earth’s surface is grouped into two
great _hemispheres_, the Old and the New World. The former and far
larger of these consists of Eurasia in the north, separated by
ill-defined boundaries from Europe to the west and Asia to the east, and
of Africa in the south, united to Eurasia by the narrow neck of the
isthmus of Suez. The hemisphere of the New World is divided into North
America and South America, united by the long, narrow isthmus of Central
America. The island of Australia is also reckoned as a continent. It is
believed that an island continent, Antarctica, surrounds the South Pole.
Of islands not reckoned as continents, the largest is the polar island
of Greenland.


In comparing the continents, we at once notice certain resemblances. The
first is the tapering to the south, which is seen in Greenland, North
and South America, Africa, and Australia (Tasmania). Another is the
southward-running peninsulas which characterize Europe and Asia. We may
notice, too, that the general lines of the Old World, broad in the
north, tapering in the south, resemble those of the New World,
especially if we include Australia (Tasmania), and compare its position
with that of South America. There is also a certain uniformity in the
distribution of relief. Notice the so-called Mid-World and Pacific
Mountain systems, which may be traced in the mountains of Central
Europe, North Africa, Central Asia, the islands of the Pacific from
Japan to New Guinea, and the lofty mountains of North, Central, and
South America.



  |                     |=Asia=|=Afri-|=North|=South| =Eu- |=Aus-| =All |
  |    =Continent=      |      |  ca= |Ameri-|Ameri-|rope= |tra- |Land= |
  |                     |      |      |  ca= |  ca= |      |lia= |      |
  |Area (million square |      |      |      |      |      |     |      |
  |miles)               |  16.4|  11.1|   7.6|   6.8|   3.7|  3.0|  55.0|
  |Average Height (feet)| 3,000| 2,500| 1,900| 2,000|   940|  800| 2,100|
  |Highest Point (feet) |29,000|18,800|18,200|22,400|18,500|7,200|29,000|
  |                     |      |      |      |      |      |     |      |
  |PERCENTAGE AT VARIOUS|      |      |      |      |      |     |      |
  |  ALTITUDES (feet)   |      |      |      |      |      |     |      |
  |                     |      |      |      |      |      |     |      |
  |Below Sea-Level      |  1.4 |  0.1 |  0.05|  0.0 |  1.8 |  0.0|   0.6|
  |     0 to    600 feet| 23.3 | 12.5 | 32.25| 40.0 | 53.8 | 29.8|  26.7|
  |   600 to  1,500 feet| 16.0 | 34.8 | 32.1 | 26.8 | 27.0 | 64.3|  27.8|
  | 1,500 to  3,000 feet| 21.7 | 27.6 | 13.3 | 16.8 | 10.0 |  4.1|  19.3|
  | 3,000 to  6,000 feet| 21.8 | 21.8 | 13.2 |  7.0 |  5.5 |  1.5|  17.0|
  | 6,000 to 12,000 feet| 10.0 |  2.8 |  8.4 |  5.0 |  1.7 |  0.3|   6.0|
  | Above 12,000 feet   |  5.8 |  0.4 |  0.7 |  4.4 |  0.2 |  0.0|   2.6|


The coast line, or margin of sea and land, is an area rapidly wearing
away under the ceaseless influence of the waves, and of the sand and
rock, they are perpetually hurling to and fro. Coasts may be either flat
or high, composed either of hard or soft rock, and either submerged or
raised. A submerged coast is one where the land has sunk or the sea has
risen, so that the low grounds and valleys are flooded. A raised coast
is one where the land has risen or the sea has retired, and what was
formerly the sea bottom is bared.

A flat coast is usually sandy, often bordered by sandhills and lagoons.
It may be carved into cliffs, as in the clay cliffs of Norfolk, England.
A raised coast is usually flat from the long-continued action of the
waves during the period when it was submerged. Flat coasts have no good

A submerged coast differs according to the nature of the submerged
region. If this was hilly or mountainous, with valleys running parallel
to the shore, the coast will be ironbound and harbor-less unless the
sea-level has risen sufficiently to give access to the valleys behind
the first range of heights. If this happens, T-shaped gulfs are formed.
Where the valleys open at right angles to the sea, they become bays,
usually with excellent harbors. The hills between the valleys rise as
peninsulas, or islands. If the land was flat before submerging took
place, a flat coast is the result.

Where the land is composed of soft rocks, a more uniform coast-line
results than where it is composed of harder rocks, or of hard and soft
rocks mixed. The waves, in eating out the softer rocks, often form
magnificent sea-caves, natural arches, and pinnacles.


EUROPE surpasses all the other continents in the magnitude of its
indentations and projections. Three great peninsulas--the Balkan
peninsula, Italy, and Spain, project into the Mediterranean; while
Brittany, Denmark, and Scandinavia jut into the shores of the Atlantic.
Even the British Isles are scarcely more than a projection of the

ASIA is a second in the relative extent of its peninsula. Asia Minor on
the west, Arabia, India, and Indo-China on the south, and China,
Manchuria with Corea and Kamchatka, advancing into the waters of the
Pacific, form a wide border of projecting lands, containing the richest
regions of the continent.

NORTH AMERICA is considerably less indented. Florida, Nova Scotia and
Labrador are more prominent on the Atlantic coast, and California
Peninsula and Alaska on the Pacific.

The southern continents on the contrary, are nowhere deeply penetrated
by the waters of the ocean. The Gulf of Arica in South America, the Gulf
of Guinea in Africa, and the Great Australian Bight, are merely gentle
bends in the coast line.


Plains occupy nearly one-half of the surface of the continents. They are
most extensive and unbroken on the Arctic slopes of the Old World, and
in the interior of the two Americas.

Treeless plains, whose vegetation consists of grasses and other
herbaceous plants, or stunted shrubs, occur in every continent, and are
designated by a variety of terms. Wherever treeless plains are subject
to periodical rains, they lose their verdure in the season of drought,
and assume the aspect of a desert; but they resume their freshness on
the return of the rain, and many are adorned with a great variety of
beautiful flowers.

PLAINS OF THE OLD WORLD. The great Siberian plain extends from the
northeastern extremity of Asia to the Ural Mountains and Caspian Sea;
and the European plain stretches from the Ural westward, through Russia
and North Germany, to the lowlands of Holland.

The plains of the Caspian Sea and western Siberia are dreary steppes,
covered with coarse grasses, often growing in tufts, alternating with
patches of heather, furze, dwarf birch, and other stunted shrubs; or
old sea bottom, covered with salt efflorescence. Immense reaches of flat
country, near the Arctic shores of Asia and Europe, consist of frozen
marshes, called tundras, where mosses and lichens are almost the only
vegetation. Those of eastern Europe and Asia are denominated steppes;
while more limited treeless regions in western Europe are called landes
and heaths.

On the alluvial plains of the Old World, civilization began and
developed; and their inexhaustible fertility supplied the wants of the
most populous nations of antiquity. The great centers of ancient
civilization in Egypt, China, India and Babylonia, all had their growth
in alluvial plains, built up and fertilized by the mighty rivers which
traverse those countries.

PLAINS OF THE NEW WORLD. In North America the great _Central Plain_
extends, with but slight interruptions, from the Arctic shores to the
Gulf of Mexico. The fertile, treeless plains are termed “prairies”
(meadows), while the sterile ones, east of the Rocky Mountains, are
known as “the plains.” There are vast cane fields and forests in the
lower Mississippi Valley.

In South America the plains of the Orinoco basin, the _Selvas_ of the
Amazon, and the _Pampas_ of the La Plata, form an uninterrupted series
of lowlands which, continued by the plains of Patagonia to the southern
extremity of the continent, extend over a distance of three thousand
five hundred miles from north to south. The Spanish term “llano”
(plain), and the Peruvian “pampa,” designate the treeless plains of the
Orinoco and La Plata basins. The Llanos of the Orinoco, during one-half
of the year are covered by the richest pasturage, bright with flowers,
but during the other half are a parched waste. The Selvas of the Amazon,
a luxuriant forest, cover more than a million square miles; and the
treeless Pampas, with their tall grasses and thickets of clover and
thistles, illustrate the endless richness and variety of nature.

Alluvial and marine plains generally have but a slight altitude, while
the undulating plains are sometimes considerably elevated. The
Mississippi Valley, at St. Louis, one thousand miles from the ocean, is
hardly four hundred feet above the sea-level; and the Amazon, at an
equal distance from the sea, does not reach two hundred and fifty feet.
The marine plains adjacent to the Caspian and Aral seas are still lower,
the larger portion being below the sea-level.


Plateaus are situated either between two lofty mountain chains, which
form their margins, or descend by successive terraces to the nearest
seas; or they pass, by gradations, from the base of high mountains to
the low plains in the interior of the continents.

The Great American Basin, between the Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains,
and the plateau of Tibet, between the Himalaya and Kuenlun mountains,
are examples of the first position; and the table-land of Mexico, of the
second. The third is seen in the high plains at the eastern foot of the
Rocky Mountains, which descend from an altitude of five thousand or six
thousand feet, at the foot of the mountains, to the low plains of the
Mississippi basin.

The plateaus most remarkable for their elevation are, Tibet, from ten
thousand to eighteen thousand feet above the sea; and the elongated
valley-like highlands, from ten thousand to thirteen thousand feet high,
between the two chains of the Andes, in South America. East Turkestan
and Mongolia, in central Asia; the plateau of Iran, in western Asia;
Abyssinia, and the vast plateau which occupies all the southern part of
Africa; and the broad table-land which fills the western half of North
America with a continuous mass of high land, range in height from four
thousand to eight thousand feet.

The great peninsulas of Deccan, Arabia, Asia-Minor and Spain, the
central plateau of France, and those of Switzerland, Bavaria, and
Transylvania, vary from one thousand to four thousand feet in elevation.


The nature of the soil and climate of great plateaus is in general such
as to render them the least useful portions of the continents. Sahara,
with an average altitude of 1,000 feet, and the higher plateaus of
Mongolia, Iran and parts of the American Basin, may serve as types.

Their surface consists of hardened sand and rock; of hillocks and plains
of loose sand constantly shifting by the wind; and of immense tracts, as
in Mongolia, covered with pebbles varying from the size of a walnut, or
even less, to a foot in diameter: all indicating the original
transporting, grinding and depositing of these materials by water.

Salt lakes without outlet occur in each, and salt efflorescence often
covers the ground. A lack of rain to wash from the soil substances
injurious to vegetation, and supply the water necessary for the growth
of plants, leaves these plateaus generally sterile, and some of the most
extensive are in part, if not wholly, deserts.


Mountains rise in long and comparatively narrow lines or ridges, the
tops of which are often deeply indented, presenting to the eye the
appearance of a series of peaks detached one from another. As each of
these peaks or distinct elevations is called a mountain and often
receives a separate name, the common designation chain or range of
mountains is naturally applied to the whole.

The top of the ridge, from which the waters descend on opposite sides,
is called the crest; and the notches between the peaks, from which
transverse valleys often stretch like deep furrows down the slopes of
the chain, are called passes.


Mountain chains are seldom isolated, but are usually combined into
_systems_, consisting of several more or less parallel and connected
chains, with their intervening valleys,--as the Appalachian system, the
Alps, and the Andes.

Most mountain chains seem to have been produced by tremendous lateral
pressure in portions of the Earth’s crust, causing either long folds, or
deep fissures with upturned edges rising into high ridges, the broken
strata forming ragged peaks.


Mountains by folding are generally of moderate elevation, while
mountains by fracture include the highest chains of the globe. The
Appalachian Mountains in North America, and the Jura in Europe, are
examples of the first; the Rocky Mountains, Andes, Alps and Himalayas,
of the second.

Folded mountains are curved into long arches, either entire or broken at
the summit and forming a system of long, parallel ridges, of nearly
equal height, separated by trough-like valleys. Here and there,
however, deep gaps, or gorges, cut the chains allowing the rivers to
escape from one valley to another.

In systems of mountains produced by fracture, there is usually one main
central chain, with several subordinate ranges. They have, however, less
regularity and similarity among themselves than the parallel chains of
mountains by folding.

The crests are deeply indented, cut down one-third or one-half the
height of the range, forming isolated peaks and passes which present to
the eye the appearance of a saw, called in Spanish Sierra; in
Portuguese, Serra. Such ranges are frequently distinguished by these
terms, as the Sierra Nevada, in North America; and the Serra do Mar, in


Valleys among mountains owe their existence primarily to folds or
fissures in the Earth’s crust, produced in the upheaving of the ranges;
but they are subsequently deepened, widened and otherwise changed in
form and extent, by the action of rains and frosts, and the streams to
which they furnish a pathway. Most of the Alpine lakes, celebrated for
their picturesque beauty, occupy deep basins at the outlet of transverse

Valleys in plains and plateaus are mainly, if not entirely, the result
of the erosion, or wear of the surface, by running water.

Little rills, formed by the rains or issuing from springs, set out on
their course down the slope of the ground, each wearing its small furrow
in the surface. Uniting they form a rivulet which wears a broader and
deeper channel; and the rivulets in turn combining, form rivers which
produce still greater effects.

The great basin of the Mississippi for example, is one grand central
valley, cut by the main stream in the line of lowest level, towards
which the valleys of the Missouri, the Arkansas, the Ohio, and a
multitude of smaller streams, all converge.


1. MOUNT EVEREST, the loftiest mountain in the world, is situated in
Nepal, India, and rises to an ascertained height of 29,000 feet--almost
six miles. It was named for Sir George Everest, an English engineer, and
outline Surveyor-General of India. Everest is only one of numerous
gigantic peaks of the Himalayas--often called the “Roof of the
World”--and is apparently guarded against all attempts at ascent by a
rampart of lofty pinnacles. It is best viewed from a point near
Darjeeling, India, one hundred and twenty miles distant. From this point
travelers are enthralled with the glistening peak of mountain piles as
nowhere else on earth. Though a thousand times described, the view is so
surpassingly sublime that its full glory can never be depicted in words.

2. MONT BLANC (_mòn-blon-g_) is the highest mountain in Europe, and of
the Alps. It is located between Great and Little St. Bernard passes, on
the frontier of France, Switzerland and Italy; and is best seen and
approached from the village of Chamounix (_shä-mo-nē´_), France. It was
first ascended in 1786, but frequently since, and, in 1893, an
observatory was built on its summit. The Mont Blanc chain is famous for
glaciers. Many great poets have described the majesty of Mont Blanc,
among them, Goethe, Victor Hugo, Byron, Shelley, Wordsworth, and

3. THE MATTERHORN, or Mount Cervin, a splendid mountain obelisk, towers
above Zermatt, Switzerland, on the Italian border. The eastern side
seems almost vertical, and its ascent is very difficult; hence its name
which is due to the formation of the rocky, horn-shaped peak. The loss
of life attending its ascent has given the Matterhorn the grim name
“Fatal Mountain.”

4. MONTE ROSA (_mŏn´te rō´sa_), “rosy mountain,” is next to Mont Blanc,
the highest Alpine peak. It is the border between Italy and Switzerland,
sixty miles north of Turin, Switzerland. Unlike the Matterhorn, Monte
Rosa is easy of ascent and is frequently climbed by ladies. Its name
refers to the glaciers which abound and reflect beautiful colors.

5. JUNGFRAU (_yung´frau_), “virgin,” is one of the Bernese Alps,
Switzerland, thirteen miles from Interlaken. It is so named from the
pure whiteness of its snowclad peak. A wonderful mountain railway now
reaches to the summit, most of the line being through tunnels. Jungfrau
is 13,670 feet high.

6. MOUNT ELBURZ is one of the loftiest and most impressive of all the
Caucasian mountains. It is an extinct volcano with two peaks, the
western peak 18,470 feet above sea-level, and the other 18,347 feet. It
is covered with glaciers, and constitutes a watershed which divides Asia
from Europe. The Caucasus gave its name to that great branch of the
human race that has ruled the world for many generations.

7. MOUNT SINAI (_si´nā_ or _-nī_), famous as the sacred mountain on
which Moses received the Ten Commandments, is an individual peak in a
vast rocky mass that almost fills the peninsula of Sinai between the
Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Akaba. It is named from _Sin_, the Babylonian
moon-god. At its foot, in a ravine, is the monastery of St. Catherine,
founded by the Emperor Justinian; a short distance from it the Chapel of
St. Elias (Elijah); while on its summit is a little pilgrim church. Its
height is 8,593 feet.

8. PIKE’S PEAK. This famous mountain is six miles from Colorado Springs,
Colorado, and may be ascended by a cog railway. It is one of the
best-known summits of the Rocky Mountains, and rears its snowy crest to
a height of 14,134 feet. On its top is one of the highest weather
stations in the world. The view from the observatory is superb,
embracing thousands of square miles of mountain and plain.

9. MOUNT ST. ELIAS, on the Alaskan side of the Canadian frontier, was
long considered the highest peak in North America. It is a volcanic
mountain, stands in a wild, inaccessible region, and is clothed almost
from base to summit with eternal snow. Besides, there are huge glaciers,
impassable precipices and yawning chasms. Its height is 18,020 feet. It
was ascended by the Duke of the Abruzzi in 1897.

10. MOUNT ASSINIBOINE (_as-sin´i-boin_) is frequently called the
“Matterhorn of the Canadian Rockies”. It is 11,860 feet in height, and
is located near the boundary of British Columbia and Alberta, about
twenty miles south of Banff, in one of the most beautiful scenic regions
in America. In the immediate vicinity there are geysers, caves,
waterfalls, numerous lakes, natural bridges, and glaciers.

11. MOUNT POPOCATEPETL (_pō-pō-kă-tā-pet´l_) is one of the giant
volcanic peaks standing guard over Mexico City. Its summit is
perpetually covered with snow, but it may be ascended from Popo Park,
the terminal of the railway which climbs its slope, to a height of 8,000
feet. The peak itself is 17,887 feet, at the apex of which is a huge
crater sheathed with ice, from which clouds of vapor are continually
ascending. No great eruption, however, has taken place since 1540. The
most imposing spectacle of all from the summit is the remarkable
formation of clouds below.

12. MOUNT SALCANTAY, one of the most beautiful peaks of the Andes, in
Peru, is 21,000 feet in height. Its grandeur is enhanced by the presence
of glaciers and the enveloping clouds. It rises to a sharp point with
its sides covered with snow and ice, and lifts its head magnificently
thousands of feet higher than the surrounding mountains. It has been
recently explored by the Yale University expedition.

13. MOUNT ROBSON, the highest point in the Canadian Rockies, reaches an
elevation of 13,700 feet. It is on the border between Alberta and
British Columbia, one of the remarkable “show places” of the Canadian
Rockies. All around it is the finest of scenery--huge mountains,
snow-crested peaks, rushing rivers that swirl and foam, mysterious
canyons and earth-strewn boulders.

14. MOUNT RAINIER (_rā´ner_) an isolated mountain of the Cascade Range,
forty miles southeast of Tacoma, Washington, is an extinct volcano,
15,529 feet in height. There are still two craters at the summit which
give off heat and sulphurous fumes. Thick forests cover the lower region
of the mountain, while higher up there are fourteen glaciers. It is
difficult of ascent, though frequently made. A bridle path leads to a
point over 7,000 feet in elevation from which a magnificent view of
several of the glaciers may be had.

MOUNT ARARAT, famed as the mountain where Noah’s ark landed after the
flood, as recorded in Genesis, is in the Turkish province of Armenia.
Ararat is really a twin mountain, the two peaks of which are about seven
miles apart, with an elevation of about 17,000 and 13,000 feet,
respectively. They rise above a beautiful alluvial plain, and quite
naturally the higher peak--Great Ararat--is the one made historically
immortal as the motherland of the human race. From their isolation and
bareness the two peaks are very impressive, and it is little wonder that
Armenia regards these mountain tops as a crown of glory and all other
lands as her daughters. Within her borders, too, she gives rise to the
beautiful rivers Euphrates, Tigris, Pison, Araxes, and many others. The
first modern ascent of the mountain was made in 1829, though often


Wonderful examples of valleys by erosion occur in the plateaus adjacent
to the Rocky Mountains. The Grand Canon of the Colorado, three hundred
miles long, has a depth of from three thousand to six thousand feet
below the surrounding country. The sides of this tremendous gorge, which
are nearly or quite precipitous, exhibit the successive geological
strata down to the oldest rocks. A similar formation exists in the
upper course of the Yellowstone, one of the main tributaries of the
Missouri, and to a less extent in all the streams flowing through the
high barren plateaus.

Valleys descending the slopes of mountains are formed in the same
manner. The gathering drops make the rill, and the rill its little
furrow; rills combine into rivulets, and rivulets make a gully down the
hill-side; rivulets unite to form torrents, and these work with
accumulating force, and excavate deep gorges in the declivities. Other
torrents form in the same manner about the mountain ridge, and pursue
the same work of erosion until the slopes are a series of valleys and
ridges, and the summit a bold crest overlooking the eroding waters. The
larger part of the valleys of the world are formed entirely by running


The multitude of small and apparently fragmentary bodies of land, called
islands, form only about one-seventeenth part of the entire land surface
of the globe.


Continental islands are situated in the immediate vicinity of the
continents, and form properly a part of the continental structure. They
have the same kinds of rocks and mountain forms, and the same varieties
of plants and large animals, which are found on the neighboring coasts
of the mainland.

The size of this class of islands varies extremely. Some are mere
isolated rocks, while others occupy large areas, like the British Isles,
Japan Islands and Madagascar; or, more extensive still, Papua and
Borneo, each of which has an area exceeding two hundred thousand square

The distinctive character of Oceanic islands is that they lie at a
distance from the continents, in the midst of the ocean basins. They are
always small, and, though sometimes forming lines, or bands, they more
frequently occur in groups.

The rocks which make up the body of the continents and continental
islands--sandstone, slate, granite, and the various metamorphic
rocks--are entirely wanting in oceanic islands. The latter are composed
either of volcanic substances, or of limestone. Hence they present much
less variety in relief forms than the continental islands.


The islands of volcanic origin are more or less circular in outline; are
usually considerably elevated, with rapid slopes; and are of moderate
size. Sometimes two or more volcanoes, clustered together, form a single
island of larger size and more irregular outline.

Occasional islands rise but little above the surface of the sea, their
craters being filled by sea water. Many, however, rise to Alpine
heights--like the peaks of Hawaii, in the Hawaiian Islands, nearly
fourteen thousand feet in elevation; Pico de Teyde, in the Canaries,
fourteen thousand feet; and Tahiti, in the Society Islands, over seven
thousand feet above the level of the sea.


Coral islands are among the most striking phenomena of the tropical
seas. Whitsunday Island in the midst of the Pacific is an excellent
example. Rising but a few feet above the surface of the ocean, it forms
a narrow, unbroken, nearly circular ring, surrounding a central lagoon
of quiet water. When first seen, it presents the aspects of an angry
surf breaking on a white beach of coral sand, in strong contrast with
the deep blue color of the sea. Behind this a garland of luxuriant
vegetation, whose tropical beauty, enhanced by the noble cocoa-palm
encircles the quiet waters of the lagoon, while all around spreads the
broad blue sea.



This greatest of nature’s gorges is more than twelve miles across, a
mile deep, and extends over two hundred miles in length. This whole vast
space has been sculptured by the wear of the river through countless
centuries. Its unparalleled magnitude, its architectural forms and
suggestions, and its wealth of color effects create a picture that is
grand beyond description.]


This vast reef of coral islands was built by a colony of coral insects,
or polyps, as innumerable as the stars of the Milky Way. It rose from
the floor of the ocean, builded out of myriads upon myriads of the dead
skeletons of these marvellous insects.]


A large number of volcanic islands in the Pacific are encircled by coral
reefs, which, when near the shore, are called fringing reefs. When at a
considerable distance, leaving a lagoon of quiet water between them and
the volcanic island, they are termed barrier reefs.


Coral reefs are masses of limestone originally secreted, in the form of
coral, by minute polyps which live in countless numbers in the tropical
seas. The coral produced by a single community of polyps grows chiefly
upward; but multitudes of distinct communities often live so near
together that the small lateral growth of each brings them into contact.

Their separate, fragile structures, gradually broken up and compacted by
various means, are in time transformed into a solid mass, forming walls
of coral rock frequently of enormous extent. The great barrier reef near
the northeastern shores of Australia, the longest known, is not less
than one thousand two hundred and fifty miles in length.


The coral polyp is one of the master-builders of the world. It may be
likened to a sea-anemone, but is inferior in muscular organism, and
immensely superior in defensive organization.]

Reef-building polyps do not live below the depth of one hundred or one
hundred and twenty feet, and hence require a foundation near the
surface. This is supplied by submarine mountains and plateaus, or the
slopes of those volcanic cones which form the high islands.

Growing vertically, the reefs repeat at the surface the outlines of
their bases, which fact gives rise to the circular figure both of atolls
and reefs in mid-ocean, and to the elongated, wall-like form of reefs
adjacent to the continents, like those of Florida and of Australia.


Reef-building polyps are confined to the tropical seas, where the winter
temperature is not below sixty-eight degrees. Coral formations are most
extensive in the Pacific Ocean, especially south of the Equator, and in
the two great archipelagoes of the East and West Indies; but a large
number of coral islands also occur in the Indian Ocean. The Coral Sea,
east of northern Australia, is particularly remarkable for the great
extent of its coral reefs.


The usual form of coral islands is that of a broken ring, numerous
channels affording entrance into the lagoon. Such a group of islands is
called an atoll, a Malay term, which has been adopted to designate these
singular structures. The central lagoon enclosed by an atoll, is
invariably shallow, seldom exceeding a few scores, or at most hundreds,
of feet in depth; while the outer sea reaches a depth of thousands of
feet at a short distance from the shore, showing that the atoll rests
upon a submarine mountain.

Atolls are often clustered together in large numbers, forming extensive
archipelagoes. Paumotu, or Low Archipelago, numbers eighty coral
islands, nearly all of which are atolls; the Caroline, Gilbert and
Marshall islands together contain eighty-four atolls, while the
Laccadive and Maldive islands form two long double series of atolls
extending eight hundred miles from north to south.


(See next page for the Area, Population and Countries to which these
islands belong).



                                             | =Area  | =Popula-
  =Name and Sovereignty=                     | Square |   tion=
                                             | Miles= |
  =Anticosti= (to Britain)                   |  2,600 |       500
  =Bahamas= (to Britain)                     |  4,404 |    58,000
  =Bermudas= (to Britain)                    |     20 |    20,000
  =Cape Breton= (to Britain)                 |  3,120 |   100,000
  =Cuba= (Independent)                       | 44,164 | 2,155,000
  =Dominica= (to Britain)                    |    291 |    35,000
  =Falkland= (to Britain)                    |  5,500 |     3,250
  =Feeji, or Feejee= (to Britain)            |  7,435 |   155,000
  =Galapagos= (to Ecuador)                   |  2,400 |       400
  =Greenland= (to Denmark)                   | 46,740 |    15,000
  =Guadeloupe= (to France)                   |    688 |   182,000
  =Hawaiian= See Sandwich.                   |        |
  =Isla de Pinos= (Isle of Pines) (to Spain) |  1,200 |    32,000
  =Jamaica= (to Britain)                     |  4,200 |   865,000
  =Long Island= (to U. S.)                   |  1,682 | 2,700,000
  =Martinique= (to France)                   |    378 |   180,000
  =New Foundland= (to Britain)               | 42,734 |   218,000
  =Porto Rico= (to U. S.)                    |  3,604 | 1,120,000
  =Prince Edward= (to Britain)               |  2,184 |    94,000
  =Santo Domingo= (Independent)              | 28,250 | 2,700,000
  =Sandwich or Hawaiian= (to U. S.)          |  6,449 |   192,000
  =Staten Island= (to U. S.)                 |     65 |    86,000
  =Tahiti= (to France)                       |  1,500 |    30,000
  =Tierra del Fuego= (to Argentina)          | 18,500 |     1,700
  =Trinidad= (to Britain)                    |  1,750 |   350,000
  =Vancouver= (to Britain)                   | 15,937 |    55,000




                                             | =Area  | =Popula-
  =Name and Sovereignty=                     | Square |   tion=
                                             | Miles= |
  =Balearic Islands= (to Spain)              |  1,935 |   326,000
  =Borneo= (to Britain and Holland)          |284,000 | 2,000,000
  =Canary Islands= (to Spain)                |  2,807 |   420,000
  =Candia, or Crete= (to Turkey)             |  3,365 |   243,000
  =Cape Verde Islands= (to Portugal)         |  1,480 |   148,000
  =Celebes= (to Holland)                     | 71,470 | 2,000,000
  =Ceylon= (to Britain)                      | 25,332 | 3,595,000
  =Corsica= (to France)                      |  3,378 |   290,000
  =Cyprus= (to Britain)                      |  3,584 |   140,000
  =Elba= (to Italy)                          |     85 |    27,000
  =England= (Independent)                    | 88,729 |40,835,000
  =Formosa= (to Japan)                       | 13,458 | 3,392,000
  =Gothland= (to Sweden)                     |  1,217 |    56,000
  =Hainan= (to China)                        | 16,000 | 2,000,000
  =Iceland= (to Denmark)                     | 39,756 |    86,000
  =Ireland= (to Britain)                     | 32,360 | 4,382,000
          {Honshiu                           | 87,485 |37,415,000
  =Japan= {Khiushiu                          | 16,840 | 7,727,000
          {Skikoku                           |  7,031 | 3,290,000
          {Hokkaido (Yezo)                   | 36,299 | 1,140,000
  =Java= (to Holland)                        | 50,554 |30,100,000
  =Madagascar= (to France)                   |227,950 | 2,745,000
  =Madeira Islands= (to Portugal)            |    314 |   150,600
  =Malta= (to Britain)                       |    117 |   229,000
  =New Guinea= See Papua.                    |        |
  =New Zealand= {N. Island                   | 44,468 |   564,000
  (to Britain)  {S. Island                   | 58,325 |   445,000
  =Papua, or New Guinea= (to Britain,        |        |
  Germany and Holland)                       |313,183 |   710,000
                           {Luzon            | 40,969 | 3,800,000
                           {Mindanao         | 36,292 |   500,000
  =Philippines= (to U. S.) {Panay            |  4,611 |   744,000
                           {Cebu             |  1,762 |   593,000
                           {Leyte            |  2,722 |   358,000
  =St. Helena= (to Britain)                  |     47 |     3,520
  =Sakhalin= (Japan and Russia)              | 29,000 |    30,000
  =Sardinia= (to Italy)                      |  9,306 |   854,000
  =Sicily= (to Italy)                        |  9,935 | 3,685,000
  =Spitzbergen= (to Norway)                  | 27,000 |       ...
  =Sumatra= (to Holland)                     |165,000 | 3,200,000
  =Van Diemen, or Tasmania= (to Britain)     | 26,215 |   197,000
  =Zanzibar= (to Britain)                    |    640 |   115,000


1. Midnight Sun Within the Arctic Circle. 2. The Geyser At Rest. 3.
Picture Diagram of a Section through a Volcano like Vesuvius. 4. The
Geyser in Action. 5. Section of the Earth’s Crust across France and

1. Precambrian or Archaean. 2. Cambrian and Ordovician. 3. Silurian. 4.
Carboniferous Limestone. 5. Coal Measures. 6. Permian. 7. Trias. 8.
Jurassic. 9. Chalk. 10. Tertiary. 11. Volcanic Rocks. 12. Glacial
Deposits. 13. Granite. 14. Gneiss. 15. Schist. 16. Alluvium.]



In this little Bay of Santorin, enclosed by an island of the same name
in the Grecian Archipelago, occurred probably the most remarkable
volcanic exhibition known. During an eruption in 1866 flames issued from
the sea rising sometimes to a height of twenty-five feet, and a dense
column of white smoke mounted to an immense height. Within a few days a
new island appeared which gradually became united to the present


The primary cause of volcanoes, as of geysers, earthquakes and other
similar phenomena of nature, is the intensely heated condition of the
earth’s interior. It is the same force that has produced the irregular
features of the earth’s surface--its mighty mountain chains, the sunken
basins of the oceans, and its hills, valleys and gorges. Quite
logically, volcanoes are most numerous and most intense along the deep
mountain fissures which establish a ready communication between the
interior and the surface of the earth. Consequently the significant
facts about them are: (1) Nearly all volcanoes are either along the
highest border of the continents, or in the great central zone of
fracture; (2) most of the volcanic groups exhibit a linear arrangement;
(3) the agent at work in these mighty engines is mainly vapor of water,
or steam power.


The form of typical volcanic mountain is that of a cone, with a circular
basin or depression, called a crater, at its summit. In the center of
the crater is the mouth of a perpendicular shaft or chimney, which emits
clouds of hot vapor and gases; and in periods of greater activity,
ejects ashes, fragments of heated rock, and streams of fiery lava.

Volcanic ashes, when examined under a microscope, are found to be simply
pulverized lava, frequently in minute crystals, and bear no resemblance
to ashes in the ordinary sense of the term.

The lava stream, when flowing white hot from the crater, is not unlike a
jet of melted iron escaping from a furnace, and moves at first with
considerable rapidity. It soon cools on the surface, and becomes covered
with a hard, black, porous crust, while the interior remains melted and
continues to flow. If the stream is thick, the lava may be found still
warm after ten or even twenty years.

The amount of matter ejected by volcanoes is very great. The whole
island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, seems to be only
an accumulation of lava thrown out by its four craters. All high oceanic
islands are of the same character. Iceland, with an area of forty
thousand square miles, is a vast table-land from three thousand to five
thousand feet in elevation, composed of volcanic rock similar to the
lavas still ejected by its numerous volcanoes.


Nearly all active volcanoes have intervals of comparative repose,
interrupted by periods of increased activity, which terminate in a
violent ejection of matter from the interior, during which the volcano
is said to be in a state of eruption.

The phenomena which characterize these differing phases of volcanic
activity may be best made clear by describing them as actually observed
in Vesuvius, one of the most carefully studied and most active volcanoes
of modern times.

  Vesuvius is a solitary mountain rising to the height of nearly 4,000
  feet, from the midst of a highly cultivated plain which borders upon
  the shores of the Bay of Naples. Though the mountain has a regular
  conical form, two summits, very nearly equal in height, are visible
  from Naples--Monte Somma on the north, and Vesuvius proper on the

  The Eruption begins generally with a tremendous explosion which
  seems to shake the mountain to its very foundations, and hurls into
  the air dense clouds of vapor and ashes. Other explosions succeed
  rapidly, and with increasing violence, each sending up a white,
  globular cloud of steam, or aqueous vapor. This long array of
  clouds, accompanied by dark ashes, volcanic sand, and fragments of
  red-hot lava of all sizes, soon forms a stupendous column.

  Finally the boiling lava overflows the rim of the crater, and
  descends in fiery torrents down the slopes; or, bursting the
  mountain by its weight, finds a vent through some fissure far below
  the summit. After the expulsion of the lava the eruption is
  generally near its end, though it does not necessarily terminate at
  once. Alternate phases of outbursting steam, ashes, and lava may
  continue with more or less violence for weeks or even months.

  The sudden condensation of the enormous accumulation of hot vapor
  thrown into the air by the eruption, gives rise to striking
  atmospheric phenomena. Vivid flashes of lightning start from all
  parts of the column, and play about the clouds above; and often a
  local thunderstorm, formed in the midst of a clear sky, pours a
  heavy rain of warm water and ashes upon the slopes of the mountain.
  The hot, destructive mud torrents, created by these rains, have
  often been mistaken for lava streams.

  The majesty of the spectacle is still greater at night. Though
  flames of burning gases are of rare occurrence, the clouds and
  columns of vapor are strongly illuminated by the reflection of the
  white-hot lava within the crater; and fragments of this lava
  constantly thrown into the air give the column all the brilliancy of
  a gigantic piece of fire-work. The sky itself, far and wide,
  partakes of the same vivid coloring, and the whole scene resembles a
  vast conflagration.


In size they vary from mere mounds a few yards in diameter, such as the
salses or mud-volcanoes near the Caspian, to Etna, 9,652 feet high, with
a base thirty miles in diameter; Cotopaxi, in the Andes, 18,880 feet
high; or Mauna Loa, in the Sandwich Isles, 13,600 feet high, with a base
seventy miles in diameter and two craters, one of which, Kilauea, is the
largest active crater in our earth, being seven miles in circuit.

Two great terrestrial zones include nearly all the known volcanoes of
the globe, arranged in long bands or series, or in isolated groups.

FIRST ZONE. This includes the vast array of mountain chains, peninsulas,
and bands of islands which encircle the Pacific Ocean with a belt of
burning mountains. Within it occur, in the New World: (1) the Andes
mountains, with three of the most remarkable series of volcanoes--those
of Chili, Bolivia, and Ecuador--separated by hundreds of miles; (2) the
volcanic group of Central America; (3) the series of Mexico; (4) the
series of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountains; (5) the group of
Alaska; and (6) the long series of the Aleutian Islands.

In the Old World are: (1) the series of Kamchatka and the Kurile
Islands; (2) the group of Japan; (3) the series south of Japan,
including Formosa, the Philippine and the Molucca Islands; and (4) the
Australian series, including New Guinea, New Britain, New Hebrides, and
New Zealand. In this vast zone there are not less than four hundred
volcanoes, one hundred and seventy of which are still active.

SECOND ZONE. This contains the belt of broken lands and inland seas,
which extending round the globe, separates the northern from the
southern continents, and intersects the first zone, in the equatorial
regions, nearly at right angles.

In it are: (1) the volcanic regions of Central America and Mexico, and
the series of the Lesser Antilles; (2) the groups of the Azores and
Canary islands (3) the Mediterranean islands and peninsulas, including
all the active volcanoes of Europe; (4) Asia Minor with numerous extinct
volcanoes; (5) the shores of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, and the two
Indias, rich in traces of volcanic action; (6) the East Indian
Archipelago with hundreds of burning mountains; and (7) the Friendly
Islands and other volcanic groups of the central Pacific.

In this zone there are no less than one hundred and sixty volcanoes, so
that the two volcanic zones together contain five hundred and sixty, or
five-sixths of all known.

ISOLATED VOLCANOES. The volcanoes not included in these two great zones
are isolated, in the midst of the oceans, or in the broken polar lands.
The most noted are the Hawaiian Island group, in the Pacific; Bourbon
and Mauritius, in the Indian Ocean; Cape Verde Islands, Ascension, St.
Helena, and Tristan da Cunha, in the Atlantic; Iceland and Jan Mayen, in
the Arctic Ocean; and Erebus and Terror, in Antarctic.


       =Name=              =Location=      =Height
  =Altar=               Ecuador             17,710
  =Antisana=            Ecuador             19,335
  =Asosan=              Japan                5,630
  =Cayambi=             Ecuador             19,255
  =Chimborazo=          Ecuador             21,424
  =Copiapo=             Chile               19,700
  =Cotocachi=           Ecuador             16,300
  =Cotopaxi=            Ecuador             18,880
  =Demavend=            Persia              18,500
  =Etna=                Sicily               9,652
  =Fujiyama=            Japan               12,390
  =Hecla=               Iceland              5,110
  =Hood, Mt.=           Oregon              11,225
  =Iztaccihuati=        Mexico              16,076
  =Kirishima-yama=      Japan                5,530
  =Llullaillac=         Chile               21,000
  =Maipo=               Chile               17,670
  =Mauna Kea=           Hawaii              13,953
  =Mauna Loa=           Hawaii              13,600
  =Misti=               Peru                20,015
  =Nevado de Colima=    Mexico              14,210
  =Orizaba=             Mexico              18,310
  =Pelée=               Martinique, W. I.    4,300
  =Pichincha=           Ecuador             15,918
  =Pico, Peak of=       Azores               7,013
  =Popocatepetl=        Mexico              17,748
  =Ruiz=                Colombia            17,388
  =Sahama=              Peru                23,000
  =Sangai=              Ecuador             17,459
  =San Jose=            Chile               20,020
  =St. Elias, Mt.=      Alaska              18,024
  =St. Helena, Mt.=     United States       10,000
  =Stromboli=           Lipari Islands       3,090
  =Tahiti, Peak of=     Friendly Islands     7,400
  =Teneriffe=           Canary Islands      12,000
  =Tolima=              Columbia            18,069
  =Toluco=              Mexico              14,950
  =Tunguragua=          Ecuador             16,690
  =Vesuvius=            Italy                4,260


Earthquakes are movements of the earth’s crust, varying in intensity
from a slight tremor or shaking of the ground to the most violent
convulsions causing enormous destruction over wide areas.


The wave-like or undulatory motion is most common and least destructive.
It appears to be the normal one, and it is possible that the others may
be simply the result of various systems of waves intersecting one
another. The waves either advance in one direction, like waves of the
sea, or spread from a central point, like ripples produced by dropping a
pebble into still water.

The earthquakes of the Andes are chiefly linear, being propagated along
the mountains, with the undulations perpendicular to the direction of
the ranges. The destructive earthquake at Lisbon, was a central one, the
concentric waves gradually diminishing in intensity with increasing
distance from the place of origin.

The vertical motion acts from beneath like the explosion of a mine, and
when violent nothing can resist its force. The earthquake at Calcutta,
in September, 1828, owed its great destructiveness to the fact that the
main shock was vertical; and one in Murcia, Spain, in 1829, destroyed or
injured more than three thousand five hundred houses.

The rotary or whirling motion is the most dangerous, but happily the
rarest of all. In the great earthquake of Jamaica, in 1692, the surface
of the ground was so disturbed that fields changed places, or were found
twisted into each other.


Probably no part of the earth’s surface is entirely free from vibration,
but, fortunately, destructive earthquakes are confined to comparatively
limited regions. In most cases each shock lasts only a few seconds, but
the tremblings that follow may be continued for days, weeks, or even
months. Noises of sundry kinds usually precede, accompany, or succeed an
earthquake. Some earthquakes, however, are not attended by any
subterranean sounds. This has been the case with some of the most
destructive South American disturbances. Thus at the time of the
terrible shock which destroyed Riobamba in Ecuador in 1797, a complete
silence reigned. On the other hand, subterranean sounds may be heard
without any earth-tremor being perceived.

The sound which accompanies many earthquakes is due to the transmission
to the air of vibrations in the soil. To produce sound-waves in the air,
the ground must vibrate like a drumhead. Hence no sound will be heard
when the oscillations are horizontal.

The velocity of propagation of an earthquake is very variable. Thus in
the case of the earthquake of Lisbon in 1755, it seems to have
considerably exceeded one thousand feet per second, while in the Lisbon
earthquake of 1761 the rate was three times greater. At Tokio, in 1881,
the velocity, as estimated by Professor Milne, varied between four
thousand feet and nine thousand feet per second.

DEPTH OF EARTHQUAKES. Various attempts have been made to estimate the
depth at which earthquakes originate. Mallet was of opinion that the
centrum of the Neapolitan earthquake of 1857 was probably five and
one-half miles from the surface. The same eminent physicist thought that
an earthquake centrum probably never exceeded a depth of thirty
geographical miles. According to Professor Milne, the angles of
emergence of the earth-waves obtained during the Yokohama earthquake of
1880 showed that the depth of origin of that earthquake might be between
one and one-half and five miles; and he gives a table, compiled from the
writings of various observers, which exhibits the mean depths at which
certain earthquakes have originated. These estimated depths range from
17,260 feet to 127,309 feet.

The area disturbed by an earthquake is generally proportionate to the
intensity of the shock. The great earthquake of Lisbon disturbed an
area four times as great as the whole of Europe. In the form of tremors
and pulsations, Mr. Milne remarks, it may have shaken the whole globe.

In a violent submarine earthquake the ordinary earth-wave and sound-wave
are accompanied by sea-waves. These waves may be twenty, sixty or even
eighty feet higher than the highest tide, and are usually more dreaded
than the earthquake shock itself in such regions as the maritime
districts of South America. The greatest sea-wave on record is that
which in 1737, is said to have broken near Cape Lopatka, at the south
end of Kamchatka, two hundred and ten feet in height.


  79. One accompanied by the eruption of Vesuvius; the cities of
  Pompeii and Herculaneum buried.

  742. Awful one in Syria, Palestine, and Asia; more than 500 towns
  were destroyed and the loss of life surpassed all calculations.

  936. Constantinople overturned; all Greece shaken.

  1137. Catania, in Sicily, overturned, and 15,000 persons buried in
  the ruins.

  1186. At Calabria; one of its cities and all its inhabitants
  overwhelmed in the Adriatic Sea.

  1456. At Naples, 40,000 persons perished.

  1537. At Lisbon; 1,500 houses and 30,000 persons buried in the
  ruins; several neighboring towns ingulfed with their inhabitants.

  1596. In Japan; several cities made ruins, and thousands perished.

  1662. One in China, when 300,000 persons were buried in Pekin alone.

  1693. One in Sicily, which overturned fifty-four cities and towns,
  and 300 villages. Of Catania and its 18,000 inhabitants not a trace
  remained; more than 100,000 lives were lost.

  1726. Palermo nearly destroyed; 6,000 lives lost.

  1731. Again in China; and 100,000 people swallowed up at Pekin.

  1746. Lima and Callao demolished; 18,000 persons buried in the

  1754. At Grand Cairo; half of the houses and 40,000 persons
  swallowed up.

  1755. Quito destroyed.

  1755. Great earthquake at Lisbon. In about eight minutes most of the
  houses and upward of 50,000 inhabitants were swallowed up, and whole
  streets buried. The cities of Coimbra, Oporto, and Braga suffered
  dreadfully, and St. Ubes was wholly overturned. In Spain, a large
  part of Malaga became ruins. One-half of Fez, in Morocco, was
  destroyed, and more than 12,000 Arabs perished there. About half of
  the Island of Madeira became waste; and 2,000 houses in the Island
  of Mytilene, in the Archipelago, were overthrown. This awful
  earthquake extended 5,000 miles; even to Scotland.

  1759. In Syria, extended over 10,000 square miles; Baalbec

  1783. Messina and other towns in Italy and Sicily overthrown; 40,000
  persons perished.

  1797. The whole country between Santa Fe and Panama destroyed,
  including Cusco and Quito, 40,000 people buried.

  1840. Awful and destructive earthquake at Mount Ararat, in one of
  the districts of Armenia; 3,137 houses were overthrown, and several
  hundred persons perished.

  1842. At Cape Haytien, St. Domingo, which destroyed nearly
  two-thirds of the town; between 4,000 and 5,000 lives were lost.

  1851. In South Italy; Melfi almost laid in ruins; 14,000 lives lost.

  1852. At Philippine Isles; Manila nearly destroyed.

  1853. Thebes, in Greece, nearly destroyed.

  1854. St. Salvador, South America, destroyed.

  1854. Amasca, in Japan, and Simoda, in Nippon, destroyed; Jeddo much

  1855. Broussa, in Turkey, nearly destroyed.

  1857. In Calabria, Montemurro and many other towns destroyed, and
  about 22,000 lives lost in a few seconds.

  1858. Corinth nearly destroyed.

  1859. At Quito; about 5,000 persons killed, and an immense amount of
  property destroyed.

  1868. Cities of Arequipa, Iquique, Tacna, and Chincha, and many
  small towns in Peru and Ecuador destroyed; about 25,000 perished.

  1883. Krakatoa island, between Sumatra and Java, East Indies, was
  the scene of a series of volcanic discharges in May to August, 1883,
  constituting the most tremendous eruption known to history. A cubic
  mile of rock material was hurled into the air, and the explosions
  were heard 150 miles away. Violent atmospheric disturbances and
  gigantic sea-waves, the latter causing great loss of life, estimated
  at more than 30,000. As a result of the explosion, the north part of
  the island, including its highest peak, altogether disappeared.

  1886. Shocks throughout eastern United States; at Charleston, S. C,
  41 lives and $5,000,000 worth of property lost.

  1893. Islands of Zante and Stromboli, the former west of Greece, the
  latter one of the Lipari group, west of Calabria, Italy, severely
  shaken. Great loss of lives and property at Zante.

  1906. Severe shocks in California wrecked San Francisco and adjacent
  towns, and caused the greatest fire in history, lasting two days.
  Great loss of life, and $300,000,000 of property destroyed; over
  300,000 homeless. Stanford University buildings were damaged to the
  extent of $2,800,000, including the fine Memorial Church.

  1906. At Valparaiso, Chile, causing great destruction of life and

  1907. Large part of Kingston, Jamaica, destroyed.

  1909. In Sicily and southern Italy, Messina and many towns and
  villages desolated. Appalling loss of life; thousands buried alive;
  the survivors homeless; one of the greatest earthquakes of modern
  times if not of all time.


Geysers are eruptive hot springs found chiefly in volcanic districts,
but particularly in the Yellowstone Park, Iceland, New Zealand, Tibet
and the Azores. At intervals these fountains of hot water and steam
sometimes rise to a height of two hundred feet. The eruptions occur at
intervals varying from every hour to once a day.

All the geyser waters hold in solution a considerable quantity of
silica. The highly heated water decomposes the felspar and other
volcanic rocks, and becoming slightly alkaline with the soda or potash
these contain, it is enabled to form a silicious solution. The silica
taken up is deposited again round the mouth of the orifice. Minute
plants termed algæ are known to live in the hot water, and to aid in
throwing down the silica from solution to form the sinter deposits.

The cause of the periodical eruptions is probably to be found in the
gradual increase of heat with the depth of the tube. In the middle and
lower parts the temperature is far above the boiling-point (212° F.) at
the ordinary pressure. But at last the lower portion rises to a position
where the temperature is above the boiling-point at the pressure it
there sustains, and then, flashing into steam, it hurls the column above
into the air. After playing for a few minutes the water falls back into
the basin, and remains quiet for a time.


The geysers of the Yellowstone region are probably the most picturesque
and wonderful in the world. On the Firehole River alone there are
probably fifty geysers, throwing columns of water to a height of from
fifty to two hundred feet, while smaller jets rise occasionally to two
hundred and fifty feet. The “Old Faithful” geyser, in this region,
throws up a column of water six feet in diameter to a height of one
hundred to one hundred and fifty feet, at intervals of about an hour.
Near the north entrance to the National Park, also, are the hot springs
of the Gardiner River; here the “White Mountain,” built up of terraces
of white calcareous deposits, rises to a considerable height, with a
diameter of one hundred and fifty yards at the top.

The geysers of Iceland are situated within sight of Mount Hekla and are
the hottest springs in Europe. The principal geysers of this region are
known as the “Great Geyser” or “Roarer,” and the “Stroker” or “Churn.”

The geysers of New Zealand attained celebrity chiefly on account of the
beautiful terraces associated with them. Unfortunately, volcanic
activity manifested itself throughout the region in 1886, resulting in
the destruction of the terraces. The basins connected with these
geysers, catching the overflow of water, are, like those of Yellowstone
region, largely used by bathers, and are much resorted to by invalids.

The three localities mentioned are where geysers attain their highest
development; but they also exist in many volcanic regions notably in
Japan, South America, and the Malay Archipelago.


The circulation of the waters of the earth is just as marvellous as that
of the blood in the human body. First, it is drawn up from the sea by
the sun and rises as vapor; the cool air condenses it first into cloud
and then rain or snow; it runs together, forming springs and waterfalls
and rivers; and finally it finds its way to the sea, where again the
never-ending journey begins.]



The underground lake in its magnificent setting of dazzling stone
columns and stalactites in the Cheddar Caves, England. All these
wonderful natural halls, chasms and snowy incrustations were formed by
the age-long action of the water on the limestone rocks through which it

Water is found in Nature in three states or conditions--as ice, vapor or
steam, and as simple water. These three forms have the same chemical
composition--the substance being a compound of oxygen and hydrogen,
represented by the formula H₂O; but the physical condition depends
entirely on its temperature. Under ordinary atmospheric conditions water
is a _solid_ below 32 degrees Fahrenheit; a _gas_ above 212 degrees
Fahrenheit, and a _liquid_ between these temperatures.

The purest form of water which exists in nature is rain water, though
this always contains a little oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolved from
the air. To obtain pure water artificially, any ordinary water is
distilled, when all the solids dissolved in it are left behind. River
water and spring water always contain a small quantity of solid matter,
the amount and nature of the dissolved solids depending on the nature of
the rocks over which the water has flowed.

Geographically it may be considered under the four heads of _springs_,
_rivers_, _lakes_, and the _ocean_, which taken together forms the
_hydrosphere_ of the earth.


SPRINGS, or the natural fountains of water, take their rise from
reservoirs stored under ground. Water maintains a level, and hence the
height to which a spring will rise depends on that of the level from
which it is supplied. If the internal reservoir be on a hill, and the
spring should gush out in a valley, the water may rise to a considerable
height and form a natural fountain; but, on the other hand, if the
reservoir be at some depth below the surface, the water may never reach
the surface, and mechanical aid may be required to obtain it.

These internal reservoirs are in a great measure supplied by moisture
derived from rain, snow, mist, and dew. The atmospheric water enters the
earth through porous rocks, or by means of fissures, and continues to
sink until arrested in its progress by rocks, such as clay, which will
not permit the water to pass, or by faults which check it from
spreading. The waters will then gush forth as a spring, of greater or
less size, according to the supplies it may have received.


All springs contain a certain portion of air and gas, and also some
solid matter, usually in the form of salts. When these salts are
abundant, mineral springs are the result, which may be classified
according to the character of their several properties, as acidulous,
chalybeate, sulphurous, saline, calcareous, and silicious.

  Acidulous or acid springs are those surcharged with carbonic acid

  Chalybeate springs are those in which iron, in the form of carbonate
  or sulphate, is held in solution.

  Sulphur, in the form of sulphureted hydrogen or sulphate of lime, is
  the distinguishing ingredient in Sulphurous springs.

  Saline springs are of two kinds--brine and medicinal; brine when
  containing a greater or less amount of chloride of sodium or common
  salt, and medicinal when containing other salts, as sulphate of
  soda, etc.

  Calcareous springs are those highly charged with the salts of lime,
  and which have the property of petrifying substances placed within
  their reach, and also of depositing their contents, forming the
  stalactites and stalagmites of caverns, etc.

  Silicious springs are so called from holding silica or flint in
  solution. The last-named are all hot or thermal as well as mineral
  springs, deriving their heat either from the natural heat of the
  earth at great depths, or from volcanic action. When occurring near
  volcanoes, they are frequently charged with bitumen, petroleum,
  naptha, asphaltum, etc.


An important class of artificial springs or wells is known as Artesian
Wells. Where bent pervious beds of rock lie between two bent impervious
beds, so as to make a basin-shaped depression, lower in the middle than
at the edges, the rain which sinks into the pervious rock where it
reaches the surface will begin to gather in the central part of the
porous rock as in a reservoir.

If a hole be now bored in the hollow of the upper impervious bed till it
reaches the water-bearing stratum, the water will flow out at the top.
The water thus obtained may have fallen a distance of many miles several
months previously, and if the gathering-ground be high the issue at the
well may be forced by the pressure of the water behind to a considerable


Rivers have their sources from springs or from the melting of
accumulations of snow. They do not, however, receive their largest
supplies from the actual summits of mountains, for copious springs are
rarely met with in such situations, nor are glaciers formed on the
highest points of mountains, but more usually on slopes of the upper
mountain valleys. It is, accordingly, in the latter localities that many
of the largest rivers take their rise.

WATERSHED. It not unfrequently happens that several rivers take their
rise in one mountain ridge, some flowing in one direction, and others
taking an opposite course. Such a ridge is termed a _watershed_. Thus
the Rhine, the Rhone, and the Danube all take their rise in the Alps,
the first discharging itself into the North Sea, the second into the
Mediterranean Sea, and the last into the Black Sea.

BASIN. The portion of country drained by a river and its tributary
streams is called its _basin_, from its catching the rains which fall
within its circuit, and which the river carries to the sea. The largest
river-basin in Europe is that of the Volga, in Asia, that of the Ganges,
in Africa that of the Nile, in North America that of the Mississippi,
and in South America that of the Amazon.


  |                             |=Length|                |  =Area of   |
  |          =RIVER=            |  in   | =Emptying Into=| Drainage in |
  |                             |Miles= |                |Square Miles,|
  |                             |       |                |    etc.=    |
  |Mississippi-Missouri (United | 4,330 |Gulf of Mexico  |  1,245,000  |
  |States)                      |       |                |             |
  |Nile (Egypt)                 | 3,500 |Mediterranean   |  1,050,000  |
  |Amazon (Brazil): the only    | 3,300 |At Ocean on the |  2,700,000  |
  |large river with direct      |       |Equator         |             |
  |latitudinal course           |       |                |             |
  |Yangtze-Kiang (China)        | 3,000 |Yellow Sea      |    548,000  |
  |Congo (Central Africa)       | 2,900 |Atlantic Ocean  |  1,430,000  |
  |Lena (Russia in Asia)        | 2,800 |Arctic Ocean    |    856,000  |
  |Amur (Russia in Asia)        | 2,800 |Gulf of Saghalin|    772,000  |
  |Mekong (Indo-China)          | 2,800 |China Sea       |   Nav. 200  |
  |                             |       |                |     miles   |
  |Yenisei (Russia in Asia)     | 2,700 |Bay of Yenisei  |  1,000,000  |
  |Niger (West Africa)          | 2,600 |Atlantic Ocean  |    808,000  |
  |Hoangho (China)              | 2,500 |Gulf of         |    376,400  |
  |                             |       |Pe-Chi-Li       |             |
  |Obi (Russia in Asia)         | 2,300 |Gulf of Obi     |  1,125,000  |
  |Plata-Parana (Argentina and  | 2,300 |Atlantic Ocean  |  2,300,000  |
  |Brazil)                      |       |                |             |
  |Mackenzie (Canada)           | 2,300 |Arctic Ocean    |    676,000  |
  |Volga (Russia in Europe)     | 2,200 |Caspian Sea     |    560,000  |
  |St. Lawrence (United States  | 2,200 |Gulf of St.     |    500,000  |
  |and Canada)                  |       |Lawrence        |             |
  |Yukon (Alaska)               | 2,200 |Behring Sea     |    500,000  |
  |Indus (India)                | 2,000 |Arabian Sea     |    373,000  |
  |Sao Francisco (Brazil)       | 1,800 |Atlantic Ocean  |    249,000  |
  |Sir Daria (Turkestan)        | 1,800 |Sea of Aral     |    175,000  |
  |Brahmaputra or Burrampooter  | 1,800 |Bay of Bengal   |   Nav. 800  |
  |(India)                      |       |                |     miles   |
  |Rio Grande del Norte (U. S.  | 1,800 |Gulf of Mexico  |    240,000  |
  |and Mexico)                  |       |                |             |
  |Danube (Austria-Hungary)     | 1,780 |Black Sea       |    311,000  |
  |Saskatchewan-Nelson (Canada) | 1,732 |Hudson Bay      |    730,000  |
  |Euphrates (Turkey in Asia)   | 1,700 |Persian Gulf    |    260,000  |
  |Zambesi (East Africa)        | 1,600 |Indian Ocean    |    800,000  |
  |Ural (Russia in Europe)      | 1,500 |Caspian Sea     |     85,000  |
  |Arkansas (United States)     | 1,500 |Mississippi     |    181,000  |
  |                             |       |River           |             |
  |Orinoco (Colombia and        | 1,500 |Atlantic Ocean  |    364,000  |
  |Venezuela)                   |       |                |             |
  |Ganges (India)               | 1,500 |Bay of Bengal   |    409,000  |
  |Amu (Turkestan)              | 1,400 |Sea of Aral     |    174,000  |
  |Columbia (United States)     | 1,400 |Pacific Ocean   |    260,000  |
  |Dnieper (Russia in Europe)   | 1,400 |Black Sea       |    203,000  |
  |Murray (Australia)           | 1,400 |Indian Ocean    |    351,000  |
  |Don (Russia in Europe)       | 1,300 |Sea of Azov     |    166,000  |
  |Orange (S. W. Africa)        | 1,200 |Atlantic Ocean  |    370,000  |
  |Irawaddy (East India)        | 1,200 |Indian Ocean    |   Nav. 800  |
  |                             |       |                |     miles   |
  |Colorado (United States)     | 1,100 |Gulf of         |    250,000  |
  |                             |       |California      |             |
  |Senegal (West Africa)        | 1,100 |Atlantic Ocean  |    270,000  |
  |Tigris (Turkey in Asia)      | 1,000 |Euphrates and   |Nav. general-|
  |                             |       |Persian Gulf    |ly for small |
  |                             |       |                |    boats    |
  |Ohio (United States)         |   970 |Mississippi     |    201,000  |
  |                             |       |River           |             |
  |Churchill (Canada)           |   900 |Hudson Bay      |   Nav. by   |
  |                             |       |                |   canoes    |
  |Magdalena (Colombia)         |   840 |Caribbean Sea   |   Nav. 600  |
  |                             |       |                |    miles    |
  |Rhine (Germany)              |   800 |North Sea       |     76,000  |
  |Cambia (West Africa)         |   750 |Atlantic Ocean  |   Nav. 300  |
  |                             |       |                |     miles   |
  |Elbe (Germany)               |   720 |North Sea       |     57,000  |
  |Fraser (British Columbia)    |   650 |Gulf of Georgia |Nav. general-|
  |                             |       |                |ly for small |
  |                             |       |                |    boats    |
  |Vistula (Germany, Poland)    |   600 |Baltic Sea      |    120,000  |
  |Sacramento (United States)   |   600 |Pacific Ocean   |   Nav. 300  |
  |                             |       |                |    miles    |
  |Tagus (Portugal)             |   570 |Atlantic Ocean  |     32,000  |
  |Paranahiba (Brazil)          |   530 |Atlantic Ocean  |   Nav. 400  |
  |                             |       |                |    miles    |
  |Guadiana (Spain)             |   510 |Mediterranean   |     32,000  |
  |                             |       |Sea             |             |
  |Rhone (France)               |   500 |Gulf of Lyons   |     38,000  |
  |Seine (France)               |   480 |English Channel |     30,000  |
  |Ebro (Spain)                 |   470 |Mediterranean   |     32,000  |
  |                             |       |Sea             |             |
  |Susquehanna (United States)  |   450 |Chesapeake Bay  |      Not    |
  |                             |       |                |  navigable  |
  |Potomac (United States)      |   450 |Chesapeake Bay  |   Nav. to   |
  |                             |       |                | Washington, |
  |                             |       |                |    D. C.    |
  |Oder (Germany)               |   440 |Baltic Sea      |     43,000  |
  |Po (Italy)                   |   420 |Adriatic Sea    |     29,000  |
  |Garonne (France)             |   380 |Bay of Biscay   |     33,000  |
  |Hudson (United States)       |   350 |New York Bay    |Nav. to Troy;|
  |                             |       |                |  150 miles  |
  |Loire (France)               |   200 |Bay of Biscay   |     25,000  |
  |Thames (England)             |   200 |North Sea       |      5,250  |

DELTAS AND ESTUARIES. Owing to local peculiarities at the mouths of
rivers, accumulations of sedimentary matter take place in the middle of
the stream, dividing it into two or more branches. By these depositions
_deltas_ (so called from the Greek letter (Δ) delta) are formed--many of
them, as those of the Mississippi and Orinoco and of the Rhine and the
Ganges, being of great extent. Some rivers fall into the ocean through
_estuaries_ or wide channels, and are subject to a great swell or sudden
rise of the waters when the tide enters.


=FIRST: Showing the comparative length of the rivers; where and how they
take their rise; where and how they empty; their chief branches and
connected lakes; and the principal cities located on their banks.=

=SECOND: Comparative height of mountains, arranged in groups by
continents, showing the relative height of both mountains and
continents. See next page for LOCATION and HEIGHT IN FEET of the various
mountain peaks.=]

Most rivers are subject to an occasional, and in some instances to a
periodical increase of volume. These seasons of flood are by no means
regular, being partly dependent on the melting of the snows, and partly
on occasional heavy falls of rain; and hence depend on the climatic
variations of the country in which rivers originate.


  NOTE: The numbers refer back to the Picture Diagrams on the
  preceding page.

                        =NORTH AMERICA=
  =Ref. =Name and Location=                              =Height
  No.=                                                  in Feet=
   A.  *Mount McKinley, Coast Range, Alaska               20,300
   1.   Orizaba, Cordillera, Mexico                       18,310
   2.   Mount St. Elias, Coast Range, Alaska              18,024
   3.   Popocatapetl, Cordillera, Mexico                  17,748
   4.   Mount Brown, Rocky Mountains, Canada              15,990
   5.   Mount Hooker, Rocky Mountains, Canada             15,700
   6.   Mount Fairweather, Coast Range, Alaska            14,750
   7.  *Mount Rainier, Coast Range, Washington            14,408
   8.  *Mount Whitney, Coast Range, California            14,501
   9.   Mount Elbert, Rocky Mountains, Colorado           14,402
  10.   Pike’s Peak, Rocky Mountains, Colorado            14,108
  11.  *Gannett Peak, Rocky Mountains, Wyoming            13,785
  12.   Fremont’s Peak, Rocky Mountains, Wyoming          13,570
  13.  *Kings Peak, Utah                                  13,498
  14.  *N. Truchas Peak, Rocky Mountains, New Mexico      13,306
  15.  *E. Peak, White Mountains, Nevada                  13,145
  16.  *Granite Peak, Rocky Mountains, Montana            12,850
  17.  *San Francisco Peak, Arizona                       12,611
  18.   Mount Assiniboine, Rocky Mts., Canada             11,860
  19.  *Mount Hood, Coast Range, Oregon                   11,225
  20.  *El Capitan, Texas                                  9,020
  21.   Mount Potrillo, Cuba                               9,000
  22.   Cibao Mountains, Hayti, West Indies                8,970
  23.  *Harvey Peak, South Dakota                          7,242
  24.   Sierra del Cobre, Cuba                             7,200
  25.  *Mount Mitchell, Allegheny Mts., N. C.              6,711
  26.  *Mount Guyot, Allegheny Mts., Tennessee             6,636
  27.   Black Mountain, Allegheny Mts., N. C.              6,476
  28.  *Mount Washington, White Mts., N. H.                6,293
  29.   Roan Mountain, Allegheny Mts., N. C.               6,038
  30.   Mount Adams, White Mts., N. H.                     5,963
  31.   Mount Jefferson, White Mts., N. H.                 5,725
  32.  *Mount Rogers, Blue Ridge, Virginia                 5,719
  33.   Mount Monroe, White Mts., N. H.                    5,390
  34.  *Banner Peak, Nebraska                              5,350
  35.  *Mount Marcy, Adirondacks, New York                 5,344
  36.  *Mount Katahdin, Maine                              5,273
  37.   Mount McIntyre, Adirondacks, New York              5,112
  38.   Mount Hecla, Iceland                               5,110
  39.   Mount Franklin, White Mts., N. H.                  5,050
  40.   Skylight, Adirondacks, New York                    4,920
  41.   Haystack, Adirondacks, New York                    4,918
  42.   Morne Garon, St. Vincent, West Indies              4,800
  43.  *Spruce Knob, West Virginia                         4,860
  44.  *Brasstown Bald, Georgia                            4,768
  45.  *Cimarron Peak, Oklahoma                            4,750
  46.   Mount Lafayette, White Mts., N. H.                 4,723
  47.   Mount Morris, Adirondacks, New York                4,576
  48.   Mount Pelée, Martinique                            4,300
  49.  *Mount Mansfield, Green Mts., Vermont               4,364
  50.   Otter Peak, Allegheny Mountains, Virginia          4,260
  51.  *Highlands (West Boundary), Kansas                  4,135
  52.  *Big Black Mountain, Kentucky                       4,100
  53.   Killington, Green Mountains, Vermont               4,100
  54.   Mount Seward, Adirondacks, New York                4,000
  55.   Table Mountain, Allegheny Mts., Virginia           4,000
  56.  *Bald Mountain, Allegheny Mts., Virginia            4,000
  57.   Mount Parnassus, Spitzbergen                       3,951
  58.   Round Top, Catskills, New York                     3,804
  59.   High Peak, Catskills, New York                     3,718
  60.   Mount Misery, St. Christopher, West Indies         3,712
  61.   Sierra de Luquillo, Porto Rico                     3,678
  62.   Mount Greylock, Taconic Mts., Mass.                3,505
  63.  *Monadnock, White Mts., New Hampshire               3,450
  64.  *Bowman Summit                                      3,500
  65.   Backbone Mountain, Maryland                        3,340
  66.  *Blue Knob, Allegheny Mts., Pennsylvania            3,136
  67.   Central Peak, Nevis, West Indies                   3,000
  68.  *Blue Mountain, Arkansas                            2,800
  69.   Kearsarge, White Mts., New Hampshire               2,460
  70.  *Cheaha Mountain, Alabama                           2,407
  71.  *Bear Mountain, Connecticut                         2,355
  72.  *Rib Hill, Wisconsin                                1,940
  73.  *Mesabi Range Minnesota                             1,920
  74.   High Point, New Jersey                             1,809
  75.   Pringhar, Iowa                                     1,800
  76.   Taun Sauk Mountain, Ozarks, Missouri               1,750
  77.  *Logan Summit, Ohio                                 1,550
  78.   West Point, Highlands, New York                    1,500
  79.   Storm King, Highlands, New York                    1,389
  80.  *Charles Mound, Illinois                            1,241
  81.   Carlos Summit, Indiana                             1,210
  82.   Mount Tom, Massachusetts                           1,200
  83.   Berkshire Hills, Massachusetts                     1,200
  84.   Anthony’s Nose, Highlands, New York                1,048
  85.   Mount Holyoke, Massachusetts                         830
  86.   Palisades of Hudson, New York and N. J.              500
  87.   Mount Hope, Rhode Island                             300
  88.   Bunker Hill, Massachusetts                            62
  * Greatest altitude in the state or territory.
   1.   Monte Blanc, France                               15,782
   2.   Monte Rosa, Italy                                 15,217
   3.   Weisshorn, Switzerland                            14,808
   4.   Matterhorn, or Cervin, Switzerland                14,780
   5.   Finsteraarhorn, Switzerland                       14,026
   6.   Breithorn, Switzerland                            13,685
   7.   Jungfrau, Switzerland                             13,671
   8.   Mönch, Switzerland                                13,465
   9.   Pic des Ecrins, France                            13,462
  10.   Shreckhorn, Switzerland                           13,385
  11.   Mount Paradis, France                             13,300
  12.   Otherspitze, Austria                              12,800
  13.   Gross Glockner, Austria                           12,776
  14.   Aiguille du Midi, France                          12,743
  15.   Monte Viso, France                                12,582
  16.   The Gallonstock, Switzerland                      12,481
  17.   Aiguille de Sassire, Sardinia                     12,346
  18.   Wetterhorn, Switzerland                           12,150
  19.   Mont Genevre, Sardinia                            11,785
  20.   Monto Gavio, Austria                              11,754
  21.   Cerro de Mulhacen, Spain                          11,605
  22.   Simplon, Switzerland                              11,541
  23.   Wisbach Horn, Austria                             11,518
  24.   La Mormelata, Austria                             11,508
  25.   Mont Cenis, France                                11,457
  26.   Mont Nethou, Spain                                11,427
  27.   Pic Blanc, France                                 11,190
  28.   Great St. Bernard, Switzerland                    11,080
  29.   Vignemale, France and Spain                       10,980
  30.   St. Gothard, Switzerland                          10,595
  31.   Mount Calm, France and Spain                      10,500
  32.   Pic Blanc, France and Spain                       10,205
  33.   Splugen, Switzerland and Austria                   9,981
  34.   Peak of Oo, France and Spain                       9,730
  35.   Pic du Midi, France                                9,650
  36.   Mount Etna, Island of Sicily                       9,652
  37.   The Thorstein, Austria                             9,630
  38.   Little St. Bernard, France                         9,591
  39.   Monte Corno, Italy                                 9,523
  40.   Canigon, France                                    9,137
  41.   Monte Rotondo, Island of Corsica                   9,065
  42.   Guiona, Greece                                     8,620
  43.   Lomnitzer Spitze, Austria                          8,779
  44.   Rilo Dagh, Bulgaria                                8,300
  45.   Mount Parnassus, Greece                            8,000
  46.   Mount St. Elias, Greece                            7,946
  47.   Mount Ida, Crete                                   7,674
  48.   Col de Ferret, Switzerland                         7,641
  49.   Mount Dinara, Austria-Hungary                      7,458
  50.   Monte Cimone, Italy                                7,083
  51.   Mount Kleck, Austria-Hungary                       6,926
  52.   Pisanino, Italy                                    6,723
  53.   Pizzo di Casi, Sicily                              6,509
  54.   Oraefa Yokul, Iceland                              6,420
  55.   Kissovo, Bulgaria                                  6,407
  56.   Genargentu Peak, Sardinia Island                   6,290
  57.   Mount D’or, France                                 6,188
  58.   Mount Pierus, Bulgaria                             6,161
  59.   P. de Cantal, France                               6,093
  60.   Sulitelma, Sweden and Norway                       5,956
  61.   Monte Amiata, Tuscany                              5,792
  62.   Recullet de Toiry, Switzerland                     5,643
  63.   La Dole, Switzerland                               5,509
  64.   Black Mountain, Island of Cephalonia, Greece       5,356
  65.   Zagora, Bulgaria                                   5,310
  66.   St. Angelo, Lipari Island, Sicily                  5,260
  67.   Schneekoppe, Germany                               5,253
  68.   Feugari, Samothraki Island, Turkey                 5,248
  69.   Feldberg, Black Forest, Germany                    4,900
  70.   Puy de Dome, France                                4,846
  71.   Ballon de Alsace, France                           4,688
  72.   Monte Alto, Italy                                  4,380
  73.   Hohenstein, Austria                                4,284
  74.   Brokfeld, Norway                                   4,188
  75.   Mount Delphi, Island of Negropont, Greece          4,156
  76.   Kielburg, Erz Gebirge, Germany                     4,074
  77.   Montserrat, Spain                                  4,054
  78.   Vesuvius, Italy                                    4,260
  79.   Brocken, Harz Mountains, Germany                   3,740
  80.   Ispario, Thasos Island, Greece                     3,428
  81.   Great Beerberg, Thuringerwald, Germany             3,265
  82.   Summit, Norway                                     3,200
  83.   Great Feldsberg, Germany                           2,886
  84.   Stromboli, Lipari Island, Sicily                   3,090
  85.   Mount Delphi, Skopela Island, Greece               2,295
  86.   Tonnere, France                                    2,225
  87.   Mount St. Oreste, Italy                            2,140
  88.   Peak, Island of Corfu, Greece                      1,900
  89.   Kastri, Island of Thasos, Greece                   1,565
  90.   Gibraltar, Spain                                   1,437
  91.   Valdai Hills, Russia                               1,200
  92.   North Cape, Island of Mageroe, Norway              1,161
  93.   Himmelsberg, Plateau of Denmark, Denmark             928
  94.   Montmartre, Paris, France                            400
  95.   Observatory, Paris, France                           240
  96.   Heligoland Island, North Sea, Germany                230
                        =BRITISH ISLES=
   1.   Greenwich Observatory, Kent, England                 214
   2.   Holyhead, Island of Anglesea, Wales                  709
   3.   Carraton, Cornwall, England                        1,208
   4.   Penmaen Maur, Wales                                1,540
   5.   Axedge, Derby, England                             1,750
   6.   Pendlehill, Lancashire, England                    1,803
   7.   Holmernoss, Derby, England                         1,859
   8.   Ingleborough, Yorkshire, England                   2,361
   9.   Whernside, Yorkshire, England                      2,384
  10.   Plinlimmon, Cardiganshire, Wales                   2,463
  11.   Cradle Mountain, Brecknockshire, Wales             2,545
  12.   Coniston Fell, Westmoreland, England               2,577
  13.   Caermarthen Vau, Caermarthenshire, Wales           2,596
  14.   Cheviot, Northumberland, England                   2,684
  15.   Grassmere Fell, Cumberland, England                2,756
  16.   Cross Fell, Cumberland, England                    2,909
  17.   Bow Fell, Cumberland, England                      2,911
  18.   Cader Idris, Merionethshire, Wales                 2,914
  19.   Arran Mowdwy, Merionethshire, Wales                2,955
  20.   Skiddaw, Cumberland, England                       3,022
  21.   Helvellyn, Cumberland, England                     3,313
  22.   Carnedd Llewellyn, Caernarvon, Wales               3,471
  23.   Snowdon, Caernarvon, Wales                         3,571
  24.   Cairn Gorm, Invernesshire, Scotland                4,095
  25.   Ben Macdui, Aberdeenshire, Scotland                4,305
  26.   Ben Nevis, Inverness, Scotland                     4,368
  27.   Cairntoul, Aberdeenshire, Scotland                 4,245
  28.   Ben Lawers, Perthshire, Scotland                   3,945
  29.   Ben More, Perthshire, Scotland                     2,944
  30.   Ben Gloe, Perthshire, Scotland                     3,690
  31.   Ben Cruachan, Argyleshire, Scotland                3,669
  32.   Ben Deirg, Perthshire, Scotland                    3,550
  33.   Schehallien, Perthshire, Scotland                  3,514
  34.   Macgillicuddy Reeks, Kerry, Ireland                3,404
  35.   Scarscoch, Aberdeenshire, Scotland                 3,402
  36.   Ben Gurdy, Perthshire, Scotland                    3,364
  37.   Ben More, Sutherlandshire, Scotland                3,231
  38.   Ben Lomond, Stirlingshire, Scotland                3,180
  39.   Ben Voirlich, Perthshire, Scotland                 3,055
  40.   Lunaquilla, Wicklow, Ireland                       3,039
  41.   Galtee Mountains, Tipperary, Ireland               3,008
  42.   Slatterwind, Stromoe, Faroe Islands                2,998
  43.   Black Larg, Ayrshire, Scotland                     2,890
  44.   Goat Fell, Island of Arran, Scotland               2,865
  45.   Ben Ledi, Perthshire, Scotland                     2,863
  46.   The Cobbler, Argyleshire, Scotland                 2,863
  47.   Slievedonard, Ulster, Ireland                      2,796
  48.   Broad Law, Peeblesshire, Scotland                  2,741
  49.   Ben Wyvis, Rosshire, Scotland                      2,720
  50.   Hart Fell, Dunfriesshire, Scotland                 2,635
  51.   Mount Battock, Kincardineshire, Scotland           2,600
  52.   Lowther Hill, Lanarkshire, Scotland                2,522
  53.   Kippure, Leinster, Ireland                         2,473
  54.   Paps of Jura, Argyleshire, Scotland                2,470
  55.   Slievenaman, Tipperary, Ireland                    2,362
  56.   The Paps, Kerry, Ireland                           2,280
  57.   Snaefell, Isle of Man, Great Britain               2,004
  58.   Campsie Hills, Stirlingshire, Scotland             1,850
  59.   Achil Head, Mayo, Ireland                          1,800
  60.   Pentland Hills, Scotland                           1,700
  61.   Peak, Hoy Island, Orkney Group                     1,569
  62.   Eildon Hills, Roxburgshire, Scotland               1,364
  63.   Ailsa Craig, Firth of Clyde, Scotland              1,139
  64.   Dunnose, Isle of Wight, England                      792
  65.   Salisbury Craigs, Mid Lothian, Scotland              550
  66.   Hill of Howth, Dublin, Ireland                       549
  67.   Edinburg Castle, Mid Lothian, Scotland               434
  68.   Bass Rock, Firth of Forth, Scotland                  400
  69.   St. Paul’s, London, England                          404
                  =ASIA AND PACIFIC ISLANDS=
   A.   Mount Everest, India-China                        29,002
   1.   Godwin-Austin, India-China                        28,278
   2.   Dapsang, Tibet                                    28,273
   3.   Kanchanjanga, India-China                         28,156
   4.   Nanga-Parbat, India                               26,629
   5.   Dhawalaghiri, India                               26,286
   6.   Nanda-Devi, India                                 25,661
   7.   Bride Peak, India                                 25,100
   8.   Chumolhari, India                                 23,933
   9.   Kaufmann, Turkestan                               23,000
  10.   Cantas, India-China                               22,500
  11.   St. Patrick, India-China                          22,385
  12.   St. George, India-China                           22,240
  13.   Gemini, India-China                               21,600
  14.   Bunderpooch, India-China                          21,155
  15.   Pyramid, India-China                              20,966
  16.   Peak, Hindu Kush, Afghanistan                     20,230
  17.   Bunderpooch 2d, India                             20,122
  18.   Mount Elburz, Russian Empire                      18,526
  19.   Mount Ararat, Asia Minor                          17,160
  20.   Mount Kasbeck, Russian Empire                     16,592
  21.   Kliontsheoskoi, Kamtschatka                       16,512
  22.   Kassoumba, Sumatra, Malaysia                      15,000
  23.   Australian Alps, Australia                        15,000
  24.   Demavend, Persia                                  18,500
  25.   Mouna Kea, Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands               13,953
  26.   Mount Ophir, Sumatra, Malaysia                    13,842
  27.   Mouna Loa, Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands               13,600
  28.   Arjish Dagh, Asia Minor                           13,100
  29.   Sevellan, Persia                                  13,000
  30.   Gunong Dempu, Sumatra, Malaysia                   12,465
   A.   Mount Erebus, Victoria Land, Antarctic Continent  12,400
  31.   Peak, Formosa, Japan                              12,000
   B.   Mount Terror, Victoria Land, Antarctic Continent  11,500
  32.   Koriatskaia, Kamtschatka                          11,215
  33.   Mount Lebanon, Syria                              11,050
  34.   Mount Bielucha, Russian Empire                    11,063
  35.   Peak, Otaheite, Polynesia                         10,895
  36.   Italitskui, Russian Empire                        10,735
  37.   Kriontskaia, Kamtschatka                          10,625
  38.   Shivelutsh, Kamtschatka                           10,591
  39.   Haleakala, Maui, Hawaiian Islands                 10,200
  40.   Murtchurti Bet, India                             10,070
  41.   Mount Olympus, Asia Minor                          9,100
  42.   Mount Egmont, New Zealand                          8,839
  43.   Arvatskaa, Kamtschatka                             8,760
  44.   Dodabetta, India                                   8,760
  45.   Mount St. Catherine, Arabia                        8,593
  46.   Mount Sinai, Arabia                                8,300
  47.   Pedro-talla-galla, Ceylon                          8,326
  48.   Melin, China                                       8,200
  49.   Kirrigal Pota, Ceylon                              7,810
  50.   Totta Rella, Ceylon                                7,720
  51.   Peak of Yeddo, Japan                               7,680
  52.   Adams’ Peak, Ceylon                                7,420
  53.   Mount Serbal, Arabia                               6,760
  54.   Quelpaert, Quelpaert Island                        6,400
  55.   Sea View Hill, Australia                           6,300
  56.   Taddiamdamala, India                               6,055
  57.   Subramain, India                                   5,560
  58.   Jebel, Akral, Arabia                               5,318
  59.   Abu, India                                         5,100
  60.   Mount Ida, Asia Minor                              4,960
  61.   Peak of Teneriffe, Tasmania                        4,500
  62.   Mount Williams, Australia                          4,500
  63.   Corean Mountains, Japan                            4,480
  64.   Baskirian Urals, Russian Empire                    4,400
  65.   Ben Lomond, Tasmania                               4,200
  66.   Mount Wellington, Tasmania                         3,795
  67.   Forest Hill Peak, Australia                        3,776
  68.   Quamby’s Bluff, Tasmania                           3,500
  69.   Karnalighur, India                                 3,203
  70.   Mount York, Australia                              3,192
  71.   Mount Exmouth, Australia                           3,000
  72.   Mount Cole, Australia                              3,000
  73.   Mount Field, Tasmania                              3,000
  74.   Peak, St. Paul’s Island, Indian Ocean              2,760
  75.   Sugar Loaf, Peak, Australia                        2,527
  76.   St. Paul’s Dome, Tasmania                          2,500
  77.   Mount Carmel, Palestine, Syria                     2,250
  78.   Mount Tabor, Palestine, Syria                      2,053
  79.   Bathurst Heights, Australia                        1,970
   1.   Kilimanjaro, East Africa                          19,780
   2.   Kibo Peak, German East Africa                     19,320
   3.   Mount Kenia, British Africa                       17,200
   4.   Mount Stanley, Central Africa                     16,800
   5.   Abba Yared, Abyssinia                             15,200
   6.   Bushad, Abyssinia, Central Africa                 14,364
   7.   Mongo-ma-Lobah, Central Africa                    13,760
   8.   Peak of Teneriffe, Canary Islands                 12,000
   9.   Mount Miltsen, North Africa                       11,400
  10.   Clarence Peak, Fernando Po Island, Gulf of Guinea 10,655
  11.   Pic Nieges, Bourbon Island, Indian Ocean          10,355
  12.   Spitz-Kop, South Africa                           10,240
  13.   Mount Alantika, Central Africa                     9,000
  14.   Tarami, Abyssinia                                  8,643
  15.   Peak, Tristan de’Acunha Island, Atlantic Ocean     8,236
  16.   Peak of Pico, Azores, Atlantic Ocean               7,013
  17.   Volcano Fogo, Cape de Verd Islands, Atlantic Ocean 7,884
  18.   El Cumbre, Canary Islands, Atlantic Ocean          6,648
  19.   Jebel Akhal, East Africa                           6,500
  20.   Pico Ruivo, Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean         6,056
  21.   Mount Dogen, Central Africa                        5,000
  22.   Table Mountain, South Africa                       3,582
  23.   Devil’s Peak, South Africa                         3,315
  24.   Green Mountain, Ascension Island, Atlantic Ocean   2,868
  25.   Mount Tekut, North Africa                          2,800
  26.   Diana’s Peak, St. Helena, Atlantic Ocean           2,692
  27.   Lion’s Head, South Africa                          2,166
  28.   Cape, Cape Colony, South Africa                    1,000
  29.   Pyramid of Cheops, Egypt                             479
  30.   Pyramid of Chephren, Egypt                           456
                         =SOUTH AMERICA=
   1.   Aconcagua, Chile                                  23,080
   2.   Sorata or Illampu, Bolivia                        23,000
   3.   Mercedario, Argentina                             22,312
   4.   Illimani, Bolivia                                 22,200
   5.   Tupungato, Chile                                  21,550
   6.   Condor, Argentina                                 21,128
   7.   Famatina, Argentina                               20,680
   8.   Salcantay, Peru                                   20,540
   9.   Chimborazo, Ecuador                               20,475
  10.   Antisana, Ecuador                                 19,184
  11.   Santa Morta, Colombia                             19,030
  12.   Tacora, Bolivia                                   19,000
  13.   Cotopaxi, Ecuador                                 18,880
  14.   Arequipa, Peru                                    18,370
  15.   Tolima, Colombia                                  18,069
  16.   Maispo, Chile                                     17,670
  17.   Peak of Cuzco, Peru                               17,525
  18.   Sangai, Ecuador                                   17,460
  19.   Ruiz, Colombia                                    17,388
  20.   Tunguraqua, Ecuador                               16,690
  21.   Cotocachi, Ecuador                                16,300
  22.   Cerro de Potosi, Bolivia                          16,037
  23.   Pichincha, Ecuador                                15,918
  24.   Roraima, Venezuela                                 8,740
  25.   Silla de Caracas, Venezuela                        8,632
  26.   Duida, Venezuela                                   8,467
  27.   Corcorada, Argentina                               7,510
  28.   Minchinmadiva, Argentina                           7,046
  29.   Mount Sarmiento, Tierra del Fuego                  7,000
  30.   Mount Darwin, Tierra del Fuego                     6,800
  31.   Guadarrama, Colombia                               6,400
  32.   Itambe, Brazil                                     5,960
  33.   Piedade, Brazil                                    5,820
  34.   Itacolumi, Brazil                                  5,750
  35.   Morro dos Canudos, Brazil                          4,476
  36.   Macarapan, Guayana                                 3,500
  37.   Cape Horn, Argentina                               1,870


Lakes are of different kinds. Some are mere tanks which receive the
first outpourings of springs, others consist of basins or reservoirs
which occur in the line of a river’s course; some consist of basins or
cavities, into which rivers flow, but which, on account of their
depression or their mountainous cincture have no outlets; lakes are also
formed in the craters of extinct volcanoes; and some lakes are periodic,
or subject to have their basins alternately empty and full of water.

MOUNTAIN LAKES, which are valleys or chasms filled by streams, are long
and narrow, rarely of extensive area, but often of great depth. Examples
of this class are found in Lakes Champlain and George, among the
Appalachian Mountains; Lakes Constance and Geneva, on the northern side
of the Alps; and Lake Maggiore and Lake Como, on the south side; all of
which are renowned for the loveliness of their shores, or the grandeur
of the surrounding mountain scenery.

Lake Maggiore, which is hardly three miles wide, is, according to
Italian engineers, 2,623 feet deep--more than double the depth of Lake
Superior--its basin reaching 1,936 feet below the sea level.

The forms of mountain lakes are very irregular, for the water often
covers several contiguous and connected valleys. This is the case in
Lake Como, which has two long arms; and Lakes Lucerne and Lugano, each
of which fills four distinct valleys, meeting one another nearly at
right angles.

LAKES IN PLAINS. The lake basins in plains and plateaus are, usually,
simple depressions in a comparatively uniform surface. The lakes are,
therefore, often of great size, broad in proportion to their length, but
of little depth compared with their area.

The largest lakes of the globe--the Caspian and Aral seas, and the great
North American and African lakes--and the largest in Europe and South
America, all belong to this class. Their vast expanse, together with the
tameness of their shores, deprives them of the picturesque beauty of
mountain lakes.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SALT LAKES. Numerous lakes in the interior of the
continents, though receiving affluents, have no outlet. Their waters are
chiefly lost by evaporation, though some portion may be absorbed by the
sandy soil.

The surfaces of the continents having been the beds of the primeval
oceans, the presence of salt in the soil is a natural consequence.

FAMOUS SALT LAKES. The Great Salt Lake of Utah, in the Great American
Basin, is one of the finest examples of its class. The Caspian and Aral
seas, at the bottom of the vast depression between Europe and Asia, are
the most extensive salt lakes. The former has about four times the area
of Lake Superior; and the latter is a little larger than Lake Michigan.

The Caspian, though receiving the Volga, the largest river of Europe,
evaporates so much water that its surface is about 83 feet lower than
that of the Mediterranean, varying with the seasons. Many lakes in its
neighborhood disappear entirely in the heat and drought of summer,
leaving their beds covered with a crust of pure white crystalline salt.

THE REMARKABLE DEAD SEA, in Syria, is a lake in which the salt has
accumulated until the water is converted into a heavy brine. It may be
the remnant of an ancient sea of much greater extent, which has been
gradually reduced in size by the excess of evaporation over the supply
of water in its basin.

This celebrated body of water lies in the deepest part of a long chasm
or valley, which is sunk not less than 4,000 feet below the level of
the surrounding country. The surface of the lake is 1,286 feet, and its
bottom 2,500 feet, below the level of the Mediterranean.

Its feeder, the river Jordan, flows almost throughout its entire course
below the level of the sea, the only known instance of the kind. The
beautiful lake of Tiberias, the scene of so many of the miracles of
Jesus, which is but an expansion of the Jordan in its upper course, is
about 650 feet below the surface of the Mediterranean.


Lakes are most numerous in the central and northern portions of Asia,
Europe and North America. The southern continents, except Africa, have
comparatively few.

ASIA is pre-eminently the continent of salt lakes. They occur in
countless numbers, both in the steppes north of the Caspian and Aral,
and in all the interior plateaus. Lakes of fresh water are also found
among the Altai Mountains and adjacent chains. Lake Baikal, one of
these, is the largest mountain lake known, being nearly 500 miles long.

EUROPE. The most characteristic and celebrated lakes are those which
adorn the Alps of Switzerland and Scandinavia, and the less lofty
mountain chains of the British Isles. But the largest lakes are found in
the low lands and slight swells which surround the Baltic Sea, in
western Russia and Sweden. Lakes Ladoga and Onega in Russia, and Wener
and Wetter in Sweden, are the largest in Europe.

NORTH AMERICA is peculiarly rich in great lakes. No continent presents a
more remarkable series than that which stretches from northwest to
southeast, through the central plains, along the line of contact of the
oldest geological formations of the continent. This series includes
Great Bear and Great Slave lakes, Athabasca and Winnipeg, and the five
great lakes of the St. Lawrence, with many of less area.

Innumerable small lakes are scattered throughout the middle portions of
the central plain, and the northern and less regular part of the
Appalachian mountain region; but south of the parallel of Lake Erie
there is an almost entire absence of lakes, whether large or small.

[Illustration: =Relative Size of Lakes of the Western Hemisphere=]


  |   =NAME=        |   =Location=  |=Area in|    =Mean Elevation   |
  |                 |               | Square |       in Feet=       |
  |                 |               | Miles= |                      |
  |Black Sea        |Asia and Europe| 170,000|Sea-level             |
  |Caspian Sea      |Asia           | 170,000|    90 below sea-level|
  |Sea of Aral      |Asia           | 26,160 |   157 above sea-level|
  |Balkash          |Asia           |   7,135|   779 above sea-level|
  |Maracaibo        |South America  |   6,315|     0 above sea-level|
  |Eyre             |Australia      |   3,600|    70 above sea-level|
  |Titicaca         |South America  |   3,200|12,506 above sea-level|
  |(slightly saline)|               |        |                      |
  |Issik-kul        |Asia           |   2,250| 5,300 above sea-level|
  |Great Salt Lake  |North America  |   2,177| 4,218 above sea-level|
  |Koko-nor         |Asia           |   2,040| 9,970 above sea-level|
  |Urumiah          |Asia           |   1,795| 4,100 above sea-level|
  |Van              |Asia           |   1,400| 5,200 above sea-level|
  |Dead Sea         |Asia           |     444| 1,290 below sea-level|
  |Ngami (nearly    |Africa         |     297| 2,919 above sea-level|
  |dried up)        |               |        |                      |

[Illustration: =Relative Size of Lakes of the Eastern Hemisphere=]


  |   =NAME=        |   =Location=  |=Area in|    =Mean Elevation   |
  |                 |               | Square |       in Feet=       |
  |                 |               | Miles= |                      |
  |Superior         |North America  | 31,200 |  601 above sea-level |
  |Victoria Nyanza  |Africa         | 26,500 |3,300 above sea-level |
  |Huron            |North America  | 23,800 |  581 above sea-level |
  |Michigan         |North America  | 22,450 |  581 above sea-level |
  |Baikal           |Asia           | 13,200 |1,542 above sea-level |
  |Tanganyika       |Africa         | 12,000 |2,756 above sea-level |
  |Great Bear       |North America  | 11,200 |  391 above sea-level |
  |Nyassa           |Africa         | 10,230 |1,706 above sea-level |
  |Great Slave      |North America  | 10,200 |  520 above sea-level |
  |Erie             |North America  |  9,960 |  573 above sea-level |
  |Winnipeg         |North America  |  9,400 |  710 above sea-level |
  |Lake of the Woods|North America  |  7,650 |1,060 above sea-level |
  |Ontario          |North America  |  7,240 |  247 above sea-level |
  |Ladoga           |Europe         |  6,998 |   49 above sea-level |
  |Tchad            |Africa         |  6,000 |1,150 above sea-level |
  |                 |               |   to   |                      |
  |                 |               | 40,000 |                      |
  |Athabasca        |North America  |  4,400 |  690 above sea-level |
  |Onega            |Europe         |  3,760 |  237 above sea-level |
  |Nicaragua        |Central America|  2,972 |  131 above sea-level |
  |Wener            |Europe         |  2,400 |  147 above sea-level |
  |Albert Nyanza    |Africa         |  1,730 |2,230 above sea-level |
  |Dembea           |Africa         |  1,000 |6,100 above sea-level |
  |Wetter           |Europe         |    936 |  288 above sea-level |
  |Champlain        |North America  |    750 |   96 above sea-level |
  |Managua          |North America  |    560 |  154 above sea-level |
  |Bangweolo        |Africa         |    400 |3,690 above sea-level |
  |                 |               |   to   |                      |
  |                 |               |  5,800 |                      |
  |St. Clair        |North America  |    396 |  576 above sea-level |
  |Balaton (Platten |Europe         |    266 |  426 above sea-level |
  |See)             |               |        |                      |
  |Geneva (or Leman)|Europe         |    214 |1,220 above sea-level |
  |Constance (or    |Europe         |    208 |1,308 above sea-level |
  |Boden See)       |               |        |                      |
  |Garda            |Europe         |    136 |  213 above sea-level |
  |Neuchatel        |Europe         |     90 |1,424 above sea-level |
  |Maggiore         |Europe         |     78 |  646 above sea-level |
  |Cayuga           |North America  |     76 |  381 above sea-level |
  |George           |North America  |     61 |  323 above sea-level |
  |Como             |Europe         |     56 |  649 above sea-level |
  |Lucerne          |Europe         |     40 |1,435 above sea-level |
  |Zurich           |Europe         | 37-1/2 |1,340 above sea-level |

AFRICA. The great plateau lakes are typical of the continent. The
Victoria Nyanza and Albert Nyanza, feeding the White Nile; Tanganyika,
whose outlet is unknown; Tzana, at the head of the Blue Nile; and Lake
Nyassa, in the Zambezi basin, all rest on the high plateaus of Central
Africa. Lake Tchad alone, among large African lakes, is surrounded by
low plains.

WATERFALLS AND RAPIDS. The variations in the slope of a river-bed,
arising from unequal erosion, or from the original irregularities in the
surface, give rise to rapids and falls.

The first occur where an increased slope causes the stream to flow with
more than its average velocity. The second are caused by nearly
perpendicular rocky walls, down which the foaming water descends in
picturesque cascades, or imposing cataracts.

The famous “Cataracts of the Nile” are merely rapids which impede but do
not entirely obstruct, the navigation as cataracts must. The so-called
Falls of St. Anthony, in the upper Mississippi, and the rapids of the
St. Lawrence, above Montreal, are among the finest rapids in American

The highest falls are in the upper course of rivers, in mountainous
regions; the greatest and most imposing, in their middle course.

The Niagara Falls exhibit a most important industrial utilization of
water power. The Falls of St. Anthony in the Mississippi, the Falls of
Foyers in Scotland, the Rhine falls, the Rhone falls of Bellegarde, and
the innumerable waterfalls of Scandinavia, Switzerland, and similar
mountainous lands, are all utilized in this way. It has been proposed to
convey power generated at the Victoria falls of the Zambezi to the Rand
goldfield of the Transvaal, and a scheme for this is now being prepared.


           NAME                LOCATION       HEIGHT
  =Bridal Veil=           California            900
  =Foyers=                Great Britain         205
  =Gastein Falls=         Austria               469
  =Gavarnie=              Pyrenees            1,400
  =Genesee=               New York               95
  =Grand Falls=           Labrador            2,000
  =Great Falls=           Montana               500
  =Hay River=             Alaska                200
  =Kaieteur Falls=        Guiana                740
  =Krimmler Falls=        Austria             1,300
  =Kukenam Fall=          Guiana              1,500
  =Maanelvan=             Norway                940
  =Minnehaha=             Minnesota              50
  =Missouri=              Montana                90
  =Montmorenci=           Quebec                265
  =Multnomah=             Oregon                850
  =Murchison=             Africa                120
  =Nevada Falls=          California            600
  =Niagara=               New York              165
  =Oroco Falls=           Monte Rosa          2,400
  =Rjukanfos=             Norway                804
  =Roraima Fall=          Guiana              2,000
  =Rukaufos=              Norway                513
  =St. Anthony=           Minnesota              80
  =Schaffhausen=          Switzerland           100
  =Seven Falls=           Colorado              266
  =Shoshone=              Idaho                 210
  =Skykjefos=             Norway                700
  =Snoqualmie=            Washington            268
  =Staubbach=             Switzerland         1,000
  =Stirling=              New Zealand           500
  =Sutherland=            New Zealand         1,904
  =Takkakaw=              British Columbia    1,200
  =Tequendama=            Colombia              475
  =Tessa Falls=           Austria               541
  =Twin=                  Idaho                 180
  =Velino Falls=          Italy                 591
  =Vermafos=              Norway                984
  =Vettisfos=             Norway                950
  =Victoria Falls=        Zambezi               400
  =Voringsfos=            Norway                600
  =Yellowstone (upper)=   Montana               110
  =Yellowstone (lower)=   Montana               310
  =Yguazu or Iguazu=      Brazil                210
  =Yosemite (upper)=      California          1,436
  =Yosemite (middle)=     California            626
  =Yosemite (lower)=      California            400


Niagara in winter presents a picture of frozen grandeur equaled nowhere
else in the world.]

[Illustration: The Rhine at Schaffhausen, Switzerland, rushes over
rugged rocks on its way down from the highlands into the lovely and
historic valley it has carved for itself on its way to the sea.]


1. The NIAGARA FALLS and rapids form one of the most impressive
spectacles in the world. The Niagara River, which is the sole outlet of
the great lakes, pours itself in two vast sheets over a precipice about
160 feet high. Goat Island, which is situated on the lip of the falls,
divides the cataract into two sections--the Horseshoe, or Canadian fall,
which is by far the more majestic, and the America fall. It has a
descent of 158 feet and the American fall of 167 feet. The volume of
water which sweeps over this immense chasm is about 15,000,000 cubic
feet per minute. The limestone edge of both falls is wearing away in the
center, the Canadian fall now being V-shaped, and the American fall
showing the same tendency, although its process of recession has begun
more recently. For some distance below the falls there is smooth
current, the mass of water which pours over the precipice sinking and
only coming to the surface two miles below, where the rapids, more
magnificent and wilder than those above the falls, begin, and culminate
in the rapids of the Upper Whirlpool. Lower down the river is the
whirlpool itself, where a sharp turn sends the waters hurling against
the Canadian side; they then sweep round in a gigantic circle before
they find a vent at right angle with their former course. The sight of
the falls is equally awe-inspiring from the bridge on the lip of the
fall, from the boat which plies from shore to shore below the cataract,
or from the Cave of the Winds, reached from Goat Island. Although in
summer the magnificence of the sight is extraordinary, it is in winter,
when the wizardry of the frost is upon it, that it is superlatively
beautiful. The falls were first discovered by Father Hennepin in 1678.

2. The FALLS OF JUANACATLAN (_hoo-ă-nă-kwt-lăn_), Mexico, are located
near the island city of Guadalajara (guă-dă-lă-hă´ră) on the Rio Grande
de Santiago. Though only 70 feet in height they are more than 600 feet
wide, and as known as the “Niagara” of Mexico.

3. The CATARACTS OF IGUAZU (_e-gwă´soo_) on the frontiers of Brazil,
Argentina and Paraguay. These falls, situated in a remote wilderness,
far from civilization, are a veritable fortress in protecting the
peace-loving peoples on their borders. They constitute a series of falls
extending over three miles, and more than 200 feet in height, and of
magnificent scenic beauty. Their energy is estimated to be about
14,000,000 horse-power, or almost three times that of Niagara.

4. The YOSEMITE (_yo-sem´i-tee_) FALLS of California, are highest and
probably the most remarkable of their class. They descend on almost
perpendicular ledge of rocks 2,600 feet high to the bottom of the
Yosemite valley, forming three separate cataracts. The first fall is
1,600 feet sheer descent. Then comes a series of cascades, partly
hidden, 600 feet downward, and a final leap of 400 feet. Seen from afar,
the Yosemite Falls seem insignificant; but they are, in fact, 35 feet
wide, and the shock of their descent is observed a mile away.

5. The STAUBBACH (_stoub´băk_) FALLS, in the Swiss Alps near
Lauterbrunnen, descends a precipice of 980 feet, and is reduced to spray
like a misty veil before reaching the bottom. It is the highest unbroken
fall in Switzerland, and the most noted.

6. The GREAT FALLS OF THE YELLOWSTONE, though not so high, vie with the
Yosemite in striking beauty. These famous falls plunge from a height of
360 feet into the abyss of a mighty chasm. At the point of descent, the
waters of the Yellowstone suddenly contract from a width of 250 feet to
75 feet.

7. The BRIDAL VEIL FALLS of California, belong to the famous Yosemite
Valley. Its waters, over 30 feet wide, leap from the granite rocks on
the south wall of the Yosemite in two vertical descents aggregating over
900 feet. The first fall covers a distance of 600 feet, then the waters
rushing over a sloping pile of jagged rocks drops a perpendicular
distance of 300 feet more. From the chief points of view it seems to
make but one plunge, in an unbroken descent similar to the Staubbach,
but carrying a much greater volume of water. Frequently the wind swings
the great plume of water from the face of the cliff and waves it like a
scarf or veil. At sunset rainbows with an indescribable radiance bejewel
its foam and the glistening leaves surrounding it.

8. The REICHENBACH (_ri´ken-băk_) FALLS near Meiningen, Switzerland,
comprise five fine cascades in the Reichenbach River. The most gorgeous
of these, known as the Upper Fall, makes a huge leap of 300 feet into a
deep rocky basin, which then continues in several foaming and plunging
cascades in general aspect not unlike the Niagara gorge.]



The Oceans consist of one great fluid mass, and in extent covers three
times the area of the dry land. There is also about three times as much
land to the north of the equator as there is to the south of it. Though
the waters of the ocean surround the land on every side, yet they are
broken up into certain areas by the arrangement of the land portions,
and to these various parts we give particular names.

  The Atlantic Ocean, lying between the western shores of Europe and
  Africa and the east coast of America.

  The Pacific Ocean, lying between the west coast of America and the
  east coast of Asia.

  The Indian Ocean, lying between the south of Asia and the Antarctic

  The Arctic Ocean, lying within the Arctic circle.

  The Antarctic Ocean, lying within the Antarctic circle.


THE ATLANTIC is the most branching of the oceans, and is especially
distinguished by the number and great size of its inland seas. Two of
these, the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, lie in the warm
regions; and two, Hudson Bay and the Baltic Sea, in colder latitudes.

The broader seas are represented by the Caribbean Sea, within the
tropics and the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the North Sea in temperate
latitudes. The Gulf of Guinea, and the Bay of Biscay, are examples of
the more shallow coast waters.

THE PACIFIC is particularly rich in vast border seas, a continuous
series of which lines the Asiatic and Australian coasts. Among these are
the Behring Sea, enclosed by the peninsula of Alaska and the Aleutian
Islands; Okhotsk Sea, enclosed by Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands; the
Sea of Japan, and the North and South China seas; and the Arafura,
Coral, and New Zealand seas, on the Australian Coast.

Only two inland seas of considerable size--the Gulf of California in
North America, and the Yellow Sea in Asia--mark this entire basin.

THE INDIAN OCEAN is characterized by gulfs, two of which form the entire
extension of the basin; namely, the Gulf of Bengal, and the Arabian Sea.
It has also two inland seas of considerable extent, the Red Sea and the
Persian Gulf, isolating the peninsula of Arabia from the adjacent
continents; but border seas are wholly wanting in the Indian Ocean.

THE ARCTIC OCEAN is a partially enclosed sea, which a comparatively
inconsiderable rise of the sea-bottom would convert into a true
Mediterranean. Three openings connect it with the Pacific and Atlantic
Oceans, namely, Behring Straight (narrow and shallow), Davis Straight,
and the broad expanse of water lying between Norway and Greenland. Of
these, the last is by far the most important, for through it the warm
waters of the Gulf Stream find access to the Polar basin, and keep the
sea free from ice throughout the year. This current is supposed to flow
feebly along the coast of Siberia, until, deflected by the land, it
becomes merged in the cold counter-currents which, passing along the
eastern coasts of Greenland and Labrador, carry immense masses of ice
into the Atlantic.


Ridges, mountains, plateaus, which may represent submerged continents of
the past, and many an abyss that exceeds in depth the height of the
highest mountains, are shown above. The shallow coasts, marked by the
lightest shade, are part of the present Continental Shelf, and do not
exceed six hundred feet in depth. Beyond this shelf, as a rule, the
oceans rapidly attain great depths. Our knowledge of the ocean bed has
been obtained from the extensive soundings.]

THE ANTARCTIC OCEAN is situated about or within the antarctic circle.
The great Southern Ocean is that part of the ocean which surrounds the
world between the latitude of 40 degrees south and the antarctic circle.
The northern portions of this band are often called the South Atlantic,
South Indian and South Pacific, while the southern portions are usually
called the Antarctic Ocean. The average depth of the continuous ocean
which surrounds south polar land is about two miles; it gradually shoals
toward antarctic land, which in some places is met with a short distance
within the antarctic circle. Life is abundant in the surface waters, and
at the bottom of the ocean.


As a rule the sea is shallowest near the land, though in a few cases
there is a sudden descent to a great depth at a very short distance from
the coast. Lowlands have usually shallow seas near the coast, and
highlands deep water.

Along the American shores, in the latitude of New York, the depth, for a
distance of more than 100 miles, is less than 600 feet; then suddenly
the bed descends, by a steep slope, to the depth of 6,000 or 9,000 feet.
After a comparatively narrow interval, a second terrace descends to the
main basin, from 15,000 to 18,000 feet deep.

The bottom of the trough of the ocean, in general, is equally varied
with that of the land surface of the globe, forming mountains, hills,
valleys, tablelands, etc. In many parts these marine mountains reach
above the surface and form islands. On the table land extending across
the Atlantic between Newfoundland and Ireland is laid the
submarine-telegraph cable which connects the two hemispheres.

THE DEPTH OF THE OCEANS. The average depth of the Pacific Ocean has been
estimated at between 15,000 and 18,000 feet, which is slightly greater
than that of the Atlantic. The deeper portions may be learned on
reference to the map. The western portion of the North Pacific in
particular shows some very deep depressions. To the east of Japan lies a
long deep trough which in one part has furnished the sounding of nearly
five and one-half miles. This abyss is often called the Tuscarora Deep.
South of the Ladrone Islands, in the Caroline Archipelago, there is also
a deep abyss where an English ship, the _Challenger_, obtained a
sounding of nearly 27,000 feet. In the Pacific soundings of over 30,000
feet have been made.

The Indian Ocean has an average depth of about 12,000 feet, and the
deepest soundings have been taken on the eastern side. It is interesting
to observe that the deepest sounding, about five and three-quarter
miles, in the South Pacific somewhat exceeds the height of the highest
mountain. Mount Everest has a height of 29,000 feet above the sea level.
And it must also be noted that the mean height of the land, 1,000 feet,
is only about one-twelfth the mean depth of the whole ocean, 12,000
feet. (See colored map showing comparative surfaces of land areas and
ocean depths.)

INLAND AND BORDER WATERS. These enclosed basins belong to the structure
of the continents, rather than to the oceans. All are shallow in
comparison with the great basins with which they are connected, as is
apparent from the depths given below.

  The Gulf of Mexico is from 5,000 to 7,000 feet in depth. The deepest
  part of the Caribbean Sea, on a line connecting Porto Rico and Costa
  Rica, averages 7,000 feet, and near the latter it reaches a depth of
  14,000; but the ocean, immediately outside of the Lesser Antilles,
  is more than 18,000 feet deep.

  The Mediterranean is divided into two basins, by a rocky isthmus,
  from 50 to 500 feet below the surface, lying between Sicily and Cape
  Bon, in Africa. The western basin is over 9,000 feet in depth, and
  comparatively uniform; while the eastern is more irregular, varying
  from 6,000 near the center, to 13,000 feet, south of the Ionian
  Islands. The Red Sea has an irregular bottom, with an average depth
  of 3,000 feet, but in some places it reaches 6,000.

  The Baltic Sea, being a simple depression in the great European
  plain, is but a few hundred feet deep. In the North Sea, the depth
  averages 300 feet, and rarely exceeds 600. The continent is here
  prolonged in the form of a submarine plain, whose highest portions
  form the British Isles.

  The Border Seas of Asia, lying within the chain of continental
  islands, are only a few hundred feet in depth, while immediately
  without those islands, abrupt slopes descend to the great depths of
  the Pacific basin.

  Smaller inlets are also of frequent occurrence, especially in
  districts where mountain ranges approach the borders of the ocean.
  Such are the _lochs_ of Scotland, the _voes_ of the Shetland
  Islands, and the _fiords_ of Norway and Greenland. The term _lagoon_
  is usually applied to lake-like inlets.

SALT AND OTHER INGREDIENTS OF SEA-WATER. The waters of the ocean are
salt, holding in solution various saline matters. The saline ingredients
amount to rather more than thirty-five grains in a thousand grains of
sea-water. The most abundant of these is chloride of sodium or common
salt, which in general forms about a third of the whole. Besides this,
sea-water contains some magnesia, lime, potash, and traces of iodine and

The following table exhibits the exact percentage composition of

  One hundred parts by weight of sea-water contain:

  Water                                        96.470
  Sodium Chloride                               2.700
  Magnesium Chloride                             .360
  Potassium Chloride                             .070
  Magnesium Sulphate                             .230
  Calcium Sulphate                               .140
  Calcium Carbonate                              .003
  Magnesium Bromide                              .002
  Traces of Iodides, Silica, etc., estimated     .025

HOW THE SEA GETS ITS COLOR. The color of sea-water is due to the
character of the skies and clouds above, and to vegetable and animal
objects growing and living in it. The luminosity or phosphorescence of
the ocean is due to the decay of animal and vegetable substances, but in
some cases it arises from the presence of myriads of living animals,
which, like the glow-worm and fire-fly of the land and air, have the
power of emitting light.

OCEAN TEMPERATURE. The water of the ocean appears generally to agree
with that of the climate in which it is situated. In warm latitudes the
temperature of the deep sea diminishes with the depth below the surface
until a certain depth is reached, below which it appears to retain an
equable temperature, this being about 40 degrees Fahrenheit. In the
Polar Seas, where the temperature of the surface is lower than 40
degrees the heat increases downward until it reaches that point. In
latitude 70° the temperature of the ocean is considered to be the same
at all depths.


The moon pulls the waters of the earth into a great double wave heaping
it up on the side nearest to the moon and on the opposite side. As the
earth rotates, this double wave moves round the earth, and the crests
and troughs alternately produce high and low tide. Thus there are two
high and two low tides daily, at intervals of about twelve hours, or
half a Sun or day.]


The waters of the ocean are retained in their bed by the attraction of
gravitation. This power is great in proportion to the mass; and as the
earth is of much greater mass than the particles of water on its
surface, it attracts them and keeps them in their assigned places. But
the sun and moon also possess this power of attraction, and
notwithstanding their distance, attract and draw them up to a certain
elevation. The vast mass of the waters being drawn up by the moon into a
mountain or curve of water forms what is called the “great primary or
tidal wave.”


This remarkable cavern, on the shore of the island of Capri, at the
entrance of the Bay of Naples, is entered from the sea, and is one
hundred and eighteen feet long and forty feet high, with a breadth of
ninety-eight feet at its widest part. It derives its name from the
wonderful blue reflection of the sun’s rays through the water, which
gives the interior its marvelous beauty and majesty. The cavern has been
created by the ceaseless action of the tide.]

EBB-TIDE AND FLOOD-TIDE. This drawing up of the waters of mid-ocean
causes a recession from the shores, thus giving rise to ebb-tide, or low
water. But when the temporary attraction ceases the waters flow back to
their natural level, returning to shore and forming flood-tide, or high
water. This culmination or rising of the waters in the great tidal wave
takes place twice in twenty-four hours and fifty minutes. The combined
influence of the sun and moon at new and full moon augments the size of
this wave, and causes the “spring-tides” at those periods.

HEIGHT OF TIDES. High water at the various points along the coast is
dependent on the return of this great wave, though some variations are
caused by local peculiarities; and the height of the tide also varies
greatly in different parts of the earth.

On the eastern coast of North America, the average rise of the tide is
from nine to twelve feet. At the entrance to the Bay of Fundy, however,
it rises eighteen feet, while at the head of that bay it reaches sixty,
and in the highest spring tides, even seventy feet. At Bristol, in
England, the spring tides rise to forty feet; and at St. Malo, on the
south coast of the English Channel, they reach fifty feet.


Differences in level, produced by high tides, cause currents which vary
in force and direction with the condition of the tide, producing, in
some cases, dangerous whirlpools. The famous Maelstrom, off the coast of
Norway, is but a tidal current, which rushes with great violence between
two of the Lofoden Islands, causing a whirling motion in the water which
is reversed at each ebb and flow of the tide.

Such is, also, the famous whirlpool of Charybdis, in the Straight of
Messina, and many others of less note. The powerful currents of Hell
Gate, in the passage from Long Island Sound to New York Bay, are due to
a similar cause, high water occurring at different hours in the bay and
in the west end of the sound.


The waves of the ocean, which are caused by the action of the wind, and
which are called secondary or wind waves are of a totally different
character from the tidal wave. The influence of the wind is supposed not
to extend to a greater depth than forty or fifty feet, the deep sea,
though raised in a great mass by the grand tidal movement, being free
from agitation. Wind waves at a distance from the shore are
comparatively low and long, but in shoal water they assume a greater
curvature, and fall on the beach either in gentle ripples or in mighty
breakers, according to the depth of the water and the force of the wind.
The heavy swell which occasionally takes place, called the “ground sea,”
is supposed to originate in distant storms of wind.


Currents in the ocean arise from various causes. They may be produced by
long-continued gales of wind, by the melting of polar ice, or by any
cause that may give rise to onward movements of limited portions of the
great mass of waters. Other currents, and of these only is it necessary
to speak in this connection, are permanent. The most remarkable of these
are the polar currents and the equatorial currents.

POLAR CURRENTS are produced by the perpetual movement of the waters from
the poles to the equator. In accordance with the laws of mechanics, an
accumulation of the waters takes place on that part of the globe which
has the greatest velocity of motion; and as the earth in turning on its
axis moves with far greater velocity at the equator, the waters
continually flow toward that line from the poles.

EQUATORIAL CURRENTS. This accumulation of the waters at the equator
tends to produce the equatorial currents, which consist of the
continuous progression of the tropical seas in a westerly direction.
When the wave brought by the polar currents arrives--coming as it does
from regions where it naturally has less velocity--it does not at once
acquire the velocity of the earth’s motion at the equator; and since
the rotation of the earth is from west to east, this portion of the
water lagging behind forms a stream or current which has an apparent
motion from east to west, that is to say, apparent as regards the earth,
but real in relation to the adjacent land and water. The trade winds,
which in this zone blow constantly in the same direction, lend their aid
in maintaining the equatorial current.


An extensive system of currents appears to arise in the Antarctic Ocean.
A current of cold water flowing northward joins the equatorial current
in the Pacific. Entering the Indian Ocean, it maintains its westerly
course until it approaches the shores of Africa; then bending southward
it rushes through the Mozambique Channel, and doubling the Cape of Good
Hope travels northward until it arrives at the Bight of Benin. This
current then joins the equatorial current, and crossing the Atlantic
from the coast of Guinea to that of Brazil, it is divided into two
branches by the projecting headland of Cape San Roque, one flowing
southward and the other northward.

THE GULF STREAM. After passing the Island of Trinidad, this great
oceanic current enters the Gulf of Mexico, and there acquires a high
temperature, and sweeping round that sea it again pours forth into the
Atlantic, forming the most powerful of known currents, called the Gulf
Stream. Issuing from the Gulf of Mexico, this current of warm water
rushes with considerable force through the Bahama Channel; then taking a
northerly course it travels along the eastern shores of North America,
and at Newfoundland is turned to the eastward by an opposing cold
current which sets in from Baffin’s Bay. It now maintains an easterly
direction, and crossing the Atlantic arrives at the Azores in about
twenty-eight days, and divides its waters on the coast of France and
Spain: one portion goes southward and at length joins the grand current
which sets from the coast of Guinea; and another portion travels
northward and skirts the western coasts of Europe. These currents are
seldom more than 500 feet deep.


  The atmosphere is the vast ocean of air that envelops the earth and
  makes life possible on our globe. It absorbs the heat and vapors
  caused by the action of the sun upon the surface of both land and
  water, and is the medium through which the ever-changing phenomena
  of _climate_ and _weather_ are produced. The two great forces of
  nature acting in connection with it are _gravitation_ and _heat_, or
  solar radiation; and the results of their ceaseless action may be
  summed up as follows: (1) _Temperature_, or heat, which we soon
  learn to know by our senses, and to measure by the thermometer. (2)
  _Evaporation_, which changes the weight of the air by carrying
  invisible moisture through it. This change of _weight_ is indicated
  by the barometer. (3) _Condensation_, producing fog, dew, rain,
  hail, and snow; all estimated accurately by the rain gauge or
  pluviometer. (4) _Motions_, as in the winds, varying from the gentle
  breeze to the awful cyclone, the force and velocity of which are
  indicated by the anemometer. (5) _Electricity_, producing lightning,
  thunder, magnetic and chemical changes in the atmosphere. (6)
  _Optical Phenomena_, such as rainbows, haloes, coronas, mirage, and
  the auroras.


The Earth is enveloped in its own atmosphere, which like a transparent
covering surrounds it, and revolves with it. This atmosphere does not
extend to more than forty or fifty miles above the earth’s surface, and
is higher at the equator than at the poles.



The atmosphere is an elastic fluid consisting of a mixture (not a
compound) of oxygen and nitrogen, in the proportions of about twenty-one
of the first to seventy-nine parts of the last named. It also contains a
small quantity of carbonic acid gas, and a yet smaller quantity of
ammonia; and water in the form of invisible vapor is always present in
it, though the quantity is subject to great variations. All these
substances move freely among each other, and are continually changing
places: the oxygen being ever ready to perform the office assigned to it
of sustaining life and combustion; the carbonic acid to promote the
growth of vegetation; the nitrogen to perfect the fruits of the earth,
and the vapor to descend to the thirsty ground, in the form of showers
and dew.

The atmosphere is elastic, and therefore capable of expansion and
compression; and is also a ponderable body. The consequence of these
properties is, that it is much lighter and thinner in the upper regions
than nearer the earth’s surface; for at the sea-level its whole weight
presses on its lower strata and gives it greater density. Ascending from
the earth’s surface it becomes gradually lighter and thinner, and at
great elevations is so rarefied as to be unsusceptible of sustaining


The weight of the atmosphere at the level of the sea is equal to about
fourteen and one-half pounds on every square inch of surface. This
weight is balanced by a column of mercury thirty inches in height; but
at an elevation of 18,000 feet it would be balanced by a column of only
fifteen inches in height, and at 36,000 by one only seven and one-half
inches in height. It is on this principle that the mercurial barometer
has been constructed; and since the mercury in the barometer stands at
the same point at all places at the sea-level, and falls in a regular
ratio on ascending therefrom, this instrument forms a most useful
standard for measuring altitudes.

As we ascend from the sea the atmosphere becomes colder; but, as with
the density, the temperature does not appear to pass through regular
gradations of change. From experiment, however, it has been assumed that
the atmosphere loses one degree of heat by Fahrenheit’s thermometer for
every 350 feet of ascent; and hence even in the hotter regions very
lofty mountains are covered with perpetual ice and snow.


The amount of heat produced by the sun upon the Earth’s surface, is
greatest near the Equator, and diminishes gradually towards the Poles.
Three general causes, each referable to the spherical form of the Earth,
combine to produce the gradual diminution of temperature from the
Equator to the Poles.

1. The angle at which the Sun’s rays strike the surface. In the
Equatorial regions they are perpendicular to the surface of the sphere,
and there produce their maximum effect; but, on account of the curved
outline of the globe, they fall more and more obliquely with increasing
latitude, and the intensity of action diminishes proportionately. At the
Poles their effect is practically nothing.

2. The area on which a given amount of heating power is expended, is
least at the Equator, consequently the resulting heat is greatest. The
area covered increases, and the effect diminishes, with the increasing
obliquity of the Sun’s rays in higher latitudes, which, as we have seen
above, results from the spherical form of the Earth.

3. The absorption of heat by the atmosphere, as the Sun’s rays pass
through it, is least where they fall perpendicularly,--that is, in the
Equatorial regions,--and increases, with their increasing obliquity,
towards the Poles.


The Earth revolves constantly around the Sun, and at the same time
rotates upon an axis inclined twenty-three and one-half degrees towards
the plane of its orbit. In consequence of the inclination of the axis,
the declination of the Sun, or its angular distance from the Equator,
varies with the advance of the Earth in its orbit, causing periodical
variations in the length of day and night, and, consequently, in

VERNAL EQUINOX. On the twentieth of March, at mid-day, the Sun is
vertical at the Equator. Rising directly in the east it ascends the
heavens to the zenith, and, descending, sets directly in the west.

The illuminated hemisphere extends from pole to pole, and embraces half
of every parallel of latitude; hence every point on the Earth’s surface
is under the rays of the Sun during half of the diurnal rotation; the
days and nights are equal all over the globe; and the heating power of
the Sun is the same in both the northern and the southern hemisphere.

SUMMER SOLSTICE. As the Earth advances in its orbit the vertical Sun
declines northward; and on the twenty-first of June, at the Summer
Solstice, it is over the northern Tropic, twenty-three and one-half
degrees from the Equator.

The illuminated hemisphere, extending ninety degrees on each side of the
parallel of the vertical Sun, reaches twenty-three and one-half degrees
beyond the North Pole; but, at the south, it barely touches the
Antarctic circle. It embraces more than half of each parallel north of
the Equator, hence throughout the northern hemisphere the day is longer
than the night, the difference in their duration increasing with the
latitude; and all points within the Arctic circle are in the light
during the entire rotation.

In the southern hemisphere, less than half of each parallel being
illuminated, the night is longer than the day, and within the Antarctic
circle there is constant night. The heating power of the Sun is now at
the maximum in the northern hemisphere, while in the southern it is at
the minimum.

AUTUMNAL EQUINOX. On the twenty-second of September, the distribution of
light and heat upon the two hemispheres is the same as at the Vernal,
and at the _Winter Solstice_, on the twenty-second of December, it is
the reverse of that at the Summer Solstice.



The change of seasons is caused by the _revolution_ of the earth around
the sun, and the inclinations of the planes of the equator and ecliptic.
These causes also account for the difference in the length of the days
and nights and the difference in the height of the midday sun. The exact
duration of the seasons we get by observing the dates of equinoxes and


The _revolution_ of the earth gives us the length of the year; its
_rotation_ on its axis, the length of the day and night, by causing the
risings and settings and daily apparent motion of the sun and stars.]


The inequality in the length of the days in different parts of the year,
occasioned by the inclination of the Earth’s axis, is of itself
sufficient to produce a marked variation in temperature.

During the day the Earth receives from the Sun more heat than it
radiates into space; while during the night it radiates more than it
receives. Hence a succession of long days and short nights results in an
accumulation of heat, raising the average temperature and producing
summer; while long nights and short days result in a temperature below
the average, producing winter.

Again, the heating power of the Sun in each hemisphere is greatest at
the period of the longest days, because of its greater altitude in the
heavens; and least at the period of shortest days. Thus long days and a
high sun operate together to produce the high temperature of summer;
while long nights and a low sun cause the low temperature of winter.

The following table gives the length of the longest day, excluding the
time of twilight, and of the shortest night, in the different latitudes,
with the difference of duration in hours and minutes, thus exhibiting
more clearly the above law.


  =LATITUDE=   |=Longest Day=|=Shortest Night=|=Difference=
  Equator      | 12.0 hours  |   12.0 hours   | 00.0 hours
    10°        | 12.7   „    |   11.3   „     |  1.4   „
    20°        | 13.3   „    |   10.7   „     |  2.6   „
  Tropics      | 13.5   „    |   10.5   „     |  3.0   „
    30°        | 14.0   „    |   10.0   „     |  4.0   „
    35°        | 14.5   „    |    9.5   „     |  5.0   „
    40°        | 15.0   „    |    9.0   „     |  6.0   „
    45°        | 15.6   „    |    8.4   „     |  7.2   „
    50°        | 16.3   „    |    7.7   „     |  8.6   „
    55°        | 17.3   „    |    6.7   „     | 10.6   „
    60°        | 18.7   „    |    5.3   „     | 13.4   „
  Polar Circles| 24.0   „    |    0.0   „     | 24.0   „
    67-1/2°    |    1 month  |    0.0   „     | ...
    69-1/2°    |    2 months |    0.0   „     | ...
    73.3°      |    3   „    |    0.0   „     | ...
    78.3°      |    4   „    |    0.0   „     | ...
    84°        |    5   „    |    0.0   „     | ...
  North Pole   |    6   „    |    0.0   „     | ...


The inequality of day and night increases slowly in the tropical
regions, but more and more rapidly towards the polar circles. Beyond
these circles the Sun, in the hemisphere in which it is vertical, makes
the entire circuit of the heavens, without sinking below the horizon,
for a period varying from twenty-four hours to six months; while in the
opposite hemisphere there is a corresponding period of continuous night.


In the tropical regions, where the days and nights vary little in
length, the temperature is nearly uniform throughout the year; while the
increasing inequality of day and night towards the Poles, causes an
increasing difference between the summer and the winter temperature.

Again, the length of the day, in the summer of high latitudes,
compensates for the diminished intensity of the Sun’s influence; so that
the temperature, in the hottest part of the day, may equal, or even
exceed, that within the tropics. A summer day in Labrador or Petrograd
may be as warm as one under the Equator; but in the former latitudes
there are only a few days of extreme heat in the year, while with
increasing nearness to the Equator the number of warm days constantly


The high latitudes have short, hot summers, and long, severe winters.
The transition seasons, spring and autumn, on account of the very rapid
change in the length of the days, are short and scarcely perceptible.

In the middle latitudes the summer and winter are more nearly equal in
length, with less difference in the extreme temperatures; and the
transition seasons are distinctly marked. Farther towards the Equator
the summer increases in length, and the winter diminishes, while the
tropical latitudes have constant summer.


The winds appear to be caused by partial changes in the density of the
atmosphere in a great measure arising from a diverse distribution of
heat. When air is warmed it becomes less dense, or, in other words, it
occupies a greater space. If an adjacent stratum of air be cooler, it
will on coming in contact with the warmer air expand and pour into
space occupied by the latter, thus forming a current. The greater the
difference between the temperature of the one or other portion, the
greater will be the force which the cold portion will rush into the
space occupied by the warm portion, or, in other terms, the more violent
will be the wind. In temperate climates the winds are variable; but in
some parts of the world they blow with great regularity, and in others
are subject to periodical changes.


The most remarkable of the regular winds are the trade-winds. The
atmosphere at the surface between the tropics is much warmer than in the
higher latitudes; and since air expands when heated, the light warm air
of intertropical regions perpetually rises, and its place is as
perpetually supplied by the colder air from the north and the south. If
it were not for the Earth’s rotation, these would be merely north and
south winds; but like the equinoctial water-currents, these cool
currents of air coming from regions which have not an equal velocity of
rotation with the air at the equator, pause and hang back, and thus
these aerial currents acquire a westerly direction, forming
north-easterly constant winds in the northern hemisphere, and
south-easterly in the southern hemisphere.


The monsoons or periodical winds of the Indian Ocean owe their origin to
the same cause which gives rise to the trade-winds, though they acquire
a different character in consequence of the proximity of the land. In
the southern portions of the ocean which are remote from this cause of
disturbance, the trade-wind blows with its wonted regularity; but in the
seas occupying the region between the eastern coast of Africa on the one
side, and the Malay peninsula and the island of Sumatra on the other,
the course of the trade-wind is reversed for half the year. This change
occurs from April to October; the sun at that period being vertical
north of the equator, and the land in the adjacent regions acquiring in
consequence a high temperature, and the air over the sea being cooler
than that over the land, a south-west wind prevails. This wind, called
the “south-west monsoon,” commences at about three degrees south of the
equator, and passing over the ocean arrives charged with moisture, and
accordingly usually deposits copious supplies of rain in India and some
of the adjoining territories. In the remaining half of the year, or from
October to April, the wind assumes the ordinary north-easterly direction
of the trade-wind.

Sea-breezes, which occur in regions bordering on the ocean in hot
climates, are produced by causes similar to those which give rise to the
south-west monsoon, but on a more limited scale of action, and changing
their direction daily.


Hurricanes are storms of wind which sweep or whirl round a regular
course, and are at the same time carried onward along the surface of the
Earth. In the northern hemisphere the whirling motion follows the course
of east, north, west, and south to east again, and in the southern
hemisphere it takes the opposite course. In the Atlantic Ocean, the
principal region of hurricanes lies to the eastward of the West India
Islands. They are also frequent in the Indian Ocean, at no great
distance from the island of Madagascar. The “typhoons” of the China
seas, and the “ox-eye” of the Cape of Good Hope, are also revolving


The tornadoes of the western coast of Africa, the pamperos of South
America, and the northers of North America appear to be of a different
character, and not to possess a revolving motion. The sirocco of Italy
and Sicily, and the solano of Spain, as also the simoon of Arabia, and
the harmattan of western Africa, are all winds which owe their origin to
the heated surfaces of Africa and Arabia. The principal difference
between these winds appears to be, that the sirocco and the solano
acquire some moisture in their passage across the Mediterranean, and
therefore do not possess that extreme degree of aridity which forms the
distinguishing character of the simoon and the harmattan.


Clouds are continually varying in their form and appearance, but may be
classed under the four principal heads of the cirrus, the cumulus, the
stratus, and the nimbus.

The cirrus is a light, fleecy cloud resembling a lock of hair or a

The cumulus or summer cloud is generally massive and of a round form;
sometimes of small size, and sometimes covering nearly the whole sky,
and occasionally appearing in the horizon like mountains capped with

The stratus is a horizontal, misty cloud sometimes observed on fine
summer evenings comparatively near the ground, and often crossing the
middle regions of mountainous or hilly districts.

The nimbus or rain cloud has a uniform gray tint; it is fringed at the
edges when these are displayed, but usually covers the whole sky. The
region of clouds is a zone extending in the atmosphere from about one to
four miles above the Earth. The most elevated clouds, which are light
and fleecy, are those comprehended under the name of cirrus, and the
lowest are those which are called stratus.

The cirro-cumulus, cirro-stratus, and cumulo-stratus are only
modifications and combinations of the above-named principal classes.


Warm air is capable of holding suspended a larger quantity of moisture
than cold air, and therefore the amount of vapor present in the
atmosphere is subject to great variations.


These facts also account for the formation of dew, which is caused by
the reduction of the temperature and the deposition of the moisture
which the warmer atmosphere of the day had held in suspension. Dews will
hence be usually most abundant when cool nights succeed warm days, and
on a clear night than when the skies are obscured by clouds, because a
cloudless sky is usually much colder than a beclouded one. It is also
essential for the copious formation of dew, that the ground or other
substance on which it is deposited should be much cooler than the
superincumbent air; for if the ground be warm it will impart its
temperature to the air near its surface and dew will not be formed.


When the ground or water is warmer than the air, mists and fogs are
frequently formed; and since water and marshy surfaces cool less rapidly
than dry land, mists and fogs are of more common occurrence in low, damp
situations than in dry, elevated districts. They are formed by the
condensation of the vapor, or, in other terms, its transformation into
the minute globules of water, which instead of descending to the earth
in the form of dew, remain suspended above the land or the water.


Clouds are formed by the condensation of vapor at considerable but
various elevations in the atmosphere. Vapor is always invisible, clouds,
therefore, are not vapor but water, and consist of a fine watery powder,
the size of each particle being exceedingly minute; and consequently
they are so light that clouds formed of an accumulation of such
particles are readily borne forward by the winds. Clouds are sometimes
suddenly formed and as suddenly disappear, probably owing to sudden and
partial changes of temperature. When a considerable difference of
temperature prevails in the aerial currents which may come in contact
with the local atmosphere, a further condensation takes place, and the
particles of this fine watery powder unite into drops, and, becoming
heavier, fall to the earth in the form of _rain_, _hail_ or _snow_.


Vapor condensed in air having a temperature below thirty-two degrees
Fahrenheit freezes, or passes to a crystalline form, producing snow.
Snowflakes occur in a great variety of forms, which usually present the
outline of either a regular hexagon or a six-pointed star.

Their size depends upon the temperature and the relative humidity of the
air through which they fall, for, like raindrops, they increase by
successive additions from the vapors with which they come in contact in
descending. Thus in mild weather they are much larger than in very cold


1. =Cirrus= (_sir´rus_).--Small curl-like clouds, usually high in
the heavens. 2. =Cirro-stratus= (_sir-ro-strā´tus_).--Intermediate
between the cirrus and stratus. 3. =Cirro-cumulus=
(_sir-ro-kū´mu-lŭs_).--Resembling the scales of mackerel. 4.
=Alto-cumulus= (_al´tō-kū´mu-lus_).--High cumulus clouds. 5.
=Alto-stratus= (_ăltō-strā´tūs_).--High stratus clouds. 6.
=Strato-cumulus= (_strā´to-kū´mu-lŭs_).--Forms of cumulus and stratus
combined. 7. =Nimbus= (_nim´būs_).--A rain cloud. 8. =Cumulus=
(_kū´mū-lus_).--A conical heap of clouds. 9. =Cumulo-stratus=
(_kū´mu-lo-stra´tŭs_).--Intermediate between the cumulus and the
stratus. 10. =Stratus= (_strā´tŭs_).--Arranged in a horizontal band or
layer. 11. =Fracto-stratus= (_frăk´tō-strā´tŭs_).--Broken forms of
stratus. 12. =Fracto-cumulus= (_frăk´to-kū´mu-lus_).--Broken forms of


1-3. Six-rayed stars. 4-13, 18-25. Combinations of six-rayed stars with
decorated flat surfaces. 14, 16, 17. Combinations of stars and columns.
15. A true pyramid.]

When the lower air is warm enough partially to melt the crystals, they
form minute balls. When raindrops, formed in the upper air, fall through
a cold current, they are often frozen, producing _sleet_ instead of


Though the winter snows upon the plains, and the slopes of mountains of
medium height, disappear during the warm season; yet, in all latitudes,
the tops of high mountains are covered with a layer of permanent snow,
which the summer heat of these great altitudes is not sufficient to

The lower limit of perpetual snow, called the snow line, is found,
within the tropics, about three miles above the level of the sea. In
temperate latitudes it occurs at the height of a little less than two
miles; and at the northern limit of the continents, it is about half a
mile above the level of the sea, or, perhaps, even less than this.

On the Arctic Islands, vast fields of snow remain permanently, at a few
hundred feet above the sea level.

The winter snows, falling into the icy waters of the polar oceans, are
but partially dissolved; and, remaining upon the freezing surface, they
help to form those vast ice floes which encumber the polar seas at all

The following table gives the observed height of the snow line in the
different latitudes:--


  =Lat. N.= |         =New World=        |=Feet=
     75°    |North Greenland             | 2,300
     54°    |Unalaska                    | 3,500
     48°    |Mt. Baker, Oregon, about    | 8,000
     43°    |Rocky Mountains             |12,500
     39°    |Rocky Mountains             |14,500
     38°    |Sierra Nevada               |11,000
     19°    |Popocatepetl, Mexico        |14,900
      5°    |Tolima, Columbia            |15,300
  Lat. S. 1°|Andes of Ecuador            |15,800
     17°    |Andes of Bolivia, west side |18,500
     17°    |Andes of Bolivia, east side |15,700
     33°    |Andes of central Chili      |14,700
     42°    |Andes of Patagonia          | 6,000
     54°    |Andes of Straits of Magellan| 3,700
     75°    |Bear Island                 |   600
     71°    |Mageroe, Cape North         | 2,300
     67°    |Sulitelma, Lapland          | 3,800
     61°    |Scandinavian Alps           | 5,300
     50°    |Altai Mountains             | 7,000
     46°    |Alps, north side            | 8,800
     46°    |Alps, south side            | 9,200
     43°    |Caucasus                    |11,000
     35°    |Hindu Kush                  |13,000
     31°    |Himalaya, south side        |16,200
     31°    |Himalaya, north side        |17,400
     12°    |Abyssinian Mountains        |14,000
  Lat. S. 3°|Kilimanjaro                 |16,000
     44°    |New Zealand Alps            | 7,500


Glaciers (from the French glace, ice) are vast streams of ice which
descend from the lower edge of the perpetual snows, like long icicles
from a snow-covered roof. They follow the windings of the Alpine
valleys, and terminate abruptly in a massive wall of ice, from beneath
which the waters of the melting glacier escape, through a large icy


The mountain systems in the middle latitudes, with abundant snows and
alternate warm and cold seasons, are most favorable to the formation of
glaciers. The best known, and probably the most remarkable glaciers are
those of the high Alps, in the heart of which are Mont Blanc, Monte
Rosa, and the Bernese Alps. Late explorers have found large glaciers in
the Caucasus and in the Himalayas, the last being of the grandest
proportions. In the Scandinavia are many which descend, in the deep
western fiords, nearly to the sea level.

In the New World glaciers are less frequent. On Mount Shasta and Mount
Rainier fine examples are in evidence.

By far the most extensive glaciers however, are found on the
snow-covered islands of the polar oceans.

Vast masses of ice, broken from the ends of these glaciers, form the
enormous _icebergs_ (mountains of ice) which are so numerous in the
polar seas, and are transported by the currents even to middle


The term _climate_ is used to express the combination of temperature and
moisture which prevails at any particular place, or, in more familiar
terms, the prevailing _weather_.

The most prominent causes of diversity of climate are the heat of the
sun, the respective position of land and water, and the elevation of
land above the level of the sea. To these may be added, as producing
considerable though less marked effects, the nature of the soil, the
prevailing winds, the position of mountain ranges, and the currents of
the ocean.


The sun is the grand agent in diffusing heat over the earth’s surface.
While the sun is above the horizon of any place, that place is receiving
heat; and when the sun is below the horizon, it is parting with it by
the process called “radiation.” Whenever therefore the sun remains more
than twelve hours out of the twenty-four above the horizon of any place,
and consequently less than twelve hours below, the general temperature
of that place will be above average; and when the reverse occurs, it
will be below average. If the temperature depended solely on the heat of
the sun, then indeed a tolerably accurate view of the respective
climates of the zones of the globe might easily be assumed; but it is so
greatly modified by other circumstances, that considerable differences
prevail in countries situated in the same parallels of latitude.


The relative position of the land and water is an essential cause of
this diversity. The waters of the ocean are of very equal temperature,
and have a tendency to moderate both heat and cold, wherever their
influence extends. Thus when a cold wind passes over the sea, it becomes
warmed, while a hot wind becomes cooled; and thus islands generally
experience milder winters and more temperate summers than continents.
Such countries are said to possess an insular climate. But when any
region experiences great severity of cold in winter and a high degree of
heat in summer, it is said to possess an extreme or excessive climate.
The most striking instances of an extreme climate are drawn from places
like Yakutsk, situated in the depths of Siberia, where the difference
between the average temperature of winter and summer amounts to the
astonishing sum of 101 degrees Fahrenheit.


The sun is the great life-giver of our earth. Its waves of light and
heat and electricity come to the earth through a measureless ocean of
ether and make it a living rather than a dead world. The above
illustration shows how these waves are constantly bombarding the earth,
and not only giving it life but contributing to it the glory of the
seasons, the wonders of color, and the brilliant effects of light which
we see in the skies and call Auroras, or Northern and Southern Lights.]


A gradual decrease in temperature takes place in the ascent from the sea
to the line of perpetual snow. This line, which is called the snow-line,
varies in different latitudes, and sometimes, owing to local causes,
differs on the same latitude; as a general rule, however, a gradual
decrease in elevation of the snow-line takes place as we recede from the
equator north and south. The height of this line within the tropics
varies from 16,000 to 17,000 feet above the level of the sea, and in the
northern hemisphere meets the level at about the eightieth parallel.


Countries where the prevailing winds sweep across a wide expanse of
ocean are not subject to extremes of heat and cold. Thus the climate of
oceanic islands is always moderate, and the climates of all coasts are
more equable than in the interior of continents.

Climate is also modified greatly by the position of mountain ranges,
especially when ridges extend east and west, screening it from the north
or leaving it exposed unsheltered in that direction.

Thus the Carpathians screen Hungary from the cold blasts of the north;
while Poland, to the north of that range, and therefore unprotected from
those piercing winds, suffers from a very cold and humid atmosphere.

The currents of the ocean are likewise potent agents in the formation of
climates, and render places which would otherwise be uninhabitable, fit
for man’s habitation. Thus the Polar currents coming to the equatorial
regions cool, and the Gulf Stream making its way to Polar regions warms,
otherwise extreme temperatures.


In some parts of the Earth extensive tracts exist where rain is never
known to fall, and if at all only at intervals, and then in small
quantities. The rainless districts of the New World include the flat
territories of northern Chili and Peru, some parts of Mexico, and some
parts of California. In the Old World an extensive rainless band extends
from the western shores of Africa to the central regions of Asia,
including the Great Sahara Desert, Egypt, part of Arabia, and the Desert
of Gobi. Countries so circumstanced, unless like Egypt rendered fertile
by the irrigation of a great river, constitute the most arid and
desolate regions of the earth.

The quantity of rain which falls in any region depends greatly on local
causes, such as the variations of the surface, the prevailing winds or
the proximity of the ocean. Rain is usually more copiously deposited in
mountains and well-wooded islands than in any other description of

In tropical regions the rains follow the sun, i. e., when the sun is
north of the equator, the rains prevail in the northern tropic, and when
south of that line in the southern tropic. This forms the rainy and dry
seasons to which countries so situated are subject. This does not,
however, apply to the whole intertropical regions, for in a zone
extending from the fifth to the tenth parallels on each side of the
equator there are two rainy and two dry seasons.

In the narrow belt called the variables, between the regions of the
north and south trade-winds, rain is almost incessant, accompanied by
thunder and lightning. In many parts of the intertropical regions during
the rainy season the rain pours down in such torrents that a larger
quantity falls in a few hours than in a whole month in temperate North


The dreaded Simoon of the desert is a whirlwind of terrific force that
raises great gyrating clouds of sand, and sweeps forward with
suffocating effect upon both man and beasts. It frequently darkens the
sky at midday, and sometimes lightning accompanies it caused by the
friction of the sand and air, though no rain falls. The Simoon seldom
lasts more than twenty minutes.]


Electricity produces an infinity of changes in the natural world. It may
be artificially elicited or called forth by friction; or by contact of
certain substances and the action attendant on this contact. In the one
case it is termed ordinary, and in the other case voltaic or galvanic

All substances are supposed to contain a certain portion of electricity,
and if by friction or other means any substance acquires more electrical
action than it would naturally possess, it is said to be positively
electrified; and if less, it is said to be negatively electrified.
Substances when positively electrified attract or draw toward them other
substances which are in a state of negative electricity, or even those
which are in a natural state, but will repel or force from them
substances which are positively electrified. The sudden contact of
bodies in an opposite state of electricity is attended with vivid light
called the “electric spark,” and accompanied by explosion and shock.


The earth is always in a state of positive electricity, and the air when
pure in a state of negative electricity. Atmospheric air, however, is
subject to incessant variations, and hence its “electrical equilibrium”
or natural electrical state is subject to be disturbed. This equilibrium
will be restored when an explosion has taken place, and thus it is that
in peculiar states of the atmosphere thunder storms act a beneficial
part in restoring the air to a normal condition. The intensity of
electrical action is greater during the day than at night and also in
summer than in winter; and diminishes from the equator to the poles.

Electricity is perpetually effecting great changes in the earth’s crust,
and in very many instances acts on the principal of voltaic electricity,
the action in such cases being produced by long-continued currents.


Lightning is the dazzling light produced by an electrical discharge
passing between clouds which are oppositely electrified, or between the
clouds and the earth. Lightning flashes have been distinguished as
zigzag or chain lightning, sheet and globular lightning.

The first has the aspect of a sharply defined chain of fire, and moves
at the rate of 250,000 miles per second. Its zigzag course is attributed
to the resistance of the air, condensed in the passage of the electrical
discharge, which is sufficient to turn it aside frequently in the
direction of less resistance.

Sheet lightning includes the expanded flashes which occur during a
storm, and the heat lightning, seen on summer evenings, when no clouds
are visible, which is supposed to be the reflection of a storm taking
place below the horizon.

Globular lightning is seen on rare occasions, when the electrical
discharge takes the form of a ball of fire, and descending with less
rapidity, is visible for several seconds. In certain conditions of the
atmosphere, globes or spires of electrical light, called St. Elmo’s
fire, are seen tipping the extremities of bodies in contact with the
earth, like church spires, or masts of ships.

All the conditions which give rise to electrical excitement in the
atmosphere are much more intense in warm than in cold latitudes; hence
the thunder storms of the tropical regions greatly exceed, both in
frequency and in violence, those of temperate and cold climates.


This phenomenon is frequently observed in the northern heavens. It
occurs in many forms, but the most common is that of a luminous arch
whose summit is in the magnetic meridian of the place of observation,
and from which vivid flashes of light dart towards the zenith. A like
phenomenon in the southern heavens is denominated the Aurora Australis.
Auroras are most frequent and brilliant in the polar regions, and
diminish in intensity towards the equator.


Rainbows are arches of prismatic colors, formed by the reflection of
rays of light from within drops of water. The rays, which are refracted
in entering the drops, are reflected from their posterior surfaces, and
again refracted as they re-enter the air, the colors being separated by
their unequal refrangibility.

Halos and coronas are circles of prismatic colors which, in certain
states of the atmosphere, surround the Sun and the Moon.

Halos are supposed to be occasioned by the presence, in the atmosphere,
of small ice crystals which act as minute prisms, decomposing and
refracting the light which passes through them.

Coronas are seen when a light mist is floating in the air, and are
supposed to be formed by reflection from the external surface of the
globules of vapor.


The azure tint of the cloudless sky is due to the decomposition and
refraction of light, as it passes through layers of air successively
increasing in density. The blue and violet, being more refrangible than
other colors of the solar spectrum, are diffused through the atmosphere;
and being reflected from its particles, they impart to it their own

The clouds, floating in the atmosphere, absorb the more refrangible
rays, and reflect the less. At sunrise and sunset, when the light
traverses the greatest depth of atmosphere, all the colors are absorbed
except the red and the yellow; and these, being deflected from the
particles of vapor, produce the brilliant coloring of sunrise and


The mirage is an optical phenomenon in which images of distant objects
are seen, reflected beneath, or suspended in the heavens above.
Occasionally, also, objects are seen double, being repeated laterally
instead of vertically.

The mirage is caused by the refraction and reflection of light as it
passes from denser to rarer strata of air. It is most frequent in arid
plains, where the soil, exposed to the burning rays of the sun, becomes
intensely heated, and, in consequence, the strata of air near the ground
are less dense than those above.

In this case rays of light passing from any distant object, as a tree,
to the ground, are refracted more and more towards the horizontal, until
finally they are reflected from a horizontal layer of the heated air,
and reach the eye from beneath. Then an image of the object is seen as
if mirrored in the tranquil waters of a lake.




Minerals can be identified and distinguished by various physical
properties and by ascertaining their chemical composition. The chief
distinguishing physical properties are crystalline form, cleavage,
hardness, and specific gravity.

Each mineral or special class of minerals has its own definite
geometrical shape or crystalline form. The crystals of each mineral have
also a tendency to break or cleave most readily in a particular
direction. The term hardness, as applied to minerals and other solid
bodies, is used to indicate resistance to being scratched or the power
to scratch. The harder of two bodies is the one which will scratch the
other, and which resists being scratched by that other.


There are three general classes of crystals--calcareous, silicious and
gypsum--but by far the most important are the silicious crystals because
of their great hardness. These include quartz or rock crystal--which is
quite common--and the so-called _precious stones_, among which are the
diamond, rubies, sapphires, etc., a description of which will be found
in the Dictionary of Minerals.

To find the relative hardness of substances, a scale has been arranged,
beginning with the softest mineral (talc) and ending with the hardest
(diamond). The minerals of the scale, therefore, are so arranged that
each will scratch any other mineral of lower number in the scale, or be
scratched by any of higher number.


            MINERAL                                 CHEMICAL NAME
   1. Talc.                 }Can be scratched{ 1. Magnesium silicate.
   2. Gypsum (or rocksalt). }     by the     { 2. Calcium sulphate or
                            }  finger-nail   {    Sodium chloride.

   3. Calc-spar.            }                { 3. Calcium carbonate.
   4. Fluor-spar.           }     Can be     { 4. Calcium fluoride.
   5. Apatite.              }    scratched   { 5. Calcium phosphate.
   6. Felspar.              }   by knife or  { 6. Potassium and
                            }      file      {    aluminum silicates.

   7. Quartz (rock-crystal).}    Cannot      { 7. Silica.
   8. Topaz.                } be scratched   { 8. Aluminum
                            }      by        {    fluosilicate.
   9. Corundum (sapphire,   }    knife       { 9. These gems are
      ruby).                }      or        {    crystallized alumina.
  10. Diamond.              }     file       {10. Crystallized carbon.

As a first inquiry into the chemical composition of a mineral, dilute
hydrochloric or sulphuric acid is tried. All _carbonates_ effervesce
when placed in acid or when acid is dropped upon them, while quartz and
all the _silicates_ show no effervescense when so treated.

The table on pages 104-7 contains a brief description of the distinctive
physical features of a number of the very common or important minerals.


=Aluminum=, a metal which does not occur in nature in the free state,
but for the most part in combination with silica, as a silicate of
aluminum, in clay and many minerals. As extracted from clay by a series
of very difficult chemical operations, it forms a white metal, very
ductile and malleable, and susceptible of a high polish. On account of
its lightness, aluminum is highly valued; it forms excellent alloys.

_Bauxite_ (aluminum hydrate) is the only ore. It is mined in France,
Ireland, Austria, Arkansas, Alabama and Georgia, and is refined by
electric processes. It is used largely as an addition to iron and steel,
preventing bubbles and waste in castings; in electrical work, and for
purposes where a light, strong metal is necessary, as in certain
machinery, hulls for small boats, etc. Refineries are located in
Switzerland, France, Great Britain and United States.

_Cryolite_ (fluoride of aluminum and sodium), a mineral mined only in
Greenland, was formerly used as an ore but is now utilized in the
manufacture of alum and soda.

_Alum_ (a sulphate) is made from cryolite or clays.

_Corundum_ (aluminum oxide) is, next to the diamond, the hardest natural
mineral. Canada, North Carolina, Alabama and India have mines of
corundum. Emery is produced chiefly in Greece and Asia Minor. Corundum
and emery are powdered for use as abrasives in wheels, sharpening
stones, polishing powder and cloth.

_Emery_ is an impure form of corundum.

_Feldspar_ is a silicate of aluminum with other metals. It is mined in
Canada, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, New York, Maine and Norway, and
ground up for use in pottery making.

_Clay_ is chiefly silicate of aluminum and other metals. _Kaolin_ is its
purest form. The properties of clay vary with its composition, as china
clay, fire clay, pipe clay, brick clay. Clays are found in all parts of
the world as a result of the decomposition of other rocks.

The location of manufacturing centers of pottery of all kinds and of
bricks, is dependent on clay deposits. In pottery making, Ohio, New
Jersey and Pennsylvania lead the United States. Abroad, fine china is
made in France, Germany, Austria, England, Japan, and China.


  | =Name of Mineral= | =Common Name= | =Composition= |=Hard-| =Lustre= |
  |                   |               |               | ness=|          |
  |=Amphibole.=       |...            |Silicate of    | 5-6  |Glassy  to|
  |(_ăm´fĭ-bōl_)      |               |magnesium,     |      |dull.     |
  |                   |               |calcium, alumi-|      |          |
  |                   |               |num, iron, etc.|      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Arsenopyrite.=    |Mispickel.     |Sulphide and   |  6   |Metallic. |
  |(_är´sĕn-ō-py̆r´īt_)|               |arsenide of    |      |          |
  |                   |               |iron.          |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Barite.=          |Barytes. Heavy |Sulphate of    |  3   |Glassy to |
  |(_bā´rīt_)         |spur.          |barium.        |      |stony.    |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Biotite.=         |Black Mica.    |Hydrous sili-  |2-1/2-|Glassy to |
  |(_bī´ō-tīt_)       |               |cate of alumi- |  3   |almost    |
  |                   |               |num, potassium,|      |metallic. |
  |                   |               |magnesium and  |      |          |
  |                   |               |iron.          |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Calcite.=         |Lime. Calespar.|Carbonate of   |  3   |Glassy to |
  |(_kăl´sīt_)        |               |Calcium.       |      |earthy.   |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Chalcocite.=      |Copper Glance. |Sulphide of    |  3   |Metallic; |
  |(_kăl´kŏ-sīt_)     |               |copper.        |      |dull when |
  |                   |               |               |      |impure or |
  |                   |               |               |      |tarnished.|
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Chalcopyrite.=    |Copper Pyrites.|Sulphide of    |  4   |Metallic. |
  |(_kăl´kō-pĭr´īt_)  |Fools gold.    |copper and     |      |          |
  |                   |               |iron.          |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Copper.=          |...            |Native metallic|2-1/2-|Metallic. |
  |                   |               |copper.        |  3   |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Corundum.=        |...            |Oxide of alu-  |  9   |Glassy.   |
  |(_kō-rŭn´dŭm_)     |               |minum.         |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Epidote.=         |...            |Basic silicate | 6-7  |Glassy to |
  |(_ēp´ĭ-dōt_)       |               |of calcium,    |      |dull.     |
  |                   |               |aluminum and   |      |          |
  |                   |               |iron.          |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Fluorite.=        |Fluor Spar.    |Calcium        |  4   |Glassy.   |
  |(_flōō´or-īt_)     |Fluorine.      |fluoride.      |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Galenite.=        |Galena. Lead.  |Sulphide of    |  3   |Metallic. |
  |(_gȧ-lē´nīt_)      |               |lead.          |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Garnet.=          |...            |Silicate of    |6-1/2-|Glassy to |
  |                   |               |various ele-   |7-1/2 |resinous. |
  |                   |               |ments: calcium,|      |          |
  |                   |               |aluminum and   |      |          |
  |                   |               |iron are       |      |          |
  |                   |               |commonest.     |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Gold.=            |...            |Native metallic|2-1/2-|Metallic. |
  |                   |               |gold with a    |  3   |          |
  |                   |               |little silver, |      |          |
  |                   |               |copper, etc.   |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Graphite.=        |Black Lead.    |Carbon.        | 1-2  |Metallic  |
  |(_graph´īt_)       |Plumbago.      |               |      |to dull.  |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Gypsum.=          |...            |Hydrous sul-   |1-1/2-|Pearly,   |
  |(_jĭp´sŭm_)        |               |phate of       |  2   |silky,    |
  |                   |               |calcium.       |      |vitreous, |
  |                   |               |               |      |dull.     |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Halite.=          |Rock salt.     |Chloride of    |2-1/2 |Glassy.   |
  |(_hā´līt_)         |               |sodium.        |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Hematite.=        |Red oxide of   |Oxide of iron. |5-1/2-|Metallic  |
  |(_hēm´ȧ-tīt_)      |iron.          |               |6-1/2 |to earthy.|
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Limonite.=        |Yellow oxide of|Hydrous oxide  |  5-  |Dull,     |
  |(_lī´mŏn-īt_)      |iron.          |of iron.       |5-1/2 |silky,    |
  |                   |               |               |      |varnish-  |
  |                   |               |               |      |like.     |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Magnetite.=       |Magnetic iron  |Oxide of iron. |5-1/2-|Metallic  |
  |(_mag´net-īt_)     |ore.           |               |6-1/2 |to dull.  |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Malachite.=       |...            |Hydrous carbon-|3-1/2-|Silky to  |
  |(_măl´ȧ-kīt_)      |               |ate of copper. |  4   |dull.     |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Muscovite.=       |Mica, isin-    |Hydrous sili-  |  2-  |Glassy.   |
  |(_mŭs´ko̱vīt_)      |glass. White   |cate of potas- |2-1/2 |Pearly on |
  |                   |Mica.          |sium and alu-  |      |cleavage  |
  |                   |               |minum.         |      |faces.    |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Orthoclase.=      |Feldspar.      |Silicate of    |  6   |Glassy to |
  |(_ôr´tho̱-klās_)    |Potash.        |potassium and  |      |stony.    |
  |                   |               |aluminum.      |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Pyrite.=          |Pyrites. White |Sulphide of    |  6-  |Metallic. |
  |(_pĭr´īt_)         |iron. Fools    |iron.          |6-1/2 |          |
  |                   |gold.          |               |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Pyrolusite.=      |...            |Oxide of       |  1-  |Metallic  |
  |(_pĭr´o̱-lū´sīt_)   |               |manganese.     |2-1/2 |to dull.  |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Pyroxene.=        |...            |Silicate of    | 5-6  |Glassy to |
  |(_pĭr´ŏks-ēn_)     |               |magnesium,     |      |dull.     |
  |                   |               |calcium, alu-  |      |          |
  |                   |               |minum and iron.|      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Quartz.= (Pheno-  |...            |Oxide of       |  7   |Glassy.   |
  |crystalline).      |               |silicon.       |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Quartz.= (Crypto- |...            |...            | ...  |Dull to   |
  |crystalline).      |               |               |      |earthy.   |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Serpentine.=      |...            |Hydrous sili-  |  4+  |Wax-like, |
  |(_sēr´pēn-tīn_)    |               |cate of magne- |      |silky,    |
  |                   |               |sium and iron. |      |earthy.   |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Siderite.=        |...            |Carbonate of   |3-1/2-|Glassy to |
  |(_sĭd´ēr-īt_)      |               |iron.          |  4   |earthy.   |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Sphalerite.=      |Blende, Jack   |Sulphide of    |3-1/2-|Resinous  |
  |(_sfāl´ēr-īt_)     |Rosin zinc,    |zinc.          |  4   |to nearly |
  |                   |zinc, etc.     |               |      |metallic. |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Stibnite.=        |...            |Sulphide of    |  2   |Metallic. |
  |(_stĭb´nīt_)       |               |antimony.      |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Talc.=            |Talcum.        |Hydrous sili-  |  1-  |Waxy to   |
  |(_tălk_)           |               |cate of mag-   |1-1/2 |dull.     |
  |                   |               |nesium.        |      |Pearly on |
  |                   |               |               |      |cleavage  |
  |                   |               |               |      |faces.    |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Tetrahedrite.=    |Gray copper.   |Sulph-         |  3-  |Metallic. |
  |(_tet´ra-he´drīt_) |               |antimonite of  |4-1/2 |          |
  |                   |               |copper.        |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Tourmaline.=      |Schorl.        |Silicate of    |  7-  |Glassy to |
  |(_tōōr´mȧ-lĭn_)    |               |boron and      |7-1/2 |resinous. |
  |                   |               |various other  |      |          |
  |                   |               |bases varying  |      |          |
  |                   |               |with the       |      |          |
  |                   |               |variety.       |      |          |
  |                   |               |               |      |          |
  |=Zoisite.=         |...            |Silica, alumi- |  6   |Pearly.   |
  |(_zois´īt_)        |               |na, lime, per- |      |          |
  |                   |               |oxide of iron, |      |          |
  |                   |               |water.         |      |          |

  |=Name of Mineral=|   =Color=    |  =Streak=   |     =Cleavage or      |
  |                 |              |             |       Fracture=       |
  |=Amphibole.=     |Black or light|White.       |Perfect in two direc-  |
  |                 |to dark green.|             |tions at angle of 124°.|
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Arsenopyrite.=  |Silver,       |Black.       |Good in two directions |
  |                 |yellowish, or |             |at an angle of 112°.   |
  |                 |light grayish |             |Not evident on fine    |
  |                 |white.        |             |grained material.      |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Barite.=        |White, yellow,|White.       |Perfect in one direc-  |
  |                 |blue or brown.|             |tion; two other good   |
  |                 |              |             |cleavages at right     |
  |                 |              |             |angles to the first and|
  |                 |              |             |at 101° with each      |
  |                 |              |             |other.                 |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Biotite.=       |Black or dark |White.       |Very perfect in one di-|
  |                 |brown.        |             |rection, yielding thin |
  |                 |              |             |sheets.                |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Calcite.=       |Colorless or  |White.       |Perfect in three di-   |
  |                 |white when    |             |rections at angles of  |
  |                 |pure, all     |             |about 105° or 75°.     |
  |                 |colors when   |             |                       |
  |                 |impure.       |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Chalcocite.=    |Dark gray.    |Lead-gray.   |No cleavage, smooth    |
  |                 |Tarnishes     |             |conchoidal fracture.   |
  |                 |black or      |             |                       |
  |                 |green.        |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Chalcopyrite.=  |Bright brass- |Greenish     |No cleavage. Uneven    |
  |                 |yellow. Often |black.       |fracture.              |
  |                 |tarnished iri-|             |                       |
  |                 |descent.      |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Copper.=        |Copper-red.   |Copper-red.  |No cleavage. Hackly    |
  |                 |Tarnishes     |             |fracture.              |
  |                 |green to      |             |                       |
  |                 |black.        |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Corundum.=      |All colors;   |White.       |Often parts readily    |
  |                 |usually gray  |             |into almost rectangular|
  |                 |or brown when |             |pieces whose faces are |
  |                 |massive.      |             |cross-hatched.         |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Epidote.=       |Dark green or |White.       |Perfect in one direc-  |
  |                 |greenish brown|             |tion.                  |
  |                 |(crystals) to |             |                       |
  |                 |light yellow- |             |                       |
  |                 |ish green.    |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Fluorite.=      |All colors;   |White.       |Cleaves easily into    |
  |                 |green, violet,|             |octahedrons, i. e.,    |
  |                 |purple, color-|             |in four directions, at |
  |                 |less and      |             |angles of 109° or 71°. |
  |                 |white, the    |             |                       |
  |                 |commoner.     |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Galenite.=      |Bluish lead,  |Lead-gray.   |Perfect cubical, i. e.,|
  |                 |gray. Tar-    |             |in three directions at |
  |                 |nishes black. |             |angle of 90°.          |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Garnet.=        |Commonly some |White.       |No cleavage. Uneven    |
  |                 |shade of red; |             |fracture.              |
  |                 |also brown,   |             |                       |
  |                 |yellow, white,|             |                       |
  |                 |black, green. |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Gold.=          |Golden yellow |Yellow to    |No cleavage. Hackly    |
  |                 |to nearly     |nearly white.|fracture.              |
  |                 |silver-white. |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Graphite.=      |Dark gray to  |Dark gray.   |Perfect in one direc-  |
  |                 |black.        |             |tion. Cleavage faces   |
  |                 |              |             |are apt to be curved.  |
  |                 |              |             |Not shown if finely    |
  |                 |              |             |granular.              |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Gypsum.=        |White, gray,  |White.       |Very perfect in one    |
  |                 |red, yellow or|             |direction; two others  |
  |                 |other tints   |             |show as cracks at angle|
  |                 |due to        |             |of 114°, on the perfect|
  |                 |impurities.   |             |cleavage faces.        |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Halite.=        |Colorless or  |White.       |Perfect cubic i. e., in|
  |                 |white when    |             |three directions at    |
  |                 |pure. Yellow, |             |angle of 90°.          |
  |                 |brown, red,   |             |                       |
  |                 |etc., when    |             |                       |
  |                 |impure.       |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Hematite.=      |Black when    |Red.         |No cleavage; may have a|
  |                 |metallic; red-|             |parting in one direc-  |
  |                 |dish black    |             |tion producing a platy |
  |                 |when dull, red|             |structure. Uneven      |
  |                 |when earthy.  |             |fracture.              |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Limonite.=      |Yellow, brown |Yellow or    |No cleavage. Uneven    |
  |                 |or nearly     |yellowish    |fracture.              |
  |                 |black.        |brown.       |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Magnetite.=     |Iron-black.   |Black.       |No cleavage. Sometimes |
  |                 |              |             |parts in four direc-   |
  |                 |              |             |tions at angles of 109°|
  |                 |              |             |and 71°. Uneven to sub-|
  |                 |              |             |conchoidal fracture.   |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Malachite.=     |Green, often  |Green. Paler |No cleavage. Uneven    |
  |                 |nearly black  |than the     |fracture.              |
  |                 |on exposed    |color.       |                       |
  |                 |surfaces.     |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Muscovite.=     |White or light|White.       |Very perfect in one    |
  |                 |tints of other|             |direction, yielding    |
  |                 |colors, par-  |             |thin sheets.           |
  |                 |ticularly     |             |                       |
  |                 |gray, brown or|             |                       |
  |                 |green.        |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Orthoclase.=    |Flesh-red,    |White.       |In two directions at   |
  |                 |gray, yellow, |             |angle of 90°, one di-  |
  |                 |white or      |             |rection slightly less  |
  |                 |colorless.    |             |perfect than the other.|
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Pyrite.=        |Pale to deep  |Black.       |No cleavage. Conchoidal|
  |                 |brass-yellow. |             |to uneven fracture.    |
  |                 |Tarnishes     |             |                       |
  |                 |brown or      |             |                       |
  |                 |iridescent.   |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Pyrolusite.=    |Black to dark |Sooty black. |May appear to have good|
  |                 |steel-gray.   |             |cleavage in one direc- |
  |                 |              |             |tion but usually shows |
  |                 |              |             |none.                  |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Pyroxene.=      |Black or light|White to     |Poor in two directions |
  |                 |to dark green.|greenish.    |at angle of nearly 90°.|
  |                 |              |             |May have a fine platy  |
  |                 |              |             |parting.               |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Quartz.= (Pheno-|White or      |White or     |No cleavage. Single    |
  |crystalline).    |colorless when|light tints. |crystal has conchoidal |
  |                 |pure. All     |             |fracture, otherwise the|
  |                 |colors when   |             |fracture is uneven.    |
  |                 |impure.       |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Quartz.= (Cryp- |...           |...          |No cleavage. Conchoidal|
  |tocrystalline).  |              |             |fracture.              |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Serpentine.=    |Light to dark |White. No    |Conchoidal fracture    |
  |                 |green, yellow,|cleavage.    |when massive.          |
  |                 |brownish red, |             |                       |
  |                 |variegated.   |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Siderite.=      |Light to dark |White to     |Very perfect in three  |
  |                 |brown or gray.|yellowish.   |directions at angle of |
  |                 |Tarnishes red-|             |107° and 73°. Not      |
  |                 |dish brown or |             |evident when fine      |
  |                 |brownish      |             |grained.               |
  |                 |black.        |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Sphalerite.=    |Commonly yel- |White, yellow|Very perfect in six    |
  |                 |low, brown,   |or brown.    |directions at angles of|
  |                 |black or red; |             |60°, 90° and 120°.     |
  |                 |sometimes     |             |                       |
  |                 |green or      |             |                       |
  |                 |white.        |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Stibnite.=      |Light gray.   |Lead-gray.   |Perfect in one direc-  |
  |                 |Cleavage faces|             |tion, yielding blade-  |
  |                 |appear silver |             |like strips which are  |
  |                 |white when    |             |bent or hatched perpen-|
  |                 |reflecting    |             |dicular to their       |
  |                 |light.        |             |length.                |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Talc.=          |White, light  |White to     |Perfect in one direc-  |
  |                 |green, gray;  |greenish.    |tion, yielding thin    |
  |                 |other colors  |             |flexible plates. Not   |
  |                 |when impure.  |             |shown on the fine      |
  |                 |              |             |grained soapstone.     |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Tetrahedrite.=  |Gray.         |Gray, brown, |No cleavage. Uneven,   |
  |                 |              |or reddish.  |granular fracture.     |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Tourmaline.=    |All colors.   |White.       |No cleavage. Uneven to |
  |                 |Interior and  |             |poor conchoidal        |
  |                 |exterior or   |             |fracture.              |
  |                 |opposite ends |             |                       |
  |                 |of a crystal  |             |                       |
  |                 |may differ in |             |                       |
  |                 |color.        |             |                       |
  |                 |              |             |                       |
  |=Zoisite.=       |White, gray,  |Uncolored.   |Parallel cleavage;     |
  |                 |yellow, brown.|             |sometimes fibrous.     |

  |=Name of Mineral=| =Crystallization and  |  =Tenacity   |=Diaphaneity=|
  |                 |      Occurrence=      |     etc.=    |             |
  |=Amphibole.=     |Prismatic crystals with|Brittle to    |Opaque to    |
  |                 |hexagonal cross-sec-   |tough.        |transparent. |
  |                 |tion, common; also     |              |             |
  |                 |cleavable masses.      |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Arsenopyrite.=  |Crystals resemble a    |Brittle.      |Opaque.      |
  |                 |double-edged axe.      |              |             |
  |                 |Occurs also coarse to  |              |             |
  |                 |fine granular.         |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Barite.=        |Diamond shaped or rect-|Brittle.      |Transparent  |
  |                 |angular tabular, or    |              |to           |
  |                 |prismatic crystals and |              |translucent. |
  |                 |platy masses.          |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Biotite.=       |Six-sided tabular crys-|Flexible and  |Opaque to    |
  |                 |tals, and as scales,   |elastic.      |transparent. |
  |                 |plates, or scaly       |              |             |
  |                 |masses.                |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Calcite.=       |Prismatic or tabular   |Brittle.      |Transparent  |
  |                 |six-sided crystals;    |              |to opaque.   |
  |                 |also granular,         |              |             |
  |                 |cleavable, or earthy   |              |             |
  |                 |masses.                |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Chalcocite.=    |Usually very compact   |Slightly      |Opaque.      |
  |                 |masses; six-sided,     |sectile.      |             |
  |                 |tabular crystals rare. |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Chalcopyrite.=  |Occurs massive or in   |Brittle.      |Opaque.      |
  |                 |scattered particles.   |              |             |
  |                 |Crystals usually have  |              |             |
  |                 |four triangular faces. |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Copper.=        |Masses, plates, scales,|Malleable     |Opaque.      |
  |                 |branching aggregates   |sectile.      |             |
  |                 |and octahedral crys-   |              |             |
  |                 |tals, usually          |              |             |
  |                 |distorted.             |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Corundum.=      |Prismatic or tabular   |Brittle to    |Translucent  |
  |                 |six-sided crystals;    |tough.        |to           |
  |                 |also granular and      |              |transparent. |
  |                 |pseudo-cleavable       |              |             |
  |                 |masses.                |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Epidote.=       |Slender, deeply grooved|Brittle.      |Transparent  |
  |                 |prismatic crystals and |              |to opaque.   |
  |                 |cleavable to fine      |              |             |
  |                 |granular masses.       |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Fluorite.=      |In groups of crystals, |Brittle.      |Transparent  |
  |                 |usually cubical; also  |              |to           |
  |                 |in cleavable masses.   |              |translucent. |
  |                 |Sometimes granular.    |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Galenite.=      |Cubical crystals, often|Very Brittle. |Opaque.      |
  |                 |with triangular faces  |              |             |
  |                 |on the corners; also,  |              |             |
  |                 |cleavable to granular  |              |             |
  |                 |masses.                |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Garnet.=        |Complex, rounded crys- |Brittle.      |Transparent  |
  |                 |tals, glassy masses and|              |to opaque.   |
  |                 |granular.              |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Gold.=          |Nuggets, plates,       |Malleable     |Opaque.      |
  |                 |scales, wires;         |sectile.      |             |
  |                 |branching aggregates   |              |             |
  |                 |and distorted crystals,|              |             |
  |                 |usually octahedral.    |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Graphite.=      |Imbedded scales and    |Sectile       |Opaque.      |
  |                 |foliated, granular or  |Flexible.     |             |
  |                 |compact masses. Rarely |              |             |
  |                 |in six-sided, tabular  |              |             |
  |                 |crystals.              |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Gypsum.=        |Diamond shaped crys-   |Sectile, Thin |Translucent  |
  |                 |tals, and cleavable,   |flakes,       |to           |
  |                 |fibrous, granular,     |flexible.     |transparent. |
  |                 |foliated or compact    |              |             |
  |                 |masses.                |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Halite.=        |Cubical or octahedral  |Brittle.      |Translucent  |
  |                 |crystals; also         |              |to           |
  |                 |cleavable, granular or |              |transparent. |
  |                 |compact masses.        |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Hematite.=      |Complex, tabular or    |Brittle.      |Opaque.      |
  |                 |rounded crystals; also |              |             |
  |                 |platy, oolitic, earthy,|              |             |
  |                 |micaceous, and kidney  |              |             |
  |                 |shaped masses.         |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Limonite.=      |Botryoidal or stalac-  |Brittle.      |Opaque.      |
  |                 |titic forms with a     |              |             |
  |                 |radiating fibrous      |              |             |
  |                 |structure and a        |              |             |
  |                 |varnish-like surface,  |              |             |
  |                 |also earthy masses and |              |             |
  |                 |concretions.           |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Magnetite.=     |Octahedral crystals,   |Brittle.      |Opaque.      |
  |                 |and coarse to fine     |              |             |
  |                 |granular, laminated, or|              |             |
  |                 |compact masses.        |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Malachite.=     |Massive, as botryoidal |Brittle.      |Translucent  |
  |                 |crusts with a radiating|              |to opaque.   |
  |                 |structure and silky    |              |             |
  |                 |lustre, and as slender |              |             |
  |                 |crystals forming       |              |             |
  |                 |velvety surfaces.      |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Muscovite.=     |Six-sided, tabular     |Flexible and  |Transparent  |
  |                 |crystals, and as       |elastic.      |to           |
  |                 |scales, plates, or     |              |translucent. |
  |                 |scaly masses.          |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Orthoclase.=    |Thick-set square or    |Brittle.      |Transparent  |
  |                 |six-sided crystals, or |              |to opaque.   |
  |                 |cleavable masses or    |              |             |
  |                 |grains.                |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Pyrite.=        |Cubical, octahedral, or|Brittle.      |Opaque.      |
  |                 |complexly rounded crys-|              |             |
  |                 |tals, coarse to fine   |              |             |
  |                 |granular, and massive. |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Pyrolusite.=    |Occurs as radiating    |Brittle.      |Opaque.      |
  |                 |prismatic layers,      |              |             |
  |                 |velvety crust and      |              |             |
  |                 |granular to compact    |              |             |
  |                 |masses. Soils the      |              |             |
  |                 |fingers.               |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Pyroxene.=      |Prismatic crystals with|Brittle.      |Transparent  |
  |                 |square or octagonal    |              |to opaque.   |
  |                 |cross-section; also    |              |             |
  |                 |foliated and massive.  |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Quartz.= (Pheno-|Six-sided prism termi- |Brittle.      |Transparent. |
  |crystalline).    |nated by a six-sided   |              |             |
  |                 |pyramid; also massive, |              |             |
  |                 |coarse to fine         |              |             |
  |                 |granular, and as sand. |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Quartz.= (Cryp- |Very fine grained      |Brittle.      |Translucent  |
  |tocrystalline).  |massive, botryoidal,   |              |to opaque.   |
  |                 |nodular, or filling or |              |             |
  |                 |lining cavities in     |              |             |
  |                 |rocks.                 |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Serpentine.=    |Compact, massive or    |Tough. Fibres |Translucent  |
  |                 |coarse to fine fibrous.|are flexible. |to opaque.   |
  |                 |The two habits are     |              |             |
  |                 |often in parallel      |              |             |
  |                 |layers.                |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Siderite.=      |Cleavable masses,      |Brittle.      |Translucent  |
  |                 |coarse to fine,        |              |to opaque.   |
  |                 |granular and at warped |              |             |
  |                 |crystals that resemble |              |             |
  |                 |distorted cubes.       |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Sphalerite.=    |Complexly rounded or   |Brittle.      |Transparent  |
  |                 |modified cubical crys- |              |to opaque.   |
  |                 |tals; also cleavable,  |              |             |
  |                 |coarse to fine granular|              |             |
  |                 |masses, and botryoidal,|              |             |
  |                 |etc.                   |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Stibnite.=      |Sharp, vertically      |Very brittle. |Opaque.      |
  |                 |grooved, prismatic     |              |             |
  |                 |crystals and in        |              |             |
  |                 |cleavable masses with a|              |             |
  |                 |bladed structure.      |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Talc.=          |Foliated, coarse to    |Tough sectile.|Transparent  |
  |                 |fine granular, or      |              |to           |
  |                 |compact masses. Feels  |              |translucent. |
  |                 |greasy to soapy.       |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Tetrahedrite.=  |Crystals have four     |Brittle.      |Opaque.      |
  |                 |triangular faces.      |              |             |
  |                 |Occurs usually granular|              |             |
  |                 |massives.              |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Tourmaline.=    |Vertically lined,      |Very brittle. |Transparent  |
  |                 |prismatic crystals with|              |to opaque.   |
  |                 |spherical triangular   |              |             |
  |                 |cross-sections. Also   |              |             |
  |                 |columnar or compact    |              |             |
  |                 |massive.               |              |             |
  |                 |                       |              |             |
  |=Zoisite.=       |Occurs in tri-metric   |Brittle.      |Transparent, |
  |                 |crystals; also massive.|              |translucent. |

  |=Name of Mineral=|       =Varieties=       |        =Remarks=         |
  |=Amphibole.=     |Actinolite (green, trans-|Common constituent of     |
  |                 |parent). Asbestos        |igneous and metamorphic   |
  |                 |(fibrous, dull). Horn-   |rocks. Valueless.         |
  |                 |blende (black).          |                          |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Arsenopyrite.=  |...                      |Principal ore of arsenic  |
  |                 |                         |and sometimes carries     |
  |                 |                         |gold. Gives sparks and    |
  |                 |                         |garlic odor when struck   |
  |                 |                         |with a hammer. Yellow     |
  |                 |                         |tarnish.                  |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Barite.=        |...                      |Used to adulterate white  |
  |                 |                         |lead and give weight to   |
  |                 |                         |paper. Often associated   |
  |                 |                         |with lead ores. Very      |
  |                 |                         |heavy.                    |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Biotite.=       |...                      |Common constituent of     |
  |                 |                         |igneous rocks. May be     |
  |                 |                         |brittle when altered.     |
  |                 |                         |Valueless.                |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Calcite.=       |Marble (granular). Lime- |Effervesces vigorously in |
  |                 |stone (dull, compact).   |hydrochloric acid of any  |
  |                 |Chalk (soft, white,      |strength and temperature. |
  |                 |earthy). Mexican Onyx    |Used as flux, building or |
  |                 |(compact, banded).       |ornamental stone, to make |
  |                 |                         |lime, etc.                |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Chalcocite.=    |...                      |An important ore of       |
  |                 |                         |copper. Cuts easily,      |
  |                 |                         |yielding a highly polished|
  |                 |                         |surface.                  |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Chalcopyrite.=  |...                      |One of the most important |
  |                 |                         |ores of copper and often  |
  |                 |                         |carries silver and gold.  |
  |                 |                         |Is often mistaken for the |
  |                 |                         |latter.                   |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Copper.=        |...                      |The value and uses of     |
  |                 |                         |copper are well known.    |
  |                 |                         |Often carries some silver.|
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Corundum.=      |Ruby (red). Sapphire     |A very valuable gem       |
  |                 |(blue, etc.). Adamantine.|mineral and a fine        |
  |                 |Spar (massive). Emery    |abrasive. See plate I,    |
  |                 |(granular, impure).      |figures 10, 11 and 13.    |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Epidote.=       |...                      |Common constituent of     |
  |                 |                         |metamorphic rocks. Rarely |
  |                 |                         |cut as a gem.             |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Fluorite.=      |Rock fluorite (finely    |Used as a flux in smelting|
  |                 |granular and usually very|ores, and in several arts |
  |                 |impure and hard).        |and trades.               |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Galenite.=      |Steel galena (very fine  |Most important lead and   |
  |                 |grained masses). Often   |silver ore. Often contains|
  |                 |rich in silver.          |the latter metal with     |
  |                 |                         |sometimes gold and other  |
  |                 |                         |elements.                 |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Garnet.=        |...                      |An important abrasive and |
  |                 |                         |a beautiful gem. Found in |
  |                 |                         |metamorphic rocks. See    |
  |                 |                         |plate I, figures 8 and 15.|
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Gold.=          |Based upon and named     |The value and uses of gold|
  |                 |after any impurities that|are well known.           |
  |                 |may be present.          |                          |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Graphite.=      |...                      |Used in the manufacture of|
  |                 |                         |lubricants, infusible     |
  |                 |                         |crucibles, and “lead”     |
  |                 |                         |pencils.                  |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Gypsum.=        |Selenite (cleavable,     |Is carved into vases,     |
  |                 |transparent). Satin spar |statues, etc., and forms  |
  |                 |(white, fibrous, silky). |plaster of paris when     |
  |                 |Alabaster, (white, fine  |calcined and ground. Is a |
  |                 |grained).                |precipitate rock.         |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Halite.=        |...                      |Tastes salty. Enormous    |
  |                 |                         |quantities are used to    |
  |                 |                         |season food, in various   |
  |                 |                         |arts and trades, and as a |
  |                 |                         |source of sodium and its  |
  |                 |                         |salts. A precipitate rock.|
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Hematite.=      |Specular iron (mirror-   |The most important ore of |
  |                 |like plates or crystals).|iron, and is also used to |
  |                 |Red Ochre or Ruddle (red,|make cheap paint,         |
  |                 |earthy).                 |polishing powder, etc.    |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Limonite.=      |Bog iron ore (porous,    |Commonest, but most impure|
  |                 |earthy, often encloses   |ore of iron, and is also  |
  |                 |vegetation). Yellow ochre|used to make cheap yellow |
  |                 |or umber (earthy with    |and brown paint.          |
  |                 |clay, etc.).             |                          |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Magnetite.=     |Lodestone (a natural     |The only black, brittle,  |
  |                 |magnet).                 |magnetic mineral, and a   |
  |                 |                         |very pure and valuable    |
  |                 |                         |ore of iron.              |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Malachite.=     |...                      |Is an ore of copper and is|
  |                 |                         |used as an ornamental     |
  |                 |                         |stone and in jewelry.     |
  |                 |                         |Azur-malachite is         |
  |                 |                         |malachite mixed with blue |
  |                 |                         |azurite. See plate I,     |
  |                 |                         |figure 4.                 |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Muscovite.=     |...                      |Used in stove doors, as   |
  |                 |                         |insulation in electrical  |
  |                 |                         |apparatus, and for        |
  |                 |                         |spangling or frosting     |
  |                 |                         |paper and fabric.         |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Orthoclase.=    |Sanadine (transparent    |Associated with quartz and|
  |                 |crystals or grains im-   |mica in many rocks. Used  |
  |                 |bedded in igneous rocks).|in making glass and       |
  |                 |                         |porcelain. Next to quartz |
  |                 |                         |in frequency of           |
  |                 |                         |occurrence.               |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Pyrite.=        |...                      |Used in making sulphuric  |
  |                 |                         |acid and often contains so|
  |                 |                         |much gold, silver and     |
  |                 |                         |copper as to make it an   |
  |                 |                         |ore of these metals.      |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Pyrolusite.=    |...                      |Has many uses and is      |
  |                 |                         |valuable. Usually         |
  |                 |                         |associated with a very    |
  |                 |                         |fine grained, hard, black |
  |                 |                         |mineral that is often     |
  |                 |                         |botryoidal.               |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Pyroxene.=      |Diopside (light green,   |A common constituent of   |
  |                 |glassy). Diallage (light |igneous rocks. Diopside is|
  |                 |green, dull, foliated).  |sometimes used as a gem.  |
  |                 |Auagite (black).         |                          |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Quartz.= (Pheno-|Rock crystal (colorless, |The commonest of all      |
  |crystalline).    |transparent). Amethyst   |minerals. A constituent of|
  |                 |(purple). Rose (pink).   |most rock. Great quanti-  |
  |                 |False topaz or Citrine   |ties are used as a flux in|
  |                 |(yellow). Smoky quartz or|smelting, as abrasives,   |
  |                 |Topaz (brown or gray).   |and in the manufacture of |
  |                 |Milky (white). Ferrugi-  |glass and porcelain. The  |
  |                 |nous (iron stained).     |transparent varieties of  |
  |                 |                         |pleasing tints are used as|
  |                 |                         |gems. Water-clear spheres |
  |                 |                         |are very valuable.        |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Quartz.= (Cryp- |Chalcedony (drab). Car-  |...                       |
  |tocrystalline).  |nelian (red, trans-      |                          |
  |                 |lucent). Jasper (red,    |                          |
  |                 |brown, yellow, opaque).  |                          |
  |                 |Heliotrope or Bloodstone |                          |
  |                 |(dark green with red     |                          |
  |                 |spots). Flint (dark gray |                          |
  |                 |concretions). Agate      |                          |
  |                 |(banded or particolored).|                          |
  |                 |Onyx (agate with flat    |                          |
  |                 |layers). Petrified wood  |                          |
  |                 |(wood replaced by        |                          |
  |                 |quartz).                 |                          |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Serpentine.=    |Precious or noble        |Chrysolite is the best    |
  |                 |(massive, translucent).  |commercial asbestos. Other|
  |                 |Chrysolite (silky,       |varieties are used as     |
  |                 |fibres). Verde antique   |ornamental stone and      |
  |                 |(massive with calcite).  |occasionally in jewelry.  |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Siderite.=      |Sphaerosidirite or Clay- |The most valuable ore of  |
  |                 |ironstone (concretions of|iron, but is rather un-   |
  |                 |fine grained siderite    |common. The impure clay-  |
  |                 |mixed with clay).        |ironstone is fairly common|
  |                 |                         |in sediments.             |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Sphalerite.=    |...                      |The commonest zinc ore and|
  |                 |                         |an impure variety         |
  |                 |                         |furnishes most of the     |
  |                 |                         |cadmium of commerce.      |
  |                 |                         |Associated with galenite  |
  |                 |                         |and silver minerals.      |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Stibnite.=      |...                      |The chief source of       |
  |                 |                         |antimony and its salts.   |
  |                 |                         |Sometimes carries gold and|
  |                 |                         |silver.                   |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Talc.=          |Steatite or soapstone    |Used in making porcelain, |
  |                 |(granular, impure, hard- |polishing powder, lubri-  |
  |                 |ness up to 2-1/2). French|cants, gas jets, tinted   |
  |                 |chalk (white, fine       |plasters, paper, soap,    |
  |                 |grained soft).           |leather dressing, talcum  |
  |                 |                         |powder, slate pencils, and|
  |                 |                         |in other ways.            |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Tetrahedrite.=  |...                      |Often contains enough     |
  |                 |                         |silver to make it a valu- |
  |                 |                         |able ore of this metal as |
  |                 |                         |well as copper.           |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Tourmaline.=    |Schorl (black). Rubellite|A popular semi-precious   |
  |                 |(pink). Indicolite       |gem. When heated (not     |
  |                 |(blue). Achroite (white).|above 212° F.), will      |
  |                 |                         |usually pick up bits of   |
  |                 |                         |paper. Opposite ends of   |
  |                 |                         |crystals have different   |
  |                 |                         |forms.                    |
  |                 |                         |                          |
  |=Zoisite.=       |...                      |Often a constituent of    |
  |                 |                         |metamorphic rocks.        |

=Antimony and Bismuth.= Antimony is produced in Germany, France,
Italy, Hungary, United States, Japan and other countries.

_Bismuth_ comes mainly from Bolivia and Australia. Some is produced in
Saxony and England.

_Stibnite_ (antimony sulphide) is the chief ore of antimony. Bismuth
occurs in small amounts in a pure state and also combined with sulphur.

These metals form many alloys such as type metal, anti-friction metals,
white metal, babbitt metal, fusible metals.

_Tartar emetic_ and other antimony compounds are used in medicine and

=Amber= is a fossil resin found chiefly along the shores of the Baltic.
It is used in making mouthpieces for pipes, cigar holders, beads and
other articles.

=Arsenic.= Germany, England, Canada, the United States and Spain produce
the ores. Chemical laboratories transform them into the useful

_Arsenopyrite_ (arsenic and iron sulphide), orpiment and realgar
(sulphides of arsenic) and the sources of arsenic.

_Arsenic_ (white arsenic, arsenious acid or oxide of arsenic), paris
green and other compounds and salts are prepared.

Sheep dip, rat poison, insecticides, embalming fluid, pigments and dyes
are prepared with arsenic compounds. Arsenic salts are used in preparing
certain coal-tar colors.

=Asphaltum= (or mineral pitch) is a bituminous mineral substance found
more or less pure, in some localities. The pitch lake of Trinidad and
the Bermudez lake at the mouth of the Orinoco in Venezuela, are the
largest known deposits of moderately pure asphalt. Smaller deposits of
high grade occur in Utah, Cuba and the Barbadoes.

_Rock asphalt_ consists of sandstone or limestone impregnated with
asphalt. Much asphalt is produced in refining certain grades of
petroleum--such as those obtained in California and Texas.

Rock asphalts are mined in France, Switzerland, Sicily, California,
Kentucky and Oklahoma.

For paving rock asphalts are much used in Europe. Trinidad and
Venezuelan asphalts are exported in large quantities to the United
States and Europe. For paving, these lake asphalts are mixed with broken
stone, sand and petroleum residuum.

Pure varieties (gilsonite, marjak, glance pitch) are made into black
varnish, used for insulating, etc.

=Barium= is mined in the United States and Germany.

_Barytes_ or barite is a heavy, white mineral (barium sulphate). It is
used as a substitute or adulterant for white lead in paints, and in
making oxygen.

=Bismuth.= See antimony.

=Building Stones= are quarried for local use in all parts of the world.

_Granite_, _syenite_, _gneiss_, _basalt_ and other hard or durable

Only stone of exceptional beauty is shipped to a great distance.
Scotland, Norway, Massachusetts, Maine and other localities produce
fine stones.

=Calcium= has no commercial use in the metallic state. Its compounds,
both natural and artificial, are of great economic importance.

_Limestone_ (calcium carbonate) is a very common rock used for building.
It may be of almost any color and coarse or fine in texture. It is found
and utilized in all parts of the world. In the United States,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Indiana, New York and Missouri are the
chief producers.

Lime is used in chemical industries and mortar.

_Marble_ is a name applied to limestones suitable for polishing or
ornamental work. _Mexican onyx_ is translucent. Fine marbles are
quarried in Italy, Egypt, France, Spain and Greece. Vermont, Georgia,
Tennessee and New York supply the greater part of the marble used in the
United States. Handsome marbles are imported from Carrara, Italy, and
other parts of Europe. Mexican onyx is also imported.

Chalk comes mainly from the south of England. We export some Portland
cement and import a little from Europe.

_Chalk_ is of peculiar soft texture; _whiting_ is prepared chalk used to
make putty and paints; _precipitated chalk_ is similar.

_Lime_ is made by burning (calcining) common limestones. _Portland_ and
_hydraulic cements_ are prepared by calcining siliceous limestones or a
mixture of limestone and clay. They are of enormous commercial
importance, being used in concrete construction work. Europe and the
United States produce large quantities. Pennsylvania is the leading
state in this industry.

Buildings (both commercial and residences) are now being extensively
constructed of cement--in the former case being re-enforced by iron

_Chloride of lime_ (or bleaching powder), _acetate of lime_, _calcium
carbide_ and many other compounds are of industrial value.

_Gypsum_ (hydrous calcium sulphate) is used in fertilizers. Plaster is
prepared by calcining (burning) gypsum. _Plaster of paris_ is its purest
form. _Alabaster_ is compact white gypsum. It is a common mineral mined
in many parts of the world. Michigan, Kansas, New York, Ohio and other
states produce it. Fertilizers and plaster use up large quantities of
this mineral. Plaster of paris is used for casts, decorative plaster
work, cement, etc.

_Fluorite_ (calcium fluoride) is a less common mineral. Mined in
England, Kentucky and Illinois. It is used in chemical manufacture and
as a flux for ores.

_Phosphate rock_ (chiefly calcium phosphate) is important in the
preparation of fertilizers, and chemicals containing phosphorus. It is
found in deposits of organic origin in South Carolina, Florida,
Tennessee, the West Indies, Canada, Spain, France, Germany and England.

The natural phosphates are treated with sulphuric acid as a first step
in the manufacture of phosphatic fertilizers. Exported in large amount
to Germany, England and other countries.

=Carborundum=, or carbide of silicon, is harder than any known substance
but the diamond. Much is manufactured at Niagara Falls, by electrically
heating a mixture of coke, sand and salt. It is used for making
polishing powder, in grinding wheels, sharpening stones, abrasive cloth,

=Cerium.= See rare metals.

=Chrome= is mined in Asia Minor, Greece, Canada, New Caledonia and
California. Its salts are prepared in chemical laboratories.

_Chromite_ (oxide of chromium and iron) is the only ore.

_Bichromate of potash_ is the most important compound. It, together with
chromic acid, is used in tanning soft leather. A small percentage added
to steel makes it very hard and suitable for burglar-proof safes, tools,
etc. Salts of chrome are used for dyes and pigments, such as chrome
yellow, chrome green, etc.

=Coal= is one of the most important of all rocks and first among fuels.
It consists chiefly of carbon, and is universally regarded as of
vegetable origin.

Several theories as to the origin of coal have been put forth from time
to time. The one now generally accepted is that the rank and luxuriant
vegetation which prevailed during the carboniferous age grew and decayed
upon land but slightly raised above the sea; that by slow subsidence
this thick layer of vegetable matter sank below the water, and became
gradually covered with sand, mud, and other mineral sediment; that then,
by some slight upheaval or gradual silting up of the sea bottom, a land
surface was once more formed, and covered with a dense mass of plants,
which in course of time decayed, sank, and became overlaid with silt and
sand as before. At length, thick masses of stratified matter would
accumulate, producing great pressure, and this, acting along with
chemical changes, would gradually mineralize the vegetable layers into

In passing from wood or peat to coal, the proportion of carbon
increases, while that of oxygen and hydrogen decreases, these substances
being given off in the form of marsh-gas and carbonic acid gas in the
process of decay.

Deposits occur in almost all parts of the world, but many are almost
entirely undeveloped; as, for example, the coal fields of China. The
largest production is in the United States, Wales, England, Germany,
Austria, Russia and Australia. Mines are worked in India, Japan, Mexico,
South America, South Africa, China and the Philippines. Pennsylvania,
Ohio, West Virginia, Alabama, Indiana, Iowa and many other states mine
coal in great amount. Pennsylvania produces nearly all of the anthracite
and a large quantity of bituminous coal.

_Bituminous coal_, coking coal, non-coking coal, cannel coal, cherry
coal, splint coal, gas coal, steam coal, etc., are all varieties of soft
coal and contain a considerable percentage of volatile matter.

Bituminous coal is the fuel which runs the factories, railways and
steamships of the world. The distillation of coal tar and the
utilization of its numerous by-products, is one of the best examples of
modern economy which turns waste material into useful products and
large profits. Much coke is made without saving the by-products.

By distillation, bituminous coal yields gas, ammonia, coal tar and coke.
Coal tar products are numbered by the thousand. Among them are naphtha,
benzine, oil of mirbane, perfumes, flavors, drugs, saccharine, aniline
and other dyes, phenol, carbolic acid, salicylic acid, naphthaline,
photographic developers, creosote, oils, tar and pitch.

_Anthracite coal_ is almost pure carbon.

=Cobalt= is a metal the ores of which are sparingly distributed. It
generally occurs as Speiss-cobalt, cobalt-glance (or cobaltite), wad,
cobalt-bloom, linnæite and skutterudite. Its minerals are found chiefly
in the Erzgebirge Mountains, Sweden, Norway, Chile, in silver ores near
Coleman township, Ontario, in Oregon (as garnierite), and in New
Caledonia. The metal itself is of a gray color with a reddish tinge,
brittle, hard, and very magnetic.

Many of its compounds are valued on account of the brilliance and
permanence of their colors. The protoxide of cobalt, is employed in the
form of smalt in the production of the blue colors in porcelain,
pottery, glass, encaustic tiles, fresco-painting, etc., and forms the
principal ingredient in Old Sevres Blue, Thenard’s Blue, etc. The
chlorid of cobalt, dissolved in much water, may be employed as a
sympathetic ink. In dilute solutions, it is of a faint pink color, which
is not observable upon paper; but when heated before the fire, it loses
water, and becomes blue, and the writing is then capable of being read.

=Copper= is, next to iron, the most important metal in use. Its greatest
production is in the United States, in Arizona, Montana, Michigan, and
Utah. Spain, Japan, Chili, Australia and Germany produce smaller
amounts. The metal is purified by smelting, and refined, often by
electrolytic methods. There are many ores.

_Chalcopyrite_ and _bornite_ (sulphides of copper and iron) are widely

_Chalcocite_ (copper sulphide) is mined in Montana, _malachite_ and
_azurite_ (carbonates of copper) in Arizona and metallic copper in

_Copper matte_ is the crude metal as it comes from the smelter.

_Brass_ and _bronze_ are alloys of copper with zinc, tin, aluminum, etc.

_Copper sulphate_ (blue vitriol) is the most important chemical compound
of copper.

The value of copper has increased within recent years, due to its
enormous use in electrical work. Aside from this, copper is employed in
large amount in the various alloys into which it enters, and in coins,
utensils, printing plates, etc. Copper sulphate is extensively used in
electrical apparatus dyes, chemical work and as an antiseptic. Large
amounts of manufactured copper are exported to Europe. Smaller
quantities of ores, matte and regulus are imported from Mexico, South
America and other countries. Copper wire is extensively used by
telephone and telegraph companies.

=Diamond.= See gems.

=Gems, or Precious Stones= are those which, because of their beauty,
hardness, and rarity, are prized for use in ornamentation, especially
in jewelry. The diamond, ruby, sapphire, and emerald are the only stones
which are, strictly speaking, entitled to be called “precious” in this
sense; but the opal, on account of its beauty, is often classed with the
precious stones; as is also the pearl, which is really not a stone, but
a secretion of a shellfish.

_Alexandrite._--A variety of chrysoberyl found in the mica slate of the
Ural mountains. It is of a rich garnet color by artificial light, by
daylight of a dark moss green. It is the only stone that so changes. The
finest specimens of alexandrite are nearly as valuable as diamonds.

_Amethyst._--A variety of crystallized quartz of a purple or
bluish-violet color, of different shades. It is much used as a jeweler’s
stone. The lighter colored ones come from Brazil, the deep purple ones
from Siberia. In value they are about the same as the garnet.

_Beryl._--A very hard mineral of much beauty when transparent. It occurs
in hexagonal prisms, commonly of a green or bluish-green color, but also
yellow, pink and white. It is a silicate of aluminum and glucinum.
Beryls are very rich in colors.

_Bloodstone._--A green siliceous stone sprinkled with red jasper, whence
the name.

_Cameo._--A figure cut in stone or shell that is composed of different
colored layers. The value depends on the artistic merit of the engraved

_Carbuncle._--A beautiful gem of a deep red color (with a mixture of
scarlet), found in the East Indies. When held up to the sun it loses its
deep tinge, and becomes of the color of a burning coal.

_Carnelian._--A variety of chalcedony, of a clear, deep red, flesh-red,
or reddish-white color. It is moderately hard, capable of a good polish,
and often used for seals. It is now used but little.

_Cat’s-eye._--A variety of quartz or chalcedony exhibiting opalescent
reflections from within, like the eye of a cat. The name is given to
other gems affording like effects, especially the chrysoberyl.

_Chalcedony._--A translucent variety of quartz, having usually a whitish
color, and a luster nearly like wax.

_Dendrite._--A stone or mineral in which are branching figures,
resembling shrubs or trees, produced by a foreign mineral, usually by an
oxide of manganese, and the moss agate.

_Diamond._--A precious stone or gem excelling in brilliancy, beauty of
prismatic colors, and remarkable for extreme hardness. It is found in
many hues--green, rose, straw, yellow, etc.--but the straw-colored ones
are the most common. The diamond is a native carbon, occurring in
isometric crystals, often octahedrons, with rounded edges. It is the
hardest substance known. Diamonds are said to be of the first water when
very transparent, and of the second and third water as the transparency

_Diopside._--A crystallized variety of pyroxene (a silicate of lime and
magnesia), of a clear, grayish-green color; also called mussite.

_Emerald._--A precious stone of a rich green color; it is the most
valuable variety of beryl. (See beryl.)

_Epidote._--A mineral, commonly of a yellowish-green color, occurring
granular, massive, columnar, and in crystals. It is a silicate of
alumina, lime, and oxide of iron, or manganese.

_Fluorite._--Calcium fluoride, a mineral of many different colors,
white, yellow, purple, red, etc., often very beautiful. When
crystallized it is commonly in cubes with perfect octahedral cleavage.
Some varieties are used for ornamental vessels. Also called fluor spar,
or simply fluor. The colored varieties are often called false ruby,
false emerald, false topaz, false sapphire, and false amethyst.

_Flint._--A massive, somewhat impure variety of quartz, in color usually
of a gray to brown or nearly black. (See quartz.)

_Garnet._--A mineral having many varieties, differing in color and in
their constituents, but with the same general chemical formula. The
commonest color is red; the luster is vitreous, or glassy; and the
hardness is greater than that of quartz, about half as hard as the
diamond. Besides the red varieties there are also white, green, yellow,
brown and black ones.

The garnet is a silicate with various bases. The transparent red
varieties are used as gems. The garnet was the carbuncle of the
ancients. Garnet is a very common mineral in gneiss and mica slate.

The finest specimens of red garnets come from Arizona and a single carat
stone is worth about two dollars. A green variety that comes from Russia
is worth about half as much as the diamond.

_Heliotrope_ or _bloodstone_.--A green siliceous stone sprinkled with
jasper, as if with blood, whence the name.

_Hyacinth._--A red variety of zircon, sometimes used as a gem. It
resembles closely a dark Spanish topaz, and is worth a little more than
the garnet.

_Indicolite._--A variety of tourmaline of an indigo-blue color.

_Iolite._--A silicate of alumina, iron, and magnesia, having a bright
blue color and a vitreous or glassy luster. It is remarkable for its
dichroism, and is also called dichroite.

_Jacinth._--Same as hyacinth.

_Jade._--A stone commonly of a pale to dark green color, but sometimes
whitish. It is hard and very tough, capable of a fine polish, and is
used for ornamental purposes and for implements, especially in eastern
countries and among many primitive peoples.

_Jasper._--An opaque, impure variety of quartz, of red, yellow, and
other dull colors, breaking with a smooth surface. (See quartz.)

_Labradorite._--A kind of feldspar, commonly showing a beautiful play of
bluish-gray colors, and, hence, much used for ornamental purposes. The
finest specimens come from Labrador.

_Lapis-lazuli_ or _lazuli_.--A mineral of a fine azure-blue color,
usually occurring in small rounded masses. It is essentially a silicate
of alumina, lime, and soda, with some sodium sulphide. It is often
marked by yellow spots or veins of sulphide of iron, and is much valued
for ornamental work.

_Moonstone._--A nearly pellucid variety of feldspar, showing pearly or
opaline reflections from within.

The best specimens come from Ceylon. Their value is not much more than
the expense of cutting.

_Obsidian._--A kind of glass produced by volcanoes. It is usually of a
black color and opaque, except in thin splinters.

_Onyx._--Chalcedony in parallel layers of different shades of color. It
is used for making cameos, the figure being cut in one layer with the
next layer as a background (see cameo). It is stained black and used to
make mourning jewelry.

_Opal._--A mineral consisting, like quartz, of silica, but inferior to
quartz in hardness and specific gravity. The precious opal shows a
peculiar play of colors of delicate tints and it is highly esteemed as a
gem. One kind, with a varied play of colors in a reddish ground, is
called harlequin opal. The fire opal (which comes from Mexico) has
colors like the red and yellow of flame. This is not the cheap variety
commonly called Mexican opal.


  |        =Name and Possessor=         |  =Carats |=Carats |  =Dis-   |
  |                                     |  (Cut=)  |(Uncut=)| covered= |
  |   1. Great Mogul       Indian Moguls| 280      |  ...   |17th Cent.|
  |2-11. Pitt or Regent          King of| 136-7/8  |  410   |  1702    |
  |                              Prussia|          |        |          |
  | 3-5. Florentine           Emperor of| 139-1/2  |  ...   |  ...     |
  |                              Austria|          |        |          |
  |4-12. Star of the           Brazilian| 127      |  254   |  1853    |
  |      South                Government|          |        |          |
  |   6. Sancy                   Czar of|  53-1/2  |   83   |15th Cent.|
  |                               Russia|          |        |          |
  |   7. Green Diamond   Dresden Museum |  40      |  ...   |  ...     |
  |8-10. Koh-i-noor    Crown of England |{280 (Old)|  ...   | B. C. 56 |
  |                                     |{106-9/16 |        |          |
  |                                     |  (New)   |        |          |
  |  9. Hope          Mrs. E. B. McLean,|  44-1/2  |  ...   |  ...     |
  |                    Washington, D. C.|          |        |          |


  |Cullinan I  }         King Edward VII|{ 561-1/2 |}3,025- |   1905   |
  |Cullinan II }                        |{ 309-3/4 |} 3/4   |          |
  |Braganza             King of Portugal|Never Cut | 1,680  |   1741   |
  |Rajah of Mattan       Rajah of Mattan|  367.9   |787-1/2 |   1756   |
  |                             (Borneo)|          |        |          |
  |Orloff       Czar of Russia (scepter)|  194-3/4 |  ...   |    ...   |
  |Tavernier              Stolen in 1792|    ...   |242-1/2 |   1668   |
  |King of Portugal                     |  138-1/2 |  150   |   1775   |
  |Light Yellow        Stewart (diamond)|    ...   |288-5/8 |    ...   |
  |Shah                   Czar of Russia|   86     |  ...   |    ...   |
  |Nassac              Lord (Marquis of)|   78-5/8 | 89-5/8 |    ...   |
  |                          Westminster|          |        |          |
  |Porter Rhodes  Found in South America|    ...   |  150   |   1872   |
  |Blue                                 |   67-1/2 |  112   |    ...   |
  |Pigott      Bought by Messrs. Rundell|   49     |  ...   |    ...   |
  |                           and Bridge|          |        |          |
  |Dudley                 Earl of Dudley|   49-1/2 | 88-1/2 |    ...   |
  |Star of South Africa                 |   46-1/2 | 83-1/2 |   1867   |
  |Pasha of Egypt       Khedive of Egypt|   40     |  ...   |    ...   |
  |Charles the Bold                     |   28     |  ...   |    ...   |

_Pearl._--A shelly concretion, usually rounded, having a brilliant
luster, with varying tints, formed in the mantle, or between the mantle
and shell, of certain bivalve mollusks (especially in the pearl oysters
and river mussels) and sometimes in certain univalves. Its substance is
the same as nacre or mother-of-pearl. Pearls which are round, or nearly
round, and of fine luster, are highly prized as jewels. They are sold by
carat grains instead of carats.

_Rhodonite._--Manganese spar, or silicate of manganese, a mineral
occurring crystallized and in rose-red masses. It is almost entirely
used for ornamental purposes, in slabs, blocks, etc.

_Rock crystal_ or _mountain crystal_.--Any transparent crystal of
quartz, particularly of limpid or colorless quartz. A sphere of rock
crystal of absolutely perfect clearness, about five inches in diameter,
is worth at least twenty thousand dollars.

_Rose quartz._--A variety of quartz which is pinkish red.

_Rubellite._--A variety of tourmaline varying in color from a pale
rose-red to a deep ruby, and containing lithium. It is a little more
valuable than the garnet.

_Ruby._--A precious stone of a carmine-red color, sometimes verging to
violet, or intermediate between carmine and hyacinth red. It is a
crystallized variety of corundum. The ruby from Siam is of a dark color
and is called oxblood ruby. It has about the same value as the diamond.
The ruby from Burmah, called the pigeon-blood ruby, is of a lighter
color and several times more valuable than the oxblood ruby.

_Sapphire._--A variety of native corundum or aluminium sesquioxide. As
the name of a gem the term is restricted to the transparent varieties of
blue, pink, yellow, and other colors. The best specimens of the blue
variety are nearly as valuable as the diamond. The sapphire is next to
the diamond in hardness.

_Sard._--A variety of carnelian, of a reddish-yellow or brownish color.

_Sardonyx._--A variety of onyx consisting of sard and white chalcedony
in alternate layers. (See onyx.)

_Spinel._--A mineral occurring in octahedrons of great hardness and
various colors, as red, green, blue, brown, and black, the red variety
being the gem spinel ruby. It consists essentially of aluminum
magnesium, but commonly contains iron and sometimes also chromium. The
fine specimens of spinel ruby are worth rather more than half as much as
the diamond.

_Topaz._--A mineral occurring in rhombic prisms, generally yellowish and
pellucid, also colorless, and of greenish, bluish, or brownish shades.
It sometimes occurs massive and opaque.

_Tourmaline._--A mineral occurring in three-sided prisms. Black
tourmaline is the most common variety, but there are also other
varieties, as the blue (indicolite), red (rubellite); also green, brown,
and white. The red and green varieties, when transparent, are valued as
jewels. The finest ones come from Maine, and are worth four or five
times as much as garnets.

_Turquoise._--A hydrous phosphate of alumina containing a little copper.
It has a blue, or bluish-green color, and usually occurs in
kidney-shaped masses with a nodular surface like that of a bunch of
grapes. The finest specimens are worth nearly half as much as diamonds.

_Verd antique._--A mottled-green, serpentine marble, also a green
porphyry, which is called oriental verd antique.

_Zircon._--A mineral usually of a brown or gray color. It consists of
silicon and zirconium, and is harder than the garnet. The transparent
varieties are used as gems. The red variety is called Hyacinth; a
colorless, pale yellow, or smoky-brown variety from Ceylon is called

=Gold=, a metal valued on account of its scarcity, color, luster, and
power of resisting oxidation. It is found in nearly all parts of the
world. South Africa and the United States are the leading producers.
Australia, South America and parts of Europe possess important gold

Gold is separated from gravel (placer mines) by washing with water. The
particles of metal, being heavy, sink and can be collected. Rock
containing gold is crushed to fine powder and the gold combined with
mercury (amalgamation). Low-grade ores are treated with a solution of
cyanide of potassium which dissolves the gold and the metal is later

_Chloride of gold_, used in photographic work, is its only important
compound. Pure gold is called twenty-four carats fine. A smaller figure
indicates that the metal is alloyed to harden it.

Gold is used for money, jewelry, gold leaf (gilding) and in dentistry.
It is almost always alloyed with copper and silver. Gold is the world’s
accepted standard of value. Shipments of gold go from one country to
another chiefly to balance international business dealings. Government
treasuries and bank vaults are the chief storehouses for gold, either
as bullion or coin.

=Graphite= is almost pure carbon. It is produced in Bohemia, Ceylon,
Italy, Germany, Mexico and the United States. The deposits in Ceylon are
the largest in the world. Much of that mined in New York and Alabama is
of very high grade.

_Plumbago_ or _black lead_ is used in making crucibles, lead pencils,
lubricants for heavy machinery, stove polish, foundry facings, paint,

_Artificial graphite_ is made from coal or coke by an electric process.

Powdered graphite is mixed with fine clay in greater or less proportion
and then molded and baked to form such articles as crucibles and lead
for pencils. Graphite is imported from Ceylon to the United States, and
lead pencils from Europe.

=Iron= is the most useful of all metals. The United States, Germany,
Great Britain, Spain and France are the greatest producers of iron. Its
ores occur in almost all parts of the world. Hematite is mined in
Minnesota, Michigan, Alabama and other parts of the United States and in
Germany, England, France, Spain, Russia, etc. Limonite is also widely
distributed. Pig iron is made by smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.
The ore, mixed with limestone, is melted by burning coke, coal or

_Pyrite_ (iron pyrites, or fool’s gold) is found in Spain and many other
parts of the world and is valuable in the preparation of sulphuric acid
(oil of vitriol), but useless as an iron ore.

_Hematite_ (sesquioxide of iron) is the ore which supplies three-fourths
of the iron of commerce.

_Limonite_ brown (hematite) is a hydrous oxide and furnishes nearly
one-fourth of the world’s supply of the metal. Magnetite and siderite
are less common ores.

_Pig iron_ is the crude form of the refined metal and is transformed
into cast iron, wrought iron and steel in their multitudinous forms.

These three forms of iron differ in hardness, strength, elasticity,
malleability, etc., according to the amounts of carbon, sulphur,
phosphorus, manganese and other elements.

_Ochers_ and metallic paints are iron oxides. _Prussian blue_ and
_copperas_ are iron compounds.

The United States manufactures more iron and steel than any other
country. Almost half of the production is in Pennsylvania. _Cast iron_
appears in many articles but is weaker than other forms of iron.
_Wrought iron_ contains less impurity and is used for bars, plates,
wire, structural material and parts of machinery. _Steel_ (Bessemer,
Siemens-Martin, open hearth, etc.) contains more carbon than wrought
iron, possesses both strength and hardness, and is used for rails,
structural material, machinery, tools, wire rope, sheet steel, etc. Its
hardness may be increased by tempering. The United States imports iron
ore from Cuba and Spain, pig iron from Great Britain and a little
manufactured iron and steel from Europe. We export large quantities of
manufactured iron and steel.

=Lanthanum.= See rare metals.

=Lead= is the softest, heaviest, most malleable and most easily melted
of the common metals. Its ores are found in many countries but the main
supply is from the United States, Spain, Germany and Mexico. The chief
lead mines of the United States are in Missouri, Idaho, Utah, Colorado
and Kansas. Much lead bullion is from smelters where silver ores are

_Galena_ (lead sulphide) is the only important ore; it often carries a
considerable percentage of silver. Carbonates and sulphates of lead are
less common. _Solder_ and _type metal_ are alloys of lead with tin and
antimony. _White lead_ is a carbonate, _red lead_ and _litharge_ are
oxides. _Chrome yellow_ and _orange mineral_ are lead compounds used as

The chief use of metallic lead is in piping, sheet lead, shot and
alloys. Large amounts of ore are transformed not into metallic lead but
into white lead for use in paints. Lead ores and lead bullion are
imported from Mexico. England is the greatest importer of lead and lead

=Lithium= is the metallic base of the Alkali lithia. The metal is of a
white, silvery appearance, and is much harder than sodium or potassium,
but softer than lead. It is the lightest of all known solids, its
specific gravity being little more than half that of water. It comes
principally from South Dakota, California and Sweden.

In chemical laboratories it is converted into lithium carbonate for
medicinal tablets and mineral waters.

=Magnesium= is a metal widely distributed over the globe, and chiefly
mined in Austria, Germany and Greece. The metal is used in flash powders
for photographic use, and in chemical manufacture, in fireproofing and
lining furnaces.

_Magnesite_ (magnesium carbonate) is used in making carbon dioxide gas
and epsom salts and for preparing magnesia (calcined magnesia).

_Dolomite_ (magnesium calcium carbonate) is common limestone, used for
building. Found in many parts of the world. Calcined dolomite is used
for lining iron furnaces.

_Talc_ (hydrous magnesium silicate), soapstone or steatite, is a soft
mineral. Mined in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, etc., and in
Europe. It is made into laundry tubs, firebrick, hearthstones, griddles,
slate and tailor’s pencils, gas tips, etc. Imported in small amount from
France and Italy.

_Meerschaum_ or sepiolite (magnesium silicate), comes from Asia Minor
and New Mexico. It is easily carved and made into pipes and cigar
holders. Austria and France use large quantities. It is largely

_Asbestos_ is a fibrous variety of serpentine (a magnesium silicate).
Mineral wool is an artificial fibrous mineral. It is mined in Quebec,
Canada. Another variety of asbestos comes from Italy. Mines have been
recently discovered in Wyoming. It is used as a fireproofing material.
This mineral fiber is spun and woven into fireproof fabrics for theater
curtains or made into felt building paper, pipe covering, etc.

=Mercury= (or quicksilver) is a heavy metal which is liquid at ordinary
temperatures. It is produced in Spain, the United States, Austria,
Italy and Russia. California supplies most of this country’s quota. It
is obtained by distillation of the ore.

_Cinnabar_ (sulphide of mercury) is the source of the metal, although a
little is found in nature in the pure state.

_Vermilion_ (artificially prepared cinnabar) is used in paints.

_Calomel_ and _corrosive sublimate_ are used in medicine and
_fulminates_ of mercury in explosives.

It is used principally in the extraction of gold and silver from their
ores by amalgamation. Employed in thermometers and barometers, silvering
mirrors, and in making amalgams for dental work.

=Mica= is a common mineral found in rocks in many parts of the world. It
is mined in India, Canada, North Carolina and South Dakota. Several
varieties occur (muscovite, biotite, etc.)--valuable only when found in
large sheets which can be split smoothly. Transparent sheets are used
for lamp chimneys and stove doors. It is also employed in electrical
work, and lubricating. Some is imported from India.

=Molybdenum.= See rare metals.

=Nickel= is found in the ores pyrrhotite and garnierites, mined in
largest amount in New Caledonia and Canada. Norway produces other ores.

_Garnierite_ (a silicate of nickel and magnesium) is the common ore.
Magnetic iron pyrite (_pyrrhotite_) often carries several per cent of
nickel. Sulphides and other compounds occur. _German silver_ contains
nickel, copper and zinc. It enters into other alloys.

France and Germany refine nickel from imported ore, chiefly from New
Caledonia. Nickel steel, being especially hard and tough is used for
armor plate, special machinery and wire rope. Nickel is extensively used
for cheap electro plating.

Nickel and nickel oxide are exported to Holland and England from the
United States and ores and matte are imported from Canada.

=Petroleum= (or coal oil) is obtained from wells in the United States,
Russia, Dutch East Indies, Galicia, Roumania and other countries. More
than half of the world’s output is from the United States, the leading
districts being (1) Kansas and Oklahoma, (2) California, (3) Illinois,
(4) Pennsylvania and (5) Texas. Crude oil is transported from the wells
for hundreds of miles through pipe lines to the refineries.

In its crude state, petroleum is a dark colored liquid. It yields by
distillation, first: light oils, _gasoline_, _naphtha_, _benzine_;
second: _illuminating oils_, _kerosene_, _headlight oil_, etc.; third:
_lubricating oils_, _engine oil_, _cylinder oil_, _machine oil_; fourth:
_petroleum residuum_ (for asphalt paving) and _coke_. _Petrolatum_,
_vaseline_ and _paraffin wax_ are by-products in petroleum refining.

American kerosene oil is exported to all parts of the globe. Crude oil
is also exported as well as other petroleum products.

=Platinum= is a rare metal found with gold, iridium and other rare
metals in placer mines. It comes chiefly from Russia. Smaller amounts
from Colombia, California, Canada and Australia.

It is used in the terminals of incandescent electric lamps, and also
employed by chemists, jewelers and dentists.

=Potash= (or potassium) is an alkaline metal. Chlorides, sulphates,
etc., are found in Germany. Wood ashes and sugar beet refuse furnish
much of the world’s potash. Stassfurt, Germany, possesses the only known
large deposit of natural potash salts. These salts are the source of
potash in many chemical industries and in fertilizers. It is exported in
large amount from Germany to England, France and America.

=Quartz= (silica) is of many varieties, crystalline to amorphous.

_Rock flint_ is mined in Connecticut and Pennsylvania, and also comes
from the chalk cliffs of England and France.

_Sandstones_ are quarried and used for building in almost all parts of
the world. Pennsylvania, Ohio, and New York supply the greatest
quantities in the United States. _Honestones_ and _whetstones_ are
mostly sandstone, and in this country are largely quarried in Arkansas,
Michigan and New Hampshire.

_Rock crystal_ is employed for lenses. Many semiprecious stones are
varieties of quartz, as _agate_, _moss agate_, _onyx_, _sard_,
_chalcedony_, _chrysoprase_, _jasper_, etc.

_Rock flint_ and _quartz sand_ are used in making glass and pottery.

Outside of building stones, quartz is used in greatest amount in making
glass and pottery. For glass it is melted with alkali (soda ash) and
either lime or lead oxide. Glass is either blown or molded. Belgium,
Austria, Germany, France, Great Britain and the United States
manufacture glassware. Pennsylvania, Indiana and New Jersey are the
leading states.

=Radium= is the most characteristic of those substances which possess
the property of radio-activity--i.e. have the power of producing
photographic or electric effects by a process identical with or
analogous to radiation. The property was first observed in _uranium_ by
Becquerel in 1896--hence the name “Becquerel rays.” In 1898 Schmidt and
Madame Curie discovered almost simultaneously that the compounds of
_thorium_ had the same radio-active property; and further elaborate
investigations led to the discovery of _polonium_, _radium_, and
_actinium_, as new substances with radio-active properties. Polonium was
the name given by M. and Mme. Curie to the radio-active component of
bismuth separated from pitchblende. Its activity is transient. In the
new field of research thus opened up important work has been done by
Rutherford, Crooks, Ramsay, Soddy, Huggins, and others.

Radium is derived from _pitchblende_, in which it exists in very small
quantities. After a long-continued process of fractional crystallization
it has been prepared in the form of a tolerably pure salt. The process
of obtaining the element is very tedious. One to two kilograms of impure
radium bromide can be procured from a ton of pitchblende residue only
after processes extending over months. For the remarkable chemical
properties of radium, see further under Radio-activity.

=Rare Metals.= These include chiefly the following: _Tungsten_,
_molybdenum_, _vanadium_ and _uranium_. They are found in Colorado,
Arizona, Germany, England and Sweden. The ores of these metals are
unusual minerals, and the metals themselves are used in making special
high grades of steel. Their salts are used in dyeing.

_Thorium_, _cerium_, _lanthanum_ and _yttrium_, found in North Carolina,
Norway, Brazil and Ceylon, are also to be classified under this head.
Monazite, samarskite, thorite and other rare minerals contain these
elements. They are used in preparing the mantles for incandescent gas

=Silver=, the more common precious metal, is produced in greatest amount
in the Rocky Mountains and the Andes. The United States, Mexico,
Australia, Bolivia, Chili, Peru and Germany contribute nearly the entire
supply. Montana, Colorado, Nevada and Utah lead in silver production in
the United States. The ores are usually smelted and refined to purify
the metal.

_Argentiferous galena_ (lead ore) is the commonest ore of silver. The
amount of silver per ton varies greatly. Zinc and copper ores often
carry silver. Many sulphides of silver (argentite, pyrargyrite, etc.)
are found, as well as chlorides and bromides (cerargyrite and
bromyrite). _Chloride_ and _nitrate of silver_ are used in photography.

Silver is manufactured into innumerable articles for household use and
personal adornment. The cheapest articles are not solid (sterling) but
are electrically plated with a very thin coating of silver. Silver coins
form the bulk of the currency of the world, although in most countries
gold is the standard.

=Sodium= is the most important alkaline metal, and has a wide use.

_Salt_ (rock salt, sea salt, lake salt, halite or sodium chloride) is
the commonest natural compound of sodium. Important for food and in
chemical manufacture.

Rock salt is mined in Germany, Austria, Spain, England, Louisiana,
Kansas, India and other parts of the world. Obtained by evaporating salt
water from wells in England, Michigan, New York, Ohio and China, or by
evaporating salt water in the West Indies, Great Salt Lake, etc.

Besides its use for meat packing, curing fish, domestic purposes, etc.,
it is employed in silver refining, and the preparation of hydrochloric
acid, soda ash, carbonate of soda and other chemical products.

_Soda niter_ (nitrate of sodium) is a very easily soluble mineral. It is
found in quantity only in the deserts of northern Chili, and is exported
in large amounts to Europe and America for fertilizer and the
manufacture of nitric acid and other chemicals.

_Borax_ (hydrous sodium borate) occurs in nature in an impure form and
is prepared also from calcium borates. Borates are found in Tuscany,
Central Asia, California and Nevada, and in South America.

Borax and boracic acid are used in pottery manufacture, for the
preservation of meat, in dyeing and in medicine.

=Strontium= is found in Germany, Scotland, Texas and New York.
Strontianite (strontium carbonate) and celestite (strontium sulphate)
contain this element. Strontium salts are used in sugar refining and
making red fire.

=Sulphur= or brimstone is found in a pure state in volcanic regions or
associated with gypsum and limestone. Pyrite (sulphide of iron) is also
a source of sulphur compounds.

Sicily, Italy, Japan, Louisiana and Utah have mines of native sulphur,
which is used in manufacturing sulphuric acid, gunpowder, matches, as a
disinfectant, for bleaching and vulcanizing rubber.

Blue vitriol, green vitriol and alum are sulphates. Sulphur is imported
from Sicily and Italy.

=Thorium.= See rare metals.

=Tin= is less abundant than most of the common metals. The Malay
peninsula and nearby islands (Banca and Billiton) produce over half the
tin ore of the world. The remainder is mined in Bolivia, Australia,
Tasmania and Cornwall, England. Small deposits occur in the United

Tin melts at a low temperature and is easily refined.

_Cassiterite_ (tin oxide) is the only important ore. This mineral is
commonly found as pebbles (stream tin) in gravel.

_Tinplate_ and alloys containing tin are of enormous importance in the
arts. Of these, _bronze_ is chief. _Gun metal_, _pewter_, _solder_,
_type metal_ and _britannia metal_ are other alloys. Salts of tin are
used in dyeing, glass making, etc.

Tinplate, used for tin cans, roofing and kitchen utensils, is made by
dipping sheet iron or steel in a bath of melted tin, thus covering it
with a thin layer of tin. Tinplate is manufactured in the United States
and imported from England. Tin metal is imported from England and
Straits Settlements.

=Tungsten.= See rare metals.

=Uranium.= See rare metals.

=Vanadium.= See rare metals.

=Zinc= is one of the most useful metals. Germany, United States and
Belgium supply most of the zinc. In this country, Missouri and Kansas
lead in zinc production.

_Sphalerite_ or blend (zinc sulphide) is the chief ore. Carbonates,
silicates and oxides of zinc are found. Crude zinc (_spelter_) is
distilled from roasted ore.

_Brass_, _German silver_ and other alloys contain zinc. _Galvanized
iron_ consists of a coating of zinc on sheet iron. _Zinc oxide_ (zinc
white) resembles white lead and is used in paints.

Used in electric batteries, making hydrogen, zinc etchings, etc. The
greatest amount of zinc is used in alloys and zinc compounds. Zinc and
zinc ores are both imported and exported by the United States, the
imports exceeding the exports. Zinc oxide is exported in larger amount
than any other form.



The United States produces one-fourth of the entire output of the world.
Salt was one of the first two great articles of international commerce
in the history of the world trade.]


The most wonderful salt mines in the world are those of Galicia, in
Austria. In this region there is a mass of salt estimated to measure 500
miles in length, 20 miles in breadth, and 1,200 feet in thickness.]


=Acanthodus= (_a-kan-thō´dus_).--Fossil fish, having thorn-like fins.

=Aërodynamics= (_ā-ẽr-ō-di-nam´iks_).--The science which treats of the
air and other gaseous bodies under the action of force, and of their
mechanical effects.

=Aërognosy= (_ā-ẽr-ŏg´nô-sy_̆).--The science which treats of the
properties of the air, and of the part it plays in nature.

=Aërolite= (_ā´ẽr-ô-līt_).--A stone, or metallic mass, which has fallen
to the earth from distant space; a meteorite; a meteoric stone.

=Aërology= (_ā-ẽr-ŏl´ôjy̆_).--That department of physics which treats of
the atmosphere.

=Aerometer= (_ā´ẽr-ŏm´ê-tẽr_).--An instrument for ascertaining the
weight or density of air and gases.

=Ammonites= (_am´mo-nitz_).--Fossil mollusks of spiral form, found in
all strata from the palæozoic to the chalk; very numerous, varying
greatly in size; all now extinct; sometimes called snakestones.

=Anemology= (_ăn-ĕ-mŏl´ô-jy̆_).--The science of the wind.

=Anemometer= (_ăn-ĕ-mŏm´ẽ-tẽr_).--An instrument for measuring the force
and velocity of the wind; a wind gauge.

=Attrition= (_ăt-trĭsh´ŭn_).--The act of rubbing together; friction; the
act of wearing by friction, or by rubbing substances together; abrasion.

=Aurora= (_aw-rō´rȧ_).--The rising light of the morning; the dawn of
day; the redness of the sky just before the sun rises.

=Aurora Borealis= (_bō´rẽ-ā´lĭs_), i. e., northern daybreak; popularly
called northern lights. A luminous meteoric phenomenon, visible only at
night, and supposed to be of electrical origin. This species of light
usually appears in streams, ascending toward the zenith from a dusky
line or bank, a few degrees above the northern horizon. Occasionally the
aurora appears as an arch of light across the heavens from east to west.
Sometimes it assumes a wavy appearance. They assume a variety of colors,
from a pale red or yellow to a deep red or blood color.

The =Aurora Australis= (_aws-trā´lĭs_) is a corresponding phenomenon in
the southern hemisphere, the streams of light ascending in the same
manner from near the southern horizon.

=Barometer= (_bȧ-rŏm´ẽ-tẽr_).--An instrument for determining the weight
or pressure of the atmosphere, and hence for judging of the probable
changes of weather, or for ascertaining the height of any ascent.

=Calamites= (_kal´a-mīts_ or _kal´a-mī´tēz_).--Reed-like plants, found
in coal.

=Carboniferous= (_kär´bŏn-ĭf´ẽr-ŭs_).--Producing or containing carbon or

=Conglomerate= (_kŏn-glŏm´ẽr-ât_).--Pudding stone, composed of gravel
and pebbles cemented together.

=Corona= (_kô-rō´nȧ_).--A circle, usually colored, seen in peculiar
states of the atmosphere around and close to a luminous body as the sun
or moon.

=Cosmogony= (_kŏs-mŏg´o-ny̆_).--The creation of the world or universe; a
theory or account of such creation.

=Cosmology= (_kŏz-mŏl´ô-jy̆_).--The science of the world or universe; or
a treatise relating to the structure and parts of the system of
creation, the elements of bodies, the modifications of material things,
the laws of motion, and the order and course of nature.

=Crystallography= (_krĭs´tal-lŏg´rȧ-fy̆_).--The science of
crystallization, teaching the system of forms among crystals, their
structure, and their methods of formation.

=Cyclone= (_sī´klōn_).--A violent storm, often of vast extent,
characterized by high winds rotating about a calm center of low
atmospheric pressure. This center moves onward, often with a velocity of
twenty or thirty miles an hour.

=Denudation= (_dĕn´û-dā´shŭn_ or _dē´nū-_).--The laying bare of rocks by
the washing away of the overlying earth, etc.; or the excavation and
removal of them by the action of running water.

=Deposit.=--A body of ore distinct from a ledge; pocket of gravel or pay

=Diplacanthus= (_dip-lä-kăn´thus_).--A fish, belonging to Acanthodii,
known only by fossil remains in Old Red Sandstone.

=Drifts.=--Tunnels leading off from the main shaft, or from other
tunnels or levels, through and along the vein.

=Drift Matter.=--Earth, pebbles and bowlders that have been drifted by
water, and deposited over a country while submerged.

=Druse= (_drṳs_).--A cavity in a rock, having its interior surface
studded with crystals and sometimes filled with water.

=Elephas= (_el´e-fas_).--The Latin name for Elephant. The primitive
elephant was what is known as the Mammoth.

=Fata Morgana= (_fä´tȧ môr-gä´nȧ_).--A kind of mirage by which distant
objects appear inverted, distorted, displaced, or multiplied. It is
noticed particularly at the Straits of Messina, between Calabria and
Sicily, Italy.

=Fire-damp.=--An explosive carburetted hydrogen of coal mines.

=Fissures.=--Seams or crevices in rocks formed by volcanic or earthquake
action, and when filled subsequently by metal or metallic ores they
become fissure veins.

=Fog.=--Watery vapor condensed in the lower part of the atmosphere and
disturbing its transparency. It differs from cloud only in being near
the ground, and from mist in not approaching so nearly to fine rain.

=Geography= (_je-ŏg´rȧ-fy̆_).--The science which treats of the world and
its inhabitants; a description of the earth, or a portion of the earth,
including its structure, features, products, political divisions, and
the people by whom it is inhabited.

ASTRONOMICAL, or MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY treats of the earth as a planet,
of its shape, its size, its lines of latitude and longitude, its zones
and the phenomena due to the earth’s diurnal and annual motions.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY or PHYSIOGRAPHY treats of the conformation of the
earth’s surface, of the distribution of land and water, of minerals,
plants, animals, etc., and applies the principles of physics to the
explanation of the diversities of climate, productions, etc.

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY treats of the different countries into which the
earth is divided with regard to political and social institutions and

=Geology= (_jē-ŏl´o-jy̆_).--The science which treats: (a) Of the
structure and mineral constitution of the globe; structural geology. (b)
Of its history as regards rocks, minerals, rivers, valleys, mountains,
climates, life, etc.; historical geology. (c) Of the causes and methods
by which its structure, features, changes, and conditions have been
produced; dynamical geology.

=Goniatites= (_gō-ni-a-tī´tēz_).--Fossil remains of Ammonites, many
species of which are found in Devonian and Carboniferous Limestone.

=Hail= (_hāl_).--Frozen rain, or particles of ice precipitated from the
clouds, where they are formed by the congelation of vapor. The separate
particles are called hailstones.

=Harmattan= (_här-măt´tan_).--A dry, hot wind, prevailing on the
Atlantic coast of Africa, in December, January, and February, blowing
from the interior or Sahara. It is usually accompanied by a haze which
obscures the sun.

=Hoarfrost= (_hōr´frŏst_).--The white particles formed by the
congelation of dew; white frost.

=Hydrography= (_hī-drŏg´rȧ-fy̆_).--The art of measuring and describing
the sea, lakes, rivers, and other waters, with their phenomena.

=Hygrometer= (_hī-grŏm´ê-tẽr_).--An instrument for measuring the degree
of moisture of the atmosphere.

=Ignis fatuus= (_ĭg´-nĭs făt´ûŭs_).--A phosphorescent light that
appears, in the night, over marshy grounds, supposed to be occasioned by
the decomposition of animal or vegetable substances, or by some
inflammable gas,--popularly called also Will-with-the-wisp, or
Will-o’-the-wisp, and Jack-with-a-lantern, or Jack-o’-lantern.

=Ichthyosaurus= (_ĭk-thē-ō-saw´rus_).--A large marine reptile, known
only by fossil vertebræ and other bones, found in oolite rocks.

=Labyrinthodon= (_lab-i-rin´thō-don_), or Mastodon. A large animal,
belonging to Amphibia, remains of which are found in Upper Trias rocks
and strata.

=Lepidodendron= (_lep-i-dō-den´dron_).--Coal-plants, belonging to the
Lycopods, of which very many remains are found in coal.

=Lepidosteus= (_lep-i-dŏs´te-us_).--Bony-pike fish, the fossil remains
of which are found in rocks and earth strata.

=Lightning= (_līt´nĭng_).--A discharge of atmospheric electricity,
accompanied by a vivid flash of light, commonly from one cloud to
another, sometimes from a cloud to the earth. The sound produced by the
electricity in passing rapidly through the atmosphere constitutes

=Lithology= (_li-thŏl´ō-jy̆_).--The science which treats of rocks, as
regards their mineral constitution and classification, and their mode of
occurrence in nature.

=Lode= (_lōd_).--A metallic vein; a longitudinal fissure or chasm filled
with ore-bearing matter and having well-defined side walls; lode, lead,
vein and ledge are synonymous; a mineral vein in the rock.

=Mastodon= (_mas´tō-don_).--An extinct elephant-like mammal of America,
whose teeth have a nipple-like surface.

=Metallurgy= (_mĕt´al-ler-jy̆_).--The art of working metals,
comprehending the whole process of separating them from other matters in
the ore, smelting, refining and parting them; sometimes, in a narrower
sense, only the process of extracting metals from their ores.

=Meteorology= (_mĕ-tē-er-ŏl´o-jy̆_).--The science which treats of the
atmosphere and its phenomena, particularly of its variations of heat and
moisture, of its winds, storms, etc.

=Min´er-al´o-gy= (_mĭn-er-ăl´ō-jy_).--The science which treats of
minerals, and teaches how to describe, distinguish, and classify them.

=Mist= (_mĭst_).--Visible watery vapor suspended in the atmosphere, at
or near the surface of the earth; fog.

=Monsoon= (_mŏn-sōōn´_).--A wind blowing part of the year from one
direction, alternating with a wind from the opposite direction--a term
applied particularly to periodical winds of the Indian Ocean, which blow
from the southwest from the latter part of May to the middle of
September, and from the northeast from about the middle of October to
the middle of December.

=Oceanography= (_ō´shan-ŏg´rȧ-fy̆_).--A description of the ocean.

=Oceanology= (_ō´shan-ŏl´ô-jy̆_).--That branch of science which relates
to the ocean.

=Oreography= (_ō-rē-ŏg´rȧ-fy̆_).--The science of mountains; orography.

=Palæotherium= (_pā-lē-ō-thē´ri-um_).--A tapir-like mammal, having
canine teeth, known only by fossil remains found in Tertiary rocks.

=Pampero= (_pȧm-pâ´rô_).--A violent wind from the west or southwest,
which sweeps over the pampas of South America and the adjacent seas,
often doing great damage.

=Parhelion= (_pär-hēl´yŭn_ or _hē´lĭ-ŏn_).--A mock sun appearing in the
form of a bright light, sometimes near the sun, and tinged with colors
like the rainbow, and sometimes opposite to the sun. The latter is
usually called an _anthelion_. Often several mock suns appear at the
same time.

=Petrology= (_pē-trŏl´ô-jy̆_).--The science which is concerned with the
mineralogical and chemical composition of rocks, and with their
classification; lithology.

=Physiography= (_fiz-e-ŏg´rȧ-fy̆_).--The science which treats of the
earth’s exterior physical features, climate, life, etc., and of the
physical movements or changes on the earth’s surface, as the currents of
the atmosphere and ocean, the secular variations in heat, moisture,
magnetism, etc.; physical geography.

=Plesiosaurus= (_plē-zi-ō-saw´rus_).--An oolithic reptile with
crocodile-like head, known by fossil remains, chiefly vertebræ, found in
lias and oolitic rocks, named from its fossil remains being found near
those of the ichthyosaurus.

=Pneumatics= (_nû-măt´ĭks_).--That branch of science which treats of the
mechanical properties of air and other elastic fluids, as of their
weight, pressure, elasticity, etc.

=Pterodactyl= (_ter-ō-dak´tīl_).--Winged lizard: extinct reptile; fossil
remains found in Kentish chalk.

=Pyroscope= (_pĭr´ô-skōp_).--An instrument for measuring the intensity
of heat radiating from a fire, or the cooling influence of bodies. It is
a differential thermometer, having one bulb coated with gold or silver

=Rainbow.=--A bow or arch exhibiting, in concentric bands, the several
colors of the spectrum, and formed in the part of the hemisphere
opposite to the sun by the refraction and reflection of the sun’s rays
in drops of falling rain. Besides the ordinary bow, called also primary
rainbow, which is formed by two refractions and one reflection, there is
also another often seen exterior to it, called the secondary rainbow,
concentric with the first, and separated from it by a small interval. It
is formed by two refractions and two reflections, is much fainter than
the primary bow, and has its colors arranged in the reverse order from
those of the latter.

=Seismology= (_sīs-mŏl´ô-jy̆_).--The science of earthquakes.

=Seismometer= (_sīs-mŏm´e-tẽr_).--An instrument for measuring the
direction, duration, and force of earthquakes and like concussions.

=Simoon= (_sĭ-mōōn´_).--A hot, dry, suffocating, dust-laden wind, that
blows occasionally in Arabia, Syria, and the neighboring countries,
generated by the extreme heat of the parched deserts or sandy plains.

=Sirocco= (_sĭ-rŏk´kô_).--An oppressive, relaxing wind from the Libyan
deserts, chiefly experienced in Italy, Malta, and Sicily.

=Sivatherium= (_siv-a-thē´ri-um_).--A large four-horned antelope, known
by fossil remains found in Pliocene rocks of Hindustan.

=Strophomena= (_strō-fŏm´ĕ-nä_).--A genus of shell-like animals similar
to the nautilus, found in numerous fossil forms in Lower Silurian and
the carboniferous strata.

=Tornado= (_tor-nā´dô_).--A violent whirling wind; specifically a
tempest distinguished by a rapid whirling and slow progressive motion,
usually accompanied with severe thunder, lightning, and torrents of
rain, and commonly of short duration and small breadth; a small cyclone.

=Typhoon= (_tï-fōōn´_).--A violent whirlwind; specifically, a violent
whirlwind occurring in the Chinese seas.

=Wind.=--Air naturally in motion with any degree of velocity; a current
of air.

=Zosterites= (_zos-ter-ī´tez_).--Sear-wracks: marine plants, resembling
sea-weeds, with small naked flowers, found at the bottom of the sea.




















  Life in the world is represented by the _Vegetable_ and _Animal_
  kingdoms. Plants and animals, unlike minerals, grow from germs, and
  develop into individuals with definite forms and organs. After a
  limited existence they die, their species being perpetuated by seed
  or offspring. The _functions_ of plants and animals in nature are,
  however, entirely unlike. Plants are rooted in the soil; animals are
  free to move over the land, through the water or air. The plant,
  moreover, transforms the lifeless, inorganic elements (earth and
  air) into organic matter and thus prepares food for the animal. In
  its quiet, steady growth it gathers a store of force which the
  animal uses up in action. Thus the distribution of vegetation
  regulates that of animal life. Besides, vegetation clothes the
  surface of the land with that rich mantle of verdure and flowers
  which is its greatest ornament.

  All living things are termed _organisms_, and the science which
  takes account of them with special regard to their common
  characteristics is termed _Biology_, or Life-lore. The
  classification and life-history of plants are the objects of that
  part of biology known as _Botany_. That part similarly occupied with
  the study of animals is known as _Zoology_.

Throughout the entire realm of nature, in the _animal_ world as well as
in the _vegetable_, the development of life increases in energy, and in
the variety and perfection of the types, with the increasing intensity
of light and heat, from the poles to the equator.


Within the tropics, under the stimulating rays of a vertical Sun, grow
the most dense and varied forests, the most expanded foliage, and the
largest and the most brilliant flowers. Here, also, are found the most
delicious fruits, the most powerful aromatics, the greatest variety of
plants capable of affording sustenance to man, and the largest number of
those which contribute to the luxuries of civilized life.

In the tropical regions, also, are found the greatest variety of land
animals; with the highest types, the greatest stature, the most intense
activity, and the keenest intelligence exhibited in the brute creation.


This zone is the home of the gigantic elephant and giraffe; of the lion
and the tiger, the most powerful of all the beasts of prey; and of the
gorilla, chimpanzee, and ourang-outang, of all animals most resembling

Here, also, are the ostrich, the largest and most powerful of birds; the
condor, surpassing in size all other birds of flight; and the
humming-birds of South America, the smallest of the feathered tribes,
unsurpassed in brilliancy of coloring, rapidity of motion, and grace of

In the same zone are those enormous reptiles, the crocodile and the
boa-constrictor, with the hooded snakes and other serpents of most
deadly venom; and insects of all sizes in indescribable profusion.


In the Warm-Temperate Zone, though the Sun never reaches the zenith, yet
during the long summer his rays are almost vertical; while the winter is
so mild that snow and ice are of rare occurrence.

Here the vegetable world is less prodigal in species, and less luxuriant
in growth, than in the tropical regions; still, verdure is continuous
throughout the year, and fruits and flowers succeed each other almost
without interruption.

The animal world shows a similar, though less marked, decrease in the
exuberance of life. The higher orders are less numerous, the individuals
less gigantic and powerful; yet the antelopes, among the most graceful
of animals, and the camel, one of the most useful, especially
characterize this zone.


In the Temperate Zone, farther from the tropics, and receiving the Sun’s
rays with greater obliquity, all the forms of vegetable growth are more
modest than in the preceding. The forests are less dense and varied, the
foliage is less luxuriant, and flowers of brilliant hues are confined
to shrubs and herbaceous plants.

Though useful plants are numerous, yet scarce a species is of value in
its spontaneous growth; and, above all, the long dormant season, when
the trees and shrubs are bare and apparently lifeless, stamps the
vegetation of this zone with an aspect of inferiority.

The animal world still shows a large number of noble species; yet there
are some orders which, like the plants, are dormant during the winter;
while many of the birds migrate to warmer climes. Associated with
deciduous forests, boundless fertile prairies, and arid steppes--are the
bear, the wolf, the lynx, the bison, and many species of elk and deer.


Here is the home of the horse, the ass, and many varieties of oxen,
sheep, and goats,--those animals which, domesticated by man, have
accompanied him to all climes, adapting themselves to all circumstances.
The American turkey, the European pheasant, and the Asiatic parents of
many of our domestic fowls, also belong to the temperate zone; together
with a multitude of song birds, whose sober plumage, contrasting so
gloomily with the brilliant colors of their neighbors of the tropics, is
compensated by the sweetness of their notes. Here, also, is the home of
the honey-bee, and of the silk-worm, almost the only insects directly
useful to man.


In these regions, where the sun is always low, and in winter is above
the horizon but a small part of the time, all nature becomes
increasingly monotonous. The conifers, with their stiff forms and sombre
hues, impart a dreary aspect even to the summer landscape; and, during
the long winter, all life seems suspended.

The animal world, however, is more rich and varied than the vegetable.

Here we meet the great moose and the brown bear, the beaver and other
rodents, in large numbers; the sable, the mink, the ermine, and a host
of other animals whose fine, soft furs form one of the main resources of
this inhospitable clime.

In the Arctic Zone--where the forests give place to dwarf trees, stunted
or creeping shrubs, mosses, and lichens--the reindeer, the musk-ox, and
the white bear are the only representatives of the larger land animals,
though the smaller furry tribes are still numerous.

The sea, however, more genial in its temperature than the land, swarms
with living creatures of innumerable species, among which are the
largest representatives of the animal kingdom. The whale, the walrus,
and the seal, inhabit the Arctic seas; with every grade of marine life,
down to the animalculæ, which are so numerous as to give their color to
great areas of sea-water; and water-fowl, without number, and of many
varieties, enlivens the icy shores.


The great divisions of the science of plant life, or botany, are:
Structural Botany which treats of the gross anatomy of plants; Plant
Histology, of their minute anatomy; Plant Morphology, of the forms of
plants and their organs; Plant Physiology, of the functions of these
organs; Systematic Botany, of the relationship and classification of
plants; Geographical Botany, of the distribution of plants over the
surface of the globe; Paleobotany, of the vegetable life of past ages
and the successive appearance in the world of the great classes of
plants, as traced in their fossil remains; and Economic Botany, which
deals with the products of plants and their uses.

It is in the last division of the subject that our greatest practical
interest lies, and, consequently, it is best to reverse the general
order of treatment pursued by many botanists. Foremost in importance are
those plants grown for food, which form the great products of
_agriculture_, _gardening_ and _horticulture_. Scarcely less important
are those which yield fibers used for industrial purposes, such as
cotton, flax, jute and hemp; nor must we forget those producing
vegetable oils, rubber, and the large number of drugs so valuable to the
science of medicine in the alleviation of suffering.

(=See page 176 for scientific classification of the Vegetable or Plant



Among all the plants in the world, the first place must be given to the
food-producing cereals upon which our very existence depends. The most
important among these are undoubtedly wheat, barley, oats, rye, rice,
Indian corn or maize, millets, sorghum and others less widely used. More
than one-half the whole population of the world subsists to a great
extent on rice, and the vital importance of wheat needs no
demonstration. For our present purposes the use of the word “cereal” is
extended to include buckwheat and other starch-yielding plants, but
these are not true cereals.


The cereals are members of a great family of the grasses which have been
cultivated by man from time immemorial. Originally, no doubt, they were
wild plants which attracted attention owing to the comparatively large
quantities of foodstuffs they yielded, the ease with which they could be
collected, and their edible qualities. Now, in the majority of cases,
the original wild forms are no longer known, and as is common with
plants cultivated in many lands and during long periods, innumerable
species and varieties have been evolved as the result of selection by
man of the forms which appeared desirable for one or other of their


Their very name--cereals or cerealia--indicates the great value attached
to them in early historic times. These are so named after the goddess
Ceres, as the Romans called her--Demeter of the Greeks--the patroness of
agriculture and all the fruits of the earth.


In the temperate regions of the world wheat is the principal cereal
grown, and there are many different varieties suited to varying
conditions. As we go farther north, barley, oats and rye increase in
importance, and although they are grown for special purposes along with
wheat, it is important to note that they will thrive in countries and
under conditions not suited to wheat. Starting again from the temperate
zones and traveling north or south, as the case may be, we enter the
warmer countries where wheat cultivation is often associated with that
of rice, corn, sorghum, etc. In the tropics, however, wheat will not
thrive at low elevations, but rice, corn, sorghum and various millets
form the great cereal crops, their relative importance varying in
different countries.

The grasses proper grow upon our meadows, pastures, fields and in the
woods and are only used as food for cattle.


The roots of most kinds of grasses are persistent; the stems are hollow
and knotty, and the leaves consist of sheaths and discs. Their flowers
are arranged either in spikes or panicles, and are essentially the same
in form as those of the herbs. In the interior there is an ovary, from
which project two pistils with feathery styles. Close to the ovary are
three stamens, with very long filaments and large anthers. These
internal organs are generally surrounded by two tender bracts called the
_paleæ_, and two harder outer bracts forming the _glumes_. In the
grasses also self-fertilization does not take place, the wind here
taking the place of the insects. Consequently the anthers are suspended
from long filaments, and contain a quantity of pollen. As the grasses do
not need to attract insects, their flowers are small with little color,
and have no scent; nor do they secrete honey. The fruit is enclosed in a

=Alfalfa= (_Medicago sativa_) is a cultivated hay and pasture plant,
yielding per annum, without reseeding, three to six or more cuttings of
hay, averaging a ton each and often much more, for an indefinite period.
It is the richest forage plant known, and while old in history is
comparatively new to the agriculture of North America.

Alfalfa thrives on all soils except those too wet or having too much
acidity. The former calls for drainage and the latter demands lime.
Besides its abundance of rich forage, the leaves of which approximate
the value of wheat bran in animal rations, it is highly prized as a soil
improver, as it restores and enriches the land in which it grows, and
improves extraordinarily the physical character of the soil. Its roots
reaching to great depths, make it drought-resistant; they also gather
much nitrogen from the air, and it yields assuredly whether the season
be wet or dry. It has been demonstrated the greatest fertilizing and
soil renovating plant known to agriculture.

For hay it is cut whenever the first blossoms appear or when sprouts for
a new growth from the root crowns are discovered, which in some regions
is every month in the year. It is relished by all live stock, and is
particularly valuable in dairy husbandry, affording at lowest cost
important ingredients of the well balanced feeding ration. As pasturage
it is excellent for hogs and horses, but ruminants, such as cattle and
sheep are not safely grazed upon it, owing to its liability to cause
bloat, which if not promptly treated may bring speedy death.

Alfalfa requires a carefully prepared seedbed, with a thoroughly fine,
smooth surface, as the seeds are small. From fifteen to twenty pounds of
seed per acre are generally sown, although often much more, or less,
either with drills or broadcast, preferably in early fall and without a
nurse crop. Where the winters are long or severe from two to ten tons of
hay per acre in a season, and from two to seven bushels of seed.

=Blue-Grass= (_Poa pratensis_), frequently designated Kentucky Blue
Grass, is a perennial, and the most highly prized pasture grass, but is
not a profitable hay plant. Its growth has a wider range than timothy.
It is sown in autumn or spring, the former being preferable, as it can
endure cold better than heat, and thrives rather best when partially
shaded. One approved way is to sow the seed on snow, where the ground is
free from weeds. It is broadcasted at the rate of about one bushel of
seed in the chaff to the acre. Blue-grass is an extremely aggressive and
persistent plant voluntarily spreading among and displacing others where
it has not been sown. Its taking possession of and thriving on land that
has not been cultivated is not uncommon. The seed weighs fourteen pounds
to the bushel.

ENGLISH BLUE-GRASS or Meadow Fescue (_Fescuta elatior_) is a valuable
and hardy grass either for mowing or pasture. It thrives on soils not
too dry, and being long lived, is especially valuable for permanent
pastures. It is sown either in the spring or fall, by drilling or
broadcasting from one to three pecks per acre if for seed, and three
pecks to an acre if for pasture. It is harvested and handled much the
same as wheat. Kansas produces nearly seventy-five per cent of the seed
raised in America and ninety per cent of the total for the United States
is exported, Germany being the largest taker. This grass is very
nutritious and grazing animals are fond of it. A bushel of seed weighs
twenty-two pounds, and the yield of seed per acre is from five to
fifteen bushels.

=Brome-grass= (_Bromus inermis_) is a vigorous, hardy perennial pasture
and hay plant, with strong, creeping rootstocks, and is valuable for dry
regions. It is not adapted to a rotation, as its sod becomes too matted
and tough for comfortable cultivation. Owing to this tendency, after
three or four years of hay cropping its better use is for pasture. It
yields luxuriantly, is rich in flesh-forming elements, and much relished
by farm animals. It is sown broadcast, in spring or fall, eighteen to
twenty pounds of seed to the acre. The seed is chaffy and weighs but
fourteen pounds per bushel.

=Barley= is grown chiefly in the states of Minnesota, California,
Wisconsin, North and South Dakota, in the order named, these states
raising seventy-five per cent of the output grown in the United States.
It is used as food for live stock, and as an article of commerce is in
demand principally for the making of malt in brewing beer, but in
California and other western states, where Indian corn does not
flourish, barley is used as a substitute grain for horses and mules.
About two bushels to the acre are sown in the spring, with a drill or a
broadcast seeder. It is admirably adapted as a nurse crop, as it stands
up well and does not shade the ground so much as many other plants.

Barley for malting should be cut before fully ripe and put in
well-capped shocks to cure; the price paid is largely governed by the
color acquired in curing, which should be bright. A bushel weighs
forty-eight pounds, and the yield is from twenty-five to forty bushels
per acre.

=Buckwheat= (_Fagopyrum esculentum_) is a grain of minor importance, its
flour being used as human food, mostly in the form of griddle cakes. The
plant is esteemed for plowing under in summer, to supply humus, and its
blossoms for the honey bee. Most of it is grown in New York and
Pennsylvania, and it does well in soils too poor for most other crops.
It is sensitive to frost, and used as a sort of catch crop, sown
generally about the beginning of July, broadcast. Forty bushels,
weighing forty-eight pounds per bushel, is a maximum yield.

=Clover= (_Trifolium pratense_). In the states east of the Missouri
river _red clover_ is highly esteemed. It has much the same qualities as
alfalfa, except it is a biennial, enduring but two years without
re-seeding and at best gives two cuttings of hay per year, aggregating
two to three tons. It is from the second cutting that seed is usually
saved. Four quarts of seed is a common quantity to sow per acre. Red
clover makes excellent hay, except for horses. Its seed, like that of
alfalfa, weighs sixty pounds per bushel, and its yield is from one to
five bushels per acre.

WHITE CLOVER (_Trifolium repens_) is a very useful pasture and honey
plant, but is not used for hay. It spreads rapidly, and is widely used
for sowing with other pasture grasses.

ALSIKE CLOVER (_Trifolium hybridum_) is largely sown on lands not well
adapted to red clover, where land is either too wet or too dry for the
latter, and it does not require so sweet a soil.


The champion ten ears of corn shown in the illustration average ten and
one-half inches in length and seven and three-quarters in circumference,
each ear carrying twenty rows of kernels, the depth of the kernels being
three fourths of an inch, and the average weight of each ear was twenty
ounces. They were sold at the rate of $2,345 per bushel or $335 for the
ten ears. The champion single ear of corn was sold at the Omaha National
Corn Show for $85.]

=Corn= (_Zea mays_). Indian corn, or maize is a product native to
America, an annual, and is the most important member of the grass
family. It is America’s foremost cereal, with a wider adaptability than
any other, and is grown in every state and territory. The temperate
climate of the Central States is most favorable to it, and Illinois,
Iowa, Nebraska, Missouri, Indiana, Kansas and Ohio are the leading
states in its planting. The bulk of the world’s production of maize is
grown in this country, although it is an important crop in Hungary,
Italy, Egypt, South Africa, and other parts of the world.

ECONOMIC USES.--Corn is of primary importance as a food for live stock,
enormous quantities being used to fatten cattle and swine.

The manufacture of starch and other products from corn is an industry of
increasing magnitude. The chief starch derivatives are dextrine and
glucose or grape sugar (used in brewing beer and as a substitute for
true sugar).

Corn oil may be called a by-product in starch manufacture, yet the
annual value of corn oil is greater than that of cornstarch produced in
the United States. It is used in soap and paints. Vulcanized by heating
with sulphur, it forms a widely used adulterant and substitute for

Among the dozens of useful products made from corn are corn meal, corn
grits, hominy, breakfast foods, beer, whisky, alcohol, cologne spirits,
cornstarch, dextrine, glucose, grape sugar, corn sirup, corn oil, soap,
rubber substitute and cattle foods.

A special variety of corn is raised to make cob pipes. Compressed corn
pith is packed between the double hulls of warships. Corn husks are used
in mattresses and paper is made in very limited amount from the leaves
and stalks. Large amounts of popcorn, plain and candied, are eaten in
the United States.

METHODS OF CULTIVATION.--Owing to its widespread growing, the methods of
corn culture vary greatly, and no rigid rules can be laid down for all
conditions. For maximum results the cornfield must be rich in humus, its
soil finely pulverized, mellow and well drained. Many successful growers
in the so-called corn states find these conditions best assured by
plowing deeply in the fall, turning under liberal quantities of organic
matter such as stable and barnyard manure and leaving the subsoil
upturned to benefit from the action of the elements during winter,
following with the disk harrow or other like implement in the spring.
Planting is done when the soil is thoroughly warmed and when danger of
frost is past.

There are two methods of planting commonly practiced, one by drilling or
dropping the seed (three or four grains) in hills with a machine drawn
by horses and completing two rows at once. The other is planting with an
implement known as a lister, dropping and covering one grain in a place
in the bottom of a furrow, at intervals of eight to twelve inches. The
latter method is quite extensively followed in the more western of the
corn states, such as Kansas, Oklahoma and Nebraska. The lister is a plow
and planter combined, with moldboards at once turning the soil to the
right and left, opening a furrow, dropping and covering the seed at the
same time, economizing labor, time and expense. Corn is planted about
two inches deep, and if in hills or rows generally three and one-half
feet apart each way. A bushel of fifty-six pounds of seed suffices for
planting nearly eight acres. For soiling, forage or ensiling it is
planted more thickly.

Cultivation, with horse-drawn cultivators, cleaning one row at a time,
and by some implements two rows, repeated three or four times in a
season, is given to kill weeds, aid in the retention of moisture, and
aerate the soil. This begins in many instances before the plants appear,
and often in the earlier stages is done with a harrow and later by using
the cultivator, upon which the operator usually rides.

HARVESTING, done after the grains have become hardened is by cutting the
stalks from the hills where grown, by hand or machinery, and standing
them in large shocks to be husked later, or, husking the ears directly
from the stalks without cutting or shocking. No machine equal to human
hands has yet been invented for husking corn. The yield ranges from
twenty-five to one hundred bushels of sixty pounds, shelled, or seventy
pounds unshelled, per acre. The stalks and husks, whether harvested or
not are used as food for live stock, and somewhat in manufactures.

=Emmer.= See Spelt.

=Johnson Grass= (_Sorghum halapense_) is a coarse perennial, most
extensively grown in the South or the Gulf States, for hay. It spreads
so persistently and is so difficult to eradicate that its growing is
frowned upon by most of the best authorities. One bushel of seed, or
thirty-five pounds per acre is about the quantity sown. It is propagated
by roots also. Never plant Johnson grass with the expectation of
destroying it.

=Millet= (_Panicum miliaceum_) is a native of the East Indies, and is
about three feet high; each panicle contains five to six hundred grains.
Hungarian grass is one of the most common grown for hay and grain. In
the United States they are principally grown for forage. It is a general
rule to sow after corn planting has been done but they may be safely
sown considerably later, as a catch crop when the regular hay crop is
short or a probable failure. Millets are excellent for ensilage, and a
succession of cuttings for that purpose or for soiling can be easily
secured by sowing at intervals of two or three weeks from early May to
late July. The seed is sown broadcast or with grain drills, mostly
broadcast, at the rate of two to three pecks per acre, for hay and
somewhat less for seed. The hay is harvested and handled after the
manner of other hay crops, and the seed crop as that of other small
grains. Well drained, rich, warm, loam soils are preferable for millet,
and it does not prosper on thin or poor land. A crop of millet leaves
the soil where it grew in a delightful condition of tilth. Its yield of
seed is from twenty to forty bushels per acre.

=Oats= (_Avena sativa_) have a broad panicle; the individual ears are
two-rowed, with and without beards. Another much-cultivated species are
the bearded oats (_A. orientalis_). The greater portion of the oats crop
of the United States is grown in the north central states, more than
one-half in the six states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin,
Nebraska and Ohio, ranking in order named. Russia is also a large
producer and it is cultivated throughout the temperate parts of the
civilized world. The yield per acre ranges from twenty-five to one
hundred bushels, weighing thirty-two pounds. Oats thrives best in cool
weather with abundant moisture, and in the principal oats territory
should be sown as early as possible in the spring--earlier than any
other spring grain. The ground for oats should be plowed, but it is not
uncommon to merely disk harrow the land before sowing. If the latter,
about four bushels is sown to the acre, broadcast or drilled, but on
well prepared ground ten to twelve pecks of clean, graded seed is
sufficient. In the main the oats crop is harvested, stacked and threshed
as other small grains.

Oats is used chiefly for horse feed, and in lesser amounts for making
oatmeal and breakfast foods.

The manufacture of oatmeal is of relatively small importance since the
more nourishing products of wheat are increasingly used.

=Orchard Grass= (_Dactylis glomerata_) is a hardy, nutritious perennial,
growing two to five feet high, that does well in either shade or
sunshine. It flourishes in nearly every state between the Mississippi
River and the Rocky Mountains, and is profitably grown in all the states
east of the Mississippi River lying between thirty-five degrees and
forty-seven degrees north latitude, but is partial to a rich soil. Two
to three bushels of seed are sown to the acre, from about the middle of
March to the middle of April. It provides either hay or pasturage, and
is prized for the latter, as “it comes early and stays late.”

=Rape= (_Brassica napus_) is a valuable farm crop, supplies an abundance
of succulent green food in a short time, for soiling or pasture,
especially for sheep and swine, being ready to use ordinarily six weeks
after sowing, and is prized chiefly as a catch crop. Three pounds of
seed per acre sown in rows thirty inches apart is customary, and the
favorite is the Dwarf Essex.

=Redtop=, or Herd’s Grass (_Agrostis alba_) is a meadow grass and also
one of the best pasture plants. It prospers on land where blue-grass,
timothy and clover are not thrifty. It is most at home in a moist soil,
flourishing in swampy places unfit for almost any other useful grass,
and it also has ability to withstand severe drought. On thin soil it
makes excellent pasture, but yields lightly of hay. It may be sown in
the fall or spring, alone, or with a nurse crop. For meadow, it is best
sown alone, using one bushel of seed in the chaff, or half as much if
winnowed. A bushel of recleaned seed weighs thirty-five pounds.

=Rice= (_Oryza sativa_) is grown in nearly all the warmer countries of
the earth, and forms the daily food of many millions of people. It is
estimated that one-third of the people of the world live principally on

There are two general varieties--the mountain rice and the marsh rice,
the latter being the most cultivated. It is usually grown in swampy land
or else on irrigated fields. In most countries rice is grown in the most
primitive fashion. Immense irrigating plants and modern agricultural
machinery make possible the large production in parts of the United

It is the chief crop in southeastern Asia, from India through
Indo-China, a great part of China, southern Japan and many islands of
the Pacific. Rice of excellent quality is raised in Texas, Louisiana and
South Carolina, and an amount about equal to the production of this
country is imported from eastern Asia.

ECONOMIC USES.--Rough rice or paddy (rice in the hull) is first hulled
by machinery and then the grains are polished or whitened. The rice
polish, which consists of the powdered outer coats, is a very nourishing
cattle food. Saké, the national drink of Japan, is a weak alcoholic
liquor brewed from rice. Rice straw is of enormous use in Asia, being
employed for hundreds of purposes, some of them as unexpected as the
making of bags, ropes and sandals. Rough rice and clean rice are the
common commercial articles.

=Rye= (_Secale cereale_) is cultivated in all northern countries. The
stalk grows up to six feet, and the ears are double-rowed with a long
beard. The grain is dark green and very mealy, and furnishes a good
bread. It is cultivated in the cold climates of northern Europe,
especially in Russia. Only small amounts are grown in the United States.

The leading rye states, in order of yields, are Pennsylvania, Michigan,
Wisconsin, New York and Minnesota, which together raised nearly
two-thirds of the crop.

It is usually sown at the same time as winter wheat, or earlier, one and
a half to two bushels of seed per acre, and its habits and treatment are
essentially the same. Its yield per acre is from twenty to fifty
bushels, weighing fifty-six pounds. It is noted for its ability to
thrive and yield fairly on soils too poor for the more important
cereals. Rye is used for breadmaking, live stock food, and in the
manufacture of malt and alcoholic beverages. It is the chief breadstuff
in parts of Russia, Scandinavia and Germany. It also furnishes valuable
pasturage late in the fall and early spring, for which it is extensively
sown where early tame grasses do not prosper. Its straw is in
considerable demand for various uses, such as the making of paper,
filling horse collars, for packing and otherwise.

=Sugar-Cane= (_Saccharum officinarium_), a tree-like grass, grows nine
to fifteen feet high, and contains in its pith a sweet sap, from which
our raw sugar is obtained. The sugar-cane is a native of the East
Indies, but it is now grown in India, Cuba, Hawaii, Java, Brazil,
Mauritius, Louisiana and other parts of the tropics and subtropics.
India’s large production is consumed locally and enters little into
export trade. Louisiana produces all made in the United States, except
ten thousand to fifteen thousand tons, annually, from Texas. Cane for
molasses and sirup is grown more or less in all of the Gulf Coast

METHOD OF CULTIVATION.--It requires a fertile soil, rich in humus. Sandy
and clay loams are both good, but alluvial soils are best. In preparing
for sugar cane the soil is thrown up by plows in beds six to seven feet
wide. In planting, furrows are opened, and in these the cane stalks,
one, two or three are laid side by side, covering by plows. It is
cultivated largely after the manner of corn, care being taken to leave
the rows well ridged up by the last cultivation, to facilitate drainage.
The quantity of cane required for planting an acre ranges from four to
six tons. Two and sometimes three crops or cuttings are had from one
planting. Yields of forty to forty-five tons of stripped cane per acre
are not uncommon, although half those quantities are considered
creditable averages for large plantations.

MANUFACTURE.--After harvesting, sugar cane is carried (usually by rail)
promptly to the mill, where the juice is pressed out. Modern mills have
nine rollers, arranged in three sets. The trash, or bagasse, is almost
dry when it leaves the last rollers and is used as fuel to run the mill.
The juice is boiled down, generally in vacuum pans heated by steam, and
the sugar crystals which form are separated from the molasses in

PRODUCTS.--Raw cane sugar, brown to yellowish in color, produced by
evaporation of the juice in open pans (muscovados), and crystals from
vacuum pans are both important commercially. White sugar, granulated,
loaf and pulverized, as commonly sold, is more nearly chemically pure
than most other articles of commerce. Molasses, from cane juice boiled
in open pans, is palatable for human food, and, like all cane molasses,
is fermented and distilled to make rum.

=Sorghum= is a cultivated grass of many varieties (_Panicum_, _Setaria_,
_Andropogon_, etc.) Guinea corn, kaffir corn, broom corn and other names
are employed to distinguish the different kinds. They may, however, be
divided into two classes: the _saccharine_ or sweet sorghums and the
_non-saccharine_. The sweet sorghums are grown for making sirup, but
principally for forage and hay, and yield heavily, from five to fifteen
tons per acre. The seed being somewhat bitter is not entirely relished
by animals, but it finds a ready market for seeding purposes. For hay
about a bushel of seed is sown to the acre, and for fodder and seed
about ten pounds per acre is planted in rows and cultivated.

KAFFIR CORN is by far the most valuable of the non-saccharine sorghums.
Its grain, of which it yields from thirty to sixty bushels per acre, has
a feeding value approximating that of Indian corn, and its forage after
the seed heads have been removed is valuable feed for live stock.

MILO is one of the non-saccharine sorghums especially adapted to dry
regions, and the most successful summer grain crop for the southern half
of the plains country. It does not rank with the sweet sorghums and
Kaffir corn as forage, being principally valued for its seed, which
makes a satisfactory substitute for Indian corn.

JERUSALEM CORN is also a non-saccharine sorghum. It is cultivated mostly
in the cooler climates of the dry regions. It will mature in a short
season, and is quite productive of seed, but its fodder yield is light.

BROOM-CORN, a non-saccharine sorghum, is grown only for its brush for
making brooms. It is a hardy plant, withstanding dry weather well, and
is grown chiefly in Oklahoma, Illinois and Kansas. There are two
varieties--the Standard and Dwarf, the former growing taller and
producing the longer brush.

In adaptability sorghums cover about as wide a range of soils and
climate as corn, and are noted for their drought-resisting powers.
Kaffir corn is especially adapted to hot, dry and semi-arid portions of
the West, where corn is uncertain, and there it is regarded with
increasing appreciation.

In some places the juice of sorghum is boiled down to make sirup or
sugar. Common brooms are made of the tops of the Broom-corn.

=Spelt= (_Triticum Spelta_) is chiefly cultivated in south Germany, but
is also grown in a small way in some of our northwestern states. It is
sown in both fall and spring, dealt with the same as other wheats, and
some authorities recommend it as a very hardy drought-resistant grain
for semi-arid regions. About seven pecks of seed are sown to the acre,
and the yield is from twenty-five to sixty bushels per acre. The small
ears are arranged on a brittle stalk, and consist of three or four
blooms, of which, as a rule, only two are fruitful. Spelt is, generally,
not bearded. The corn furnishes a white bread. When unripe, it is
manufactured into a soup, which is highly esteemed.

=Timothy= (_Phleum pratense_) is a popular and most widely used hay
plant in America, and also extensively seeded with other grasses for
pasture, prospering best in moist loams. It yields the year following
its sowing, grows from one and a half to four feet high, and twelve to
fifteen pounds of seed are sown per acre. The chief timothy region is
the northern half of the United States, east of the 100th meridian,
where it is usually sown in the fall with winter wheat, or in the spring
with oats. Forty-five pounds of seed make a bushel.

=Wheat= (_Triticum vulgare_), does not grow as high as the rye, but has
a thicker stalk and thicker ears, which are composed of several small
ears. In each little ear there are generally four seeds. There are, as a
rule, no beards; but, on the other hand, there is often a short spur at
the top of the ears. It grows in temperate climates, the largest crops
being raised in United States (especially in Minnesota, North Dakota,
Ohio, South Dakota and Kansas); Central Europe (Russia, France,
Austria-Hungary and Italy); India, Argentina, Canada and Australia. The
area of wheat production is steadily increasing and wheat raising has
become an important industry in newly developed countries, such as parts
of British America, West Australia and Manchuria.

CULTIVATION.--The soil conditions in the Middle West are most favorable
for giving quality. Its rich prairies contain large amounts of decaying
vegetable matter, and because of the lime and alkaline substances in
these soils, the elements of plant food are readily available,
particularly the nitrogen in the soil, that contributes so largely to
the glutinous character of the wheat.

Wheat is more than ordinarily adapted to machine farming and the
invention of the successful reaper was largely responsible for the rapid
increase of wheat acreage in America. In many parts of the wheat region
immense plows drawn by traction engines and turning six to twelve and
more furrows are employed. In other portions where operations are large
many fields are plowed only once in two or three years. For various
reasons, among which may be mentioned the control of weeds and the
conserving of moisture in the soil, early plowing for winter wheat is
preferable, and where the rainfall is scant very satisfactory conditions
are obtained by stirring the surface soil with disc harrows only.

The average quantity of seed sown per acre is between four and five
pecks, varying with the quality, the locality, method and time of
seeding and the whim of the sower. The yield ranges from ten to sixty
bushels per acre, the bushel weighing sixty pounds.

Wheat is mostly sown with drills, the old method of sowing broadcast
having been mostly abandoned. By drilling a more even distribution and
covering of the seed, and a better stand and yield of grain may be
confidently expected.

In harvesting small areas the self-binding reaping machine is popular.
This cuts the standing grain and binds it in sheaves of convenient size
which are stood in shocks of three or four dozen bundles each, whence it
is either threshed direct or put in stacks for threshing at a more
convenient season. On larger areas and especially where the wheat is
quite ripe, the header is commonly and widely used. This clips off the
heads of grain, and elevates them into large receptacles called barges,
set on wagons, leaving the straw standing. Usually when headed the grain
is put directly into stacks, and threshed at convenience.

ECONOMIC PRODUCTS.--Its commercial varieties, hard, soft, red, white,
etc., differ in percentage of starch and gluten.

The whole grain is ground into graham flour, made into breakfast foods
and used in brewing.

From parts of the grain are prepared whole wheat flour, white flour,
middlings, bran, wheat grits, wheat starch, macaroni, spaghetti, etc.

Wheatflour may be said to be the standard foodstuff of modern civilized

Macaroni is made from special varieties of hard, glutinous wheat.

Wheat straw is plaited into braids (Leghorn, etc.) for hat making, and
is used like the straw from other grains for packing material and as
bedding for animals.

Straw braids come largely from Italy, China and Japan.

The principal countries exporting wheat are United States, Russia,
Argentina, Canada, Roumania, India and Australia.


  Among the commercial products of the world, vegetables are a most
  important item, and their value as foodstuffs needs no emphasizing.
  The inhabitants of the world could subsist without animal-flesh,
  could scarcely subsist entirely on cereals, but they most certainly
  could not subsist without vegetables. Practically every nation,
  savage and civilized alike, cultivates a few plants for use as
  vegetables. The vegetables we know and prize most are one and all
  the result of long cultivation, the origin of most being lost in
  antiquity. The world has been ransacked, and for the vegetables
  cultivated in America nearly every country under the sun has been
  laid under contribution.

=Asparagus= (_Asparagus officinalis_). The common Asparagus is a native
of Great Britain, Russia and Poland. It is one of the oldest as well as
one of the most delicious of our garden vegetables. It was cultivated in
the time of Cato the Elder, 200 B. C.; and Pliny mentions a sort that
grew in his time near Ravenna, of which three heads would weigh a pound.
As many of our best gardeners contend, adaptation of soil, together with
thorough cultivation, alone explains the difference in this vegetable,
as offered in our markets or seen in our gardens.

=Bean= (_Phaseolus vulgaris_) is cultivated in many countries for the
sake of its seed and husks. By cultivation many varieties have been
produced, of which the following are the best known: BROAD BEAN, an
important article of food in Europe and western Asia, and valuable
forage plant, grown in gardens and as a field crop. All species of the
bean have a very high food value; are relatively cheap in price, but
much less easily digested than cereals. LIMA BEAN, widely cultivated in
tropical Africa, sparingly in temperate regions. Production in the
United States most extensive in California. NAVY or KIDNEY BEAN,
extensively grown in the United States, over one hundred and fifty
varieties of which are in cultivation as a garden vegetable, “string
beans,” fodder and for food. The closely related “frijole” is
universally grown in Mexico and Spanish American countries where it
ranks next to maize as a staple food. SOY BEAN, the common bean of China
and Japan is grown in immense quantities. Various preparations form a
part of the daily food. It is now grown in Europe and southern and
southwestern United States as forage and soiling crop.


=UDO=--This fine salad vegetable comes from Japan, is similar to
asparagus, and much easier to grow. It has a fresh taste like lettuce
with an agreeable flavor. There are numerous ways of serving it, but it
is possibly best simply boiled and seasoned like asparagus. It will grow
in any soil suitable for asparagus.]

[Illustration: =THE CHAYOTE=, or Vegetable Pear, is large, green and
pear-shaped, with a texture somewhat like a squash, and a flavor more
delicate than a cucumber. It is grown on lowlands near the coast, in a
moderately warm climate. Its keeping qualities are remarkable, making it
an excellent winter vegetable. Both roots and stalks are also edible.]

[Illustration: =THE BUR ARTICHOKE=, long imported from France, may now
be successfully grown in this country. It is used like the cauliflower
in many ways but commands a higher price. The scalelike leaves make a
delicious salad when pulled apart after boiling, and may be served on
lettuce with either mayonnaise or French dressing.]

[Illustration: =THE PETSAI=, or Odorless Cabbage, is much superior to
the ordinary cabbage, and is wholly without disagreeable odor. It does
not closely resemble cabbage in appearance; it is rather tall than
squatty, and the leaves cluster around the stalk compactly. It requires
cultivation similar to cabbage but is not transplanted. It is served
after the fashion of cabbage.]

=Brussels Sprouts=, or Bud-bearing Cabbage (_B. oleracea bullata minor_)
originated in Belgium, and has been cultivated around Brussels from time
immemorial, although it is only within the last fifty years that it has
become generally known in this country. It is so named on account of its
peculiar habit, producing a bud-like cluster of leaves in the axil of
each leaf from the base to the top of the stem. These buds or sprouts
are the parts of the plant that are eaten, and are highly esteemed for
their delicate flavor and wholesome quality. Brussels sprouts is one of
the hardiest of green winter vegetables. As a rule, the shorter-stemmed
strains have the largest and most compact sprouts, and are consequently
the most favored. As regards cultivation, the plant, like all of the
cabbage tribe, requires deep, rich soil to bring it to fullest

=Cabbage= (_Brassica oleraceæ_) is found in a wild state in various
parts of Europe and in southern England, always on maritime cliffs. It
is a biennial, with fleshy lobed leaves covered with a glaucous bloom;
altogether so different in form and appearance from the cabbage of our
gardens that few would believe it could possibly have been the parent of
so varied a progeny as are comprised in the Savoy, Brussels Sprouts,
Cauliflower, Broccoli and other numerous varieties. Over one hundred
fifty varieties are enumerated. The common or cultivated cabbage is well
known, and from a very early period has been a favorite culinary
vegetable in almost daily use throughout the civilized world.

=Carrot= (_Daucus_) of which there are about twenty species are mostly
natives of the Mediterranean countries. The common carrot is a biennial
plant and is universally cultivated for the sake of its root. In all
varieties of the wild plant this is slender, woody and of a very strong
flavor; and that of the cultivated variety is much thicker and more
fleshy, much milder in its flavor and qualities. Its color is generally
red, but sometimes orange or yellowish white.

=Cauliflower= (_B. oleracea botrytis cauliflora_) is of great antiquity,
but its origin is unknown, although it is usually ascribed to Italy. To
the English and Dutch gardeners we are chiefly indebted for the
perfection it has attained. Heads of immense size are now grown for the
market. It is by no means uncommon to see a head perfectly sound and
smooth, fully ten inches in diameter, and, contrary to the usual rule,
size is not obtained at the expense of quality, the larger, if differing
at all, being more tender and delicious. The varieties of the
Cauliflower are numerous.

=Celery= (_Apium graveolens_). The plant is hardy, and is largely
cultivated in the United States, Canada and Europe. In cultivation,
however, abundant nutrition has greatly mollified its properties, and
two principal forms have arisen. The first sort is the common celery,
where the familiar long blanched succulent stalks are produced by
transplanting the seedlings into richly manured trenches, which are
filled up as the plants grow, and finally raised into ridges over which
little more than the tops of the leaves appear; and a supply is thus
insured throughout the whole winter. The other form is the turnip-rooted
celery, or celeriac.

=Cucumber= (_Cucumis sativus_). The common cucumber is distinguished by
heart-shaped leaves, which are rough with hairs approaching to bristles,
and oblong fruit. It is a native of the middle and south of Asia, and
has been cultivated from the earliest times. Its fruit forms an
important article of food in its native regions, the south of Europe,
etc., and an esteemed delicacy in colder countries, where it is
produced by the aid of artificial heat. Many varieties are in
cultivation, with fruit from four inches to two feet long, rough,
smooth, etc.

VEGETABLE MARROW (_Cucurbita ovifera_) is closely allied to the
cucumber, and is supposed to have been originally brought from Persia.
Like the cucumber it is a tender annual, but succeeds out of doors in
summer in this country.

Many other members of the cucumber family are cultivated as esculents,
notably in the warmer parts of the world. Of these the chief are
Pumpkins, Melon Pumpkin, Water Melon, Chocho, Bottle Gourd, Squash.

=Egg-plant= (_Solanum melongena_). The egg-like fruit known as
egg-apple, etc., is a favorite article of food in the East Indies, and
has thence been introduced to most warm countries. It varies in size
from that of a hen’s egg to that of a swan’s egg, in color from white or
yellow to violet. Egg-plants are much grown in the United States, where
“Jew’s-apple” is one of the names for the fruit.

=Kale=, or Borecole (_B. oleracea acephala_) is distinguished by its
leaves being beautifully cut and curled, of a green or purple color, or
variegated with red, green, and yellow, never closing so as to form a
heart, nor producing edible flower heads like a Cauliflower. Its leaves
and tender shoots are not only edible but form one of the most useful
green vegetables.

=Lentils= (_Ervum Lens_), a slender plant supposed to be native of
Western Asia, Greece and Italy. The Lentil was introduced into Egypt as
a cultivated plant at an early date, and from this center spread east
and west. It is a weak, straggling plant, rarely exceeding eighteen
inches high, often much more dwarfed, having pinnate leaves terminating
in tendrils. The flowers are white, lilac, or pale blue, small and
formed like those of a pea. There are three varieties of lentil
recognized in the countries in which it is cultivated: the small brown,
which is the lightest flavored and the best esteemed for soups and
haricots; the yellow variety, which is slightly larger; and the lentil
of Provence, France, which has seeds as large as a small pea, but is
better appreciated as fodder for cattle than for food for man.

=Lettuce= (_Lactuca sativa_). The garden lettuce is supposed to be a
native of the East Indies, but is not known to exist anywhere in a wild
state, and from remote antiquity has been cultivated as an esculent and
particularly as a salad. It has a leafy stem, oblong leaves, a
spreading, flat-topped panicle, with yellow flowers, and a fruit without
margin. It is now generally cultivated in all parts of the world where
the climate admits of it.

=Melon= (_Cucumis melo_), a plant of the same genus with the cucumber,
much cultivated for its fruit. The melon is an annual, with trailing or
climbing stems, lateral tendrils, rounded, angular leaves, small, yellow
flowers and large round or somewhat ovate fruit. The varieties in
cultivation are very numerous, some of them distinguished by a thick and
warty rind, some by a rind cracked in a net-like manner, some by ribs
and furrows, some by a perfectly smooth and thin rind; they differ also
in the color of the flesh of the fruit, which is green, red, yellow,
etc.; and in the size of the fruit, which varies from three or four
inches to a foot or more in diameter. They are widely cultivated in the
United States, ranking fifth in acreage among vegetables. New Jersey
leads in production, growing about one-seventh of entire crop.
Cultivation under irrigation is highly developed in Colorado. They are
often called cantaloupe in the markets.

=Mushroom.= See Cryptogams.

=Okra= or Gumbo (_Hibiscus esculentus_) is a generally used food plant
most commonly employed in soups in the East and West Indies and also in
the southern United States. It was anciently grown in tropical Africa
and Egypt, and is now diffused in tropical countries and in the
southern United States.

=Onion= (_Allium Cepa_) is extensively cultivated throughout the world,
and is grown in every state in the United States, New York and Ohio
leading in production. Bermuda and Spanish varieties are now grown in
California. It was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians; also by the
Greeks and Romans. Many other important vegetables are allied to the
onion, viz.: Leek, Shallot, Onion, Chives and Garlic. All of these are
highly esteemed in cookery.

=Parsnip= (_Pastinaca_), an annual, biennial, or perennial herb, with
carrot-like, often fleshy root and pinnate leaves. The parsnip has long
been cultivated for the sake of its root, which in cultivation has
greatly increased in size and become more fleshy. The flavor is disliked
by some, as well as the too great sweetness, but highly relished by
others; and the root of the parsnip is more nutritious than that of the
carrot. The crop is also on many soils of larger quantity; and although
the parsnip delights in a very open, rich soil, it will succeed in
clayey soils far too stiff for the carrot.

=Pea= (_Pisum sativum_) has been cultivated from very remote times. The
pea plant is covered with a delicate, glaucous bloom, and its white or
pale violet flowers are familiar to all. The pods are pendulous, smooth,
deep green and variable in size and may contain any number up to
thirteen (rarely more) peas. The peas when ripe are also variable, some
being white and round, others blue and wrinkled, and a few large,
irregular, and dull green. They are cultivated in Europe, Asia and the
United States. Chiefly used as green vegetable, but also for fodder.
Ranks seventh in acreage among minor vegetables in the United States.

=Peppers= or Capsicums or Chillies (_Capsicum annum_ and _C.
frutescens_) are widely cultivated in the warmer parts of both
hemispheres. The fruits vary considerably in shape and size, and when
green are cooked and eaten as a vegetable.

=Potato= (_Solanum tuberosum_) is the greatest of vegetable gifts to
man. Its cabbage-like stalks have a height of from eighteen to twenty
inches; its leaves are solitary and pennate; its large pentagonal
blossoms are white, reddish or violet; its fruit is a green berry.
Attached to its underground runners are those bulbs which serve as food
to many millions of people, and from which starch, sago, sugar of grapes
and brandy are prepared.

The potato stands second only to corn as the most important contribution
of America to the food plants of the world. Preëminently the most
important vegetable grown in Europe and America. The world crop is
enormous, exceeding five billion bushels; in bulk surpassing by about
one-half the world crop of wheat, corn or oats. Germany, Russia,
Austria-Hungary, France, the United States and Great Britain are the
chief producers in order named. Germany grows one-third of the world
crop, Russia one-fifth. In the United States they are grown in every
state and territory; also in Hawaii and Alaska.

Their cultivation was even ancient in Peru. It was widely diffused from
Chile to Colombia at time of Spanish discovery, but there were no
evidences of culture in Mexico or by North American Indians. It was
introduced into what is now North Carolina and Virginia late in the
sixteenth century; taken to Europe first by the Spaniards early in the
sixteenth century and to England by Sir Walter Raleigh in 1585. SWEET
POTATOES are the thickened roots of _Ipomoea Batatas_, a climbing plant.
This plant is extensively cultivated in most tropical countries,
although not known in a wild state. The root contains much starch and
saccharine matter. They are second only to the potato in the United
States, being widely grown in the South--Georgia, North Carolina,
Alabama, South Carolina and Tennessee producing over half of the total
crop, which in acreage and value is about one-fifth that of the potato.

=Radish= (_Raphanus sativus_) is a well-known plant, the root of which
is a valuable salad; it has been cultivated from a remote period. It is
now possible to have a supply the whole year round. Crisp, tender
radishes with delicate flavor are only obtained by quick growth on rich,
moist soil. The earliest crops are grown in frames on hotbeds, the crop
being ready about five weeks from sowing. The earliest sowing outdoors
can be made from December to February in sheltered sunny positions, the
beds being covered with a thick layer of litter. There are round, oval
and long-rooted varieties.

=Tomato= or Love-apple (_Lycopersicum esculentum_). The fruit of this
plant is fleshy, usually red or yellow, divided into two, three or more
cells containing numerous seeds imbedded in pulp. The tomato is one of a
genus of several species, all natives of South America, chiefly on the
Peruvian side. In the warmer countries of the United States, Europe and
other countries in which the summer is warm and prolonged, it has long
been cultivated for the excellent qualities of the fruit as an article
of diet. The tomato is extensively grown as a field crop for canneries
in the United States, and in the North is one of the chief
winter-forcing crops. It is exceeded in acreage only by the watermelon
and sweet corn among the minor vegetables. In the United States the crop
exceeds thirty million bushels, nearly half of which is grown in
Maryland and New Jersey.

=Turnip= (_Brassica rapa_). Although the turnip is of great value for
feeding stock, it is not very nutritious, no less than nine to
ninety-six parts of its weight actually consisting of water. One of the
best early varieties is purple top strap leaf. Early flat Dutch is also
good. The Swedish turnip, or _ruta baga_, which was introduced into
cultivation from the north of Europe more recently than the common
turnip, and has proved of very great value to the farmer, is regarded by
some botanists as a variety of the same species, and by some as a
variety of _B. napus_, but more generally as a variety of _B.
campestris_, a species common in cornfields and sides of ditches in
Britain and the north of Europe.

=Watermelon= (_Citrullus vulgaris_). The most popular melon in
cultivation, is extensively grown in warm climates throughout the world,
but most abundantly in southern Russia and the southern United States.
It leads all minor vegetables in acreage, being surpassed only by the
major vegetables, potato and sweet potato. Texas, Georgia, North
Carolina and Missouri are the chief growers in the order named. Very
anciently it was cultivated by Egyptians.

=Yam= (_Dioscorea alata_). Yams, the tubers of various species of
_Dioscorea_, are cultivated in nearly all tropical countries. Yam tubers
abound in farinaceous matter and often reach a large size. They resemble
but are inferior to the sweet potato.


  Time given is for latitude of New York. Each one hundred miles north
  or south will make a difference of from five to seven days in the
  season. The distances given here indicate the distance apart the
  plants should stand after thinning. The seed should be sown much
  nearer together. CLASS A. These plants may be started early (in the
  greenhouse or hotbed, in early spring, or outdoors in the seedbed
  later), and afterwards transplanted to their permanent location.
  CLASS B. These crops usually occupy the ground for the entire
  season. CLASS C. These are quick maturing crops which, for a
  constant supply, should be planted at several different times in
  “succession”--a week or two weeks apart. CLASS D. These are crops
  which often may be cleared off in time to permit planting another
  quickly maturing crop, usually of some early variety. CLASS E. These
  crops are supplementary to those in Class D and may be used to
  obtain a second crop out of the ground from which early crops have
  been cleared.

  |   =Name and     | =Time to Plant= |=Class=|=How to Plant and Care for=|
  |    Variety=     |                 |       |                           |
  |=Asparagus=      |April.           |   B   |Plant 4 inches deep, at    |
  |(Plant).         |                 |       |distance of 1 foot; in rows|
  |                 |                 |       |3 feet apart; heavily      |
  |                 |                 |       |manured, spreading the     |
  |                 |                 |       |roots out evenly. Do not   |
  |                 |                 |       |cut for use until _second_ |
  |                 |                 |       |spring. Keep bed clean; cut|
  |                 |                 |       |off tops in the fall.      |
  |                 |                 |       |Transplant third spring.   |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Asparagus=      |April-May.       |   B   |Seed 2 to 4 inches apart,  |
  |(Seed).          |                 |       |in rows 15 inches apart; 1 |
  |                 |                 |       |inch deep.                 |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Beans, Bush     |March 15,        |   B   |Tender. Set out in May.    |
  |Lima.=           |under glass.     |       |Plant 2 inches deep in rows|
  |Burpee Improved. |May 1, outside.  |       |2 feet apart.              |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Beans, Pole     |May 15, out-     |   B   |Tender. Plant 2 inches deep|
  |Lima.=           |side.            |       |in hills 4 feet apart.     |
  |King of Garden.  |Ready in 10      |       |Pinch off at 6 feet high. 1|
  |                 |weeks.           |       |pint of seed to 50 hills.  |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Beans, String.= |April 15, out-   |   C   |Tender. Plant 2 inches deep|
  |                 |side.            |       |in rows 2 feet apart, 6    |
  |Bountiful.       |May 1, outside.  |       |inches apart in row. 1 pint|
  |Hodson Wax.      |May 15, outside. |       |of seed to 75-foot row.    |
  |Bountiful.       |June 1, outside. |       |                           |
  |Hodson Wax.      |June 15, outside.|       |                           |
  |Bountiful.       |July 1, outside. |       |                           |
  |Hodson Wax.      |July 15, outside.|       |                           |
  |Bountiful.       |Ready in 6 weeks.|       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Beets.=         |March 1, under   |  A-D  |Transplant outside in      |
  |                 |glass.           |       |April. Hardy. Plant 1 inch |
  |Eclipse.         |April 15, out-   |  B-E  |deep in rows 2 feet apart, |
  |                 |side.            |       |6 inches apart in row. Soak|
  |Crimson Globe.   |May 15, outside. |       |seed over night. 1 ounce of|
  |                 |June 15, outside.|       |seed to 50 feet. Winter in |
  |                 |July 15, outside.|       |sand or pits.              |
  |                 |Ready in 9 weeks.|       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Brussels        |March 15, under  |  A-E  |Plant 1/2 inch deep in rows|
  |Sprouts.=        |glass.           |       |2 feet apart, 1 foot apart |
  |L. I. Half Dwarf.|May 1, under     |       |in row. 1 ounce of seed to |
  |                 |glass.           |       |1500 plants. Hang in cellar|
  |                 |Ready in 20      |       |for winter.                |
  |                 |weeks.           |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Cabbage.=       |March 1, under   |  A-C  |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep |
  |                 |glass.           |       |in rows 3 feet apart, 2    |
  |Copenhagen       |March 1, under   |       |feet apart in row. Manure  |
  |Market.          |glass.           |       |well. 1 ounce of seed to   |
  |Drumhead Savoy.  |May 1, under     |       |2500 plants. Winter in pits|
  |                 |glass.           |       |upside down.               |
  |                 |Transplant to    |       |                           |
  |                 |garden.          |       |                           |
  |                 |Ready in 18      |       |                           |
  |                 |weeks.           |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Carrot.=        |April 1, outside.|  C-B  |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep |
  |Half-long        |June 1, outside. |       |in rows 1-1/2 feet apart, 6|
  |Danvers.         |Ready in 15      |       |inches apart in row. 1     |
  |                 |weeks.           |       |ounce of seed to 100 feet. |
  |                 |                 |       |Winter in sand or pits.    |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Cauliflower.=   |March 1, under   | A-C-E |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep |
  |                 |glass.           |       |in rows 3 feet apart, 2    |
  |Dwarf Erfurt.    |April 1, under   |       |feet apart in row. 1 ounce |
  |                 |glass.           |       |seed to 2500 plants. Manure|
  |                 |May 1, under     |       |well.                      |
  |                 |glass.           |       |                           |
  |                 |Transplant to    |       |                           |
  |                 |garden.          |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Chard.=         |April 15, out-   |       |Hardy. Plant 1 inch deep in|
  |                 |side.            |       |rows 2 feet apart, 1 foot  |
  |Lucullus.        |Ready in 8 weeks.|       |apart in row. 1 ounce of   |
  |                 |                 |       |seed to 50 feet.           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Celery.=        |March 1, under   |  A-E  |Hardy. Set out in May.     |
  |                 |glass.           |       |Barely cover. Rows 3 feet  |
  |Golden Self-     |April 15, under  |       |apart, 1/2 feet apart in   |
  |blanching.       |glass.           |       |row. Rich, moist soil.     |
  |Fin de Siecle.   |Ready in 18      |       |Transplant twice. 1 ounce  |
  |                 |weeks.           |       |of seed to 3000 plants. In |
  |                 |                 |       |August bank up to blanch.  |
  |                 |                 |       |Winter in pits.            |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Corn.=          |April 1, under   |  B-E  |Tender. Set out in May.    |
  |                 |glass.           |       |Plant 2 inches deep in rows|
  |Golden Bantam.   |April 15, out-   |       |4 feet apart, 2 feet apart |
  |                 |side.            |       |in row. Manure and remove  |
  |Evergreen.       |May 1, outside.  |       |suckers. 1 quart of seed to|
  |Country Gentle-  |May 1, outside.  |       |200 hills.                 |
  |man.             |                 |       |                           |
  |Mexican.         |May 15, outside. |       |                           |
  |Country Gentle-  |June 1, outside. |       |                           |
  |man.             |June 1, outside. |       |                           |
  |                 |June 15, outside.|       |                           |
  |                 |July 15, outside.|       |                           |
  |                 |Ready:    Early 9|       |                           |
  |                 |           weeks.|       |                           |
  |                 |          Late 11|       |                           |
  |                 |           weeks.|       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Cucumber.=      |March 15, under  |  A-B  |Tender. Set out in May.    |
  |                 |glass.           |       |Plant 1 inch deep, 4 feet  |
  |Cool and Crisp.  |May 1, outside.  |       |apart. 1 ounce of seed to  |
  |                 |June 1, outside. |       |50 hills.                  |
  |                 |July 1, outside. |       |                           |
  |                 |Ready in 9 weeks.|       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Endive.=        |July 1.          |  A-E  |Hardy. Plant in rows 2 feet|
  |Green Curled.    |Ready in 8 weeks.|       |apart, 1 foot apart in row.|
  |                 |                 |       |1 ounce of seed to 100-foot|
  |                 |                 |       |row. Transplant to dark    |
  |                 |                 |       |cellar to blanch for       |
  |                 |                 |       |winter.                    |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Eggplant.=      |March 1, under   |  A-B  |Very tender. Plant 1/2 inch|
  |Black Beauty.    |glass, with good |       |deep in rows 3 feet apart, |
  |                 |heat.            |       |2 feet apart in row. Rich  |
  |                 |Transplant to    |       |and moist soil. 1 ounce of |
  |                 |garden.          |       |seed to 1000 plants. Store |
  |                 |Ready in 15      |       |dry for late fall use.     |
  |                 |weeks.           |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Kale.=          |May 15, under    |   E   |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep |
  |Dwarf Scotch.    |glass.           |       |in rows 2 feet apart, 1    |
  |Siberian.        |Transplant to    |       |foot apart in row. 1 ounce |
  |                 |garden like      |       |of seed to 200 feet. Mulch |
  |                 |cabbage.         |       |for winter.                |
  |                 |July 1, outside. |       |                           |
  |                 |Ready in 20      |       |                           |
  |                 |weeks.           |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Lettuce.=       |March 1, under   |   C   |Hardy. Plant 1/4 inch deep |
  |                 |glass.           |       |in rows 1-1/2 feet apart.  |
  |May King.        |March 15, under  |       |Rich soil. 1 ounce of seed |
  |                 |glass.           |       |to 3000 plants. Shade and  |
  |                 |Outside every 2  |       |water in summer.           |
  |                 |weeks to Sept. 1.|       |                           |
  |                 |Ready in 6 weeks.|       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Muskmelon.=     |May 1, outside.  |  A-B  |Plant 1 inch deep in hills |
  |Emerald Gem.     |May 1, outside.  |       |four feet apart. Pinch off |
  |Osage.           |May 1, outside.  |       |ends of shoots. Make       |
  |Early Hackensack.|Ready in 6 weeks.|       |special soil of sand and   |
  |                 |                 |       |manure. 1 ounce of seed to |
  |                 |                 |       |50 hills.                  |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Watermelon.=    |May 1, outside.  |   B   |Tender. Plant 1 inch deep  |
  |Cole’s Early.    |May 1, outside.  |       |in hills 6 feet apart. Make|
  |Halbert Honey.   |                 |       |special soil of sand and   |
  |Cole’s Early.    |                 |       |manure. Pinch off ends of  |
  |Halbert Honey.   |                 |       |shoots. 1 ounce of seed to |
  |                 |                 |       |30 hills.                  |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Onion.=         |April 1, plant   |  A-B  |Hardy. Plant seeds 1/2 inch|
  |                 |sets.            |       |deep; sets 2 inches deep in|
  |Yellow Danvers.  |Seeds April 15,  |       |rows 2 feet apart. 1 ounce |
  |                 |outside.         |       |of seed to 150 feet. Dig   |
  |Prizetakers.     |Seeds April 15,  |       |and dry for winter. 1 quart|
  |                 |outside.         |       |sets to 100 feet.          |
  |                 |Ready in 18 weeks|       |                           |
  |                 |from seed.       |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Parsley.=       |April 15, out-   |   B   |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep |
  |Triple Curled.   |side.            |       |in rows 2 feet apart, 6    |
  |                 |Ready in 8 weeks.|       |inches apart in row. Soak  |
  |                 |                 |       |seeds over night. Seeds are|
  |                 |                 |       |slow to start. 1 ounce of  |
  |                 |                 |       |seed to 150-foot row.      |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Parsnip.=       |April 15, out-   |   B   |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep |
  |                 |side.            |       |in rows 1-1/2 feet apart.  |
  |Hollow Crown.    |Ready in 15      |       |Seeds start slowly. 1 ounce|
  |                 |weeks.           |       |seed to 200 feet. Winter in|
  |                 |                 |       |place or in pits. Improved |
  |                 |                 |       |by frost.                  |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Peas.=          |April 15, out-   |  B-E  |Hardy. Plant early varie-  |
  |Thomas Laxton.   |side.            |       |ties 4 inches deep and late|
  |Juno.            |May 1, outside.  |       |varieties 3 inches deep.   |
  |Telephone.       |May 1, outside.  |       |Early in double rows and   |
  |                 |May 15, outside. |       |late in rows 3 feet apart. |
  |                 |June 1, outside. |       |Moist soil. 1 quart of seed|
  |                 |June 15, outside.|       |to 150 feet.               |
  |                 |July 1, outside. |       |                           |
  |                 |July 15, outside.|       |                           |
  |                 |Ready in 8 weeks.|       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Pepper.=        |March 1, under   |   A   |Very tender. Plant 1/2 inch|
  |                 |glass.           |       |deep in rows 2 feet apart. |
  |Chinese Giant.   |Set out in May.  |       |Start in good heat. Hang in|
  |                 |Ready in 20      |       |cellar for winter.         |
  |                 |weeks.           |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Potatoes.=      |April 1 (early). |   B   |Plant early varieties 2    |
  |Noroton Beauty.  |May 1 (early).   |       |inches deep, and late      |
  |Gold Coin.       |May 15 (main     |       |varieties 5 inches deep in |
  |                 |crop).           |       |rows 3 feet apart. 1 peck  |
  |                 |Ready in 12      |       |to 100-foot row. 8 or 10   |
  |                 |weeks.           |       |bushels to acre. Sprout    |
  |                 |                 |       |before planting.           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Pumpkin.=       |May 15, outside. |   B   |Tender. Plant 6 feet apart.|
  |Winter Luxury.   |Ready in 15      |       |Manure. 1 ounce of seed to |
  |                 |weeks.           |       |50 hills. Winter warm and  |
  |                 |                 |       |dry.                       |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Radish.=        |March 7, under   |   C   |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep.|
  |                 |glass and every 2|       |1 ounce of seed to 100     |
  |                 |weeks.           |       |feet. Soil light and rich. |
  |French Breakfast.|Ready in 4 weeks.|       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Rhubarb=        |April.           |   B   |Set out root-clumps at     |
  |(Plant).         |                 |       |distance of 2 to 3 feet, in|
  |                 |                 |       |rows 3 to 4 feet apart.    |
  |                 |                 |       |Give them dressing of bone |
  |                 |                 |       |meal and soda in the       |
  |                 |                 |       |spring.                    |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Salsify.=       |April 15, out-   |   B   |Hardy. Plant 1/4 inch deep |
  |                 |side.            |       |in rows 2 feet apart. 1    |
  |Mammoth Sandwich |Ready in 18      |       |ounce of seed to 100 feet. |
  |Island.          |weeks.           |       |Winter in place or in pits.|
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Spinach.=       |April 1, outside.| A-B-E |Hardy. Plant 1 inch deep in|
  |Victoria.        |April 15, out-   |       |rows 1-1/2 feet apart. 1   |
  |                 |side.            |       |ounce of seed to 200 feet. |
  |New Zealand.     |May 1, outside.  |       |Very rich soil. Winter     |
  |                 |May 1, outside.  |       |under straw cover.         |
  |                 |June 1, outside. |       |                           |
  |                 |Sept. 1, outside.|       |                           |
  |                 |Ready in 5 weeks.|       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Squash.=        |March 15, under  |   B   |Tender. Plant 1 inch deep, |
  |                 |glass.           |       |4 feet apart. Hubbard 6    |
  |Crookneck.       |May 15, outside. |       |feet apart. Winter warm and|
  |Delicata.        |May 15, outside. |       |dry. 1 ounce of seed for 25|
  |Early Golden     |May 15, outside. |       |hills. For Hubbard make    |
  |Custard.         |                 |       |special soil of sand and   |
  |Crookneck.       |Ready in 7 weeks.|       |manure.                    |
  |Hubbard.         |May 15, outside. |       |                           |
  |                 |Ready in 15      |       |                           |
  |                 |weeks.           |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Tomato.=        |March 1, under   |  B-A  |Tender. Plant 1/2 inch deep|
  |                 |glass.           |       |in rows 3 feet apart, 3    |
  |Earliana.        |April 1, under   |       |feet apart in row. Keep    |
  |                 |glass.           |       |hotbed cool. Pinch off side|
  |Crimson Cushion. |Set out in May.  |       |shoots. 1 ounce of seed to |
  |                 |Ready in 18      |       |2000 plants. Hang in cellar|
  |                 |weeks.           |       |for early winter.          |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Turnip.=        |April 17, out-   |   C   |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep |
  |Early Milan      |side.            |       |in rows 1-1/2 feet apart. 1|
  |White.           |June 15, outside.|       |ounce of seed to 200 feet. |
  |                 |Ready in 9 weeks.|       |Winter in pits.            |


Especially Adapted to Southern United States

  |   =Name and     | =Time to Plant= |=Class=|=How to Plant and Care for=|
  |    Variety=     |                 |       |                           |
  |=Artichoke,      |March 1, outside.|  ...  |Hardy Perennial. Plant     |
  |Jerusalem.=      |Ready in 6 to 8  |       |tubers 6 inches deep in    |
  |                 |months.          |       |rows 5 feet apart, 2 feet  |
  |                 |                 |       |apart in row. Light soil   |
  |                 |                 |       |and sun. 2 quarts of tubers|
  |                 |                 |       |to 100 feet. Fine for soup |
  |                 |                 |       |or boiled and creamed, or  |
  |                 |                 |       |salad or pickles.          |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Asparagus.=     |December, out-   |   B   |Hardy. Plant 2-year roots 8|
  |Palmetto.        |side.            |       |inches deep in rows 2 feet |
  |                 |Ready in February|       |apart, 1 foot apart in row.|
  |                 |or March.        |       |Rich and moist mulch with  |
  |                 |                 |       |manure all summer, salt    |
  |                 |                 |       |well.                      |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Beans.=         |Cold-frames or   |  B-C  |Tender. Plant seeds 2      |
  |Valentine or     |green-house.     |       |inches deep in rows 1-1/2  |
  |Refugee or       |September 1 and  |       |feet apart, 4 inches apart |
  |Golden Wax.      |every two weeks  |       |in row. Not too rich soil. |
  |                 |thereafter.      |       |1 quart for 150 feet.      |
  |                 |Ready in 6 weeks.|       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Beets.=         |Sept. 1, outside.|  A-D  |Hardy. Plant 1 inch deep in|
  |Eclipse or       |Oct. 1, outside. |  B-E  |rows 1-1/2 feet apart. Thin|
  |Crimson Globe.   |Ready in 9 weeks.|       |to 4 inches apart. Deep    |
  |                 |                 |       |soil, no fresh manure. 1   |
  |                 |                 |       |ounce to 50 feet. Soak seed|
  |                 |                 |       |over night.                |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Chard.=         |Sept. 15, cold-  |  ...  |Almost hardy. Grow like    |
  |Lucullus.        |frame.           |       |beets. Use outside leaves, |
  |                 |                 |       |leaving crown to grow. Use |
  |                 |                 |       |for greens, or leaf stalks |
  |                 |                 |       |like asparagus.            |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Brussels        |Seed-bed August  |  A-E  |Hardy. Plant seeds 1/2 inch|
  |Sprouts.=        |1.               |       |deep in rows 2 feet apart, |
  |                 |Transplant out-  |       |1-1/2 feet apart in row.   |
  |                 |side September   |       |Cultivate like cabbage. 1  |
  |                 |15.              |       |packet of seed enough.     |
  |                 |Ready in 4       |       |                           |
  |                 |months.          |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Cabbage.=       |Seed-bed August  | A-C-E |Hardy. Plant seeds 1/2 inch|
  |Wakefield or     |15.              |       |deep. Plant rows 3 feet    |
  |Savoy or         |Transplant out-  |       |apart; 1-1/2 feet apart in |
  |Winningstadt.    |side September.  |       |rows. Moist, manure and    |
  |                 |Ready in 4       |       |cultivate well. 1 packet of|
  |                 |months.          |       |seed enough. Set plants    |
  |                 |                 |       |deep.                      |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Carrots.=       |Aug. 15, outside.|  C-B  |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep |
  |Half Long or     |Oct. 1, outside. |       |in rows 1-1/2 feet apart, 4|
  |Long Orange.     |Ready 12 to 15   |       |inches apart in row. 1     |
  |                 |weeks.           |       |ounce for 200 feet. Seed   |
  |                 |                 |       |slow to start.             |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Cauliflower.=   |Seed-bed Septem- | A-C-E |Almost hardy. Plant seed   |
  |Early Snowball or|ber 1.           |       |1/2 inch deep in rows 2    |
  |Dwarf Erfurt.    |Transplant to    |       |feet apart, 1-1/2 feet     |
  |                 |cold-frames      |       |apart in row. Moist, rich  |
  |                 |October 1.       |       |and manure. 1 packet of    |
  |                 |Ready in 4       |       |seed enough. Blanch heads  |
  |                 |months.          |       |by tying up.               |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Collards.=      |Cultivate like   |  ...  |A non-heading cabbage not  |
  |                 |cabbage.         |       |equal to it in quality.    |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Cucumber.=      |Sept. 15, green- |  A-B  |Tender. Plant 1 inch deep, |
  |English Tele-    |house.           |       |5 feet apart. 1 ounce for  |
  |graph.           |Oct. 15, green-  |       |50 hills. Moist, rich soil.|
  |                 |house.           |       |Pinch out main stem when 2 |
  |                 |Nov. 15, green-  |       |feet long. Pinch outside   |
  |                 |house.           |       |branches at 6 or 8 feet.   |
  |                 |Dec. 15, green-  |       |Leave only 3 side branches |
  |                 |house.           |       |to a plant and only half   |
  |                 |Day heat, 85°.   |       |the fruit. Do not fertilize|
  |                 |Night heat, 65°. |       |blossoms.                  |
  |                 |Ready in 6 to 8  |       |                           |
  |                 |weeks.           |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Cress, Water.=  |Outside in water.|  ...  |Hardy. Sow in quiet pool   |
  |                 |September 1.     |       |near running water. Start  |
  |                 |Ready in 3       |       |seed on mud, then flood 3  |
  |                 |months.          |       |inches deep. 1 packet of   |
  |                 |                 |       |seed enough.               |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Endive.=        |Sept. 1, outside.|  A-E  |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep |
  |Green curled or  |Nov. 1, outside  |       |in rows 1-1/2 feet apart.  |
  |Self-blanching.  |or in cold-      |       |Thin to 10 inches apart in |
  |                 |frames.          |       |row. Light, rich soil,     |
  |                 |Ready in 3       |       |deep. 1 ounce for 100 feet.|
  |                 |months.          |       |Can transplant like        |
  |                 |                 |       |lettuce. Tie up heads for  |
  |                 |                 |       |blanching 2 weeks before   |
  |                 |                 |       |use.                       |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Eggplant.=      |Aug. 15, green-  |  A-B  |Very tender. Plant 1/2 inch|
  |Round Purple.    |house.           |       |deep, 2 feet apart. Rich   |
  |                 |Dry heat, day,   |       |and moist soil. 1 packet   |
  |                 |90°.             |       |enough. Blossoms should be |
  |                 |Dry heat, night, |       |fertilized by hand.        |
  |                 |65°.             |       |                           |
  |                 |Ready in 4 or 5  |       |                           |
  |                 |months.          |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Kale.=          |Aug. 15, seed-   |   E   |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep |
  |Dwarf Scotch or  |bed.             |       |in rows 1-1/2 feet apart, 1|
  |Tall Scotch.     |Sept. 15, set    |       |foot apart in row. Deep    |
  |                 |outside.         |       |sand and mold. 1 ounce to  |
  |                 |Sept. 15, start  |       |200 feet. When top is cut  |
  |                 |some.            |       |off for use, side shoots   |
  |                 |October, set out-|       |will start.                |
  |                 |side.            |       |                           |
  |                 |Ready in 3 or 4  |       |                           |
  |                 |months.          |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Kohlrabi.=      |October 1, out-  |   C   |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep |
  |Early Vienna.    |side.            |       |in rows 1-1/2 feet apart, 6|
  |                 |Ready in 2 to 3  |       |inches apart in row. 1     |
  |                 |months.          |       |ounce for 150 feet. Grow   |
  |                 |                 |       |and use like turnip.       |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Lettuce.=       |Seed-bed Septem- |   C   |Almost hardy. 1/4 inch     |
  |May King or      |ber 15 and every |       |deep, 6 inches apart each  |
  |California Butter|2 weeks after.   |       |way. Light, rich soil. 1   |
  |or Boston Market.|Transplant into  |       |ounce for 2000 plants.     |
  |                 |cold-frames.     |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Muskmelon.=     |August 15, green-|  A-B  |Tender. Plant 1 inch deep  |
  |English: Sutton’s|house.           |       |in hills 5 feet apart.     |
  |Ar.              |Dry heat, day    |       |Manure. Light soil. 1 ounce|
  |Sutton’s Emerald |90°.             |       |for 50 hills. Blossoms to  |
  |Gem.             |Dry heat, night, |       |be fertilized by hand.     |
  |                 |70°.             |       |Pinch off tip of vine when |
  |                 |Ready in 4 to 5  |       |first blossoms come.       |
  |                 |months.          |       |                           |
  |                 |Sets ready 2     |       |                           |
  |                 |months.          |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Onions.=        |July 1, outside, |  A-B  |Hardy. Plant seed 1/2 inch |
  |Prizetaker or    |seed.            |       |deep, sets 2 inches deep in|
  |Multiplier or    |Sept. 1, outside,|       |rows 1-1/2 feet apart.     |
  |Globe.           |sets.            |       |Moist, rich soil and sun. 1|
  |                 |Ready in 4 to 5  |       |ounce of seed for 150 feet.|
  |                 |months.          |       |1 quart of sets for 100    |
  |                 |                 |       |feet.                      |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Parsley.=       |September 1, out-|   B   |Hardy. Plant 1/4 inch deep |
  |                 |side.            |       |in rows 1-1/2 feet apart. 1|
  |                 |Soak seeds over  |       |packet seed enough. Seeds  |
  |                 |night.           |       |slow to start.             |
  |                 |Ready in 2       |       |                           |
  |                 |months.          |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Parsnip.=       |September 1, out-|   B   |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep |
  |Hollow Crown.    |side.            |       |in rows 1-1/2 feet apart, 3|
  |                 |                 |       |inches apart in row. Seeds |
  |                 |                 |       |slow to start. Rich, deep  |
  |                 |                 |       |soil. 1 ounce for 200 feet.|
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Peanuts.=       |April 1, outside.|  ...  |Plant 3 inches deep in     |
  |Virginia or      |                 |       |hills 2 feet apart. Light, |
  |Georgia.         |                 |       |deep soil. Shell before    |
  |                 |                 |       |planting.                  |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Peas.=          |In cold-frames.  |  B-E  |Almost hardy. Plant 4      |
  |Nott’s Excelsior.|September 15 and |       |inches deep in rows 2 feet |
  |Gradus or Tom    |every 2 weeks.   |       |apart. Moist, not too rich.|
  |Thumb.           |Ready in 2 to 3  |       |Soak over night. 1 pint to |
  |Extra Early      |months.          |       |100 feet.                  |
  |(smooth varie-   |Outside same     |       |                           |
  |ties).           |dates (always an |       |                           |
  |Marrow Fat.      |uncertain crop). |       |                           |
  |                 |Outside, December|       |                           |
  |                 |1 (more hardy,   |       |                           |
  |                 |less quality).   |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Pepper.=        |August 1, green- |   B   |Tender. Plant seeds 1/2    |
  |Sweet Spanish or |house.           |       |inch deep, 2 feet apart. 1 |
  |Sweet Mountain.  |Moist heat, day, |       |packet of seed enough. Need|
  |                 |90°.             |       |not fertilize blossoms.    |
  |                 |Moist heat,      |       |                           |
  |                 |night, 70°.      |       |                           |
  |                 |Ready in 4       |       |                           |
  |                 |months.          |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Potato.=        |August 1, out-   |   B   |Hardy. Plant whole in rows |
  |Irish Cobbler or |side.            |       |3 feet apart, 1 foot apart |
  |other earlies.   |For new potatoes |       |in row. Moist, light, rich |
  |                 |all winter.      |       |soil. 8 bushels per acre.  |
  |                 |Ready in 3       |       |                           |
  |                 |months.          |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Potato, Sweet.= |Bed thickly in   |  ...  |Very deep sand. Rows 3 feet|
  |Yellow Yam or    |March.           |       |apart, 2 feet apart in row.|
  |Georgia Yam.     |Transplant the   |       |3 pounds to 100-foot row.  |
  |                 |sprouts outside  |       |Dig as wanted through the  |
  |                 |May 1.           |       |winter.                    |
  |                 |Ready in 6       |       |                           |
  |                 |months.          |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Radish.=        |Oct. 1, outside. |   C   |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep |
  |French Breakfast |Oct. 15, outside.|       |in rows 8 inches apart. 1  |
  |or Scarlet       |Nov. 1, outside. |       |ounce to 100-foot row.     |
  |Turnip.          |Cold-frames      |       |                           |
  |                 |November 1 and   |       |                           |
  |                 |every 10 days.   |       |                           |
  |                 |Ready in 6 weeks.|       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Salsify.=       |Outside, August 1|   B   |Hardy. Plant 1/4 inch deep |
  |Sandwich Island. |and September. (A|       |in rows 1-1/2 feet apart, 4|
  |                 |difficult crop in|       |inches apart in row. Water |
  |                 |the South).      |       |freely.                    |
  |                 |Ready in 5       |       |                           |
  |                 |months.          |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Spinach.=       |Sept. 1, outside.| A-B-E |Almost hardy. Plant 1 inch |
  |Viroflay.        |Oct. 1, outside. |       |deep in rows 1-1/2 feet    |
  |New Zealand.     |Nov. 1, outside. |       |apart, 3 inches apart in   |
  |                 |(doubtful crop). |       |row. 1 ounce for 150 feet. |
  |                 |Sept. 1, cold-   |       |                           |
  |                 |frame. (A sure   |       |                           |
  |                 |abundant product |       |                           |
  |                 |all winter).     |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Strawberries.=  |Transplant every |  ...  |Hardy. Rows 2 feet apart, 1|
  |Lady Thompson or |year in October. |       |foot apart in rows. Rich,  |
  |Hefflin or       |Ready in February|       |sandy loam. Mulch in       |
  |Hoffman.         |or March.        |       |summer. No stable manure.  |
  |                 |                 |       |Confine to single crowns.  |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Tomato.=        |Aug. 15, green-  |  B-A  |Tender. Plant 1/2 inch     |
  |Beauty or        |house.           |       |deep, 1-1/2 feet apart. 1  |
  |Perfection.      |Sept. 15, green- |       |packet of seed enough.     |
  |                 |house.           |       |Pinch out tips at desired  |
  |                 |Oct. 15, green-  |       |height. Pinch out all side |
  |                 |house.           |       |shoots. Fertilize blossoms |
  |                 |Ready in 4       |       |by hand.                   |
  |                 |months.          |       |                           |
  |                 |                 |       |                           |
  |=Turnip.=        |October 1, out-  |   C   |Hardy. Plant 1/2 inch deep |
  |Early Milan.     |side.            |       |in rows 1-1/2 feet apart, 3|
  |                 |Ready in 2 to 3  |       |inches apart in row. 1     |
  |                 |months.          |       |ounce for 200 feet. Moist  |
  |                 |                 |       |and rich soil.             |


  The fruit trees are cultivated for the sake of their fruit. They
  bear either kernel fruit, when their seed kernels are enclosed in
  cores of parchment-like formation; or stone fruit, when the seed
  kernel is enclosed in a hard shell, which is in its turn enclosed in
  some succulent pulp; or shell fruit, when the fleshy interior is
  enclosed in a hard shell.

=Almond=, a small tree belonging to the rose family, native to northwest
Africa. The flowers are solitary and generally pink, and appear before
the lance-shaped leaves. The fruit is egg-shaped, downy externally, with
a tough, fibrous covering and a wrinkled stone. It has long been widely
cultivated, and many varieties exist, differing in the hardness of the
stone and in the flavor of the seed. SWEET ALMONDS include the large
thin-shelled Jordan (from the French _jardin_), the Valencia almond,
imported as a dessert fruit from Malaga, the smaller Barbary and Italian
forms, and the California product. The BITTER ALMOND yields an essential
oil, employed in confectionery, but dangerous from sometimes containing
prussic acid.

=Apple= (_Pyrus Malus_), grows wild in forests, but it is found
artificially improved everywhere in gardens and orchards. Its bark is
generally smooth; its wood somewhat soft; its leaves oval-shaped and
about double the length of their stalks; its blossoms are white with
reddish margins. Fruit horticulture has produced many species of apples
in the course of time, and they are now the most important fruit of the
temperate zone, area of production, consumption, and variety of product
being considered, ranking with the grape, olive, orange, lemon and
banana, among the six leading fruits of the world. North America is
preëminently the leading apple growing region. In the United States, New
York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio produce about one-third of the total crop.

The cultivation of the apple is prehistoric. Abundantly used by Lake
Dwellers of the Stone Age in Italy and Switzerland.

[Illustration: =CACAO FRUIT OR PODS=

Each pod contains some sixty seeds, arranged in five or eight rows
(mostly five); the seeds are white when they are fresh, but brown and
covered with a fragile skin or shell when dried. These seeds, which are
not unlike beans or almonds, are imbedded in a mass of mucilaginous
pulp, of a sweet but acid taste. The seeds only require to be extracted,
cured and dried, to become the cacao-beans of commerce.]

=Apricot= (_Prunus Armeniaca_). The tree attains a height of thirteen to
sixteen feet, and shows its blossoms in the months of March and April.
Its smooth leaves are oval, doubly serrated; and its white blossoms have
a tinge of red. Its globular, velvet-like, downy fruits are a favorite
dish for dessert.

Apricots are extensively grown in north India, Persia, south Europe and
Egypt. Although grown in New York, the crop is only commercially
important in California and Oregon, whence large quantities of the fresh
and dried fruit are shipped to the eastern states and abroad.


[Illustration: Small crops of beans are spread out on the ground, or on
a tray, or on a piece of matting, and dried in the sun. In other cases,
artificial heat is used in specially constructed and equipped

[Illustration: The beans are roasted, similar to coffee, in large iron
drums to increase the aroma, make them more soluable in water, and
improve their flavor. After being ground, and mixed with sugar, the
product becomes chocolate--and is used in many ways.]

Cultivation in China antedates 2000 B. C. It was introduced into Europe
at the time of Alexander the Great, about 325 B. C.

=Bread-fruit= (_Artocarpus incisa_), grows upon the islands of the
Pacific Ocean, and has also been transplanted to those parts of America
which lie in the Torrid Zone. It attains a very great height, and bears
fruits weighing from three to four pounds. The latter are cut into
slices, and after being dried and roasted are used as food. These
fruits, when pounded and mixed with milk of the cocoanut, form a dough,
which is either consumed raw or baked into bread. All parts of this tree
are useful; its yellow wood is used for the construction of houses, from
its fibres articles of clothing are made, and its sap is used for making
birdlime. Its large leaves serve as tablecloths and napkins, and its
blossoms when dried are an excellent tinder. The bread-fruit tree is
therefore much cultivated.

=Butternut= (_Juglans cinerea_), a North American species of walnut. Its
dark yellow wood takes a fine polish, and is used in cabinet work; the
bark yields a brown dye, and the brown-husked, rugged nuts contain oil,
and are very pleasant in flavor.

=Cacao= (_Theobroma cacao_), a small tree, native to Mexico, Central
America and the north of South America, is cultivated also in Brazil,
Guiana, Trinidad and Grenada. It has large, oblong, pointed, entire
leaves and clusters of flowers with rose-colored calyx and yellowish
petals. The fruit is yellow, from six to ten inches long, and from three
to five broad, oblong, blunt, with ten longitudinal ridges externally,
and five chambers, containing ten or twenty seeds each, internally. The
thick, tough rind is almost woody. The seeds are dried, roasted,
bruised, and winnowed, so as to remove their testa from the cocoa-nibs
or cotyledons. These contain more than fifty per cent of fat or
cocoa-butter, part of which is generally removed in the process of
“preparing” cocoa. It is used in making chocolate “creams.” Cocoa is
also a valuable article of food; contains a gently stimulating alkaloid,
theobromine, a fragrant essential oil and a red coloring matter. Sugar
and vanilla or other flavoring are added in the preparation of

=Cherry= (_Prunus avium_), is a stately tree of from twenty-five to
forty-five feet in height. It has a pyramidal crown; its smooth bark
splits crosswise; its leaves are elliptical, and covered with down on
their lower sides; its blossoms are snowy white and its fruits sweet and
of different colors. The latter furnish an agreeable nourishment,
whether consumed raw, boiled, or preserved. Cherry-brandy is also made
from them. The Cherry is cultivated in temperate regions of Europe,
Asia, and the United States, and included among the fifteen leading
fruits of the world. Ranks about eighth among fruits of the United
States. Pennsylvania and California lead in production.

It was grown before the Christian Era in western Asia and southern
Europe, and is mentioned in Vergil’s _Georgics_.

=Cinnamon= (_Cinnamomum zeylanicum_), is largely grown in Ceylon. The
bark is stripped off two-year-old shoots in May and November and dried
in the sun, undergoing a slight fermentation. It rolls up into quills,
the thinnest being the best. Cinnamon contains a fragrant essential oil
and has long been valued as a spice. It has also some medicinal value as
a cordial and stomachic. It is also cultivated for bark in Brazil, West
Indies, Egypt, and Java, but cultivation is now declining in favor of

=Clove= (_Eugenia caryophyllata_), a small evergreen spice tree, native
of the Moluccas. The fruits are imported as mother cloves, and the
stalks are used to adulterate the spice when ground. The whole plant is
aromatic from the presence of the essential oil of cloves, which occurs
to the extent of sixteen to eighteen per cent in the flower-buds. The
dried flower buds are the cloves of commerce. Cultivated on many
tropical islands and coasts, chiefly in the Moluccas, Sumatra, Java,
Mauritius, Zanzibar, Jamaica, and French Guiana. The oil of cloves is
widely used in flavoring and perfumery and also in medicine.

=Cocoa-nut= (_Cocos nucifera_), a small genus of palms. The cocoa-nut
palm is apparently a native of the Indian Archipelago, but has been
dispersed throughout the tropics from early times, flourishing
especially near the sea. It has a cylindric stem reaching two feet in
diameter, and from sixty to one hundred feet in height; a crown of
pinnate leaves, each eighteen to twenty feet long, with a sheathing and
fibrous base, succeeded by bunches of from ten to twenty fruits. These
are about a foot long, six or eight inches across, three-sided, with a
stony shell and one seed filling its cavity. The seed contains a fleshy
kernel and a milky liquid. No tree of the tropics has so many uses,
every part of it being employed, and in southern India furnishing
several of the chief necessaries of life. The wood of the outer part of
the stem is used, under the name of Porcupine wood, for inlaying; the
leaves for thatch, mats, hats, etc.; the fibrous part under the name of
coir, for cordage, etc.; the shell for bottles, cups, spoons, and when
properly burned, for excellent charcoal and lamp-black. The solid white
kernel contains thirty-six per cent of oil known as copra oil, from
which, by pressure, the solid stearine used for candles is separated
from the liquid lamp-oil. The “milk,” when fresh, is an agreeable drink;
and from the sap sugar is obtained, and, by fermentation, toddy, from
which vinegar and by distillation, arrack are prepared. It is
extensively cultivated on the coasts of India, the East and West India
Islands, and Brazil, and recently in Florida.

=Coffee Tree= (_Coffea Arabica_), originally a native of Africa attains
a height of twenty-five to thirty feet. It is generally, however, kept
at a much inferior height, in order to facilitate the collection of the
fruit. Its leaves are evergreen; its blossoms white and fragrant. The
fruit is a red berry about the size of a cherry, which contains two
kernels, lying closely side by side: the coffee beans. These coffee
beans are used everywhere for the preparation of that coffee which has
become an indispensable beverage for many millions of people.
Commercially it is of great importance, being largely grown in Brazil,
Mexico, Central America, West Indies, Arabia, Java, Sumatra, Ceylon,
India, and Hawaii. Brazil leads with a production of over one-half of
the world’s crop. In the United States the consumption greatly exceeds
that of tea.

Beginning of its cultivation is uncertain, but not ancient. It was
introduced for cultivation in South America by the Dutch in 1718.

=Date or Date-Palm= (_Phœnix dactylifera_), a tree sixty to eighty feet
high, with large pinnate leaves, cultivated in immense quantities in
north Africa, western Asia and southern Europe. The stem is covered with
leaf scars, and the flowers each have three sepals and three petals. The
wood of the stem is used in building; huts are built of its leaves; the
petioles are made into baskets and the fibre surrounding their bases
into ropes and coarse cloth; the young leaf-bud or “cabbage” is
sometimes eaten as a vegetable, or, if tapped, it yields a sugary sap
which may be fermented; and even the seeds are ground into meal for
camels. In central Arabia and some parts of north Africa the fruit forms
the staple food of the inhabitants, camels, horses, and dogs. It is the
chief source of wealth in Arabia. It was very anciently cultivated in
Egypt and Babylonia and is the _palm_ of the Bible.






The “cherries” when gathered contain two seeds, or coffee beans. The
coverings are removed from the seeds by “hulling.”]


=Fig= (_Ficus Carica_). The common fig is a native of the East. It is a
low deciduous tree or shrub (fifteen to twenty-five feet), with large,
deeply-lobed leaves, which are rough above and downy beneath. The
branches are clothed with short hairs, and the bark is greenish. The
fruit is produced singly in the axils of the leaves, is pear-shaped, and
has a very short stalk; the color in some varieties is bluish-black; in
others, red, purple, yellow, green or white. The fig is extensively
cultivated in subtropical countries, particularly in Spain, Italy, and
southern France, in Europe, and in southwestern Asia. It is also grown
in the Gulf States and in California. All dried figs in the United
States are produced in California. Commercial figs come largely from
Asiatic Turkey, though Smyrna figs are now established in California.

=Grape-fruit or Shaddock= (_Citrus decumanus_), a tree, which, like the
other species of the same genus, is a native of the East Indies, and has
long been cultivated in the south of Europe. It is readily distinguished
by its large leaves and broad-winged leaf-stalk; it has very large white
flowers, and the fruit is also very large, sometimes weighing ten or
even fourteen pounds, roundish, pale yellow; the rind thick, white, and
spongy within, bitter; the pulp greenish and watery, subacid and
subaromatic. It is a pleasant, cooling fruit, and much used for
preserves. Finer and smaller than the shaddock proper is the Pomelo
(also called Pummelo, and grape-fruit) a variety rather larger than an
orange which bears its fruit in clusters. It was anciently cultivated
and much prized fruit in India, China, East Indies and Pacific Islands.
Now successfully established in Florida and California, and rapidly
becoming popular table fruit in the United States.

=Lemon= (_Citrus Limonum_), a small tree or shrub closely related to the
orange, apparently truly indigenous in the north of India, carried to
Palestine and Egypt by the Arabs, and to Italy by the Crusaders, and now
naturalized in the West Indies and elsewhere. The fruit is oval, and
ends in a nipple-like point; the rind is thin, smooth, and not readily
separable; and the juice is acid. There are numerous varieties,
including the citron, bergamot, lime, and sweet lime. Cultivation in the
United States is limited mostly to Southern California.

=Lime= (_Citrus acida_), is a variety of orange with small flowers, and
small, very acid, fruit, varying in form but ending, like the lemon, in
a nipple-like boss. It is said to have been anciently cultivated in
India, from whence it has been widely diffused in tropical countries. It
is widely imported in temperate regions, but sparingly used, being much
less popular than the lemon. Now successfully grown in Florida, which
produces a small crop.

=Mango= (_Mangifera indica_), a small tree indigenous to tropical Asia,
but now cultivated throughout the tropics. It has scattered, entire
leaves and small pink or yellow flowers. Though its glossy leaves make
it valuable for shade, it is chiefly valued for its fruit, which varies
considerably in size and flavor. In an unripe state it is used in
pickles; but in India is largely eaten when ripe as a dessert fruit. The
seeds, bark and resin have some medicinal value, apparently as
astringents, and the wood, though soft, is used as timber.

=Maté or Paraguay Tea= (_Ilex paraguayensis_), a species of holly
growing in Paraguay and south Brazil, which furnishes the chief
non-alcoholic drink of South America. Though used immemorially by the
Indians, the tree was first cultivated by the Jesuits. The dried leaves
are packed in scrons or raw hides containing about two hundred pounds
each. The infusion is prepared in a calabash or maté, usually
silver-mounted, boiling water and sugar, with milk or lemon-juice, being
added to the leaves (yerba), and the beverage taken very hot through a
metal or reed tube or bombilla with a strainer at one end. Maté contains
1.85 per cent of caffein, acting as a restorative, much as tea does;
but, being bitter, the taste for it has to be acquired.

=Mulberry= (_Morus_), allied to the nettle, hemp, and elm families. The
BLACK MULBERRY, mainly cultivated for its fruit, is perhaps a native of
Armenia, but was early introduced into Greece, where its leaves are
still used for feeding silkworms. The Asiatic species, or the WHITE
MULBERRY, of which there are numerous varieties, mostly with white
fruit, is that mainly cultivated in Japan, China, India and Italy for
the silkworm. The fibrous inner bark of the PAPER MULBERRY is made into
paper by the Chinese and Japanese, and into tapa cloth in the South Sea
Islands. The so-called fruit is formed from a whole cluster of flowers
which become fleshy, turn color and sweeten while they enlarge until
they meet those of the other flowers, enclosing the true fruits, small
dry capsules. Extensively grown for market near large cities in Europe
and the United States.

=Nutmeg= (_Myristica fragrans_), an evergreen tree native to the East
Indies, and now in cultivation in the East and West Indies and Brazil.
The fruit is pear-shaped and about two inches across. The seed has a
thin, hard shell enclosing the nutmeg, which is mottled in appearance.
The largest and roundest nutmegs are the best, and though generally
about one hundred and ten to the pound, they may be as few as
sixty-eight. Nutmegs contain about twenty-five per cent of nutmeg butter
or oil of mace, a vegetable fat now considerably employed in

=Olive= (_Olea europæa_), a very valuable small tree, seldom more than
thirty feet high, of slow growth, but sometimes exceeding twenty feet in
girth and seven centuries in age. The wild olive has squarish, spinous
branches; opposite evergreen, leathery, shortly-stalked leaves, hoary on
their under surface, and small white flowers. The cultivated olive (var.
_sativa_) differs in its rounder branches which have no spines, longer
leaves and larger fruit. For pickling, the fruits are gathered unripe,
soaked in an alkaline lye, and then bottled in brine. For oil, the ripe
fruit, which usually yields sixty to seventy per cent, is squeezed,
yielding virgin oil, and the marc or cake is wetted and re-pressed, and
the kernels crushed and boiled to yield a second and third quality. The
tree grows best on light or calcareous soils near the sea, and the value
attached to its oil as an article of food in countries where butter can
with difficulty be preserved made the tree from early times the symbol
of peace and good-will. It is extensively cultivated in Mediterranean
Europe, Syria, South Africa, Australia and California.

=Orange= (_Citrus Aurantium_), small evergreen trees, probably a native
of southern China and Burma, but grows wild and spinous in Indian
jungles. The scattered glossy leaves are remarkable for their double
articulation, having one joint at each end of the winged leaf-stalk. The
fragrant white or pinkish flowers have five sepals, five petals, and
branched stamens. The fruit has a leathery rind, containing large
spindle-shaped cells filled with watery juice. As the fruit takes some
months to ripen, it occurs on the tree at the same time as the next
year’s blossoms. There are two chief varieties or sub-species, the sweet
or China orange, and the bitter, bigarade or Seville orange, but the
Mandarin and Tangerine oranges are sometimes ranked as a distinct
species. The principal orange-growing sections of the United States are
Florida, Louisiana and California.

The MANDARIN ORANGE or CLOVE ORANGE has fruit much broader than long,
with a rind very loosely attached to the flesh, and small leaves; the
TANGERINE ORANGE is apparently derived from the mandarin. It is grown in
Florida. The JAFFA ORANGE has now a great reputation. The MAJORCA ORANGE
is seedless. The KUM-QUAT from China and Japan, is little bigger than a
gooseberry, and grows well in Australia. The NAVEL ORANGE, nearly
seedless, is a favorite variety with California growers.

Orange trees are often extremely fruitful, so that a tree twenty feet
high and occupying a space of little more than twelve feet in diameter
sometimes yields from three thousand to four thousand oranges in a year.
One tree in Florida has often borne ten thousand oranges in a single
season. The orange tree attains an age of at least one hundred to one
hundred and fifty years. Young trees are less productive than old ones,
and the fruit is also less juicy, has a thicker rind, and more numerous

=Palms= were called by Linnæus “the princess of the vegetable kingdom,”
and comprising over one thousand species, chiefly natives of the
tropics. They have mostly cylindric, unbranched stems, bearing a tuft of
large, often gigantic, leathery leaves at the top, the leaves being torn
into segments. The leaves are sometimes spattered, and in most cases
have a fibrous sheathing base to the leaf-stalk. The terminal leaf-bud
is the “cabbage” which, in some species, is eaten. The fruit varies very
much, with a hard seed, as in the date; drupaceous, as in the cocoa-nut;
or covered with woody reflexed scales, as in the sago palm. The use of
palms are innumerable. Beams, veneers, canes, thatch, fibre for cordage
and matting, fans, hats, bowls, spoons, sago, sugar, wine, spirits,
food, oil and wax are only some among the number. See also DATE,

=Peach= (_Amygdalus persica_), probably a native of China. The nectarine
is merely a smooth-fruited variety, differing, however, in flavor. The
stone in both is coarsely furrowed. The flowers which appear before the
leaves, are of a delicate pink. The fruit in the peach has a separable
wooly skin. Though deliciously flavored and refreshing, since it
contains eighty-five per cent of water and eight per cent of pectose and
gum, it does not contain much nutriment. Peaches grow extensively in
Europe and Asia and second only to the apple as an orchard fruit in the
United States. California, Michigan, Georgia and Texas lead in

=Pear= (_Pyrus communis_), is a tree belonging to the same genus as the
apple. It grows from thirty to seventy feet high, with a pyramidal
outline; branches spinous in the wild state; leaves scattered and
somewhat leathery; flowers in clusters; fruit with a fleshily-enlarged
stalk, core near the apex and parchment-like, and black seeds. Gritty
particles, due to groups of wood-cells, occur in the flesh. They are
widely cultivated in temperate regions, but chiefly in France and the
United States. Ranks fourth among American orchard fruits, being
preceded by the apple, peach and plum. Chiefly grown in California, New
York and Michigan.

=Pecan= (_C. illinoensis_), is a large, slender tree reaching a maximum
height of one hundred and seventy feet and a diameter of six feet. It
grows in moist soil, especially along streams, from Indiana to Iowa and
Missouri, south to Kentucky and Texas. It is cultivated in the Southern
States for its sweet, edible nut, which forms an important article of

=Persimmon=, the Virginian date-plum (_Dios pyros virginiana_), a
moderately-sized tree of the United States, belonging to the ebony
tribe, the round orange fruit of which, though austere, becomes edible
when affected by frost. They are fermented into a beer and distilled for
spirit in the Southern States. The bark has medicinal properties.

=Plum= (_Prunus domestica_), a small fruit-tree, native to Asia Minor
and the Caucasus, and naturalized in most temperate parts of the world.
The Damson or Damascus variety was grown by the Romans from very early
times. Large quantities of many varieties, both home and foreign are
grown, which are eaten raw, in tarts, and in preserves, or, when dried
as _prunes_. Extensive cultivation is carried on throughout temperate
regions. Third most important orchard fruit in the United States,
exceeding eight million bushels, California growing two-thirds. All
prunes produced in the United States grown in the Pacific States; first
prune orchard planted at San Jose, California, in 1870.

=Pomegranate= (_Punica Granatum_), long valued in hot countries for the
refreshing pulp of its fruit. It is a tree, fifteen to twenty-five feet
in height, native to West Asia and North Africa. It has opposite,
simple, entire leaves, and the flower has five scarlet or white petals.
The fruit has a tough, leathery gold-colored, but partly reddened,
exterior and numerous seeds each surrounded by a reddish pulp. This
varies in flavor in the numerous cultivated varieties. The rind is rich
in tannin, and is employed in tanning Morocco leather.

=Walnut= (_Juglans regia_), or COMMON WALNUT is a native of Persia and
the Himalayas, but has long been cultivated in all parts of the south of
Europe. It is a tree of sixty to ninety feet, with large spreading
branches. The leaves have two to four pairs of leaflets, and a terminal
one. The ripe fruit is one of the best of nuts. It yields a bland fixed
oil, which, under the names of walnut oil and nut oil, is much used by
painters as a drying oil. The timber of the walnut is of great value,
and is much used by cabinet-makers. The wood of the roots is beautifully
veined. Both the root and the husks of the walnut yield a dye, which is
used for staining light-colored woods brown. Very similar to the common
walnut, but more valuable, is the BLACK WALNUT of North America, found
in most parts of the United States, except the most northern. See also


  The trees previously mentioned are woody plants with only one stem,
  which begin to form branches at some distance from the ground. The
  shrubs, on the contrary, are woody plants in which the stem forms
  branches close to the ground, or even underground.

=Banana= (_Musa sapientium_), a handsome plant, long cultivated in
tropical and sub-tropical countries for its fruit. The sheathing bases
of the large, oblong leaves form a false stem twenty to thirty feet
high. The spikes of irregular flowers are succeeded by a branch of one
hundred to two hundred fruits, weighing together from fifty to eighty
pounds. The long, berry-like fruits, as they ripen, convert nearly all
their starch into sugar and pectose, and form a valuable article of
food, the staple food in many tropical countries, producing forty-four
times the weight of food per acre yielded by the potato. It is produced
in enormous quantities in the West Indies and Brazil, and shipped in
constantly increasing volume to the United States and Europe. Beginning
with a few hundred bunches in 1870, consumption in the United States has
increased to upwards of five million dollars worth annually. Banana
flour is becoming a staple article of food.

Its cultivation antedates historical records in India. Pliny mentions
that the Greeks under Alexander the Great saw it in India.

[Illustration: The banana plant is the most wonderfully productive fruit
in the world. It is a native of Asia, but most of our bananas come from
the New World. Here the plant is full grown and the bananas ripe. From
the time the suckers are planted to the gathering of the fruit is less
than a year, so rapidly does the plant come to maturity.]

=Blueberry.= See Huckleberry.

=Cassava= (_Manihot utilissima_), the bitter cassava, and _M. Aipi_, the
sweet cassava, are both natives of tropical America. Both are shrubby
plants, the former with yellow poisonous roots and seven-lobed leaves,
the latter with reddish wholesome roots and five-lobed leaves. The
coarsely-grated roots are baked into cassava cakes, from which the
intoxicating drink piwarrie is prepared. The juice of the poisonous kind
is rendered harmless by boiling, and is then the delicious sauce known
as cassareep. If allowed to settle, it deposits a large quantity of
starch, known as Brazilian arrowroot when simply sun-dried, or as
tapioca when partly converted into dextrine by roasting on hot plates.
It was long cultivated in Brazil, and, after Spanish discovery, extended
to Africa and Asia.

=Cranberry= (_Oxycoccus_), a small evergreen shrub, that grows in bogs
and marshy grounds, and is a small wiry shrub with creeping, thread-like
branches, and small oval leaves rolled back at the edges. The berries
are an excellent antiscorbutic, and hence furnish an excellent addition
to sea stores. The American cranberry (_O. macrocarpa_) is larger and
more upright with bigger leaves and berries. Large quantities are
exported to Europe and other varieties are also imported into Britain
and Germany from Russia and other parts of northern Europe.

=Currant= (_Ribes rubrum_), is an important shrub, bearing red, black
and white fruit. Its branches are not prickly; its leaves have three to
five lobes, greenish-yellow blossoms and the berries hang in clusters
like grapes. It is often planted in gardens for the sake of its fruit,
but is also found in a wild state. Black currants are extensively grown
in Continental Europe, Scotland and Canada; sparingly in the United
States. In France the _liqueur de cassis_ is made from the fruit. Red
currants are very widely grown in Europe and the United States, chiefly
for jellies. New York and Michigan lead in production.

[Illustration: The method of gathering bananas is practically the same
wherever they are grown, and here we see the bunches being brought to
the railway. Bananas need a great deal of water. They will only grow in
a warm, damp atmosphere and if much rain does not fall they must be
supplied with water artificially. This is done by having canals between
the rows of plants.]

=Elder= (_Sambucus_) has thorny branches, elliptical, serrated leaves
and single, white blossoms which grow in such numbers that they
sometimes resemble snow. Its fruit is black and blue. It grows from
three to six feet high in copses, hedges and forests. Few of the species
are considered of much value though _S. Canadensis_ is used to make a
domestic wine and jelly. The most ornamental of the species is _S.
pubens_, which has large, loose panicles of bright scarlet berries. This
species is occasionally found in moist high grounds from New York
southward. It is very abundant and beautiful on the slopes of the
Alleghany Mountains.

=Gooseberry= (_Ribes Grossularia_) has branches covered with spines,
brown-reddish blossoms and berries of green, yellow or reddish color,
which stand singly on the young shoots. It is frequently planted in
gardens, and has many varieties. It is highly prized in northwestern
Europe; not cultivated in southern Europe, and reaches highest
perfection in England. In the United States, while widely grown, is of
minor importance, ranking sixth among small fruits, being preceded by
the strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, cranberry and currant.

=Grape= (_Vitis Labrusca_) has a climbing, knotty trunk, which sometimes
attains a length of thirty to fifty feet; its leaves have from three to
five lobes, and are coarsely serrated; its small, fragrant, greenish
blossoms stand in panicles. The fruit of many varieties of vine, which
have been produced by cultivation in the course of thousands of years is
very different in color, size and flavor. It is either consumed raw and
dried, or manufactured into wine.

In the United States the first vineyard was planted by Lord Delaware in
1610, but not extensively grown until after the introduction of the
Concord grape during the last century. While the Concord, Catawba,
Isabella, Hartford and most of the cultivated varieties originated from
the wild northern fox or plum grape, _Vitis Labrusca_, the Clinton grape
was derived from the wild species, _Vitis riparia_, and most of the
American wine grapes from the native summer grape, _Vitis aestivalis_.

Since 1860 grape culture has made remarkable progress, the last census
showing a crop exceeding eight million dollars in value. New York
produces one-third of the American grape crop and is followed by Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri and Kansas, in order
named. Notwithstanding the extensive culture of the European grape in
the Pacific States, the American grape constitutes three-fifths in value
of all grape products of the United States. Millions of young vines have
been shipped to Europe to be top grafted with the European vine.

The grape shares leading rank with the apple among the world fruits.
Chief products: raisins, currants and wine of great commercial
importance. Raisin production largest in Spain, but important in
southwestern Asia, Australia and California. _Currants_ are small,
seedless raisins, mostly grown in Greece (name derived from Corinth).
Wine is made throughout the world, total production estimated at four
billion gallons, France, Italy and Spain contributing about
three-fourths of this enormous amount. The European grape products of
California--wine, raisins and table grapes,--amount in value to
two-fifths of all grape products of the United States.

Remotely ancient in Egypt. Used by Lake Dwellers of the Bronze Age in
Italy. Cultivated by the Phoenicians, Hebrews, Greeks and Romans.
Introduced into China 120 B. C.

=Huckleberry.= The popular name of the genus _Gaylussacia_, of which
there are several species. The _Dwarf_ huckleberry, the _Blue_
huckleberry and the _Black_ huckleberry are common throughout the United
States, the latter being the huckleberry of the Northern States. In New
England the name is commonly restricted to the black berry species in
distinction from the blue berry. The shrubs range in height from about
three feet to twelve feet high. In New England canning huckleberries is
an extensive if not exceedingly profitable industry. The crop is first
picked by hand and afterwards with a “blueberry rake.” The Indians long
ago gathered the fruit and dried it for use during wintertime.

=Pepper Plant= (_Piper nigrum_) is found all over the Torrid Zone. Its
berries stand to the number of twenty to thirty on one spike; at first
they are green, then they turn red, and finally black. The black pepper
is prepared from the unripe fruit, the white from the ripe fruit, which
loses its black shell by being put into salt water (sea water). Pepper
is now the most commonly and widely used spice. It is extensively
cultivated in East and West Indies, Siam and Malay Peninsula, whence
millions of pounds are exported.

Cayenne pepper, or chili is much grown in tropical Africa and America,
but less generally used than black pepper.

=Pistacia= is a small tree, about twenty feet high, and native to Persia
and Syria, but now cultivated in all parts of southern Europe and
northern Africa. Flowers in racemes, fruit ovate and about the size of
an olive. Pistachio nuts are much esteemed; but readily become rancid.
Oil is expressed from them for culinary and other uses.


=Pine-apple= (_Ananassa sativa_) is highly esteemed and much cultivated
for its fruit. It has a number of long, serrated or smooth-edged,
sharp-pointed, rigid leaves, springing from the root, in the midst of
which a short flower-stem is thrown up, bearing a single spike of
flowers, and therefore a single fruit. From the summit of the fruit
springs a crown or tuft of small leaves; capable of becoming a new
plant; the pine-apple, in cultivation, being propagated entirely by
crowns and suckers, as, in a state of high cultivation, perfect seed is
almost never produced. The pine-apple is a native of tropical America,
and is found wild in sandy maritime districts in certain parts of South
America, but has been very much changed by cultivation. It is
extensively grown in Florida, and in the West Indies for shipment to
northern markets and to Europe. Increasing outdoor plantations have also
been developed in the Azores, the Hawaiian Islands, northern Africa,
Queensland, and the Bahamas. Florida supports upward of fourteen million
plants. Great care is requisite in the cultivation of the pine-apple,
which without it is generally fibrous and coarse, with little sweetness
or flavor, and with it one of the most delicate and richly flavored of



The most productive tea gardens are at an elevation of about one
thousand feet, the land at this altitude being generally of an
undulating character, well watered, and the climate sufficiently humid
to encourage leaf-production.]

[Illustration: The plants are ready for plucking when three years old,
at which time they send out numerous leaf-shoots, known as “flush.” The
plucking season begins in September and lasts until June of the
following year, during which period each bush is plucked about sixteen

For producing superior fruit in winter the Smooth Cayenne and Black
Jamaica are two of the best and most reliable, and the Queen is the most
highly esteemed for summer fruiting. The Spanish is the variety commonly
grown in Florida. A spirituous liquor (Pine-Apple Rum) is made from the
pine-apple in some warm countries.

=Raspberry= (_Rubus Idæus_), the most valued of all the species of
Rubus. The wild raspberry has scarlet fruit and is found in thickets and
woods throughout the whole of Europe and northern Asia. It was early
introduced into the United States, but those now grown originated in
native American varieties. The black raspberry, is largely grown in New
York and Ohio as a commercial industry. The red variety is widely grown
in the United States, but production is small compared to that of the
black raspberry. Among the more promising varieties of the blacks are
Gregg, Ohio and Kansas. Cuthbert is one of the best of the red
varieties. The raspberry has long been in cultivation for its fruit. The
root is creeping, perennial; the stems only biennial, bearing fruit in
the second year, woody, but with very large pith. The raspberry is the
leading bush fruit of the United States and second only to the
strawberry among small fruits. New York, Michigan, Ohio and
Pennsylvania, ranking in the order named, grow over one-half of the
total crop, which exceeds seventy-five million quarts. The berries are
consumed raw or in a preserved state, or are manufactured into raspberry
juice, wine and cordial.

=Tea= (_Camellia theifera_) is a plant of which there are two well-known
varieties: (1) Assam tea; and (2) China tea. The Assam variety, known as
“indigenous” tea, is a tree of vigorous growth attaining a height of
thirty to forty feet with a leaf from eight to ten inches in length.
The China variety is a comparatively stunted shrub, growing to a height
of twelve to fifteen feet, with a rounder leaf about three and one-half
inches in length, and calyx covered with soft, short hairs. These two
varieties have resulted in a hybrid which combines the hardy character
of the China with the other features of the indigenous, now largely
cultivated on the hills of India and Ceylon, and known as
“hybrid-Assam.” The hybrids vary much in productiveness.

The tea-plant will flourish in all parts of the tropical and subtropical
zones where the rainfall is over sixty inches and evenly distributed
throughout the year. In Ceylon it grows from sea-level to an altitude of
seven thousand feet.

The tea-plant is not particular as to soil, but it succeeds best on new
forest-land containing plenty of humus. As is the case with cacao,
coffee and other economic plants, tea grown on rich, alluvial soil is
stronger than tea grown on poorer land, though the latter is often of
more delicate flavor.

Chinese teas may be classified thus: Monings, or black leaf teas are
grown in the north of China, and shipped from Hankow and Shanghai. Green
teas are shipped from Shanghai and consist of Gunpowder, Imperial,
Hyson, Young Hyson and Twankay. Kaisows or Red-leafs are grown farther
south and are shipped from Foo Chow.

The United States and Canada consume nearly all the tea exported from
Japan, all of which is of light character, consisting mostly of Oolongs
and greens. Tea has been grown with success in South Carolina and
experimentally elsewhere in the United States.

MANUFACTURE.--The first process is to spread the green leaf thinly on
hessian trays in the withering house, where it is exposed to a free
current of air--a very important operation, which takes from twelve to
forty-eight hours. When the leaf is tough and flaccid, like an old kid
glove, it is ready for rolling. The old or Chinese system of rolling was
by hand. Now this process is performed by machinery, and in India and
Ceylon tea is not manipulated after plucking. The rolled leaf is now
ready for fermentation, an operation requiring close attention. It is
placed in drawers or on tables and covered. The state of the weather
hastens or retards the process; in hot, dry weather the leaf will be
sufficiently fermented or oxidized in twenty minutes, in cold wet
weather it may take hours. Whenever the leaf assumes a bright copper
color it must be fired; over-fermentation is a fatal error.

The difference between black and green teas is simply this: if the tea
is fired immediately after rolling it is green tea; if it is fermented
it becomes black tea. After firing the manufacture is complete, and the
tea is what is known as “unassorted,” which contains all the different
grades into which tea is usually separated. Sorting by hand sieves is
still done in small factories, but in large factories machinery is


  We cultivate in our gardens plants of all kinds, which give us great
  pleasure on account of their lovely blossoms or their agreeable
  odors. They are no longer luxuries, but have become necessities of
  life; and never have they become so extensively grown and widely
  appreciated as now. There are plants suited for sunny and shaded
  aspects and for various positions, from the mossy dell to high and
  dry situations in the country; from the area to the housetop in the
  town. Only knowledge is wanted for making the best selections for
  different purposes and sites, with information on culture for the
  uninitiated to achieve satisfactory results.

  Plants and flowers grown in gardens are embraced in three groups: 1.
  ANNUALS, 2. BIENNIALS, and 3. PERENNIALS, the last-named being
  divided into two sections: (_a_) _herbaceous_, with soft or
  succulent stems that die in the winter; and (_b_) _shrubby_
  perennials with woody stems that survive the winter.

  ANNUALS are those flowers which are born, grow, flower, ripen seeds,
  and die within a year. They never push growths a second season after
  flowering, because the roots die as well as the tops and branches.
  The common scarlet Poppy is a typical example.

  BIENNIALS are those plants which are raised from seeds in the spring
  or early summer and require the whole season to make their growth
  preparatory to flowering the next year, dying after ripening seeds.

  PERENNIALS differ from the above in living more than two years. All
  plants, such as hardy border flowers, that die down and spring up
  again from the root-stock year after year are
  perennials--herbaceous. Roses and other flowering shrubs are also
  perennials, but not herbaceous. _Orchids._ One of the best examples
  of herbaceous perennials is that of the Orchids, the most popular of
  which are the Odontoglossums and the Cattleyas.

  FLORIST’S FLOWERS. This term has been applied to a number of plants
  which under cultivation and by selection or hybridization have
  produced from seed varieties of improved form, habit or color. The
  plants included under this title are constantly being added to, and
  great impetus given to the cultivation of hardy flowers and plants
  in recent years. The following are representative of this class:

=Begonia.= Named in honor of M. Begon, a French patron of botany. All
the species of Begonia are interesting and beautiful winter ornaments of
the hot-house or green-house, of the simplest culture in any rich soil
if allowed an abundant supply of water. There are several
tuberous-rooted species and varieties. They have large, showy flowers,
and succeed well in a moist, shady border. The tubers should be kept
warm and dry during the winter. They are readily propagated by cuttings,
seeds, or division of tubers.

=Carnation= (_Dianthus caryophyllus_) is an almost hardy herbaceous
perennial plant, a native of southern Europe. The Greeks and Romans used
it for making chaplets whence it was called “coronation.” It is a
favorite exhibition flower, of many varieties, forms and colors; but the
red, white, pink and yellow predominate. Carnations are among the plants
which can be grown in the atmosphere of cities, but they are intolerant
of shade. Propagation is usually effected by the process of layering,
but cutting, seeds, and divisions are also employed.

=Cattleya.= What the rose and carnation are among garden plants, the
Cattleya is among Orchids, preëminently beautiful. Not a species but
possesses claims of the strongest nature on the culturist’s attention,
either for its delicate loveliness or the rich and vivid coloring of its
large and handsome flowers. They are natives of the temperate parts of
South America, and in cultivation are found to succeed in a lower
temperature than is necessary for the majority of plants of the same
order. The plants grow vigorously, and consequently flower in
perfection. The colors of the flowers run through all the shades of
white, rose, rosy-lilac, crimson and carmine, nor is even yellow absent.

=Dahlia.= This, through constant improvement, has become one of the
indispensable flowers. It derived its name from the Swedish botanist
Dahl. Dahlias are known as show, fancy, pompon, single and cactus. They
vary from the single type, not unlike a daisy, with broad rays, to the
tiny, tightly-quilled, formal “pompon,” and to the “cactus-flowered,”
resembling a chrysanthemum; and their lines are equally varied. Yellow,
lilac, white and the deepest maroon, are found in innumerable
combinations. It is necessary to lift the roots in late autumn, and,
having ripened them in a shed, to store them for the winter in a cool,
dry place, where the temperature will not fall below thirty-two degrees
Fahrenheit. In the spring, the separate tubers may be planted in deep,
rich soil; or the roots may be placed in February in a hot-bed, and when
the young shoots which form are about three and a half inches long, they
may be separated, together with a small piece of the tuber, and potted
in small pots, which should be placed in the hot-bed until the young
plants are ready to be hardened, preparatory to being planted outdoors.

=Geranium.= Our native species, called “crane’s bill,” from the
beak-like appearance of the fruit, have palmately lobed or cleft leaves.
The flowers have unusually bright-colored petals. The plants commonly
cultivated in gardens and greenhouses under the name of Geraniums are
species of Pelargonium. There are about one hundred and twenty-five
species, mostly natives of the Cape of Good Hope, prized on account of
the brilliant colors, of the flowers and the shape and markings of the

The most popular method of propagating is by cuttings, which can be
rooted in pots or boxes of light soil placed in a greenhouse, or even a
cottage window, at any time from spring to autumn, provided the soil is
not kept very moist. Good loam is the best potting material, and beyond
a little sand it needs no addition. Firm potting is a point to be well
observed. Avoid coddling.

=Gloxinia= is the florists’ name for plants belonging to the genus
_Sinningia_, tropical American plants. They have beautiful,
many-colored, funnel-shaped flowers and velvety leaves. Seeds should be
sown in February; and if the young plants are carefully potted, they
flower the first year. They require the temperature of a warm greenhouse
during the summer months; but as the leaves die away in autumn, the
roots may be stored in a dry place, merely protected from cold. They
like a sandy soil, containing abundance of leaf-mould and heat.

=Lily= (_Lilium_) in its many forms is one of the noblest and must
beautiful of all bulbous plants. About forty-five species are natives of
the north temperate zone, many of which are prized for the size and
beauty of the flowers. The WHITE LILY (_L. candidum_), a native of the
Levant, with large white flowers, has long been in cultivation in
gardens. The EUROPEAN ORANGE LILY (_L. bulbiferum_), with large,
orange-colored flowers, is a well-known and very showy ornament in
flower gardens. The TIGER LILY (_L. tigrinum_) has a stout stem two to
five feet high with beautiful orange-colored flowers, spotted with
purple. It is a native of China but has escaped from cultivation in many
parts of the United States.



=Nasturtium=, the generic name of a plant of the _cruciferæ_ or mustard
family, and the common name of the widely different genus _tropæolum_.
The best known of these is _Tropæolum tricolorum_, one of the most
generally cultivated annuals. It has tuberous roots, and such very weak
and slender stems, that it is found necessary always to train them over
a wire frame, as they are quite unable to support themselves. The stem
climbs six or eight feet; the flowers vary from yellow to orange,
scarlet and crimson. The unexpanded flower buds, and the young fruit
while still tender, are pickled in vinegar. The dwarf varieties of this
form bushy, rounded tufts about a foot high, and are used for bedding;
some of them have flowers of exceedingly rich colors.

=Odontoglossum.= Unquestionably the most popular genus of Orchids. Very
many of the species have been introduced into the green-house, and are
greatly prized by cultivators for their magnificent flowers, which are
remarkable both for their size and the beauty of their colors. Many of
the species have pure white flowers, variously mottled; and some have a
powerful odor of violets. With but few exceptions, they require to be
grown in a moderately cool house. They are propagated by division, and
grown like the other varieties of Orchids.

=Tulip= (_Tulipa_). A genus of upward of eighty species of hardy bulbous
plants. Between forty and fifty species are known, mostly natives of the
warmer parts of Asia. The most famous of all florists’ flowers is the
garden tulip (_T. gesneriana_), which is from eighteen inches to two
feet high, with a smooth stem, bearing one erect, large flower. The
tulip is still most sedulously cultivated in Holland, especially at
Haarlem, whence bulbs are largely exported; but attention is almost
exclusively devoted to the cheaper varieties, which are used in hundreds
of thousands for the purposes of decoration in gardens and rooms
throughout winter and spring. Tulips are propagated by offset bulbs, and
new varieties are raised from seed. Another species of tulip cultivated
in gardens is the sweet-scented tulip, or Van Thol tulip (_T.
suaveolens_), which has yellow or red flowers, inferior to those of the
common garden tulip in beauty, but prized for their fragrance, and for
appearing more early in the season.


  Roses are perhaps the most universally admired of all flowers, and
  few respond so well to the care of the cultivator. The earlier they
  are planted in the autumn (October 15th to November 15th) the better
  they will grow. Spring planting is fairly successful, provided the
  roots are kept moist when out of the ground. Time, April 15th to May

  Roses enjoy deeply worked and fertile soil, and may be grown in
  specially prepared beds, or as borders. An open position, with a
  south or southeast exposure is preferable. Pruning should be done
  toward the end of March. When especially large blooms are desired,
  only one should be borne on each stem, the remainder of the buds
  being removed.


HYBRID PERPETUALS.--These produce handsome blooms in varied colors in
the summer followed by a more or less bountiful supply in the autumn.
Hardiest of the garden roses.


  Frau Karl Druschki.--An ideal white rose.
  Jacqueminot (Jack Rose).--Brilliant scarlet.
  Paul Neyron.--Dark rose; largest of all.
  Magna Charta.--Bright pink; a favorite.
  George Arends.--Splendid soft pink.

HYBRID TEAS.--These possess the freedom of growth of the foregoing with
much of the delicacy of flowers for which Tea-scented Roses are admired.
The most satisfactory for the general garden.


  Robert Huey.--One of the largest bright reds.
  The Lyon.--Deep coral pink verging on yellow.
  White Killarney.--One of the best pure whites.
  La France.--Clear, satiny pink.
  Burbank.--Rich pink.
  Richmond.--Brilliant crimson.

TEA AND NOISETTES.--Loveliness with profuseness are combined in this
section. Much tenderer than the Hybrid Teas; sweet scented. The Noisette
is an excellent climber for walls.


  The Bride.--Pure white.
  Perle des Jardins.--Beautiful rich yellow.
  Papa Goutier.--Dark crimson.
  William Allen Richardson.--Deep orange-yellow flowers.
  Garland.--Semi-double, blush and white.
  Longworth Rambler.--Splendid autumn climber; flowers, semi-double and

HARDY CLIMBERS.--Popular and showy.


  American Pillar.--Large, single, pink flowers.
  Excelsa.--Finest of crimson ramblers.
  Hiawatha.--Single, brilliant crimson.
  Dorothy Perkins.--Soft shell-pink, fragrant.
  Lady Gay.--Delicate cerise-pink which change to creamy white.
  Wichmoss.--A “Moss” rose, light bluish-pink, fragrant.

HYBRID BRIERS.--Hardy semi-climbing roses.


  Lord Penzance.--Beautiful contrasting shades.
  Refulgence.--Dazzling scarlet, in clusters.
  Juliet.--Rosy red with reverse petals of old gold.

THE “BABY RAMBLERS.”--Dwarf, “perpetual bloomers.”


  Phyllis.--Beautiful pink.
  Jessie.--Bright cherry-red, white center.
  Orleans.--Brilliant red, white center.
  Snowball.--White, free flowering.



  Blairii (China).--Vigorous climber for sunny walls; flowers, blush and
  Rugosa (Japanese).--No pruning is needed; flowers, white, rose and


  |     =Common and Botanical      | =Color, Height and  |=Kind of Soil and|
  |         Name; Hints on         |   Time in Bloom=    | Light Required= |
  |          Cultivation=          |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |        BLOOMING IN MAY         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Pansies= (_Viola tricolor_),   |Various; 7 inches; 8 |Rich, light;     |
  |generally wintered in frames,   |weeks.               |partial shade.   |
  |but protected with leaves often |                     |                 |
  |survive the winter outdoors.    |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Trailing Catchfly= (_Silene    |Pink, white; 12      |Light, rich loam;|
  |pendula_).--For succession from |inches; 4 weeks.     |sun.             |
  |May 15th to July 15th sow out-  |                     |                 |
  |doors September 1st, and again  |                     |                 |
  |in early spring.                |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Cornflower= (_Centaurea        |Blue; 24 inches; 10  |Light; sun.      |
  |Cyanus_).--With moisture and    |weeks.               |                 |
  |frequent picking will bloom     |                     |                 |
  |longer.                         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=_Calliopsis_= (_Coreopsis      |Yellow and brown; 24 |Light; sun.      |
  |tinctoria_).--_Calliopsis       |inches; 12 weeks.    |                 |
  |elegans_ is one of the best     |                     |                 |
  |browns among flowers.           |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |     BLOOMING IN JUNE           |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Giant Spider Plant= (_Cleome   |Rosy purple; 36      |Light; sun.      |
  |spinosa_).--Usually planted in  |inches; 4 weeks.     |                 |
  |the front of shrubbery.         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Ageratum= (_Ageratum           |Blue; 8 inches; 16   |Rich, light; sun |
  |conyzoides_).--Sow seed under   |weeks.               |or half shade.   |
  |glass in March. For edging.     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Annual Phlox= (_Phlox          |Various; 12 inches;  |Rich, moist; sun.|
  |Drummondi_).--Remove fading     |12 weeks.            |                 |
  |flowers daily.                  |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Monkey Flower= (_Mimulus       |Various; 36 inches; 6|Rich, moist;     |
  |luteus_).--Spotted petals.      |weeks.               |shade.           |
  |Flowers somewhat resemble a     |                     |                 |
  |snapdragon.                     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Three-colored Gilia= (_Gilia   |Various; 24 inches; 8|Any good; sun.   |
  |tricolor_).--A profuse bloomer. |weeks.               |                 |
  |Sow seeds where plants are to   |                     |                 |
  |grow by May 1st, and it will    |                     |                 |
  |bloom in late June.             |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Shirley Poppy= (_Papaver       |Various; 24 inches; 2|Good, moisture;  |
  |Rhœas_).--A form of the common  |weeks.               |sun.             |
  |corn poppy. Sow seeds in the    |                     |                 |
  |poppy bed in early September or |                     |                 |
  |April.                          |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Sweet Pea= (_Lathyrus          |Various; 72 inches; 8|Heavy, rich loam;|
  |odoratus_).--Manure and moisture|weeks.               |sun.             |
  |cause abundance of blossoms. Sow|                     |                 |
  |seed March 20th near New York.  |                     |                 |
  |Cut flowers daily.              |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Candytuft= (_Iberis            |Various; 8 inches; 4 |Good; sun.       |
  |umbellata_).--Sow early where   |weeks.               |                 |
  |plants are to stand.            |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Petunia= (_Petunia hybrida_).--|White, pink; 12      |Good; sun.       |
  |Grow somewhat apart from low    |inches; 16 weeks     |                 |
  |plants because straggling.      |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Western Wallflower= (_Erysimum |Orange; 18 inches; 4 |Dry; sun.        |
  |asperum_).--For May bloom sow in|weeks.               |                 |
  |September, for June flowers sow |                     |                 |
  |in April.                       |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Antirrhinum or Snapdragon=     |Various; 24 inches;  |Rich, moist sun. |
  |(_Antirrhinum majus_).--Sow in  |12 weeks.            |                 |
  |hotbed in February for June     |                     |                 |
  |bloom.                          |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |       BLOOMING IN JULY         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Lavatera= (_Lavatera tri_).--  |Pink, white; 24      |Light, rich; sun.|
  |Sow early May where plants are  |inches; 5 weeks.     |                 |
  |to grow.                        |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=_ neriifolia_= (_Clarkia       |White, lilac, pink;  |Light, rich; sun |
  |elegans_).--_Clarkia pulchella_ |24 inches; 6 weeks.  |or half shade.   |
  |is also useful for edging beds. |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Large-flowered Godetia=        |White, lilac, pink;  |Good; sun.       |
  |(_Œnothera Whitneyi_).--The     |12 inches; 6 weeks.  |                 |
  |large-flowered species. Some    |                     |                 |
  |with spotted throats.           |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Early Cosmos= (_Cosmos         |White, pink, crimson;|Light; sun.      |
  |binnatus_).--Very rich soil     |48 inches; 8 weeks.  |                 |
  |makes it bloom too late.        |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Sweet Alyssum= (_Alyssum       |White; 8 inches; 14  |Light; sun.      |
  |maritimum_).--Blooms till frost.|weeks.               |                 |
  |Trim back moderately when       |                     |                 |
  |flowers fade.                   |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=_Nicotiana affinis_=           |White; 36 inches; 12 |Light; sun or    |
  |(_Nicotiana alata_).--Very      |weeks.               |part shade.      |
  |fragrant at night. Plants       |                     |                 |
  |usually started in cold frame.  |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Sander’s Nicotiana= (_Nicotiana|Various; 36 inches;  |Light, rich; sun |
  |Sanderæ_).--More satisfactory as|12 weeks.            |or part shade.   |
  |a greenhouse plant, steadily    |                     |                 |
  |improving.                      |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=_Arctotis grandis_= (_Arctotis |White and lilac; 18  |Light, rich; sun.|
  |grandis_).--Petals white above, |inches; 14 weeks.    |                 |
  |lilac beneath. Blue-centered    |                     |                 |
  |daisy.                          |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Stock, Gilliflower= (_Matthiola|Various; 18 inches;  |Deep, rich; sun. |
  |incana_, var. _annua_).--For    |12 weeks.            |                 |
  |July bloom sow February in      |                     |                 |
  |greenhouse or hotbed.           |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Annual Larkspur= (_Delphinium  |Various; 18 inches; 8|Good, light; sun.|
  |Ajacis_).--Sow seeds in Septem- |weeks.               |                 |
  |ber outdoors to have flowers    |                     |                 |
  |July 1st.                       |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Bedding Lobelia= (_Lobelia     |Blue; 10 inches; 12  |Light, rich,     |
  |Erinus_).--Blooms till frost in |weeks.               |moist; half      |
  |partial shade if watered.       |                     |shade.           |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Wishbone Flower= (_Torenia     |Blue; 8 inches; 12   |Light, rich,     |
  |Fournieri_).--Set five inches   |weeks.               |moist; half      |
  |apart in two or three lines.    |                     |shade.           |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=_Phacelia congesta_= (_Phacelia|Blue; 12 inches; 6   |Light, rich; sun.|
  |congesta_)--An interesting      |weeks.               |                 |
  |little plant for border edge.   |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=African Marigold= (_Tagetes    |Yellow; 36 inches; 16|Rich; sun.       |
  |erecta_).--Colors range from    |weeks.               |                 |
  |deep orange to sulphur yellow.  |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=California Poppy=              |Yellow; 15 inches; 16|Rich; sun.       |
  |(_Eschscholzia Californica_).-- |weeks.               |                 |
  |Sow early in border edge. Avoid |                     |                 |
  |transplanting.                  |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Giant Tulip= (_Hunnemannia     |Yellow, red; 24      |Rich; sun.       |
  |fumariæfolia_).--Bushy in habit.|inches; 8 weeks.     |                 |
  |Sow seeds in May outdoors.      |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Annual Gaillardia= (_Gaillardia|Crimson, red, yellow;|Rich, light; sun.|
  |pulchella_).--Best kinds belong |24 inches; 14 weeks. |                 |
  |to var. _picta_. Profuse        |                     |                 |
  |bloomer.                        |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Salvia or Scarlet Sage=        |Red; 36 inches; 14   |Good; sun or half|
  |(_Salvia splendens_).--Don’t    |weeks.               |shade.           |
  |place near pink flowers. Start  |                     |                 |
  |indoors in March.               |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Youth and Old Age= (_Zinnia    |Various; 36 inches;  |Rich; sun.       |
  |elegans_).--Rather stiff, but   |14 weeks.            |                 |
  |splendid for mass effects in    |                     |                 |
  |garden.                         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Rose Moss= (_Portulaca         |Various; 6 inches; 14|Light, sun.      |
  |grandiflora_).--Sow outdoors    |weeks.               |                 |
  |June 1st. It self-sows freely.  |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Balsam= (_Impatiens            |Various; 24 inches; 6|Light, rich,     |
  |Balsamina_).--_Balsamina        |weeks.               |moist; sun.      |
  |hortensis_ strain is best. Pinch|                     |                 |
  |plants once.                    |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Painted Tongue= (_Salpiglossis |Various; 18 inches; 8|Rich, light; sun.|
  |nuala_).--Beautiful venation.   |weeks.               |                 |
  |Best started under glass.       |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Verbena.=--Sow indoors in      |Various; 12 inches;  |Rich, light,     |
  |February to get earliest bloom. |10 weeks.            |moist; sun.      |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |     BLOOMING IN AUGUST         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Three-Colored Chrysanthemum=   |Various; 24 inches; 8|Rich, light; sun.|
  |(_Chrysanthemum carinatum_).--  |weeks.               |                 |
  |Sometimes called “painted       |                     |                 |
  |daisy.”                         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Mourning Bride= (_Scabiosa     |Various; 24 inches; 8|Rich, light; sun.|
  |atropurpurea_).--Sown in April  |weeks.               |                 |
  |for early August bloom.         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=China Asters= (_Callistephus   |Various; 24 inches; 6|Rich, light; sun.|
  |Chinensis_).--Dig in wood ashes |weeks.               |                 |
  |around roots to prevent         |                     |                 |
  |diseases.                       |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Everlasting= (_Helichrysum     |Deep red; 36 inches; |Light, rich; sun.|
  |bracteatum_).--This shade is by |8 weeks.             |                 |
  |far the most desirable.         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Didiscus= (_Trachymene         |Light blue; 24       |Rich, light; sun.|
  |cærulea_).--Sow _Didiscus       |inches; 8 weeks.     |                 |
  |cæruleus_ under glass in April. |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |    BLOOMING IN SEPTEMBER       |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=China Aster= (_Callistephus    |Various; 24 inches; 4|Light, rich; sun.|
  |hortensis_).--Dig in wood ashes |weeks.               |                 |
  |to prevent aster disease.       |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Cosmos= (_Cosmos bipinnatus_). |Pink, white and red; |Fairly good; sun.|
  |--Dig around it and jolt it in  |6 inches; 2 weeks.   |                 |
  |midsummer.                      |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |    BLOOMING IN OCTOBER         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Autumn Crocus= (_Colchicum     |Purple, white, pink; |Rich, light; sun.|
  |autumnale_).--They begin to     |4 inches; 4 weeks.   |                 |
  |bloom in September.             |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Datsch’s Aster= (_Aster        |White; 36 inches; 3  |Good, deep; sun. |
  |Datschi_).--Latest aster of its |weeks.               |                 |
  |color in trade.                 |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Himalayan Aster= (_Aster       |Violet-purple; 30    |Good, deep; sun. |
  |trinervis_).--Latest aster of   |inches; 3 weeks.     |                 |
  |its color in trade.             |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Tea Rose= (_Rosa Chinensis_).--|Various; 24 inches; 2|Rich, deep; sun. |
  |Last bloom of the monthly or tea|weeks.               |                 |
  |rose.                           |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Perennial Larkspur=            |Blue; 24 inches; 2   |Deep, rich; sun. |
  |(_Delphinium sp._).--Cut back   |weeks.               |                 |
  |larkspur after annual bloom.    |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Everbloom Torch Lily=          |Orange-scarlet; 36   |Rich, deep; sun. |
  |(_Kniphofia Pfitzerii_).--Store |inches; 6 weeks.     |                 |
  |roots of _Tritoma Pfitzerii_ in |                     |                 |
  |cellar over winter.             |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |    BLOOMING IN NOVEMBER        |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Pompon Chrysanthemum=          |Various; 36 inches; 4|Rich, loam; sun. |
  |(_Chrysanthemum Indicum_).--    |weeks.               |                 |
  |Buttons one-half inch across or |                     |                 |
  |flowers one inch across.        |                     |                 |


  |     =Common and Botanical      | =Color, Height and  |=Kind of Soil and|
  |         Name; Hints on         |   Time in Bloom=    | Light Required= |
  |          Cultivation=          |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |      BLOOMING IN MARCH         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Anemone or Hepatica= (_Hepatica|Blue, lilac, pink,   |Rich, drained    |
  |triloba_).--For wild garden or  |white; 5 inches; 3   |loam; shade.     |
  |rock garden. Evergreen.         |weeks.               |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |      BLOOMING IN APRIL         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Bluebell= (_Mertensia          |Blue; 16 inches; 3   |Rich loam; sun.  |
  |Virginica_).--Leave undisturbed |weeks.               |                 |
  |for years. Foliage dies in      |                     |                 |
  |summer.                         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Shooting Star= (_Dodecatheon   |Pink; 8 inches; 3    |Good; partial    |
  |Meadia_).--Its English name is  |weeks.               |shade.           |
  |very descriptive.               |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Wild Sweet William= (_Phlox    |Blue; 16 inches; 4   |Rich; sun or     |
  |divaricata_).--The tallest of   |weeks.               |shade.           |
  |the early phloxes.              |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Sweet Violet= (_Viola          |Blue; 8 inches; 6    |Heavy rich; sun  |
  |adorata_).--Blooms again in     |weeks.               |or shade.        |
  |autumn.                         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Rock Cress= (_Arabis albida_). |White; 4 inches; 3   |Any; sun.        |
  |--For edgings, carpeting bare   |weeks.               |                 |
  |spots, covering banks, etc.     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Large-Leaved Saxifrage=        |White, blue, pink; 12|Any; partial     |
  |(_Saxifraga sp._).--The         |inches; 2 weeks.     |shade.           |
  |different species known to the  |                     |                 |
  |trade as _Saxifraga Megasea_    |                     |                 |
  |generally appear in early April.|                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Moss Pink= (_Phlox subulata_). |Pink; 6 inches; 4    |Good; full sun.  |
  |--Spreads rapidly. Moss-like    |weeks.               |                 |
  |foliage. Carpets ground.        |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=English Primrose= (_Primula    |Yellow; 9 inches; 3  |Light rich; full |
  |vulgaris_).--Some moisture is   |weeks.               |sun.             |
  |necessary to produce fine       |                     |                 |
  |blossoms.                       |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Leopard’s Bane= (_Doronicum    |Yellow; 10 inches; 4 |Any; sun or semi-|
  |plantagineum_, var. _excelsum_).|weeks.               |shade.           |
  |--Showiest early flower of the  |                     |                 |
  |daisy family. Flowers sometimes |                     |                 |
  |four inches across. Give        |                     |                 |
  |scattering bloom all season.    |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Poppy Mallow= (_Callirhoe      |Red, purple; 9       |Good sun.        |
  |involucrata_).--Hardy. May bloom|inches; 8 weeks.     |                 |
  |again in late summer.           |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |     BLOOMING IN MAY            |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Spiderwort= (_Tradescantia     |Violet, blue; 24     |Good; sun or half|
  |Virginiana_).--For mixed        |inches; 12 weeks.    |shade.           |
  |borders, wild garden or front of|                     |                 |
  |shrubbery.                      |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Many-Leaved Lupine= (_Lupinus  |Blue, white; 36      |Rich, heavy; sun |
  |polyphyllus_).--Easily raised   |inches; 4 weeks.     |or shade.        |
  |from seed. Soil must not dry    |                     |                 |
  |quickly.                        |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Common Columbine= (_Aquilegia  |Violet, white; 36    |Rich; sun or     |
  |vulgaris_).--Also grow _A.      |inches; 5 weeks.     |shade.           |
  |chrysantha_ (yellow), and _A.   |                     |                 |
  |Canadensis_ (red).              |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=German Iris= (_Iris            |Various; 24 inches; 3|Good; sun.       |
  |Germanica_).--Plant rhizomes    |weeks.               |                 |
  |flat, cover half their depth.   |                     |                 |
  |Best transplanted after bloom.  |                     |                 |
  |Keep from contact with manure.  |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Scotch Pink= (_Dianthus        |White, pink; 10      |Good; sun.       |
  |plumarius_).--Evergreen. Don’t  |inches; 2 weeks.     |                 |
  |cover with litter in winter.    |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Garden Heliotrope= (_Valeriana |White; 36 inches; 3  |Good; sun or half|
  |officinalis_).--Sweet spicy     |weeks.               |shade.           |
  |fragrance; rapid spreader; an   |                     |                 |
  |old favorite.                   |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Yellow Larkspur= (_Delphinium  |Yellow; 12 inches; 10|Deep, rich,      |
  |nudicaule_).--Grows wild near   |weeks.               |sandy loam; sun. |
  |streams in northern California, |                     |                 |
  |a pretty, early variety for the |                     |                 |
  |garden.                         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Brown and Yellow Corn Flower=  |Brown and yellow; 24 |Any good; sun.   |
  |(_Lepachys columnaris_, var.    |inches; 12 weeks.    |                 |
  |_pulcherrima_).--Grown as an    |                     |                 |
  |annual for bedding. Start       |                     |                 |
  |indoors in March; it will bloom |                     |                 |
  |June to September.              |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Lily-of-the-Valley=            |White; 8 inches; 3   |Good, heavy;     |
  |(_Convallaria majalis_).--Divide|weeks.               |partial shade.   |
  |every four or five years if     |                     |                 |
  |crowded. Plant six or seven pips|                     |                 |
  |in a bunch.                     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Bachelor’s Button= (_Ranunculus|Yellow; 18 inches; 5 |Good, moist;     |
  |acris_, var. _flore pleno_).--  |weeks.               |partial shade.   |
  |Easiest to raise of the yellow  |                     |                 |
  |buttons.                        |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Cowslip= (_Primula             |Yellow; 8 inches; 3  |Moist, deep,     |
  |officinalis_).--Small flowers   |weeks.               |light; part      |
  |well above leaves. Water during |                     |shade.           |
  |drought.                        |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Lemon Lily= (_Hemerocallis     |Yellow; 18 inches; 4 |Good; sun or     |
  |flava_).--This sweet scented    |weeks.               |partial shade.   |
  |flower is the best Hemerocallis.|                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Early Peony= (_Pæonia          |Red, white; 6 inches;|Rich, heavy; sun.|
  |officinalis_).--This European   |8 weeks.             |                 |
  |species is the parent of the    |                     |                 |
  |early peonies; blooms fortnight |                     |                 |
  |before the Chinese peonies.     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Carolina Phlox= (_Phlox        |Rosy red; 8 inches; 4|Good, light; sun.|
  |ovata_).--A rich color for the  |weeks.               |                 |
  |front of a bed.                 |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Bleeding Heart= (_Dicentra     |Rosy red; 18 inches; |Rich, light; sun.|
  |spectabilis_).--Commonly planted|4 weeks.             |                 |
  |in fall. Sold by bulb dealers   |                     |                 |
  |also.                           |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Pyrethrum= (_Chrysanthemum     |Pink, white; 24      |Rich, deep,      |
  |coccineum_).--_Pyrethrum roseum_|inches; 5 weeks.     |light; sun.      |
  |dies from too much moisture in  |                     |                 |
  |clay soil. Wilts if too dry.    |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=English Daisy= (_Bellis        |Pink, white; 6       |Rich, rather     |
  |perennis_).--Best to winter in  |inches; 8 weeks.     |heavy; sun.      |
  |cold frames. Water freely while |                     |                 |
  |growing.                        |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Siberian Primrose= (_Primula   |Pink; 12 inches; 5   |Dry, rich; sun.  |
  |cortusoides_).--One of the      |weeks.               |                 |
  |latest primroses. Flowers one   |                     |                 |
  |inch across.                    |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |     BLOOMING IN JUNE           |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Perennial Larkspur=            |Blue; 24 inches; 6   |Rich, well-      |
  |(_Delphinium formosum_).--_D.   |weeks.               |drained, heavy;  |
  |Zalil_ is yellow, two feet. _D. |                     |sun.             |
  |elatum_ is blue, six feet. _D.  |                     |                 |
  |Chinensis_ is a dwarf kind, two |                     |                 |
  |feet.                           |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Canterbury Bells= (_Campanula  |Blue, white, pink; 24|Rich, not too    |
  |Medium_).--Biennial, needs      |inches; 5 weeks.     |light; sun.      |
  |winter protection. Var.         |                     |                 |
  |_calycanthema_ best.            |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Foxglove= (_Digitalis          |Purple; 36 inches; 5 |Light, good,     |
  |purpurea_).--Short-lived        |weeks.               |moist; sun;      |
  |perennial but self-sows. Highest|                     |shade.           |
  |type is var. _gloxiniæflora_,   |                     |                 |
  |best sown in August; wintered in|                     |                 |
  |cold frames.                    |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Beard-Tongue= (_Pentstemon     |Blue; 24 inches; 3   |Good soil;       |
  |diffusus_).--Tall slender spikes|weeks.               |partial shade.   |
  |of light purplish blue flower.  |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Japanese Iris= (_Iris          |Various; 48 inches; 4|Rich, moist; sun.|
  |lævigata_).--Largest flowered   |weeks.               |                 |
  |iris. Needs more moisture.      |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Siberian Columbine= (_Aquilegia|Light blue; 24       |Rich, dry; sun or|
  |Sibirica_).--Give columbine     |inches; 4 weeks.     |half shade.      |
  |seeds light soil; plants rather |                     |                 |
  |heavy soil.                     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=False Indigo= (_Baptisia       |Blue; 36 inches; 3   |Good; sun.       |
  |australis_).--Resembles the     |weeks.               |                 |
  |lupine.                         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Douglas’ Clematis= (_Clematis  |Blue; 24 inches; 3   |Rich, light loam;|
  |Douglasi_).--Bell-shaped flowers|weeks.               |sun.             |
  |darker within than without.     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Jacob’s Ladder= (_Polemonium   |Blue, white; 24      |Rich, deep loam; |
  |cæruleum_).--Likes moisture. An |inches; 4 weeks.     |sun.             |
  |old-time flower.                |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Amsonia= (_Amsonia             |Blue; 24 inches; 4   |Good; sun.       |
  |Tabernæmontana_).--Subshrub with|weeks.               |                 |
  |willow-like leaves. Grows well  |                     |                 |
  |in shrubbery.                   |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Goat’s Beard= (_Aruncus        |White; 24 inches; 3  |Good; sun.       |
  |astilboides_).--Feathery-spiked |weeks.               |                 |
  |flowers. Fine cut foliage.      |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Pearl Achillea= (_Achillea     |White; 24 inches; 12 |Rich; sun.       |
  |Ptarmica_, var. _Pearl_).--Fence|weeks.               |                 |
  |in roots with a square of       |                     |                 |
  |boards.                         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Phlox Miss Lingard= (_Phlox    |White; 18 inches; 6  |Rich; sun.       |
  |maculata_, var. _Miss Lingard_).|weeks.               |                 |
  |--Healthiest and best variety of|                     |                 |
  |common early perennial garden   |                     |                 |
  |phlox.                          |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Gas Plant= (_Dictamnus         |White, pink; 24      |Rich, heavy; sun.|
  |Fraxinella_).--Will also grow in|inches.              |                 |
  |partial shade. Very long-lived. |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Hardy Yucca= (_Yucca           |White; 60 inches; 4  |Rich, light loam;|
  |flaccida_).--“_Yucca            |weeks.               |sun.             |
  |filamentosa_” of nurserymen, not|                     |                 |
  |of botanists. Transplant only in|                     |                 |
  |early spring. Makes new plants  |                     |                 |
  |every year by suckers.          |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Golden Marguerite= (_Anthemis  |Yellow; 12 inches; 10|Good; sun.       |
  |tinctoria_).--Divide every year.|weeks.               |                 |
  |Var. _Kelwayi_ best.            |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Perennial Coreopsis=           |Yellow; 18 inches; 10|Good; sun.       |
  |(_Coreopsis lanceolata_).--Don’t|weeks.               |                 |
  |let it go to seed.              |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Woolly Yarrow= (_Achillea      |Yellow; 8 inches; 4  |Dry, rich; sun.  |
  |tomentosa_).--Carpets the ground|weeks.               |                 |
  |in early June.                  |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Perennial Gaillardia=          |Yellow; 12 inches; 16|Good, light; sun.|
  |(_Gaillardia aristata_).--The   |weeks.               |                 |
  |yellow with maroon disk is      |                     |                 |
  |perhaps the best. Blooms        |                     |                 |
  |steadily till frost if fading   |                     |                 |
  |flowers are cut.                |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Thin-Leaved Coneflower=        |Yellow; 36 inches; 5 |Rich, moist; sun.|
  |(_Rudbeckia triloba_).--        |weeks.               |                 |
  |Biennial, but blooms first year |                     |                 |
  |and self-sows.                  |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Wild Indigo= (_Baptisia        |Yellow; 24 inches; 4 |Good; sun.       |
  |tinctoria_).--_Baptisia         |weeks.               |                 |
  |australis_, blue, is showier.   |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=German Catchfly= (_Lychnis     |Deep red; 9 inches; 3|Good, light; sun.|
  |Viscaria_).--Beautiful, old-    |weeks.               |                 |
  |fashioned, long-lived in        |                     |                 |
  |congenial situation.            |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Late or Chinese Peony= (_Pæonia|Crimson, white, pink;|Very rich, deep; |
  |Chinensis_).--Flowers best in   |30 inches; 3 weeks.  |sun.             |
  |rather heavy soil, with moisture|                     |                 |
  |in spring and summer. Single    |                     |                 |
  |varieties are exquisite.        |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Oriental Poppy= (_Papaver      |Red; 36 inches; 2    |Rich; sun.       |
  |orientale_).--The variety       |weeks.               |                 |
  |_bracteatum_--deep red--is the  |                     |                 |
  |best.                           |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Sweet William= (_Dianthus      |Various; 12 inches; 5|Light, rich; sun.|
  |barbatus_).--Biennial but self- |weeks.               |                 |
  |sows.                           |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Japanese Pinks= (_Dianthus     |Various; 9 inches; 12|Light, rich; sun.|
  |Chinensis_, var. _Heddewigi_).--|weeks.               |                 |
  |Best treated as annual. Start   |                     |                 |
  |indoors.                        |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Coral Bells= (_Heuchera        |Crimson; 18 inches;  |Good; sun or     |
  |sanguinea_).--Graceful racemes  |12 weeks.            |half-shade.      |
  |of delicate flowers. Blooms all |                     |                 |
  |summer.                         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Fire Pink= (_Silene            |Crimson; 18 inches; 8|Good; sun or half|
  |Virginica_).--It cannot stand   |weeks.               |shade.           |
  |much moisture.                  |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |      BLOOMING IN JULY          |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Fremont’s Clematis= (_Clematis |Bluish purple; 24    |Deep, rich; sun. |
  |Fremonti_).--A western bush     |inches; 3 weeks.     |                 |
  |clematis for the hardy border.  |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Beard-Tongue= (_Pentstemon     |Blue; 36 inches; 3   |Moist; sun.      |
  |ovatus_).--Short-lived but very |weeks.               |                 |
  |free blooming while it lasts.   |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=True Monkshood= (_Aconitum     |Blue; 48 inches; 3   |Rich; partial    |
  |Napellus_).--This plant lives   |weeks.               |shade.           |
  |longer in partial shade.        |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Japanese Bellflower=           |Blue, white; 18      |Light loam; sun. |
  |(_Platycodon grandiflorum_).--  |inches; 4 weeks.     |                 |
  |Largest easily grown flower of  |                     |                 |
  |the bellflower family.          |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Double Feverfew=               |White; 18 inches; 12 |Rich; sun.       |
  |(_Chrysanthemum Parthenium_).-- |weeks.               |                 |
  |Gives many white buttons.       |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=False Chamomile= (_Boltonia    |White, violet; 60    |Any good; sun.   |
  |asteroides_).--Like a wild      |inches; 4 weeks.     |                 |
  |aster. Very profuse of bloom.   |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Bugbane= (_Cimicifuga          |White; 60 inches; 4  |Good; partial    |
  |racemosa_).--For shrubbery back |weeks.               |                 |
  |of border, or wild garden.      |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Meadow Rue= (_Thalictrum       |White; 60 inches; 4  |Moist; sun.      |
  |polygamum_).--For wild garden or|weeks.               |                 |
  |shrubbery. Fern-like foliage.   |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Perennial Phlox= (_Phlox       |White, pink, red,    |Rich, moist; sun.|
  |paniculata_).--See also _Phlox  |blue; 36 inches; 4   |                 |
  |maculata_ in June.              |weeks.               |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Hollyhock= (_Althæa rosea_).-- |White, pink, red; 72 |Deep, rich,      |
  |Dig dry Bordeaux about crowns in|inches; 4 weeks.     |heavy; sun.      |
  |spring; spray under side of     |                     |                 |
  |leaves weekly with ammoniacal   |                     |                 |
  |copper carbonate.               |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Double Perennial Sunflower=    |Yellow; 60 inches; 6 |Any good; sun.   |
  |(_Helianthus decapetalus_, var. |weeks.               |                 |
  |_multiflorus_).--Divide every   |                     |                 |
  |two years. Flowers deteriorate. |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Shining-Leaved Coneflower=     |Yellow; 24 inches; 4 |Any good; sun.   |
  |(_Rudbeckia nitida_).--Plenty of|weeks.               |                 |
  |moisture suits it best.         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Golden Glow= (_Rudbeckia       |Yellow; 72 inches; 3 |Any good; sun.   |
  |laciniata, fl._ pf.).--         |weeks.               |                 |
  |Wonderfully prolific. Divide    |                     |                 |
  |annually. Getting common.       |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Pitcher’s Sunflower=           |Yellow; 6 weeks.     |Good, dry; sun.  |
  |(_Heliopsis lævis_).--Earlier   |                     |                 |
  |than sunflowers, smaller. Var.  |                     |                 |
  |_Pitcheriana_ best.             |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Gay Feather= (_Liatris         |Pink; 48 inches; 3   |Good; sun.       |
  |pycnostachya_).--Very striking. |weeks.               |                 |
  |Plant in groups of five or more.|                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Purple Coneflower= (_Echinacea |Pinkish; 24 inches; 6|Good: deep: sun. |
  |purpurea_).--Rather coarse but  |weeks.               |                 |
  |effective flowers. Sometimes    |                     |                 |
  |four feet high.                 |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Bee Balm= (_Monarda didyma_).--|Red; 36 inches; 8    |Good; sun.       |
  |Rapid spreading. Place next to  |weeks.               |                 |
  |white phlox.                    |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |      BLOOMING IN AUGUST        |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Long-Leaved Veronica=          |Blue; 36 inches; 3   |Deep, rich; sun. |
  |(_Veronica longifolia_).--The   |weeks.               |                 |
  |best is var. _subsesilis_.      |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Stoke’s Aster= (_Stokesia      |Blue; 18 inches; 4   |Well drained,    |
  |cyanea_).--Hardy near Boston. An|weeks.               |light, rich; sun.|
  |unusually fine shade of blue.   |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Mist Flower= (_Conoclinium     |Blue; 18 inches; 4   |Any good; sun.   |
  |cœlestinum_).--Easily grown.    |weeks.               |                 |
  |Light blue color.               |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Joe-Pye Weed= (_Eupatorium     |Purple; 96 inches; 4 |Any good; sun.   |
  |purpureum_).--For back of broad |weeks.               |                 |
  |border, or shrubbery.           |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Arkansas Ironweed= (_Vernonia  |Purple; 96 inches; 6 |Rich, deep; sun. |
  |Arkansana_).--Flowers by August |weeks.               |                 |
  |1st. For shrubbery or wild      |                     |                 |
  |garden.                         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=New York Ironweed= (_Vernonia  |Purple; 60 inches; 6 |Rich, deep; sun. |
  |Noveboracensis_).--Bushy. May be|weeks.               |                 |
  |placed near _V. Arkansana_.     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Lyon’s Turtlehead= (_Chelone   |Purplish; 24 inches; |Rich; partial    |
  |Lyonii_).--Resembles            |4 weeks.             |shade.           |
  |pentstemons. Don’t allow to     |                     |                 |
  |suffer from drought.            |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Baby’s Breath= (_Gypsophila    |White; 24 inches; 3  |Rich, light; sun.|
  |paniculata_).--Beautiful misty  |weeks.               |                 |
  |white flower. Effective in      |                     |                 |
  |bouquets.                       |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Marshmallow= (_Hibiscus        |Rose, white; 60      |Rich; sun.       |
  |Moscheutos_).--They have deep   |inches; 3 weeks.     |                 |
  |crimson or purple eyes.         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Showy Coneflower= (_Rudbeckia  |Yellow; 24 inches; 6 |Good; sun or half|
  |speciosa_).--Moisture will      |weeks.               |shade.           |
  |increase the size of the flower.|                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Showy Sunflower= (_Helianthus  |Yellow; 72 inches; 6 |Good; sun.       |
  |lætiflorus_).--Spread too       |weeks.               |                 |
  |rapidly for a crowded border.   |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Long-headed Coneflower=        |Yellow; 24 inches; 6 |Good; sun.       |
  |(_Lepachys columnaris_).--      |weeks.               |                 |
  |Resembles black-eyed Susan.     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Canadian Goldenrods= (_Solidago|Yellow; 48 inches; 5 |Any good; sun.   |
  |Canadensis_).--Goldenrods all   |weeks.               |                 |
  |welcome in the wild garden.     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Yarrow, Milfoil= (_Achillea    |Pinkish; 24 inches; 8|Any good dry;    |
  |Millefolium_).--Pink kind is    |weeks.               |sun.             |
  |var. _roseum_. Sink boards      |                     |                 |
  |around it.                      |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Butterfly Weed= (_Asclepias    |Orange; 24 inches; 5 |Good, dry; sun.  |
  |tuberosa_).--Has big woody root.|weeks.               |                 |
  |Transplant young seedlings.     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Cardinal Flower= (_Lobelia     |Red; 36 inches; 5    |Deep, moist;     |
  |cardinalis_).--Does well in     |weeks.               |partial shade.   |
  |garden soil. Water freely.      |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Showy Stonecrop= (_Sedum       |Pink; 18 inches; 6   |Good, rich; sun. |
  |spectabile_).--Give good        |weeks.               |                 |
  |drainage. Best of the tall      |                     |                 |
  |stonecrops.                     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=False Chamomile= (_Boltonia    |Pinkish; 60 inches; 5|Rich, deep; sun. |
  |latisquama_).--Satisfactory for |weeks.               |                 |
  |back of border. Spreads         |                     |                 |
  |considerably.                   |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |    BLOOMING IN SEPTEMBER       |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Fischer’s Aconite= (_Aconitum  |Blue; 60 inches; 4   |Rich, deep,      |
  |Fischeri_).--Early frost does   |weeks.               |partial shade.   |
  |not harm this beautiful flower. |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Blazing Star= (_Liatris        |Rosy, purple; 36     |Rich, good; sun. |
  |graminifolia_).--A singular and |inches; 3 weeks.     |                 |
  |strikingly beautiful flower.    |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Tartarian Aster= (_Aster       |Blue; 72 inches; 3   |Any good; sun.   |
  |Tataricus_).--Tallest of all    |weeks.               |                 |
  |asters. Many other good blue    |                     |                 |
  |kinds.                          |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=New England Aster= (_Aster Novæ|Purple; 48 inches; 3 |Any good; sun.   |
  |Angliæ_).--The rose variety is  |weeks.               |                 |
  |better.                         |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Giant Daisy= (_Chrysanthemum   |White; 60 inches; 3  |Rich, moist; sun.|
  |uliginosum_).--Spreads rapidly. |weeks.               |                 |
  |For back of borders. Rather     |                     |                 |
  |heavy soil.                     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Graceful Sunflower=            |Yellow; 96 inches; 4 |Any good; sun.   |
  |(_Helianthus orgyalis_).--One of|weeks.               |                 |
  |the best hardy sunflowers.      |                     |                 |
  |Blooms late.                    |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Maximilian’s Sunflower=        |Yellow; 72 inches; 5 |Any good; sun.   |
  |(_Helianthus Maximiliana_).--   |weeks.               |                 |
  |Another graceful sunflower.     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Sneezeweed= (_Helenium         |Yellow; 60 inches; 8 |Any good; sun.   |
  |autumnale_).--Begins to bloom in|weeks.               |                 |
  |August, sometimes in July.      |                     |                 |


  |     =Common and Botanical      | =Color, Height and  |=Kind of Soil and|
  |         Name; Hints on         |   Time in Bloom=    | Light Required= |
  |          Cultivation=          |                     |                 |
  |=Hyacinth Bean= (_Dolichos      |Purple; 15 feet; 4   |Rich, light; sun.|
  |Lablab_).--Sensitive to frost.  |weeks.               |                 |
  |Makes good screen. Plant one    |                     |                 |
  |foot apart.                     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Cup and Saucer Vine= (_Cobæa   |Purplish, white; 15  |Rich, light; sun.|
  |scandens_).--Rapid climber. Set |feet; 6 weeks.       |                 |
  |plants six inches apart.        |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Allegheny Vine= (_Adlumia      |Pinkish; 10 feet; 3  |Moist, rich;     |
  |cirrhosa_).--For covering       |weeks.               |shade.           |
  |bushes. Set eight inches apart. |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Ivy-Leaved Gourd= (_Coccinea   |White; 10 feet; 4    |Light, rich; sun.|
  |cordifolia_).--_Coccinea Indica_|weeks.               |                 |
  |is grown for its scarlet fruit. |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Canary-Bird Vine= (_Tropæolum  |Canary yellow; 15    |Light, rich; sun.|
  |Canariense_).--Not showy, but   |feet; 3 weeks.       |                 |
  |quick growing. Set eight inches |                     |                 |
  |apart.                          |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Balloon Vine= (_Cardiospermum  |White; 10 feet; 3    |Light, rich; sun.|
  |Halicabum_).--Seed vessels like |weeks.               |                 |
  |balloons. Set plants ten inches |                     |                 |
  |apart.                          |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Balsam Pear= (_Momordica       |Yellow; 10 feet; 3   |Light, rich; sun.|
  |Charantia_).--Plant seeds       |weeks.               |                 |
  |outdoors after last frost, else |                     |                 |
  |under glass earlier.            |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Climbing Nasturtium=           |Yellow or red; 10    |Light, rich; sun.|
  |(_Tropæolum majus_).--For close |feet; 8 weeks.       |                 |
  |screen plant ten inches apart.  |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Cypress Vine= (_Ipomœa         |Scarlet; 15 feet; 3  |Light, rich; sun.|
  |Quamoclit_).--Star-shaped       |weeks.               |                 |
  |flowers. Finely cut leaves.     |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Scarlet Runner Bean=           |Red, white; 18 feet; |Light, rich; sun.|
  |(_Phaseolus multiflorus_).--    |4 weeks.             |                 |
  |Tender perennial with tuberous  |                     |                 |
  |roots.                          |                     |                 |
  |                                |                     |                 |
  |=Maurandia= (_Maurandia         |White, blue; 10 feet;|Light, rich; sun.|
  |Barclaina_).--Showy leaves and  |2 weeks.             |                 |
  |trumpet-shaped flowers.         |                     |                 |


  |  =Names and Descriptions=   | =Height |=Flowering|=Cultivation and Use=|
  |                             |in Feet= |  Time=   |                     |
  |=Spirea= (_Spiraea Van       |    6    |   June   |Plant in a conspicu- |
  |Houtter_).--The most showy of|         |          |ous place with ample |
  |the spireas; flowers in      |         |          |room. Cut out flower-|
  |umbels two inches across.    |         |          |ing wood in summer.  |
  |Handsome foliage all summer. |         |          |Thrives anywhere.    |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Spirea= (_Spiraea_, _Anthony|    3    |   July   |Prune off old flower |
  |Waterer_).--The only shrub of|         |          |heads as soon as     |
  |its season. Flowers crimson  |         |          |withered to induce   |
  |red produced successively for|         |          |good second crop.    |
  |six weeks. Good for edging.  |         |          |                     |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Mock Orange= (_Philadelphus |   12    |   June   |Old wood should be   |
  |coronarius_).--Most fragrant |         |          |cut out from time to |
  |white large flowered shrub.  |         |          |time, otherwise the  |
  |Valuable for tall screen.    |         |          |tree gets very       |
  |Flowers one and one-half     |         |          |ragged.              |
  |inches across.               |         |          |                     |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Althea or Rose of Sharon=   |   12    |  August  |Good for hedges and  |
  |(_Hibiscus Syriacus_).--The  |         |          |screens. Must be     |
  |only tall shrub of late      |         |          |planted very early in|
  |summer. Very hardy; leafs    |         |          |the autumn.          |
  |late. White or rose flowers. |         |          |                     |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Hydrangea= (_Hydrangea      | 6 to 15 |   July-  |Prune very completely|
  |paniculata_, var.            |         |  August  |in winter for        |
  |_grandiflora_).--Most showy  |         |          |quantity of flowers  |
  |of all summer shrubs. White  |         |          |next year.           |
  |flowers, shading into pink   |         |          |                     |
  |and persisting all winter.   |         |          |                     |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Golden Bell= (_Forsythia    |  5 to 8 | April-May|Plant against a dark |
  |suspensa_).--The most showy, |         |          |background, such as  |
  |early-flowering shrub. Yellow|         |          |evergreens, or a     |
  |flowers before the leaves.   |         |          |hillside to set off  |
  |Branches arch over and root  |         |          |flowers.             |
  |at tips.                     |         |          |                     |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Japan Quince= (_Cydonia     |  4 to 8 |    May   |Very subject to San  |
  |Japonica_).--Earliest bright |         |          |Jose scale. Don’t    |
  |scarlet flowered shrub.      |         |          |plant near orchards  |
  |Useful also as a hedge. Plant|         |          |unless systematically|
  |as specimen. Slow growing.   |         |          |sprayed. Stands close|
  |                             |         |          |pruning.             |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Lilac= (_Syringa vulgaris_).| 8 to 15 | May-June |Spray with potassium |
  |--Very fragrant lilac, white |         |          |sulphide for mildew  |
  |or purple flowers. Grows     |         |          |in August, September.|
  |anywhere, even in partial    |         |          |Do not permit suckers|
  |shade.                       |         |          |to develop. Prune for|
  |                             |         |          |form only.           |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Japanese Snowball=          |  6 to 8 | May-June |Prune as little as   |
  |(_Viburnum plicatum_).--     |         |          |possible. Should be  |
  |Largest showy white balls of |         |          |planted on lawn as a |
  |bloom, better habit than the |         |          |specimen, or trained |
  |common snowball and not so   |         |          |on wall of house.    |
  |subject to plant louse.      |         |          |                     |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Tartarian Honeysuckle=      | 8 to 10 | May-June |Plant in shrubbery   |
  |(_Lonicera Tatarica_).--Most |         |          |where its presence is|
  |fragrant of all the early    |         |          |made known by the    |
  |summer shrubs, especially at |         |          |odor. Valuable as a  |
  |dusk. Flowers pink; several  |         |          |low screen on        |
  |varieties red or white.      |         |          |seaside.             |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Weigela= (_Diervilla        |  6 to 8 |   June   |Can be planted where |
  |florida_).--Showiest shrub of|         |          |other shrubs fail.   |
  |midsummer. Flowers pink,     |         |          |Free from insects and|
  |white, red. Best flowering   |         |          |disease. Cut out old |
  |shrub under big trees.       |         |          |wood to the ground.  |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Wistaria or Wisteria= (_W.  | 8 to 15 |All Summer|Adapted for screen or|
  |Frutescens_).--Handsome      |         |          |trellis.             |
  |hardy, slow-growing, climbing|         |          |                     |
  |shrub. Flowers in elegant    |         |          |                     |
  |lilac-colored racemes,       |         |          |                     |
  |slightly scented.            |         |          |                     |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=California Privet=          |  6 to 8 |    ...   |Set six inches deeper|
  |(_Ligustrum ovalifolium_).-- |         |          |than in the nursery  |
  |Fastest growing. Stands salt |         |          |and cut back to six  |
  |spray. Good soil binder.     |         |          |inches or less.      |
  |Stands severest pruning and  |         |          |                     |
  |can be trained high or low.  |         |          |                     |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Regel’s Privet= (_Ligustrum |  2 to 6 |   June   |Useful as a border   |
  |Ibota_, var. _Regelianum_).--|         |          |hedge to plantations |
  |Low growing, denser habit    |         |          |and along roadways.  |
  |with spreading, drooping     |         |          |Should not be planted|
  |branches clothed with white  |         |          |as a protection.     |
  |tassels.                     |         |          |                     |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Osage Orange= (_Maclura     | 3 to 15 |    May   |Unless regularly     |
  |pomifera_).--Grows in any    |         |          |trimmed, the top     |
  |soil. Makes a dense defensive|         |          |branches will spread.|
  |hedge as far north as        |         |          |Will exhaust soil on |
  |Massachusetts. Flowers white.|         |          |each side for some   |
  |                             |         |          |feet.                |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Japanese Barberry=          |    4    |   June   |Does not need        |
  |(_Berberis Thunbergii_).--   |         |          |pruning. Red berries |
  |Foliage down to the ground.  |         |          |all winter, and      |
  |Dense compact growth of small|         |          |foliage red until    |
  |spiny branches making        |         |          |Christmas. Do not    |
  |effective hedge in winter.   |         |          |plant in wheat       |
  |                             |         |          |districts.           |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Honey Locust= (_Gleditschia | 3 to 15 |    May   |Plant thickly and    |
  |triacanthos_).--The thorniest|         |          |prune severely. Mice |
  |of all. “Bull strong, horse  |         |          |girdle in winter.    |
  |high and pig tight.”         |         |          |Spring trimmings must|
  |Perfectly hardy. Fast and    |         |          |be burned. Needs     |
  |vigorous grower. Suckers.    |         |          |strict control.      |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Buckthorn= (_Rhamnus        | 6 to 10 |    ...   |Spray with kerosene  |
  |cathartica_).--The best      |         |          |emulsion for hop     |
  |strong hedge, as dense and   |         |          |louse. Old hedges    |
  |tight as honey locust but not|         |          |that are out of      |
  |so high. Thorny. Never       |         |          |condition are easily |
  |ragged. Moderate grower.     |         |          |recovered by cutting |
  |                             |         |          |back.                |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Trifoliate Orange= (_Citrus |   ...   |    ...   |Not reliably hardy   |
  |trifoliatus_).--Best medium  |         |          |north of Phila-      |
  |height hedge for the South   |         |          |delphia. White       |
  |where it is evergreen.       |         |          |flowers followed by  |
  |Deciduous in the North.      |         |          |small yellow fruits  |
  |Foliage yellow in fall.      |         |          |make it ornamental   |
  |                             |         |          |also.                |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Tamarix= (_Tamarix          | 5 to 10 |    ...   |Flowers feathery pink|
  |Gallica_).--Unexcelled for   |         |          |on old wood; on new  |
  |saline and alkaline soils,   |         |          |wood in var.         |
  |growing on the salt water’s  |         |          |_Narbonnensis_.      |
  |edge where nothing else will.|         |          |Foliage small.       |
  |                             |         |          |                     |
  |=Japanese Briar= (_Rosa      |  5 to 8 |All Summer|Suited for boundary  |
  |rugosa_).--The only rose     |         |          |or screen.           |
  |suitable for a hedge. White, |         |          |                     |
  |pink and red flowers.        |         |          |                     |


  |  =Common and  |            |=Lbs. per|=Sow per| =Conditions and Uses= |
  |   Botanical   | =Region of | bushel  |  acre  |                       |
  |     Name=     |    Use=    | cleaned | bushels|                       |
  |               |            |  seed=  | alone= |                       |
  |=Rhode Island  |On sandy    |   15    |    3   |For close, fine turf.  |
  |Bent=          |seasides.   |         |        |Color very green.      |
  |(_Agrostis     |            |         |        |                       |
  |canina_).      |            |         |        |                       |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Creeping Bent=|Low lying   |   15    |    3   |Rapid growing, forms a |
  |(_Agrostis     |inland and  |         |        |strong turf, that is   |
  |alba_, var.    |dry valleys |         |        |improved by heavy      |
  |_stolonifera_).|of the East.|         |        |rolling or tramping.   |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Red Top, Fancy|From Tennes-|   14    |    4   |Stands hot weather and |
  |Red Top=       |see north.  |   35    |   5-6  |hard usage. Fills in   |
  |(_Agrostis     |            |         |        |well with blue grass.  |
  |alba_, var.    |            |         |        |                       |
  |_vulgaris_).   |            |         |        |                       |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Beach= (_Ammo-|On railway  |   15    |  3-1/2 |Dry, loose soils. Holds|
  |phila arena-   |cuttings and|         |        |drifting sands and     |
  |ria_, _A. arun-|embankments |         |        |banks.                 |
  |dinacea_).     |on the sea  |         |        |                       |
  |               |coast.      |         |        |                       |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Biennial Sweet|Useful only |Used only in mix- |Starts early in spring,|
  |Vernal=        |to lend     |ture two pounds to|and makes new root-    |
  |(_Anthoxanthum |fragrance to|the acre.         |leaves all the year    |
  |odoratum_).    |the lawn    |         |        |after cutting.         |
  |               |when cut.   |         |        |                       |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Bermuda=      |Is killed by|   15    |   1/2  |Can be used for binding|
  |(_Capriola     |frost;      |         |        |banks. The best lawn   |
  |Dactylon_).    |valueless   |         |        |grass for the South    |
  |               |north of    |         |        |from Virginia to       |
  |               |Virginia. A |         |        |Florida. Withstands    |
  |               |weed in blue|         |        |heat and drought.      |
  |               |grass lawns |         |        |Thrives on poorest     |
  |               |where it    |         |        |soils.                 |
  |               |dies early. |         |        |                       |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Crested Dog’s |Valuable for|   30    |    1   |Same color as Kentucky |
  |Tail=          |shady places|         |        |blue and so mixes well |
  |(_Cynosurus    |and under   |         |        |with that. A good      |
  |cristatus_).   |trees. Also |         |        |bottom grass. Not re-  |
  |               |for terraces|         |        |commended alone.       |
  |               |on deep     |         |        |Prefers rich, moist    |
  |               |soil.       |         |        |soil.                  |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Various Leaved|Northern    |   15    |  1-1/2 |Does best in cold,     |
  |Fescue=        |States and  |         |        |moist soils, rich in   |
  |(_Festuca      |on cold, wet|         |        |humus and potash.      |
  |heterophylla_).|soils.      |         |        |                       |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Sheep’s       |Useful in   |   16    |    2   |This is a “bunch” or   |
  |Fescue=        |mixtures for|         |        |“stool” grass with very|
  |(_Festuca      |the North-  |         |        |fine foliage and dense |
  |ovina_).       |west and for|         |        |dwarf growth for any   |
  |               |lands on    |         |        |uplands.               |
  |               |poorest     |         |        |                       |
  |               |sands.      |         |        |                       |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Slender       |Dry slopes  |   22    |  1-1/2 |Finer leaf than sheep’s|
  |Fescue=        |on lawns or |         |        |fescue and stools like |
  |(_Festuca      |on dry, high|         |        |that. Recommended only |
  |ovina_ var.    |situations. |         |        |in special situations. |
  |_tenuifolia_). |            |         |        |                       |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Italian Rye=  |Very thickly|   22    |  2-1/2 |Very rapid growing and |
  |(_Lolium       |or in mix-  |         |        |valuable for short,    |
  |Italicum_).    |ture as far |         |        |quick effects. Is prac-|
  |               |south as    |         |        |tically an annual.     |
  |               |Jackson-    |         |        |                       |
  |               |ville, Fla. |         |        |                       |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Pacey’s or    |For quick   |   28    |    2   |Makes good verdure in  |
  |English Rye=   |effects in  |         |        |four weeks. Dies out in|
  |(_Lolium       |the Middle  |         |        |two or three years.    |
  |perenne_ var.  |and Eastern |         |        |                       |
  |_tenue_).      |States.     |         |        |                       |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Canada Blue=  |Throughout  |   14    |    3   |Flatter, more wiry stem|
  |(_Poa compres- |the East and|         |        |than the Kentucky      |
  |sa_).          |North in-   |         |        |grass, also bluer      |
  |               |cluding     |         |        |color. Used in the very|
  |               |Canada on   |         |        |cheap mixtures as a    |
  |               |dry sand or |         |        |substitute.            |
  |               |clay.       |         |        |                       |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Wood Meadow=  |Best grass  |   19    |  1-1/2 |Very hardy and early,  |
  |(_Poa          |for very    |         |        |resisting heat, too.   |
  |memoralis_).   |shady places|         |        |                       |
  |               |in woodland |         |        |                       |
  |               |parks.      |         |        |                       |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Kentucky Blue=|Best lawn   |   14    |    3   |Starts early, lasts    |
  |(_Poa praten-  |grass north |         |        |till frost, fine       |
  |sis_).         |of Washing- |         |        |texture, rich green    |
  |               |ton and west|         |        |color, smooth, even    |
  |               |to the      |         |        |growth. Three years to |
  |               |Allegheny   |         |        |establish. Dislikes    |
  |               |range.      |         |        |some soils.            |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=Rough Stalked |More shaded |   26    |   4-5  |Does not do well on dry|
  |Meadow= (_Poa  |portions of |         |        |land. Forms a fine turf|
  |trivialis_).   |lawns or    |         |        |and dense mat.         |
  |               |north side  |         |        |                       |
  |               |of          |         |        |                       |
  |               |buildings.  |         |        |                       |
  |               |            |         |        |                       |
  |=St. Augustine=|Florida and |   26    |   4-5  |Coarse and upright     |
  |(_Stenotaphrum |the West    |         |        |leaf, but keeps green  |
  |secundatum_,   |Indian      |         |        |when even Bermuda grass|
  |_S. America    |Islands.    |         |        |burns out.             |
  |num_).         |            |         |        |                       |


  The beauty and inspiration of wild flowers, which lovers of Nature
  constantly bring to our attention, should by no means, be passed by.
  There are few, indeed, whose joy in living is not more than a little
  deepened by contact with the woods and meadows, perfumed with the
  scent of wild-growing flowers and blossoms, and made beautiful to
  the eye by a riot of colors both soothing and delightful. They are
  to be found under forest trees, in bushes and hedges, amidst grasses
  in meadows, on highways and declivities, and on rubbish heaps and in
  water; they crowd together, as though unwilling to be hidden from

  Among the leading representatives of these plants, grouped according
  to the localities in which they are found, are sure to be the


A prime favorite among the flowers of spring is the TRAILING ARBUTUS
(_Epigaea repens_), a trailing plant of the Heath family, with branches
six to fifteen feet long and evergreen leaves, called Mayflower in New
England and Ground Laurel in the Southern States. It grows in sandy or
rocky soils, especially in the shade of evergreen trees, from Canada to
Texas. It is prized for its early blooming, and delicate flowers, now
gathered in considerable quantities for city flower markets. In the
early spring also the LUNGWORT (_Pulmonaria officinalis_) delights us
with its violet and blue flowers; as does also the LIVERWORT (_Hepatica
triloba_), the three-lobed leaves of which live through the winter. That
familiar little favorite, the sweet-scented LILY OF THE VALLEY
(_Convallaria majalis_), raises its tender string of blooms surrounded
by two large leaves in May. This is followed by the sweet-scented
WOODRUFF (_Asperula odorata_). In some districts the fresh leaves of the
woodruff are used for making May wine; when dried they emit an agreeable
scent, and are therefore frequently laid in wardrobes. Its leaves are
stellate, and its small blossoms are arranged in umbels. It grows from
nine to twelve inches high. Other plants found in the woods are the
FORGET-ME-NOT (_Myosotis silvatica_), and the CENTAURY (_Erythræa
Centaurium_). The rose-red blossoms of the latter are arranged in
clusters, and its leaves have medicinal properties. Late in the year
towards autumn the common LING or heather (_Calluna vulgaris_) opens
its red blooms. The leaves are small, and arranged in four rows along
the stem. The young heather contains a rich honey, and is consequently
much sought after by all kinds of insects.


In March and April, in concealed spots, the sweet-scented VIOLET blows
(_Viola odorata_), filling the air with its sweet fragrance every
morning. The ANEMONE (_Anemone nemerosa_) raises its white flower,
tinged with red, from the midst of three large green leaves. The
WOOD-SORREL (_Oxalis acetosella_), sends out from its root graceful
trifoliate leaves and white blooms traversed by violet veins. In the
hedges and bushes, also, we meet with the ARUM (_Arum maculatum_), the
common wake-robin or lords and ladies. On closely observing this plant,
we shall find rather deep in the earth a tuberous root as large as a
walnut, from which spring three or four long-stalked, bright leaves.
Between the leaves a smooth stem arises six to nine inches high, which
bears at its upper end the blossoms, surrounded by a greenish sheath.
The arum has acrid properties, but its corm yields Portland sago or
arrowroot. In the vicinity of this plant we also find the VALERIAN
(_Valeriana officinalis_), the root of which possesses healing
properties. It contains an oil, which is used as a remedy for cramp.


The uniform green which covers the meadows all the year round is
agreeably relieved by a large number of plants with colored flowers.
Here blooms the sky-blue GENTIAN (_Gentiana verna_), which delights both
the eye and the heart. There the beautiful blue bells of the CAMPANULA
(_Campanula Rapunculus_) raise their heads, together with the violet
flowers of the SCABIOUS (_Scabiosa pratensis_), and the numerous
bloom-whorls of the meadow SAGE (_Salvia pratensis_). Between these can
be seen the red and white heads of the meadow and white CLOVER
(_Trifolia pratensis_ and _T. repens_); and from a distance we can
recognize the small DAISY (_Bellis perennis_), the similar but larger
Dog Daisy (_Chrysanthemum leucanthemum_), the yellow MEADOW SWEET
(_Tragopogon pratensis_), and the DANDELION (_Taraxacum officinale_). In
these the fructification is carried out by insects; but, as the single
flowers are so small that they would be overlooked by the insects,
Nature has arranged many of them in the form of a small chalice or cup,
which can be seen from afar, especially in those cases where the
radiating petals are different in color from the sepals, like those in
the dog daisies. Many meadow plants grow with their stalks and blooms
high over their neighbors, as though they were the lords of the meadows.

In these the flowers are very small; but as they are united in large
numbers in flat umbals, they show up well. On the dry ridges blooms the
PLANTAIN (_Plantago_), which has good healing properties; and the wild
THYME (_Thymus Serpylum_), a graceful plant, which is sometimes made
into tea, and is frequently placed in children’s baths. The shape of its
blooms shows it to be a member of the family of the labiate flowers, to
which belongs also the meadow sage.


Another large natural family of plants, the milkworts, have a pretty
representative in the meadows in the CUCKOO-FLOWER (_Cardamine
pratensis_). Its leaves are pennate, and the lilac-colored flowers
contain four large and two short stamens; the fruit is a pod. Upon woody
pastures we also often find the ORCHIS (_Orchis Morio_). From the two
oval tubers a stem arises enclosed in sheath-like leaves. At the top of
the stem are the curiously formed flowers, which are fructified by
insects in a very peculiar and striking manner. The somewhat
unattractive SOUR-SORREL (_Rumex Acetosa_), Fig. 13, is well known, and
its soft stem and juicy leaves are sometimes eaten by children. The
leaves are arrow-shaped; the small flowers are reddish in color.


Here we meet, besides old acquaintances from the meadows, the GROUNDSEL
(_Senecio vulgaris_) and the CHICKWEED (_Stellaria media_), both valued
as birds’ food, and common everywhere; the SHEPARD’S POUCH (_Capsella
Bursa pastoris_), easily recognized by its almost three-cornered little
pods, and blooming, like the groundsel, nearly all the year round; the
white, spotted, and purple BLIND-NETTLES (_Lamium album_, _L.
maculatum_, and _L. purpureum_), and the ORIGANUM (_Origanum vulgare_),
are labiate flowers, which are diligently visited by insects for their
honey. Here, too, are the bristly, blue-flowered ADDER-WORT (_Echium
vulgare_); the round-leaved MALLOW (_Malva rotundifolia_); the BURDOCK
(_Lappa major_), the blossoms of which cling to the clothes so readily;
the common NETTLES (_Urtica_); and the TANSY.


Several plants grow amid the corn which are really ornamental with their
bright flowers. A very pretty example is the larkspur (_Delphinium
Consolida_), a small graceful little plant, with numerous blue spur-like
flowers. Near the latter we also find the blue CORNFLOWER (_Centaurea
Cyanus_), which is so frequently plucked by children and woven into

The CAMOMILE (_Matricaria Chamomilla_), is recognized by its strong
odor. It has a small chalice with white petals, and is an important
medicinal plant. The CORN-COCKLE (_Agrostemma Githago_) and the red
POPPY (_Papaver Rhœas_) are also seen; and at the time when the wind
sweeps over the field of stubble the latter is adorned with the wild
PANSY (_Viola tricolor_), the leaves and flowers of which have healing
properties, and are collected for medicinal uses.


The Cryptogams are plants without true, or without visible flowers; to
these belong the shave grasses, the ferns, the mosses, the algæ, the
lichens, and the fungi.

The HORSE-TAIL (_Equisetum arvense_), frequently grows in damp, sandy
fields. The spring stem of the plant is simple and reddish in color, and
bears fruit called spores in an upright ear.

The WALL RUE (_Asplenium Ruta muraria_), belongs to the family of ferns.
It grows everywhere on walls, and has a short root, three-cornered
leaves, and along both sides of the middle ribs of the leaves the fruit
lies in rows.

The COMMON FERN (_Polypodium vulgare_), grows on walls and rocks. It has
a creeping stem, and beautiful serrated leaves, bearing on their
underside the somewhat large fruit glands which contain the spores.
Other familiar ferns are the WORM FERN (_Aspidium Filix mas_), and the
EAGLE FERN (_Pteris Aquilina_), from three to five feet high.

The COMMON HAIR MOSS (_Polytrichum commune_), grows in all the woods and
in wet fields. The stem is upright; the small leaves are pointed and
serrated at their edges. The spores develop in a quadrangular sheath,
which is surrounded by a cell. The mosses play an important part in the
economy of Nature; they retain in the woods a quantity of the water
which falls as rain, and thus preserve the lands from being flooded,
store up moisture for the plants, and also influence the climatic
conditions of a country. The so-called PEAT-MOSS (_Sphagnum_) enters
largely into the composition of peat.

The REINDEER MOSS (_Cladonia rangiferina_), is a much-branched little
plant of a greyish color. The small fruit corpuscles are at the ends of
the branches. The reindeer moss is common in the pine woods of northern

The TOAD’S-STOOL (_Agricus muscarius_), grows in the woods in autumn.
The blood-red cap has numerous white excrescences on its surface. It is
very poisonous and ill-smelling, and has a bitter taste. It is often
used as a poison for flies, but is also dangerous to men and animals.

The MUSHROOM (_Agricus campestris_), is common from May to October in
fields, gardens, and meadows. It has lately also been cultivated in
cellars and greenhouses. It is a favorite article of food, and one of
the most useful of the edible fungi.

[Illustration: =CAMPHOR TREE= (_Cinnamomum camphora_), one of the most
beautiful of all trees, grows in China and Japan, more especially in the
island of Formosa. It has also been planted in Ceylon and Florida. The
wood of the tree is valued by the cabinet maker, but its chief value is
in the solid, essential oil, called _gum camphor_, extracted from it by
a process of distillation. When pure, camphor is a white, soft
semi-transparent body, with a peculiarly strong aromatic odor, and a
bitter, burning taste. It is used extensively in making celluloid and
smokeless powder, in medicine and as a protection against insects.
Nine-tenths of the world’s supply of raw material is exported from
Formosa. Its production is a monopoly of the Japanese government.]


  The forest trees are divided into two groups: Trees Bearing Foliage,
  and Trees with Aciculous Leaves. The former lose their leaves in
  autumn; the stiff linear leaves of the latter, on the contrary, live
  throughout the winter, with the exception of those of the larch

=Alder= (_Alnus_), trees native to the North Temperate and Arctic zones
and to the Andes into Chili. The Black Alder grows near the brooks. The
male blossoms stand in long, cylindrical catkins; the female blossoms in
small, roundish catkins. The fruit is found in small cones. The alder
tree blossoms in April and May. It may reach seventy feet in height and
nine in girth, but seldom exceeds forty in height. The bark of the
shoots is used in tanning and dyeing leather red, brown, yellow, or,
with copperas, black. The wood is durable under water, and is said by
Virgil to have been the first wood used by man for boats. It was used
for piles at Ravenna and for the Rialto at Venice, and is still so
employed in Holland. Its chief use is for gunpowder-charcoal. For this
purpose shoots five or six years old, or about four inches across, are

=Ash= (_Fraxinus_), a valuable timber-tree belonging to the olive tribe.
It has smooth, olive-grey bark, black buds, opposite pinnate leaves of
from seven to fifteen leaflets, flowers without calyx or corolla, and an
oblong-winged fruit. Its wood is more flexible than that of any other
European tree, and is used for walking-sticks, spade-handles, the spokes
and felloes of wheels, etc. There are about twelve species native to
North America. The best known are: COMMON ASH, a large tree one hundred
to one hundred and fifty feet high, growing wild in southern Europe and
northern Asia. WHITE ASH, a large tree forty-five to ninety feet high;
Nova Scotia to Florida, westward to Minnesota and Texas. GREEN ASH,
forty to fifty feet high, Vermont to Florida, intermittently to Utah and
Arizona. RED ASH, a small tree, rarely more than forty feet high,
growing in moist soil from New Brunswick to South Dakota, Florida,
Alabama and Missouri. BLUE ASH, fifty to seventy-five feet high,
Ontario, Minnesota, and Michigan to Alabama, west to Iowa and Arkansas.
BLACK or HOOP ASH, a large tree, seventy to eighty feet high,
Newfoundland to Manitoba, south to Virginia and Arkansas.

=Aspen or Trembling Poplar= (_Populus tremula_), has a greenish-grey
bark. Its leaves have long stalks, and tremble at the slightest current
of the most widely distributed trees of North America, growing from
Alaska and Newfoundland to lower California. A slender tree with light
green bark, maximum height 100 feet. Wood soft, light, and largely used
for manufacture of wood pulp. The EUROPEAN ASPEN is a quick growing
tree, fifty to eighty feet high. The wood is soft and porous, and is
used in turnery and in interior finish for houses.

=Beech= (_Fagus_), a genus containing about sixteen species. The trees
have smooth, silver-grey trunks, egg-shaped leaves like leather, and
blossoms at the base of the leaves. The beechnuts are three-cornered;
they grow in couples in a wooden capsule. The beech trees attain a
height of from sixty to ninety feet, and blossom in April and May. The
AMERICAN BEECH is the only North American species. It is a beautiful
tree seventy to eighty and sometimes one hundred feet high, and is one
of the most widely distributed trees of eastern North America. The wood
is tough, close grained, and is largely used in the manufacture of tool
handles, chairs and for fuel. The COMMON BEECH, forming pure forests in
many parts of Europe, is a large tree one hundred to one hundred and
twenty feet high. The wood is dark colored, solid, and very durable
under water and is much used in cabinet making, for weirs, and for fuel.
The bark is sometimes used in tanning. The nuts are used for the
manufacture of beech oil.

=Birch= (_Betula_), is known by all on account of its chalk-white bark,
and its fine, pendent leaves. The male and female blossoms of this tree
also grow separate on the same plant. Its seeds are small and plumed,
whereby they are particularly adapted for being sown by the aid of the
wind. There are about thirteen species in North America. COMMON BIRCH,
abounding in northern Europe, is a beautiful tree sixty to seventy feet
high. The bark is used in medicine and dyeing, and it yields the birch
tar employed in the preparation of Russia leather. RED or RIVER BIRCH
grows in the United States from Massachusetts to Iowa and Kansas, south
to Florida and Texas. It is a slender tree, seventy to ninety feet high,
which produces a hard, valuable timber. CHERRY BLACK or SWEET BIRCH is a
large tree, sometimes eighty feet high. Wood fine grained and valuable
for making furniture. The bark yields an oil identical with the oil of
wintergreen. It grows from Newfoundland to western Ontario, Florida, and
Tennessee. YELLOW BIRCH, a large tree, maximum height one hundred feet,
is used in shipbuilding. It grows from Newfoundland to Manitoba, south
to Carolina and Tennessee. PAPER or CANOE BIRCH, a large tree, maximum
height eighty feet, is of a beautiful white color, and the bark is
capable of division into thin sheets, used for making canoes, baskets,
and ornaments. Found in Newfoundland to Alaska, northern Pennsylvania,
Michigan, and Washington.

=Buttonwood.= See Plane Tree.

=Cedar= (_Cedrus_), the popular name of a variety of trees, mostly
agreeing in having a reddish-brown aromatic wood. The coniferous genus
includes only four forms, all native to the Old World, the most noted of
which are the Cedars of Lebanon, frequently mentioned in the Bible. It
has its needle-like leaves fascicled, like the larches; but unlike those
trees, evergreen, so that they remain on the tree for several years
after the dwarf-shoot has elongated. Its cones are erect, with broad,
thin-edged scales which ultimately fall away from the axis, as in the
firs. The WHITE CEDAR of the United States is more nearly a cypress, and
the so-called RED CEDAR is a juniper. The wood of the latter is used in
making lead-pencils. The species native to the West Indies, yields the
wood known as Honduras, Jamaica, or Barbadoes cedar, used for cigar

=Chestnut= (_Castanea vulgaris_), is a fine tree that may reach a large
size, and has deeply furrowed bark and large, glossy, serrate but simple
leaves in tufts, which turn yellow in autumn. Its flowers are in long
pendulous catkins. The dark brown nuts are surmounted by the remains of
the perianth, being “inferior” fruits. In a wild state two or three
kernels or seeds, separated by a membrane, are contained in each nut;
but the Lyons marron, the most valued cultivated race, contains only
one. The tree is native from Portugal to the Caspian and in Algeria, and
is represented by allied forms in Japan and temperate North America,
flourishing in the Alps and Pyrenees at 2,500 to 2,800 feet above
sea-level. Its timber resembles oak, but is softer and more brittle.


[Illustration: =THE OAK=

Massive strength is the chief characteristic of the oak, and it was the
broad-based trunk of an oak that suggested the design for the first
great lighthouse. The branches twist about in zig-zag fashion, and the
thick bark is deeply furrowed.]

[Illustration: =THE BIRCH=

We have only to glance at the birch to realize that its name “the lady
of the woods” is well deserved. Its chief characteristic is slender
gracefulness, and we cannot mistake the silvery white bark, quite unlike
any other tree.]

=Cork Oak or Cork Tree= (_Quercus suber_), is a species of oak, native
of southern Europe and northern Africa, the spongy bark of which is the
common cork of commerce. It ranges from twenty to forty feet in height,
attains a diameter of five feet, and sometimes lives three hundred to
five hundred years, producing crops of bark for one hundred and fifty

=Cypress= (_Cupressus_), is an evergreen tree of the pine family, with
small, imbricated leaves and globular cones, comprising about twelve
species, in northern regions of the world. The COMMON CYPRESS of Europe
is famous for its durable wood and is believed to be the cedar or gopher
wood of the Bible. The MONTEREY CYPRESS, a beautiful tree sometimes one
hundred and fifty feet high and eight or ten feet in diameter, grows
near the sea in California and three others occur on the Pacific Coast.
The so-called CYPRESS or WHITE CEDAR of the Eastern States, and the BALD
CYPRESS of southern swamps, valued for timber, are distant varieties of

=Dogwood= (_Cornus_), is a shrub or small tree, the wood of which is
exceedingly hard and is used for many purposes. The astringent bark and
sometimes the leaves are used in medicine. There are about eighteen
species in the United States. The FLOWERING DOGWOOD is a small tree,
native of the Eastern States. It has showy white petal-like bracts
surrounding its clusters of small flowers.

=Ebony= (_Efenaceæ_), is chiefly a species of tropical trees. The hard,
dark colored heartwood of these is the source of most of the ebony of
commerce. Those of India, Ceylon, and other tropical countries, furnish
the best quality.

=Elm= (_Ulmus_). There are about six species which are native to the
United States. They attain a height of forty-five to ninety feet, and
blossom before their leaves appear, in March and April. The AMERICAN
WHITE ELM is a large tree ninety to one hundred feet high, growing from
Newfoundland to Florida and Texas. The wood is tough, strong, and
largely used for wheel hubs, in cooperage, and for shipbuilding. It is a
fine street and park tree. The CORK ELM is a tree seventy to ninety feet
high, growing from Quebec and Vermont westward to Nebraska and
Tennessee. The wood is considered the best of American elms, and is much
used for agricultural implements and bridge timbers. The SLIPPERY, or
RED ELM is a tree sixty to seventy feet high, growing from Ontario to
Florida, westward to Nebraska and Texas. The wood is durable in contact
with the soil and is much used for fence posts and railway ties. The
mucilaginous inner bark is used in medicine.

=Eucalyptus=, a genus of _Myrtaceæ_, contains about two hundred lofty
trees occurring chiefly in Australia and the Malayan Archipelago. Many
reach a height of one hundred and fifty feet and a girth of twenty-five
feet, and they frequently become hollow. The species are of great
economic value, yielding oils, kinos, and useful timber, while the
well-known oil of eucalyptus is obtained from the blue-gum tree.

=Fir= (_Abies_), a genus of the Pine family containing about twenty-five
species, natives of the cooler portions of the north temperate zone. The
SILVER FIR, is a common tree in central Europe, and is common to the
mountainous forests of Germany. It reaches ninety to one hundred and
thirty feet in height, and has a smooth, light silver-grey bark, and
needle-shaped leaves, which, although they stand singly and in a spiral
form round the branches, are yet distinctly turned towards two sides,
and are serrated at their points. The large, conical fruits stand like
tapers upright on the branches, and decay upon the tree; whilst their
spindles remain standing. The wood of the white fir tree is much valued.
It is used as timber, and in particular for making masts; it is also
useful for making all kinds of carved work, and for the manufacture of
musical instruments. It is also the source of the Strassburg turpentine.
The BALSAM FIR is a tree fifty to eighty feet high, growing from
Virginia northward. Canada balsam is made from the sap. The WHITE FIR or
GREAT SILVER FIR is a large tree, often three hundred feet high and ten
feet in diameter, growing from British Columbia to lower California. The
wood is soft and extensively used for cooperage and boxes. The RED FIR
is a large tree one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet high, found in
the same regions as the white fir. It is often planted in Europe as an
ornamental tree. The MEXICAN FIR is a magnificent silver-leaved tree one
hundred and fifty feet high.

=Gum.= The name given to several trees in America and Australia: (a) The
BLACK-GUM, one of the largest trees of the Southern States, bearing a
small blue fruit, the favorite food of the opossum. Most of the large
trees become hollow. (b) A tree of the genus _Eucalyptus_. See
Eucalyptus. (3) The SWEET GUM tree of the United States, a large and
beautiful tree with pointedly lobed leaves and woody, burlike fruit. It
exudes an aromatic juice. The wood is now extensively used in cabinet
work and interior finish.

=Hemlock Tree= (_Tsuga_), is a genus of the Pine family containing about
four species which are native to North America. The COMMON HEMLOCK is a
large tree sometimes attaining a height of one hundred and ten feet, and
growing from Nova Scotia to Alabama and west to Wisconsin and Minnesota.
The wood is light and soft and is extensively used in building. The bark
is largely used in tanning and hemlock oil is distilled from the
branches and leaves. There are many cultivated varieties which are very
ornamental. The CAROLINA HEMLOCK is a tree attaining a maximum height of
eighty feet, and growing in Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia.

=Hickory= (_Carya_), is represented by ten species, exclusively of North
America. Their timber is very heavy, strong, and tough, and is much used
in the manufacture of agricultural implements, carriages, and hoops for
casks. The fruit is a hardshelled nut, which in some species has an
excellent flavor. The SHAGBARK or SHELLBARK HICKORY is a large tree,
sometimes one hundred and twenty feet high, growing in rich soils from
Ontario and Minnesota south to Florida, Kansas and Texas. The nuts form
an important article of commerce, though less used than the pecan. The
WHITEHEART HICKORY or MOCKERNUT is a large tree seventy-five to one
hundred feet high, growing from Ontario to Florida, occasionally to
Missouri and Texas. It has a thick-shelled, edible nut. The PIGNUT
HICKORY, a tree seventy-five to one hundred and sometimes one hundred
and twenty feet high, ranges from Ontario to Florida, westward to
Nebraska and Texas. See also PECAN.

=Horse-Chestnut= (_Aesculus_), is rarely found in forests, but
frequently in pleasure-gardens. This beautiful tree, of sixty feet and
over, has large leaves, and splendid yellow-and-red colored blossoms
forming large pods. The brown chestnuts are enveloped by a prickly
cover, which bursts open in the autumn. The OHIO or FETID BUCKEYE,
reaching a height of about fifty feet, grows from Pennsylvania to
Alabama, west to Michigan and Oklahoma. The wood is used for making
artificial limbs and wooden ware. The SWEET or BIG BUCKEYE is a large
tree eighty to ninety feet high, growing from Pennsylvania to Georgia,
west to Iowa and Texas, and often planted as an ornamental tree. The
CALIFORNIA BUCKEYE is a small tree thirty to forty feet high, native of
California, and sparingly planted for ornament.

=Judas Tree= (_Cercis siliquastrum_), is a beautiful leguminous tree,
growing wild from Japan to the shores of the Mediterranean, with smooth
kidney-shaped leaves, glaucous above, and pink or red flowers, which
spring from both old and young wood before the appearance of the leaves.
From its appearance at this season the tree shares with the elder the
sinister reputation of having formed the gallows of Judas Iscariot.


[Illustration: Scaly Bark of Willow]

[Illustration: Membranous Bark of Birch]

[Illustration: Fibrous Bark of Honeysuckle]

[Illustration: Fissured Bark of Oak]

[Illustration: The Structure of a Young Twig of Oak, showing the layer
of cells (A) which increases the girth of the twig as it grows into a

[Illustration: Section of the Trunk of a Laburnum, showing Heart and

[Illustration: Section of the Trunk of an Oak, showing the Annual

=Juniper Tree= (_Juniperus communis_), is rarely seen as a tree, but
appears usually as a low shrub. Its awl-shaped, pointed leaves stand
always by threes of the same height on the young shoots. The male
blossom catkins are short-stalked, and stand singly in the axils of the
bracts; the fruit is a black berry. These berries are employed for
medicinal purposes. The so-called WHITE CEDAR of the Eastern States and
the BERMUDA CEDAR, much prized for timber, are junipers.

=Larch= (_Larix Europæa_), has leaves which grow in clusters, and drop
during the Autumn. Its bark is rough and cracked; its red-blossom
catkins stand at the side of the yellow catkins. Its egg-shaped little
cones have backward bent stalks. The larch tree attains a height of from
forty-five to sixty feet, and is found in forests everywhere. The
AMERICAN LARCH or TAMARACK is a slender tree fifty to sixty feet high,
growing from Virginia to Hudson Bay. It is often planted as an
ornamental tree and the wood is highly valued for shipbuilding and for
telegraph poles.

=Linden or Lime= (_Tilia_), is the emblem of intense feeling. It has
been from time immemorial the favorite of the Germans. Below the large
linden trees the judicial proceedings, the fairs, and national games
formerly took place in Germany, and to this day men and women like to
sit under the village linden tree, and talk of the good old times. They
do not blossom before June and July. The blossom is five-leaved, and
contains many stamens and one pistil. The fruit is a little nut. The
AMERICAN LINDEN or BASSWOOD is a large tree seventy to one hundred and
twenty-five feet high, growing from New Brunswick to Georgia, west to
Nebraska and Texas. The wood is extensively used for making cheap
furniture and paper pulp. The SOUTHERN BASSWOOD or WHITEWOOD is a small
tree forty to fifty feet high growing from Long Island to Florida, west
to Texas. The WHITE BASSWOOD or BEE TREE is a forest tree forty-five to
seventy feet high, Pennsylvania to Florida, west to Illinois and

=Locust= is a name applied to various trees of the Pea family. The
AMERICAN LOCUST TREE or the False Acacia is seventy to eighty feet high,
growing from Pennsylvania to Georgia. It is widely naturalized in most
states east to the Rocky Mountains. The wood is compact and hard and is
extensively used for shipbuilding and all purposes where great strength
and toughness are required.

=Mahogany= (_Swietenia Mahagoni_), is a native of Mexico, Central
America, and the West Indies, and yields one of the most generally used
of cabinet woods. The leaves resemble those of the ash; the flowers are
clustered and small, with their parts in whorls of five, and ten united
stamens; and the fruit is a pear-shaped, woody capsule with winged
seeds. The wood is a rich reddish-brown, often richly mottled, uniform
in grain, susceptible of the highest polish, and very durable. In Mexico
the timber is sometimes in thirty-foot lengths and forty-eight inches
square. Mahogany is commonly divided into SPANISH, the darker, heavier
and more figured, from San Domingo and Cuba, and HONDURAS, lighter,
softer, and plainer, from the mainland. It is employed in carving,
turning, veneering and cabinet-making, and for solid furniture, easily
holding first rank among cabinet woods.

=Maple= (_Acer_). This genus of trees contains nearly one hundred
species, natives of north temperate regions, especially North America
and eastern Asia. The SUGAR MAPLE is ninety to one hundred and twenty
feet high, and grows from Newfoundland to Georgia, west to eastern
Nebraska and Kansas. The wood is extensively used in cabinet work and
interior finish. Large quantities of sugar and syrup are made from the
sap. The SILVER or SOFT MAPLE is found from New Brunswick to Florida,
west to Ontario, Nebraska and Oklahoma. It is often planted as a shade
tree. The SCARLET or RED MAPLE grows in swamps and low ground from New
Brunswick to Manitoba, south to Florida and Texas. The close-grained
wood is largely used for furniture, and in turnery. The OREGON MAPLE
grows from Alaska to California. It is often planted as an ornamental

=Mesquite= (_Prosopis_), is a genus of trees containing about sixteen
species, natives of America, Asia, and Africa, three of which grow in
the United States. It varies from a straggling shrub to a
widely-branched tree fifty feet high and occurs from central Texas to
eastern California, and southward to Chile and Argentina. The very heavy
wood is used for fuel and fence posts, while the pods and leaves are
much eaten by stock. The SCREWPOD MESQUITE is twenty-five to thirty feet
high and valuable in arid regions.

=Oak= (_Quercus_), is most numerous in temperate climates, though some
are tropical; fully fifty species occur in the United States, with many
intermediate forms or hybrids. The Oak is a true giant among forest
trees. Its trunk often attains a circumference of thirty feet. Its bark
is smooth in the young trees and rough in the old oaks. The strong,
widely extended boughs are pronged and knotty; the crown is large, with
a sinuate outline. The blossoms are within long pendent catkins and
appear in the month of May. The bark and the acorns, which are contained
in pretty little cups, are medicinal. Along the stems and the boughs
mosses and lichens grow exuberantly. In the galls of the leaves and
branches different gall insects live. The horn beetles suck the sap of
the oaks, and the acorns form the food of squirrels and other rodents.
The EUROPEAN OAK, the most important Old World timber oak, is sparingly
planted in the United States. The WHITE OAK, the most valuable American
timber oak, occurs from Texas to Minnesota and eastward. With similar
range, but less valuable for timber, are BUR OAK or MOSSY CUP OAK, the
CHESTNUT OAK produce edible acorns. The bark of the QUERCITRON is used
in tanning, as a yellow dye, and in medicine. The LIVE OAK, once famous
for ship-building, is a sturdy species with entire evergreen leaves
occurring in the Southern States, Cuba and the Pacific States.

=Osage Orange or Bow Wood= (_Maclura pomifera_), is a native of the
southwestern United States. It attains a height of twenty to sixty feet,
and is extensively planted for hedges, while the wood, of orange color
and of great hardness, is valuable for fence posts, mallet heads, and to
some extent in cabinet work.

=Pine= (_Pinus_), comprises a genus of about eighty species, nearly
two-thirds of which occur in the northern part of the western
hemisphere. The WHITE PINE, a tree seventy-five to one hundred feet
high, is one of the most important timber trees of North America. Its
range is from Newfoundland to Minnesota, south to Georgia. The wood is
soft, straight grained, and is much used for building and cabinet work.
The YELLOW PINE or LONG-LEAVED PINE sometimes attains a height of one
hundred feet, and grows in sandy soil from Virginia to Florida and
Texas. The wood is heavier and stronger than that of any other pine, and
is used in all kinds of building. The tree is the chief source of
turpentine, tar, resin, etc. The WESTERN YELLOW PINE or BULL PINE is
sometimes one hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty feet high and
five to eight feet in diameter. It is found from the Rocky Mountains to
the Pacific coast and is one of the most important lumber trees of the
West. The SUGAR PINE of Oregon and California attains a height of one
hundred and fifty to three hundred feet and a diameter of more than ten
feet. The timber is strong, straight grained, and is much used for a
finishing lumber and cabinet work.

=Palm Family= (_Palmaceae_), is a very distinct natural family of trees
and shrubs, chiefly tropical and subtropical, embracing about one
thousand species which are second in economic importance only to the
cereal grasses. The Palm Trees have generally straight, scaly trunks
without boughs, and many species attain a considerable height. Their
large fan-shaped leaves grow near the top, and form a beautiful crown.
The numerous blossoms stand in long panicles. The palm trees represent
the only riches of many tribes of mankind in the tropics, providing them
with food, drink, dress, and building materials for their dwellings. The
most valued are the cocoanut, date and sago palm trees. The large nuts
of the first named are the well-known cocoanuts.

=Plane Tree= (_Platanus_), a genus of six or seven species, is a native
of the north temperate zone. The SYCAMORE, PLANE TREE, or BUTTONWOOD
reaches a height of one hundred and thirty feet with a trunk diameter of
fourteen feet. It is found from Quebec to Georgia, west to Manitoba and
Kansas. The wood is a favorite material for tobacco boxes and butcher
blocks and is largely used for furniture. Other species in the United
States are the CALIFORNIA SYCAMORE and the ARIZONA SYCAMORE, both large

=Poplar= (_Populus_), a hardy genus of about twenty trees, native to
temperate and cold regions. Half of the species occur in the United
States, all of soft wood and rapid growth. The COTTON-WOOD, common along
streams from the Rocky Mountains eastward, sometimes attaining one
hundred and fifty feet in height and a diameter of seven feet, is much
planted for ornament. The BALSAM POPLAR, sometimes one hundred feet
high, occurs northward and in Siberia. The EUROPEAN WHITE POPLAR and
BLACK POPLAR, much-planted ornamentals, have become naturalized in the
Eastern States. The LOMBARDY POPLAR, with very upright boughs,
frequently grows along the roadside in Asia, Europe and America.

=Redwood.= See Sequoia.

=Sandalwood= (_Santalum album_), is a small tree, native of India and
the Indian Archipelago. It produces a compact, fine-grained wood which
is used for making small ornamental articles and possesses a remarkable
fragrance which persists long after it has become thoroughly seasoned.

=Sassafras= is a genus containing but two known species, one in North
America and the other in China. The SASSAFRAS or AGUE TREE, is eighty to
ninety feet high, is found from Canada to Florida, west to Kansas and
Texas. Oil of sassafras, used for flavoring confectionery, is distilled
from the roots, and the bark is frequently employed as a household
medicine and beverage.

=Sequoia=, a genus of trees named after a remarkable Cherokee Indian
(otherwise George Guess), who gave his tribe a written alphabet of
eighty-six characters, and died in New Mexico in 1845. There are only
two living species, both natives of Western North America, the Big or
Mammoth Tree and the California Redwood. The Big Tree is a native of the
Sierra Nevada, and reaches over one thousand years of age, four hundred
and fifty feet in height, and one hundred and twelve feet in
circumference. The Redwood has a wider range in latitude as a wild tree,
and reaches three hundred feet in height. It has a shaggy, reddish bark
and very dark foliage. Its wood is of good texture, but monotonous in
grain. It is used in cabinet work and interiors.

=Spruce= (_Picea_), a genus of about eighteen species, native of the
Northern Hemisphere. The WHITE SPRUCE is a slender tree fifty to one
hundred and fifty feet high, found from New York to British Columbia,
north to Newfoundland, Hudson Bay and Alaska. The wood is light and soft
and is largely used for construction and for paper pulp. The BLACK
SPRUCE is twenty to thirty and very rarely one hundred feet high; grows
from Newfoundland and Hudson Bay and Alberta south to North Carolina,
Michigan and Minnesota. It is largely used for wood pulp and paper. The
RED SPRUCE, seventy to eighty feet high, grows from Nova Scotia to
Virginia, and is largely manufactured into lumber. The TIDELAND or SITKA
SPRUCE is a large tree usually one hundred feet, sometimes two hundred
feet high, occurring abundantly from northern California to Alaska. Its
valuable timber is used for all kinds of building purposes. The NORWAY
SPRUCE is largely planted in the Eastern States as an ornamental tree.

=Sycamore.= Only certain trees of the genus _Ficus_, mostly natives of
Asia and Africa, are properly called sycamores. The EGYPTIAN SYCAMORE,
supposed to be the sycamore of the Bible, is a large spreading tree
often planted for shade in Egypt and western Asia. In northern Europe
this name is also given to the species of maple, and in the United

=Upas= (_Antiaris toxicaria_). A tree found in the Philippine Islands
and tropical Asia. The fiber of the bark is sometimes made into cloth
and the juice of the roots is used by the Malays for poisoning their
arrows. This tree figures in both religion and mythology.

=Walnut= (_Juglans_), a genus of about ten species, mostly natives of
North America and Asia. The BLACK WALNUT is sometimes one hundred to one
hundred and twenty-five feet high, growing from Ontario to Florida, west
to Nebraska and Texas. The dark brown wood is largely used for cabinet
making and gunstocks. The WHITE WALNUT or BUTTERNUT resembles the black
walnut, but is seldom over one hundred feet high. The wood is used in
the interior finish of houses and for furniture. The CALIFORNIA WALNUT,
a tree sometimes sixty-five feet high, is often cultivated in California
for shade and as a stock on which to graft the English Walnut. The
ENGLISH WALNUT is sixty to ninety feet high, native of Persia, and has
long been cultivated for its edible nuts.

=Willow= (_Salix_), a genus of over one hundred and fifty species,
mostly of cool, northern regions, fully one-half occurring within the
United States. The leaves are egg-shaped and wrinkled; the blossoms
yellow and greenish. They possess great quantities of honey, and
attract, therefore, all kinds of insects, especially bees. The WEEPING
WILLOW is much planted for ornament. The EUROPEAN OSIER is cultivated
for its twigs. Of the native species, the shrubby SHINING WILLOW, the
BLACK WILLOW, is sometimes forty feet high, and the HEART-LEAVED WILLOW
are among the best known.

=Yew= (_Taxus_), a genus of some six trees and shrubs, are widely
distributed in the northern hemisphere, three species occurring in the
United States. The AMERICAN YEW is a low, straggling shrub seldom over
five feet high growing in woods from Newfoundland to Manitoba and south
to Virginia and Iowa. The FLORIDA YEW is a bushy tree rarely twenty-five
feet high. The CALIFORNIA YEW is a tree forty to fifty feet high
occurring from British Columbia to California, sometimes cultivated in
gardens in Europe. The hard wood is used for fence posts. The EUROPEAN
YEW is a native of Europe and Siberia reaching a height of forty feet.


  The cultivation of the fiber-yielding plants and the manufacture of
  their products into textiles, ropes, cordage, and matting are among
  the most important industries of the world, and afford employment
  directly and indirectly to many millions of people. The industries,
  moreover, are of great antiquity, for we have definite evidence from
  the Lake Dwellings of Switzerland that flax was cultivated and used
  as a textile during the Stone Age, and the occurrence of linen cloth
  in the tombs of Egypt and constant references to the same material
  in the earliest books of the Bible are well known to everyone. How
  and when mankind first became aware of the possibilities of
  vegetable fibers as materials for clothing it is not easy to say,
  but it is not improbable that he first employed the fibers to supply
  his need for string cordage, especially in his hunting expeditions,
  and that gradually the idea of weaving the strings to form a fabric
  occurred to him. The apparatus employed must have been of extreme
  simplicity and the finished product crude according to modern ideas;
  but that thousands of years ago textiles of superlative quality,
  rivaling anything that can be produced to-day, were manufactured by
  Eastern races is a matter of history and observation.

=Annotto, Anatto or Arnotto.= The red substance imported under this name
consists of the aggregated seed pellicles of _Bixa Orellana_. The
coloring matter is best extracted by alcohol, as it is not very soluble
in water. It is the source of coloring for dairy products, being the
standard butter and cheese color in the United States, England and
Holland. Has also a limited use as a dye in calico printing. It was
anciently used by natives of Brazil, Central America, and West Indies to
stain their bodies red, and by Mexicans in painting. Cultivation
prehistoric in tropical America. Now naturalized in India.

=Bamboo= (_Bambusa_) grows in the tropics of Asia, Africa and America.
The plants are in reality merely gigantic grasses. The stems are hollow
and contain only a light pith, but they are jointed and at the nodes
strong partitions stretch across the inside. They grow in clumps, and
may reach a height of one hundred and twenty feet and a thickness of ten
inches. Some species flower only once, some every year, and others at
longer intervals.

The Bamboo is noted for its great economic importance, and serves a
variety of useful purposes. The young shoots of some species are cut
when tender and eaten like asparagus; the seeds also are sometimes used
as food, and for making beer; some species exude a saccharine juice at
the nodes which is of domestic value.

The hard stems are converted into bows, arrows, quivers, lance-shafts,
masts of vessels, bed-posts, walking-sticks, poles of palanquins, rustic
bridges, bee-hives, water-pipes, gutters, furniture, ladders, domestic
utensils and agricultural implements. Split up finely they afford a most
durable material for weaving into mats, baskets, window-blinds, ropes
and even sails of boats. Perhaps the greatest use to which they are put
is in building, for in India, China, Japan, Assam, Malay, and other
countries of the East, houses are frequently constructed solely of this

=Betel-nut= (_Areca Catechu_), a palm cultivated in tropical Asia. The
seed or nut resembles a nutmeg in size and in color. Pieces of this nut
are rolled up with a little lime in leaves of _Piper Betel_, the
Betel-pepper, and chewed by the natives. The pellet is hot, acrid,
aromatic and astringent, tinges the saliva red, and stains the teeth.
Its charcoal is used as toothpowder.

Cultivated extensively in the East Indies, where the consumption of
leaves by chewing with the areca nut is enormous. Narcotic stimulant.

=Cinchona,= a genus of evergreen trees, includes thirty-six species,
about a dozen of which are utilized. They are natives of the Andes,
growing mostly between five thousand and eight thousand feet above the
sea-level. It is the source of quinine, the most important drug in
tropical medicine, and widely used throughout the world. Its cultivation
is becoming quite extensive.

The bark introduced into Europe in 1639 by the Countess of Cinchon,
whence the name. Now extensively cultivated in India, Japan, Ceylon and

=Cotton= (_Gossypium herbaceum_) is one of the most important cultivated
shrubs. It is an annual and grows from two to four feet in height, with
stalks branching extensively. At the bottom of the stalk the limbs are
longest, and at the top they are light and short.

The flowers are white, or pale yellow, or cream-colored the first day.
They darken and redden on the second day, and fall to the ground on the
third or fourth day, leaving a tiny boll developed in the calyx. This
boll develops and enlarges until maturity, when it is somewhat like a
hen’s egg, both in size and shape. This boll is the house of the seed
and lint--the products of commerce. In it are from three to five
apartments or cells (often more than five in improved types), which hold
the lint from its earliest formation until it is picked in the fall. The
bolls of the cotton plant mature all the way from the last of August
until frost attacks them. When matured, the fibrous wool, known as seed
cotton, is gathered, ginned, and baled. When separated from the seed the
lint becomes the cotton of commerce.

The chief commercial types of cotton are American upland, sea island,
Egyptian, India, Brazilian and Peruvian. These differ in the length of
the individual fibers (staple). The quality is indicated by the grading
under such names as fine, good, good fair, fully fair, middling fair,
good middling, middling, etc. Sea island cotton has the longest staple
and is used for the finest qualities of yarn and fabrics. Egyptian
cotton also has a long staple. Large amounts are imported into the
United States.

Cotton is next to corn the most valuable farm crop of the United States.
Nearly three-fourths of all the cotton produced annually in the world is
grown in the south Atlantic and gulf states. The remainder comes mostly
from India, Egypt, China, Brazil, and Asiatic Russia. A comparatively
small percentage of the crop is sea island cotton from the coast of
Georgia and from islands in the West Indies. The area of cotton
production is spreading in the United States as well as in foreign

Cotton fiber is spun into yarn and made into thread, muslin, calico and
hundreds of other cotton or part cotton fabrics. Mercerized yarn is
prepared by treatment with strong caustic alkali. Cotton linters are
used in cheap yarns, cotton batting, mattresses, and the manufacture of
celluloid and artificial silk.

Cotton seeds are subjected to heavy pressure in machines in order to
extract the oil. The oil-cake is a valuable cattle food and the hulls
are used for fuel or for paper making.

Cottonseed oil is used for table purposes, for packing sardines, for
cooking, making soap, candles, etc.

The greatest centers of cotton manufacture are in England, New England,
the Carolinas and Georgia. Germany, Russia, India and Japan are among
the important manufacturing nations.

Modern cotton mills are of immense size. The bales are opened, the
cotton cleaned, carded, and twisted into slivers, rovings, and finally
into yarn. Raw cotton, cotton yarn and cotton fabrics are all important
in trade. About half the crop of the United States is exported in bales
to be manufactured in the mills of other countries.

England has an enormous foreign trade in cotton fabrics. The United
States exports chiefly unbleached muslin, more of which goes to China
than to any other country.

It is certain that cotton was in use in India three thousand years ago,
and in Egypt more than two thousand years ago. It was well known to the
ancient civilizations of Mexico, Peru, Central America and the West
Indies. When the European voyagers, Columbus, Pizarro, and Cortez,
visited for the first time these ancient civilizations, the manufacture
of cotton was in a flourishing condition, and the quality and beauty of
the cotton goods of a high order.

=Flax= (_Linum usitatissimum_) has been cultivated for centuries. Along
the upright stalk, of eighteen to twenty inches high, small narrow
leaves grow; the blossoms appear in July and August, and are light blue.

Flax is grown for fiber in Russia, Belgium, Italy, France, Holland,
Ireland and Egypt. Little flax fiber is produced in the United States.
Plants for fiber production are straight stemmed, while the varieties
grown for seed have many branches. Flax seeds are produced in Russia,
India, Argentina and the United States. Plants harvested for fiber are
pulled up by the root in order to obtain the greatest possible length.
The fiber is separated from the stalk of the plant by retting, a process
of partial decay, breaking and scutching to remove the woody parts and
hackling or combing. In the best grades of flax most of this work is
done by hand.

Flax or linen fiber and linseed oil are the chief products of the plant.
Tow is a by-product in making linen and flax yarns and fabrics.

Linseed oil is used in paints, varnishes, printer’s ink, oilcloth and
linoleum. Linseed oil-cake is a valuable cattle food. Flax seeds find
limited use in medicine.

Flax yarns are used in making rope, twine, bagging and coarse,
unbleached fabrics. Linen yarns are made into products of the better
grade, including fine linens, cambrics, laces, etc.

Linen is bleached by exposure to the sun and by treatment with a dilute
solution of chloride of lime. Linen rags are the stock for the best
qualities of paper.

The United States imports flax fiber mainly from Europe, as well as
large quantities of linens, laces, etc. Some flax seeds are imported and
large amounts of linseed oil-cake are sent to Europe.

=Guava= (_Psidium Guayava_), small trees of tropical America belonging
to the Myrtle family. The fruits vary very much in size, shape and
color, the most valued being the _white guava_, with pear-shaped,
yellow or whitish fruits the size of a hen’s egg. The inferior _red
guava_ which is more apple-shaped, is also used in preparing guava-jelly
and guava-cheese, which preserves, owing to the perishable character of
the fruit, are the only forms in which the fruit is imported. The tree
has been naturalized in the East, and is commonly grown from Mexico to
Peru at date of Spanish discovery. Since widely diffused in East and
West India Islands, India, and China. Recently established in Florida
and California.

=Hemp= (_Cannabis sativa_) is cultivated in many countries. It is about
three feet in height, has finger-like leaves and the fruit has the form
of a little nut. The home of the hemp is the East Indies. The stalks are
dried in the sun, then steeped in water or upon wet (moist) meadows, and
again exposed to the sun, when the woody parts are stripped off. The
remaining fibers are manufactured into cables, ropes, sail-cloth, linen
and paper.

Other hemps of different botanical origin and having quite different
qualities are called by such names as manila hemp, sisal hemp, tampico
hemp, Mauritius hemp, sunn hemp, bowstring hemp, etc. Strictly speaking,
none of these is true hemp.

It is cultivated in Russia, the warm countries of Asia, the shores of
the Mediterranean, Kentucky, Missouri, Illinois and California. Russia
produces more hemp fiber than all the rest of the world. Russia and
Italy are the largest exporters.

As with other cordage fibers of this character, the long, combed fibers
are called line and the short strands, tow. The commercial fiber is
longer, coarser and less strong than flax. It can not be bleached
perfectly white, although used in so-called coarse linens. Russian,
Italian and Kentucky, as applied to hemp, denote the country of origin.
Italian hemp is the finest, Kentucky the strongest.

Hemp oil is pressed from the seeds. It is used in paints, varnishes and
soap. The oil-cake is a cattle food.

=Hop= (_Humulus lupulus_), sometimes grows wild in hedges and bushes,
and is also frequently cultivated. Its stalk, which leans to the right,
is eighteen to twenty-four feet high; its petiolate leaves are
heart-shaped, with three to five lobes. The blossoms of its stamens form
panicles; the female cones stand either singly in the axils of the
leaves or in clusters. In these cones a yellow, bitter resin, the
hop-powder or lupulin, is secreted, which yields the wort for beer, and
is also used by chemists. Hops are cultivated in almost all parts of
Europe, especially in England, Germany and Austria. In the United
States, California, Oregon, Washington, New York and Wisconsin produce
the largest crops.

Hops are added to the malt, liquor, or wort before fermentation and give
a bitter flavor to malt liquors. Hops are not exported on a large enough
scale to be an important item in commerce.

=Jute= is an East Indian plant whose fibers are strong, coarse, dark in
color and sometimes twelve feet long. The fibers are largely employed in
the manufacture of coarse bagging and sacking called gunny cloth. Gunny
bags, in which pepper, ginger, sugar, cotton, rice, gums, etc., are
shipped are made of it. Jute is also largely mixed with silk, as it has
a gloss that can scarcely be distinguished from silk when woven with it.
Attempts have been made to manufacture paper out of jute, but it is
difficult to bleach it white, and only a coarse kind of brown paper is

=Licorice= (_Glycyrrhiza_) is a plant having long, pliant, sweet roots,
and generally creeping rootstocks; pinnate leaves of many leaflets, and
terminating in an odd one; and whitish, violet-colored flowers in
spikes, racemes, or heads. The roots of licorice depend for the valuable
properties on a substance called _Glycyrrhizine_, allied to sugar,
yellow, transparent, uncrystallizable, soluble in both water and
alcohol, and forming compounds both with acids and with bases. They are
a well-known article of materia medica, and were used by the ancients as
in modern times, being emollient, demulcent, very useful in catarrh and
irritations of the mucous membrane. It is a native of the south of
Europe and of many parts of Asia, as far as China. It is cultivated in
many countries of Europe. The only American species grows in the plains
of the Missouri.

=Ramie= is the bast fiber from a plant (_Boehmeria nivea_), commonly
called China grass, or rhea, although fibers from other plants sometimes
receive these names. It is usually strong and silky in appearance but
difficult to clean and bleach.

It is used largely in China for weaving grass cloth, or Canton linen.
The fiber is very difficult to “de-gum.” Many experiments have been made
to find a satisfactory process. It is now used in making fabrics which
resemble linen, laces, underwear, plushes, etc.

=Raphia,= a strong and useful fiber is obtained from the leaves of
_Raphia Ruffia_, a palm cultivated in Madagascar, Mauritius, and
neighboring islands, and of the Jupati palm, of Brazil. Madagascar
raphia is the only important grade. A similar soft fiber used locally is
produced in West Africa.

It is exported in considerable amounts from Madagascar and used by
gardeners for tying plants; and also for making mats and basketry and in

=Rattan= is the stem of a species of climbing palm, natives of Asia,
though some occur in Australia and in Africa. They have slender,
reed-like but solid stems, seldom more than one or two inches in
diameter, which grow to great lengths, clambering up among the branches
of trees by means of the hooked prickles on the stalks of their leaves.
The Indian and Malayan species are the source of the largely-imported
rattan canes, used for the seats of chairs, and, in their native
countries, for cables and a variety of other purposes.

=Sisal= (henequen or sisal hemp) is a hard, strong fiber from the leaves
of a century plant (_Agave rigida_). It is cultivated in Yucatan and
the Bahamas. Plantations of henequen, or maguey, have been established
in Cuba, Hawaii, India, German and British East Africa and the
Philippines. The home of the agave plants is Mexico and Central America
and this part of the world produces most of these fibers.

On modern plantations machines have superseded the primitive hand
methods of cleaning the fiber. Sisal is the chief product of Yucatan and
its greatest export. The bulk of the production is used in the United
States in making rope, twine and sacking. All of the other agave fibers
are of less commercial importance than sisal or henequen.

The fiber of this species is especially valuable for ship cables, as it
has been found to resist the action of sea-water better than most other

=Tobacco Plant= (_Nicotiana tabacum_) is three to four feet in height;
its leaves longish and lancet-shaped; its corolla pink; its fruit is a
capsule, with many seeds. It is indigenous to America. Its leaves are
either used for chewing, for smoking, or for snuff. It belongs to the
poisonous plants, and contains no nutritious substance; its flavor and
odor are disagreeable; nevertheless it furnishes much enjoyment to a
large portion of mankind.

More tobacco is raised in the United States than in any other country
and Kentucky raises more than any other state. India is the second
largest producer. In Europe it is cultivated in Austria-Hungary, Russia,
Germany, Netherlands, France, Belgium and Turkey. Cuba, Porto Rico,
Mexico, Central and South America, China, Java, Sumatra, Philippines,
Ceylon, Syria and Cape Colony are important producers.

Commercial grades are named from the locality of production as Havana,
Sumatra, Mexican, Turkish, Virginia, etc. Certain grades are appropriate
for use as cigar wrappers and others for fillers and are so named in the

The United States exports over half of the tobacco raised, chiefly to
England in the form of leaf tobacco. Few cigars are exported, but
cigarettes and plug tobacco go to the East Indies, China and Australia.


  A number of plants contain so powerful a poison that we should take
  especial care to avoid them. As the danger may be better avoided by
  a general knowledge of these plants, a detailed description of them
  is highly desirable. Many of them are also important medicinal
  plants; and we should therefore by no means regret the existence of
  these poisonous growths; for, if we apply them to their proper uses,
  they serve to supply us with valuable medical aids.

=Darnell= (_Lolium temulentum_) is from eighteen to thirty-six inches
high, and often found in cornfields. Its seeds contain a poison, which
is narcotic and stupefying.

=Deadly Nightshade= (_Atropa Belladonna_) is common in the woods. The
sappy stem is from three to six feet high; the egg-shaped leaves are
covered with down; the brownish-red blossoms are arranged solitary in
the axils of the leaves. The bright black berry is as large as a cherry.
The nightshade is our most dangerous poisonous plant, and there is
little hope for children who have eaten of its berries. From the fresh
leaves atropine is prepared, which is a very powerful remedy in certain
diseases of the eye.

=Black Hellebore= (_Helleborus niger_) blooms in December, January and
February, and is a native of the mountainous woods of South Germany and
Austria. The black root, which is white inside, is poisonous.

=Fool’s Parsley or Dog’s Parsley= (_Aethusa Cynapium_) is a common weed,
growing in gardens, fields, and also on rubbish. It is easily mistaken
for parsley. As it is very poisonous, it is well to remember that it can
be easily recognized by three long pendent floral leaves on solitary
umbels; the leaves are odorless, and only when crushed emit a faint,
garlic-like scent.

=Hellebore= (_H. viridis_ and _H. fœtidus_) is also rightly described as
a poisonous plant. One species is used for killing lice and vermin on
cattle, horses, and other live stock.

=Henbane= (_Hyoscyamus niger_) grows on rubbish and waste ground. The
entire plant is covered with sticky hairs, and has a repulsive odor. The
stem is about thirteen inches high; the longish leaves are widely
serrated; the flowers are pale yellow, streaked with dark-violet veins;
the fruit is a capsule, which opens with a spring lid. The henbane is
also a dangerous, poisonous plant, but its leaves and seeds supply an
important medicine.

=Herb-Paris= (_Paris quadrifolia_) grows in hedges and shady woods. On
its upright stem there are four oval leaves. It has never more than one
blossom, consisting of greenish-yellow petals, eight stamens, and one
pistil. Its fruit is a dark blue, round berry, which ripens in July and
August. The latter when eaten causes diarrhœa, convulsions and other

=Marsh Crow’s-Foot= (_Ranunculus sceleratus_) grows in ditches and
marshes. The upright branching stem is from twelve to eighteen inches
high; the leaves are divided in the shape of a hand, and the blossoms
are small and yellow. The marsh crow’s-foot contains very poisonous
juices, which cause blisters and ulcers to rise on the skin, and when
taken inwardly nearly always cause death. The other species of
crow’s-foot found in meadows, fields, woods, etc., are also more or less

=Meadow Saffron= (_Colchicum autumnale_) is a bulbous plant, which
blooms in dry meadows in September and October. The flesh-colored
blossoms appear in the autumn, and leaves are thrown up in the following
spring; between the leaves are large capsules, each containing numerous
seeds. The seeds and the bulbous root contain poison, and the former are
used in medicine.

=Mezereon= (_Daphne Mezereum_) grows solitary in the woods. It is a
tough plant, from one to three feet high; the lanceolate leaves are
arranged in tufts at the end of the shoots; the rose-colored blossoms
appear before the leaves, and are generally situated in clusters of
three on the branches; the fruit is a red stone-fruit. The whole plant
is poisonous; a medicine is prepared from the bark.

=Purple Foxglove= (_Digitalis purpurea_) is a common wild flower, and
grows to a height of fifty inches. The longish leaves are felt-like, and
the large purple flowers stand in a cluster; the fruit is a capsule. The
purple foxglove is poisonous, and its leaves are used in medicine.

=Spotted Hemlock= (_Conium maculatum_) grows upon rubbish, hedges,
fences, and highways. The stem is three to six feet high, marked with
blue and bluish-red spots; the leaves are tripennate; the white blossoms
also stand in flat umbels. The leaves when bruised emit a very peculiar
mouse-like odor which is very noticeable on hot summer days. The root,
especially, is poisonous, and when eaten causes the most fatal
consequences. Hemlock is a powerful sedative, and is used medicinally.

=Thorn Apple= (_Datura Stamonium_) originally came from the East Indies,
but is now widely spread, growing on rubbish and in gardens. Never more
than a few plants are found. Its forked stem is from eighteen inches to
three feet high; the petiolate leaves are widely serrated; the large
blossoms are a pure white; the fruit resembles the horse chestnut, and
contains numerous black seeds. The thorn apple has a very repulsive
odor, a disagreeable flavor, and is poisonous in all parts. The leaves
and seeds are used in medicines.

=Water Hemlock= (_Cicuta virosa_), is very common in many localities on
the banks of streams, ditches, and in flooded fields; in other
localities it is rare. The thick, fleshy root is hollow, and divided in
the interior into sections; the upright stem is hollow and smooth; the
leaves are tripennate; the small white blossoms are arranged in umbels
of ten or more rays. The poison is chiefly contained in the red root,
which, when eaten by children, who mistake it for an edible root, nearly
always causes death, unless medical aid is immediately at hand. The
other parts of the plant also contain a poison, which is so strong that
its odor alone will produce headache and giddiness.

=Wolf’s-Bane or Monk’s-Hood= (_Aconitum Lycotonum_) is a rare plant from
eighteen inches to three feet high; the leaves are shaped like a hand,
with three, five or seven lobes. The blossom is yellow. The wolf’s-bane
contains a virulent poison, especially in the root and in the seeds.
This description also applies to the _Aconitum Napellus_, which is grown
as an ornamental plant in gardens; its tubers are used medicinally.


  We usually think of plants as quite harmless things, almost wholly
  at the mercy of the animal creation. This, however, is only one side
  of the story, for quite a number of plants have a very cunning plan
  whereby they entrap flies and other insects. The ingenuity with
  which these plants lure their victims on to death is simply amazing.
  Everything is done to tempt the creature to visit the death traps of
  the plants, and, on the other hand, no means are spared to make an
  escape impossible.


One of the most singular instances of this is to be seen in a little
plant which is only found growing in the bogs of the Carolinas. This has
been rather cynically called the Venus Fly Trap (_Dionæa muscipula_), a
fanciful name which hides its cruel practices. Few plants have adopted a
more certain plan than the Dionæa. Every leaf which the plant produces
is the most perfect device for the securing of prey that could be

The mechanical construction of this remarkable vegetable trap is
somewhat on the following lines. The leaf is borne at the end of a
curiously broad stalk, and is divided into two lobes; these are joined
together by a hinge-like arrangement. The outside borders of the lobes
are fringed with from a dozen to twenty long teeth. When fully expanded
the leaf lies back on the moss amid which the plant grows.

If we examine the inside surface of the lobes we shall see that these
are in the middle colored a rosy red. Just at this point will be
discovered three hairs arranged in triangular fashion.

It is interesting to consider the actual manner in which the plant
carries out its fly-catching.

As is well known, bright colors have a great attraction for insects. In
this case it is apparently the red areas on the lobes of the leaves
which possess such an attraction for insects of all kinds. Possibly they
secrete a sweet substance, but this is not definitely known. All goes on
well as long as the creatures avoid doing one thing; unhappily, this
they are almost certain to do sooner or later. Nothing happens unless
the insect brushes up against one of the hairs previously mentioned as
being on the surface of the lobes. The succeeding happenings are
disastrous for the fly.

With really astonishing rapidity the sides of the leaf snap together so
that the spines on the borders of the lobes meet. Thus, in a very brief
time a most perfect little cage is devised from which any sort of escape
is absolutely impossible. During the next half hour the sides draw in
still closer, so that the spines overlap. At this stage the leaf pours
out a copious discharge of digestive fluid, which enables the plant to
make use of the nutritious element in the fly.


The light streaming through the transparent spaces induces the prisoner
to waste its strength in a vain effort to escape through them.]

[Illustration: Once below the inside edge, escape is almost impossible.
Pitchers have been found almost full of flies and other insects.]

[Illustration: Absorbed in the delights of feasting on the nectar of the
Nepenthes, the insect wanders with fatal ease down the fluted rim.]

[Illustration: The fruits of the Martynia fasten themselves to passing
animals that sometimes get the hooks caught in their mouths and die a
dreadful death.]

After an interval of several days the leaf of the Dionæa opens and
allows the hard carcass of the fly to roll away. The plant is then ready
for another meal, and unable to realize the fate which is in store for
it, another fly falls a victim. Quite often the Venus Fly Trap is able
to capture large insects.


Scattered over the tropics of the old world there is a remarkable group
of plants known as Nepenthes. Many of these are of a climbing habit,
rooting in bark crevices where a little moist soil may have collected.
To augment their food supply they have produced pitchers, which in some
species are of great size. Indeed, in one kind of receptacles will hold
as much as two quarts of water. In all cases these pitchers have a
thick, corrugated rim, and it is this which plays a big part both in the
luring and the capturing of the insects. On this rim, as well as on the
lid of the pitcher, there are honey secreting glands, and these, of
course, make the strongest appeal to hungry insects.

Absorbed in the delights of the feast, the insect wanders with fatal
ease down the fluted rim. Once below the inside edge of this, escape is
almost impossible, for the border is adorned with sharp, teeth-like
processes, all pointing downward to the pit of destruction. Moreover,
the inside walls of the pitcher are specially smoothed with a wax-like
secretion, which makes climbing up a very difficult feat. Even insects
with wings seem to find a great difficulty in making good their escape.

The pitchers of the Nepenthes are usually about half filled with fluid;
this is not entirely collected rain or dew, but is largely formed by a
definite secretion of the plant. Into this fluid the exhausted insect
tumbles sooner or later, there to end miserably among a mass of drowning
victims. It has been definitely proved that this fluid is an acid
secretion--not unlike the digestive juices of an animal--which enables
the plant to extract the nutriment it needs from the bodies of its


It is in connection with the fluid contained in the pitchers of the
Nepenthes that these plants catch much larger prey than insects. In the
tropics it is not always an easy matter for birds and other small
animals to secure a drink readily. The half-filled pitchers entice many
a small creature to creep over the fluted rim in order to secure a
draught of the fluid, which is not unpleasant to the taste. Now and
again the venturesome visitor loses his hold and tumbles into the
pitcher. Even in the case of mice and small birds the pitcher proves a
veritable death-trap. The slippery sides are almost insurmountable,
while the sharp hooks round the rim still further check an escape.
Sooner or later the victim falls back into the fluid and is drowned.
Strange as it may appear, after such a capture the plant grows
vigorously, for the decaying body of its victim is rich in just the food
material of which it stands in need.


A very singular group of plants, the Sarracenias, are quite common in
the bogs of North America. These are of an elegant shape, and may be as
much as one foot or two feet in height. Nearly always they are highly
colored, and altogether so attractive do they appear that insects of all
kinds simply crowd to them. On arrival at the lip of the pitcher, the
insects find a feast of honey spread out for their delectation. With
almost devilish ingenuity this becomes sweeter and more plentiful the
farther down into the pitcher one traverses. At a certain point,
however, the nectar ceases, and the insect thinks that he will retrace
his steps. But although it has been easy enough to go down, it is almost
impossible to get back, for the surface of the inside of the pitcher is
thickly covered with sharp bristles, all pointing downward.

Some flying insects may escape, but even these do not find it easy, as
witness the fact that the plant often catches a large number of winged
creatures. In the lower part of the Sarracenia pitcher a fluid is
secreted, and it is into this that the creatures ultimately fall, and,
of course, perish. How successful are the Sarracenias in their
insect-catching may be gathered from the fact that pitchers have been
discovered well nigh full of flies and other small creatures.


The California Darlingtonia seems to have been specially devised for the
securing of winged creatures. The plant is most singular in appearance,
and the upper part of the pitchers bear a remarkable resemblance to the
head of a snake. Part of the hood and also the two protruding leaves are
gaily colored in crimson. It should also be noted that the upper portion
of the hood is adorned with transparent patches, like so many little
windows. Now, the only opening into the pitcher of the Darlingtonia is
quite a small hole on the under side of the hood. As in the case of the
other pitcher plants, the orifice of this hole is freely supplied with
honey, and this extends well into the interior of the receptacle.

Owing to the attraction of the little windows, which have been already
mentioned, the flies do not attempt to get out of the hole to the extent
which might be supposed. The light streaming through the transparent
spaces seems to convince the insects that in that direction lies the
path to freedom. At all times it is possible to see perhaps a dozen
flies bobbing against the windows in a vain endeavor to escape. Finally,
wearied to death by their hopeless endeavors to escape, the insects fall
down into the lower part of the pitcher and become suffocated by the
fluid it contains.


A curious little Australian plant which has adopted a very similar plan
of fly catching to that to be seen in the Nepenthes is the Cephalotus.
One singular feature about this Australian pitcher plant is that it
produces quite ordinary leaves in addition to the highly specialized
fly-catching ones.


The Martynias of South America produce fruits with hooks sometimes five
or six inches in length, which get imbedded into the flesh of animals.
The African Grapple-plants (_Harpagophyton procumbens_) are even worse
in the amount of suffering which they cause; thousands of antelopes,
goats, and other creatures are lamed by them every season. The seed
vessel of this plant is provided with a large number of curved hooks by
which it attaches itself to the coats or hoofs of animals and is thus
transported from place to place. It has been known to choke and cause
the death of lions.

[Illustration: The pretty little parachute-like device of the Dandelion
seed which helps to waft it over a wide area. It often rises to a height
of thirty feet, and is wafted many miles away.]

[Illustration: The Willow Herb produces an enormous number of flying
fruits. These often sail away in masses and are carried for a great
distance over the countryside, to take root in a new location.]

[Illustration: The seed of the Sycamore is provided with a long wing.
These wings revolve quickly when the heavy seed is falling, prevent a
rapid decent, and help to scatter them.]

[Illustration: The head of a seeding Dandelion. Observe the enlarged
view of one of the parachutes above.]

[Illustration: When the fruits of the Coltsfoot are ripe the smallest
puff of air disperses the seed far and wide.]


Many plants provide their seeds with an apparatus which forms a
singularly effective flying machine. Some of these are among the most
beautiful and ingenious contrivances in the plant world.


By far the commonest method of ensuring a wide distribution of a seed is
that in which the object is attached to some light, feathery substance
which prevents a speedy falling. Of this there is no better instance
than the common dandelion, which at seed time produces the handsome
“clock” so prized by the children.

Here each seed is attached to a feathery process which plays the part of
a parachute. On a dry day, when the dandelion heads are parting with
their fruits, we may see how well the scheme works. Each puff of wind
releases a few of the seeds, and these, unlike the ordinary parachute
with a load, are so light that they rise upwards on the air currents.

Curiously enough, the fruits seem to travel farther when the breezes are
light, and a very rough wind blows them back to earth, where they may
catch in the grass or become damaged. Thus, like the airman, the
dandelion seed stands the best chance of a safe journey when the weather
is not too boisterous.

A very similar arrangement is to be seen in the case of the goat’s-beard
fruit and that of the coltsfoot, which, by reason of its flying device,
secures a very wide distribution.


After flowering the Willow Herb develops long, pod-like processes.
During damp and stormy weather these pods remain tightly closed. On a
day when the air is dry and the breezes are light, the sides of the case
split open and reveal a prodigious number of perfect flying machines.
The seed itself weighs a mere trifle, and to this is attached a
beautiful arrangement of feathery hairs. The whole thing is so well
adapted for an aërial voyage that it mounts rapidly upward on the
faintest puff of air. It should be here explained that by experiment it
has been shown that the air currents tend to move upward. So light are
some of these flying fruits that they often rise to an immense height.
It is not an uncommon thing for them to be found on mountains thousands
of feet above sea-level.

Of course, many foreign seeds have remarkable flying appendages. That of
the South African Stapelia has a vast mass of fluffy hairs which will
support it on quite a long aërial voyage. In the case of the cotton
plant man has turned to good account the hairs by which the seed flies.


In a large number of cases the conveyance of the seeds to a distant
point is accomplished by the adoption of the screw-propeller principle.
An excellent example of this is to be seen in the fruits of the
sycamore. Here the actual seed is large and heavy, but it is attached to
a wing-like expansion. When the fruit falls from the tree the wing
revolves with great rapidity, very much on the lines of a propeller
blade. This has the effect of controlling the rate of fall, so that the
whole contrivance is carried to some distance before the seed is
actually brought to earth.


Some kinds of touring plants send out long trailing stems to search for
fresh rooting places. A little Alpine saxifrage is curious in this
respect, for the plant will traverse over many feet of barren rock to
reach a suitable position. Directly the shoot touches the soil, a new
plant is formed, and as this grows up, the connection between it and the
parent is severed. A kind of lily has an even more singular way of
traveling about. Here, after the plant has flowered, buds arise on the
stems which bore the blossoms. Eventually they take root in fresh
positions. This plant if left alone would rapidly cover many yards with
its offspring, and this without setting a single seed.

A strange group of plants are those which actually break themselves in
pieces in order to pursue their journeys abroad. A plant belonging to
the Houseleek order (_Sempervivum soboliferum_) is remarkable in this
respect. The species naturally finds its home in the crevices of rocks,
and at a certain stage in its development numerous little ball-like
offshoots are produced. In the early days these are kept at home by the
stems by means of which they are attached to the parent plant.
Eventually these attachments shrivel up and the offshoots go rolling
away over the rocks often much helped in their journey by the wind. A
considerable distance may be traversed before a little ball finds a
resting-place in some niche.



It is well-known to every intelligent observer that plants are menaced
by a host of enemies. Though the plant cannot take up the aggressive to
any extent, the weapons which it employs in its own defense are of an
exceedingly efficient nature. In their way they are quite as effective
as anything that animals employ in their battle for existence.

Among the commonest defenses of the plant are spines, thorns and
prickles. In the sloe (_Prunus spinosa_), for example, the spines are
modified branches; in gorse (_Ulex Europæus_) they are branches and
leaves; and in cacti the green parts are thickened stems and the spines
reduced leaves; while in holly (_Ilex aquifolium_) the prickly leaves
answer the purpose of spines. The stinging hairs of the nettle which
exude an irritating acid when touched are a familiar example of
protection against vegetarian animals.

The way in which seeds are protected by spines is well illustrated in
the case of the Sweet Chestnut. Here it would be a very knowing animal
that could open one of the cases before they split naturally with the
ripening of the seed.


There are few plants so well armed as the Cactus, the evident design of
which is to conserve its moisture. This is accomplished in several ways.
Of course, the very shapes of the plants are all in their favor. Being
either round, globular, or cylindrical, they offer a limited surface to
the dry air inconceivably less than a plant of the same size bearing a
quantity of leaves. The thick skins, too, play a big part in keeping in
the moisture, and many kinds of cacti, such as that known as Old Man’s
Beard, are covered with dense masses of hair.

Many of these succulent desert plants grow to a great size. Thus the
Giant Cactus sends up a tall column, often with only a very few
branches, which may be eighty or even one hundred feet in height.

Curiously enough, some cacti produce the most beautiful flowers,
blossoms without rival in the whole world. The various kinds bear
flowers of every conceivable shade except blue, and the blooms are often
of an immense size. It is not unusual for the blossoms to measure
eighteen inches, or even two feet, across.

Living as they do in arid regions, cacti are peculiarly liable to be
attacked by thirsty animals. Now, a common mode of defense is the
covering of the plant with sharp spines. These spines are so arranged
that they completely shield the juicy stem from any possibility of
attack, it is said that on occasion Mexican ponies will try to knock a
cactus to pieces with their heels when they are thirsty. More often than
not the animals suffer cruelly for their temerity by being severely

In much the same way the Aloes and Agaves are protected, so that a hedge
of these plants when placed round a field, is better than the most
perfect barbed wire fence.


This plant is remarkable for its beauty, and grows to a height of twenty
to thirty-five feet. It was long popularly supposed to bloom only once
in a century; hence the name. Though this is a mistaken idea, the
vegetative growth of the plant is many years. The plant produces
flowering stems, sometimes several feet in height, ultimately
terminating in a large panicle of flowers and dying of the effort. A
single plant may produce five thousand flowers, so that the ground
beneath is wet with the honey distilled by them. The fiber of the leaves
was used by the ancient Mexicans for paper parchment, and is now largely
exported for that purpose and for cordage.


The mistletoe is one of the most interesting of the parasite plants. It
grows on various trees, and is celebrated on account of the religious
purposes to which it was consecrated by the ancient Celtic nations of
Europe. It is a small shrub, with oblong, somewhat leathery leaves, and
small yellowish-green flowers, the whole forming a pendent bush, covered
in winter with small white berries, which contain a glutinous substance.
It is common enough on certain species of trees, such as apple and pear
trees, hawthorn, maple, lime, and other similar trees, but is very
seldom found on the oak. Its roots penetrate into the substance of the
tree on which it grows, and though it may live for forty years, it
finally kills the branch supporting it.

In days of old the mistletoe was looked upon with awe as a mysterious
and wonderful plant. The ancient Druids held it sacred, and cut it down
with a golden sickle with all sorts of strange, mystic rites. It was the
symbol of peace and friendship; and that is why we hang it up at
Christmas time, and when two people meet under its green leaves, they
are expected to “kiss and be friends.”


Strangest of all the plants is the Soldanellas, a small species which
exists on the lower slopes of the Alps. When the flower stems are in
their most active state of growth they release a considerable amount of
heat. In this way they will bore a course up through a thick coating of
ice and snow to the light and air above, when by some means the plant is
aware that the spring has arrived. There seems to be something more
wonderful in this than can be explained by mere mechanical causes.
Indeed, the sympathy of the plant with its surroundings is surely one of
those mysteries which are as inscrutable as life itself.


The grubs of many beetles live in wood, upon which they feed. This
probably gives a clue to the primary use of the important commercial
substances india-rubber and guttapercha, which are the dried sticky
juices of various shrubs and trees growing in hot climates. Beetles of
the wood-boring kind, which seek to pierce and lay eggs in such plants,
are liable to be snarled and killed by the viscid fluids which ooze out.

Arums, and various other plants, ward off the attacks of snails and
slugs in a rather curious way The outer parts of their stems and
leafstalks contain bundles of excessively sharp crystals (_raphides_),
composed of oxalate of lime. These pierce the soft mouths of snails and
slugs like so many needles, conveying a lesson which usually needs no


[Illustration: =The Giant Cactus of the American Desert=

These plants are little more than succulent stems covered with a thick
skin which retains the moisture of the juicy shoot.]

[Illustration: =The Century Plant=

The Century Plant is a native of Mexico, and is remarkable for the long
intervals between the blooming periods--once erroneously thought to be
100 years.]


In defiance of the weather a few plants elect to come into bloom right
in the middle of winter. The most striking of these is the Christmas
Rose, or Hellebore. The flowers of this plant are protected by the
encircling sepals, and are fully able to hold their own until the
approach of a more favorable season.]


=Completely Classified, Illustrated and Exemplified=


=Kinds.=--(1.) PRIMARY, growing from root-end of embryo.

(a.) SIMPLE.--_Conical_, [Illustration]; _napiform_, [Illustration];
_fusiform_, [Illustration].

(b.) MULTIPLE.--_Moniliform_, [Illustration] necklace-like.
_Fasciculated_, [Illustration] tufted, thick and fleshy. _Tubercular_,
[Illustration] having small tubers. _Fibrous_, [Illustration]

(2.) SECONDARY, growing from stems.

_Underground_, starting from stem below ground. _Aerial_, starting from
stem above ground.


=Parts.=--[Illustration] _n_, _Node_, part to which the leaf is

_i_, _Internode_, portion between nodes.

_a_, _Axil_, the angle between leaf and stem, upper side.

=Class.=--_Exogenous_, outside-growing (Maple, Elm).

_Endogenous_, inside-growing (Corn-stalk, Timothy).

=Situation.=--(1.) _Above ground_, usually leaf-bearing.

(2.) _Under ground_, scale-bearing.

Stems above Ground.

=Character.=--_Herbaceous_, soft, not woody (Four-o’clock).

_Suffrutescent_, slightly shrubby (Toad-flax).

_Suffruticous_, shrubby at base (Trailing Arbutus).

_Fruticous_, shrubby (Currant-bushes).

_Arborescent_, tree-like (Flowering Dogwood).

_Arboreous_, tree (Elm).

=Direction of Growth.=--_Repent_, [Illustration] prostrate and rooting
from the under surface (Partridge-berry).

_Procumbent_, prostrate, but not rooting (Purslane).

_Decumbent_, [Illustration] prostrate, except at the extremity (Poor
Man’s Weather-glass).

_Assurgent_, [Illustration] ascending obliquely.

_Erect_, upright (Indian Corn).

_Scandent_, [Illustration] climbing with tendrils or rootlets (Grape,
English Ivy).

_Voluble_, [Illustration] twining (Morning-glory).

_Declinate_, [Illustration] declined or bent downwards (Blackberry).

_Diffuse_, [Illustration] loosely-spreading (Red Currant).

=Forms of Branches.=--_Sucker_, [Illustration] a branch of subterranean
origin that finally rises out of the ground. The Raspberry multiplies in
this way.

_Offset_, [Illustration] a short, prostrate-rooting branch with a tuft
of leaves at the end (Houseleek).

_Runner_, [Illustration] a long, prostrate-rooting branch with tuft of
leaves (Strawberry).

_Stolon_, [Illustration] a branch that curves downward and takes root.
The Currant multiplies in this way.

_Tendril_, [Illustration] a thread-like coiling branch used for

_Spine or Thorn_, [Illustration] a hard, sharp-pointed branch.

Stems under Ground.

=Kinds.=--_Rhizoma or Rootstock_, [Illustration] a perennial, horizontal
stem, partially or wholly subterranean (Calamus).

_Tuber_, [Illustration] an enlarged stem with eyes (White-potato).

_Bulb_, [Illustration] a bud, usually subterranean with fleshy scales
(Onion, Lily).

_Corm_, [Illustration] a solid bulb (Indian Turnip).


=Parts.=--[Illustration] _b_, _Blade_, the expanded portion.

_p_, _Petiole_, the stem.

_s_, _Stipules_, leaf-like appendages at base of petiole.

=Kinds.=--(1.) SIMPLE, [Illustration] having but one blade.

_Sessile_, [Illustration] without petiole.

_Petiolate_, [Illustration] with petiole.

_Stipulate_, [Illustration] with stipules.

_Cirrhous_, [Illustration] with tendril.

(2.) COMPOUND, [Illustration] having more than one blade.

(a.) _Pinnate_, [Illustration] with leaflets arranged along a common

_Abruptly pinnate_, [Illustration] with even number of leaflets.

_Odd-pinnate_, [Illustration] having an odd leaflet.

_Unipinnate_, [Illustration] divided but once.

_Bipinnate_, [Illustration] divided twice.

_Tripinnate_, divided three times.

(b.) _Palmate_, [Illustration] leaflets diverging from one point.

_Unipalmate_, [Illustration] divided but once.

_Bipalmate_, [Illustration] divided twice.

_Tripalmate_, [Illustration] divided three times.

=Framework.=--_Midrib_, the central vein.

_Ribs_, [Illustration], [Illustration] strong veins branching from near
the base of midrib.

_Veins_, the branching framework.

_Veinlets_, [Illustration] small veins.

=Venation.=--_Parallel_, [Illustration] with simple veins running
parallel from base to apex.

_Feather_, [Illustration] with lateral veins branching at regular
intervals from midrib.

_Radiate_, [Illustration] with strong veins branching from apex of

_Reticulate_, [Illustration] with veins and veinlets that unite and
separate in the form of network.

=Form.=--(a.) BROADEST AT THE MIDDLE.--_Peliate_, [Illustration];
_orbicular_, [Illustration], _oval_, [Illustration]; _elliptical_,
[Illustration]; _oblong_, [Illustration]; _linear_, [Illustration];
_acerōse_, [Illustration] (Pine).

(b.) BROADEST AT BASE.--_Deltoid_, [Illustration]; _ovate_
[Illustration]; _lanceolate_, [Illustration]; _subulate_,
[Illustration]; _cordate_, [Illustration]; _reniform_, [Illustration];
_hastate_, [Illustration]; _sagittate_, [Illustration].

(c.) BROADEST AT THE APEX.--_Obovate_, [Illustration]; _oblanceolate_,
[Illustration]; _spatulate_ [Illustration]; _cuneate_ [Illustration];
_obcordate_, [Illustration]; _lyrate_, [Illustration]; _runcinate_,

=Bases.=--_Auriculate_, [Illustration]; _oblique_, [Illustration];
_tapering_, [Illustration]; _abrupt_, [Illustration]; _clasping_,
[Illustration]; _perfoliate_, [Illustration]; _connate_, [Illustration];
_decurrent_, [Illustration].

=Apexes.=--_Obcordate_, [Illustration]; _emarginate_, [Illustration];
_retuse_, [Illustration]; _truncate_, [Illustration]; _obtuse_,
[Illustration]; _acute_ [Illustration]; _acuminate_, [Illustration];
_mucronate_, [Illustration]; _cuspidate_, [Illustration]; _aristate_,

=Margins.=--_Entire_, [Illustration]; _repand_, [Illustration];
_sinuate_, [Illustration]; _crenate_, [Illustration]; _dentate_,
[Illustration]; _serrate_, [Illustration]; _incised_, [Illustration];
_laciniate_, [Illustration]; _palmately-lobed_, [Illustration];
_palmately-cleft_, [Illustration]; _palmately-parted_, [Illustration];
_palmately-divided_, [Illustration]; _pinnately-lobed_, [Illustration];
_pinnately-cleft_, [Illustration]; _pinnately-parted_, [Illustration];
_pinnately-divided_, [Illustration].

=Surface.=--(a.) WITHOUT HAIRS.--_Glabrous_, smooth.

(b.) SOFT HAIRS.--_Pílous_, few, short; _hirsute_, few, long;
_pubéscent_, dense, short; _villous_, dense, long; _seríceous_, silky;
_lanūginous_, woolly; _toméntous_, matted like felt; _flóccous_, fleecy

(c.) STIFF HAIRS.--_Scābrous_, minute, hard points; _hispid_, few, short
points; _sētous_, bristly; _spinous_, having spines.

=Color.=--_Glaucous_, covered with whitish powder.

_Canéscent_, grayish-white with fine pubescence.

_Incānous_, hoary-white.

_Punctate_, having transparent dots.

_Hyaline_, nearly transparent.

=Texture.=--_Succulent_, fleshy; _coriaceous_, leather-like; _scarious_,
dry; _rúgous_, wrinkled.

=Phyllotaxis=, arrangement on the stem.--_Alternate_, [Illustration];
_opposite_, [Illustration]; _whorled_ (verticillate); _radical_,
[Illustration] near the ground; _cauline_, on the stem; _rosulate_,
[Illustration] clustered; _fascículate_, [Illustration] in bundles.

=Vernation=, arrangement in the bud.

_Induplicate_, [Illustration] folded crosswise (Tulip-tree).

_Conduplicate_, [Illustration] folded along midrib (Oak).

_Plicate_, [Illustration] folded like a fan (Red-currant).

_Circinate_, [Illustration] rolled lengthwise (Fern).

_Convolute_, [Illustration] rolled edgewise (Cherry).

_Involute_, [Illustration] both edges rolled inward (Apple).

_Revolute_, [Illustration] both edges rolled outward (Willow).

_Equitant_, [Illustration] astraddle (Iris).

_Obvolute_, [Illustration] half equitant (Jerusalem Sage).

_Triquētrous_ [Illustration] triangular equitant (Sedges).

=Duration.=--_Fugacious_, falling very early.

_Deciduous,_ falling at the close of the season.

_Persistent_, remaining through the winter.


=Parts.=--_Flower_, [Illustration] the blossom.

_Peduncle_, [Illustration] the stem of a solitary flower or the main
stem of a flower-cluster.

_Scape_, [Illustration] a peduncle that grows from the ground.

_Pedicel_, [Illustration], p, the stem of each flower of a
flower-cluster. _Bracts_, b, small floral leaves.

_Involucre_, [Illustration] a cluster of bracts.

=Kinds.=--(1.) SOLITARY, single, alone.

_Terminal_, at the summit of the stem.

_Axillary_, [Illustration] in the axils of the leaves.

(2.) CLUSTERED, several flowers collected in a bunch.

(a.) INDEFINITE OR INDETERMINATE, flowering from axillary buds.
Inflorescence centripetal.

               {_Racēme_, [Illustration] flowers arranged along the
               {axis; pedicels about equal in length (Currant).
               {_Córymb_, [Illustration] same as raceme, except that the
               {lower pedicels are elongated, making the top flat
  FLOWERS      {(Hawthorn).
               {_Umbel_. [Illustration] same as corymb, except that the
               {pedicels branch from about the same point (Milkweed).
               {_Panicle_, [Illustration] compound raceme (Blue-grass).
               {_Thyrsus_, a compact panicle (Lilac).

               {_Spike_, [Illustration] same as raceme with flowers
               {sessile (Mullein).
               {_Spādix_, [Illustration] a fleshy spike, generally
               {{enveloped by a large bract called a _Spāthe_,
  FLOWERS      {[Illustration] (Calla Lily).
  SESSILE      {
               {_Ȧment_ or _Catkin_, [Illustration] a slender pendent
               {spike, with scaly bracts (Birch).
               {_Head_ or _Capitulum_, [Illustration] a shortened spike,
               {reduced to a globular form (Clover).

(b.) DEFINITE or DETERMINATE, flowers all terminal. Inflorescence

_Cyme_, [Illustration] flat-topped or rounded inflorescence (Elder).

_Fascicle_, a compact cyme (Sweet-William).

_Glomerule_, a cyme condensed into a head (Mint).

_Verticillaster_, [Illustration] two opposite glomerules joined

_Scorpioid_, [Illustration] a one-sided and coiled cyme (Forget-me-not).

FLOWER. [Illustration]

=Parts.=--_Receptacle_, the part upon which the several organs of the
flower are inserted.

_Calyx_, [Illustration] the exterior floral envelope.

_Corolla_, [Illustration] the interior floral envelope. The calyx and
corolla constitute the _protecting organs_, sometimes called _perianth_.

_Stamens_, [Illustration] the fertilizing organs.

_Pistils_, [Illustration] the seed-bearing organs. The stamens and
pistils constitute the _essential organs_.

=Kinds.=--_Symmetrical_, [Illustration] same number in each set of
organs; _unsymmetrical_, different number.

_Complete_, [Illustration] all the sets present; incomplete, some sets

_Regular_ [Illustration] sepals and petals uniform; _irregular_,
[Illustration] sepals or petals unlike.

_Perfect_, stamens and pistils both present; _imperfect_, one set

_Staminate_, with stamens only; _pistillate_, with pistils only;
_neutral_, with neither.

_Monœcious_, staminate and pistillate on same plant; _diœcious_, on
different plants.

_Dichlamydeous_, having calyx and corolla; _monochlamydecous_, having
calyx only; _achlamydecous_, having neither.

_Di_, [Illustration] _trí_, _tetrá_, _pentá-merous_, [Illustration] two,
three, four, or five parts in each set.

_Sessile_, without peduncle; _pedunculate_, [Illustration] with


_Augmentation_, increase of floral circles (Water Lily).

_Cherisis_, increase of organs by division. The Bleeding-heart shows the
_collateral chorisis_ of stamens, and the Catchfly [Illustration] shows
the _transverse chorisis_ of corolla.

_Anteposition_, parts opposite instead of alternate (Grape).

_Cohesion_, [Illustration] union of parts of the same set (corolla of

_Adnation_, union of different sets. In the Cherry the stamens and
corolla are inserted upon the calyx.

_Irregularity_, parts of the same set unequally developed (Violet, Pea).

_Suppression_, non-development of some parts. In the mints some of the
stamens are suppressed or wanting.


=Parts.=--_Sepals_, [Illustration] the divisions of the calyx.

_Tube_, the united portion of a gamosepalous calyx.

_Teeth_ or _lobes_, the distinct or divided portions of a gamosepalous

_Throat_, the orifice or summit of the tube.

_Pappus_, [Illustration] in Compositæ, the calyx border consisting of
scales, teeth, bristles, or slender hairs.

=Cohesion.=--_Gamosepalous_ or _Monosepalous_, [Illustration] sepals
partially or wholly grown together.

_Truncate_, [Illustration] without lobes.

_Toothed_, [Illustration] lobes small.

_Lobed_, [Illustration] parted about one fourth.

_Cleft_, [Illustration] parted about one half.

_Parted_, [Illustration] separated nearly to the base.

_Polysepalous_, [Illustration] separated to the base.

=Adnation.=--_Inferior_, [Illustration] calyx free from ovary.

_Half-inferior_, [Illustration] calyx adherent to the ovary half-way.

_Superior_, [Illustration] calyx adherent to the ovary.

=Form.=--See under COROLLA.

=Æstivation.=--See under COROLLA.


=Parts.=--_Petals_, [Illustration] the divisions of the Corolla.

_Lamina_, the expanded portion of the petal.

_Claw_, [Illustration], the stem portion of the petal.

_Spur_, [Illustration]; _s_, the hollow portion of certain corollas.

_Crown_, [Illustration], a small projection from certain petals

=Cohesion.=--_Gamopetalous_ or _Monopetalous_, [Illustration] petals
partially or wholly grown together.

_Truncate_, [Illustration] _toothed_, _lobed_, [Illustration] _cleft_,

_Polypetalous_, [Illustration] petals separate.

=Adnation.=--_Hypógynous_, [Illustration] corolla attached under the
pistil (_gynia_, pistil).

_Perígynous_, [Illustration] corolla attached to the calyx. It is thus
around the pistil.

_Epígynous_, [Illustration] corolla attached to the ovary. It is thus
upon the ovary which is a part of the pistil.


                {  _Urceoiate_, [Illustration] urn-shaped (Whortle-
                {  berry).
                {  _Tubular_ [Illustration] cylindrical (Trumpet Honey-
                {  suckle)
                {  _Campánulate_, [Illustration] bell-shaped (Harebell).
                {  _Infundíbular_, [Illustration] funnel-shaped
                {  (Morning-glory).
                {  _Hypocraterimórphous_, [Illustration] salver-shaped
                {  (Phlox).
                {  _Rotate_, [Illustration] wheel-shaped (Potato).
                {  _Ligulate_, [Illustration] strap-shaped (Dandelion).
                {  _Lābiate_, two-lipped.
                {  _Gāleate_, [Illustration] upper lip arched (Catmint).
                {  _Ringent_, [Illustration] both lips arched (Dead-
                {  nettle).
                {  _Personate_, [Illustration] throat closed (Toad-
                {  flax).

                {  _Rosāceous_, [Illustration] petals without claws
                {  (Rose).
                {  _Liliāceous_, [Illustration] petals with claws
                {  gradually spreading (Lily).
                {  _Caryophyllāceous_, long claws enclosed in a tube
                {  (Pink).
                {  _Crucíferous_, [Illustration] four clawed petals in
                {  the form of a cross (Mustard).
                {  _Papilionāceous_, [Illustration] butterfly-shaped
                {  (Bean).
                {    PARTS.--_Vexillum_, banner; _alæ_, wings; _carīna_,
                {    keel.

=Æstivation=, the arrangement of the floral organs in the bud.

_Valvular_, [Illustration] pieces met by their margins (Lilac).

_Induplicate_, [Illustration] margins turned inward (sepals of

_Reduplicate_, [Illustration] margins turned outward (sepals of

_Convolute_, or _contorted_, [Illustration] each piece overlaps its
neighbor in one direction (Geranium).

_Imbricated_, [Illustration] one or more petals wholly outside.

_Quincúncial_, [Illustration] five petals, two without and two within
and the remaining one with one edge outside and the other inside.

_Triquētrous_, [Illustration] three petals, one without and one within,
and the remaining one with one edge outside and the other inside.

_Véxillary_, [Illustration] having one large petal enclosing the others

_Plicate_, [Illustration] the folding of gamopétalous flowers.

_Supervolute_, [Illustration] with folds turned obliquely in the same
direction (Morning-glory).


=Parts.=--[Illustration] _Anther_, the enlarged and essential portion.

_Filament_, the stem holding the anther.

_Pollen_, the fertilizing powder found in the anther.

=Kinds.=--_Sessile_, [Illustration] anther without filament.

_Sterile_, filament without anther.

_Connivent_, [Illustration] converging.

_Exserted_, [Illustration] protruding out of corolla.

_Included_, entirely within the corolla.

_Didẏnamous_, [Illustration] four in number, two long and two short.

_Tetradẏnanious_, [Illustration] six in number, four long and two

=Cohesion.=--_Syngenesious_, [Illustration] united by their anthers.

_Monodelphous_, united by their filaments into one set.

_Diadelphous_, united into two sets.

_Polyadelphous_, united into many sets.

=Adnation.=--_Hypógynous_, [Illustration] borne on the receptacle.

_Perígynous_, [Illustration] borne on the calyx.

_Epipétalous_, borne on the corolla.

_Alternate_, [Illustration] with the lobes.

_Opposite_, in front of the lobes.

_Epígynous_, borne on the ovary at its summit.

_Gynándrous_, borne on the style (Orchid).


=Kinds.=--_Filiform_, _subulate_, _dilated_, _petaloid_, _bidentate_.


=Parts.=--_Lobes_ (_thecæ_) and _connective_.

=Adnation.=--_Innate_, [Illustration] anther firm on summit of filament.

_Adnate_, [Illustration] anther attached by its whole length to

_Extrórse_, facing the petals.

_Intrórse_, facing the pistils.

_Versatile_, [Illustration] attached near the middle.

=Dehiscence.=--_Longitudinal_, [Illustration] opening lengthwise.

_Transverse_, [Illustration] opening crosswise.

_Porous_, [Illustration] opening by terminal holes.

_Valved_, [Illustration] opening by valves or doors.


=Parts.=--[Illustration] _Stigma_, the rough end to which the pollen

_Style_, the stem holding the stigma.

_Ovary_, the enlarged portion containing the ovules.

=Cohesion.=--_Simple_, [Illustration] having but one cell, placenta
style and stigma.

_Multiple_, [Illustration] a collection of simple pistils (Blackberry).

_Compound_, [Illustration] simple pistils grown together, each called a


=Kinds.=--_Sessile_, stigma on ovary: no style.

_Globose_, globular (Four-o’clock).

_Capitate_, [Illustration] broad and flat.

_Lobed_, rounded.

_Feathered_, like a feather (Grasses).

_Linear_, thread-like (Corn).


=Kinds.=--_Basal_, attached to base of ovary (Forget-me-not).

_Lateral_, attached to side of ovary (Strawberry).

_Terminal_, [Illustration] attached to top of ovary.


=Parts.=--_Placentæ_, the parts to which the ovules are attached.

_Dissepiments_, [Illustration] partitions.

_Cells_, cavities in which the ovules are arranged.

_Ovules_, unfertilized seeds.

=Adnation.=--_Inferior_, [Illustration] calyx adherent to ovary, same as
superior calyx.

_Superior_, [Illustration] calyx free from ovary, same as inferior

=Placentation.=--_Free-central_, [Illustration] ovules attached to a
central column in a one-celled ovary (Pink).

_Axillary_, [Illustration] ovules attached to a central column in a
compound ovary.

_Parietal_, [Illustration] ovules attached to the outer walls of the

OVULE. [Illustration]

=Parts.=--_Nucleus_, _n_, the essential part in which the embryo is

_Prīmĭne_, _p_, the exterior coat.

_Secundine_, _s_, the interior coat.

_Mícropyle_, _m_, the opening of the ovary coats.

_Funículus_, the stem to which the ovule is attached.

_Hilum_, _h_, the point of attachment on the ovule.

_Chalāza_, _c_, the place where the coverings and nucleus join

_Rhāphe_, _r_, the connection between the hilum and the chalaza.

N. B.--Through the funiculus, the rhaphe, and the chalaza the ovule
receives its nourishment from the placenta. Through the micropyle it
receives the tubular prolongation of the pollen.

=Kinds.=--_Orthótropous_ [Illustration] straight; no change in direction
of parts (Buckwheat).

_Campylótropous_, [Illustration] curved; the micropyle brought near the
chalaza (Bean).

_Anátropous_, [Illustration] inverted; the micropyle brought near the
hilum, pointing to the placentæ. Rhaphe the whole length of the ovule

_Amphítropous_, [Illustration] half inverted; short rhaphe (Mallow).

=Direction of Ovary.=--_Erect_, [Illustration]; _ascending_,
[Illustration]; _horizontal_, [Illustration]; _pendulous_,
[Illustration]; _suspended_, [Illustration].


=Parts.=--_Seed_, the part containing the embryo.

_Pericarp_, the covering of the seeds, including the ovary and all
adnate parts. The parts of the pericarp are _epicarp_, or outer coat;
_mesocarp_, or middle coat; and _endocarp_, or inner coat.

=Dehiscence.=--_Septicīdal_, [Illustration] opening of the partitions.

_Loculicīdal_, [Illustration] opening at the dorsal suture.

_Septífragal_, [Illustration] valves falling away from partitions.

_Circumscissile_, [Illustration] opening by a circular horizontal line.

=Kinds.=--_Simple_, _aggregate_, _accessory_, _multiple_.

(1.) SIMPLE FRUITS.--_Fleshy_, _Stone_, _Dry_ (formed by a single

(a.) FLESHY FRUITS.--Indehiscent (with two or more seeds).

                   {_Berry_, rind membranous (Grape).
                   {_Hesperidium_, rind leathery, separable (Orange).
  Seeds immersed   {
  in a pulpy mass. {_Pēpo_, rind hard (Cucumber).
                   {Seeds in cells.--_Pome_, succulent calyx (Apple).

(b.) STONE FRUITS.--Indehiscent; one-celled; endocarp hard.

_Drupe_, three-coated; stone-cell entire (Peach).

_Tryma_, two-coated; stone-cell two-parted (Walnut).

_Etærio_, an aggregation of drupes (Raspberry).

(c.) DRY FRUITS.--Indehiscent, usually one seed with one coat.

_Achēnium_, [Illustration] coat separable from seed (Dandelion).

_Utricle_, coat inflated (Goosefoot).

_Caryópsis_, coat inseparable (Wheat).

_Glans_, invested with a cūpule, [Illustration] (Acorn).

_Samāra_, [Illustration] having winged appendages (Maple).

(c¹.) DRY FRUITS.--Dehiscent.

           {_Follicle_, [Illustration] opening by a ventral suture
  Single   {
  pistil.  {_Legūme_, [Illustration] opening by both sutures (Bean).
           {_Loment_, [Illustration] jointed legume (Desmodium).

           {_Capsule_, any compound dehiscent fruit.
  Compound {_Sílique_, [Illustration] a two-valved capsule (Mustard).
  pistil.  {
           {_Sílicle_, [Illustration] a short silique (Shepherd’s

_Pyxis_, [Illustration] circumscissile dehiscence (Purslane).

(2.) AGGREGATE FRUITS, [Illustration]. A cluster of carpels on one
receptacle taken as a whole (Raspberry).

(3.) ACCESSORY OR ANTHOCARPOUS FRUITS.--Those of which the most
conspicuous portion, although appearing like a pericarp in some cases,
does not belong to the pistil (Rose-hip).

(4.) MULTIPLE OR COLLECTIVE FRUITS.--Those which result from the
aggregation of several flowers into one mass (Pine-apple, Mulberry).

_Stróbile_ or _Cone_, a scaly multiple fruit, resulting from the
ripening of some kinds of catkins (Hop, Conifers).

_Gálbalus_, a closed cone (Juniper-berry, Red Cedar).

SEED. [Illustration]

=Parts.=--_Integuments_, seed-coats. _Nucleus_, part containing the


_Testa_ (_episperm_), the outer or proper seed-coat.

_Tegmen_ (_endopleura_), the inner coat, sometimes wanting.

_Funículus Hílum_ (_h_), _Chalāza_ (_c_), _Rhāphe_ (_r_), are the same
as in ovule.

_Aril_, covering exterior to the integuments (not in the ovule)
(May-apple, Water-lily).

_Coma_, [Illustration] a tuft of hairs on certain seeds (Silkweed).

This is to be distinguished from pappus, which is a tuft on the fruit

(2.) PARTS OF NUCLEUS: [Illustration]

_Embryo_ (_e_), the initial plantlet.

_Radicle_ (_r_), [Illustration] the rudimentary stem or first internode.

_Cotylēdon_ (_c_), the seed leaf at the primary node.

_Plūmule_ (_p_), the growing points above the cotyledons.

_Albūmen_ (_a_), [Illustration] the food for the plantlet’s first
growth, stored outside the embryo.

=Kinds.=--(1.) GENERAL FORM: _Orthotropous_, [Illustration];
_campylótropous_, [Illustration]; _anátropous_, [Illustration];
_amphítropous_, [Illustration] same as in ovule.


_Conformed_, adhering closely to nucleus.

_Cellular_, loose (Pyrola).

_Winged_, [Illustration] having expanded appendages (Catalpa).

_Woolly_, covered closely with fibers (Cotton).

_Cōmose_, [Illustration] with coma at the end (Willow Herb).


_Farinaceous_, mealy (Wheat).

_Oily_, mealy but mixed with oil (Poppy).

_Muciláginous_, like mucilage (Morning-glory).

_Ruminated_, wrinkled (Papaw).


_Monocotylédonous_, [Illustration] (Corn).

_Dicotylédonous_, [Illustration] (Bean).

_Polycotylédonous_, [Illustration] (Pine).


_Eccentric_, [Illustration] embryo on one side of albumen (Indian Corn).

_Perípheric_, [Illustration] curved around albumen (Four-o’clock).

_Accumbent_, [Illustration] applied to the cotyledons when the radicle
is bent and lies along their edge (Water-cress).

_Incumbent_, [Illustration] applied to the cotyledons when the radicle
rests against the back of one of them (Shepherd’s Purse).

_Conduplicate_, [Illustration] applied to cotyledons that are incumbent
and so folded as to embrace the radicle (Mustard).


_Ascending_, pointing to the apex.

_Descending_, pointing to the base.

_Centripetal_, pointing to the axis.

_Centrifugal_, pointing to the sides.


  The living plants may be divided into two grand divisions--Flowering
  Plants and Flowerless Plants--with five main subdivisions, according
  to the complexity and structure of their reproductive organs, or
  seed structure. The scientific names of these groups are the
  _Thallophyta_, the _Bryophyta_, the _Pteridophyta_, the
  _Gymnosperms_, and the _Angiosperms_.

  Each of the five main groups is divided into a number of lesser
  subdivisions, sometimes called _phyla_, orders, each of which is
  composed of several families.

  Most systematic botanists begin the study of plants with the lowest
  forms of plants and proceed to the highest. In the following
  classification, however, the usual order has been _reversed_ because
  of its greater interest for a large majority of readers; the highest
  division is placed first and the lowest last.

  In the earlier days of the science of botany nearly every botanist’s
  energies were devoted to this branch which we now call _systematic
  botany_. There are now named and described close on a quarter of a
  million of living species of plants altogether, including the lower
  and often nearly invisible forms, and of this vast number about one
  hundred and thirty thousand belong to the highest group of all--the
  Angiosperms. With nearly a quarter of a million described forms to
  deal with the value of such keys will be recognized.

SUB-KINGDOM I.--Flowering Plants (_Phanerogams_), or Spermophytæ.

(1) _Angiosperms_ (_anj´ĭ-o-sperms_)--Plants producing protected seeds.

The greatest group, the _Angiosperms_, with over a hundred and thirty
thousand species, contains nearly all the plants that yield crops of
economic importance to man, or that decorate his gardens, or that feed
his sheep or cattle. They have netted-veined leaves. When this group is
further examined, there are found to be two well marked
divisions--Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. The first has embryos with
only one cotyledon or “seed leaf,” the second has embryos with two. The
Angiosperms include over one hundred and thirty thousand species,
divided among sixty-two orders, only the most important families of
which can be given here.

ORDER I.--=Ranunculaceæ=: Herbs or small shrubs; about thirty genera.

  _Anemone_ (windflower): Perennial herb. Dry copses. Massachusetts to
  New Jersey and west to Colorado.

  _Anemonella_ (rose anemone): Open woods. Canada to Georgia and west
  through Mississippi Valley.

  _Caltha_ (cowslip, marsh marigold): Perennial herb. United States
  and Canada.

  _Clematis_ (virgin’s bower): Perennial. United States and Canada.

  _Ranunculus_ (buttercup, crowfoot): Herb, annual or perennial.
  Canada, United States and Europe.

  _Thalictrum_ (meadow rue): Perennial herb. United States and Canada.

ORDER II.--=Berberidaceæ=: Shrubs or perennial herbs; nineteen genera.

  _Berberis_ (barberry): Fruit, a sour berry. Found in Europe;
  naturalized in New England.

  _Podophyllum_ (May apple, mandrake): Perennial herb. Fruit, a berry.
  Found: Eastern North America; a species in Himalaya Mountains.

ORDER III.--=Papaveraceæ=: Annual or perennial herbs with milky or
colored juice; about twenty-four genera.

  _Papaver_ (poppy): Geographical home on southern edge of North
  Temperate Zone, spreading north and south. Great opium districts are
  the valley of Ganges, Asiatic Turkey, Persia, Egypt, Asia Minor,
  China. From India, fourteen million pounds annually. Persia and
  Turkey, seventy-one million pounds.

ORDER IV.--=Cruciferæ=: Herbs; about one hundred and seventy-two genera.

  _Brassica_ (turnip, mustard, cabbage, cauliflower, rape): United
  States, Europe, India, Syria and Russia.

  _Capsella_ (shepherd’s purse): Naturalized in United States; from

  _Cochlearia_ (horseradish): Perennial. Root. Middle and southern
  edges of North Temperate Zone, from Great Britain to Asia and
  northeastern America.

  _Isatis_ (woad): Biennial. Throughout Europe. Cultivated in Azores
  and Canary Isles.

  _Nasturtium_ (watercress): Europe and northern Asia. Cultivated in
  Palestine, Hindustan, Japan.

ORDER V.--=Capparidaceæ=: Herbs, shrubs, trees; twenty-three genera.

  _Capparis_ (caper): Small shrub. Southern France and Mediterranean
  countries, Sicily, Malta.

ORDER VI.--=Violaceæ=: Herbs; twenty-one genera.

  _Viola_ (violet): Perennial. Canada; United States, west to
  Colorado; throughout Europe, some parts of China, Japan, India.

ORDER VII.--=Biximæ=: Shrubs; 29 genera.

  _Bixa_ (arnotto): Tropical America. Cultivated in southern Europe,
  Burma, Philippine Islands, Hindustan.

ORDER VIII.--=Terustrœmiaceæ=: Shrubs and small trees; thirty-two

  _Thea_ (tea): Shrub. China. Cultivated between parallels of 25° and
  35° throughout Asia. In Kangra, Gurhwal, Assam, Cachar, Sylhet,
  Chittagong, Darjeeling, Chota, Nagpur, Hindustan, Japan, Australia,
  Jamaica, Brazil, North America.

ORDER IX.--=Malvaceæ=: Herbs, shrubs.

  _Gossypium_ (cotton): Tropical and sub-tropical. East Indies, China,
  Asiatic Islands, Greece, islands in eastern Mediterranean, Asia
  Minor, northern and western Africa, Australia, West Indies, southern
  United States, Venezuela, British Guiana, Brazil.

ORDER X.--=Sterculeaceæ=: Trees and shrubs.

  _Theobroma_ (cocoa): Tropical and sub-tropical. Brazil and north of
  Brazil, West Indies, Mexico. Cultivated in Philippine Islands,
  southern Europe, India.

ORDER XI.--=Tiliaceæ=: Trees and shrubs; 40 genera.

  _Corchorus_ (yellow jute): Southern belt of North Temperate Zone and
  Tropics. Cultivated in southern and western Asia, Grecian
  Archipelago, central and northern Africa.

ORDER XII.--=Linaceæ=: Shrubs and herbs; 94 genera.

  _Linum_ (flax): Herb. Widely distributed. Hindustan, southern Egypt,
  throughout Europe, southern and middle Russia, northeastern America.

  _Erythroxylon_ (coca): Shrub. Tropical and sub-tropical. Bolivia,
  Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, northern Brazil.

ORDER XIII.--=Zygophyllaceæ=: Trees, shrubs, herbs; seventeen genera.

  _Guaiacum_ (lignum-vitæ): Tree. Tropical and sub-tropical.
  Exclusively American; native to West Indies.

ORDER XIV.--=Rutaceæ=: Small trees and shrubs; eighty-three genera.

  _Citrus_ (orange, lemon, shaddock): In all regions of no frost.
  India. Cultivated in Persia, Syria, southern Europe, northern
  Africa, Spain, China, Japan, Sicily, Australia, Brazil, West Indies,
  Florida, southern California, Azores.

ORDER XV.--=Meliaceæ=: Trees; thirty-seven genera.

  _Swietenia_ (mahogany): Large tree. Tropical and sub-tropical. West
  Indies, Bahamas, Central America, southern Florida. Cultivated in
  southern British India.

ORDER XVI.--=Iliciniæ=: Trees and shrubs; three genera.

  _Ilex_ (Paraguay tea): Small tree. Paraguay. In Parana, ten million
  pounds produced annually.

ORDER XVII.--=Rhamnaceæ=: Trees and shrubs; thirty-seven genera.

  _Ceanothus_ (New Jersey tea): Shrub. Eastern North America.

  _Rhamnus_ (buckthorn): Shrubs, small trees. Southern Persia and
  southern Levant countries. Grows as far north as England.

ORDER XVIII.--=Ampelideæ=: Woody vine; few genera.

  _Vitis_ (grape): Zone from 21° N. latitude to 48°. British Isles
  and Portugal, east to Persia. Middle Atlantic States to California.
  Cultivated in Australia.

ORDER XIX.--=Sapindaceæ=: Trees and shrubs; seventy-three genera.

  _Acer_ (maple): Tree. Not south of 38° N. latitude, except in high
  mountains in northern United States and southern British America.

ORDER XX.--=Anacardeaceæ=: Trees and shrubs; forty-six genera.

  _Anacardium_ (cashew nut): Tropics of Asia and America, Jamaica.

  _Rhus_ (sumach): North America, Canada to Gulf States; Arkansas,
  Levant, and western Europe, Syria. Cultivated in Sicily, Italy,
  Turkey, Spain, Portugal.

ORDER XXI.--=Leguminosæ=: Herbs, shrubs, trees; four hundred genera.

  _Acacia_ (gum arabic): Shrubs and small trees. Tropical and
  sub-tropical, but widely distributed. Australia, Africa, Asia,

  _Arachis_ (peanut): Sub-tropical. Southern United States, southern
  and central Virginia, the Carolinas and Tennessee.

  _Astragalus_ (gum tragacanth): Small shrub or herb. Sub-tropical.
  Persia, Greece, east Mediterranean Islands, Syria.

  _Cassia_ (senna): Tropical and sub-tropical. Widely distributed.

  _Cæsalpinia_ (Brazil wood): Trees. Brazil.

  _Dalbergia_ (rosewood): Trees and vines. Brazil and southern Asia.

  _Glycyrrhiza_ (licorice): Small shrub and herb. Italy and southern
  Europe, southern England. Cultivated in Spain and Portugal.

  _Hæmatoxylon_ (logwood): Small tree. Yucatan, Guatemala, Honduras,
  Isthmus of Panama, West Indies. Cultivated in Burma.

  _Indigofera_ (indigo): Shrub. India, Java, East Indies, north
  Africa, West Indies, Central Asia.

  _Lens_ (lentil): Annual. Syria, Egypt, southern and central Europe,

  _Phaseolus_ (bean): Annual herb. Tropics and Temperate Zones to
  forty-fifth parallels.

  _Pisum_ (pea): Annual herb. Central and southern Europe, Egypt,
  Syria, Japan, India, China.

  _Tamarindus_ (tamarind): Tree. Tropical and sub-tropical. Africa.
  Cultivated in Arabia, southern India, Ceylon, Java, Philippines,
  northern Australia, Pacific Isles, South America.

ORDER XXII.--=Rosaceæ=: Trees, shrubs, herbs; seventy-one genera.

  _Fragaria_ (strawberry): Herb. Widely distributed, even to Kamchatka
  and Alaska.

  _Prunus_ (plum): Tree. Temperate Zone, south of 60°. Europe, western
  Asia. Cultivated in northeast America.

  _Prunus_ (cherry): Tree. North Africa, Holland, Portugal. Cultivated
  in southeastern Africa, America, Belgium, England.

  _Prunus_ (apricot): Tree. Armenia, Persia, China, Japan, California.

  _Prunus_ (peach): Tree. Southern half of North Temperate Zone in
  Asia, Europe, America, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland.

  _Pyrus_ (apple): Tree. England, France, Germany, Netherlands,
  Prussia, Poland, United States, south Australia.

  _Pyrus_ (pear): Tree. China, Syria, Persia, central and northern
  Europe, Belgium, France, Great Britain. Cultivated in North America.

  _Pyrus_ (quince): Tree. Northern Persia, east and west. Cultivated
  in northeastern America, Portugal.

  _Rubus_ (black raspberry and raspberry): Shrub. Temperate Zone,
  between 30° and 50° latitude. In North America, Europe north to
  sixtieth parallel, south to northern parts of Africa, Asia Minor,
  and eastward into India; also in British Isles.

ORDER XXIII.--=Saxifragaceæ=: Shrubs, herbs; seventy-three genera.

  _Ribes_ (currant): Shrub. Lapland and southern Europe; also in the
  New World, northern United States to south and middle Canada.

  _Ribes_ (gooseberry): Shrub. France, England, Germany and
  northeastern Russia, Siberia.

ORDER XXIV.--=Combretaceæ=: Shrubs, trees; seven genera.

  _Terminalia_ (myrobalano): Large trees. Tropical India, along
  southern fringes of Ghaut Mountains, and in Burma.

ORDER XXV.--=Myrtaceæ=: Trees; seventy-six genera.

  _Bertholletia_ (Brazil nut): Large tree. Tropical South America,

  _Eugenia_ (cloves): Molucca Islands. Cultivated in Brazil, West

  _Eugenia_ (allspice): Jamaica.

  _Myrtus_ (myrtle): Tropical and sub-tropical. Southeastern Italy.
  Cultivated in all Mediterranean countries.

ORDER XXVI.--=Lythraceæ=: Tropical trees; thirty genera.

  _Punica_ (pomegranate): Persia. Cultivated in Syria, Asia Minor,
  Levant, southern Europe, China, Japan, South and North America.

ORDER XXVII.--=Cucurbitaceæ=: Herbs; sixty-eight genera.

  _Citrullus_ (watermelon): Herbaceous vine. Africa. Cultivated in
  southern Europe and southern and middle North America.

  _Cucumis_ (cucumber): Northeastern India. Cultivated in Levant,
  southern Asia, southern Europe, Africa, southern Russia, United

  _Cucumis_ (muskmelon): British India, Baluchistan, West Africa,
  Guinea, banks of Niger. Cultivated in Mediterranean States, India,
  China, Japan, middle and southern United States.

  _Cucurbita_ (squash): Annual. Europe and western Asia. Cultivated in
  Pacific Islands, southern Asia, Africa.

  _Cucurbita_ (pumpkin): Warm climates.

ORDER XXVIII.--=Umbelliferæ=: Herbs; one hundred and fifty-two genera.

  _Apium_ (celery): Biennial. Great Britain, western Europe,
  Mediterranean shores, Peloponnesus, Caucasus, Palestine, South
  America, and western coast of North America to southern California.

  _Coriandrum_ (coriander): Annual. Tartary. Cultivated in Hindustan,
  Burma, middle, southern and western Europe, North America.

  _Carum_ (parsley): Biennial. Mediterranean countries and Asia Minor.
  Cultivated in Japan, England, and northeastern America.

  _Carum_ (caraway seed): Lapland to Siberia. Cultivated in Great
  Britain and Continent south of 60°, North Africa, Hindustan, Burma,
  northeastern America.

  _Cuminum_ (cumin): Northern Africa, middle and southern Europe,
  Syria, Hindustan, Bombay, Burma.

  _Daucus_ (carrot): Biennial. Herb. All over Europe south of 60°,
  especially in France, Germany, northern Africa, southwestern Asia,
  China, Japan. Cultivated in North America.

  _Fœniculum_ (fennel): Biennial. Levant. Cultivated in Hindustan,
  Atlantic States, France, Germany, Great Britain, southern Europe.

  _Pinipinella_ (anise): Perennial. Egypt, Syria, Malta, Spain,
  southern Germany, Hindustan, Japan.

  _Pencedanum_ (parsnip): Biennial. Europe, southern Greece.
  Cultivated in Asia and North America.

  _Ferula_ (asafetida): Middle and western Asia.

ORDER XXIX.--=Rubiaceæ=: Trees, shrubs, herbs; three hundred and
thirty-seven genera, including madder, coffee, tea, etc., according to
most authorities.

  _Cephaelis_ (ipecacuanha): Shrub. Tropical and sub-tropical.
  Bolivia, Colombia. Cultivated in West Indies, Hindustan, India,

  _Cinchona_ (Peruvian bark): Trees. Tropical Andes. Cultivated in
  Ceylon, Jamaica.

  _Coffea_ (coffee): Shrub. Persia. Cultivated in Arabia, East Indies,
  Mexico, Brazil, Guatemala, Cuba, British West Indies, Santo Domingo,
  Java, Padang, Sumatra, Macassar, Ceylon, British India, Manila.

  _Rubia_ (madder): Perennial. West Asia, Mediterranean countries.

ORDER XXXVII.--=Borraginaceæ=: Herbs; sixty-eight genera.

  _Symphytum_ (comfrey): Perennial herb. Peloponnesus and Greek
  islands. Cultivated in middle Europe and older parts of the United

ORDER XXXVIII.--=Convolvulaceæ=: Herb; thirty-two genera.

  _Ipomoea_ (sweet potato): Perennial. Asia and America. Cultivated in
  southern United States, Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware,
  southern New Jersey, southern Spain, Italy.

ORDER XXXIX.--=Solanaceæ=: Herb; sixty-six genera.

  _Atropa_ (deadly nightshade): Europe, western Asia. Cultivated in
  North America.

  _Capsicum_ (red pepper, cayenne pepper): Annual. South America,
  southern Asia. Cultivated in southern Europe and in United States,
  West Indies, middle Africa, southern Asia.

  _Lycopersicum_ (tomato): Annual. South and Central America.
  Cultivated in Italy, southern France, Spain, Greece, northern
  Africa, Islands of southern Asia, England (under glass), Virginia,

  _Nicotiana_ (tobacco): Santo Domingo, South Atlantic States of
  United States of America. Cultivated in Virginia, Kentucky,
  Carolinas, Venezuela, Cuba, Brazil, Connecticut, Pennsylvania,
  Holland, Flanders, France, Alsace, Hungary, European Turkey, China,
  Japan, southern Africa, Australia.

  _Solanum_ (potato): Chile. Cultivated wherever cereals flourish.

ORDER XL.--=Pedalineæ=: Herb; ten genera.

  _Sesamum_ (sesame): Sunda Islands. Cultivated in India, western
  Asia, southern Europe, northern Africa, America.

ORDER XLI.--=Verbenaceæ=: Tree; fifty genera.

  _Tectona_ (teak): Tropical. East Indies, Burma, Philippines.

ORDER XLII.--=Labiatæ=: Herb; one hundred and thirty-six genera.

  _Lavandula_ (lavender): Greece and Grecian Isles. Cultivated in
  Hindustan, Atlantic States of North America, Levant.

  _Marrubium_ (hoarhound): Perennial. Levant, Peloponnesus, etc.
  Cultivated all over Europe, and in Temperate Zone in Asia, and
  Atlantic States in North America.

  _Mentha_ (pennyroyal): England, Hindustan, Japan, Persia, India,
  Egypt. In a belt from eastern side of Mississippi Valley to Japan.

  _Mentha_ (spearmint): England, etc., as above.

  _Nepita_ (catnip): Perennial or annual. Europe, western Asia,
  Levant, North America.

  _Origanum_ (marjoram): Levant, Mediterranean countries, Europe, as
  far north as fiftieth parallel. Sweet marjoram, native in Greece.

  _Rosmarius_ (rosemary): Evergreen. Southern Europe, Greek islands in
  the Peloponnesus. Cultivated in western Europe, Japan, Egypt,
  Hindustan, Asia.

  _Salvia_ (sage): Mediterranean countries. Cultivated in
  middle-southern Europe, British Isles, North America, British India.

  _Thymus_ (sweet thyme): Perennial. Spain, southern Europe,
  Mediterranean States, mountains of Greece, and islands of
  Archipelago, British Isles, southern Siberia.

ORDER XLIII.--=Chenopodiaceæ=: Herb; eighty genera.

  _Beta_ (beet): Europe and western Asia. Cultivated in Europe, west
  Africa, temperate British India, North America.

  _Spinacia_ (spinach): Annual. Persia. Cultivated in middle of North
  Temperate Zone, from Hindustan to western shores and islands of
  Europe, eastern United States of North America, South Pacific

ORDER XLIV.--=Polygonaceæ=: Herb; thirty genera.

  _Fagopyrum_ (buckwheat): Central Asia and Tartary, Russia.
  Cultivated in Canada, northern United States, northern and central

  _Rheum_ (rhubarb): Perennial. Tartary. Cultivated as far north as
  fiftieth parallel, China, especially in provinces of Shensi, Kansu,
  and Szechuen.

ORDER XLV.--=Piperaceæ=: Shrub; eight genera.

  _Piper_ (pepper): Southern Asia. Cultivated in southern India, Java,
  Sumatra, and Malabar.

ORDER XLVI.--=Myristicaceæ=: Trees, shrubs; one genus.

  _Myristica_ (nutmeg): Molucca Islands. Cultivated in Sumatra, Island
  of Bourbon, Mauritius, Madagascar, West Indies.

ORDER XLVII.--=Lauraceæ=: Tree; thirty-four genera.

  _Cinnamomum_ (cinnamon): East India Archipelago. Cultivated in
  Ceylon, West Indies, South America, Pacific Isles.

  _Cinnamomum_ (camphor): Trees. Japan, Formosa, China, Borneo. The
  camphor gum of commerce was introduced into Europe by the Arabs.

ORDER XLVIII.--=Santalaceæ=: Herbs, shrubs, trees; twenty-eight genera.

  _Santalum_ (sandalwood): Trees. East Indies, Asia, Malaysia, Pacific
  Islands, India, China.

ORDER XLIX.--=Euphorbiaceæ=: Herbs, shrubs, trees; one hundred and
ninety-five genera.

  _Buxus_ (box): Evergreen, shrub, and small trees. Southern Europe,
  western Asia, Syria, Persia, and south of Black Sea. Cultivated in
  middle States of North America and Virginia.

  _Croton_ (croton-oil plant): Cultivated in southeastern Hindustan
  and East India Islands.

  _Hevea_ (caoutchouc): Large tree. South America. Cultivated in
  southern Asia, middle Africa, northern Australia.

  _Manihot_ (tapioca): Tropical and sub-tropical South America.
  Cultivated in southern Asia and western Africa.

  _Ricinus_ (castor-oil plant): Annual. Southern Asia, eastern Africa.
  Cultivated in Japan, Bengal, eastern and northern Africa, southern
  Europe and United States, especially Kansas.

ORDER L.--=Urticaceæ=: Trees, shrubs, herbs; one hundred and eight

  _Cannabis_ (hemp): Annual. Chinese Tartary, northern India,
  southwestern Siberia. Cultivated in China, Japan, Persia, Hindustan,
  Egypt, southern Africa, Russia, European states, Canada, United

  _Ficus_ (fig): Tree. Subtropical. Western Asia. Cultivated through
  Mediterranean countries west to Canary Isles.

  _Humulus_ (hop): Perennial herb. Middle Europe, Siberia, Levant,
  Asia Minor, Japan, North America, foot-hills of Rocky Mountains, and
  along upper Arkansas River, Missouri and Mississippi Rivers, Lake
  Winnipeg, North Atlantic States. Cultivated in Egypt.

  _Morus_ (mulberry): Tree. Cultivated in western New England,
  southern upper Canada, Dakotas, Kansas and the South. White mulberry
  is a native of China and Japan. Cultivated in Italy, Greece, Asia
  Minor, Armenia.

  _Ulmus_ (elm): Tree. From Mediterranean countries to the middle of
  European Russia, from southern banks of St. Lawrence River to Gulf
  of Mexico, and westerly to foot-hills of Rocky Mountains.

ORDER LI.--=Juglandaceæ=: Trees; five genera.

  _Juglans_ (butternut): Northeastern North Africa. Cultivated in
  middle Europe and England.

  _Juglans_ (walnut): Southwestern New York and southward to Gulf of
  Mexico and westward beyond Mississippi River. Cultivated in eastern
  middle States and southern New England, England and southern Europe.

  _Hicoria_ (hickory nut): North and middle States of North America
  from Atlantic to Mississippi River, and cultivated in corresponding
  latitude in Europe.

  _Hicoria_ (pecan nut): Southern North America. Cultivated in Prussia
  and England.

ORDER LII.--=Cupuliferæ=: Trees; ten genera.

  _Castanea_ (chestnut): Eastern coast of North America, west to
  eastern Kentucky and Tennessee. Cultivated in middle and southern
  England, middle and southern Europe, northern Africa, Levant, and
  southern and eastern Asia.

  _Corylus_ (hazelnut): Levant. Cultivated between 35° and 55°
  latitude in Northern Hemisphere, eastern parts of Western
  Hemisphere, and western Old World.

  _Fagus_ (beech): Temperate Zones up to 60° north latitude, south to

  _Quercus_ (oak): Temperate Zones above 35°, and in a zone between
  30° and 60° around the globe.

ORDER LIII.--=Salicaceæ=: Shrubs, trees; numerous genera.

  _Salix_ (weeping willow): Western and southern Asia. Cultivated in
  southern England.

  _Salix_ (curled willow): England. Cultivated in eastern United


ORDER LIV.--=Orchidaceæ=: Woody vine; three hundred and thirty-four

  _Vanilla_ (climbs over lofty trees): Tropical and sub-tropical
  southern Mexico, coast of Vera Cruz. Cultivated in Guatemala,
  Mauritius, Bourbon, Madagascar, Java.

ORDER LV.--=Zingiberaceæ=: Herbs; thirty-six genera.

  _Curcuma_ (turmeric): Farther India and Asiatic isles, southern Asia
  and Malay Peninsula. Cultivated in Hindustan, Cochin-China, southern
  India, Bengal, Java, Pacific Isles.

  _Elettaria_ (cardamom): Perennial. Tropical Asia. Cultivated in
  southern India, Madras, Allepy, Ceylon.

  _Maranta_ (arrowroot): Tropical America, Florida.

  _Musa_ (banana): Asia. Cultivated in Indian Archipelago, China,
  Cochin-China, Hindustan, Australia, Pacific Islands, Madagascar,
  western Africa, Sicily, southern Spain, Mexico, Central America,
  Colombia, Peru, northern Brazil, Guiana, West Indies, southern
  Florida, and Louisiana.

  _Musa_ (manila): Philippines. Cultivated in India and southern Asia.

  _Zingiber_ (ginger): Sub-tropical. Southern Asia. Cultivated on
  western coast of Africa, in the West Indies, and southern slopes of

ORDER LVI.--=Bromeliaceæ=: Herbs; twenty-seven genera.

  _Ananassa_ (pineapple): Perennial root. Tropical. Bahama Islands.
  Cultivated in South America, Florida, southern shores of Europe,
  East Africa, Pacific Isles, India.

ORDER LVII.--=Iridaceæ=: Herbs; fifty-seven genera.

  _Crocus_ (saffron): Throughout southern parts of North Temperate

ORDER LVIII.--=Dioscoreaceæ=: Shrubs; eight genera.

  _Dioscorea_ (yam): Tropical and sub-tropical Africa.

  _Dioscorea_ (Chinese yam): America, Asia, Malaysia. Cultivated in
  Japan, East Indies, Siam.

ORDER LIX.--=Liliaceæ=: Herbs; one hundred and eighty-seven genera.

  _Asparagus_: Perennial herb. Japan, Levant. Cultivated in England,
  Holland, central Europe, Mediterranean countries, sandy places of
  Poland, southern Russia, Hindustan, North America.

  _Aloe_: Southern Asia, Arabia, southern Africa. Cultivated in
  southern Europe, northern Africa, British West Indies.

ORDER LX.--=Palmæ=: Shrubs and small and large trees; one hundred and
thirty-seven genera.

  _Areca_ (betelnut): Sunda Isles, Philippines, Cochin-China, Sumatra,
  southern India.

  _Cocos_ (cocoanut): East India Archipelago, Arabia, Persia, Malay.
  Cultivated in eastern Africa, western America, Brazil, West Indies,
  islands of Central America.

  _Metroxylon_ (sago palm): Malacca, southern China. Cultivated in
  Eastern Archipelago.

  _Phœnix_ (date palm): Between 15° and 30° north latitude, from
  Atlantic Coast to the River Indus; Sahara oases. Cultivated in Acre,
  Palmyra, Jaffa.

ORDER LXI.--=Gramineæ=: Herbs; one thousand two hundred and ninety-eight

  _Avena_ (oats): West central Asia, east central Europe. Cultivated
  in Scotland, Ireland, Norway, Canada, United States.

  _Hordeum_ (barley): Annual. Temperate western Asia. Cultivated in
  northern Russia, Siberia, etc.

  _Oryza_ (rice): Southern Asia. Cultivated in India, China, Japan,
  East Indies, Africa, southern Europe, Hungary, South America,
  southern United States.

  _Setaria_ (millet): China, Japan, India. Cultivated wherever oats
  and rye are, except in United States.

  _Saccharum_ (sugar-cane): Perennial. Cochin-China. Cultivated in
  West Indies, Brazil, Mexico, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri,
  Mauritius, southern India, Pacific Islands, northern Australia.

  _Sorghum_ (broom corn): Annual. Middle Africa. Cultivated in
  southern India, northern Africa, southern and middle Europe,
  throughout United States.

  _Secale_ (rye): Southern Russia and north of Black and Caspian Seas.
  Cultivated in northern Germany, Poland, Sweden, Norway, Russia,
  western Europe, United States.

  _Triticum_ (wheat): Cultivated in western Asia, western America,
  southern Russia, central and western Europe, southern Italy, Turkey,
  Syria, northern and southern Africa, Brazil, Chile, Australia. Great
  wheat-growing regions are southwestern plains of Russia and central
  plain of North America, and in southern California, northern India,

  _Zea_ (Indian corn or maize): America. Cultivated in United States,
  upper Canada, South America, Mexico, southern Europe, Africa,
  western Asia.

ORDER LXII.--=Coniferæ=: Shrubs, trees; thirty-two genera.

  _Abies_ (fir): Northeastern North America, Quebec, New Brunswick,
  Nova Scotia, middle States, western Wisconsin. Cultivated in

  _Chamæcyparis_ (cypress): Evergreen, cypress. Cultivated between 30°
  and 42° N. latitude in both hemispheres, Carolinas, Georgia,

  _Lumpirus_ (cedar): Trees and shrubs. Middle and western Europe,
  northern Asia, North America.

  _Larix_ (larch): Mountains of middle Europe, north of New York to
  Pacific Ocean.

(2) _Gymnosperms (jĭm´ṉō̇-sperms)._--Plants producing naked seeds (_i.
e._, seeds not inclosed in an ovary), as the common pine and hemlock.

This second division of flowering plants (_phanerogams_) includes four
living groups: (a) Coniferæ, including all evergreen trees, such as
pine, fir, redwood (_Sequoia_), etc.; (b) Cycadaceæ, trees such as
cypress, palmetto, etc.; (c) Gnetaceæ; (d) Ginkgo. There are about five
hundred living species.



SUB-KINGDOM II.--Flowerless Plants, or Cryptogamia

(3) _Pteridophyta (tĕr-ĭ-dŏf´ĭ-ta)._

This group does not include over five thousand species altogether. All
its members have a well-marked differentiation into leaves and stems,
some with large leaves like the Bracken fern and some with small leaves
like the Club-moss. All are provided with well-differentiated wood and
phlœm, which are arranged in bundles in the stem. All the members, also,
have a well-marked alternation of generations, but it differs from that
of the bryophytes, for the leafy plant which is conspicuous is the
spore-producing generation, while the sexual generation is a very small
and inconspicuous little structure, as simple as an alga except for its
sexual organs. To this cohort belong all the ferns, all the Equisetums,
or Horsetails, and the Club-mosses and Selaginellas.

(4) _Bryophyta (brĭ-ŏfĭ´-tȧ)._

The _Bryophyta_ form a much smaller group, reported to have about
sixteen thousand species. Some of these appear, as do the mosses, to
have true leaves, but their apparent leaves are not really like those of
the higher plants. They have no true wood or vessels. They have a
definite alternation of generations, but the spore-producing generation
grows on to the “leafy” sexual generation, and is generally, but
wrongly, called its “fruit capsule.” To this group belong the Mosses and

(5) _Thallophytes (thāl´ō-fitz)._

The _Thallophytes_ have the largest number of species after the
Angiosperms, and number about eighty thousand species all told. They are
all comparatively simple in structure and have no differentiation into
stems and roots. The Thallophytes include the algæ, the large fungi, the
toadstools, and all the parasitic and disease producing forms of plants.

ALGÆ are divided into FLORIDEÆ, the Red Seaweeds, and the orders
_Dictyoteæ_, _Oösporeæ_, _Zoösporeæ_, _Conjugatæ_, _Diatomaceæ_, and

FUNGI include the molds, mildews, mushrooms, puffballs, etc., which are
variously grouped into several sub-classes and many orders. The
_Lichenes_ or Lichens are now considered to be of a mixed nature, each
plant partly a Fungus and partly an Alga.


[Illustration: =ORPHEUS AND HIS LUTE.= From the painting by J. C.

[Illustration: =THE POLAR BEAR BEGS=]






  =I. Wild Animals:=

      (1) THE MAMMALS: (_a_) The Monkey Tribe; (_b_) Animals of Prey;
          (_c_) Gnawing Animals; (_d_) Hoofed Animals; (_e_) Toothless
          Animals; (_f_) Thick-Skinned Animals; (_g_) Pouched Animals;
          (_h_) Flying Animals; (_i_) The Seals; (_j_) The Whales.

      (2) THE BIRDS: (_a_) Birds of Prey; (_b_) Climbing Birds; (_c_)
          Singing Birds; (_d_) Wading Birds; (_e_) Swimming Birds; (_f_)
          Running Birds; (_g_) Game Birds.

      (3) THE REPTILES: Lizards; Chameleons; Snakes; Crocodiles;
          Tortoises; Turtles.

      (4) AMPHIBIANS: Frogs; Toads; Salamanders.

      (5) THE FISHES: (_a_) Bony Fishes; (_b_) Cartilaginous Fishes;
          (_c_) Armored Fishes; (_d_) Lungfishes.

      (6) THE MOLLUSCS: Snails; Cuttlefish; Squids; Octopus; Tusk
          Shells; Bivalves; Oysters.

      (7) JOINTED-LIMBED ANIMALS: Crabs; Lobsters; Scorpions; Spiders;
          Insects; Grasshoppers.

      (8) BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS: Straight-Winged Insects; Ants and Bees;



  =II. Domesticated Animals:=

      (1) DOMESTICATED MAMMALS: Alpaca; Ass; Camel; Cat; Cattle; Dog;
          Elephant; Gayal; Goat; Guinea Pig; Horse; Llama; Rabbit;
          Reindeer; Sheep; Swine; Yak; Zebu.

      (2) DOMESTICATED BIRDS: Canary; Chickens or Fowls; Guinea; Goose;
          Ostrich; Parrot; Peacock; Pigeon; Swan; Turkey.

      (3) DOMESTICATED INSECTS: Bee; Cochineal; Silkworm Moth.





  Animals of Prey; Hoofed Animals; Gnawing Animals; Thick-skinned
  Animals; Toothless Animals; Pouched Animals; Flying Mammals; The
  Seal Family; Whales. BIRDS: Song Birds; Birds of Prey; Game Birds;
  Running Birds; Wading Birds; Swimming Birds. CROCODILES AND OTHER
  INSECTS: Beetles, Butterflies and Moths; Ants; Bees and Wasps;
  Spiders; Grasshoppers and Locusts; Flies and Mosquitoes. SIMPLE
  MARINE ANIMALS: Starfish; Jellyfish; Corals; Sponges; Protozoa.
  DOMESTICATED ANIMALS: Domesticated Mammals; Domesticated Birds;
  Domesticated Fish and Insects. DICTIONARY OF SCIENTIFIC TERMS.

Of all the sciences, Zoology is the most extensive. It is estimated that
over two million species of living creatures exist in the world. Between
the elephant and the whale, the giants of animal creation, and the mite
that is just discernible with the human eye, there are myriads of
creatures differing in size, form and habit.


It is highly desirable, therefore, to have before us a bird’s-eye view
of the Animal Kingdom even if it is only occasionally brought into
actual use by the average reader. Classification, it should be
understood, is only a process of comparison for the purpose of enabling
us to determine the exact place of each animal in the plan of Nature. In
other words it is simply a scientific method of naming the various
animals from the relation of their resemblances.

We are chiefly indebted to the great Swedish scientist Linnæus for the
scientific method of naming animals. For his purpose, Linnæus used the
Latin as the universal language of science. For example, he named the
dog in his classification _Canis familiaris_, using a generic word and a
specific word--just as they are used in the name of George Washington.
In scientific classification, however, these names have become abstract
terms, and they represent certain grades or degrees of resemblance which
are spoken of as species, genera, families, orders, classes, and so on.


In this way we determine the exact place of each animal. The dog belongs
to the kingdom _Animalia_, sub-kingdom _Metazoa_, class _Mammalia_,
order _Carnivora_, family _Canidæ_, genus _Canis_, species _Familiaris_,
variety _Hound_ (possibly) and its individual name, perhaps, is “Rover.”

The important thing is that the reader should have a picture of the
actual animal representing each class in his mind’s eye. He should
master the distinctions between the _great groups_, or classes, before
proceeding to a more minute classification.


The present day classification of animal life falls into two great
divisions: (1) _Protozoa_, representing those composed of a single cell;
and (2) _Metazoa_, those whose bodies are composed of many cells. The
Protozoa, so far as known, form a single division or branch of the
animal kingdom, and the Metazoa comprise various higher branches. In the
following table the divisions are given from the highest forms to the
lowest, rather than in the reverse order frequently given, and sets out
the chief characteristic and animal examples of each division.

ANIMAL KINGDOM (_Kingdom Animalia_)

  SUB-KINGDOM METAZOA (Gr. _meta_, after; _zȯon_, animal).--Animals with
  cellular tissues, true eggs, and blastoderm. The group comprises all
  animals except the Protozoa.

    CLASS I. =Mammalia= (Lat., _mamma_, breast).--Animals which suckle
    their young, bringing them into the world alive. _Examples_: man,
    monkey, ox, elephant and whale.

      ORDER I. =Primates= (Lat., _primus_, first).

        _Sub-Order I._
           =Bimana= (Lat., _bis_, twice; _manus_, a hand).--Two-handed
           animals. _Example_: man.

        _Sub-Order II._
          =Quadrumana= (Lat., _quatuor_, four; _manus_, a hand).--Four-
          handed animals. _Example_: the monkey.

      ORDER II. =Chiroptera= (Gr., _cheir_, a hand; _pteron_, a wing).--
      Hand-winged animals. _Example_: the bat.

      ORDER III. =Insectivora= (Lat., _insecta_, insects; _voro_, “I
      devour”).--Insect-eaters. _Examples_: the hedgehog and mole.

      ORDER IV. =Carnivora= (Lat., _caro_, _carnis_, flesh).--Flesh-
      eaters. _Examples_: lion, tiger, fox and weasel.

      ORDER V. =Rodentia= (Lat. _rodere_, to gnaw).--Gnawing animals.
      _Examples_: rat, rabbit and beaver.

      ORDER VI. =Ungulata= (Lat., _ungula_, nail, claw or hoof).--Hoofed

        _Sub-Order I._
          =Hyracoidea= (Gr., _hyrax_, shrew-mouse).--_Example_: Syrian

        _Sub-Order II._
          =Proboscidea= (Lat., from the Gr., _proboskis_, an elephant’s
          trunk; literally a front-feeder), proboscis-bearers.
          _Example_: elephant.

        _Sub-Order III._
          =Perissodactyla= (Gr., _perisos_, superfluous; _daktulos_,
          finger or toe), odd-toed animals. _Examples_: tapir,
          rhinoceros, horse, ass, and zebra.

        _Sub-Order IV._
          =Artiodactyla= (Gr., _artios_, equal; _daktulos_, finger or
          toe), equal-toed animals.

          GROUP I. =Pecora= (Lat., plural of _pecus_, cattle) or
          Ruminantia (Lat., _rumen_, a paunch).--Ruminating or cud-
          chewing animals. _Examples_: ox, sheep, goat, antelope, deer
          and giraffe.

          GROUP II. =Tragulina= (Gr., _tragos_, goat), or Deerlets.
          _Example_: kanchil.

          GROUP III. =Tylopada= (Gr., _tylos_, a knob or swelling, and
          _pous_, _podos_, a foot).--Ruminants with digits encased in
          cutaneous pads. _Example_: camel.

          GROUP IV. =Suina= (Lat., _sus_, a pig).--Swine-like animals.
          _Examples_: swine, peccary and hippopotamus.

      ORDER VII. =Sirenia= (Lat., _siren_, a sea nymph).--Sea-cows.
      _Examples_: manatee and dugong.

      ORDER VIII. =Cetacea= (Gr., _ketos_, a whale), animals of the
      whale kind. _Examples_: whale and dolphin.

      ORDER IX. =Edentata= (Lat., _edentatus_, toothless).--Toothless
      animals. _Examples_: sloth, anteater and armadillo.

      ORDER X. =Marsupialia= (Lat., _marsupium_, a pouch).--Pouched
      animals. _Examples_: kangaroo and opossum.

      ORDER XI. =Monotremata= (Gr., _monos_, single; _trema_, orifice).
      --Egg-laying mammals. _Examples_: duckbill or water mole.

    CLASS II. =Aves= (Lat., _avis_, a bird).--Birds, animals produced
    from eggs by the application of heat, usually supplied by the body
    of the mother bird in close contact with them. They are always
    clothed with feathers, which are a part of their special
    construction for flight. _Examples_: eagle, swan, ostrich and lark.

      ORDER I. =Birds of Prey= (_Raptores_).--Sharp, curved beak and
      talons; strong legs; three toes front, one behind. _Examples_:
      vultures, falcons, secretary birds, owls.

      ORDER II. =Perching Birds= (_Insessores_).--Short, slender, legs;
      three toes front, one behind. _Examples_: swallows, trogons,
      kingfishers, humming-birds, warblers, thrushes, crows, starlings,
      finches, hornbills, birds of paradise.

      ORDER III. =Climbing Birds= (_Scansores_).--Toes paired; beak
      usually hooked. _Examples_: toucans, parrots, woodpeckers,

      ORDER IV. =Doves and Pigeons= (_Columbæ_).--Legs weak; wings long
      and pointed. _Examples_: doves, pigeons.

      ORDER V. =Game Birds= (_Gallinæ_).--Legs stout, short; beak stout,
      arched. _Examples_: pheasants, grouse, partridge, turkey, peacock,
      guinea, prairie chicken, domestic chickens.

      ORDER VI. =Ostrich Family= (_Cursores_).--No keel or breast bone;
      rudimentary wings; stout legs. _Examples_: ostrich, cassowary,

      ORDER VII. =Wading Birds= (_Grallatores_).--Legs and neck long;
      knee free from body. _Examples_: cranes, herons, snipes, plovers,
      storks, flamingo.

      ORDER VIII. =Swimming Birds= (_Natatores_).--Web-footed.
      _Examples_: swans, ducks, geese, pelicans, petrels, auks,
      penguins, gulls, cormorants.

    CLASS III. =Reptilia= (Lat., _repo._ “I creep”)--Reptiles, cold-
    blooded animals, protected by scales and not infrequently by hard,
    bony plates. They are mostly oviparous, but developed from the eggs
    more or less casually by the heat of the sun. “Reptile” is not an
    apt name, for there are many members of the class that do not creep.
    _Examples_: crocodile, lizard, tortoise and snake.

      ORDER I. =Serpents= (_Orphidia_).--Body long, cylindrical, scaly,
      usually limbless; numerous vertabræ and ribs; no eyelids. Lower
      jaw loosely united in front. _Examples_: rattlesnakes, vipers,
      boas, pythons, cobras, copperheads, water snakes.

      ORDER II. =Lizards= (_Lacertilia_).--Body with long tail; usually
      four limbs; scaly; bones of the jaw firm. _Examples_: striped and
      green lizards, horned toads, chameleons, iguana.

      ORDER III. =Tortoises and Turtles= (_Chelonia_).--Horny and bony
      shell within which the head and limbs can be drawn; no teeth;
      eyelids; four legs. _Examples_: turtles, tortoise, gophers,

      ORDER IV. =Crocodiles and Alligators= (_Crocodilia_).--Covered
      with scales and bony plates, teeth in sockets; heart with four
      cavities; eyelids and earlids. _Examples_: Crocodile and

    CLASS IV. =Batrachia= (Gr., _batrachos_, a frog), or Amphibia (Gr.,
    _amphibios_, having a double life).--Animals that can exist for a
    considerable time on dry land or in water. They are oviparous,
    hatched by the heat of the sun from eggs, covered with a soft,
    glutinous membrane, which the mother had laid in the water, and
    develop through tadpole stages. In the early period of their
    existence they are fishlike in their structure, breathing by means
    of gills and a two-chambered heart; in the later stages of their
    development they acquire lungs and a heart of three chambers. A true
    amphibian possesses at once both lungs and gills. _Examples_: frog,
    toad, newt and salamander.

    CLASS V. =Pisces= (Lat., _piscis_, a fish).--Fishes, oviparous
    animals covered with scales, which form an important part of their
    special organization for life in the water. Their gills, acting as
    lungs, extract air from the water instead of from the atmosphere.

      ORDER I. =Sharks and Rays= (_Elasmobranchii_).--Shagreen skin;
      gills fixed and uncovered; cartilaginous skeleton.

      ORDER II. =Ganoids= (_Ganoidei_).--Enameled plates or scales;
      gills free; skeleton partly cartilaginous. _Examples_: garpikes,
      mud-fish, lung-fish.

      ORDER III. =Bony or Fin Fishes= (_Teleostei_).--Skeleton bony;
      scales; fins; usually four pairs of gills; mostly oviparous.
      _Examples_: bass, perch and ten thousand other kinds.

    CLASS VI. =Arthropoda= (Gr., _arthron_, joint; _pous_, foot).--
    Metazoa, with definite number of segments; jointed legs; distinct
    feet and hard, external skeleton.

      ORDER I. =Crustacea= (Lat., _crusta_, a crust or shell).--Water-
      breathing; having gills and more than eight jointed legs; four
      antennæ. _Examples_: fairy-shrimp, water-fleas, goose barnacle,
      acorn barnacle, opossum-shrimp, prawn, lobster, crayfish, cancer-
      crab, rock-crab, pill-bug, sand-hopper.

      ORDER II. =Arachnida= (Gr., _arachne_, spider).--Eight legs; air-
      breathing. _Examples_: garden-spider, tarantula, bird-spider,
      trap-door spider, mite, tick, king-crab or horseshoe crab.

      ORDER III. =Insecta= (Lat., _insectum_, cut in, owing to the
      grooves surrounding the body).--Distinct head, thorax and abdomen;
      air-breathing. _Examples_: fishmoth, springtail, cockroach,
      grasshopper, cricket, katydid, locust, dragon-fly, caddis-fly,
      may-fly, white ants or termites, ant-lion, water-boatman, water-
      bug, back-swimmer, chinch-bug, squash-bug, lice, plant-lice,
      scale-insect, gnat, mosquito, flea, house-fly, stage-beetle, wood-
      beetle, water-beetle, potato-beetle, ladybug, firefly, moth,
      butterfly, ants, honey-bees and bumblebees, wasps, hornets,
      yellow-jackets, centipeds.

    CLASS VII. =Mollusca= (Lat., _mollis_. soft),--Soft-bodied,
    unjointed Metazoa, with muscular skin (“mantle”), generally
    protected by a calcareous shell; two or three-chambered heart; three
    main pairs of nerve-ganglia. _Examples_: Clams, oysters, snails,
    cuttlefish, devil-fish, nautilus.

    CLASS VIII. =Echinodermata= (Gr., _echinos_, a hedgehog; _derma_,
    skin).--Radiated Metazoa, with distinct alimentary canal and well
    developed nervous system; body-walls secreting calcareous plates;
    parts in multiple of five. _Examples_: starfish, sea urchins, sea
    cucumbers, sea lilies, serpent or brittle stars, basket stars.

    CLASS IX. =Worms= (Lat., _vermes_).--Bilateral Metazoa, with no
    jointed legs, nor primitive stripe. _Examples_: earth worm, leech,
    tube worm, tape worm, bristle worms, vinegar eel, rotifers.

    CLASS X. =Cœlenterata= (animals with combined body and stomach
    cavity).--Radiated Metazoa, with distinct digestive cavity,
    tentacles and nettling thread-cells. _Examples_: jellyfish, sea-
    anemones, coral polyps.

    CLASS XI. =Porifera= (Lat., _porus_, pore; _fero_, to carry).--
    Sponges, Metazoa, with numerous ingoing openings, one or few
    outgoing orifices, a skeleton, independent cells. _Example_:

  SUB-KINGDOM PROTOZOA (Gr., _protos_, first; _zoon_, animal).--One-
  celled animals of microscopic size. Simplest forms of animal life.
  _Examples_: amœba, bell animalcule (_vorticella_), euglena.


_THE MAMMALS_ (_Mammalia_)

  Mammals constitute the highest class of animal creation, and include
  Man. They have a hard, bony skeleton and a vertebral column or
  backbone; warm red blood flows in their veins; they breathe by means
  of lungs, and suckle their young, which they bring forth alive.
  Their bodies are generally covered with hair. More than three
  thousand species of mammals are known.

THE MONKEY TRIBE (_Quadrumana_)

  Monkeys are animals whose four feet are hand-like, and hence their
  scientific name, Quadrumana, which means four-handed. They are
  distinguished from the other animals by their docility, and, more
  especially, by their power of imitation. It is evident at the first
  glance that they are nearer related to man than any other animal.

  The monkeys have long, loosely hanging arms, with elongated,
  claw-like fingers; their feet resemble hands. They swing themselves
  with ease from branch to branch and from tree to tree; they are good
  climbers, and bring down fruit from the topmost branches. But
  notwithstanding the aptitude of their hands for climbing, the latter
  cannot equal the dexterity of the human hand, which is justly
  described as the tool of all tools.

  Monkeys differ outwardly from man in many respects: their foreheads
  are low, and almost disappear under the overhanging hair; their ears
  are directed upwards; their nose is exceedingly flat and scarcely
  projects; their teeth resemble those of the animals of prey; their
  chin is receding; their entire skin is hairy, except in a few
  places; and their movements are, in most instances, only possible
  with the assistance of their long arms.

  The intellectual qualities of monkeys are not of very high order. In
  this attribute, they are surpassed by the dog, the horse, and the
  elephant. There is especially no trace of those qualities of
  fidelity and gratitude which we so highly value in the animals last

  All of the American monkeys are true monkeys, but in the old world
  there is no line between ape, baboon, gibbon, macaque and monkey.
  Most of the American species (the marmosets excepted) have one more
  molar tooth on each side of each jaw than does man, but the forms of
  the eastern continent are like man in that respect, as they are in
  having nails rather than claws on at least some of the fingers and
  toes. Many of the new world species have prehensile tails, but this
  never occurs in the others, the tail exhibiting a tendency to be
  reduced, at last disappearing in the man-like apes.

  The American apes have the nostrils widely separated and opening
  sidewise, while in the others they open in front and downward as in

  Monkeys are extremely interesting because of their caricature of
  man. Some make most interesting pets, and others are disagreeable,
  in looks, temper, and habits. Most of them are vegetarians for most
  of their diet, but they are fond of eggs and young birds, as well as
  insects. None stray far out of the tropics and only one enters
  Europe at Gibraltar.

  There are over one hundred various kinds of monkeys, only a few of
  which it will be necessary to describe with more detail.

=Baboon= (_Cynocephalus babuin_).--The Greek name, signifying
“dog’s-head,” is very appropriate to the baboons, for they resemble a
dog both in the shape of the head and in the hairy covering of the skin,
and even in the tone of the voice.

They are very powerful animals, with protruding jaws like those of a
bull-dog. Their jaws, supplied with immense incisor teeth, would do
honor to any beast of prey, and their whole expression is fierce and
malicious. Their limbs are strikingly short in comparison with those of
the monkeys mentioned above. The baboons are found in Africa and the
East Indies, and live chiefly in rocky and hilly regions, avoiding the
woods as far as possible.

Their food consists of all kinds of plants, fruits, herbs, grasses,
bulbs, etc., and also of small animals, especially snails, insects, and
spiders. The structure of their body prevents them from walking upright,
and their whole behavior, whether at rest or when running and jumping,
exhibits a malicious disposition. Notwithstanding the fierceness of
their nature, they may be tamed and made obedient when young; but their
innate malicious nature reappears in old age. They are then no longer
obedient, but again grin, scratch and bite.

=Chimpanzee= (_Simia troglodytes_) attains to the same height as the
orang-outan; its body is covered with dark hair, and its hairless face
is of a leathery yellow. It lives in forests, and is social and much
livelier than the orang-outan, but it is also extraordinarily fierce. It
builds hut-like constructions in the trees. The chimpanzee cannot live
longer than a few years in our climate.

=Douc= (_Semnopithecus nemæus_).--The douc, or variegated monkey, is a
native of Cochin-China. Its tail is almost as long as its body. From its
variegated external appearance this monkey might be called a clown; its
jacket is grey; its breeches, head-band, and gloves are black, its
stockings brownish red; its sleeves, beard, loins, and tail white; its
face yellow; and its necktie brownish red.

It is timid and shy, and at the sight of man quickly makes off into the
recesses of the forest. It does not live long in captivity.

=Galago= (_G. senegalensis_).--They vary from the size of a rabbit to
that of a rat, are covered with thick, soft, wooly fur, have somewhat
bushy tails longer than the body, and hind-legs longer and stronger than
the arms. The head is round like a cat’s; the eyes are large with oval
pupils contracting in daylight to vertical slits; the ears are naked
and very big, expanded during activity, but rolled together when the
animal rests. The digits are strong and well adapted for grasping the
branches; all bear nails except the second on the hind-foot, which is
clawed. The galago proper is a pretty animal with wooly fur, grayish
fawn above, whitish beneath. It seems to be distributed throughout
tropical Africa, and is known in Senegal as “the gum animal” from its
frequent habitat in mimosa or gum-acacia forests.

=Gorilla= (_Simia gorilla_) is the largest of the monkeys, growing to a
height of six feet. Its grey, sparkling eyes are deeply sunk, and the
powerful bony forehead gives the face an expression of wild ferocity.
The mouth is wide, and the lips are sharply cut, without any red at the
edges; the jaws are extremely powerful, and are armed with strong
incisor teeth. The eyes stand wide apart, and the nose is more prominent
and the head better formed than is the case with the other monkeys.

=Howling Monkey= (_Mycetes niger_).--The coat of the male is black, that
of the female rather brown. Their tails are what are known as prehensile
tails, and are of great service to them when climbing. The howling
monkeys are found in South America. They live chiefly in the dense, damp
woods, and along the banks of rivers. Every morning and evening their
dismal howling fills the hearer with horror. They sit or lie about in
the trees, and sometimes hang from the boughs by means of their
prehensile tails. Their faces have a serious expression, and are
surrounded by long beards. Their dismal chorus is begun by one of the
old monkeys, and the whole company afterwards join in, the concert often
lasting several hours.

The Indians hunt the howling monkey and eat its flesh; but it very often
escapes the hunter, even after having been mortally wounded; for while
in the act of falling down from the tree it will twist its tail around a
bough, and remain there suspended long after death.

=Mandrill= (_C. mormon_).--This monkey has a repulsive appearance. The
high puffed-up cheeks are blue with red lines, the nose a fiery red, the
hair of the head greyish green, and the whiskers lemon yellow. It is as
malicious and violent as it is rapacious, and is found on the west coast
of Africa. It is much feared on account of its strength. As it feeds
chiefly on plants, it frequently does a great deal of damage; troops of
these animals are said to have invaded the inhabited districts on the

The mandrill does not fear man, and is never to be frightened by a
gun-shot; the smallest trifle suffices to put it in a most violent rage.
The natives very rarely dare to enter the forests in which the mandrills
are known to live.

=Marmoset= (_Hápale Jacchus_).--One of the few monkeys that can with
truthfulness be termed pretty is the Marmoset. There are several
species, and all are beautiful, with the gentle, engaging manners. Only
seven or eight inches long, or about as big as a full-grown rat, the
thick, soft fur and the long, bushy tail, a foot in length, give it the
aspect of a considerably larger animal. The color of the coat is a
peculiarly rich brown, which appears quite ruddy when the hairs are
blown aside. The tail, which is not prehensile, is light grey, ringed
with black, and there is a prominent tuft of white hair on either side
of the head, standing out before the ears. The Marmoset has claws
instead of nails except on its great toe. Its voice is a low, gentle
whistle, quickly repeated when alarmed. It is common in many parts of
South America. Its chief food consists of fruit, but it is very fond of


[Illustration: =MARKHOR= (Page 202)]

[Illustration: =WHITE MONKEY= (Page 191)]

[Illustration: =SAMBUR= (Page 202)]

[Illustration: =PRAIRIE WOLF= (Page 197)]

[Illustration: =TAHR= (Page 202)]

[Illustration: =OPOSSUM= (Page 205)]

[Illustration: =KOALA AND CUB= (Page 204)]

[Illustration: =WHITE WOLF= (Page 197)]

[Illustration: =PORCUPINE= (Page 199)]

[Illustration: =GALAGO= (Page 192)]

[Illustration: =HEDGEHOG= (Page 195)]

=Orang-Outan= (_Simia satyrus_).--The orang-outan is found in the
islands of Borneo and Sumatra. It attains to a height of four and a half
feet. The face and the inside of its hands are hairless, and are of a
bluish-grey tint; but the other parts of its body are covered more or
less thickly with hair, generally of a rusty-brown color. Its hands
reach almost to the ground.

When at liberty it feeds on plants only, and especially on tree-fruits.
Hard shelled-fruit, as big as a human head, which a man could only open
with an axe, the orang-outan tears asunder with its hands. It is by no
means so lively as the monkeys, and sits for hours at a time in a
melancholy mood on the bough of a tree, exhibiting only the natural
fierceness of its class when attacked.

In youth it is sociable, and lives with others of its kind, but when old
it leads a more solitary life; the old males are especially fond of
solitude. With increasing age the orang-outans scarcely ever climb the
trees. On the ground, however, they move with difficulty, and their gait
is awkward and clumsy. They build a kind of nest in the thick branches
nineteen or twenty feet above the ground. Their attachment to their
young is very touching.

=Wanderoo= (_Macacus silenus_).--A remarkable species which the
Ceylonese call Black Monkey, on account of the color of its long fur. On
the top of its head the hair is particularly long, falling on either
side of its face like the full-dress wig of a judge. It also possesses a
long grey beard, so that it has quite a venerable aspect. Unlike the
other macaques, it has a tuft of hair on the end of its tail, much like
that of a lion. The wanderoo is furnished with cheek pouches of
considerable size; and probably the rapidity with which it feeds is due
to the fact that it is storing away a portion of its food for future
use. The animal stands about thirty inches high, weighs as much as
eighty pounds, and is possessed of considerable muscular power.


  The animals of prey proper are very powerful, and some of them are
  even dangerous to man; they feed on the flesh of other animals. The
  Insectivora, or insect eaters, are, on the contrary, small; they
  feed chiefly on insects and worms, and are therefore useful. Of
  these several groups are distinguished: the cat-like, hyaena-like,
  dog-like, marten-like, and bear-like animals of prey.

=Badger= (_Meles taxus_).--The compact body of the badger is covered
with blackish fur, with white stripes at the neck and head. It lives in
forests, near fields and vineyards, where it digs burrows, with about
six to eight passages leading to a kettle-shaped chamber, which lies
from four to six feet under the surface. It sleeps in the daytime and
during the winter, but at night it goes out on its predatory excursions.
Its food consists of insects, worms, snails, frogs, snakes, birds’ eggs,
young birds, and young hares; nor does it despise fruit, roots, and
honey. The badger is very wary, and defends itself with great courage in
its burrow. It is hunted chiefly for its fur; its flesh is rarely eaten.
Paint brushes are made from its hair.

=Bear, Brown= (_Ursus arctos_), also called the common or European bear,
has a shaggy light or dark brown fur. It is only about five feet long,
and attains a weight of five hundred to six hundred pounds. Its home is
in the temperate regions of Europe and Asia. Although not so strong as
the polar bear, it is not to be despised as an adversary. It is the king
of the northern forests. When attacked it will place itself in an erect
position, and try to tear its enemy with strokes of its paws. In the
fables of animals it is represented as an awkward, foolish simpleton,
who is always brought to shame and disgrace by the cunning of the fox.
It can easily be tamed, and nearly everybody has seen its clown-like
performances. Its habitation is in caverns or hollow trees. Its flesh is
eaten, and its fur used like that of the polar bear.

=Bear, Polar= (_Ursus maritimus_).--Its fur is quite white. Its body
attains eight feet in length, and weighs from fifteen hundred to sixteen
hundred pounds. It inhabits the most northern parts of Europe, Asia and
America. Its movements are equally quick on water and land; and it is a
terrible animal of prey, attacking even man with the greatest fury. It
pursues its predatory excursions on the numerous islands of the northern
polar regions, and its chief food is fish and seals. Sometimes it will
come into more southern latitudes, when it causes terrible havoc among
the herds, and only with the greatest difficulty can this strong and
fearless animal be killed. The polar bear has its home in the regions of
everlasting snow, and can only obtain the necessaries of life by means
of never-ceasing activity. It often uses a sheet of ice as a raft to
transport itself to spots where it can obtain its prey. Its flesh is
eaten; its fat is used for food and fuel, and its fur for carpets and

=Caracal= (_Felis_ or _Lynx caracal_), a species of lynx found in the
warmer parts of Asia and throughout the whole of Africa. It is larger
than a fox, about the same height, but much more powerful; of a uniform
deep chestnut color, except two spots near each eye, the under parts of
the body, and inner parts of the legs, which are white, and tufts of
long black hair which terminate the ears. The young forms are spotted.
The ears are about three inches in length. The caracal is powerful
enough to tear a hound to pieces.

=Fox= (_Canis vulpes_).--The common fox, also called red fox, has thick,
soft fur, which is, on its upper parts, a light rust red, and on its
lower parts whitish. Its body attains a length of thirty inches. Its
long tail is bushy, and ends in a white tip.

The fox is a common inhabitant of the whole of Europe, and of the
northern parts of Asia, America, and Africa. It inhabits forests and
woods, where it lives with its mate in caverns. In rapacity it is nearly
equal to the wolf; but it can master its cupidity and wait for better
opportunities if danger should threaten. No animal is the subject of so
many fables. “Master Reynard” is always the cunning rogue, who outwits
his adversaries. Only on behalf of their young will the male as well as
the female fox risk their lives; intense love will then overcome every
fear and precaution.

The fox hunts hares, fowls, geese, and ducks, and even fish; but it
always destroys a great number of mice, whereby the injury done by it is
partly equalized. Its cover has always several exits. If found to be
rather deep, it was not constructed by the fox, but by a badger, which
either left its burrow willingly or was driven out by the new tenant.
The fox is hunted in different ways.

=Hedgehog= (_Erinaceus Europæus_).--The hedgehog is likewise an
inhabitant of the underground world, for it lives in holes below the
roots of trees, and under heaps of stones. Its body, with the exception
of its belly, is covered with sharp spines, and its feet are short and
strong. It begins to hunt for its prey in the darkness of the night.
Should it be disturbed it will suddenly roll itself up into a ball, its
sharp spines projecting in all directions. In this condition no dog can
get at it; but, if water is poured on it, it will unroll again. Its
spines are also of great service to it in other ways; for when rolled up
it can let itself down the steepest precipices, and fall from walls ten
feet high, without sustaining the smallest injury.

The hedgehog may also be called a useful animal; for it destroys mice,
rats, and vermin of all kinds, and will even feed on vipers, as poison
does not affect it. Its flesh is eaten in some countries.

=Hyena= (_Hyæna maculata_).--This whitish-grey and white-spotted animal
attains a length of four feet, and has its home in Southern and Eastern
Africa. It has a repulsive appearance, and emits a very disagreeable
odor. Hyenas remain hidden during the daytime; in the evening and during
the night they go out in quest of prey. They are great cowards, and
sometimes encircle human habitations in troups, and fall on their
sleeping prey. Hyenas force their way even into villages, clear off the
decayed animal matter, and dig the corpses out of their shallow graves.
The HYENA DOG (_Canis pictus_) does not belong to the hyenas proper, but
to the dog-like animals of prey. It inhabits the central and southern
parts of Africa, and is very dangerous to the antelopes and the herds of
sheep; it also attacks cattle.

=Ichneumon= (_Herpestes ichneumon_).--This animal is also called
Pharaoh’s rat. It inhabits Africa, and was considered a holy animal by
the ancient Egyptians. The color of its hair is greenish-grey, somewhat
darker on the head and back. Its snout is rather short; its tail ends
in a tuft. It feeds on rats, mice, toads, frogs, and snakes, birds’
eggs, and the eggs of crocodiles.

=Jackal= (_Canis aureus_).--Very similar in appearance to the fox, the
hair of the jackal is of a dark rusty yellow, whitish on its lower
parts. It inhabits Asia and north Africa, and is also found in the
south-eastern parts of Europe, in Greece, and Turkey. It makes its
excursions during the night in troops. Like the hyena, the jackal prowls
round the herds and human habitations, and, failing living prey, is
content with carrion.

=Jaguar= (_Felis onca_), sometimes called the American tiger, has
reddish-yellow fur, spotted with black. It inhabits South America, from
Paraguay to Mexico, and is the largest and most dangerous animal of prey
in those parts of the globe. The jaguar lies in wait for all sorts of
animals, and shows a great fondness for fish; but most frequently it
attacks grazing animals. It does not even hesitate to spring upon man.

=Leopard= (_Felis pardus_).--Now generally supposed to be identical with
the panther. The leopard is at home in Africa, from Algeria to Cape
Colony; it is also found in Asia, from Palestine through central Asia to
Manchuria. It is characterized by a peculiar gracefulness, slenderness
and flexibility of form, with a very long tail, and spotted fur, the
spots being arranged in numerous rows along the sides, and each spot
composed of five or six small spots arranged in a circle or rosette. The
general color is yellowish; the lower parts lighter; the spots darker
than the general color of the fur. The leopard is extremely agile, and
possesses the power of leaping and also that of climbing trees in great
perfection. Deer and antelopes are its habitual prey; but it is equally
ready to feed on pigs, poultry, or whatever animals may be found in the
vicinity of a farm or village. The size and strength of the leopard
render it dangerous to man; but it generally seems to dread and flee
from man, unless assailed.

=Lion= (_Felis leo_).--The lion is covered with short, smooth hair,
which lies close to the skin. Its fur is mostly of a uniform yellow
color. A male lion measures about ten feet in length; the female is
about a foot shorter. The male has a long mane on its neck and breast.
Its claws are retractile--_i. e._, may be drawn back entirely into their
sheaths. At the end of the tail is a horny point, which is surrounded by
a tuft of hair.

The lion, the king of animals, inhabits the Old World, Africa and Asia
and was formerly also found in Greece and Macedonia. The majesty of
terror and violence accompanies its movements. Its most striking
qualities are courage, pride, and circumspection. It chooses lonely
spots with rocky caves for its habitation, where it passes the day in

At the beginning of twilight it rises from its couch, stretches its
limbs, and gives vent to a roar which makes man and beast tremble far
and wide. Then it begins to roam through the neighborhood; and woe to
the animal or man who approaches too near to it! It crouches like the
cat, and will sometimes spring thirty feet. The results of such an
attack are terrible; for with one stroke of its paw it can kill a
galloping horse, together with its rider. But it rarely attacks man.

The lion often overcomes animals larger than himself by means of his
stealthy, cat-like habit of springing upon them unawares. He preys upon
buffaloes, zebras, and even young elephants. Lions sometimes go in
troops, being sociable rather than gregarious. The male aids in care and
feeding of the young, which number from two to four, usually three, at a
birth. The pupil of the lion’s eye is circular when contracted, not a
narrow slit, as in the cat. The papillæ of its tongue are so large that
it can rapidly rasp the flesh from bones by licking them.

=Lynx= (_Felix lynx_).--This animal, which is widely spread, is of a
reddish grey, with darker spots on its upper parts and white on its
lower parts. It is frequently seen upon the Alps, the Carpathian
Mountains, and in the north of Europe and Asia. Hidden in the tops of
low trees, it lies in wait for the passing animals, and springs even
upon horses and stags. It commits great havoc among game, and is
therefore eagerly hunted. Every year about fifty thousand furs of the
common lynx and its nearest relations, the desert, polar, red, pardel,
and bog lynx, are sold in the markets of the world.

=Marten= (_Mustela martes_).--The tree marten has a yellowish-brown fur
and a reddish-yellow patch across its breast. It inhabits Europe and the
western parts of Asia. It is always found in forests, where it lies
hidden in hollow trees. It not only causes great destruction among game,
but is also a great robber of useful birds. It also hunts squirrels,
which, as soon as they get sight of it, try to escape as rapidly as

Related to the tree marten are the STONE or HOUSE MARTEN (_M. foina_),
which generally lives in the neighborhood of human habitations, and
destroys poultry and eggs: the POLE CAT (_Putorius fœtidus_), which
lives in the same localities and has the same injurious habits as the
house marten: the small WEASEL (_P. vulgaris_), is reddish brown on its
upper parts, but on its lower parts whitish, and is over seven inches
long. It is a useful animal, as it feeds chiefly on rats, mice, and
badgers; it is also fond of eggs, which it carries under its chin: and
the ERMINE (_P. ermineus_), the fur of which is of a dazzling white
color in the winter, and is the most valued of all furs.

=Mink= (_Putorius_), a name applied to several carnivores in the same
genus as weasel, polecat, ferret, and ermine, and with essentially
similar characteristics. The body measures from twelve to eighteen
inches in length, not including the bushy tail. The color of the
valuable fur is chestnut-brown. The Siberian vison (_P. sibericus_), the
European vison (_P. lutreola_), and the American mink (_P. vison_) are
very nearly related. They all live by rivers and lakes, feeding chiefly
on fishes, frogs, mussels, and the like; though not refusing any small
mammals which come in their way.

=Mole= (_Talpa Europea_).--The mole is one of the most interesting of
the smaller animals. It inhabits meadows, fields, gardens, and forests
where it finds its food. It lives in the earth, and digs out its “runs,”
at the same time throwing up mole-hills. The mole feeds on grubs,
caterpillars, chrysalises, maggots, crickets, lizards, snakes, frogs,
mice, and rats, and does not even spare its own kindred. The formation
of its body, which is about six inches long, enables it to seize these
different kinds of prey with ease; for it is cylindrical and wedge-like
in shape, with a long, flexible snout, and very large fore paws,
furnished with five strong nails. Its head is placed deep between the
shoulders--no neck is visible; its eyes are very small, and covered with
hair; and there are no exterior ears. Its hind paws are longer but
weaker than the fore limbs, and its tail is short. Its fur consists of
short, velvety hair.

The mole nearly always lives a solitary life. It is very quarrelsome and
rapacious. The weasel, fox, marten, hedgehog, owl, buzzard, falcon,
raven, the viper, and man all threaten its life. Against these enemies
it is, however, well protected by its dark fur, by the keenness of its
senses of hearing and smell, and by its rapid movements, and the
ingenious architecture of its burrow. The latter is a real fortress.


It consists: (1) Of the chief structure, which is about two feet deep,
below the roots of trees or ruined walls. This consists again of an
almost spherical sitting-room (_a_), about four inches square, which is
stuffed with grass and hay, from which leads a descending passage (_b_).
Round the sitting-room there are two circular galleries (_c_), the upper
one of which is connected with the sitting-room. (2) Of a number of runs
(_d_), which are twelve to sixteen inches long, and radiate in all
directions; they are connected with each other by cross passages. (3) Of
the chief passage, into which all the runs open in the form of arches,
and which leads to the hunting grounds. (4) Of the hunting passages,
which run in all directions.

In this burrow from four to six young ones are born between the middle
of April and June. The mother nurses them with the greatest tenderness,
carrying them away in her mouth whenever danger threatens. But as soon
as they are able to take care of themselves the parents drive them out
of their home, and begin to lead a solitary life again. The mole is a
very useful animal, because it destroys so many injurious insects.
Although it does some harm by means of its mining operations, it is,
nevertheless, more useful than destructive, and ought, therefore, not to
be destroyed unless absolutely necessary.

=Mongoose.=--A small carnivorous animal of India, noted as a destroyer
of snakes, and accordingly encouraged. It does not hesitate to attack
the most venomous serpents, killing them by agility and having no
protection against their poison except its hair and ability to dodge the
blows. The mongoose and its near relative, the ichneumon of northern
Africa, are gray and a little larger than a rat. All make interesting

=Ocelot= (_Felis pardalis_) is a species, with several varieties, which
is confined to the New World, and ranges from Arkansas in the north to
Patagonia. These animals are inhabitants of forests, and very expert in
climbing trees. Their prey consists in great part of birds. They are
beautifully marked and colored. The coloration varies considerably, but
the ground tint is always a rich red or tawny color; the head, neck, and
legs being also variously spotted or barred with dark brown or black.

=Otter= (_Lutra vulgaris_).--On the upper parts, the fur of the otter is
dark brown, while on the lower parts it is lighter brown. Its body is
about thirty inches long, and its tail eight inches; between its toes
there are web membranes. The otter is rather a water than a land animal.
On land it is clumsy and uneasy in its movements, but in the water quick
and persevering. It hunts fish, and its sharp eyes greatly assist it in
this hunt. It is very seldom seen, as it is very shy and constantly
hiding, mostly committing its depredations during the night. Otter
hunting is, therefore, difficult; but in winter, when the snow has just
fallen, and the water has been frozen over, the spots may be found where
the fish otter enters the water. There it can be killed with a spear.

=Puma, Cougar or Mountain Lion= (_Felis concolor_).--Generally
distributed in North and South America, but rare in those parts which
have been long settled. It is sometimes called the American “lion,”
“panther” (painter), or “catamount.” The fur is thick and close, dark
yellowish red above, lighter on the sides, and reddish white on the
belly; the muzzle, chin, throat, breast, and insides of the legs are
more or less white. Young pumas have dark brown spots in three rows on
the back, and scattered markings elsewhere. The long tail is covered
with thick fur, and is slightly coiled. They are agile in their
movements, and can leap and spring well, but swim only under compulsion.
Many kinds of mammals fall victims to the pumas, and they are the more
disastrous to flocks and herds because of their habit of killing many
more than they devour.

=Raccoon= (_Procyon lotor_).--The fur of the raccoon is a
yellowish-grey-black; its body is about twenty inches long, and its tail
ten inches. It inhabits North America, and feeds on fruit, birds’ eggs,
etc. It has received its name because it is in the habit of rinsing dry
and blood-stained food before eating it, rubbing it between its fore
paws. The eagerness with which it is hunted is best illustrated by the
fact that every year about half a million of its furs are brought into
the market. The flesh of the raccoon is eaten, and its hair is used for
paint brushes.

=Sable= (_Martes zibellina_), a species of Marten. The feet are covered
with fur, even on the soles, and the tail is rather more bushy than in
the martens. The length, exclusive of the tail, is about eighteen
inches. The fur is brown, grayish yellow on the throat, and small,
grayish-yellow spots are scattered on the sides of the neck. The whole
fur is extremely lustrous, and hence of the very highest value. The
sable is a native of Siberia, widely distributed over that country, and
found in its coldest regions, at least wherever forests extend. It is a
very wary animal, and not easily captured. It makes its nest in a hollow
tree, or sometimes, it is said, by burrowing in the ground, and lines it
with moss, leaves, and grass.

=Shrew= (_Soricidæ_), a family of insectivorous animals closely
resembling, in general form and appearance, the true mice and dormice,
but in reality widely differing from and not to be confused with those
rodents. The shrews have the head small, muzzle long and pointed, eyes
small but well developed, external ears usually small; body mouse-like,
covered with hair; limbs short, nearly equal in size, the feet not
adapted for digging; tail nearly naked and scaly. Along the sides of the
body, or at the root of the tail, are peculiar glands, which secrete a
fluid of a very strong odor. The shrews are very widely distributed,
being found over North America and the whole of the eastern hemisphere
except Australia.

The DWARF-SHREW (_S. pygmæus_) is the size of a cockchafer; it is the
smallest of the mammalia, and is so voracious that when hungry it
attacks and kills its own kind.

=Tiger= (_Felis tigris_).--The tiger is the largest and most dangerous
of all the animals of prey. It varies from a yellowish brown to a rust
red in color. It has neither a mane nor a tuft to its tail. Its length
amounts in all to about eight feet, of which thirty-two inches belong to
the tail. It inhabits chiefly the southeastern part of Asia. The tiger
displays neither courage nor pride; but cowardice, cruelty, and malice,
with no trace of majesty. Its strength and rapidity are astonishing.
Tigers, when driven by hunger, even enter the villages, and often force
the inhabitants to retire altogether. They are especially fond of human
flesh. When lying in ambush, their eyes sparkle through the darkness.
Horses scent them from long distances; and fear of this terrible foe
almost paralyzes them.

=Wolf= (_Canis lupus_).--The fur of this animal is yellowish grey with
blackish spots; in its lower parts its color is lighter. It is the size
of a shepherd’s dog. Its whole appearance is unprepossessing; its body
is lean and long; its expression malicious; its ears erect. When it
cannot obtain its favorite food, game or sheep, it feeds on mice, frogs,
and carrion. It sometimes attacks even horses, attempting by a bold jump
to seize them by the throat and pull them down. It knows how to avoid
their kicks, and also how to secure itself against the horns of oxen. It
is ordinarily a coward, like the hyena; but when hungry fears nothing.
It carries away sheep under the very eyes of the shepherd, and even
forces its way into stables. It is cunning and sly, and knows how to
make use of the best opportunities. It is as strong as it is tenacious
of life; with a sheep in its mouth it runs off at a trot; sometimes a
dozen bullets are not sufficient to kill it.

The wolf was formerly spread over all Europe. At the present time it is
still found in great numbers in Hungary, Galicia, Russia, and
Scandinavia, in the Alps and Pyrenees, the Ardennes and Bosges, and in
the northern parts of America, Africa, and Asia, also in central Asia.
It sometimes becomes rabid.

PRAIRIE WOLF, or Coyote (_Canis latrans_) has now been extirpated over
large tracts in Kansas, Nebraska, etc., but it may still be found where
the common wolf has disappeared, owing to its smaller size and less
dangerous character.


  The rodents are for the most part small animals, but their lack of
  size is made up by their great numbers. They have in the upper as
  well as in the lower jaw two chisel-like incisors, and from two to
  six molar teeth. The latter are separated from the incisors by a
  great gap. In the hares there are two little tack-like teeth behind
  the incisors. The incisors wear away on the inside more than on the
  outside, so that they are always very sharp.

  The rodents feed chiefly on plants. Some of them collect food for
  the winter; others sleep during the whole of that period. They
  inhabit all parts of the globe, but are more numerous in North
  America than anywhere else.

=Beaver= (_Castor fiber_).--The true beaver is now found in only a few
places in northern parts of Europe and Asia; but in North America a
variety of this animal, the American beaver (_Castor Canadensis_),
abounds in great numbers. It is now much hunted, as was formerly the
European variety, and the number of beaver furs sold in the markets
every year can be counted by thousands.

On the upper parts the fur is dark chestnut brown, while on the lower
parts it is lighter; its tail is almost bare, scaly, and twelve inches
long; the length of its whole body is thirty-two inches.

Beavers build lodges which contain many compartments, close to rivers
and lakes. These lodges consist of branches, tree-trunks, and mud, and
are divided into many different compartments. Such habitations are built
in pairs, one above the other, and lead into the water. As tools they
use their fore feet and their sharp teeth, by means of which they fell
stems of the thickness of twelve inches. They are shy, and do not leave
their homes before darkness in search of food, which consists of tender
barks and other vegetable matter. For the winter they collect large
stores of provisions. As the beavers are awkward on land, they try to
save themselves by jumping quickly into the water when pursued. They are
then in their own element, and are good swimmers and divers. They are
caught by means of nets and traps, which are placed close to their
lodges. Their soft furs are valuable. Though the subject of numerous
stories, the sagacity of the beaver is much exaggerated.

=Chinchilla= (_C. lanigera_), a South American rodent, well known by its
soft, gray fur. Two related animals form, along with the true
chinchilla, a small family in the porcupine section of the Rodent order.
All the three are somewhat squirrel-like animals, but have long hind
legs, bushy tail, very soft fur, and complete collar bones. The
chinchilla proper has a body about one foot long, and the tail measures
fully six inches. They are extremely active animals, and climb among the
rocks with the greatest agility. They are killed in thousands for the
sake of their fur.

=Dormouse= (_Muscardinus avellanarius_) is a pretty little animal, about
three inches in length, not including the bushy tail, which is almost as
long as the body. The general color is a beautiful tawny yellow, but
there is white on throat and breast. It is widely distributed and is
especially fond of hazel-copses. It feeds on nuts, seeds, berries, buds,
etc., grows very fat in autumn, sleeps intermittently through the winter
in a round grassy nest a little above the ground. The loir or fat
dormouse (_Myoxusglis_) is about twice the size of the common dormouse,
and has the hairs of the tail in two rows, as in squirrels. It is
ashen-gray, sometimes brownish above and white below. The favorite
haunts are in oak and beech woods.

=Hare= (_Lepus timidus_).--Hares and rabbits are of various colors, some
brown, some grey, while others are whitish; their ears are long; behind
the two front teeth, in the upper jaw, are two little tack-like teeth;
the small tail is black and white, and the body about sixteen inches
long. The name “hare” is given to the large forms, or types and “rabbit”
to the smaller. The hare is found in Europe and Western Asia. It is very
timid, and a nocturnal rather than a diurnal animal; but in a quiet
neighborhood it is also seen during the day. It does not leave the
district in which it was born unless it is forced to do so.

Hares multiply very rapidly, for they bring forth two to five young four
or five times a year, for which they construct a kind of nest. The old
animals choose a somewhat hollowed-out spot as their habitation, where
they are protected against the storms. As they are very fond of
cultivated plants, such as clover, carrots, turnips, young corn, and the
bark of young trees (especially of fruit trees), they do much damage in
fields and woods.

The RABBIT (_Lepus cuniculus_) is widely distributed in North America,
and there are numerous varieties. The Jack-rabbit of the west is the
largest. The original home of these sprightly little animals was Spain
and North Africa.

=Lemmings= (_Muodes lummus_).--These voracious little animals live in
the far north of Europe, and sometimes make migrations in vast numbers,
swimming across rivers and lakes, passing through towns and villages,
and climbing over mountains and rocks. Troops of birds of prey fly above
them, and they are followed by bears, foxes, martens, and weasels, so
that their migratory flocks often disappear as rapidly as they make
their appearance. They are about the size of a rat. The snowy lemming
turns white in winter.

=Marmot= (_Arctomys marmota_).--The upper parts of the marmot are
brownish black, its sides yellowish grey, while its lower parts are
reddish brown. It attains a length of sixteen inches, and is found in
both Europe and America. In North America, they are popularly termed
woodchuck or groundhogs. The marmots live together in social troops in
rocky caverns and feed on plants. In the autumn the marmots move into
their winter quarters. There they sleep through the whole winter,
huddled together in parties of three, five, and more, and apparently
lifeless. In this state they can be rolled about like balls without
being awakened until Spring, when they are usually hailed as weather
prophets. Marmots are easily tamed, and can be trained to perform many

=Mice= are the best known of the rodents, which only too often do a
great deal of harm by their predatory habits. Of these the domestic
mouse (_Mus musculus_), a swift and pretty little animal, which is very
much attached to our larder provisions. Even the elephant, the largest
among animals, fears this tiny rodent.

The domestic rat (_Mus rattus_) became known in Europe in the twelfth
century, and probably emigrated from Asia. The brown rats did not appear
in Europe until the eighteenth century. They are stronger than the
domestic rats, which they drive away or devour. Their food generally
consists in kitchen refuse of all sorts. If driven by hunger they even
eat their own kind.

=Porcupine= (_Hystrix cristata_).--This is quite a remarkable animal. It
attains the size of a badger, and inhabits South Europe, Africa, and
North America. Like the hedgehog, it is provided with a peculiar muscle,
which enables it to erect a coat of spines whenever danger threatens,
and it is thus protected against foxes and jackals, which often share
the porcupine’s habitation, and would very much like to devour their
fellow-lodger. In European porcupines, the spines or quills attain a
length of from ten to twelve inches. Our American species has quills
about three inches in length. The fore feet are supplied with sharp
claws, which are very necessary to the animal for digging out its
burrow. During the day the porcupines remain hidden in their burrows,
but at night they go out in search of food.

=Prairie Dog.=--This small rodent animal of the squirrel family is found
on the plains east of the rocky mountains. It resembles the marmot in
appearance, and has well-developed claws on all the toes of the
fore-feet; shallow cheek-pouches. The best known species is about one
foot in length, and has a tail of about four inches. On the upper
surface it is reddish-brown, variegated with gray. These animals live
together in great societies on those portions of the prairies where the
buffalo grass grows luxuriantly. Here they excavate burrows in the
ground in contiguity to each other, and, when the little creatures are
out, quite a busy scene is presented. The name is given on account of a
resemblance between its cry and the bark of a small dog.

=Rabbit.= See Hare.

=Rat.= See Mice.

=Squirrel= (_Sciurus vulgaris_).--In the summer the squirrel is brownish
red on the upper parts and white on the lower parts; in the winter,
brown red and light grey mixed. The black, white, and spotted squirrels
are rare. The tail of the squirrel is bushy and arranged in two lines of
bristles; its ears are adorned with a tuft of hair. Squirrels prefer the
forests of trees with pointed leaves to those with broad leaves, and are
always in motion, being equally adept in climbing, running, and jumping
from tree to tree. They feed on nuts, acorns, seeds of fir trees, young
shoots, young birds, and birds’ eggs, and do a great deal of harm. They
collect large stores for the winter, which they hide in hollow trees.
Their nests are globular, and made of bark and leaves; they often build
on the top of an old magpie’s nest. Their greatest enemy is the tree


  It is impossible to overestimate the importance of this order,
  because all the domestic animals which are used for food belong to

  The name Ungulata is derived from the Latin word _ungula_, which
  signifies a nail, claw, or hoof. The Ungulates, which are all
  vegetable feeders except the pig and the peccary, include the
  largest of all the mammals, save only the whale and the sea

=Antelope= (_Antilopidæ_).--The family of antelopes is a very large one,
and includes many important species. It belongs to the order of
Ruminants in which the horns consist of a horny sheath, surrounding a
bony process of the skull, and are permanent, not annually renewed. The
body is slender and deer-like, the feet small and elegant, the tail
short and tufted, the hair generally short, and the color often lively.
Some species, however, have comparatively long hair; and a few which
inhabit cold mountainous regions are clothed with wool mixed with longer
and coarser hair, as in the chamois of the Alps, Caucasus, etc.; the
Rocky Mountain goat of North America; and the chiru of the Himalayas.
The females of many species, as of deer, are destitute of horns; and if
they alone came under observation, it would be difficult to say to which
genus they belonged. The size is very various; the guevi, or pigmy
antelope of Africa (_Antilope pygmæa_), is only eight to nine inches
high at the shoulders, while the largest forms measure five or six feet.
Almost all the species of antelopes are peaceable, timid animals, and
are distinguished by agility and fleetness. most of them are gregarious.
Some inhabit plains; others are found only in the most inaccessible
mountainous regions; others still, dwell in jungles and deep forests.
Many, on the other hand, are water-loving forms, and frequent the banks
of rivers.

North America possesses two species, found only in the western parts of
the continent, the prong-horn (_Antilocapra_) and the Rocky Mountain
goat (_Aplocerus_), which depart considerably from the typical character
of the genus. The prong-horn sheds the horns annually like most species
of deer. Europe produces only the Alpine chamois and the saiga (_A.
saiga_), which inhabits the southern plains of Poland and Russia. Most
species are African, and take the place of the true deer in that
continent. The Springbok is goat-like in form and movement; the Gnu,
with a body resembling that of a horse, but with forward-directed,
hook-shaped horns; the Eland, or Cape Elk, with nearly straight
backward-directed spiral horns; and the Gazelle, of north Africa, with
nearly upright horns and noted for the luster of its eyes. In India is
the curious Chickara, the females of which are hornless, while the males
have four horns.

=Bison.=--The name applied to two species of ox. One of these, the
European bison, or aurochs, (_Bos bison_ or _Bison europæus_), is now
nearly extinct, being found only in the forests of Lithuania and the
Caucasus. The other, or American bison, improperly termed buffalo
(_Bison americanus_), is found only in the region lying north and south
between the Great Slave Lake and the Yellowstone River, and is rapidly
becoming extinct in the wild state, though formerly to be met with in
immense herds. The two species closely resemble each other, the American
bison, however, being for the most part smaller, and with shorter and
weaker hind-quarters. The bison is remarkable for the great hump or
projection over its fore-shoulders, at which point the adult male is
almost six feet in height; and for the long, shaggy rust-colored hair
over the head, neck, and forepart of the body. In summer, from the
shoulders backward, the surface is covered with a very short, fine hair,
smooth and soft as velvet. The tail is short and tufted at the end. The
American bison used to be much hunted for sport as well as for its flesh
and skin. Its flesh is rather coarser grained than that of the domestic
ox, but was considered by hunters and travelers as superior in
tenderness and flavor. The hump is highly celebrated for its richness
and delicacy. Their skins, especially that of the cow, dressed in the
Indian fashion, with the hair on, make admirable defenses against the
cold, and are known as _buffalo robes_; the wool has been manufactured
into hats, and a coarse cloth. The American bison has been found to
breed readily with the common ox, the issue being fertile among

=Buffalo.= See Bison.

=Chamois= (_Capella rupicapra_).--This European representative of the
Antelope family attains the size of a goat. It is red in summer, and
dark brown in the winter, the lower portion of the body being lighter,
while a dark, brownish-black band reaches from the corner of the mouth
to the eyes. It has small, erect horns, which are curved backwards at
the tips. The chamois is found in herds, numbering from five to twenty,
in the Carpathian Mountains, the Pyrenees, and the Apennines; but most
frequently in the Alps of Bavaria and Styria. It feeds on the buds of
Alpine herbs and trees. When pursued it will leap down the most
precipitous cliffs. The peculiar flavor of the flesh of these animals,
especially of the young ones, is greatly appreciated by many persons.
Out of their skin, a leather is manufactured noted for its softness. The
horns are utilized for handles of various kinds.

=Deer= (_Cervidæ_) are animals of graceful form, combining much
compactness and strength with slenderness of limb and fleetness. They
use their horns for weapons of defense and offense; but in general they
trust to flight for their safety. They have a long neck, a small head,
which they carry high, large ears, and large, full eyes. Many have scent
glands, usually beneath the eyes, which serve as sexual attractions.
Deer are distinguished from all other ruminants by their branching horns
(antlers), which in most species exist in the male only; they are solid,
fall off annually, and are renewed with increase of size, and number of
branches, according to the kind, until the animal has reached old age.

Deer are found in almost all parts of the globe except Australia and the
south of Africa, their place in the latter region being supplied by
antelopes; the greater number inhabit the warmer temperate countries,
and they are chiefly found in wide plains and hills of moderate height.
The flesh (venison) of most kinds of deer is highly esteemed for the
table, and they have long been regarded as among the noblest objects of
the chase. Only one species, the reindeer, can be said to have been
fully domesticated.

ELK (_Cervus alces_).--This animal is the largest representative of the
genus of stags. It is the size of a horse, and its head is adorned with
large antlers. The elk inhabits the northern regions of Europe and
America. It is hunted for the sake of its excellent flesh, but the
hunting of this strong and swift animal is attended with many dangers.
It swims across the largest rivers. The Elk of Europe is called Moose in

FALLOW DEER (_Cervus capreolus_).--Nearly everybody has seen this
graceful animal. It attains the size of a goat. The head of the male,
the roebuck, is adorned with small but strong antlers, which are shed
every year at the end of autumn. The fallow deer go about in troops, and
feed on grass, clover, corn, and fruit. Their young are called kids, and
the female, does. They are hunted for the sake of their flesh.

RED DEER (_Cervus elaphus_) is much larger than the fallow deer, and is
the grandest animal of the higher species of game. The male carries
large, branching antlers, which it loses in February of each year. The
antlers of the one-year-old stag are like a spear, in the second year
they are fork-shaped, and in those appearing later two more prongs are
added each year. The stag has a greyish-brown fur. During the day it
remains in the recesses of the forests; in the evening and night it
roams in herds in search of food, which consists of various grasses and
herbs, and the twigs and bark of trees. It runs with great swiftness
when scenting danger, and will wade, or swim rivers and lakes.

[Illustration: =OKAPI= (Page 202)]

[Illustration: =ZEBRA= (Page 203)]

=Gayal= (_Bibos frontalis_), a species of ox, which is found in the
mountains of Aracan, Chittagong, Tipura, and Sylhet. It is about the
size of the Indian buffalo, is dark brown, and has short curved horns.

=Gazelle= (_Gazella Dorcas_), is a species of antelope about the size of
a roebuck, but of lighter and more graceful form, with longer and more
slender limbs. It is of a light tawny color, the under parts white; a
broad brown band along each flank; the hair short and smooth. The face
is reddish fawn-color, with white and dark stripes. The horns of the old
males are nine or ten inches long, bending outward and then inward, like
the sides of a lyre, also backward at the base and forward at the tips,
tapering to a point, surrounded by thirteen or fourteen permanent rings,
the rings near the base being closest together and most perfect. The
ears are long, narrow, and pointed; the eyes very large, soft, and
black; there is a tuft of hair on each knee; the tail is short, with
black hairs on its upper surface only, and at its tip. The gazelle is a
native of the North of Africa, and of Syria, Arabia and Persia.

=Giraffe= (_Camelopardalis giraffa_).--This strange looking animal has
the head of the horse, the neck and hoof of the stag, the callous breast
of the camel, and the spotted skin of the panther. On its forehead it
has two horny excrescences. It attains a height of sixteen feet.

[Illustration: =GIRAFFE= (Page 201)]

The giraffe lives in the wooded plains of central Africa, feeds on the
leaves of trees, and is generally seen in small troops. Its rapidity is
extraordinary; not even the Arabian horse can overtake it. It is often
attacked by the lion, which lies in wait for it near the rivers and
springs, where it comes to drink.

=Gnu= (_Catoblepas_), genus of antelopes of which the best known species
has been often described as apparently made up of parts of different
animals, not only of the antelope and the ox or buffalo, but even of the
horse. This species (_C. Gnu_) is a native of South Africa; it has
disappeared from the more settled parts of Cape Colony, but is to be
seen in herds on the arid plains beyond these boundaries in company with
small troops of zebras, and with flocks of ostriches. The size of the
gnu is that of a large ass; the general color is yellowish-tawny. Both
sexes have horns. The limbs are slender, like those of deer and
antelopes. The gnu gallops with great speed. It has been usually
represented as a very fierce animal, and certainly shows much ability
to defend itself with its horns, when unable to escape from danger by
flight; but when taken young it is easily tamed, and readily associates
with oxen, accompanying them to and from the field.


=Ibex or Wild Goat= (_Capra ibex_).--Different species of the ibex
inhabit the mountain regions of Europe and Asia. It has a
greyish-yellow, long fur, and powerful horns bent obliquely backwards.
It frequently attains a weight of two hundred pounds. It is a true
mountain animal, and was formerly spread all over the Swiss and Tyrolese
Alps, but is at present found only in limited numbers.

=Markhor= (_Copra falconeri_), from Tibet, Cashmere, and Afghanistan, is
a strong, powerful goat, with corkscrew horns, much larger in the males,
which are also distinguished by a thick mane on the neck and breast.

=Musk-Ox= (_Ovibos moschatus_).--The Musk-ox, or Musk-Sheep, has its
home in central Asia and Arctic America. The male has in its upper jaw
two incisors in the shape of tusks, and in a gland of its abdomen the
well-known, strong-scented musk. In the forests of the Himalayas it is
found at elevations of upwards of eight thousand five hundred feet. A
full-grown animal weighs about four hundred and fifty pounds. They live
in herds, and feed on mosses, leaves and underbrush.

=Okapi= (_Ocapia_), a giraffe-like animal discovered by Sir H. H.
Johnston in the Semliki forest in central Africa. Its neck and legs are
shorter than in the giraffe, ears larger and broader. The general color
of the upper parts is a slightly purplish chocolate-brown; buttocks and
upper parts of fore and hind legs have wavy black stripes on a buff
ground. The living okapi is classed with the giraffe group.

=Sambur= (_Cervus aristotelis_), a species of stag abundant in the
forest-land of some parts of India, Burma, and China. It stands about
five feet high, is a powerful animal, and is much hunted. The color is
dark brown; the antlers are rounded, and belong to a type known as

=Tahr= (_Hemitragus jemlaicus_), a goat-like animal, differs from the
true goats, especially in the absence of a beard. The male is generally
from three to three and a half feet in height at the shoulder; the horns
seldom exceed fifteen inches in length. The doe is a smaller animal. The
coat is fawn brown in color, and is long on the neck, chest, and
shoulders. The home of the Tahr is chiefly in the elevated forest
regions of the Himalayas; and it frequents almost inaccessible spots.

=Vicuna= (_Auchenia vicugna_) is a species of the South American animals
allied to the camels. The vicuna lives wild, and frequents the most
desolate parts of the Cordillera, at great elevations, delighting in a
kind of grass, the yehu, which abounds there in moist places. The small
herds commonly include from six to fifteen females with one male. When
the females are quietly grazing, the male stands apart, and carefully
keeps guard, giving notice of danger by a kind of whistling sound, and a
quick movement of foot. The soft wool is much valued for weaving.

=Wild Goats.=--See Ibex, Markhor, Tahr.


=Zebra= (_Equus zebra_).--The true zebra is a native of South Africa;
lives in troops, and is very swift and savage, and therefore difficult
to tame. Its general color is creamy white, marked with black
cross-stripes everywhere except the belly. The Quagga, its nearest
relative, has legs and entire hind-quarters unstriped. It is hunted by
the natives for the sake of its beautiful fur and its savory flesh and
is also a favorite food of the lion.


  The animals belonging to this division are mostly of immense size,
  and are very thick-skinned and scantily covered with hair; they are
  therefore called “Pachydermata.”

=Elephant= (_Elephas_).--There are two species of the Elephant: the
African elephant and the Indian Elephant (_Elephas Indicus_). The
elephant is the largest of the land animals. It has been known to live
from one hundred to four hundred years, and weighs from six thousand to
eight thousand pounds. Its height reaches ten feet, its length from
thirteen to sixteen feet. Its thick, wrinkled skin is covered with a few
bristles. The eyes are small, the ears large, and its nose is prolonged
into a long, flexible trunk. In the upper jaw of the male animal are two
tusks (or thrusting teeth), which are from three to six feet long, and
from thirty to seventy pounds in weight; these furnish valuable ivory.
The tail is long, and has at its end a tuft of coarse bristles. The
elephant is a native of central Africa.

The Indian elephant lives in herds of from thirty to two hundred, and is
fond of marshy districts. It feeds, in its wild state, on the leaves and
twigs of trees, and is a harmless, peaceable animal, so long as it is
not provoked. It does great harm to the plantations of rice, sugar, and
coffee whenever it forces its way through them. Its docility and
prudence are astonishing; its senses of smell and hearing are also
greatly developed.

The first elephants are mentioned in the history of Alexander the Great.
He brought three hundred of them from India to Babylon. At present they
are little used as domestic animals, although many are still kept for
that purpose in Ceylon and Burma. They are eagerly hunted for their
tusks. About ten thousand are said to be killed annually.

=Hippopotamus= (_Hippos amphibius_).--There is only one species of the
hippopotamus now living--that of Africa. It is nearly as tall as the
rhinoceros--viz., about five feet; but it exceeds twelve feet in length.
The eyes and ears are small, its neck short and thick, and its feet
clumsy. Its incisor teeth grow from twelve to eighteen inches long, and
weigh from two to six pounds. It is found in all lakes and rivers, and
its principal food is grass; sometimes it commits great ravages in the
plantations. It is by nature peaceful, but when provoked gets into a
violent rage. Some consider its flesh savory. Its skin, when cut into
strips, is manufactured into whips; its teeth are worked like ivory, and
are especially used for the manufacture of artificial teeth.

=Rhinoceros= (_Rhinoceros_).--The Indian rhinoceros and that of Java
have only one horn on the nose, while the African species has two. The
white rhinoceros of Africa is the largest, attaining to a length of over
twelve feet, and a height of nearly six feet; but the black rhinoceros
is best known. These awkward animals are enveloped in a wrinkled and
bare hide, which may be compared to a coat-of-mail. They live either
solitary or in small herds, in marsh and well-watered districts, and
feed on grass, leaves, and roots. They only attack an enemy when
provoked. Their horn is a terrible weapon. It is a bony excrescence,
extremely sharp-pointed, and is used for ploughing up hard ground, or
uprooting strong trees. When fighting with the elephant the rhinoceros
attempts to rip up its enemy’s abdomen.

=Tapir= (_Tapirus Americanus_).--This denizen of South America lies
concealed in the recesses of the forests during the day, but in the
evening and early morning it frequents the marshes and rivers, where it
wallows in the mud with its young. It feeds on the branches of trees,
but also ravages the fields. All are bulky beasts, recalling somewhat
the swine in appearance. They have the snout prolonged into a flexible
proboscis with the nostrils at the tip. Their flesh is said to be good.

=Wild Pig= (_Sus scrofa_) lives in herds in the well-watered forests of
central and southern Europe, in central and western Asia, and in north
Africa. The adult males are called boars, the females wild sows, and the
young shoats. They feed on the fruits of forest trees, roots, etc., and
do great damage in the fields by raking up the earth for long distances.
For this reason and also for the sake of their flesh they are hunted.


  Some of the animals belonging to this division have no teeth at all,
  and all are without the front incisors. They are slow, stupid
  animals, and work only in the night-time. They are all inhabitants
  of Brazil with the exception of two species. Nearly all are provided
  with very long claws. They live in trees or in subterraneous

=Ant-eater or Ant-bear= (_Myrmecophaga jubata_) attains a length of six
feet six inches, of which its long-haired, plumy tail takes twenty-eight
inches. The color of its hair is blackish brown; it can project its
worm-like tongue to a distance of sixteen inches. The Great Ant-eater is
a native of Brazil and Guiana, and much the largest of all the species.

The ant-eater inhabits the same regions as the sloth. It feeds on ants
and termites. Raking up the habitations of these insects with its sharp
claws, it inserts its proboscis, and begins to work with its viscous
(sticky) tongue, to which hundreds of ants remain sticking.

=Armadillo= (_Dasypus peba_).--A mammal peculiar to South America,
consisting of various species, belonging to a family intermediate
between the sloths and ant-eaters. They are covered with a hard bony
shell, divided into belts, composed of small separate plates like a coat
of mail, flexible everywhere except on the forehead, shoulders, and
haunches, where it is not movable. The belts are connected by a
membrane, which enables the animal to roll itself up like a hedgehog.
These animals burrow in the earth, where they lie during the daytime,
seldom going abroad except at night. They are of different sizes; the
largest, _Dasypus gigas_, being three feet in length without the tail,
and the smallest only ten inches. They subsist chiefly on fruits and
roots, sometimes on insects and flesh. They are inoffensive, and their
flesh is esteemed good food.

=Pangolin= (_Manis longicaudata_).--There are several species of these
scaly ant-eaters. They are found in Africa and Asia, and are covered
with dark brown scales, which are arranged one above the other like
tiles. When danger approaches the pangolin does not run away, but rolls
itself together into a ball like the hedge-hog.

=Sloth= (_Bradypus pallidus_).--The general color of the sloth is
reddish grey, its abdomen lighter. It is about sixteen inches in length,
and has three long claws on each foot.

It inhabits the thickets of the virgin forests of Brazil, passing its
life in laziness upon the tops of trees, the leaves of which form its
food. During the day it hangs down asleep from a bough, and is then only
discovered with difficulty. In the same position it creeps along the
boughs, and does not leave the tree until the latter is stripped of all
its leaves and fruits. When it descends to the ground it is very
helpless, and can neither walk nor stand. It gives the best proof of its
skill when climbing, hanging down from a bough by means of one of its
feet, while it seizes the fruits with the other. It sometimes pierces
the large snakes of Brazil with its long claws, so that they die from
loss of blood. Its attachment to its young is very touching and the
mother carries them on her back from bough to bough.

=POUCHED ANIMALS= (_Marsupialia_)

  The marsupials have in the abdomen a pouch, a sort of bag or purse,
  in which they carry about their young. In some species the hind legs
  are developed to an extraordinary degree, whereby they are enabled
  to jump great distances. Their original home is Australia; but
  several species are also found in America. They feed partly on
  plants, partly on animal matter.

=Kangaroo= (_Macropus giganteus_).--The fur of the kangaroo is greyish
brown, somewhat lighter on the sides, while the lower parts are whitish.
Its body is six feet long, and its tail nearly three feet. It inhabits
Australia, and is found chiefly in New South Wales and Tasmania. It is
the largest quadruped of that part of the globe. The front of its body
is extremely slim in proportion to its hind quarters, and its hind legs
are five times longer than the front ones. The kangaroo is a peaceful,
shy, grazing animal. When startled it tries to get away from its
pursuers by immense bounds. Its swiftness is so great that, at least
across flat country, the fastest dog cannot equal it. But when it is
brought to bay it will defend itself most pertinaciously with its sharp
claws, and with powerful strokes of its tail. It will seize even large
dogs with its fore feet, and tear open their breasts and abdomens, often
carrying them to neighboring water to drown them. The flesh of the
kangaroo is eaten; its hair makes a good fur.

=Koala= (_Phascolarctus cinereus_), a marsupial, restricted to eastern
Australia. The toes of the fore-feet are in two opposable groups, of
two or three, a characteristic not found in any other quadruped, but
well adapted to grasping the branches of trees, on which the koala often
hangs with its back undermost, like the sloth. There is scarcely any
rudiment of a tail.

=Opossum= (_Didelphys virginiana_).--The American opossum is perhaps the
best known and certainly not the least interesting of the pouched
animals. It abounds in the warmer parts of North America, extending
considerably north of Virginia. In form it is robust and in size about
that of an ordinary cat. The color of its fine wholly fur ranges from
white to black, and includes numerous varieties of intermixture. They
have a long tail, which is almost destitute of hair, and is very useful
from its prehensile nature, enabling the animal not only to hang by it,
but also to climb and descend trees. They are sly and live chiefly in
trees, lying up in the daytime, and at night roaming in search of their
food, which consists of insects, small reptiles, birds’ eggs, etc.
Caught red-handed in one of its marauding excursions, or captured under
any other circumstances, the slightest blow causes it immediately to
feign death, even to the extent of a protruding tongue and film-covered
eyes. It may be battered almost beyond recognition and will lie where it
has been flung without so much as the flicker of an eyelid. The moment,
however, that its captor takes attention from it, the presumably dead
animal regains its feet and effects its escape. “Possuming” is a slang
term that has come into use to denote the acme of human artfulness and

A wonderfully pretty species of opossum which lives in Surinam is
scarcely larger than a good-sized mouse, the body measuring only six
inches from the nose to the root of the tail. It has scarcely a vestige
of pouch, and so, robbed of this advantage, it carries its young on its
back, curling its tail over, so as to allow the little ones to twist
their tails around it. With her progeny thus secured from falling the
mother can pursue her way in comfort. Even some of the larger opossums
adopt this method of carrying their young.


  A Bat is provided with true wings, with which it is able not merely
  to propel itself through the air for a longer or a shorter distance,
  but to fly like a bird by beating the air with its anterior members.
  The Colugo, in common with the Flying Squirrel and the Flying
  Phalanger, has the skin of the flanks extended in a manner capable
  of sustaining the animals, very much in the manner of a parachute,
  in an extended leap through the air. But bats possess the power of
  true flight. They move through the air with ease, and in pursuit of
  their insect-prey wheel and double and circle about with a
  nimbleness that the human eye can only follow with difficulty.

  The bats are strange looking animals, being half mouse, half bird;
  their fore limbs are very long, and between these and the hind
  limbs, and also generally extending to the tail, there is a delicate
  membrane, which enables them to fly. Their eyes are small; their
  large ears erect; their teeth sharp. The flight of the bats is
  swift and noiseless, but not enduring. They could not, like the
  migratory birds, fly off in the autumn towards warmer countries.
  Therefore in the winter they retire into clefts and crannies, where
  they suspend themselves by the claws of their hind feet, and sleep
  until the rays of the spring sun warm their benumbed limbs. Our
  native bats feed upon insects, and are consequently useful. In the
  warm summer evenings they can be seen flitting around the blossoming
  trees in order to catch the honey-sucking moths. They do not build
  any nest for their young, but the latter cling between the folds of
  the wings of the parent animal, and are thus carried about by her on
  her excursions.

  The best known of the foreign kinds are the vampire bat of South
  America and the colugo bat. In the flying lemur, or colugo, the
  hairy fold of skin begins behind the throat, includes fore and hind
  limbs as far as the claws, and extends along the tail to the tip.
  The animal has been observed to swoop over a distance of seventy
  yards. The flying lemurs are about twenty inches in length, are
  natives of the Indian Archipelago, inhabit lofty trees in dense
  forests, and feed chiefly on leaves and fruits, though said at times
  to eat insects, eggs, and even small birds. They are nocturnal in
  their habits, and very inoffensive, scarcely attempting to bite even
  when seized. Their voice resembles the low cackling of a goose.

THE SEALS (_Pinnipedia_)

  In the seals the five toes of the limbs have become palmate, being
  joined together by a web; the hind feet have a backward, horizontal
  direction. Their food consists of small marine animals and plants.

=Seal= (_Phoca vitulina_).--The habitat of the common seal is spread
over a large area, but it is chiefly found in the northern seas. It is
nearly six feet long, and its fur is yellowish grey, sprinkled above
with dark-brown spots. It has no exterior ear. To the inhabitants of the
north the seal is a most useful animal; its flesh and fat form their
chief food, with its oil they illuminate the long winter nights, its
sinews they use as thread, from its bones they make various domestic
implements, and with its fur they cover their tents and sledges. Seals
are gentle animals, and when tamed exhibit great attachment to man. When
wounded they snap savagely in all directions. Seal-hunting forms one of
the most important branches of commerce among seafaring nations. Over a
thousand vessels leave America every year to take part in seal-hunting;
and as one vessel will sometimes capture nearly two thousand seals, some
idea may be obtained of the immense number of these animals which are
slain annually.

=Walrus= (_Trichechus rosmarus_).--This animal is from eighteen to
twenty-two feet long, and weighs from two thousand to three thousand
pounds. It is easily recognized by the long tusks in its upper jaw,
which attain a length of eighteen to twenty-four inches.

The walrus lives in the northern Polar seas, where it is sometimes met
with in herds of a thousand to two thousand head. They either swim about
in the water or lie basking in the sun upon ice-floes. When they are
about to sleep one remains awake as sentinel. They attract whole herds
to their assistance by their terrific roaring, which can be heard for
several miles; in all directions their black heads, with red, dilated
eyes, and gleaming tusks, emerge from the water. The walrus is hunted
for its tusks, skin and oil.




[Illustration: =A FLYING FROG=

It glides through air by means of the membranes uniting the toes, but is
not capable of sustained flight.]

[Illustration: =COMMON BAT=

The bat is the only animal, outside of the birds, that can really fly in
the true sense.]

=Sea Lion= (_Otaria stelleri_).--The home of the Sea Lion is Bering Sea,
and as far South as the Kurile Islands on the one side of the north
Pacific and California on the other. In the latter case a rookery of sea
lions is strictly preserved by the American Government, or probably long
ere this the animal would have been exterminated in those waters, as it
has been in many other regions after a century and a half of constant

The male sea lion, of eleven or twelve feet in length and a thousand
pounds in weight, is yellowish-brown in color with shaded darker
patches. There is a distinct mane upon the neck, which, with its
upright posture, combines to give the creature its supposed leonine
appearance. The males are fierce in aspect, and if hard pressed will
turn and show fight. Old animals bellow like bulls; the younger ones
bleat like sheep. They bolt their fish without mastication. The female
is only about half the dimensions of the male, and is considerably
lighter in color. The animal is useful only for its hide, flesh, and

THE WHALES (_Cetacea_)

  Under the general name of Cetacea, _i.e._, the Whales, are classed
  together a wonderful group of marine Mammalia, which includes not
  only the true whales, but also the Dolphin, Narwhal, Porpoise, and

  Notwithstanding their marked resemblance to fishes, the Cetacea
  possess the most indubitable mammalian character.

  In the cetacea the bodies are elongated, fish-like, devoid of hair,
  and run out into a powerful caudal fin. The fore limbs are in the
  form of fins; there are no hind limbs. The cetacea are marine
  animals, and their food consists wholly of water animals and plants.

  The whale is an astonishing animal, and in order that it may subsist
  a number of apparently contradictory conditions must be reconciled.
  It is a warm-blooded mammal, and yet spends its life wholly in cold
  water. In order to dive to great depths it must be able to make its
  body heavier than a corresponding bulk of water, and conversely at
  will make it lighter in order to reach the surface. Though breathing
  atmospheric air through nostrils, the animal can exist at a greater
  depth than where the pressure of the water would force its particles
  into solid oak, and yet no water can reach the whales’ lungs. It
  must be able to exist without breathing at all for at least the
  space of an hour. With the bones, ears, and eyes of a mammal it has
  to move, hear, and see as though it were a fish.

  The “spouting” or “blowing” of the whale is simply an operation of
  purifying its blood. When the animal comes to the surface, it first
  expels the air in its lungs as it takes its first deep breath.

=Dolphin= (_Delphinus delphis_).--The dolphin is grey or greenish black
on its upper parts, and white beneath. It generally attains a length of
six feet, and lives in herds in all the northern seas. Hundreds of these
swift animals are often seen around vessels, and amuse the passengers by
their playful gambols. They feed chiefly on fish.

=Greenland Whale= (_Balæna mysticetus_).--This whale is greyish black on
its upper parts, and white beneath. It is from forty-eight to
seventy-two feet long, and weighs upwards of twenty thousand pounds. It
is the largest of all living animals; a boat with six persons could
enter its jaws. Its tongue is nine feet broad, eighteen feet long, and
weighs about eight hundred pounds.

The whale inhabits the northern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific. It
has been hunted for the sake of its blubber since the ninth century. A
whale forty-eight feet long, and fourteen thousand pounds in weight,
will furnish six thousand pounds of blubber, from which four thousand
eight hundred pounds of oil will be obtained; there will also be over
three thousand pounds of whalebone, which lies in the upper jaw in the
place of teeth.

=Narwhal,= or =Sea Unicorn= (_Monodon monoceros_), allied to the
dolphins and porpoises. The male has one--almost invariably the left--of
the teeth or tusks in the upper jaw extraordinarily developed into a
spirally furrowed horn of pure ivory from six to ten feet long. This is
the longest tooth found in the Mammalia. The adult animal is from ten to
sixteen feet long. It has a grey back, mottled with black, the under
parts being much lighter, but also spotted. It has a blunt, short head,
no dorsal fin and very small flippers, but is very active and a rapid
swimmer. It is peculiar to the Arctic Ocean, though it occasionally
strays as far south as the British seas. The oil is valuable and the
flesh edible. The ivory is very fine, and in the castle of Rosenborg at
Copenhagen is a throne of the kings of Denmark made of this substance.

=Porpoise= (_Phocæna communis_).--The porpoise, five, six, or seven feet
in length, is common in the North Atlantic. Often off the British coasts
a shoal of porpoises may be seen frolicking quite near to the shore.
Passengers on board ocean-going liners are always interested in watching
the sportive “black pigs,” as sailors call them, race along the side of
the ship. The animals are captured chiefly for their oil, and the skin
can be converted into useful leather.

=Rorqual= (_Balænoptera musculus_).--The common Rorqual is a typical
species of the “finners,” as sailors term them; the generic name means
“Finned Whale,” in reference to the small back fin that lies near the
region of the tail. It attains an enormous size; one caught in the North
Sea was ninety-five feet in length, twenty-two feet in width, and
weighed over two hundred and fifty tons. Rorquals are the most widely
distributed of all the larger Cetaceans; they are found nearly
everywhere outside the Antarctic regions.

WHALE FISHERIES.--With the older method of whale-fishing the chief
products were oil and whalebone. Recently the industry has been
revolutionized, principally by Norwegians, and practically every part of
the animal is used. For the new method a suitable island is selected, a
cutting-up station constructed, and all whales killed are towed to the
station and there drawn upon land to be dealt with. The modern
whaling-vessel is a small and powerful steamer with a heavy harpoon gun
mounted in the bows. The harpoon is a special kind of barbed spear. No
boats are used, the steamer following the whales when sighted. By
dealing with the carcase on shore all parts are now used, including the
bone, blubber (or fat), the soft parts after the oil has been expressed
being prepared as fertilizers. The flesh is asserted to be palatable and
may ultimately be sold for food.


These are perhaps the most beautiful of the heron family and are much
persecuted by the plumage hunters for the sake of the spray-like plumes
which grow on their backs in the breeding season.]


The birds have a hard, bony skeleton, and red, warm blood; they breathe
by means of lungs, and lay eggs with hard shells. Their bodies are
covered with feathers, their fore limbs are changed into wings.


In some ways birds are the highest of the vertebrate animals. They
represent the climax of that passage from water to land which the
backboned series illustrates. Their skeleton is more modified from the
general type than that of mammals; their arrangements for locomotion,
breathing, and nutrition are certainly not less perfect; their body
temperature, higher than that of any other animals, is an index to the
intense activity of their general life; their habitual and adaptive
intelligence is familiarly great, while in range of emotion and sense
impressions they must be allowed the palm. It is, in fact, only when we
emphasize the development of the nervous system and the closeness of
connection between mother and offspring, that the mammals are seen to
have a right to their pre-eminence over birds.


With few exceptions, birds have a vocal organ, and are able to produce
more or less variable sounds. The organ is, however, wanting in the
running birds, such as the ostrich, and in the American vultures. The
sounds produced are almost as varied as the different kinds of birds,
and an expert has little difficulty in identifying a great number of
forms by their distinctive noises. It is among the so-called perchers,
songsters, or Insessores, that we find song really developed and that
for the most part in the males, and in highest degree at breeding-time.


The _integument_ differs markedly from that of other animals in being
clad with feathers. Three distinct kinds of feathers are at once
distinguishable--(_a_) the small hair-like downy rudimentary
_filoplumes_; (_b_) the numerous smaller contour or covering _plumes_;
and (_c_) the large strong quill-feathers or _pennæ_ on wings and tail.
The ordinary feather consists of a quill at the base of a shaft up the
center, and of the vane borne on the sides of the shaft. The vane
consists of parallel barbs, which are linked together by small barbules.
On the bare legs of many birds the feathers are replaced by horny
scales, and the horny structures forming the beak and terminating the
toes are very familiar.


  The birds of prey have a hooked, curved beak, at the base of which
  are the nostrils, surrounded by cere skin. They live chiefly upon
  warm-blooded animals, which they seize with their claws and tear in
  pieces with their beak. There are more than five hundred varieties,
  which are separated into day and night birds of prey.

  Eagles, falcons, hawks, harriers, buzzards, and the like are adapted
  for the pursuit of prey not only by possession of strong, hooked
  beaks, powerful talons, and keen powers of vision, but also by the
  swiftness of their flight. Many of them--for example, falcons--are
  able to poise themselves, apparently motionless, in the air till
  some such prey as a young rabbit or small bird is discovered, and
  then swoop down upon the victim with almost incredible rapidity.

=Condor= (_Sarcorhamphus condor_).--Largest of vultures, averaging nine
feet wing expanse, lives among the peaks of the Andes but descends for
food. Its feet are not adapted for grasping, and it cannot truly perch
nor carry objects when flying; it sleeps soundly, can be lassoed at
night and kills small quadrupeds, besides feeding on carrion. The condor
lays two white eggs four inches long, on bare rock, hatched in seven
weeks. The young are brown and a year old before they can fly. The male
is black with white ruff, has wing bars and tip of bill; wattles are
present on the head and breast. The female lacks comb, wattles, and has
less white. The young do not acquire full plumage for six years. The
condor depends more on sight than smell in finding food.

=Eagle= (_Aquila_) is a name given to many birds of prey in the Falcon
family. The golden eagle, the white-headed eagle, and the sea-eagles are
characteristic examples. The falcon family includes over three hundred
predacious birds, feeding for the most part on living animals, hunting
by day, and living usually on exposed rocky places. The bill is
powerful, but rather short, high at the root, and slightly curved; the
partition between the nostrils is complete; the upper margin of the
eye-socket projects; the head and neck are feathered; the soles of the
feet bear large callosities.

Representatives of this noble genus are found in all parts of the world
except the neotropical and Australian regions.

The GOLDEN EAGLE is a large and magnificent bird. The predominant color
is dark, tawny brown, but the back of the head and neck are more tawny
and look golden in the sunlight. The young birds have tails of a
brighter color. The adult female measures about three feet in length;
the male is rather less both in length of body and wing. The golden
eagles have their homes in remote rocky regions, but often wander far in
search of booty. They prey upon numerous mammals and birds, but are
rarely willing to run any great risks in so doing. The nest, usually
upon a rocky ledge, is large and roughly made. There are most commonly
two eggs. Though a strong and majestic bird, it cannot be credited with
much bravery. The occasional cry is loud and shrill, but with some
hoarseness. The species is widely distributed in Europe, Asia and North

The crested eagles are found in parts of both hemispheres, and are in
some species distinguished by tufts of feathers on the back of the head.
The harrier-eagle is an Old-World bird represented in Europe, north
Africa, and western Asia. The fishing eagle or fish-hawk is an almost
cosmopolitan bird, with markedly piscivorous diet. The bald eagle has
the tarsus feathered only halfway to toes; with white head and tail
after third year. Its length is about 36 inches. The bald eagle is the
emblem of the United States, feeds on fish, sometimes secured by robbing
the osprey and sometimes found as carrion.

EAGLES AS EMBLEMS.--In the arms of the present German empire an eagle
(with one head) sustains on its breast a shield containing the arms of
Prussia. Austria has preserved the double-headed eagle of the earlier
German empire. Russia assumed in 1472 the double-headed eagle under Ivan
III. to signify that the czar sprang from the Greek emperors, who had
borne it as a symbol since the partition of the Roman empire. A white
crowned eagle in a red field was the shield of the kingdom of Poland.
The arms adopted by the United States consist of a dark-brown eagle with
outspread wings, having in one of its talons a bundle of arrows, in the
other an olive branch, bearing on its breast a shield whose upper part
is blue and under part silver, and crossed by six red vertical bars. In
its beak it holds a band with the inscription _E. pluribus unum_,
surmounted by thirteen stars, the original number of states.

=Falcons= (_Falco_) are birds of medium or small size, having short,
strong beak, with a sharp hook at tip and a strong tooth on each side of
upper mandible; legs short and strong, middle toe long, claws much
curved and sharp, tail short and stiff, wings long and pointed. There
are about fifty species, some known as hawks. True falcons, in hunting
prey rise high in air above and swoop down. Hawks chase the prey near
the ground. The most common falcon is dark-bluish above and white below
with bars; the young are brownish above and streaked below. The largest
falcon is found in the Scandinavian Mountains. Among small falcons are
the sparrow-hawk of the United States and the kestrel of Europe. They
feed on mice and insects. Most falcons prey upon birds, attacking some
even larger than themselves. They, at one time, were trained for hunting
the heron, sparrow, etc., in the sport known as falconry.

=Hawks= have the upper mandible not toothed, and the wings short,
rounded, and concave below. They do not easily soar or glide.

HENHAWKS comprise chiefly the rough-legged hawk and the red-shouldered
hawk. The first rarely, and the second never, takes chickens; they prey
rather on noxious insects, mice, etc. The sharp-shinned hawk, length
twelve inches, and Cooper’s hawk, eighteen inches, are rufous on breast
and dusky above, with dark bars on the tail. These useful buzzards last
mentioned should be protected.

GOSHAWKS (_Astur palumbarius_) is found in almost all parts of Europe.
It generally inhabits thick woods in the neighborhood of fields and
meadows, and builds its nest on the topmost boughs of a lofty tree.

[Illustration: The ostrich is a strong runner and a swift racer. It has
been known to equal the speed of a train going at the rate of sixty
miles an hour. Though frequently used for driving, it is not easily


This unsociable bird is as swift and wild as it is shy and cunning. It
can be easily recognized at a distance by its long tail and short wings.
When hunting for prey it flies, as a rule, along the edges of woods and
thickets, and is active almost the whole of the day. Flying, resting,
swimming, or running, it seizes its prey with equal dexterity. Its great
swiftness and adroitness render the goshawk a formidable opponent. It
appears suddenly among the unsuspecting birds, and, before they can
escape, one lies bleeding under the claws of the bold robber. It follows
its prey into inhabited houses, and sometimes flies through the windows.

The goshawk carries off poultry, and also steals game. It also destroys
a great number of our most useful insect-devouring birds.

SPARROW HAWK (_Nisus communis_) resembles the goshawk both in form and
habits, and is a true copy of its bigger cousin.

=Osprey= or FISHING HAWK (_Haliætus albicilla_) is often mistaken for
the golden eagle. The latter, however, can be easily recognized by its
feathered legs. The osprey is widely distributed in the United States
along the Atlantic coast, and is found all over Europe. It has its nest
on the summits of inaccessible rocks and cliffs along the coasts, or in
the top of a high tree, and rarely among the reeds. The osprey is a lazy
but obstinate and dangerous robber, attacking all animals which it is
able to overcome. Like the bald eagle, it catches fish; but it also
feeds upon carrion.

=Owls= (_Strigidæ_) include more than one hundred species, all of which
belong to two families. The Java owl, which ranges from the eastern
Himalayas to Burma, Ceylon, Java and Borneo in itself constitutes the
second of these families. They have large eyes, looking forward,
encircled by stiff feathers, and with vertical pupil. Most are nocturnal
and see poorly by day, but the Hawk Owl, and Snowy Owl of arctic
regions, feed by day. Their food consists of rodents, insects, birds,
vermin, and fish. The Great Horned Owl (_Bubo virginianus_) attains a
weight of eight pounds, and attacks poultry. Owls hear well; some have a
well developed feathered external ear. The long ears by which the horned
owl is known, refers to the horns of feathers, developed above the eyes.
Owls fly noiselessly, owing to their soft plumage. The feet are usually
feathered; the outer toe is reversible, and in the Fishing Owl the toes
are osprey-like. The female is the larger. The size ranges from six
inches in the Pygmy Owl of the tropical forests, to thirty inches in the
Great Grey Owl of the northern regions. Reddish brown is predominant,
but dark and light colors may be exhibited by a single brood. The eggs
are spherical and pure white. Some species breed before the snow has
gone, and their eggs hatch a few at a time. The Snowy Little Owl of
Europe, is the symbol of learning. The Burrowing Owl lives in the
burrows of prairie dogs in America, on whose young it feeds, in part
while rattle-snakes associate with both as a common enemy.

[Illustration: The Peacock excels all other birds in the beauty of its
plumage, the colors of which are usually both gorgeous and varied. The
above bird is pure white, and very rarely seen in the United States.]


The =White= or BARN OWL (_Strix flammea_) always lives in the
neighborhood of man, building its nest in sheds, church-towers, old
ruins, and also in pigeon-houses. It sleeps during the day. At night it
flies through the gardens and fields, catching all kinds of mice,
insects, and young birds. The nest is carelessly built, and in the
spring contains from six to nine white, oval eggs.

=Vultures= (_Vulturinæ_) are large carrion-eating birds of prey. Those
of the Old World differ from those in the New in several particulars;
thus, the hind toe of the former is on the level with the other toes;
the partition between the nostrils is not perforated as in American
vultures; and they carry food to their young in their claws and not in
their beaks. The chief of the American vultures are the Condor, Turkey
Buzzard, Carrion-crow, or Black Vulture, and the King Vulture, which
haunts jungles from Mexico to Paraguay, and is white, with the long tail
and wing-feathers black, the head lemon and scarlet. Examples of the Old
World vultures are the Bearded Vulture or Lammergeyer (_Gypaetus
barbatus_), the largest bird of prey of Europe. It was formerly often
seen in the Alps and Pyrenees; but is now, at least in the Swiss and
Bavarian Alps, almost exterminated. It is a bold and dangerous robber,
not only waylaying hares and roes, but also sheep and chamois; children
even, have been attacked by this bird.

The Egyptian or White Vultures are known as Pharaoh’s Chickens. The
crested Black Vulture ranges from China through North Africa. It builds
large nests in trees on mountain-tops, where it rears a single young.
The Griffon is black, with white tail and wing feathers. Vultures find
their food by sight.


  The toes of the climbing birds are arranged opposite each other in
  pairs; one of the back toes is, in many of these birds, so flexible
  that it can be easily turned forward. The claws are long, strong,
  and hooked, thus these birds can easily hold on firmly, even in a
  perpendicular position. Most of them frequent the woods, and live
  upon insects and fruit.

=Cuckoo= (_Caculus canorus_) is as large as a pigeon. It has a
gently-curved, deeply-cleft beak, long, pointed wings, and
wedge-shaped, pointed tail. The outer toe can be directed forward as
well as backward. American cuckoos hatch their own eggs. The Old World
cuckoos are especially marked by the habit of leaving their eggs to be
hatched by other birds. The spotted cuckoo of northern Europe lays four
eggs in a nest, usually that of a crow. A small South African cuckoo,
size of a sparrow is brilliantly colored. Australia has the large
channel billed cuckoo, with its immense beak. The road-runner or
chapparal cock of the desert plateaus of western United States feeds
mainly on grasshoppers. In the West Indies and adjacent states is found
the Ani, with high bill, and peculiar in that several females unite in
building one nest, where all co-operate in hatching their eggs.

The cuckoo, with its never-wearied song, is the joyful harbinger of
spring, and is heard with delight by old and young. It lives chiefly
upon hairy caterpillars; and, as it is always feeding, we can justly
include the cuckoo among the useful birds.

=Parrots= (_Psittaci_) are near relatives of the cockatoos, paroquets,
macaws, lories, nestors, etc. The true parrots have the upper mandible
toothed, and longer than high, and a short, rounded tail. These birds
combine with the beauty of their plumage a nature of great docility, and
have the faculty of imitating the human voice in a degree not possessed
by other birds. They are found chiefly in Africa, from whence we get the
gray parrot, the best talker. South America, which is particularly rich
in species, furnishes the well-known green parrot; and North America is
the home of a single species, the Carolina parrot. The parrots are
forest birds, and are adepts at climbing, using for that purpose both
the feet and the bill. Their food consists of seeds and fruits. They
make their nests in holes, and lay white eggs, as is commonly the case
where the eggs are concealed.

The parrots may be called the monkeys among the birds; for, like the
monkeys, they seek their food while climbing, but are awkward and clumsy
when on the ground. Their imitative qualities and docility, their
obstinacy and slyness, and their disagreeable voice and gregarious
habits, all serve to remind us of the monkeys.

=Toucan= (_Rhamphastus toco_), a bird of the American tropics, is
related to the woodpeckers and parrots. It belongs to the most curious
of the animal forms, as its immense beak is treble the length of its
head. The tongue is horny, slender, and brush-like; the considerable
tail is hinged next the pelvis, so that it can be thrown over the back
when resting and where the bill lies also during sleep. Toucans are
omnivorous, but prefer fruit, live in flocks in forests, and nest in
hollow trees. There are over fifty species, in size from that of a robin
to a crow, and colored from green to black, variegated with red, yellow
and white. The largest is two feet long, with bill eight inches long and
three inches high.

=Woodpecker= (_Picidæ_) includes any of three hundred birds which have
climbing feet, stiff tail feathers and which bore into trees for grubs
on which they feed, though some of them are fond of fruit and other
vegetable food. Most of the species have barbed and pointed tongues with
which they spear the larvæ, but in some the tongue is smeared with a
sticky substance, secreted by glands in the throat. There are no
woodpeckers in Australia or Madagascar, but they occur in all other
parts of the world. The prevailing color of the plumage is green--dark
olive on the upper, pale green on the under parts; the crown and back of
the head are bright crimson.

Of the numerous American species the flickers, the South American
ground-flickers, which live chiefly on termites, and the great
ivory-billed woodpecker may be specially noted. The last-named species,
which inhabits the dense forests of the southern States, is one of the
handsomest of the group, and was once called the prince of woodpeckers.

The woodpeckers lead a solitary life. Their presence is generally known
by the noise they make while pecking; holding fast to a tree, they hack
at it with their long, sharp beaks, so that splinters and chips fly in
all directions. The woodpecker excavates a hole in the rotten tree, in
order therein to build its nest.


  Not all the birds belonging to this class are veritable songsters;
  but nearly all of them have in the throat an organ of song,
  consisting of five or six pairs of muscles, by means of which they
  can produce a variety of notes. They are mostly small, prettily
  colored birds, which chiefly inhabit the Temperate Zones, and make
  themselves very useful by devouring the insects, worms, and seeds of
  weeds in the fields, gardens, and woods. They delight us with their
  song; but their song is also the reason why some of them are kept in

=Birds of Paradise= (_Paradisea apoda_), though song birds of some
ability, are more particularly notable for their gorgeous plumage. They
are natives of New Guinea and Australia, and are very closely allied to
the crow family, both in their habits and voice. The Great Bird of
Paradise is the largest of the species, measuring about one and one-half
feet in length; the others are comparatively small. The adult males are
in beauty unsurpassed even by humming-birds. Tufts of bright feathers
spring from beneath the wings, from the tail, or from the head, back, or
shoulders. Trains, fans, and exquisitely delicate tress-like decorations
occur abundantly, and the gracefulness of the plumage is enhanced by the
brilliant color and metallic luster. The females are plain,
sober-colored birds, and it is only with maturity that the males acquire
that brilliancy of plumage which they exhibit to such advantage in their
courtships. The true birds of paradise feed on fruits and insects, and
are practically omnivorous. Their mode of life is more or less
gregarious. Their song consists of a series of loud, shrill notes.

=Blackbird= (_Turdus merula_), is a member of the thrush family. The
plumage of the male is quite black, and the beak yellow; the female is
dark brown above, and greyish brown on the under parts, with a brown
beak. It is shy, solitary, nests in March, and has two broods during the
season. The nest is plastered inside with mud; four or six blue eggs,
speckled with black, are laid. The bird feeds mainly on insects. It is a
mocking bird, but not so good a songster as the song-thrush. In
confinement it can be taught.

The American Crow-blackbird or Purple Grackle is restricted to the
region east of the Rockies, the Blue-headed Grackle is confined west of
the Mississippi, while the Rusty Grackle pervades the whole continent.

The Red-winged Blackbird breeds in Mexico and North America south of the
Barron Grounds; winters in southern half of United States and south to
Costa Rica.

The blackbird is frequently an inhabitant of the woods; but in the
winter it comes into the gardens of the villages and towns. It is very
fond of fruit, and thus often ravages the orchards and strawberry

=Bobolink= (_Dolichonyx oryzivorus_), resembles a sparrow, but its tail
feathers are acute. Length seven inches. It breeds from Ohio northeast
to Nova Scotia, north to Manitoba, and northwest to British Columbia;
winters in South America.

Few species show such striking contrasts in the color of the sexes, and
few have songs more unique and whimsical. In its northern home the bird
is loved for its beauty and its rich melody; in the South it earns
deserved hatred by its destructiveness. Bobolinks reach the southeastern
coast of the United States the last half of April just as rice is
sprouting and at once begin to pull up and devour the sprouting kernels.
Soon they move on to their northern breeding grounds, where they feed
upon insects, weed seeds, and a little grain. When the young are well on
the wing, they gather in flocks with the parent birds and gradually move
southward, being then generally known as reed birds. They reach the rice
fields of the Carolinas about August 20, when the rice is in the milk.
Then until the birds depart for South America planters and birds fight
for the crop, and in spite of constant watchfulness and innumerable
devices for scaring the birds a loss of ten per cent of the rice is the
usual result.

=Canary= (_Fringilla_) is a beautiful but very common cage-bird, much
esteemed for its musical powers. It is native to the region about the
Canary Islands. Its color is grayish brown and dusky green, but the
numerous artificial breeds show varieties of yellow and black markings,
crests, etc. Naturally monogamous, the male sings best to win the love
of the female. She incubates the eggs, he feeds the young. Six eggs are
produced four times a year. Canaries cross readily with allied species.
They have been domesticated for nearly four centuries.

Distinct varieties have been produced by scientific selective breeding,
and these reproduce their distinctive characteristics, and “like breeds
like” so long as the varieties are not crossed. The hardiest are the
Norwich; the largest are Lancashire Coppies; the most costly and
delicate are Belgians. Lizards, London Fancies, Yorkshires, Scotch
Fancies, and Cinnamons practically complete the list.

=Catbird= (_Mimus Carolinensis_) is a species of Thrush common in
eastern United States, so called from its peculiar note. It is very
dark colored, about nine inches long, and nests in low bushes early in
May. It breeds throughout the United States west to New Mexico, Utah,
Oregon and Washington, and in southern Canada; winters from the Gulf
States to Panama. The bird has a fine song, unfortunately marred by
occasional cat calls. With habits similar to those of the mocking bird
and a song almost as varied, the catbird has never secured a similar
place in popular favor. Half of its food consists of fruit, and the
cultivated crops most often injured are cherries, strawberries,
raspberries, and blackberries. Beetles, ants, crickets, and grasshoppers
are the most important element of its animal food. The bird is known to
attack a few pests, as cutworms, leaf beetles, clover-root curculio, and
the periodical cicada, but the good it does in this way probably does
not pay for the fruit it steals.

=Chickadee= (_Penthestes atricapillus_).--The Chickadees are among the
most popular birds that we have, owing to their uniform good nature even
in the coldest weather, and their confiding disposition. They are common
about farms and even on the outskirts of large cities they will come to
feasts prepared for them on the window sill with their clear “phe-be,”
“chick-a-dee-dee-dee” or “dee-dee-dee,” and several scolding or
chuckling notes. They nest in hollow stumps at any elevation from the
ground but usually near the ground, and most often in birch stubs. Their
eggs are white, sparingly speckled with reddish brown. They range and
breed in the northern half of the United States and northward. The
Carolina Chickadee (_Parus carolinensis_) is smaller and with no white
edges to the wing feathers, and is found in southeastern United States,
breeding north to Virginia and Ohio.

=Crossbills= (_Loxia_) are the most highly developed members of the
Finch family, characterized by having the tips of the upper and lower
bills crossing so as to facilitate extraction of seeds. Males are
reddish, females brownish olive in general coloration. The crossbill
lives chiefly in the pine plantations, where it feeds for the most part
on the seeds of the pine, cleverly opening the cones with its pointed
beak. It hatches in all seasons of the year.

=Finch= (_Fringilla_) is a name applied to many birds but generally used
with some affix, as in the familiar names bullfinch, chaffinch, and
goldfinch. A finch is usually small, has a hard, conical beak, and
generally lives upon seeds. The distribution is almost world-wide,
excepting Australia. The buntings and the weaver-finches of the
Ethiopian and Australian regions are usually kept distinct.

Some, as Canary (see Canary) and Bullfinch make fine songsters in
confinement. The Chaffinch is the typical Finch of Europe. In America
the Purple Finch has a flush of red in male; the female is olive brown,
streaked below, the tail feathers soft and rounded; length without tail,
three and one-half inches. The Goldfinch has acute bill, yellow on bases
and edges of quills, male rich yellow, length three inches without tail;
also called Thistle-bird and Yellow-bird. The Lark-finch of the prairies
has tail three inches long, and is much streaked with black, white, and
chestnut. In the spring the males are usually seen on, or heard from,
tree tops in orchards or parks, giving forth their glad carols. They are
especially musical in spring when the snow is just leaving the ground
and the air is bracing.

The nest consists of strips of bark, twigs, rootlets and grasses, placed
at any height in evergreens or orchard trees. The eggs resemble,
somewhat, large specimens of those of the Chipping Sparrow. They are
three or four in number and are greenish blue with strong blackish

=Grosbeaks= are finches with beaks extraordinarily stout, forming a
continuous curve with the top of the head. The Cardinal Grosbeak is
known as the Winter Redbird. In eastern United States are also the Blue,
Rose-breasted, and Pine Grosbeaks, all beautifully colored and fine
singers. The Rose-breasted Grosbeak breeds from Kansas, Ohio, Georgia
(mountains), and New Jersey, north to southern Canada; winters from
Mexico to South America. This beautiful grosbeak is noted for its clear,
melodious notes, which are poured forth in generous measure. The
rosebreast sings even at midday during summer, when the intense heat has
silenced almost every other songster. Its beautiful plumage and sweet
song are not its sole claim on our favor, for few birds are more
beneficial to agriculture. The rosebreast eats some green peas and does
some damage to fruit. But this mischief is much more than balanced by
the destruction of insect pests. The bird is so fond of the Colorado
potato beetle that it has earned the name of “potato-bug bird.” It
vigorously attacks cucumber beetles, many of the scale insects, spring
and fall cankerworms, orchard and forest tent caterpillars, tussock,
gipsy, and brown-tail moths, plum curculio, army worm, and chinch bug.
In fact, not one of our birds has a better record.

=Jays= (_Cyanocitta_) are brightly colored, noisy birds, near relatives
of the crow and are represented by numerous species distributed
throughout the northern hemisphere. Probably the best known is the Blue
Jay, one of the most beautiful birds that we have, but, unfortunately,
one with a very bad reputation. Blue Jays often rob other birds of their
eggs and young as well as food and nesting material. They are very
active birds and are always engaged in gathering food, usually acorns or
other nuts, and hiding them away for future use.

These Green Jays are very beautiful, but, like all the other members of
the family, they are merciless in their treatment of smaller birds.
During the summer their diet consists of raw eggs with young birds “on
the side,” or vice versa; later they live upon nuts, berries, insects;
in fact, anything that is edible.

They are fairly common in the Lower Rio Grande Valley in southern Texas.

=Lark= (_Alauda arvensis_).--This familiar songster, is well known as
the symbol of poets and the victim of epicures. It is included among a
type of birds which comprizes over one hundred species, widely
distributed in Europe, Asia, Africa, with spreading stragglers in
Australia and North America. The plumage is usually sandy brown, the
color of the ground; the lower legs bear scales, behind and before; the
hind claw is very long and straight; the bill is strong and conical. The
skylark measures about seven inches in length; the males and females are
alike in plumage; the food consists of insects, worms, and seeds. It
nests in April, making a structure of dry grass in a hollow in the
ground, usually among growing grass or cereals. The eggs (three to five)
are dull gray, mottled with olive brown; two broods are usually reared
in the season.

The MEADOWLARKS (_Sturnella magna_) our familiar friends of the hillside
and meadow; their clear, fife-like whistle is often heard, while they
are perched on a fence-post or tree-top, as well as their sputtering
alarm note when they fly up before us as we cross the field. In North
America they range east of the Plains and north to southern Canada; and
winter from Massachusetts and Illinois southward.

The Western Meadowlark has the yellow on the throat extended on the
sides; its song is much more brilliant and varied than the eastern bird.
It is found from the Plains to the Pacific. The Florida Meadowlark is
smaller and darker than the common HORNED LARK (_Otocoris alpestris_).
This variety is only found in the United States in winter. During the
mating season they have a sweet song that is uttered on the wing, like
that of the Bobolink.

=Mockingbird= (_Mimus polyglottos_). This is the great vocalist of the
South, and by many is considered to be the most versatile singer in
America. It is found in gardens, pastures and open woods. All its habits
are similar to our Catbird, and like that species, it is given to
imitating the notes of other birds. Its song is an indescribable medley,
sometimes very sweet and pleasing, at others, harsh and unmusical. Its
general colors are gray and white.

Usually the nest is built in impenetrable thickets or hedges, or again
in more open situation in the garden; made of twigs and rootlets, lined
with black rootlets; the four or five eggs are bluish green with
blotches of reddish brown.

It ranges throughout the southern United States, breeding north to New
Jersey (and casually farther) and Ohio; and winters in the South
Atlantic and Gulf States. The Western Mockingbird is found in
southwestern United States, north to Oklahoma and California.

=Nightingale= (_Daulias luscinia_).--The common nightingale is well
known as the finest of songsters. It is rather larger than the
hedge-sparrow, with about the same proportionate length of wings and
tail. It is of a rich russet-brown color above, shading into reddish
chestnut on the tail-coverts and tail; the lower part grayish-white;
bill, legs, and feet brown. The sexes are alike in plumage. It is a
native of many parts of Europe and Asia, and of the north of Africa, and
is a bird of passage, extending its summer migrations on the continent
of Europe as far north as Sweden. It frequents thickets and hedges and
damp meadows near streams, and feeds very much on worms, beetles,
insects, ants’ eggs, caterpillars, and other insect larvæ. The male
bird sings by day as well as by night, but at night its song is most
noticeable and characteristic. The variety, loudness and richness of its
notes are equally extraordinary; and its long, quivering strains are
full of plaintiveness as well as of passionate ecstasy. The ancient
Romans paid more for a nightingale than they paid for a slave.

=Orioles= (_Oriolidæ_) are confined entirely to the Old World and are
characteristic of the Oriental and Ethiopian regions. The birds called
“Orioles” in the United States belong to an entirely different family,
the _Icteridae_. The members of the family are generally of a bright
yellow or golden color, which is well set off by the black of the wings.

Twenty-four species are enumerated, the best known being the GOLDEN
ORIOLE. The adult male is about nine inches long. Its general color is a
rich, golden yellow; the bill is dull orange-red; a black streak reaches
from its base to the eye; the iris is blood-red; the wings are black,
marked here and there with yellow, and a patch of yellow forms a
conspicuous wing-spot; the two middle feathers of the tail are black,
inclining to olive at the base, the very tips yellow, the base half of
the others black, the other half yellow; legs, feet and claws dark
brown. The female is less yellow than the male, and the under parts are
streaked with gray. In central and southern Europe it is common in
summer in certain localities; i