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Title: Cavity-Nesting Birds of North American Forests - Agriculture Handbook 511
Author: Scott, Virgil E., Patton, David R., Stone, Charles P., Evans, Keith E.
Language: English
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_Cover sketch: Saw-whet owl, by Bob Hines of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
                       Service, Washington, D.C._



                          Cavity-Nesting Birds
                                   of
                         North American Forests


                            Virgil E. Scott
                    Denver Wildlife Research Center

                             Keith E. Evans
                North Central Forest Experiment Station

                            David R. Patton
           Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station

                            Charles P. Stone
                    Denver Wildlife Research Center

                             Illustrated by
                             Arthur Singer


                        Agriculture Handbook 511
                             November 1977

                             Forest Service
                     U.S. Department of Agriculture

 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
                     Office Washington, D.C. 20402

                       Stock No. 001-000-03726-9


  Scott, Virgil E., Keith E. Evans, David R. Patton, and Charles P.
          Stone.
    1977. Cavity-nesting birds of North American forests. U.S. Dep.
          Agric., Agric. Handb. 511, 112 p.

Habitat, cavity requirements, and foods are described for 85 species of
birds that nest in cavities in dead or decadent trees. Intensive removal
of such trees would disastrously affect breeding habitat for many of
these birds that help control destructive forest insects. Birds are
illustrated in color; distributions are mapped.



                                PREFACE


_This Handbook is the result of a cooperative effort between the Forest
Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Fish and Wildlife
Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Authors Scott and Stone are
wildlife research biologists with the Fish and Wildlife Service’s Denver
Wildlife Research Center. Scott is stationed in Fort Collins, Colorado.
Authors Evans and Patton are principal wildlife biologists with the
Forest Service’s North Central Forest Experiment Station and Rocky
Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, respectively. Evans is
stationed in Columbia, Missouri, in cooperation with the University of
Missouri, while Patton is stationed in Tempe, Arizona, in cooperation
with Arizona State University._

_Special thanks are due Arthur Singer, who graciously donated the use of
his illustrations from “A guide to field identification: Birds of North
America,” by Robbins, Bruun, and Zim, which are reproduced here with
permission of the Western Publishing Company. The distribution maps are
also reproduced with the permission of Western Publishing Company._ ©
Copyright 1966 by Western Publishing Company, Inc.

_We would like to thank Kimberly Hardin, Beverly Roedner, Mary Gilbert,
Steve Blair, and Michael, Leslie, and Mary Stone for their assistance in
collecting literature. A special thanks to Jill Whelan for her
assistance in literature searches, checking references and scientific
names, and assembling this publication. The assistance of Robert Hamre
in encouraging and guiding the preparation of this manuscript is
acknowledged and very much appreciated._

                             [Illustration]



                        Cavity-Nesting Birds of
                         North American Forests


Many species of cavity-nesting birds have declined because of habitat
reduction. In the eastern United States, where primeval forests are
gone, purple martins depend almost entirely on man-made nesting
structures (Allen and Nice 1952). The hole-nesting population of
peregrine falcons disappeared with the felling of the giant trees upon
which they depended (Hickey and Anderson 1969). The ivory-billed and
red-cockaded woodpeckers are currently on the endangered list, primarily
as a result of habitat destruction (Givens 1971, Bent 1939). The wood
duck was very scarce in many portions of its range, at least in part,
for the same reason and probably owes its present status to provision of
nest boxes and protection from overhunting.

Some 85 species of North American birds (table 1) excavate nesting
holes, use cavities resulting from decay (natural cavities), or use
holes created by other species in dead or deteriorating trees. Such
trees, commonly called snags, have often been considered undesirable by
forest and recreation managers because they are not esthetically
pleasing, conflict with other forest management practices, may harbor
forest insect pests, or may be fire or safety hazards. In the past such
dead trees were often eliminated from the forest during a timber
harvest. As a result, in some areas few nesting sites were left for
cavity-nesting birds. Current well-intentioned environmental pressures
to emphasize harvesting large dead or dying trees, if realized, would
have further adverse effects on such ecologically and esthetically
important species as woodpeckers, swallows, wrens, nuthatches, and
owls—to name a few.

The majority of cavity-nesting birds are insectivorous. Because they
make up a large proportion of the forest-dwelling bird population, they
play an important role in the control of forest insect pests (Thomas et
al. 1975). Woodpeckers are especially important predators of many
species of tree-killing bark beetles (Massey and Wygant 1973). Bruns
(1960) summarized the role of birds in the forests:

  _Within the community of all animals and plants of the forest, birds
  form an important factor. The birds generally are not able to break
  down an insect plague, but their function lies in preventing insect
  plagues. It is our duty to preserve birds for esthetic as well as
  economic reasons ... where nesting chances are diminished by forestry
  work.... It is our duty to further these biological forces [birds,
  bats, etc.] and to conserve or create a rich and diverse community. By
  such a prophylactic ... the forests will be better protected than by
  any other means._

Several of the birds that nest in cavities tend to be resident
(non-migrating) species (von Haartman 1968) and thus more amenable to
local habitat management practices than migratory species. Nest holes
may be limiting for breeding populations of at least some species (von
Haartman 1956, Laskey 1940, Troetschler 1976, Kessell 1957). Bird houses
have been readily accepted by many natural cavity nesters, and increases
in breeding density have resulted from providing such structures
(Hamerstrom et al. 1973, Strange et al. 1971, Grenquist 1965), an
indication that management of natural snags should be rewarding.

Because nesting requirements vary by bird species, forest type, and
geographic location, more research is needed to determine snag species,
quality, and density of existing and potential cavity trees that are
needed to sustain adequate populations of cavity-nesters. In a Montana
study, for example, larch and paper birch snags were most frequently
used by cavity-nesters (McClelland and Frissell 1975). The most
frequently used trees were large, broken-topped larches (either dead or
alive), greater than 25 inches diameter at breast height (dbh), and more
than 50 feet tall. No particular snag density was recommended to
managers. In the Pacific Northwest, Thomas et al. (1976) suggested about
seven snags per acre to maintain 100 percent of the potential maximum
breeding populations of cavity-nesters in ponderosa pine forests and six
per acre in lodgepole pine and subalpine fir. In Arizona ponderosa pine
forests, an average of 2.6 snags per acre (mostly ponderosa) were used
by cavity-nesting birds (Scott, in press[1]). The most frequently used
snags were trees dead 6 or more years, more than 18 inches dbh, and with
more than 40 percent bark cover. The height of the snag was not as
important as the diameter, but snags more than 46 feet tall had more
holes than did shorter ones. Balda (1975) recommended 2.7 snags per acre
to maintain natural bird species diversity and maximum densities in the
ponderosa pine forests of Arizona.

Important silvical characteristics in the development of nesting
cavities include (1) tree size, longevity, and distribution; (2)
regeneration by sprouts, and (3) decay in standing trees (Hansen 1966).
Although trees less than 14 to 16 inches dbh at maturity are too small
to yield cavities appropriate for wood ducks, they may be important for
smaller species. Aspen, balsam fir, bitternut hickory, ironwood, and
other trees fall within this range. Short-lived species such as aspen
and balsam fir usually form cavities earlier than longer lived trees.
Since a major avenue of fungal infection is sprouts, sprouting vigor and
the age at which sprouts are produced are important considerations in
managing for cavity-producing hardwood trees. Cavity formation in oaks
of basal origin is a slow process, but black oak is a good cavity
producer as trees approach maturity because although the heartwood
decays rapidly the sapwood is resistant (Bellrose et al. 1964). Basswood
is a good cavity producer because of its sprouting characteristics.
Baumgartner (1939), Gysel (1961), Kilham (1971), Erskine and McLaren
(1972), and others presented information on tree cavity formation for
wildlife species. More information on the role of decay from branch
scars, cutting, and animal damage is needed for different species of
trees so that positive management for snags may be encouraged.

Removal of snags is also known to reduce populations of some birds. For
example, removal of some live timber and snags in an Arizona ponderosa
pine forest reduced cavity-nesting bird populations by 50 percent
(Scott[2]). Violet-green swallows, pygmy nuthatches, and northern
three-toed woodpeckers accounted for much of the decline. A previously
high population of swallows dropped 90 percent, and a low woodpecker
population was eliminated. On an adjacent plot, where live trees were
harvested but snags were left standing, cavity-nesters increased as they
did on a plot where live trees and snags were undisturbed.

Foresters and recreation managers are now more aware of the esthetic and
economic values of nongame wildlife, including cavity-nesting birds. In
summer of 1977 the U.S. Forest Service established a national snag
policy requiring all Regions and Forests to develop guidelines to
“provide habitat needed to maintain viable, self-sustaining populations
of cavity-nesting and snag-dependent wildlife species.” These guidelines
are also to include “retention of selected trees, snags, and other
flora, to meet future habitat requirements” (USDA Forest Service 1977).
Some Forest Service Regions had already established policies for snag
management. For example, in 1976 the Arizona-New Mexico Region (USDA
Forest Service 1976) recommended that three good quality snags be
retained per acre within 500 feet of forest openings and water, with two
per acre over the remaining forest. The policy also requires that
provisions be made for continued recruitment of future snags;
spike-topped trees with cavities and obvious cull trees should be left
for future cavity nesters. Some foresters are now using tags to protect
the more suitable snags from fuelwood cutters in high-use areas.


In this book, we have summarized both published data and personal
observations on the cavity-nesting birds of North America in an attempt
to provide land managers with an up-to-date, convenient source of
information on the specific requirements of these birds. Bird
nomenclature follows the American Ornithologists’ Union _Checklist of
North American Birds_ (fifth edition, with supplements). Bird
illustrations and distribution maps are reprinted with permission of
Western Publishing Co. from _A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of
North America_ by Robbins et al. (1966). The small range maps indicate
where birds are likely to be found during different seasons. Summer or
breeding range is identified in red, winter range in blue; purple
indicates areas where the species may be found all year. Red
cross-hatching identifies areas where migrating birds are likely to be
seen only In spring and fall. Length measurements (L) are for birds in
their natural position, while W indicates wingspan.

Percentages of the diet under “Food” in species accounts refer to
volume, unless otherwise indicated. Since nestlings of most species
require insect protein, “Major Foods” refers largely to adult diets.
Appendices list common names of plants and animals mentioned in the
text, with scientific names when they could be determined.



        Table 1.—Cavity-nesting birds: tree use and major foods.


  Common Name                  Page  Snag or      Major Foods[4]
                               No.    Tree
                                     Use[3]
                                     A  B  C   1  2  3  4  5  6  7
  Black-bellied whistling        7      X  X               X
  duck
  Wood duck                      8   X  X  X            X  X  X
  Common goldeneye               9      X               X  X  X  X
  Barrow’s goldeneye            10      X               X  X  X  X
  Bufflehead                    11      X               X  X  X  X
  Hooded merganser              12      X  X         X  X  X     X
  Common merganser              13      X  X         X  X        X
  Turkey vulture                14      X  X                     X
  Black vulture                 15      X  X                     X
  Peregrine falcon[5]           16      X  X   X
  Merlin                        17      X  X   X  X     X
  American kestrel              18      X  X   X  X     X
  Barn owl                      19      X  X      X
  Screech owl                   20      X  X      X     X
  Whiskered owl                 21      X  X            X
  Flammulated owl               22      X  X            X
  Hawk owl                      23      X  X            X
  Pygmy owl                     24      X  X      X     X
  Ferruginous owl               25      X  X   X
  Elf owl                       26      X  X            X
  Barred owl                    27      X  X      X
  Spotted owl                   28      X  X   X  X     X
  Boreal owl                    29      X  X      X
  Saw-whet owl                  30      X  X      X     X
  Chimney swift                 31      X               X
  Vaux’s swift                  32      X               X        X
  Coppery-tailed trogon         33      X  X            X  X
  Common flicker                34   X  X  X            X
  Pileated woodpecker           35   X  X  X            X
  Red-bellied woodpecker        36   X  X  X            X  X
  Golden-fronted                37      X               X  X
  woodpecker
  Gila woodpecker               38      X               X  X
  Red-headed woodpecker         39   X  X  X            X  X
  Acorn woodpecker              40   X  X  X            X  X
  Lewis’ woodpecker             41   X  X               X  X  X
  Yellow-bellied sapsucker      42   X  X               X  X  X
  Williamson’s sapsucker        43   X  X               X     X
  Hairy woodpecker              44   X  X  X            X
  Downy woodpecker              45   X  X  X            X
  Ladder-backed woodpecker      46      X               X  X
  Nuttall’s woodpecker          47      X               X  X
  Arizona woodpecker            48   X  X  X            X  X
  Red-cockaded woodpecker       49   X  X  X            X
  White-headed woodpecker       50      X               X  X
  Black-backed three-toed       51   X  X               X
  woodpecker
  Northern three-toed           52   X  X               X
  woodpecker
  Ivory-billed                  53   X  X  X            X
  woodpecker[5]
  Sulphur-bellied               54      X               X  X
  flycatcher
  Great-crested flycatcher      55      X  X            X
  Wied’s crested                56      X               X  X
  flycatcher
  Ash-throated flycatcher       57      X  X            X  X
  Olivaceous flycatcher         58      X  X            X
  Western flycatcher            59      X               X
  Violet-green swallow          60      X  X            X
  Tree swallow                  61      X               X  X
  Purple martin                 62      X  X            X
  Black-capped chickadee        63      X               X  X
  Carolina chickadee            64      X               X  X
  Mexican chickadee             65      X                        X
  Mountain chickadee            66      X               X        X
  Gray-headed chickadee         67      X                        X
  Boreal chickadee              68      X               X  X     X
  Chestnut-backed               69      X               X  X     X
  chickadee
  Tufted titmouse               70      X               X  X
  Plain titmouse                71      X               X  X
  Bridled titmouse              72      X               X
  White-breasted nuthatch       73      X               X  X
  Red-breasted nuthatch         74      X               X  X
  Brown-headed nuthatch         75      X               X        X
  Pygmy nuthatch                76      X               X
  Brown creeper                 77      X               X        X
  House wren                    78      X               X
  Brown-throated wren           79      X               X        X
  Winter wren                   80      X               X
  Bewick’s wren                 81      X               X
  Carolina wren                 82      X               X
  Eastern bluebird              83      X  X            X
  Western bluebird              84      X  X            X  X
  Mountain bluebird             85      X  X            X  X
  Starling                      86   X  X  X            X  X  X  X
  Crested myna                  87      X               X  X  X
  Prothonotary warbler          88      X               X        X
  Lucy’s warbler                89      X               X
  House sparrow                 90   X  X  X            X  X  X
  European tree sparrow         91      X                  X     X


Black-bellied whistling duck
  _Dendrocygna autumnalis_
  L 13″ W 37″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Black-bellied whistling ducks (tree ducks) are found regularly
in southern Texas and erratically elsewhere. Open woodlands, groves or
thicket borders where ebony, mesquite, retama, huisache, and several
species of cacti are dominant in freshwater habitat are preferred
(Oberholser 1974, Meanley and Meanley 1958). Range extensions have been
facilitated by flooding and impoundments.

Nest: Natural cavities in trees such as live oaks, ebony, willow,
mesquite, and hackberry are preferred, but ground nests and nest boxes
are sometimes used. The nest can be over land or water, but herbaceous
vegetation under “land-bound” nests may be preferred to brush (Bolen et
al. 1964). A perch near the cavity entrance may also be a factor in nest
tree selection. Open and closed cavities are used. Nest cavities average
8.7 feet above ground or water and 23 inches deep, with 7.0 × 12.5 inch
openings (Bellrose 1976). Nesting boxes should be 11 × 11 × 22 inches
high at the front and tapered to 20 inches in the rear, with entrances 5
inches in diameter (Bolen 1967). Nest boxes should not be erected unless
they are predator proof.

Food: Black-bellied whistling ducks are predominantly grazers (Rylander
and Bolen 1974), but they can dabble and dive for aquatic food. Of 92
percent plant materials, sorghum and Bermudagrass predominated, with
smartweeds, millets, water stargrass, and corn also occurring in one
study (Bolen and Forsyth 1967). In some areas corn and oats are more
important in the diet.


Wood duck
  _Aix sponsa_
  L 13½″ W 28″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Wood ducks are associated with bottomland hardwood forests
where trees are large enough to provide nesting cavities and where water
areas provide food and cover requirements (McGilvrey 1968). Requirements
may be met in several important forest types, all of which must be
flooded during the early nesting season: (1) southern flood plain, (2)
red maple, (3) central flood plain, (4) temporarily flooded oak-hickory,
and (5) northern bottomland hardwoods.

Nest: Optimum natural cavities are 20 to 50 feet above the ground with
entrance holes of 4 inches in diameter, cavity depths of 2 feet, and
cavity bottoms measuring 10 × 10 inches (McGilvrey 1968). Management for
cavities more than a half mile from water is not recommended, and dead
trees, other than cypress, do not usually contain usable cavities. Good
densities of suitable wood-duck cavities have been recorded for many
timber types (Bellrose 1976). Nest boxes are readily used by wood ducks,
and their use may increase breeding populations, even if natural
cavities are abundant, if predators are excluded. Measurements and
placement of wood duck boxes have been well described (U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service 1976, Bellrose 1976, McGilvrey 1968).

Food: Wood ducks consume large quantities of acorns, usually in flooded
bottoms. Other mast and fleshy fruits also are eaten, as are waste corn
and wheat (Bellrose 1976). Smartweed, buttonbush, bulrush, pondweed,
cypress, ash, sweet gum, burweed, and arrow arum seeds are used by
breeding birds. Skunk cabbage, coontail, and duckweed are also food
items. Duckweed is also habitat for invertebrates in the diet (Grice and
Rogers 1965).


Common goldeneye
  _Bucephala clangula_
  L 13″ W 31″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The breeding range of the common goldeneye generally coincides
with the boreal coniferous forest in North America (Johnsgard 1975,
Bellrose 1976). In a Minnesota study, 87 percent of breeding goldeneyes
were found on large, sand-bottomed fish lakes (Johnson 1967), while in
New Brunswick, this species preferred water areas with marshy shores and
adjacent stands of old hardwoods (Carter 1958). In Maine, nests are
found in mature hardwoods adjacent to lakes with rocky shores, hard
bottoms, and clear water. Shoal waters less than 10 feet deep with an
irregular shoreline provide brood shelter and protective vegetation
necessary for duckling food (Gibbs 1961).

Nest: Common goldeneyes used and were more successful in open top or
“bucket” cavities than in enclosed cavities in New Brunswick (Prince
1968). Most nests were in silver maples on wetter sites or American elms
on drier sites and aspen in northern conifer forests. Nest trees
averaged 23 inches in diameter with cavity dimensions of 8 inches in
diameter and 18 inches deep; most entrances were 6 to 40 feet above
ground (Prince 1968). Wooden nest boxes measuring 12 × 12 × 24 inches
with elliptical entrances 3½ × 4½ inches were used extensively in
Minnesota (Johnson 1967).

Food: Of 395 stomachs examined by Cottam (1939), crustaceans (32
percent), insects (28 percent), and molluscs (10 percent) were primary
animal foods (total, 73.9 percent). Crabs, crayfish, amphipods,
caddisfly larvae, water boatmen, naiads of dragonflies, damselflies, and
mayflies were also found. Pondweed, wild celery, and seeds of pondweed
and bulrushes were important plant materials.


Barrow’s goldeneye
  _Bucephala islandica_
  L 13″ W 31″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Barrow’s goldeneyes attain their highest breeding population
levels in western North America on moderately alkaline lakes of small to
medium size in parkland areas. Open water is a necessity throughout the
range, but frequently goldeneyes favor a dense growth of submerged
aquatics such as sago pondweed and widgeon grass. The abundance of
aquatic invertebrates may be more important than nesting cavities in
determining distribution (Johnsgard 1975).

Nest: This species is not an obligate tree nester, and has been reported
to use holes in banks or lava beds, rock crevices, ground under shrubs
and on islands, haylofts, crows’ nests, and the outer walls of peat
shelters for sheep in Iceland (Harris et al. 1954). However, the usual
site is in dead stubs or trees such as aspen, Douglas-fir, and ponderosa
pine within 100 feet of water (Palmer 1976). Deserted pileated
woodpecker or common flicker cavities enlarged by natural decay are
readily used (Palmer 1976). Cavity entrances from 3.0 to 3.9 inches in
diameter, cavity depths between 9.8 and 52.9 inches, and cavity
diameters between 6.5 and 9.0 inches have been reported (Johnsgard
1975). Nest boxes have been used around high lakes in the Cascade
Mountains (Bellrose 1976).

Food: Food of 71 adult Barrow’s goldeneyes consisted of 36 percent
insects, 19 percent molluscs, 18 percent crustaceans, 4 percent other
animals, and 22 percent plants (Cottom 1939). Naiads of dragonflies and
damselflies, caddisfly and midge larvae, blue mussels, amphipods,
isopods, and crayfish were important animal foods, and pondweeds and
wild celery were primary plant foods.


Bufflehead
  _Bucephala albeola_
  L 10″ W 24″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Buffleheads favor small ponds and lakes in open woodlands
(Godfrey 1966). In British Columbia, most nesting is in the interior
Douglas-fir zone while poplar communities are usually used in Alberta,
and ponderosa pine types are preferred in California. Scattered breeding
records in Oregon, Wyoming, and Idaho are primarily in subalpine
lodgepole pine, and in Alaska (Erskine 1971) Engelmann spruce and
cottonwood stands are used for nesting.

Nest: Of 204 nests observed from California to Alaska, 107 were in aspen
trees, 44 in Douglas-fir, 14 in balsam poplar and black cottonwood, 12
in ponderosa pine, 11 in poplar, and 16 in a few other coniferous and
deciduous trees (Palmer 1976). Buffleheads prefer unaltered flicker
holes in aspen. Dead trees close to (within 220 yards) or in water are
preferred, and “bucket” or open top cavities are rarely used (Erskine
1971). Forestry practices that leave stubs near water while clearing
away most ground litter and slash that might hinder ducklings from
reaching water are to be encouraged. Nest boxes used by captive
buffleheads had entrances 2⅞ inches wide with cavities 7 inches in
diameter and 16 inches deep (Johnsgard 1975).

Food: Buffleheads consume mostly animal material. Insects make up 70
percent of summer foods in freshwater habitat. Midge, mayfly, and
caddisfly larvae, and naiads of dragonflies and damselflies are also
consumed. Water boatmen are the most widely distributed, important food.
Plant food was found in many stomachs but much was fiber and was
probably taken while catching aquatic insects. Pondweed and bulrush
seeds were frequently consumed plant items. Dragonfly and damselfly
larvae are important in the diet of ducklings in all areas (Erskine
1971).


Hooded merganser
  _Lophodytes cucullatus_
  L 13″ W 26″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Although hooded mergansers prefer wooded, clear water streams,
they also use the wooded shorelines of lakes. Drainage of swamps and
river bottoms, removal of snags, and other human activities have been
detrimental to this species as they have been to wood ducks. Hooded
mergansers are more easily disturbed by man and far more sensitive to a
decline in water quality than are wood ducks. Breeding densities often
seem more related to food abundance and availability than to nesting
cavities (Johnsgard 1975).

Nest: Cavities at any height may be selected in any species of tree; the
size and shape of the cavity are apparently not important (Bent 1923).
Natural cavities chosen are similar to those used by wood ducks but with
smaller optimum dimensions. Frequent use of nest boxes has been reported
in Missouri, Mississippi, and Oregon (Bellrose 1976). In Oregon, boxes
were placed 30 to 50 feet apart in sets of 8 (Morse et al. 1969). Some
of the most southerly nesting records of this species are from wood duck
nest boxes (Bellrose 1976).

Food: The food habits of hooded mergansers are not well known, but are
apparently more diversified than those of common mergansers. Of 138
stomachs taken from various locations in the United States, rough fishes
made up 24.5 percent, game fish and unidentified fish fragments 19.4
percent, crayfish 22.3 percent, other crustaceans 10.3 percent, and
aquatic and other insects 13.4 percent (Palmer 1976). Acorns are
sometimes eaten in large quantities. Frogs, tadpoles, and molluscs such
as snails are also consumed.


Common merganser
  _Mergus merganser_
  L 18″ W 37″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Common mergansers prefer cool, clear waters of northern boreal
or western forests, although at times they have nested as far south as
North Carolina and Mexico. Ponds associated with the upper portions of
rivers in northern forested regions are often used (Johnsgard 1975). As
with hooded mergansers, clear water is needed for foraging.

Nest: Although hollow trees are the usual location, ground nests under
thick cover or in rock crevices are not uncommon. A wide variety of
other locations have been reported such as chimneys, hawk nests, bridge
supports, and old buildings. The species of tree used for nesting and
the height of the cavity are apparently unimportant (Foreman 1976). Nest
sites are usually close to water (Bellrose 1976) and are used
repeatedly, probably by the same female (Palmer 1976). Artificial nest
boxes have been accepted, especially in Europe. Preferred dimensions are
9.1 to 11 inches wide, and 33.5 to 39.4 inches high, with 4.7 × 4.7-inch
entrances, 19.7 to 23.6 inches above the base of the nest box (Johnsgard
1975).

Food: Programs to reduce populations of this fish-eating merganser have
increased trout and salmon production in several areas, at least
temporarily. Generally, common mergansers are opportunistic feeders with
salmon taken extensively in some areas and suckers, chubs, and eels in
others. In warm-water areas, food is usually rough and forage fish such
as carp, suckers, gizzard shad, perch, and catfish. In some areas, water
plants, salamanders, insects, or molluscs may be important in the diet
of this species (Palmer 1976).


Turkey vulture
  _Cathartes aura_
  L 25″ W 72″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Turkey vultures soar over most of the forest types of the
United States and southern Canada, with the exception of the pine and
spruce-fir stands in the extreme northeastern United States. In search
of food this common carrion eater makes use of the forest openings
created by roads, powerline rights-of-way, clearcuts, and abandoned
fields.

Nest: Preferred nest sites are often at a premium because of the bird’s
large size and the shortage of large snags. The smell of carrion around
the nest necessitates a well-protected site to lessen predator losses.
The nest site is almost always at or near ground level (Bent 1937).
Although nesting sites are commonly located in hollow trees or hollow
logs lying on the ground, these vultures will nest on cliffs, in caves,
and in dense shrubbery (Gingrich 1914, Townsend 1914). These birds will
return to the same nesting site year after year unless the site has been
severely disturbed (Jackson 1903, Kempton 1927).

Food: Turkey vultures are scavengers and carrion-eaters, often hunting
along roads where animals have been struck by automobiles. They feed on
snakes, toads, rats, mice, and other available animal matter. Often a
dozen or more vultures will gather at and feed on a large carcass.


Black vulture
  _Coragyps atratus_
  L 22″ W 54″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The black vulture is found in the southern Great Plains,
southeastern pine forests, oak-hickory forests, and intermediate
oak-pine forests. It is a more southern species than the turkey vulture.

Nest: Like turkey vultures, black vultures nest under a wide variety of
conditions. They use the nest site as found without adding nesting
materials (Hoxie 1886, Bent 1937). Hollow stumps or standing trees are
favorite nesting sites when they are available; otherwise, eggs are laid
on the ground, often in dense thickets of palmetto, yucca, or tall
sawgrass (Bent 1937). Nests have been reported in abandoned buildings.

Food: This carrion-eater is often found in towns and cities, feeding on
animal wastes, scraps, or garbage. Forests are used primarily for
roosting and nesting sites, whereas feeding is usually in more open
areas and along highways, where animal carcasses are more plentiful.


Peregrine falcon
  _Falco peregrinus_
  L 15″ W 40″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The peregrine falcon is found in tundra regions, northern
boreal forests, lodgepole pine and subalpine fir, spruce-fir, southern
hardwood-conifer, cold desert shrubs, and prairies—mainly in open
country and along streams. It is also found around salt and freshwater
marshes (Fyfe 1969, Hickey and Anderson 1969, Nelson 1969). This species
is currently classified as “Endangered” in the United States.

Nest: Although the peregrine falcon is currently considered a
cliff-nester, records indicate that it once nested in tree cavities
(Goss 1878, Ridgway 1889, Ganier 1932, Bellrose 1938, Spofford 1942,
1943, 1945, 1947, Peterson 1948). The peregrine still uses cavities in
broken-off trunks in Europe (Hickey 1942), but the hole-nesting
population of America apparently disappeared with the felling of the
great trees on which they depended (Hickey and Anderson 1969).

Food: The peregrine falcon feeds primarily on birds ranging in size from
mallards to warblers, which are usually stunned or killed in flight.
Mammals and large insects form only an insignificant portion of the diet
(Bent 1938). White and Roseneau (1970) found remains of fish in the
stomachs of peregrines in Alaska, and suggested that fish may be more
common in some peregrine diets than the literature indicates.


Merlin
  _Falco columbarius_
  L 12″ W 23″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The merlin is usually found in open stands of boreal forest,
Douglas-fir—sitka spruce, poplar-aspen-birch-willow, ponderosa
pine—Douglas-fir, oak woodlands, and saltwater marshes (Craighead and
Craighead 1940, Lawrence 1949, Brown and Weston 1961).

Nest: Like the peregrine falcon, most cavity nests for the merlin were
reported before 1910, when it was nesting in cavities of poplars,
cottonwoods, and American linden trees (Bendire 1892, Houseman 1894,
Dippie 1895). The merlin usually uses tree nests built by other large
birds (such as hawks, crows, and magpies) but sometimes nests on the
ground under bushes or on cliffs and cutbanks.

Food: Brown and Amadon (1968) found that birds made up 80 percent (by
weight) of the food for merlins, insects 15 percent, and mammals 5
percent. Ferguson (1922) examined 298 stomachs and found 4 mammals, 318
birds, and 967 insects. Birds found in the stomachs included small
shorebirds, small game birds, and songbirds (which are normally captured
in flight). Insect prey consisted of crickets, grasshoppers,
dragonflies, beetles, and caterpillars (Bent 1938), while mammals
included pocket gophers, squirrels, mice, and bats (Fisher 1893).


American kestrel
  _Falco sparverius_
  L 8½″ W 21″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The American kestrel is the smallest and most common falcon in
North America, occurring in open and semi-open country throughout the
continent. In the Rocky Mountain region, kestrels are most abundant on
the plains, but do nest up to 8,000 feet elevation in the Douglas-fir,
ponderosa pine, and pinyon-juniper forest types (Scott and Patton 1975,
Bailey and Niedrach 1965). They have been observed on the highest peaks
after the nesting season (Bailey and Niedrach 1965).

Nest: Nest sites vary greatly, but kestrels prefer natural cavities or
old woodpecker holes. The following nest sites are reported in order of
usage: common flicker holes, natural cavities, cavities in arroyo banks
or cliffs, buildings, magpie nests, and man-made nesting boxes (Bailey
and Niedrach 1965, Bent 1938, Roest 1957, Forbush and May 1939). Nest
boxes, approximately 10 × 10 × 15 inches, should be located 10 to 35
feet above ground with a 3-inch entrance hole. Natural cavities or nest
boxes should be available along edges of forest openings (Bailey and
Niedrach 1965, Hamerstrom et al. 1973, Pearson 1936).

Food: Kestrels hunt from high exposed perches overlooking forest
openings, fields, or pastures. Food consists primarily of insects (often
grasshoppers), small mammals, and an occasional bird (Bent 1938).


Barn owl
  _Tyto alba_
  L 14″ W 44″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The barn owl inhabits most of the forest types in the United
States except the higher elevation types in the Rocky Mountains. They
are usually considered uncommon residents because their silent nocturnal
habits render them undetectable by most casual observers. Barn owls are
also birds of the open country, and adapt readily to areas occupied by
man (Marti 1974).

Nest: Before the coming of man, barn owls nested in natural cavities in
trees, cliffs, or arroyo walls, but now they also nest in barns, church
steeples, bird boxes, mine shafts, and dovecotes (Bailey and Niedrach
1965, Reed 1897).

Food: Barn owls frequent areas where small mammals are plentiful; mice,
voles, rats, gophers, and ground squirrels are major food items. Birds
other than those such as house sparrows and blackbirds, which have
communal roosts, are only rarely taken (Marti 1974).


Screech owl
  _Otus asio_
  L 8″ W 22″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: This small owl is found in most forest types below 8,000 feet
elevation throughout the United States. Screech owls prefer widely
spaced trees, interspersed with grassy open spaces, for hunting. Meadow
edges and fruit orchards are favored throughout the eastern United
States.

Nest: Like other owls, the male screech owl defends a nesting and
feeding territory. Maples, apples, and sycamores with natural cavities
or pines with woodpecker holes are preferred in the East (Bent 1938).
Along the drainage systems of the plains areas, natural cavities or
common flicker holes in cottonwood trees are preferred (Bailey and
Niedrach 1965). Nest boxes in orchards or residential areas are often
used. Hamerstrom (1972) recommended a nesting box 8 × 8 × 8 inches with
a 3-inch entrance hole.

Food: Screech owls are among the most nocturnal owls and are rarely seen
feeding. Major food items are mice and insects. Fisher (1893) examined
255 stomachs of screech owls and found birds in 15 percent of them, mice
in 36 percent, and insects in 39 percent. Korschgen and Stuart (1972)
found mostly small mammals in 419 screech owl pellets from western
Missouri. The volume of the screech owl pellets was predominantly meadow
mice, white-footed mice, and cotton rats.


Whiskered owl
  _Otus trichopsis_
  L 6½″ W 16″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The small whiskered owl is generally found in the dense oak or
oak-pine forests of southern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and into
Mexico.

Nest: Nests have been reported in both natural cavities and old
woodpecker holes located in oak, cottonwood, willow, walnut, sycamore,
and juniper trees (Bent 1938). Karalus and Eckert (1974) suggest that
white oak is one of the favorite nest sites, and that these small owls
prefer to nest in cavities in the limbs of trees rather than in the
trunk.

Food: Black crickets, hairy crickets, moths, grasshoppers, large beetle
larvae, and centipedes are the principal elements of the diet (Jacot
1931). In addition to those mentioned by Jacot, Karalus and Eckert
(1974) list praying mantids, roaches, cicadas, scorpions, and small
mammals as part of the diet.


Flammulated owl
  _Otus flammeolus_
  L 6″ W 14″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The flammulated owl normally is not found in cutover forests or
in pure stands of conifers but requires some understory or intermixture
of oaks in the forest (Phillips et al. 1964). It occurs in ponderosa
pine, spruce-fir, lodgepole pine, aspen, and pinyon-juniper forest types
(Grinnell and Miller 1944, Karalus and Eckert 1974).

Nest: Nests are usually located in abandoned flicker or other woodpecker
holes, but flammulated owls may take over occupied nests (Karalus and
Eckert 1974). Their nests have been reported in pine, oak, and aspen
snags (Bent 1938).

Food: The flammulated owl is almost entirely insectivorous, but it
occasionally captures small mammals and birds. In the few stomachs that
have been examined, items reported were various beetles, moths,
grasshoppers, crickets, caterpillars, ants, other insects, spiders, and
scorpions (Bent 1938). Kenyon (1947) examined the stomach contents of
one owl and found 4 crane flies, 1 caddisfly, 7 moths, 11 harvestman
spiders, and 1 long-horned grasshopper; the bird had apparently choked
to death on the grasshopper.


Hawk owl
  _Surnia ulula_
  L 14″ W 33″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The hawk owl inhabits much of the northern poplar, spruce,
pine, birch, tamarac, and willow forests where such forests are broken
by small prairie burns and bogs (Henderson 1919).

Nest: Hawk owls usually nest in natural cavities or in enlarged holes of
pileated woodpeckers and flickers. Nests have been reported in birch,
spruce, tamarac, poplar snags (Henderson 1919, 1925, Bent 1938), and
occasionally on cliffs or in crow’s nests.

Food: This owl hunts extensively during the day and feeds on small
mammals, birds, and insects (Bent 1938). Mendall (1944) examined 21 hawk
owl stomachs; all contained meadow or red-backed mice; two owls had also
fed on shrews.


Pygmy owl
  _Glaucidium gnoma_
  L 6″ W 15″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The pygmy owl is found in most of the western wooded areas from
western Canada into Mexico. It is probably most abundant in open
coniferous or mixed forests and is reported specifically in ponderosa
pine, mixed conifer, and fir-redwood-cedar forests.

Nest: This owl usually nests in old woodpecker holes ranging in size
from those constructed by hairy woodpeckers up to and including those of
the flickers from 8 to 75 feet above ground (Bent 1938).

Food: Mice and large insects are probably the most common prey of the
pygmy owl, although other small mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles
have been reported (Bent 1938). Brock (1958) found one vole, a deer
mouse, and a Jerusalem cricket in the stomach of one bird and reported
seeing another pygmy owl take a Nuttall’s woodpecker. We observed one
pygmy owl in Arizona carrying a small vole. They have also been observed
taking mice in the mountains west of Denver, and taking birds in the
vicinity of feeders in Boulder, Colorado (Richard Pillmore pers.
comm.[6]).


Ferruginous owl
  _Glaucidium brasilianum_
  L 6″ W 15″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: This uncommon small owl inhabits the saguaro cactus in Sonoran
deserts and wooded river bottoms near the Mexican border.

Nest: Nests are in abandoned woodpecker holes in mesquite, cottonwood,
and saguaro cactus. Nest heights range from 10 to 40 feet above ground
(Bent 1938, Karalus and Eckert 1974).

Food: The diet of the ferruginous owl consists primarily of small birds;
however, insects, small mammals, invertebrates, reptiles, and amphibians
are occasionally eaten (Karalus and Eckert 1974).


Elf owl
  _Micrathene whitneyi_
  L 5¼″ W 15″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The elf owl is restricted to the southwestern United States
where it is found primarily in the saguaro cactus deserts, bottomland
sycamore and cottonwood stands and in conifer-hardwood forests at high
elevations.

Nest: One of the most common nest sites of the elf owl is in old
woodpecker holes in saguaro cactus. It has also been reported nesting in
cavities in sycamore, walnut, mesquite, and pine trees (Ligon 1967, Bent
1938, Hayes and James 1963). Cavities are usually located in snags or in
dead branches of living trees.

Food: Elf owls feed almost entirely on insects, particularly beetles,
moths, and crickets. They also feed on centipedes and scorpions and have
been reported to take an occasional reptile (Ligon 1967).


Barred owl
  _Strix varia_
  L 17″ W 44″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Barred owls are common in southern swamps and moist river
bottoms of the Midwest, and less common but widespread in northern
forests. These owls are found in all of the eastern forest types.
Although they use white pine, these large owls prefer oak woods and
mixed hardwood-conifer stands (Nicholls and Warner 1972). Preferred oak
woods contain dead and dying trees for cavities and are free of dense
understory, thus facilitating unobstructed flying and attacking of prey.

Nest: Natural cavities in hollow trees are preferred by barred owls. If
these are unavailable, deserted crow, raptor, or squirrel nests are
occasionally used (Pearson 1936, Bent 1938). Hollow trees used usually
have hunting perches with good views. Recommended nest box size is 13 ×
15 × 16 inches deep, with an entrance hole 8 inches in diameter
(Hamerstrom 1972). Nest boxes will have a better chance of being used if
they are placed near woods and streams.

Food: Barred owls are nocturnal hunters. More than half of the food
items taken in western Missouri consisted of meadow mice, cottontail
rabbits, and cotton rats (Korschgen and Stuart 1972).


Spotted owl
  _Strix occidentalis_
  L 16″ W 42″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: This uncommon owl occurs in most old-age conifer associations
in the western United States. Forsman (1976) located 123 pairs in
Oregon, and 95 percent occupied undisturbed old-growth conifer forests.
Karalus and Eckert (1974) described the habitat as being dense fir
forests, heavily wooded cliffsides, narrow canyons, and sometimes stream
valleys well stocked with oak, sycamore, willow, cottonwood, and alder.

Nest: Forsman (1976) found spotted owls nesting in the holes of living
old-growth conifers, particularly Douglas-fir. Nest trees typically had
secondary crowns and broken tops caused by parasite infection. Cavities
were located inside the tops of hollow trunks 62 to 180 feet above
ground. Dunn (1901) reported spotted owls nesting in cavities in live
and dead oak and sycamore trees. Spotted owls also nest in cavities in
cliffs, and occasionally in abandoned nests of other large birds (Bent
1938).

Food: The major food items of the spotted owl are mammals and birds,
with occasional insects and amphibians. Forsman (1976) found that
mammals made up 90 percent of the total biomass taken; the major prey
species were flying squirrels and wood rats. Marshall (1942) examined 23
pellets and stomach contents of 5 spotted owls and found 6 bats, 4 mice,
31 crickets, 12 flying squirrels, 1 mole, 1 shrew, 4 songbirds, 2
smaller owls, and 1 amphibian.


Boreal owl
  _Aegolius funereus_
  L 10″ W 24″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: This northern owl is normally found in the mixed
conifer-hardwood forests of Canada (Peterson 1961). One juvenile
reported in Colorado during August suggests that this owl may nest in
the southern Rocky Mountains (Bailey and Niedrach 1965). Boreal owls are
confined to evergreen woods and dense alder, white pine, and spruce
forests.

Nest: Old flicker and pileated woodpecker holes are preferred, usually
at a height of 10 to 25 feet (Fisher 1893, Preble 1908, Tufts 1925,
Lawrence 1932). Conifer snags seems to be preferred for nest trees,
although hardwoods have been used (Bent 1938).

Food: The main portion of the boreal owl’s diet consists of small
rodents. Mendall (1944) examined the contents of 20 stomachs in Maine
and found 73 percent mice (chiefly meadow voles) and 20 percent
short-tailed shrews. Pigeons and grasshoppers made up the remaining 7
percent. In Ontario, Catling (1972) found 86.2 percent meadow voles, 5.6
percent deer mice, 4.2 percent star-nosed moles, 2.7 percent masked
shrews, and 1.4 percent short-tailed shrews. Small birds, bats, insects,
amphibians, and reptiles are also occasionally eaten (Karalus and Eckert
1974).


Saw-whet owl
  _Aegolius acadicus_
  L 7″ W 17″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Saw-whet owls are small, nocturnal hunters of the deep north
woods. They nest in the Rocky Mountains up to about 11,000 feet (Bailey
and Niedrach 1965). This widely distributed owl nests in most of the
forest types throughout the northern half of the United States, but only
rarely do they nest as far south as central Missouri.

Nest: These small owls prefer to nest in old flicker or other woodpecker
holes (Bent 1938). Nesting habitat may be improving in areas where Dutch
Elm disease has infested many elms, and woodpeckers have drilled nest
holes (Hamerstrom 1972). Saw-whets will use nesting boxes if sawdust or
straw is provided. Nest boxes should be 6 × 6 × 9 inches with a 2.5-inch
entrance hole (Hamerstrom 1972).

Food: Saw-whet owls consume mostly small mammals and insects. Specific
food items include mice, shrews, young squirrels, chipmunks, bats,
beetles, grasshoppers, and occasionally small birds (Scott and Patton
1975, Burton 1973, Hamerstrom 1972, Bent 1938).


Chimney swift
  _Chaetura pelagica_
  L 5″ W 12½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Chimney swifts are found throughout the eastern half of the
United States in wooded and open areas. They have adopted to man-made
structures and are no longer dependent upon hollow trees for nesting and
roosting.

Nest: Originally chimney swifts nested in hollow trees, especially
sycamores. They now use chimneys, barn silos, cisterns, and wells
(Pearson 1936). Their nests are made of twigs, which are glued to a
vertical surface with saliva to form a “half-saucer” (Forbush and May
1939).

Food: Chimney swifts feed almost entirely on flying insects but will
sometimes take small caterpillars hanging from tree branches or leaves
(Forbush and May 1939).


Vaux’s swift
  _Chaetura vauxi_
  L 4½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: This small swift is most likely to be found in river valleys
among dense Douglas-fir and redwood forests in the western United
States.

Nest: Nests are usually located in tall hollow snags in burned or logged
areas and are made from twigs (Peterson 1961, Robbins et al. 1966).
Nests have been reported in unused chimneys and under building eaves
(Bent 1940).

Food: Flying insects such as mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and small beetles
captured in flight probably make up the entire diet (Bent 1940).


Coppery-tailed trogon
  _Trogon elegans_
  L 10″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Coppery-tailed trogons can be found along riparian streams and
in pine-oak forests in Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and southern
Texas.

Nest: Nests are found 12 to 40 feet above the ground in deserted large
woodpecker holes (Bent 1940). Cottonwood and sycamore snags are usually
selected for nests. Of the 34 species in the family Trogonidae, this is
the only one that breeds in the United States (Wetmore 1964).

Food: There is little information on the food of these birds, but
apparently both animal and vegetable matter are included in the diet.
Bent (1940) reported on stomach contents of two birds. One contained
adult and larvae of moths and butterflies; the other contained 68
percent insects and 32 percent fruits. Insect food included
grasshoppers, praying mantids, stink bugs, leaf beetles, and larvae of
hawk moth, sawfly, and miscellaneous other insects. Vegetable food
consisted of fruits of cissus and red pepper and undetermined plant
fiber.


Common flicker
  _Colaptes auratus_
  L 10½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Flickers are commonly found near large trees in open woodlands,
fields, and meadows throughout North America. In winter, they
occasionally seek shelter in coniferous woods or swamps. Previously
three species were recognized: the yellow-shafted of the East, the
red-shafted of the West, and the gilded of the southwestern desert.
These are now considered a single species.

Nest: Flickers prefer to nest in open country or in lightly wooded
suburban areas where park-like situations are plentiful (Bent 1939).
Conner et al. (1975) reported that flickers usually nest in edge
habitats and, in extensive forested areas, nest only in or around
openings. Flickers excavate nest holes with a 2.75-inch entrance hole
diameter in dead trees or dead limbs of many species of trees including
aspen, cottonwood, oak, willow, sycamore, pine, and juniper. Nests are
sometimes as high as 100 feet but usually between 10 and 30 feet (Scott
and Patton 1975, Lawrence 1967).

Food: Sixty percent of common flicker food is animal matter. Of this, 75
percent is ants, more than taken by any other North American bird. Some
flicker stomachs have contained over 2,000 ants. The rest of the insect
material includes beetles, wasps, caterpillars, grubs, and crickets. The
vegetable portion of the diet includes weed seeds, cultivated grain, and
the fruit of wild shrubs and trees (Bent 1939, Forbush and May 1939).


Pileated Woodpecker
  _Dryocopus pileatus_
  L 15″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Forests of heavy timber and secondary growth consisting of
mixed deciduous and coniferous trees are the preferred year-round
habitat for pileated woodpeckers. These large woodpeckers have become
less abundant over much of their former range where extensive
agriculture or logging practices have eliminated large tracts of old
growth forests. In the Ozarks, they are plentiful wherever extensive
forests remain, preferring areas where past cutting practices (early
1900’s) have left scattered large cull trees throughout.

Nest: Pileated woodpecker nests have been found in beech, poplar,
tulip-popular, birch, oak, hickory, maple, hemlock, pine, ash, elm,
basswood, and aspen trees. Cavity heights range from 15 to 70 feet, with
an entrance hole up to 4 inches in diameter (Hoyt 1941, 1957). Tall dead
trees with smooth surfaces and few limbs are preferred. One tree may be
used for several years, but rarely is a nest hole reused. This behavior
provides cavities for other wildlife, including wood ducks, owls, and
squirrels (Hoyt 1957). Timber stands with sawtimber of 15 to 18 inches
dbh provide adequate habitat if there is a supply of dead and decaying
trees (Conner et al. 1975).

Food: Insects make up more than 70 percent of the food of pileated
woodpeckers. Ants (especially carpenter ants) and beetles are the major
food items. In the fall, dogwood berries, wild cherries, acorns, and
other wild fruit are included in the diet (Bent 1939).


Red-bellied woodpecker
  _Melanerpes carolinus_
  L 8½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Red-bellied woodpeckers are common throughout southeastern
forest types. This bird has habits similar to those of the red-headed
woodpecker, except that the red-headed prefers open woodlands, farm
yards, and field edges whereas the red-bellied prefers larger expanses
of forest. Bailey and Niedrach (1965) reported that the red-bellied
woodpecker is extending its range westward up the river valleys of the
Great Plains.

Nest: These woodpeckers most commonly excavate nest holes in dead limbs
of living trees. Excavations were found in a wide variety of tree
species, and ranged from 33 to 72 feet above ground (Reller 1972).
Cavities are usually located in mature timber stands. Between September
and January, males and females roost in separate holes. Often one of the
roost holes (usually that of the female) becomes the nest site (Kilham
1958).

Food: Although primarily insectivorous, red-bellied woodpeckers consume
more vegetable matter than most woodpeckers. Insects that are eaten
include ants, adult and larval beetles, and caterpillars. Vegetation
eaten includes grain, berries, and fruits of holly, dogwood, and poison
ivy. Acorns and berries are stored in crevices in the fall (Kilham 1963,
Bent 1939).


Golden-fronted woodpecker
  _Melanerpes aurifrons_
  L 8½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The golden-fronted woodpecker’s preferred habitat is mesquite
and riparian woodlands in Texas and Oklahoma. Cooke (1888) listed this
species as an abundant resident of the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas,
in 1884.

Nest: Nesting behavior of the golden-fronted is similar to that of the
red-bellied woodpecker (Pearson 1936). Tall trees of pecan, oak, and
mesquite are the major species used for nesting (Bent 1939).
Occasionally fence posts, telephone poles, and bird boxes are used (Reed
1965).

Food: The diet of the golden-fronted woodpecker consists of both insects
and vegetable matter. Grasshoppers make up more than half of the animal
matter and other insects include beetles and ants (Pearson 1936, Bent
1939). Vegetable matter consumed consists of corn, acorns, wild fruits,
and berries (Bent 1939).


Gila woodpecker
  _Melanerpes uropygialis_
  L 8¼″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: This woodpecker is found on desert mesas in association with
creosote bush, mesquite, and saguaro cactus from central Arizona to
edges of adjacent states. It is also common in river bottoms and in
foothill canyons among cottonwoods, willows, and sycamores.

Nest: The Gila woodpecker excavates holes in saguaro cacti for nests.
Cottonwoods, willows, and mesquites are also used at higher elevations
(Bent 1939, Ligon 1961).

Food: The diet of the Gila woodpecker consists of ants, beetles,
grasshoppers, fruits from saguaro cactus, and mistletoe berries (Bent
1939). This woodpecker has been reported to remove eggs from the nests
of various songbirds.


Red-headed woodpecker
  _Melanerpes erythrocephalus_
  L 7½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Red-headed woodpeckers prefer to nest and roost in open areas.
Farmyards, field edges, and timber stands that have been treated with
herbicides or burned are preferred habitats. Redheads are attracted to
areas with many dead snags and lush herbaceous ground cover, but not to
woods with closed canopies. They are found throughout the East and along
wooded streams of the prairie to eastern Colorado and Wyoming.
Competition for nesting space is often intensive where starlings are
abundant (Bailey and Niedrach 1965).

Nest: Red-headed woodpeckers most commonly excavate holes in the trunks
of dead trees. Holes are excavated from 24 to 65 feet above the ground
and the 1.8-inch diameter entrance hole often faces south or west
(Reller 1972). These woodpeckers may excavate new holes each year, or
use old nest sites.

Food: Red-headed woodpeckers consume about half animal matter (mostly
insects) and half vegetable matter. Occasionally the eggs or the young
of other birds are destroyed. Although a wide variety of vegetable
matter is consumed, acorns from pin oak comprise a large portion of the
winter diet. Nuts are stored whole or in pieces in cracks and crevices
in bark, and in cavities which are sealed with bits of bark when full.
These birds also store insects (especially grasshoppers) along with
acorns in cavities and crevices (Kilham 1963, Bent 1939).


Acorn woodpecker
  _Melanerpes formicivorus_
  L 8″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The acorn woodpecker is a common resident of mixed oak-pine
woodland and adjacent open grassland from Oregon along the Pacific Coast
to the southwestern United States.

Nest: Acorn woodpeckers are communal nesters, and the young are fed by
the entire group (Wetmore 1964). They usually excavate holes in
ponderosa pine, but live and dead oaks of various species, sycamore,
cottonwood, and willow are also used for nests. Their old holes are
important for secondary cavity nesters such as small owls, purple
martins, violet-green swallows, nuthatches, house wrens, and kestrels
(Bent 1939).

Food: As the name implies, acorn woodpeckers feed mostly on acorns which
are stored in holes drilled in communal trees. Sap from several species
of oaks also is consumed from midwinter to summer (MacRoberts and
MacRoberts 1972). About 25 percent of the diet is insects, including
grasshoppers, ants, beetles, and flies (Bent 1939). Almonds, walnuts,
and pecans are eaten when they are available.


Lewis’ woodpecker
  _Melanerpes lewis_
  L 9″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Open or parklike ponderosa pine forest is probably the major
breeding habitat of the Lewis’ woodpecker. These woodpeckers also nest
in burned over stands of Douglas-fir, mixed conifer, pinyon-juniper,
riparian, and oak woodlands (Bock 1970).

Nest: The Lewis’ woodpecker generally excavates its own nest cavity, but
will use natural cavities or holes excavated in previous years. Bock
(1970) summarized the following nest data: height range 5 to 170 feet;
47 nests in dead stubs and 17 in live trees; 29 nests in conifers, 31 in
cottonwood and sycamore, 6 in oaks, 2 in power poles, 1 in juniper, and
1 in catalpa. At Boca Reservoir, California, 10 of 11 nests were in dead
ponderosa pines, and the other was in a hollow section of a living pine.

Food: Insects, including flies, ladybird beetle larvae, tent
caterpillars, ants, and mayflies, were the primary food of Lewis’
woodpeckers during spring and summer (Bock 1970). Fruits and berries
were the most frequently used food in late summer and fall, while winter
food consisted mostly of acorns and almonds gathered and stored in
crevices of dead trees, power poles, and oak bark. Hadow (1973) reported
that, on snowy days when insects were inactive, Lewis’ woodpeckers in
southeastern Colorado spent 99 percent of their feeding time feeding
from caches of acorns and corn kernels.


Yellow-bellied sapsucker
  _Sphyrapicus varius_
  L 7¾″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The yellow-bellied sapsucker (sometimes called red-naped) is
most abundant along streams in mixed hardwood-conifer forests. It is
also found in ponderosa pine, aspen, mixed conifer, lodgepole pine, and
in mixed stands of fir-larch-pine.

Nest: Yellow-bellied sapsuckers usually nest in cavities in snags or
live trees with rotten heartwood. Aspen seems to be the preferred
species (Howell 1952, Lawrence 1967, Kilham 1971), but nests have also
been found in ponderosa pine, birch, elm, butternut, cottonwood, alder,
willow, beech, maple, and fir (Bent 1939). Kilham (1971) noted that nest
trees were often infected by the _Fomes_ fungus. Nest height varies from
5 to 70 feet above ground. The same nest tree is often used repeatedly,
but a new cavity is excavated each year.

Food: Sap is eaten throughout the year by the yellow-bellied sapsucker,
but the amount taken and tree species used vary seasonally (Tate 1973,
Lawrence 1967). The birds regularly tap one or two “favorite trees” in
their area; Oliver (1970) found that these tend to be trees which have
been wounded (by logging, porcupines, etc.). About 80 percent of the
insect food taken consists of ants (McAtee 1911). Other insects in their
diet include beetles and wasps, but none of the woodboring larvae. The
fruits of dogwood, black alder, Virginia creeper, and blackberries are
included in the small portion of vegetable matter eaten (Bent 1939).


Williamson’s sapsucker
  _Sphyrapicus thyroideus_
  L 8¼″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: This sapsucker prefers mixed conifer-hardwood forests of the
Rocky Mountain region but also inhabits the subalpine
spruce-fir-lodgepole zone, and ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, and aspen
forests.

Nest: The choice of tree species for nesting seems to differ between
regions. Bent (1939), Packard (1945), Bailey and Niedrach (1965),
Burleigh (1972), and Jackman (1975) reported Williamson’s sapsuckers
nesting primarily in conifers. Other authors (Rasmussen 1941, Hubbard
1965, Tatschl 1967, Ligon 1961, Crockett and Hadow 1975) found a
preference for aspens. Of 57 nests in Colorado examined by Crockett and
Hadow (1975), 49 were in aspens, especially aspens infected by the
_Fomes_ fungus; where pines were used, there were no suitable aspen
sites nearby. In Arizona, we found 17 nests in aspen snags, 3 in aspens
with dead tops, and 1 nest in a live aspen.

Food: The diet of Williamson’s sapsuckers is made up of 87 percent
animal and 13 percent vegetable material (Bent 1939). Most of the animal
food taken is ants, and most of the vegetable material is cambium. Like
the yellow-bellied sapsucker, the Williamson’s sapsucker feeds on sap,
especially in spring, and picks out “favorite trees” which it taps
regularly (Oliver 1970).


Hairy woodpecker
  _Picoides villosus_
  L 7½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Hairy woodpeckers are residents of nearly all types of forest
from central Canada south.

Nest: Live trees in open woodlands are preferred nesting sites of hairy
woodpeckers. This species makes a nest entrance that exactly fits its
head and body size (1.6 to 1.8 inches). Because this size also seems
very convenient for starlings and flying squirrels, hairy woodpeckers
are often troubled with invasions (Kilham 1968a, Lawrence 1967). Hairy
woodpeckers will often excavate the entrance so it is camouflaged or
hidden, such as on the underside of a limb. Nest heights vary from 15 to
45 feet but are commonly approximately 35 feet high. Hairies will often
use the same hole year after year.

Food: Hairy woodpeckers prefer to feed on insects on dead and diseased
trees (Bent 1939). Approximately 80 percent of the diet is animal
matter; adult and larval beetles, ants, and caterpillars are the most
frequently eaten items. The primarily insect diet is supplemented with
fruit, corn, acorns, hazelnuts, and many other species (Beal 1911, Bent
1939). The males forage in trees away from the nest for large insects
(usually borers) located deep in the wood. Females forage close to the
nest on the surface of trees, shrubs, or on the ground for small prey
(Kilham 1968a).


Downy woodpecker
  _Picoides pubescens_
  L 5¾″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Downy woodpeckers inhabit most of the wooded parts of North
America. They are absent or rare in the arid deserts, and not common in
the densely forested regions. Favorite habitat includes open woodland,
hammocks, orchards, roadside hedges, farmyards, and urban areas (Bent
1939). Occasionally, these birds nest at elevations above 9,000 feet in
the central Rockies (Bailey and Niedrach 1965). Most populations are
considered nonmigratory; however, there is some movement from north to
south and from high elevations to the plains during winter.

Nest: Downy woodpeckers resemble common flickers in many of their
nesting habits. Both prefer to excavate near the tops of dead trees in
fairly open timber stands. They generally excavate new cavities each
year in the same tree, but do not usually use cavities of other birds or
reuse old cavities (Lawrence 1967). In the fall, these birds excavate
fresh holes to use as winter roosts (Kilham 1962). Nest holes are
normally 8 to 50 feet above the ground with an entrance hole 1.2 to 1.4
inches in diameter (Bent 1939).

Food: The diet is about 75 percent animal and 25 percent vegetable
material. Animal material consists mostly of economically harmful
insects. Kilham (1970) found that beetles, mostly wood-boring larvae,
made up 21.5 percent of the diet. Other materials included ants (21
percent), caterpillars (16.5 percent), weevils (3 percent), and fruit (6
percent). Like hairy woodpeckers, downy woodpeckers have been credited
with reducing forest pests (MacLellan 1958, 1959, Olson 1953).


Ladder-backed woodpecker
  _Picoides scalaris_
  L 7″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Ladder-backed woodpeckers are commonly found in mesquite and
deciduous woodland along streams in desert regions of the Southwest.

Nest: Ladder-backed woodpecker nests are located in a variety of trees
such as mesquite, screw bean, palo verde, hackberry, china tree, willow,
cottonwood, walnut and oak, usually from 2 to 30 feet above ground.
Saguaro cactus, yucca stalks, and branches are sometimes used for nests,
as are telephone poles and fence posts (Bent 1939, Phillips et al.
1964).

Food: Insects, especially larvae of wood-boring beetles, caterpillars,
and ants, are major food items. The ladder-backed woodpecker also has
been reported to eat the ripe fruit of saguaro cactus (Bent 1939).


Nuttall’s woodpecker
  _Picoides nuttallii_
  L 6¾″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: This western woodpecker is an inhabitant of oak woodlands,
riparian woods, and chapparal west of the Sierras in California.

Nest: From a literature survey and personal observations, Miller and
Bock (1972) summarized the following nest-tree data for 57 nests: 23
percent in oak, 19 percent in willow, 18 percent in sycamore, 16 percent
in cottonwood, and 12 percent in alder. Cavities were excavated in dead
limbs and trunks of trees, from 3 to 45 feet above ground.

Food: About 80 percent of the diet of Nuttall’s woodpecker is insects,
including 28 percent beetles, 15 percent hemipterans, 14 percent
lepidopteran larvae, and 8 percent ants (Beal 1911). Most of the insects
are gleaned from trunk and limb surfaces or captured on the wing (Short
1971). Wild fruits, poison oak seeds, and occasional acorns make up the
vegetable portion of the diet. Nuttall’s woodpeckers in California have
been known to take almonds, occasionally robbing the caches of Lewis’
woodpeckers (Emlen 1937, Bock 1970).


Arizona woodpecker
  _Picoides arizonae_
  L 7¼″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Arizona woodpeckers are found in live oak and oak-pine forests
and canyons from 4,000 to 7,500 feet in Arizona and New Mexico.

Nest: The Arizona woodpecker excavates holes in dead branches of living
trees, primarily walnuts, oaks, maples, and sycamores. One nest was
reportedly located in a mescal stalk (Bent 1939).

Food: This woodpecker’s diet probably consists largely of the adult and
larval stages of insects, with some fruit and acorns, but few details of
food items have been reported (Bent 1939).


Red-cockaded woodpecker
  _Picoides borealis_
  7¼″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Red-cockaded woodpeckers need open, mature (at least 60 year
old) pine forest with a high fire occurrence (Bent 1939, Jackson 1971,
Hopkins and Lynn 1971). Pine species used during breeding season
include: longleaf (Crosby 1971), slash (Lowry 1960), loblolly (Sprunt
and Chamberlain 1949), and shortleaf (Sutton 1967). Red-cockaded
woodpeckers are on the national “Endangered species” list.

Nest: These woodpeckers prefer living pines infected with red heart rot
for nesting. These trees have a soft, easily excavated interior with a
living exterior, leaving the tree less susceptible to destruction by
fire than a dead tree. Cavities can often be reused for at least 20
years and for several years by the same pair (Ligon 1971). The height of
cavity is influenced by the location of red heart infection and the
height and density of undergrowth (Crosby 1971). The majority of
cavities face west, and, when found in leaning trees, are generally on
the low side (Beckett 1971, Baker 1971).

Food: Insects make up the major portion of the diet of red-cockaded
woodpeckers. Beal (1911) and Beal et al. (1916) examined 99 stomachs and
found 86 percent insects and 14 percent vegetable matter, mostly mast.
Beetle larvae (16 percent) and ants made up an important part of the
year-round diet. The corn earworm can be a major food source during
several weeks where conditions are suitable (Ward 1930). Plant material
recorded being eaten includes wax myrtle, magnolia, poison ivy, wild
grape, pokeberry, blueberry, wild cherry, black gum, and pecan (Beal
1911, Baker 1971, Ligon 1971).


White-headed woodpecker
  _Picoides albolarvatus_
  L 7¾″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Open ponderosa pine forest from Washington to central
California is the primary habitat of the white-headed woodpecker, but it
also occurs in sugar pine, Jeffrey pine, and red and white fir forests
(Grinnell and Miller 1944).

Nest: This woodpecker seems to prefer dead pines, but nests have also
been found in live and dead fir, oak, and aspen. White-headed
woodpeckers usually excavate a new nest cavity every year and often
excavate several holes before selecting one to nest in (Bent 1939).
Average nest height is 8 feet above ground.

Food: White-headed woodpeckers feed primarily on pine seeds during the
winter and early spring, and on insects during the summer. Tevis (1953)
determined that 60 percent of the annual diet was pine seeds and 40
percent was insects. Ants made up half of the insect food; other insects
taken were woodboring beetles, spiders, and fly larvae (Beal 1911,
Grinnell and Storer 1924, Ligon 1973).


Black-backed three-toed woodpecker
  _Picoides arcticus_
  L 8″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The conifer forests of the north are preferred, but this
three-toed woodpecker is not abundant even in its favorite habitat.
Forest types include mixed conifer, lodgepole pine, white fir, subalpine
fir, tamarack swamps, boreal spruce-balsam fir, Douglas-fir, and mixed
hardwood-conifer.

Nest: This species usually excavates its cavities in snags or live trees
with dead heartwood, especially in areas that have been burned or logged
(Bent 1939). Nests are usually in spruce, balsam fir, pines, or
Douglas-fir, although maple, birch, and cedar have been used.

Food: The food of this species is similar to that of the northern
three-toed woodpecker. Beal (1911) found 75 percent of the food to be
woodboring beetle larvae, mainly long-horned beetles and metallic
woodboring beetles. Weevils and other beetles, spiders, and ants are
eaten along with some wild fruit, mast, and cambium. Beal estimated that
each three-toed woodpecker annually consumed 13,675 woodboring beetle
larvae.


Northern three-toed woodpecker
  _Picoides tridactylus_
  L 7½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: This highly beneficial woodpecker is most common in coniferous
forests of the West, but does occur occasionally in the Northeast.

Nest: The northern three-toed woodpecker excavates nest cavities each
year in standing dead trees or in dead limbs of live trees with rotted
heartwood (Jackman and Scott 1975). Their nest cavities have been
reported in pine, aspen, spruce, and cedar trees (Bent 1939). In
Arizona, we found two nests in ponderosa pine snags.

Food: The northern three-toed woodpecker is probably one of the most
important birds in combating forest insect pests in the western United
States. Massey and Wygant (1973) found that spruce beetles comprised 65
percent of their diet in Colorado. During the winter when other foods
were scarce, the spruce beetle made up 99 percent of the food taken.
West and Speiers (1959) reported that both species of three-toed
woodpeckers in northeastern United States feed on elm bark beetles,
which carry Dutch elm disease. Koplin (1972) estimated that 20 percent
of an endemic and 84 percent of an epidemic spruce beetle population in
Colorado were consumed by three species of woodpeckers, the most
important of which was the northern three-toed. Other foods include
ants, woodboring and lepidopteran larvae, fruits, mast, and cambium
(Beal 1911, Massey and Wygant 1973).


Ivory-billed woodpecker
  _Campephilus principalis_
  L 18″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Cooke (1888) and Bent (1939) described the largest of the North
American woodpeckers as rare, shy, and found only in the heaviest timber
in virgin cypress and bottomland forest of the South. Tanner (1942)
described ivory-billed woodpecker habitat as heavily forested and
usually flooded alluvial land bordering rivers, made up of oaks,
cypress, and green ash. The most recent sightings (between 5 and 10
pairs) have been made in bottomland hardwoods that have been cut over
but still have some large, mature trees (Dennis 1967). They are included
on the national “Endangered species” list.

Nest: Nest cavities of this species have been recorded in almost every
species of tree occurring within the ivory-bill’s habitat (Greenway
1958). The squarish holes (Dennis 1967) are high, 16 to 65 feet, and in
the trunks of living or dead trees (Greenway 1958, Forbush and May
1939).

Food: Ivory-billed woodpeckers could be of economic importance except
for their small numbers (Greenway 1958). The woodboring larvae making up
a third of their diet (Beal 1911) are injurious to trees (Pearson 1936),
and are most abundant in areas where recently dead and dying trees are
numerous because of flooding, fire, insect attacks, or storms. The birds
stay as long as there are abundant larvae (Dennis 1967). They also eat
fruit of magnolia and pecan trees (Beal 1911).


Sulphur-bellied flycatcher
  _Myiodynastes luteiventris_
  L 6¾″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The sulphur-bellied flycatcher is a common occupant of riparian
habitat with sycamore trees in deep canyons from 5,000 to 7,500 feet
elevation in the Huachuca Mountains of Arizona.

Nest: Invariably the nest of this species, made from leaf stems
(Peterson 1961), is built in a natural cavity in a large sycamore at a
height between 20 and 50 feet above the ground. The cavity normally is a
knothole where a large branch has broken off (Bent 1942). At least one
member of each pair may return to the same nest site each year.

Food: Little information has been published on the food habits of this
flycatcher, but insects caught in the air are undoubtedly the major
items. Apparently small fruits and berries also are eaten (Bent 1942).


Great crested flycatcher
  _Myiarchus crinitus_
  L 7″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Great crested flycatchers are common in deciduous and mixed
woods east of the Rockies. They were originally a deep forest bird, but
with increases in forest clearing and thinning operations, fewer and
fewer cavities are available. They seem to be adapting well to less
densely forested areas, areas treated with herbicides, and forest-field
edge situations (Hespenheide 1971, Bent 1942).

Nest: Great crested flycatchers use natural cavities or excavations made
by other species. Nests are found in a variety of tree species anywhere
from 3 to 70 feet above the ground (mostly below 20 feet). They build a
bulky nest, and therefore prefer deep cavities. Before constructing a
nest, they will generally fill a deep cavity with trash to a level of 12
to 18 inches from the top. They are well known for their habit of
including a snake skin in the nest or dangling it from the cavity
opening (Bent 1942).

Food: Food habit studies have shown that great crested flycatchers eat
94 percent animal and 6 percent vegetable material. Most frequently
eaten are butterflies, beetles, grasshoppers, crickets, katydids, bees,
and sawflies. Vegetable matter is mainly wild fruits. Most food is
caught in flight in the usual flycatcher fashion (Bent 1942).


Wied’s crested flycatcher
  _Myiarchus tyrannulus_
  L 7¼″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Desert saguaros, deciduous woodlands and riparian vegetation in
the Southwest are the preferred habitats of the Wied’s crested
flycatcher.

Nest: Nests made from twigs, weeds, and trash are built in abandoned
woodpecker holes in saguaro cacti at a height from 5 to 20 feet above
the ground. Sycamores, cottonwoods, and fence posts are used
occasionally (Bent 1942).

Food: The diet of this species is similar to that of other crested
flycatchers, consisting mostly of beetles, flying insects, and perhaps
some berries and fruits (Bent 1942).


Ash-throated flycatcher
  _Myiarchus cinerascens_
  L 6½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The ash-throated flycatcher occupies dense mesquite thickets,
oak groves, saguaro cactus, riparian vegetation, and pinyon-juniper
forests. It ranges from Washington to the southwestern United States and
Texas.

Nest: The ash-throated flycatcher is not particularly specific in tree
selection as long as it has a cavity. Woodpecker holes, exposed pipes,
and nest boxes have been used. Mesquite, ash, oak, sycamore, juniper,
and cottonwood are common nest trees (Bent 1942).

Food: The diet of this species consists mainly of animal material.
Beetles, bees, wasps, bugs, flies, caterpillars, moths, grasshoppers,
spiders, etc., make up about 92 percent of the diet. Mistletoe, berries,
and other fleshy fruits account for the remainder (Bent 1942).


Olivaceous flycatcher
  _Myiarchus tuberculifer_
  L 5¾″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Olivaceous flycatchers are found in dense oak thickets,
pinyon-juniper forests, and along canyon streams in Arizona and
southwestern New Mexico.

Nest: Nests are located in natural cavities or abandoned woodpecker
holes. Oaks are preferred, but nests also have been reported in ash and
sycamore trees (Bent 1942).

Food: Limited evidence on food habits of this species indicates that the
major food items are small insects including grasshoppers, termites,
mayflies, treehoppers, miscellaneous bugs, moths, bees, wasps, and
spiders (Bent 1942).


Western flycatcher
  _Empidonax difficilis_
  L 5″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Moist deciduous or coniferous forests and areas near running
water with tall trees are favored by the western flycatcher (Grinnell
and Miller 1944).

Nest: Western flycatchers sometimes nest in cavities, but use a variety
of nest sites. Davis et al. (1963) found four nests in natural cavities
in willows and oaks, and six behind flaps of bark in sycamores and
willows. Nests are often reported in natural rock crevices, on tree
limbs and crotches, and on ledges of buildings (Bent 1942, Davis et al.
1963, Beaver 1967).

Food: Almost all of the food of the western flycatcher is insects
captured on the wing. An examination of 23 stomachs showed 31 percent
flies, 25 percent beetles, 23 percent lepidopterans (including pupae and
adults of spruce budworms), and 17 percent hymenopterans (Beaver 1967).


Violet-green swallow
  _Tachycineta thalassina_
  L 4¾″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Ponderosa pine affords the favorite habitat for violet-green
swallows (Bailey and Niedrach 1965), but they are also found in
aspen-willow and spruce-aspen forests. They prefer open or broken woods
or the edges of dense forests.

Nest: Violet-green swallows nest in holes, cavities, and crevices in a
variety of situations. Where birds are abundant, the demand for nest
sites is sometimes greater than the supply, and practically any
available cavity may be used. These swallows have been reported to use
old nests of cliff swallows and even burrows of bank swallow (Bent
1942). Winternitz (1973) reported violet-greens using old woodpecker
holes in live aspen as nesting sites, but in Arizona, we found them
nesting primarily in old woodpecker holes in ponderosa pine snags. We
found one in the dead top of an aspen, 5 in dead tops of ponderosa pine,
and 26 in ponderosa pine snags. Nest heights ranged from 16 to 80 feet
and averaged 43 feet.

Food: Apparently, the diet of this species is exclusively insects taken
on the wing. It includes leafhoppers, leaf bugs, flies, flying ants, and
some wasps, bees, and beetles (Bent 1942). In Colorado, Baldwin (pers.
comm.[7]) found that insects made up 99 percent of the stomach contents
of six violet-green swallows. Flies were the most abundant insect found.
Scolytid beetles, seed and leaf bugs, miscellaneous insects, and a few
spiders were also found.


Tree swallow
  _Iridoprocne bicolor_
  L 5″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Tree swallows breed throughout North America from the northern
half of the United States north to the limit of tree growth. They are
migrants throughout the Central and Southern states and winter primarily
in Central America.

Nest: Tree swallows prefer to nest in natural cavities and old
woodpecker holes—usually near water. The lack of natural cavities,
competition for existing cavities, and the availability of nest boxes,
have resulted in a shift in nesting preferences to nest boxes in the
eastern United States (Bent 1942, Low 1933, Whittle 1926). Bluebird
boxes and purple martin houses are frequently used. Tree swallows are
not colonial, but will nest within 7 feet of each other, if there are
adequate meadows, marsh, or water area available for feeding (Whittle
1926). Woodpecker holes in aspen, spruce, and pine are the most common
nest sites in the West (Bailey and Niedrach 1965).

Food: This species is the first of the swallows to arrive in the north
in the spring, and the last to depart in the fall. Because tree swallows
can subsist on seeds and berries, they are not as dependent upon insects
as are other swallows. They are partial to waxmyrtle and bayberry where
these are available. Plant food proportions in the diet are 1 percent in
spring, 21 percent in summer, 29 percent in fall, and 30 percent in
winter (Martin et al. 1951, Forbush and May 1939).


Purple martin
  _Progne subis_
  L 7″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The natural nesting population of purple martins prefer open
woodlands or cutover forests where suitable snags remain. Purple martins
have been reported in oak, sycamore, ponderosa pine, Monterey pine,
spruce, and fir forests of California (Grinnell and Miller 1944). In the
Southwest, the purple martin breeds in the ponderosa pine belt and in
the saguaro cactus desert.

Nest: The western purple martin has not adapted to nesting in boxes as
well as the eastern form (Bunch 1964), and much of the western
population depends upon holes made by woodpeckers, usually in tall pines
in relatively open timber stands (Bent 1942). Martins also nest in old
woodpecker holes in saguaro cactus. We have recorded 21 nests near
Cibecue, Arizona, all in ponderosa pine snags. Nests ranged from 25 to
35 feet above ground. Nest compartments in martin houses should be 6 × 6
× 6 inches with an entrance hole 2½ inches in diameter 1 inch above the
floor. The boxes should be 15 to 20 feet above ground.

Food: The purple martin feeds on the wing, and nearly all the diet is
insects, although some spiders are taken (Beal 1918). Johnston (1967)
examined the stomach contents of 34 martins collected in April, May,
June, and August in Kansas. Beetles, true bugs, flies, bees, and wasps
were the important food items. Although the purple martin has been
credited for feeding on large numbers of mosquitoes (Bent 1942), it was
not documented by the two food habit studies mentioned.


Black-capped chickadee
  _Parus atricapillus_
  L 4½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Black-capped chickadees nest throughout southern Canada and the
northern half of the United States. In Missouri, the black-capped
chickadee generally nests north of the Missouri River and the Carolina
chickadee nests south of the River. The breeding range extends farther
south at higher elevations of the Rocky and Appalachian Mountain ranges
than in non-mountainous areas. In Colorado, black-caps are most abundant
in the ponderosa pine and aspen forests (Bailey and Niedrach 1965).

Nest: Chickadees nest in cavities but roost anywhere convenient,
generally not in cavities (Odum 1942). The most suitable nesting sites
are stubs with partially decayed cores and firm shells. They usually
excavate their own cavities, but will use natural cavities or nest
boxes. Black-caps will occasionally nest in a cavity they used the
previous year after making some alterations. Preferred nesting sites
throughout the eastern forests are tree species that occur in the early
seral stages but that are short lived and persist in the intermediate
stages as decaying stubs (Odum 1941, Brewer 1961).

Food: The diet of the black-capped chickadee is comprised of 70 percent
animal and 30 percent vegetable matter. Mast, chiefly from coniferous
trees, and fruits of bayberry, blackberry, blueberry, and poison ivy
make up the bulk of the vegetable matter. Animal material eaten (mostly
insects) includes caterpillars, eggs, moths, spiders, and beetles.
Winter diet is primarily larvae, eggs, katydids, and spiders (Bent 1946,
Martin et al. 1951).


Carolina chickadee
  _Parus carolinensis_
  L 4¼″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The Carolina chickadee, which inhabits the southeastern
forests, is a slightly smaller version of the black-capped chickadee. In
Missouri, the Carolina chickadee nests south of the Missouri River
throughout the Ozarks.

Nest: The nesting habits of the black-capped and Carolina chickadees are
quite similar. They occasionally nest in natural cavities or deserted
holes of woodpeckers, but commonly excavate their own nest cavity in
decaying wood of dead trunks or limbs of deciduous trees (Bent 1946).
Black-capped and Carolina chickadees line their nesting cavities with
fine grasses and feathers.

Food: Food habits of the Carolina chickadee are also very similar to
those of the black-capped chickadee. Food consists of insects and a
variety of fleshy fruits and seeds (Bent 1946).


Mexican chickadee
  _Parus sclateri_
  L 4¼″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: This species inhabits pine and spruce forests from 7,000 to
10,000 feet elevation just inside the United States in the Chiricahua
Mountains of Arizona and the Animas Mountains of New Mexico (Phillips et
al. 1964).

Nest: Mexican chickadees excavate nest holes in dead trees or branches.
One nest was found in a willow stub about 5 feet above the ground (Bent
1946).

Food: No information on diet was found in the literature.


Mountain chickadee
  _Parus gambeli_
  L 4¼″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: This common little chickadee can be found in most coniferous
forests of the West from 6,000 to 11,000 feet (Bent 1946).

Nest: Mountain chickadees usually nest in natural cavities or abandoned
woodpecker holes, and probably do not excavate their own cavities if
suitable ones are available (Bent 1946). Winternitz (1973) reported five
nests in live aspen and one in a dead aspen, 6 to 15 feet above ground.
In Arizona, we have found five nests in live aspen, three in aspen
snags, two in ponderosa pine snags, and one in a white fir snag.

Food: Insects probably make up a large portion of the diet (Bent 1946).
Telford and Herman (1963) collected 10 birds in the Inyo National
Forest, where there was an infestation of lodgepole needle miners and
found 639 needle miner caterpillars in chickadee stomachs. Baldwin
(pers. comm.[8]) examined the contents of 17 stomachs from the Wet
Mountains, Colorado, and found that 75 percent of the summer diet was
insects. Large numbers of spruce aphids were found, as well as flies,
beetles, hymenopterans, and other insects. Vegetable material included
seeds, spruce buds, and fruits. In southwestern Montana, during summer,
mountain chickadees fed on lepidopteran larvae, especially cone worms
and spruce budworms (DeWeese et al.[9][in prep.]), and insects made up
about 98 percent of the diet.


Gray-headed chickadee
  _Parus cinctus_
  L 4¾″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Broken forests or edges of aspen, willow, and spruce are the
preferred habitat of the gray-headed chickadee. The range is limited to
western Canada and Alaska.

Nest: Old woodpecker holes or natural cavities are selected as nest
sites. Bent (1946) reported one nest about 6 feet above ground in a
spruce snag.

Food: No information could be found in the literature on the food habits
of the gray-headed chickadee, but the diet is probably similar to that
of other chickadees.


Boreal chickadee
  _Parus hudsonicus_
  L 4¼″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The boreal chickadee is fairly common in northern forests of
spruce, fir, aspen, and birch (McLaren 1975).

Nest: Natural cavities, old woodpecker holes, or cavities excavated by
the chickadees themselves are used for nesting (Bent 1946). McLaren
(1975) found 22 nest holes, all in trees or snags with soft heartwood,
and believed that softness of the core rather than a preference for a
certain tree species is the determining factor in nest site selection.

Food: In summer the boreal chickadee consumes caterpillars, moths,
beetles, other insects, and insect eggs; birch cones, seeds, and cedar
berries are eaten in the fall and winter (Bent 1946).


Chestnut-backed chickadee
  _Parus rufescens_
  L 4¼″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Coniferous forests of the humid coastal belt from Alaska to
central California are the favorite habitat, but this bird is also found
in adjacent deciduous woodlands and along streams (Peterson 1961,
Grinnell and Miller 1944).

Nest: Nests of this species are in abandoned woodpecker holes or in
cavities excavated by the bird itself. Nests have been found in pine,
oak, and Douglas-fir snags (Bent 1946).

Food: The diet is made up of about 65 percent animal and 35 percent
vegetable matter. Of the animal material, 25 percent is hemipterans, 18
percent caterpillars, 13 percent wasps, 7 percent spiders, and 2 percent
beetles. Seeds and fruit make up the vegetable material (Beal 1907).


Tufted titmouse
  _Parus bicolor_
  L 5½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The tufted titmouse is the largest North American titmouse and
is common throughout the eastern deciduous woodlands. These active and
vocal birds are generally found in groups of 2 to 6 in thick timber
stands, often near water (Gillespie 1930). The black-crested titmouse,
found in southern Texas and northeastern Mexico, is now considered
conspecific with the tufted titmouse (33rd supplement, A.O.U.
Checklist).

Nest: Nests of the tufted titmouse are very difficult to locate and are
not often reported in the literature. Published accounts indicate that
these birds nest in abandoned woodpecker holes or natural cavities
usually less than 20 feet above the ground. While titmice are quite
conspicuous in late fall and winter, they tend to disappear in late
spring to nest and molt (Gillespie 1930, Laskey 1957).

Food: The diets of tufted titmice change seasonally. In spring and
summer they eat primarily animal matter (89 percent and 82 percent
respectively) and spend most of their feeding time in the tree tops.
Caterpillars often make up over 50 percent of the animal matter. Common
winter foods consist of beechnuts, acorns, dogwood berries, Virginia
creeper berries, alder seeds, honeysuckle, seeds of tulip-tree pods. In
winter, they spend a larger percentage of their feeding time on or near
the ground (Gillespie 1930, Martin et al. 1951).


Plain titmouse
  _Parus inornatus_
  L 5″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Oak and pinyon-juniper woodlands from 5,000 to 7,000 feet
elevation from Oregon south and west to Texas and New Mexico are the
favored habitat of the plain titmouse.

Nest: Plain titmice usually nest in natural cavities or old woodpecker
holes. Most reported nests have been in oaks, 2 to 23 feet above ground
(Bent 1946). Nest boxes are used when available (Wetmore 1964).

Food: Beal (Bent 1946) examined the contents of 76 stomachs and found 43
percent animal material (true bugs 12 percent, caterpillars 11 percent,
beetles 7 percent, ants and wasps 6 percent, daddy longlegs and
grasshoppers 5 percent, spiders 1 percent, and 1 percent unreported) and
57 percent vegetable matter (cherries and pulp of larger fruit and leaf
galls 32 percent, seeds of poison oak and weeds 25 percent).


Bridled titmouse
  _Parus wollweberi_
  L 4½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Bridled titmice prefer chaparral and pinyon-juniper in the
Southwest at elevations from 5,000 to 7,000 feet. This titmouse also
uses areas along streams where cottonwoods are present (Phillips et al.
1964).

Nest: Almost all nest locations have been recorded in natural cavities
of dead and living oak trees from 4 to 28 feet above the ground (Bent
1946).

Food: No published information was found, but the diet is probably
similar to that of other members of this genus. All live in similar
habitats and spend much of their time foraging in crevices in the bark,
on the trunks, and on branches, presumably hunting for adults, larvae,
and eggs of insects (Bent 1946).


White-breasted nuthatch
  _Sitta carolinensis_
  L 5″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: White-breasted nuthatches are non-migratory in most forest
types in the United States. They show a preference for deciduous
woodlands. In the Rocky Mountains, they occur most commonly below 9,500
feet elevation (Bailey and Niedrach 1965).

Nest: White-breasted nuthatches nest almost exclusively in natural
cavities within living trees of mature forests. When natural cavities
are unavailable, they may use an abandoned woodpecker hole (Kilham
1968b). In the West, nests have been found in dead aspens and dead
portions (lightning strikes) of live ponderosa pines (Bailey and
Niedrach 1965, Scott and Patton 1975). Nests are lined with hair and
feathers and are often used for more than 1 year.

Food: A myriad of insects, including larvae of the gypsy moth and the
forest tent caterpillar, beetles, spiders, caterpillars, and ants
comprise the main diet of white-breasted nuthatches throughout the
spring and summer. In the winter, nearly all food eaten is mast composed
of beechnuts, acorns, hickory nuts, maize and sunflower seeds (Bent
1948). Among the insect foods are several other forest pests including
nut weevils, locust seed weevils, and roundheaded woodborers (Scott and
Patton 1975). Nuthatches may also be attracted to feeders with suet and
sunflower seeds.


Red-breasted nuthatch
  _Sitta canadensis_
  L 4″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Red-breasted nuthatches nest throughout the high elevations of
the Rocky Mountains and in the Canadian boreal forests. They are erratic
winter migrants to the eastern forest types. In Colorado, their
preferred habitat is the coniferous-aspen type from the Canadian Life
Zone to timberline.

Nest: Red-breasted nuthatches will excavate their own cavity if a
natural cavity or woodpecker hole is not available or to their liking
(de Kiriline 1952). Nests are usually 6 to 40 feet above the ground in
rotten stubs or branches of dead trees. Nests have been reported in
birch, poplar, cottonwood, oak, and pine. Nests usually are not lined,
in contrast to those of white-breasted nuthatches.

Food: Little is known of the food taken by red-breasted nuthatches. They
feed on seeds of pine, spruce, and other coniferous trees. The animal
food is known to include beetles, hymenoptera, spiders, and ribbed pine
borers. They sometimes feed on flying insects (Bent 1948). Birds will
visit feeders offering suet during the winter.


Brown-headed nuthatch
  _Sitta pusilla_
  L 3½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Clearings and areas that have been burned (more old stumps
available for nesting) in southern pine woods are preferred by
brown-headed nuthatches. They can also be found in mixed pine and
hardwood forests of extreme southeastern United States (Bent 1948).

Nest: Brown-headed nuthatches excavate or partially excavate nest
cavities 4.5 to 8 inches deep in dead trees and stumps (often fire
blackened) or posts and poles. Bent (1948) gave little evidence that the
brown-headed nuthatch will use old woodpecker holes, but they may
enlarge and use natural cavities. The nests are located 3 to 46 feet
from the ground (only rarely above 13 feet). Because nest entrances are
more like a crack in a tree than rounded like a woodpecker hole, nests
are difficult to find (Pearson 1936).

Food: Brown-headed nuthatches are mainly insectivorous, and are
considered a useful protector of trees. They search for insects and
their eggs in crevices of the bark on the trunks, branches, twigs, and
needles of pines. They also eat pine seeds (Bent 1948).


Pygmy nuthatch
  _Sitta pygmaea_
  L 3½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Pygmy nuthatches are common in ponderosa pine forests
throughout the West. They are also found in Jeffrey pine, Bishop pine,
and Monterey pine associations in California (Grinnell and Miller 1944),
and in pinyon-juniper woodlands in Arizona (Phillips et al. 1964).

Nest: Nearly all reported nests of the pygmy nuthatch have been from 8
to 60 feet above ground in cavities excavated by the bird itself in dead
or live pine trees (Bent 1948). We found 27 nests in ponderosa pine
snags and two in dead aspens in the White Mountains of Arizona.

Food: About 80 percent of the diet is animal material, mostly wasps and
spittle insects, including some ants, beetles, and caterpillars; the
balance is nearly all conifer seeds (Bent 1948).


Brown creeper
  _Certhia familiaris_
  L 4¾″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: This inconspicuous small bird is fairly common in the
coniferous forests of the Transition and Canadian Life Zones. In
Colorado, it breeds from 7,000 feet to timberline (Bailey and Neidrach
1965). Creepers winter throughout the forests of the southern states.

Nest: Sometimes creepers nest in natural cavities and old woodpecker
holes, but generally they make their nests between the loose bark and
the trunk of a large dead tree (Bent 1948). We found three nests behind
the loosened bark of dead ponderosa pines and one in a white fir snag in
the White Mountains of Arizona.

Food: Few details are known, but the diet is mainly insects, including
weevils, leafhoppers, flat bugs, jumping plant lice, scale insects, eggs
of katydids, ants and other small hymenoptera, sawflies, moths,
caterpillars, cocoons of leaf skeletonizers, pupae of the codling moth,
spiders, and pseudoscorpions (Bent 1948). The small amount of vegetable
material eaten is chiefly mast.


House wren
  _Troglodytes aedon_
  L 4¼″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: House wrens are common nesters in shrubbery and brush
throughout the northern two-thirds of the United States, but they winter
in the southern states. They range from the plains to timberline
throughout the Rocky Mountains. They are commonly found along the edges
of woods, swamps, fields, and in orchards.

Nest: House wrens are aggressive in their nesting habits and will drive
other birds from cavities. Nests have been found in a variety of sites
including 2-inch pipes used to brace fence posts, nesting boxes, natural
cavities, and downy woodpecker holes (Sutton 1930). Nests are usually
less than 10 feet above the ground. Diameter of the entrance hole in
nesting boxes should be 1 inch.

Food: House wrens are capable of eating large quantities of insects and
arthropods, which constitute 98 percent of their diet. Animal items
include beetles, caterpillars, bugs, grasshoppers, and ants (Bent 1948).


Brown-throated wren
  _Troglodytes brunneicollis_
  L 4″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Brown-throated wrens inhabit oak forests, mostly in desert
ranges, but can be found up to elevations of 8,000 feet in southern
Arizona.

Nest: This wren uses natural cavities or old woodpecker holes in tree
trunks or limbs. Like the house wren, it will sometimes occupy recesses
about buildings and nest boxes (Pough 1957).

Food: We could not find published information on food habits but the
diet is probably insects similar to that of other wrens.


Winter wren
  _Troglodytes troglodytes_
  L 3¼″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Winter wrens inhabit coniferous forests of spruce, fir, and
pine, and underbrush in woodlands in eastern and western United States
and Canada.

Nest: Winter wren nests, made from twigs and leaves, are built near the
ground in exposed roots or fallen logs or in rocks and crevices (Bent
1948, Wetmore 1964).

Food: Details on food items were not found in the literature, but the
diet is probably adult and larval stages of insects (Bent 1948).


Bewick’s wren
  _Thryomanes bewickii_
  L 4½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Bewick’s wrens are common and widespread in the West, but
uncommon and local in the Appalachians and Ozarks. They are usually
found in farmyards, brushlands, fencerows, and suburban areas. Bewick’s
wrens are fairly common in the pinyon-juniper forest type, and in
mesquite-willow-cottonwood associations along southwestern streams.

Nest: Nests of the Bewick’s wren can be found in a multitude of places.
Most nests are cup-shaped and can be either open or closed above. They
are usually located in cavities close to the ground (Miller 1941). Nest
sites include natural cavities, woodpecker holes, knotholes in fallen
trees, fence posts, tin cans, bird boxes, and deserted automobiles (Bent
1948).

Food: Bewick’s wrens, like other wrens, eat large numbers of insects
that are injurious to vegetation. Ninety-seven percent of the diet is
insects, including primarily hemiptera and coleoptera. In the South they
are credited with eating boll weevils (Bent 1948).


Carolina wren
  _Thryothorus ludovicianus_
  L 4¾″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Carolina wrens are common in forest types with thick underbrush
throughout the eastern United States. The number in northern populations
fluctuates widely depending on the harshness of winter conditions.

Nest: Carolina wrens are quite universal in their choice of nesting
sites. These wrens prefer nesting sites that are fairly well enclosed,
but they are not totally dependent upon cavities. They are well adapted
to habitat conditions provided by man, but also nest in the woods where
they prefer tangles and brushy undergrowth. Nests have been found in
natural cavities, mailboxes, newspaper cylinders, old hornet nests, and
bird houses (Laskey 1948, Nice and Thomas 1948).

Food: Animal food, mostly insects, makes up 93 percent of the Carolina
wren’s diet. Of this, beetles, caterpillars, and moths comprise the
largest portion. The 7 percent vegetable material is mostly seeds taken
in the winter. Since the Carolina wren feeds mostly on or near the
ground, deep snow is detrimental to survival. They will visit feeding
stations if placed near brush piles (Bent 1948).


Eastern bluebird
  _Sialia sialis_
  L 5½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Under natural conditions, eastern bluebirds prefer to use
cavities in savannah-like habitats east of the Great Plains (Rustad
1972). They are an edge species and therefore do not live in dense woods
or in closely built residential sections of town (Thomas 1946). Like
purple martins, bluebirds have taken advantage of nest boxes provided in
areas around farms, near open fields, and in orchards.

Nest: Eastern bluebird nesting sites (snags) are often eliminated
because of their unsightliness or interference with cultivation. When
available, eastern bluebirds nest in old woodpecker holes, hollows of
decayed trees, and crevices of rocks (Pearson 1936). They will readily
take to hollows in wooden fence posts or correctly sized and placed nest
boxes (5 × 5 × 8 inches high with a 1.5-inch hole located 6 inches from
the bottom). Boxes should be placed 5 to 10 feet above the ground at the
edge of a forest opening or field.

Food: Eastern bluebirds consume 70 percent animal matter and 30 percent
vegetable matter. Vegetable intake increases to more than 50 percent in
December and January, but is completely lacking in May. Animal matter
includes grasshoppers, crickets and katydids, various coleoptera, moths
and caterpillars, some hymenoptera and hemiptera, as well as various
other invertebrates and small vertebrates. Vegetable matter is mostly
wild fruits (Bent 1949).


Western bluebird
  _Sialia mexicana_
  L 5½″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The western bluebird is most abundant in open ponderosa pine
forests of the Transition Zone, but may also be found in oak woodlands,
pinyon-juniper, mixed conifer, and subalpine forests.

Nest: Nests are usually in old woodpecker holes, but this bird also uses
natural cavities. Nests have been reported in oak, sycamore, and pine
trees. In Monterey County, California, nests were found from 5 to 40
feet above ground in pine stumps or trees (Bent 1949). This bluebird,
like the eastern, also readily nests near humans in bird houses. Nest
boxes should be 5 × 5 × 8 inches with a 1.5-inch entrance hole located 6
inches from the floor. Boxes should be placed 5 to 10 feet above ground
near forest openings or meadows.

Food: Beal (Bent 1949) examined the contents of 217 stomachs and found
72 percent animal material (grasshoppers 21 percent, caterpillars 20
percent, useful beetles 9 percent, other beetles 16 percent, ants 5
percent, other hymenoptera 1 percent) and 28 percent vegetable material,
mostly wild fruits, including elderberries, mistletoe berries,
blackberries or raspberries, prunes, cherries, and a few weed seeds.


Mountain bluebird
  _Sialia currucoides_
  L 6″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The mountain bluebird nests in nearly all timber types of the
Rocky Mountain region, and is reported from 800 to 11,000 feet elevation
in Idaho (Burleigh 1972). However, this species usually ranges from
7,000 to 11,000 feet in open forests or near forest edges.

Nest: The mountain bluebird usually nests in natural cavities or in old
woodpecker holes but will also use man-made structures. Nests have been
reported in fir and pinyon snags and aspen trees (Burleigh 1972, Bent
1949). We recorded six nests in the White Mountains of Arizona ranging
from 12 to 35 feet above ground in ponderosa pine snags. Five of these
were in abandoned woodpecker holes and one was in a natural cavity. Nest
boxes should be similar to those for other bluebirds.

Food: This is probably the most insectivorous of the bluebirds. Studies
indicate that nearly 92 percent of the diet is animal material,
including miscellaneous beetles, weevils, ants, bees, wasps, cicadas,
stinkbugs, negro bugs, assassin bugs, jassids, flies, caterpillars,
grasshoppers, locusts, and crickets (Bent 1949). Vegetable items include
currants, grapes, elderberries, sumac seeds, mistletoe berries,
hackberry seeds, Virginia creeper seeds, and cedar berries.


Starling
  _Sturnus vulgaris_
  L 6″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: Starlings breed in various habitats that provide adequate
nestling food (Troetschler 1976) but are perhaps most numerous in
suburban and rural habitat where suitable nesting sites abound. Kalmbach
(1928) noted that starlings prefer thickly settled agricultural areas
and stated that “They are partial to human association....” During
establishment in the United States, starlings first settled in lowland
areas and are still abundant there (Small 1974, Royall 1966, Bent 1950).
In a southeast Ontario test, starlings preferred old field habitat over
five other habitats when sufficient nest sites were available (Gibo et
al. 1976).

Nest: Cavities in trees, telephone poles, or fence posts, in drainpipes,
mail boxes, or buildings, and in haystacks and cliffs have been used for
nesting, as have burrows and open nests of other species (Kessel 1957,
Bent 1950). Natural nest sites seem to be preferred over nest boxes
(Planck 1967). Competition between starlings and native species for
nesting cavities usually favors the starling, but most native species
seem to breed in some habitats where starlings are not numerous.

Food: Analysis of contents of 2,750 starling stomachs taken in the
northeastern states showed 57 percent animal materials such as insects,
millipeds, spiders, molluscs, and a few crustaceans. Insects such as
weevils, ground beetles, and plant-feeding scarabaeids such as May
beetles were especially important. Of the 43 percent vegetable material,
wild fruit was most important, but cultivated cherries, vegetable
material, grain, and seeds of various sorts were also used (Kalmbach
1928). In other areas, grapes, blueberries, figs, and other fruit, truck
crops, sprouting crops, and prepared livestock feed are eaten.


Crested myna
  _Acridotheres cristatellus_
  L 9″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The crested myna is native to the plains and lowlands of
cultivated southern China, and was introduced in Vancouver, B.C., Canada
in the 1890’s. Although the myna has been reported in the states of
Washington and Oregon, most of the population is in Greater Vancouver
and Vancouver Island. Mynas are apparently dwellers of urban and nearby
open field areas (Mackay and Hughes 1963).

Nest: In urban areas, mynas nest in almost any enclosed area, including
bird boxes intended for other birds. In wooded areas, holes made by
flickers and other woodpeckers seem to be preferred (Bent 1950).

Food: Scheffer and Cottam (1935) examined the contents of 117 adult myna
stomachs and found 39 percent animal and 61 percent vegetable matter.
Animal matter included flies, moths and caterpillars, wasps, bees, ants,
bugs, beetles, grasshoppers, spiders, and earthworms. Vegetable matter
included wild varieties of elderberries, cherries, blueberries,
crowberries, snowberries, salmonberries, loganberries, and
serviceberries. Fruits of cultivated cherries, strawberries,
raspberries, and blackberries were also eaten, with some damage done to
apples, pears, cabbages, and lettuce.


Prothonotary warbler
  _Protonotaria citrea_
  L 4¾″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The prothonotary warbler is found south of Canada in the
eastern deciduous forests of the United States. Other names for this
warbler (golden swamp warbler and willow warbler) describe its
preference for swamps and periodically flooded areas. The prothonotary
often lives near running water with streamside willows (Pearson 1936).

Nest: Nests are almost always in stumps and snags either standing in or
near water (Simpson 1969) and often leaning over the water (Pearson
1936). Downy woodpecker and chickadee holes ranging from 2 to 12 feet
and averaging 5 feet above the ground are used most often (Pearson
1936). However, the warbler reportedly has a wide tolerance for the type
of nesting cavities used. Prothonotaries occasionally even nest in bird
boxes and near buildings (Forbush and May 1939).

Food: Prothonotary warblers are primarily insectivorous. They eat ants,
spiders, beetles, mayflies, and their larvae. They also will eat the
larvae of water insects. This warbler feeds on trunks and branches of
trees, shrubs, and fallen logs. They will also perch on rank grasses and
water plants and eat small molluscs (Bent 1953).


Lucy’s warbler
  _Vermivora luciae_
  L 4¼″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: This warbler inhabits mesquite woodlands and riparian
vegetation with willows and cottonwoods from Nevada to the southwestern
United States.

Nest: Nests of Lucy’s warblers are usually located in tree cavities or
under loose bark in willows, cottonwoods and mesquite. Ironwood, palo
verde, and catclaw have also been used for nest trees (Robbins et al.
1966, Bent 1953, Peterson 1961).

Food: Insects are the major food items in the diet of Lucy’s warbler
(Bent 1953).


House sparrow
  _Passer domesticus_
  L 5¼″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: House sparrows are well known associates of man, thriving in
towns and urban situations. They are also birds of the suburban-rural
landscape (Summers-Smith 1963). Optimum habitat requirements are perhaps
best met around buildings where waste grain from poultry and livestock
feeding can be found. The species is scarce or absent from densely
forested and desert regions uninhabited by man (Kalmbach 1940).

Nest: House sparrows nest in eaves, crevices, and holes in buildings; in
vines and creepers on walls; in the branches of trees; in nest boxes and
natural cavities in trees; and in other assorted locations, perhaps in
that order of importance. Open tree nests may be built more often in
warmer latitudes, but females seem to prefer hole nests (Cink 1976).
Nesting cavities of cliff and bank swallows and house finches may be
usurped. Nests are usually at least 6 to 8 feet from the ground, may be
as high as 50 feet, and groups or colonies are not uncommon. Nests are
domed whether in cavities or the open. House sparrows all too readily
accept bird houses erected for purple martins, bluebirds, and other
species.

Food: Kalmbach’s (1940) study of the contents of 4,848 stomachs of
suburban-rural birds indicated that adult and juvenile (non-nestling)
house sparrows take 3.4 percent animal material throughout the year,
particularly dung beetles, May beetles, and other Scarabaeidae. Grain
from poultry yards, etc., made up the largest percentage of vegetable
material (31.5 to 84.2 percent), followed by seeds of grasses and weeds
(17 percent), and oats other than that in feed (14.4 percent). Ragweed,
crabgrass, smartweed, and pigweed were important plants in the grass and
weed category.


European tree sparrow
  _Passer montanus_
  L 5″

                             [Illustration]

Habitat: The European tree sparrow was introduced in St. Louis,
Missouri, in 1870. Coincident with the increase in house sparrows,
European tree sparrows left the thickly settled parts of St. Louis and
established populations throughout the city outskirts, suburban areas,
farmyards, and woodlots. The species now occupies approximately 8,500
square miles in extreme east-central Missouri and west-central Illinois.
They appear to be slowly expanding their range northward in western
Illinois (Barlow 1973).

Nest: European tree sparrows nest in natural cavities, crevices, and
woodpecker holes. They appear to be a weak competitor for available
nesting sites. Part of the reason for the extension of tree sparrow
range north may be related to large numbers of dead and dying American
elms (victims of Dutch elm disease) which have provided an increasing
source of nesting sites (Barlow 1973).

Food: Tree sparrows feed primarily on the ground on weed seeds, maize,
insects, and spiders.



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                      Plants Referred to in Text:


  Common Name                Scientific Name
  Agave                      _Agave_ sp.
  Alder                      _Alnus_ sp.
  Almond                     _Prunus_ sp.
  American linden            _Tilia americana_ L.
  Anaqua                     _Ehretia anacua_ (Teran & Berl.) I. M.
                             Johnst.
  Apple                      _Malus_ sp.
  Arrow arum                 _Peltandra_ sp.
  Ash                        _Fraxinus_ sp.
  Ash, black                 _Fraxinus nigra_ Marsh.
  Ash, green                 _Fraxinus pennsylvanica_ Marsh.
  Ash, water                 _Fraxinus caroliniana_ Mill.
  Aspen                      _Populus_ sp.
  Baldcypress                _Taxodium distichum_ (L.) Rich.
  Basswood                   _Tilia_ sp.
  Bayberry                   _Myrica_ sp.
  Beech                      _Fagus grandifolia_ Ehrh.
  Bermuda grass              _Cynodom dactylon_ (L.) Pers.
  Birch                      _Betula_ sp.
  Birch, paper               _Betula papyrifera_ Marsh.
  Blackberries               _Rubus_ sp.
  Blueberries                _Vaccinium_ sp.
  Bulrush                    _Scirpus_ sp.
  Butternut                  _Juglans cinerea_ L.
  Buttonbush                 _Cephalanthus occidentalis_ L.
  Cabbage                    _Brassica_ sp.
  Cactus                     Cactaceae
  Catalpa                    _Catalpa_ sp.
  Catclaw                    _Acacia_ sp.
  Cedar
  Cherries                   _Prunus_ sp.
  Cherry, wild               _Prunus_ sp.
  China tree                 _Koelreuteria_ sp.
  Cissus                     _Cissus_ sp.
  Coontail                   _Ceratophyllum demersum_ L.
  Corn                       _Zea mays_ L.
  Cottonwood                 _Populus_ sp.
  Cottonwood, black          _Populus trichocarpa_ Torr. & Gray
  Crabgrass                  _Digitaria_ sp.
  Creosote bush              _Larrea tridentata_ (DC.) Cov.
  Crowberries                _Empetrum_ sp.
  Currant                    _Ribes_ sp.
  Cypress
  Dogwood                    _Cornus_ sp.
  Douglas-fir                _Pseudotsuga menziesii_ (Mirb.) Franco
  Duckweed                   _Lemna_ sp.
  Ebony                      _Diospyros_ sp.
  Elderberry                 _Sambucus_ sp.
  Elm                        _Ulmus_ sp.
  Elm, American              _Ulmus americana_ L.
  Fig                        _Ficus_ sp.
  Fir                        _Abies_ sp.
  Fir, balsam                _Abies balsamea_ (L.) Mill.
  Fir, red                   _Abies magnifica_ A. Murr.
  Fir, subalpine             _Abies lasiocarpa_ (Hook.) Nutt.
  Fir, white                 _Abies concolor_ (Gord. & Glend.) Lindi.
  Grapes, wild               _Vitis_ sp.
  Gum, black                 _Nyssa sylvatica_ Marsh.
  Gum, sour                  _Nyssa_ sp.
  Hackberry                  _Celtis_ sp.
  Hazelnut                   _Corylus_ sp.
  Hemlock                    _Tsuga_ sp.
  Hickory                    _Carya_ sp.
  Hickory, bitternut         _Carya cordiformis_ (Wangenh.) K. Koch
  Holly                      _Ilex_ sp.
  Honeysuckle                _Lonicera_ sp.
  Huisache                   _Acacia farnesiana_ (L.) Willd.
  Ironwood                   _Olneya tesota_ Gray
  Juniper                    _Juniperus_ sp.
  Larch                      _Larix_ sp.
  Larch, western             _Larix occidentalis_ Nutt.
  Lettuce                    _Lactuca_ sp.
  Loganberries               _Rubus_ sp.
  Magnolia                   _Magnolia_ sp.
  Maize                      _Zea mays_ L.
  Maple                      _Acer_ sp.
  Maple, red                 _Acer rubrum_ L.
  Maple, silver              _Acer saccharinum_ L.
  Mescal                     _Agave_ sp.
  Mesquite                   _Prosopis_ sp.
  Millet                     _Setaria_ sp.
  Mistletoe                  _Phoradendron_ sp.
  Oak                        _Quercus_ sp.
  Oak, black                 _Quercus velutina_ Lam.
  Oak, blackjack             _Q. marilandica_ Muenchh.
  Oak, bur                   _Q. macrocarpa_ Michx.
  Oak, cherrybark            _Q. falcata_ var. _pagodaefolia_ Ell.
  Oak, live                  _Q. virginiana_ Mill.
  Oak, overcup               _Q. lyrata_ Walt.
  Oak, pin                   _Q. palustris_ Muenchh.
  Oak, red                   _Quercus_ sp.
  Oak, white                 _Q. alba_ L.
  Oats                       _Avena_ sp.
  Palmetto                   _Sabal_ sp.
  Palo Verde                 _Cercidium_ sp.
  Pear                       _Pyrus_ sp.
  Pecan                      _Carya illinoensis_ (Wang.) K. Koch
  Pepper, red                _Capsicum_ sp.
  Pigweed                    _Chenopodium_ sp.
  Pine                       _Pinus_ sp.
  Pine, Bishop               _Pinus muricata_ D. Don.
  Pine, Jeffrey              _P. jeffreyi_ Grev. & Balf.
  Pine, loblolly             _P. taeda_ L.
  Pine, lodgepole            _P. contorta_ Dougl.
  Pine, longleaf             _P. palustris_ Mill.
  Pine, Monterey             _P. radiata_ D. Don.
  Pine, pinyon               _P. edulis_ Engelm.
  Pine, ponderosa            _P. ponderosa_ Laws.
  Pine, shortleaf            _P. echinata_ Mill.
  Pine, slash                _P. elliotti_ Engelm.
  Pine, sugar                _P. lambertiana_ Dougl.
  Pine, white                _P. strobus_ L.
  Poison ivy                 _Rhus radicans_ L.
  Poison oak                 _Rhus diversiloba_ T. & G.
  Pokeberry                  _Phytolacca americana_ L.
  Pondweed                   _Potamogeton_ sp.
  Poplar                     _Populus_ sp.
  Poplar, balsam             _Populus balsamifera_ L.
  Prunes                     _Prunus_ sp.
  Ragweed                    _Ambrosia_ sp.
  Raspberries                _Rubus_ sp.
  Red heart fungus           _Fomes_ sp.
  Redwood                    _Sequoia sempervirens_ (D. Don.) Endl.
  Retama                     _Retama_ sp.
  Sago pondweed              _Potamogeton pectinatus_ L.
  Saguaro cactus             _Carnegiea gigantea_ (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose
  Salmonberries              _Rubus spectabilis_ Pursh.
  Sawgrass, tall             _Cladium_ sp.
  Screwbean                  _Prosopis_ sp.
  Serviceberries             _Amelanchier_ sp.
  Skunk cabbage              _Symplocarpus foetidus_ (L.) Nutt.
  Smartweed                  _Polygonum_ sp.
  Snowberries                _Symphoricarpos_ sp.
  Sorghum                    _Sorghum_ sp.
  Spruce                     _Picea_ sp.
  Spruce, Engelmann          _Picea engelmannii_ Parry
  Spruce, Sitka              _Picea sitchensis_ (Bong.) Carr.
  Strawberries               _Fragraria_ sp.
  Sumac                      _Rhus_ sp.
  Sunflower                  _Helianthus_ sp.
  Sweetgum                   _Liquidambar styraciflua_ L.
  Sycamore                   _Platanus_ sp.
  Tamarac                    _Larix laricina_ (Du Roi) K. Koch
  Tulip-poplar               _Liriodendron tulipifera_ L.
  Tupelo                     _Nyssa sylvatica_ Marsh.
  Virginia creeper           _Parthenocissus quinquefolia_ L.
  Walnut                     _Juglans_ sp.
  Water stargrass            _Heteranthera dubia_ (Jacq.) MacM.
  Wax-myrtle                 _Myrica cerifera_ L.
  Wheat                      _Triticum_ sp.
  Widegon grass              _Ruppia maritima_ L.
  Wild celery                _Vallisneria americana_ Michx.
  Willow                     _Salix_ sp.
  Willow, black              _Salix nigra_ Marsh.
  Yucca                      _Yucca_ sp.



                   Invertebrates Referred to in Text:


  Common Name           Class or Order     Family           Genus and Species
  Amphipods             Crustacea
  Ants                  Hymenoptera        Formicidae
  Aphids                Homoptera          Aphididae
  Assassin bugs         Hemiptera          Reduviidae
  Bark beetles          Coleoptera         Scolytidae
  Bees                  Hymenoptera        Apidae
  Beetles               Coleoptera
  Black crickets        Orthoptera         Gryllidae
  Blue mussel           (phylum) Mollusca
  Boll weevil           Coleoptera         Curculionidae    _Anthonomus
                                                            grandis_ Boheman
  Bugs                  Hemiptera
  Butterflies           Lepidoptera
  Caddis flies          Trichoptera
  Carpenter ants        Hymenoptera        Formicidae       _Camponotus_ sp.
  Caterpillars          Lepidoptera
  Centipedes            Chilopoda
  Chironomids           Diptera            Chironomidae
  Cicadas               Homoptera          Cicadidae
  Clover weevils        Coleoptera         Curculionidae
  Cockroach             Orthoptera         Blattidae
  Codling moth          Lepidoptera        Olethreutidae    _Carpocapsa
                                                            pomonella_ L.
  Cone worms            Lepidoptera
  Corn earworm          Lepidoptera        Noctuidae        _Heliothis zea_
                                                            (Boddie)
  Cotton boll weevils   Coleoptera         Curculionidae
  Crabs                 Crustacea
  Crane flies           Diptera            Tipulidae
  Crayfish              Crustacea
  Crickets              Orthoptera         Gryllidae
  Culicine mosquitoes   Diptera            Culicidae
  Cutworm moths         Lepidoptera        Noctuidae        _Agrotis_ sp.
  Daddy long legs       Phalangida
  Damselflies           Odonata
  Dragonflies           Odonata
  Dung beetles          Coleoptera         Scarabaeidae
  Earthworms            Oligochaeta
  Elm bark beetle       Coleoptera         Scolytidae       _Scolytus
                                                            multistriatus_
                                                            (Marsham)
  Flat bugs             Hemiptera          Aradidae
  Flies                 Diptera
  Flying ants           Hymenoptera        Formicidae
  Gnats                 Diptera
  Grasshoppers          Orthoptera         Acrididae
  Grubs                 Coleoptera
  Gypsy moth            Lepidoptera        Lymantriidae     _Porthetria
                                                            dispar_ (L.)
  Hairy crickets        Orthoptera
  Harvestmen            Phalangida
  Hawk moths            Lepidoptera        Sphingidae
  Hemipterans           Hemiptera
  Hornets               Hymenoptera        Vespidae
  House fly             Diptera            Muscidae         _Musca domestica_
                                                            L.
  Hymenopterans         Hymenoptera
  Ichneumon flies       Hymenoptera        Ichneumonidae
  Isopods               Crustacea
  Jassids               Homoptera          Cicadellidae
  Jerusalem crickets    Orthoptera         Gryllacrididae
  Jumping plant lice    Homoptera          Psyllidae
  Katydids              Orthoptera         Tettigoniidae
  Ladybird beetles      Coleoptera         Coccinellidae
  Leaf bugs             Hemiptera          Miridae
  Leafhoppers           Homoptera          Cicadellidae
  Leaf skeletonizers    Lepidoptera        Lyonetiidae      _Bucculatrix_ sp.
  Lepidopterans         Lepidoptera
  Locusts               Orthoptera         Acrididae
  Locust seed weevils   Coleoptera         Mylabridae       _Bruchus_ sp.
  Lodgepole needle      Lepidoptera        Gelechiidae
  miners
  Long-horned beetles   Coleoptera         Cerambycidae
  Long-horned           Orthoptera         Tettigoniidae
  grasshoppers
  Long-legged           Diptera            Tipulidae
  tipulids
  Lyonetiid moths       Lepidoptera        Lyonetiidae      _Bucculatrix_ sp.
  May beetles           Coleoptera         Scarabaeidae
  Mayflies              Ephemeroptera
  Metallic wood         Coleoptera         Buprestidae
  boring beetles
  Midges                Diptera            Chironomidae
  Millipedes            Diplopoda
  Molluscs              (phylum) Mollusca
  Mosquitoes            Diptera            Culicidae
  Moths                 Lepidoptera
  Negro bugs            Hemiptera          Corimelaenidae
  Nut weevils           Coleoptera         Curculionidae    _Curculio_ spp.
  Praying mantids       Orthoptera         Mantidae
  Pseudoscorpions       Pseudoscorpionida
  Psyllids              Homoptera          Psyllidae
  Ribbed pine borer     Coleoptera         Cerambycidae     _Stenocorus
                                                            inquisitor_
                                                            (Oliv.)
  Roaches               Orthoptera         Blattidae
  Round-headed          Coleoptera         Cerambycidae
  woodborers
  Sawflies              Hymenoptera        Tenthredinidae
  Scolytid beetles      Coleoptera         Scolytidae       _Scolytus_ sp.
  Scorpions             Scorpionida
  Seed beetles          Coleoptera         Bruchidae        _Bruchus_ sp.
  Seed bugs             Hemiptera          Lygaeidae
  Spiders               Areneida
  Spittle bugs          Homoptera          Cercopidae
  Spittle insects       Homoptera          Cercopidae
  Spruce aphid          Homoptera          Chermidae        _Chermes cooleyi_
                                                            Gill.
  Spruce beetles        Coleoptera         Scolytidae       _Dendroctonus_ sp.
  Spruce budworm        Lepidoptera        Tortricidae      _Choristoneura
                                                            fumiferana_
                                                            (Clemens)
  Stinkbugs             Hemiptera          Pentatomidae
  Tent caterpillars     Lepidoptera        Lasiocampidae    _Malacosoma_ sp.
  Termites              Isoptera
  Tree hoppers          Homoptera          Membracidae
  True bugs             Hemiptera
  Wasps                 Hymenoptera        Vespidae
  Water boatmen         Hemiptera          Corixidae
  Weevils               Coleoptera         Curculionidae
  Wood ants             Hymenoptera        Formicidae
  Wood boring beetles   Coleoptera
  Wood boring larvae    Coleoptera



                    Vertebrates Referred to in Text:


  Common Name           Class or Order     Family           Genus and Species
  Amphibians            Amphibia
  Bats                  Chiroptera
  Carp                  Cypriniformes      Cyprinidae       _Cyprinus carpio_
                                                            Linnaeus
  Catfish               Cypriniformes      Ictaluridae
  Chipmunks             Rodentia           Sciuridae
  Chubs                 Cypriniformes      Cyprinidae
  Cotton rat            Rodentia           Cricetidae       _Sigmodon
                                                            hispidus_ (Say &
                                                            Ord)
  Cottontail rabbit     Lagomorpha         Leporidae        _Sylvilagus
                                                            floridanus_
                                                            (Allen)
  Cow                   Artiodactyla       Bovidae          _Bos taurus_
                                                            Linnaeus
  Deer mouse            Rodentia           Cricetidae       _Peromyscus
                                                            maniculatus_
                                                            (Wagner)
  Eels                  Anguilliformes     Anguillidae      _Anguilla_ sp.
  Flying squirrels      Rodentia           Sciuridae        _Glaucomys_ sp.
  Frogs                 Anura
  Gizzard shad          Clupeiformes       Clupeidae        _Dorosoma
                                                            cepedianum_
                                                            (LeSueur)
  Gophers               Rodentia           Geomyidae
  Ground squirrels      Rodentia           Sciuridae
  Horse                 Perissodactyla     Equidae          _Equus caballus_
                                                            Linnaeus
  Lizards               Squamata
  Masked shrew          Insectivora        Soricidae        _Sorex cinereus_
                                                            (Kerr.)
  Meadow mouse          Rodentia           Cricetidae       _Microtus
                                                            pennsylvanicus_
                                                            (Ord)
  Meadow vole           Rodentia           Cricetidae       _Microtus
                                                            pennsylvanicus_
                                                            (Ord)
  Mice                  Rodentia
  Moles                 Insectivora        Talpidae
  Perch                 Perciformes        Percidae
  Pig                   Artiodactyla       Suidae           _Sus scrofa_
                                                            Linnaeus
  Pocket gophers        Rodentia           Geomyidae
  Porcupine             Rodentia           Erethizontidae   _Erethizon
                                                            dorsatum_
                                                            (Linnaeus)
  Raccoon               Carnivora          Procyonidae      _Procyon lotor_
                                                            (Linnaeus)
  Rats                  Rodentia
  Red-backed mouse      Rodentia           Cricetidae       _Clethrionomys
                                                            gapperi_ (Vigors)
  Red-backed vole       Rodentia           Cricetidae       _Clethrionomys
                                                            gapperi_ (Vigors)
  Reptiles              Reptilia
  Rodents               Rodentia
  Salamanders           Urodela
  Salmon                Clupeiformes       Salmonidae
  Short-tailed shrew    Insectivora        Soricidae        _Blarina
                                                            brevicauda_ (Say)
  Shrews                Insectivora        Soricidae
  Snakes                Squamata
  Squirrels             Rodentia           Sciuridae
  Star-nosed mole       Insectivora        Soricidae        _Condylura
                                                            cristata_
                                                            (Linnaeus)
  Suckers               Cypriniformes      Catostomidae
  Toads                 Anura
  Trout                 Clupeiformes       Salmonidae
  Voles                 Rodentia           Cricetidae
  White-footed mouse    Rodentia           Cricetidae       _Peromyscus_ sp.
  Woodrats              Rodentia           Cricetidae       _Neotoma_ sp.



                               Footnotes


[1]_Scott, Virgil E. Characteristics of ponderosa pine snags used by
    cavity-nesting birds. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Collins,
    Colorado._

[2]_Scott, Virgil E._ [_In prep._] _Bird response to snag removal. U.S.
    Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Collins, Colorado._

[3]Snag or tree use: A: food B: nest C: perch.

[4]Major foods: 1: birds 2: rodents 3: reptiles and amphibians 4:
    insects 5: seeds and fleshy fruits 6: vegetation 7: other or little
    known.

[5]Threatened or endangered species.

[6]_Wildlife biologist, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Collins,
    Colorado._

[7]_Ecology Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins,
    Colorado._

[8]_Zoology Department. Colorado State University, Fort Collins._

[9]_DeWeese, Lawrence R., Charles J. Henny, Randy L. Floyd, Kathie A.
    Bobal, and Albert W. Shultz. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Impact
    of Trichlorfon (Dylox) and Carbaryl (Sevin-4-oil) on breeding birds
    in southwestern Montana forests._


                       ★ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1977 O-246-764



                          Transcriber’s Notes


--Copyright notice provided as in the original—this e-text is public
  domain in the country of publication.

--Silently corrected palpable typos; left non-standard spellings and
  dialect unchanged.

--In the text versions only, delimited italicized text with
  _underscores_.





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