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Title: Crater Lake National Park, Oregon
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                              CRATER LAKE
                            _National Park_


                                CONTENTS


  Crater Lake National Park:
    Discovery and History                                               2
    The Geologic Story of Crater Lake                                   3
    Places of Interest                                                  7
      Sinnott Memorial                                                  7
      Rim Drive                                                         9
      Wizard Island                                                     9
      The Phantom Ship                                                  9
      Garfield Peak                                                     9
      Llao Rock                                                         9
      The Watchman                                                     10
      Cloud-Cap                                                        10
      Mount Scott                                                      10
      The Pinnacles                                                    10
      Union Peak                                                       11
      Mount Thielsen                                                   11
      Llao’s Hallway                                                   11
      Castle Crest Wild Flower Garden                                  11
    Wild Animals                                                       12
    Bird Life                                                          13
    Fishing                                                            14
    Winter Sports                                                      15
    The Forests                                                        16
    Wild Flowers                                                       17
    How To Reach the Park                                              19
      By Railroad                                                      19
      By Automobile                                                    19
      By Airplane                                                      20
      By Motor Coach                                                   20
    Administration                                                     21
    Rim Village                                                        21
    Camping                                                            21
    Accommodations and Expenses                                        25
    References                                                         25
    Rules and Regulations                                              27
    Events of Historical Importance                                    28
  Oregon Caves National Monument                                       29
  Lava Beds National Monument                                          31
  National Parks in Brief                                              34


 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR · Harold L. Ickes, Secretary
           NATIONAL PARK SERVICE · Arno B. Cammerer, Director
            UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE · 1938

[Illustration: SINNOTT MEMORIAL OBSERVATION STATION]



                      PARK ACCESSIBLE ENTIRE YEAR


Located in southern Oregon, on the crest of the lofty Cascade Range,
Crater Lake National Park has a high place among the Nation’s most
scenic wonderlands. It is a gem of rare excellence, possessing unity of
form and color. At Crater Lake visitors observe beauty in its truest
sense and experience a profound inspirational appeal. Pervaded by an air
of mystery, tranquillity now prevails where once unfathomable volcanic
power was displayed.

The lake rests in the very heart of a mighty mountain whose destruction
resulted in the formation of a vast crater in which the waters
accumulated. It is 6 miles wide, 2,000 feet deep, covers an area of 20
square miles, and has a circular shore line of 26 miles, with
multicolored lava cliffs rising 500 to 2,000 feet above the lake.

Mountain trails lead to the summits of high points about the rim and
down a thousand feet to the shores of a sea of silence. At the water’s
edge motorboats and rowboats are available for those who wish to see
more of the lake or try their hand at trout fishing. Daily boat trips
are scheduled around the lake shore line and to Wizard Island, a perfect
little crater jutting out of blue depths to a height of 763 feet. A
motor drive extends around the crater edge for a distance of 35 miles,
presenting scores of enthralling views of the scenic wonder. The
constantly changing color and the contrast of lava cliffs and blue water
are beautiful beyond description.

Crater Lake National Park embraces an area of 250.52 square miles and
was established by act of Congress on May 22, 1902.



                         DISCOVERY AND HISTORY


Legend says that the Klamath Indians believed Crater Lake was once a
weird, ghostly amphitheater where the gods were forever embroiled in
conflict, sporting in its blue waters and dwelling on its rocky heights
and in its mystic depths.

Pioneers came slowly to southern Oregon, its sparse population in the
early fifties living in constant dread of Indian wars. Miles of mountain
region had never been explored when a party of California prospectors
came to the mining village of Jacksonville. This was the only settlement
in the region and owed its existence to the discovery of gold nearby.
The Californians while preparing a journey into the mountains remained
secretive regarding their mission. The purpose of their trip, however,
was betrayed by a member of the party to a group of Oregon miners who
learned that the strangers were searching for a “Lost Cabin Mine,”
believed to be near the head of the Rogue River. Without delay, the
Oregon miners followed the Californians into the wilds, despite
persistent efforts of the latter to evade them. Later, when the food
supplies of both parties were running low, John Wesley Hillman, leader
of the Oregon party, succeeded in uniting the two forces, and the search
for the mine was postponed to hunt for game.

Thus it was on June 12, 1853, that Hillman, who had gone on some
distance ahead of the hunting group, happened to ride up a deep canyon
which, judging from its depth and width, he thought would lead to a
higher slope. Letting his mule pick its way upward, he kept peering
through the woods for game. Then suddenly the animal stopped, halting at
the very rim of a deep blue lake. As the rider looked down he beheld a
scene of unsurpassed beauty. Other members of the party soon joined
their leader, and they agreed to call the body of water Deep Blue Lake.

In the excitement of gold discoveries and Indian wars, Crater Lake was
forgotten for several years. There were no more visits by white men
until 1862 when a party of six unsuspecting miners, led by Chauncey Nye,
happened upon the place while on a prospecting trip and believed they
had made a new discovery, only to learn afterward of Hillman’s visit. A
third “discovery” was made in 1865 by a party of soldiers from Fort
Klamath. They called the body of water Lake Majesty. This name was
changed to Crater Lake in 1869 by visitors from Jacksonville.

Some years later, in 1872, William Gladstone Steel came to Oregon. The
story is told that when Steel was a schoolboy in Kansas he had heard of
the discovery of Crater Lake and had made a resolution that he would
sometime see the western wonder. He spent 7 years in Oregon before he
could find anyone who had heard of Crater Lake; two more passed before
he found a person who had actually seen it. It was not until 1885 that
he was able to visit the place which he found to be even more beautiful
than he had anticipated. The result was that Judge Steel conceived the
idea of setting aside the lake and the region thereabout as a national
park. He began an immediate agitation for this. Though the task was not
an easy one and there was much opposition from certain quarters, Steel
was undaunted by the rebuffs and continued his efforts unselfishly and
with personal sacrifice over a period of 17 years. Success crowned his
work when the park was established by an act of Congress, approved May
22, 1902. Judge Steel thereafter devoted his life to the development of
the park and became one of its first superintendents. Later he became
park commissioner, holding this office until his death in 1934.

Soon after Steel’s first visit, soundings were taken on the lake under
the direction of Capt. C. E. Dutton of the United States Geological
Survey. Over a month was spent in the work, with the deepest sounding
recorded at 1,996 feet.

The first survey for a road system within the park was made in 1910 and
1911; 2 years later the entrance roads from Medford and Klamath Falls
were built. Though these roads were very primitive when compared with
those now developed, they served the needs of that time when travel was
yet dependent principally on horses and wagons.



                   THE GEOLOGIC STORY OF CRATER LAKE


_Origin of the Mountain._—Visitors to Crater Lake find they must ascend
extensive slopes of volcanic ash or pumice to view the lake resting in a
crater approximately 5 miles in diameter, with walls from 500 to 2,000
feet high. Geologists tell us this rim is the remnant of an ancient
mountain which stood more than 14,000 feet high.

In 1896 the Mazama Club, a mountain-climbing group of Portland, Oreg.,
visited the lake and with fitting ceremonies gave to the ancient
mountain, never viewed by man, the name Mount Mazama.

In comparatively recent geologic time enormous flows of molten rock
poured out over an area of more than 100,000 square miles, extending
into Oregon, Washington, Montana, Idaho, Nevada, and California. These
masses of lava came to the surface largely through great cracks or
fissures in the earth’s surface. A typical example of such extensive
flows may be seen in the lava beds forming the Columbia River Gorge.

Numerous volcanoes were formed in this lava region during the relatively
late outpourings of molten rock through small openings. The mass of
these volcanoes represents only an extremely small volume in proportion
to the total mass of lava. Mount Mazama at Crater Lake is one of these
volcanoes, likewise are the volcanic cones of the Cascade Range. The
more noted of these are Mount Rainier (14,408 feet), Mount Shasta
(14,161 feet), Mount Adams (12,326 feet), Mount Hood (11,225 feet),
Mount Baker (10,750 feet), Mount Lassen (10,453 feet), and Mount St.
Helena (9,697 feet).

The mountain in which Crater Lake rests was built principally by lava
flows, poured out layer upon layer, and to a lesser degree by the piling
up of volcanic ash, soil, and the deposits of streams and glaciers as
they flowed down the mountain. At Dutton Cliff we see an example of
successive layers of lava and volcanic ash. Near Discovery Point, in
addition to layers of lava and volcanic ash, one may also see examples
of glacial deposits and glacial striae or scratches.

One can understand Crater Lake in its relation to the volcano only when
the mountain is considered as the result of a building process extending
over long periods in which many changes took place. The following is an
explanation of some of the processes.

_Lava outpourings through splitting of the mountain._—In addition to
spilling out as broad flows of melted rock, it is common for the
tremendous mass of molten lava in a volcano to break through the
mountain side. The lava filling of such a crack or fissure is known as a
dike. After it cools the material filling these fissures is often harder
than the surrounding rock. Subsequent wash of water may cut away the
softer bordering material, leaving the hard filling of the fissure as a
sharp ridge. Devils Backbone, on the west side of Crater Lake, is an
illustration of such a lava dike.

_Action of streams and glaciers on the mountain in the course of its
building._—In the section of layers forming the rim of the mountain we
find evidences of wash by water. In some places this is shown by the
cutting of valleys; at others, by the accumulation of water-carried ash,
gravel, and boulders.

Glacier ice carrying sand, pebbles, and boulders scratches or polishes
the rock surface as it moves slowly over it. Glacial polish and thick
beds of material carried by glaciers are common around the mountain.
They are present on the surface rock and seem also to appear between
earlier layers, showing that glaciers were present at various stages in
the history of the mountain.

Broad U-shaped valleys cut at various points around the crater are also
characteristic of glacial action. Kerr Notch is such an evidence of
glacial erosion. It was through a similar ancient glacial notch that the
lava forming Llao Rock flowed.

_Forming of the crater._—The broken edges of rock layers seen on the
crater slopes indicate widening of the crater in all directions. The
edges of these rock layers inside the crater wall are clearly exposed
because they have been sharply broken around the entire inner rim
region. This fracturing occurred in the course of widening the crater.
Increase in size of the opening at the summit of the mountain, which
eventually formed the present crater, may have been caused by tremendous
explosions, or by collapse of the peak, or by a combination of such
activities.

If the activity of a volcano diminishes slowly, growth of the mountain
may end in forming a symmetrical cone. If activity continues by
spasmodic outbursts, explosions may blow away a considerable part of the
peak. Other conditions may bring about undermining of the walls in such
manner as to produce a wide cauldronlike crater, but without tremendous
explosions.

Recent investigations by Howel Williams, under a grant from the National
Academy of Sciences, have led to the conclusion that the crater owes its
origin principally to collapse or engulfment of the mountain peak.

Formation of the crater by collapse was first proposed by J. S. Diller
of the United States Geological Survey. Diller’s explanation differs
from that of Williams principally in the method by which the void
beneath the crest of Mount Mazama was formed. Diller thought that great
quantities of molten rock were drained away through subterranean
passages, thus weakening the support of the mountain peak and causing
ultimate collapse.

In a report to be published by Williams, he describes great quantities
of volcanic ash or pumice extending for a distance of more than 80 miles
northeast of Mount Mazama. This ash is equivalent to more than 20 cubic
miles of material and is thought to have been blown from the mountain in
a catastrophic event, and carried northeastward by the prevailing winds.
Analysis of this ash shows that it is new material derived from the
magma within the volcano and not finely divided fragments of the
original mountain walls.

Following this explosion the mountain is thought to have literally
boiled over, pouring out great quantities of frothy magma which flowed
down the sides of the mountain and overflowed the lowlands below. The
greater quantity extended to the south and southwest for distances up to
35 miles. This material poured out from the crater as a series of
avalanches which must have flowed at a terrific speed for those on the
south and west sides of the mountain did not begin to deposit their load
until they reached a distance of 4 or 5 miles from the crater.

Accompanying these explosions and the outpouring of this lava material,
cracks developed in the flanks of the mountain and eventually the top
collapsed and was engulfed within the void produced by the outpourings
of ash and molten rock, thus forming the crater as we see it today.

By projecting the present slopes of the crater rim upward and making
adjustments to conform to the slopes of similar volcanoes, it has been
estimated that approximately 17 cubic miles of old lava has been
removed, which formed the upper part of ancient Mount Mazama.

_Toward the close of the activity forming the crater, minor eruptions
produced Wizard Island and possibly other cones._—If the lake were
removed, the crater would be seen as a relatively flat-floored cavity
extending as a maximum about 2,000 feet below the present lake surface.
In this great depression Wizard Island would appear as one of perhaps
several volcanic cones produced by pouring out of lava and cinders in
the last period of volcanic activity. Forming of the present floor
probably involved many stages, during some of which the cauldronlike
crater may have been occupied by wide stretches of molten lava, as in
the “lake of fire,” at Kilauea, in Hawaii.

_Origin of the lake._—The water of Crater Lake is derived from rainfall
and snowfall over this crater region, together with snow blown into the
depression. The lake is not known to have an outlet except by seepage.
The conditions of evaporation, seepage, and precipitation are in a state
of balance which makes possible this accumulation of water and
maintenance of approximately this water level. If the region were at a
different altitude, or in a different location, the lake might not have
been formed.

It is conceivable that in the course of late stages in its history, and
under climatic conditions different from those of the present, the
crater may at times have been filled in part with ice.

The existence of Crater Lake was made possible by the building of a
mountain, in the elevated summit of which there could be formed a wide
and deep cavity having no outlet, except by seepage, and no inlet. The
conditions required for the accumulation of a body of water with the
peculiar beauty of this lake are furnished in a crater produced by a
combination of those tremendous forces found in the power and heat of a
volcano.

_Color an outstanding character of Crater Lake._—The color of Crater
Lake is generally recognized as the most attractive feature of this
region. Among spectacular lakes of the world there are none in which the
depth of color and brilliance of blue are more striking. The blue of the
deeper water is brought out in contrast with the brilliant green of
shallow areas along the margin.

The deep blue of the lake is believed to be caused chiefly by the
scattering of light in water of exceptional depth and clearness. The
color is thought to be due to the same cause that produces the blue of
the sky where light passes through deep atmosphere.

The extraordinary beauty of the lake arises in part from its great
depth, the clearness of the water, and of the atmosphere above it, and
from favorable conditions presented in viewing it from the high crater
rim.

[Illustration:                                             _Grant photo_
       NATURALIST GUIDING A PARTY OF VISITORS OVER THE RIM TRAIL]



                           PLACES OF INTEREST


                            SINNOTT MEMORIAL

In recognition of great service to Crater Lake National Park and to the
State of Oregon, Congress authorized by an act approved May 14, 1930,
the construction of a memorial to Representative Nicholas J. Sinnott of
Oregon. Following this recommendation an attractive stone building was
constructed on Victor Rock, just inside the rim of Crater Lake. The
structure, with its broad parapet looking over the lake, serves as an
orientation point for all park visitors. High-powered field glasses are
trained on the important features, helping the visitor to understand the
geologic history of the lake and to appreciate the relationship between
the scenic and scientific. Displays in the exhibit room, maintained in
connection with the observation station, further aid the visitor to
appreciate the beauties of the park and to interpret the moods of Crater
Lake. A large relief map of the Crater Lake region is located on the
parapet. This particular feature of the Sinnott Memorial display is
extremely popular in that it helps visitors to locate places of
interest. All those who come to Crater Lake should visit the Sinnott
Memorial as soon as possible after their arrival in the park. It is
located close to the lodge and campground and may be reached in a
2-minute walk from the highway.

[Illustration: MAP OF CRATER LAKE NATIONAL PARK]


                               RIM DRIVE

An interesting highway encircles the lake. Visitors are invited to use
this highway and enjoy the many views of the lake from numerous
observation points along the road. A daily auto caravan is conducted by
the naturalist staff along a portion of the rim road. Visitors taking
the caravan have an opportunity to see a number of scenic points as well
as to become familiar with certain phases of the botany, geology, and
history of the park. The objective of the caravan is the Watchman
observation and lookout station on the summit of the Watchman Peak on
the west rim of the crater. Arriving at that station, the visitors have
an opportunity to become familiar with the very important work of forest
protection from the standpoint of a fire lookout. All caravan trips
start from the Sinnott Memorial. The time of departure is announced on
the bulletin boards and at lectures.


                             WIZARD ISLAND

This is a symmetrical cinder cone rising 763 feet above the surface of
the lake. The island may be reached by boat. A trail leads from the
shore to the crater, which is approximately 90 feet deep and 300 feet in
diameter.


                            THE PHANTOM SHIP

Not far from Wizard Island is a formation called the Phantom Ship. It
rises from the waters of the lake, a twisted and strangely formed mass
of lava. Its shape strongly suggests a ship under sail. The illusion at
dusk or in the moonlight is impressive. In certain lights the phantom
ship seems suddenly to disappear.


                             GARFIELD PEAK

With an altitude of 8,060 feet, this peak is easily reached by trail
from the lodge. From the summit there is a magnificent view of the lake
and of the range to the eastward.


                               LLAO ROCK

Llao Rock rises nearly 2,000 feet above the lake level. As mentioned in
the geologic story of the lake, this rock was formed by a lava flow
which descended the slopes of Mount Mazama and filled one of the large
U-shaped valleys once occupied by a glacier.

According to a legend of the Klamath and Modoc Indians the mystic land
of the Gaywas was the home of the great god Llao. His throne in the
infinite depths of the blue waters was surrounded by giant crawfish, his
warriors, who were able to lift great claws out of the water and seize
too venturesome enemies on the cliff tops.

War broke out with Skell, the god of the neighboring Klamath marshes.
Skell was captured and his heart used for a ball by Llao’s monsters. But
an eagle, one of Skell’s servants, captured it in flight, and a coyote,
another of Skell’s servants, escaped with it; and Skell’s body grew
again around his living heart. Once more he was powerful and once more
he waged war against the god of the lake. Then Llao was captured; but he
was not so fortunate. Upon the highest cliff his body was quartered and
cast into the lake and eaten by his own monsters under the belief that
it was Skell’s body. But when Llao’s head was thrown in the monsters
recognized it and would not eat it.

Llao’s head still lies in the lake, and white men call it Wizard Island.
The cliff where Llao was quartered is named Llao Rock.


                              THE WATCHMAN

On the rim, directly west of Wizard Island, is The Watchman. This peak,
deriving its name from its use as one of the observation points during
the sounding of the lake in 1886, is of interest not only because of its
height, but because of the fire lookout and observation station on its
summit. They may be reached after a 15-minute walk over a new trail from
the rim road. A rare panorama of the park and surrounding country may be
viewed from this point, which is 8,025 feet above the level of the sea
and 2,000 feet above the lake.


                               CLOUD-CAP

Possibly the most comprehensive view of the lake may be obtained from
Cloud-cap, on the east rim. Its summit rises over 8,000 feet above the
level of the sea and 2,000 feet above the lake. To the east is Mount
Scott and to the north and west wide vistas of the summit of the range.
On a clear day the shining surface of Klamath Lake may be seen far to
the south, bordered with vast marshlands and the dark timber at the foot
of the range, while farther south is the crown of beautiful Mount
Shasta. The strange coloring of Crater Lake is well observed from
Cloud-cap. In the sunlight there is play of clouds and soft shadows upon
the surface of the lake. Purple hues, delicate lavender with violet
blue, and deep streaks of emerald shading to a silvered green along the
shores present a variation of color and beauty one may never hope to see
elsewhere.


                              MOUNT SCOTT

East of Cloud-cap is Mount Scott, easily climbed and affording fine
unobstructed views. The peak is the highest point within the park,
reaching an altitude of nearly 9,000 feet. A fire lookout is located on
the summit.


                             THE PINNACLES

Located in Wheeler Creek, near the east entrance of the park, are
slender spires of pumice. Some of the needles are 200 feet in height. In
Sand Creek Canyon and Godfrey’s Glen in Annie Creek Canyon there are
additional spires and fluted columns carved out of the soft volcanic
material by the erosion of water. As erosion continues the Pinnacles
grow in height and new ones are slowly being formed.

During the summer of 1935, ranger naturalists discovered many small
fumaroles near the top of the gray tuff and ash deposits of Wheeler
Creek Canyon. Some of them are within the pinnacles themselves, regarded
as proof that the deposits were once hot and of the nature of sand flows
like those in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes in Alaska.


                               UNION PEAK

From the highway that mounts the Cascade Range from the west, one
obtains a splendid view of Union Peak, 7 miles to the southwest of
Crater Lake. It appears to have been placed on the top of the range to
mark the burial place of a guide of Indian lore. This strange towering
peak is the remaining neck of what was once an active volcano which
played its part in the building of the Cascade Range. It is a landmark
of unusual form among the peaks, rising 1,400 feet above the crest of
the range and nearly 8,000 feel above sea level. Trail trips to Union
Peak are among the finest offered in the Crater Lake area.


                             MOUNT THIELSEN

This great clifflike formation, rising to an elevation of 9,178 feet, is
to the north of Crater Lake and outside of the park. It is a picturesque
sight when seen from the heights surrounding the lake and is often
referred to as the Matterhorn of the Cascade Range. It is the wreck
remaining of a great mountain. The sharp summit of the peak has been
shattered repeatedly by lightning, producing fused glassy surfaces and
tortuous opening of the nature of fulgurite formations. To reach its
sharp heights is difficult and requires experience in mountain climbing.
Near the foot of Thielsen lies Diamond Lake.


                             LLAO’S HALLWAY

The Hallway, a gorge 125 feet deep cut through pumice material by stream
erosion, is located on a tributary to Castle Creek just north of the
White Horse campground on the Medford Road. There are numerous cave
amphitheaters and narrow passageways along the trail which follows the
bottom of the gorge.


                    CASTLE CREST WILD FLOWER GARDEN

Ideal for the study and viewing of Crater Lake flora, this garden is
near Park Headquarters, 3 miles from the rim area. A half-mile trail
winds through this area, alive with blooms throughout the summer season.



                              WILD ANIMALS


The park abounds with the smaller game species that are of great
interest to the visitor because of their friendly inquisitiveness.
Members of the squirrel family have learned that they will not be harmed
and so are numerous along roads and trails and at any place where people
congregate, knowing that in such surroundings they will find a wealth of
tidbits.

With the possible exception of the bear, the larger mammals are fairly
well represented but not numerous. Of the three deer species, the
Columbia blacktail is most common. Also reported is the larger Rocky
Mountain mule deer, and infrequently a band of whitetail deer may be
discovered in one of the grassy, watered meadows. Elk have been noted
along the eastern side of the park as far north as the base of Mount
Scott. The visitor who sees them, however, is fortunate, as elk are rare
in the park.

[Illustration:                                        _Copyright, Kiser_
                                                    BRUIN CLIMBS A TREE]

Bears, while they may be seen by the keen observer in many parts of the
park, are most numerous around Park Headquarters and may be seen at
almost any hour of the day foraging in the garbage pit nearby. Excepting
a few brown individuals, they are the well-known black variety.

Sometimes as many as three cubs, attended by their mother, make their
appearance. Visitors never tire of watching the antics of these little
balls of fur as they frolic and play. An occasional disciplinary cuff
administered by a watchful mother always causes much merriment among the
spectators.

In the interest of safety, it is prohibited to feed the bears by hand.
Too many persons have been painfully clawed doing so. Also it is well
not to get between the mother and her cubs.

Others of the larger animals extant in the park, but seldom seen by the
casual observer, are the cougar or mountain lion, the wolf, the coyote,
and the red fox.

Most common and approachable are the friendly and gluttonous little
golden-mantled ground squirrels. They stuff their cheeks with peanuts
from the hands of visitors until they can hold no more, then scurry
away, hurriedly cache the supply for future use, and come back for more.
Numerous also, but not quite so trusting, are two species of chipmunks,
easily distinguished from the golden-mantled squirrel. These little
fellows seem charged with electric energy, darting to and fro, seemingly
never quiet.

Basking on a warm rock or stodgily making his way among them, one will
frequently see the marmot, whose kind is plentiful along all the roads
and trails.

The hiker is constantly having his way challenged by the alert and
exceedingly saucy little pine squirrel, who may be recognized by his
very audacity. The porcupine is frequently observed as he waddles
clumsily in search for food, which consists chiefly of succulent bark
from young pine trees.

The shrill note of the cony or pika may often be heard on rocky slopes,
but, unless he moves, it is almost impossible to discover him because of
his wonderful protective coloration. These tiny animals may be seen at
the foot of the Crater Wall Trail or along slopes of Garfield Peak.

Not quite so interesting, perhaps, but often seen, are badgers, gray
squirrels, and snowshoe rabbits. Other furry little denizens not so
frequently seen are the mink, flying squirrel, marten, and several
species of mice. Gopher workings are common.

In only one place in the park, and that far off the beaten paths, lives
a colony of beaver. These particular animals live in a bank burrow and
have not built the big lodge familiarly associated with the name.

Due to the general elevation of the area, there are few reptiles.
Salamanders are common on the lake shore and frogs and toads along the
creeks.



                               BIRD LIFE


Great numbers of birds of many varieties have discovered that Crater
Lake National Park is a sanctuary for them. There are more than 110
varieties in the park.

The Eagle Crags have furnished nesting places for the golden eagle and
the southern bald eagle; Llao Rock is the home of falcons. Ospreys have
been seen, and the dusky horned owl forages nightly. California gulls
visit the park and Farallon cormorants are known to have nested and
raised their young on the lake. There are ravens and half a dozen
varieties of hawks. Canvasback and golden-eye ducks may be seen, and the
Sierra grouse inhabits the timber lands. Clark’s crow and crested jays
and gray jays make their presence known on the trails and around the
campgrounds.

Smaller birds frequently seen are the mountain bluebird, Townsend
solitaire, Sierra junco, pine siskin, Sierra creeper, red breasted
nuthatch, mountain chickadee, and western evening grosbeak. There are
golden and ruby-crowned kinglets, robins, wrens, wood and green-tailed
towhees, purple and rosy finches, chipping and other sparrows, two
varieties of thrushes, and five varieties of warblers. Occasionally a
humming bird is seen.

The most noticeable of the small birds of the park is the western
tanager, a brilliant streak of gold as he darts and flits in the dark
foliage, and equally remarkable in coloring when he rests on twig or
branch, where his red head, yellow body, and black wings with yellow
bars are unmistakable. The sweetest singer in the park is the Sierra
hermit thrush—shy, difficult to locate, but making his presence known by
his beautiful song.

During migratory seasons, thousands of geese, including the Canadian,
snow, and white-fronted varieties, fly over the park, taking advantage
of a low pass over the Cascade mountains near Annie Spring. These birds
make their flights in daylight hours, while numerous other varieties of
waterfowl fly over at night.



                                FISHING


Angling amid scenes of towering, multicolored cliffs in heavily
trout-stocked waters of deepest blue is an experience long to be
remembered. Trout bite readily in Crater Lake and are caught in goodly
numbers. These trout are not small nor do they submit easily after they
are hooked. Trout as long as 36 inches have been caught; the average is
around 2 pounds each and the length 16 inches.

The crystal-clear waters of the lake provide good fly fishing.
Experienced fly casters have reported success many times, using a wide
assortment of lures. During certain hours of the day fish jump lustily
along the shore line, and here flies are placed to effective use.
Trolling, however, is the popular method, with results satisfactory in
most sections of the lake. Spoons or spinners are principally used,
although plugs are occasionally a part of the tackle.

The limit of a day’s catch is 12 per person, extending during the summer
season. No fishing license is necessary.

Although today Crater Lake literally teems with rainbow and silverside
trout, in addition to a lesser number of steelhead, German brown, and
speckled trout, some 50 years ago the lake was devoid of piscatorial
life of any kind.

The first fish were planted September 1, 1888, by Judge William
Gladstone Steel, but with little success. A few years later a California
minister succeeded in planting 200 fingerlings, but after that plantings
were rare for many years. Since the park was established in 1902, fish
have been systematically planted, especially during the past decade. So
well has this work been done that the lake is now abundantly stocked and
care is being taken not to overstock this body of water.

The trout are largely dependent for food on an abundance of small
crustaceans in the lake. Research carried on in 1934-36 revealed that
while 53.7 percent of the food came from crustaceans, 47.1 percent of
this classification was confined to Daphnia pulex (water fleas). The
figures were determined after the examination of 224 trout stomachs. The
water fleas are most commonly found at a depth of 75 feet and are the
most abundant of several types of food found in the lake depths.



                             WINTER SPORTS


The 12 months accessibility of Crater Lake National Park has made
possible the enjoyment of winter sports in rare settings of wintry
splendor. Steep and gradual slopes, according to speeds desired, are
numerous in the park and are ideal for skiing and tobogganing, the
source of many thrills for amateur winter recreationists.

[Illustration:                                          _Crawford photo_
                                FISHERMEN DISPLAY THEIR AFTERNOON CATCH]

Professional snow meets in the park are not encouraged, but special
attention is paid to amateur sports, making it possible for entire
families to enjoy a day in the snow. Snow plows keep the south and west
approach roads effectively cleared for comfortable motor travel between
banks from 10 to 20 feet high in midwinter. Rangers are on constant duty
during the winter season to render service to visitors. Lodging and food
accommodations are within 20 miles of either side of the park.

In addition to snow sports, visitors have the opportunity of viewing
Crater Lake in a raiment of white, accentuating the mystic beauty of its
unbelievably blue waters and its encircling, towering cliffs of
multitudinous colors in close harmony with the pristine appeal of the
mountain wonder.

Inspiring to behold in the greenery of summer, Crater Lake robed in the
white silences of winter is a magic scene of color, vastness, and
mystery never to be forgotten.



                              THE FORESTS


Untouched by the hand of man, except for insect and tree disease
control, and carefully guarded against the ravages of fire, the forests
of Crater Lake form one of the park’s principal attractions. This is
true not only from a scenic standpoint and a never-failing interest for
tree lovers, but also because of the vast acres of magnificent stands.

Of the considerable number of trees within the park, the majority are
cone bearers. Some of these extend down the western slope well outside
the boundary. The lower species meet and mingle with such broad-leaved
trees as oak, maple, and madrone. Entering the lowest part of the park
in the southwest corner via the deep canyon of Redblanket Creek are
several trees not generally known to occur within the area. These
include Brewer oak (_Quercus oerstediana_), western hemlock (_Tsuga
heterophylla_), madrone (_Arbutus menziesii_), Pacific yew (_Taxus
brevifolia_), golden chinquapin (_Castanopsis chrysophylla_), bigleaf
maple (_Acer macrophyllum_), and Pacific dogwood (_Cornus nuttallii_).

The mountain hemlock (_Tsuga mertensiana_) is characteristic of the
Crater Lake region, its stately trunks, drooping limbs, and feathery
foliage providing woodland beauty that is never forgotten. It is common
to the inner wall of the crater and seeks high altitudes on mountain
peaks, where its growth is stunted and its limbs beaten down by storms.
An imposing stand greets the visitor at Annie Spring, continuing on both
sides of the highway to the rim, its large trunks suggestive of the
hundreds of years these trees have been growing undisturbed in their
mountain fastness. Here, indeed, is the forest in all of its pristine
glory. It occurs in heavy stands along the road around the lake,
enhancing the beauty of the Rim Drive. The great trunks crowd each other
for space beneath the shade of their lofty crowns.

An outstanding tree of the park is the whitebark pine (_Pinus
albicaulis_), often short and stunted and grotesquely twisted, fringing
the rim and crowning the highest crests. It illustrates best among trees
the stern struggle for existence. The lodgepole pine (_Pinus contorta_),
most prolific of the park’s conifers, covers thousands of acres of dense
stand and extends down the cool canyons to and beyond the park
boundaries. The Shasta red fir (_Abies magnifica shastensis_), a stately
tree with its regularly meshed branches and large bract-covered cones,
is an abundant tree scattered throughout the hemlock forest.

The western white pine (_Pinus monticola_), while usually a middle-sized
tree, furnishes the largest individual in the park, having a diameter of
approximately 8 feet. More abundant along water courses and about wet
meadows, can be seen the slender spires of the alpine fir (_Abies
lasiocarpa_). In some places this tree continues over the rim to the
inner wall of the crater. Engelmann spruce (_Picea engelmannii_) is
usually confined to the bottoms of deep canyons. Other trees include the
white fir (_Abies concolor_), Douglas fir (_Pseudotsuga taxifolia_), and
sugar pine (_Pinus lambertiana_), all companions of the ponderosa pine.

Another species in the park is the incense cedar (_Libocedrus
decurrens_). While this tree is not common, it is not hard to find, one
prominant group being on the motorway 3 miles west of Hillman Peak.
Several of the specimens are as large as 4½ feet in diameter.

Further enhancing the beauty of the park woodlands are a few
broad-leaved trees and a large variety of attractive shrubs and
undergrowth. No less than nine willows, two alders, and a maple are
among the more abundant and conspicuous shrubs which fringe the streams
and clothe the meadows. The timid aspens (_Populus tremuloides_) grow
beside the larger trees of the cone-bearing species, their small
roundish leaves trembling in mountain breezes. The black cottonwoods
(_Populus trichocarpa_) also mingle with the evergreen trees in the deep
canyons.

Many travelers visit Crater Lake, view the majestic splendor of the
world-famed scenic wonder, and leave without realizing the beauties of
the forest lands about them. A visit to the park is assuredly most
complete after pleasant summer nights spent encamped under the spreading
limbs of its stately hemlocks, pines, and firs. The sweet aroma of the
woods, their carpeted floors and rustling leaves, add much to the joy
and inspiration of a visit.



                              WILD FLOWERS


With a list of over 570 flowering plants and ferns, Crater Lake’s
richness in species and individuals compares favorably with other
national parks. This is not at first apparent to the visitor. If he
enters by the usual gateways and travels the beaten paths, he may even
be disappointed in the flowers. Over much of the region, all of which is
volcanic, the soil is made up chiefly of fine pumice sand, and for most
of the growing season is lacking in moisture. So perforce the plant life
must be limited to those forms whose peculiar structure adapt them to
such environment. To many, however, this situation only lends variety
and adds peculiar interest. Pleasing to the eye are the massed color
effects in the open spaces and the drier forest areas. Wherever the
highway enters the regions of the streams, these massed effects
increase, and one is gladdened by the transformation due to water’s
magic touch. If the visitor travels the many byroads and winding trails
to the mountain meadows beside the singing brooks, or by boat along the
rocky shore of the lake, he will find gardens of transcendent beauty. No
more enchanting ones can be found than Castle Crest Gardens at park
headquarters and Talus Garden under the towering walls of Cloud-cap, or
lovelier spots than Boundary Springs and Copeland Creek along the
western slope of old Mount Mazama.

Soon after entering the park, the attention is caught by bright flashes
of the scarlet trumpets of the mountain gilia (_G. aggregata_), the
pineland paintbrush (_Castilleja pinetorum_), and the abundant white
sprays of the snowbrush (_Ceanothus velutinus_). Sheltered by the denser
and more somber forests farther along are noteworthy representatives of
the heath family, such as prince’s pine (_Chimaphila umbellata_) and
several species of _Pyrola_, some of the latter with the usual green
leaves, yet others without such foliage. Several near relatives belong
to this class of leafless saprophites which obtain their food by feeding
on decaying vegetation, as, for examples, the tall brownish pine drops
(_Pterospora andromedea_) and the snow-white phantom orchid
(_Cephalanthera austinae_).

Responding to the influence of the diversity of topography and soil and
moisture conditions, various types of flowers are abundantly represented
around park headquarters. Near at hand on the first bare spots among the
snowdrifts, cheerful harbingers of spring, come the lovely wind-flowers
(_Anemone occidentalis_) with cups of white, and the strikingly
beautiful yellow lamb’s tongue (_Erythronium grandiflorum pallidum_).
Stone crop (_Gormania watsonii_) covers the rock ledges, and finest of
the rock-loving plants, the pink pentstemon (_P. rupicola_) drapes the
rock walls in company with the lace fern (_Cheilanthes gracillima_).
Delicate bog orchids (_Lemnorchis_), elephant heads (_Pedicularis
groenlandica_), masses of yellow and pink monkey-flowers (_Mimulus_),
banks of daisy-like fleabane (_Erigeron salsuginosus_), giant ragwort
(_Senecio triangularis_), and a host of others fill the wet meadows and
line the streams. On the talus slopes are long strips of Arnica (_A.
longifolia_). In openings in the hemlock forest the ever abundant
narrow-leaved aster (_A. ledophyllus_) presents a field of purple with
intermingled pink fireweed (_Epilobium angustifolium_) and the tall corn
lily or false hellebore (_Veratrum_ _viride_), while the surrounding
forest floor is carpeted with the grasslike turf of the smooth wood-rush
(_Funcoides glabratrum_), the most abundant herbaceous plant of the
upper forests. In the open pumice fields of the rim area, Douglas phlox
(_Phlox douglasii_), sulphur flower (_Eriogonum umbellatum_), and the
low desert lupine (_Lupinus aridus_) contribute to the varied color
scheme, later transformed into red and gold by the autumnal foliage of
Newberry’s knotweed (_Polygonum newberryi_).

Over the crater’s rim, down the trail to the lake, one is attracted to
the trailing raspberry (_Rubus lasiococcus_), clothing the steep banks,
and the spiny currant (_Ribes lacustre_), prostrate on the rock walls.
Abundant on the lower part of the trail and rocky shore of the lake, the
large rose-pink flowers of Lewis’ monkey-flower (_Mimulus lewisii_) are
the most conspicuous and striking features of the vegetation.

Across the blue water, even in the more forbidding lavas of Wizard
Island, one is greeted at the boat landing by many fine clumps of
bleeding heart (_Dicentra formosa_). A little distance along the trail
leading up the island cone, the parrot’s beak (_Pedicularis racemosa_)
is seen under the spreading hemlocks. At the summit, crowning the rim of
the miniature crater, emulating the volcanic fires of old, grow the
flaming paintbrushes (_Castilleja applegatei_), mainly restricted to the
Crater Lake region. Other plants less showy, sending their long roots
deep into the cinders and pumice, reach for moisture and struggle for a
foothold in the unstable rock material of the precipitous slope.



                         HOW TO REACH THE PARK


                              BY RAILROAD

The Southern Pacific Railroad serves Crater Lake National Park. The
company runs its finest trains over the Cascade route passing through
Klamath Falls and also operates regular service over the Siskiyou route
passing through Medford, west of the park. The Cascade route comes
within a few miles east of the park boundary. Connections with Crater
Lake automobile stages are made daily at Medford and Klamath Falls from
July 1 to September 20.


                             BY AUTOMOBILE

The automobile approaches to the park are exceptionally fine. Motorists
on the Pacific Highway, going north, have the choice of turning off at
Weed in northern California, proceeding to Klamath Falls and then to
Crater Lake over The Dalles-California Highway, or proceeding on to
Medford over the Pacific Highway and then to Crater Lake, 80 miles
distant. Southbound visitors on the Pacific Highway turn off at Medford,
as well as motorists arriving from California by way of the Redwoods
Highway, which has its junction with the Pacific Highway at Grants Pass.

Travelers to the park from Medford arrive by way of the west entrance
and from Klamath Falls by way of the south entrance. Those from Bend,
Oreg., 106 miles from Crater Lake, use the well-improved approach via
the north entrance, bringing motorists near Diamond Lake while en route
to the park. This route is rapidly growing in importance. The east
entrance also provides for travel from Bend and The Dalles-California
Highway and is usually open earlier in the season due to less snowfall.

En route from Medford, motorists travel through great forest areas,
along the banks of rushing streams, along the edges of picturesque
canyons, and through attractive mountain country. Of particular interest
is the Rogue River, well known for its steelhead and cutthroat trout and
salmon fishing.

Motorists entering the park by way of Medford often leave by way of the
south entrance to Klamath Falls, 62 miles, or arrive that way and leave
over the Medford route. On this trip motorists pass along the Annie
Creek Canyon, through the Klamath Indian Reservation, and along the edge
of upper Klamath Lake, the largest inland body of water west of the
Rocky Mountains.

Through the use of powerful snow plows Crater Lake National Park has
been made accessible throughout the year over the Klamath and Medford
approach roads. This is possible through the cooperation of the State
highway commission. Even during midwinter, when snow attains a depth of
12 to 15 feet on the level, motorists can drive to the very rim of the
lake.

Park highways are now continuously open, barring the exception of
excessively heavy storms; however the north and east entrances are open
only from spring until late fall.


                              BY AIRPLANE

High-speed, de luxe airplane service from all points in the United
States to Medford is now available through the United Air Lines, which
operates direct service to 19 States. For persons of limited time this
service affords a splendid opportunity to see the park. For example,
passengers may leave Los Angeles after breakfast, land at Medford, take
a bus for the 80-mile drive to the park, and arrive in the afternoon.
Leaving New York at noon, one may arrive in Medford in time for
breakfast the next morning and drive to the park before lunch.


                             BY MOTOR COACH

Pacific Greyhound Lines, covering the United States, operate super
highway motor coaches through Medford and Klamath Falls where
connections are made with Crater Lake stages during the travel season.
The Mount Hood Stages operate daily coach service from Boise, Idaho, The
Dalles, Oreg., and Portland, Oreg., over The Dalles-California Highway
to Fort Klamath and Klamath tails.



                             ADMINISTRATION


The park is administered by the National Park Service of the Department
of the Interior, with a superintendent, E. P. Leavitt, in immediate
charge. A force of rangers and ranger-naturalists assists this official.

Also under the jurisdiction of Crater Lake National Park administrative
offices are the Oregon Caves National Monument, 50 miles from Grants
Pass in southern Oregon, and the Lava Beds National Monument in northern
California, 45 miles south of Klamath Falls, Oreg. Both of these areas
are popular attractions for visitors.

At Crater Lake long-distance telephone and telegraph services are
available at the lodge, at park headquarters, and at various ranger
stations. At Oregon Caves such services are available at the Chateau,
and at the Lava Beds telephone service is available at Indian Well,
monument headquarters.



                              RIM VILLAGE


A large majority of visitors first reach the rim of the lake at the Rim
Village. This is the focal point of park activities. Here are the lodge,
post office, cafeteria, general store, Sinnott Memorial, a rental cabin
group, auto service, emergency mechanical service, and information
bureau. From the Rim Village a number of the most important trails in
the park take off, including the spectacular trail down the crater wall
to the lake shore, where launches and rowboats are available for
pleasure trips and fishing excursions. This fine trail is 6 foot wide
and on a holding grade of 12 percent, permitting use by people
unaccustomed to much physical effort. Its length of 1½ miles can be
covered on the down trip in 30 minutes, while the return trip requires
approximately 45 minutes. The trail to the summit of Garfield Peak,
directly overlooking the lake and giving a magnificent panorama of the
Cascades, takes off from the Rim Village, as does a 4-mile trail to The
Watchman, a trail to Annie Spring, and to park headquarters.



                                CAMPING


There are four campgrounds within Crater Lake National Park, all of them
free to the public.

The Rim Campground is located in close proximity to the rim at the
terminus of the highway. The camp is on a slight elevation in the
shelter of a fine stand of mountain hemlock, reminding the visitor that
the altitude is over 7,000 feet. Eagle Crags, the jagged pinnacles of
Garfield Peak, and Castle Crest tower above to the east. The designation
of camp sites by logs, with a table, stove, and fireplace at each site,
makes camping possible in a natural setting without detracting from the
general beauty. Firewood is available at the camp. The water is pure,
and there are sanitary conveniences, including hot water and hot and
cold showers. The popularity of this campground has increased to such an
extent that it has become necessary to limit camping to 30 days in this
area.

[Illustration:                                            _Rostel photo_
                                        LODGE ON THE RIM Of CRATER LAKE]

Located near the Rim Campground is the community house, with its great
stone fireplace, where campers and visitors gather at night for
recreation. It is open at all times for the pleasure and convenience of
the public. Programs of an entertaining and instructive character are
provided here every evening during the summer season.

The post office is at the lodge, and mail addressed to Crater Lake will
reach its destination during the park season. Rental cabins may be
secured at the housekeeping-accommodation office. A cafeteria and
general store are maintained convenient to the camp.

[Illustration:                                             _Lange photo_
                                               A TYPICAL RIM CAMPGROUND]

The lower campground is situated near the Annie Spring checking station,
on the highway 7 miles south of the Rim Camp. This is a beautiful
well-sheltered, shaded site, and at a considerably lower altitude than
the grounds near the rim. The camp has modern sanitation, with running
water and wood available.

A camping place is located at Lost Creek, 3½ miles inside the east
entrance of the park, at the junction of the highway entering the park
and the Rim Road, not far from Wheeler Creek. These campgrounds are
located 11 miles from the Rim Village, the road skirting the great
heights south of the lake, and 2½ miles from Kerr Notch, offering a
spectacular view of Crater Lake from the east rim.

For those visitors coming to the park by the south entrance there is
Cold Spring Camp, 3 miles south of the Annie Spring checking station, 7
miles north of the entrance, and 9 miles from the lake rim. The camp is
near the scenic Annie Creek Canyon, and is one of the earliest regular
camping places used by explorers of the Crater Lake region. Godfrey’s
Glen, with its colonnades and beautiful scenery, is located deep in the
mysterious canyon not far from Cold Spring.

[Illustration:                                             _Grant photo_
                            PINNACLE FORMATIONS IN WHEELER CREEK CANYON]



                      ACCOMMODATIONS AND EXPENSES


The Crater Lake National Park Co. offers all pay accommodations for
visitors in the park. Rooms may be obtained at the Crater Lake Lodge, a
large hotel on the rim of the lake, under American and European plans.
Under the latter plan rates range from $3 for two in a room to $5.50 for
one person. Twin beds, with bath, on the European plan are available at
$7.50 for two persons; the American plan is $3 per person higher.
Children under 8 years receive half rates. Housekeeping cabins in the
Rim Village rent for $2 per night, without bedding, and $2.75 with
bedding. A large stone building, containing the cafeteria, store,
novelties, pictures, and photographic supplies, is nearby.

_Motor transportation._—Daily automobile service from Medford and
Klamath Falls to Crater Lake Lodge is maintained by the Crater Lake
National Park Co. from July 1 to September 20. The round-trip cost is $8
per person and only round-trip tickets are sold. A visitor may enter by
way of Medford and leave by way of Klamath Falls. The trip requires 2½
hours from the latter place and 3 hours from the former.

_Launches and rowboats._—Rowboats may be hired for 50 cents per hour for
one person and 25 cents for each additional person. Regularly scheduled
trips are made daily by launch to the Phantom Ship and Wizard Island,
about 15 miles, at a cost of $2 per person. Hourly trips are made to
Wizard Island for $1 per person. Fishing tackle may be rented at the
boat landing.

One of the popular attractions is a launch trip around the lake, leaving
the boat landing at 9 o’clock each morning during the travel season. A
ranger-naturalist describes to the launch passengers the points of
geologic and historical interest. The trip has been carefully planned
and is available at the cost of $2 per person.

This booklet is issued once a year and _the rates mentioned herein may
have changed slightly since issuance_, but the latest rates approved by
the Secretary of the Interior are on file with the superintendent and
park operator.



                               REFERENCES


  Albright, Horace M., and Taylor, Frank J. Oh, Ranger! A book about the
          national parks. Illustrated.
  Diller, J. S. Geological History of Crater Lake. An account of the
          formation of Crater Lake.
  Diller, J. S., and Patton, H. B. Geology and Petrography of Crater
          Lake National Park. Professional Paper No. 3, U. S. Geological
          Survey. 1902. 167 pp.
  Eaton, Walter Prichard:
      Sky-line camps. 1922. 268 pp., illustrated. A record of wanderings
          in the northwestern mountains, from the Rockies in Glacier
          National Park to Crater Lake National Park, and to the
          Cascades in Washington and Oregon.
      Boy Scouts at Crater Lake. 1922. 320 pp., illustrated. A story of
          Crater Lake National Park in the high Cascades.
  Kane, J. F. Picturesque America. 1935. 256 pp., illustrated. Published
          by Frederick Gumbrecht, Brooklyn, N. Y. Crater Lake on pp.
          27-29.
  Kelley, Edgemond, and Chick. Three Scout Naturalists in the National
          Parks. A book by three Eagle Scouts who made a 12,000-mile
          field trip through the western national parks. Brewer, Warren
          & Putnam, 1931.
  Lapham, Stanton C. The souvenir book, The Enchanted Lake.
  Mazama, The. Bulletin published by the “Mazamas.” (Mountaineering
          Club), of Portland, Oreg.
  McArthur, Lewis A. Oregon Geographic Names. 450 pp., illustrated, map.
          Koke-Chapman Co., Eugene, Oreg. 1928.
  Mills, Enos A. Your National Parks. 532 pp., illustrated. 1917. Crater
          Lake on pp. 137-147; 470-474.
  Pernot, J. F. Forests of Crater Lake National Park. 40 pp., 26
          illustrations. Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.
          20 cents.
  Rolfe, Mary A. Our National Parks, Book Two. A supplementary reader on
          the national parks for fifth- and sixth-grade students. Benj.
          H. Sanborn & Co., Chicago. 1928. Crater Lake on pp. 109-118.
  Russell, I. C.:
      Lakes of North America. 1895. 125 pp. Crater Lake on pp. 20-21.
      Volcanoes of North America. 1897. 346 pp. Crater Lake on pp.
          235-236.
  Steel, W. G. The Mountains of Oregon. 1890. 112 pp. Crater Lake on pp.
          12-33.
  Victor, Frances Fuller. Atlantic Arisen. 1891. 412 pp. Crater Lake on
          pp. 179-183.
  Wilbur, Ray Lyman, and Du Puy, William Atherton. Conservation in the
          Department of the Interior. Chapter on national parks, pp.
          96-112. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 1931.
          Price $1.
  Yard, Robert Sterling:
      The Top of the Continent. 1917. 244 pp., illustrated. Crater Lake
          on pp. 140-160.
      The Book of the National Parks. 1926. 440 pp., 74 illustrations,
          14 maps and diagrams. Crater Lake on pp. 184-201.
  Panoramic View of Crater Lake National Park. 16½ by 18 inches; scale,
          1 mile to the inch, Gives excellent idea of configuration of
          surface as seen from the air. Superintendent of Documents,
          Washington, D. C. 25 cents.
  Map of Crater Lake National Park. About 14 by 19 inches; scale, 1 mile
          to inch. United States Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 10
          cents.



                         RULES AND REGULATIONS
                               [Briefed]


The Park Regulations are designed for the protection of the natural
features and scenery as well as for the comfort and convenience of
visitors. The following synopsis is for the general guidance of
visitors, who are requested to assist the administration by observing
the rules. Full regulations may be seen at the office of the
superintendent and ranger station.

  _Fires._—Light carefully and only in designated campgrounds.
  Extinguish completely before leaving camp, even for temporary absence.
  Do not guess your fire is out—know it.

  _Camps._—Use designated campgrounds. Keep the campgrounds clean.
  Combustible rubbish shall be burned on camp fires, and all other
  garbage and refuse of all kinds shall be placed in garbage cans or
  pits provided for the purpose. Firewood is provided free of charge.
  Camping is restricted to 30 days.

  _Trash._—Do not throw paper, lunch refuse, film cartons, chewing-gum
  paper, or other trash over the rim, on walks, trails, roads, or
  elsewhere. Carry until you can burn in camp or place in receptacle.

  _Trees, Flowers, and Animals._—The destruction, injury, or disturbance
  in any way of the trees, flowers, birds, or animals is prohibited.

  _Noises._—Be quiet in camp after others have gone to bed. Many people
  come here for rest.

  _Automobiles._—Careful driving is required at all times for protection
  of yourself and other visitors. Your car must be equipped with good
  brakes, horn, and lights. Passing on curves is prohibited. Obey
  traffic rules. A gasoline and oil station is maintained on the main
  highway at park headquarters. Gasoline and oil may also be secured at
  the Rim Village. No other gasoline stations are available in the park.
  The fee for automobile permit is $1.

  _Dogs._—Dogs are prohibited in the park overnight and are not
  permitted in the rim concentration area. When not in an automobile,
  dogs must be on a leash at all times.

  _Warning About Bears._—Do not feed the bears from the hand; they will
  not harm you if not fed at close range. Bears will enter or break into
  automobiles if food that they can smell is left inside. They will also
  rob your camp of unprotected food supplies.

  _Fishing._—A limit of 12 fish per person per day has been set for lake
  angling. A catch of 20 fish is permitted in park streams. No fishing
  license is necessary.

  _Park Rangers._—The rangers are here to help and advise you. When in
  doubt ask a ranger. Rangers at the Information Bureau, park
  headquarters, and the several stations will be glad to help you plan
  your activity while in Crater Lake and to explain the regulations.

  Complete rules and regulations are available at park headquarters.



                                 EVENTS
                        OF HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE


  1853—John Wesley Hillman and a group of prospectors discovered the
          lake and named it Deep Blue Lake.
  1862—Chauncey Nye and party of prospectors, unaware of the previous
          discovery, accidentally visited the lake.
  1865—Soldiers from Fort Klamath, without knowledge of previous
          discoveries, visited the lake and named it Lake Majesty.
  1869—Jim Sutton, accompanied by David Linn and family, of
          Jacksonville, visited the lake and named it Crater Lake.
  1873—First photograph, a daguerreotype, taken of Crater Lake by Peter
          Britt, southern Oregon pioneer.
  1883—J. S. Diller, geologist, and Everett Hayden, of the United States
          Geological Survey, visited the lake.
  1885—William Gladstone Steel, with Prof. Joseph Le Conte, Capt.
          Clarence E. Dutton, J. M. Brock, Jr., and others, visited
          Crater Lake. Mr. Steel suggested that a national park be
          established and a petition was sent to President Cleveland.
  1886—The President issued a proclamation withdrawing 10 townships,
          including Crater Lake. Lake surveyed and sounded by the United
          States Geological Survey.
  1888—First fish planted in Crater Lake by William Gladstone Steel.
  1896—Mazamas visited Crater Lake and christened the ancestral
          mountain, of which only the caldera and lower slopes remain,
          Mount Mazama.
  1902—Crater Lake National Park, created by congressional action,
          approved by President Theodore Roosevelt. First
          superintendent, W. F. Arant, appointed.
  1907—First automobile driven to the rim of Crater Lake by Charles
          True, from Medford, Oreg. The _Wocus_, the first boat used in
          rendering a launch service to visitors, placed on the lake.
  1912—Crater Lake Lodge, the oldest structure now existing in the rim
          area, was built.
  1927—Crater Lake Ski Club organized. First annual ski races held.
  1931—Sinnott Memorial completed and dedicated.
  1932—The Watchman Observation Station completed.
  1935—Park approach roads and highway to rim open for first time
          throughout winter.



                              OREGON CAVES
                           NATIONAL MONUMENT


Located 160 miles southwest of Crater Lake, the Oregon Caves National
Monument in Josephine County, administered by the superintendent and
staff of the Crater Lake National Park, is one of the most popular
scenic attractions of Oregon. The caves, occurring at an elevation of
4,000 feet in the heart of the Siskiyou Mountains, are easily reached
over hard-surfaced highways.

The monument is 20 miles distant from the famous Redwood Highway,
between Crescent City, Calif., and Grants Pass, Oreg. Motorists to the
monument turn off at Caves Junction, a small settlement at the junction
of the Redwood and Caves Highways.

The caverns, also known as the “Marble Halls of Oregon,” were discovered
by a pioneer bear hunter, Elijah Davidson, in 1874 when a bruin sought
refuge in their darkness. Davidson, intent on a kill, followed close
behind, aided by a flickering pitch torch. He made a cursory
exploration, followed by others in later years, but he never viewed the
many wonders of their interior as seen today by the visiting public.
There are several miles of winding passageways, large rooms, and scores
of fantastic formations weird in their eerie beauty.

The monument, covering 480 acres, was established by proclamation of
President Taft on July 12, 1909. During recent years numerous
improvements, such as new trails, steel ladders, illumination, and
removal of obstructions, have been completed to make the caves more
accessible and visits more enjoyable.

A limestone, long ago altered to marble, is the soluble rock in which
the passageways were formed. The caves offer outstanding underground
beauty along a route which brings visitors past their most attractive
formations, the result of constant water action for many thousands of
years. These formations assume odd, grotesque, and fantastic shapes,
resembling draperies, flowers, fruits, palaces, and gargoyles.

The rocks of the region are complexly folded, faulted, and metamorphosed
shales, sandstones, and minor bodies of limestone, intruded by vast
amounts of basic igneous rock, most of which is now serpentine. The
whole is crushed and squeezed into intricate and apparently hopeless
confusion from the structural and stratigraphic viewpoint.

Here and there in sparkling beauty are exquisite miniatures of Niagaras,
Gardens of Eden, cotton blossoms, forests, and castles. A number of the
unusual features carry such strange names as Music Room, River Styx,
Ghost Room, Dante’s Inferno, Paradise Lost, and Joaquin Miller’s Chapel.
Paradise Lost is the most beautiful exhibit of the caves with its
flowerlike stalactitic pendants adorning the walls of a room 60 feet
high.

Countless stalagmites and stalactites telling the story of the patience
of the ages are seen by visitors during the 2-hour guided trips through
the caves. Especially is this true of one of the columns, which is a
foot in diameter and was formed by the joining of a stalagmite and
stalactite.

Monument visitors are offered hotel accommodations at the Oregon Caves
Chateau near the cave’s entrance. Lodging and dining-room service is
provided. From the floor of a canyon, the bark-covered six stories of
the chateau attain complete harmony with the thick forests and
moss-covered rock ledges of the surrounding country.

Cottages are available at the caves, as well as a store where novelties
and pictures can be procured. Picnic grounds are maintained in the
monument.

During the summer months from June 15 to September 1, frequent guided
trips are offered. Guide service on more flexible schedules is available
throughout the year. This service is furnished by the operator.

During the summer season, evening campfire programs are offered in the
open air near the chateau, presenting talent from the Oregon colleges
employed in the monument. Park rangers give short talks on the monument
in conjunction with the musical programs.

[Illustration: THE OREGON CAVES CHATEAU]



                               LAVA BEDS
                           NATIONAL MONUMENT


Located in northern California, 105 miles south of Crater Lake, the Lava
Beds National Monument, administered by the Crater Lake National Park
staff since 1933, covers an area of 45,967 acres, noteworthy for
volcanic, historical, and archeological features of distinctive
importance.

The monument is usually open to travel the entire year, although winter
storms are liable to make dirt roads in and approaching the area
difficult to travel. The Lava Beds are 70 miles from Alturas, Calif.,
and 45 miles from Klamath Falls, Oreg., with the last few miles of each
route served by passable dirt roads. It can also be reached over
unimproved roads from Bieber, Calif., on the Redding-Alturas Highway,
and Bartle via Medicine Lake.

A vast field for geologic study is included in this area where at
intervals over a period of thousands of years volcanic activity seethed
in lava rivers issuing forth from fissures scattered over the entire
section. Geologically, the region is considered young, the age of the
last lava flows and the last cinder cones being estimated at 500 years
or slightly less.

Viewed from a distance, the monument appears as a fairly level terrain,
with a northeasterly slope interspersed with symmetrical cinder cones.
The lava rocks of the area are so porous and broken with shrinkage
cracks that water from scant rainfall passes immediately underground,
hence causing no erosion and leaving the monument features in the same
condition as they were when first constructed. While volcanic activity
has continued until modern times, the oldest formations are believed to
date back some 20,000 to 60,000 years.

Except in the southern third of the monument where cindery pumice covers
the surface, the visitor walks on solid lava. The small recent flows of
billowy lava, or the pahoehoe type, have spread out like thick molasses
or tar. It is in this type of lava that the caves and tunnels of the
monument are found. These were formed by the hardening of the surface
and sides of lava flows, becoming tubes when the molten lava core
drained out. They range from a few feet to several miles in length and
from 10 to 75 feet in height. Collapsed portions form long serpentlike
trenches of broken rock 20 to 100 feet deep and from 50 to 250 feet
wide, while narrow unbroken roof strips serve as natural bridges.

The caves being of volcanic origin, lava stalactites are in evidence in
some of them. Ice formations, the result of constantly freezing
temperatures and presence of moisture, are found in others. Over 300
caves have been located in the monument, but of this number only 130
have been explored. A small number of the more interesting caves are
open to the public. In exploring these caverns, visitors are given the
services of guides without cost during the summer months.

Two types of symbolic Indian writings add a touch of mystery to the
monument, suggesting the presence of ancient aborigines many centuries
ago. One type is made up of paintings (pictographs) on the walls of a
number of the caves and sides of natural bridges. The other type is
composed of carvings (petroglyphs) confined entirely to rocky bluffs
where the material was sufficiently soft to be cut out by stone tools.
The petroglyphs, located in an isolated portion of the monument, are
deeply carved and have successfully withstood the ravages of time.

Historical features of the monument recall the only major Indian war
ever fought on California soil and one of the most costly of its kind in
United States history. In 1872-73 a small band of Modoc Indians under
the leadership of Keintpoos, commonly known as Captain Jack, clashed
with a body of United States cavalry just north of the California line
following a rampage during which several settlers were killed. A short
time later, the Modocs established themselves in a natural lava fortress
in the northern part of the monument where they withstood a superior
force of soldiers for 5 months.

During this time several peace negotiations were attempted, reaching
their climax in an ill-fated peace parley a short distance from the
Indian stronghold. A number of Indians, including Captain Jack, gathered
with a peace commission, headed by General R. E. S. Canby, commander of
the besieging soldiers. During the truce parley, the Indians without
warning killed General Canby and one other member of the commission,
after which the Modocs fled to their stronghold. A cross, erected by
Canby’s soldiers on the spot, still stands.

It was not long after the killings that the Indians were subdued,
marking the end of Indian warfare in this section. The stronghold today
is much as it was over 60 years ago. Points of interest are plainly
marked; bleaching bones and rotting bits of leather are reminiscent of
the last stand of the Modocs.

Interesting to monument visitors also is the presence of wildlife.
During winter and spring seasons, mule deer can be seen in large
numbers, with 20 to 30 individual herds remaining in the area until the
arrival of warmer summer weather. Hundreds of birds are observed,
particularly valley quail and an abundance of raptores. Large numbers of
small mammals are seen throughout the year. Lava Reds bighorn formerly
roamed the monument but were exterminated by unrestricted hunting and
competition for the range by sheep and cattle 20 years ago. However,
their trails are still visible.

Administrative headquarters of the monument are maintained at Indian
Well, where a park ranger is in charge. A small museum of old war relics
and volcanic specimens is maintained here. A campground is nearby. No
gasoline, food, or other accommodations are available in the monument
but these can be procured within 20 miles of the area at Merrill, Oreg.
or Tide Lake, Calif.

[Illustration: NATURAL LAVA FORTRESSES WERE CAPTAIN JACK’S STRONGHOLD]



                        NATIONAL PARKS IN BRIEF


  ABRAHAM LINCOLN, KY.—Birthplace of Abraham Lincoln. Established 1916;
          0.17 square mile.
  ACADIA, MAINE.—Combination of mountain and seacoast scenery.
          Established 1919; 24.91 square miles.
  BRYCE CANYON, UTAH.—Canyons filled with exquisitely colored pinnacles.
          Established 1928; 56.23 square miles.
  CARLSBAD CAVERNS, N. MEX.—Beautifully decorated limestone caverns.
          Established 1930; 15.75 square miles.
  CRATER LAKE, OREG.—Beautiful lake in crater of extinct volcano.
          Established 1902; 250.52 square miles.
  FORT McHENRY, MD.—Its defense in 1814 inspired writing of
          Star-Spangled Banner. Established 1925; 0.07 square mile.
  GENERAL GRANT, CALIF.—General Grant Tree and grove of Big Trees.
          Established 1890; 3.98 square miles.
  GLACIER, MONT.—Unsurpassed alpine scenery; 200 lakes: 60 glaciers.
          Established 1910; 1,537.98 square miles.
  GRAND CANYON, ARIZ.—World’s greatest example of erosion. Established
          1919; 1,008 square miles.
  GRAND TETON, WYO.—Most spectacular portion of Teton Mountains.
          Established 1929; 150 square miles.
  GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS, N.C.-TENN.—Massive mountain uplift; magnificent
          forests. Established for protection 1930; 643.26 square miles.
  HAWAII, ISLANDS OF HAWAII AND MAUI.—Interesting volcanic areas.
          Established 1916; 248.54 square miles.
  HOT SPRINGS, ARK.—Forty-seven hot springs reserved by the Federal
          Government in 1832 to prevent exploitation of waters. Made
          national park in 1921; 1.54 square miles.
  LASSEN VOLCANIC, CALIF.—Only recently active volcano in United States
          proper. Established 1916; 163.32 square miles.
  MAMMOTH CAVE, KY.—Interesting caverns, including spectacular onyx cave
          formation. Established for protection 1936; 54.09 square
          miles.
  MESA VERDE, COLO.—Most notable cliff dwellings in United States.
          Established 1906; 80.21 square miles.
  MOUNT McKINLEY, ALASKA.—Highest mountain in North America. Established
          1917; 3,030.46 square miles.
  MOUNT RAINIER, WASH.—Largest accessible single-peak glacier system.
          Established 1899; 377.78 square miles.
  PLATT, OKLA.—Sulphur and other springs. Established 1902; 1.32 square
          miles.
  ROCKY MOUNTAIN, COLO.—Peaks from 11,000 to 14,255 feet in heart of
          Rockies. Established 1915; 405.33 square miles.
  SEQUOIA, CALIF.—General Sherman, largest and possibly oldest tree in
          world; outstanding groves of Sequoiagi gigantea. Established
          1890; 604 square miles.
  SHENANDOAH, VA.—Outstanding scenic area in Blue Ridge. Established
          1935; 282.14 square miles.
  WIND CAVE, S. DAK.—Beautiful cavern of peculiar formations. No
          stalactites or stalagmites. Established 1903; 19.75 square
          miles.
  YELLOWSTONE, WYO.-MONT.-IDAHO.—World’s greatest geyser area and an
          outstanding game preserve. Established 1872; 3,437.88 square
          miles.
  YOSEMITE, CALIF.—Valley of world-famous beauty; spectacular
          waterfalls; magnificent High Sierra country. Established 1890;
          1,176.16 square miles.
  ZION, UTAH.—Zion Canyon, 1,500 to 2,500 feet deep. Spectacular
          coloring. Established 1919; 134.91 square miles.


[Illustration: AREAS ADMINISTERED BY THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE]

  NOTE

  GEORGE WASHINGTON MEMORIAL, BLUE RIDGE, AND NATCHEZ TRACE PARKWAY
  PROJECTS NOT SHOWN BECAUSE OF SPACE LIMITATION

  November 1, 1937



                          Transcriber’s Notes


—Silently corrected a few typos.

—This eBook is public-domain in the country of publication.

—In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.





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