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Title: Picturesque Quebec : a sequel to Quebec past and present
Author: Le Moine, J. M. (James MacPherson), Sir
Language: English
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Historical Microreproductions.



PICTURESQUE QUEBEC

BY

J. M. LEMOINE



TO THE CITIZENS OF QUEBEC

THIS VOLUME IS

Respectfully Inscribed

BY THE AUTHOR.



PREFACE


This volume, purporting to be a sequel to "QUEBEC PAST AND PRESENT,"
published in 1876, is intended to complete the history of the city. New
and interesting details will be found in these pages, about the locality,
where Samuel de Champlain located his settlement in 1608, together with a
rapid glance at incidents, sights, objects, edifices, city gates and other
improvements, both ancient and modern, which an antiquarian's ramble round
the streets, squares, promenades, monuments, public and private edifices,
&c., may disclose. It will, it is hoped, be found a copious repository of
historical, topographical, legendary, industrial and antiquarian lore--
garnered not without some trouble from authorities difficult of access to
the general reader. May it prove not merely a faithful mirror of the past,
but also an authentic record of the present!

THE SKETCH OF THE ENVIRONS OF QUEBEC will take the tourist or student of
history beyond the ramparts of Old Stadacona, to the memorable area--the
Plains of Abraham--where, one century back and more, took place the hard-
fought duel which caused the collapse of French power in the New World,
established British rule on our shores, and hastened the birth of the
great Commonwealth founded by George Washington, by removing from the
British Provinces, south of us, the counterpoise of French dominion. More
than once French Canada had threatened the New England Settlements; more
than once it had acted like a barrier to the expansion and consolidation
of the conquering Anglo-Saxon race.

THE ENVIRONS OF QUEBEC are, indeed, classic soil, trodden by the footsteps
of many of the most remarkable men in American History: Cartier,
Champlain, Phipps, d'Iberville, Laval, Frontenac, La Galissonnère, Wolfe,
Montcalm, Levis, Amherst, Murray, Guy Carleton, Nelson, Cook,
Bougainville, Jervis, Montgomery, Arnold, DeSalaberry, Brock and others.
Here, in early times, on the shore of the majestic St. Lawrence, stood the
wigwam and canoe of the marauding savage; here, was heard the clang of
French sabre and Scotch claymore in deadly encounter--the din of battle
on the tented field; here,--but no further--had surged the wave of
American invasion; here, have bivouaced on more than one gory battle-
field, the gay warrior from the banks of the Seine, the staunch musketeers
of Old England, the unerring riflemen of New York, Massachusetts and Rhode
Island. Another spot calculated to interest us is the vast expanse from
the Plains to Cap Rouge, round by Ste. Foye to the city, for which I
intend to use its former more general name, Sillery: the ground is not new
for us, as its annals and country seats furnished, in 1865, materials for
sketches, published that year under the title of _Maple Leaves_. These
sketches having long since disappeared from book-stores, at the request of
several enlightened patrons, I re-publish from them some selections, with
anecdotes and annotations. Several other sites round Quebec--Beauport,
Charlesbourg, the Falls of Montmorency and of the Chaudière, Château
Bigot, Lorette and its Hurons--will, of necessity, find a resting place in
this repertory of Quebec history, which closes a labour of love, the
series of works on Canada, commenced by me in 1861.

In order to enhance the usefulness of this work, extensive and varied
historical matter has been included in the appendix for reference.

To my many friends, whose notes and advice have been so freely placed at
my disposal, I return my grateful thanks.

J. M. LEMOINE.
SPENCER GRANGE, December, 1881.



CONTENTS


CHAPTER I.

FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF QUEBEC

Quebec as seen by Tourists--Descriptions--by Francis Parkman--M. Sand--
Eliot Warburton--Thoreau--Mrs. Moodie--Charles Dickens--Marmier--Sir
Charles Dilke--Henry Ward Beecher--Professor Silliman--Charles Lever--
Capt. Butler--Alfred Hawkins--Hon. P. J. O. Chauveau.


CHAPTER II.

FOUNDATION OF QUEBEC.

Samuel de Champlain--_L'Abitation_--the Dwelling of Champlain--Chief
Donaconna--Jacques Cartier's Landing--Interview between Cartier and
Donaconna.


CHAPTER III.

THE ANCIENT CAPITAL.

Streets and By-ways of the Old City--Names of Famous Men preserved by
Street Names--Dangerous Streets.

THE UPPER TOWN.

Louis Hébert, the First Resident--The First Street--The First Horse--
Marquis de Tracy--St. Louis Street--The Quebec Gazette--William Brown--
Samuel Neilson--Dr. Wilkie--Lawyers--Madame Péan--Montgomery's Assault--
Death of Montcalm--SOCIETY IN EARLY ENGLISH TIMES--Theatre--Early Society
Poets--Literature--United Empire Loyalists,--ST. LOUIS HOTEL--THE
FRÉCHETTE DINNER--Mr. Fréchette's Speech--Mr. Lamier's Speech--Mr.
Stewart's Speech--Mr. LeMay's, Speech---Mr. LeMoine's Speech---FORT ST.
LOUIS--CHÂTEAU ST. LOUIS--HALDIMAND CASTLE--The Council--Dress of the
Councillors--A Braggart Mohawk Hanged--The New Château--Fealty and
Homage--Re-building by Frontenac--Quebec Agricultural Society--The Loyal
League--An Antique Stone--Lord Edward Fitzgerald--The Duke of Richmond--
Sir Peregrine Maitland--John Galt--Lord Dorchester--Isaac Weld--Dufferin
Terrace--Laying of Corner Stone--Rev. Dr. Sparks--St. Andrew's Church--
The Lymburners--Hugh McQuarters James Thompson--The Rosses--The Georges--
Parloir Street--Jupiter Street--St. George Street--LAVAL UNIVERSITY--
Palace Street--Statue of General Wolfe--St. Famille Street--St. Stanislas
Street--Trinity Chapel--Theatre Royal--THE LITERARY AND HISTORICAL
SOCIETY--Mr. LeMoine's Lecture on Arnold's Assault--The Centenary Fete--
The Jesuit's Church--The Jesuit's Barracks--The Récollet Convent--The
Palace--Couillard Street--The Union Hotel--The Prisoners of 1812--Bell's
Cavalry--Rue du Trésor--Royal Notaries--St. John Street--Le Club des
Anciens--La Crucifix Outragé--Olden Times in the Ancient Capital--Durham
Terrace.

THE LOWER TOWN.

Le Chien d'Or--The Elevator--Mountain Hill--Landing of the Marquis de
Tracy--Landing of the Earl of Durham--The Inconstants--St. Peter Street--
Jean Taché--The Chronicle Building--The Neptune Inn--Press Gangs at
Quebec--Notre Dame Des Victoires--Notre Dame Street--Dalhousie Street---
Public Whipping--Sous-le-Fort Street--The Cul-de-Sac--The King's Wharf--A
Fighting Stevedore--M. Marmier--Sault-au-Matelot Street--Dog Lane--St.
Paul Street--Pointe à Carcy--The Duke of Saxe Weimar.

ST. ROCH'S SUBURBS.

La Friponne--The Intendant Bigot--The Intendant's Palace--La Vacherie--
Côte à Coton--St. Valier Street--The Blue House--Horatio Nelson in Quebec
--Dorchester Bridge--Crown Street--The Harbour Docks--The Graving Dock at
Levis.

THE GATES OF QUEBEC.

The New Gates--The Kent Gate--The Citadel Gates--Theller and Dodge's
Escape from the Citadel--The Men of '37.


CHAPTER IV.

SUBURBS OF QUEBEC.

St. Louis Road--Parliament Buildings--Bleak House--Martello Towers--
Buttes-à-Nepveu--Wolfe's Landing Place--Ste. Foye Road--Association Hall.


CHAPTER V.

MODERN QUEBEC.

City Government--Boundaries of the Wards--War Department Property.


PART II.


THE ENVIRONS OF QUEBEC.
  SILLERY
  OUR COUNTRY SEATS
  THE PLAINS OF ABRAHAM
  THE BATTLE-FIELD
  BATTLE-FIELD PARK
  THE DUKE OF KENT'S LODGE--MONTMORENCI
  L'ASYLE CHAMPÊTRE
  MARCHMONT--Anecdote of Wolfe's Army
  WOLFESFIELD--Carlyle's Account of the Capture of Quebec
  ELM GROVE
  THORNHILL
  SPENCER WOOD--The Perceval Family--A Fête Champêtre in 1809
  SPENCER GRANGE--Audubon at Quebec
  BAGATELLE COTTAGE
  WOODFIELD
  SOUS LES BOIS
  SILLERY HOUSE
  ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH--SILLERY
  MOUNT HERMON
  BARDFIELD--The Mountain Family
  BENMORE--The Sparrows and Quails
  CLERMONT
  THE WILD FLOWERS OF SILLERY
  BEAUVOIR
  MONTAGUE COTTAGE--The History of Emily Montague
  KIRK ELLA
  CATARACOUI
  ROSEWOOD
  RAVENSWOOD
  THE WOODS OF SILLERY
  LONGWOOD
  MEADOWBANKS--A Raid in 1775
  THE HIGHLANDS
  WINTER FOX HUNTING IN CANADA
  CAP ROUGE COTTAGE
  BEAUSÉJOUR
  BELMONT--Irish Education in the Olden Time
  HOLLAND FARM
  THE HOLLAND TREE--A Scandal of the last Century
  HAMWOOD
  BIJOU--Anecdote of Wolfe's Army
  MORTON LODGE
  WESTFIELD
  COUCY-LE-CASTEL
  RINGFIELD--Journal of Chevalier Johnstone
  CASTOR VILLE
  THE JOYS OF WINTER
  THE MANOR HOUSE--BEAUPORT--The Inscription
  MOUNT LILAC--Beauport
  A VISIT TO INDIAN LORETTE
  TAHOURENCHE AND THE HURONS OF LORETTE
  INDIAN CUSTOMS
  CHÂTEAU BIGOT--The Algonquin Maid--Marmette's Romance
  THE FALLS OF THE CHAUDIÈRE


APPENDIX.
  Jacques Cartier's Officers and Crew
  Jacques Quartier, the Pilot
  Discovery of the Remains of Jacques Cartier's Vessel
  The Bronze Cannon
  The French who remained after the Capitulation of 1629
  The Arms of the Dominion
  Militia Uniforms
  Horses
  Ship-building at Quebec under French Domination
  The Conquest of New York
  The French Refugees of Oxford, Mass.
  The Venerable Mother of the Incarnation
  Variation of the Needle at Quebec
  Our City Bells
  General Wolfe's Statue
  Vente d'une Négresse à Quebec
  The Ice-Shove--April 1874
  The Pistols and Sash of General Wolfe
  The Post Office
  Monument to the Victims of 1837-8
  Fines for Duelling
  Memorabilia
  Executions at Quebec Gaol
  Quebec Golf Club
  Quebec Snowshoe Club
  French Governors of Canada
  English Governors


MAPS.
  Plan of Quebec in 1759
  Map to Illustrate the Siege of Quebec in 1759
  Map to Illustrate Operations of Generals de Levis and Murray, 1759-60
  Plan of the Links--Quebec Golf Club

The description of ASYLE CHAMPÊTRE was written by Dr. P. Bender, the
biographer of Joseph Perrault, the founder of ASYLE CHAMPÊTRE.



PICTURESQUE QUEBEC


CHAPTER 1.

FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF QUEBEC.


Quebec, founded by Samuel de Champlain, in 1608, has certainly much to
recommend her, by her monuments, her historical memories and her scenery,
to the traveller--the scholar--the historian. The wintering of the
venturesome Jacques Cartier on the banks of the St. Charles in 1535-6, by
its remoteness, is an incident of interest, not only to Canadians, but
also to every denizen of America. It takes one back to an era nearly
coeval with the discovery of the continent by Columbus--much anterior to
the foundation of Jamestown, in 1607--anterior to that of St Augustine, in
Florida. Quebec, has, then, a right to call herself an old, a very old,
city of the west.

The colonization of Canada, or, as it was formerly called, New France, was
undertaken by French merchants engaged in the fur trade, close on whose
steps followed a host of devoted missionaries who found, in the forests of
this new and attractive country, ample scope for the exercise of their
religious enthusiasm. It was at Quebec that these Christian heroes landed,
from hence they started for the forest primeval, the bearers of the olive
branch of Christianity, an unfailing token of civilization.

A fatal mistake committed at the outset by the French commanders, in
taking sides in the Indian wars, more than once brought the incipient
colony to the verge of ruin. During these periods, scores of devoted
missionaries fell under the scalping knife or suffered incredible tortures
amongst the merciless savages whom they had come to reclaim. Indian
massacres became so frequent, so appalling, that on several occasions the
French thought seriously of giving up the colony forever. The rivalry
between France and England, added to the hardships and dangers of the few
hardy colonists established at Quebec. Its environs, the shores of its
noble river, more than once became the battle-field of European armies.
These are periods of strife, happily gone by, we hope, forever.

In his "_Pioneers of France in the New World_," the gifted Francis
Parkman mournfully reviews the vanished glories of old France in her
former vast dominions in America:--

    "The French dominion is a memory of the past; and when we evoke its
    departed shades, they rise upon us from their graves in strange
    romantic guise. Again their ghostly camp-fires seem to burn, and the
    fitful light is cast around on lord and vassal and black robed priest,
    mingled with wild forms of savage warriors, knit in close fellowship
    on the same stern errand. A boundless vision grows upon us: an untamed
    continent, vast wastes of forest verdure, mountains silent in primeval
    sleep; river, lake, and glimmering pool; wilderness oceans mingling
    with the sky. Such was the domain which France conquered for
    civilization. Plumed helmets gleamed in the shade of its forests;
    priestly vestments in its dens and fastnesses of ancient barbarism.
    Men steeped in antique learning, pale with the close breath of the
    cloister, here spent the noon and evening of their lives, ruled savage
    hordes with a mild, parental sway, and stood serene before the direst
    shapes of death. Men of a courtly nurture, heirs to the polish of a
    far-reaching ancestry, here, with their dauntless hardihood, put to
    shame the boldest sons of toil."

Of all this mighty empire of the past, Quebec was the undisputed capital,
the fortress, the keystone.

It would be a curious study to place in juxtaposition the impressions
produced on Tourists by the view of Quebec and its environs--from the era
of Jacques Cartier, the discoverer of Canada, down to that of the Earl of
Dufferin, one of its truest friends.

Champlain, La Potherie, La Houtan, Le Beau, Du Creux (Creuxius), Peter
Kalm, Knox, Silliman, Ampère, Mrs. Moodie, Dickens, Lever, Anthony
Trollope, Sala, Thoreau, Warburton, Marmier, Capt. Butler, Sir Charles
Dilke, Henry Ward Beecher, have all left their impressions of the rocky
citadel: let us gaze on a few of their vivid pictures.

    "The scenic beauty of Quebec has been the theme of general eulogy. The
    majestic appearance of Cape Diamond and the fortifications, the
    cupolas and minarets, like those of an eastern city, blazing and
    sparkling in the sun, the loveliness of the panorama, the noble basin,
    like a sheet of purest silver, in which might ride with safety a
    hundred sail of the line, the graceful meandering of the river St.
    Charles, the numerous village spires on either side of the St.
    Lawrence, the fertile fields dotted with innumerable cottages, the
    abode of a rich and moral peasantry,--the distant falls of
    Montmorency,--the park like scenery of Point Levis,--the beauteous
    Isle of Orleans,--and more distant still, the frowning Cape Tourmente,
    and the lofty range of purple mountains of the most picturesque form,
    which, without exaggeration, is scarcely to be surpassed in any part
    of the world." (Hawkins' _Picture of Quebec_.)

    "Quebec recalls Angoulême to my mind: in the upper city, stairways,
    narrow streets, ancient houses on the verge of the cliff; in the lower
    city, the new fortunes, commerce, workmen;--in both, many shops and
    much activity." (M. Sand.)

    "Take mountain and plain, sinuous river, and broad, tranquil waters,
    stately ship and tiny boat, gentle hill and shady valley, bold
    headland and rich, fruitful fields, frowning battlement and cheerful
    villa, glittering dome and rural spire, flowery garden and sombre
    forest,--group them all into the choicest picture of ideal beauty your
    fancy can create; arch it over with a cloudless sky, light it up with
    a radiant sun, and lest the sheen should be too dazzling, hang a veil
    of lighted haze over all, to soften the lines and perfect the repose,
    --you will then have seen Quebec on this September morning." (Eliot
    Warburton.)

    "I rubbed my eyes to be sure I was in the nineteenth century, and not
    entering one of those portals which sometimes adorn the frontispiece
    of old black-letter volumes. I though it would be a good place to read
    Froissart's Chronicles. It was such a reminiscence of the Middle Ages
    as Scott's Novels.

    "Too much has not been said about the scenery of Quebec. The
    fortifications of Cape Diamond are omnipresent. You travel ten,
    twenty, thirty miles up or down the river's banks, you ramble fifteen
    miles among the hills on either side, and then, when you have long
    since forgotten them, perchance slept on them by the way, at a turn of
    the road or of your body, there they are still with their geometry
    against the sky....

    "No wonder if Jacques Cartier's pilot exclaimed in Norman-French
    _Que bec!_ ("What a peak!") when he saw this cape, as some suppose.
    Every modern traveller uses a similar expression....

    "The view from Cape Diamond has been compared by European travellers
    with the most remarkable views of a similar kind in Europe, such as
    those from Edinburgh Castle, Gibraltar, Cintra, and others, and
    preferred by many. A main peculiarity in this, compared with other
    views which I have beheld, is that it is from the ramparts of a
    fortified city, and not from a solitary and majestic river cape alone
    that this view is obtained.... I still remember the harbour far
    beneath me, sparkling like silver in the sun,--the answering headlands
    of Point Levis on the south-east,--the frowning Cape Tourmente
    abruptly bounding the seaward view in the north-east,--the villages of
    Lorette and Charlesbourg on the north,--and farther west, the distant
    Val Cartier, sparkling with white cottages, hardly removed by distance
    through the clear air,--not to mention a few blue mountains along the
    horizon in that direction. You look out from the ramparts of the
    citadel beyond the frontiers of civilization. Yonder small group of
    hills, according to the guide-book, forms the portals of the wilds
    which are trodden only by the feet of the Indian hunters as far as
    Hudson's Bay." (Thoreau).

Mrs. Moodie (Susannah Strickland), in her sketches of Canadian life,
graphically delineates her trip from Grosse Isle to Quebec, and the
appearance of the city itself from the river:--

    "On the 22nd of September (1832), the anchor was weighed, and we bade
    a long farewell to Grosse Isle. As our vessel struck into mid-channel,
    I cast a last lingering look at the beautiful shore we were leaving.
    Cradled in the arms of the St. Lawrence, and basking in the bright
    rays of the morning sun, the island and its sister group looked like a
    second Eden just emerged from the waters of chaos. The day was warm,
    and the cloudless heavens of that peculiar azure tint which gives to
    the Canadian skies and waters a brilliancy unknown in more northern
    latitudes. The air was pure and elastic; the sun shone out with
    uncommon splendour, lighting up the changing woods with a rich mellow
    colouring, composed of a thousand brilliant and vivid dyes. The mighty
    river rolled flashing and sparkling onward, impelled by a strong
    breeze that tipped its short rolling surges with a crest of snowy
    foam.

    "Never shall I forget that short voyage from Grosse Isle to Quebec.
    What wonderful combinations of beauty and grandeur and power, at every
    winding of that noble river!

    "Every perception of my mind became absorbed into the one sense of
    seeing, when, upon rounding Point Levis, we cast anchor before Quebec.
    What a scene! Can the world produce another? Edinburgh had been the
    _beau ideal_ to me of all that was beautiful in nature--a vision
    of the Northern Highlands had haunted my dreams across the Atlantic;
    but all these past recollections faded before the _present_ of
    Quebec. Nature has ransacked all our grandest elements to form this
    astonishing panorama. There, frowns the cloud-capped mountain, and
    below, the cataract foams and thunders; woods and rock and river
    combine to lend their aid in making the picture perfect, and worthy of
    its Divine originator. The precipitous bank upon which the city lies
    piled, reflected in the still, deep waters at its base, greatly
    enhances the romantic beauty of the situation. The mellow and serene
    glow of the autumn day harmonized so perfectly with the solemn
    grandeur of the scene around me, and sank so silently and deeply into
    my soul, that my spirit fell prostrate before it, and I melted
    involuntarily into tears."

Such the poetic visions which were awakened in the poetic mind of the
brilliant author of "_Roughing it, in the Bush._" Charles Dickens also had
his say in this matter, on his visit to Quebec, in May 1842, where he was
the guest of the President of the _Literary and Historical Society_, Dr.
John Charlton Fisher:--

    "The impression made upon the visitor by this Gibraltar of America,
    its giddy heights, its citadel suspended, as it were, in the air; its
    picturesque steep streets and frowning gateways; and the splendid
    views which burst upon the eye at every turn, is at once unique and
    lasting. It is a place not to be forgotten or mixed up in the mind
    with other places, or altered for a moment in the crowd of scenes a
    traveller can recall. Apart from the realities of this most
    picturesque city, there are associations clustering about it which
    would make a desert rich in interest. The dangerous precipice along
    whose rocky front Wolfe and his brave companions climbed to glory; the
    Plains of Abraham, where he received his mortal wound; the fortress so
    chivalrously defended by Montcalm; and his soldier's grave, dug for
    him when yet alive, by the bursting of a shell, are not the least
    among them, or among the gallant incidents of history. That is a noble
    monument too, and worthy of two great nations, which perpetuates the
    memory of both brave Generals, and on which their names are jointly
    written.

    "The city is rich in public institutions and in Catholic churches and
    charities, but it is mainly in the prospect from the site of the Old
    Government House and from the Citadel, that its surpassing beauty
    lies. The exquisite expanse of country, rich in field and forest,
    mountain-heights and water, which lies stretched out before the view,
    with miles of Canadian villages, glancing in long white streaks, like
    veins along the landscape; the motley crowd of gables, roofs and
    chimney tops in the old hilly town immediately at hand; the beautiful
    St. Lawrence sparkling and flashing in the sunlight; and the tiny
    ships below the rock from which you gaze, whose distant rigging looks
    like spiders' webs against the light, while casks and barrels on their
    decks dwindle into toys, and busy mariners become so many puppets; all
    this framed by a sunken window [1] in the fortress and looked at from
    the shadowed room within, forms one of the brightest and most
    enchanting pictures that the eye can rest upon." (Dickens' _American
    Notes_.)

A distinguished French _littérateur_, fresh from the sunny banks of
the Seine, thus discourses anent the Ancient capital; we translate:--

    "Few cities," says M. Marmier, [2] "offer as many striking contrasts
    as Quebec, a fortress and a commercial city together, built upon the
    summit of a rock as the nest of an eagle, while her vessels are
    everywhere wrinkling the face of the ocean; an American city inhabited
    by French colonists, governed by England, and garrisoned with Scotch
    regiments; [3] a city of the middle ages by most of its ancient
    institutions, while it is submitted to all the combinations of modern
    constitutional government; an European city by its civilization and
    its habits of refinement, and still close by, the remnants of the
    Indian tribes and the barren mountains of the north, a city of about
    the same latitude as Paris, while successively combining the torrid
    climate of southern regions with the severities of an hyperborean
    winter; a city at the same time Catholic and Protestant, where the
    labours of our (French) missions are still uninterrupted alongside of
    the undertakings of the Bible Society, and where the Jesuits driven
    out of our own country (France) find a place of refuge under the aegis
    of British Puritanism!"

An American tourist thus epitomises the sights:--

    "As the seat of French power in America until 1759, the great fortress
    of English rule in British America, and the key of the St. Lawrence,
    Quebec must possess interest of no ordinary character for well-
    informed tourists. To the traveller, there are innumerable points and
    items vastly interesting and curious--the citadel and forts of Cape
    Diamond, with their impregnable ramparts that rival Gibraltar in
    strength and endurance against siege, the old walls of the city and
    their gates each of which has its legend of war and bloody assault and
    repulse, the plains of Abraham, every foot of which is commemorated
    with blood and battle; Wolfe's monument, where the gallant and brave
    soldier died with a shout of victory on his lips, the Martello towers,
    with their subterranean communications with the citadel; the antique
    churches, paintings, and all their paraphernalia, treasures, and
    curiosities that are religiously preserved therein, the falls of
    Montmorency, the natural steps. Montcalm's house, and a thousand other
    relics of the mysterious past that has hallowed these with all the
    mystic interest that attaches to antiquity, great deeds, and beautiful
    memories. To see all these, a tourist requires at least two days'
    time, and surely no one who pretends to be a traveller, in these days
    of rapid transit will fail to visit Quebec, the best city, the most
    hospitable place, and richer in its wealth of rare sights and grand
    old memorials. French peculiarities and English oddities, than any
    other city on this broad continent."

    "Leaving the citadel, we are once more in the European Middle ages.
    Gates and posterns, cranky steps that lead up to lofty, gabled houses,
    with sharp French roofs of burnished tin, like those of Liège;
    processions of the Host; altars decked with flowers; statues of the
    Virgin; sabots, blouses, and the scarlet of the British lines-man,--
    all these are seen in narrow streets and markets that are graced with
    many a Cotentin lace cap, and all within forty miles of the down-east,
    Yankee state of Maine. It is not far from New England to Old
    France.... There has been no dying out of the race among the French
    Canadians. They number twenty times the thousand that they did 100
    years ago. The American soil has left physical type, religion,
    language, and laws absolutely untouched. They herd together in their
    rambling villages, dance to the fiddle after Mass on Sundays,--as
    gayly as once did their Norman sires,--and keep up the _fleur-de-
    lys_ and the memory of Montcalm. More French than the French are the
    Lower Canada _habitans_. The pulse-beat of the continent finds no echo
    here."--(Sir Charles Dilke.)

In the rosy days of his budding fame, the gifted Henry Ward Beecher
discoursed as follows of the Rock City [4]:--

    "Curious old Quebec!--of all the cities on the continent of America,
    the quaintest.... It is a populated cliff. It is a mighty rock,
    scarped and graded, and made to hold houses and castles which, by a
    proper natural law, ought to slide off from its back, like an ungirded
    load from a camel's back. But they stick. At the foot of the rocks,
    the space of several streets in width has been stolen from the
    river.... We landed....

    "Away we went, climbing the steep streets at a canter with little
    horses hardly bigger than flies, with an aptitude for climbing
    perpendicular walls. It was strange to enter a walled city through low
    and gloomy gates, on this continent of America. Here was a small bit
    of mediaeval Europe perched upon a rock, and dried for keeping, in
    this north-east corner of America, a curiosity that has not its equal,
    in its kind, on this side of the ocean....

    "We rode about as if we were in a picture-book, taming over a new leaf
    at each street!... The place should always be kept old. Let people go
    somewhere else for modern improvements. It is a shame, when Quebec
    placed herself far out of the way, up in the very neighbourhood of
    Hudson's Bay, that it should be hunted and harassed with new-fangled
    notions, and that all the charming inconveniences and irregularities
    of narrow and tortuous streets, that so delight a traveller's eyes,
    should be altered to suit the fantastic notions of modern people....

    "Our stay in Quebec was too short by far. But it was long enough to
    make it certain that we shall come back again. A summer in Canada
    would form one of the most delightful holidays that we can imagine. We
    mean to prove our sincerity by our conduct. And then, if it is not all
    that our imagination promises, we will write again and confess."

Professor Benjamin Silliman discourses thus:--

    "A seat of ancient dominion--now hoary with the lapse of more than two
    centuries--formerly the seat of a French empire in the west--lost and
    won by the blood of gallant armies, and of illustrious commanders--
    throned on a rock, and defended by all the proud defiance of war! Who
    could approach such a city without emotion? Who in Canada has not
    longed to cast his eyes on the water-girt rocks and towers of
    Quebec."--(Silliman's _Tour in Canada_, 1819.)

Charles Lever has left a curious glimpse of Quebec from Diamond Harbour,
as seen, by his incomparable Irish Gil Blas, Mr. Cornelius Cregan, the
appreciated lodger of Madam Thomas John Davis at the "Hotel Davis."

    "As viewed from Diamond Harbour, a more striking city than Quebec is
    seldom seen. The great rock rising above the Lower Town, and crowned
    with its batteries, all bristling with guns, seemed to my eyes the
    very realization of impregnability. I looked upon the ship that lay
    tranquilly on the water below, and whose decks were thronged with
    blue-jackets--to the Highlander who paced his short path as sentry,
    some hundred feet high upon the wall of the fortress, and I thought to
    myself with such defenders as these that standard yonder need never
    carry any other banner. The whole view is panoramic, the bending of
    the river shuts out the channel by which you have made your approach,
    giving the semblance of a lake, on whose surface vessels of every
    nation lie at anchor, some with the sails hung out to dry, gracefully
    drooping from the taper spars; others refitting again for sea, and
    loading the huge pine-trunks moored as vast rafts to the stern. There
    were people everywhere, all was motion, life and activity. Jolly-boats
    with twenty oars, man-of-war gigs bounding rapidly past them with
    eight; canoes skimming by without a ripple, and seemingly without
    impulse, till you caught sight of the lounging figure, who lay at full
    length in the stern, and whose red features were scarce
    distinguishable from the copper-coloured bark of his boat. Some moved
    upon the rafts, and even upon single trunks of trees, as, separated
    from the mass, they floated down on the swift current, boat-hook in
    hand to catch at the first object chance might offer them. The quays
    and the streets leading down to them were all thronged, and as you
    cast your eye upwards, here and there above the tall roofs might be
    seen the winding of stairs that lead to the Upper Town, alike dark
    with the moving tide of men. On every embrasure and gallery, on every
    terrace and platform, it was the same. Never did I behold such a human
    tide.

    "Now there was something amazingly inspiriting in all this,
    particularly when coming from the solitude and monotony of a long
    voyage. [5] The very voice that ye-hoéd; the hoarse challenge of the
    sentinels on the rock; the busy hum of the town--made delicious music
    to my ear; and I could have stood and leaned over the bulwark for
    hours, to gaze at the scene. I own no higher interest invested the
    picture--for I was ignorant of Wolfe. I had never heard of Montcalm--
    the plains of "Abraham" were to me but grassy slopes, and "nothing
    more." It was the life and stir,--the tide of that human ocean, on
    which I longed myself to be a swimmer--these were what charmed me. Nor
    was the deck of the old "Hampden" inactive all the while, although
    seldom attracting much of my notice: soldiers were mustering,
    knapsacks packing, rolls calling, belts buffing, and coats brushing on
    all sides; men grumbling, sergeants cursing; officers swearing; half-
    dressed invalids popping up their heads out of hatchways, answering to
    wrong names, and doctors ordering them down again with many an
    anathema: soldiers in the way of sailors, and sailors always hauling
    at something that interfered with the inspection-drill: every one in
    the wrong place, and each cursing his neighbour for stupidity. At last
    the shore-boats boarded us, as if our confusion wanted anything to
    increase it. Red-faced harbour-masters shook hands with the skipper
    and pilot, and disappeared into the "round-house" to discuss grog and
    the gales. Officers from the garrison came out to welcome their
    friends--for it was the second battalion we had on board of a regiment
    whose first had been some years in Canada;--and then what a rush of
    inquiries were exchanged. "How is the Duke?"--"All quiet in England"--
    "No sign of war in Europe!"--"Are the 8th come home!"--"Where is
    Forbes?"--"Has Davern sold out?" with a mass of such small interests
    as engage men who live in coteries." (Confessions of Con. Cregan, Chap
    XIII.)

There are yet among the living in Quebec many who can recall the good
olden times when our garrison contained two regiments and more of the red-
coated soldiers of England, at the beck of the "Iron Duke"--_him_ of
Waterloo.

A Haligonian tourist thus writes:--

    "HALIFAX, N. S., 1880.--I reached Halifax on the Saturday after
    leaving Quebec.....Nothing was wanting to make my impressions of
    Quebec perfect, but a little more time to widen, deepen and strengthen
    the friendships made; alas! to be severed (for a time) so soon. I went
    expecting to see a city perched on a rock and inhabited by the
    descendants of a conquered race with a chasm between them and every
    Englishman in the Dominion. In place of this, I found the city more
    picturesque, more odd, more grand, than I had ever imagined, and
    peopled by a race who, if conquered in 1759, have had sweet revenge
    ever since, by making a conquest of every stranger who has entered
    Quebec--through his higher nature. It is no wonder that Quebec has
    such a story of song and adventure. There is romance in the river and
    tragedy on the hill, and while the memory of Wolfe and Montcalm is
    green, the city will be the Mecca of the Dominion. But keep the hand
    of the Goth--the practical man--from touching the old historic
    landmarks of the city. A curse has been pronounced on those who remove
    their neighbours' landmark, but what shall be said of those who remove
    the landmarks which separate century from century and period from
    period." (J. T. Bulmer.)

The following affords a good specimen of Capt W. F Butler's pictorial
style:--

    "Spring breaks late over the province of Quebec--that portion of
    America known to our fathers as Lower Canada, and of old to the
    subjects of the Grand Monarque as the kingdom of New France. But when
    the young trees begin to open their leafy lids after the long sleep of
    winter, they do it quickly. The snow is not all gone before the maple
    trees are all green--the maple, that most beautiful of trees! Well has
    Canada made the symbol of her new nationality that tree whose green
    gives the spring its earliest freshness, whose autumn-dying tints are
    richer than the clouds of sunset, whose life-stream is sweeter than
    honey, and whose branches are drowsy through the long summer with the
    scent and the hum of bee and flower! Still the long line of the
    Canadas admits of a varied spring. When the trees are green at Lake
    St. Clair, they are scarcely budding at Kingston, they are leafless at
    Montreal, and Quebec is white with snow. Even between Montreal and
    Quebec, a short night's steaming, there exists a difference of ten
    days in the opening of the summer. But late as comes the summer to
    Quebec, it comes in its loveliest and most enticing form, as though it
    wished to atone for its long delay in banishing from such a landscape
    the cold tyranny of winter. And with what loveliness does the whole
    face of plain, river, lake and mountain turn from the iron clasp of
    icy winter to kiss the balmy lips of returning summer, and to welcome
    his bridal gifts of sun and shower! The trees open their leafy lids to
    look at him--the brooks and streamlets break forth into songs of
    gladness--"the birch tree," as the old Saxon said," becomes beautiful
    in its branches, and rustles sweetly in its leafy summit, moved to and
    fro by the breath of heaven"--the lakes uncover their sweet faces, and
    their mimic shores steal down in quiet evenings to bathe themselves in
    the transparent waters--far into the depths of the great forest speeds
    the glad message of returning glory, and graceful fern, and soft
    velvet moss, and white wax-like lily peep forth to cover rock and
    fallen tree and wreck of last year's autumn in one great sea of
    foliage. There are many landscapes which can never be painted,
    photographed, or described, but which the mind carries away
    instinctively to look at again and again in the after-time--these are
    the celebrated views of the world, and they are not easy to find. From
    the Queen's rampart, on the citadel of Quebec, the eye sweeps over a
    greater diversity of landscape than is probably to be found in any one
    spot in the universe. Blue mountain, far-stretching river, foaming
    cascade, the white sails of ocean ships, the black trunks of many-
    sized guns, the pointed roofs, the white village nestling amidst its
    fields of green, the great isle in mid-channel, the many shades of
    colour from deep blue pine-wood to yellowing corn-field--in what other
    spot on the earth's broad bosom lie grouped together in a single
    glance so many of these "things of beauty" which the eye loves to
    feast on and to place in memory as joys for ever?" (_The Great Lone
    Land._)

Let us complete this mosaic of descriptions and literary gems, borrowed
from English, French and American writers, by a sparkling _tableau_ of the
historic memories of Quebec, traced by a French Canadian _littérateur_,
the Honourable P. J. O. Chauveau:--

    "History is everywhere--around us, beneath us; from the depths of
    yonder valleys, from the top of that mountain, history rises up and
    presents itself to our notice, exclaiming: 'Behold me!'

    "Beneath us, among the capricious meanders of the River St. Charles,
    the Cahir-Coubat of Jacques Cartier, is the very place where he first
    planted the cross and held his first conference with the _Seigneur
    Donnacona_. Here, very near to us, beneath a venerable elm tree,
    which, with much regret, we saw cut down, tradition states that
    Champlain first raised his tent. From the very spot on which we now
    stand, Count de Frontenac returned to Admiral Phipps that proud
    answer, as he said, _from the mouth of his cannon_, which will
    always remain recorded by history. Under these ramparts are spread the
    plains on which fell Wolfe and where, in the following year, the
    Chevalier de Lévis and General Murray fought that other battle, in
    memory of which the citizens of Quebec are erecting (in 1854) a
    monument. Before us, on the heights of Beauport, the souvenir of
    battles not less heroic, recall to our remembrance the names of
    Longueuil, St. Hélène, and Juchereau Duchesnay. Below us, at the foot
    of that tower on which floats the British flag, Montgomery and his
    soldiers all fell, swept by the grape-shot of a single gun pointed by
    a Canadian artilleryman.

    "On the other hand, under that projecting rock, now crowned with the
    guns of old England, the intrepid Dambourgès, sword in hand, drove
    Arnold and his men from the houses in which they had established
    themselves. History is then everywhere around us. She rises as well
    from these ramparts, replete with daring deeds, as from those
    illustrious plains equally celebrated for feats of arms, and she again
    exclaims: 'Here I am!'"



CHAPTER II.

_QUEBEC FOUNDED, JULY 3,_ 1608.


Fancy borne on the outspread wings of memory occasionally loves to soar
o'er the dull, prosaic present, far away into the haunted, dream-land of a
hazy but hopeful past.

Let us recall one year, in the revolving cycle of time--one day above all
days--for dwellers in Champlain's eyry keep pre-eminently sacred that
auspicious 3rd of July, 1608, when his trusty little band, in all twenty-
eight, founded the city destined soon to be the great Louis's proud forta-
lice,--the Queen city of the French western world.

On that memorable July day, would you, kind reader, like to ascend the
lofty slope of Cape Diamond, at the hour when the orb of light is shedding
his fierce, meridian rays on the verdant shores and glancing waters below,
and watch with bated breath the gradually increasing gap in the primeval
forest, which busy French axes are cleaving in order to locate the
residence--"L'ABITATION"--of a loved commander, Samuel de Champlain?

Or else would you, in your partiality for the cool of the evening, prefer
from the dizzy summit, where now stands our citadel, to gaze--which would
be more romantic--over the silent strand at your feet, pregnant with a
mighty future, at the mystic hour of eve, when the pale beams of Diana
will lend incomparable witchery to this novel scene. Few indeed the
objects denoting the unwelcome arrival of Europeans in this forest home of
the red man: the _prise de possession_ by the grasping outer barbarian--
for such Champlain must have appeared to the descendants of king
Donnacona. In the stream, the ripple of the majestic St. Lawrence caresses
the dark, indistinct hull of an armed bark: in Indian parlance, a "big
canoe [6] with wings"; on an adjoining height waves languidly with the
last breath of the breeze the lily standard of old France; on the shore, a
cross recently raised: emblems for us of the past and of the present:
State and Church linked together.

Such the objects decernible amid the hoary oaks, nodding pines, and green
hemlocks, below Cape Diamond, on that eventful 3rd of July, 1608.


THE DWELLING OF CHAMPLAIN.

"Above the point of the Island of Orleans," says Parkman, "a constriction
of the vast channel narrows it to a mile; on one hand, the green heights
of Point Levi; on the other, the cliffs of Quebec. Here, a small stream,
the St. Charles, enters the St. Lawrence, and in the angle betwixt them
rises the promontory, on two sides a natural fortress. Land among the
walnut-trees that formed a belt between the cliffs and the St. Lawrence.
Climb the steep height, now bearing aloft its ponderous load of churches,
convents, dwellings, ramparts, and batteries,--there was an accessible
point, a rough passage, gullied downward where Prescott Gate (in 1871)
opened on the Lower Town. Mount to the highest summit, Cape Diamond, [7]
now zig-zagged with warlike masonry. Then the fierce sun fell on the bald,
baking rocks, with its crisped mosses and parched lichens. Two centuries
and-a-half have quickened the solitude with swarming life, covered the
deep bosom of the river with barge and steamer and gliding sail, and
reared cities and villages on the site of forests; but nothing can destroy
the surpassing grandeur of the scene.

"Grasp the savin anchored in the fissure, lean over the brink of the
precipice, and look downward, a little to the left, on the belt of woods
which covers the strand between the water and the base of the cliffs. Here
a gang of axe-men are at work, and Point Levi and Orleans echo the crash
of falling trees.

"These axe-men were pioneers of an advancing host,--advancing, it is true,
with feeble and uncertain progress: priests, soldiers, peasants, feudal
scutcheons, royal insignia. Not the Middle Age, but engendered of it by
the stronger life of modern centralization; sharply stamped with parental
likeness, heir to parental weakness and parental force.

"A few weeks passed, and a pile of wooden buildings rose on the brink of
the St. Lawrence, on or near the site of the market-place of the Lower
Town of Quebec. The pencil of Champlain, always regardless of proportion
and perspective, has preserved its semblance. A strong wooden wall,
surmounted by a gallery loop-holed for musketry, enclosed three buildings,
containing quarters for himself and his men, together with a court-yard,
from one side of which rose a tall dove-cot, like a belfry. A moat
surrounded the whole, and two or three small cannon were planted on
salient platforms towards the river. There was a large magazine near at
hand, and a part of the adjacent ground was laid out as a garden."
(_Pioneers of France in the New World_, p. 301.)


CHIEF DONNACONA.

On the 14th of September, 1535, under the head "Shipping News, Port of
Quebec," history might jot down some startling items of marine
intelligence; the arrival from sea of three armed vessels--the "Grande
Hermine," the "Petite Hermine," and the "Emerillon." One would imagine
their entrance in port must have awakened as much curiosity among the
startled denizens of Stadacona--the Hurons of 1535--as did the anchoring
in our harbour, in August, 1861, of Capt. Vine Hall's leviathan, the
"Great Eastern." Were the French fleet the first European keels which
furrowed the Laurentian tide under Cape Diamond? We like to think so. Let
the Basques make good their assumed priority: let them produce their
logbook, not merely for the latitude of Newfoundland or Tadoussac, but
also an undisputed entry therein, for the spot where, a century later,
Samuel de Champlain lived, loved, and died. Had the advent of the St. Malo
vikings been heralded by watchful swift-footed retainers to swarthy king
Donnacona, the ruler of the populous town of Stadacona, and a redoubtable
agouhanna of the Huron nation? 'Tis not unlikely.

An entry occurs in the diary of Jacques Cartier, commander of the flagship
"Grande Hermine," to the effect that Donnacona, escorted by twelve canoes,
had met the foreign craft several miles lower than Quebec, where he had
parleyed with his fellow-countrymen, Taiguragny and Domagaya, kidnapped
the year previous at Gaspé and just brought back by Cartier from France;
that, dismissing ten of his twelve canoes, the agouhanna had invited and
received the French commander in his canoe of state, harangued him, and
readily accepted from him a collation of bread and wine, which the captain
of the "Grande Hermine" (thoughtful host) had brought with him.

The meeting over, Donnacona steered for home; and Jacques Cartier ordered
his boats to be manned and ascended the river to seek for a safe anchorage
for his ships. He soon found what he sought, entered then the river Saint
Charles, by him called the St. Croix, landed, crossed the meadows, climbed
the rocks, and threaded the forest. On his return, when he and his party
were rowing for the ships, they had to stand another harangue from the
bank, from an old chief, surrounded by men, boys and some merry squaws, to
whom they gave as presents glass beads, &c., when they regained their
vessels.

What took place at the interview between the French commander and the
Huron potentate? What were the thoughts, hopes, fears of the grim
chieftain on that fateful September day which brought in across the
Atlantic the first wave of foreign invasion--the outer barbarian to his
forest abode?

One would fain depict king Donnacona roaming, solitary and sad; mayhap, on
the ethereal heights of Cape Diamond, watching, with feelings not
unmingled with alarm, the onward course of the French ships--to him
phantoms of ill-omen careering over the dreary waters--until their white
shrouds gradually disappeared under the shadow of the waving pines and
far-spreading oaks which then clad the green banks of the lurking,
tortuous St Charles.

Chief Donnacona, beware! O beware!



CHAPTER III.


_THE "ANCIENT CAPITAL."_


_QUEBEC--ITS HIGHWAYS AND BY-WAYS, EDIFICES, MONUMENTS, CITIZENS,
LEGENDS, CHRONICLES, AND ANTIQUITIES._

  "I pray you, let us satisfy our eyes
  With the memorials and the things of fame
  That do renown this city."--(_Shakespeare_.)

What a field here for investigation? Has not each thoroughfare its
distinctive feature--its saintly, heathenish, courtly, national, heroic,
perhaps burlesque, name? Its peculiar origin? traceable sometimes to a
dim--a forgotten past; sometimes to the utilitarian present time. What
curious vistas are unfolded in the birth of its edifices--public and
private--alive with the memories of their clerical, bellicose,
agricultural or mercantile founders? How much mysterious glamour does not
relentless time shed over them in its unceasing march? How many
vicissitudes do they undergo before giving way to modern progress, the
exigencies of commerce, the wants or whims of new masters? The edifices,
did we say? Their origin, their progress, their decay, nay, their
demolition by the modern iconoclast--have they no teachings? How many
phases in the art of the builder and engineer, from the high-peaked Norman
cottage to the ponderous, drowsy Mansard roof--from Champlain's picket
fort to the modern citadel of Quebec--from our primitive legislative
meeting-house to our stately Parliament Buildings on the Grande Allée?

The streets and by-ways of famous old world cities have found chroniclers,
in some instances of rare ability: Timbs, Howitt, Augustus Sala,
Longfellow, &c. Why should not those of our own land obtain a passing
notice?

Is there on American soul a single city intersected by such quaint,
tortuous, legend-loving streets as old Quebec? Is there a town retaining
more unmistakable vestiges of its rude beginnings--of its pristine,
narrow, Indian-haunted, forest paths?

Our streets and lanes bear witness to our dual origin: Champlain,
Richelieu, Buade streets, by their names proclaim the veneration our
fathers had for the memory of men who had watched over the infancy of the
colony, whilst the mystic, saintly nomenclature of others exhibited the
attachment of the early dwellers in Quebec to the hallowed old Roman faith
which presided at their natal hour.

One also finds here and there, in the names of certain thoroughfares,
traces of the sojourn within our walls of popular Governors, famous
Viceroys, long since gathered to their fathers, some of whose ashes mingle
in our cemeteries with the dust of our forefathers--[8] Champlain,
Frontenac, Mesy, De Callières, De Vaudreuil, De la Jonquière, Ramsay,
Carleton, Hope, Dalhousie, Richmond and Aylmer.

A student of history, in the signboards affixed to street corners, loves
to light on the names of men whose memories are fragrant for deeds of
heroism, devotedness, patriotism or learning. Bréboeuf, Champlain,
Dollard, Ferland, Garneau, Christie, Turgeon, Plessis, and many others of
blameless and exemplary life--each has his street. We know of a worthy and
learned old antiquary whose lore and advice has been more than once placed
at our disposal in unravelling the tangled skein on which we are engaged,
who rejoices that his native city, unlike some of the proud capitals of
Europe, is free from vulgar names, such as "Tire-Boudin," "P--t--au
D----le," in gay Paris, and "Crutched Friars," "Pall-Mall," and "Mary-le-
bone," in great London.

In fact, does not history meet you at every turn? Every nook, every lane,
every square, nay, even the stones and rocks, have a story to tell--a
record to unfold--a tale to whisper of savage or civilized warfare--a
memento to thrill the patriot--a legend of romance or of death--war,
famine, fires, earthquakes, land and snow-slides, riot?

Is it not to be apprehended that in time the inmates of such a city might
become saturated with the overpowering atmosphere of this romantic past--
fall a prey to an overweening love of old memories--become indifferent,
and deadened to the feelings and requirements of the present? This does
not necessarily follow. We are, nevertheless, inclined to believe that
outward objects may act powerfully on one's inner nature: that the haunts
and homes of men are not entirely foreign to the thoughts, pursuits and
impulses, good or bad, of their inmates.

Active, cultured, bustling, progressive citizens, we would fain connect
with streets and localities partaking of that character, just as we
associate cheerful abodes with sunshine, and repulsive dwellings with
dank, perennial shadows.

Mr. N. Legendre, in a small work intituled "_Les Échos de Quebec_," has
graphically delineated the leading features of several of our
thoroughfares:--

    "In a large city each street has its peculiar feature. Such a street
    is sacred to commerce--a private residence in it would appear out of
    place. Such another is devoted to unpretending dwellings: the modest
    grocery shop of the corner looks conscious of being there on
    sufferance only. Here resides the well-to-do--the successful merchant;
    further, much further on, dwell the lowly--the poor. Between both
    points there exists a kind of neutral territory, uniting the
    habitations of both classes. Some of the inmates, when calling, wear
    kid gloves, whilst others go visiting in their shirt sleeves. The same
    individual will even indulge in a cigar or light an ordinary clay
    pipe, according as his course is east or west. All this is so marked,
    so apparent, that it suffices to settle in your mind the street or
    ward to which an individual belongs. The ways of each street vary.
    Here, in front of a well-polished door, stands a showy, emblazoned
    carriage, drawn by thoroughbreds; mark how subdued the tints of the
    livery are. There is, however, something _distingué_ about it, and
    people hurrying past assume a respectful bearing.

    "In the next street, the carriage standing at the door is just as
    rich, but its panelling is more gaudy--more striking in colour are the
    horses--more glitter--more profusion about the silver harness
    mountings. Though the livery has more _éclat_, there seems to be
    less distance between the social status of the groom and that of his
    master.

    "Walk on further--the private carriage has merged into the public
    conveyance; still further, and you find but the plain _calèche_.

    "Finally, every kind of vehicle having disappeared, the house-doors
    are left ajar; the inmates like to fraternise in the street. On fine
    evenings the footpath gets strewed with chairs and benches, occupied
    by men smoking--women chatting _al fresco_ unreservedly--laughing
    that loud laugh which says, "I don't care who hears me." Passers-by
    exchange a remark, children play at foot-ball, while the house-dog,
    exulting in the enjoyment of sweet liberty, gambols in the very midst
    of the happy crowd. These are good streets. One travels over them
    cheerfully and gaily. An atmosphere of rowdyism, theft, wantonness,
    hovers over some thoroughfares. Dread and disgust accompany him who
    saunters over them. Their gates and doorways seem dark--full of pit-
    falls. Iron shutters, thick doors with deep gashes, indicate the
    turbulent nature of their inhabitants. Rude men on the sidepaths stare
    you out of countenance, or make strange signs--a kind of occult
    telegraphy, which makes your flesh creep. To guard against an unseen
    foe, you take to the centre of the street--nasty and muddy though it
    should be,--for there you fancy yourself safe from the blow of a
    skull-cracker, hurled by an unseen hand on watch under a gateway. The
    police make themselves conspicuous here by their absence; 'tis a fit
    spot for midnight murder and robbery--unprovoked, unpunished. Honest
    tradesmen may reside here, but not from choice; they are bound to
    ignore street rows; lending a helping hand to a victim would cause
    them to receive, on the morrow, a notice to quit.

    "Be on your guard, if necessity brings you, after nightfall, to this
    unhallowed ground. Danger hovers over, under, round your footsteps. If
    an urchin plays a trick on you at a street corner, heed him not. Try
    and catch him, he will disappear to return with a reinforcement of
    roughs, prepared to avenge his pretended wrongs by violence to your
    person and injury to your purse.

    "Should a drunken man hustle you as he passes, do not mind him: it may
    end in a scuffle, out of which you will emerge bruised and with rifled
    pockets.

    "We dare not tell you to yield to fear, but be prudent. Though
    prudence may be akin to fear, you never more required all your wits
    about you. It is very unlikely you will ever select this road again,
    though it should be a short cut. Such are some of the dangerous
    streets in their main features. There are thoroughfares, on the other
    hand, to which fancy lends imaginary charms; the street in which you
    live, for instance. You think it better, more agreeable. Each object
    it contains becomes familiar, nay cherished by you--the houses, their
    doors, their gables. The very air seems more genial. A fellowship
    springs up between you and your threshold--your land. You get to
    believe they know you as you know them--softening influences--sweet
    emanations of 'Home.'"--_Translation._


_THE UPPER TOWN._

The Upper Town in 1608, with its grand oaks, its walnut trees, its
majestic elms, when it formed part of the primeval forest, must have been
a locality abounding in game. If Champlain, his brother-in-law, Boullé, as
well as his other friends of the Lower Town, [9] had been less eager in
hunting other inhabitants of the forest infinitely more dreaded (the
Iroquois), instead of simply making mention of the foxes which prowled
about the residency (_l'abitation_), they would have noted down some
of the hunting raids which were probably made on the wooded declivities of
Cape Diamond and in the thickets of the Coteau Sainte Geneviève, more
especially when scurvy or the dearth of provisions rendered indispensable
the use of fresh meats. We should have heard of grouse, woodcock, hares,
beavers, foxes, caribou, bears, &c., at that period, as the probable
denizens of the mounts and valleys of ancient Stadacona.

In 1617 the chase had doubtless to give way to tillage of the soil, when
the first resident of the Upper Town, the apothecary Louis Hébert,
established his hearth and home there.

    "He presently," (1617) says Abbé Ferland, "commenced to grub up and
    clear the ground on the site on which the Roman Catholic cathedral and
    the Seminary adjoining now stand, and that portion of the upper town
    which extends from St. Famille Street up to the Hôtel-Dieu. He
    constructed a house and a mill near that part of St. Joseph Street
    where it received St. François and St. Xavier Streets. These edifices
    appear to have been the first which were erected in the locality now
    occupied by the upper town."

At that period there could have existed none other than narrow paths,
irregular avenues following the sinuosities of the forest. In the course
of time these narrow paths were levelled and widened. Champlain and Sir
David Kirtk bothered themselves very little with improving highways.
Overseers of roads and _Grand-Voyers_ were not then dreamed of in _La
Nouvelle France_: those blessed institutions, macadamized [10] roads, date
for us from 1841.

One of the first projects of Governor de Montmagny, after having fortified
the place, was to prepare a plan for a city, to lay out, widen and
straighten the streets, assuredly not without need. Had he further
extended this useful reform, our Municipal Council to-day would have been
spared a great amount of vexation, and the public in general much
annoyance. On the 17th November, 1623, a roadway or ascent leading to the
upper town had been effected, less dangerous than that which had
previously existed.

    "As late as 1682, as appears by an authentic record (_procès-verbal_)
    of the conflagration, this steep road was but fourteen feet wide. It
    was built of branches, covered with earth. Having been rendered
    unserviceable by the fire, the inhabitants had it widened six feet, as
    they had to travel three miles, after the conflagration, to enter the
    upper town by another hill."--(T. B. Bédard.)

In the summer season, our forefathers journeyed by water, generally in
birch-bark canoes. In winter they had recourse to snow-shoes.

To what year can we fix the advent of wheeled vehicles? We have been
unable to discover.

The first horse presented by the inhabitants to the Governor of the colony
arrived from France on the 25th June, 1647. [11] Did His Excellency use
him as a saddle horse only? or, on the occasion of a New Year's day, when
he went to pay his respects to the Jesuit Fathers, and to the good ladies
of the Ursulines, to present, with the compliments of the season, the
usual New Year's gifts, was he driven in a _cariole_, and in the summer
season in a _calèche_? Here, again, is a nut to crack for commentators.
[12]

Although there were horned cattle at Quebec in 1623, oxen for the purpose
of ploughing the land were first used on the 27th April, 1628.

    "Some animals--cows, sheep, swine, &c.--had been imported as early as
    1608. In 1623, it is recorded that two thousand bundles of fodder were
    brought from the pasture grounds at _Cap Tourmente_ to Quebec for
    winter use."--(Miles.)

On the 16th of July, 1665, [13] a French ship brought twelve horses. These
were doubtless the "mounts" of the brilliant staff of the Marquis de
Tracy, Viceroy. These dashing military followers of Colonel de Salières,
this _jeunesse dorée_ of the Marquis de Tracy, mounted on these twelve
French chargers, which the aborigines named "the moose-deer (_orignaux_)
of Europe," doubtless cut a great figure at Quebec. Did there exist
_Tandems_, driving clubs, in 1665? _Quien sabe?_ A garrison life in 1665-7
and its amusements must have been much what it was one century later, when
the "divine" Emily Montague [14] was corresponding with her dear "Colonel
Rivers," from her Sillery abode in 1766; she then, amongst the vehicles in
use, mentions, _calèches_. [15]

They were not all saints such as Paul Dupuy, [16] the patriarchal seigneur
of _Ile-aux-Oies_, these military swells of Colonel de Salières! Major
Lafradière, for instance, might have vied with the most outrageous rake in
the _Guards_ of Queen Victoria who served in the colony two centuries
later.

If there were at Quebec twelve horses for the use of gentlemen, they were
doubtless not suffered to remain idle in their stables. The rugged paths
of the upper town were levelled and widened; the public highway ceased to
be reserved for pedestrians only. This is what we wanted to arrive at.

In reality, the streets of Quebec grew rapidly into importance in 1665.
Improvements effected during the administration of the Chevalier de
Montmagny had been highly appreciated. The early French had their _Saint
Louis (Grande Allée), Saint Anne, Richelieu, D'Aiguillon, Saint John,
streets_, to do honour to their Master, Louis XIII.; his Queen the
beautiful Anne of Austria; his astute Premier the Cardinal of Richelieu;
his pious niece la Duchesse D'Aiguillon; his land surveyor and engineer
Jehan or Jean Bourdon. This last functionary had landed at Quebec on the
8th August, 1634, with a Norman priest, the Abbé Jean LeSueur de Saint-
Sauveur, who left his surname (St. Sauveur) to the populous municipality
adjoining St. Roch suburbs. [17]

In the last and in the present century, St. Louis Street was inhabited by
many eminent persons. Chief Justice Sewell resided in the stately old
mansion, up to June 1881 occupied as the Lieutenant-Governor's offices;
this eminent jurist died in 1839. "One bright, frosty evening of January
1832," says Mr. Chauveau, "at the close of a numerously attended public
meeting held at the Ottawa Hotel, to protest against the arrest of Messrs.
Tracy, editor of the _Vindicator_, and Duvernay, editor of the _Minerve_,
the good citizens of Quebec, usually so pacific, rushed in a noisy
procession, led by a dozen students wearing tri-coloured ribbons in their
button-holes, and sang the _Marseillaise_ and the _Parisienne_ under the
windows of the Chief Justice, whose ear was little accustomed to such a
concert." The ermined sage, 'tis said, was so startled, that he made sure
a revolution was breaking out.

"Among the fiery, youthful leaders, the loudest in their patriotic
outburst, there was one who would then have been much surprised had any
one predicted that after being President of the Legislative Council, Prime
Minister of the Canadas, and knighted by H. R. H. the Prince of Wales in
person, he would one day, as Lieutenant-Governor, enter in state this same
former residence of Chief Justice Sewell, whilst the cannon of Britain
would roar a welcome, the flag of England stream over his head, and a
British regiment present arms to him." Such, however, has been the fate of
Sir Narcissus Fortunatus Belleau.

The mansion of M. de Lotbinière, in St. Louis street, was the residence of
Madame Pean, the _chère amie_ of M. Bigot the Intendant. The late
Judge Elmsley resided there about the year 1813; Government subsequently
purchased it to serve as an officers' barracks. Nearly opposite the old
Court-House (burned in 1872), stands the "Kent House," in which His Royal
Highness the late Duke of Kent resided in summer, 1791-3. [18] No. 42 St.
Louis Street is the house [19] which belonged to the cooper, François
Gobert; it now has become historical. In it were deposited the remains of
General Montgomery on the 31st December, 1775. This summer it is leased by
Louis Gonzague Baillargé, Esq., the proprietor, to Widow Pigott, whose
late husband was in the "B" Battery.

In the street sacred to Louis XIII., St. Louis street, Messrs. Brown [20]
& Gilmor established, in 1764, [21] their printing office for the _Quebec
Gazette_, "two doors higher up than the Secretary's Office," wherever this
latter may have stood. The _Gazette_ office was subsequently removed to
Parloir Street, and eventually settled down for many a long year at the
corner of Mountain Hill, half-way up, facing _Break-Neck_ steps,--the
house was, with many others, removed in 1850 to widen Mountain Street.
According to a tradition published in the _Gazette_ of the 2nd May, 1848,
the prospectus of this paper had, it would appear, been printed in the
printing office of Benjamin Franklin.

This venerable sheet, which had existed one hundred and ten years, when it
was merged, in 1874, by purchase of the copyright, into the _Morning
Chronicle_, in its early days, was nearly the sole exponent of the wants--
of the gossip (in prose and in verse)--and of the daily events of Quebec.
As such, though, from the standard of to-day, it may seem quaint and puny,
still it does not appear an untruthful mirror of social life in the
ancient capital. Its centenary number of June, 1864, with the fyles of
the _Gazette_ for 1783, have furnished the scholarly author of the
"Prophecy of Merlin," John S. Reade, with material for an excellent sketch
of this pioneer of Canadian journalism, of which our space will permit us
to give but some short extracts:--

    "The first number of the _Quebec Gazette_, judged by the _fac-simile_
    before me, was a very unpretending production. It consists of four
    folio pages, two columns to each page, with the exception of the
    'Printer's Address to the Public,' which takes up the full width of
    the page, and is written in French and English, the matter in both
    languages being the same, with the exception of a Masonic
    advertisement, which is in English only. In the address, accuracy,
    freedom and impartiality are promised in the conduct of the paper. The
    design of the publishers includes 'a view of foreign affairs and
    political transactions from which a judgment may be formed of the
    interests and connections of the several powers of Europe'; and care
    is to be taken 'to collect the transactions and occurrences of our
    mother-country, and to introduce every remarkable event, uncommon
    debates, extraordinary performance and interesting turn of affairs
    that shall be thought to merit the notice of the reader as matter of
    entertainment, or that can be of service to the publick as inhabitants
    of an English colony.' Attention is also to be given to the affairs of
    the American colonies and West India Islands; and, in the absence of
    foreign intelligence, the reader is to be presented with 'such
    originals, in prose and verse, as will please the fancy and instruct
    the judgment. And,' the address continues, 'here we beg leave to
    observe that we shall have nothing so much at heart as the support of
    virtue and morality and the noble cause of liberty. The refined
    amusements of literature and the pleasing veins of well-pointed wit
    shall also be considered as necessary to the collection; interspersed
    with other chosen pieces and curious essays extracted from the most
    celebrated authors; so that, blending philosophy with politicks,
    history, &c., the youth of both sexes will be improved, and persons of
    all ranks agreeably and usefully entertained.'

    "As an inducement to advertisers, it is held out that the circulation
    of the _Gazette_ will extend, not only through the British colonies,
    but also through the West India Islands and the trading ports of Great
    Britain and Ireland. The address very sensibly concludes with the
    following remarks, which, however, cast a shade over the rather
    tedious prolegomena: 'Our intention to please the whole, without
    offence to any individual, will be better evinced by our practice than
    by writing volumes on this subject. This one thing we beg may be
    believed, that party prejudice or private scandal will never find a
    place in this paper.'

    "With this large promise began the first Canadian newspaper on the
    21st of June, 1764.

    "The news in the first number is all foreign. There are despatches
    from Riga, St. Petersburg, Rome, Hermanstadt, Dantzic, Vienna,
    Florence and Utrecht, the dates ranging from the 8th of March to the
    11th of April. There are also items of news from New York, bearing
    date the 3rd, and from Philadelphia the 7th of May. News-collecting
    was then a slow process, by land as well as by sea.

    "Of the despatches, the following is of historical importance:
    'London, March 10th. It is said that a scheme of taxation of our
    American colonies has for some time been in agitation, that it had
    been previously debated in the Parliament whether they had power to
    lay a tax on colonies which had no representative in Parliament and
    determined in the affirmative,' etc. The occasional insertion of a
    dash instead of a name, or the wary mention of a 'certain great
    leader' or 'a certain great personage' tell a simple tale of the
    jealousy with which the press was then regarded both in England and on
    the continent. The prosecution of Smollett, Cave, Wilkes and others
    were still fresh in the minds of printers and writers.

    "Another despatch informs the readers of the _Gazette_ of an _arrêt_
    lately issued for the banishment of the Jesuits from France, and
    another of a deputation of journeymen silk weavers who waited on the
    King at St. James with a petition setting forth their grievances from
    the clandestine importation of French silk, to which His Majesty
    graciously replied, promising to have the matter properly laid before
    Parliament.

    "An extract from a letter from Virginia gives an account of some
    Indian outrages, and there is some other intelligence of a similar
    nature. The other news is of a like temporary interest.

    "I have already mentioned a masonic advertisement. I now give it in
    full:

    NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN,

    That on _Sunday_, the 24th, being the Festival of _St. Jhon_ (sic),
    such strange BRETHREN who may have a desire of joining the Merchants
    Lodge, No. 1, _Quebec_, may obtain Liberty, by applying to _Miles
    Prenties_, at the Sun, in _St. John Street_, who has Tickets, Price
    _Five Shillings_, for that Day.

    "One thing is evident, that a printing establishment of 1764 had to be
    supplied with abundance of italics and capitals to meet the exigencies
    of the typographic fashion of the time.

    "Of the two remaining advertisements, one is an order of the Collector
    of Customs for the prevention of composition for duties and the other
    gives a list of 'an assortment of goods,' 'just imported from London,
    and to be sold at the lowest prices by John Baird, in the upper part
    of Mr. Henry Morin's house at the entry of the Cul de Sac'--an
    assortment which is very comprehensive, ranging from leather breeches
    to frying-pans. From this and subsequent trade advertisements we are
    able to gather some not unimportant information as to the manner of
    living of the citizens of Quebec in those days." [22]

William Brown was succeeded in the editorship and proprietorship of this
venerable sheet by his nephew, Samuel Neilson, the elder brother of John
Neilson, who for years was the trusted member for the County of Quebec; as
widely known as a journalist--a legislator--in 1822 our worthy ambassador
to England--as he was respected as a patriot.

Samuel Neilson had died in 1793;--his young brother and _protégé_, John,
born at Dornald, in Scotland, in 1776, being, in 1793, a minor, the
_Gazette_ was conducted by the late Rev. Dr. Alex. Sparks, his guardian,
until 1796. When John Neilson became of full age, he assumed the direction
of the paper for more than half a century, either in his own name or in
that of his son Samuel. Hon. John Neilson closed his long and spotless
career, at his country seat (Dornald), at Cap Rouge, on the 1st February,
1848, aged 71 years. Who has not heard of the Nestor of the Canadian
Press, honest John Neilson?  May his memory ever remain bright and
fragrant--a beacon to guide those treading the intricate paths of
Journalism--a shining light to generations yet unborn!

In a pretty rustic cemetery, the site of which was presented by himself to
the Presbyterian Church of Valcartier, near Quebec, were laid, on the 4th
February, 1848, the remains of this patriotic man--escorted by citizens of
every origin, after an eloquent address had been delivered by the Rev. Dr.
John Cook, the present pastor of St Andrew's Church.

The Literary and Historical Society of Quebec is indebted to his son John
Neilson, of Dornald, for a precious relic, the iron lever of the first
Press used at Quebec in 1764--precious, indeed, as a souvenir of Canadian
Journalism.

There are indeed many Scotch names associated with the Quebec Press. Space
precludes us from enlarging more on this subject. In alluding to notable
Quebec Journalists we are bound to name Daniel Wilkie, LL.D., the editor
of the Quebec _Star_,--a literary gazette--in 1818--still better
remembered as the esteemed instructor of Quebec youth for forty years.

Dr. Wilkie was born at Tollcross, in Scotland, in 1777, one year later
than John Neilson: he settled in Quebec in 1803, and died here on the 10th
May, 1851. His pupils had the following truthful words inscribed on the
monument they erected to their patron in Mount Hermon cemetery:

  "He was a learned scholar
  And indefatigable student of philosophy and letters,
  An able and successful instructor of youth,
  Of genuine uprightness and guileless simplicity
  A devout, benevolent and public spirited man."

The Abbé Vignal resided at the corner of St. Louis and Parloir street,
previous to joining the _Sulpiciens_. In October, 1661, he was roasted
alive and partly eaten by the Mohawks at Isle à la Pierre, _la Prairie de
la Magdeleine_, near Montreal. In our day, the judicial and parliamentary
heads, and the Bar have monopolized the street. In it have resided at
various times, Sir N. F. Belleau, Chief Justice Duval, the Judges
Taschereau, Tessier, Bossé, Caron, Routhier; Hon. H. L. Langevin, P.
Pelletier, M.P.; Messrs. Bossé, Baby, Alleyn, Languedoc, Tessier,
Chouinard, Hamel, Gauthier, Bradley, Dunbar, _cum multis aliis_, some
of whose rustic clients are as early birds as those in the days of Horace,
and scruple not to wake up their trusted advisers, "_sub galli cantum_."
[23]

St. Louis street legal luminaries are careful not to endanger their hard-
earned reputations by delivering their consultations with the oracular,
Solon-like gravity of the barristers who flourished in the palmy days of
Hortensius or Justinian. 'Twould be an anachronism.  The traditional fee,
however, is rarely omitted. A busy day, indeed, in this neighborhood,
watched over by the shades of Louis XIII., St. Louis street, is, in each
year, the 1st of September, when the close of the sultry midsummer
vacation brings round "the first day of term," then

  "Grave gownsmen, full of thought, to 'chambers hie,
  From court to court, perplexed, attorneys fly;
  ... each! Quick scouring to and thro',
  And wishing he could cut himself in two
  That he two places at a time might reach,
  So he could charge his six and eightpence each."
               --(_The Bar, a Poem_, 1825.)

Matters judicial, legal, financial, etc., have much changed--we are
inclined to say improved--in Canada, especially for the Judges. "I will
not say," writes the satirical La Hontan, "that justice is more chaste and
disinterested here than in France; but, at least, if she is sold, she is
sold cheaper. We do not pass through the clutches of advocates, the talons
of attorneys and the claws of clerks. These vermin do not infest Canada
yet. Everybody pleads his own cause. Our Themis is prompt, and she does
not bristle with fees, costs and charges. The judges have only four
hundred francs a year--a great temptation to look for law in the bottom of
the suitor's purse. Four hundred francs! Not enough to buy a cap and gown,
so these gentry never wear them." [24] Justice is not now sold, either in
Quebec or elsewhere, but judges, on the other hand, viz., in Ottawa,
receive, not "four hundred francs," but thirty-five thousand francs
($7,000) a year, and have "enough to buy a cap and a gown," yea, and a
brilliant red one, to boot. _Voilà un progrès._

On an old plan, in our possession, of the Cape and Mount Carmel, showing
the whereabouts of lots and the names of their proprietors, drawn by Le
Maître Lamorille, a royal surveyor, bearing date 20th May, 1756, and duly
sanctioned by the French Intendant Bigot on the 23rd January, 1759, can be
seen at Mont Carmel, St. Louis street, a lot marked "No. 16, M. Pean."
[25]

M. Pean, Town Major of Quebec, a trusted confederate of the Intendant
Bigot, the proprietor of this land, was the husband of the beautiful
Angélique de Meloises, the _inamorata_ of the voluptuous and munificent
Intendant. In her youth she had been a pupil of the Ursuline nuns. In his
_Reminiscences of Quebec_, 2nd edition republished in 1859, Col. Cockburn
thus alludes to this St. Louis street house (now Dominion property and
occupied by Lt.-Col. Forest and Lt.-Col. D'Orsonnes). "It sometimes happened
in those days, when a gentleman possessed a very handsome wife, that the
husband was sent to take charge of a distant post, where he was sure to
make his fortune. Bigot's _chère amie_ was Madame P---- in consequence of
which as a matter of course, Mr. P---- became prodigiously wealthy. Bigot
had a house that stood where the officers barracks in St Louis street, now
(1851) stands. One New Year's Day he presented this house to Madame P----
as a New Year's gift."

Mr. Kirby, in his "_Chien d'Or_," a historical novel of rare Merit,
thus recalls this house--"The family mansion of the des Meloises was a
tall and rather pretentious edifice overlooking the fashionable rue St
Louis where it still stands, old and melancholy as if mourning over its
departed splendors. Few eyes look up now-a-days to its broad façade. It
was otherwise when the beautiful Angélique de Meloises sat of summer
evenings on the balcony, surrounded by a bevy of Quebec's fairest
daughters, who loved to haunt her windows where they could see and be seen
to the best advantage exchanging salutations, smiles and repartees with
the gay young officers and gallants who rode or walked along its lively
thoroughfare."

The novelist has selected this historic house for the meeting of the
lovers, on Christmas Eve 1748. Here Le Gardeur de Repentigny, the loyal
and devoted cavalier was to meet the fascinating, but luckless Cleopatra
of St Louis street a century ago and more.

    "As Le Gardeur spoke, adds Mr. Kirby; a strain of heavenly harmony
    arose from the chapel of the Convent of the Ursulines, where they were
    celebrating midnight service for the safety of New France. Amid the
    sweet voices that floated up on the notes of the pealing organ was
    clearly distinguished that of Mère St. Borgia, the aunt of Angélique,
    who led the choir of nuns. In trills and cadences of divine melody,
    the voice of Mère St. Borgia rose higher and higher, like a spirit
    mounting the skies. The words were indistinct, but Angélique knew them
    by heart. She had visited her aunt in the convent, and had learned the
    new hymn composed by her for the solemn occasion. As they listened
    with quiet awe to the supplicating strain, Angélique repeated to Le
    Gardeur the words of the hymn as it was sung by the choir of nuns:--

      Soutenez, grande Reine,
        Notre pauvre pays!
      Il est votre domaine,
        Faites fleurir nos lis!
      L'Anglais sur nos frontières,
        Porte ses étandards
      Exaucez nos prières
        Protégez nos remparts!"

    "The hymn ceased. Both stood mute until the watchman cried the hour in
    the silent street."

We shall not follow further the beautiful but heartless Cleopatra through
her deadly schemes of conquest, or in her flight after the Intendant.
Sixteen years after the departure of the Court beauty, on a dark, stormy
winter morning, the 31st December, 1775, a loud note of alarm awoke at
dawn from their slumbers the demure denizens of St. Louis street. It was
the captain of the guard, Captain Malcolm Fraser, [26] formerly of
Fraser's Highlanders (78th), but now of the 84th Royal Emigrants, Col.
Allan McLean--who, on going his rounds between 4 and 5 in the morning, had
passed the guard at St. Louis gate, and had noticed flashes like lightning
on the heights without the works. Convinced it was for an attack, he sent
notice to all the guards, and ran down St. Louis street, calling "Turn
out" as loud and as often as he could. The alarm soon caught the quick ear
of the General (Guy Carleton) and the picquet at the Récollets Convent was
instantly turned out. Captain Fraser's alarm was timely. Before eight
o'clock on that memorable December morning, Benedict Arnold had been
wounded, routed at the Sault au Matelot barricade, and 427 of his daring
men taken prisoners of war, whilst the Commander-in-Chief, Brigadier-
General Richard Montgomery and thirteen followers were lying dead in their
snowy shrouds at Près-de-Ville. The rest had taken flight.

The saddest sight ever witnessed in St. Louis street was that which
heralded to its awe-struck denizens the issue of the momentous conflict on
the adjoining heights in Sept. 1759.

In the paper read by the writer before the Literary and Historical Society
of Quebec, on the 3rd of December, 1879, the mournful appearance of the
French hero, Montcalm, is thus described:--

    "The morning of the 13th September, 1759, has dawned; an astounding
    rumour fills the air; the citizens of Quebec repeat with bated breath:
    _Wolfe's army is at the gates of the city._

    "Hark! What means this deafening roar of artillery--this hissing of
    shot and shell--these rolling, murderous volleys of musketry in the
    direction of the heights of Abraham?

    "Hark! to these loud cheers--British cheers mixed with the discordant
    yells of those savage warriors, Fraser's Highlanders! The fate of a
    continent has just been decided. The genius of William Pitt has
    triumphed, though victory was bought at a dear price.

    "Here comes from St. Louis gate [27] on his way to the Château, pale,
    but dauntless--on a black charger--supported by two grenadiers, one on
    each side of his horse, a General officer wearing the uniform which
    won at Fontenoy, won at Laufeldt, as well as at the Monongahela [28]
    and at Carillon. [29] A bloody trail crimsons the _Grande Allée_,
    St. Louis street, on that gloomy September day. My friends, 'tis the
    life-blood of a hero. Drop in reverential silence, on the moistened
    earth, a sympathetic tear; France's chivalrous leader, the victor of
    many battle-fields, has returned from his last campaign.

    "_Oh! mon Dieu! mon Dieu! Le Marquis est tué,_" is repeated by female
    voices as the death-stricken but intrepid general glides past, to
    which he courteously replies, trying to quiet their fears, 'that he
    was not seriously hurt, and not to distress themselves on his
    account.' '_Ce n'est rien! ce n'est rien! ne vous affligez pas pour
    moi, mes bonnes amies._'

    "You have all heard the account of the death-bed scene--of his tender
    solicitude for the good name of France--of his dying injunctions to de
    Ramesay, the King's lieutenant in charge of the Quebec Garrison, and
    to the Colonel of the Roussillon Regiment. '_Gentlemen, to your
    keeping I commend the honour of France. Endeavour to secure the
    retreat of my army to-night beyond Cape Rouge. As for myself, I shall
    pass the night with God, and prepare for death._'

    "At nine o'clock in the evening of that 14th of September, 1759, a
    funeral cortege, issuing from the castle, winds its way through the
    dark and obstructed streets to the little church of the Ursulines.
    With the heavy tread of the coffin-bearers keeps time the measured
    footsteps of the military escort. De Ramesay and the other officers of
    the garrison following to their resting-place the lifeless remains of
    their illustrious commander-in-chief. No martial pomp was displayed
    around that humble bier, but the hero who had afforded at his dying
    hour the sublime spectacle of a Christian yielding up his soul to God
    in the most admirable sentiments of faith and resignation, was not
    laid in unconsecrated ground. No burial rite could be more solemn than
    that hurried evening service performed by torchlight under the
    dilapidated roof of a sacred asylum, where the soil had been first
    laid bare by one of the rude engines of war--a bombshell. The grave
    tones of the priests murmuring the _Libera me, Domine_ were responded
    to by the sighs and tears of consecrated virgins, henceforth the
    guardians of the precious deposit, which, but for inevitable fate,
    would have been reserved to honour some proud mausoleum. With gloomy
    forebodings and bitter thoughts de Ramesay and his companions in arms
    withdrew in silence.

    "A few citizens had gathered in, and among the rest one led by the
    hand his little daughter, who, looking into the grave, saw and
    remembered, more than three fourths of a century later, the rough
    wooden box, which was all the ruined city could afford to enclose the
    remains of her defender.

    "The skull of the Marquis of Montcalm, exhumed in the presence of the
    Rev. Abbé Maguire, almoner, in 1833, many here present, I am sure,
    have seen in a casket, reverently exposed in the room of the present
    almoner of the Ursuline Convent."


SOCIETY UNDER EARLY ENGLISH RULE.

Under the sway of the English Government, Canada soon recovered her wonted
gaiety, and the social condition of the country, following on so large an
admixture of a different nationality, is a subject stimulating inquiry. We
cannot do better than have recourse again to Mr. Reade's graphic pen in an
article on "British Canada in the Last Century," contributed to the New
Dominion Monthly, and suggested by the _Quebec Gazette_ of 1783, the St.
Louis Street journal above quoted:--

    "If there were nothing left to the enquirer but the single
    advertisement of John Baird, which appeared in the first number of the
    Quebec _Gazette_, as the basis of information, he might, with a
    moderate power of inductiveness, construct a very fair account of the
    mode of living pursued at Quebec a hundred years ago. But the fact is
    he is overwhelmed with _data_, and his chief difficulty is to
    choose with discrimination. There is certainly ample evidence to show
    that the inhabitants of the ancient capital did not stint themselves
    in the luxuries of their day and generation. The amount of wine which
    they consumed was something enormous, nor are we wanting in proof that
    it was used among the better classes to an extent which public opinion
    would not allow at the present day. A correspondent, more inclined to
    sobriety than his fellow citizens, after complimenting Quebec society
    for its politeness and hospitality--in which qualities it still
    excels--finds fault with the social custom by which 'men are excited
    and provoked by healths and rounds of toasts to fuddle themselves in
    as indecent a manner as if they were in a tavern or in the most
    unpolished company.' In connection with this state of affairs it may
    be interesting to give the prices of different wines at that period:
    Fine Old Red Port was sold at 17 shillings a dozen, Claret at 12s.,
    Priniac at 17s.; Muscat at 24s., Modena at 27s., Malaga at 17s.;
    Lisbon at 17s.; Fyall at 15s.

    "Mr. Simon Fraser, perhaps one of those converted Jacobites who scaled
    the height of Quebec, in 1759, turned civilian, gives us the price of
    tea: Single Green tea is 13s. a pound, Best Hyson, 25s; Bohea, 6/6d.
    Pity that tea was so dear and wine so cheap! Bread was very cheap, and
    large quantities of wheat were exported--whereas now Lower Canada has
    to import the most of its cereals. Great attention was paid to dress,
    and though no sumptuary laws were in force, the principle on which
    they were founded was still remembered, and attire bespoke the
    position of the wearer. The articles and styles advertised by drapers
    and tailors are, of course, in accordance with the manufacture and
    fashion of the time. The lists of dry goods and fancy goods are very
    full, but to those engaged in the business now the antique
    nomenclature might be puzzling. Irish linen was sold at from 1/6 to
    7/0 per yard, and Irish sheeting at from 1/6 to 2/6. We are not told
    the prices of tammies or durants, romals or molletons, cades or
    shalloons, but we are always carefully informed that they may be had
    at the lowest prices. Pains are also taken, in many instances, to
    indicate the previous experience of the advertisers. Thus tailors and
    mantua-makers generally 'hail from' London. Mr. Hanna, the watch-
    maker, whose time-keepers still tick attestation to his industry and
    popularity, is proud to have learned his trade by the banks of the
    Liffey. Mr. Bennie, tailor and habit-maker, from Edinburgh, 'begs
    leave to inform the public that all gentlemen and ladies who will be
    so good as to favour him with their custom may depend upon being
    faithfully served on the shortest notice and in the newest fashion for
    ready money or short credit, on the most reasonable terms.' There were
    peruke-makers in those days and they seem to have thriven well in
    Quebec, if we may judge by their advertised sales of real estate.
    Jewellers also seem to have had plenty to do, as they advertise
    occasionally for assistants instead of customers. Furriers, hatters,
    _couturières_ and shoemakers also present their claims to public
    favour, so that there was no lack of provision for the wants of the
    outer man.

    "From the general tone and nature of the advertisements it is easily
    inferred that the society of Quebec soon after the conquest was gay
    and luxurious. We are not surprised when we find that a theatrical
    company found it worth their while to take up their abode there. Among
    the pieces played we find Home's 'Douglas' and Otway's 'Venice
    Preserved.' The doors were opened at five o'clock and the
    entertainment began at half-past six! The frequenters of the 'Thespian
    Theatre' were a select and privileged class, and only subscribers were
    admitted. Private theatricals were much in vogue; and, indeed, there
    was every variety of amusement which climate could allow or suggest,
    or the lovers of frolic devise. Nor were bards wanting to celebrate
    these festivities, witness the following extract from a 'carioling
    song:'

      "'Not all the fragrance of the spring,
      Nor all the tuneful birds that sing,
      Can to the _Plains_ the ladies bring,
        So soon as carioling.

      "'Nor Venus with the winged Loves,
      Drawn by her sparrows or her doves,
      So gracefully or swiftly moves,
        As ladies carioling,"

    "Another poet, whose mind was evidently less healthily braced by out-
    door exercise, gives us a very different picture of the recreations of
    the period. It occurs in the course of an essay in versification
    called 'Evening.'

      "'Now minuets o'er, the country dance is formed
        See every little female passion rise,
      By jealousy, by pride, by envy warmed,
        See Adam's child the child of Eve despise.

      "'With turned-up nose Belinda Chloe eyes,
        Chloe Myrtilla with contempt surveys,
      "What! with that creature dance!" Cleora cries,
        "That vulgar wretch! I faint--unlace my stays.

       *       *        *       *        *

      "'Now meet in groups the philosophic band,
        Not in the porch, like those of ancient Greece,
      But where the best Madeira is at hand
        From thought the younger students to release

      "'For Hoyle's disciples hold it as a rule
        That youth for knowledge should full dearly pay,
      Wherefore to make young cubs the fitter tool
        Presuming sense by Lethean drafts they slay.

       *       *        *       *        *

      "'With all the fury of a tempest torn,
        With execrations horrible to hear,
      By all the wrath of disappointment borne,
        The cards, their garments, hair, the losers tear.'

    "The winner's unfeeling composure is described in another verse, and

      "'Now dissipation reigns in varied forms
        Now riot in the bowl the senses steeps,
      Whilst nature's child, secure from passion's storms,
        With tranquil mind in sweet oblivion sleeps.'

    "It is to be hoped, for the honour of the ladies and gentlemen of old
    Quebec, that 'Asmodeus' was under the malign influence of envy, hatred
    and all uncharitableness when he wrote those cynical verses. If he
    wrote the truth we cannot be too thankful that the Chloes and Cleoras
    are dead and buried.

    "Who was Miss Hannah MacCulloch? She _was_ a young lady once; and, if
    we may believe her panegyrist, was a beauty in her day. The acrostic
    in her honor is anonymous, and occasion is taken in the course of it
    to almost mention some other young ladies by the way of making a
    climax of her charms. The poet seems to have been inspired by
    indignation at the insinuations of 'Asmodeus,' for he begins thus.

      "'Muses, how oft does Satire's vengeful gall
        Invoke your powers to aid its bitter sting,'

    and then he prefers his own claims to the favor of the Nine

      "'Sure you will rather listen to my call,
        Since beauty and Quebec's fair nymphs I sing'

    "It seems his petition was heard, for he forthwith begins his
    laudation:

      "'Henceforth Diana in Miss S--ps--n see,
        As noble and majestic is her air,
      Nor can fair Venus, W--lc--s, vie with thee,
        Nor all her heavenly charms with thine compare.

      "'Around the B--ch--rs Juno's glory plays,
        Her power and charms in them attract our praise
      Minerva, who with beauty's queen did vie
        And patronized all the finer arts,
      Crowned the McN--ls with her divinity,
        Crowned them the queens of beauty and of hearts.

      "'Unto fair F--m--n now I turn my song,
        Lovely in all she says, in all she does,
      Lo! to her toilet see each goddess throng,
        One cannot all, but each a charm bestows
      Could all these beauties in one female be,
        _Her_ whom I sing would be the lovely she.'

    "This effusion provoked more criticism than many a book of poetry is
    subjected to nowadays, and the censors were in their turn criticized
    by others. Montreal even took part in this literary tournament. But we
    are left in the dark as to its effect on the spirits, tempers or
    destinies of Miss MacCulloch and her sister belles.

    "It would seem that the author was a young clerk or merchant of
    Quebec, as one of the critics spitefully tells him not to desert his
    shop. The ladies themselves do not escape, one writer suggesting that
    they are coquettish enough already without making them more so. The
    Montreal correspondent is warned off as an intruder, and told that he
    had better have saved his ninepence of postage money. Just imagine
    this silly acrostic furnishing gossip for Quebec and matter for the
    _Gazette_ for two months!

    "As another note of the state of society at that time may be mentioned
    occasional advertisements for the sale of negro lads and wenches, or
    of rewards for the recovery and restoration of missing ones. Slavery
    was not abolished in Lower Canada till 1803. In Upper Canada, as a
    separate province, it hardly ever existed. Did the manumitted blacks
    remain in Canada after their liberation, or did they seek a more
    congenial climate?

    "For education there does not seem to have been any public provision,
    but private schools for both sexes were numerous. These were probably
    expensive, so that the poorer classes were virtually debarred from the
    advantages of learning. The instruction of Catholic children was in
    the hands of the clergy, and it may be that in some of the conventual
    schools a certain number were admitted free of expense or at reduced
    rates. It would appear that some of the young ladies were sent to
    English boarding-schools, if we may judge by advertisements in which
    the advantages of these institutions are set forth.

    "A Miss or Mrs. Agnes Galbraith not only taught school, but also
    carried on the millinery business, to which she informs the public
    that she had served a regular apprenticeship, besides having been 'a
    governess for several years to a genteel boarding-school.'

    "The principal of a boys' school who resided at Three Rivers
    'respectfully begs leave to remark that he means to presume no further
    than he is perfectly able to perform, and build his hope of
    encouragement on no other foundation than his assiduity to merit it.'
    His 'course' is nevertheless a pretty full one, including English,
    French, Latin, Greek, writing in a natural and easy style after the
    best precedents; arithmetic, vulgar and decimal; geography, with use
    of the globes; geometry, navigation with all the _late modern_
    improvements; algebra, and every other useful and ornamental branch of
    mathematical learning. Some of the other male teachers write in a
    similar strain of their qualifications."

    "It may be inferred, then, that the wealthier classes of Canada in
    those days had much the same advantages of culture as their friends in
    England. Intercourse with the mother country was much more general and
    frequent than might be imagined, and, no doubt, many young gentlemen,
    after a preliminary training at a colonial academy, were sent home to
    enter some of the English public schools or universities. From the
    higher ranks downwards education varied till it reached the 'masses,'
    with whom its index was a cipher. There is no reason to suppose,
    however, that the population of Canada, taken as a whole, was less
    cultivated during the last forty years of the eighteenth century than
    that of any European nation during the same period. From the
    consideration of education, one naturally passes to that of crime.
    Thefts were frequent, and sometimes committed on a large scale. The
    punishment was whipping at a cart-tail through the streets of the
    city--the culprits themselves being whipped and whipsters in turn.
    Assault, stealing in private houses, and highway robbery were punished
    with death. The expiation for manslaughter was being branded in the
    hand which did the deed. Desertion was very frequent, especially among
    the Hessians and Brunswickers then stationed in Canada. In some cases
    they were promised pardon if they returned to their regiments, but woe
    to them if they returned against their will! Towards the end of the
    year 1783 'Gustavus Leight, a German doctor, confined for felony,
    broke out of His Majesty's jail at Quebec.' He was '25 years of age,
    about 5 feet high.' We are not told whether or not he was captured as
    the advertisement is continued to the end of the year, but if he did
    not change his dress he could not have succeeded in baffling very long
    the keen eye of a detective, for "he had on, when he made his escape,
    a brown coat, red plush waistcoat, white stockings and cock'd hat.' If
    such a gentleman made his appearance in the streets of any Canadian
    city to-day, he would certainly be requested to 'move on,' or asked to
    'explain his motives.' One thing is certain, that prisoners for felony
    in the year 1783 had not to submit to any arbitrary sumptuary
    arrangement--at least in the Quebec _gaol_ (as it is always spelled in
    the _Gazette_, perhaps because it is the goal of evildoers).

    "The general state of society in Montreal, as well as in Three Rivers,
    St. Johns, L'Assomption, Terrebonne, Sorel and the other towns and
    villages in existence at the period which we are considering was, in
    all probability, very like that of Quebec--the last-mentioned place
    having, of course, a certain prestige as the capital.

    "It would be futile to attempt to give an accurate picture of the
    appearance of Montreal or Quebec at that distant date, and a
    description pretending to accuracy would not be possible without the
    collation of more ancient records than are easily obtainable by one
    person. The names of some of the streets, as Notre Dame, St. Paul and
    St. Antoine in Montreal, and St. John's, Fabrique, St. Peter and
    others in Quebec, are still unchanged. Villages near these towns, such
    as Ste. Foye, Beauport, Charlesbourg, Sault aux Récollets, St. Denis,
    Ste. Thérèse, etc., are also frequently mentioned in the old
    _Gazettes_. Detroit and Niagara were places of considerable
    importance, and St. Johns, Chambly, Berthier, L'Assomption, L'Acadie
    and other places were much more influential communities in comparison
    with the population of the country than they are to-day. The
    authorities at Quebec and Montreal were not wanting in endeavors to
    keep these cities clean, to judge, at least, by the published
    'regulations for the police.' Every householder was obliged to put the
    Scotch proverbs in force, and keep clean and 'free from filth, mud,
    dirt, rubbish straw or hay' one-half of the street opposite his own
    house The 'cleanings' were to be deposited on the beach, as they still
    are in portions of Montreal and Quebec which border on the river.
    Treasure-trove in the shape of stray hogs could be kept by the finder
    twenty-four hours after the event, if no claim had been made in the
    meantime, and if the owner declared himself in person or through the
    bellman, he had to pay 10s. before he could have his pork restored.
    Five shillings was the penalty for a stray horse. The regulations for
    vehicles, slaughter-houses, sidewalks, markets, etc., were equally
    strict. Among other duties, the carters had to keep the markets clean.
    The keepers of taverns, inns and coffee-houses had to light the
    streets. Every one entering the town in a sleigh had to carry a shovel
    with him for the purpose of levelling _cahots_ which interrupted
    his progress, 'at any distance within three leagues of the town.' The
    rates of cabs and ferry-boats are fixed with much precision. No carter
    was allowed to plead a prior engagement, but was to go 'with the
    person who first demanded him, under a penalty of twenty shillings.'
    The rate of speed was also regulated, and boys were not allowed to
    drive.

    "Constant reference is made to the walls and gates of Montreal as well
    as Quebec, and there is reason to believe the smaller towns were
    similarly fortified. Beyond the walls, however, there was a
    considerable population, and many of the military officers, Government
    officials and merchants had villas without the city. The area in
    Montreal which lies between Craig, St. Antoine and Sherbrooke streets
    was studded with country-houses with large gardens and orchards
    attached. The seigneurs and other gentry had also fine, capacious
    stone-built residences, which much enhanced the charm of the rural
    scenery. Some of the estates of those days were of almost immense
    extent. The Kings of France thought nothing of granting a whole
    province, and, even in British times, there were gentlemen whose acres
    would have superimposed an English county. The extraordinary donation
    of James I. of a large portion of North America to Sir William
    Alexander was not long since brought before the public by the claims
    of his descendants. Large tracts of land were given away by Louis
    XIII., Louis XIV. and other French kings, by Oliver Cromwell and the
    Stuarts, and the same extravagant system of entailing unmanageable
    wealth on companies and individuals was continued after the conquest.

    "It would be interesting to know what was the kind of literary fare on
    which the intellect of Canada subsisted in those days. It cannot be
    supposed that the people spent all their time in business and social
    pleasure. There must have been readers as well as cariolers and
    dancers, and the literature of England and France was by no means
    scanty. Great writers on every subject have flourished since that
    time, but some of the greatest that ever lived, some of those whose
    productions are still read with the highest pleasure, were the
    offspring of the two centuries which preceded the conquest. No one
    will be surprised to find, then, that in the year 1783, a circulating
    library in Quebec numbered nearly 2,000 volumes. Nor is the enquirer
    left in the dark as to its probable contents. In the Quebec
    _Gazette_ of the 4th of December, a list of books is given which
    'remained unsold at M. Jacques Perrault's, very elegantly bound'--and
    books were bound substantially as well as elegantly in those days. In
    this list are found 'Johnson's Dictionary,' then regarded as one of
    the wonders of the literary world, 'Chesterfield's Letters,' long the
    _vade-mecum_ of every young gentleman beginning life, and which,
    even in our own days (and perhaps still), were frequently bound along
    with spelling and reading books, the 'Pilgrim's Progress', which it is
    not necessary to characterize, Young's 'Night Thoughts,' the
    'Spectator and 'Guardian,' Rapin's 'English History,' 'Cook's
    Voyages,' Rousseau's 'Eloise,' 'Télémaque,' 'Histoire Chinoise,'
    'Esprit des Croissades,' 'Lettres de Fernand Cortes,' 'Histoire
    Ancienne' par Rollin, 'Grammaire Anglaise et Française,'
    'Dictionnaire par l'Académie,' 'Dictionnaire de Commerce,' 'Dictionary
    of the Arts and Sciences,' 'Smith's Housewife,' 'The Devil on Sticks,'
    'Voltaire's Essay on Universal History,' 'Dictionnaire de Cuisine' and
    several others on various subjects, 'Oeuvres de Rabelais,' 'American
    Gazetteer,' etc. These, it will be remembered, had remained unsold,
    but among the sold there must have been copies of the same.

    "It is, according to our notions of to-day, a meagre collection, but,
    no doubt, many families possessed good libraries, brought with them
    from over the sea, and the bookseller may not have kept a large stock
    at one time. It was the custom for merchants to sell off all their
    overlying goods before they went or sent to Europe for a
    reinforcement.

    "The following books were advertised as 'missing:'--Langhorn's
    Plutarch, 1st vol., Thomson's Works, 4th vol., Gordon's 'Universal
    Accountant,' 1st vol.; and Gray's Hudibras, 2nd vol. For each one of
    them there is offered a reward of _two dollars_! Reading was expensive
    recreation in those times.

    "The reader, perhaps, has seen, or, it may be, possesses one of those
    old libraries, of which the general public occasionally have a glimpse
    at auction rooms, composed of standard authors, and beautifully and
    solidly bound, which had adorned the studies of the fathers of our
    country. They contain all that was best in the French and English
    literature of the last century--history, poetry, divinity, _belles
    lettres_, science and art. From these may be gathered what were the
    tastes, the culture and the thought of the Canadians of the last
    century.

    "Music and painting were cultivated--the former being, as now, a
    necessary part of female education. Of a festival given by the young
    ladies of a place called _La Côte_, near Quebec, in 1764, it is
    promised in the programme that "the orchestra and symphony will be
    composed of instruments of all kinds." It may interest some ladies to
    know that among the dances at the same entertainment are mentioned
    'l'Harlequinade,' 'La Chinoise,' and 'La Matelote Hollandaise'--some
    relation, perhaps, to the 'Sailor's Hornpipe.'

    "The settlement in Canada of the United Empire Loyalists, after the
    peace of September, 1783, by which the independence of the revolted
    colonies was recognized, must have had a considerable influence on
    Canadian society, and more than atoned for sufferings inflicted on the
    colony during the progress of the war. Repeated efforts had been made
    by the Americans to engage the affections of the Canadians. Among
    those whom Congress had appointed commissioners to treat with the
    Canadian people on this subject was the renowned Dr. Benjamin
    Franklin, whose visit to this country was not the most successful
    portion of his career. Although in some instances there was a
    manifestation of disaffection to the British Government, the great
    bulk of the population remained unmistakably loyal. In the Quebec
    _Gazette_ of October 23rd, 1783, is found the Act of Parliament
    passed in favour of the Loyalists, in which the 25th day of March,
    1784, is fixed as the limit of the period during which claims for
    relief or compensation for the loss of property should be received.
    How many availed themselves of the provisions of this act it is not
    easy to say, but the whole number of persons dispossessed of their
    estates and forced to seek another home in consequence of their
    continued allegiance, is set down at from 25,000 to 30,000. Of these,
    the great majority took up their abodes in the Canadas, New Brunswick
    and Nova Scotia, while a few went to the West Indies, and others
    returned to England. The biographies of some of these Loyalist
    settlers in British North America would be full of interest and
    instruction. But records of family movements and vicissitudes are very
    rarely kept--most rarely in those cases in which adventures are most
    frequent and the course of events most changeful. I have, however,
    seen accounts of the early settlements in the Eastern Townships, P.
    Q., and in different portions of Ontario, which were full of the
    romance of faith, of courage, and of perseverance."


THE ST. LOUIS HOTEL

A sketch of this fashionable thoroughfare--St. Louis street--the
headquarters of the judiciary, barristers, politicians, etc., would be
incomplete without a mention of the chief trysting-place of travellers and
tourists for the last thirty years--the leading hostelry of Quebec. St.
Louis Hotel is made up of two or more private dwellings joined together.
That on the corner of Haldimand and St. Louis streets formerly was owned
as a residence by the late Edward Burroughs, Esq., P. S. C. Next to it
stood, in 1837, Schluep's Hotel--the Globe Hotel--kept by a German, and
where the military swells in 1837-8-9 and our jolly curlers used to have
_recherché_ dinners or their frugal "beef and greens" and fixings. In
1848, Mr. Burroughs' house was rented to one Robert Bambrick, who
subsequently opened a second-class hotel at the corner of Ste. Anne and
Garden streets, on the spot on which the Queen's printer, the late Mr.
George Desbarats, built a stately office for the printing of the _Canada
Gazette_--subsequently sold on the removal of the Government to Ottawa
--now the Russell House. The _Globe_ Hotel belonged to the late B. C.
A. Gugy, Esq. It was purchased by the late Messrs Lelièvre & Angers,
barristers, connected with two or three adjacent tenements, and rented,
about 1852, to Messrs. Azro and Willis Russell (represented now by the
Russell Hotel Company) for the St. Louis Hotel. Connected by a door
through the wall with the Music Hall, it is a notable landmark in St.
Louis street and an object of considerable interest to city cabmen as
well, during the season of tourists. Its dining saloon, on the second
flow, has witnessed many bountiful repasts, to celebrate social, military,
political or literary events, none better remembered than that of the 17th
of November, 1880, when the _élite_ of Quebec crowded in unusual numbers--
about one hundred and eighty citizens, English and French--to do honour,
by a public banquet, to the laureate of the French Academy, M. Louis
Honoré Fréchette, [30] to celebrate his receiving in August last, in
Paris, from the _Académie Française_, the unprecedented distinction, for a
colonist, of the _Grand Prix Monthyon_ (2,000 livres) for the excellence
of his poetry.

Subjoined will be found the names of some of those present, also, extracts
from a few of the addresses delivered. We regret much that want of space
precludes us from adding more of the eloquent speeches delivered, because
they throw light for English readers on the high degree of culture French
literature has attained at Quebec. All, we are sure, will rejoice with us
that, for the cause of letters, M. Fréchette was timely rescued from the
quagmire of political warfare and hustings promises.

    _THE FRÉCHETTE DINNER, NOVEMBER 17, 1880._

    "Mr. L. H. Fréchette, the laureate of the French Academy, was last
    night the recipient of marks of honor and esteem, in the shape of a
    magnificent banquet given him at the St. Louis Hotel, by the citizens
    of Quebec and vicinity. The tables were laid in the large dining hall
    of the St. Louis Hotel, which was handsomely decorated for the
    occasion. The walls were partially covered with French and English
    flags, and wreaths of evergreen surrounded all the windows. Behind the
    Chairman, on a bracket, was an excellent bust of the Canadian poet,
    having on either side paintings of scenes in Mr. Fréchette's drama,
    'Papineau,' by Mr. E. W. Sewell, Levis.

    "Over 125 gentlemen sat down to the banquet, amongs-whom we noticed--
    The Honorable Judge Henri T. Taschereau, M. Lefaivre, Consul of
    France, Count de Premio-Real, Consul-General of Spain, the Baron
    Bols, Consul-General of Belgium, Major Wasson, Consul of the United
    States, M. Thors, Hon. W. Laurier, Hon. I. Thibaudeau, Hon. C. A. P.
    Pelletier, C.M.G. Hon. D. A. Ross, M.P.P., Achille Larue, N.P.,
    Charles Langelier, M.P.P., Hon. H. G. Joly, M.P.P., Hon. F. Langelier,
    M.P.P., Hon. Arthur Turcotte, Speaker of the Assembly, Dr. Rinfret,
    M.P.P, P. B. Casgrain, N.P., James Dunbar, Esq., Q.C., Nazaire
    Turcotte, Dr. Colin Sewell, Oscar Dunn, C. Antil, B. Bédard, G. T.
    Davie, G. Paré, Henri Delagrave, W. E. Brunet, E. W Sewell, F. X.
    Lemieux, Faucher de St. Maurice, F. M. Dechêne, G. E. T. Rinfret, O.
    L. Richardson, Louis Bilodeau, Oscar Lanctôt, N. Levasseur, George
    Stewart, jr., Edward Thomas, D. Chambers, F. G. Gautier, Paul de
    Cazes, R. J. Bradley, D. J. Montambault, T. Godfroy Papineau, N.P.,
    Montreal, De La Broquerie Taché, C. Massiah, James M. LeMoine,
    President Literary and Historical Society, W. J. Wyatt, Alphonse
    Pouliot, Dr. L. LaRue, Colonel Rhodes, Dr. Pourtier, C. Duquet, V.
    Bélanger, Charles Langlois, W. C. Languedoc, Alfred White, Peter
    McEwan, George Henry Powell, A. P. Beaulieu, Alfred Lemieux, Elie
    Lachance, Richard L. Suffur, Lieut.-Col. Turnbull, H. M. Price, R. St.
    B. Young, G. R. White, Captain Gzowski, J. U. Laird, Chariot,
    Fitzpatrick, E. Swindell, E. J. Hale, Cecil Fraser, Aug. Stuart, C. V.
    M. Temple, Timolaus Beaulieu, C. S. Beaulieu, N. Laforce, George
    Bouchard, L. N. Carrier, J. B. Michaud, Dr. Lamontagne. Dr. Collet,
    Arthur Lavigne, P. Boutin, M.P.P., F. Fortier, G. Bresse, J. S. C.
    Wurtele, M.P.P., P. E. Godbout, Paul Dumas, Lieutenant Drury, Captain
    Wilson, H. G. Sheppard, J. B. Charleson, Dr. Hubert LaRue, H. J. J. B.
    Chouinard, Président de l'Institut Canadien, H. J. Beemer, J. L.
    Renaud, E. W. Méthot, E. C. E. Gauthier, O. Leger, J. E. Pouliot, D.
    R. Barry, L. P. Lemay, Jacques Auger, Ernest Pacaud, J. Allaire, M.P.,
    T. G. Tremblay, M.P., J. J. Gahan, Joseph Blondeau, Thomas Potvin, J.
    B. Z. Dubeau, Frs. Bertrand, J. C. Hamel, Emile Jacot, John Buchanan,
    Antoine Carrier, William Breakey.

    "The Chair was occupied by Hon. Judge H. T. Taschereau, having on his
    right the guest of the evening, L. H. Fréchette, the Count Premio-
    Real, Hon. C. A. P. Pelletier, Mr. Wasson, Hon. F. Langelier, M. Thors
    of Paris, &c., and on his left the Consul-General for France, Hon. Mr.
    Laurier, Mr. Bols, Hon. D. Ross, &c.

    "The banquet was given in the well-known excellent style of the
    Russell Hotel Company, which never leaves anything to be desired.
    After full justice had been done the good things provided for the
    occasion, silence was obtained, when the following resolution,
    presented to Mr. Fréchette by the Literary and Historical Society of
    Quebec, was read by the Secretary, Mr. Delagrave:--

    "At a monthly general meeting of the Literary and Historical Society,
    held on the 13th October last:

    "It was proposed by Commander Ashe, R.N., seconded by R. McLeod, Esq.,

    "That the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec has witnessed with
    the highest satisfaction the literary honours conferred in August
    last, by the _Académie Française_, on Monsieur Louis Honoré Fréchette,
    for the poetical excellence of his two poems, 'Les Fleurs Boréales'
    and 'Les Oiseaux de Neige.'

    "That the Academical crown, encircling the brow of a Canadian poet,
    ought to be as much prised by Canada as it must be dear to its gifted
    son, the Laureate of the French Academy.

    "That such a signal distinction conferred by the highest literary
    tribunal, whilst it exhibits in such a favourable light the
    intellectual vigour of the Province of Quebec, cannot be otherwise
    than a subject of legitimate pride to the Dominion of Canada.

    "That the President and Secretary of this Society be charged with the
    pleasant duty of conveying to Monsieur L. H. Fréchette the expression
    of the sentiments of admiration with which it views his literary
    success.

      (Signed,) J. M. LEMOINE, President
      ALEX. ROBERTSON, Secretary

      _Quebec_, 13th October, 1880.

    "The usual loyal toasts--the Queen and Governor-General--were given
    by the Chairman, and enthusiastically honoured.

    "The Chairman then proposed "France," the toast being received with
    the usual honours and responded to by M. Lefaivre, the Consul-General
    for France.

    "M. Lefaivre made an interesting speech, alluding to the past and
    present of France, to the communication between the France of the Old
    World and the _Nouvelle France_ of this Western hemisphere, dwelling
    upon the honours achieved by the guest of the evening in Paris, and
    contending that literature was the soul of a nation.

    "The Chairman, Hon. Mr. Justice H. Taschereau, then rose to propose
    the toast of the evening, being received with loud and prolonged
    cheering. He said,--

    "GENTLEMEN,--I have now the honour to propose the toast of the
    evening--the health of our distinguished fellow-countryman, our guest,
    Louis Honoré Fréchette, the poet of Canada, crowned by the Academy of
    France. You have heard, gentlemen, the loud hurrah of all Canada in
    honour of one of her children, and here, perhaps, I might cease
    speaking. Nothing that I might say could increase the glad strength of
    the general voice of the country, when the news arrived here that the
    grand arena of literature, the French Academy, an institution whose
    life is counted by centuries, and which is without equal in the world,
    that great interpreter and infallible judge of the difficulties, the
    beauties and the genius of the French language, had given one of its
    annual prizes, and perhaps the finest of all--the prize of poetry--to
    one of our countrymen. I could never fittingly express or depict the
    sentiments of pride and joy felt by all lovers of literature in this
    country--I may add of all good Canadians--when the news came from
    beyond the ocean, from that sacred France, mother of civilization;
    from fairy Paris, capital of the Muses, that Mr. Fréchette had been
    crowned! But, as Chairman of this happy reunion, at the risk of but
    faintly re-echoing the general sentiment, I must at least try to
    express my feelings in proposing this toast. The emotions which I feel
    are of a dual nature, that of friendship and of patriotism, and, as
    friendship is nearer to the heart, so I gave that feeling the first
    place. The speaker here referred to his collegiate days in the
    Seminary of Quebec, where he met Mr. Fréchette, and in preparing
    himself for the battle of life, had won the friendship of the Canadian
    poet. He alluded to Mr. Fréchette's first efforts in verse, and had
    judged his early attempts, and in referring to his (the Judge's) own
    literary works at the time, the speaker said that the line of Boileau
    might be applied to him,

      "'Pour lui, Phoebus est sourd et Pégase est rétif.'

    "At that time, Mr. Fréchette had not reached the heights of Helicon,
    nor attained the regions wherein the 'Boreal Flowers' are gathered and
    the 'Snow Birds' fly, but the little flowers he gathered in more
    modest fields had around them the perfume of genuine poetry, and the
    emerald, ruby and topaz of art already shone in the dainty plumage of
    his summer birds. Mr. Fréchette published in a small journal in
    manuscript, called _L'Echo_, of which Judge Taschereau was then
    editor in the Seminary, the first efforts of his muse. This souvenir
    of the past is now very precious to me, said the speaker, because it
    enables me to state that I was the first editor of our poet's works.
    Judge Taschereau further alluded to the time when, with Mr. Fréchette,
    he studied law, that dry study, and though the poet was thus devoted
    to the goddess Themis, he nevertheless found time to worship at the
    shrine of song. How could the poet do otherwise? His fame had already
    gone abroad. The journals of the country were already publishing his
    sonnets, odes and songs. His acrostics were sought after to grace the
    albums of fair ladies. Even the volunteers of Canada asked him for
    war-songs, which are happily more frequently heard in drawing-rooms
    than in camps. The young student did not possess himself. He was
    already the property of the country, and the Institutes of Justinian
    were put aside for the more pleasing task of framing idyllic pictures
    of poetic genius. In fact, Crémazie was almost forgotten, and the name
    of Fréchette was on every tongue. Mr. Taschereau tried to reclaim the
    poet to his legal duties, and give him the place of Mr. Faucher de St.
    Maurice in his office. Mr. Fréchette accepted the sinecure, but no
    sooner had he done so than Mr. Faucher returned, anxious, no doubt,
    for good and congenial company. Judge of my happiness, with Fréchette
    and Faucher in my office, and I their humble patron. I thought I would
    succeed in converting my friends, but in this I failed, for they led
    me on their own paths until I myself began to versify, and, instead of
    reading Pothier, read 'proofs' of verses. As it is, Mr. Fréchette did
    become a lawyer; but Mr. Faucher abandoned the pursuit--he retired
    from my office, lost forever to Themis, but safe to the cause of
    literature. The departure of my young friends saved me. I could never
    expect to win the applause of the French Academy, and thus, as I am
    enabled to preside at this banquet, I may be permitted to offer our
    guest a bouquet of friendship's flowers, gathered during twenty-five
    years, and I feel that its perfume will be agreeable to my
    distinguished friend. The life of Mr. Fréchette is written in the
    poetry and literature of this country. He has marched steadily onward
    from the day on which he wrote his _Loisirs_, until the grand
    moment when he stood the crowned victor in the Academy of France. We
    have known our guest as a lawyer, journalist and member of Parliament,
    and have always admired his wonderful faculties, ever ready as he was
    to promote the welfare of his friends. His large heart contributed to
    pave the way to success, for, undoubted though his talents are, his
    winning manners won for him an ever-growing popularity, and we may
    affirm that, if he had traducers, he had, on the other hand, a host of
    friends. Traducers always follow the wake of a literary man, and they
    resemble the creeping things which we suffer in our gardens, because
    their existence can lead to no effectual harm. I may have occupied
    your time at too great length in treating of Mr. Fréchette as a
    friend. Allow me now, however, for a few moments, to speak of his
    success from a patriotic point of view. As French-Canadians, we are
    proud of our Laureate, and happy to see him in our midst this evening.
    In crowning our distinguished poet, the French Academy has given a
    splendid recognition to Canadian literature in the great Republic of
    Letters. Our Laureate is a French-Canadian, but our fellow-citizens of
    British origin have joined with us in this manifestation of our joy,
    and through their press, as at such gatherings as this, they have
    spontaneously recognized his talent, thus showing their spirit of
    justice and their enlightened patriotism. Party politics have ceased
    their discordant cries to join unanimously in honoring our Laureate,
    and this is a spectacle of consolation to the country. No commentary
    is required on this expression of our joy. It is, in itself, the most
    eloquent of proofs that the citizens of Quebec, as well as those of
    Montreal, in giving this festival to Mr. Fréchette, have invited all
    Canadians, in the largest acceptation of the word, to do him honour.
    In concluding, as I know you are anxious to hear him address you this
    evening, permit me to make a comparison. One of the most distinguished
    of modern poets, Alfred de Musset, said in a moment of despair:--

      "J'ai perdu ma force, et ma vie,
      Et mes amis, et ma gaîté:
      J'ai perdu jusqu'à la fierté
      Qui faisait croire à mon génie."

    "'I have lost my strength and my life, my friends and my gayety,
    almost my very pride, which made me believe in my genius.' We may say
    to Mr. Fréchette, as an offset to this cry of despair from one of his
    elder poetic brethren: 'Courage! You have strength and life! More
    friends than ever! An enthusiasm of gayety which is fathomless! March
    on and sing! We are proud of you, and we believe in your genius,
    crowned, as it is, by the highest literary tribunal in the world--that
    of the Forty Immortals!' (Cheers.)

    "The utmost enthusiasm pervaded those present, and when the poet
    laureate rose to reply, he was greeted with loud applause, which
    continued for several minutes. Mr. Fréchette said:--

    "MR. CHAIRMAN AND GENTLEMEN,--For some time past I have abstained from
    public speaking, and there are those amongst my best friends who tell
    me that I have done well. To-day Montreal [31] and Quebec seem to have
    conspired against me, to oblige me to make two speeches on the same
    subject. This, though flattering to me, is hardly fair. If, having
    pleaded in one sense, I were asked to take the opposite ground, it
    might appear that such would not embarrass a lawyer, and one who has
    also been a politician, but in my present position I am called upon to
    treat the same question twice, and absolutely in the same sense. How
    can I discover something new to advance. Naturally, I felt embarrassed
    at the outset, but, at any risk, my duty is to respond to your
    flattering call, and thus to best avenge myself upon this conspiracy
    of my friends. It will not be surprising if I affirm that the occasion
    of this reunion has for me a character of especial solemnity. Seated
    at this festive board, I see the representatives of different nations,
    who, in private capacities also, have won general respect. I see,
    also, my fellow-citizens of Quebec and of Levis, my native town--the
    schoolmates of my earliest days--_confrères_ in professional
    life and in the walks of literature--comrades of past political
    struggles--friends, ever indulgent and generous--political leaders of
    whom I have always been proud, and gentlemen of various origins,
    divergent opinions and different religious beliefs, all tendering me
    their warmest congratulations upon the success I have achieved in the
    literary world. No words of mine are adequate to express my feelings,
    not can I sufficiently thank you all for this spontaneous and
    sympathetic demonstration in honour of one who regrets that he is not
    more worthy of your favour. I can only accept your evidences of
    friendship with cordial emotion, thank you from the depth of my heart
    and bear with me from this hall a proud memory which will unite with
    the remembrances of my youth, all of which are so intimately
    identified with the hospitable people of Quebec, and, in so declaring,
    I am but assuring you that this remembrance will ever attend upon me.
    The past vouches for this; for when my tent of exile shook in the
    winds from off the great Western lakes, or slept on the bowery shores
    of Louisianian streams; when my traveller's skiff was rocked on the
    waters of the Southern gulfs, or was reflected on the blue waves of
    the Loire; when I had before me the wild majesty of Niagara, the
    immensity of the ocean, or when, filled with admiration, I paused to
    gaze upon the stupendous monuments of the Old World, my thoughts ever
    instinctively flew back to the good old city of Champlain,
    unparalleled in the world for the picturesque splendor of its site,
    and the poetry which no less issues from the very stones of its
    fortress, than it lingers upon every page of its history. Yes! Old
    Quebec! In all places I have cherished with devotion every memory of
    you, for within your walls my heart first opened to the noble teaching
    of intellect! It is your lofty embrasures--your flag, bravely floating
    in the skies--your abrupt rock, your stretches of ramparts, your
    brilliant steeples, reflecting their beauty on the bosom of the St.
    Lawrence, mingled with the sails of your cosmopolitan navies; which,
    for the first time, awoke the poetic enthusiasm in my breast. Long ago
    I first saw these scenes from the window of an humble cottage of
    Levis, half-hidden in a screen of foliage; and in my youngest days,
    ere I knew the method or formation of a verse, I felt the fluttering
    against the cage of my heart of that golden bird, whose sonorous voice
    is styled Poetry. In fact, gentlemen, I was carried towards a literary
    career from the very outset, and in this connection you will permit me
    to relate a little anecdote. You will pardon me if I appear
    egotistical, but your cordial reception warrants me in looking for
    your indulgence. I had learned to read in a book full of reveries and
    sentiment, entitled 'Letters or the poet Gilbert to his sister.' Of
    course I understood but little of it, yet it made a deep impression on
    my imagination. One day my father, an honest man and good citizen, if
    there were ever any such, but who had nothing in common with the
    Muses, asked my brother and I what professions we would adopt when we
    grew big. 'For me,' replied my happy-hearted brother Edmond, 'I will
    be a carter,' and 'I will be a poet,' I immediately added. I still
    remember my father's smile of affectionate pity when he heard these
    unexpected declarations from the hopes of his declining years. "My
    poor children," said he, with a resigned air, "these two occupations
    will never lead you to wealth and fortune." Later I understood the
    wise reflection of my father, but no one carves out his own destiny
    and he must submit to fate. I have vainly tried other careers but
    finally was obliged to return to this dream of my infancy. As the poet
    says,

      "Drive away the natural, and it returns at full speed."

    Yes, dear old City of Quebec, so old and so glorious, so beautiful in
    your _ensemble_ and so characteristic in your details, so cordial
    and so hospitable, in presence of your noblest children assembled here
    to welcome me, within your old walls, let me give this testimony, that
    if I have had the happiness of causing the Canadian name to be heard
    in the immortal shrine of French literature it is to you I owe it, and
    to you is my gratitude offered. For I must tell you, gentlemen, that I
    loved Quebec too much, at the distance, not to hasten across the
    river, when the bird felt that his wings were strong enough to fly. At
    that time the greatest of the poets of Quebec, Octave Crémazie, sang
    the glories of our ancestors and the brave deeds of old France. His
    energetic and inspired voice excited youthful emulation. A group of
    budding writers surrounded him, but each one felt timid and hesitated
    to tune his notes amongst the loud echoes of his vigorous patriotism.
    Alas! the star fled from our skies, another generation of enthusiastic
    poets and writers disputed the honour of seizing the lyre, so heavy
    for their fingers, which had been left on the rock of Quebec, by the
    author of the Flag of Carillon. O! my old comrades, do you think as
    frequently as do I, of those old days, when with hearts full of poetic
    illusions, we united our talents, our hopes and I might add our
    poverty, to establish that spiritual association in which the
    beautiful was idolized, seekers as we were after the ideal, dealers in
    mental _bijouterie_, despised at first by some, but which
    succeeded more than once in directing the attention of literary France
    to our shores? Do you, at times, remember our joyful meetings, our
    interminable readings, our long hours of continued study and waking
    reveries in common--do you yet remember the bewildering evenings in
    which the glass of Henri Murger mingled its sonorous tinklings, bright
    and merry, to the love-song of our flowery youth? We were all rivals,
    but

      "Our hearts, as our lute, vibrated as one,"

    and God knows that this rivalry never severed the bonds of affection
    which united us, and so was founded what has since been styled the
    Mutual Admiration Society. Mutual Admiration Society! If we were to
    consider the number of books, dress-coats, gloves and other articles
    of more intimate character that were exchanged between us, it might
    more safely have been called the Society for Mutual Support. At all
    events, from the spectacle before me this evening I gather that this
    Society of Mutual Admiration, if admiration it must be termed, has
    taken a singular development since I had the honour of assisting so
    frequently at its meetings, and there is nothing surprising in this,
    since one of the most distinguished of the founders of this society,
    Mr. Faucher de St. Maurice, informed me the other day that the society
    in question was about to annex the French Academy. (Laughter.) But to
    be serious, allow me to recount another anecdote. There was a time,
    gentlemen, when our Mutual Admiration was far from being so ambitious
    as to dream of having a _succursale_ under the rotunda of the
    French Institute. But if our productions were meagre, our revenues
    were still more so, and famine often reigned in the chests of the
    confraternity. However we had our own days of abundance when there was
    corn in Egypt. The first Quebecer who understood that poetry, unlike
    perpetual motion, could not feed itself, was a brewer, whose memory is
    now legendary and who was known by the harmonious name of McCallum.
    Arthur Casgrain, who in a couple of years afterwards we sorrowfully
    bore to the cemetery, had thought of composing an Epic on the Grand
    Trunk. This was called "La grande Tronciade!" Well in one of the
    twelve parts of this production, so very original, there were three
    remarkable lines.

      "Buvons, buvons, amis, de ce bon maccallome,
      Venant directement du brasseur qu'il dénome!
      C'est ça qui vous retape et vous refait un homme?"

    The effect was magical. The heart of the brewer was touched. A long
    waggon on which we could read the eloquent words "pale ale and porter"
    stopped next day before our door. For twenty minutes a man with
    burthened step climbed the Jacob's ladder which led to the poet's
    attic, and one hundred and forty-four bottles of inviting appearance
    ranged themselves around the chamber. I cannot picture the joy of the
    happy recipient. In his enthusiasm he offered me a community in his
    good fortune--of course under a pledge of inviolable secrecy. But as I
    felt the imperious necessity of communicating my emotions I was as
    wanting in discretion as he had been, and that evening all the
    Bohemians, students and literary friends even to the remotest degree
    followed in the wake of McCallum's bottles, and invaded the attic
    chamber of poor Arthur (your good-natured cousin, Mr. President.)
    There we had French, English, Latin and Greek speeches in prose and in
    verse. Arsène Michaud has even prepared a story for the occasion. In
    brief, the hecatomb was made; the libation was Olympic, the twelve
    dozen disappeared and on the morrow poor Casgrain showed me with a sad
    face the Homeric remains of his one day's wealth, and in a lamentable
    tone of despair he exclaimed: "I will have to write another poem."
    Gentlemen, that was the first time in Canada that poetry made a return
    to its author, and in tasting these delicate viands which the
    hospitable city of Quebec now offers to one of those early Bohemians
    in recognition of his literary success, I could not fail to recollect
    with emotion this amusing circumstance now enveloped, with other
    scenes of youth, sometimes glad--sometimes sorrowful, in the shadowy
    robe of past recollections. Another story just suggests itself to my
    mind. Lusignan and I occupied the attic of an old house in Palace
    street. Our room was heated by a stove-pipe, which reached from the
    lower apartments. One day I had published in _Le Canadien_--_Tempora
    Mutantur_--a little poem in which was the following line:

      "Shivering in my attic poor."

    The next day a surprise awaited us. A dumb stove had replaced the mere
    stove-pipe, and while holding our sides from laughter we heard this
    speech: "Gentlemen, we are very indulgent, considering your noisy
    meetings--we are not very particular when rent-day arrives--and if you
    _so shivered_ in your room, it would have been better to have
    said so privately, than to have complained of it in the newspapers."
    (Laughter.) Poor Mrs. Tessier, our landlady--she was not well
    acquainted with figures of speech, but she has been the Providence of
    many of the destitute, and more than one who hears me now can say as I
    do, that no better or more obliging heart ever beat in a more pitiful
    bosom towards purseless youth. And who knows, it is perhaps due to
    this sympathetic feeling of its population towards literary men and
    writers that this city of Quebec has seen such an array of talent
    within her bosom, such a succession of Pleiades of distinguished
    litterateurs, who have glorified her name and that of their country.
    For the last fifty years, men eminent in all branches of literature
    have made a gorgeous and resplendent aureole around the city of
    Quebec. In the generation immediately preceding us, we see Petitclerc,
    Parent, Soulard, Chauveau, Garneau, L'Ecuyer, Ferland, Barthe and Réal
    Angers, these grand pioneers of intellect, who in history, poetry,
    drama and romance, made such a wide opening for the generation which
    followed them. Then we have l'Abbé Laverdière, l'Abbé Casgrain,
    LeMoine, Fiset, Taché, Plamondon, LaRue, and the first among all
    Octave Crémazie, who coming at different times bravely and constantly
    continued the labours of their predecessors, until we reach the
    brilliant phalanx of contemporary writers, Lemay, Fabre, l'Abbé Begin,
    Routhier, Oscar Dunn, Faucher de St. Maurice, Buies, Marmette and
    Legendre, all charged with the glorious task of preserving for Quebec
    her legitimate title of the Athens of Canada. And how could it be
    otherwise? Is not Quebec the cradle of our nationality--the spot
    whereon is engraved the most illustrious pages of our history--heroic
    annals, touching souvenirs, all combining with the marvels of nature
    to speak here the soul of the historian and of the poet. What a
    flourishing field for the historian and poet is not the tale of that
    handful of Breton heroes, who, three centuries ago, planted on the
    rock of Quebec the flag of Christianity and civilization! What
    innumerable sources of inspiration can we not find in our majestic
    river, our gigantic lakes, our grand cascades, our lofty mountains,
    our impenetrable forests and in all that grand and wild nature, which
    will ever be the characteristic feature of our dear Canada. Oh! our
    history, gentlemen! Oh, the picturesque beauties of our country! Two
    marvellous veins--two mines of precious material open at our feet. The
    European writers are ever striving to discover something fresh. Having
    exhausted all kinds of themes, they are now stooping to the dust to
    find an originality which seems to fly from them. Well, this
    freshness, this originality, so courted and so rare now-a-days, may be
    found within our grasp,--it is there in our historical archives--in
    our patriarchal customs--in the many characters of a people young and
    thirsting for independence--a robust and healthy poetry, floats on our
    breezes--breathes in our popular songs--sings in the echoes of our
    wild forests, and opens graceful and proud her white wings to the
    winds of the free aspirations of the new world. To us this virgin
    field belongs, gentlemen! Take from Europe her form and experience,
    but leave to her, her old Muses. Let us be true to ourselves! Be
    Canadians and the future is ours. "That which strikes us most in your
    poems" said a member of the French Academy to me, "is that the modern
    style, the Parisian style of your verses is united to something
    strange, so particular and singular--it seems an exotic, disengaged
    from the entire." This perfume of originality which this writer
    discovered in my writings was then unknown to myself. What was it? It
    was the secret of their nationality,--the certificate of their origin,
    their Canadian stamp! And it is important for us, gentlemen, never to
    allow this character to disappear. Let our young writers stamp it
    broadly on their pages and then advance to their task, they need no
    longer fear the thorns on the way. The path is wide open and millions
    of readers await their efforts. To the work then; France offers us her
    hand, and now that we have renewed the bonds between us and our
    illustrious and well-beloved mother country--bonds broken by the
    vicissitudes which occur in the life of peoples, we shall be enabled
    once more to prove the great truth enunciated by Bulwer Lytton in
    "_Richelieu_," that

      "The pen is mightier than the sword."

    The Chairman called upon Hon. Wilfred Laurier to propose the next
    toast.

    Hon. Mr. Laurier, on being called on to propose the toast of the
    Academy of France, was loudly cheered on rising, and the enthusiasm
    became the greater as he advanced, showing the many claims the great
    French tribunal of letters had upon the attention of the learned word.
    He spoke of the old ties which bound France and Canada, and alluded to
    the argument of Doucet, the French Academician, in favour of the
    admission of Fréchette to the French _concours_, viz., that when
    France was in the throes of agony, the voice of French Canada spoke
    out its loud attachment to the cause of the ancient mother country. In
    such action was the forgotten daughter restored to its sorrowing
    mother. The hon. gentleman then in language of forcible eloquence
    referred to the pleasure shown by English-Canadians at the success of
    Mr. Fréchette, and concluded a highly intellectual and eloquent
    speech, amidst the reiterated cheers of the whole assemblage.

    The Chairman then proposed the toast of English and French literature.

    Mr. George Stewart, jr., who on rising was greeted with cheers,
    said:--

    MR. CHAIRMAN AND GENTLEMEN:--I must thank you for the very
    enthusiastic manner in which you have just drank to this toast, and
    for the cordiality with which you have been good enough to receive my
    name. Before asking you to consider with me the subject which has just
    been so happily proposed from the chair, I would ask your permission
    to say how gratified I am at being present, this evening, to assist
    you in paying homage to one whom we all delight to honour, and at
    whose feet it is our special privilege to sit. (Cheers.) It is all of
    seventeen years since Mr. Fréchette gave to the public, in a little
    book, the best fruits of his youthful muse, but those early efforts of
    his mind gave abundant promise of future excellence and hope,--a
    promise which has since been admirably and delightfully fulfilled. I
    cannot tell you how proud we all feel,--we who speak the English
    tongue, alike with you who utter the liquid and mellow language of
    Béranger and De Musset,--that the "Forty Immortals" of Mother France,
    recognized in Mr. Fréchette,--what all of us knew before,--that he was
    a tender and graceful poet, and that his work is as pure and sweet as
    anything to be found in the lyric poetry of our time. (Cheers.) Mr.
    Fréchette had not to go abroad to find that out, but it is pleasing to
    us all to find our opinions confirmed and ratified by the highest
    authority in France. I again thank you, gentlemen, for the privilege
    which you have afforded me of saying these few words regarding our
    laurel-crowned poet and guest. (Applause.) With regard to the subject
    which has brought me to my feet, what am I to say? I might dilate upon
    the beauties of Chaucer's _Canterbury Tales_, or Edmund Spenser's
    immortal _Faerie Queene_, or Shakespeare's tender women, the
    _Juliet_ we love, the Rosalind who is ever in our hearts, the
    Beatrice, the Imogen, gentle Ophelia, or kindly but ill-starred
    Desdemona, or the great heroes of tragedy, Lear, Macbeth, Hamlet or
    Othello, or I might ask you to hear a word about Ben Jonson, "rare
    Ben," or poor Philip Massinger who died a stranger, of the Puritan
    Milton, the great Catholic Dryden, or Swift, or Bunyan, Defoe,
    Addison, Pope and Burke and grim Sam Johnson who made the dictionary
    and wrote Rasselas, the Prince of Abyssinia, but there is not time for
    us to go into the subject as minutely as that. At a dinner of this
    kind, which is so rich in every delicacy which the most sensitive
    palate could desire, and which boasts wines as delicate and as
    fragrant in bouquet as one of Mr. Fréchette's sonnets--(Cheers)--and I
    might add also as one of my friend LeMay's hopefullest lyrics--
    (Cheers), it would be ungenerous of me to keep you very long. I will
    content myself therefore with a remark or two regarding the peculiar
    features which seem to inspire our literature, at the present time,
    and by our literature I mean English literature in its broadest sense
    and amplest significance. Perhaps at no period of letters, in the
    whole history of literature from the days of Chaucer and Raleigh, from
    the renaissance, through the classic period, to more modern times, to
    our own day in fact, has the cultured world seen such a brilliant
    array of brilliant men and women, who write the English prose which
    delights our fire-sides, and enriches our minds at the present time.
    The world has never presented to mankind before, in all its years of
    usefulness, such a galaxy of great essayists and novelists as we have
    enjoyed and enjoy now, within a period of fifty or sixty years, and
    which properly belong to our own age. The era is rich in stalwart
    minds, in magnificent thinkers, in splendid souls. Carlyle, Emerson,
    Wilson, Morley, Froude, Holmes, Harrison, Darwin, Huxley, Spencer,
    Mill, Buckle, Lewes. In fiction the list is too long for mention, but,
    in passing, I may note George Eliot--a woman who writes as if her soul
    had wings, William Black who paints almost as deftly as Walter Scott,
    Thomas Hardy, Anthony Trollope, Thackeray, Dickens, Reade, William
    Howells, who has not forgotten to write of the grandeur of the
    Saguenay, and William Kirby whose _Chien d'Or_ will serve to keep
    a memory green in many a Quebecer's heart. I need hardly name more.
    The list could, I am well aware, be extended indefinitely, and as each
    of you doubtless has your favourite novelist, I need not waste your
    time by the simple enumeration of men and women who have from time to
    time, beguiled away the hours with their stories of the heart, or of
    purpose, or of endeavour. We get _blasé_ now and then perhaps
    through the reading of so many moderns, but the cure for that lies
    within easy range. We can take a peep at those old fellows in old-
    fashioned bindings, who used to delight our grandfathers in the "brave
    days of old," when Richardson told the story of "Pamela," and
    "Clarissa Harlowe," when Fielding wrote "Tom Jones," and Smollett
    narrated the history of "Humphrey Clinker," and the career of
    "Tristram Shandy" found a truthful historian in that mad parson
    Lawrence Sterne. We might even read those ancient authors, ancient in
    style at least, for a change, and still be reading English literature
    in its truest and widest sense. But it is less with the fiction-
    writers that we have to deal, than with the thinkers who have given to
    _belles-lettres_ in this age, its robustness and vigour. In
    political economy, in scientific thought, in history, in moral
    philosophy and in polite learning, and in criticism, I think our day
    has produced the greatest teachers, as well as the largest number of
    them since the English tongue had a literature of its own. (Applause.)
    This is true at least in prose writing. I know that in poetry we are
    surpassed in grandeur and majesty by the bards of other periods of our
    mental activity, I know that we have not produced a Milton yet, nor a
    Dryden, nor a Pope--I leave Shakespeare and Chaucer out of the
    question, nor a Spenser. We have very many more than our share of
    really tuneful singers and fine poets like Tennyson and Longfellow,
    Morris and Swinburne, the Arnolds and Lowell--all of them sweet and in
    every way charming, none of them grand and magnificent like the sons
    of song of the great days of poesy. We have singers and singers, minor
    poets and minor poets, all engaged in weaving for our delight very
    many pretty fancies; graceful story-tellers in verse, if you will, but
    our chief strength lies in prose, sober, scholarly and healthful
    prose. Our fame will rest on that branch of the service. (Applause.)
    Turning to Canada, I might say that our mental outfit is by no means
    beggarly. In fiction we have produced, and I confine myself
    particularly to those who have written in English, Judge Haliburton,
    James DeMille, Wm. Kirby, John Lesperance. (Applause.) In poetry,
    Heavysege, John Reade, Roberts, Charles Sangster, Wm. Murdoch,
    Chandler, Howe; in history, Beamish Murdoch, Todd, Morgan, Hannay, Mr.
    LeMoine--(Applause)--whom I see present here to night; Dr. Miles, Mr.
    Harper, the efficient Rector of our High School, and others of more or
    less repute. In Science, Dr. Dawson and Sir Wm. Logan; in logic, Wm.
    Lyall; in rhetoric, James DeMille. In political and essay writing we
    have a good list, the most prominent names being Goldwin Smith, whom
    we may fairly claim, Bourinot, Haliburton, Todd, Howe, Elder, Ellis,
    Griffin, Anglin, Dymond, McDougall, White. (Cheers.) And here I would
    just say to you--for I have spoken longer than I intended--over-taxed
    your patience I fear very much--that we must, if we would ever become
    great in helping to form current thought and the intellectual movement
    of the day, renounce all sectionalism in letters, and go in for the
    great goal which all may aspire to who wish. When the French Academy
    hailed our friend Fréchette as a brother poet, the act was not done
    because he was a Canadian, but because he was a poet, writing and
    speaking the French tongue. (Applause.) There is no such thing really
    as Canadian literature or American literature. It is all English
    literature, and we should all strive to add to the glory of that
    literature. We can do it, in our way, as well as Moore and Lover and
    Lever and Carleton and McGee did, when they added the splendid work of
    their genius to build up the renown and prestige of the parent stock.
    (Applause.) As Scott and Burns, Dunbar and Hector McNeill, and
    Tannahill and James Hogg and bluff "Kit North;" all of Scotland, did
    to make the English literature massive and spirited and grand.
    (Applause.) As Hawthorne and Longfellow, Holmes and Bryant, Cooper and
    Irving, and Motley did, and as our own John Reade (cheers) and Charles
    Roberts, a new poet whose star has just arisen, and Bourinot--
    (cheers)--and the rest of them are doing now. We must forget the small
    localism which can do us no good, and join the great brotherhood of
    letters which writes the world over, in the English tongue. France,
    Germany and Russia, Italy and Spain teem with the grand work of their
    children. We who speak and write in the English language must not be
    unmindful of our several duties. We must work for the attainment of
    the great end, the development of English literature, of which we are
    as truly a part as the authors of the United States, of Scotland, of
    Ireland and of England. English literature does not mean simply a
    literature written solely by Englishmen. It takes its name from the
    fact that it draws its nourishment from all writers who write in
    English, and Scotchmen, Irishmen, Americans, and colonists, as well as
    citizens of England are invited to add to its greatness and
    permanency. I thank you Mr. Chairman and you gentlemen for your
    kindness and forbearance in listening to me so long, and so patiently.
    (Loud continued cheering.)

    Mr. Lemay, in replying for French literature, said--It is particularly
    agreeable to be called on to speak on this occasion because it affords
    me the opportunity to render to our host an evidence of the admiration
    and friendship which I bear towards him this evening. It is now over
    twenty years since we were together at College, and the same tastes
    which pleased us then govern us now. The same destiny which led us
    towards the bar guided us also on the paths of literature. The speaker
    here improvised a magnificent address to the genius of French-Canadian
    letters. He alluded to the first pages of Canadian history written in
    the blood of martyrs, thus giving to the Canadian people a literature
    of heroes. The speaker then traced the changeful epochs from the days
    of the soldiers of the sword to the warriors of the pen, and he drew
    forth loud applause as he alluded to the brave polemists who traced
    their literary endeavors in the brave work of defending their country
    and redeeming its liberties. In quoting Sir Geo. Cartier's well known
    line, "O Canada, my country and my love," ("O Canada, mon pays, mes
    amours,") the eloquent orator elicited the warm and hearty applause of
    the assemblage. From the troublous days of 1837 to the present moment,
    Mr. Lemay reviewed the various efforts at literary renown of the
    French Canadian people, and concluded one of the finest speeches of
    the evening amidst the tumultuous applause of his sympathising
    auditors.

    The next toast was that of the Literary and Historical Society and of
    the _Institut Canadien_ of Quebec.

    Mr. J. M. LeMoine, in replying to the first part of the toast said:--

    GENTLEMEN,--In the name of the Literary and Historical Society of
    Quebec, I thank you cordially for the health just proposed--As the
    President of a society numbering close on 400 members, who though
    diverse in creed and language, are united for one common object--the
    promotion of culture and science and the encouragement of historical
    studies,--I cannot help feeling I stand here somehow in the character
    of a representative man. In tendering a welcome to Mr. Fréchette, our
    honoured guest, I can add but little to the sentiments conveyed in the
    resolution adopted at our last meeting and which you have heard read.
    In presence of so many distinguished persons, several of whom have
    made their mark, at the Bar--or on the Bench--the forum--in
    literature--in the bank parlor or in the counting house,--with so many
    fluent speakers here present and prepared to applaud, with all the
    graces of oratory and fervour of patriotism,--the distinction
    conferred on French Canada, by the highest literary tribunal in
    France--convinced myself of the honour which Mr. Fréchette's laurels
    must confer on this ancient and picturesque Province of Quebec, with
    its glorious though yet unrevealed destinies, I feel proud as a
    Canadian in standing here, the bearer even of a solitary rosebud for
    the fragrant _bouquet_, which a grateful country offers this
    night to its gifted child. Alas! had not the relentless hand [32] of
    death--had not a self-imposed fate, darker even than death, removed
    from our midst, another "mind pregnant with celestial fire," Canada
    this night might possibly have counted two laurel-crowned poets--Louis
    Honoré Fréchette and Octave Crémazie. For I am not one of those who
    refuse to recognize Canadian talent; on the contrary, I feel myself
    moved to rejoice in our wealth of intellect. I am reminded to be
    brief; around me there is a surging stream of eloquence ready to burst
    through its floodgates. I must give way. With your permission, I shall
    therefore merely ask a question. What propitious turn of fortune?
    which of the benign fairies who watched over his natal hour has Mr.
    Fréchette to thank for his present success? How came it to pass that,
    though he was born a poet, he should have to undergo an ordeal like
    another great poet (whom posterity may specially claim as an
    historian) the author of the "Lays of Ancient Rome," of emancipating
    himself from his earthy--at one time not burdensome--thraldom before
    soaring on the wings of poesy to that lofty region, where his classic
    diction and lyric power attracted the attention of those worthy but
    fastidious gentlemen, yclept "The Forty Immortals of the French
    Academy." I have mentioned a very illustrious name in the Republic of
    Letters,--a name as dear to Britain as that of our Laureate ought to
    be to Canada--that of Macaulay--historian, essayist, poet. You all
    know how his parliamentary defeat as candidate for Edinburgh in 1847,
    rescued him forever from the "dismal swamp" of politics, providing his
    wondrous mind, with leisure to expand and mature, in the green fields
    of literature. If New France has not yet produced such a gorgeous
    genius as he, of whom all those who speak Chatham's tongue are so
    justly proud, it has however out of its sparse population of one
    million, put forth a representative whom Old France with its thirty-
    eight millions has deemed a fit subject to honour in an unmistakable
    way. Shall I tell you how, figuratively, if you should prefer, ended
    for Fréchette the "day of tumult"?

    That _Ignis Fatuus_, ambition, has allured, as you are aware,
    more than one youthful fowler to an uncertain swampy hunting ground,
    called "politics." Mr. Fréchette was one of the unfortunate. This game
    preserve, I pronounce "uncertain" because owing to several
    inexplicable eventualities sportsmen innumerable, therefrom return
    empty handed, whilst others, Mr. Chairman, make up, we know, pretty
    good bags. The Son of Apollo, whilst thus hunting one gruesome, windy
    morning, fortunately for us, sank in a boggy, yielding quicksand.
    Luckily he extricated himself in time, and on reaching the margin of
    the swamp, there stood an old pet of his tethered as if waiting for
    its loved rider, a vigorous Norman or Percheron steed. Our friend
    bestrode him, cantered off, and never drew rein until he stood,
    panting perhaps, but a winner in the race, on the top of a mount,
    distant and of access arduous, called Parnassus.

    In conclusion, Mr. LeMoine quoted the memorable lines from Macaulay,
    written the night when his parliamentary defeat at Edinburgh, in 1847,
    restored him to letters:--

      The day of tumult, strife, defeat, was o'er,
      Worn out with toil, and noise, and scorn, and spleen,
      I slumbered and in slumber saw once more
      A room in an old mansion, long unseen.

      That room, methought, was curtained from the light;
      Yet through the curtains shone the moon's cold ray
      Full on a cradle, where, in linen white,
      Sleeping life's first sleep, an infant lay.

       *       *       *       *       *

      And lo! the fairy queens who rule our birth
      Drew nigh to speak the new-born baby's doom:
      With noiseless step, which left no trace on earth,
      From gloom they came, and vanished into gloom.

      Not deigning on the boy a glance to cast
      Swept careless by the gorgeous Queen of Gain.
      More scornful still, the Queen of Fashion passed,
      With mincing gait and sneer of cold disdain.

      The Queen of Power tossed high her jewelled head
      And o'er her shoulder threw a wrathful frown.
      The Queen of Pleasure on the pillow shed
      Scarce one stray rose-leaf from her fragrant crown.

      Still fay in long procession followed fay;
      And still the little couch remained unblest:
      But, when those wayward sprites had passed away,
      Came One, the last, the mightiest, and the best.

      Oh! glorious lady, with the eyes of light,
      And laurels clustering round thy lofty brow,
      Who by the cradle's side didst watch that night,
      Warbling a sweet strange music, who wast thou?

      "Yes, darling; let them go," so ran the strain:
      "Yes; let them go, gain, fashion, pleasure, power,
      And all the busy elves to whose domain
      Belongs the nether sphere, the fleeting hour.

      "Without one envious sigh, one anxious scheme,
      The nether sphere, the fleeting hour assign.
      Mine is the world of thought, the world of dream,
      Mine all the past, and all the future mine.

       *       *        *       *        *

      "Of the fair brotherhood who share my grace,
      I, from thy natal day, pronounce thee free;
      And, if for some I keep a nobler place,
      I keep for none a happier than for thee.

       *       *        *       *        *

      "No; when on restless night dawns cheerless morrow,
      When weary soul and wasting body pine,
      Thine am I still in danger, sickness, sorrow,
      In conflict, obloquy, want, exile, thine;

      "Thine where on mountain waves the snowbirds scream,
      Where more than Thule's winter barbs the breeze,
      Where scarce, through lowering clouds, one sickly gleam
      Lights the drear May-day of Antarctic seas;

       *       *        *       *        *

      "Amidst the din of all things fell and vile,
      Hate's yell, and envy's hiss, and folly's bray,
      Remember me!"


_FORT ST. LOUIS, CHÂTEAU ST. LOUIS, HALDIMAND CASTLE._

_CHÂTEAU ST. LOUIS._

In Professor Kalm's saunter round Quebec, his description of the public
edifices, in 1749, is worthy of note:

    "The Palace (Château Saint Louis) says he, is situated on the west or
    steepest side of the mountain, just, above the lower city. It is not
    properly a palace, but a large building of stone, two stories high,
    extending north and south. On the west side of it is a court-yard,
    surrounded partly with a wall, and partly with houses. On the east
    side, or towards the river, is a gallery as long as the whole
    building, and about two fathoms broad, paved with smooth flags, and
    included on the outside by iron rails, from whence the city and the
    river exhibit a charming prospect. This gallery serves as a very
    agreeable walk after dinner, and those who come to speak with the
    Governor-General wait here till he is at leisure. The palace is the
    lodging of the Governor-General of Canada, and a number of soldiers
    mount the guard before it, both at the gate and in the court-yard; and
    when the Governor, or the Bishop comes in or goes out, they must all
    appear in arms and beat the drum. The Governor-General has his own
    chapel where he hears prayers; however, he often goes to Mass at the
    church of the _Récollets_, which is very near the palace."

Such it seemed, in 1749, to the learned Swedish naturalist and philosopher
Peter Kalm. How many rainbow tints, poetry and romance can lend to the
same object, we may learn from the brilliant Niagara novelist, William
Kirby! In his splendid historical novel "Le Chien d'Or," whilst venturing
on the boldest flights of imagination, he thus epitomises some striking
historical features of the state residence of the French Viceroys of
Canada.

    "The great hall of the Castle of St. Louis was palatial in its
    dimensions and adornment. The panels of wainscoting upon the walls
    were hung with paintings of historic interest--portraits of the Kings,
    Governors, Intendants and Ministers of State, who had been
    instrumental in the colonization of New France.

    "Over the Governor's seat hung a gorgeous escutcheon of the Royal
    arms, draped with a cluster of white flags, sprinkled with golden
    lilies--the emblems of French sovereignty in the colony; among the
    portraits on the walls, beside those of the late (Louis XIV.,) and
    present King (Louis XV)--which hung on each side of the throne--might
    be seen the features of Richelieu, who first organized the rude
    settlements on the St. Lawrence in a body politic--a reflex of feudal
    France; and of Colbert, who made available its natural wealth and
    resources, by peopling it with the best scions of the Mother Land--the
    noblesse and peasantry of Normandy, Brittany and Aquitaine. There,
    too, might be seen the keen, bold features of Cartier, the first
    discoverer, and of Champlain, the first explorer of the new land, and
    the founder of Quebec. The gallant, restless Louis Buade de Frontenac
    was pictured there, side by side with his fair countess, called, by
    reason of her surpassing loveliness, "The Divine." Vaudreuil, too, who
    spent a long life of devotion to his country, and Beauharnois, who
    nourished its young strength until it was able to resist, not only the
    powerful confederacy of the Five Nations, but the still more powerful
    league of New England and the other English Colonies. There, also,
    were seen the sharp intellectual face of Laval, its first bishop, who
    organized the church and education in the colony; and of Talon, wisest
    of Intendants, who devoted himself to the improvement of agriculture,
    the increase of trade, and the well being of all the King's subjects
    in New France. And one more portrait was there, worthy to rank among
    the statesmen and rulers of New France--the pale, calm, intellectual
    features of Mère Marie de l'Incarnation--the first superior of the
    Ursulines of Quebec, who in obedience to heavenly visions, as she
    believed, left France to found schools for the children of the new
    colonists, and who taught her own womanly graces to her own sex, who
    were destined to become the future mothers of New France." (Page 109.)

It were difficult to group on a smaller and brighter canvass, so many of
the glorious figures of our storied past.

In the days of de Montmagny and later, the _Jesuits' Journal_ retraces gay
scenes at the Château in connection with the festivals of the patron
saints, of St. Joseph, whose anniversary occurred on the 19th March, and
of St. John the Baptist, whose _fête_ happened on the 24th June.

For a long time the old Château, was the meeting place of the Superior
Council.

    "On any Monday morning one would have found the Superior Council in
    session in the antechamber of the Governor's apartment, at the Château
    St. Louis.  The members sat at a round table, at the head was the
    Governor, with the Bishop on his right and the Intendant on his left.
    The councillors sat in the order of their appointment, and the
    attorney-general also had his place at the board. As La Hontan says,
    they were not in judicial robes, but in their ordinary dress and all
    but the Bishop wore swords. The want of the cap and the gown greatly
    disturbed the Intendant Meules, and he begs the Minister to consider
    how important it is that the councillors, in order to inspire respect,
    should appear in public in long black robes, which on occasions of
    ceremony they should exchange for robes of red. He thinks that the
    principal persons of the colony should thus be induced to train up
    their children to so enviable a dignity; "and" he concludes, "as none
    of the councillors can afford to buy red robes, I hope that the King
    will vouchsafe to send out nine such; as for the black robes, they can
    furnish those themselves."

    "The King did not respond, and the nine robes never arrived. The
    official dignity of the Council was sometimes exposed to trials
    against which even red gowns might have proven an insufficient
    protection. The same Intendant urges that the tribunal ought to be
    provided immediately with a house _of its own_."

    "It is not decent," he says, "that it should sit in the Governor's
    antechamber any longer. His guards and valets make such a noise, that
    we cannot hear each other speak. I have continually to tell them to
    keep quiet, which causes them to make a thousand jokes at the
    councillors as they pass in and out. As the Governor and the council
    were often on ill terms, the official head of the colony could not
    always be trusted to keep his attendants on their good behaviour."
    (Parkman's _Old Regime_, p. 273.)

At other times, startling incidents threw a pall over the old pile. Thus
in August 1666, we are told of the melancholy end of a famous Indian
warrior: "Tracy invited the Flemish Bastard and a Mohawk chief named
Agariata to his table, when allusion was made to the murder of Chasy. On
this the Mohawk, stretching out his arm, exclaimed in a Braggart tone,
"This is the hand that split the head of that young man." The indignation
of the company may be imagined. Tracy told his insolent guest that he
should never kill anybody else; and he was led out and hanged in presence
of the Bastard. [33]

Varied in language and nationality were the guests of the Château in days
of yore: thus in 1693, the proud old Governor Frontenac had at one and the
same time Baron Saint Castin's Indian father-in-law, Madocawando, from
Acadia, and "a gentleman of Boston, John Nelson, captured by Villebon, the
nephew and heir of Sir Thomas Temple, in whose right he claimed the
proprietorship of Acadia, under an old grant of Oliver Cromwell."
(Parkman's _Frontenac_, p. 357.)


_FORT ST. LOUIS_

Ere one of the last vestiges of the _ancien régime_, Haldimand Castle,
disappears, a few details culled from reliable sources may not be
unacceptable, especially as by fire, repairs and the vicissitudes of time,
the changes are so great, as to render difficult the delineation of what
it originally formed part of in the past.

Grave misconceptions exist as to what constituted the stately residence of
our former Governors. Many imagine that the famous _Château St. Louis_,
was but one structure, whilst in reality, it was composed at one time of
three, viz:--Fort St. Louis, Château St. Louis and Haldimand Castle, the
present Normal School. The writer has succeeded in collecting together
nine views of the Fort and Château St. Louis since the days of Champlain
down to modern times. Champlain's "brass bell" is conspicuous in more than
one of the designs.

According to Father DuCreux, the first fort erected by Champlain on the
crest of the promontory, _arx aedificata in promontarii cuspidine_,
was not placed on the site of Dufferin Terrace, but at the south-east
point of the area, which is now occupied by the Grand Battery, north-east
of the present Parliament building and looking down on Sault-au-Matelot
street. Champlain subsequently removed it to a still more elevated site;
its bastions, towers and ramparts surrounded the space on which the former
Governor's residence, soldier's barracks, magazine, &c., were constructed.

    "The fortress, says Bouchette, (Fort) of St. Louis covered about four
    acres of ground, and formed nearly a parallelogram; on the western
    side two strong bastions on each angle were connected by a curtain, in
    the centre of which was a sallyport: the other faces presented works
    of nearly a similar description, but of less dimensions." [34]

We may add that Fort St. Louis, shown on the plan of Quebec of 1660,
published by Abbé Faillon, and more plainly exhibited on Jeffery's map of
Quebec, published in London in 1760, disappears after the conquest. No
mention is made of it in 1775, and still less in 1784, as a fortress.

Champlain, in his deposition, [35] sworn to, on the 9th Nov. 1629, in
London, before the Right Worshipful Sir Henry Martin, Knight, Judge of the
High Court of Admiralty, describes minutely, the armament and belongings
of Fort St. Louis, on the 9th August 1629, when he surrendered it to the
Kirkes: cannon such as they were, and ammunition he seems to have had in
abundance, without forgetting what he styles "the murderers with their
double boxes or charges," a not excessively deadly kind of
_mitrailleuse_ or Gatling gun, we should imagine; the Fort also contained
a smith's forge, carpenter's tools, machinery for a windmill, and a
handmill to grind corn, a brass bell--probably to sound the tocsin, or
alarm, at the approach of the marauding savages of Stadacona, the array
of muskets--(thirteen complete)--is not formidable. Who was the maker of
his pistol-proof coats-of-mail?


    _NEW CHÂTEAU ST. LOUIS._

      "Such dusky grandeur clothed the height
      Where the huge castle holds its state,
      And all the steep slope down
      Whose ridgy back heaves to the sky,
      Piled deep and massy, close and high
      Mine own romantic town."
                       (Scott's _Marmion_.)

    "Few circumstances of discussion and enquiry, says Hawkins, are more
    interesting than the history and fate of ancient buildings, especially
    if we direct our attention to the fortunes and vicissitudes of those
    who were connected with them. The temper, genius and pursuits of an
    historical era are frequently delineated in the features of remarkable
    edifices, nor can any one contemplate them without expressing
    curiosity, concerning those who first formed the plan, and afterwards
    created and tenanted the structure. These observations apply
    particularly to the subject of this chapter.

    The history of the ancient Castle of St. Louis, or Fort of Quebec, for
    above two centuries the seat of Government in the Province (of
    Quebec), affords subjects of great and stirring interest during its
    several periods. The hall of the old Fort during the weakness of the
    colony was often a scene of terror and despair at the inroads of the
    persevering and ferocious Iroquois, who, having passed or overthrown
    all the French outposts, more than once threatened the fort itself and
    massacred some friendly Indians within sight of its walls. Here, too,
    in intervals of peace, were laid those benevolent plans for the
    religious instruction and conversion of the savages which at one time
    distinguished the policy of the ancient governors. At a later era,
    when, under the protection of the French kings, the province had
    acquired the rudiments of military strength and power, the Castle of
    St. Louis was remarkable as having been the site whence the French
    governors exercised an immense sovereignty, extending from the Gulf of
    St. Lawrence, along the shores of that noble river, its magnificent
    lakes, and down the course of the Mississippi to its outlet below New
    Orleans. The banner which first streamed from the battlements of
    Quebec was displayed from a chain of forts which protected the
    settlements throughout this vast extent of country, keeping the
    English colonies in constant alarm, and securing the fidelity of the
    Indian nations. During this period the council-chamber of the castle
    was the scene of many a midnight vigil [36]--many a long deliberation
    and deep-laid project to free the continent from the intrusion of the
    ancient rival of France and assert the supremacy of the Gallic lily.
    At another era, subsequent to the surrender of Quebec to the British
    armies, and until the recognition of the independence of the United
    States, the extent of empire of the government of which the Castle of
    Quebec was the principal seat, comprehended the whole American
    continent north of Mexico. It is astonishing to reflect for a moment,
    to how small, and, as to size, comparatively insignificant an island
    in the Atlantic ocean this gigantic territory was once subject. Here
    also was rendered to the representative of the French king, with all
    its ancient forms, the fealty and homage of the noblesse and military
    retainers, who held possessions in the province under the crown. A
    feudal ceremony, suited to early times, which imposed a real and
    substantial obligation on those who performed it, not to be violated
    without forfeiture and dishonour. The king of Great Britain having
    succeeded to the rights of the French crown, this ceremony is still
    retained.

    "Fealty and homage is rendered at this day (1834) by the seigniors to
    the Governor, as the representative of the sovereign, in the following
    form: His Excellency being in full dress and seated in a state chair,
    surrounded by his staff, and attended by the Attorney-General, the
    seignior, in an evening dress and wearing a sword, is introduced into
    his presence by the Inspector General of the Royal Domain and Clerk of
    the Land Roll, and having delivered up his sword, and kneeling upon
    one knee before the Governor, places his right hand between his and
    repeats the ancient oath of fidelity; after which a solemn act is
    drawn up in a register kept for that purpose, which is signed by the
    Governor and the seignior, and countersigned by the proper officers."
    --(Hawkin's _Picture of Quebec_.)

    The historian, Ferland, _Notes sur les Registres de Notre Dame de
    Quebec_, relates one of the earliest instances (1634) of the manner
    the _foi et hommage_ was rendered. It is that of Jean Guion (Dion?)
    vassal of Robert Giffard, seignior of Beauport: "Guion presents
    himself in the presence of a notary, at the principal door of the
    manor-house of Beauport; having knocked, one Boulle, farmer of
    Giffard, opened the door and in reply to Guion's question, if the
    seignior was at home, replied that he was not, but that he, Boulle,
    was empowered to receive acknowledgments and homage for the vassals in
    his name. After the which reply, the said Guion, being at the
    principal door, placed himself on his knees, on the ground, with bare
    head and without sword or spurs, and said three times these words:
    'Monsieur de Beauport, Monsieur de Beauport, Monsieur de Beauport, I
    bring you the faith and homage which I am bound to bring you on
    account of my _fief_ Du Buisson, which I hold as a man of faith
    of your seigniory of Beauport, declaring that I offer to pay my
    seigniorial and feudal dues in their season, and demanding of you to
    accept me in faith and homage as aforesaid.'" (Parkman's _Old
    Regime_, p 246.)

    "Of these buildings (says Bouchette), the Castle of St. Louis being
    the most prominent object on the summit of the rock--will obtain the
    first notice.

    "It is a handsome stone building seated near the edge of a precipice,
    * * and supported towards the steep by a solid work of masonry, rising
    nearly half the height of the edifice, and surmounted by a spacious
    gallery, * * * The whole pile is 162 feet long by 45 feet broad, and
    three stories high * * * Each extremity is terminated by a small wing,
    giving to the whole an easy and regular character.

    "It was built shortly after the city was fortified with solid works,
    * * *--for a long series of years it was neglected, so much as to be
    suffered to go to decay, and ceasing to be the residence of the
    Commander-in-Chief, was used only for the offices of Government until
    the year 1808, when a resolution passed the Provincial Parliament for
    repairing and beautifying it; the sum of £1,000 was at the same time
    voted, and the work forthwith commenced.

    "The money applied was inadequate to defray the expenses--upon the
    grand scale the improvements were commenced, but an additional grant
    was made to cover the whole charge, * * *

    "Sir James Craig took possession of it, etc.

    "The part properly called the Château occupies one side of the square
    or court-yard; on the opposite side stands an extensive building
    (Haldimand Castle) divided among the offices of Government, both civil
    and military, that are under the immediate control of the Governor, it
    contains also a handsome suite of apartments where the balls and other
    public entertainments of the court are always given. During the
    dilapidated state of the Château, this building was occupied by the
    family of the Governors. Both the exterior and the interior are in a
    very plain style, it forms part of the curtain that ran between the
    two exterior bastions of the old fortress of St. Louis, adjoining it
    are several other buildings of smaller size, appropriated to similar
    uses, a guard house, stables, and extensive riding house, of these
    works only a few vestiges remain, except the eastern wall, which is
    kept in solid repair. The new guard house and stables, both fronting
    the parade, have a very neat exterior, the first forms the arc of a
    circle and has a colonnade before it, the stables are attached to the
    riding house, which is spacious, and in every way well adapted to its
    intended purpose, it is also used for drilling the city militia"--
    (Bouchette's _Topography of Lower Canada_, 1815, p. 431-4.)

The brilliant biographer of "Frontenac" and author of the, "Old Regime,"
thus sums up from the official correspondence of the French Governors and
Intendants the foundation, reconstructions and alterations in the Fort and
Château.

    "This structure," says Francis Parkman, "destined to be famous in
    Canadian history, was originally built by Samuel de Champlain. The
    cellar still remains under the wooden platform of the present Durham
    (now Dufferin) Terrace. Behind the château was the area of the fort,
    now an open square. In the most famous epoch of its history, the time
    of Frontenac, the château was old and dilapidated, and the fort was in
    sad condition." "The walls are all down," writes Frontenac in 1681,
    "there are neither gates nor guard-houses, the whole place is open."
    On this the new Intendant Meules was ordered to report what repairs
    were needed. Meanwhile la Barre had come to replace Frontenac, whose
    complaints he repeats. He says that the wall is in ruins for a
    distance of a hundred and eighty _toises_. "The workmen ask 6,000
    francs to repair it. I could get it done in France for 2,000. The cost
    frightens me. I have done nothing."--(_La Barre au Ministre_, 1682).
    Meules, however, received orders to do what was necessary, and, two
    years later, he reports that he had rebuilt the wall, repaired the
    fort, and erected a building, intended at first for the council,
    within the area. This building stood near the entrance of the present
    St. Louis street, and was enclosed by an extension of the fort wall.

    Denonville next appears on the scene, with his usual disposition to
    fault-finding. "The so-called château," he says (1685), "is built of
    wood, and is dry as a match. There is a place where with a bundle of
    straw it could be set on fire at any time,... some of the gates will
    not close, there is no watchtower, and no place to shoot from."--
    (_Denonville au Ministre_, 20 _Août_, 1685).

    When Frontenac resumed the Government, he was much disturbed at the
    condition of the château, and begged for slate to cover the roof, as
    the rain was coming in everywhere. At the same time the Intendant
    Champigny reports it to be rotten and ruinous. This was in the year
    made famous by the English attack, and the dramatic scene in the hall
    of the old building when Frontenac defied the envoy of Admiral Phipps,
    whose fleet lay in the river below. In the next summer, 1691,
    Frontenac again asks for slate to cover the roof, and for 15,000 or
    20,000 francs to repair his mansion.

    In the next year the king promised to send him 12,000 francs, in
    instalments. Frontenac acknowledges the favour, and says that he will
    erect a new building, and try in the meantime not to be buried under
    the old one, as he expects to be every time the wind blows hard.--
    (_Frontenac au Ministre_, 15 _Septembre_, 1692). A misunderstanding
    with the Intendant, who had control of the money, interrupted the
    work. Frontenac writes the next year that he had been "obliged to send
    for carpenters during the night, to prop up the château, lest he
    should be crushed under the ruins." The wall of the fort was, however,
    strengthened, and partly rebuilt to the height of sixteen feet, at a
    cost of 13,629 francs. It was a time of war, and a fresh attack was
    expected from the English.--(_Frontenac et Champigny au Ministre_, 4
    _Nov_, 1693). In the year 1854, the workmen employed in demolishing a
    part of this wall, adjoining the garden of the château, found a copper
    plate bearing an inscription in Latin as follows--

                                 D. O. M.
                         Anno reparatae salutis
                Millesimo sexcentesimo nonagesimo tertio
                 Regnante Augustissimo Invictissimo ac
                      Christianissimo Galliae Rege
                       Rege Ludovico Magno XIIII
               Excellentissimus ac Illustrissimus Dnûs Dnux
                          Ludovicus de Buade
                Comes de Frontenac, totius Novae Franciae
                        Semel et iterum Provex,
                Ab ipsomet, triennio ante rebellibus Novae
               Angliae incolis, hanc civitatem Quebecensem,
                  Obsidentibus, pulsis, fusis ac penitus
                               Devictis,
                Et iterum hocce supradicto anno obsidionem
                             Minitantibus
                  Hanc arcem cum adjectis munimentis
               In totius patriae tutelam populi salutem
              Nec non in perfidae, tum Deo, tum suo Regi
                Legitimo, gentis iterandum confusionem
                     Sumptibus regies oedificari
                               Curavit,
                     Ac primarium hunc lapidem
                               Posuit,

                                       JOANNES SOULLARD, Sculpsit

    (_Translation_)

    "In the year of Redemption, 1693, under the reign of the Most August,
    Most Invincible, and Most Christian King of France, Louis the Great,
    fourteenth of that name, the Most Excellent Louis de Buade, Count of
    Frontenac, Governor for the second time of all New France, seeing that
    the rebellious inhabitants of New England, who three years ago were
    repulsed, routed, and completely vanquished by him, when they besieged
    this town of Quebec, are threatening to renew the siege this very
    year, has caused to be built, at the expense of the King, this
    Citadel, with the fortifications adjoining thereto, for the defence of
    the country, for the security of the people, and for confounding again
    that nation perfidious alike towards its God and its lawful King, and
    he (_Frontenac_) has placed here this first stone."

    A year later, the rebuilding of the château was begun in earnest.
    Frontenac says that nothing but a miracle has saved him from being
    buried under its ruins, that he has pulled everything down, and begun
    again from the foundation, but that the money has given out.--
    (_Frontenac au Ministre_, 4 _Nov._, 1694) Accordingly, he and the
    Intendant sold six licenses for the fur trade, but at a rate unusually
    low, for they brought only 4,400 francs.

    The King hearing of this sent 6,000 more. Frontenac is profuse in
    thanks, and at the same time begs for another 6,000 francs, "to
    complete a work which is the ornament and beauty of the city" (1696).
    The Minister sent 8,000 more, which was soon gone; and Frontenac drew
    on the royal treasurer for 5,047 in addition. The Intendant complains
    of his extravagance, and says that he will have nothing but
    perfection; and that besides the château, he has insisted on building
    two guard-houses, with mansard roofs, at the two sides of the gate. "I
    must do as he says," adds the Intendant, "or there will be a quarrel."
    (_Champigny au Ministre_, 13 _Oct._, 1697). In a letter written two
    days after, Frontenac speaks with great complacency of his château,
    and asks for another 6,000 francs to finish it. As the case was urgent
    he sold six more licenses at 1,000 francs each, but he died too soon
    to see the completion of his favorite work (1698). The new château was
    not finished before 1700, and even then it had no cistern. In a pen
    sketch of Quebec, on a manuscript map of 1699, preserved in the Dépôt
    de Cartes de la Marine, the new château is distinctly represented. In
    front is a gallery or balcony resting on a wall and buttresses at the
    edge of the cliff. Above the gallery is a range of high windows, along
    the face of the building, and over these a range of small windows and
    a mansard roof. In the middle is a porch opening on the gallery, and
    on the left extends a battery, on the ground now occupied by a garden
    along the brink of the cliff. A water-colour sketch of the château
    taken in 1804, from the land side, by William Morrison, Jr., is in my
    possession. [37] The building appears to have been completely
    remodelled in the interval. It is two stories in height, the mansard
    roof is gone, and a row of attic windows surmount the second story. In
    1809 it was again remodelled at a cost of ten thousand pounds
    sterling, a third story was added, and the building, resting on the
    buttresses which still remain under the balustrade of Durham
    (Dufferin) Terrace, had an imposing effect when seen from the river.
    It was destroyed by fire in 1834.--(Parkman's _Old Regime_.)


HALDIMAND CASTLE

After sketching Fort St. Louis, begun in 1624,--a refuge against the
Iroquois, and whose bastions rendered useless disappeared shortly after
the conquest, as well as giving the history of the Château St. Louis
proper, destroyed by fire 23rd January, 1834, it behoves us to close the
narrative with a short account of the origin of the wing or new building
still extant, and used since 1871 as the Normal School. This structure
generally, though improperly styled the _Old Château_, dates back to
the last century. On the 5th May, 1784, the corner stone was laid with
suitable ceremonies, by the Governor-General, Sir Frederick Haldimand; the
Château St. Louis had been found inadequate in size for the various
purposes required, viz.: a Vice-regal residence, a Council room for the
Legislative, the Executive and Judiciary Councils, &c.

The Province was rapidly expanding, as well as the Viceroy's levees,
official balls, public receptions, &c.; suites of rooms and stately
chambers, became indispensible.

The following incident occurred during its construction:--On the 17th
September, 1784, the workmen at the Château in levelling the yard, dug up
a large stone with a Maltese cross engraved on it, bearing the date
"1647." One of Wolfe's veterans, Mr. James Thompson, Overseer of Public
Works, got the masons to lay the stone in the cheek of the gate of the new
building. A wood-cut of the stone, gilt at the expense of Mr. Ernest
Gagnon, City Councillor in 1872, appeared in the _Morning Chronicle_
of the 24th June, 1880. Let us hope when the site shall be transferred,
that the Hon. Premier will have a niche reserved for this historic relic
as was so appropriately done by Sir H L Langevin, for the "Chien d'Or"
tablet when the new city Post Office was built in 1871-3.

Haldimand Castle soon became a building of note. On the 19th January,
1787, the anniversary of the Queen's Birthday--Charlotte of Mecklenburg,
consort of George III., the first grand reception was held there. In the
following summer, the future monarch of Great Britain, William IV., the
sailor prince, aged 22 years, visited his father's loyal Canadian lieges.
Prince William Henry had then landed, on 14th August, in the Lower Town
from H. M. frigate "Pegasus." Traditions repeat that the young Duke of
Clarence enjoyed himself amazingly among the _beau monde_ of Quebec,
having eyes for more than the scenic beauties of the "Ancient Capital,"
not unlike other worthy Princes who came after him.

    "He took an early opportunity of visiting the Ursulines, and by his
    polite and affable manner quite won the hearts of those worthy
    ladies."--(_Histoire des Ursulines_, vol. III, p. 183.)

Sorel, in honour of his visit, changed its name into Fort William Henry.
Among other festivities at Quebec, Lord Dorchester, Governor-General, the
successor to Sir Frederick Haldimand, on the 21st August, 1787, treated H.
R. Highness to a grand pyrotechnic display. "Prince William Henry and his
company, being seated on an exalted platform, erected by the Overseer of
Public Works, James Thompson, over a powder magazine joining the end of
the new building (Haldimand Castle), while the fireworks were displayed on
an eminence fronting it below the _old_ Citadel."--(_Thompson's Diary._)


_THE QUEBEC AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY._

In the stately reception room of the Castle was founded, in 1789, the
_Quebec Agricultural Society_.

    "On the 6th April, the rank and fashion, nobility and clergy of all
    denominations, as well as commoners, crowded at the _Château St.
    Louis_, to enter their names as subscribers to the Quebec Agricultural
    Society, warmly patronized by his Excellency Lord Dorchester, Hon.
    Hugh Finlay, Deputy Postmaster-General, was chosen Secretary.

    The _Quebec Gazette_ of the 23rd April, 1789, will supply the names,
    the list is suggestive on more points than one.

    Rev. Philip Tosey, Military         M. Pierre Florence, Rivière
      Chaplain.                           Ouelle
    T. Monk, Atty-Genl.                 T. Arthur Coffin
    G. B. Taschereau, Esq.              Capt. Chas. St. Ours.
    Peter Stewart, Esq.                 Aug. Glapion, Sup. Jésuites.
    Malcolm Fraser, Esq.                A. Hubert, Curé de Québec.
    William Lindsay, Esq.               Juchereau Duchesnay, Esq.
    J. B. Deschêneaux, Esq.             L. de Salaberry, Esq.
    John Lees, Esq.                     P. Panet, P.C.
    John Renaud, Esq.                   M. Grave, Supérieur, Séminaire
    John Young, Esq.                    John Craigie, Esq.
    Mathew Lymburner, Esq.              Berthelot D'Artigny, Esq.
    John Blackwood, Esq.                Perrault l'Aine, Esq.
    M. L. Germain, fils.                George Allsopp, Esq.
    A. Panet, Esq.                      Robert Lester, Esq.
    P. L. Panet, Esq.                   Alex. Davidson, Esq.
    A. Gaspé, Esq., St. Jean Port       The Chief Justice (W. Smith).
      Joly.                             Hon. Hugh Finlay.
    M. Ob. Aylwin.                      Hon. Thos. Dunn.
    The Canadian Bishop.                Hon. Edw. Harrison.
    M. Bailly, Coadjutor.               Hon. John Collins.
    T. Mervin Nooth, Dr.                Hon. Adam Mabane.
    Henry Motz, Dr.                     Hon. J. G. C. DeLéry.
    Jenkins Williams.                   Hon. Geo. Pownall.
    Isaac Ogden, Judge of Admiralty.    Hon. Henry Caldwell.
    Messire Panet, Curé of Rivière      Hon. William Grant.
      Ouelle.                           Hon. Francois Baby.
    Sir Thomas Mills.                   Hon. Saml. Holland.
    François Dambourges, Esq.           Hon. Geo. Davidson.
    Capt. Fraser, 34th Regt.            Hon. Chas. De Lanaudière.
    Kenelm Chandler, Esq.               Hon. LeCompte Dupré.
    J. T. Cugnet, Esq.                  Major Mathews.
    J. F. Cugnet, Esq.                  Capt. Rotson.


_THE LOYAL LEAGUE._

Could that patriotic feeling which, ten years later, in 1799, enlisted
Quebecers of all creeds to support Great Britain, then at war with
regicide France, have been inspired by the sturdy old chieftain, who
hailed from the Castle,--General Robert Prescott? It was indeed a novel
idea, that loyal league, which exhibited both R. C and Anglican Bishops,
each putting their hands in their pockets to help Protestant England to
rout the armies of the "eldest son of the Church," represented by the
First Consul; so general and so intense was the horror inspired by
revolutionary and regicide France.

    Though in the past, as at present, attempts were occasionally made to
    stir up discord amongst our citizens, there appears more than once,
    traces of enlarged patriotism and loyalty to the mother country,
    animating all classes. This seems conspicuous in the public invitation
    by men of both nationalities, inserted in a public journal, for 1799,
    to form a national fund in order to help England with the war waged
    against France; this invitation not only bears the signatures of
    leading English citizens, but also those of several Quebecers of
    French extraction, rejoicing in old and historic names such as the
    following."--(_Quebec, Past and Present_, page 244.)

    Hon. William Osgood, C. Justice.    John Young.
    Hon. Francois Baby.                 Louis Dunière.
    Hon. Hugh Finlay.                   J. Sewell.
    Hon. J. A. Panet.                   John Craigie.
    Hon. Thos. Dunn.                    Wm. Grant.
    Hon. Ant. Juchereau Duchesnay       Rob. Lester.
    Hon. George Pownall.                Jas. Sheppard, Sheriff.

    Mr. Panet, one of the signers, was Speaker of our Commons for twenty-
    two years later on. The city journals contain the names and amounts
    subscribed, as follows:--

    J. Quebec .................................. £300  0 0
    Wm. Osgood .................................  300  0 0
    George Pownall .............................  100 guineas
    Henry Caldwell ............................. £300  0 0
    George W. Taylor, .. per annum during war...    5  0 0
    A. J. Baby, ............. "       " ........    5  0 0
    Geo. Heriot, ............ "       " ........   50  0 0
    Chs. De Léry, ........... "       " ........   12  0 0
    John Blackwood, ......... "       " ........   10  0 0
    Wm. Burns, .............. "       " ........   20  0 0
    Le Séminaire de Quebec, . "       " ........   50  0 0
    J. A. Panet, ............ "       " ........   30  0 0
    John Wurtele, ........... "       " ........    4  0 0
    Wm. Grant, .............. "       " ........   32  4 5
    Wm. Bouthillier, ........ "       " ........    3 10 0
    Juchereau Duchesnay, .... "       " ........   20  0 0
    James Grossman, ......... "       " ........   10  0 0
    Henry Brown, ............ "       " ........    0 10 0
    Thos. Dunn, ............. "       " ........   66  0 0
    Peter Boatson, .......... "       " ........   23  6 8
    Antoine Nadeau, ......... "       " ........    0  6 0
    Robert Lester, .......... "       " ........   30  0 0
    Le Coadjutor de Quebec, . "       " ........   25  0 0
    Thos. Scott, ............ "       " ........   20  0 0
    Chs. Stewart, ........... "       " ........   11  2 2
    Samuel Holland, ......... "       " ........   20  0 0
    Jenkin Williams, ........ "       " ........   55 11 1
    Francois Baby, .......... "       " ........   40  0 0
    G. Elz. Taschereau, ..... "       " ........   10  0 0
    M. Taschereau, Curé de St. Croix, " ........    5  0 0
    Thos. Taschereau, ....... "       " ........    5  0 0
    Monro & Bell, ........... "       " ........  100  0 0
    J. Stewart, ............. "       " ........   11 13 4
    Louis Dumon, ............ "       " ........   23  6 8
    Rev. Frs. de Montmollin,  "       " ........   10  0 0
    Xavier de Lanaudière, ... "       " ........   23  6 8
    Peter Stewart, .......... "       " ........   11  2 2
    Messire Raimbault, Ange-Gardien,  " ........    4 13 5
    Messire Villase, Ste. Marie,      " ........    4 13 4
    Messire Bernard Panet, Rivière Ouelle, .....    5  0 0
    Messire Jacques Panet, Islet,     " .......    25  0 0

    See _Quebec Gazette_, 4th July, 1799.
    See _Quebec Gazette_, 29th August, 1799.


    _AN ANTIQUE STONE._

    "Praetorian here, Praetorian there, I mind the bigging o't"--
    (_The Antiquary_)

    [Illustration: THE OLD CHÂTEAU STONE]

    Some years back a spicy little controversy was waged among our Quebec
    antiquarians as to the origin and real date of the stone in the wall
    adjoining the _Old Château_, the two last figures of the inscription
    being indistinct.

    Was it 1646, 1647 or 1694? After deep research, profound cogitation
    and much ink used in the public prints, 1647, the present date,
    prevailed, and Mr. Ernest Gagnon, then a City Councillor, had this
    precious relic restored and gilt at his cost.

    The date 1647 also agrees with the Jesuits _Relation_, which states
    that, in 1647, under Governor de Montmagny, one of the bastions was
    lined with stone; additional light was thrown on this controversy, by
    the inspection of a deed of agreement, bearing date at Fort St. Louis,
    19th October, 1646, exhumed from the Court House vaults, and signed by
    the stonemasons who undertook to _revetir de murailles un bastion qui
    est au bas de l'allee du Mont Caluaire, descendant au Fort St. Louis_,
    for which work they were to receive from _Monsieur Bourdon_, engineer
    and surveyor, 2,000 _livres_ and a puncheon of wine.

    This musty, dry-as-dust, old document gives rise to several enquiries.
    One not the least curious, is the luxurious mode of life, which the
    puncheon of wine supposes among stonemasons at such a remote period of
    Quebec history as 1646. Finally, it was decided that this stone and
    cross were intended to commemorate the year in which the Fort St.
    Louis Bastion, begun in 1646, was finished, viz., 1647.

    This historic stone, which has nothing in common with the

      "Stone of Blarney
      On the banks of Killarney,"

    cropped up again more than a century later, in the days when Sergeant
    Jas. Thompson, one of Wolfe's veterans, was overseer of public works
    at Quebec--(he died in 1830, aged 98.) We read in his unpublished
    diary. "The cross in the wall, September 17th, 1784. The miners at the
    Château, in levelling the yard, dug up a large stone, from which I
    have described the annexed figure (identical with the present), I
    could wish it was discovered soon enough to lay conspicuously in the
    wall of the new building, (Haldimand Castle), in order to convey to
    posterity the antiquity of the Château St. Louis. However, I got the
    masons to lay the stone in the cheek of the gate of new building."
    Extract from _James Thompson's Diary_, 1759-1830.

    Col. J. Hale, grandfather to our esteemed fellow townsman, E. J. Hale,
    Esq., and one of Wolfe's companions-at-arms, used to tell how he had
    succeeded in having this stone saved from the _débris_ of the Château
    walls, and restored a short time before the Duke of Clarence, the
    sailor prince (William IV), visited Quebec in 1787.

Occasionally, the Castle opened its portals to rather unexpected but, nor
the less welcome, visitors. On the 13th March, 1789, His Excellency Lord
Dorchester had the satisfaction of entertaining a stalwart woodsman and
expert hunter, Major Fitzgerald of the 54th Regiment, then stationed at
St. John, New Brunswick, the son of a dear old friend, Lady Emilia Mary,
daughter of the Duke of Richmond. This chivalrous Irishman was no less
than the dauntless Lord Edward Fitzgerald, fifth son of the Duke of
Leinster, the true but misguided patriot, who closed his promising career
in such a melancholy manner in prison, during the Irish rebellion in 1798.
Lord Edward had walked up on snowshoes through the trackless forest, from
New Brunswick to Quebec, a distance of 175 miles, in twenty-six days,
accompanied by a brother officer, Mr. Brisbane, a servant and two
"woodsmen." This feat of endurance is pleasantly described by himself.

Tom Moore, in his biography of this generous, warmhearted son of Erin,
among other dutiful epistles addressed by Lord Edward to his mother, has
preserved the following, of which we shall give a few extracts:--

    QUEBEC, March 14, 1789.

    DEAREST MOTHER,--I got here yesterday after a very long and, what some
    people would think, a very tedious and fatiguing journey; but to me it
    was, at most, only a little fatiguing, and to make up for that, it was
    delightful and quite new. We were thirty days on our march, twenty-six
    of which we were in the woods, and never saw a soul but our own party.

    You must know we came through a part of the country that had always
    been reckoned impassable. In short, instead of going a long way about,
    we determined to try and get straight through the woods, and see what
    kind of country it was. I believe I mentioned my party in a letter to
    Ogilvie (his step-father) before I left St. Anne's or Fredericton: it
    was an officer of the regiment, Tonny, and two woodsmen. The officer
    and I used to draw part of our baggage day about, and the other day
    steer (by compass), which we did so well, that we made the point we
    intended within ten miles. We were only wrong in computing our
    distances and making them a little too great, which obliged us to
    follow a new course, and make a river, which led us round to Quebec,
    instead of going straight to it. * * * I expect my leave by the first
    despatches. * * * I shall not be able to leave this part of the world
    till May, as I cannot get my leave before that. How I do long to see
    you. Your old love, Lord Dorchester, is very civil to me. I must,
    though, tell you a little more of the journey. After making the river,
    we fell in with some savages, and travelled with them to Quebec; they
    were very kind to us, and said we were "all one brother," "all one
    indian." They fed us the whole time we were with them. You would have
    laughed to have seen me carrying an old squaw's pack, which was so
    heavy I could hardly waddle under it. However, I was well paid
    whenever we stopped, for she always gave me the best bits and most
    soup, and took as much care of me as if I had been her own son; in
    short, I was quite _l'enfant chéri_. We were quite sorry to part:
    the old lady and gentleman both kissed me very heartily. I gave the
    old lady one of Sophia's silver spoons, which pleased her very much.
    When we got here, you may guess what figures we were. We had not
    shaved nor washed during the journey; our blanket-coats and trousers
    all worn out and pieced, in short, we went to two or three houses and
    they would not let us in. There was one old lady, exactly the
    _hôtesse_ in Gil Blas, _elle me prit la mesure du pied jusqu'à
    la tête_, and told me there was one room, without a stove or bed,
    next a billiard room, which I might have if I pleased, and when I her
    told we were gentlemen, she very quietly said, "I dare say you are,"
    and off she went. However, at last we got lodgings in an ale house,
    and you may guess ate well and slept well, and went next day well
    dressed, with one of Lord Dorchester's aide-de-camps to triumph over
    the old lady; in short, exactly the story in Gil Blas.

    We are quite curiosities here after our journey, some think we were
    mad to undertake it, some think we were lost; some will have it we
    were starved; there were a thousand lies, but we are safe and well,
    enjoying rest and good eating, most completely. One ought really to
    take these fillips now and then, they make one enjoy life a great deal
    more.

    The hours here are a little inconvenient to us as yet; whenever we
    wake at night we want to eat, the same as in the woods, and as soon as
    we eat we want to sleep. In our journey we were always up two hours
    before day, to load and get ready to march, we used to stop between
    three and four, and it generally took us from that till night to
    shovel out the snow, cut wood, cook and get ready for night, so that
    immediately after our suppers we were asleep, and whenever any one
    awakes in the night, he puts some wood on the fire, and eats a bit
    before he lies down again; but for my part, I was not much troubled
    with waking in the night.

    "I really do think there is no luxury equal to that of lying before a
    good fire on a good spruce bed, after a good supper, and a hard moose
    chase in a fine clear frosty moonlit starry night. But to enter into
    the spirit of this, you must understand what a moose chase is: the man
    himself runs the moose down by pursuing the track. Your success in
    killing depends on the number of people you have to pursue and relieve
    one another in going first (which is the fatiguing part of snow-
    shoeing), and on the depth and hardness of the snow, for when the snow
    is hard and has a crust, the moose cannot get on, as it cuts his legs,
    and then he stops to make battle. But when the snow is soft, though it
    be above his belly, he will go on three, four or five days, for then
    the man cannot get on so fast, as the snow is heavy and he only gets
    his game by perseverance--an Indian never gives him up." Then follows
    a most graphic description of a hunt--closing with the death of the
    noble quarry.

    "Pray," continues Lord Edward, "write to uncle Richmond, I would write
    if there was time, but I have only time to fill up this."

    Tom Moore adds, that the plan of Lord Edward's route through the woods
    was forwarded from Quebec to the Duke of Richmond, by Mr. Hamilton
    Moore, in a letter dated Quebec, May 22nd, 1789, this letter closes
    with the following:--"Lord Edward has met with the esteem and
    admiration of all here."

    In a subsequent epistle to Mr. Ogilvie, his step-father, dated
    "Quebec, 12th April, 1789," Lord Edward mentions the death of the
    Lieut.-Governor of Quebec (Major Patrick Bellew). "It is a place of
    £1,600 a year, and I think would do well for Charles. The day before
    he died I was in treaty for his Lieut.-Colonelcy in the 44th
    Regiment."

    Later, on 4th May, 1789, he writes from Montreal, and speaks
    gratefully of the open-handed hospitality extended to him, and of the
    kind lady friends he met at Quebec. (Page 67.)

Alas! generous youth, what foul fiend, three year later, inspired you,
with Tom Paine as your adviser, to herd at Paris with the regicide crew,
and howl the "_Carmagnole_" and "_Çà Ira_," with the hideous monsters who
revelled in blood under the holy name of liberty?

Again, one follows the patriotic Irish nobleman, in 1793, plighting his
faith to a lovely and noble bride, Pamela Sims, the youthful daughter of
the Duke of Orleans, by Madame de Genlis.

A few short years and the ghastly phantom of death, in a dismal prison, in
the dearly loved land of his birth, spreads a pall over what might have
been to his unfortunate country, a career full of honour. Alas! brave,
noble Edward! Poor, pretty little Pamela, alas!

The Castle had its sunshine and its shadows. Many still survive to tell of
an impressive, and gloomy pageant. On the 4th September, 1819, previous to
their transfer to the chancel of the Anglican Cathedral, were exposed in
state in the Château, the mortal remains of the late Governor-General, His
Grace Charles Gordon Lennox, Duke of Richmond, Lennox and Aubigny, who, on
the 28th August, 1819, had died of hydrophobia.

The revolving wheel of time ushers in, with his successor, other actors,
and other scenes. One likes to recall the presence there of a graceful and
noble Chatelaine, his daughter, Lady Sarah Lennox, the devoted wife of the
administrator of the Government of Lower Canada, Sir Peregrine Maitland,
"a tall, grave officer, says Dr. Scadding, always in military undress, his
countenance ever wearing a mingled expression of sadness and benevolence,
like that which one may observe on the face of the predecessor of Louis
Philippe, Charles the Tenth," whose current portraits recall, not badly,
the whole head and figure of this early Governor of Upper Canada.

    "In an outline representation which we (Dr. Scadding) accidentally
    possessed, of a panorama of the battle of Waterloo, on exhibition in
    London, the 1st Foot Guards were conspicuously to be seen, led on by
    'Major General Sir Peregrine Maitland.'" [38]

    With persons of wider knowledge, Sir Peregrine was invested With
    further associations. Besides being the royal representative in these
    parts, he was the son-in-law of Charles Gordon Lennox, fourth Duke of
    Richmond, a name that stirred chivalrous feelings in early Canadians
    of both Provinces; for the Duke had come to Canada as Governor-in-
    Chief, with a grand reputation acquired as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland,
    and great benefits were expected, and probably would have been
    realized, from his administration, had it been of long continuance.
    But he had been suddenly removed by an excruciating death. Whilst on a
    tour of inspection in the Upper Province, he had been fatally attacked
    by hydrophobia, occasioned by the bite of a pet fox. The injury had
    been received at Sorel; its terrible effects were fatally experienced
    at a place near the Ottawa river called Richmond.

    Some of the prestige of the deceased Duke continued to adhere to Sir
    Peregrine Maitland, for he had married the Duke's daughter, a graceful
    and elegant woman, who was always at his side here (York, now
    Toronto), and at Stanford Cottage across the lake. She bore a name not
    unfamiliar in the domestic annals of George III., who once, it is
    said, was enamored of a beautiful Lady Sarah Lennox, grandmother, as
    we suppose, or some other near relative of the Lady Sarah Lennox here
    before us. However, conversationists whispered about (in confidence)
    something supposed to be unknown to the general public, that the match
    between Sir Peregrine and Lady Sarah had been effected in spite of the
    Duke. The report was that there had been an elopement, and it was
    naturally supposed that the party of the sterner sex bad been the most
    active agent in the affair. To say the truth, however, in this
    instance it was the lady who precipitated matters. The affair occurred
    at Paris, soon after the Waterloo campaign. The Duke's final
    determination against Sir Peregrine's proposals having been announced,
    the daughter suddenly withdrew from the father's roof, and fled to the
    lodgings of Sir Peregrine, who instantly retired to other quarters.
    The upshot of the whole thing, at once romantic and unromantic,
    included a marriage and a reconciliation, and eventually a Lieutenant-
    Governorship for the son-in-law, under the Governorship-in-Chief of
    the father, both despatched together to undertake the discharge of
    vice-regal functions in a distant colony. At the time of his marriage
    with Lady Sarah Lennox, Sir Peregrine had been for some ten years a
    widower. [39] After the death of the Duke of Richmond, Sir Peregrine
    became administrator, for a time of the general government of British
    North America.

One of the Duke of Richmond's sons was lost in the ill-fated steamer
_President_ in 1840. In December, 1824, Sir Peregrine revisited Quebec
with Sir Francis Burton, Lieutenant-Governor, in the _Swiftsure_, steamer
escorting some very distinguished tourists. A periodical notices the
arrivals at the old Château as follows:--

    "Sir Peregrine is accompanied by Lord Arthur Lennox, Mr. Maitland,
    Colonels Foster, Lightfoot, Coffin and Talbot, with the Hon. E. G.
    Stanley (from 1851 to 1869 Earl of Derby), grandson of Earl Derby, M.
    P. for Stockbridge; John E. Denison, Esq., (subsequently Speaker of
    the House of Commons), M. P. for Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and James S.
    Wortley, Esq. (afterwards Lord Wharncliffe), M. P. for Bossiney in
    Cornwall. The three latter gentlemen are upon a tour in this country
    from England, and we are happy to learn, that they have expressed
    themselves as being highly gratified with all they have hitherto seen
    in Canada."--(_Canadian Review_, 1824.)

Quebecers will be pleased to learn that the name of Sir Peregrine Maitland
is pleasantly preserved by means of Maitland Scholarships in a grammar
school for natives at Madras, and by a Maitland Prize in the University of
Cambridge. Sir Peregrine, as patron of education, opened an era of
progress which his successors Lords Elgin, Dufferin and Lorne have
continued in a most munificent manner.

A curious glimpse of high life at Quebec, in the good old days of Lord
Dalhousie, is furnished in a letter addressed to _Delta_, of Blackwood's
Magazine, by John Galt, the novelist, the respected father of our gifted
statesman, Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt. [40]

The talented author of the "_Annals of the Parish_," after expatiating on
the dangers he had that day incurred in crossing over from Levis to Quebec
in a canoe, among the ice-floes, thus alludes to the winter amusements:--

    QUEBEC, 22nd February, 1827.

    MY DEAR SIR,--I am under very great obligations to you. A copy of the
    "Laird" having come to the castle from the New York publishers, Lady
    Dalhousie lent it to me. * * * I am much pleased with Quebec. It is at
    present filled with Highland regiments, in which I have many
    acquaintances and the hospitality of the other inhabitants is also
    unbounded, for the winter suspends all business, and pleasure is
    conducted as if it were business. The amateurs have a theatre, and I
    wrote a piece for them, in which a Londoner, a Glasgow merchant, an
    Irish girl, a Yankee family and a Highlander were introduced. It was
    adapted entirely to the place, and in quiz of a very agreeable custom
    --of everybody calling on strangers. Dr. Dunlop performed the
    Highlander beyond anything I ever saw on the regular stage. The whole
    went off with more laughter than anything I have ever seen, for the
    jokes being local and personal (supplied by upwards of thirty
    contributors), every one told with the utmost effect."

    "This farce, says Delta, composed at Quebec by J. Galt, and performed
    there before the Earl of Dalhousie (then Governor-General), was named
    "The Visitors, or a Trip to Quebec," and was meant as a good humoured
    satire on some of the particular usages of the place. An American
    family figured as the visitors, and the piece opened with a scene in
    an hôtel, when a waiter brings in a tea-tray loaded with cards of
    callers, and the explanation of the initials having had reference to
    people, many of whom were present at the performance, tended much to
    make the thing pass off with great éclat. It seems that a custom
    prevails there to a punctilious extent, of all the inhabitants of a
    certain grade calling upon strangers and leaving their cards.

    "This flash of harmless lightning, however, assumed somewhat of a
    malignant glare when seen from the United States. The drift of the
    performance was, it seems, hideously misrepresented by some of the
    newspapers, and it was said that Mr. Galt had ungratefully ridiculed
    the Americans, notwithstanding the distinction and hospitality with
    which they had received him. It thus came to pass that he promised,
    when next in New York, to write another farce, in which liberty as
    great should be taken with his own countrymen. "An Aunt in Virginia"
    was the product of this promise, and with the alterations mentioned
    and a change of scene from New York to London, it was published under
    the name of "Scotch and Yankees.""

A volume would not suffice to detail the brilliant receptions, gay routs,
_levees_, state balls given at the Castle during Lord Dorchester's
administration--the lively discussions--the formal protests originating
out of points of precedence, burning _questions de jupons_ between
the touchy magnates of the old and those of the new _regime_. Whether
la Baronne de St. Laurent would be admitted there or not? Whether a de
Longueuil's or a de Lanaudière's place was on the right of Lady Maria, the
charming consort of His Excellency Lord Dorchester--a daughter of the
great English Earl of Effingham? Whether dancing ought to cease when their
Lordships the Bishops entered, and made their bow to the representative of
royalty? Unfortunately Quebec had then no Court Journal, so that following
generations will have but faint ideas of all the witchery, the stunning
head-dresses, the _décolletées_, high-waisted robes of their stately
grandmothers, whirled round in the giddy waltz by whiskered, épauletted
cavaliers, or else courtesying in the demure _menuet de la cour_.

In August, 1796, when Isaac Weld, Jr., visited Quebec, he describes the
old part of the château as chiefly taken up with the public offices, all
the apartments in it, says he, "are small and ill-contrived; but in the new
part (Haldimand Castle) which stands in front of the other, facing the
square (the ring), they are spacious and tolerably well furnished, but
none of them can be called elegant. This part is inhabited by the
Governor's family. * * * * Every evening during summer, when the weather
is fine, one of the regiments of the garrison parades in the open place
before the château, and the band plays for an hour or two, at which time
the place becomes the resort of numbers of the most genteel people of the
town, and has a very gay appearance." (_Weld's Travels through the States
of North America in_ 1795-6-7, vol. 1, p. 351)

In 1807, when the deadly duel between England and Imperial France was at
its height, Great Britain sent New France as her Viceroy, a military
Governor, equally remarkable for the sternness of his rule and for his
love of display, hence the name of "Little King Craig," awarded to Sir
James Craig. To meet his requirements the House of Assembly voted in 1808,
a sum of £7,000 to repair the Château St. Louis. Sir James took up his
quarters in the interim, in Castle Haldimand. The Château St. Louis
received an additional story and was much enlarged. In 1812 an additional
sum of £7,980 19s 4d was voted to cover the deficit in the repairs. Little
King Craig inhabited Château St. Louis during the winters of 1809-10-11,
occupying Spencer Wood during the summer months. The _Château_ stables
were subsequently converted into a riding school, afterwards into a
theatre, where the exhibition of Harrison's Diorama caused the awful
tragedy of 12th June, 1846. [41] The Earl of Durham, in 1838, struck with
the commanding position of this site, had the charred ruins of the old
Château removed and erected a lofty platform which soon was called after
him "Durham Terrace."

In 1851-2-3-4, Haldimand Castle was repaired at a cost of $13,718.42. In
1854, Hon. Jean Chabot, member for Quebec and Commissioner of Public
Works, had Durham Terrace much enlarged; the adjoining walls were repaired
at an expense of $4,209.92. More expenditure was incurred in 1857. When
the Laval Normal School was installed there, Bishop Langevin, then
Principal, had the wing erected where the chapel stands. The vaulted room
used as a kitchen for the Laval Normal School, was an old powder magazine;
it is the most ancient portion of the building. The present Castle was, by
Order in Council of 14th February, 1871, transferred by the Dominion
authorities to the Government of the Province of Quebec, together with
Durham Terrace, the Sewell Mansion, facing the Esplanade (Lieutenant-
Governor's office), also, the site and buildings of the Parliament House,
on Mountain Hill.

The extension of this lofty and beautiful Terrace, suggested to the City
Council by the City Engineer in his report of 1872, necessarily formed a
leading feature in the splendid scheme of city improvements, originated by
the Earl of Dufferin, with the assistance of Mr. Lynn, an eminent Irish
engineer, and of our City Engineer, le Chevalier Baillairge. An appeal was
made by a true and powerful friend to Quebec (Lord Dufferin) to our
gracious Sovereign, who contributed munificently from her private purse,
for the erection of the new gate, called after her late father, the Duke
of Kent--Kent Gate, in remembrance of his long sojourn (1791-4) in this
city. Large sums were also granted by the Dominion, it is thought, chiefly
through the powerful influence of Lord Dufferin, seconded by Sir H. L.
Langevin; an appeal was also made for help to the City Council and not in
vain; it responded by a vote of $7,500.

The front wall was built at the expense of the Dominion Government, and
occupies part of the site of the old battery, erected on that portion of
the château garden granted to Major Samuel Holland in 1766.

The length of Dufferin Terrace is 1420 feet, and it is 182 feet above the
level of the St. Lawrence. It forms part of the city fortifications. The
site can be resumed by the Commander of the Forces (the Governor-General)
whenever he may deem it expedient for objects within the scope of his
military authority.

Durham Terrace, increased to four times its size, now forms a link in the
Dufferin plans of city embellishment, of which the corner stone was laid
by the Earl of Dufferin on the 18th October, 1878, and was authentically
recognized as "Dufferin Terrace" in April and May, 1879, in the official
records of the City Council; several iron plates were inserted in the
flooring with the inscription, "_Dufferin Terrace, H. Hatch, contractor,
C. Baillairge, engineer._" But a famous name of the past, which many
loved to connect with this spot--that of Louis de Buade, Count de
Frontenac, was not forgotten. The Literary and Historical Society of
Quebec, on the 18th April, 1879, presented to the City Council a petition,
asking among other things, that one of the handsome kiosks on the Terrace
should bear the name of Frontenac; their prayer was granted, and by a
resolution moved on 9th May, 1879, by Mr. P. Johnson, C.C., and seconded
by Alderman Rhéaume, the five kiosks of Dufferin Terrace were named
_Victoria, Louise, Lorne, Frontenac, Plessis_.

It is the site of the present Normal School, adjacent to this historic
spot, which has been selected for the palatial hotel in contemplation.


    LAYING OF CORNER STONE OF DUFFERIN TERRACE

    "The laying of the corner stone of Dufferin Terrace took place the
    same day (18th Oct., 1878) as that of the two city gates, the St.
    Louis and the Kent Gate. The ceremony was performed in the presence of
    thousands. His Worship the Mayor (R. Chambers) received His Excellency
    the Earl of Dufferin, and with him were present many of the Aldermen
    and Councillors, with the City Engineer and contractors, the members
    of the Judiciary, Consul-General of Spain, Consuls of France, Belgium
    and the United States, Dean Stanley, of London, England; Mrs.
    Stevenson, sister to the Countess of Dufferin, Messrs. Russell
    Stevenson, R. R. Dobell, Simon Peters, Dr. Marsden, Jas. Motz, many
    ex-Aldermen and ex-Councillors, Alexander Woods, Chairman of the
    Harbour Commission, W. S. Desbarats, W. G. Sheppard, Wm. White, Very
    Revd. H. Hamel, His Lordship Judge Taschereau, late of the Supreme
    Court, Hon. Judge H. Taschereau, Judge of the Superior Court, &c.

    "A handsome trowel and mallet were handed to His Excellency the
    manufacture of Mr. Cyrille Duquet. On the face of the trowel a
    splendid likeness of the Governor-General was embossed, and an
    appropriate inscription was engraved thereon. On the plate of the
    foundation stone the inscription reads as follows:--"Dufferin
    Terrace, laid by His Excellency the Earl of Dufferin, Governor-General
    of the Dominion of Canada, on the 18th day of October, 1878, in
    presence of the Dominion and city authorities and dignitaries, and an
    immense concourse of people from all parts of Canada, also His Honor
    Luc Letellier de St. Just, Lieut.-Governor of the Province of Quebec,
    R. Chambers, Esq., Mayor of the city of Quebec. City Aldermen--Hon.
    John Hearn, Patrick Henchey, Louis Bourget, R. F. Rinfret, Francois
    Gingras, J. P. Rhéaume, Germain Guay, F. O. Vallerand, Esqs. City
    Councillors--Onésime Beaubien, Andrew Hatch, Guillaume Bouchard, F. X.
    Langevin, Jean Docile Brosseau, Francis McLaughlin, John C. Burns,
    William McWilliam, William Convey, J. F. Peachy, John Delaney, F. W.
    Roy, Peter Johnston, Willis Russell, Charles Brochu, Richard Turner,
    Esqs. City Clerk--L. A. Cannon, Esq. City Treasurer--C. J. L.
    Lafrance, Esq. City Accountant--M. F. Walsh, Esq. City Legal Adviser--
    L. G. Baillairge, Esq. City Notary--A. G. Tourangeau, Esq. Owen
    Murphy, Esq., ex-Mayor; Chas. Baillairge, Chevalier, City Engineer."
    In the leaden box, placed within the stone, were laid mementoes of the
    occasion, similar to those placed in the proper receptacle in the
    stone laid in the morning at St. Louis Gate, with the addition of
    beautifully executed portraits of Lord and Lady Dufferin, from the
    studio of Messrs. Ellison & Co.

    "His Excellency having given the _coup de grâce_ to the foundation
    stone with the silver mallet, the proceedings were closed."--
    (_Morning Chronicle_, 19th Oct., 1878.)

The new city gate erected on the site of the old St. Louis Gate, instead
of being called Dufferin Grate, as it had been contemplated, was allowed
to retain its time-honored name, St. Louis Gate; the public of Quebec,
however, were resolved that some conspicuous monument should recall to
Quebecers the fragrant memory of its benefactor, Lord Dufferin; on the
visit in June, 1879, of His Excellency Lord Lorne and H.R.H. the Princess
Louise, a request was made on them by the citizens, through their chief
executive officer, the Mayor of Quebec (R. Chambers), to name and open to
the public our world-famous Terrace. On the 9th June, 1879, our
distinguished visitors performed this auspicious ceremony in presence of
thousands, and in the following words confirmed the name previously
entered in the Corporation records:--


    _INAUGURATION OF DUFFERIN TERRACE, 9th JUNE, 1879._

    "According to notice previously given, the inauguration of Dufferin
    Terrace occurred at half-past two o'clock in the afternoon. When that
    hour arrived a mass of people variously estimated at from eight to
    fifteen thousand, but probably containing about ten thousand, occupied
    the Terrace. The appearance from an elevated place of this sea of
    humanity was indeed wonderful. The band pavilion in the centre of the
    garden had been reserved for the Viceregal party, and was covered in
    carpet and scarlet cloth, with two chairs of state. The entrance to
    the pavilion was kept by the City Police, while "B" Battery furnished
    the band and guard of honour, and played the National Anthem as the
    distinguished party arrived on the field.

    The Mayor and members of the City Council had previously walked in a
    body to the pavilion from the City Hall, and now His Worship conducted
    His Excellency and Her Royal Highness to the dais, and addressing
    himself to the Governor-General, said:--

    "MAY IT PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENCY.--On behalf of the Corporation and
    citizens of Quebec, permit me to thank Your Excellency for acceding to
    our request that you would be pleased to open in person this public
    promenade, and also Her Royal Highness for graciously honouring us by
    her presence.

    "The corner stone of this structure was laid by Your Excellency's
    predecessor, the Earl of Dufferin (18th Oct., 1878).

    "It will be gratifying to the noble Lord to learn that the work in
    which he took so lively an interest has been inaugurated by Your
    Excellency, and that the ceremony was graced by the presence of Her
    Royal Highness the Princess Louise.

    "I have, therefore, respectfully to request that Your Excellency may
    be pleased to give the name which the Terrace is henceforth to bear,
    and to signify if it is the pleasure of Your Excellency that it be
    opened to the public."

    His Excellency replied:--"I am happy to accede to your request to
    signify that this Terrace shall be called after your late Governor-
    General, Dufferin, and that it is now open to the public."

    Rounds of applause followed His Excellency's remarks, and loud cheers
    were given for the Earl of Dufferin, Her Royal Highness and His
    Excellency." (_Morning Chronicle_, 10th June, 1879.)

Parallel with Ste. Anne street, and terminated by Dauphin street, a
tortuous, rugged little lane, now known as St. Andrew's street, leads past
St Andrew's schoolhouse, to the chief entrance of the Presbyterian house
of worship; a church opened at the beginning of the century, repaired and
rendered quite handsome a few years ago, but much damaged by fire on the
30th April, 1881. In connection with the erection of this structure, a
document was recently exhumed from the archives of the Literary and
Historical Society, which throws much light on an important section of the
former population of the city. It is a memorial to His Majesty George
III., signed at Quebec on the 5th October, 1802, by the Rev. Dr Sparks'
congregation and by himself. The first incumbent of St. Andrew's Church--
commenced in 1809, and opened for worship on the 30th November, 1810--was
the Reverend Doctor Alexander Sparks, who had landed at Quebec in 1780,
became tutor in the family of Colonel Henry Caldwell at Belmont, St. Foye
road, and who died suddenly in Quebec, on the 7th March, 1819. Dr. Sparks
had succeeded to the Rev. George Henry, a military chaplain at the time of
the conquest; the first Presbyterian minister, we are told, who officiated
in the Province, and who died on the 6th July, 1795, aged 86 years.

One hundred and forty-eight signatures are affixed to this dusty document
of 1802.

A carefully prepared petition--it seems--to the King, asking for a site in
Quebec whereon to build a church--and suggesting that the lot occupied by
the Jesuits' Church, and where until 1878, stood the Upper Town, market
shambles, be granted to the petitioners, they being without a church, and
having to trust to the good will of the government for the use, on
Sundays, of a room in the Jesuits Barracks, as a place of worship. [42]


    _Signatures to Memorial addressed to George III., asking for land in
    Quebec to build a Presbyterian Church_:--

    Alex. Sparks, Minister,             A. Ferguson,
    Jas. Thompson, Jr.,                 Robert Eglison,
    Fred. Grant,                        Robt. Cairns,
    Jno. Greenshields,                  William A. Thompson,
    Chas. G. Stewart,                   Wm. McWhirter,
    James Sinclair,                     John McDonald,
    John Urquhart,                      John Auld,
    William Morrin,                     Bridget Young,
    Jno. Eifland,                       Jno. Shaw,
    John Barlie,                        Charles Hunter,
    Geo. McGregor,                      Geo. Black,
    Wm. Holmes,                         W. G. Hall,
    James Ward,                         J. Gray,
    Jno. Purss,                         F. Leslie,
    Ann Watt,                           Robt. Wood,
    J. Brydon,                          Lewis Harper,
    Jno. Frazer,                        Mary Boyle,
    James Somerville,                   A. Anderson,
    J. A. Thompson,                     John Anderson,
    Wm. Hall,                           Robt. Ross,
    Wm. Thompson, Sr.,                  Wm. Fraser,
    D. Monroe,                          Wm. Hay,
    J. Blackwood,                       Wm. McKay,
    M. Lymburner,                       Robt. Harrower,
    Francis Hunter,                     James Tulloch,
    W. Rouburgh,                        Samuel Brown,
    John McCord,                        Isaac Johnstone,
    J. G. Hanna,                        Peter Leitch,
    J. McNider,                         Henry Baldwin,
    Adam Lymburner,                     Daniel Forbes,
    Jno. Lynd,                          William Jaffray,
    Peter Stuart,                       J. Hendry,
    William Grant,                      John Thompson,
    J. A. Todd,                         George Smith,
    John Mure,                          Wm. Reed,
    John Patterson,                     Alexander Harper,
    John Crawford,                      Robert Marshall,
    John Hewison,                       William White,
    David Douglas,                      Thomas White,
    George Wilde,                       John Taylor,
    Fred. Petry,                        Adam Reid,
    James Ross,                         James Irvine,
    David Stewart,                      John Munro,
    John Yule,                          Alexander Munn,
    Angus McIntyre,                     Alexander Rea,
    John Mackie,                        James Elmslie,
    John Purss. Johnston,               Charles Smith,
    Wm. Thompson, Jr.,                  Ebenezer Baird,
    Con. Adamson,                       Lawrence Kidd,
    Geo. Morrison,                      James McCallum,
    Jno. Goudie,                        John Burn,
    G. Sinclair,                        Joanna George,
    Walter Carruthers,                  Maya Darling,
    Wm. Petrie,                         William Lindsay,
    John Ross,                          Janet Smith,
    Wm. McKenzie,                       William Smith,
    Thos. Saul,                         Henrietta Sewell,
    J. Ross, Jr.,                       Jane Sewell,
    Ann Rose,                           C. W. Grant,
    James Mitchell,                     Robert Ritchie,
    Geo. King,                          George Pyke,
    Alex. Thompson,                     Joseph Stilson,
    James Orkney,                       Henry Hunt,
    J. Neilson,                         George Thompson,
    Daniel Fraser,
    Quebec, 5th October, 1802.

Some of these signatures are suggestive. The most notable is probably that
of old Adam Lymburner, the cleverest of the three Lymburners, all
merchants at Quebec in 1775. [43] Adam, according to the historian
Garneau, was more distinguished for his forensic abilities and knowledge
of constitutional law, than for his robust allegiance to the Hanoverian
succession at Quebec, when Colonel Benedict Arnold and his New Englanders
so rudely knocked at our gates for admission in 1775.

According to Garneau and other historians, in the autumn of that memorable
year, when the fate of British Canada hung as if by a thread, Adam
Lymburner, more prudent than loyal, retired from the sorely beset fortress
to Charlesbourg, possibly to Château Bigot, a shooting box then known as
the "Hermitage," to meditate on the mutability of human affairs. Later on,
however, in the exciting times of 1791, Adam Lymburner was deputed by the
colony to England to suggest amendment's to the project of the
constitution to be promulgated by the home authorities. His able speech
may be met with in the pages of the _Canadian Review_, published at
Montreal in 1826. This St Peter street magnate attained four score and ten
years, and died at Russell Square, London, on the 10th January, 1836.

Another signature recalls days of strife and alarm: that of sturdy old
Hugh McQuarters, the brave artillery sergeant who, at _Près-de-Ville_
on that momentous 31st December, 1775, applied the match to the cannon
which consigned to a snowy shroud Brigadier-General Richard Montgomery,
his two _aides_, McPherson and Cheeseman, and his brave, but doomed
followers, some eleven in all; the rest having sought safety in flight. By
this record, it appears Sergeant McQuarters had also a son, in 1802, one
of Dr Sparks' congregation. Old Hugh McQuarters lived in Champlain street,
and closed his career there in 1812.

Another autograph, that of James Thompson, one of Wolfe's comrades--"a big
giant," as our old friend, the late Judge Henry Black, who knew him well,
used to style him, awakens many memories of the past. Sergeant James
Thompson, of Fraser's Highlanders, at Louisbourg in 1758, and at Quebec in
1759, came from Tain, Scotland, to Canada, as a volunteer to accompany a
friend-Capt. David Baillie, of the 78th. His athletic frame, courage,
integrity and intelligence, during the seventy-two years of his Canadian
career, brought him employment, honour, trust and attention from every
Governor of the colony from 1759 to 1830, the period of his death, he was
then aged 98 years. At the battle of the Plains of Abraham, James
Thompson, as hospital sergeant, was intrusted with the landing, at Point
Levi, of the wounded, who were crossed over in boats; he tells us of his
carrying some of the wounded from the crossing at Levi, up the hill, all
the way to the church at St. Joseph, converted into an hospital, and
distant three miles from the present ferry, a "big giant" alone could have
been equal to such a task. In 1775, Sergeant Thompson, as overseer of
Government works, was charged with erecting the palisades, fascines and
other primitive contrivances to keep out Brother Jonathan, who had not yet
learned the use of Parrot or Gatling guns and torpedoes. Later on, we find
the sturdy Highlander an object of curiosity to strangers visiting Quebec
--full of siege anecdotes and reminiscences--a welcome guest at the Château
in the days of the Earl of Dalhousie. In 1827, as senior Mason, he was
called on by His Excellency to give the three mystic taps with the mallet,
when the corner stone of the Wolfe and Montcalm monument was laid, in the
presence of Captain Young of the 79th Highlanders, and a great concourse
of citizens. About New Year's day, 1776, Mr. Thompson became possessed of
Gen. Montgomery's sword; it has since passed to his grandson, James
Thompson Harrower. Mr. James Thompson left several sons, some of whose
signatures are affixed to the document before us. John Gawler was Judge
for the District of Gaspé from 1828 to 1865; George received a commission
in the Royal Artillery; a third was Deputy Commissary General James
Thompson, who died in this city in 1869.

Old James Thompson expired in 1830, at the family mansion, St. Ursule
street, now occupied by his grandson, Mr. James Thompson Harrower.

When we name John Greenshields, D. Munro (the partner of the Hon. Matthew
Bell), J. Blackwood, Matthew Lymburner, Peter Stuart, William Grant, John
Mure, John McNider, J. G. Hanna, John Crawford, David Stewart (the David
Stewart of "Astoria" described by Washington Irving?) James Orkney, Robert
Wood, Alexander Munn, James McCallum, Thomas White, Fred. Petrie, Robert
Ritchie, we recall many leading merchants in St. Peter street, Notre Dame
street and the old _Cul-de-Sac_.

"Ebenezer Baird," we take to have been the progenitor of a well-remembered
Quebec Barrister, James E. Baird, Esq., the patron of our city member,
Jacques Malouin, Esquire.

George Pyke, a Halifax barrister, had settled here. He rose to occupy a
seat on the judicial bench.

Robert Harrower, was doubtless the father of Messrs. Robert, David and
Charles Harrower, of Trois Saumons, County of L'Islet. Honorable James
Irvine, in 1818, a member of the Legislative Council, was the grandfather
of the Hon. G. Irvine, of this city. The Hon. John Jones Ross, the present
Speaker of the Legislative Council, Quebec, traces back to the "James
Ross" of 1802, and the Hon. David Alex. Ross claims for his sire that
sturdy Volunteer of 1759, under Wolfe, "John Ross," who made a little
fortune; he resided at the house he purchased in 1765, near Palace Gate
within. He held a commission as a Captain in the British Militia in 1775,
under Colonel Le Maitre; we can recollect his scarlet uniform which he
wore in 1775, also worn in 1875, by his grandson, our worthy friend, Hon.
D. A. Ross, at the ball of the Centenary of the repulse of Brigadier-
General Richard Montgomery, 31st December, 1775. He had three sons, David
was Solicitor-General at Quebec; John was a lawyer also, and Prothonotary
at Quebec (the signer of the memorial of 1802); the third died young; of
three daughters, one was married to the Rev. Doctor Sparks, already
mentioned; a second was married to Mr. James Mitchell, A.C.G., and the
third to an army surgeon. John Ross, Sr., died at an advanced age. Charles
Grey Stewart, our Comptroller of Customs died in 1854; he was the father
of Messrs. McLean, Charles, Alexander, Robert and John Stewart, of Mrs.
William Price, of Mrs. William Phillips, of the Misses Ann and Eleanor
Stewart.

"Joanna George" the mother of an aged contemporary, Miss Elizabeth George,
and of [44] Miss Agnes George, the widow of the late Arch. Campbell, Esq.,
N.P., and grandmother of the present President of the St. Andrew's
Society, W. Darling Campbell, died about 1830.

"Maya Darling" was another daughter, and wife of Capt. Darling. "John
Burn," also one of the signers of the Memorial, and who afterwards settled
in Upper Canada, was the son of "Joanna George" by another marriage; the
eccentric and clever Quebec merchant, Mr. James George, was another son.
He was the first who suggested in 1822, a plan of the St. Charles River
Docks--the first who took up the subject of rendering the St. Lawrence
Rapids navigable higher than Montreal. The idea seemed so impracticable,
and what was still worse, so new, that the far-seeing Mr. George, was at
the time branded as _non compos_! and still for years the "Spartan,"
"Passport," "Champion" and other steamers have safely ran these rapids
daily every season!

James George had also suggested the practicability of Wooden Railways or
Tramways, with horses as locomotive power, forty years before the Civil
Engineer Hulburt built the Gosford Wooden Railway, with steam as
locomotive power.

"William Grant, of St. Roch's, after whom Grant street was called, was
member for the Upper Town of Quebec, during our two first Parliaments,
from 17th December, 1792, to 29th May, 1800, and from 9th January, 1805,
to period of his death at St. Roch in 1805. An enterprising and important
personage was the Hon. Wm. Grant, the Receiver General of the Province in
1770. He had married the widow of the third Baron de Longueuil.

"John Mure" represented the County of York (Vaudreuil) in three
Parliaments, from 9th January, 1805, to 26th February, 1810, and was
member for the Upper Town of Quebec, from 1810 to 1814. A man of
intelligence, he also, though a Presbyterian, became a benefactor to the
R. C. Church, having, in 1812, given to the R. C. parishioners of St.
Roch's, a site whereon to erect their church in that thriving suburb.

"John Blackwood" also represented the Upper Town in two Parliaments, from
9th April, 1809, to 20th February, 1810.

"Jane Sewell" was the wife of Stephen Sewell, Solicitor-General of Lower
Canada, brother to Chief Justice Sewell.

"Henrietta Sewell," one of the signers, survived ten years her husband,
the late Jonathan Sewell, Chief Justice for Lower Canada, who died in
Quebec in 1839. Chief Justice Sewell left a numerous progeny. [45]

"William Lindsay" was the father of the late William Burns Lindsay, for
years Clerk of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, and of our
venerable fellow-citizen, Errol Boyd Lindsay, Esq., Notary Public, now
more than four score years of age; he seems to have taken his surname from
Capt. Errol Boyd, in 1798, commander of the well remembered Quebec and
Montreal trader, the "Dunlop."

"William Smith," one of the last among the signers of the memorial, the
brother of Henrietta Smith, wife of Chief Justice Sewell, was the Hon.
William Smith, Clerk of the Legislative Council, and who, in 1815,
published his _History of Canada_, in two volumes, a standard work;
he was a descendant of the Hon. William Smith, a noted U. E. Loyalist, who
wrote the history of the State of New York, and landed at Quebec, 23rd
October, 1786. As a reward for his loyalty he had been made Chief Justice
of Lower Canada, 1st September, 1785; he died at Quebec, 6th December,
1793.

The names of six signers of the _Memorial to the King_, appear on the
list of the jury empanelled to try, in 1797, before Chief Justice Osgood,
David McLane for high treason, viz.: John Blackwood, John Crawford, David
Munro, John Mure, James Irvine, James Orkney. George Pyke was the Counsel
named _ex officio_, together with M. Franklin, to defend the misguided
Yankee.

The Jury stood thus;--

  John Blackwood,                    James Irvine,
  John Crawford,                     James Orkney,
  John Painter,                      James Watson Goddard,
  David Monro,                       Henry Cull,
  John Mure,                         Robert Morrogh,
  John Jones,                        George Symes.

Parloir street, well leavened with lawyers, leads to the _parloir_ of
the Ursulines. Here resided the late Judge de Bonne, at the dawn of the
present century. The locality is alive with memories of this venerable
seat of education, and with saintly and heroic traditions of Madame de la
Peltrie, Mère de l'Incarnation--Montcalm. "There exists," says the Abbé
Casgrain, "in the Ursuline Nunnery, a small picture, which portrays a
touching tradition of the early days of Canada: a painting executed by a
Canadian artist, from old etchings, preserved in the monastery. * * The
canvas represents the forest primeval, which mantled the promontory of
Quebec, at the birth of the Colony. In the centre of the picture may be
seen, amidst the maples and tall pines, the first monastery, founded in
1641 by Madame de la Peltrie. On its front stands forth in perspective the
dwelling which the founder had erected for her own use, three years later
on. The area comprised between these two edifices, is occupied by a
clearing, surrounded by a palisade, whereon are seen grazing a flock of
sheep. On the left side of the picture a broad avenue leads through the
forest:--the _Grand Allée_--later on St. Louis street, which leads to
the village of Sillery. Two horsemen, habited à la Louis XIV, meet on this
avenue, the one Monsieur d'Ailleboust, the Governor of the Colony, the
other is Monsieur DuPlessis Bochard, the Governor of Three Rivers. In the
midst of their interview, they are interrupted by an Indian Chief, who
offers them a beaver skin. A few steps from her residence, Madame de la
Peltrie is standing close to another Indian Chief, who, with head
inclined, seems in the attitude of listening to her in the most respectful
manner, whilst she, dignified and composed, is expounding to him the
sacred truths of faith. This scene presents an admirable contrast, with
another taking place close by; an Indian warrior is seen giving,
imperiously, his orders to a squaw,--his wife mayhap--but who, from her
downcast and humble look, seems more like his slave. A short distance from
this group, a missionary, (Father Jérôme Lalemant) after visiting some
wigwams, erected around the house of Madame de la Peltrie, is threading a
narrow path leading to the depths of the forest. The most attractive
feature about the painting is a group of young children, listening
attentively to the teachings of a nun, seated on the right, under the
shade of an ash tree. The impression created by this antique painting, is
the more delightful and vivid, because on turning one's gaze, at present,
from the picture, to the interior of the cloister, may still be seen the
hoary head of an old ash tree, under which tradition shows us the
venerable _Mother de l'Incarnation_, catechising the Indian children
and teaching the young girls of the colony." [46] After more than two
centuries of existence, the old ash tree succumbed lately to a storm.

Laval, Attorney-General Ruette D'Auteuil, Louis de Buade, Ste. Hélène (†)
seem to come back to life in the ancient streets of the same name, whilst
Frontenac, Iberville, Piedmont, are brought to one's recollection, in the
modern thoroughfares. The old Scotch pilot, Abraham Martin, (who according
to the _Jesuits' Journal_, might have been a bit of a scamp, although
a church chorister, but who does not appear to have been tried for his
peccadiloes,) owned a domain of thirty-two acres of land in St. John's
suburbs, which were bounded towards the north, by the hill which now bears
his name (_La Côte d'Abraham_.)

Mythology has exacted a tribute on a strip of ground in the St. Louis
suburbs. The chief of the pagan Olympus boasts of his lane, "Jupiter
street," so called after a celebrated inn, Jupiter's Inn, on account of a
full sized statue of the master of Olympus which stood formerly over the
main entrance. In the beginning of the century, a mineral spring, of
wondrous virtue, attracted to this neighbourhood, those of our _bon
vivants_ whose livers were out of order. Its efficacy is now a thing of
the past!

That dear old street,--St. George street formerly,--now called after the
first settler of the Upper Town in 1617, _Louis Hébert_, by the erection
of the lofty Medical College and Laval University, for us has been shorn
of its name--its sunshine--its glory, since the home [47] of our youth, at
the east end, has passed into strange hands. It is now _Hébert_ street, by
order of the City council.

Opposite to the antique and still stately dwelling, lately owned by Jos.
Shehyn, M.P.P., is a house formerly tenanted by Mr. J. Dyke. In the
beginning of this century it was occupied by an old countryman,
remarkable, if not for deep scientific attainments, at least for shrewd
common sense and great success in life--Mr. P. Paterson, the proprietor of
the extensive mills at Montmorency--now owned by the estate of the late
George Benson Hall, his son-in-law.

Peter Paterson, about 1790, left Whitby, England, to seek his fortune in
Canada. His skill as a ship builder--his integrity of character and
business habits, pointed him out as a fit agent--later on as a partner in
a wealthy Baltic firm of London merchants who still have representatives
in the colony. At the time of Napoleon's continental blockade, the English
Government, seeing that the Baltic was closed for the supply of timber for
the navy, gave out a large contract to Messrs. Henry and John Usborne--of
London--for masts and oak. Usborne & Co., employed Mr. P. Paterson to
dress and ship this timber. A timber limit license, of portentous import,
authorizing the cutting of oak and masts for the navy in all British North
America, was issued. Under authority of this license, Mr. Paterson partly
denuded the shores of Lake Champlain as well as the Thousand Islands, of
their fine oak. Mr. Paterson was the first to float oak in rafts to
Quebec. He built a large mill at Montmorency, having exchanged his St.
George street house for the mill site at Montmorency. His mills have since
attained to great importance.

In the rear of (St. George--now) Hébert street loom out the lofty walls of
the Laval University, which received its Royal Charter in 1852. [48]


_THE LAVAL UNIVERSITY._

The main edifice is 298 feet in length, five stories high; a plain,
massive structure of cut-stone, much improved in appearance since the
addition, in 1876, of the present superstructure, which relieves the
unbroken monotony of its form. The work is a great ornament not only to
the immense building itself, but to the city. The task of designing the
superstructure was entrusted to the taste and talent of J. F. Peachy,
architect. The superstructure is in the French mansard roof style, with
handsome cupolas on the east and west ends, surmounted with flag-staffs
and weather vanes. In the centre towers a dome far above all, surmounted
by a gilt-iron cross in the modern Grecian style--the upright shaft and
arms being formed at four right angles. The crown ornaments on the centre
top and ends of the arms are all of wrought iron and weigh about 700 lbs.
The base is strongly braced and bolted to an oak shaft, secured to the
truss work of the dome so firmly as to resist the fiercest gale of wind or
any other powerful strain. It is 11 feet six inches in height and the arms
are 7 feet six inches across. Mr. Philip Whitty, iron worker and,
machinist, of St. James street, was the builder of this cross, and its
handsome design and solidity reflect credit upon his taste and
workmanship. We believe that it is intended to have a picture gallery in
the superstructure under the central dome. The entire roof is strongly
trussed and braced with iron bolts. This portion of the work was done
under the superintendence of Mr. Marcou. We understand that it is also the
intention to erect two balconies on the eastern end, fronting the St.
Lawrence--these balconies to be supported by Corinthian columns. From the
base to the present superstructure, the building was originally 80 feet
high; it now stands 202 feet high from the base to the top of the cross on
the central dome.

    In 1880, another important addition, involving a heavy outlay, was
    planned. A lofty wing, 265 feet in length has been added to this
    imposing pile of buildings; it covers a large area in the seminary
    garden and connects on each story with the main structure, from which
    it stands out at right angles. Both buildings are intended to form but
    one, and seen from Levi or from the River St. Lawrence, it looks like
    an extension of the Laval University itself. The edifice is fireproof,
    its internal division walls are of brick, its rafters of iron; the
    floors are brick lined with deals as a preventive against dampness.
    The iron rafters were wrought at Lodelinsart, near Charleroi, Belgium;
    they weigh 400 tons, and cost laid down 1-1/2 cent per lb.

    The basement and the ceiling of the first flat are vaulted over. The
    refectory takes up a whole wing of the first story. The masonry of the
    upper corridors rests on eighteen cast iron columns, weighing 3,000
    lbs. each. The ceiling of the refectory is exceedingly strong and
    handsome; every story, in fact, is vaulted from top to bottom.

    A corridor eight feet wide and two hundred and sixty-five feet long,
    intersects the centre of each story. All the vestibules, corridors and
    passages are paved with ceramic square blocks brought from Belgium.

    The most notable part of the structure is the main staircase, entirely
    of iron and stone; it contains 120 steps 8 feet long, 16 feet broad, 5
    inches high, each step hewn out of a single block. The iron material
    weighs about 37,000 lbs. There is also another flight of steps made of
    iron. A hydraulic elevator in the centre of the building will provide
    an easy access to every story.

    The roofed galleries, eight feet wide, attached to each story on the
    front, present promenades and views unrivaled in the city looking
    towards Levi and the Island of Orleans. On a large stone or the
    loftiest part of the front wall, over the window, is inscribed--
    _Conditum_, 1880.

    The arch of the entrance to the Court House burnt in 1872, which, it
    was said, had formed part of the old Récollet Church, destroyed by
    fire on 6th Sept., 1796, has been used to build the arch of the porch
    which leads from the seminary garden to the farm-yard in rear. There
    are 230 windows in this new wing which has a mansard roof. It is
    computed that 4,000,000 bricks have been employed in the masonry. The
    architect is J. F. Peachy.


    _STAFF OF THE LAVAL UNIVERSITY IN 1881._

    Rector, Revd. Ed. Méthot,--Superior of Quebec Seminary.
    Professor of Commercial and Maritime Law,--Hon. Napoleon
                 Casault, J.S.C.
    Professor of Civil Procedure,--Hon. Ulric J. Tessier, J.Q.B.
    Professor of Civil Law, etc.,--Hon. Chas. Thos. A. Langelier.
    Professor of Roman Law,--Hon. Ed. James Flynn.
    Professor of Commercial Law,--Hon. Richard Alleyn, J.S.C.
    Secretary,--Thos. Chase Casgrain, Barrister.
    Professor of Internal Pathology,--Dr. Jas. Arthur Sewell, M.D.
    Professor of External Pathology,--Dr. J. E. Landry, M.D.
    Professor of Toxicology, etc.,--Dr. Alfred Jackson, M.D.
    Professor of Descriptive Anatomy,--Dr. Eusèbe Lemieux, M.D.
    Professor of Medical Jurisprudence,--Dr. H. A. LaRue, M.D.
    Professor of General Pathology,--Dr. Simard, M.D.
    Professor of Materia Medica, etc.,--Dr. Chas. Verge, M.D.
    Professor of Practical Anatomy, etc.,--Dr. Laurent Cattelier, M.D.
    Professor of Clinical--Children's Diseases,--Dr. Arthur Vallée, M.D.
    Professor of Clinical--Old People's Diseases,--Dr. Michael Ahern, M.D.
    Professor of Comparative Zoology, Anatomy and Physiology,--Dr. L. J.
                 A. Simard, M.D.
    Professor of Political Economy,--Hon. C. T. A. Langelier.
    Professor of Physical Science,--Rev. Mr. Laflamme.
    Professor of French Literature,--Rev. Ed. Méthot.
    Professor of Greek Literature,--Rev. L. Baudet.
    Professor of Mineralogy,--Rev. J. C. Laflamme.
    Professor of Natural Law,--Mgr. Beng. Paquet.
    Professor of Dogmatic Theology,--Rev. L. H. Paquet.
    Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Rev. L. N. Begin.

On the conspicuous site where stands the unpretending brick structure
known as our present House of Parliament, (which succeeded to the handsome
cut stone edifice destroyed by fire in 1864) one might, in 1660, have seen
the dwelling of a man of note, Ruette d'Auteuil. D'Auteuil became
subsequently Attorney General and had lively times with that sturdy old
ruler, Count de Frontenac. Ruette d'Auteuil had sold the lot for $600
(3,000 livres de 20 sols) to Major Provost, who resold it, with the two
story stone house thereon erected, for $3,000, to Bishop de St. Vallier.
The latter having bequeathed it to his ecclesiastical successor, Bishop
Panet ceded it in the year 1830 to the Provincial Government for an annual
ground rent of £1,000--this rent is continued to the Archbishop by the
Provincial Government of Quebec. No one now cares to enquire how Bishop
Panet made such an excellent bargain, though a cause is assigned.

Palace Street was thus denominated from its leading direct from the Upper
Town to the Intendant's Palace--latterly the King's woodyard. In earlier
days it went by the name of _Rue des Pauvres_, [49] (Street of the
Poor,) from its intersecting the domain of the _Hôtel Dieu_, whose
revenues were devoted to the maintenance of the poor sheltered behind its
massive old walls. Close by, on Fabrique street, Bishop de St. Vallier had
founded _le Bureau des Pauvres_, where the beggars of Quebec (a thriving
class to this day) received alms, in order to deter them from begging in
the country round the city. The success which crowned this humble retreat
of the mendicant led the philanthropic Bishop to found the General
Hospital in the Seigneurie de Notre Dame des Anges, beyond St. Roch. He
received there nuns of the Convents of the Ursulines and of the Hôtel Dieu
and gave them the administration of the newly founded establishment,
where, moreover, he at a more recent date resided as almoner of the poor.

At the western corner of Palace and St. John streets, has stood since
1771, a well known landmark erected to replace the statue of Saint John
the Baptist, which had, under the French _régime_, adorned the corner
house. After the surrender of Quebec to the British forces, the owners of
the house, fearing the outer barbarians might be wanting in respect to the
saint's effigy, sent it to the General Hospital, where it stood over the
principal entrance until a few years back. They replaced it by a wooden
statue of General Wolfe, sculptured by the Brothers Cholette, at the
request of George Hipps, a loyal butcher. The peregrinations of this
historic relic, in 1838, from Quebec to Halifax--from Halifax to Bermuda,
thence to Portsmouth, and finally to its old niche at Wolfe's corner, St.
John Street, whilst they afforded much sport to the middies of H. M. Ship
_Inconstant_, who visited our port that summer and carried away the
General, were the subject of several newspaper paragraphs in prose and
verse.

Finally, the safe return of the "General" with a brand new coat of paint
and varnish in a deal box, consigned to His Worship, the Mayor of Quebec
sent by unknown hands, was made an occasion of rejoicing to every friend
of the British hero whom Quebec contained, and they were not few.

Some of the actors of this practical joke, staunch upholders of
Britannia's sovereignty of the sea, now pace the quarter deck, t'is said,
proud and stern admirals.

The street and hill leading down from the parochial Church, (whose title
was _Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin
Mary_,) to the outlet, where Hope Gate was built in 1786, was called
Ste. Famille street from its vicinity to the Cathedral, which, as the
parish church of the citizens of Quebec, was formerly called the Ste.
Famille Church. On the east side, half way up the hill still exist the
ruins of the old homestead of the Seigneurs de Léry--in 1854, occupied by
Sir E. P. Taché, since, sold to the Quebec Seminary. A lofty fence on the
street hides from view the hoary old poplar trees which of yore decked the
front of the old manor. On the opposite side, a little higher up, also
survives the old house of Mr. Jean Langevin, father of the Bishop of
Rimouski, and of Sir H. L. Langevin. Here in the closing days of French
Dominion lived the first Acadian, who brought to Quebec the news of the
dispersion of his compatriots, so eloquently sung by Longfellow, Dr.
Lajus, of French extraction, who settled at Quebec and married a sister of
Bishop Hubert. On the northern angle of this old tenement you now read
"_Ste. Famille_ street."

St. Stanislas street, the western boundary of the ancient estate of the
Jesuits--on the eastern portion of which their college was built in 1637--
owes its saintly nomenclature to the learned order--no doubt desirous of
handing down to posterity an enduring souvenir of a valiant ascetic,
though youthful member of the fraternity. Its northern end reaches at
right angles to Ste. Hélène street in a line with the old tenement
recently occupied by the late Narcisse Constantin Faucher, Esq.,
Barrister--recently leased by the late Lieut.-Col. John Sewell, one of Sir
Isaac Brock's officers at Queenstown Heights in 1812 In 1835 it was the
home of a Mrs. Montgomery. That year it was burglarized in a somewhat
romantic--shall we say--humane manner by Chambers' murderous gang; the
aged and demure mistress of the house and her young maid servant being
rolled up in the velvety pleats of the parlor carpet and deposited gently,
tenderly and unharmed in the subterranean and discreet region of the
cellar, so that the feelings of either should not be lacerated by the
sight of the robbery going on above stairs.

Who will dare assert that among the sanguinary crew who in 1836, heavily
ironed, bid adieu to Quebec forever, leaving their country for their
country's good--in the British Brig _Ceres_, all bound as permanent
settlers to Van Dieman's Land--who will dare assert there was not some
Jack Sheppard, with a tender spot in his heart towards the youthful
_Briseis_ who acknowledged Mrs. Montgomery's gentle sway.

A conspicuous landmark on St. Stanislas street is Trinity Chapel.

Of yore there stood in rear of the chapel the "Theatre Royal," opened 15th
February, [50] 1832, where the Siddons, Keans and Kembles held forth to
our admiring fathers. Church and theatre both owed their birth to the late
Chief Justice Sewell. The site of this theatre was purchased some years
back by the ecclesiastical authorities of St Patrick Church. Thus
disappeared the fane once sacred to Thespis and Melpomene, its fun-loving
votaries, as such, knew it no more.


    _TRINITY CHURCH._

    The church of the "Holy Trinity," St. Stanislas street, Quebec, was
    erected on a site which, judging from the discovery of a skeleton,
    when the foundations were laid, had been a cemetery.

    The architecture of this church is Doric, and is considered correct
    both internally and externally. It is a substantial building of good
    proportions, 90 feet in length by 49 in breadth, is supplied with an
    organ and bell. It is commodious and capable of seating 700 persons.
    The sittings are free. It contains a beautiful marble monument, by
    Manning, of London, which was erected to the memory of the late Hon.
    Jonathan Sewell, LL.D., the founder of the church, also a few other
    tablets in memory of different members of the family of Sewell. The
    present incumbent and proprietor is the Rev. Edmund Willoughby Sewell,
    M.A., but it is confidently expected that ere long it will pass into
    the hands of an incorporated body, with whom the future presentment of
    the officiating clergyman will rest.

    On a tin-plate on the corner-stone of the chapel, the following
    inscription occurs:

        "Quebec, 15th September, 1824.

        On Thursday was deposited in a private manner, under a stone at
        the north-east angle of the new Chapel of Ease to the English
        Cathedral, a tin plate having the following Latin inscription:

        Anno Dm. Christi MDCCCXXIV Regnante
        Georgio Quarto, Britaniarum Rege Fidet
        Defensore Reverendissimo Patre in Deo
        Jacob Mountain S. T. P. Episcopo Quebecensi,
        Hanc Capellam, ad perpetuum honorem
        Sacrosanctae Trinitatis, et in usum Fidelium
        Ecclesiae Anglican dedicatam Vir honorabilis
        Jonothan Sewell, Provinciae Canadae inferioris
        Judex Primarius, et Henrietta ejus uxor
        Adificaverunt

        Edmundo Willoughby Sewell, clerico, uno de eorum filiis Capellano
        primo

                                      G. BLAICKLOCK, _Architecto_
                                      J. PHILIPS, _Conditore_

    On the other side is the inscription on the monument:

                              IN MEMORY OF
                          JONATHAN SEWELL, LL.D.

        The Pious and Liberal Founder of this Chapel.
                        Endowed with talents of no common order
        He was selected in early life to fill the highest offices
                        in this Province
                        He was appointed Solicitor General A.D. 1793,
        Attorney and Advocate General and Judge of the Court of Vice
        Admiralty, A.D. 1795, Chief Justice of the Province and Chairman
                        of the Executive Council A.D. 1809.
                Speaker of the Legislative Council A.D. 1809.
                    Distinguished in his public capacity,
        He shone equally conspicuous as a statesman and a jurist.
        Naturally mild and courteous, he combined the meekness of the
                        Christian
                        with the authority of the Judge.
        Beloved at home as a kind father, a firm friend and an
                        affectionate husband.
        Respected abroad as an acknowledged example of truth, faithfulness
                        and integrity;
        He has left a name to which not only his descendants in all future
                        ages, But his country may recur
           With just pride, deep reverence, and a grateful recollection.
        He was born in Boston, Mass., June 6th, 1766, and died in this
        city, in the Fulness of the Faith in Christ, November 13th, 1839
                          in the 74th year of his age
        This tribute to departed worth is erected by his sorrowing widow."

The southern extreme of St. Stanislas street terminates at the
intersection of Ste. Anne street, past the old jail, which dated from
1810. Lugubrious memories crowd round this massive tolbooth--of which the
only traces of the past are some vaulted lock-up or cells beneath the
rooms of the Literary and Historical Society, one of which, provided with
a solid new iron door, is set apart for the reception of the priceless
M.S.S. of the society. The oak flooring of the passages to the cells
exhibit many initials, telling a tale of more than one guilty life--of
remorse--let us hope, of repentance.

The narrow door in the wall and the iron balcony, over the chief entrance
leading formerly to the fatal drop which cut short the earthly career of
the assassin or burglar [51] was speedily removed when the directors of
the Morrin College in 1870 purchased the building from Government to
locate permanently the seat of learning due to the munificence of the late
Joseph Morrin, M.D.

The once familiar inscription above the prison door, the rendering of
which in English was a favourite amusement to many of the juniors of the
High School, or Seminary, on their way to class, that also has
disappeared:

  "_Carcer iste bonos a pravis vindicare possit_!"
  May this prison teach the wicked for the edification of the good."

The damp, vaulted cells in the basement, where the condemned felon in
silence awaited his doom, or the airy wards above, where the impecunious
debtor or the runaway sailor meditatively or riotously defied their
traditional enemies the constable and policeman, now echo the Hebrew,
Greek and Latin utterances of the Morrin College professors, and on
meeting nights the disquisitions before the Literary and Historical
Society, of lecturers on Canadian history, literature or art.

It is the glory and privilege of the latter institution in accordance with
the object of its Royal Charter, to offer to citizens of all creeds and
nationalities, a neutral ground, sacred to intellectual pursuits. It dates
back to 1823, when His Excellency, George Ramsay, Earl of Dalhousie,
assisted by the late Dr. John Charlton Fisher, LL.D., and ex-editor of the
New York _Albion_, successfully matured a long meditated plan to promote
the study of history and of literature. The Literary and Historical
Society held its first meeting in the _Château St. Louis_. It is curious
to glance over the list of names in its charter. [52] It contained the
leading men on the Bench, in the professions, and in the city. In 1832 the
library and museum occupied a large room in the Union building facing the
Ring. From thence they were transferred to the upper story of the
Parliament Buildings, on Mountain Hill, where a portion of both was
destroyed by the conflagration which burnt down the stately cut-stone
edifice in 1854, with the stone of which in 1860, the Champlain Market
Hall was built. What was saved of the library and museum was transferred
to apartments in St Louis street, then owned by the late George Henderson,
J.P. [53] The next removal, about 1860, brought the institution to Masonic
Hall, corner of Garden and St. Louis streets. Here, also, the fire-fiend
assailed the treasures of knowledge and specimens of natural history, of
the society, which, with its household gods, flitted down to a suite of
rooms above the savings bank apartments in St. John Street, from whence,
about 1870, it issued to become an annual tenant in the north wing of the
Morrin College, where it has flourished ever since.

In the protracted and chequered existence of this pioneer among Canadian
literary associations, one day, above all others is likely from the
preparations--pageant and speeches which marked it, to be long remembered
among Quebecers as a red letter day in the annals of the society. The
celebration in December, 1875 of the centennial of the repulse of
Brigadier General Richard Montgomery and Colonel Benedict Arnold, who, at
dawn on the 31st December, 1775, attempted to take the old fortress by
storm. The first, with a number of his followers, met with his death at
Près-de-Ville, in Champlain street; the other was carried wounded in the
knee, to the General Hospital, St. Roch's suburbs, whilst 427 of his
command were taken prisoners of war and incarcerated until September
following in the Quebec Seminary, the Récollet Convent and the Dauphin
Prison, since destroyed, but then existing, a little north of St. John's
Gate, inside. The worthy commander of the "B" Battery, Lieut.-Col. T. B.
Strange, R.A., then stationed at the Citadel of Quebec, having consented to
narrate the incidents which marked the attack of Brigadier General Richard
Montgomery at Près-de-Ville (which we reserve for another page,) the
description of Col. Benedict Arnold's assault on the Sault-au-Matelot
barriers, was, left to ourselves. We subjoin a portion of the address
delivered by us at this memorable centenary. It embodies an important
incident of Quebec history:


    _ARNOLD'S ASSAULT ON SAULT-AU-MATELOT BARRIERS._

    MR. CHAIRMAN, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN:

    "The event which we intend commemorating this evening, is one at
    peculiar interest to us as Canadians, and more especially so to us as
    Quebecers, the narrow, I may say, the providential escape of the whole
    Province from foreign subjugation one century ago. It is less a
    chapter of Canadian annals I purpose to read to you this night, than
    some minute details little known, and gleaned from the journals left
    by eye witnesses of the thrilling hand to hand fight which took place
    a few hundred yards from where you sit, under our walls, on the 31st
    December, 1775, between Col. Arnold's New England soldiery and our own
    garrison.

    Possibly, you may not all realize the critical position of the city on
    that memorable morning. Next day, a Sunday, ushered in the new year.
    Think you there was much "visiting," much festivity, on that new
    year's day? alas! though victory crowned our banner, there was
    mourning in too many Canadian homes; we, too, had to bury our dead.

    Let us take a rapid glimpse of what had proceeded the assault.

    Two formidable parties, under experienced leaders, in execution of the
    campaign planned by George Washington and our former Deputy Post
    Master General, the able Benjamin Franklin, had united under the walls
    of Quebec. Both leaders intimately knew its highways and by-ways.
    Brigadier General Richard Montgomery, before settling near New York,
    had held a lieutenant's commission in His Britannic Majesty's 17th
    Foot, had taken part in the war of the conquest, in 1759, and had
    visited Quebec. Col. Benedict Arnold, attracted by the fame of our
    Norman horses, had more than once been in the city with the object of
    trading in them.

    Benedict Arnold was indeed a daring commander. His successful journey
    through trackless forests between Cambridge and Quebec--his descent in
    boats through rivers choked with ice, and through dangerous rapids;
    the cold, hunger and exposure endured by himself and his soldiers,
    were feats of endurance of which any nation might justly feel proud.

    Major-General Sir James Carmichael Smyth, a high authority on such
    matters, says of this winter campaign: "It is, perhaps, one of the
    most wonderful instances of perseverance and spirit upon record." So
    much for the endurance and bravery of our foes. I am compelled to pass
    unnoticed many important incidents of the campaign in order to reach
    sooner the main facts.

    What was the real state of the Colony on that identical 31st December,
    one hundred years ago? Why, it was simply desperate. The wave of
    invasion had surged over our border. Fort after fort, city after city,
    had capitulated--Ticonderoga, Crown Point, Fort St. John, Fort
    Chambly, Montreal, Sorel, Three Rivers. Montgomery with his victorious
    bands had borne everything before him like a tornado. The Canadian
    peasantry dreaded the very sight of warriors who must be ball-proof,
    as they were supposed, by a curious mistake, to be "incased in plate-
    iron," _vêtus de tole_, instead _de toile_. [54] The red [54a] and
    black flag of successful rebellion floated over the suburbs of Quebec.
    Morgan's and Humphries' riflemen were thundering at the very gates of
    the city, those dear old walls--(loud applause)--which some Vandals
    are longing to demolish, alone kept away the wolf.

    Levi, Sillery, Ste Foye, Lorette, Charlesbourg, the Island of Orleans,
    Beauport and every inch of British territory around the city were in
    possession of the invaders, every house in the suburbs sheltered an
    enemy--every bush in the country might conceal a deadly foe. Treachery
    stalked within the camp--disaffection was busy inside and outside of
    the walls. At first many of the citizens, English as well as French,
    seemed disinclined to take part in the great family quarrel which had
    originated at Boston--the British of New England pitted against the
    British of Canada. The confusion of ideas and opinions must at first
    have been great. Several old British officers who had served in the
    wars of the conquest of Canada, had turned their swords against their
    old messmates--their brothers-in-arms--amongst others, Richard
    Montgomery, Moses Hazen and Donald Campbell. Quebec, denuded of its
    regulars, had indeed a most gloomy prospect to look upon. No soldiers
    to man her walls except her citizens unaccustomed to warfare--no
    succour to expect from England till the following spring--scantiness
    of provisions and a terrified peasantry who had not the power, often
    no desire, to penetrate into the beleaguered city during winter.

    Were not these trying times for our worthy sires?

    Such was the posture of affairs, when to the general joy, our gallant
    Governor Guy Carleton, returned and rejoined his dauntless little army
    at Quebec, having succeeded, thanks to Captain Bouchette and other
    brave men, in eluding the vigilance of the enemy in possession of
    Three Rivers, Sorel and Montreal. Turn over the records of those days
    and yon will see the importance our fathers attached to the results of
    the Sault-au-Matelot and Près-de-Ville engagements.

    For more than twenty-five years, the 31st December, 1775, was annually
    commemorated, generally by a club dinner given at Ferguson's Hotel,
    (Freemasons' Hall?) or at some other hotel of note--sometimes a
    Château ball was added by the Governor of the Province. In 1778, we
    find in the old _Quebec Gazette_, a grand _fête champêtre_, given by
    Lady Maria Carleton and her gallant partner Sir Guy, at the Red House,
    a fashionable rustic Hostelry, kept by Alex. Menut, the prince of
    Canadian _Soyers_ of those days, who had been _Maître d'Hôtel_ to
    General Murray, and selected that year by Their Excellencies. It stood
    on the Little River road, (the land is now owned by Mr. Tozer) about
    two miles from Quebec. It reads thus in the _Gazette_ of 8th January,
    1778:

    Quebec, 8th January, 1778._

    "Yesterday, seventh night, being the anniversary of the victory
    obtained over the Rebels in their attack upon this City in the year
    1775, a most elegant Ball and Supper were given at Menut's Tavern by
    the Gentlemen who served in the Garrison during that Memorable Winter.
    The Company, consisting of upwards of two hundred and thirty Ladies
    and Gentlemen, made a grand and brilliant appearance, and nothing but
    mirth and good humour reigned all night long. About half-past six, His
    Excellency, Sir Guy Carleton, Knight of the Bath, our worthy Governor
    and Successful General, dressed in the militia uniform, (which added
    lustre to the Ribbon and Star) as were also all the gentlemen of that
    corps who served under him during the siege, entered the assembly room
    accompanied by Lady Maria, &c., &c., and the Ball was soon opened by
    her Ladyship and the Honorable Henry Caldwell, Lieutenant Colonel
    Commandant of the British Militia. The dancing continued until half-
    past twelve, when the Ladies were conducted into the supper room,
    where Mr. Menut exhibited fresh proofs of that superior excellence in
    the _culinary_ art he so justly claims above his Peers.... The
    company in general broke up about four in the morning, highly
    satisfied with their entertainment and in perfect good humour with one
    another. May that disposition prevail until the next and every
    succeeding 31st of December, and may each return of that glorious day
    (the event of which was not only the preservation of this garrison;
    but of the whole Province) be commemorated with the same spirit and
    unanimity in grateful remembrance of our happy deliverance from the
    snares of the enemy, and with grateful acknowledgements of those
    blessings of peace and tranquility of Government and Laws we now enjoy
    in consequence of that day's success."

    The _Gazette_ of the following year carefully chronicles the gathering
    of the Veterans of 1775.--"Thursday last being the anniversary of the
    31st December, a Day which will be ever famous in the annals of this
    country for the defeat of Faction and Rebellion, the same was observed
    with the utmost festivity In the evening a ball and cold Collation was
    given by the gentlemen who composed the Garrison in the winter of
    1775, to His Excellency and a numerous and brilliant assembly of
    Ladies and Gentlemen, the satisfaction every one felt in Commemorating
    so Glorious an event, strongly appeared by the joy which was visible
    in every contenance."

    In 1790, according to the _Quebec Herald_, the annual dinner was
    held at the _Merchant's Coffee House_, by about 30 survivors of
    the Veterans, who agreed to meet twice a year, instead of once, their
    joviality apparently increasing with their age.

    In 1794, [55] the _Gazette_ acquaints us that the Anniversary
    Dinner was to be held at Ferguson's Hotel, on the 6th May. [56] We
    find both nationalities fraternising in these loyal demonstrations. M.
    DeBonne (afterwards Judge DeBonne) taking his place next to loyal John
    Coffin, of Près-de-Ville fame, and probably Simon Fraser and the Hon.
    Hugh Finlay, will join Lieutenant Dambourgès and Col Dupré, in
    toasting King George III. under the approving eye of Lt. Col.
    Caldwell, Wolfe's Deputy Quarter-Master General. Col. Caldwell, lived
    to a green old age, and expired in this city in 1810. Our esteemed
    fellow-citizen, Errol Boyd Lindsay, remembers him well, and in front
    of whom I stand, a stalwart Volunteer of 1837, Col. Gugy, is now
    relating how when a lad he once dined with Col. Caldwell, some seventy
    years ago, at Belmont, amidst excellent cheer.

    The _Quebec Gazette_ teems with loyal English and French songs of
    1775, for a quarter of a century, and for more than twenty-five years
    the anniversary banquet, ball or dinner was religiously kept up.

    But we must hie away from these "junketings"--these festive boards,
    which our loyal ancestors seem to have infinitely enjoyed. We must hie
    away the long wished for "snow storm," the signal of attack has come.
    'Tis five o'clock before dawn. Hark to the rattle of the alarm drum.
    Hark! Hark to the tolling of every city bell (and you know Quebec
    bells are numerous) louder! louder even than the voice of the easterly
    storm. To ARMS! To ARMS! resounds in the Market Place--the _Place
    d'Armes_--and in the streets of our slumbering city.

    Instead of giving you my views on the attack, I shall summon from the
    silent, the meditative past, one of the stirring actors in this
    thrilling encounter, an intrepid and youthful Volunteer, under Arnold,
    then aged seventeen years, John Joseph Henry. He will tell you how his
    countrymen attacked us:

        "It was not," says Judge Henry, "until the night of the 31st
        December, 1775, that such kind of weather ensued as was considered
        favorable for the assault. The fore part of the night was
        admirably enlightened by a luminous moon. Many of us, officers as
        well as privates, had dispersed in various directions among the
        farm and tippling houses of the vicinity. We well knew the signal
        for rallying. This was no other than a "snow storm." About 12
        o'clock, P.M., the heaven was overcast. We repaired to quarters.
        By 2 o'clock we were accoutred and began our march. The storm was
        outrageous, and the cold wind extremely biting. In this northern
        country the snow is blown horizontally into the faces of the
        travellers on most occasions--this was our case.

        When we came to Craig's house, near Palace Gate, a horrible roar
        of cannon took place, and a ringing of all the bells of the city,
        which are very numerous, and of all sizes. Arnold, leading the
        forlorn hope, advanced, perhaps, one hundred yards, before the
        main body. After these followed Lamb's artillerists. Morgan's
        company led in the secondary part of the column of infantry.
        Smith's followed, headed by Steele, the Captain from particular
        causes being absent. Hendrick's company succeeded and the eastern
        men so far as known to me, followed in due order. The snow was
        deeper than in the fields, because of the nature of the ground.
        The path made by Arnold, Lamb, and Morgan was almost
        imperceptible, because of the falling snow. Covering the locks of
        our guns, with the lappets of our coats, holding down our heads
        (for it was impossible to bear up our faces against the imperious
        storm of wind and snow), we ran, along the foot of the hill in
        single file. Along the first of our run, from Palace Gate, for
        several hundred paces, there stood a range of insulated buildings,
        which seemed to be store-houses, we passed these quickly in single
        file, pretty wide apart. The interstices were from thirty to fifty
        yards. In these intervals, we received a tremendous fire of
        musketry from the ramparts above us. Here we lost some brave men,
        when powerless to return the salutes we received, as the enemy was
        covered by his impregnable defences. They were even sightless to
        us, we could see nothing but the blaze from the muzzles of their
        muskets.

        A number of vessels of various sizes lay along the beach, moored
        by their hawsers or cables to the houses. Passing after my leader,
        Lieutenant Steele, at a great rate, one of those ropes took me
        under the chin, and cast me head long down, a declivity of at
        least fifteen feet. The place appeared to be either a dry-dock or
        a saw-pit. My descent was terrible, gun and all was involved in a
        great depth of snow. Most unluckily, however, one of my knees
        received a violent contusion on a piece of scraggy ice, which was
        covered by the snow. On like occasions, we can scarcely expect, in
        the hurry of attack, that our intimates should attend to any other
        than their own concern.  Mine went from me, regardless of my fate.
        Scrambling out of the cavity, without assistance, divesting my
        person and gun of the snow, and limping into the line, I attempted
        to assume a station and preserve it. These were none of my
        friends--they knew me not. I had not gone twenty yards, in my
        hobbling gait, before I was thrown out, and compelled to await the
        arrival of a chasm in the line, when a new place might be
        obtained. Men in affairs such as this, seem in the main, to lose
        the compassionate feeling, and are averse from being dislodged
        from their original stations. We proceeded rapidly, exposed to a
        long line of fire from the garrison, for now we were unprotected
        by any buildings. The fire had slackened in a small degree. The
        enemy had been partly called off to resist the General, and
        strengthen the party opposed to Arnold in our front. Now we saw
        Colonel Arnold returning, wounded in the leg, and supported by two
        gentlemen; a parson, Spring, was one, and, in my belief, a Mr.
        Ogden, the other. Arnold called on the troops, in a cheering
        voice, as we passed, urging us forward, yet it was observable
        among the soldiery, with whom it was my misfortune to be now
        placed, that the Colonel's retiring damped their spirits. A cant
        term "We are sold," was repeatedly heard in many parts throughout
        the line. Thus proceeding, enfiladed by an animated but lessened
        fire, we came to the first barrier, where Arnold had been wounded
        in the onset. This contest had lasted but a few minutes, and was
        somewhat severe, but the energy of our men prevailed. The
        embrasures were entered when the enemy were discharging their
        guns. The guard, consisting of thirty persons, were, either taken
        or fled, leaving their arms behind them. At this time it was
        discovered that our guns were useless, because of the dampness.
        The snow which lodged in our fleecy coats was melted by the warmth
        of our bodies. Thence came that disaster. Many of the party,
        knowing the circumstance, threw aside their own, and seized the
        British arms. These were not only elegant, but were such as
        befitted the hand of a real soldier. It was said, that ten
        thousand stand of such arms had been received from England, in the
        previous summer, for arming the Canadian militia. These people
        were loath to bear them in opposition to our rights. From the
        first barrier to the second, there was a circular course along the
        sides of houses, and partly through a street, probably of three
        hundred yards or more. This second barrier was erected across and
        near the mouth of a narrow street, adjacent to the foot of the
        hill, which opened into a larger, leading soon into the main body
        of the Lower Town. Here it was, that the most serious contention
        took place: this became the bone of strife. The admirable
        Montgomery, by this time, (though it was unknown to us) was no
        more; yet, we expected momentarily to join him. The firing on that
        side of the fortress ceased, his division fell under the command
        of a Colonel Campbell, of the New York line, a worthless chief,
        who retreated, without making an effort, in pursuance of the
        general's original plans. The inevitable consequence was, that the
        whole of the forces on that side of the city, and those who were
        opposed to the dastardly persons employed to make the false
        attacks, embodied and came down to oppose our division. Here was
        sharp-shooting. We were on the disadvantageous side of the
        barrier, for such a purpose. Confined in a narrow street, hardly
        more than twenty feet wide, and on the lower ground, scarcely a
        ball, well aimed or otherwise, but must take effect upon us.
        Morgan, Hendricks, Steele, Humphrey's, and a crowd of every class
        of the army, had gathered into the narrow pass, attempting to
        surmount the barrier, which was about twelve or more feet high,
        and so strongly constructed, that nothing but artillery, could
        effectuate its destruction. There was a construction, fifteen or
        twenty yards within the barrier, upon a rising grounde, the cannon
        of which much overtopped the height of the barrier, hence, we were
        assailed by grape shot in abundance. This erection we called the
        platform. Again, within the barrier, and close into it, were two
        ranges of musketeers, armed with musket and bayonet, ready to
        receive those who might venture the dangerous leap. Add to all
        this, that the enemy occupied the upper chambers of the houses, in
        the interior of the barrier, on both sides of the street, from the
        windows of which we became fair marks. The enemy, having the
        advantage of the ground in front, a vast superiority of numbers,
        dry and better arms, gave them an irresistible power, in so narrow
        a space. Humphreys, upon a mound, which was speedily erected,
        attended by many brave men, attempted to scale the barrier, but
        was compelled to retreat, by the formidable phalanx of bayonets
        within, and the weight of fire from the platform and the
        buildings. Morgan, brave to temerity, stormed and raged;
        Hendricks, Steele, Nichols, Humphreys, equally brave, were sedate,
        though under a tremendous fire. The platform, which was within our
        view, was evacuated by the accuracy of our fire, and few persons
        dared venture there again. Now it was, that the necessity of
        occupancy of the houses, on our side of the barrier, became
        apparent. Orders were given by Morgan to that effect. We entered.
        This was near day-light. The houses were a shelter, from which we
        might fire with much accuracy. Yet, even here, some valuable lives
        were lost. Hendricks, when aiming his rifle at some prominent
        person, died by a straggling ball through his heart. He staggered
        a few feet backwards, and fell upon a bed, where he instantly
        expired. He was an ornament of our little society. The amiable
        Humphreys died by a like kind of wound, but it was in the street,
        before we entered the buildings. Many other brave men fell at this
        place; among these were Lieutenant Cooper, of Connecticut, and
        perhaps fifty or sixty noncommissioned officers and privates. The
        wounded were numerous, and many of them dangerously so. Captain
        Lamb, of the York artillerists; had nearly one-half of his face
        carried away, by a grape or canister shot. My friend Steele lost
        three of his fingers, as he was presenting his gun to fire;
        Captain Hubbard and Lieutenant Fisdle, were all among the wounded.
        When we reflect upon the whole of the dangers of this barricade,
        and the formidable force that came to annoy us, it is a matter of
        surprise that so many should escape death and wounding as did. All
        hope of success having vanished, a retreat was contemplated, but
        hesitation, uncertainty, and a lassitude of mind, which generally
        takes place in the affairs of men, when we fail in a project, upon
        which we have attached much expectation, now followed. The moment
        was foolishly lost, when such a movement might have been made with
        tolerable success. Captain Laws, at the head of two hundred men,
        issuing from Palace Gate, most fairly and handsomely cooped us up.
        Many of the men, aware of the consequences, and all our Indians
        and Canadians (except Natanis [57] and another,) escaped across
        the ice, which covered the Bay of St. Charles, before the arrival
        of Captain Laws. This was a dangerous and desperate adventure, but
        worth while the undertaking, in avoidance of our subsequent
        sufferings. Its desperateness consisted in running two miles
        across shoal ice, thrown up by the high tides of this latitude--
        and its danger, in the meeting with air holes, deceptively covered
        by the bed of snow. Speaking circumspectly, yet it must be
        admitted conjecturally, it seems to me, that in the whole of the
        attack, of commissioned officers, we had six killed, five wounded,
        and of non-commissioned and privates, at least one hundred and
        fifty killed, and fifty or sixty wounded. Of the enemy, many were
        killed and many more wounded, comparatively, than on our side,
        taking into view the disadvantages we laboured under; and that but
        two occasions happened when we could return their fire, that is,
        at the first and second barriers. Neither the American account of
        this affair, as published by Congress, nor that of Sir Guy
        Carleton, admit the loss of either side to be so great as it
        really was, in my estimation * * * * * as to the British, on the
        platform they were fair objects to us. They were soon driven
        thence by the acuteness of our shooting. * * * *

        Perhaps there never was a body of men associated, who better
        understood the use and manner of employing a rifle, than our
        corps; while by this time of the attack, they had their guns in
        good order. When we took possession of the houses, we had a great
        range. Our opportunities to kill, were enlarged. Within one
        hundred yards, every man must die. The British however were at
        home--they could easily drag their dead out of sight, and bear
        their wounded to the Hospital. It was the reverse with us. Captain
        Prentis, who commanded the provost guards, would tell me of seven
        or eight killed, and fifteen or twenty wounded; opposed to this
        the sentries, (who were generally Irishmen, that guarded us with
        much simplicity, if not honesty,) frequently admitted of forty or
        fifty killed, and many more wounded. The latter assertions
        accorded with my opinion. The reasons for this belief are these:
        when the dead, on the following days, were transported on the
        carioles which passed our habitation for deposition in the "dead
        house," we observed many bodies, of which none of us had any
        knowledge; and again when our wounded were returned to us from the
        hospital, they uniformly spoke of being surrounded there, in its
        many characters, by many of the wounded of the enemy. To the great
        honor of General Carleton, they were all, whether friends or
        enemies, treated with like attention."

    The Continentals of Brigadier-General Montgomery had settled on the
    following plan of attack:--Col Livingston, with his three hundred
    Canadians and Major Brown, was to simulate an attack on the western
    portion of the walls--Montgomery to come from Holland House down by
    Wolfe's Cove, creep along the narrow path close to the St. Lawrence
    and meet Arnold on his way from the General Hospital at the foot of
    Mountain Hill, and then ascend to Upper Town.

The brilliant _fête littéraire_ held by the Literary and Historical
Society to commemorate the event was thus noticed in the _Morning
Chronicle_ of Dec 30th, 1875:


    _THE LITERARY AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY'S CENTENARY FÊTE._

    It would be hardly possible to imagine a more graceful or unique
    gathering than that which assembled in the rooms of the Literary and
    Historical Society last evening, for the purpose of celebrating with
    all possible _éclat_ that gloriously memorable event, the repulse
    of the troops commanded by General Richard Montgomery, of the American
    Army, whilom officer of the 17th Regiment of Infantry in the service
    of his Britannic Majesty George III, who on the blusterous wintry
    morning of the 31st December, 1775, attempted an assault upon the
    redoubts and fortifications which at that time did the duty of our
    present Citadel, and whose intrepidity was rewarded with a soldier's
    death, and his want of success formed the nucleus of the power which
    is so firmly established in this Royal Canada of ours to day.

    The arrangements made by the Society for the reception of their
    unusually numerous guests and the decorations of the various
    apartments, were all that could be wished--commodious and tasteful. In
    the entrance hall the Royal standard floated, and there the B. Battery
    Band was placed. Turning up the left hand flight of steps the visitor
    --passing the large class room of Morrin College, transformed for the
    nonce into spacious refreshment buffets--was ushered into the lecture
    room, from the galleries of which flags of many nations and many
    colours were drooping. The raised dais, occupied during the delivery
    of the addresses by James Stevenson, Esq., Senior Vice-President, L. &
    H. Society, in the chair; Lieut.-Col. Bland Strange, R. S. M.
    Bouchette, Esq., Dr. Boswell, Vice-Presidents, J. M. LeMoine, Esq.,
    and Commander Ashe, R.N., ex-Presidents, was flanked on either side
    with the blue and silver banners of St. Andrew's Society, bearing the
    arms and escutcheon of Scotia, and their proud motto "_Nemo me
    impune lascessit_." Bunting and fresh spruce foliage gave an air of
    freshness to all the adornable parts of the room. Immediately opposite
    the lectern, which was illuminated with wax candles, placed in last
    century candlesticks, and attached to the gallery railings, was a fine
    collection of Lochaber axes, clustered around a genuine wooden Gaelic
    shield studded with polished knobs of glittering brass. Long before
    the hour of eight the company had increased to such an extent that the
    room was crowded to the doors, but not inconveniently as the
    ventilation was unexceptionable. With accustomed punctuality, James
    Stevenson, Esq., acting in the absence of the President, opened the
    meeting with some highly appropriate remarks relative to the
    historical value of the subjects about to be discussed and summarising
    very succinctly the events immediately previous to the beleaguering of
    the fortress city. He alluded in stirring terms to the devotion which
    had been manifested by the British and French defenders, who resolved
    rather to be buried in the ruins than surrender the city. He stated
    that he thought it especially meet and proper that the Literary and
    Historical Society here should have taken up the matter and dealt with
    it in this way. He alluded in eulogistic terms to the capability of
    the gentlemen about to address them and, after regretting the
    unavoidable absence of Lt-Col. Coffin, a lineal descendant of an
    officer present, formally introduced the first speaker, Lieutenant-
    Colonel Strange, commandant of Quebec Garrison, and Dominion Inspector
    of Artillery. This gallant officer, who on rising was received with
    loud and hearty cheering by the audience, plunged with characteristic
    military brevity _in medias res_, simply remarking, at the outset,
    that he, in such a position, was but a rear rank man, while Colonel
    Coffin would have been a front-ranker; but his soldierly duty was
    to fill that position in the absence of him to whom the task would
    have been officially assigned. The subject which formed a distinct
    section of the major topic of the evening was then taken up. Inasmuch
    as it is our intention, and we believe that of the Society, to
    reproduce faithfully in pamphlet form the graphic, interesting and
    detailed word-pictures of the ever memorable events of the 31st
    December, 1775, as given by the learned and competent gentlemen who
    addressed the meeting, it suffices to say in the present brief notice
    of the proceedings that Colonel Strange exhaustively treated that
    portion which referred to the attack and defence at Pres-de-Ville--the
    place in the vicinity of which now stands the extensive wharves of the
    Allan Company. Many incidents of the siege, utterly unknown to
    ordinary readers of history were recalled last night, and many things
    that have hitherto been dubious, or apparently unaccountable explained
    away. The story of the finding of the snow-covered and hard-frozen
    corpse of the unfortunate General and his Aide-de-Camp, was told with
    much pathos, as were details of his burial. The references to
    descendants of then existing families still residents in Quebec, were
    extremely interesting, because many were among the audience. At the
    conclusion of Colonel Strange's admirable resumé, and some further
    pointed remarks from the Chairman, Mr. J. M. LeMoine, who is _par
    excellence_ and _par assiduité_ our Quebec historian, whose life has
    been mainly devoted to compilation of antiquarian data touching the
    walls, the streets, the relics, the families, the very Flora, and
    Fauna of our cherished Stadacona--commenced his erudite and amusing
    sketches of the day, taken from the stand point of the enemy's
    headquarters, and the fray in the Sault-au-Matelot. Interspersing in
    his own well digested statement of events, he chose the best
    authenticated accounts from contemporaneous participants, British,
    French Canadian and American, proving that the record as presented by
    Col. Strange and himself last night, was a "plain unvarnished truthful
    tale," a reliable mirror in which was faithfully reflected all that
    was historically interesting as affecting Quebec in the Campaign of
    1775-6. When Mr. LeMoine had terminated his address, which was of
    considerable length, Mr. Stevenson concluded this portion of the
    proceedings with a most eulogistic and deserved recognition of the
    devotion which the two gentlemen who had read during the evening had
    shewn in preparing their respective papers, and a vote of thanks to
    them was heartily and unanimously accorded. He also made reference to
    the topic of the day, the restoration and embellishment of our oft-
    besieged, city, gracefully attributing honour where it was due, first
    and foremost to His Excellency the Governor-General, Earl of Dufferin,
    at whose instigation the plans had been prepared; secondly, to His
    Worship the Mayor, Owen Murphy, Esq., (who was present), for his
    untiring exertions and valuable assistance in developing, maturing and
    preparing the way for an early completion of said designs, which are
    to make Quebec a splendid architectural example of the deformed,
    transformed; thirdly, to the hearty co-operation of the public, aided
    in their views by the enterprise of the proprietor of the _Morning
    Chronicle_, who had prepared the splendid illustrations of these
    improvements, thereby reflecting infinite credit upon himself. After a
    few other remarks the ladies and gentlemen were invited to inspect the
    library, which for the rest of the evening was the centre of
    attraction. The _coup d'oeil_, when once one had fairly entered
    into this beautifully designed, permanent focus of intellectual
    wealth, around whose walls were ranged the imperishable memorials of
    nearly all of man's genius that has been thought worthy of
    preservation, was striking and memorable. As in the lecture room,
    those emblems, which are our symbolical as well as actual rallying
    points in all times of trouble or war, draped and covered the book
    shelves which contain the essence of almost all that human
    intelligence, human thought, human wit, man's invention and ingenuity
    has as yet brought to light. Here, historian and poet, geographer and
    engineer, humorist and preacher, dramatist and theologian, are
    congregated, serving in the one great cause of public instruction and
    the expansion of the limitless ramifications which exist in the ever
    growing tree of knowledge. The student and litérateur, the bibliophile
    and dilletante novel reader, the most frequent visitors here last
    night were replaced by groups of fair women and patriotic men
    assembled to commemorate an event which had a marked effect upon the
    history of this continent in this nineteenth century, which will
    expire a few hours after these lines meet the reader's eyes. In lieu
    of study and thought, the attention of the throng was attracted to the
    splendid stand of arms reaching from floor to ceiling, and which was
    as it were defended by the Dominion standard that fell in long
    festoons behind. In the centre of a diamond-shaped figure, made up of
    scores of sabres pointing inwards, was a large glittering star of
    silvery steel bayonets. In chronological order were pink and gilt
    tablets, containing each one the names of the Lieutenant-Governors of
    Canada, commencing with Carleton, in 1775, and proceeding through the
    noble list, which includes Haldimand, Dorchester, Dalhousie, Gosford,
    Colborne, Durham, Sydenham, Bagot, Cathcart, Elgin, Head, Monk,
    Lisgar, down to the present glorious epoch, when this prosperous
    country is vice-regally and right royally presided over by Lord
    Dufferin, in the year of grace, 1875--on the opposite side of the
    room, under a similar spiky coronet of bristling steel, was hung the
    sword of the dead and vanquished, but honoured and revered hero, the
    trusty blade which only left Montgomery's hands, when in his death-
    throes he 'like a soldier fell,' and the pitiless snow became his
    winding-sheet. On a table below this interesting and valuable historic
    relic, now in possession, as an heirloom, of J. Thompson Harrower,
    Esq., of this city, was exhibited the full uniform of an artillery
    officer of the year 1775. Several quaint old sketches and paintings
    were placed around the Library, which, with the Museum, was converted
    for the time into an extempore conversazione hall, and while the
    melodies of the 'B' Battery band were wafted hither and thither
    through the building, the dames and cavaliers gossiped pleasantly over
    their tea or coffee and delicacies provided by the members for the
    guests, and declared, with much show of reason, that the Literary and
    Historical Society's centennial entertainment was a red-letter day in
    the annals of that learned and well-deserving body."


_THE JESUITS' CHURCH._

This little church, of which the corner stone was laid by the Marquis de
Tracy, "Lieutenant du Roi, dans toutes ses possessions Françaises en
Amérique," on 31st May, 1666, existed until 1807. "It is built," says
Kalm, "in the form of a cross. It has a round steeple, and is the only
church that has a clock." The oldest inhabitant can yet recall, from
memory, the spot where it stood, even if we had not the excellent drawing
made of it with a half dozen of other Quebec views, by an officer in
Wolfe's fleet, Captain Richard Short. It stood on the site recently
occupied by the shambles, in the Upper Town, facing the Russell House.
Captain Short's pencil bears again testimony to the exactitude, even in
minute things, of Kalm's descriptions: his Quebec horses, harnessed one
before the other to carts. You see in front of the church, in Captain
Short's sketch, three good sized horses, harnessed one before the other,
drawing a heavily laden two-wheeled cart. The church was also used until
1807 as a place of worship for Protestants. Be careful not to confound the
Jesuits' Church with the small chapel in the interior of their college
(the old Jesuit Barracks) contiguous thereto. This latter chapel had been
commenced on the 11th July, 1650. The Seminary Chapel and Ursulines
Church, after the destruction by shot and shell, in 1759, of the large
Roman Catholic Cathedral, were used for a time as parish churches. From
beneath the chief altar of the Jesuits' Church was removed, on the 14th
May, 1807, the small leaden box containing the heart of the founder of the
Ursulines' Convent, Madame de la Peltrie, previously deposited there in
accordance with the terms of her last will.

You can see that the pick-axe and mattock of the "_bande noire_" who
robbed our city walls of their stones, and demolished the Jesuits' College
and city gates, were busily employed long before 1871.


_THE JESUITS' BARRACKS._

There are few, we will venture to say, who, in their daily walk up or down
Fabrique Street, do not miss this hoary and familiar land mark, the
Jesuits' College. When its removal was recently decreed, for a long time
it resisted the united assaults of hammer and pick-axe, and yielded,
finally, to the terrific power of dynamite alone.

The Jesuits' College, older than Harvard College, at Boston, takes one
back to the dawn of Canadian history. Concerning the venerable
institution, we translate the following from the French of Mr. T. B.
Bédard. It appeared originally in the _Journal de Quebec_:--

    "The recent discovery of human bones at the Jesuit Barracks has
    excited the curiosity of the public in general, and especially of
    antiquarians and all interested in historical research. Naturally, the
    question presents itself--who were the individuals interred where
    these bones were found, and what was this place of sepulture? An
    attentive study of the subject leads me to believe that the remains of
    the three skeletons discovered, with two skulls only, are those of
    Brother Jean Liégeois, Père du Quen, and Père Francois du Peron,
    deceased at Chambly, and whose mortal remains were sent to Quebec for
    interment. The spot where the bones were found must have been the site
    of the chapel built at the same time as the other portions of the
    Jesuits' College. But inasmuch as the demolition of this more than
    venerable edifice approaches completion, a sketch of the history of
    its construction may not be amiss.

    "Let us preface by saying, with the learned Abbés Laverdière and
    Casgrain, that the residence or the Convent of Notre Dame de la
    Recouvrance, burnt together with the chapel of the same name in 1640,
    should not be confounded with the College (turned later on into
    barracks), the foundations of which were not laid until several years
    afterwards. The Chapel of Notre Dame de la Recouvrance and the
    Jesuits' house attached thereto, were situated upon the ground upon
    which the Anglican Cathedral now stands. In the conflagration of 1640,
    chapel and residence were destroyed; the registers of Civil Status
    burnt, and the Jesuits lost all their effects. 'We had gathered
    together in that house,' writes Father Lejeune, 'as in a little store,
    all the maintenance and support of our other residences and of our
    missions. Linen, clothing, and all the other necessaries for twenty-
    seven persons whom we had among the Hurons, were all ready to be
    conveyed by water into that distant country.' After this disaster, the
    Jesuits were sheltered for some time at the Hôtel Dieu. In 1637 the
    Fathers of the Company of Jesus in Canada set forth to the Company of
    New France that they wished to build a college and a seminary for the
    instruction of Indian youths, the Hurons dwelling 200 leagues from
    Quebec having sent them six, with the promise of a larger number, and
    also for the education of the country, and that, for this purpose,
    they sought a grant of land. The Company of New France awarded them
    twelve acres of ground in Quebec to build a seminary, church,
    residence, &c. This grant was made at a meeting of the Directors of
    the Company, at the hôtel of the celebrated Fouquet, on the 18th
    March, 1637. It was not, however, until the spring of 1647 that the
    work of digging the foundations of the College was begun--the first
    stone being laid on the 12th June. 'The same day,' says the _Journal
    des Jésuites_, 'was laid the first stone of the foundations of the
    offices of the main-building of the Quebec house. In 1648, we
    completed the half of the large main-building, in 1649, our building
    was completed as regards the exterior masonry and the roof; but the
    interior had not yet been touched.' In July, 1650, the foundations of
    the chapel were commenced, and on the 18th October, 1651, it was
    sufficiently advanced to allow the pupils of the college to receive
    therein Governor de Lauzon. 'The scholars,' says again the _Journal
    des Jésuites_, 'received Monsieur the Governor in our new chapel,
    _latinâ oratione et versibus gallicis_, &c., &c. The Indians
    (scholars) danced, when mass was first celebrated in the chapel.' On
    the 29th May, 1655, a great misfortune befell the good Fathers. The
    brother known as Jean Liégeois was treacherously assassinated. He was
    their business man; several times he had crossed over from Canada to
    France in their interests; he was also their architect, and had
    superintended the building of the residences at their various
    missions, as well as the erection of the college. On the day in
    question, while engaged in the fields near Sillery, seven or eight
    Agniers (Iroquois) suddenly surrounded him, captured him without
    resistance, and, put a bullet through his heart, and, adds the
    _Journal des Jésuites_, one of them scalped him, while another
    chopped off his head, which they loft upon the spot. On the following
    day the Algonquins found his body and brought it to Sillery, whence it
    was conveyed in a boat to Quebec, where it was exposed in the chapel,
    and, on the 31st May, after the usual offices, 'it was interred at the
    lower end of the chapel; that is to say, in one of the two sides where
    the altar of the Congregation des Messieurs is now located.' To
    understand these last words, it is necessary to explain that nearly
    two years later, on the 14th February, 1657, Father Poncet founded
    this congregation; and it was M. de Lauzon-Charny, Master of the Woods
    and Forests of New France, son of Governor de Lauzon, who was elected
    Prefect of the first members of the body to the number of twelve. This
    same M. de Charny had married the daughter of M. Giffard, the first
    Seigneur of Beauport; but his wife dying two years after that
    marriage, M. de Charny passed over to France, where he entered holy
    orders, subsequently returning to Canada with Mgr. de Laval, whose
    grand vicar he became, as well as the first ecclesiastical dignitary,
    inasmuch as he replaced him at the Conseil Souverain at the period of
    the difficulties between the Bishop of Petrea and Governor de Mesy.

    "But to return to the interments in the Jesuits' Chapel. The next
    which took place was that of Father de Quen, who died on the 8th
    October, 1659, of contagious fever brought into the colony by vessels
    from beyond the seas. It was he, who, in 1647, discovered Lake St.
    John, and, in 1653, celebrated the Mass at the Hôtel Dieu, when the
    Sister Marie de L'Incarnation embraced the religious profession.
    Father de Quen was buried on the morning of the 9th _praesente
    corpore, dictae duae missae privatae, in summo altari, dum diceretur
    officium_. He was 59 years of age. The _Journal des Jésuites_
    does not say that he was interred in the chapel, but it is easy to
    infer the fact from the _two private_ masses said in presence of
    the body, and also because the entry of his burial does not appear in
    the parish register. Moreover, it is also the opinion of Rev. Messrs.
    Laverdière and Casgrain, as published in the _Journal des Jésuites_.
    On the 15th November, 1665, arrived at Quebec, coming from the
    Richelieu River, a vessel bringing the body of Father François du
    Peron, who died on the 10th at Fort St. Louis (Chambly). The body was
    exposed in the Chapel of the Congregation, and 'on the 16th, after the
    service at which the Marquis de Tracy assisted, it was interred in the
    vault of the chapel towards the confessional on the side of the
    street,' and Father le Mercier, who wrote the foregoing, adds that
    'there remains room only for another body.'

    "From the preceding, it appears that three interments took place in
    the Jesuits' Chapel (the only ones mentioned in the _Journal des
    Jésuites_), and it is probable that the place remaining for only
    one more body was never filled. The remains of three bodies having
    been found, it seems to me therefore reasonable to conclude that they
    are those of Brother Liégeois and Fathers de Quen and du Peron. It is
    true only two skulls have been recovered, but it must be remembered
    that Brother Liégeois had his head chopped off and left upon the spot,
    as remarks the text, so that it is easy to conjecture that the
    Iroquois dragged his body further off, when it was found in a headless
    condition and thus buried. With respect to the site of the chapel, the
    text already cited relative to Father du Peron indicates sufficiently
    that it was alongside the street; and a reference to the map of Quebec
    in 1660 shows in fact the street skirting the Jesuits' property as it
    does to-day. Further, the excavations which, at the request of Père
    Sachez, Dr. Larue and others, Hon. Mr. Joly, with a good will which
    cannot be too highly praised, has ordered to be made, have already
    laid bare the foundations of a well outlined building upon the very
    site where tradition locates the chapel and where the bones have been
    found.

    "As it was stated at the time of the finding of the skeletons that one
    of them was supposed to be that of a nun of the Hôtel Dieu, Mr. Bédard
    applied to the authorities of that institution for information on the
    subject and received an answer from the records which conclusively
    proves that the nun in question was buried in the vault of the
    Jesuits' Church and not in their Chapel."

Though a considerable sum had been granted to foster Jesuit establishments
at Quebec by a young French nobleman, René de Rohault, son of the Marquis
de Gamache, as early as 1626, it was on the 18th March, 1637, only, that
the ground to build on, "twelve arpents of land, in the vicinity of Fort
St. Louis" were granted to the Jesuit Fathers. In the early times, we find
this famous seat of learning playing a prominent part in all public
pageants; its annual examinations and distribution of prizes called
together the _élite_ of Quebec society. The leading pupils had, in
poetry and in verse, congratulated Governor d'Argenson on his arrival in
1658. On the 2nd July, 1666, a public examination on logic brought out,
with great advantage, two most promising youths, the famous Louis Jolliet,
who later on joined Father Marquette in his discovery of the Mississippi,
and a Three Rivers youth, Pierre de Francheville, who intended to enter
Holy Orders. The learned Intendant Talon was an examiner; he was remarked
for the erudition his Latin questions displayed. Memory likes to revert to
the times when the illustrious Bossuet was undergoing his Latin
examinations at Navarre, with the Great Condé as his examiner; France's
first sacred orator confronted by her most illustrious general.

How many thrilling memories were recalled by this grim old structure?
"Under its venerable roof, oft had met the pioneer missionaries of New
France, the band of martyrs, the geographers, discoverers, _savants_
and historians of this learned order: Dolbeau, de Quen, Druilletes,
Daniel, de la Brosse, de Crepieul, de Carheil, Bréboeuf, Lallemant,
Jogues, de Noue, Raimbeault, Albanel, Chaumonot, Dablon, Ménard, LeJeune,
Massé, Vimont, Ragueneau, Charlevoix, [58] and crowds of others." Here
they assembled to receive from the General of the Jesuits their orders, to
compare notes, mayhap to discuss the news of the death or of the success
of some of their indefatigable explorers of the great West; how the "good
word" had been fearlessly carried to the distant shores of Lake Huron, to
the _bayous_ and perfumed groves of Florida, or to the trackless and
frozen regions of Hudson's Bay.

Later on, when France had suppressed the order of the Jesuits, and when
her lily banner had disappeared from our midst, the College and its
grounds were appropriated to other uses--alas! less congenial.

The roll of the English drum and the sharp "word of command" of a British
adjutant or of his drill sergeant, for a century or more, resounded in the
halls, in which Latin orisons were formerly sung; and in the classic
grounds and grassy court, [59] canopied by those stately oaks and elms,
which our sires yet remember, to which the good Fathers retreated in sweet
seclusion, to "say" their _Breviaries_ and tell their beads, might have
been heard the coarse joke of the guard room and coarser oath of the
trooper.

It had been claimed as a "magazine for the army contractor's provisions on
14th November, 1760." On the 4th June, 1765, His Excellency General James
Murray had it surveyed and appropriated for quarters and barracks for the
troops, excepting some apartments. The court and garden was used as a
drill and parade ground until the departure of Albion's soldiers. Here was
read on the 14th November, 1843, by Major-General Sir Jas. Hope's
direction, the order of the day, at the morning parade, congratulating
Major Bennet and the brave men of the 1st Royals, whom he was escorting to
England in the ill-fated transport "Premier," on the discipline and good
conduct manifested by them during the incredible perils they had escaped
at Cape Chatte when the Premier was stranded.

How singular, how sad to think that this loved, this glorious relic of the
French _régime_, entire even to the Jesuit College arms, carved in
stone over its chief entrance, should have remained sacred and intact
during the century of occupation by English soldiery--and that its
destruction should have been decreed so soon as the British legions, by
their departure, in 1871, had virtually handed it over to the French
Province of Quebec?

The discovery of the 28th August, 1878, of human remains beneath the floor
of this building--presumed to be those of some of the early missionaries--
induced the authorities to institute a careful search during its
demolition. These bones and others exhumed on the 31st August, and on the
1st and 9th September, 1878, were pronounced by two members of the
Faculty, Drs. Hubert Larue and Chas. E. Lemieux, both Professors of the
Laval University, (who signed a certificate to that effect) to be the
remains of three [60] persons of the male sex and of three [61] persons of
the female sex. Some silver and copper coins were also found, which with
these mouldering remains of humanity, were deposited under lock and key in
a wooden box; and in September, 1878, the whole was placed in a small but
substantial stone structure, in the court of the Jesuit Barracks, known as
the "Regimental Magazine," pending their delivery for permanent disposal
to Rev. Père Sachez, Superior of the Jesuits Order in Quebec.

In May, 1879, on opening this magazine, it was found that the venerable
bones, box and all had disappeared, the staple of the padlock on the door
having been forced. By whom and for what purpose, the robbery?


_THE RÉCOLLET CONVENT._

Let us walk on, and view with the Professor's eyes the adjoining public
edifice in 1749, the Récollet Convent, "a spacious building," says Kalm,
"two story high, with a large orchard and kitchen garden." It stood
apparently on the south-eastern extremity of the area, on which the
Anglican Cathedral was built in 1804, across what is now the southern
prolongation of Treasury Street; it is said its eastern end occupied a
portion of the site now occupied by the old _Place d'Armes_--now the
Ring.

Its church or chapel was, on 6th September, 1796, destroyed by fire; two
eye-witnesses of the conflagration, Philippe Aubert DeGaspé and Deputy-
Commissary-General James Thompson, the first in his _Mémoires_, the second
in his unpublished _Diary_, have vividly portrayed the accident.

    "At the date of the conflagration of the Récollets Church, 6th
    September, 1796, the bodies of those who had been interred there were
    taken up. The remains of persons of note, those among others of Count
    de Frontenac, were re-interred in the Cathedral (now the Basilica), it
    is said, under the floor of the Chapel N. D. of Pity. The leaden
    coffins, which, it appears, had been placed on iron bars in the
    Récollets Church, had been partially melted by the fire. In Count de
    Frontenac's coffin was found a small leaden box, which contained the
    heart of that Governor. According to a tradition, handed down by Frère
    Louis, the heart of Count de Frontenac was, after his death, sent to
    his widow in France. But the haughty Countess refused to receive it,
    saying that 'she did not want a dead heart, which when beating did not
    belong to her.' The casket containing the heart was sent back to
    Canada and replaced in the Count's coffin, where it was found after
    the fire." (_Abbé H. R. Casgrain_.)

The Church faced the Ring and the old Château; it formed part of the
Récollet Convent, "a vast quadrangular building, with a court and well
stocked orchard" on Garden Street; it was occasionally used as a state
prison. The Huguenot and agitator, Pierre DuCalvet, [62] spent some dreary
days in its cells in 1781-84; and during the summer of 1776, a young
volunteer under Benedict Arnold, John Joseph Henry, (who lived to become a
distinguished Pennsylvania Judge), was immured in this monastery, after
his capture by the British, at the unsuccessful attack in Sault-au-Matelot
Street, on the 31st December, 1775, as he graphically relates in his
_Memoirs_. It was a monastery of the Order of Saint Francis. The
Provincial, in 1793, a well-known, witty, jovial and eccentric personage,
Father Félix DeBerey, had more than once dined and wined His Royal
Highness Prince Edward, the father of our gracious Sovereign, when
stationed in our garrison in 1791-4, with his regiment, the 7th Fusiliers.

The Récollet Church was also a sacred and last resting place for the
illustrious dead. Of the six French Governors who expired at Quebec, four
slept within its silent vaults, until the translation, in 1796, of their
ashes to the vaults of the Basilica, viz: (1) Frontenac, (2) de Callières,
(3) Vaudreuil, (4) de la Jonquière. [63] Governor de Mesy had been buried
in the Hôtel-Dieu Cemetery, and the first Governor, de Champlain, it is
generally believed, was interred near the Château Saint Louis, in a
"sépulchre particulier," near the spot now surmounted by his bust, on
which, in 1871, was erected the new Post Office.

On the south-west side of the Château, on the site where stands M. A.
Berthelot's old dwelling on St. Louis Street, now owned by James Dunbar,
Esq., Q.C., could be seen a building devoted to the administration of
Justice, _La Sénéchaussée_ (Séneschal's Jurisdiction), and which bore
the name of "The Palace." It was doubtless there that, in 1664, the
Supreme Council held its sessions. In 1665 it was assigned to the Marquis
de Tracy, for a residence whilst in the colony. From the _Place d'Armes_,
the higher road (_Grande Allée_) took its departure and led to Cap Rouge.
On the right and left of this road, were several small lots of land given
to certain persons for the purpose of being built upon. The Indian Fort
was that entrenchment of which we have spoken, which served as a last
hiding place to the sad remains of the once powerful Huron nation, forming
in all eighty four souls, in the year 1665. It had continued to be
occupied by them up to the peace with the Iroquois. After the arrival of
the troops, they took their departure in order to devote themselves to the
cultivation of the lands.

Besides the buildings of the Reverend Jesuit Fathers, those of the
Ursulines (nuns), and those of the Hospital (Hôtel Dieu), in the Upper
Town, could be seen in a house situated behind the altar part of the
Parish Church, where dwelt Monseigneur de Laval. It was, probably, what he
called his Seminary, and where he caused some young men to be educated,
destined afterwards for the priesthood.

It was at the Seminary the worthy prelate resided with his priests, to the
number of eight, which, at that period, comprised all the secular clergy
of Quebec. There, also, was the Church of Notre Dame, in the form of a
Latin cross. [64]

Couillard Street calls up one of the most important personages of the era
of Champlain, Guillaume Couillard, the ancestor of Madame Alexandre de
Léry _née_ Couillard. It would fill a volume to retrace the historical
incidents which attach themselves to "La Grande Place du Fort," which in
the early part of the century was known as the "Grand Parade" before the
Castle, and is now called the _Ring_. We have pointed out a goodly number
in the first pages (10-16) of the "Album du Touriste." To what we have
already said we shall add the following details:


_THE UNION HOTEL._

It would appear that the site upon which the Union Hotel was built [65]
(1805), and where previously stood the dwelling of Dr. Longmore, Staff
Medical Officer, now occupied by the offices of the _Journal de Quebec,
&c._, was owned by Governor D'Ailleboust, about the year 1650. He had
reserved to himself, on the 10th January, 1649, the strip of ground
comprised between Fort and Treasury Streets on the one side, and the
streets Buade and Ste. Anne on the other side. At the corner of Treasury
and Buade Streets, on the west, Jean Côté possessed a piece of ground
(_emplacement_) which he presented as a dowry in 1649, to his daughter
Simonne, who married Pierre Soumandre.

The grounds of the Archbishop's Palace formed part of the field possessed
by Couillard, whose house stood in the now existing garden of the
Seminary, opposite the gate which faces the principal alley, the
foundations of which were discovered and brought to light by the Abbé
Laverdière in 1866. The Union Hotel was for years the meeting place of our
festive ancestors, when the assembly balls brought together the Saxon and
the Gaul; it also recalls warlike memories of 1812.


_THE AMERICAN PRISONERS._

In looking over old fyles of our city journals, we find in the _Quebec
Mercury_ of 15th September, 1812, the following item:

    "On Friday, arrived here the detained prisoners taken with Gen. Hull,
    at Detroit. The non-commissioned officers and privates immediately
    embarked on board of transports in the harbour, which are to serve as
    their prison. The commissioned officers were liberated on their
    parole. They passed Saturday morning at the Union Hotel, where they
    were the gazing-stock of the multitude, whilst they, no way abashed,
    presented a bold front to the public stare, puffed the smoke of their
    cigars into the faces of such as approached too near. About two
    o'clock they set off in a stage, with four horses, for Charlesbourg,
    the destined place of their residence."

The Union Hotel here mentioned is the identical building erected for a
hotel by a company in 1805, and now owned by the _Journal de Quebec_,
facing the ring.

Were these prisoners located at Charlesbourg proper, or at that locality
facing Quebec, in Beauport, called _Le Canardière_, in Judge de Bonne's
former stately old mansion, on which the eastern and detached wing of the
Beauport Lunatic Asylum now stands?

Tradition has ever pointed to this building as that which sheltered the
disconsolate American warriors in 1812, with the adjoining rivulet,
_Ruisseau de l'Ours_, as the boundary to the east which their parole
precluded their crossing.

The result of the American defeat at Detroit had been important--"one
general officer (Wadsworth), two lieutenant-colonels, five majors, a
multitude of captains and subalterns, with nine hundred men, one field-
piece and a stand of colors, were the fruits of the victory, the enemy
having lost in killed, wounded, missing and prisoners, upwards of fifteen
hundred." (Christie's History.)

Amongst the American prisoners sent down to Quebec was the celebrated
General Winfield Scott, who lived to cull laurels in the Mexican war. He
was then Col. Scott, and there is yet (1878) living in Quebec an old
resident, R. Urquhart, who well remembers, when a boy, seeing the "tall
and stern American Colonel." He was six feet five inches in height.
(Lossing, p. 408.)

Of these prisoners taken at Detroit, twenty-three had been recognized as
British born and deserters from the English army. they were sent to
England for trial. It is yet possible that some of the veterans of 1812,
by their diaries or other sources of information, may tell us who were the
Charlesbourg or Beauport captives in 1812. They had not been under
restraint much more than a week, when, by the following advertisement in
the _Quebec Mercury_, dated 29th September, we find the British Government
attending to their comforts with a truly maternal foresight:--

    Commissary General's Office,

    QUEBEC, 28th Sept., 1812

    "Wanted for the American prisoners of war, comfortable warm clothing,
    consisting of the following articles:

      Jackets,
      Shirts,
      Trowsers,
      Stockings,
      Moccassins or Shoes.
      Also 2000 pounds of soap."

From which it is clear John Bull intended his American cousins should not
only be kept warm, but suitably scrubbed as well. Two thousand lbs. of
soap foreshadowed a fabulous amount of scrubbing. Colonel Scott and
friends were evidently "well off for soap."

Colonel Coffin, of Ottawa, the annalist of the War of 1812, in reply to a
query of mine, writes me:

    "Scott remained in Canada from the date of his surrender, 23d October,
    1812, to the period of his departure from Quebec, say May, 1813. But
    he was on parole the whole time, and from Quebec, as given in his life
    by Mansfield, p. 55, he went in a cartel to Boston, and soon after was
    exchanged. Under these circumstances, I do not think it likely that he
    would have been escorted militarily in custody anywhere. Winder may
    have been also taken to Quebec, or he may have been exchanged on the
    Western frontier. Armstrong's 'War of 1812' will probably give the
    details."

The _Quebec Mercury_, of 27th October, 1812, contains the following:

    "The prisoners taken at Detroit and brought down to Quebec are on the
    point of embarking for Boston for the purpose of being exchanged. Five
    cannon are now lying in the _Château_ Court taken at Detroit."

In retaliation for the twenty-three American prisoners sent for trial to
England, as deserters from the British army, the American Government had
ordered that forty-six British prisoners of war should be detained in
close confinement.

    "In consequence of this," says Christie, "the Governor ordered all the
    American officers, prisoners of war, without exception of rank, to be
    immediately placed into close confinement as hostages, until the
    number of forty-six were completed over and above those already in
    confinement. In pursuance of this order, Generals Winder, Chandler and
    Winchester were conveyed from their quarters in the country at
    Beauport to a private house in Quebec, where their confinement was
    rendered as little inconvenient as their situation could admit of."

    They were exchanged in April, 1814, against British officers,
    prisoners of war in the States.

In connection with General Scott's captivity at Quebec, Lossing relates a
little incident, which redounds to his credit:--

    "When the prisoners were about to sail from Quebec, a party came on
    board the vessel, mustered the captives and commenced separating from
    the rest those who, by their accent, were found to be Irishmen. These
    they intended to send to England for trial as traitors in a frigate
    lying near, in accordance with the doctrine that a British subject
    cannot expatriate himself. Scott, who was below, hearing a tumult on
    deck, went up. He was soon informed of the cause, and at once entered
    a vehement protest against the proceedings. He commanded his soldiers
    to be absolutely silent, that their accent might not betray them. He
    was repeatedly ordered to go below, and as repeatedly refused. The
    soldiers obeyed him. Twenty-three had been already detected as
    Irishmen, but not another one became a victim. The twenty-three were
    taken on board the frigate in irons. Scott boldly assured them that if
    the British Government dared to injure a hair of their head, his own
    Government would fully avenge the outrage. He at the same time as
    boldly defied the menacing officers, and comforted the manacled
    prisoners in every way. Scott was exchanged in January, 1813, and at
    once sent a full report of this affair to the Secretary of War. He
    hastened to Washington in person, and pressed the subject upon the
    attention of Congress. Fortunately, the President never had occasion
    to exercise this retaliation, the British Government having abstained
    from carrying out in practice, in the case of the American prisoners,
    its cherished doctrine of perpetual allegiance.

    "The final result of Scott's humane and courageous conduct in this
    matter was very gratifying to himself. Almost three years after the
    event at Quebec, he was greeted by loud huzzahs as he was passing a
    wharf on the East River side of New York city. It came from a group of
    Irishmen, who had just landed from an emigrant ship. There were
    twenty-one out of the twenty-three prisoners for whom he had cared so
    tenderly. They had just returned from a long confinement in English
    prisons. They recognized their benefactor, and, says Scott's
    biographer, "nearly crushed him by their warm-hearted embraces."
    (Lossing's Field Book, p. 409.)

        Some years back a discussion took place in the columns of the
        _Morning Chronicle_, of Quebec, as to the names of the volunteers
        of Bell's Cavalry who had escorted the U. S. prisoners of war in
        1812 from Beauport to Quebec. The following extract from our diary
        throws some light on this subject:


        _THE LAST SURVIVORS OF BELL'S CAVALRY IN 1812._

        "Among more than one strange meeting, which that welcome haven of
        the wearied wayfarer, the way-side inn, has brought me, in course
        of many peregrinations through the length and breadth of the
        Province of Quebec, none can I recall less anticipated, than the
        one which happened to me this 22nd March, 1881. I reached that
        night at 10.30, direct from the Kennebec Railway, the parlor of
        Monsieur Lessard's Temperance Hotel at St. Joseph, Beauce. (Such
        the euphonious name the Licence Act awards to these fallacious
        emblems of comfort or good cheer). After a lengthy interview, I
        next day parted, possibly for ever, from an old and withered
        _sabreur_ of 1812, the last survivor, I think, of that dashing
        volunteer cavalry corps, raised by Capt. the Hon. Matthew Bell at
        Quebec in 1812.

        I had the rare luck of having from the very lips of this
        octogenarian, an account of the share he had in conducting as one
        of the cavalry detachment detailed to escort Colonel Winfield
        Scott and brother officers from Beauport, where they were confined
        as prisoners on _parole_, to the district prison in St. Stanislas
        street (the Morrin College) from whence the "big" Colonel and his
        comrades were taken and lodged in Colonel Coffin's house in St.
        Louis street.

        How different the careers! Scott in time became the hero of the
        war with Mexico, and the dashing cavalry corporal who escorted
        him, aged now 89, after 30 years tenure of office, still holds the
        position of village Postmaster, in the township of Broughton,
        Beauce. Among the incidents of which my ancient acquaintance seems
        proud, is that of his having played at cards with General Scott
        and his captive comrades.

        "Charles Hy. J. Hall," (such his clear and well written autograph
        authenticating the memorandum I drew up for him) a roystering
        _militaire_ and _bon vivant_, in our good city, seventy years ago,
        presents in his person a rare instance of mental and physical
        faculties well preserved until the end--memory, sight, mind,
        appetite, all unimpaired.

        I was so interested when he informed me that he had been one of
        Col. Bell's cavalry, (I felt convinced that, of all the members of
        this dashing corps, he was the last survivor,) that I questioned
        him very closely, and cross-examined him on such matters of
        detail, which an eye-witness alone could know. Mr. Hall, the son
        of the late Wm. Hall, of Fabrique street, Quebec, is connected
        with several of our most noted families. His father came to Canada
        about 1783, from the adjoining provinces,--a United Empire
        Loyalist, and became wealthy. Subjoined will be found a short
        statement taken down as it fell from the lips of my new
        acquaintance, and authenticated by his signature. Mr. Chas. Hall
        is Postmaster of Broughton, County of Beauce."--(_Diary of J. M.
        LeMoine_.)

                   *       *       *       *       *

        "I am now 89 years of age. My father, the late Wm. Hall, a well-
        to-do Quebecer, whose partner in business I subsequently was,
        lived at what I should call No. 1 Fabrique street (the house
        lately vacated by Behan Bros). I was born in a house in St. John
        street. I loved to roam--have travelled the world over and
        received some hard knocks in my day. As to that part of my career,
        which seems particularly to interest you--the war of 1812--I
        regret I cannot tell you as much as you wish to know. In 1812 I
        joined Capt. the Hon. Matthew Bell's Volunteer Cavalry; we
        numbered between 90 to 100 men. Our uniform was blue coat, red
        collar,--silver braid; arms, a sabre and holster pistols. As
        volunteers every man furnished his own horse, suits, etc. My
        horse, which cost me thirty guineas, I refused sixty for from Col.
        McNeil; our mounts were of Canadian, American, and English
        pedigree.

        We were commanded by Col. Bell; Hon Wm. Sheppard (late of
        Woodfield), was our Major, Mr. Hale, our Captain, Wm. Henderson,
        our Lieutenant. I cannot say, in reply to your question, whether
        the late Hammond Gowan was our Cornet. Our house stood next to
        that where General Brock had lived, in Fabrique street. I was, in
        1812, one of the escort who took General Winfield Scott, Col.
        Winder,----from Beauport; I remember well the big Col. Scott, as I
        played cards with the American officers who were, on their parole,
        quartered in Judge DeBonne's house, on the site of which the east
        wing of the Lunatic Asylum has since been erected. I formed part
        of the escort who conducted the American officers to the Quebec
        jail, in St. Stanislas street, previous to their being located in
        a St. Louis street house. During the war, under Sir George
        Prevost, I formed, in March, part of the detachment of cavalry,
        sent with a company of the 103rd, to the parish of St. Joseph,
        Beauce, to arrest some militia men who had refused to enlist. The
        ice-bridge before Quebec, started a few minutes after our last
        horse had crossed.

        CHAS. HY. J. HALL

        St. Joseph, Beauce, 23rd March, 1881.

        N B.--I can read yet without glasses; I reckon I am the last
        survivor of Bell's Cavalry.--_Morning Chronicle_, 28th _April_,
        1881.


        QUEBEC TROOP OF LIGHT CAVALRY.

        _Extract from a Troop Order Book of Captain Bell's Troop, dated
        Quebec, 1st March, 1813._

        NOTES RESPECTING THE FORMATION OF THE TROOP.

        [Furnished by Lt.-Col. Turnbull, Q.O.C.H.]

        This Troop was first formed by Capt. Bell, under an order of H. E.
        Sir G. Prevost, dated 22nd April, 1812, as a part of 3rd
        Battalion, Quebec Militia.

        22nd May, 1812.--William Sheppard and Hammond Gowan are appointed
        Sergeants. Mr. Hale attached to the Troop as Cornet.

        27th June.--Intelligence of the declaration of war reached Quebec.
        The gentlemen composing the Troop, to the number of 34,
        volunteered their services, to act when and where the Government
        thought proper.

        27th July.--The Troop declared independent of the 3rd Battalion,
        Quebec Militia. In case of alarm, to assemble on their private
        parade, in front of the Castle, by order of General Glasgow.

        October.--Mr. Hale appointed Lieutenant, and Mr. Sheppard, Cornet,
        dated 24th April last.

        19th December.--The Troop to be held in readiness to march on
        active service early in the spring.

        15th February, 1813.--Orders received to add 25 dismounted men to
        the Troop.


        MUSTER ROLL.

        QUEBEC LIGHT CAVALRY, BELL'S TROOP.

        1st March, 1813.

        _Officers._
        Captain (Commandant) Matthew Bell.
        Lieutenant Edward Hale,
        Cornet W. G Sheppard,
        Quarter-Master Benjamin Racy, (from the Ste. Marie, Nouvelle
        Beauce Battalion), attached to the Troop.

        _N.C. Officers_
        Sergeant Hammond Gowan,           Corporal Charles Hall,
            "    Wm. Henderson,               "    Wm. Sheppard,
            "    Alex. Gowan, Acting          "    G. Wilson,
            "    James Heath, Acting      Trumpeter Thos. Pearson.

        _Privates_
        On the full establishment, furnishing horse, clothing, &c.:--
        *William Turner,     John Stansfield,     *James Capper,
        *Wm. Thomas,         James McCallum,      Robert Page,
        *John Patterson,     John Connolly,       John White,
        William Price,       Peter Burnet,        William Hoogs,
        John Dempster,       *James Dick,         J. G. Clapham,
        *John Campbell,      James Henderson,     George Chapman,
        Andrew Moire,        George Cossar,       *James Black,
        James Oliver,        *John McQuay,        William Henderson,
        John Racy,           Archibald Campbell,  *Amos Priest,
        William Moore,       James George,        James McCallum,
        *David Robertson,    Webb Robinson,       John McCallum,
        James Whyte,         Daniel Buckley,      Frank Bell.

        _Dismounted Party._
                                              Age.   Ft.    In.
        James Winton . . . . . . . . . . . .   30     5     10
        *Frederick Petry . . . . . . . . . .   19     5     10
        *George Burns  . . . . . . . . . . .   19     5     10
        Henry Connolly . . . . . . . . . . .   16     5     10
        *Francis Martineau . . . . . . . . .    .     .     ..
        Daniel Baker . . . . . . . . . . . .    .     .     ..
        James Stewart  . . . . . . . . . . .   19     5      9
        Frederick Wyse . . . . . . . . . . .   27     5      9
        John Menzies . . . . . . . . . . . .   27     5      9
        David Flynn  . . . . . . . . . . . .   29     5      8-1/2
        *William Graves . . . . . . . . . . .  21     5      8
        *Richard Burns. . . . . . . . . . . .  22     5      8
        *James Loan . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23     5      7-1/2
        Alexander Russell . . . . . . . . . .  ..     .     ..
        *William Parker . . . . . . . . . . .  ..     .     ..
        *Charles Gethings . . . . . . . . . .  19     5      7
        *Thomas Burney. . . . . . . . . . . .  21     5      7
         John Chillas . . . . . . . . . . . .  26     5      7
        George C. Ross. . . . . . . . . . . .  17     5      8
        *Godfroi Langlois . . . . . . . . . .  20     5     10
        George Patterson. . . . . . . . . . .  ..     .     ..
        Peter Legget. . . . . . . . . . . . .  ..     .     ..
        J. Dion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ..     .     ..
        David Denny . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ..     .     ..
        Wm. Hobb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ..     .     ..

        [Note: * Reside in Upper Town.]

        Troop Order, 1st March.--Foot drills on Mondays, Wednesdays and
        Fridays in the Riding House at 12 o'clock till further orders.

        8th March.--The Captain commanding desires that the following
        articles be provided as soon as possible by each person in the
        Troop, to enable him to comply with the General Orders of the
        Commander-in-Chief, dated 19th December last, viz: Helmet; blue
        cloth forage cap; black silk handkerchief or stock; dress jacket,
        undress jacket (plain), plain linen jacket (stable); a pair of
        brown linen trowsers; a pair of grey cloth overalls; a pair of
        grey cloth or stockinett pantaloons; a pair of half boots and
        spurs; two flannel shirts; two pair flannel drawers; three pairs
        of stockings; one pair of shoes; one razor; one knife; one brush;
        one curriecomb, brush and mane comb; one linen haversack; one
        linen nose-bag; one linen bag for necessaries.

        The dismounted men may make their undress jacket of strong brown
        linen if they prefer it.

        Quarter-Master Racy will shew patterns and give any information
        that may be required. The Captain wishes the different articles to
        be good and strong, but not of an expensive kind.

        28th March.--A detachment was ordered on service to Ste. Marie
        Nouvelle Beauce and St. Joseph, returning on the 31st under the
        command of Lieutenant Hale, consisting of two officers, two
        sergeants, one corporal, 18 privates; total, 23.

At right angles from Buade Street, opposite the wall [66] which surrounds
St. Joseph Cemetery, enclosed between the Basilica and the street, there
exists, since the earliest times, a short, narrow street--more properly a
lane--_Treasury Street_. The French know it as _Rue du Trésor_, because
under French rule, the Government Office, where public monies were
paid out, stood in the vicinity. Until the departure of the English
garrison and removal of the Commissariat Staff, in 1871, Treasury Street
was one of the avenues which led contractors and others to the Royal
Commissariat Department, at the east end of St. Louis Street. Here, for
years, were dealt out lavishly either the old French or Spanish piastres
during the war of 1812-14, the proceeds of the army bills, and later on,
English sovereigns, guineas and doubloons, &c. The Commissariat office was
situate facing the Ring, and after the departure of the British troops,
about 1871, was used as the office and dwelling of the Deputy Adjutant
General of Militia. The lot, which, with the garden in rear, reaches to
Mount Carmel Street, had been bought by the Ordnance from Mr. Peter
Bréhault in the early part of the century.

Prince Edward had brought to Quebec from Gibraltar, in 1791, as his
Secretary, Capt. John Hale, 2nd Queen's Regiment. Capt. Hale was the
eldest son of Brevet Major John Hale, [67] of the 47th, who served under
General Wolfe at Quebec. Major J. Hale subsequently became General Hale.
Capt. John Hale, after stopping at Quebec with the Prince, subsequently
returned to Halifax with him. He was afterwards appointed by the Imperial
authorities Deputy Paymaster General to the Forces in Canada. He, it was,
who owned the lot on which the Commissary-General's office stood. This
occurred previous to 1812. He sold the property to Peter Bréhault, who had
come out to Canada as an employé to John Muire, Esq. Mr. Bréhault resold
it to the Imperial Government, the Paymaster's Office being merged into
the Commissariat Office. The Ursuline nuns have named, after their patron
Saint, Ste. Ursule, the first street to the west, which intersects at
right angles, St. Louis and Ste. Anne streets. Ste. Ursule and Ste. Anne
streets and environs seem to have been specially appropriated by the
disciples of Hippocrates. Physicians [68] and surgeons there assuredly do
congregate, viz.: Dr. James Sewell, his son, Dr. Colin Sewell, Drs.
Landry, Lemieux, Simard, Belleau, Russell, Russell, Jr., Gale, Ross,
Baillargeon, Roy, Fortier, LaRue, Parke, Rowand, Henchey, Vallée, Marsden,
Jackson--distinguished physicians. Notwithstanding that it is the abode of
so many eminent members of the Faculty, the locality is healthy; nay,
conducive to longevity.

The streets Aylmer, Burton, Bagot, Craig, Carleton, Dorchester, Dalhousie,
Haldimand, Hope, Metcalf, Murray, Prevost, Richmond, perpetuate the memory
of thirteen English Governors, while four French Governors have left their
names on as many thoroughfares--Buade, Champlain, d'Aillebout, Montmagny.
Many of the luxurious dwellings on the Cape date back to 1840 or so; this
now aristocratic neighborhood, after the conquest and until 1830, was
occupied by carters, old French market gardeners and descendants of French
artisans, &c.--such were the early tenants of Des Carrières, Mont Carmel,
Ste. Geneviève, St. Denis, Des Grissons streets.--"_Mais nous avons
changé tout cela._"

A few years since, the Town Council, on motion of Councillor Ernest
Gagnon, whose name is identified with our popular songs, [69] disturbed
the nomenclature of that part of D'Aiguillon street, _extra muros_, by
substituting the name of "Charlevoix." To that section of St. Joseph
street, _intra muros_, was conferred the name of our respected historian,
F. X Garneau. [70] To St. François street, the name of the historian,
Ferland, was awarded; the historian, Robert Christie, [71] has also his
street. This met with general approval.

"On ascending," says Abbé Faillon, "from the Lower to the Upper Town by a
tortuous road, contrived betwixt the rocks, and on the right hand side, we
reach the Cemetery. [72] This road, which terminated at the Parish Church,
[73] divided itself into two,--on one side it led to the Jesuits (Jesuits'
College) and to the Hospital (Hôtel Dieu); and on the other, to the Indian
Fort [74] and to the Castle of Saint Louis. The Castle and King's Fort,
guarded by soldiers night and day, under the orders of the Governor, was
of an irregular shape, flanked by bastions, fortified by pieces of
artillery, and contained in its interior several _suites_ of apartments
separated one from the other. At the distance of about forty toises (240
feet) from the Castle was seen, on the south side, a small garden, fenced
in, for the use of the Governor, and in front, towards the west, was the
_Place d'Armes_ (now the _Ring_), in the form of a trapezium."

St. John street, for years without a rival as chief commercial
thoroughfare for retail trade in dry goods, sees its former busy aspect
daily fleeting since the invasion of that bitter foe to wheeled vehicles--
the street railway. Its glory is departing: the mercer's showy counter and
shelves are gradually replaced by vegetable and fruit stores. Stately
shops on Desfosses, Crown and Craig streets are rapidly diverting the
_Pactolus_ of the city custom northwards. In the dark ages of the
Ancient Capital, when this lengthy, narrow lane was studded with one-story
wooden or stone tenements, Old Sol occasionally loved to look down and
gladden with his rays its miry footpaths. To our worthy grandfathers 'twas
a favorite _rendezvous_--the _via sacra_--the Regent street--the
_Boulevard des Italiens_--where the _beau monde_ congregated at 4 P.M.,
sharp; where the merry jingle of the tandem _grelots_ invaded the frosty
air in January; where the freshest toilettes, the daintiest bonnets--those
"ducks of bonnets" invented fifty years ago by Mrs. T--d--ensnared
admirers; where marten or "silver fox" muffs of portentous size--all the
rage then--kept warm and coursing the stream of life in tiny, taper hands,
cold, alas! now in Death's pitiless grasp; where the old millionaire,
George Pozer, chinked his English guineas or piled up in his desk his army
bills. Alas! Jean Bourdon, the pioneer of our land surveyors, you, who,
more than two centuries ago, left your name to this vaunted locality--your
street as well as your name are getting to be things of the past! Shall we
bid adieu to this oft travelled over thoroughfare without deigning a
parting glance, as we saunter on, at that low old-fashioned house, No. 84,
on the north side of the street, where, for a quarter of a century and
more, Monsieur Charles Hamel's book and church ornament emporium held its
own against all the other book stores? It is now occupied as a dwelling
and a notarial office by an ex-Mayor and late member for the city, P. A.
Tourangeau, Esq., N.P. Vividly, indeed, can we recall the busy aspect of
its former counter, studded with gilt madonnas, rosaries, some in brass
mountings, variegated Job beads for the million; others set in ebony and
silver for rich _dévotes_, flanked with wax tapers, sparkling church
ornaments, bronze crucifixes--backed with shelves of books bearing, some,
the _visa_ of Monseigneur de Tours--the latter for the faithful; others in
an inner room, without the _visa_--these for city _littérateurs_; whilst
in a shady corner-cupboard, imported to order--sometimes without order--
stood a row of short-necked but robust bottles, labelled "_Grande
Chartreuse_" and "_Bénédictine_," for the especial delectation of a few
Quebec Brillat-Savarins--the _gourmets_!

Monsieur Hamel, a sly, courteous, devout old bachelor, had a honied word,
a holy, upturned glance, a jaunty welcome for all and every one of his
numerous "dévotes" or fashionable _pratiques_. A small fortune was
the result of the attention to business, thrift and correct calculations
of this pink of French politeness. Monsieur Chas. Hamel, honoured by his
familiars with the sobriquet "Lily Hamel," possibly because his urbanity
was more than masculine, in fact, quite lady-like--the _crème de la
crème_ of commercial suavity. This stand, frequented by the Quebec
gentry from 1840 to 1865, had gradually become a favourite stopping place,
a kind of half-way house, where many aged valetudinarians tarried a few
minutes to gossip with friends equally aged, homeward bound, on bright
winter afternoons, direct from their daily "constitutional" walk, as far
as the turnpike on St. John's road. Professor Hubert Larue [75] will
introduce us to some of the _habitués_ of this little club, which he
styles _Le Club des Anciens_, a venerable brotherhood uniting choice
spirits among city _littérateurs_, antiquarians, superannuated Militia
officers, retired merchants: Messrs. Henry Forsyth, Long John Fraser,
Lieut.-Colonel Benjamin LeMoine, F. X. Garneau, G. B. Faribault, P. A. De
Gaspé, Commissary-General Jas. Thompson, Major Lafleur, Chs. Pinguet, the
valiant Captain of the City Watch in 1837. The junior members counted from
fifty to sixty summers; their seniors had braved some sixty or seventy
winters. After discussing the news of the day, local antiquities and
improvements, there were certain topics, which possessed the secret of
being to them eternally young, irresistibly attractive: the thrilling era
of Colonel De Salaberry and General Sir Isaac Brock; the Canadian
_Voltigeurs_, [76] the American War of 1812-14, where a few of these
veterans had clanked their sabres and sported their epaulettes, &c. With
the exception of an esteemed and aged Quebec merchant, Long John Fraser,
all now sleep the long sleep, under the green sward and leafy shades of
Mount Hermon or Belmont cemeteries, or in the moist vaults of some city
monastery.

On revisiting lately these once famous haunts of our forefathers, the new
proprietor, ex-Mayor Tourangeau, courteously exhibited to us the
_antiques_ of this heavy walled tenement, dating back possibly to the
French _régime_, perhaps the second oldest house in St. John street.
In a freshly painted room, on the first story, in the east end, hung two
ancient oil paintings, executed years ago by a well-remembered artist,
Jos. Legaré, for the owners, two octogenarian inmates--his friends,
Messrs. Michel and Charles Jourdain, architects and builders. They were
charged some seventy years ago with the construction of the District Court
House (burnt in 1872) and City Jail (now the Morrin College.) Messrs.
Jourdain had emigrated to Canada after the French Revolution of 1789. They
had a holy horror of the guillotine, though, like others of the
_literati_ of Quebec in former days, they were well acquainted with
the doctrines and works of Voltaire, Diderot, and d'Alembert. One of the
Jourdains, judging from his portrait, must have been a shrewd, observant
man. Later on, the old tenement had sheltered the librarian of the
Legislative Council, Monsieur Jourdain--a son--quite a _savant_ in
his way, and whose remains were escorted to their last resting place by
the _élite_ of the Canadian population. It is a mistake to think that
culture and education were unknown in those early times; in some instances
the love of books prevailed to that degree that, in several French-
Canadian families, manuscript copies then made at Quebec exist to this
day, of the Latin and French classics from the difficulty of procuring
books; there being little intercourse then with Paris book-stores, in
fact, no importations of books. Among many quaint relics of the distant
days of the Messrs. Jourdain and of their successor, Monsieur Audiverti
_dit_ Romain, we saw a most curiously inlaid _Marqueterie_ table, dating,
we might be tempted to assert, from the prehistoric era!

Innumerable are the quaint, pious or historical souvenirs, mantling like
green and graceful ivy, the lofty, fortified area, which comprises the
Upper Town of this "walled city of the North". An incident of our early
times--the outraged Crucifix of the Hôtel Dieu Convent, [77] and the
Military Warrant, appropriating to urgent military wants, the revered seat
of learning, the Jesuits' College, naturally claim a place in these pages.
The _Morning Chronicle_ will furnish us condensed accounts, which we
will try and complete:--


    _LE CRUCIFIX OUTRAGÉ._

    "An interesting episode in the history of Canada during the last
    century attaches to a relic in the possession of the Reverend Ladies
    of the Hôtel Dieu, or, more properly, "the Hospital of the Most
    Precious Blood of Jesus Christ," of which the following is a synopsis
    taken from l'Abbé H. G. Casgrain's history of the institution:--

    "On the 5th October, 1742, it was made known that a soldier in the
    garrison in Montreal, named Havard de Beaufort, professed to be a
    sorcerer, and, in furtherance of his wicked pretensions, had profaned
    sacred objects. He had taken a crucifix, and having besmeared it with
    some inflammable substance--traces of which are still to be seen upon
    it--had exposed it to the flames, whilst he at the same time recited
    certain passages of the Holy Scripture. The sacrilege had taken place
    in the house of one Charles Robidoux, at Montreal. Public indignation
    at this profanation of the sacred symbol and of the Scripture was
    intense; the culprit was arrested, tried and convicted, and sentenced
    to make a public reparation, after which he was to serve three years
    in the galleys. To this end he was led by the public executioner, with
    a cord around his neck, bareheaded and barefooted, wearing only a long
    shirt, and having a placard on his breast and back on which was
    inscribed the legend "Desecrator of holy things" (_Profanateur des
    choses saintes_), in front of the parish church in Montreal, and
    being placed on his knees, he made the _amende honorable_ to God,
    to the King and to Justice, and declared in a loud and intelligible
    voice that he had rashly and wickedly desecrated the sacred image of
    Jesus Christ, and had profaned the words of Holy Scripture. He was
    then brought to all the cross-roads of the town, where he was scourged
    by the public executioner, and afterwards lodged in prison to await
    the sailing of the vessel which was to convey him to France, where he
    was to undergo the remainder of his sentence. The Bishop of Quebec,
    (whose vast diocese then included all of North America) immediately
    wrote a letter to Montreal, inviting the people to make reparation by
    penances and public prayers for the outrage committed, and ordering a
    public procession from the parish church to that of Notre Dame de
    Bonsecours, where the veneration of the cross took place. He then
    obtained the crucifix from the magistrates, and forwarded it to the
    reverend ladies of the Hôtel Dieu in Quebec, accompanied by a letter
    in which he directed that it should be placed in their chapel, and
    that on a certain day the veneration of it should be made in
    reparation of the insult offered the Saviour of the world in his
    sacred image on the cross. The nuns placed it in a reliquary, and to
    this day it occupies a prominent position on the high altar. In virtue
    of a brief of His Holiness the Pope, dated the 15th December, 1782, a
    plenary indulgence was granted to any one who, having fulfilled the
    usual conditions, should visit the Hôtel Dieu chapel on the first
    Friday in March of each year. By an indult of the Supreme Pontiff,
    dated 21st March, 1802, this indulgence was transferred to the first
    Friday of October, when the veneration of the relic takes place
    annually.

    The cross is of some sort of dark wood, about five or six inches long,
    bearing a brass figure of our Saviour, with the inscription I. N. R.
    I. (_Jesus Nazarene Rex Judaeorum_) overhead and the skull and
    cross-bones beneath. Attached to it is the certificate of authenticity
    and the seal of the Bishop, Monseigneur de Pontbriand. In accordance
    with this arrangement, public service was held in the chapel of the
    hospital yesterday. The crucifix, enclosed in a gorgeous reliquary and
    surrounded with a number of lighted tapers, flowers and other
    ornaments, was placed on one of the lateral altars. Solemn mass was
    sung at eight o'clock by the Rev. Mr. Rhéaume, of the Seminary, the
    musical portion being rendered in a most impressive manner by the
    reverend mothers, to organ accompaniment. In the afternoon, at two
    o'clock, solemn vespers were chanted by the community, after which an
    eloquent and impressive sermon was preached by Rev. Father Lepinto,
    S.J., followed by the benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, which was
    given, by Rev. Mr. Fraser, of the Seminary, who had previously read a
    solemn form of "Reparation" in the name of all present, and in which
    all joined. The _Tantum Ergo_ and other hymns were sung by the
    nuns, and after the chanting of the CXVI. Psalm, the relic was
    venerated, each one devoutly kissing it, during which the choir of
    nuns sang the _Crux fidelis_. Altogether the ceremony was a very
    impressive one, as was evidenced by the solemn, subdued manner of the
    large congregation assembled."--(_Morning Chronicle_, _2nd Oct._,
    1880.)

    _THE JESUITS' BARRACKS._

    "At the present moment, in 1871, when, it is said, the Jesuits'
    Barrack is on the eve of being returned to the Quebec authorities, our
    readers will no doubt be pleased to learn how and when this valuable
    property came into the possession of the Military Government. We are
    indebted to J. M. LeMoine, Esq., President of the Literary and
    Historical Society, for a copy of the ukase of Governor Murray
    converting the old College of the Jesuits, on the Upper Town Market
    Place, into a barrack, which it has remained ever since. It is
    extracted from some rare old manuscripts belonging to that
    institution. The orthographical mistakes exist in the original, and we
    have allowed them to reappear:--

    By His Excellency the Hon. James Murray, Esq., Capt. General and
    Governor-in-Chief of the Province of Quebec and the territories
    thereupon depending in America, Vice-Admiral of the same, Major-
    General of His Majesty's Forces, and Colonel Commandant of the 2nd
    Battalion of the Royal American Regiment of Foot, &c., &c., &c.

    To Captain James Mitchelson, Captain William Martin, Lieut. Smith,
    Messieurs Amiot, Boisseau and Moore:

    Whereas it appears to me that proper Quarters and Barracks are much
    wanted for the officers and troops in this garrison, and it being
    apprehended that the Jesuits' College may be fitted up for that
    purpose--You are hereby authorized and impowered to survey the same,
    calling to your assistance such number of tradesmen as you may judge
    necessary, in which survey, regard is to be had to a sufficient number
    of Fire Places and Chimneys, to ascertain with precision the number of
    officers and private soldiers the said College will contain, and to
    make an estimate of the expense that will attend the repairs thereof.
    And whereas the Contractors' provisions are at present lodged in the
    said college, other magazines should be found to lodge the same. You
    are therefore further impowered to inspect and survey that building
    known by the name of the Intendant's Palace, and to ascertain also the
    charges that will attend the fitting up the same to contain the
    quantity of six thousand barrels, reporting to me on the back hereof
    your proceedings upon the warrant, which shall be to you and every of
    you sufficient authority.

      Given under my hand and seal at Quebec, this 4th day of June, 1765.
      (sd) JAS. MURRAY. By His Excellency's command.
      (Counters'd,) J. GOLDFRAP, D. Sectry.

    General Arnold's soldiers having during the winter of 1775 established
    themselves in and near the French Intendant's Palace, facing the St.
    Charles, Governor Carleton decided to sacrifice the stately pile of
    buildings in order to dislodge the enemy. A lively fire was in
    consequence opened from the guns on the ramparts, near Palace Gate,
    and the magnificent structure was soon riddled with shot. It stood in
    rear of Vallière's furniture factory and Boswell's brewery. Thus was
    acquired the Jesuits' Barrack, and thus perished the Intendant's
    Palace."--(_Chronicle_, 27_th Dec._, 1871.)

D'Auteuil street, bounded to the west by an open space--the Esplanade--
lined on one side by shade trees, on the other by the verdant slopes of
the glacis and city walls, deserves a passing notice. Bouchette describes
it thus:--"The Esplanade, between St. Louis and St. John's Gate, has a
length of 273 yards, by an average breadth of 80, except at the Ste.
Ursula bastion, where it is 120 yards. It is tolerably level, in some
places presenting a surface of bare rock. This is the usual place of
parade for the troops of the garrison, from whence every morning in summer
the different guards of the town are mounted; in winter the Jesuits'
Barracks drill ground is generally used for parades. The musters and
annual reviews of the militia belonging to the city are held there. [78]

The Esplanade is still used as a parade ground, if not by our city militia
by our provincial troops. Right well can we recall the manly form of the
Commander of the "B" Battery, Lieut.-Colonel T. B. Strange, bestriding a
noble charger, putting his splendid, though not numerous corps, through
their drill on the Esplanade. We have also sometimes caught sight there of
our gay Volunteers. Occasionally these grounds are used by the divers
lacrosse clubs for their athletic games--the _doyen_ of our city
_littérateurs_, the Hon. P. J. O. Chauveau, in a graphic portraiture
of the "Quebec of the Past," has most feelingly retraced the vanished
glories, the military pageants, the practical jokers, the City Watch, the
social gatherings, which his youthful eyes witnessed of yore on the
Esplanade and on Durham Terrace. We have attempted to render in English a
striking chapter of this sparkling effusion:--


    _OLDEN TIMES IN THE ANCIENT CAPITAL._

    "There is not only the quaint city of Champlain--of Montmagny--of
    Frontenac--of Bishop Laval--of Governor de Vaudreuil and Montcalm--of
    Lord Dorchester and Colonel Dambourges--that is rapidly fading away;
    there is not merely the grim fortress of the French _régime_, the
    city of early English rule, disappearing piecemeal in the dissolving
    shadows of the past. A much more modern town--newer even than that so
    graphically pictured by our old friend Monsieur de Gaspé--the Quebec
    of our boyhood--of our youth--the Quebec embalmed in the haunted
    chambers of memory prior to 1837--it also each day seems retreating--
    crumbling--evanescing.

    Where are those dashing regiments which every Sunday at 4 p.m. (we
    were not such Puritans then as now) paraded in the open space facing
    the Esplanade walls, under the approving eye of the beauty and fashion
    of all Quebec, assembled from outside and from inside of the walls--
    the men proud of their bottle-green or dark-blue coats and white duck
    pants--all the vogue then--while the softer sex and juveniles were
    apparelled in the gayest of toilettes--brightest of colors--loudest of
    contrasts: white--pink--green! How densely packed, our Esplanade!
    Little boys and girls crowding in every corner of the lovely
    precipitous lawn which, amphitheatre-like, stretches down--a hanging
    garden of verdure and beauty. The splendid regimental bands of music,
    the gaudily uniformed staff officers curvetting on their chargers,
    with nodding plumes and heavy, glittering epaulettes (alas! the navy
    now seems to have monopolised the gold lace for their shoulder-
    straps), and those irresistible sappers with their bushy beards
    heading the pageant, and those incomparable drum-majors, who could
    fling high in the air their _batons_, and catch them so gracefully in
    their descent. How their glittering coats did enrapture the crowd! All
    these wondrous sights of our youth, where will we now find them?

    The mounting guard, the _Grand Rounds_ at noon, when one of the
    regimental bands (there were here nearly always two, and an honorable
    rivalry existed between them) struck up a martial strain, whilst every
    sentry in the city was relieved. What a treat this was to every one,
    without forgetting the Seminary Externes (pupils), with their blue
    coats and sashes of green or of variegated tints.

    More than one of those lithesome youths came to grief for having
    rushed away from the _Gradus ad Parnassum_ to those Elysian Fields,
    ostensibly to hear the band--possibly to cast a sly glance at "sweet
    sixteen" chatting with the _Militaires_ off duty. Here,
    too, was the spot where amateurs came to hear new pieces of music--the
    latest from London. Durham Terrace was the favoured locality from
    whence the new waltz--the fashionable march--the latest opera--was
    launched into city existence; from thence it found its way to the
    _salons_ of the wealthy: such the history of _Di tanti palpiti_ and
    other sweet emanations of great masters.

    Where, now, are those squads of jolly tars, in navy blue,
    irrepressible in their humors when on shore, far from the quarterdecks
    of the trim frigates anchored under Cape Diamond: upsetting the cake-
    stands, the spruce beer kegs--helping open-handed to the contents the
    saucy street urchins, or, handing round, amidst the startled
    wayfarers, pyramids of horse cakes, trays of barley-sugar and
    peppermints, like real princes dispensing the coin of the realm. Where
    are those noisy gangs of swaggering raftsmen--those _voyageurs_ from
    the _pays d'en haut_, with their glittering costumes--hats festooned
    with red or blue ribbons, sashes of variegated colors, barred shirts--
    tightly wedged, three by three, in _calèches_, like Neapolitans--
    patrolling the streets--interlarding a French song occasionally with
    an oath, tolerably profane--at all times to be met, whether in the
    light of day or the still hours of night. No police in those halcyon
    days; but with the thickening shades of evening issued forth that
    venerable brotherhood, the City Watch.

    The watch, did we say? Where are now these dreamy wanderers of the
    night, carolling forth, like the muezzin in Eastern cities, their
    hourly calls, "All's well!" "Fine night!" "Bad weather!" as the case
    might be--equally ready with their rattles to sound the dread alarm of
    fire, or with their long _bâtons_ to capture belated midnight
    brawlers, that is, when they saw they had a good chance of escaping
    capture themselves. Their most formidable foes were not the thieves,
    but the gay Lotharios and high-fed swells of the time, returning from
    late dinners, and who made it a duty, nay, a crowning glory, to thrash
    the Watch! Where now are those practical jokers who made collections
    of door-knockers (the house-bell was not then known), exchanged sign-
    boards from shop-doors, played unconscionable tricks on the simple-
    minded peasants on market-days--surreptitiously crept in at suburban
    balls, in the guise of the evil one, and, by the alarm they at times
    created, unwittingly helped _Monsieur le Curé_ to frown down upon
    these mundane junkettings.

    One of these escapades is still remembered here. [79]

    Four of these gentlemanly practical jokers, one night, habited in
    black like the Prince of Darkness, drove silently through the suburbs
    in a _cariole_ drawn by two coal-black steeds, and meeting with a
    well-known citizen, overcome by drink, asleep in the snow, they
    silently but vigorously seized hold of him with an iron grip; a
    _cahot_ and physical pain having restored him to consciousness,
    he devoutly _crossed_ himself, and, presto! was hurled into another
    snow-drift. Next day all Quebec had heard in amazement how, when and
    where Beelzebub and his infernal crew had been seen careering in state
    after nightfall. Oh! the jolly days and gay nights of olden times!

    But the past had other figures more deserving of our sympathy. The
    sober-sided sires of the frolicsome gentry just described: the
    respected tradesmen who had added dollar to dollar to build up an
    independence--whose savings their children were squandering so
    recklessly; those worthy citizens who had filled without stipend
    numerous civic offices, with a zeal, a whole-heartedness seldom met
    with in the present day--at once churchwardens, justices of the peace,
    city fathers, members of societies for the promotion of agriculture,
    of education, for the prevention of fires; who never sat up later than
    nine of the clock p.m., except on those nights when they went to the
    old Parliament Building to listen in awe to fiery Papineau or eloquent
    Bourdages thunder against the _Bureaucracy_; who subscribed and
    paid liberally towards every work of religion, of charity, of
    patriotism; who every Saturday glanced with trembling eye over the
    columns of the _Official Gazette_, to ascertain whether Government had
    not dismissed them from the Militia or Commission of the Peace, for
    having attended a public meeting, and having either proposed or
    seconded a motion backing up Papineau and censuring the Governor.
    Thrilling--jocund--simple war-like time of 1837, where art thou
    flown?"

The "sunny Esplanade," the "Club," the "Platform," in those days "rather
small," the "Rink," "Montmorency Falls," "Lake Charles," the "Citadel" and
its "hog's-back," it would appear, inspired the bard of the 25th King's
Own Borderers--for years forming part of our garrison--on this favourite
regiment embarking for England, to waft to the old Rock the following
poetic tribute.—

  _FAREWELL TO QUEBEC._

  Adieu, ye joys of fair Quebec!
  We've got what's coarsely termed the sack.
  Adieu, kind homes that we have entered;
  What hopes and joys are around ye centered!
  Adieu, ye flights of Lower Town stairs!
  To mount you often, no one cares.
  Adieu, that Club, with cook whose skill
  Makes none begrudge his dinner bill.
  Adieu, O sunny Esplanade!
  You suit us loungers to a shade.
  Adieu, thou Platform, rather small,
  For upper-ten, the band and all.
  And Music Hall! adieu to thee!
  Ne'er kinder audiences we'll see;
  There on each 'Stadacona' night,
  'Ye antient citie' proves its right
  To boast of beauty, whose fair fame,
  To us at Malta even came.
  Adieu, O Rink, and 'thrilling steel,'
  Another sort of thrill we feel,
  As eye entranced, those forms we follow,
  And see the Graces beaten hollow.
  Adieu, John's Gate! your mud and mire
  Must end in time, _as does each fire_!
  Adieu, that pleasant four-mile round,
  By bilious subs so useful found.
  Adieu, Cathedral! and that choir,
  All eye and ear could well desire.
  Adieu, that service--half-past three—
  And chance walks after, home to tea.
  And 'city fathers,' too, adieu!
  Sorry we shan't know more of you.
  Adieu, your daughters passing fair,
  In dancing, skating, who so rare?
  Adieu, too soon, O Citadel!
  Adieu, hogs-back, we like thee well,
  Though when on _poudré_ days we've crossed,
  Noses and ears we've all but lost.
  Adieu, to Montmorency's Fall!
  Adieu, ye ice-cones large and small!
  Who can forget the _traîneau's_ leap
  From off that icy height, so steep;
  It takes your breath as clean away
  As plunge in air--at best you may
  Get safely down, and borne along,
  Run till upset; but ah! if wrong
  At first, you take to turning round,
  The _traîneau_ leaves you, and you're found
  Down at the bottom, rolling still,
  Shaken and bruised and feeling ill.
  Adieu, ye lakes and all the fishing!
  To cast a fly we've long been wishing.
  One last adieu! sorry are we
  That this must be our p.p.c.!
  Folly to think we'll feel resigned
  In leaving you, who've proved so kind.
  Our bark of happiness goes wreck,
  In quitting you, far-famed Quebec!
                _--P.P.C., of the 25th K.O.B._

Our thoroughfares, our promenades, even in those dreary months, when the
northern blast howls over the Canadian landscape, have some blithsome
gleams of sunshine. Never shall we forget one bright, frosty January
afternoon,  about four o'clock, in the year 1872, when solitary, though
not sad, standing on Durham [80] Terrace, was unveiled to us "a most
magnificent picture, a scene of glorified nature painted by the hand of
the Creator. The setting sun had charged the skies with all its gorgeous
heraldry of purple and crimson and gold, and the tints were diffused and
reflected through fleecy clouds, becoming softer and richer through
expansion. The mountain tops, wood-crowned, where the light and shadow
appeared to be struggling for mastery, stood out in relief from the white
plain, and stretching away in indistinct, dreamy distances finally seemed
to blend with the painted skies. The ice-covered bay was lit up with
glowing shades, in contrast with the deep blue of the clear water beyond;
from which the island rose, and into which the point jutted with grand
picturesqueness; the light played through the frost-adorned, but still
sombre pines, and spread out over deserted fields. Levis and the south
shore received not so much of the illumination, and the grimness of the
Citadel served as a contrast and a relief to the eye bewildered with the
unaccustomed grandeur. But as the sun sank deeper behind the eternal
hills, shadows began to fall, and the bright colours toned down to the
grey of dusk, stars shone out, the grey was chased away, and the azure,
diamond-dotted skies told not of the glory of sunset which had so shortly
before suffused them."--(_Morning Chronicle_.)

We have just seen described the incomparable panorama which a winter
sunset disclosed from the lofty promenade, to which the Earl of Dufferin
has bequeathed his name. Let us now accompany one of our genial summer
butterflies, fluttering through the mazes of old Stadacona escorting a
bride; let us listen to W. D. Howells in the WEDDING JOURNEY. "Nothing, I
think, more enforces the illusion of Southern Europe in Quebec than the
Sunday-night promenading on the Durham (now Dufferin) Terrace. This is the
ample span on the brow of the cliff to the left of the Citadel, the
noblest and most commanding position in the whole city, which was formerly
occupied by the old Castle of St. Louis, where dwelt the brave Count
Frontenac and his splendid successors of the French _régime_. The
castle went the way of Quebec by fire some forty years ago (23rd January,
1834), and Lord Durham levelled the site and made it a public promenade. A
stately arcade of solid masonry supports it on the brink of the rock, and
an iron parapet incloses it; there are a few seats to lounge upon, and
some idle old guns for the children to clamber over and play with. A soft
twilight had followed the day, and there was just enough obscurity to hide
from a willing eye the Northern and New World facts of the scene, and to
leave in more romantic relief the citadel dark against the mellow evening,
and the people gossiping from window to window across the narrow streets
of the Lower Town. The Terrace itself was densely thronged, and there was
a constant coming and going of the promenaders, and each formally paced
back and forth upon the planking for a certain time, and then went quietly
home, giving place to new arrivals. They were nearly all French, and they
were not generally, it seemed, of the first fashion, but rather of
middling condition in life; the English being represented only by a few
young fellows, and now and then a red-faced old gentleman with an Indian
scarf trailing from his hat. There were some fair American costumes and
faces in the crowd, but it was essentially Quebecian. The young girls,
walking in pairs, or with their lovers, had the true touch of provincial
unstylishness, the young men had the ineffectual excess of the second-rate
Latin dandy, the elder the rude inelegance of a _bourgeoisie_ in them; but
a few better-figured _avocats_ or _notaires_ (their profession was as
unmistakable as if they carried their well-polished door-plates upon their
breasts), walked and gravely talked with each other. The non-American
character of the scene was not less vividly marked in the fact, that each
person dressed according to his own taste, and frankly indulged private
shapes and colours. One of the promenaders was in white, even to his
canvas shoes; another, with yet bolder individuality, appeared in perfect
purple. It had a strange, almost portentous effect when these two
startling figures met as friends and joined with each other in the
promenade with united arms; but the evening was beginning to darken round
them, and presently the purple comrade was merely a sombre shadow beside
the glimmering white.

The valleys and the heights now vanished; but the river defined itself by
the varicolored light of the ships and steamers that lay, dark, motionless
hulks upon its broad breast; the lights of Point Levis swarmed upon the
other shore; the Lower Town, two hundred feet below them, stretched an
alluring mystery of clustering roofs and lamp-lit windows, and dark and
shining streets around the mighty rock, mural-crowned. Suddenly a
spectacle peculiarly Northern and characteristic of Quebec revealed
itself; a long arch brightened over the northern horizon; the tremulous
flames of the aurora, pallid violet or faintly tinged with crimson, shot
upward from it, and played with a vivid apparition and evanescence to the
zenith. While the stranger looked, a gun boomed from the Citadel, and the
wild, sweet notes of the bugle sprang out upon the silence."


_THE LOWER TOWN._

On bidding adieu to the lofty plateau which constitutes the Upper Town, on
our way to an antiquarian ramble in the narrow, dusty, or muddy
thoroughfares of the Lower (as it was formerly styled) the Low Town, we
shall cast a glance, a glance only, at the facade of the City Post Office,
on the site of which, until razed in 1871, stood that legendary, haunted
old house, "LE CHIEN D'OR." Having fully described it elsewhere, [81] let
us hurry on, merely looking up as we pass, to the gilt tablet and
inscription and its golden dog, gnawing his bone, pretty much as he
appeared one hundred and twenty-two years ago, to Capt. John Knox, of the
43rd Regt., on his entering Quebec, after its capitulation on the 18th
September, 1759. History has indeed shed very little light on the Golden
Dog and its inscription since that date, but romance has seized hold of
him, and Kirby, Marmette, Soulard and others have enshrined both with the
halo of their imagination. In 1871 the corner stone of the "Chien d'Or"
was unearthed; a leaden plate disclosed the following inscription:--

                          "NICOLAS LAQUIN
                           Dit PHILIBER,
                       _M'a posé le 2e Aoust,_
                                1735."

We clip the following from KNOX'S JOURNAL, of the siege of Quebec in 1759,
at which he was both an actor and an eye-witness:--

    "On the right of the descent, leading to the low town, stands a
    stately old house, said to be the first built of stone in this city
    (Quebec), and over the front door of it is engraved a dog gnawing a
    large, fleshy bone, which he has got under and between his fore-feet,
    with the following whimsical inscription:--

      "Je suis le chien qui ronge l'os,
      Sans en perdre an seul morceau;
      Le temp viendra, qui n'est pas venu,
      Je mordrai celui, qui m'aura mordû."

    "The true meaning of this device I never could learn, though I made
    all possible inquiries, without being gratified with the least
    information respecting its allusion. I have been informed that the
    first proprietor of the house was a man of great natural abilities,
    and possessed a plentiful fortune, which he, after many
    disappointments and losses in trade, had scraped together by means of
    the most indefatigable industry. Now, whether the foregoing device had
    any reference to these particulars of his own private affairs, or that
    we may rather suppose the bone with flesh on it to resemble Canada,
    and the dog an emblem of fidelity, to represent the French settled
    there as if determined faithfully to defend that colony for their King
    and country against the savage natives, who may perhaps be alluded to
    by the two last lines of the inscription, I will not take upon me to
    determine, but submit it to the more penetrating capacity of the
    curious reader."--(KNOX'S JOURNAL, Vol. II., p. 149.)

There are two ways of arriving at this El Dorado of commerce: an easy,
expeditious, and, it is believed a safe passage, originated by our
enterprising fellow-townsman, W. A. G. Griffith, Esq.--the _Terrace
Elevator_. The ascent or descent by the elevator occupies fifty seconds
of time, at the moderate cost of three cents per head. The elevator,
opened to the public on 10th February, 1880, was erected at a cost of
about $30,000. Whether it is placed in the most suitable spot remains to
be seen.


    _THE ELEVATOR._

    "The elevator is worked by the weight of water; this necessitates
    there always being a sufficient supply in the tank at the top of the
    incline, which is pumped by a 12-horse-power steam pump from a large
    tank at the foot. The _modus operandi_ is as follows: Suppose a
    person enters the car at the foot of the incline to be carried to the
    top, the bell-boy at once rings a bell to notify the brakesman to go
    ahead; weight is required to bring the car and passenger from the foot
    to the top, and both cars being built on tanks with necessary valves
    for the entrance of the water from the upper tank and for the exit of
    the same water when it reaches the bottom of the track, which the
    large tank below receives, the brakesman proceeds to open one of the
    water valves and allows sufficient water to enter the car tank until
    it outweighs the car and passengers at the foot; the cars are now
    supposed to be in motion, with the bell-boy at the foot and brakesman
    at the top of the incline, who duties are to watch that everything
    runs smoothly and that the track is clear of all obstructions. Nothing
    can happen inside the cars during the transit that is not noticed by
    the employés; now let us suppose that while in motion one of the
    cables breaks, there is a second cable to take all the strain, which
    is never over five tons, and each cable will lift at least 30 tons,
    but should it happen by some extraordinary oversight that there
    existed flaws in the cables which had not been noticed, so that first
    one cable broke and then the second also broke, it would probably be
    thought that an accident must occur. No such catastrophe would happen,
    because under the cars and out of sight there are two enormously
    strong chisels bolted to the iron tank, and running within half an
    inch of the trestle work; immediately the strain is taken off the
    cables, or immediately the two cables break, the two chisels would
    enter the strong wooden beams that support the iron rails and hold the
    cars firmly in position. Finally, let us suppose that these chisels
    also gave way, it must be said surely an accident is now inevitable;
    but no, for at the top as well as at the foot of the track there are
    two air buffers, against which the cars strike on their ascent and
    descent. So nicely adjusted are they, and so ingeniously are they
    constructed, that although the cars may descend with great force
    against these air buffers, the resistance being gradually developed as
    the air compresses, there will be but little, if any, extra shock.
    Should the brakesman happen to be absent from his post, we are
    informed by the Manager that no irregularities would occur in
    consequence, as a governor regulates the speed at which the cars are
    to go, and on their arrival the air buffers come into play and receive
    them. So well has the brakesman the cars under his control that at one
    stroke of the bell he can stop them instantaneously wherever they may
    be on the track. The brakes are arranged in such a way that it would
    seem to be quite impossible for both of them to be out of order at the
    same time; but even if they were, nothing could happen, as the air
    buffers would check the force of any extra shock. It may be thought
    that an enormous quantity of water must be used to work this
    machinery, seeing that there is a 5,000 gallon water-tank at the top
    of the incline and a 10,000 gallon tank at the foot, but such is not
    the case, the water which is pumped up from the lower to the upper
    tank returns again to the lower one, and so the same water is used
    over and over again; indeed, the amount of water wasted is not nearly
    as much as is consumed by a private family. In confirmation of this
    statement, only a halt-inch tap is used to supply the tanks, and the
    Manager informs us that frequently for days together the tap is not
    turned on either at night or day."

How our worthy grandfathers would have shrugged their shoulders had such
an innovation been mooted eighty years ago. The other mode of penetrating
into the Lower Town is through that steep and tortuous hill--called
Mountain Hill by the English, Côte de la Montagne by the French.

This is the hill which has re-echoed the tread of so many regiments, on
which so many Governors, French and English, have, on divers occasions,
heard themselves enthusiastically cheered by eager crowds; the hill which
Viceroys of France and of England, from the ostentatious Marquis de Tracy
to the proud Earl of Durham, ascended on their way to Government House,
surrounded by their brilliant staffs and saluted by cannon and with
warlike flourish of trumpets! In earlier times the military and religious
display was blended with an aroma of literature and elaborate Indian
oratory, combining prose and poetry.

Francis Parkman will tell us of what took place on the arrival, on the
28th July, 1658, of the Viscount D'Argenson, the Governor of the colony:--
"When Argenson arrived to assume the government, a curious greeting had
awaited him. The Jesuits asked him to dine; vespers followed the repast;
and then they conducted him to a hall where the boys of their school--
disguised, one as the Genius of New France, one as the Genius of the
Forest, and others as Indians of various friendly tribes--made him
speeches by turn, in prose and in verse. First, Pierre du Quet, who played
the Genius of New France, presented his Indian retinue to the Governor, in
a complimentary harangue. Then four other boys, personating French
colonists, made him four flattering addresses, in French verse. Charles
Denis, dressed as a Huron, followed, bewailing the ruin of his people, and
appealing to Argenson for aid. Jean François Bourdon, in the character of
an Algonquin, next advanced on the platform, boasted his courage, and
declared that he was ashamed to cry like the Huron. The Genius of the
Forest now appeared, with a retinue of wild Indians from the interior,
who, being unable to speak French, addressed the Governor in their native
tongues, which the Genius proceeded to interpret. Two other boys in the
character of prisoners just escaped from the Iroquois, then came forward
imploring aid in piteous accents; and in conclusion the whole troop of
Indians from far and near laid their bows and arrows at the feet of
Argenson, and hailed him as their chief.

Besides these mock Indians, a crowd of genuine savages had gathered at
Quebec to greet the new "Ononthio." On the next day--at his own cost, as
he writes to a friend--he gave them a feast, consisting of seven large
kettlesful of Indian corn, peas, prunes, sturgeon, eels and fat, which
they devoured, he says, after having first sung me a song, after their
fashion."

Probably one of the most gorgeous displays on record was that attending
the arrival of the great Marquis of Tracy, in 1665. He came with a
brilliant staff, a crowd of young nobles; and accompanied by two hundred
soldiers, to be followed by a thousand more of the dashing regiment of
Carignan-Salières. He sailed up the St. Lawrence, and on the 30th of June,
1665, anchored in the basin of Quebec. The broad, white standard, blazoned
with the arms of France, proclaimed the representative of royalty; and
Point Levi and Cape Diamond and the distant Cape Tourmente roared back the
sound of saluting cannon. All Quebec was on the ramparts or at the landing
place, and all eyes were strained at the two vessels as they slowly
emptied their crowded decks into the boats alongside. The boats at length
drew near, and the Lieutenant-General and his suite landed on the quay
with a pomp such as Quebec had never seen before.

Tracy was a veteran of sixty-two, portly and tall, "one of the largest men
I ever saw," writes Mother Mary (Marie de l'Incarnation), but he was
sallow with disease, for fever had seized him, and it had fared ill with
him on the long voyage. The Chevalier de Chaumont walked at his side, and
young nobles surrounded him, gorgeous in lace and ribbons, and majestic in
leonine wigs. Twenty-four guards in the King's livery led the way,
followed by four pages and six valets; [82] and thus, while the Frenchmen
shouted and the Indians stared, the august procession threaded the streets
of the Lower Town, and climbed the steep pathway that scaled the cliffs
above. Breathing hard, they reached the top, passed on the left the
dilapidated walls of the Fort and the shed of mingled wood and masonry
which then bore the name of the Castle de St. Louis; passed on the right
the old house of Couillard and the site of Laval's new Seminary, and soon
reached the square betwixt the Jesuit College and the Cathedral.

The bells were ringing in a frenzy of welcome. Laval in pontificals,
surrounded by priests and Jesuits, stood waiting to receive the Deputy of
the King, and as he greeted Tracy and offered him the holy water, he
looked with anxious curiosity to see what manner of man he was. The signs
were auspicious. The deportment of the Lieutenant-General left nothing to
desire. A _prie-dieu_ had been placed for him. He declined it. They
offered him a cushion, but he would not have it, and fevered as he was, he
knelt on the bare pavement with a devotion that edified every beholder.
_Te Deum_ was sung and a day of rejoicing followed. [83]

In our day, we can recall but one pageant at all equal: the roar of
cannon, &c., attending the advent of the great Earl of Durham, [84] but
there were noticeable fewer "priests," fewer "Jesuits," and less
"kneeling" in the procession. There was something oriental in the vice-
regal pageantry. Line-of-battle ships--stately frigates, twelve in number
--the _Malabar_, _Hastings_, _Cornwallis_, _Inconstant_, _Hercules_,
_Pique_, _Charybdis_, _Pearl_, _Vestal_, _Medea_, _Dee_ and _Andromache_
visited that summer our shores, a suitable escort to the able, proud,
humane, [85] but unlucky Viceroy and High Commissioner, with his clever
advisers--the Turtons, Bullers, Wakefields, Hansomes, Derbyshires,
Dunkins, _cum multis aliis_. The Dictator was determined to "make a
country or mar a career." He has left us a country.

That warlike, though festive summer of 1838, with our port studded with
three-deckers and spanking frigates, was long remembered in the annals of
the _bon ton_. Some men-of-war were in especial favour. A poetical
lament by the Quebec ladies was wafted to the departing officers of H. M.
frigate _Inconstant_, the words by the Laureate of the period, George
W. Wicksteed, of Ottawa. This effusion includes the names of every vessel
in the fleet _in italics_, and of several of the officers.

  _THE LADIES' ADDRESS TO THE INCONSTANTS._
  _Written by G. W. Wicksteed._

  We saw the _Hastings_ hasting off,
    And never made a fuss.
  The _Malabar's_ departure waked
    No malady in us.

  We were not piqued to lose the _Pique_;
    Each lady's heart at ease is,
  Altho' the _Dees_ are on the seas,
    And gone the _Hercules_--es.

  Our parting with the _Andromache_
    Like Hector's not at all is;
  Nor are we Washingtons to seek
    To capture a _Cornwallis_.

  And no _Charybdis_ ever caught
    Our hearts in passion's whirls;
  There's not a girl among us all
    Has ever fished for _Pearls_.

  The _Vestals_ with their sacred flame
    Were not the sparks we wanted;
  We've looked _Medeas_ in the face,
    And yet were not enchanted.

  But when our dear _Inconstants_ go,
    Our grief shall know no bounds,
  The dance shall have no joy for us,
    The song no merry sounds.

  All dismal then shall be the waltz,
    The dull quadrille as bad,
  And wearily we'll hurry through
    The joyless galopade.

  We'll gaze upon each changeful cloud
    As through the air it skims,
  We'll think of fickle fortune's wheel,
    And fashion's turns and whims--

  Sweet emblems of _Inconstancy_
    In each of these we'll find,
  And our _Inconstants_ constantly
    We'll fondly bear in mind.

  And spite of Durham's fetes and balls,
    We'll pine and mourn and mope
  Our long, long winter season through,
    As girls without a _Hope_.

  And when the spring shall come again,
    Our hearts, to pleasure dead,
  Shall sigh for spring without an S,
    And wish for _Pring_ instead.

  Unless, indeed, sweet spring with _Hope_
    Those hearts again should bless,
  And bring our dear _Inconstants_ back,
    And spring without an S.
                       Quebec, 6th July, 1838.

(From _Waifs in Verse_, by G. W. Wicksteed, Q.C., Law Clerk, House of
Commons of Canada, 1878.)

To which melting address the "Inconstants," on their way to Britain,
feelingly replied. Our space allows us to insert but a few stanzas of this
poetical lament.

  All language fails to tell how much
    We value your address,
  Or say how deeply we partake
    The feelings you express.

  Those _Hastings_ are a hasty set,
    And left you in a hurry;
  Those _Malabars_ are malapert,
    And hot as Indian curry.

  Be true, and then the breath of May
    Shall fill our sails and bring
  Our willing steps and eager hearts,
    And _Spring_--and _Pring_--and _Ring_.

  And each of you for one of ours
    Shall change her maiden name,
  And as we are all _Inconstants_, you
    Of course will be the same.
                         Kamouraska, August, 1838.

Here we stand on the principal artery of the commerce of the city, St.
Peter street, having a width of only twenty-four feet. St. Peter street is
probably not so ancient as its sister, Sault-au-Matelot street. St. Peter
street was so named in memory of Messire Pierre le Voyer d'Argenson, who,
in 1658, came to Quebec as successor to M. de Lauzon. M. d'Argenson was,
in 1661, succeeded by the Baron d'Avaugour.

On the site on which the Quebec Bank [86] was erected in 1863, there stood
the offices, the vaults, and the wharf of the well-known merchant, John
Lymburner. There were three Lymburners: John, lost at sea in the fall of
1775, Mathew, and Adam, the most able of the three; they were, no doubt
related to each other. The loyalty of Adam, towards the British Crown, in
1775, was more than suspected; his oratorical powers, however, and his
knowledge of constitutional law, made him a fit delegate to England in
1791, to plead the cause of the colony before the Metropolitan
authorities. His speech on the occasion is reported in the _Canadian
Review_, published at Montreal in 1826.

Colonel Henry Caldwell states that, in 1775, Governor Guy Carleton had
ordered a cannon to be pointed from the wharf on which stood Lymburner's
house, with the intention to open fire upon the _Bostonais_, should
they attempt a surprise on the Sault-au-Matelot quarter. Massive and
strongly built stone vaults (probably of French origin), are still extant
beneath the house adjoining, to the south of this last, belonging to the
heirs Atkinson.

On the site of the offices of Mr. McGie stood, in 1759, the warehouse of
M. Perrault, _l'aîné_, from a great number of letters and invoice-bills
found in the garret, and which a friend [87] has placed at our disposal,
it would seem that M. Perrault had extensive commercial relations both in
Canada and in France. A curious letter to M. Perrault, from Bigot's
notorious councillor, Estebe, then in Bordeaux, was found in this
tenement. It discloses a sad state of things in Old France. This old
document dates of 24th February, 1760, a few months subsequent to the
Battle of the Plains and a few weeks prior to that of Ste. Foye, in April,
1760.

    "BORDEAUX, 24th February, 1760.

    "_To Monsieur Perrault,_

    Quebec:

    "SIR,--It was with heartfelt pleasure I received your favour of the
    7th November last, since, in spite of your misfortunes, it apprized me
    of the fact that both you and your lady were well.

    "I feel grateful for the sympathy you express in our troubles during
    our passage from Quebec to Bordeaux. I wish I could as easily forget
    the misfortunes of Canada as I do the annoyances we suffered on the
    voyage.

    "We learned, _via_ England, by the end of October last, the
    unfortunate fate of Quebec. You can imagine how we felt on hearing of
    such dreadful news I could  contain neither my tears nor my regrets on
    learning the loss of a city and country to which I owe everything, and
    to which I am as sincerely attached as any of the natives. We
    flattered ourselves that the silence the English had kept during all
    last summer on their operation was of good omen for us, and that they
    would be ignominiously compelled to raise the siege; we had even an
    indistinct knowledge of the repulse they had met with at Montmorency
    (31st July, 1759); we knew that our troops followed them closely
    wherever they attempted to land. We have erred like you in the hopes
    we cherished. What fatality, what calamity and how many events unknown
    to us have led to your downfall? You do not know, my dear Sir, of the
    extent of your misfortunes. You imagine that the loss of the remainder
    of the colony is close at hand. You are right. This cannot be
    otherwise, since the relief which is sent to you from France cannot
    prevent that. The small help which Canadians expected from the payment
    of some Treasury notes is taken away from them; none are paid since
    the 15th of October last. This, then, is the overwhelming blow to all
    our hopes! The Treasury notes of the other colonies are generally in
    the same predicament; the King pays none, and the nation groans under
    taxation. No credit, no confidence, anywhere; no commerce nor
    shipments; a general bankruptcy in all the cities of France. The
    kingdom is in the greatest desolation possible. Our armies have been
    beaten everywhere; our navy no more exists--our ships have been either
    captured or burnt on the coasts where the enemy has driven them
    ashore, Admiral de Conflans having been defeated in getting out of the
    harbor of Brest. In one word, we are in a state of misery and
    humiliation without precedent. The finances of the King are in fearful
    disorder; he has had to send his plate to the Mint. The _Seigneurs_
    have followed his example, and private individuals are compelled to
    sell their valuables in order to live and pay the onerous taxes which
    weigh on them. At the present moment, by Royal order, an inventory is
    being taken of the silver of all the churches of the kingdom. No doubt
    it will have to be sent to the Mint, and payment will be made when
    that of the Treasury notes takes place--that is, _when it pleases
    God_. Such is a summary of what now occurs here. How I regret, my dear
    Sir, the merry days I spent in Canada! I would like to be there still
    if matters were as formerly. I could own a _turn-out_ there, whereas I
    go on foot, like a dog, through the mud of Bordeaux, where I certainly
    do not live in the style I did in Quebec. Please God this iron age may
    soon end! We flattered ourselves this winter that peace would soon be
    proclaimed; it is much talked of, but I see no signs of it. It will,
    it is said, require another campaign to complete the ruin, and to
    postpone more and more the payment of the Treasury notes. What will be
    the ultimate fate of these bills is very hard to say. It is unlikely
    any settlement of them will be made before peace is concluded. My
    opinion is that nothing will be lost on the bills, which are
    registered, but I cannot say the same of the exchange, which is not
    registered, since payment has been stopped. The Government has refused
    to register any bills, even some which had been sent to me, and which
    were payable in 1758. I negotiated some registered ones here and in
    Paris at 50 per cent. discount. Non-registered ones are valueless, and
    you get few purchasers even for registered bills. Four richly laden
    vessels belonging to the West India Company (_Compagnie des Indes_)
    have arrived lately. This was very opportune, as the Company was
    rather shaky. However, it never failed to pay the "Beaver Bills," and
    has even accepted those which had not yet fallen due. Our affairs on
    the coast of Coromandel are like the rest--in a bad way. Fears are
    entertained for Pondicherry. The English are arming a large expedition
    for Martinique. That island will have the same fate as Guadeloupe. The
    succor sent out to you, if ever it reaches you, of which I doubt,
    consists in six merchant ships, laden with 1,600 tons of provisions,
    some munitions of war, and 400 soldiers from Isle Royal. I believe
    this relief is sent to you more through a sense of honour than from
    any desire (as none exists) to help you. Many flatter themselves you
    will retake Quebec this winter. I wish you may, but I do not believe
    you will. This would require to be undertaken by experienced and
    determined men, and even then such attempts fail. [88] Remember me to
    your dear wife. Kiss my little friend (your boy) for me. I reserve him
    when he comes to France a gilt horse and a silver carriage. My wife
    and family beg to be remembered.

      Yours, &c.,

      (Sd) ESTEBE.

    P.S.--Your brother is always at La Rochelle. Since I am at Bordeaux,
    out of 80 vessels which left South America, one only has arrived here.
    You can fancy how trade stagnates. A singular distrust exists
    everywhere. The exchange of ---- and other good houses is refused.
    Those who want to remit to Paris have to get their specie carried.

      6th March, 1760.

    The hospital of Toulouse is just short of nine millions. Bankrupts
    everywhere merchants and others.

St. Peter street has become the general headquarters of the most important
commerce, and of life insurance and fire assurance offices. The financial
institutions are there proudly enthroned: the Bank of Montreal (founded in
1818 and incorporated in 1828), Bank of Quebec (founded in 1817), the
Union Bank (founded in 1865), the Banque Nationale (founded in 1873), the
Bank of British North America (founded in 1836, incorporated in 1840,
opened at Quebec in 1837), the Merchants' Bank (founded in 1861).

In this street resided, in 1774, the Captain Bouchette, who, in the
following year, in his little craft, _Le Gaspé_, brought us back our
brave Governor, Guy Carleton; M. Bouchard, merchant, M. Panet, N.P. (the
father of His Lordship, Bishop B.C. Panet), as also M. Boucher, Harbor
Master of Quebec, "(who was appointed to that post by the Governor, Sir R.
S. Milnes, on the recommendation of the Duke of Kent.)." [89] Boucher had
piloted the vessel, having on board the 7th Regiment, (the Duke's), from
Quebec to Halifax.

The office in which the _Quebec Morning Chronicle_ has been published
since 1847, belonged in 1759 to M. Jean Taché, "President of the
Mercantile Body," "an honest, and sensible man," as appears by _Mémoirs
sur le Canada_, (1749-60). One of our first poets, he composed a poem
"_On the Sea_." The ancestor of the late Sir E. P. Taché, and of the
novelist, Jos. Marmette and others, he possessed, at that period,
extensive buildings on the Napoleon wharf, which were destroyed by fire in
1845, and a house in the country, on the Ste. Foye road, afterwards called
"Holland House," after Major Samuel Holland, our first Provincial
Surveyor-General, whose services as surveyor and engineer were
subsequently so conspicuous at Quebec and at Prince Edward Island.

The _Chronicle_ building, during nearly half a century, was a coffee
house, much frequented by sea-faring men, known as the "Old Neptune" Inn.
The effigy of the sea-god, armed with his formidable trident, placed over
the main entrance, seemed to threaten the passers-by. We can remember, as
yesterday, his colossal proportions. "Old Neptune" [90] has disappeared
about thirty years back.

     _THE OLD NEPTUNE INN._

      "Shall I not take mine ease in mine Inn."
                            --_Shakespeare_.

    "The Golden Fleece was the oldest tavern in Corinth. It had been the
    resort of sea-faring men from the remotest period."--(_Travels of
    Herodotus in Greece_, 460 _B.C._)

    When the brilliant Henry Ward Beecher pronounced Quebec an _Old
    Curiosity Shop_, we are induced to think that amidst its accumulated
    antiquarian relics, its church pictures and madonnas, its famous
    battle-fields, its historical monuments, massive fortifications and
    wondrous scenery,--more than one of the quaint French dwellings with
    their peaked gables, and walls four feet thick, must have caught his
    observant eye. However striking Ward Beecher's word-painting may be,
    it would I opine, have required the marvellous pencil of the author of
    "_The House with the Seven Gables_," Nathaniel Hawthorne, becomingly
    to portray all the _arcana_ of such a building as the _Chien d'Or_
    (the old Post Office), with its ghastly memories of blood and revenge.

    The legendary moss clustering round these hoary piles, is not,
    however, always dark and gloomy. Love, war, adventure, occasionally
    lend them their exciting or their soft glamour. Sometimes the annals
    of commerce entwine them with a green wreath--a sure talisman against
    the rust of oblivion. It is one of the land marks of commerce we
    purpose here briefly to describe.

    At the foot of Mountain Hill, lies our chief emporium of news,
    labelled for more than a quarter of a century, _Morning Chronicle_
    Office. These premises stand on a very conspicuous site, viz., at the
    foot of Mountain Hill, the highway from the port to the Upper Town,
    direct to the old _Château_ and Citadel--a few rods only from the spot
    where Champlain, in 1608, laid the foundations of his extensive
    warehouses and dwelling, and close to where, in 1615, he had his
    famous gardens. This business stand, for many years past, was owned by
    the late Hon. Henry Black; at present it belongs to Hon. Geo. Okill
    Stuart, Judge of the Court of Vice Admiralty. Its beginnings brings us
    back to the era of the Bourbon sovereigns of Canada, to the
    unregretted time (1758), when Intendant Bigot's shoddy _entourage_
    held high carnival in famine-stricken Quebec.

    In those blighting days, in which Madame de Pompadour reigned in
    France, and Madame Pean in Quebec, _rings_ and public robbery
    flourished in Canada; but among high officials, all were not corrupt.
    There were some memorable exceptions. One of these exceptions was the
    worthy, witty, and honest warden of the Quebec merchants, Jean Taché,
    "_homme probe et d'esprit_," say old memoirs. Mr. Taché, the "_syndic
    des marchands_," was not only an upright and wealthy merchant, he was
    also gifted with the poetical fire; he, it was, who wrote the first
    French poem issued in Canada, "_Le Tableau de la Mer_."

    Jean Taché was also an extensive holder of real estate in and round
    Quebec, warehouses (_des voûtes_) on the Napoleon wharf; a country
    seat on the Ste. Foye road, subsequently the property of Surveyor-
    General Samuel Holland--Holland Farm; lastly, the well-known business
    stand, where, in 1847, Mr. St. Michel printed James Bell Forsyth's
    news sheet, the _Morning Chronicle_.

    Commercial ruin overtook the worthy Lower Town magnate, Monsieur
    Taché; his ships and cargoes, during the war of the conquest, like the
    rest of poor, deserted Canada, fell into English hands, being captured
    at sea; out of the disaster Jean Taché saved naught but his honourable
    name.

    We fail to trace for a time the fortunes of his Mountain Hill Counting
    House. At the dawn of this century the premises were used as a famous
    coffee-house, the "Neptune" Inn, [91] a noted place of resort for
    merchants, masters and owners of ships. Like the Golden Fleece Tavern
    of Corinth, which seems to have sheltered the father of History--
    Herodotus--in the year 460 B.C., its "banqueting saloon" was roomy,
    though every word uttered there also smacked of the salt water. The
    old "Neptune" was probably occasionally looked up in 1807 by the Press
    Gang, which, in those days, was not a thing to be laughed at. Witness
    the fate of poor Latresse, shot down for refusing to surrender to
    Lieut. Andrel, R.N., on trying to make his escape from a tavern in St.
    John's suburbs, where he had been attending a dancing party. [92]

    Singularly enough, sixty years ago, the leading Lower Town merchants
    met in this old tenement of the former "_Syndic des Marchands_"
    to establish the first Exchange. Of the resolutions passed at the
    meeting thereat, held in 1816, and presided over by an eminent
    merchant, John William Woolsey, Esq., subsequently President of the
    Quebec Bank, we find a notice in the _Quebec Gazette_, of 12th
    December, 1816. [93] They decided to establish a Merchant's Exchange
    in the lower part of the "Neptune" Inn. Amongst those present, one
    recognizes familiar names--John Jones, George Symes, James Heath,
    Robert Melvin, Thomas Edward Brown, &c.

    Why was the place called "Neptune" Inn? For the obvious reason that a
    large statue of the god of the sea, bearing in one hand a formidable
    iron trident, stood over the main entrance in a threatening attitude.
    This conspicuous land-mark was known to every British ship-captain
    frequenting our port. Right well can the writer of these lines
    remember the truculent trident.

    But if, even in the days of that excellent landlady, Mrs. Hammond, it
    meant to the wearied mariner boundless cheer, the latest London
    papers, pipes and soothing rum punch mixed by a comely and cheerful
    bar-maid, to the unsophisticated Canadian peasant, attracted to the
    Lower Town on market days, it was of evil portent.

    With honest Jean Baptiste, more deeply read in the _Petit Catéchisme_
    than in heathen mythology, the dreaded god of the sea and his
    truculent trident were ominous, in his simple eyes, they symbolised
    the Prince of Darkness, "_Le diable et sa fourche_," the terrors of a
    hereafter.

    This did not, however, prevent Neptune from standing sentry, in the
    same exalted spot, for close on forty years, until in fact, having
    fallen to pieces by natural decay, it was removed about the time the
    Old Neptune Inn became the _Morning Chronicle_ office; the whereabouts
    of its _dejecta membra_ are now a dead secret.

    The origin of the famed statue had defied the most recondite searchers
    of the past. For the following we are indebted to the retentive memory
    of that eminently respected authority, the "oldest inhabitant." The
    statue of Neptune, says the octogenarian, Robert Urquhart, so well
    remembered at the foot of Mountain Hill, was presented to the landlord
    of the hotel, George Cossar, formerly butler to Hon. Matthew Bell, who
    then owned the St. Lawrence Chambers. It had been the figure-head of
    the _Neptune_, a large king's ship, stranded in 1817 on Anticosti.
    Would the stranded _Neptune_ of 1817 be the same as the flagship of
    Admiral Durell in 1759, the _Neptune_ of 90 guns, to whom the large
    bell bearing the word "_Neptune_, 1760," inscribed on, belonged? This
    bell, which formerly stood on the Royal Engineers' workshop at Quebec,
    was recently taken to Ottawa. The wreck had been bought by John
    Goudie, of St. Roch suburb, then a leading ship builder, and, having
    to break it up, the figure-head was brought to Quebec, and presented
    as above stated.

        The following respecting press gangs and the presence of Lord
        Nelson, whilst at Quebec in 1782, was contributed by one of the
        "oldest inhabitants" to QUEBEC PAST AND PRESENT, but reached too
        late for insertion:--

        _MY RECOLLECTIONS OF THE PAST._

        J. M. LEMOINE, Esq., _Spencer Grange_.

        DEAR SIR,--I have much pleasure in acceding to your request to
        send you a note of some circumstances connected with the city, in
        which seventy-one years of my life--now verging towards eighty--
        have been spent. I am familiar with no part of Nelson's career,
        except what I heard from my mother's own lips respecting this
        brave man. My mother was gifted with a remarkable memory, and
        recollected well having herself seen Captain Nelson, when in 1782,
        he commanded at Quebec the sloop-of-war Albemarle. "He was erect,
        stern of aspect and wore, as was then customary, the _queue_
        or pigtail," she often repeated. Her idea of the Quebec young lady
        to whom he had taken such a violent fancy, was that her name was
        Woolsey--an aunt or elder sister, perhaps, of the late John W.
        Woolsey, Esq., President for some years of the Quebec Bank, who
        died in 1852, at a very advanced age. According to her, it was a
        Mr. Davidson who prevented the imprudent marriage contemplated.

        As to the doings of the press gangs in the Lower Town and suburbs,
        I can speak from what I saw more than once. Impressing seamen
        lasted at Quebec from 1807, until after the battle of Waterloo.
        The terror these sea-faring gentlemen created was great. I
        remember a fine young fellow who refused to surrender, being shot
        through the back with a holster pistol and dying of the wound,
        this was in 1807. I can name the following as being seized by
        press gangs * * * * * Soon ruses were resorted to by the gay
        fellows who wandered after night fall in quest of amusement in the
        highways and byways. Her Majesty's soldiers were, of course,
        exempt of being impressed into the naval service; so, that our
        roving city youths would either borrow coats, or get some made,
        similar to the soldiers', to elude the press gang. These ruses
        were, however, soon stopped, the press gang, having secured the
        services of two city constables, Rosa and ------, who could spot
        every city youth and point out the counterfeits.

        R. URQUHART.

        Quebec, 1st August, 1876.

Parallel with St. Peter street, runs Notre Dame street, which leads us to
the little Church of the Lower Town, named Notre Dame de la Victoire, in
remembrance of the victory achieved in 1690 over Sir William Phipps. This
church was, at a later period, called "Notre Dame des Victoires," in
commemoration of the dispersion by a storm of Admiral Walker's squadron,
in 1711. Bishop Laval had projected the erection of this modest little
church, but the building of it was performed in 1688, under the auspices
of his successor, Bishop St. Vallier, out of funds provided by the Lower
Town ladies. The corner of these streets (St. Peter and Sous-le-Fort
streets) is probably the site of the "Abitation," close to the walks and
garden plots where Champlain cultivated roses and carnations, about the
year 1615.

Fronting the Church of "Notre Dame des Victoires," and on the site now
occupied as Blanchard's Hotel, the ladies of the Ursulines, in 1639, found
a refuge in a humble residence, a sort of shop or store, owned at that
period by the Sieur Juchereau des Châtelets, at the foot of the path
(_sentier_), leading up to the mountain (foot of Mountain street), and
where the then Governor, M. de Montmagny, as is related, sent them their
first Quebec meal.

The locality possesses other pleasant memories: the good, the youthful,
the beautiful Madame de Champlain, about the year 1620, here catechised
and instructed, under the shade of the trees, the young Huron Indians, in
the principles of Christianity. History has related their surprise and joy
on seeing their features reflected in the small mirror which their
benefactress wore suspended at her side, "close to her heart," as they
said, according to the then prevailing custom.

In 1682 a conflagration broke out in the Lower Town, which, besides the
numerous vaults and stores, reduced into ashes a considerable portion of
the buildings. Denonville, on the 20th August, 1685, wrote to Paris,
asking His Most Christian Majesty to contribute 200 crowns worth of
leather fire-buckets, and in 1691 the historical Dutch pump was imported
to throw water on fires. At a later period, 1688, "Notre Dame de la
Victoire" Church was begun on part of the ruins. Let us open the second
volume of the "_Cours d'Histoire du Canada_," by the Abbé Ferland, and let
us read: "Other ruins existed in 1684, in the commercial centre of the
Lower Town; these ruins consisted of blackened and dilapidated walls.
Champlain's old warehouse, which, from the hands of the Company
(_Compagnie de la Nouvelle France_), had passed into those of the
King (Louis XIV.), had remained in the same state as when left after the
great fire which, some years previously, had devastated the Lower Town."

In 1684 Monseigneur de Laval obtained this site or _emplacement_ from
M. de la Barre for the purpose of erecting a supplementary chapel for the
use of the inhabitants in the Lower Town. This gift, however, was ratified
only later, in favor of M. de St. Valier, in the month of September, 1685.
Messieurs de Denonville and de Meules caused a clear and plain title or
patent of this locality to be issued for the purpose of erecting a church
which, in the course of time, was built by the worthy Bishop and named
"Notre Dame de la Victoire." The landing for small craft, in the vicinity
of the old market (now the Finlay [94] Market), was called "La Place du
Débarquement," or simply "La Place."

It is in this vicinity, a little to the west, under the silent shade of a
wood near the garden which Champlain had laid out, that the historical
interview, in 1608, which saved the colony, took place. The secret was of
the greatest importance; it is not to be wondered at if Champlain's trusty
pilot, Captain Testu, deemed it proper to draw the founder of Quebec aside
into the neighbouring wood and make known to him the villanous plot which
one of the accomplices, Antoine Natel, lock-smith, had first disclosed to
him under the greatest secrecy. The chief of the conspiracy was one Jean
du Val, who had come to the country with Champlain.

In rear of and parallel to St. Peter street, a new and wide street, called
after one of the Governors of Canada--Dalhousie street--was opened
recently, and promises to be before long the leading commercial artery.
Several extensive warehouses have been erected on Dalhousie street since
it was opened to the public, in 1877, by the city Corporation purchasing
from St. James street to St. Andrew's wharf a strip of land, of 60 feet in
breadth, from the landed proprietors of this neighbourhood. At the south-
western extremity a noble dry goods store has just been erected by Mr.
George Alford; it is four stories high, 155 feet long and 72 feet wide,
and faces on Dalhousie, Laporte, Union Lane and Finlay Market. It is
occupied by a wealthy and ancient dry goods firm, founded in Montreal
about 1810, with a branch in Quebec, in 1825. The original founders were
Messrs. Robertson, Masson & Larocque; this firm was subsequently changed
to Robertson, Masson, Strang & Co., to Masson, Bruyère, Thibaudeau & Co.,
to Langevin, Thibaudeau, Bruyère & Co., to Thibaudeau, Thomas & Co., to
Thibaudeau, Généreux & Co., and finally to Thibaudeau Frères & Co., at
Quebec; Thibaudeau Bros. & Co., Montreal; Thibaudeau Bros. & Co., London,
Manchester and Manitoba.

In the early days of the colony, the diminutive market space, facing the
front of Notre Dame Church, Lower Town, as well as the Upper Town Market,
was used for the infliction of corporal punishment, or the pillory, or the
execution of culprits.

On the area facing the Lower Town Church on Notre Dame street, the plan of
the city, drawn by the engineer, Jean François or Jehan Bourdon, in 1641,
shows a bust of Louis XIII., long since removed; this market, which dates
from the earliest times of the colony, as well as the vacant area (until
recently the Upper Town market, facing the Basilica), was used as a place
for corporal punishment, and for the exhibition in the pillory of public
malefactors.

"Among the incidents," says Mr. T. P. Bédard, "which claimed the privilege
of exciting the curiosity of the good folks of Quebec (then 1680,
inhabited by 1,345 souls,) was reckoned the case of Jean Rathier, charged
with murdering a girl of eighteen--Jeanne Couc. The case had been tried at
Three Rivers, and Rathier sentenced to have his legs broken [95] with an
iron bar, and afterwards to be hung. Judgment had been confirmed. An
unforseen hitch arose: the official hangman was dead; how then was Rathier
to be hung? The officers of justice cut the Gordian knot, by tendering to
Rathier, in lieu of the halter, the position, little envied, of hangman.
He accepted. Some years after, the wife and the daughter of Rathier were
accused and found guilty as accomplices in a robbery; the daughter, as the
receiver of the stolen goods, was sentenced to be whipped, but in secret,
at the General Hospital by the nun appointed Provost Marshal (_Maitress
de Discipline_), and the mother was also adjudged to be whipped, but
publicly in the streets of the city. This incident furnished the singular
and ludicrous spectacle of a husband publicly whipping his wife with
impunity to himself, as he was acting under the authority of justice."--
(_Première Administration de Frontenac_, _p._ 39.)

The whip and pillory did not go out with the old _régime_. The _Quebec
Gazette_ of 19th June, 1766, mentions the whipping, on the Upper and Lower
Town markets, of Catherine Berthrand and Jeanotte Blaize, by the hand of
the executioneer, for having "borrowed" (a pretty way of describing petty
larceny), a silver spoon from a gentleman of the town, without leave or
without intention of returning it.

For male reprobates, such as Jean May and Louis Bruseau, whose punishment
for petty larceny is noted in the Gazette of 11th August, 1766, the
whipping was supplemented with a walk--tied at the cart's tail--from the
Court House door to St. Roch and back to the Court House. May had to whip
Bruseau and Bruseau had to whip May the day following, at ten in the
morning.

Let us revert to Captain Testu's doings. The plot was to strangle
Champlain, pillage the warehouse, and afterwards betake themselves to the
Spanish and Basque vessels, laying at Tadousac. As, at that period, no
Court of Appeals existed in "_la Nouvelle France_"--far less was a
"Supreme Court" thought of--the trial of the chief of the conspiracy was
soon dispatched says Champlain, and the Sieur Jean du Val was "_presto_
well and duly hanged and strangled at Quebec aforesaid, and his head
affixed to the top of a pike-staff planted on the highest eminence of the
Fort." The ghastly head of this traitor, on the end of a pike-staff, near
Notre Dame street, must certainly have had a sinister effect at twilight.

But the brave Captain Testu, the saviour of Champlain and of Quebec--what
became of him? Champlain has done him the honour of naming him; here the
matter ended. Neither monument, nor poem, nor page of history in his
honour; nothing was done in the way of commemorating his devotion. As in
the instance of the illustrious man, whose life he had saved, his grave is
unknown. According to the Abbé Tanguay, none of his posterity exist at
this day.

During the siege of 1759, we notice in _Panet's Journal_, "that the Lower
Town was a complete mass of smoking ruins; on the 8th August, it was
a burning heap (_braisier_). Wolfe and Saunders' bombshells had found
their way even to the under-ground vaults. This epoch became disastrous to
many Quebecers." The English threw bombs (_pots à feu_) on the Lower
Town, of which, says Mr. Panet, "one fell on my house, one on the houses
in the Market place, and the last in Champlain street. The fire burst out
simultaneously, in three different directions; it was in vain to attempt
to cut off or extinguish the fire at my residence; a gale was blowing from
the north-east, and the Lower Town was soon nothing less than a blazing
mass. Beginning at my house, that of M. Desery, that of M. Maillou, Sault-
au-Matelot street, the whole of the Lower Town and all the quarter _Cul-
de-Sac_ up to the property of Sieur Voyer, which was spared, and in
short up to the house of the said Voyer, the whole was devastated by fire.
Seven vaults [96] had been rent to pieces or burned: that of M. Perrault
the younger, that of M. Taché, of M. Benjamin de la Mordic, of Jehaune, of
Maranda. You may judge of the consternation which reigned; 167 houses had
been burnt."

One hundred and sixty-seven burnt houses would create many gaps. We know
the locality on which stood the warehouse of M. Perrault, junior, also
that of M. Taché (the _Chronicle Bureau_), but who can point out to
us where stood the houses of Desery, Maillou, Voyer, de Voisy, and the
vaults of Messieurs Benjamin de la Mordic, Jehaune, Maranda?

It is on record that Champlain, after his return to Quebec, in 1633, "had
taken care to refit a battery which he had planted on a level with the
river near the warehouse, the guns of which commanded the passage between
Quebec and the opposite shore." [97] Now, in 1683, "this cannon battery,
erected in the Lower Town, almost surrounded on all sides by houses, stood
at some distance from the edge of the river, and caused some inconvenience
to the public; the then Governor, Lefebvre de la Barre [98] having sought
out a much more advantageous locality towards the Point of Rocks (_Pointe
des Roches_) west of the _Cul-de-Sac_, [99] and on the margin of the said
river at high-water mark, which would more efficiently command and sweep
the harbour, and which would cause far less inconvenience to the houses in
the said Lower Town," considered it fit to remove the said battery, and
the Reverend Jesuit Fathers having proposed to contribute towards the
expenses which would be incurred in so doing, he made them a grant "of a
portion of the lot of ground (_emplacement_) situated in front of the site
on which is now planted the said cannon battery, * * * * between the
street or high road for wheeled vehicles coming from the harbour [100] and
the so-called St. Peter street."

Here then we have the origin of the Napoleon wharf and a very distinct
mention of St. Peter street. The building erected near this site was sold
on the 22nd October, 1763, to William Grant, Esquire, who, on the 19th
December, 1763, also purchased the remainder of the ground down to low-
water mark, from Thomas Mills, Esquire, Town Major, who had shortly before
obtained a grant or patent of it, the 7th December, 1763, from Governor
Murray, in recognition, as is stated in the preamble of the patent, of his
military services. This property which, at a later period, belonged to the
late William Burns, was by him conveyed, the 16th October, 1806, to the
late J. M. Woolsey. The Napoleon wharf, purchased in 1842 by the late
Julien Chouinard from the late Frs. Buteau, forms at present part of the
Estate Chouinard; in reality, it is composed of two wharves joined into
one; the western portion is named "The Queen's Wharf," and was Mr.
Woolsey's property.

The highway which leads from the Cape towards this wharf is named "Sous-
le-Fort" street, which sufficiently denotes its position; this street, the
oldest, probably dates from the year 1620, when the foundations of Fort
St. Louis were laid; we may presume that, in 1663, the street terminated
at "la Pointe des Roches." In the last century "Sous-le-Fort" street was
graced by the residences, among others, of Fleury de la Jannière, brother
of Fleury de la Gorgendière, brother-in-law of the Governor de Vaudreuil.

In this street also stood the house of M. George Allsop, [101] the head of
the opposition in Governor Cramahé's Council. His neighbour was M.
d'Amours des Plaines, Councillor of the Superior Council; further on,
stood the residence of M. Cuvillier, the father of the Honorable Austin
Cuvillier, in 1844 Speaker of the House of Assembly. In this street also
existed the warehouse of M. Cugnet, the lessee of the Domaine of Labrador.

We must not confound the Napoleon wharf, sold by J. O. Brunet to Francois
Buteau, with the Queen's wharf, the property of the late J. W. Woolsey. On
the Queen's wharf, in a dwelling, since converted into a tavern, in 1846
one of the wittiest members of the Quebec Bar, Auguste Soulard, Esq.,
opened a law office for the especial convenience of his numerous country
clients. After office hours it was the rendezvous of many young
barristers, who have since made their mark: Messieurs T. Fournier, Justice
of the Supreme Court; A. Plamondon, Judge of the Superior Court; N.
Casault, Judge of the Superior Court; Jean Taché, Frederick Braun, L.
Fiset, J. M. Hudon and others. From the king's wharf to the king's forges
(the ruins of which were discovered at the beginning of the century, a
little further up than the king's store), there are but a few steps.

François Bellet, M.P. for the county of Buckingham from 1815 to 1820,
resided on the property of the late Julien Chouinard, at the corner of St.
Peter and Sous-le-Fort streets. He combined parliamentary duties, it
seems, with a sea-faring life, being styled "Capitaine de Bâtiment" in a
power of attorney before Martin A. Dumas, N.P., at Quebec, dated 9th
September, 1796, in which as attorney and agent for Revd. "Messire Louis
Payet, prêtre, curé de la paroisse de St. Antoine, au Nord de la Rivière
Richelieu," he sells to Monsieur Thomas Lee, later on an M.P.P., his negro
slave, named Rose, for the sum of "500 livres et vingt sols,"--about $100
of our currency. The traffic in human flesh became extinct in Canada in
1803 by legislative enactment. The bluest blood of our Southern neighbours
was shed to keep it up in the model Republic sixty years subsequently.
[102] In the space between the Queen's wharf and the jetty on the west,
belonging to the Imperial authorities and called the king's wharf, there
existed a bay or landing place, much prized by our ancestors, which
afforded a harbour for the coasting vessels and small river crafts, called
the "_Cul-de-Sac_." There, also, the ships which were overtaken by an
early winter lingered until the sunny days of April released them from
their icy fetters. There the ships were put into winter quarters, and
securely bedded on a foundation or bed of clay; wrecked vessels also came
hither to undergo repairs. The _Cul-de-Sac_, with its uses and marine
traditions, had, in by-gone days, an important function in our
incomparable sea-port. In this vicinity, Vaudreuil, in 1759, planted a
battery.

The old Custom House (now the Department of Marine), was built on this
site in 1833. In 1815 the Custom House was on McCallum's wharf. The
_Cul-de-Sac_ recalls "the first chapel which served as a Parish
Church at Quebec," that which Champlain caused to be built in the Lower
Town in 1615, where the name of Champlain is identified with the street
which was bounded by this chapel. The Revd. Fathers Récollets there
performed their clerical functions up to the period of the taking of
Quebec by the brothers Kertk, that is from 1615 to 1629, (Laverdière.)

Nothing less than the urgent necessity of providing the public with a
convenient market-place, and the small coasting steamers with suitable
wharves, could move the municipal authorities to construct the wharves now
existing, and there, in 1856, to erect out of the materials of the old
Parliament House, the spacious Champlain Hall, so conspicuous at present.
The king's wharf and the king's stores, two hundred and fifty feet in
length, with a guard house, built on the same site in 1821, possess also
their marine and military traditions. The "Queen's Own" volunteers, Capt.
Rayside, were quartered there during the stirring times of 1837-38, when
"Bob Symes" dreamed each night of a new conspiracy against the British
crown, and M. Aubin perpetuated, in his famous journal "_Le Fantasque_"
the memory of this loyal magistrate.

How many saucy frigates, how many proud English Admirals, have made fast
their boats at the steps of this wharf! Jacques Cartier, Champlain,
Nelson, Bourgainville, Cook, Vauclain, Montgomery, Boxer, Sir Rodney
Mundy, poor Captain Burgoyne, of the ill-fated iron-clad _Captain_,
Sir Leopold McClintock, [103] have, one after the other, trodden over this
picturesque landing place, commanded as it is by the guns of Cape Diamond.
Since about a century, the street which bears the venerated name of the
founder of Quebec, Champlain street, unmindful of its ancient Gallic
traditions, is almost exclusively the headquarters of our Hibernian
population. An ominous-looking black-board, affixed to one of the
projecting rocks of the Cape, indicates the spot below where one of their
countrymen, Brigadier-General Richard Montgomery, with his two _aides-
de-camp_, Cheeseman and McPherson, received their death wounds during a
violent snow storm about five o'clock in the morning, the 31st December,
1775. On this disastrous morning the post was guarded by Canadian
militiamen, Messieurs Chabot and Picard. Captain Barnesfare, an English
mariner, had pointed the cannon; Coffin and Sergeant Hugh McQuarters
applied the match. At the eastern extremity, under the stairs, now styled
"Breakneck Steps," according to Messrs. Casgrain and Laverdière, was
discovered Champlain's tomb, though a rival antiquary, M. S. Drapeau, says
that he is not certain of this. [104]

A little to the west is Cap Blanc, inhabited by a small knot of French-
Canadians and some Irish; near by, was launched in October, 1750, the
_Orignal_, a King's ship, built at Quebec; at that period the lily flag of
France floated over the bastions of Cape Diamond; the _Orignal_, in being
launched, broke her back and sank. Among the notabilities of Cap Blanc,
one is bound to recall the athletic stevedore and pugilist, Jacques
Etienne Blais. Should the fearless man's record not reach remote
posterity, pointing him out as the Tom Sayers of Cap Blanc, it cannot fail
to be handed down as the benefactor of the handsome new church of Notre
Dame de la Garde, erected on the shore in 1878, the site of which was
munificently given by him on the 17th June, 1877. Jacques Blais, now
(1881) very aged, though still vigorous, in his best days by his prowess
re-called that prince of Quebec raftsmen so graphically delineated by Chas
Lanman.

Champlain street stretches nearly to Cap Rouge, a distance of six miles.
During the winter the fall of an avalanche from the brow of the Cape on
the houses beneath is a not unfrequent occurrence. In former years, in the
good time of ship-building, the laying the keel of a large vessel in the
ship-yards often brought joy to the hearts of the poor ship-carpenters;
many of whose white, snug cottages are grouped along the river near by.

Except during the summer months, when the crews of the ships, taking in
cargo alongside the booms, sing, fight and dance in the adjacent
"shebeens," the year glides on peacefully. On grand, on gala days, in
election times, some of the sons of St. Patrick used to perambulate the
historical street, flourishing treenails, or _shillaleghs_--in order
to _preserve the peace!!!_ of course. To sum up all, Champlain street
has an aspect altogether _sui generis_.

    A QUEBEC PORTRAIT

    (From the ATLANTIC MONTHLY.)

    "Physical size and grand proportions are looked upon by the French-
    Canadians with great respect. In all the cases of popular
    _émeutes_ that have from time to time broken out in Lower Canada,
    the fighting leaders of the people were exceptional men, standing head
    and shoulders over their confiding followers. Where gangs of raftsmen
    congregate, their 'captains' may be known by superior stature. The
    doings of their 'big men' are treasured by the French-Canadians in
    traditionary lore. One famous fellow of this governing class is known
    by his deeds and words to every lumberer and stevedore and timber-
    tower about Montreal and Quebec. This man, whose name was Joe
    Monfaron, was the bully of the Ottawa raftsmen. He was about six feet
    six inches high, and proportionally broad and deep; and I remember how
    people would turn round to look after him, as he came pounding along
    Notre Dame street, in Montreal, in his red shirt and tan-colored
    _shupac_ boots, all dripping wet, after mooring an acre or two of
    raft, and now bent for his ashore haunts in the Ste. Marie suburb, to
    indemnify himself with bacchanalian and other consolations for long-
    endured hardship. Among other feats of strength attributed to him, I
    remember the following, which has an old, familiar taste, but was
    related to me as a fact:

    "There was a fighting stevedore or timber-tower, I forget which, at
    Quebec, who had never seen Joe Monfaron, as the latter seldom came
    farther down the river than Montreal. This fighting character,
    however, made a custom of laughing to scorn all the rumors that came
    down on rafts, every now and then, about terrible chastisements
    inflicted by Joe upon several hostile persons at once. He, the
    fighting timber-tower, hadn't found his match yet about the lumber
    coves at Quebec, and he only wanted to see Joe Monfaron once, when he
    would settle the question as to the championship of rafts, on sight.
    One day a giant in a red shirt stood suddenly before him, saying--

    "'You're Dick Dempsey, eh?'

    "'That's me.' replied the timber-tower, 'and who are you?'

    "'Joe Monfaron. I heard you wanted me--here I am,' was the Caesarean
    answer of the great captain of rafts.

    "'Ah! you're Joe Monfaron!" said the bully, a little staggered at the
    sort of customer he saw before him. 'I said I'd like to see you, for
    sure, but how am I to know you're the right man?'

    "'Shake hands first,' replied Joe, 'and then you will find out, may
    be.'

    "They shook hands--rather warmly, perhaps, for the timber-tower, whose
    features wore an uncertain expression during the operation, and who at
    last broke out into a yell of pain, as Joe cast him off with a defiant
    laugh. Nor did the bully wait for any further explanations, for,
    whether the man who had just brought the blood spouting out at the
    tops of his fingers was Joe Monfaron or not, he was clearly an ugly
    customer, and had better be left alone.

The St. Lawrence, its rafts of timber, raftsmen, _voyageurs_ and
their songs, are pleasantly alluded to by a sympathetic French writer of
note, X. Marmier, [105] who visited Canada some thirty years ago:

    "On the St. Lawrence, traversed by steamboats, by vessels heavily
    laden, and by light bark canoes, we may see early in the season
    immense rafts of timber that are brought down from the dense northern
    forests, hewn where they are felled, drawn to the rivers upon the
    snow, and made up into rafts. The Canadian crews erect masts and
    spread their sails, and by the aid of wind and current, and sometimes
    by rowing, they boldly guide these acres of fir down the rapids to
    Quebec, while they animate their labours with the melody of their
    popular songs. A part would intone the Canadian song

      "A la Claire Fontaine,"

    while the others, repeating the last two lines, would at the same time
    let drop their oars as those of the former arose.

    "There is probably no river on earth that has heard so many vows of
    love as the St. Lawrence; for there is not a Canadian boatman that has
    ever passed up or down the river without repeating, as the blade of
    his oar dropped into the stream, and as it arose, the national
    refrain.

      "Il y a longtemps que je t'aime,
      Jamais je ne t'oublierai!"

      "Long time have I loved thee,
      Never will I forget thee!"

    "And I will here say that there is a harmonious sweetness in these
    simple words, that well accords with the simple yet imposing character
    of the scenery of this charming region.

    "Upon our coquettish rivers in Europe they may whisper of loves along
    their flowery banks and under the vine-clad terraces that overhang
    them, like the curtains of a saloon; but here, in this grand severity
    of nature, upon these immense, half desert plains, in the silence of
    these gloomy forests, on the banks of this majestic river that is ever
    speeding onward to the eternal ocean, we may feel emotions that are
    truly sublime. If, in this quiet solitude, should we open the soul to
    a dream of love, it takes the serious tone; it needs must be a pure
    being that dares to breathe to the heavens and to the waves these
    sacred words, 'I love thee,' and that can add the promise and the
    pledge of the Canadian song:

      "Jamais je ne t'oublierai."
      "Ne'er will I forget thee!" [106]

Among the streets of Quebec, most celebrated in our annals by reason of
the incidents which attach thereto, one may name the frowsy and tortuous
highway which circulates from the foot of Mountain Hill, running for a
distance of two hundred feet below the Cape, up to the still narrower
pathway which commences west of St. James street and leads to the foot of
the hill "_de la canoterie_;" [107] all will understand we mean the
leading commercial thoroughfare of olden time, [108] Sault-au-Matelot
street. Is it because a sailor, no doubt only partially relieved from the
horrors of sobriety, there made a wild leap? or are we to attribute the
name to the circumstance of a dog named "Matelot" ("Sailor") there taking
a leap? [109] Consult _Du Creux_. Our friend, Joseph Marmette,
appropriated it for the reception of his hero, "Dent de Loup," who escaped
without broken bones after his leap. [110]

The western portion of the still narrower pathway of which we have just
spoken, rejoices in the name of "Ruelle des Chiens," (Dog Lane); [111] the
directories name it Sous-le-Cap street. It is so narrow that, at certain
angles, two carts passing in opposite directions, would be blocked. Just
picture to yourself that up to the period of 1816, our worthy ancestors
had no other outlet in this direction at high water to reach St. Roch,
(for St. Paul street was constructed subsequently to 1816, as M. de Gaspé
has informed us.) Is it not incredible? As, in certain passes of the Alps,
a watchman no doubt stood at either extremity of this lane, provided with
a speaking trumpet to give notice of any obstruction and thus prevent
collisions. This odoriferous locality, especially during the dog-days, is
rather densely populated. The babes of Green Erin, with a sprinkling of
young Jean Baptistes, here flourish like rabbits in a warren. Miss Kitty
Ellison and her friend. Mr. Arbuton, in their romantic wanderings, were
struck with the _mise en scène_ of Dog Lane:--

    "Now that Prescott Gate, by which so many thousands of Americans have
    entered Quebec since Arnold's excursionists failed to do so, is
    demolished, there is nothing left so picturesque and characteristic as
    Hope Gate (alas! since razed), and I doubt if anywhere in Europe there
    is a more mediaeval-looking bit of military architecture. The heavy
    stone gateway is black with age, and the gate, which has probably
    never been closed in our century, is of massive frame, set thick with
    mighty bolts and spikes. The wall here sweeps along the brow of the
    crag on which the city is built, and a steep street drops down, by
    stone-parapeted curves and angles, from the Upper to the Lower Town,
    when, in 1775, nothing but a narrow lane bordered the St. Lawrence. A
    considerable breadth of land has since been won from the river, and
    several streets and many piers now stretch between this alley and the
    water, but the old Sault-au-Matelot still crouches and creeps along
    under the shelter of the city wall and the overhanging rock, which is
    thickly bearded with weeds and grass, and trickles with abundant
    moisture. It must be an ice pit in winter, and I should think it the
    last spot on the continent for the summer to find; but when the summer
    has at last found it, the old Sault-au-Matelot puts on a vagabond air
    of southern leisure and abandon, not to be matched anywhere out of
    Italy. Looking from that jutting rock near Hope Gate, behind which the
    defeated Americans took refuge from the fire of their enemies, the
    vista is almost unique for a certain scenic squalor and gypsy luxury
    of colour--sag-roofed barns and stables, and weak-backed, sunken-
    chested workshops of every sort, lounge along in tumble-down
    succession, and lean up against the cliff in every imaginable posture
    of worthlessness and decrepitude, light wooden galleries cross to them
    from the second stories of the houses which back upon the alley, and
    over these galleries flutters from a labyrinth of clothes-lines a
    variety of bright-coloured garments of all ages, sexes and conditions,
    while the footway underneath abounds in gossiping women, smoking men,
    idle poultry, cats, children, and large, indolent Newfoundland dogs."
    --(_A Chance Acquaintance_, p, 175.)

Adventurous tourists who have risked themselves there in the sultry days
of July, have found themselves dazed at the sight of the wonders of the
place. Among other indigenous curiosities, they have there noticed what
might be taken for any number of aerial tents, improvised no doubt as
protection from the scorching rays of a meridian sun. Attached to ropes
stretched from one side of the public way to the other, was the family
linen, hung out to dry. When shaken by the wind over the heads of the
passers-by, these articles of white under-clothing (_chemisettes_),
flanked by sundry masculine nether-garments, presented a _tableau_,
it is said, in the highest degree picturesque. As regards ourselves,
desirous from our earliest days to search into the most recondite
_arcana_ of the history of our city and to portray them in all their
suggestive reality, for the edification of distinguished tourists from
England, France and the United States, it has been to us a source of
infinite mortification to realize that the only visit which we ever made
to Dog Lane was subsequent to the publication of the _Album du Touriste_;
a circumstance which explains the omission of it from that repository of
Canadian lore. Our most illustrious tourists, [112] the eldest son of the
Queen, the Prince of Wales, his brothers, the Princes Alfred and Arthur,
the Dukes of Newcastle, of Athol, of Manchester, of Beaufort, of Argyle,
of Sutherland, Generals Grant and Sherman, and Prince Napoleon Bonaparte,
it is said, took their leave of Quebec without having visited that
interesting locality, "_la Ruelle des Chiens_," Sous-le-Cap street,
probably unconscious of its very existence! Nevertheless, this street
possesses great historical interest. It has re-echoed the trumpet sounds
of war, the thundering of cannon, the briskest musketry; there fell
Brigadier-General Arnold, wounded in the knee: carried off amid the
despairing cries of his soldiers, under the swords of Dambourgès, of the
fierce and stalwart Charland, of the brave Caldwell, followed by his
friend Nairn and their chivalrous militiamen. Our friends, the
annexationists of that period, were so determined to annex Quebec, that
they threw themselves as if possessed by the evil one upon the barriers
(there were two of them) in Sous-le-Cap street and in Sault-au-Matelot
street; each man, says Sanguinet, wearing a slip of paper on his cap on
which was written "_Mors aut Victoria_," "Death or Victory!" One
hundred years and more have elapsed since this fierce struggle, and we are
not yet under Republican rule!

A number of dead bodies lay in the vicinity, on the 31st December, 1775;
they were carried to the Seminary. Ample details of the incidents of this
glorious day will be found in "QUEBEC PAST AND PRESENT." It is believed
that the first barrier was placed at the foot of the stone _demi-lune_,
where, at present, a cannon rests on the ramparts; the second was
constructed in rear of the present offices of Mr. W. D. Campbell, N.P., in
Sault-au-Matelot street.

Sault-au-Matelot street has lost the military renown which it then
possessed; besides the offices of M. Ledroit, of the _Morning Chronicle_,
and of the timber cullers, it now is a stand for the carters, and a
numerous tribe of pork merchants, salmon preservers and coopers, whose
casks on certain days encumber the sidewalks.

St. Paul street does not appear on the plan of the city of Quebec of 1660,
reproduced by the Abbé Faillon. This quarter of the Lower Town, so
populous under the French _régime, and where, according to Monseigneur de
Laval, there was, in 1661, "_magnus numerus civium_" continued, until
about 1832, to represent the hurry-scurry of affairs and the residences of
the principal merchants, one of the wealthiest portions of the city.
There, in 1793, the father of our Queen, Colonel of the 7th Fusiliers,
then in garrison at Quebec, partook of the hospitality of M. Lymburner,
one of the merchant princes of that period. Was the _chère amie_, the
elegant _Baronne de St. Laurent_, of the party? We found it impossible to
ascertain this from our old friend, Hon. William Sheppard, of Woodfield,
near Quebec (who died in 1867), from whom we obtained this incident. Mr.
Sheppard, who had frequently been a guest at the most select drawing-rooms
of the ancient capital, was himself a contemporary of the generous and
jovial Prince Edward.

The Sault-au-Matelot quarter, St. Peter street, and St. James street, down
to the year 1832, contained the habitations of a great number of persons
in easy circumstances; many of our families of note had their residences
there: John Wm. Woolsey, Esq., in 1808, and later on first President of
the Quebec Bank; the millionaire auctioneer, Wm. Burns, the god-father to
the late George Burns Symes, Esq.; Archbishop Signai--this worthy prelate
was born in this street, in a house opposite to La Banque Nationale.
Evidences of the luxuriousness of their dwelling rooms are visible to this
day, in the panelling of some doors and in decorated ceilings.

Drainage, according to the modern system, was, at that period, almost
unknown to our good city. The Asiatic cholera, in 1832, decimated the
population: 3,500 corpses, in the course of a few weeks, had gone to their
last resting place. This terrible epidemic was the occasion, so to speak,
of a social revolution at Quebec; the land on the St. Louis and Ste. Foye
roads became much enhanced in value; the wealthy quitted the Lower Town.
Commercial affairs, however, still continued to be transacted there, but
the residences of merchants were selected in the Upper Town or in the
country parts adjacent.

The _Fief Sault-au-Matelot_, which at present belongs to the Seminary, was
granted to Guillaume Hébert on the 4th February, 1623, the title of which
was ratified by the Due de Ventadour on the last day of February, 1632. On
the ground reclaimed from the river, about 1815, Messrs. Munro and Bell,
eminent merchants, built wharves and some large warehouses, to which lead
"Bell's lane," (so named after the Honorable Matthew Bell) [113] the
streets St. James, Arthur, Dalhousie and others. Mr. Bell, at a later
period, one of the lessees of the St. Maurice Forges, resided in the
house--now St. Lawrence Chambers--situate at the corner of St. James and
St. Peter streets, now belonging to Mr. John Greaves Clapham, N. P. Hon.
Matthew Bell commanded a troop of cavalry, which was much admired by those
warlike gentlemen of 1812--our respected fathers. He left a numerous
family, and was related by marriage to the families Montizambert, Bowen,
&c. Dalhousie street, in the Lower Town, probably dates from the time of
the Earl of Dalhousie (1827), when the "Quebec Exchange" was built by a
company of merchants. The extreme point of the Lower Town, towards the
northeast, constitutes "La Pointe à Carcy," named after Carcy Pagès, who
succeeded to the office of "Guardian of the Harbor," held in 1713 by Louis
Pratt. In the offing is situated the wharf, alongside of which the stately
frigate _Aurora_, Captain De Horsey, passed the winter of 1866-7. The
wharves of the Quebec docks now mark the spot.

The expansion of commerce at the commencement of the present century and
increase of population rendered it very desirable that means of
communication should be established between the Lower Town and St. Roch,
less rugged and inconvenient than the tunnel--Sous-le-Cap lane--and the
sandy beach of the river St. Charles at low water. Towards 1816 the
northern extremity of St. Peter street was finished, it was previously
bounded by a red bridge, well remembered by our very old citizens. The
Apostle St. Paul was honoured with a street, as was his colleague, St.
Peter. Messrs. Benj. Tremaine, Budden, Morrisson, Parent, Allard and
others acquired portions of ground on the north side of this (St. Paul)
street, upon which they have erected wharves, offices and large
warehouses. Renaud's new block now occupies a portion of the site.

The construction of the North Shore Railway will have the effect, at an
early date, of augmenting, in a marked degree, the value of these
properties, the greater portion of which now belong to our fellow citizen,
M. J. Bte Renaud, who has adorned this portion of the Lower Town with
first class buildings. Let us hope that this quarter may flourish, and
that our enterprising fellow citizen may prosper in consequence.

Let us join a party of distinguished strangers wending their way through
our muddy streets, following a titled tourist, His Highness the Duke of
Saxe-Weimar. This noble visitor's rank seems to have been fully
recognized, since he was escorted by a guard of honour furnished by the
Lt.-Governor, and saluted on his departure by 21 guns. After fifty-five
years, the Duke's utterances have yet interest for us, though he seems to
have judged harshly the absent Governor-General, the Earl of Dalhousie.
[114]

    "About eight o'clock in the evening of the 3rd of September, 1825, we
    embarked at Montreal on board the steamer _Lady Sherbrooke_ for
    Quebec. The banks, which as far as Trois Rivières are pretty low,
    become higher and more rocky, particularly on the left side. The
    neighborhood is remarkably handsome and picturesque. The majestic
    stream with its pleasant banks, and the view of the distant blue
    mountains near Quebec, produce an indescribable effect. The weather
    was favourable,--a clear, sunny sky and not very warm; in this
    northern latitude you can perceive the approaching autumn by the
    coolness of the nights and mornings. We reached Quebec at 10 o'clock
    in the evening. This city consists of two parts, the Upper Town, which
    is built on a rock, and the Lower, which is pressed in between the
    river and the rock. The lights in the Lower Town and the
    fortifications had an elegant appearance, when contrasted with the
    dark rock. The first _coup d'oeil_, which was by night, reminded
    me of Namur, as it is seen from the right bank of the Maas. In the
    river were many vessels; mostly used for carrying wood. It was already
    late, and we should have found difficulty in transporting our baggage
    by night, besides other inconveniences in finding lodgings for the
    ladies, so we spent the second night also on board the steamboat,
    where we were very comfortable and found it cleanly.

    "The next morning, after dismissing the guard which the Governor
    appointed to escort us, we went to our lodgings in the upper part of
    the town. The lower town is very narrow, and has a filthy appearance.
    The streets are not paved, and badly provided with sidewalks. The road
    which leads to the upper part of the town is very steep. It stands on
    a rocky ground, and its fortifications are elevated 300 feet from the
    level of the ocean. The upper is separated from the lower town by a
    stone wall, which has the form of a horn-work. Through this wall is a
    gate, [115] which has a guard; the guard-room is opposite the gate,
    and by means of a portcullis defends the entrance. For the convenience
    of foot-passengers there is a door [116] near the gate, with wooden
    stairs, by ascending which you reach the upper town. On the right of
    the gate is a building which resembles a chapel, [117] and serves for
    the House of Commons of Canada. In order to get home we were obliged
    to go round part of the walls of the town. Even here you have an
    indescribably beautiful view of the Bay of Quebec and the right bank
    of the river, which has the appearance of a cape, called Point Levi.

    "Shortly after our arrival, I received a visit from Colonel Duchesnay,
    First Adjutant of the Governor-General, and from [118] Colonel
    Durnford, Director of Engineers. The first gentleman came to bid me
    welcome in the name of the Governor, and the latter begged to show me
    the fortifications. Lord Dalhousie, Governor General of all British
    possessions in North America, was at that time in England, but was
    expected daily. During his absence, the Government was under the
    direction of the Lt.-Governor, Sir Francis Barton, brother of Lord
    Conyngham. He is a civilian, but is said to fill his high post with
    credit. The good spirit the inhabitants are in, and the harmony that
    exists in the colony, are mostly owing to his good management and his
    humane and friendly deportment towards them. It is said of Lord
    Dalhousie that he has estranged the hearts of the people from himself
    and the Government, through his haughty and absolute deportment, and
    the Opposition party in the Canadian Parliament has thereby been
    strengthened.

    "The upper part of the town is very old and angular, the streets are
    muddy, and many not paved. Both towns contain about 25,000
    inhabitants. The Catholic Cathedral is quite a handsome building, it
    has three altars, and paintings of but little value. It is near the
    Seminary, an old French building, with massive walls, having four
    corners like a bastion. In this Seminary resides the Bishop of Quebec.
    We had already been introduced to Bishop Plessis, in the house of Sir
    Francis Burton, and found him a very agreeable and well-informed man.
    He is the son of a butcher of Montreal, and has elevated himself by
    his own merit.

    "On the second and last day of my sojourn in Quebec I went to the
    parade, escorted by Colonels Durnford and Duchesnay. I was pleasantly
    taken by surprise when I found the whole garrison under arms. The
    commanding officers wished to show me their corps. On the right wing
    stood two companies of artillery, then a company of sappers and
    miners, after this, the Sixty-Eighth, and lastly, the Seventy-First
    Regiment of Infantry. The last is a light regiment, and consists of
    Scotch Highlanders; it appeared to be in particularly good condition.
    This regiment is not dressed in the Highland uniform, which was only
    worn by some of the buglemen. It has a very good band of buglemen, who
    wear curious caps, made of blue woollen, bordered below with red and
    white stripes. The troops defiled twice before me.

    "On the 6th of September we set out in the steamboat for Montreal. Sir
    Francis sent us his carriage, which was very useful to the ladies. On
    the dock stood a company of the Sixty-Fifth Regiment, with their flags
    displayed as a guard of honour, which I immediately dismissed. The
    fortifications saluted us with 21 guns; this caused a very fine echo
    from the mountains. Night soon set in, but we had sufficient light to
    take leave of the magnificent vicinity of Quebec."

St. Vallier street is sacred to Monseigneur de St. Vallier; his name is
identified with the street which he so often perambulated in his visits to
the General Hospital, where he terminated his useful career in 1729. His
Lordship seems to have entertained a particular attachment for the
locality where he had founded this hospital, where he resided, in order to
rent his Mountain Hill Palace to Intendant Talon, and thus save the
expense of a chaplain. The General Hospital was the third asylum for the
infirm which the Bishop had founded. Subsequently, came the Intendant de
Meules, who, toward 1684, endowed the eastern portion of the quarter with
an edifice (the Intendant's Palace) remarkable for its dimensions, its
magnificence and its ornate gardens.

Where Talon (a former Intendant) had left a brewery in a state of ruin and
about seventeen acres of land unoccupied, Louis XIV., by the advice of his
Intendant de Meules, lavished vast sums of money in the erection of a
sumptuous palace, in which French justice was administered, and in which,
at a later period, under Bigot, it was _purchasable_. Our illustrious
ancestors, for that matter, were not the kind of men to weep over such
trifles, imbued as they were from infancy with the feudal system and all
its irksome duties, without forgetting the forced labour (_corvées_)
and those admirable "Royal secret warrants," (_lettres de cachet_). What
did the institutions of a free people, or the text of Magna Charta signify
to them?

On this spot stood the notorious warehouse, where Bigot, Cadet and their
confederates retailed, at enormous profits, the provisions and supplies
which King Louis XV. doled out in 1758 to the starving inhabitants of
Quebec. The people christened the house "_La Friponne_," (_The Cheat_!!)
Near the sight of Talon's old brewery which had been converted into a
prison by Frontenac, and which held fast, until his trial in 1674, the
Abbé de Fénélon [119] now stands the Anchor Brewery (Boswell's).

We clip the following from an able review in the Toronto _Mail_, Dec.,
1880, of M. Marmette's most dramatic novel, "_l'Intendant Bigot_":

    "In the year 1775 a grievous famine raged, sweeping off large numbers
    of the poor, while the unscrupulous Bigot and his satellites were
    revelling in shameless profligacy. It is midnight of Christmas, when
    an old officer, M. de Rochebrune, pressed with cold and hunger to the
    last point, resolved to pawn his St. Louis Cross of gold at the
    Intendant's Palace stores. On the way thither the officer and his
    young daughter, a young girl of fourteen, are startled at the blaze of
    light illuminating the Palace windows, during one of the Intendant's
    festivals. The pleasures of the evening are suddenly interrupted and
    shaded by the entry of the aged, suffering M. de Rochebrune and his
    wan-visaged but beautiful daughter. Words of galling truth are
    addressed to Bigot before his painted courtezans and his other
    depraved attendants, whose hearts are too hard and whose consciences
    are too seared to be tortured by either misery or reproof, and the
    ruffian varlets eject both father and daughter to the furies of the
    midnight blast. The ball ended, Bigot leads Madame de Pean to her
    vehicle, when she tumbles over an object which, when torches are
    brought, was found to be the corpse of the suppliant rebuker of a few
    hours previous, alongside of which lay the unconscious form of his
    daughter, half buried in the drifting snow. '_Mon Dieu_,' exclaimed
    Madame de Pean, '_Il ne dormira pas de la nuit, c'est bien sûr._' This
    tragic event is narrated with thrilling effect, in the author's best
    style."     P. B.

In a paper read by us before the Literary and Historical Society of
Quebec, 3rd December, 1879, we alluded in the following terms to the
history of the "Friponne" and the infamous entourage of Intendant Bigot in
the second part of our lecture: the first part related to Kalm's ramble
round the city in 1749.

    Prepare, now for other--dark--far less pleasant scenes. The bright sky
    of old Stadacona will rapidly lower; leaden clouds, pregnant with
    storms are hovering over head. The simplicity of early days is getting
    obsolete. Vice, gilded vice, flaunts in the palace. Gaunt famine is
    preying on the vitals of the people. 'Tis so at Versailles; 'tis so at
    Quebec. Lust--selfishness--rapine--public plunder everywhere--except
    among the small party of the _Honnêtes Gens_: [120] a carnival of
    pleasure, to be followed by the voice of wailing and by the roll of
    the muffled drum.

    In 1748, the evil genius of New France, "La Pompadour's
    _protégé_" François Bigot, thirteenth and last Intendant, had landed
    at Quebec.

    Born in Guienne, of a family distinguished at the bar, Bigot, prior to
    coming to Canada had occupied the high post of Intendant in Louisiana.
    In stature, he was small--but well formed;--active--full of pluck--
    fond of display and pleasure--an inveterate gambler. Had he confined
    his operations merely to trading, his commercial ventures would have
    excited little blame, trading having been a practice indulged in by
    several other high colonial officials. His salary was totally
    inadequate to the importance of his office, and quite insufficient to
    meet the expenditure his exalted position led him into. His
    speculations, his venality, the extortions practised on the community
    by his heartless minions: this is what has surrounded his memory with
    eternal infamy and made his name a by-word for scorn.

    There existed, at Quebec, a _ring_ composed of the Intendant's
    secretary, Deschenaux, of the Commissary General of Supplies, Cadet,
    of the Town-Major, Hugues Péan; of the Treasurer-General, Imbert. Péan
    was the Chief and Bigot the Great Chief of this nefarious association.
    Between Bigot and Péan, another link existed. Péan's favour at Court
    lay in the charms of his wife. Madame Péan, _née_ Angélique De
    Meloises, was young, pretty, witty and charming; a fluent and
    agreeable speaker--in fact so captivating that François Bigot was
    entirely ruled by her during all his stay at Quebec. At her house in
    St. Louis street he spent his evenings; there, he was sought and found
    in May, 1759, by Col. de Bougainville returning from Paris, the bearer
    of the dispatches, announcing the coming struggle.

    Would you like some of the pen-photographs which a clever French
    contemporary [121] has left of the corrupt entourage of the
    magnificent intendant, here are a few:

    "Brassard Deschenaux, the son of a poor cobbler, was born at Quebec. A
    notary who boarded with Deschenaux, senior, had taught his son to
    read. Naturally quick and intelligent, young Deschenaux made rapid
    progress and soon found something to do in the office of Intendant
    Hocquart where Bigot found him and succeeded in having him appointed
    clerk in the Colonial Office at Quebec. Industrious, but at heart a
    sycophant, by dint of cringing he won the good graces of Bigot, who
    soon put unlimited trust in him, to that degree as to do nothing
    without Deschenaux's aid, but Deschenaux was vain, ambitious, haughty
    and overbearing and of such inordinate greed, that he was in the habit
    of boasting 'that to get rich he would even rob a church.'

    "Cadet was the son of a butcher. In his youth he was employed to mind
    the cattle of a Charlesbourg peasant; he next set up as a butcher and
    made money. His savings, he invested in trade; his intriguing spirit
    brought him to the notice of the Intendant Hocquart, who gave him
    contracts to supply meat for the army. Deschenaux soon discovered that
    Cadet could be useful to him; he made him his friend and lost no
    opportunity to recommend him to the Intendant. He was accordingly
    often employed to buy the supplies for the subsistence of the troops.
    In verity, there were few men more active, more industrious, more
    competent to drive a bargain. The King required his services and
    secured them, by having Cadet named Commissary General. He had his
    redeeming points--was open-handed in his dealings--of a kindly nature
    and lavish even to excess."

    The worthy Commissary General, like Péan, was blessed with a charming
    wife, whom Panet's Diary styles "La Belle Amazone Aventurière."
    Probably like her worthy spouse,--of low extraction; "elle n'était pas
    sortie de la cuisse de Jupiter," to use a familiar French saw.

    She certainly was not, like Caesar's wife "above suspicion." Madame
    Cadet, later on, transferred her allegiance from the rich butcher
    Cadet, to one "Sieur Joseph Ruffio";... but let us draw the veil of
    oblivion over the short comings of another age.

    "Capt. Hughes Péan, _Chevalier de la Livaudière_, was Town Major
    of Quebec, _aide-Major des Troupes_." He was not long in discovering
    that with an Intendant like Bigot, he could dare anything. Had he not
    without any trouble netted a gain of 50,000 half crowns? A large
    quantity of wheat was required for Government; he was charged with the
    purchase. There was a fat job in store for the Town Major. How was his
    master the Intendant to manage the matter for him? Bigot was a man of
    resource, who never forgot his friends. First, he provided Péan with a
    large sum out of the Treasury to buy the wheat as low as possible for
    cash; and then his complaisant council passed an order or Ordonnance
    fixing the price of grain much higher than that at which Péan had
    purchased. The town Major charged it to the Government at the rate
    fixed by the Ordonnance; the difference left him a handsome profit. He
    thought he would next try his hand at building coasting craft, which
    he could manage to keep constantly in commission for Government; this
    also was lucrative. Other devices, however, were resorted to; a secret
    partnership was entered into between Cadet and a person named Clavery,
    who shortly after become store-keeper at Quebec. Cadet was to purchase
    wheat in the parishes, have it ground at a mill he had leased, the
    flour to be sent abroad, secretly. Péan, too, had large warehouses
    built--at Beaumont some say. Cargoes of grain were thus secretly
    shipped to foreign ports in defiance of the law. Bréard, the
    Comptroller-General, for a consideration winked at these mal-
    practices, and from a poor man when he landed in Canada, he returned
    to France in affluent circumstances.

    The crowning piece of knavery was the erection of a vast shop and
    warehouses near to the Intendant's Palace. Clavery had charge of this
    establishment, where a small retail business was carried on as a
    blind. The real object was to monopolize the trade in provisions and
    concentrate it here. Clavery was clerk to Estebe, Royal store-keeper
    at Quebec. In this warehouse were accumulated all such provisions and
    supplies as were wanted annually, and ordered from France for the
    King's stores at Quebec.

    It was the practice of the Intendant to send each summer the
    requisitions to Paris. Bigot took care to order from France less
    supplies than were required, so as to have an excuse to order the
    remainder in times of want, at Quebec. The orders were sent to
    Clavery's warehouse, where the same goods were sold twice over, at
    increased rates. Soon the people saw through the deceit, and this
    repository of fraud was called in consequence La Friponne, "The
    Knave."

    Want of space prevents me from crowding in photos of the other
    accomplished rogues, banded together for public robbery during the
    expiring years of French domination in Canada.

    It is singular to note how many low-born [122] parasites and
    flatterers surrounded Bigot.

    In 1755, the wheat harvest having failed, and the produce of former
    years having been carried out of Canada or else stored in the magazine
    of Bigot's ring, the people of Canada were reduced to starvation: in
    many instances they had to subsist on horse flesh and decayed codfish.
    Instead of having recourse to the wheat stored here, the Intendant's
    minions led him to believe that wheat was not so scarce as the
    peasantry pretended--that the peasants refused to sell it, merely in
    anticipation of obtaining still higher rates; that the Intendant, they
    argued, ought to issue orders, for domiciliary visits in the rural
    districts; and levy a tax on each inhabitant of the country, for the
    maintenance of the residents in the city, and of the troops.

    Statements were made out, shewing the rations required to prevent the
    people from dying of hunger. Cadet was charged with the raising of
    this vexatious impost. In a very short time, he and his clerks had
    overrun the country, appropriating more wheat than was necessary. Some
    of the unfortunate peasants, who saw in the loss of their seed wheat
    starvation and death, loudly complained. A few called at the
    Intendant's Palace, but the heartless Deschenaux, the Intendant's
    Secretary, was ever on the watch and had them questioned by his
    _employés_, and when the object of their visit, was discovered,
    they were ushered into the presence of Deschenaux, who insulted them
    and threatened to have them imprisoned for thus presuming to complain
    to the Intendant. Bigot was afterwards advised of their visit, and
    when they appeared before him they were so maltreated and bullied that
    they left, happy in the fact that they had not been thrown into
    prison; soon, none dared to complain. Bread was getting scarcer every
    day. The Intendant had named persons to distribute the bread at the
    baker's shops, the flour being furnished by Government. The people
    crowded the bakeries on the days fixed; the loaves were taken by
    violence, mothers of families used to complain that they could not get
    any; they used occasionally to besiege the Intendant at his Palace
    with their lamentations and complaints, but it was of no avail, the
    Intendant was surrounded by a crowd of flatterers, who on retiring,
    gorged from his luxurious board, could not understand how the poor
    could die of hunger.

    Land of my fathers reclaimed from barbarism at the cost of so much
    blood--so much treasure, bountifully provided with nobles--priests--
    soldiers--fortifications by the great Louis; sedulously--paternally
    watched over by Colbert and Talon: to what depth of despair, shall we
    say, degradation are thou sunk!

    Proud old city, have you then no more defenders to put forth, in your
    supreme hour of woe and desertion! Has then that dauntless race of
    _Gentilshommes Canadiens_, d'Iberville--Ste. Hélène--de Bouville
    --de Bécancourt--de Repentigny, disappeared without leaving any
    successors!

    And you stern old de Frontenac, you who replied so effectually to the
    invader through the mouth of your cannon, is your martial spirit
    quenched forever, in that loved fortress in which rest your venerated
    remains, you who at one time (1689) were ready, at the head of your
    Regulars and fighting Canadians, [123] to carry out the rash scheme,
    hatched by deCallières: the conquest of New York and destruction of
    the chief settlements in New England, a scheme which involved the
    dispersion of more than eighteen thousand people, as sixty-six years
    later (in 1755), a British Commander tore from their homes the
    peaceable Acadians of _Grand-Pré_. [124]

    I could enlarge to any extent the gloomy picture which the history of
    this shameful period discloses. Two skilful novelists, the one in the
    English language, Wm. Kirby, [125] Esq., of Niagara, the other in the
    French, Joseph Marmette, [126] of Quebec, have woven two graphic and
    stirring historical romances, out of the materials which the career of
    the Intendant Bigot and the desertion of the colony in its hour of
    trial, by France--so abundantly supply. One redeeming _trait_, one
    flash of sunshine lights up the last hour of French domination: the
    devotion of the Canadian militia towards their oblivious mother-
    country, their dauntless courage at the Beauport engagement--after the
    battle of the Plains, 13th Sept., 1759--and at the battle of Ste.
    Foye, on the 28th April 1760, a day glorious to French arms, but at
    best a useless victory.


    _RUINS OF THE INTENDANT'S PALACE._

    "It is the voice of years that are gone! they roll before me with all
    their deeds."--OSSIAN.

    "'The descriptions, or perspective sketches,' says Mr. Walkem,
    'according to the fancy or whim of the artist or the photographer, of
    what is left of the ruins, convey no adequate idea of its real
    capacity and magnitude in length, breadth or height. My present
    object, therefore, with your permission, is to supply this deficiency
    from plans and elevations drawn to a scale of feet about the year
    1770--when some repairs were effected by the Military Engineers,--five
    years before its destruction in 1775. And more especially do I feel it
    my duty to submit this plan, &c., for publication since it has become
    part of the military history, not of Quebec only, but of Canada.

    "The following is an extract from the Centenary report: 'This once
    magnificent pile was constructed under the French King's directions in
    1684, under Intendant de Meules. It was burnt in 1712, when occupied
    by Intendant Bégon, and restored by the French Government. It became,
    from 1748 to 1759, the luxurious resort of Intendant Bigot and his
    wassailers. Under English rule it was neglected, and Arnold's men
    having, from the cupola, annoyed Guy Carleton's soldiers, orders were
    given to destroy it with the city guns.'

    "'Skulking riflemen in St. Roch's, watching behind walls to kill our
    sentries, some of them fired from the cupola of the Intendant's
    Palace. We brought a nine-pounder to answer them.'--(_Extract from a
    journal of an officer of the Quebec Garrison_.)

    "For those who may not be familiar with the meaning of the term
    'Intendant,' and the official duties of his office, the following
    remarks are submitted from the most authentic sources. It was one of
    civil administration, direction management, superintendence, &c., and
    next to that of Governor-General, the office of Intendant was one of
    the greatest importance and celebrity in Quebec. It was established by
    the proclamation of the King of France in 1663,--creating a Sovereign
    Council for the affairs of the Colony--viz: the Governor-General, the
    Bishop, the Intendant and four Councillors, with an Attorney-General
    and Chief Clerk. The number of Councillors was afterwards increased to
    twelve.

    "The authority of the Intendant, except in his executive capacity, was
    indeed little inferior to that of the Governor himself. He had the
    superintendence of four departments, viz: Justice, Police, Finance,
    and Marine.

    The first intendant named under the proclamation of 1663 was M.
    Robert; but he never came to Canada to fill his office, and it was not
    till the summer of 1655 that Jean de Talon arrived at Quebec, as the
    first real Intendant, with the Viceroy deTracy, and the Carignan
    Regiment. The building in which the Sovereign Council first held their
    meetings would appear to have stood on the south side of Fabrique
    street westward (?) of the Jesuit College, known at that time as the
    'Treasury.'

    "During the Intendancy of M. de Meules, in 1684, that gentleman, at
    his own expense, endowed the eastern portion of the St. Roch's suburbs
    with an edifice henceforth known as the 'Intendant's Palace' ('Le
    Palais'), remarkable for its dimensions, magnificence and general
    appearance; it included also (according to old plans) about ten acres
    of land contained probably between St. Rochs and St. Nicholas streets,
    having the River St. Charles in front, and afterwards laid out in
    ornamental gardens. The Palace was described by _La Potherie_, in
    1698, as consisting of eighty toises, or 480 feet of buildings, so
    that it appeared a little town in itself. The King's stores were also
    kept there.

    "In 1712, Intendant Bégon, with a splendid equipage and retinue,
    arrived in Quebec from France, and took up his residence at the
    Palace. On the 5th of January, 1713, the entire building and premises
    unfortunately were destroyed by fire, and such was the rapidity of the
    flames that the Intendant and his wife escaped with great difficulty.
    Madame Bégon was obliged to break the panes of glass in her apartment
    before she had power to breathe. The young lady attendants were burned
    to death. The Intendant's _valet de chambre_, anxious to save some of
    his master's wardrobe, also perished in the flames. His Secretary,
    passing barefooted from the Palace to the river front, was so much
    frozen that he died in the Hospital of the Hôtel-Dieu a few days
    afterwards. [127]

    "The Palace was afterward rebuilt under the direction of M. Bégon at
    the expense of His Majesty, and of which the plans and elevation now
    presented are presumed to be a correct and faithful illustration. The
    principal entrance appears to have been from that side next the cliff,
    opposite the 'Arsenal,'--or from the present line of St. Valier
    street--with large store buildings, magazines, &c., on either side of
    the entrance, and in the rear of that stood the building known as the
    'Prison.' It would appear that _La Potherie's_ remark, in 1698,
    of the first construction resembling a little town in itself, would
    also apply to the group of the second construction--as no less than
    twenty in number are shown on some of the old plans of this period.
    From sketches taken on the spot by an officer of the Fleet in Wolfe's
    expedition of 1759, and published in London two years afterwards,
    there can be little doubt, for want of room elsewhere, that the Palace
    was converted into barracks and occupied immediately after the
    surrender of Quebec by the troops under General Murray, and continued
    to be used as such until it fell into the hands of the American
    insurgents under Arnold, in 1775, and was destroyed by the cannon from
    the ramparts. The assumption is strengthened, if not confirmed, by the
    occupation of the Jesuit College as barracks the following year the
    amount of accommodation in both cases, a full regiment--would be the
    same; hence the comfortable quarters in the 'Palais' by the rebel
    force under Arnold, which would accommodate the most of his men.

    "The appearance of this once celebrated structure in its general
    aspect was more imposing from its extent than from any architectural
    ornate embellishments. The style was the French domestic of that
    period, of two clear stories in height, the extreme frontage was 260
    feet, with projecting wings at either end of 20 feet (vide plan), the
    depth from the front of the wings to the rear line 75 feet, and the
    central part 58 feet; the height from the site level to the apex of
    roof about 55 feet, and to the eaves line about 33 feet; in the
    basement there were no less than 9 vaults, 10 feet high to the crown
    of the arch running along the whole front, as shown in the elevation.
    The apartments in the two stories are divided longitudinally by a wall
    from one end to the other, and comprise altogether about 40 in number,
    allotted into barrack-rooms as per original military plans.

    "The roof is plain and steep, and only broken by the pedimented wings
    at each end of the building, with chimney stacks and stone coping over
    the transverse fire walls, and otherwise relieved by a small octagonal
    cupola of two sections placed in the centre of the roof. The approach
    to the building in front is by two flights of steps, an enclosed porch
    forming a central feature to the main entrance; the basement windows
    are shewn in the elevation above the ground line. The walls were
    substantially built of black slate rock peculiar to Quebec and must
    have taken much time in the erection judging from its tenacity, and
    the hardness of the material still remaining. No doubt the walls, as
    was the practice in those days, were built of dry masonry, a few feet
    at a time, and then _grouted_ with mortar in a thin semi-fluid
    state, composed of quicklime and fine sand poured into the interspaces
    of the stone-work, filling every cavity, excluding the air, and left
    to dry before commencing the next course. The wrought stone at the
    quoins and angles appear to have been quarried at Point-aux-Trembles,
    or more likely at Beauport, while the sides of the doors and windows
    were faced with hard Flemish brick, still intact, and beyond doubt
    imported directly from France. [128] The main store buildings in
    front, with vaults underneath, were undoubtedly built in the same
    compact manner, as Mr. Boswell, some years ago, in excavating for his
    brewery on the site of these stores, came in contact with the old
    foundation walls, so hard that powder had to be used for blasting. The
    mortar was found to be harder than stone, and a drill had but small
    effect upon it. That gentleman many years ago became the tenant of the
    war department for these ruins and vaults, and has roofed them in,
    taken care of the property and made improvements generally at his own
    expense. There is an old story current that a subterraneous passage,
    under the old ruins, led to the river. Others say that a passage
    communicated with the Upper Town. It is highly probable the old vaults
    and passage discovered by Mr. Boswell in the above excavation have
    been the origin of this story; for in one case towards the river it
    would be flooded at high water, and towards the Upper Town barred by a
    rampart of solid rock.

    "From 1775 to the withdrawal of the Imperial troops in 1870-71--
    nearly a century,--this property was used specially for military
    purposes, and commonly known, as shown on old plan, as the King's Wood
    Yard, and more recently as the Commissariat Fuel Yard. The land
    several years ago was reduced in extent by the sale of building lots
    on the lines of St. Valier and St. Nicholas streets.

    "At the beginning of this century, and many years afterwards, a
    military guard seems to have done duty at the 'Palais' and adjoining
    premises, east of St. Nicholas street, known as the Royal Dock Yard,
    King's Wharf, Stores, &c. This latter property extended eastward as
    far as La Canoterie, in front of a blockhouse, the site of the present
    Nunnery Bastion, and lying between what is now known as St. Charles
    street, or the foot of the cliff, and the high water mark on the north
    side, corresponding pretty nearly with the line of St. Paul street.

    "The ruins of 'Le Palais' and accessories since 1775 were several
    times fitted up by the military authorities for stabling, fodder-
    sheds, wash-house, military stores, caretaker's quarters, &c., &c.,
    and the vaults were leased for storing ice, wines and other liquors,
    and storage generally to the inhabitants of the city, and the roof was
    shingled or otherwise covered in on several occasions by the
    Government.

    "In the great fire of St. Roch's (1845) the Fuel Yard, about four
    acres in extent, with some hundreds of cords of wood piled there, and
    a very large quantity of coals in a 'lean-to-shed' against the Palais
    walls were consumed--the coals continued to burn and smoulder for
    nearly _six months_,--and notwithstanding the solidity of the
    masonry, as already described, portions of it, with the heat like a
    fiery furnace, gave way. Upon this occasion an unfortunate woman and
    two children were burned to death in the Fuel Yard. Great efforts were
    made by Mr. Bailey, a commissariat officer, and Mr. Boswell, owner of
    the brewery, to save the lives of the victims, but unfortunately
    without success. These gentlemen, after their coats had been burned
    off their backs, and the hair from their heads and eyebrows, had to
    fly at last to save their own lives.

    "On the withdrawal of the Imperial troops in 1870-71, the whole of 'Le
    Palais' property was handed over to the Dominion Government.

      "CHARLES WALKEM, "(Late R. E. Civil Service Staff in Canada.)
      "Ottawa, 24th July, 1876."

Doubtless to the eyes of the "free and independent electors" of La
Vacherie, in 1759, the Intendant's Palace seemed a species of "eighth
wonder" The eighth wonder lost much of its _éclat_, however, by the
inauguration of English rule, in 1759, but a total eclipse came over this
imposing and majestic luminary when Guy Carleton's guns from the ramparts
of Quebec began, in 1775, to thunder on its cupola and roof, which offered
a shelter to Arnold's soldiery: the rabble of "shoemakers, hatters,
blacksmiths and innkeepers," (says that savage old Tory, Colonel Henry
Caldwell), bent on providing Canada with the blessings of Republicanism. A
century and more has passed over the gorgeous Palace--now a dreary, moss-
covered ruin, surrounded in rear by coarse grass, fallen stones: Bigot--
his wassailers,--the fair but frail Madame de Pean, like her prototype of
Paris, Madame de Pompadour, have all fleeted to the land of shadows; and
tourists, high and low, still crowd to glance meditatively at those fast
fading traces of a guilty past. It was in October, 1879, the special
privilege of the writer to escort to these ruins one of our Sovereign's
gentle and accomplished daughters, H.R.H. the Princess Louise, accompanied
by H.E. Lord Lorne, as he had done the previous autumn with regard to the
learned Dean of Westminster, Revd. A. P. Stanley: proud he was to think
that though Quebec had no such attractions like antique, like classic
England,--turretted castles, moated granges, or even

             "Old pheasant Lords,
  "Partridge breeders of a thousand years,"

--its romantic past was not without pleasing or startling or interesting
memories.

We have just mentioned "_La Vacherie_", this consisted of the extensive
and moist pastures at the foot of _Coteau Sainte-Geneviève_, extending
towards the General Hospital, where the city cows were grazed; on this
site and gracing the handsome streets "Crown" "Craig" and "Desfossés," can
now be seen elegant dry-goods stores, vying with the largest in the Upper
Town. Had St. Peter street, in 1775, been provided with a regular way of
communication with St. Roch; had St. Paul street then existed, the sun of
progress would have shone there nearly a century earlier.

"For a considerable time past, several plans of amelioration of the City
of Quebec," says the Abbé Ferland, "were proposed to the Ministry by M. de
Meules. The absolute necessity of obtaining a desirable locality for the
residence of the Intendant, and for holding the sessions of the Council;
the Château St. Louis being hardly sufficient to afford suitable quarters
for the Governor and the persons who formed his household. M. de Meules
proposed purchasing a large stone building which M. Talon had caused to be
erected for the purpose of a brewery, and which, for several years, had
remained unoccupied. Placed in a very commodious position on the bank of
the river St. Charles, and not many steps from the Upper Town, this
edifice, with suitable repairs and additions, might furnish not alone a
desirable residence for the Intendant, but also halls and offices for the
Supreme Council and the Courts of Justice, as likewise vaults for the
archives and a prison for the criminals. Adjacent to the old brewery, M.
Talon owned an extent of land of about seventeen superficial acres, of
which no use was made in M. de Meules' plan; a certain portion of this
land could be reserved for the gardens and dependencies of the Intendant's
Palace, whilst the remainder might be portioned off into building lots
(_emplacements_), and thus convert it into a second lower town, and
which might some day be extended to the foot of the Cape. He believed that
if this plan were adopted, the new buildings of Quebec would extend in
that direction, and not on the heights almost exclusively occupied by the
Religious Communities. [129]

We perceive, according to Mr. Panet's Journal, that Saint Roch existed in
1759; that the women and children, residents of that quarter, were not
wholly indifferent to the fate of their distressed country. "The same day
(31st July, 1759)," says Panet, "we heard a great uproar in the St. Roch
quarter--the women and children were shouting, 'Long Live the King!'"
[130] "I ascended the height (on the _Coteau Ste. Geneviève_) and
there beheld the first frigate all in a blaze, very shortly afterwards a
black smoke issuing from the second, which blew up and afterwards took
fire." On the 4th August several bomb-shells of 80 lbs. fell on St. Roch.
We read, that on the 31st August, two soldiers were hanged at three
o'clock in the afternoon, for having stolen a cask of brandy from the
house of one Charland, in the St. Roch quarter. In those times the General
(or _the Recorder_) did not do things by halves. Who was, this Charland of
1759? Could he be the same who, sixteen years afterwards, fought so
stoutly with Lieut. Dambourgès at the Sault-au-Matelot engagement? Since
the inauguration of the English domination, St. Roch became peopled in a
most rapid manner, we now see there a net-work of streets, embracing in
extent several leagues.

The first steep hill past the Y. M. C. Association Hall--formerly Gallows
Hill, (where the luckless David McLane was disembowelled, in 1797, for
levying war against the King of Great Britain), and leading from St. John
street without to that not over-straight thoroughfare, named after the
second Bishop of Quebec--St. Vallier street--borrows its name from
Barthélémy Coton, who in days of yore closed his career in Quebec at the
advanced age of 92 years. Can anyone tell us the pedigree of Barthélémy
Coton? To the French portion of the inhabitants it is known as _Côte à
Coton_, whilst the English portion still continue to surround it,
unopportunely we think, with the unhallowed traditions of a lugubrious
past and call it Gallows Hill. Côte à Coton debouches into St. Vallier
street, which on your way takes you to Scott's Bridge, over the Little
River St Charles. Across St. Vallier street it opens on a rather
magnificent street as to extent--Baronne street,--commemorating the
_souvenir_ of an illustrious family in colonial History, represented
by Madame la Baronne de Longueuil, the widow of the third Baron, who had,
in 1770, married the Honorable. Wm. Grant, the Receiver-General of the
Province of Quebec, who lived at St. Rochs, and died there in 1805.

On M. P. Cousin's plan of Quebec, published in 1875, parallel to St.
Vallier street to the south, and St. Fleurie street to the north, halfway
between, is laid down Baronne street. The most ancient highway of the
quarter (St. Roch) is probably St. Vallier street. "Desfossés" street most
likely derives its name from the ditches (_fossés_) which served to
drain the green pastures of _La Vacherie_. The old Bridge street dates
from the end of the last century (1789). "Dorchester" street recalls
the esteemed and popular administrator, Lord Dorchester, who, under the
name of Guy Carleton, led on to victory the militia of Quebec in 1775.

"Craig" street received its name from Sir John Craig, a gouty, testy, but
trusty old soldier, who administered the Government in 1807-9-10; it was
enlarged and widened ten feet, after the great fire of 1845. The site of
St. Paul's Market was acquired from the Royal Ordnance, on 31st July,
1831.

    A former Quebecer writes:--

    OTTAWA, 17th May, 1876.

    "At the beginning of this century only eighty square-rigged vessels
    entered the Port of Quebec. There were then in Quebec only nine
    importers, and half a dozen master mechanics, one shipyard (John
    Black's, where one ship was launched each year), one printing office
    and one weekly paper.

    "The tide then washed the rear walls of the houses on the north part
    of Sault-au-Matelot street. The only deep water wharves were Dunières,
    afterwards Brébaut's, Johnson & Purss', and the King's Wharf. There
    were no dwelling houses beyond Dunières' Wharf, but a few huts were
    built at the base of the cape. A black man was the solitary inhabitant
    on the beach, and all the way to Sillery the woods extended to the
    water's edge. A lease of this beach might then have been obtained for
    £50 a year.

    "In St. Roch's Suburbs there was no house beyond the Manor House near
    the Intendant's Palace, save a few straggling ones in St. Vallier and
    St. Roch's streets. The site of the present Parish of St. Roch was
    mostly occupied by Grant's Mills, by meadows and farms.

    "In St. John Suburbs there were only a few houses on St. John and St.
    George's streets and St. Louis Suburbs which, in 1775, contributed but
    three militia-men, viz--Jean Dobin, gardener, Jos. Proveau, carter,
    and Jacques Dion, mason, could boast of only one house, and the
    nearest one to it was Powell Place, Spencer Wood.

    "On the St. Foy Road there was no house beyond the mineral well in St.
    John Suburbs, until you came to the Haut Bijou--Mr. Stewart's. The
    population of the city was then estimated at 12,000.

    "I wonder if your friend Col. Strange is aware that his old friend
    Sergt. Hugh McQuarters, of 1775 fame, was led captive to Hymen's altar
    by the winning smiles and bright eyes of a _belle Canadienne_,
    Mam'selle Victoire Fréchette. She died on the 12th October, 1812.

    "Not having seen a copy of the address of Henri Taschereau, Esq., M.P.
    before the Canadian Institute on the American Invasion of '75, I am
    not aware if he alluded to the facet that Captain and Paymaster
    Gabriel Elzéar Taschereau took part in the '_l'affaire du Sault-au-
    Matelot_.'

    "Thus, by degrees, you see some little odds and ends of Quebec history
    are coming to light.

      "I remain, "(Signed,) C. J. O'LEARY.

      "J. M. LEMOINE, Esq."

In the present day the prolongation of the wharf has left no trace of it;
the Station of the North Shore Railway covers a portion of this area.

"Church" street (la rue de l'Église), doubtless owes its name to the
erection of the beautiful Saint Roch Church, towards 1812, the site of
which was given by the late Honorable John Mure, who died in Scotland in
1823.

Saint Roch, like the Upper Town, comprises several _Fiefs_, proceeding
from the _Fief_ of the Seminary and reaching as far as the Gas Wharf; the
beaches with the right of fishing belonged originally to the _Hôtel-Dieu_
by a concession dated the 31st March, 1648, but they have since been
conceded to others. The Crown possesses an important reserve towards the
west of this grant; then comes the grant made, in 1814 or 1815, to the
heirs of William Grant, now occupied by several ship-yards. Jacques
Cartier who, in 1535-6, wintered in the vicinity of Saint Roch, left his
name to an entire municipal division of this rich suburb, as well as to a
spacious market hall. (The Jacques Cartier Market Hall.) The first secular
priest, who landed in Quebec on the 8th August, 1634, and who closed his
days in the Hôtel-Dieu on the 29th November, 1668, Jean le Sueur de Saint
Sauveur, left his name to what now constitutes the populous municipality
of Saint Sauveur. (Casgrain, _Historie de l'Hôtel-Dieu_, p. 81.)

On the spot on which the General Hospital Convent was erected, in 1691,
the four first Franciscan Friars, Pères Jamay, D'Olbeau, LeCaron and Frère
Pacifique Du Plessis, who had landed at Quebec on the 2nd June, 1615, soon
set to work to erect the first Church, the first Convent and the first
Seminary in New France, and on the 3rd June, 1620, Father d'Olbeau, in the
absence of Father Jamay, the Superior of the Mission, placed the first
stone of the church, under the name of _Notre Dame des Anges_, on the
25th May, 1625. This was on the bank of the river which Jacques Cartier
had called the River Ste. Croix, because he had landed there on the 14th
September, 1535, the day of the exaltation of the Holy Cross: the Friars
changed the name to that of St. Charles, in honor of "Monsieur Charles de
Boues, Grand Vicaire _de Pontoise_," one of the most distinguished
benefactors of their Order.

St. Vallier street, leading to ancient and Indian Lorette, over the Little
River Road, at present so well built up and echoing to the shrill whistle
of the Q. M. O. & O. Railway, until a few years back was a lone
thoroughfare, beyond the toll-bar, lined with bare, open meadows. Here,
also, has been felt the march of progress.

In the genial summer months passers-by are admonished by a pungent, not
unhealthy, odor of tannin, an effluvia of tamarac bark, that tanners and
curriers have selected their head-quarters in St. Vallier street. History
also lends its attractions to the venerable thoroughfare.

Our forefathers would tell of many cosy little dinners, closed, of course,
with whist or loo--of many _recherché_ pic-nics in days of yore, kept
up until the "sma' hours" at two renowned hostelries, only recently
removed--the BLUE HOUSE and the RED HOUSE,--chiefly at that festive and
crowning season of the year, when

  "The snow, the beautiful snow,"

called forth the City Driving Club and its silvery, tinkling sleigh bells.

A steward--once famous as a caterer--on closing his term of service at the
_Château_, with a departing Governor, more than a century back, was
the Boniface at the Blue House: Alexandre Menut. A veritable Soyer was
_Monsieur_ Menut. During the American invasion, in the autumn of 1775,
Monsieur Menut, owing to a _vis major_, was forced to entertain a rather
boisterous and wilful class of customers: Richard Montgomery and his
warlike Continentals. More than once a well-aimed ball or shell from
General Carleton's batteries in the city must have disturbed the good
cheer of the New York and New England riflemen lounging about Menut's, a
great rebel rendezvous in 1775-6, we are told, visible from afar, [131]
"with its white flag flying on the house.

Arnold's head-quarters being close to the St. Charles, where Scott's
Bridge was since built, the intervening space between the city and the
General Hospital was daily swept by Carleton's artillery. The Page Diaries
abound with details of the casualties or narrow escapes of the invading
host. A few quotations will suffice:

    "8th December, 1775. Mr. (Brigadier-General) Montgomery visited
    Menut's to-day; a few minutes after he got out of the cariole, a
    cannon ball from the city walls killed his horse.

    "18th December. Some shells were thrown in to-day, and we threw some
    into St. Roch's: very few of the enemy seen anywhere to-day. A man was
    shot through the head from St. Roch; would it were destroyed; it
    serves as a secure cover to the rebels.

    "26th January, 1776. Eighty loaded sleighs passing towards Menut's.
    Two field-pieces placed at the door; people passing and repassing
    between that house and the General Hospital; some of our shots went
    through Menut's house; we fired a long time at that object; at last we
    perceived a man coming towards the town in a cariole, carrying the old
    signal; he passed their guard-house and waved with his handkerchief;
    we took no notice of him, but fired away at Menut's, he turned about
    and went back. ... Perhaps, they find Menut's too hot for them.--
    (_from Journal of an officer of the Quebec Garrison_, 1775-6,
    quoted in Smith's History of Canada, Vol. II.)

    "21st February, 1776. Fired at their guard-house and at Menut's.

    "23rd February. About four this morning we heard the enemy's drum at
    Menut's, St. Foix. Sentries saw rockets in the night."

Prince Edward street, St. Roch, and "Donnacona" street, near the
Ursulines, the latter thus named about 1840 by the late Rev. Messire
Maguire, then Almoner of the Ursuline Convent, bring up the memory of two
important personages of the past, Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent, an
English Prince, and Donnacona, a swarthy chief of primitive Canada, who
welcomed Jacques Cartier.

The vanquisher of Montcalm, General Wolfe, is honoured not only by a
statue, at the corner of Palace and St. John's streets, but again by the
street which bears his name, Wolfe street. In like manner, his illustrious
rival Montcalm claims an entire section of the city, "Montcalm Ward." Can
it be that the susceptible young Captain of the _Albemarle_, Horatio
Nelson, carried on his flirtation with the captivating Miss Mary Simpson,
in 1782, in the street which now rejoices in his name?

    _NELSON IN QUEBEC_--1782.

      "C'est l'amour qui fait le tour de la ronde."--OLD SONG.

    "Though the "Ancient Capital," ever since 1764, rejoiced in an organ
    of public opinion--a chronicle of daily events, fashions, city gossip,
    the _Quebec Gazette_,--one would look in vain, in the barren columns
    of that journal, for any intelligence of an incident, in 1782, which,
    from the celebrity in after-life of the chief actor, and the local
    repute of the reigning belle of the day, must have caused a flutter
    among the F. F. Q. of the period. We mean the tender attachment of
    Horatio (Lord) Nelson, commanding H. M. frigate _Albemarle_, 28 guns
    then in port,--his romantic admiration for Miss Mary Simpson, the
    youthful and accomplished daughter of Saunders Simpson (not "James,"
    as Dr. Miles asserts), the cousin of James Thompson, Sr., one of
    Wolfe's veterans. Traditions, venerable by their antiquity, told of
    the charms divine, of the conquests of a marvellously handsome Quebec
    beauty in the latter part of the last century: the _Catullus_ of 1783
    thus begins his inspired lay in the _Quebec Gazette_ of that year:

      'Sure you will rather listen to my call,
      Since beauty and Quebec's fair nymphs I sing.
      Henceforth Diana in Miss S--ps--n see,
      As noble and majestic is her air;
      Nor can fair Venus, W--lc--s, vie with thee,
      Nor all thy heavenly charms with thee compare.'

    "It was our fate first to attempt to unravel the tangles of this
    attractive web. In the course of our readings, in 1865, our attention
    had been drawn to a passage in the life of Nelson by the Laureate of
    England, Robert Southey, [132] and enlarged on by Lamartine in the
    pleasant sketch he gave of the naval hero. Our investigations were
    aided by the happy memory of an old friend, now deceased: the late
    Lt.-Col. John Sewell, who had served in the 49th under General Brock,
    and whose birth was nearly contemporary with the visit of Nelson to
    our port in September, 1782. It was evident the chief biographers of
    the gifted sea captain ignored the details of his youthful attachment
    on our shores.

    "'At Quebec,' says Southey, 'Nelson became acquainted with Alexander
    Davison, by whose interference he was prevented from making what would
    have been called an imprudent marriage. The _Albemarle_ was about
    to leave the station, her Captain had taken leave of his friends, and
    was gone down the river to the place of anchorage; when the next
    morning, as Davison was walking on the beach, to his surprise he saw
    Nelson coming back in his boat. Upon inquiring the cause of his re-
    appearance, Nelson took his arm to walk towards the town, and told him
    he found it utterly impossible to leave Quebec without again seeing
    the woman whose society contributed so much to his happiness, and then
    and there offering her his hand.' 'If you do,' said his friend, 'your
    utter ruin must inevitably follow.' 'Then, let it follow,' cried
    Nelson; 'for I am resolved to do it.' 'And I,' replied Davison, 'am
    resolved you shall not.' Nelson, however, on this occasion was less
    resolved than his friend, and suffered himself to be led back to the
    boat.'

    "This led us to prepare a short 'Novelette' on the subject in the
    _Revue Canadienne_, in 1867, subsequently incorporated in the _Maple
    Leaves_: amended and corrected as new light dawned upon us in the
    _Tourists' Note Book_, issued in 1876, and _Chronicles of the St.
    Lawrence_, published in 1878.

    "Whether it was Alexander Davison, his tried friend in afterlife, as
    Southey suggests, or another Quebecer of note, in 1782, Matthew
    Lymburner, as Lt.-Col. John Sewell, on the faith of Hon. William
    Smith, the Historian of Canada, had stated to us, is of minor
    importance: one thing is certain, some thoughtful friend, in 1782,
    seems to have extricated the impulsive Horatio from the 'tangles of
    Neaera's hair' in the port of Quebec: the hand of fate had marked the
    future Captain of the _Victory_, not as the Romeo of a Canadian
    Juliet, but as the paramour of Lady Emma Hamilton. Alas! for his fair
    fame! It seems certain that the Commander of the _Albemarle_,
    during his repeated visits to our port, in July, September and
    October, 1782, became acquainted, possibly at some entertainment at
    Freemason's Hall,--the 'Windsor' of the period--with 'sweet sixteen'
    (he himself was but twenty-four) in the person of Miss Mary Simpson,
    the blooming daughter of an old Highlandman, Sandy Simpson, a cousin
    to Mr. James Thompson, then overseer of works, and father of the late
    Judge John Gwalor Thompson, of Gaspé, and of late Com.-General James
    Thompson, of Quebec. Sandy Simpson was an _habitué_ of this historical
    and, for the period, vast old stone mansion where Captain Miles
    Prentice, [133] as he had been styled in 1775, hung out, with good
    cheer, the olive branch of Freemasonry and of loyalty to his
    Sovereign. The _bonne société_ of Quebec, in 1782, was limited
    indeed: and it was not probable the arrival from sea of one of H.M.'s
    ships of war, the _Albemarle_, could escape the notice of the leading
    men in Quebec.

    "If the _Quebec Gazette_ of 1782 and _Quebec Herald_, published in
    1789-90, contain no mention of this incident, several passages in the
    correspondence [134] exchanged by the Thompson family with the early
    love of Nelson, when she had become a stately London matron, as spouse
    of Colonel Matthews, Governor of the Chelsea Hospital, throw light on
    his previous career in Quebec.

    "The question as to whether Nelson's charmer was Miss Prentice or her
    cousin, Mary Simpson, which we submitted in the Tourists' Note Book in
    1876 (see pages 26 and 36), we had considered as settled, in 1878, in
    favour of Miss Simpson, as the following passage in the _Chronicles
    of the St. Lawrence_ shows:

    "Here anchored (Island of Orleans), it would seem, Nelson's sloop of
    war, the _Albemarle_, in 1782, when the love-sick Horatio returned to
    Quebec, for a last farewell from the blooming Miss Simpson, a daughter
    of Sandy Simpson, one of Wolfe's Provost Marshals. Miss Simpson
    afterwards married Colonel Matthews, Governor of the Chelsea
    Pensioners, and died speaking tenderly of her first love, the hero of
    Trafalgar.' (_Chronicles of the St. Lawrence_, p. 198.)

    "This _éclaircissement_, as to dates, is not out of place, inasmuch as
    one of our respected historians, Dr. Hy. Miles, in a scholarly
    article, published March, 1879, three years after our mentioning Miss
    Simpson, labours under the idea he was the first to give her name in
    connection with Lord Nelson. Several inaccuracies occur in his
    interesting essay. Miss Simpson is styled the daughter of 'James'
    Simpson, whereas she was the daughter of Saunders Simpson, a cousin of
    James Thompson, who had married a niece of Miles Prentice. In a foot
    note appended to his essay the Doctor states that 'just before the
    departure of our late popular Governor-General (Lord Dufferin), at a
    breakfast at the Citadel, where His Excellency entertained the
    Captains of the British war vessels _Bellerophon_ and _Sirius_ (he
    means the _Argus_ and the _Sirius_), then in port, at which we were
    present, the conversation having turned on former visits of commanders
    of ships-of-war, when, Nelson's name being brought up, the Earl
    remarked that Mr. LeMoine (then present) was able to afford some
    information about him.' 'Mr. LeMoine,' adds Dr. Miles, 'at His
    Excellency's request, related what he had previously written, much to
    the satisfaction of his hearers.' Mr. LeMoine's account of the affair,
    however, as it is based on the now exploded doctrine that the heroine
    was one of the nieces of Mrs. Miles Prentice, was not, as has been
    shown in the foregoing article, the correct one, however gratifying to
    the distinguished listeners to its recital on that occasion.'

    "As the correctness of the information we were asked to impart on this
    occasion is impugned by the learned historian, we will, we hope, be
    pardoned for setting this point at rest. Dr. Miles has committed some
    egregious, though no doubt unintentional, error. The publication in
    our _Tourist's Note Book_, in 1876, of the name of Miss Simpson,
    in connection with Captain Nelson, three years before the appearance
    of Dr. Miles' essay, which was published in March, 1879, and its
    repetition, as previously shown, in the _Chronicles of the St.
    Lawrence_, issued in the beginning of the year 1878, can leave no
    doubt as to our knowledge of this incident, and disposes of the
    Doctor's statement. The name furnished by us was that of Miss Simpson,
    and no other. The breakfast in question took place on the 18th
    October, 1878: there were present Lord Dufferin, Mrs. Russell
    Stephenson, Mrs. J. T. Harrower, Very Rev. Dean Stanley, the Commander
    of H.M.S. the _Sirius_, Capt. Sullivan, the Captain of H.M.S. the
    _Argus_, Capt. Hamilton, A.D.C., and the writer."

Several streets in the St. Louis, St. John and St. Roch suburbs bear the
names of eminent citizens who have, at different periods, made a free gift
of the sites, or who, by their public spirit, have left behind them a
cherished memory among the people, such as Berthelot, Massue, Boisseau,
D'Artigny, Grey, Stewart, Lee, Buteau, Hudon, Smith, Salaberry, Scott,
Tourangeau, Pozer [135], Panet, Bell, Robitaille, Ryland [136], St. Ours
[137], Dambourgès [138]. Laval, Panet, Plessis, Séguin, Turgeon streets
perpetuate the names of eminent Roman Catholic Bishops. Jerome street took
this name from one of the ablest preceptors of youth the Quebec Seminary
ever had--Messire Jerome Demers.

"Dorchester" Bridge was constructed in 1822, and took the place of the
former bridge (Vieux Pont), on the street to the west, built by Asa Porter
in 1789, and called after Lord Dorchester the saviour of Quebec. Saint
Joseph street, St. Roch, was named after the eminent Roman Catholic
prelate, Mgr. Joseph Octave Plessis, Bishop of Quebec, who, in 1811, built
the church of St. Roch's suburbs, on land donated by a Presbyterian
gentleman, John Mure, and dedicated it to St. Joseph, the patron saint of
Canada. At one period it had a width of only twenty-five feet, and was
widened to the extent of forty, through the liberality of certain persons.
From the circumstance, the corporation was induced to continue it beyond
the city limits up to the road which leads to Lorette, thereby rendering
it the most useful and one of the handsomest streets of St. Roch.

At what period did the most spacious highway of the ward ("Crown" street,
sixty feet in width), receive its baptismal name? Most assuredly it was
previous to 1837, the democratic era of Papineau. "King" street, no doubt,
recalls the reign of George III. So also does "Queen" street recall his
royal Consort. The locality seems eminently favourable to monarchical
belongings, to the House of Hanover in particular, judging from the names
of several of its highways: _Crown, King, Queen, Victoria, Albert, Prince
of Wales, Alfred, Arthur, Prince Edward,_ &c.

Towards the year 1815, the late Honorable John Richardson, of Montreal,
conferred his name on the street which intersects the grounds which Sir
James Craig had, on the 15th March, 1811, conceded to him as Curator to
the vacant estate of the late Hon. William Grant, [139] whose name is
likewise bequeathed to a street adjacent, Grant street, while his lady, La
Baronne de Longueuil, is remembered in the adjoining thoroughfare which
intersects it. A Mr. Henderson, [140] about the commencement of the
present century, possessed grounds in the vicinity of the present Gas
Works, hence we have "Henderson" street. The Gas Company's wharf is built
on the site of the old jetty of which we have seen mention made, about
1720. This long pier was composed of large boulders heaped one upon the
other, and served the purpose of sheltering the landing place at the
Palais harbour from the north-east winds. In 1750, Colonel Bouchette says,
it served as a public promenade, and was covered by a public platform.

Ramsay street, parallel with Henderson street, leads from St. Paul street
to Orleans Place, _Place d'Orléans_, recalling the Bourbon era, prior
to 1759, and also the last French Commander of Quebec, Jean Bte. Nicholas
Roche deRamezay. The historic Château deRamezay, on Notre Dame street,
Montreal, now threatened with destruction, attests the sojourn in New
France of a scion of the proud old Scotch house of Ramsay.--(_Montreal
Gazette, 3rd Feb._, 1881.)


THE HARBOUR DOCKS

One of the most active promoters of this hopeful scheme, in recent times,
was the Hon. Mr. Justice C. J. Tessier, when a member of the Corporation
about 1850. A plan of the Harbour Works which he suggested was submitted
to the Council. Nothing, however, was then done. The Legislature
eventually assigned the work to the Harbour Commission Trust. The dredging
commenced on May 2nd, 1877.

    "The progress made with our Harbour Improvements, year by year, forms
    part of the history of our times, so far, at least, as the annals of
    this most ancient city of Quebec are concerned. The first stone of the
    Graving Dock at Levis was laid on Monday, the 7th June, 1880, by His
    Excellency the Governor-General, and the tablet stone, with the name
    of "Louise" graven on it, on Thursday, the 29th of July. Thenceforth
    the Harbour Works in the River St. Charles became "The Princess Louise
    Embankment and Docks," and the work in progress on the Levis or south
    side of the St. Lawrence "The Lorne Graving Dock," thus naming the
    entrance approaches to our cliff-bound city after our present popular
    Vice-Regal rulers."

To the address presented to His Excellency the Governor-General on this
occasion, the following reply was made:--

    MR. PRESIDENT AND GENTLEMEN OF THE BOARD OF THE QUEBEC HARBOUR
    COMMISSIONERS,--It is with a full sympathy for you in the hopes which
    have guided you to the construction of this great work that the
    Princess comes to-day to lay this stone, commemorating an important
    stage in the completion of your labours. She desires that her name,
    graven on this wall, shall serve to remind your citizens, as well as
    all who profit by the excellence of the accommodation here given to
    vessels of great burden, of her interest in your fortunes, and of her
    association with you in the speeding of an undertaking designed to
    benefit at once a great port of the new world and many of the
    communities of Europe.

    Access to Quebec is easy now to the largest ocean-going vessels. Tour
    city has the railways far advanced, which will pierce to the heart of
    the granary of the world--the great wheat centres of the Canadian
    North-West. The very might and grandeur of the stream on which Quebec
    is built is in her favour as compared with other centres of commerce,
    for her visitors have but little tax to pay when a favouring wind
    fails them, while steam must be employed against the strong currents
    of the upper river.

    The gigantic quays and the feeding lines of rail stretching inwards
    unbroken to the prairies must, in all human probability, in the
    future, ensure to the ancient capital a place among the most
    flourishing cities of the continent. Even without the aid which
    science is now bringing to her support look at the strides which have
    been made in her prosperity within the last century. Old pictures will
    show you the hillside above us bare of all but the houses necessary
    for the garrison of a fortress, whose hard fate it had been to be the
    place of contention of rival armies, while beneath the ramparts or
    within their walls were to be seen only a few of the buildings now
    devoted in far greater numbers to the purposes of religion and of
    charity. The banks of the St. Charles possessed then only a few store-
    houses such as would not now be thought sufficient for one of our
    fifth-rate towns. Now the whole of the slope is covered by the homes
    of a thriving, increasing and industrious population, while, over the
    extending limits under the rule of the municipality, learning looks
    down from the stately walls of Laval, and the members elected by your
    free and noble province will pass the laws, whose validity is
    guaranteed by our federal constitution, in a palace reminding one of
    the stately fabric which holds the art treasures of France. None can
    observe the contrast without seeing that your progress, although it
    has partaken of no magic or mushroom-like growth, has been most marked
    and promising.

    If commerce seeks for her abode the head of navigation, there are many
    instances to show that she loves also to keep her ships to their
    native tides. An instance well known to us may be cited in the case of
    Glasgow and of Greenock, cities which have risen to their present
    prosperity so quickly that they rival in that respect many in America
    and in Canada. Greenock has not been killed by the enormous rise in
    the importance of the commercial capital of Scotland. Assuredly we may
    believe that Quebec, with a far greater country at its back, may be
    enabled, with the aid of proper communications, to pour forth every
    summer from her lap much of our wealth, of which Europe is so eager to
    partake.

    These are the aspirations we share with you, and we wish to give
    effect to them by drawing the attention of those beyond the seas to
    the practical invitation you extend to them by the facilities afforded
    by your docks and wharves, and we now join with you in the trust that
    ample repayment will be yours for the energy and engineering skill you
    have lavished on the public works, which are comparable to any
    designed for a similar purpose.
                                                         LORNE.

    The drapery by which it had been concealed having been removed, the
    tablet stone was discovered suspended over the place it was intended
    to occupy in the wall. The attendant masons having performed their
    part, a silver trowel was handed to the Princess. This was a handsome
    piece of workmanship, beautifully chased and set in a rosewood handle,
    and bore the following inscription:--"To H.R.H. Princess Louise, this
    trowel was presented by the contractors of the Quebec Harbour Works,
    on the occasion of her laying the tablet stone of the Princess Louise
    Embankment and Docks, River St. Charles, Quebec July 29, 1880." Her
    Royal Highness, with this splendid implement, dug right lustily into
    the cement, and having prepared the bed, drew back to allow the
    ponderous stone to be lowered thereinto. This done, a beautiful mallet
    of polished oak having been presented, the mass received two or three
    blows, and was then declared to be well and truly laid. The Vice-Regal
    party almost immediately afterwards regained the _Druid_, which
    swiftly conveyed the members thereof to _terra firma_, the police
    yacht _Dolphin_ being in attendance. Of the other steamers, the
    _Clyde_ and _North_, after a short sail round the harbour, landed
    their passengers at the Grand Trunk Railway wharf; the _Brothers_ went
    down to St. Joseph, and gave to those on board an opportunity of
    noticing the progress made upon the new Graving Dock there. The troops
    and privileged guests having been conveyed to and from the scene by
    the Montreal Harbour Commissioners' boat _John Young_.


_HARBOUR AND DOCK WORKS._

Before describing these vast and important structures, calculated to
afford such boundless facilities to ocean shipping frequenting our port,
it may not be without interest to note the efforts made at various times
for their construction. In his excellent work, "_British Dominions in
North America_," Vol. 1., p. 263-264, Col. Bouchette thus deals with
the subject in 1832--the far-seeing but misunderstood Mr. James George,
however, as early as 1822, had conceived in his teeming brain the whole
scheme.

"The construction of a pier across the estuary of the St. Charles is a
measure of the greatest practicability, and of pronounced importance in
every aspect, and a subject that was brought under the notice of the
Legislature in 1829, when it received the most serious consideration of
the committee, and was very favourably reported upon; but no bill has yet
(1832) been introduced tending to encourage so momentous an undertaking.
The most judicious position contemplated for the erection of such a pier
is decidedly between the New Exchange and the Beauport Distillery and
Mills, [141] a direct distance of 4,300 yards, which, with the exception
merely of the channels of the St. Charles (that are neither very broad nor
deep nor numerous), is dry at low water, and affords every advantage
calculated to facilitate the construction of a work of that nature. It
appears that, anterior to the conquest, the French Government had
entertained some views in relation to so great an amelioration; but the
subject seems to have never been properly taken up until 1822, when the
project was submitted to the Governor-in-Chief of the Province by James
George, Esq., a Quebec merchant, conspicuous for his zeal and activity, as
well in promoting this particular object as in forwarding the views of the
St. Lawrence Company, an association formed avowedly for the improvement
of the navigation of the St. Lawrence.

Of the benefits to be derived from thus docking the St. Charles no one can
doubt, whether the undertaking be considered in a local, municipal or
commercial point of view. As a means of extending the boundaries of the
Lower Town, and bringing under more immediate improvement the extensive
branches of the St. Charles, it is of the greatest consequence.

Commercially considered, this pier (which would at first form a _tide-
dock_, that might eventually be converted into a _wet-dock_) would
be of incalculable advantage from the great facilities it would offer to
the general trade of the place, and especially the timber trade, which has
frequently involved its members in much perplexity, owing to the
deficiency that exists of some secure dock or other similar reservoir
where that staple article of the colony might be safely kept, and where
ships might take in their cargoes without being exposed to the numerous
difficulties and momentous losses often sustained in loading at moorings
in the coves or in harbour. By building the outward face of the pier in
deep water, or projecting wharves from it, an important advantage would
also be gained, affording increased conveniences in the unloading and
loading of vessels. In fact, it would be impossible, in summarily noticing
the beneficial tendency of this great work, to particularize its manifold
advantages; they are too weighty to be overlooked, either by the
Legislature or the community at large, and will doubtless dictate the
expediency of bringing them into effectual operation. The different modes
suggested of raising the capital required for the undertaking are: 1st.
From the Provincial revenue by the annual rate of a loan; 2nd. By an Act
vesting it in the City of Quebec, by way of loan to the city, to be
refunded by the receipts of rents and dock dues arising from the work;
3rd. By an Act of Incorporation, the Province taking a share in the stock,
and appointing commissioners; 4th. By an Act of Incorporation only."

The Wet-Dock quay wall was to have been completed by the 1st of October,
1880, but delays have taken place, and the much-desired Tide Harbor of 20
acres, entering from the St. Lawrence, with a depth of 24 feet at low
water, together with a Dock of 40 acres, having a permanent depth of 27
feet, will require another year before it is finally completed.


_GRAVING DOCK, LEVIS._

An important portion of our Harbour improvements are located on the
opposite shore of the St. Lawrence at Levis, and the sums voted by the
Parliament of Canada (38 Vic., chap. 56), or granted by the Imperial
Government to construct a graving dock in the Harbour of Quebec, were used
in this structure, located by Order-in-Council, dated May, 1877, at St.
Joseph de Lévis.

    "The dimensions of the dock are:
    Length............................. 500   feet
    Extreme width...................... 100    "
    Depth.............................. 25.5   "
    Width of entrance.................. 62     "

    "The designs and specifications were prepared by Messrs. Kinnipple &
    Morris, Engineers, Westminster and Greenock.

    "The Graving Dock of St. Joseph de Lévis, Parish of Lauzon, Quebec,
    was commenced by the Quebec Harbour Commissioners, under the Resident
    Engineer, Woodford Pilkington, M.I., C.E. in November, 1877, and was
    carried on previous to tenders being invited for the present contract,
    to the month of March, 1878, during which time the sum of $6,298.20
    was expended in excavation on the site of the Dock, which work was
    afterwards taken over by Messrs. Larkin, Connolly & Co., as an
    executed part of their contract, signed August 17th, 1878, and the
    above sum deducted from the contract amount of their tender for the
    excavations given in the bills of quantities under this head; the
    Harbour Commissioners being afterwards re-credited with this amount of
    expenditure under the first certificate.

    The work of excavating for and building this Graving Dock was taken in
    hand under contract with the Quebec Harbour Commissioners, by Messrs.
    Larkin, Connolly & Co., on the 17th August, 1878, for the lump sum of
    $330,953.89. The works to be delivered over to the Quebec Harbour
    Commissioners, finished complete, on the 1st day of June, 1882. [142]


_THE GATES OF QUEBEC._

It seems superfluous to furnish a detailed description of the
fortifications and citadel of Quebec. After the lengthy account given in
"Quebec, Past and Present," pages 348-60, the following sketch, which we
borrow, written previous to the erection of the new St. Louis and Kent
Gates, [143] corrected to date, throws additional light on this part of
the subject.

    "Of all the historic monuments connecting modern Quebec with its
    eventful and heroic past, none have deservedly held a higher place in
    the estimation of the antiquarian, the scholar and the curious
    stranger than the former gates of the renowned fortress. These relics
    of a by-gone age, with their massive proportions and grim, medieval
    architecture, no longer exist, however, to carry the mind back to the
    days which invest the oldest city in North America with its peculiar
    interest and attraction. Nothing now remains to show where they once
    raised their formidable barriers to the foe or opened their hospitable
    portals to friends, but graceful substitutes of modern construction or
    yawning apertures in the line of circumvallation, where until 1871
    stood Prescott and Hope Gates which represented the later defences of
    the place erected under British rule. Of the three gates--St. Louis,
    St. John and Palace--which originally pierced the fortifications of
    Quebec under French dominion, the last vestige disappeared many years
    ago. The structures with which they were replaced, together with the
    two additional and similarly guarded openings--Hope and Prescott
    gates--provided for the public convenience or military requirements by
    the British Government since the Conquest, have experienced the same
    fate within the last decade to gratify what are known as modern ideas
    of progress and improvement--vandalism would, perhaps, be the better
    term. No desecrating hand, however, can rob those hallowed links, in
    the chain of recollection, of the glorious memories which cluster
    around them so thickly. Time and obliteration itself have wrought no
    diminution of regard for their cherished associations.

    To each one of them an undying history attaches, and even their vacant
    sites appeal with mute, but surpassing eloquence to the sympathy, the
    interest and the veneration of visitors, to whom Quebec will be ever
    dear, not for what it is, but for what it has been. To the quick
    comprehension of Lord Dufferin, it remained to note the inestimable
    value of such heirlooms to the world at large. To his happy tact we
    owe the revival of even a local concern for their preservation; and to
    his fertile mind and aesthetic taste, we are indebted for the
    conception of the noble scheme of restoration, embellishment and
    addition in harmony with local requirements and modern notions of
    progress, which is now being realized to keep their memories intact
    for succeeding generations and retain for the cradle of New France its
    unique reputation as the famous walled city of the New World. It has
    more than once been remarked by tourists that, in their peculiar
    fondness for a religious nomenclature, the early French settlers of
    Quebec must have exhausted the saintly calendar in adapting names to
    their public highways, places and institutions. To this pardonable
    trait in their character, we must unquestionably ascribe the names
    given to two of the three original gates in their primitive lines of
    defence--St. Louis and St. John's gates--names which they were allowed
    to retain when the Gallic lilies drooped before the victorious flag of
    Britain. The erection of the original St. Louis gate undoubtedly dates
    back as far as 1694. Authentic records prove this fact beyond
    question; but it is not quite so clear what part this gate played in
    subsequent history down to the time of the conquest, thought it may be
    fairly presumed that it rendered important services in connection
    especially with the many harassing attacks of the Iroquois tribes in
    the constant wars which were waged in the early days of the infant
    colony with those formidable and savage foes of the French. One thing
    is certain, however, that it was one of the gates by which a portion
    of Montcalm's army, after its defeat on the Plains of Abraham, passed
    into the city on its way back, _via_ Palace gate and the bridge
    of boats over the St. Charles, to the Beauport camp. In 1791, after
    Quebec had fallen into British hands, St. Louis gate was reported to
    be in a ruinous condition, and it became necessary to raze it to the
    ground and rebuild it. Between this date and 1823, it appears to have
    undergone several changes; but, in the latter year, as part of the
    plan of defence, including the Citadel, adopted by the Duke of
    Wellington, and carried out at an enormous cost by England, it was
    replaced by another structure, retaining the same name. About this
    time seem to have been also constructed the singularly tortuous
    outward approaches to this opening in the western wall of the city,
    which were eventually so inconvenient to traffic in peaceful days, of
    whatever value they might have been from a military stand-point in
    trying hours half-a-century ago. These were also removed with the gate
    itself in 1871. On the vacant site of the latter, in accordance with
    Lord Dufferin's improvment project, a magnificent memorial gate, which
    the citizens had unanimously agreed to call "The Dufferin gate," is
    now (1880) erected.

    The intention of naming it "The Dufferin gate," however, was
    abandoned. H.R.H. the Princess Louise, in deference to its traditions
    and with a graceful appreciation of the feelings of the French element
    of the population, having recently expressed the desire that it should
    be allowed to retain its original appellation.

    Before their departure from Canada, Lord and Lady Dufferin had the
    pleasure of assisting at the ceremony of laying the corner stone of
    this new gate, as well as of the new terrace, which bears their name,
    and of fairly starting those important works on the high road to
    realization.

    As an interesting link between the present and the past, St. John's
    gate holds an equally prominent rank and claims an equal antiquity
    with St. Louis gate. Its erection as one of the original gates of the
    French fortress dates from the same year and its history is very much
    the same. Through it another portion of Montcalm's defeated forces
    found their way behind the shelter of the defences after the fatal day
    of the Plains of Abraham. Like St. Louis gate, too, it was pulled down
    on account of its ruinous condition in 1791 and subsequently rebuilt
    by the British Government in the form in which it endured until 1865,
    when it was demolished and replaced, at an expense of some $40,000 to
    the city, by its present more ornate and convenient substitute, to
    meet the increased requirements of traffic over the great artery of
    the upper levels--St. John street. St. John's gate was one of the
    objective points included in the American plan of assault upon Quebec
    on the memorable 31st December, 1775; Col. Livingston, with a regiment
    of insurgent Canadians, and Major Brown, with part of a regiment from
    Boston, having been detailed to make a false attack upon the walls to
    the south of it and to set fire to the gate itself with combustibles
    prepared for that purpose--a scheme in which the assailants were
    foiled by the depth of snow and other obstacles. This gate, being of
    quite recent construction and of massive, as well as passably
    handsome, appearance, is not included in the general scheme of
    improvement. The erection of a life-size statue of Samuel Champlain,
    the founder of Quebec, upon its summit, is, however, talked of.

    Palace or the Palais gate is the third and last of the old French
    portals of the city, and derives its title from the fact that the
    highway which passed through it led to the palace or residence of the
    Intendants of New France, which has also given its name to the present
    quarter of the city lying beneath the cliff on the northern face of
    the fortress, where its crumbling ruins are still visible in the
    immediate neighborhood of the passenger terminus of the North Shore
    Railway. Erected under French rule, during which it is believed to
    have been the most fashionable and the most used, it bade a final
    farewell to the last of its gallant, but unfortunate French defenders,
    and to that imperial power which, for more than one hundred and fifty
    years, had swayed the colonial destinies of the Canadas and contested
    inch by inch with England, the supremacy of the New World, when a
    portion of Montcalm's defeated troops passed out beneath its darkening
    shadows on the fatal 13th September, 1759. After the capitulation of
    Quebec, General Murray devoted himself at once to the work of
    strengthening the defences of the city, and the attention in this
    respect paid to Palace gate appears to have stood him in good stead
    during the following year's campaign, when the British invaders,
    defeated in the battle of St. Foye, were compelled to take shelter
    behind the walls of the town and sustain a short siege at the Hands of
    the victorious French under deLévis. In 1791, the old French
    structure, now a decayed ruin, was razed by the English, but, in the
    meanwhile, during 1775, it had gallantly withstood the assaults and
    siege of the American invaders under Montgomery and Benedict Arnold.
    The somewhat ornate substitute, by which it was replaced is said to
    have resembled one of the gates of Pompeii, and seems to have been
    erected as late as the year 1830 or 1831, as, in the course of its
    demolition, in 1874, an inscription was laid bare, attesting the fact
    that at least the timbers and planking had been put up by local
    workmen in 1831. It is not intended to rebuild this gate under the
    Dufferin plan, on account of the great volume of traffic, more
    especially since the completion of the North Shore Railway, to whose
    terminus the roadway which leads over its site is the most direct
    route. To mark that memorable spot, however, it is intended to flank
    it on either side with picturesque Norman turrets rising above the
    line of the fortification wall.

    Hope Gate, also on the northern face of the ramparts, was the first of
    the two purely British gates of Quebec, and was erected in 1786 by
    Colonel Henry Hope, Commandant of the Forces and Administrator of the
    Province, from whom it takes its name. It was demolished in 1874 for
    no especial reason, this gate being no obstacle whatever to the
    growing requirements of traffic, as will be readily understood from
    its situation. Like Palace Gate, too, it is not to be rebuilt--its
    approaches being easily commanded and its position on the rugged,
    lofty cliff being naturally very strong.

    Its site, however, will be marked in the carrying out of the Dufferin
    Improvements by flanking Norman turrets.

    The last of the city gates proper, wholly of British origin, but the
    first that grimly confronted in by-gone days the visitor approaching
    the city from the water-side and entering the fortress, is, or rather
    was, Prescott Gate, which commanded the steep approach known as
    Mountain Hill. This gate, which was more commonly known as the Lower
    Town gate, because it led to that part--the oldest--of the city known
    by that name, was erected in 1797, (to replace a rough structure of
    pickets which existed at this point from the time of the siege by the
    Americans in 1775) by General Robert Prescott, who served in America
    during the revolutionary war, and, after further service in the West
    Indies, succeeded Lord Dorchester as the British Governor-General in
    Lower Canada in 1796, dying in 1815, at the age of 89 years, and
    giving his name to this memento of his administration, as well as to
    Prescott, Ontario. Old Prescott Gate was unquestionably a great public
    nuisance in times of peace, its demolition, in 1871, consequently
    provoked the least regret of all in connection with the obliteration
    of those curious relics of Quebec's historic past. For reasons, which
    are obvious, it would be impossible to replace Prescott Gate with any
    structure of a like character, without impeding seriously the flow of
    traffic by way of such a leading artery as Mountain Hill. It will,
    however, be replaced by a light and handsome iron bridge of a single
    span over the roadway with flanking Norman turrets.


    _KENT GATE._

    For the information of our visitors and strangers generally, we may
    explain that, a few years since, the western fortification wall
    between St. John's gate and the military exercising ground in past
    years, known as the Esplanade, was cut through to form a roadway
    communicating between the higher levels of the Upper Town and the St.
    Louis suburbs, now styled Montcalm Ward.

    It consequently became necessary, in keeping with the aesthetic spirit
    of the whole Dufferin scheme, to fill up in some way this unsightly
    gap without interfering with the traffic. It was finally decided to
    erect here one of the proposed memorial gates, which is altogether
    therefore an addition to the number of the existing gates or their
    intended substitutes. This edifice, has been designed to do homage to
    the memory of Edward, Duke of Kent, the father of Queen Victoria. This
    gate will be the most imposing of all in the entire circuit of the
    fortifications, while it has had the signal honour of further being
    reserved for a handsome subscription towards its cost from Her
    Majesty's privy purse and dedication at the hands of H. R. H. the
    Princess, who laid its corner stone with appropriate ceremonial during
    the month of June, 1879.


    _THE CITADEL GATES._

    Besides the foregoing, however, the fortress possesses in reality two
    other gates of much interest to the stranger. When the famous Citadel,
    commanding the entire harbour and surrounding country, was constructed
    on Cape Diamond, the number of existing gates was increased from five
    to seven by the erection of the Chain and Dalhousie, or Citadel gates,
    leading to that great fortalice of British power, which may be aptly
    styled the _summum opus_ of the magnificent but costly system of
    strategic works that has earned for Quebec its title of the Gibraltar
    of America. But, as these belong to the Citadel, which is an
    independent stronghold of itself, rather than to the defensive works
    of the city proper, it suffices to mention that they were erected
    under the administration of the Earl of Dalhousie, in 1827, and that
    they are well worthy of a visit of inspection--the one being a
    handsome and formidable barrier of its class and the other of very
    massive construction and considerable depth.

    The proposed Château St. Louis or Castle of St. Louis, must be
    regarded as the crowning feature of the Dufferin scheme of
    embellishment and was designed by the late Governor General to serve
    as a vice-regal residence during the sojourn of the representative of
    the Crown in Quebec, as well as to revive the historic splendors of
    the ancient pile of that name, which formed the abode of the early
    Governors of New France. Of course, this noble structure only exists
    as yet on paper; but, should it ever be erected, it will be a striking
    object from any point whence the Citadel is visible as it will rise to
    a considerable height above its highest battlements, standing out in
    bold relief to the east of the building known as the Officers'
    Quarters, with a frontage of 200 feet, and an elevation partly of 60
    and partly of 100 feet, with a basement, two main stories, and mansard
    roof and two towers of different heights, but of equally charming
    design--the style of architecture of the whole being an agreeable
    _mélange_ of the picturesque Norman and Elizabethan.


    _THELLER AND DODGE'S ESCAPE FROM THE CITADEL._

    The Citadel has been described in detail elsewhere; [144] it is,
    therefore, unnecessary to allude to it further than recording here a
    startling episode in which it played a conspicuous part in those days
    of foes and alarm, during the Insurrection of 1838:--

        "After the affair of St. Denis," says Roger, [145] "the murder of
        Lieutenant Weir, the matter of St. Charles, the storm and capture
        of the Church of St. Eustache, and the battle of Toronto, there
        were filibustering attempts to invade Canada, neither recognized
        by the Government of the United States nor by the bulk of the
        people, but indulged in by a party, sentimental with regard to
        liberty, and by others to whom plunder and excitement were
        congenial. In one of these filibustering expeditions, 'General'
        Sutherland, 'Brigadier General' Theller, Colonel Dodge, Messrs.
        Brophy, Thayer and other residents, if not citizens, of the United
        States, sailed from Detroit in the schooner _Anne_ for Bois
        Blanc, which having been seized, an attack was made on Fort Maiden
        on the 8th of January, 1838, terminating in the capture of
        Theller, Dodge, Brophy and some others; General Sutherland having
        been afterwards captured on the ice, at the mouth of the River
        Detroit, by Colonel John Prince, of the Canadian Militia. The
        prisoners, after having been for a time in gaol at Toronto, were
        transferred, some to Fort Henry, at Kingston, and others, among
        whom were Sutherland, Theller and Dodge, to the Citadel of Quebec,
        which was then occupied by a battalion of the Guards, and there
        imprisoned, but treated with consideration and courtesy. It was
        not, however, unnatural that they should endeavor to escape. They
        were taken out of their prison-house daily for an airing, in
        charge of a guard, and, as it would appear, were not altogether
        denied the opportunity of conversing with persons who were
        friendly to them. Theller, in an account of the Rebellion in
        Canada, edited, it is said, by General Roberts, of Detroit,
        himself minutely details the nature and manner of his intercourse
        with a Mr. P. S. Grace, while under the charge of the military in
        Cape Diamond; how he succeeded in bribing soldiers' wives, and in
        cultivating the friendship of officers, non-commissioned officers
        and men of the Guards, much of which is exaggerated, and some of
        which is untrue. Some of the sergeants, for small presents,
        Theller asserts, did whatever he required in the way of bringing
        books and newspapers from town and articles of food and drink from
        the canteen, which is undoubtedly true, but no man in the
        regiment, either directly or indirectly, connived at the escape.
        It was the result of clever management on the part of Theller,
        Dodge and his companions, and of unsuspecting stupidity on the
        part of the sentry who guarded the door of the prison, and,
        indeed, of all who seemed to have had intercourse with the
        prisoners. The escape was thus effected:--On a dark, rainy night,
        late in October, 1838, an iron bar having been previously cut
        through with a file given them from without, the sawing having
        been effected during performances on the shrill fife of one of the
        fifers of the garrison, which a prisoner had borrowed for the
        purpose of passing away the time and keeping up the spirits of his
        companions in misfortune, some of whom were despondent, Theller's
        conversation seduced a sentry into conversation, next to smoke a
        pipe, then to drink a tumbler of London porter, drugged with
        rathermore than 'three times sixty drops' of laudanum. The sentry
        struggled hard to prevent the drowsiness that was stealing over
        him; he spoke thick, and muttered that he had never before drank
        anything so good or so strong. He walked about in the rain to keep
        himself awake, and staggered a little. * * * It resulted in the
        escape of Dodge, Thayer, Theller and Partridge, who, after several
        hair-breadth escapes and hazardous incidents, found themselves
        outside of their old quarters." "The escaping party," adds Roger,
        "moved cautiously forward, at respectable distances from each
        other, along the canteen, and then got out into the middle of the
        great square to elude the sentry at the magazine. While there a
        sergeant came rushing from the guard-room towards the officers'
        quarters, the red, or as they appeared dark, stripes being visible
        on a white undress jacket. It seemed to be an alarm. There were
        only three sentinels between the escaping party and the flagstaff,
        where the descent was intended. Abreast was one whose duty was to
        guard the back part of the magazine and a pile of firewood which
        was there corded up, and also to prevent soldiers from going to
        the canteen. Another stood opposite the door of the officers'
        mess-room. There was room enough in the darkness to pass these
        sentinels, and Theller and his companions no longer crawled, but
        walked upright, one by one, quietly, but passing along as quickly
        as possible. Parker, however, after the sergeant passed, became
        much excited and terrified, and lost his way. He made some noise,
        and a sentry challenged, but without answering, the rest hurried
        towards the half-moon battery where the flagstaff is. Passing
        round the old telegraph post on one side, near the stabling
        attached to the officers' quarters, a sentinel there with side-
        arms only, or, as he is technically termed 'a flying Dick,'
        challenged, and Theller asserts he promptly answered, 'Officer of
        the guard,' when the countersign being demanded, he muttered,
        'teen,' having learned during the confinement that the countersign
        of the Guards ordinarily ended so--seventeen, eighteen, nineteen,
        or such like--and the sentry, fancying from the cap with a gold
        lace band on it, which, having undone his cloak, Theller placed
        upon his head, that he was one of the officers, suffered him to
        pass. Parker had got among the firewood, and was making a noise.
        Dodge was running about on the top of the wall, making signals for
        Grace and other friends who were to be outside, but could see no
        one there. The haulyards of the flagstaff were then partially cut
        down with a penknife. An alarm was now given by an officer of the
        garrison who accidentally came upon Culver, one of the escaping
        party, and in a moment the drums beat and the guard turned out.
        The officers rushed out of the mess-room. An artilleryman detected
        Parker, and the cry arose that the American prisoners were loose
        and escaping. Some immediately ran towards the prison, whilst
        others dragged Parker to the guard-room, and yet others began to
        search about for the 'General,' Colonel Dodge, Culver and Hall,
        whom Parker intimated, in reply to a question put to him by an
        officer, had not come out. There was no alternative but to jump
        from the wall to the flat part of the precipice below, on which
        the wall is built, what Theller first did. For an instant he hung
        by his hands, then dropped, and alighted on his feet on the solid
        rock, falling back on his head. He was stunned, and lay a minute
        or two unconscious. When he came to himself, he heard Dodge
        inquiring if he was hurt, and replied in the negative, telling him
        to throw down the bundle of cloaks and leap upon them. Theller had
        broken the outer bone of his leg and dislocated his right ankle
        joint, but had been so stunned that he scarcely felt any pain.
        Culver descended next, and was stunned, the blood gushing from his
        nose and mouth; he had, it is said, also fractured his leg. Culver
        was more fortunate, as he alighted on a pile of cloaks, and was
        little, if at all, hurt. Dodge then, throwing down the piece of
        rope which he had cut from the haulyards to be used in the next
        descent, also slipped down the wall upon the pile of cloaks, and
        was unhurt. The second descent was made with the aid of the rope,
        the end of which was held by two of the party, while Theller with
        his wounded leg slipped down over a piece of cedar post which had
        been accidentally placed against the wall of the ditch. Culver
        followed, then Hall held the rope alone for Dodge, and afterwards
        descended himself as all had done on the first leap, caught as he
        came to the ground, however, by the rest of the party. Dodge, in
        saving Hall from falling after or as he leaped, sprained his
        wrist. The whole party, however, managed to crawl up the outer
        wall of the ditch, which was faced with dry stone, by inserting
        their hands in the interstices and using their feet as well as
        they could. They rested on the summit of the glacis for a moment,
        and saw the search that was being made for them inside by lights
        that were flashing about into every nook and cranny."

    It would take us too far to describe the subsequent incidents of this
    clever plan of escape. The patriots of St. Roch, Dr. Rousseau, Grace,
    Hunter and others, provided means of escape for the "sympathisers"
    which baffled all the ingenuity of the Commandant of the Quebec
    garrison, an old Waterloo hero, Sir James Macdonald, who certainly
    spared neither time, men nor trouble to recover the Citadel prisoners,
    but in vain.

    We must find room here for another singular incident in connection
    with the Citadel and the Insurrection of 1837-8:--

        _"THE MEN OF '37."_

        _THE SECRET SOCIETY OF THE "CHASSEURS"--RECOLLECTIONS OF A
        VETERAN--PROPOSED CAPTURE OF QUEBEC._

        "A representative of the Montreal _Witness_, in a conversation
        with Mr. Rouillard, Inspector of Buildings, ascertained that he
        had taken a somewhat prominent part in the stirring scenes of the
        Rebellion of 1837. The old gentleman's eyes lit up with the fire
        of youthful enthusiasm when recounting the deeds of the "Sons of
        Liberty," and the secret society of the "Chasseurs."

        "I was vigorous and strong in those days, and from my mother
        inherited an ardent love for the country in which I was born.  Her
        letters in those days so magnetized me with patriotism that I
        could willingly lay down my life for the cause. I can only,
        however, give you a mere sketch to-day of some of the incidents
        and adventures through which I passed. The 'Sons of Liberty,' in
        Quebec and Montreal, numbered over 20,000 men, but within this
        body there was a secret society called 'Les Chasseurs,' all picked
        and trustworthy men. They formed a secret society and had their
        signs and passwords. It is singular that, though many of those men
        were placed in perilous positions when the revelations of our
        secrets would have saved them, not one traitor was found to betray
        the cause, and even to this day the secrets of the fraternity are
        unknown. Not very long ago I had occasion to go to Quebec, and was
        introduced to one of the Provincial ministers. I gave the sign of
        the 'Chasseurs' of forty-three years ago. He looked up surprised
        and returned the countersign. We had not met since the memorable
        _émeute_ in the stable yard on St. James street.

        We used to meet for drill and pistol practice in the upper story
        of the house still standing on the corner of Dorchester and
        Sanguinet streets.

        There I remember one of our leaders harangued us. He is still
        alive, and Montreal's citizens know him well. He urged us to be
        brave and show no mercy in sweeping every obstacle from oar path,
        and when we gained our liberty we would have 'ample time for--
        tears, repentance and regret.' There used to be a loyal
        association called 'The Doric Club,' which met on Great St. James
        street near our rendezvous. Our men and the members of this club
        used to have many _rencontres_, until it culminated in a challenge
        from the 'Chasseurs' who sent a _cartel_ to the sixty members of
        the Doric Club, offering to meet them with thirty of their picked
        men. The President of the Doric Club sent back a cold formal reply
        to the effect that they wished to have nothing to do with traitors
        and rebels.

        "Our secret society had formed the daring design of seizing the
        citadel of Quebec on the same plan as Wolfe's Highlanders. We had
        our rendezvous within a short march of Quebec and on the eventful
        night numbered about 1,500 men, two hundred of whom had come from
        Montreal and the rest from St. Jerome, Three Rivers and other
        places. Each man was armed with a pair of pistols and a bowie-
        knife, and carried on his shoulders a bundle of straw.

        They had thirty ladders which were to be used in scaling the
        narrow glacis which led to the citadel. The object was to make a
        regular roadway of these ladders, almost like a trellis work
        bridge, up which the patriots might easily pass. The night was
        dark and stormy. We had been waiting in the cold in our white
        blanket coats and white tuques, to assimilate to the color of the
        snow, when the order arrived to prepare to march. The second
        signal came at half-past eleven, and everything was in readiness
        for the attack. At a quarter to twelve the chief came in as pale
        as death and gave the order to disband, as the storm had suddenly
        ceased and the moon shone bright and clear, much to the
        discomfiture of the patriots, who looked forward to an easy
        victory. That chief, who still lives, said it was providential
        that the storm had cleared off before the attack had been made,
        for if it had continued and only cleared when the patriots were
        placing their scaling ladders in the glacis, not a man would have
        survived, as the British troops could have trained several guns on
        this particular spot and swept every living thing into
        destruction."

        Mr. Rouillard said the Roman Catholic clergy were much opposed to
        their society, because it was secret, and had done all in their
        power to break it up, and England is indebted for her supremacy in
        North America to-day to the exertions and assistance given her in
        that troublous period by the Roman Catholic clergy." (_Montreal
        Witness, 29th November_ 1880.)



CHAPTER IV

_SUBURBS OF QUEBEC._


_ST. LOUIS ROAD--CAP ROUGE--STE. FOYE ROAD--THE ROUND DRIVE._

On emerging from St. Louis Gate, several handsome terraces and cut stone
dwellings are noticeable. We may mention Hon. Frs. Langelier's, Mr.
Shehyn's, and the Hamel Terrace--quite a credit to the new town. The new
town outside of the walls, like that of New Edinburgh, in beauty and
design will very soon cast the historical old town within the walls in the
shade. The next object which attracts the eye is the spacious structure of
the Skating Rink, the only charge we can make against it, is that it is
too close to St. Louis Gate. 'Tis the right thing in the wrong place.
Adjoining stood the old home of the Prentices, in 1791,--Bandon Lodge,
[146] once the abode of Sandy Simpson, [147] whose cat-o'nine-tails must
have left lively memories in Wolfe's army. Did the beauteous damsel about
whom Horatio, Lord Nelson, raved in 1782, when, as Commander of H. M.'s
frigate _Albemarle_, he was philandering in Quebec, ever live here? [148]
This is more than I can say. On the north side of the _Grande Allée_, the
lofty structure--the new Parliament Buildings--occupies a whole square.


    THE PARLIAMENTARY AND DEPARTMENTAL BUILDINGS.

    When completed, the Parliament and Public Buildings of the Province of
    Quebec, erected on the _Grande Allée_, outside of St. Louis Gate,
    will form a square, each side of which externally will measure 300
    feet and will enclose a court l98 x l95 feet. Three facades are now
    completed; they are tenanted by the various Public Departments of the
    Civil Service--the Halls of the Legislative Assembly alone remain to
    be built and the foundations are now in process of construction in
    consequence of the vote of Parliament in 1881. The main facade, now in
    process of construction, will look towards the city walls and face on
    St. Eustache street, or rather on the splendid new area to constitute
    Dufferin Avenue, should St. Eustache street be closed; this street
    being altogether too narrow and in too close proximity to the
    buildings. The Lieut.-Governor will occupy a handsome suite of rooms
    on the second story in the portion of the edifice which lies parallel
    with and faces towards St. Louis Road. The northern facade faces on
    St. Augustin street and the fourth or western facade looks towards St.
    Julia street.

    The style of architecture is that which was used in French edifices of
    the XVII. century. Pointe Levi greenish sandstone was used for the
    basement.

    The second and third story are divided by a continuous band, supported
    by an Ionic entablature of Deschambault cut stone.

    Embossed pilasters in _rustic work_, rising from the basement up
    to the cornice, close the salient angles of each projection. Hard
    Murray Bay sandstone has been used in constructing the interior
    revetment wall of the court, but Deschambault limestone forms the
    masonry of the basement, the bands, cornices, mantle-pieces, and
    lintels.

    The roof of the building, a handsome one, is of galvanized sheeting,
    the ornaments of zinc; some cast, some wrought and hammered. The
    height of the body of the edifice from the ground to the great cornice
    is 60 feet English measure, and 72 feet to the top of the cornice
    above the attics.

    Each angle of the square has a pavilion and contains a stone
    sculptured dormer window provided with a costly clock constructed by
    Duquet.

    Access is had to the inner court by two passages in the centre
    pavilion, which faces St. Julia street.

    A heraldic _Lion passant_, between two fleur de lys and three maple
    leaves, display the arms of the Province of Quebec. On the piers of
    the first story are cut in relief the escutcheons of the two first
    Lieut.-Governors of the Province of Quebec, sculptured on the central
    window of the second story, is visible from afar, the "year" when the
    structure was commenced, "1878," and on the side windows are inscribed
    the monograms of the Governor-General and Lieutenant-Governor, under
    whose administration the edifice was built.

    The frieze of the main entablature shows the cypher of the reigning
    Sovereign V. R. wreathed in oak leaves.

    There are at present three main central entrances, the pavilions of
    the angle also contain one each with Ionic pillars.

    The main facade, only just commenced, differs from the others; instead
    of a pavilion in the centre, it will have a tower or campanile 160
    feet high, flanked by two projections. The ground floor of this tower
    will show a stately entrance to the halls of Assembly of both branches
    of the Legislature, accessible through two semicircular inclined
    planes.

    The inequalities in the level of the soil at that spot will be
    concealed by terraces on three sides of the stately pile. At the foot
    of the tower the design shows a basin 115x42 feet embraced within the
    walls of the inclined plane, to receive the water of a fountain in a
    portico of Tuscan order of architecture. Four Ionic columns with
    entablatures will deck the main entrance.

    Niches on different points of the edifice will exhibit statues of
    Jacques Cartier, the discoverer of Canada; of Champlain, the founder
    of Quebec; of deMaisonneuve, the founder of Montreal.

    On the lantern of the tower will stand forth prominently the Royal
    arms of England, supported by winged genii and wreathed in oak leaves.
    The tower on four sides will contain four huge clocks lit up by
    electric light.

    Lofty, roomy halls with ceilings arched and decorated with stucco
    panelling; devices and symbols of the quarterings of the Provincial
    arms, lead to the interior of the buildings, which though simple,
    seems well adapted for public offices. Broad, well lighted corridors,
    divide in two each wing and afford ready access to the various
    departments located on both sides.

    Each flat communicates with the adjoining one by broad, splendid black
    walnut staircases decked with arabesques in gilt carving.

    The design, elevation and general plan of the edifices, were prepared
    and drafted by Mr. Eugène Taché, the Assistant-Commissioner of Crown
    Lands. The internal divisions and specifications were laid out under
    the direction of Mr. P. Gauvreau, the Engineer of Public Works; the
    contractor was F. X. Cimon, M.P.

    Messrs. Beaucage & Chaliauvert, undertook the cut stone work, which
    was carried out by their foreman, Mr. Bourgeaud.

    Messrs. Cerat & Vincent, of Montreal, are contractors for the
    sculpture in stone, and the galvanized iron roof and ornamentation in
    the same material and in zinc was executed by Messrs. De Blois &
    Bernier, of Montreal, whilst Mitchell & Co. contracted for the heating
    apparatus.

    The whole building when completed is expected to cost about $800,000.

Opposite looms out the long tea-caddy-looking building, built by the
Sandfield Macdonald Government in 1862,--the Volunteer Drill Shed. Its
length, if not its beauty, attracts notice. "Ferguson's house," next it,
noted by Professor Silliman in his "_Tour between Hartford and Quebec in
1819_," is now difficult to recognize; its present owner, A. Joseph,
Esq., has added so much to its size. This antiquated dwelling certainly
does not belong to a new dispensation. Another land-mark of the past
deserves notice--the ex-Commander of the Forces' lofty quarters; from its
angular eaves and forlorn aspect it generally went by the name of "Bleak
House." I cannot say whether the place was ever haunted, but it ought to
have been. [149] On the summit of the plateau, formerly known as _Buttes-
à-Nepveu_, and facing Mr. John Roche's stately mansion, Hon. P. Garneau
and M. Bilodeau have constructed handsome terraces of cut-stone dwellings.
We are now in the _Grande Allée_--the forest avenue, which two hundred
years ago led to Sillery Wood. On turning and looking back as you approach
Bleak House, you have an excellent view of the Citadel, and of the old
French works which extend beyond it, to the extremity of the Cape,
overlooking _l'Anse de Mères_. A little beyond Bleak-House, at the top of
what is generally known as Perrault's Hill, stands the Perrault [150]
homestead, dating back to 1820, _l'Asyle Champêtre_--now tastefully
renovated and owned by Henry Dinning, Esq. The roof and facade of a
_Chalet Suisse_ would much enhance its appearance. The adjoining range of
heights, occupied by the Martello Towers, the Garneau and Bilodeau
Terraces, &c., were called the _Buttes-à-Nepveu_, after one of their first
French owners. "It was here that Murray took his stand on the morning of
April 28th, 1760, to resist the advance of Levis, and here commenced the
hardest-fought, the bloodiest action of the war, which terminated in the
defeat of Murray, and his retreat within the city". The Martello Towers
are bomb-proof, they were four [151] in number, and formed a chain of
forts extending along the ridge from the St. Lawrence to the River St.
Charles. The fact that this ridge commanded the city, unfortunately
induced Murray to leave it and attempt to fortify the heights, in which he
was only partially successful, owing to the frost being still in the
ground.

The British Government were made aware of the fact, and seeing that from
the improved artillery the city was now fully commanded from the heights,
which are about seven hundred yards distant, decided to build the Towers.
Arrangements were accordingly made by Col. Brock, then commanding the
troops in Canada. In 1806 the necessary materials were collected, and in
the following year their construction commenced. They were not, however,
completed till 1812. The original estimate for the four was £8,000, but
before completion the Imperial Government had expended nearly £12,000.
They are not all of the same size, but, like all Martello Towers, they are
circular and bomb-proof. The exposed sides are _thirteen_ feet thick
and gradually diminish like the horns of the crescent moon, to seven feet
in the centre of the side next the city walls. The first or lower story
contains tanks, store-rooms and magazine; the second has cells for the
garrison, with port-holes for two guns. On the top there used to be one
68-pounder carronade, two 24 and two 9-pounders.

A party of Arnold's soldiers ascended these heights in November, 1775, and
advanced quite close to the city walls, shouting defiance at the little
garrison. A few shots soon dispersed the invaders, who retraced their
steps to Wolfe's Cove. At the _Buttes-à-Nepveu_ great criminals were
formerly executed. Here, La Corriveau, the St. Vallier Lafarge, met her
deserved fate, in 1763, after being tried by one of Governor Murray's
Courts-martial for murdering her husband. After death she was hung in
chains, or rather in a solid iron cage, at the fork of four roads, at
Levi, close to the spot where the Temperance Monument has since been
built. The loathsome form of the murderess caused more than one shudder
amongst the peaceable peasantry of Levi, until some brave young men one
dark night, cut down the horrid cage, and hid it deep under ground, next
to the cemetery at Levi, where, close to a century afterwards, it was dug
up and sold to Barnum's agent for his museum.

Sergeant Jas. Thompson describes in his diary, under date 18th Nov., 1782,
another memorable execution:

"This day two fellows were executed for the murder and robbery of Capt.
Stead, Commander of one of the Treasury Brigs, on the evening of the 31st
Dec., 1779, between the Upper and Lower Town. The criminals went through
Port St. Louis, about 11 o'clock, at a slow and doleful pace, to the place
where justice had allotted them to suffer the most ignominious death. It
is astonishing to see what a crowd of people followed the tragic scene.
Even our people on the works (Cape Diamond) prayed Capt. Twiss for leave
to follow the hard-hearted crowd." It was this Capt. Twiss who
subsequently furnished the plan and built a temporary citadel in 1793.

In 1793, we have also, recorded in history, another doleful procession of
red-coats, the Quebec Garrison accompanying to the same place of execution
as a mess-mate (Draper), a soldier of the Fusileers, then commanded by the
young Duke of Kent, who, after pronouncing the sentence of death, as
commander, over the trembling culprit kneeling on his coffin, as son and
representative of the Sovereign, exercised the Royal prerogative of mercy
and pardoned poor Draper.

Look down Perrault's hill towards the south. There stands, with a few
shrubs and trees in the foreground, the Military Home--where infirm
soldiers, their widows and children, could find a refuge. It has recently
been purchased and converted into the "Female Orphan Asylum." It forms the
eastern boundary of a large expanse of verdure and trees, reaching the
summit of the lot originally intended by the Seminary of Quebec for a
Botanical Garden; subsequently it was contemplated to build their new
seminary there to afford the boys abundance of fresh air. Alas! Other
counsels prevailed.

Its western boundary is a road leading to the new District Jail--a stone
structure of great strength, surmounted with a diminutive tower, admirably
adapted, one would imagine, for astronomical pursuits. From its glistening
cupola, Commander Ashe's Provincial Observatory is. visible to the east.

I was forgetting to notice the substantial building, dating from 1855--the
Ladies' Home. The Protestant Ladies of Quebec have here, at no small
expense and trouble, raised a useful asylum, where the aged and infirm may
find shelter. This, and the building opposite, St. Bridget's Asylum, with
its growing fringe of trees and green plots, are decided ornaments to the
_Grande Allée_.

The old burying ground of 1832, with all its ghastly memories of the
Asiatic scourge, has assumed quite an ornate, nay a respectable aspect.
Close to the toll-bar on the _Grande Allée_, may yet be seen one of
the meridian stones which serve to mark the western boundary of the city,
beyond the Messrs. Lampson's mansion. On the adjoining domain, well named
"Battlefield Cottage," formerly the property of Col. Charles Campbell, now
owned by Michael Connolly, Esq., was the historic well out of which a cup
of water was obtained to moisten the parched lips of the dying hero, James
Wolfe, on the 13th September, 1759. The well was filled in a few years
ago, but not before it was nigh proving fatal to Col. Campbell's then
young son,--(Arch. Campbell, Esq., of Thornhill.) Its site is close to the
western boundary fence, in the garden, behind "Battlefield Cottage." Here
we are at those immortal plains--the Hastings of the two races once
arrayed in battle against one another at Quebec. The western boundary of
the Plains is a high fence enclosing Marchmont, for years the cherished
family seat of John Gilmour, Esq., now occupied by Col. Fred Turnbull, of
the Canadian Hussars.

On the north-east corner of the Belvedere Road, may be seen a range of
glass houses, put up by J. Doig, formerly gardener at Benmore.

A few minutes more brings the tourist to the Hon. D. Price's villa, Wolfe-
field, where may be seen the precipitous path up the St. Denis burn, by
which the Highlanders and British soldiers gained a footing above, on the
13th September, 1759, and met in battle array to win a victory destined to
revolutionize the New World. The British were piloted in their ascent of
the river by a French prisoner brought with them from England--Denis de
Vitré, formerly a Quebecer of distinction. Their landing place at Sillery
was selected by Major Robert Stobo, who had, in May, 1759, escaped from a
French prison in Quebec, and joined his countrymen, the English, at
Louisbourg, from whence he took ship again to meet Admiral Saunders' fleet
at Quebec. The tourist next drives past Thornhill, for years owned by
Arch. Campbell, Esq., P.S.C., Sir Francis Hincks' old home when Premier to
Lord Elgin. Opposite appear the leafy glades of Spencer Wood, so grateful
a summer retreat, that Lord Elgin used to say, "There he not only loved to
live, but would like to rest his bones." Next comes Spencer Grange, the
seat of J. M. LeMoine, Esq.; then Woodfield, the homestead, of the Hon.
Wm. Sheppard [152] in 1847, later on of Messrs. John Lawson and Jas Gibb.
[153] Facing the Woodfield property, on the Gomin Road, are visible the
extensive vineries and peach houses of Hon. Geo. Okill Stuart, Judge of
the Vice-Admiralty Court. The eye next dwells on the rustic church of St.
Michael, embowered in evergreens. This handsome little temple of worship
where the Governors of Canada usually attended, when living at Spencer
Wood, contain several memorial window. Southwards looms out, at _Sous-
les-Bois_, the stately convent of _Jésus-Marie_; on the edge of the bank,
to the south-east, at _Pointe-à-Pizeau_, stands the R. C. Church of St.
Colomb de Sillery, in a most commanding position; on the Sillery heights,
north-west of the Church of St. Michael, the late Bishop George J.
Mountain owned a delightful summer retreat, recently sold to Albert H.
Furniss, Esq.; then you meet with villas innumerable--one of the most
conspicuous is Benmore House, Col. Rhodes' country seat. Benmore is well
worthy of a call, were it only to procure a _bouquet_. This is not merely
the Eden of roses; Col. Rhodes has combined the farm with the garden. His
underground rhubarb and mushroom cellars, his boundless asparagus beds and
strawberry plantations, are a credit to Quebec.

Next come Clermont, [154] Beauvoir, [155] Kilmarnock, [156] Cataraqui,
[157] Kilgraston, [158] Kirk-Ella, [159] Meadow Bank, [160] Ravenswood,
[161] Dornald, [162] until, after a nine miles' drive, Redclyffe closes
the rural landscape--Redclyffe, [163] on the top of _Cap Rouge_
Promontory. There, many indications yet mark the spot where Roberval's
ephemeral colony wintered as far back as 1542. You can now, if you like,
return to the city by the same route, or select the Ste. Foye Road,
skirting the classic heights where General Murray, six months after the
first battle of the Plains, lost the second, on the 28th April, 1760; the
St. Foye Church was then occupied by the British soldiers. Beauséjour is a
beautiful demesne, where M. Ls. Bilodeau has several reservoirs, for the
propagation of trout. Your gaze next rests on Holland House, Montgomery's
headquarters in 1775, behind which is Holland tree, overshadowing, as of
yore, the grave of the Hollands. [164]

The view, from the St. Foye Road, of the gracefully meandering St. Charles
below, especially during the high tides, is something to be remembered.
The tourist shortly after detects the iron pillar, surmounted by a bronze
statue of Bellona, presented in 1855 by Prince Napoleon Bonaparte--
intended to commemorate the fierce struggle at this spot on the 28th
April, 1760. In close vicinity, appear the bright _parterres_ or
umbrageous groves of Bellevue, [165] Hamwood, [166] Bijou, [167]
Westfield, [168] Sans-Bruit, and the narrow gothic arches of Finlay
Asylum; soon you re-enter by St. John's Suburbs, with the broad basin of
the St. Charles and the pretty Island of Orleans staring you in the face.

The principal objects to be noted in this street are: on the north side,
St. John's Church, built in 1848--a large but not very elegant temple of
R. C. worship, capable of seating 2,000 persons; on the south side, St.
Mathew's Church, (Church of England,) a handsome structure, whose
beginnings, in 1828; were associated with the late Bishop G. J. Mountain's
ministrations and munificence. The exertions of the Rev. Chs. Hamilton and
the generous donations of his brother, Robert Hamilton, and other members
of the family, have been mainly instrumental in enlarging and decorating
this building. Close by, is the new French Protestant Church. We shall
close this short sketch with a mention of the "Quebec Protestant Burying
Ground," originally bought by the Government of the Province of Quebec,
from the heirs of St. Simon, partly on the 9th December, 1771, and partly
on the 22nd August, 1778. In the year 1823, Lord Dalhousie made a grant of
this ground to the "Trustees of the Protestant Burying Ground," in whose
hands it has remained until the 19th May,, 1860, when the cemetery was
declared closed by the 23rd Vict., chap. 70. Major Thomas Scott, Pay-
master of the 70th Regiment, a brother to Sir Walter, was buried here in
1823. Major Thomas Scott was at one time charged with having written
"_Rob Roy_." And next to St. John Gate, looms out the handsome new
building of the Y. M. C. A Association facing the new Montcalm Market.


    ASSOCIATION HALL.

    "The first Young Men's Christian Association in this city was
    organized about twenty years ago, but it soon collapsed, having run
    into debt. A second attempt resulted in the formation of another
    Association in 1867, which was also a failure. The present Association
    was established in January, 1870. It had a very small beginning--five
    young men met in a merchant's office in the Lower Town for prayer and
    conference and they formed the nucleus of the present Association.
    John C. Thomson, Esq., now President of the Association, a gentleman
    well known for his active interest in all good works, was one of the
    five. Soon after this prayer meeting, a canvass was made among young
    men, and 150 names obtained. Henry Fry Esq., merchant, was elected
    first President, and Mr. W. Ahern, Secretary. For three years the
    Association occupied rooms over the hardware store of Messrs. Bélanger
    & Gariépy, Fabrique street, and, in 1873, removed to the rooms above
    Mr. McLeod's drug store, which it vacated to enter upon an enlarged
    sphere of labour in its elegant new building. It is admirably
    situated, facing the Montcalm market."

    "In October 1875, a delegation of Y. M. C. A. workers visited this
    city, including Messrs. Crombie, Budge, Cole, &c. The revival services
    which followed their visit will still be fresh in the memory of our
    readers. Two results, both fraught with very great importance to the
    Association, followed their visit. One was the engagement of Mr. T. S.
    Cole as permanent Secretary, the other was the development of a scheme
    for the construction of a building to be specially adapted, and
    regularly set apart for the use of the Association. On a memorable
    Monday evening in October, 1877, in the Methodist Church in this city,
    the scheme was first publicly discussed. At this meeting some $5,000
    was subscribed, and the canvass next day resulted in large additions
    to the above. Up to the present, $19,000 have been subscribed towards
    the structure, and over $15,000 paid in, including the proceeds of the
    ladies' bazaar last year (1879).

    "The site of the building, one of the most valuable, and certainly one
    of the most eligible for the purpose in the city was obtained by
    purchase from the Dominion Government by auction in the month of
    January, 1878. The plans for the building were secured by competition,
    the successful architect being Mr. J. F. Peachy. The cost of the whole
    building, when completed, will be $40,000, but at present only the
    front portion has been erected. The back wing will be commenced when a
    few thousand dollars more have been subscribed towards it. It is to
    contain the gymnasium below, and above a large hall 100 feet by 56,
    with seating accommodation for 700 people on the floor and 300 in the
    galleries. This hall will be furnished with an independent entrance
    from Glacis street, twelve feet wide. The lot upon which the present
    building is erected contains 21,000 square feet, being 186 feet in
    depth, and having a frontage on St. John street of 106 feet. The front
    building covers the whole extent of frontage and has a depth of 50
    feet. It is built of stone and brick, the whole front being stone and
    cut glass. It contains three flats including the mansard. Over the
    main entrance is an open Bible, upon which is engraved Matt. XXIII.,
    8. Above the centre Window in raised letters in stone, are the words
    "Quebec Young Men's Christian Association, 1879." Immediately behind
    the front structure is a small building which forms a room for the
    daily prayer meeting. It may be reached from Glacis street, and also
    by a staircase leading down to it from the entrance hall of the main
    building."

    "The lower part of the edifice has been fitted up as stores. The main
    entrance to Association Hall, in the middle of the front, is by a
    spacious staircase twelve feet wide, at the foot of which are elegant
    double swinging doors with plate glass. Beneath this stairway is the
    heating apparatus, which has been placed in the building by Mr. Thomas
    Andrews, of St. John street, and is on an entirely new and highly
    approved principle. The whole second flat, is set apart for
    Association use. One-half of it composes the reading room. This
    magnificent apartment which is one of the finest reading rooms on the
    Continent, is 45 by 46 feet, having a height of 18 feet, with windows
    on three sides, the balcony window on the North overlooking the whole
    of the country between St. Roch's and the Laurentian Mountains.
    Opposite the top of the stairway on the landing of this flat, is the
    door leading to the Secretary's room, which is fitted with glass, in
    order that the Secretary may see everybody coming up stairs into the
    reading room or elsewhere. This room is about 12 by 18 feet, and has
    on either side of it, the committee room and cloak room, both of about
    similar dimensions. Opposite the committee room is the lavatory, &c.,
    for the use of members. At the West end of this flat the rooms both
    front and back are parlours, with folding doors between, so that while
    one may be used for conversational purposes or such like, the other
    may be fitted with a piano and also with games, such as chess,
    draughts, &c. The upper flat, which contains also very handsome rooms,
    beautifully finished, is divided into two portions, one to be occupied
    exclusively by the Secretary, and containing dining and drawing rooms
    divided by folding doors, four bed-rooms, kitchen, store room, &c. The
    other part is divided between the caretaker's apartments, and the bath
    room, which is specially for the use of members. The committee also
    reserve a spare room in this portion of the building. From the roof of
    the structure, which is reached by a staircase leading into the tower,
    a magnificent view is obtained of every part of the city and of all
    the surrounding country. Special credit in connection with its
    erection is certainly merited by the contractor, Mr. John Hatch, and
    the architect, Mr. J. F. Peachy."



CHAPTER V.

_MODERN QUEBEC_.

  "I can re-people with the Past; and of
  The Present there is still, for eye and thought
  And meditation, chasten'd down, enough."
                                 --(CHILDE HAROLD.)


Quebec, with the limitations set forth elsewhere, under the English
regime, was governed by Justices of the Peace, who sat in special
sessions, under authority of Acts of the Provincial Legislature, until
1833. In 1832 the city was incorporated (1 William IV., chap. 52,), Its
first Mayor, elected in 1833, was a barrister of note, Elzéar Bédard,
Esq., subsequently Mr. Justice Elzéar J.S.C. The amended Act of
Incorporation of the City of Quebec, the 29th Vic., cap. 57, sanctioned on
the 18th September, 1865, thus defines the limits of the city, the number
and limits of the wards:--"The City of Quebec, for all municipal purposes,
comprises the whole extent of land within the limits assigned to the said
city by a certain proclamation of His Excellency Sir Alured Clarke,
bearing date the 7th May, 1792, and in addition all land extending to low
water mark of the River St. Lawrence, in front of the said city, including
the shore of the River St Charles, opposite the city, as limited by high
water mark on the north side of the said river, from, the prolongation of
the west line of St. Ours street to the west line of the farm of the Nuns
of the Hôtel Dieu; thence running southwards along the said line, about
550 feet, to the southern extremity of a pier erected on the said farm, at
low water mark; thence running due east, about 800 feet, to the
intersection of the line limiting the beach grants of the Seigniory of
Notre Dame des Anges, at low water; and finally, thence along the said
beach line, running north 40 degrees east, to the intersection of the
prolongation of the line of the Commissioners for the Harbour of Quebec,
and thence following the said Commissioners' line to the westerly line of
the city. The said city also comprises all wharves, piers and other
erections made or to be made in the said River St. Lawrence, opposite to
or adjoining the said city, though extending beyond the low water mark of
the said river, and being within the said Commissioners' line, and even
beyond the same, should it be hereafter extended or reduced.


_BOUNDARIES OF THE WARDS._

"The said city is divided into eight wards, to wit: St. Louis Ward, Palace
Ward, St. Peter's Ward, Champlain Ward, St. Roch's Ward, Jacques Cartier
Ward, St. John's Ward and Montcalm Ward.

1st. St. Louis Ward comprises all that part of the Upper Town within the
fortifications, and south of a line drawn from Prescott Gate to St John's
Gate, along the middle of Mountain street, Buade street, Fabrique street,
and St. John street.

2nd. Palace Ward comprises all that part of the Upper Town within the
fortifications, and not included in St. Louis Ward.  3rd. St. Peter's Ward
comprises all that part of the Lower Town bounded on the south by a line
drawn in the middle of Sous-le-Fort street, and prolonged in the same
direction to low water mark in the River St. Lawrence at the one end, and
to the cliff below the Castle of St. Louis at the other, and on the west
by the eastern limits of the Parish of St. Roch, together with all the
wharves, piers and other erections, opposite to this part of the Lower
Town, although built beyond low water mark in the said river.

4th. Champlain Ward comprises all that part of the Lower Town lying
between St. Peter's Ward and the limits of the said city, together with
all wharves, piers and other erections, opposite thereto, although built
beyond the low water mark in the said river.

5th. St. Roch's Ward comprises all that part of the Parish of St. Roch
which lies within the limits of the said City of Quebec, on the north-west
side of a line drawn in the middle of St. Joseph street, from one end to
the other.

6th. Jacques Cartier Ward comprises all that part of the Parish of St.
Roch which lies within the limits of the said City of Quebec, not
comprised in St. Roch's Ward.

7th. St John's Ward comprises all that space bounded by Jacques Cartier
Ward, the fortifications, the limits of the said city on the west, and a
line drawn in the middle of St. John street from St. John's Gate to the
western limits of the city.

8th. Montcalm Ward comprises all that space bounded by the fortifications
on the east, and on the west by the city limits, on the north by St John's
Ward, and on the south by the _cime du cap_ of the St. Lawrence.

The city is administered by a Mayor, holding office for two years, at a
salary of not more than $1,200, nor less than $600, per annum; and by
eight Aldermen and sixteen Councillors, returned by the eight wards,--
elected to serve gratuitously three years by the duly qualified electors
of each ward: no one is eligible as Mayor, Aldermen or Councillor unless
he be a British subject, by birth or naturalization, and of the full age
of twenty-one years, and owning within the city limits real estate, free
from encumbrance, of the value of $2,000. Quebec contains ten small
_Fiefs_ or Domaines. The _Fief_ Sault-au-Matelot belongs to the Seminary.
The Ursuline Nuns, the R. C. Church (_La Fabrique_), the Heirs LaRue, the
Hôtel-Dieu Nuns, the Récollet Friars, each had his _Fief_. The _Fief de la
Miséricorde_ (Mercy) belongs to the Hôtel-Dieu. The Heirs LaRue own the
_Fief de Bécancour_ and that of _de Villeraie_; there is also the _Fief
Tasseville_. The _Fief_ of the Récollets--or Franciscan Friars--the order
being extinct, reverted to the Crown.


    _WAR DEPARTMENT PROPERTY IN QUEBEC CITY AND DISTRICT._

    _As per Schedule, Consolidated Statutes of Canada (22 Vict.) Cap. 36._

    _LOCAL NAME OF THE PROPERTY AND ORIGIN OF THE TITLE._

    Exercising Ground, Plains of Abraham--Leasehold from the Ursuline
    Nuns, 99 years from 1st May, 1802.

    No. 3 Tower Field, N. W. of the Grande Allée, Plains of Abraham--
   Leasehold from the Nuns of the Hôtel-Dieu, 99 years from 1st May, 1790;
    space covered by the tower is freehold.

    No. 4 Tower Field, N. W. of St. John's Road--Leasehold from the Nuns
    of the Hôtel-Dieu; 99 years from 1st May, 1790; including a freehold
    strip of 0_a_. 1_r_. 0-1/2_p_.

    Land surrounding Nos. 1 and 2, Towers, S. E. side of the Grande Allée
    Plains of Abraham--Acquired by purchase from the Ursuline Nuns, 15th
    June, 1811, Joseph Plante, N. P., Quebec.

    Land S. E. of the Grande Allée to the Cime du Cap and between Nos. 1
    and 2, Towers property, and counterscarp of the Citadel and works
    adjacent--The greater part acquired by purchase from individuals, and
    partly by conquest, of the old French Works, &c., an annual ground
    rent of £1 17s. 0d., is payable on part of this land to the Fief de
    Villeray.

    The Esplanade, Town Works--Glacis, Cricket Field, ditches, ravelin,
    &c., in front, lying between St. Louis and St. John's Gates--Acquired
    partly by conquest and partly by purchase from various individuals
    (Cricket Field, 5_a_. 3_r_. 22_p_.)

    Citadel--Glacis and Town Works, as far as St. Louis Gate, Engineer
    Yard, &c.--Chiefly by right of conquest and military appropriation.

    Town Works, Artillery Barracks, Glacis, &c., between St. John's Gate,
    Palace Gate and St. Valier street--Chiefly by conquest and military
    appropriation. Lots in St. Vallier street, purchased in 1846-7.

    Mount Carmel, a commanding eminence, and site of the Windmill Redoubt
    or Cavalier, formerly a portion of the defenses of Quebec.--Acquired
    by purchase, 25th Nov, 1780. J. Plinguet, N.P.

    Officers' Barracks, Garrison Hospital, &c., fronting on St. Louis
    street, and in rear by St. Geneviève street.--Acquired by purchase,
    5th April, 1811.

    Commissariat Premises, opposite old Court House, on St. Louis street,
    and in rear by Mount Carmel street.--Acquired by purchase, 11th
    August, 1815.

    Jesuit Barracks, with other buildings and land attached, fronting on
    St. Anne street and Upper Town market square.--By right of conquest
    and military appropriation, occupied as Infantry Barracks, &c.

    The Town Works, along the top of the Cape (Cime du Cap), between the
    King's Bastion of the Citadel and Prescott Gate, Mountain Hill,
    including site of old Fort St. Louis, Government Garden, &c.--Part of
    the Crown Domain by conquest and military appropriation, with small
    portions at either end acquired by purchase in 1781, and about 1827-
    29.

    Near Grand Battery, East end of St. George street. Magazine F., and
    Ordnance stores, &c.--By right of conquest and military appropriation.

    Magazine E., Hôtel Dieu, on Rampart street, between Palace and Hope
    Gates.--Acquired by purchase, 17th June, 1809.

    The Defences along the Ramparts between Prescott Gate, Grand Battery,
    Hope Gate and Palace Gate (Upper Town).--By right of conquest and
    military appropriation (including Rampart street and cliff
    underneath).

    Inclined Plane Wharf and land to the Cime du Cap (top of the cliff) on
    Champlain street, S. E. of the Citadel.--Acquired by purchase, 24th
    Sept., 1781, afterwards used in connection with the Citadel.

    Queen's Wharf premises, and small lot opposite, on Cul-de-Sac street--
    Formerly a part of the defences of Quebec, site of a battery.--
    Acquired by right of conquest, &c.

    Land at the foot of the cliff in La Canoterie and St. Charles streets,
    as a Glacis in front of the Town Works.--Acquired by purchase in 1846-
    7, to prevent buildings against the defences.

    Commissariat Fuel Yard, &c., on Palace Harbor, St. Roch's.--Part of
    the Intendant's Palace property, held by conquest.


    _SEIGNIORY OF NEUVILLE COUNTY OF PORTNEUF._

    (_Site of Fort Jacques-Cartier._)

    A strong defensive position, on the right bank of the River Jacques
    Cartier, about 30 miles above Quebec.--Acquired by purchase from the
    Seignior, 26th June, 1818.



THE ENVIRONS OF QUEBEC.

_INTRODUCTION._

  "Oh give me a home where the maple and pine
  Around the wild heights so majestically twine;
  Oh give me a home where the blue wave rolls free
  From thy bosom, Superior, down to the sea."


"Could you not write the history of 'Our Parish,' and also sketch briefly
our country seats, marking out the spots connected with historical
events?" Thus discoursed one day to us, in her blandest tones, a fair
denizen of Sillery. There was a poser for a _galant homme_; a crusher
for the first _littérateur_ of ... the parish. In vain did we allege
we were not a "Christopher North," but a mere retiring "antiquaire"--a
lover of books, birds, flowers, &c. The innate civility of a Frenchman
elicited from us an unreflective affirmative reply. Thus, compassionate
reader, was entrapped, caught and committed the first _littérateur_
of Sillery--irrevocably handed over to the tender mercies of all the
critics, present and future, in and out of the parish. Oh, my friends,
what a crunching up of literary bones in store! what an ample repast was
thus prepared for all the reviewers--the Jeffreys and LaHarpes--in and out
of the parish, should the luckless _littérateur_ fail to assign fairy
scenery--important historical events--great battles, not only to each
renowned spot, but even to the merest potato-patch, turnip-ground or
cabbage-garden within our corporate limits? Yes, tremble for him.

Joking apart, is there not a formidable difficulty besetting our path--the
insipidity and monotony inseparable from the necessity which will devolve
on us of having constantly to discover new beauties in spots identical in
their main features; and should we, in order to vary the theme, mix up the
humorous with the rural, the historical, or the antiquarian style, may not
fun and humour be mistaken for satire--a complimentary notice for
flattery, above all others, a thing abhorrent to our nature? But 'tis vain
to argue. That fatal "yes" has been uttered, and no true knight goes back
from his plighted word. There being no help, we devoutly commend our case
to St. Columba, St. Joseph, and the archangel St. Michel, the patrons of
our parish, and set to our task, determined to assume a wide margin, draw
heavily on history, and season the whole with short anecdotes and glimpses
of domestic life, calculated to light up the past and present.

O critic, who would fain seek in "Our Parish"--in our homes--great
architectural excellence, we beseech you to pause! for the majority of
them no such pretension is set up. Nowhere, indeed, on our soil are to be
found ivied ruins, dating back to doomsday book, moated castle, or
mediaeval tower. We have no Blenheims, no Walton Halls, nor Chatsworths,
nor Woburn abbeys, nor Arundel castles, to illustrate every style of
architectural beauty, rural embellishment, and landscape. A Dainpierre, a
Rochecotte, a LaGaudinière, may suit old France: they would be lost in New
France. Canadian cottages, the best of them, are not the stately country
homes of

          "Old pheasant-lords,
  ... Partridge-breeders of a thousand years,"

typifying the accumulated wealth of centuries or patrician pride; nor are
they the gay _châteaux_ of _La Belle France_. In the Canada of the past,
we could--in many instances we had to--do without the architect's skill;
nature having been lavish to us in her decorations, art could be dispensed
with. Our country dwellings possess attractions of a higher class, yea, of
a nobler order, than brick and mortar moulded by the genius of man can
impart. A kind Providence has surrounded them in spring, summer and autumn
with scenery often denied to the turreted castle of the proudest nobleman
in Old England. Those around Quebec are more particularly hallowed by
associations destined to remain ever memorable amongst the inhabitants of
the soil.

Some of our larger estates, like Belmont (comprising 450 acres,) date back
more than two centuries, whilst others, though less ancient, retrace
vividly events glorious in the same degree to the two races, who, after
having fought stoutly for the mastery, at last hung out the olive branch
and united long since, willing partners, in the bonds of a common
nationality, neither English nor French, though participating largely of
both, and have linked their destinies together as Canadians. Every
traveller in Canada, from Baron La Hontan, who "preferred the forests of
Canada to the Pyrénées of France," to the Hon. Amelia Murray, Charlevoix,
LaGalissonière, Peter Kalm, Isaac Weld, John Lambert, Heriot, Silliman,
Dickens, Lever, Ampère, Marmier, Rameau, Augustus Sala, have united in
pronouncing our Quebec landscape so wild, so majestic, and withal so
captivating, as to vie in beauty with the most picturesque portions of the
Old or the New World.

Let us first sketch "Our Parish," the home of our forefathers--the home of
our children.


_SILLERY._

Henry IV. of France had for his chancellor, in 1607, Nicholas Brulart de
Sillery, a worthy and distinguished magistrate, who, as state councillor,
ever enjoyed the confidence of his sovereign until death closed his useful
career in 1627, at the ripe age of 80. He was the eldest brother: his
father had also for years basked in the smiles of good King Henry IV. for
his unwavering adherence to his fortunes. To this eminent lawyer and
statesman was born a patriarchal family of sons and daughters. The
youngest of his sons, Noël Brulart de Sillery, [169] having brilliantly
completed his studies at Paris in the classics, entered, at the age of 18,
the military order of the Knights of Malta, and resided twelve years in
that island as a knight; his martial bearing and ability, modesty, and
uniform good conduct soon paved the way for him to the highest dignities
in this celebrated Order. Soon the Grand Master appointed him "Commandeur
de Troyes"; this preferment yielded him 40,000 livres per annum.

On his return to Paris in 1607, the favour of the court and the protection
of Marie de Medicis were the means of having him nominated Knight of
Honour. His talents, birth, deportment and position soon procured him the
appointment of French Ambassador to the Court of Spain in 1614, which high
position he left for that of Ambassador at Rome in 1622, where he replaced
the Marquis of Coeuvres. He spent two years in the Eternal City, and
subsequently acknowledged that it was there that he conceived the idea
first of embracing Holy Orders; Cardinal de LaValette replacing him at the
Roman Court as French _Chargé d'Affaires_. From what can be gleaned
in history, this distinguished personage led a princely life, his enormous
rent-roll furnishing the means for a most lordly establishment of
retainers, liveries and domains. [170] His fancy for display, great though
it was, never, however, made him lose sight of the poor, nor turn a deaf
ear to the voice of the needy.

In 1626, the Pope (Barberini), Urban the VIII., having proclaimed a
jubilee, the ex-ambassador, as if a new light had dawned on him, and under
the guidance of a man famous for his pious and ascetic life, Vincent de
Paul, determined to reform his house and whole life. Thus, a few years
after, viz., in 1632, the Commandeur de Sillery sold to Cardinal Richelieu
his sumptuous and princely hôtel in Paris, called Sillery, entered Holy
Orders in 1634, and devoted all the energy of his mind and his immense
wealth to the propagation of the faith amongst the aborigines of Canada,
having been induced to do so by the Commandeur de Razili, who had
previously solicited him to join the company des "Cents Associés," or
Hundred Partners, of which Razili was a member.

The Commandeur de Sillery inaugurated his benevolent purpose by placing
12,000 livres in the hands of Father Charles Lalemant, a zealous Jesuit;
this was the beginning of the mission which, through gratitude to its
founder, was called Sillery--it was distant about four miles and a half
from Quebec, on the north shore of the St. Lawrence; date of the
foundation, July, 1637. [171] History has preserved a letter addressed
from Paris by the Commandeur de Sillery to the Chevalier de Montmagny,
governor of the colony, in which the benevolent man asked the Governor to
ratify a grant of "twelve arpents" made to him in the city itself by the
company of the Hundred Partners, and also to ratify a promised grant of
other lands to open a seminary or school to educate Algonquin and
Montagnais children, although, at the request of the Indians, the
settlement became, in 1638, more extensive, and comprised also the
residence of the christianized Indians. Negabamat and Nenasesenat were the
first to establish their families there. On the last day of June, 1665, we
will find the eloquent Negabamat, then a resident of Quebec, sent by his
tribe to harangue and compliment the great Marquis of Tracy on his arrival
at Quebec. (_Relations_, 1665, _p_. 4.) Father LeJeune, a learned Jesuit,
had charge and control over the workmen who were sent out from France at
the expense of the Commandeur de Sillery; and on the 22nd February, 1639,
a permanent bequest was authentically recorded in favor of the mission by
the Commandeur placing at interest, secured on the Hôtel-de-Ville at
Paris, a sum of 20,000 livres tournois. Palisades had been used originally
to protect the settlement; in 1651, the Governor of Quebec, Jean de
Lauzon, strengthened the palisades and added redoubts. [172] In 1647 the
church of the mission had been placed under the invocation of St. Michael
the Archangel; hence Sillery Cove, once called St. Joseph's, was, in 1647,
named St Michael's Cove.

The Commandeur de Sillery extended his munificence to several other
missionary establishments in Canada and other places. What with the
building of churches, monasteries and hospitals in Champagne, France; at
Annecy, Savoy; at Paris, and elsewhere, he must, indeed, have been for
those days a veritable Rothschild in worldly wealth.

This worthy ecclesiastic died in Paris on the 26th September, 1640, at the
age of sixty-three years, bequeathing his immense wealth to the Hôtel-Dieu
of that city. Such was, in a few words, the noble career of one of the
large-minded pioneers of civilization in primitive Canada, le Commandeur
Noël Brulart de Sillery--such the origin of the name of "Our Parish," our
sweet Canadian Windermere.

One of the first incidents, two years after the opening of the mission,
was the visit paid to it by Madame de la Peltrie, the benevolent founder
of the Ursuline Convent at Quebec. This took place on the 2nd August,
1639, the day after her arrival from Dieppe and stately reception by the
Governor, M. deMontmagny, who had asked her to dinner the day previous.
This same year the nuns called _Hospitalières_ (Hôtel-Dieu) opened a
temporary hospital at Sillery, as the inmates and resident Indians
suffered fearfully from the ravages of small-pox. In attempting a sketch
of the Sillery of ancient days, we cannot follow a truer nor pleasanter
guide than the old historian of Canada in the interesting notes he
published on this locality in 1855, after having minutely examined every
inch of ground. "A year after their arrival at Quebec," says Abbé Ferland,
"in August, 1640, the _Hospitalières_ nuns, desirous of being closer
to the Sillery mission, where they were having their convent built
according to the wishes of the Duchess D'Aiguillon, left Quebec and
located themselves in the house of M. de Puiseaux. They removed from this
house at the beginning of the year 1641 to take possession of their
convent, a mile distant. During that winter no other French inhabitants
resided near them except the missionaries, and they suffered much from
cold and want. But the following year they had the happiness to have in
the neighbourhood a good number of their countrymen. M. de Maisonneuve,
Mlle. Mance, the soldiers and farmers recently arrived from France, took
up their abode at M. de Puiseaux.... They spent the winter there, and paid
us frequent visits, to our mutual satisfaction." [173]

The mission of St. Joseph at Sillery being constantly threatened by the
Five Nations, the _Hospitalières_ ladies were compelled to leave their
convent and seek refuge in Quebec on the 29th May, 1644, having thus
spent about three years and a half amongst the savages. [174] The locality
where they then resided still goes under the name of "Convent Cove."

"Monsieur Pierre Puiseaux, Sieur de l'habitation de Sainte Foye, after
whom was, called _Pointe-à-Pizeau_, at Sillery, seems to have been a
personage of no mean importance in his day. Having realized a large
fortune in the West Indies, he had followed Champlain to Canada, bent on
devoting his wealth to the conversion of the aboriginal tribes. His manor
stood, according to the Abbé Ferland, on that spot in St Michael's Cove on
which the St. Michael's Hotel [175]--long kept by Mr. W. Scott--was
subsequently built, to judge from the heavy foundation walls there. Such
was the magnificence of the structure that it was reckoned "the gem of
Canada'--"_Une maison regardée dans le temps comme le bijou du Canada_,"
says the old chronicler. Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve having arrived,
in 1641, with colonists for Montreal, the laird of Ste. Foye [176]
generously tendered him the use of his manor. Under the hospitable roof of
this venerable old gentleman, M. de Maisonneuve, Mlle. Mance, the founder
of the Hôtel Dieu Hospital at Montreal, and Mdme. de la Peltrie spent the
winter of 1641-2, whilst the intended colonists [177] for Ville-Marie were
located close by in the Sillery settlement. During the winter, dissensions
took place between the future Governor of Montreal, M. de Maisonneuve, and
the then present Governor of Quebec, Chevalier de Montmagny. It appears
that on a certain festival a small cannon and also fifteen musket shots
had been fired without authority; His Excellency Governor Montmagny, in
high dudgeon at such a breach of military discipline, ordered Jean Gorry,
the person who had fired the shots, to be put in irons; Mlle. Mance had
furnished the powder for this military display The future Governor of
Montreal, Monsieur de Maisonneuve, is said to have, on this occasion,
publicly exclaimed: "Jehan Gorry, you have been put in irons for my sake
and I affronted! I raise your wages of ten half crowns (dix écus), let us
only reach Montreal; no one there will prevent us from firing." [178]
Bravo! M. de Maisonneuve! Peace, however, was restored, and His Excellency
Governor Montmagny headed in person the expedition which, on the 8th May
following, sailed from St Michael's Cove, Sillery, to found at Montreal
the new colony. Monsieur Puiseaux accompanied M. de Maisonneuve, to take
part also in the auspicious event, but his age and infirmities compelled
Him soon after to return to France, where he died a few years
subsequently, and by his last will, executed at LaRochelle on the 21st
June, 1647, he bequeathed his Ste. Foye property to the support of the
future bishops of Quebec. "The walls of the Sillery Chapel," says the
historian of Canada previously quoted, "were still standing about thirty
years ago, and the foundations of this edifice, of the hospital and of the
missionary residency are still perceptible to the eye on the spot now
occupied by the offices and stores of Hy. LeMesurier, Esq., at the foot of
the hill, and opposite the residence of the Honourable Mr. Justice Caron."

"Amongst the French gentlemen of note who then owned lands at Sillery may
be mentioned. François de Chavigny, _sieur de Berchéreau qui_," adds
Abbé Ferland, "_occupait un rang élevé dans le colonie. En quelques
occasions, il fut chargé de remplacer le Gouverneur, lors que celui-ci
s'absentait de Québec_." Now, dear reader, let it be known to you that
you are to look with every species of respect on this worthy old denizen
of Sillery, he being, as the Abbé has elsewhere established beyond the
shadow of a doubt, not only the ancestor of several old families, such as
the Lagorgendières, the Rigaud de Vaudreuils and Tachereaus, but also one
of the ancestors of your humble servant the writer of these lines.

"The Sillery settlement contained during the winter of 1646-7, of Indians
only, about two hundred souls. Two roads led from Quebec to the
settlement, one the Grande Allée or St. Louis Road, the other the Cove
Road, skirting the beach. Two grist mills stood in the neighbourhood: one
on the St. Denis streamlet which crosses the Grande Allée road (from
Thornhill to Spencer Wood)--the dam seems to have been on the Spencer Wood
property. 'This mill, and the _fief_ on which it was built, belonged
to M. Juchereau,' one of the ancestors of the Duchesnays. 'Another mill
existed on the Bell Borne brook,' which crosses the main road, the
boundary between Spencer Grange and Woodfield. Any one visiting these two
streamlets during the August droughts will be struck with their
diminutiveness, compared to the time when they turned the two grist mills
two hundred years back: the clearing of the adjoining forests, whence they
take their source, may account for the metamorphosis."

The perusal of the Rev. Mr. Ferland's work brings us to another
occurrence, which, although foreign to the object of this sketch, deserves
notice:--

"The first horse [179] seen in Canada was landed from a French vessel
about the 20th June, 1647, and presented as a gift to His Excellency
Governor Montmagny." Another incident deserving of mention occurs under
date of 20th August, 1653. The Iroquois [180] surprised at Cap Rouge Rev.
Father J. Antoine Poncet and a peasant named Mathurin Tranchelot, and
carried them off to their country. For three days the rev. missionary was
subjected to every kind of indignity from the Indian children and every
one else. A child cut off one of the captive's fingers. He was afterwards,
with his companion, tied up during two nights, half suspended in the air;
this made both suffer horribly; burning coals were applied to their flesh.
Finally, the missionary was handed over to an old squaw; he shortly after
became free, and returned to Quebec on the 5th of November, 1653, to the
joy of everybody.

His comrade, Tranchelot, after having had his fingers burnt, was finally
consumed by fire on the 8th September, 1653. Such were some of the
thrilling incidents of daily occurrence at Sillery two centuries ago.

What with breaches of military etiquette by M. de Maisonneuve's colonists,
the ferocity of skulking Iroquois, and the scrapes their own neophytes
occasionally got into, the reverend fathers in charge of the Sillery
mission must now and again have had lively times, and needed, we would
imagine, the patience of Job, with the devotion of martyrs, to carry out
their benevolent views.

We read in history [181] how, on one Sunday morning in 1652, the Sillery
Indians being all at mass, a beaver skin was stolen from one of the wig-
wams, on which a council of the chiefs being called, it was decided that
the robbery had been committed by a Frenchman, [182] enough to justify the
young men to rush out and seize two Frenchmen then accidentally passing
by, and in no wise connected--as the Indians even admitted--with the
theft. The Indian youths were for instantly stripping the prisoners, in
order to compel the Governor of the colony to repair the injury suffered
by the loss of the peltry. One of them, more thoughtful than the rest,
suggested to refer the matter to the missionary father, informing him at
the same time that in cases of robbery it was the Indian custom to lay
hold of the first individual they met belonging to the family or nation of
the suspected robber, strip him of his property, and retain it until the
family or nation repaired the wrong. The father succeeded, by appealing to
them as Christians, to release the prisoners. Fortunately, the real thief,
who was not a Frenchman, became alarmed, and had the beaver skin restored.

Old writers of that day occasionally let us into quaint glimpses of a
churchman's tribulations in those primitive times. The historian Faillon
tells some strange things about Bishop Laval and Governor D'Argenson:
their squabble about holy bread. (_Histoire de la Colonie Française en
Canada_, vol. ii., p. 467.) At page 470, is an account of a country
girl, ordered to be brought to town by Bishop Laval and shut up in the
Hôtel-Dieu, she being considered under a spell, cast on her by a miller
whom she had rejected when he popped the question: the diabolical suitor
was jailed as a punishment. Champlain relates how a pugnacious parson was
dealt with by a pugnacious clergyman of a different persuasion respecting
some knotty controversial points. The arguments, however irresistible they
may have been, Champlain observes, were not edifying either to the savages
or to the French: "J'ay veu le ministre et nostre curé s'entre battre è
coup de poing sur le différend de la religion. Je ne scay pas qui estait
le plus vaillant et qui donnait le meilleur coup; mais je scay tres bien
que le ministre se plaignoit quelque fois au Sieur de Mons (Calviniste,
directeur de la compagnie) d'avoir ésté battu et vuoidoient en ceste
faccon les poincts de controverse. Je vois laisse à penser si cela éstait
beau à voir; les sauvages éstoient tantôt d'un côté, tantôt de l'autre, et
les François meslez selon leur diverse croyance, disaient pis que pendre
de l'une et de l'autre religion." The fighting parson had evidently caught
a tartar. However, this controversial sparring did _not_ take place at
Sillery.

The winter of 1666 was marked by a novel incident in the annals of the
settlement. On the 9th of January, [183] 1666, the Governor of the colony,
M. de Courcelles, with M. du Gas as second in command, and M. de Salampar,
a volunteer, together with two hundred colonists who had volunteered, and
three hundred soldiers of the dashing regiment of Carignan, [184] which
the viceroy, the proud Marquis de Tracy, had brought over from Europe,
after their return from their campaign in Hungary, sallied forth from the
capital on snow-shoes. A century and a half later one might have met, with
his gaudy state carriage and outriders, on that same road, another
viceroy--this time an English one, as proud, as fond of display, as the
Marquis de Tracy--with the Queen's Household Troops, the British
Grenadiers, and Coldstream Guards--the Earl of Durham, one of our ablest,
if not one of the most popular of our administrators. Let us now follow
the French Governor of 1666, heading his light-hearted soldiers along the
St. Louis road, all on snow-shoes, each man, His Excellency included,
carrying on his back from 25 to 30 lbs. of biscuit, &c. The little army is
bound towards the frontiers of New Holland (the State of New York) on a
900 miles' tramp (no railroads in those days), in the severest season of
the year, to chastise some hostile Indian tribes, after incorporating in
its ranks, during its march, the Three Rivers and Montreal reinforcements.
History tells of the intense suffering [185] experienced during the
expedition by these brave men, some of them more accustomed to Paris
_salons_ than to Canadian forest warfare on snow-shoes, with spruce
boughs and snow-drifts for beds. But let us not anticipate. We must be
content to accompany them on that day to the Sillery settlement, a march
quite sufficient for us degenerate Canadians of the nineteenth century.

Picture to yourself, our worthy friend, the hurry and scurry at the
Missionary residence on that day--with what zest the chilled warriors
crowd round the fires of the Indian wigwams, the number of pipes of peace
they smoked with the chiefs, the fierce love the gallant Frenchmen swore
to the blackeyed Montagnais and Algonquin houris of Sillery, whilst
probably His Excellency and staff were seated in the residency close by,
resorting to cordials and all those creature comforts to be found in
monasteries, not forgetting _Grande Chartreuse_, to restore circulation
through their benumbed frames!--How the reverend fathers showered down the
blessings of St. Michael, the patron saint of the parish, on the youth and
chivalry of France!--How the Sillery duennas, the _Capitainesses_, closely
watched the gallant sons of Mars lest some of them [186] should attempt to
induce their guileless neophytes to seek again the forest wilds, and roam
at large--the willing wives of white men!

We shall clip a page from Father Barthélémy Vimont's _Journal of the
Sillery Mission_, (Relations des Jesuits, 1643, pp. 12, 13, 14) an
authentic record, illustrative of the mode of living there; it will, we
are sure, gladden the heart even of an anchorite:--

"In 1643, the St. Joseph or Sillery settlement was composed of between
thirty-five and forty Indian families, who lived there the whole year
round except during the hunting season; other nomadic savages occasionally
tarried at the settlement to procure food, or to receive religious
instruction. That year there were yet but four houses built in the
European fashion; the Algonquins were located in that part of the village
close to the French residences; the Montagnais, on the opposite side; the
houses accommodate chiefs only, their followers reside in bark huts until
we can furnish proper dwellings for them all. In this manner was spent the
winter season of 1642-3, the French ships left the St Lawrence for France
on the 7th October, 1642; a period of profound quiet followed. Our Indians
continued to catch eels, (this catch begins in September)--a providential
means of subsistence during winter. The French settlers salt their eels,
the Indians smoke theirs to preserve them. The fishing having ended about
the beginning of November, they removed their provisions to their houses,
when thirteen canoes of Atichamegues Indians arrived, the crews requesting
permission to winter there and be instructed in the Christian religion.
They camped in the neighborhood of the Montagnais, near to Jean Baptiste,
the chief or captain of these savages, and placed themselves under the
charge of Father Buteux, who undertook to christianize both, whilst Father
Dequen superintended the religious welfare of the Algonquins. Each day all
the Indians attended regularly to mass, prayers, and religious
instruction. Catechism is taught to the children, and the smartest amongst
them receive slight presents to encourage them, such as knives, bread,
beads, hats, sometimes a hatchet for the biggest boys. Every evening
Father Dequen calls at every hut and summons the inmates to evening
prayers at the chapel. The _Hospitalières_ nuns also perform their
part in the pious work; Father Buteux discharged similar duties amongst
the Montagnais and Atichamegues neophytes. The Atichamegues have located
themselves on a small height back of Sillery. 'When the Reverend Father
visits them each evening, during the prevalence of snow storms, he picks
his way in the forest, lantern in hand, but sometimes losing his footing,
he rolls down the hill.' Thus passed for the Sillery Indians, the early
portion of the winter. In the middle of January they all came and located
themselves about a quarter of a league from Quebec, to make tobogins and
began the first hunt, which lasted about three weeks. Each day they
travelled a quarter of a league to Quebec to attend mass, generally at the
chapel of the Ursuline Convent, where Father Buteux and also the nuns
instructed them. In February they sought the deep woods to hunt the
moose." "On my return to Sillery," adds Father Vimont, "twelve or thirteen
infirm old Indians, women and children, who had been left behind, followed
me to the Hospital, where we had to provide for them until the return, at
Easter, of the hunting party."

Whilst the savage hordes were being thus reclaimed from barbarism at
Sillery, a civilized community a few hundred miles to the east of it were
descending to the level of savages. We read in Hutchinson's _History of
Massachusetts Bay_, of our Puritan brethren of Boston, occasionally
roasting defenceless women for witchcraft; thus perished, in 1645,
Margaret Jones; and a few years after, in 1656, Mrs. Ann Hibbens, the lady
of a respectable Boston merchant. Christians cutting one another's throats
for the love of God. O, civilization, where is thy boast!

During the winter of 1656-7, Sillery contained, of Indians alone, about
two hundred souls.

Let us now sum up the characteristics of the Sillery of ancient days in a
few happy words, borrowed from the _Notes_ [187] published in 1855 on
that locality, by the learned Abbé Ferland.

"A map of Quebec by Champlain exhibits, about a league above the youthful
city, a point jutting out into the St. Lawrence, and which is covered with
Indian wigwams. Later on this point received the name of Puiseaux, from
the first owner of the Fief St. Michael, bounded by it to the southwest.
[188] On this very point at present stands the handsome St. Columba
church, surrounded by a village." [189]

"Opposite to it is the Lauzon shore, with its river _Bruyante_ [190]
(the 'Etchemin'), its shipyards, its numerous shipping, the terminus of
the Grand Trunk Railway; the villages and churches of Notre Dame de Lévis,
St. Jean Chrysostôme and Saint Romuald. To your right and to your left the
St. Lawrence is visible for some twelve or fifteen miles, covered with
inward and outward bound ships. Towards the east the landscape is closed
by Cap Tourment, twelve leagues distant, and by the cultivated heights of
the _Petite Montagne_ of St. Féréol, exhibiting in succession the
_Côte de Beaupré_, (Beauport), (L'Ange Gardien, &c.) the green slopes
of the Island of Orleans, Cape Diamond, crowned with its citadel, and
having at its feet a forest of masts, Abraham's Plains, the Coves and
their humming, busy noises, St. Michael's Coves forming a graceful curve
from Wolfe's cove to Pointe à Puiseaux. Within this area thrilling events
once took place, and round these diverse objects historical souvenirs
cluster, recalling some of the most important occurrences in North
America; the contest of two powerful nations for the sovereignty of the
New World; an important episode of the revolution which gave birth to the
adjoining Republic. Such were some of the events of which these localities
were the theatre. Each square inch of land, in fact, was measured by the
footsteps of some of the most remarkable men in the history of America:
Jacques Cartier, Champlain, Frontenac, Laval, Phipps, d'Iberville, Wolfe,
Montcalm, Arnold, Montgomery, have each of them, at some time or other,
trod over this expanse.

"Close by, in St. Michael's Cove, M. de Maisonneuve and Mademoiselle Mance
passed their first Canadian winter, with the colonists intended to found
Montreal. Turn your eyes towards the west, and although the panorama is
less extensive, still it awakens some glorious memories. At Cap Rouge,
Jacques Cartier established his quarters, close to the river's edge, the
second winter he spent in Canada, and was succeeded in that spot by
Roberval, at the head of his ephemeral colony. Near the entrance of the
Chaudière river stood the tents of the Abnoquiois, the Etchemins and the
Souriquois Indians, when they came from the shores of New England to smoke
the calumet of peace with their brethren the French; the river Chaudière
in those days was the highway which connected their country with Canada.
Closer to Pointe à Puiseaux is Sillery Cove where the Jesuit Fathers were
wont to assemble and instruct the Algonquin and Montagnais Indians, who
were desirous of becoming Christians. It was from that spot that the
neophytes used to carry the faith to the depths of the forest; it was here
that those early apostles of Christianity congregated before starting with
the joyous message for the country of the Hurons, for the shores of the
Mississippi, or for the frozen regions of Hudson's Bay. From thence went
Father P. Druilletes, the bearer of words of peace on behalf of the
Christians of Sillery, to the Abnoquiois of Kennebeki, and to the puritans
of Boston. Near this same mission of Sillery, Friar Liégeois was massacred
by the Iroquois, whilst Father Poncet was carried away a captive by these
barbarous tribes.

"Monsieur de Sillery devoted large sums to erect the necessary edifices
for the mission, such as a chapel, a missionary residence, an hospital, a
fort, houses for the new converts, together with the habitations for the
French. The D'Auteuil family had their country seat on the hill back of
Pointe à Puiseaux; and the venerable Madame de Monceau, the mother-in-law
of the Attorney-General Ruette D'Auteuil, was in the habit of residing
there from time to time, in a house she had constructed near the chapel."

In 1643, Father Bressani having been taken prisoner by the Iroquois, and
having heard them discuss a plan to seize on the white maidens of Sillery
(such were the names the Nuns went by); wrote it on some bark, which a
Huron Indian having found, took it to Governor Montmagny. The Governor
then organized a guard of six soldiers, who each day relieved one another
at Sillery, to watch over the village--the incursions of the savages
increasing, the soldiers refused to remain any longer, and Governor
Montmagny gave the Hospitalières the use of a small house on the beach of
the river in the lower town. (Hist. de l'Hôtel-Dieu, p. 50.)

Francis Parkman furnishes interesting details of the arrival of Piesharit,
a famous Indian chief, at Sillery in 1645, and of a grand council held by
deMontmagny, in the Jesuits House, which exists to this day, probably the
oldest structure of the kind in Canada, dating from 1637.

"As the successful warriors approached the little mission settlement of
Sillery, immediately above Quebec, they raised their song of triumph and
beat time with their paddles on the edges of their canoes; while, from
eleven poles raised aloft, eleven fresh scalps fluttered in the wind. The
Father Jesuit and all his flock were gathered on the strand to welcome
them. The Indians fired three guns, and screeched in jubilation; one Jean
Baptiste, a Christian chief of Sillery, made a speech from the shore;
Pisharet repeated, standing upright in his canoe, and to crown the
occasion, a squad of soldiers, marching in haste from Quebec, fired a
salute of musketry, to the boundless delight of the Indians. Much to the
surprise of the two captives, there was no running of the gauntlet, no
gnawing off of finger-nails or cutting off of fingers; but the scalps were
hung, like little flags, over the entrance of the lodges, and all Sillery
betook itself to feasting and rejoicing. One old woman, indeed, came to
the Jesuit with a pathetic appeal. "Oh, my father! let me caress these
prisoners a little: they have killed, burned, and eaten my father, my
husband and my children." But the missionary answered with a lecture on
the duty of forgiveness.

On the next day, Montmagny came to Sillery and there was a grand council
in the house of the Jesuits. Pisharet, in a solemn harangue, delivered his
captives to the Governor, who replied with a speech of compliment and an
ample gift. The two Iroquois, were present, seated with a seeming
imperturbability, but great anxiety of heart; and when at length they
comprehended that their lives were safe, one of them, a man of great size
and symmetry, rose and addressed Montmagny." [191]

It would be indeed a pleasant and easy task to recall all the remarkable
events which occurred in this neighborhood. One thing is certain, the cool
retreats studding the shores of the St. Lawrence were equally sought for
by the wealthy in those days as they have been since by all those who wish
to breathe pure air and enjoy the scenery.

The Sillery settlement commenced to be deserted about the beginning of the
last century. After the cession of Canada the care of the buildings was
neglected, and they soon fell to ruins; but the residence of the
missionary fathers was preserved, and the ruins of the other structures
remained standing long enough to be susceptible of identification with
certainty. Several of the old inhabitants recollect having seen the church
walls demolished, and they were of great solidity. Abbé Ferland himself,
twenty years ago, saw a portion of those walls standing above ground. The
ruins of the hospital and the convent were razed about fifty years ago,
and in demolishing them several objects were discovered, some of which
must have belonged to the good ladies, the _Hospitalières_ nuns.

For the benefit of those who might feel inclined to explore the remaining
vestiges of M. Sillery's foundation, I shall furnish some details on the
locality. About the centre of Sillery Cove can be seen a cape, not very
high, but with its sides perpendicular. The position of surrounding
objects point it out as the spot on which stood the fort intended to
protect the village; there also, in a dry soil, stood the cemetery, from
which several bodies were exhumed in the course of last summer (1854) At
the foot of the cape, on your left, is the missionaries' house now
converted into a residence for the clerks of Messrs. E. R. Dobell & Co.
This building has been kept in repair, and is still in a good state of
preservation. In a line with it, and nearest the St. Lawrence, can be
discovered the foundation of the church. This edifice stood north-east and
south-west.

Near the wall closest to the river ran a spring of water, perfectly clear,
and, no doubt, used for the wants of the church and of the presbytery.
Several other streams of excellent water run down the hill and intersect
the grounds in all directions. No misconception can exist as to where the
chapel stood, as there are still (in 1855) living several persons who saw
the walls standing, and can point out the foundations which have since
been identified and enclosed by stone pillars and chains. To the right of
the small cape, and on a line with the chapel, stood the hospital, now
deserted for more than two centuries. Over its foundation an elm has
grown,--'tis now a handsome and large tree; six feet from the ground its
circumference measures two fathoms (12 feet), which makes its diameter
about three and a half. Heriot thus describes the locality in 1806:--

"From hence to Cap Rouge the scenery, on account of its beauty and
variety, attracts the attention of the passenger. At Sillery, a league
from Quebec, on the north shore, are the ruins of an establishment which
was begun in 1637, intended as a religious institution for the conversion
and instruction of natives of the country; it was at one time inhabited by
twelve French families. The buildings are placed upon level ground,
sheltered by steep banks, and close by the borders of the river; they now
only consist of two old stone houses, fallen to decay, and of the remains
of a small chapel (the chapel has of late been repaired and fitted up for
a malt house, and some of the other buildings have been converted into a
brewery). [192] In this vicinity the Algonquins once had a village;
several of their tumuli, or burying places, are still discoverable in the
woods, and hieroglyphics cut on the trees remain, in some situations, yet
unaffected." [193]

On the 6th June, 1865, we determined to afford ourselves a long-promised
treat, and go and survey, with Abbé Ferland's _Notes on Sillery_ open
before us, and also the help of that eminently respected authority in
every parish, the "oldest inhabitant," the traces of the Sillery
settlement of 1637. Nor had we long to wait before obtaining ocular
demonstration of the minute exactitude with which our old friend, the
Abbé, had investigated and measured every stone, every crumbling remain of
brick and mortar. The first and most noticeable relic pointed out was the
veritable house of the missionaries, facing the St. Lawrence, on the north
side of the road, on Sillery Cove; it was the property of the late Henry
Le Mesurier, Esquire, of Beauvoir. Were it in the range of possible events
that the good fathers could revisit the scene of their past apostolical
labours and view their former earthly tenement, hard would be the task to
identify it. The heavy three-feet-thick wall is there yet, as perfect, as
massive, as defiant as ever; the pointed gable and steep roof, in spite of
alterations, still stands--the true index of an old French structure in
Canada. Our forefathers seemed as if they never could make the roof of a
dwelling steep enough, doubtless to prevent the accumulation of snow. But
here ends all analogy with the past; so jaunty, so cosy, so modern does
the front and interior of Sillery "Manor House" look--thus styled for many
years past. Paint, paper and furniture have made it quite a snug abode.
Nor was it without a certain peculiar feeling of reverence we, for the
first time, crossed that threshold, and entered beneath those fortress-
like walls, where for years had resounded the orisons of the Jesuit
Fathers, the men from whose ranks were largely recruited our heroic band
of early martyrs--some of whose dust, unburied, but not unhonoured, has
mingled for two centuries with its parent earth on the green banks of Lake
Simcoe, on the borders of the Ohio, in the environs of Kingston, Montreal,
Three Rivers, Quebec--a fruitful seed of christianity scattered
bountifully through the length and breadth of our land; others, whose
lifeless clay still rests in yon sunny hillock in the rear, to the west of
the "Manor House"--the little cemetery described by Abbé Ferland. Between
the "Manor House" and the river, about forty feet from the house,
inclining towards the south, are the remains of the foundation walls of
the Jesuit's church or chapel, dating back to 1640. On the 13th June,
1657, fire made dreadful havoc in the residence of the Jesuits
(_Relations_, for 1657, p. 26); they stand north-east and south-west,
and are at present flush with the greensward; a large portion of them were
still visible about thirty-five years ago, as, attested by many living
witnesses; they were converted into ballast for ships built at this spot,
and into materials for repairing the main road by some Vandal who will
remain nameless. From the Manor House you notice the little cape to the
south-west mentioned in Abbé Ferland's _Notes_, though growing smaller and
smaller every year from the quantities of soil and stone taken from it,
also to repair the road. The large elm pointed out by the Abbé as having
grown over the spot where the hospital stood is there yet, a majestic
tree. The selection of a site for the little cemetery is most judicious,
several little streams from the heights in the rear filter through the
ground, producing a moisture calculated to prevent decomposition and
explanatory of the singular appearance of the bodies disinterred there in
1855. Every visitor will be struck with the beauty, healthiness and
shelter which this sequestered nook at Sillery presents for a settlement,
and with its adaptability for the purposes for which it was chosen, being
quite protected against our two prevailing winds, the north-east and
south-west, with a warm southern exposure.

Many years after the opening of the Algonquin and Montagnais school at
Sillery, the Huron Indians, after being relentlessly tracked by their
inveterate foes, the Five Nations, divided into five detachments; one of
these hid on the Great Manitoulin Island, others elsewhere; a portion came
down to Quebec on the 26th July, 1650, [194] under the direction of Father
Ragueneau, and, on the 28th July, 1650, settled first on the Jesuits land
at Beauport; in March, 1651, they went to _Ance du Fort_, on the lands of
Mademoiselle de Grandmaison, on the Island of Orleans. But the Iroquois
having scented their prey in their new abode, made a raid on the island,
butchered seventy-one of them, and carried away some prisoners. The
unfortunate redskins soon left the Island in dismay, and for protection,
encamped in the city of Quebec itself, under the cannon of the fort,
constructed by Governor d'Aillebout to receive them, near the Jesuits
College (at Cote de St. Michel); in 1667, they settled on the northerly
frontier of Sillery, [195] in Notre Dame de Foy [now St. Foye]; restless
and scared, they again shifted they quarters on the 29th December, 1693,
and pitched their erratic tents at Ancienne Lorette, which place they also
abandoned many years afterwards to go and settle at _Jeune_ or Indian
Lorette, where the remnants of this once warlike race [196] (the _nobles_
amongst Indian tribes) exist, now crossed with their Caucasian brethren,
and vegetate in obscurity--exotic trees transplanted far from their native
wilds.

Shall we venture to assert that Sillery equals in size some of the German
principalities, and that, important though it be, like European dynasties,
it has had its periods of splendor succeeded by eras of medieval
obscurity. From 1700 down to the time of the conquest, we appeal in vain
to the records of the past for any historical event connected with it;
everywhere reigns supreme a Cimmerian darkness. But if the page of history
is silent, the chronicles of the _ton_ furnish some tit-bits of drawing-
room chit-chat. Thus, as stated in Hawkins' celebrated _Historical Picture
of Quebec_, [197] the northern portion of the parish skirting the St. Foye
road "was the favorite drive of the Canadian belle." In these few words,
of Hawkins is involved an intricate question for the salons, a problem to
solve, more abstruse than the one which agitated the Grecian cities
respecting the birth of Homer. Who then was the Canadian Belle of former
days? The Nestors of the present generation still speak with admiration of
a fascinating stranger who, close to the end of the last century, used to
drive on the St. Foye road, when a royal duke lived in the city, in what
is now styled "The Kent House," on St. Louis street. The name of this
distinguished traveller, a lady of European birth, was Madame St. Laurent;
but, kind reader, have patience. The Canadian belle who thus enjoyed her
drives in the environs of Quebec was not Madame St. Laurent, as it is
distinctly stated at page 170 of Hawkins that this occurred before the
conquest, viz., 1759. Might it have been that vision of female loveliness,
that spotless and beautiful Mrs. De Léry, whose presentation at court,
with her handsome husband, shortly after the conquest, elicited from His
Majesty George III. the expression which history has preserved, "If such
are all my new Canadian subjects, I have indeed made a conquest;" or must
we picture to ourselves as the Canadian belle that peerless beauty, that
witty and aspiring Madame Hughes Pean, Intendant Bigot's fair charmer,
mysteriously hinted at, in all the old Quebec guide books, as "Mrs.
P----." Madame Hughes Pean, [198] whose husband was Town Major of Quebec,
owned a seigniory in the vicinity of the city--some say at St. Vallier,
where Mons Pean used to load with corn the vessels he dispatched
elsewhere; she also was one of the gay revellers at the romantic
Hermitage, Bigot's shooting lodge at Charlesbourg. Old memoirs seem to
favour this version. Be this as it may the St. Foy road was a favorite
drive even a century before the present day; so says Hawkins' historical
work on Quebec--no mean authority, considering that the materials thereof
were furnished by that accomplished scholar and eminent barrister, the
late Andrew Stuart, father of the present Judge Stuart, and compiled by
the late Dr. John Charlton Fisher, one of the able joint editors of the
New York _Albion_, and father of Mrs. Ed. Burstall, late of Sillery. Who
was the reigning belle in 1759, we confess that all our antiquarian lore
has failed to satisfactorily unravel. The battles of 1759 and 1760 have
rendered Sillery, St. Foye, and the Plains of Abraham classic ground. The
details of these events, having appeared elsewhere, [199] the reader is
referred to them.

Those of the present day desirous to ascertain the exact spot in the
environs of Quebec where past events have taken place, ought to be careful
not to be misled by subsequent territorial divisions for municipal or
canonical purposes. Many may not be aware that our forefathers included
under the denomination of Abraham's Heights that plateau of comparatively
level ground extending in a south-easterly direction from the _Coteau
Ste. Geneviève_ towards the lofty banks which line the River St.
Lawrence, covering the greatest part of the land on which subsequently
have been built the St. Lewis and St. John's suburbs, the hilly portion
towards the city and river, where stands the Asile Champêtre; thence
south-east, being then called Buttes à Nepveu; the land close by, between
the Plains and Pointe à Puiseaux, as Côte St. Michael; the ascent from the
valley of the St. Charles towards this plateau was through the hill known
as Côte d'Abraham. The locality afterwards known as Woodfield and Spencer
Wood, in the fief of St. Michael, was designated as the wood of Sames,
thus called after a celebrated French ecclesiastic of Quebec, Bishop
Dosquet, who owned there a country seat in 1753--then known as Sames--
later on, as Woodfield. To the west lay the Gomin Wood--which had taken
its name from a French botanist, Dr. Gomin, who had located himself on
land on which it is said, Coulonge Cottage was subsequently built in order
to study the Flora of Sillery, which is very varied and rich.

The old Sillery settlement, which lay within the limits of the parish of
Ste. Foye, was, in 1855, placed under the distinguished tutelage of a
Saint, dear to those who hail from the Emerald Isle, and called St.
Columba of Sillery. Thus the realms heretofore sacred to the Archangel,
St. Michael and to St. Joseph, have peaceably passed under the gentle sway
of St. Columba, despite the law of prescription. The British residents of
Sillery--and this ought to console sticklers for English precedents and
the sacredness of vested rights--did not permit the glory of the Archangel
to depart, and soon after the erection of St. Columbia into a parish, the
handsome temple of worship called St. Michael's church, came into
existence. [200]


_OUR COUNTRY SEATS._

In the preceding paper a general sketch has been attempted of that portion
of the St. Lawrence highlands adjoining Quebec to the west--a locality
remarkable for the numerous residences it contains of "the nobility of
commerce," as a contemporary facetiously styles our merchants. We shall,
in the following go over a great portion of the same ground, delineating,
first the land area west of Quebec proper, where was fought the battle of
the 13th Sept., 1759, _the Plains or Abraham_, and next detail,
specifically, the most attractive of these country residences, enlarging
our canvass, however, so as to comprise also descriptions of rural homes
beyond the limits of Sillery. Many other abodes we would also desire to
take in these pages, but space precludes it. It is hoped we won't be
misunderstood in our literary project: far is it from our intention to
write a panegyric of individuals or a paean to success, although sketches
of men or domestic recollections may frequently find their place in the
description of their abodes. No other desire prompted us but that of
attempting to place prominently before the public the spots with which
history or nature has more specially enriched Quebec. Quebecers ought to
be proud of their scenery and of the historical ivy which clings to the
old walls of Stadacona. Neighbouring cities may grow vast with brick and
mortar; their commerce may advance with the stride of a young giant; their
citizens may sit in high places among the sons of men, but can they ever
compare with our own fortress for historical memories or beautiful
scenery? We shall assign the first place to the mansion which still crowns
the Montmorenci Falls, once the abode of the father of our Sovereign; we
shall then view the residences on the St. Lewis road in succession, then
those along the St. Foy road, and finally close this paper with the
description of other remarkable spots in the neighborhood of Quebec.--
Lorette, Château Bigot, Montmorency Falls, Chaudière Falls.


_THE PLAINS OF ABRAHAM._

    "Aux plaines d'Abraham, rendez-vous des batailles, revenez voir ces
    lieux, oh! revenez encore, officiers du _Grand Roi_, revenez tous
    aussi, La Barre, Frontenac, Denonville, Tracy! alignez vous, soldats,
    Carignan et Guienne, appuyez, Languedoc et Béarn et la Reine."--
    _Alp. de Puibusque_.

   "Among modern Battle-fields," says Col. (now Lt. General) Beatson,
    "none surpass in romantic interest the Plains or Heights of Abraham."

No Quebecer would have the hardihood to challenge the assertion of this
able engineer officer, stationed here from 1849 to 1854, and who spared
neither time nor pains, with the assistance of our historians and
antiquarians, Ferland, Faribault and McGuire, to collect authentic
information on this subject. Col. Beatson compiled a volume of historical
notes, which he published in 1858, when stationed at Gibraltar. [201]

The Plains of Abraham will ever be famous, as having witnessed, more than
one century back, the deadly encounter of the then two leading nations of
Europe--England and France--to decide the fate of Canada--one might say
(by the series of events it led to) the destinies of North America.

Of this mighty duel, which crimsoned with human gore these fields one
murky September morning, in 1759--Smollett, Carlyle, Bancroft, Hawkins,
Smith, Garneau, Ferland, Miles and other historians have vied with one
another to furnish a graphic account. Of the origin of the name, none
until lately could tell.

    "Notwithstanding," adds Col. Beatson, "the world-like celebrity of
    these Plains, it was not until very recently that the derivation of
    their name was discovered; and as it is comparatively unknown, even in
    Canada, the following explanation of its origin will doubtless possess
    attractions for such as are fond of tracing to their sources the names
    of celebrated localities, and who may be surprised to learn that
    upwards of a century previous to the final conquest of Canada by the
    British arms, the scene of the decisive struggle for national
    supremacy in the northern division of the New World had derived its
    name from one who, if not a Scotchman by birth, would seem to have
    been of Scottish lineage. This apparently improbable fact will,
    however, appear less extraordinary when it is known that he was a sea-
    faring man; and when it is considered how close was the alliance and
    how frequent the intercourse which, for centuries before that period,
    had subsisted between France and Scotland.

    "This individual, whose name was Abraham Martin, is described in a
    legal document, dated the 15th August, 1646, and preserved among the
    archives of the Bishop's Palace, at Quebec, as (the King's) Pilot of
    the St. Lawrence; an appointment which probably conferred on its
    possessor considerable official rank; for we find that Jacques
    Quartier, or Cartier, the enterprising discoverer and explorer of the
    St. Lawrence, when about to proceed in 1540, on his third voyage to
    Canada, was appointed by Francis I, Captain General and Master Pilot
    of the expedition which consisted of four vessels.

    "That Martin was a person of considerable importance in the then
    infant colony of New France may also be inferred from the fact that,
    in the journal of the Jesuits and in the parish register of Quebec, he
    is usually designated by his Christian name only, Maître Abraham; as
    well as from the circumstance of Champlain, the distinguished founder
    of Quebec and father of New France, having been god-father to one of
    Abraham's daughters (Hélène) and of Charles de St. Etienne, Sieur de
    la Tour, of Acadian celebrity, having stood in the same relation to
    Martin's youngest son, Charles Amador.

    "The earliest mention of Martin's name occurs in the first entry of
    the parish register of Quebec, viz., on, the 24th of October, 1621;
    when his son Eustache, who died shortly afterwards, was baptized by
    father Denis, a Franciscan Friar. The second baptism therein recorded
    is that of his daughter Marguerite, which took place in 1624; and it
    is stated in the register that these children were born of the
    legitimate marriage of Abraham Martin surnamed or usually known as
    _the Scot_ ("dict l'Ecossois.") Their family was numerous; besides
    Anne and other children previously to the opening of the register in
    1621, the baptism of the following are therein recorded:--

      Eustache,................ \           / 1621.
      Marguerite,.............. |           | 1624.
      Marie,................... |           | 1627.
      Adrien,.................. |  Born in  | 1635.
      Madelaine,............... |           | 1640.
      Barbe (Barbara),......... |           | 1643.
      Charles Amador,.......... /           \ 1648.

    who was the second Canadian raised to the priesthood, and became a
    canon at the erection of the chapter of Quebec."

As the reader will observe there is nothing to connect the Plains with
that of the patriarch of Genesis. Nay, though our Scotch friend owned a
family patriarchal in extent, on referring to The Jesuits' Journal we
find, we regret to way, at page 120 an Entry, according to which the
"Ancient Mariner" seems to have been very summarily dealt with; in fact
committed to prison for a delinquency involving the grossest immorality.
The appellation of Plains of Abraham was formerly given by our historians
to that extensive plateau stretching from the city walls to the Sillery
Wood, bounded to the north by the heights of land overhanging the valley
of the St. Charles, and to the south by the _coin du cap_ overlooking
the St. Lawrence, whose many indentures form coves or timber berths, for
storing square timber, &c., studded with deep water wharves.

The hill in St. John suburbs or ascent leading up from the valley of the
St. Charles, where St. Roch has since been built to the table-land above,
was from time immemorial known as COTE D'ABRAHAM, Abraham's Hill. Why did
it bear that name?

On referring to the Parish Register of Quebec, from 1621 to 1700, one
individual seems to have borne the name of Abraham, and that person is
Abraham Martin, to whom under the appellation of _Maître_ Abraham,
repeated reference is made both in the Register and the Jesuits' Journal.

Abraham Martin, according to the documents quoted by Col. Beatson, owned
in two separate lots--one of twenty and the other of twelve
_arpents_--thirty-two _arpents_ of land, covering, as appears by the
subjoined Plan or Diagram copied from his work, a great portion of the
site on which St. John and St. Louis Suburbs have since been erected.
Abraham's property occupied, it would seem, a portion of the area--the
northern section--which, for a long period, also went under the name of
Abraham's Plains. It adjoined other land of the Ursuline Ladies then owned
on _Côteau St. Louis_, closer to the city, when 1667, [202] it was
purchased by them; at that time, the whole tract, according to Col.
Beatson, went under the general name of Plains of Abraham. Such appear to
be the results of recent researches on this once very obscure question.


_THE BATTLE FIELD._

Two highways, lined with country seats, forest trees or cornfields run
parallel, at a distance varying from one to half a mile, leading into
Quebec: the _Grande Allée_, or St. Louis and the Ste. Foye road. They
intersect from east to west the expanse, nine miles in length, from _Cap
Rouge_ to the city. These well known chief arteries of travel were solidly
macadamized in 1841. At the western point, looms out the oak and pine clad
cliffs of a lofty cape--_Cap Rouge_ or _Redclyffe_. Here wintered, in
1541-2, the discoverer of Canada, Cartier and his followers, here, in
1543-4, his celebrated follower, Roberval, seems also to have sojourned
during the dreary months of winter.

A small stream, at the foot of the cape, meanders in a north westerly
direction through St. Augustin and neighbouring parishes, forming a deep
valley all around the cape. The conformation of the land has led
geologists to infer that, at some remote period, the plateau, extending to
Quebec, must have been surrounded on all sides by water, the _Cap Rouge_
stream and St. Charles being the outlets on the west, north and east. This
area increases in altitude until it reaches the lofty summit of Cape
Diamond, its eastern boundary. Nature itself seems to have placed these
rugged heights as an insurmountable barrier to invasion from the St.
Lawrence. With the walls, bastion and heavy city guns; with artillery in
position on the _Cap Rouge_ promontory; cavalry patrolling the Sillery
heights; a numerous army on the only accessible portion of the coast--
Beauport, Quebec, if succoured in time, was tolerably safe; so thought
some of the French engineers, though not Montcalm.

    "The two engagements," says Chauveau, "that of the 15th September,
    1759, and that of the 28th of April, 1760, occupied nearly all the
    plateau hereinbefore described. The first, however, it would seem, was
    fought chiefly on the St. Louis road, whilst the second took place on
    the Ste. Foye road. Each locality has its monument, one erected in the
    honour of Wolfe, on the identical spot where he fell; the other in
    1855, to commemorate the glorious fate of the combatants of 1760,
    where the carnage was the thickest, viz: on the site where stood
    Dumont's mill (a few yards to the east of the dwelling of J. W.
    Dunscomb, Esq.)

    "The victory of 1759 was a fitting reward of Wolfe's valour, punished
    the infamies of the Bigot _régime_ and withdrew Canada from the
    focus of the terrible chastisement which awaited France soon after--in
    the Reign of Terror--for her impiety and immorality. The victory of
    April, 1760, was a comforting incident--a species of compensation to a
    handful of brave and faithful colonists, for the crushing disaster
    which had befallen their cause, the preceding September. It was the
    crowning--though bootless victory--to the recent brilliant, but
    useless success of the French arms at Carillon, Monongahela, Fort
    George, Ticonderoga, Beauport Flats. It was, moreover, the last title,
    added to numerous others, to the esteem and respect of their
    conquerors."

Of the second battle of the Plains, that of 28th April 1760, called by
some writers "The battle of Ste. Foye," by others "The battle of Sillery
Wood," so bloody in its results, so protracted in its duration, we have in
_Garneau's History_ the first complete account, the historian Smith
having glossed over with striking levity this "French victory." The loss
of the rival Generals, at the battle of the Plains, of September, 1759,
though an unusual incident in warfare, was not without precedent Generals
Braddock and DeBeaujeu in 1755, had both sealed on the battlefield their
devotion to their country with their blood on the shores of the
Monongahela, in Ohio; in this case as in that of Wolfe and Montcalm, he
whose arms were to prevail, falling first.

In 1759, everything conspired to transform this conflict into an important
historical event. Even after the lapse of a century, one sometimes is fain
to believe, it sums up all which Europe recollects of primitive Canada.
The fall of Quebec did not merely bring to a close the fierce rivalry of
France and England in America. It lent an immense prestige to Great
Britain, by consolidating her maritime supremacy over France--a supremacy
she then so highly prized. The event, after the discouraging news which
had prevailed, was heralded all over England by the ringing of the bells,
and public thanksgiving. Bonfires blazed through the length and breadth of
the land, it was a national victory which King, Peers and Commons could
not sufficiently extol, and still what has been the ultimate result? By
removing the French power from Canada--the only counterpoise to keep down
the restless and thriving New England colonies, New England, from being
strong got to be defiant. The surrender of Canada hastened the American
Revolution. The rule of Britain soon ceased to exist in the New England
Provinces; and later on, in 1810, by the abrogation of the right of search
on the high seas, her maritime supremacy became a dead letter. As Mr.
Chauveau has remarked, "if the independence of America meant the lessening
of the British prestige, it remains yet to be proved that France has
benefitted thereby."

How much of these momentous changes can be traced to the incidents
(perhaps the treason of Bigot), [203] which made the scale of victory
incline to British valour on the 13th of September, 1759!

Those desirous of obtaining a full account of the two battles of the
Plains are referred among other works, to "Quebec Past and Present." I
shall merely borrow from Col. Beatson's very rare volume details not to be
found in the ordinary histories.

    "It has," says Col Beatson, "been alleged that Montcalm in hastening
    to meet the British on an open plain, and thereby to decide in a
    single battle, the fate of a fertile Province nearly equal in extent
    to one-half of Europe, was not only forgetful of his usual caution,
    but acted with culpable temerity."

    Such action, however, proceeded from no sudden impulse, but from a
    noble resolve deliberately formed after the most mature consideration
    and recorded some time previously.

    Painfully convinced how little security the weak defences of the city
    could afford against the determined assault of well disciplined and
    ably led troops, he believed that however great the risk of meeting
    his daring adversary in the open field, this course was the only one
    that seemed to promise him any chance of success. Besides, he had a
    force numerically [204] superior to that of the English General, could
    he have concentrated them at one spot. Bougainville with the flower of
    the French army, the grenadiers and volunteers, 3,000 strong,
    according to professor Dussieux, was at Cap Rouge, six miles from the
    battlefield and took no part in the fight, having arrived there more
    than one hour after the fate of Canada was decided. 1,500 men had been
    left at the Beauport camp to repel the feint by Admiral Saunders'
    ships, on the morning of the 13 Sept., 1759. The Charlesbourg, Lorette
    and Beauport militia had been granted leave to return home that week,
    to look after their harvest: a curious coincidence.

    The French army was as follows, viz:
  Left  | The Royal Roussillon Regiment, a battalion  Regulars. Militia.
  Wing  | of the marines, or colony troops, and
        | Canadian militia...........................    1,300    2,300
  Centre.--The Regiments of Béarn and militia. ......      720    1,200
  Right | The Regiments of La Sarre and Languedoc,
  Wing  | a battalion of the marine, and militia.....    1,600      400
                                                         -----    -----
                                                         3,620    3,900

    Wolfe's _field-state_ on the morning of the 13th September, showed
    only 4,828 men of all ranks, from the General downwards; but of these
    every man was a trained soldier.

    And within little more than an hour's march from the Plains, he could
    not honourably have remained inactive while believing that only a part
    of the enemy's force was in possession of such vantage ground; and
    neither the dictates of prudence [205] nor his own chivalrous spirit
    and loyal regard for the national honour, would permit him to betray a
    consciousness of weakness by declining the combat, on finding himself
    unexpectedly confronted by the whole of Wolfe's army. Relying,
    doubtless, on the prestige of his victories during the campaign of the
    proceeding year (1758) in which he had been uniformly successful, and
    in which at Ticonderoga, with four thousand men he had defeated
    General Abercromby at the head of nearly four times that number--he
    endeavoured by a confident bearing and encouraging expressions [206]
    to animate his troops with hopes which he himself could scarcely
    entertain; and though almost despairing of success, boldly resolved to
    attempt, by a sudden and vigorous onset, to dislodge his rival before
    the latter could intrench himself in his commanding position, and it
    is surely no blot on his fame that the superior discipline and
    unflinching steadiness of his opponents, the close and destructive
    volley [207] by which the spirited but disorderly advance of his
    battalions was checked, and the irresistible [208] charge which
    completed their confusion, rendered unavailing his gallant effort to
    save the colony; for (to borrow the words of the eloquent historian of
    the _Peninsular War_), "the vicissitudes of war are so many that
    disappointment will sometimes attend the wisest combinations; and a
    ruinous defeat, the work of chance close the career of the boldest and
    most sagacious of Generals, so that to judge a commander's conduct by
    the event alone is equally unjust and unphilosophical."

    In the remarkable letter said to have been addressed to his cousin, M.
    de Molé, _Président au Parlement de Paris_, and dated _from the camp
    before Quebec, 22nd August_, 1759,"--a fortnight before the battle--
    MONTCALM thus pathetically describes how hopeless would be the
    situation in the event of WOLFE effecting a landing near the city;
    and, with a firm heart, foretold his own fate,

    "Here I am, my dear cousin, after the lapse of more than three months
    still contending with Mr. WOLFE, who has incessantly bombarded Quebec
    with a fury unexampled in the attack of any place, which the besieger
    has wished to retain after his capture.

    "Nearly all the whole of Lower Town has been destroyed by his
    batteries and of the Upper Town a great part is likewise in ruins. But
    even if he leaves not one stone upon another, he will never obtain
    possession of the capital of the colony whilst his operations continue
    to be confined to the opposite side of the river.

    "Notwithstanding all his efforts during these three months, be has
    hitherto made no progress towards the accomplishment of his object. He
    is ruining us, but without advantage to himself. The campaign can
    scarcely last another month, in consequence of the approach of the
    autumnal gales, which are so severe and so disastrous to shipping.

    "It may seem that, after so favourable a prelude, the safety of the
    colony can scarcely be doubtful. Such, however, is not the case, as
    the capture of Quebec depends on a _coup-de-main_. The English have
    entire command of the river, and have only to effect a landing on this
    side, where the city without defences is situated. Imagine them in a
    position to offer me battle! _which I could no longer decline, and
    which I ought not to gain_.

    "Indeed, if M. WOLFE understands his business he has only to receive
    my first fire, give a volley in return, and then charge; when my
    Canadians--undisciplined, deaf to the sound of the drum, and thrown
    into confusion by his onset--would be incapable of resuming their
    ranks. Moreover, as they have no bayonets with which to oppose those
    of the enemy, nothing would remain for them but flight; and then--
    behold me beaten without resource.

    "Conceive my situation! a most painful one for a General-in-Chief, and
    which causes me many distressing moments.

    "Hitherto, I have been enabled to act successfully on the defensive;
    but will a continuance in that course prove ultimately successful?
    that is the question which events must decide! Of this, however, you
    may rest assured, that I shall probably not survive the loss of the
    colony. There are circumstances which leave to a General no choice but
    that of dying with honour; such may soon be my fate; and I trust that
    in this respect posterity will have no cause to reproach my memory."
    [209]

    MONTCALM, conspicuous in front of the left wing of his line, and
    WOLFE, at the head of the 28th Regiment, and the Louisbourg
    Grenadiers, towards the right of the British line, must have been
    nearly opposite to each other at the commencement of the battle, which
    was most severe in that part of the field; and, by a singular
    coincidence each of these heroic leaders had been twice wounded during
    the brief conflict before he received his last and fatal wound.

    But the valiant Frenchman, regardless of pain, relaxed not his efforts
    to rally his broken battalions in their hurried retreat towards the
    city, until he was shot through the loins, when within a few yards of
    the St. Louis Gate. And so invincible was his fortitude that not even
    the severity of this mortal stroke could abate his gallant spirit or
    alter his intrepid bearing. Supported by two grenadiers--one at each
    side of his horse--he re-entered the city; and in reply to some woman
    who, on seeing blood flow from his wounds as he rode down St. Louis
    street, on his way to the château, [210] exclaimed, _Oh, mon Dieu!
    mon Dieu! le marquis est tué!_ courteously assured them that he was
    not seriously hurt, and beg them not to distress themselves on his
    account. _Ce n'est rien! Ce n'est rien! Ne vous affligez pas pour
    moi, mes bonnes amies._ The last words of WOLFE--imperishably
    enshrined in history--excite, after the lapse of a century, the
    liveliest admiration and sympathy, and similar interest may, perhaps
    be awakened by the narrative of the closing scene in the eventful
    career of his great opponent.

    On the 24th of March, 1761, the French troops who had served in Canada
    under Montcalm, through M de Bougainville, applied to the British
    Government for leave to raise a monument to the illustrious dead hero.
    The British Government, through Mr. Pitt, sent back to Paris on the
    10th April, 1761, a graceful letter of acquiescence. The inscription
    had been prepared by the _Académie des Inscriptions et Belles
    Lettres_. Unfortunately the marble on which the inscription was
    engraved by some cause or other never reached Canada. However, in
    1831, Lord Aylmer erected over the tomb of the marquis, in the
    Ursuline Convent, a simple mural tablet of white marble, having the
    following concise and beautiful epitaph from his Excellency's own
    pen--

                               HONNEUR
                                  à
                              MONTCALM
               Le Destin en lui dérobant la Victoire
               L'a récompensé par une mort glorieuse.

    In the course of the following year (1832), there was also erected by
    his Lordship a small monument on the battle-field to indicate the spot
    where WOLFE expired, which structure, having become injured, has since
    given place to a pedestal and column about thirty-five feet high,
    surmounted by a Roman helmet wreathed with a laurel, and sword; both
    in bronze.

    On two sides of the pedestal are inserted bronze panels, with
    inscriptions cast in bold relief; one of which thus briefly records
    the place, circumstances, and date of the conquering hero's death:

                             Here Died
                               WOLFE
                            Victorious
                      September the 13th, 1759.

    The other is as follows:

                        "This pillar was erected
               By the British Army in Canada, A.D. 1849;
               His Excellency Lieut.-General Sir Benjamin
                                d'Urban,
                      G.C.B.; K.C.H.; K.C.T.S., &c.,
                        Commander of the Forces,
             To replace that erected by Governor-General
                         Lord Aylmer, G.C.B.,
            Which was broken and defaced, and is deposited
                              underneath.

    From the foregoing, all admit that the Plains of Abraham must recall
    memories equally sacred to both nationalities inhabiting Quebec.

    The 13th September, 1759, and the 28th April, 1760, are two red-letter
    days in our annals; the undying names of Wolfe and Montcalm claim the
    first, the illustrious names of Levis and Murray, the second.

    In the September engagement Montcalm's right wing rested on the Ste.
    Foye road; his left on the St. Louis road, near the Buttes-à-Nepveu
    (Perrault's Hill.)

    In the April encounter, Murray's hardy warriors occupied the greatest
    portion of the north-western section of the plateau. His right wing
    rested on Coteau Ste. Genevieve, St. John Suburbs, and his left
    reached to the edge of the cliff, overhanging the St Lawrence, near
    Marchmont. On the 13th September, the French began the fight; on the
    28th April it was the British who fired first. Fifteen years later, in
    1775, the Heights of Abraham became the camping ground of other foes.
    This time the British of New England were pitted against the British
    of New France; we all know with what result.


    _BATTLEFIELD PARK._

    The departure from our shores of England's red coated legions, in
    1871, amongst other voids, left waste, untenanted, and unoccupied, the
    historic area, for close on one century reserved as their parade and
    exercising grounds on review days--The Plains of Abraham. This famous
    battle-field does not, we opine, belong to Quebec alone; it is the
    common property of all Canada. The military authorities always so
    careful in keeping its fences in repair handed it over to the
    Dominion, which made no provision for this purpose. On the 9th March,
    1875, the Dominion Government leased it to the Corporation of the city
    of Quebec, for ten years of the lease under which it was held from the
    Religious Ladies of the Ursulines of Quebec, provided the Corporation
    assumed the conditions of the lease, involving an annual rental of two
    hundred dollars.

    The extensive conflagration of June 1876, which laid waste one-half of
    St. Louis Suburbs, and the consequent impoverished state of the
    municipal finances prevented the City authorities from voting any
    money to maintain in proper order the fences of the Plains. Decay,
    ruin and disorder were fast settling on this sacred ground, once
    moistened by the blood of heroes, when the citizens of Quebec
    spontaneously came to the rescue. No plan suggested to raise the
    necessary funds obtained more favour than that of planting it with
    some shade-trees, and converting it into a Driving Park. This idea
    well carried out would, in a measure, associate it with the everyday
    life of all citizens of all denominations. Its souvenir, its wondrous
    river-views alone would attract thousands. It would be open
    _gratis_ to all well-behaved pedestrians. The fatigued tradesman,
    the weary labourer, may at any time saunter round and walk to the
    brink of the giddy heights facing Levi; feast their eyes on the
    striking panorama unrolled at their feet; watch the white winged
    argosies of commerce float swan-like on the bosom of the mighty flood,
    whilst the wealthy citizen, in his panelled carriage, would take his
    afternoon drive round the Park _en payant_. The student, the
    scholar, the traveller might each in turn find here amusement, and
    fresh air and shade, and with sketch book and map in hand, come and
    study or copy the formation of the battle-field and its monument;
    whilst the city _belle_ on her palfrey, or the youthful equestrian,
    fresh from college, might enjoy a canter round the undulating course
    in September on all days, except that Autumn week sacred to the turf,
    ever since 1789, selected by the sporting fraternity.

    In November, 1876, an association was formed, composed as follows: His
    Honour the Lieut.-Governor, His Worship the Mayor, Chief Justice
    Meredith, Hon. Judge Tessier, Hon. E. Chinic, Hon. D. E. Price, Chs.
    E. Levey, Hon. P. Garneau, Col. Rhodes, John Gilmour, John Burstall,
    Hon. C. C. DeLéry, J. Bte. Renaud, Jos. Hamel, J. M. LeMoine, Hon.
    Thos. McGreevy, Hon. C. Alleyn, C. F. Smith, A. P. Caron, Thos.
    Beckett, James Gibb, R. R. Dobell, with E. J. Meredith, Secretary.
    Hon. E. Chinic, and Messrs. C. F. Smith, and R. R. Dobell were named
    Trustees to accept for the nominal sum of $1, the lease held by the
    City Corporation, the Corporation continuing liable for the annual
    rent of $200. Though the late period of the season prevented the
    association from doing anything, beyond having the future Park
    suitably fenced in, the praiseworthy object in contemplation has not
    been lost sight of, and active measures in furtherance of the same
    will yet be taken.

    It would be unjust to close this hasty sketch without awarding a word
    of praise and encouragement to one of the most active promoters of the
    scheme, R. R. Dobell, Esq., of Beauvoir, Sillery. (These lines penned
    in 1876, we recall this day, with regret, the excellent idea of
    Battlefield Park having fallen through, on the promoters discovery
    that the 99 years lease, granted by the Ursuline Nuns would expire in
    a very few years, when the Nuns would resume the site).


_THE DUKE OF KENT'S LODGE,--MONTMORENCI._

  "Oh! give me a home where the cataract's foam
  Is admired by the poor and the rich, as they roam
  By thy banks, Montmorenci, so placid and fair,
  Oh! what would I give, could I find a home there."

The Montmorenci heights and beaches have become famous on account of the
successful defence made there during the whole summer of 1759, by
Montcalm, against the attacks of Wolfe's veterans. Finally, the French
lines having been deemed impregnable on the Beauport side, a fort and
barracks [211] were repeatedly talked of at Isle aux Coudres, to winter
the troops. Wolfe was, however, overruled in his councils, and a spot near
Sillery pointed out for a descent, possibly by a French renegade, Denis de
Vitré, [212] probably by Major Stobo, who, being allowed a good deal of
freedom during his captivity, knew the locality well. Stobo had been all
winter a prisoner of war in the city, having been sent down from Fort
Necessity, on its surrender, to Quebec, in 1754, by the French, from whom
he escaped in the beginning of May, 1759, and joined Durell and Saunders'
fleet long before it reached Point Levi. These same heights, celebrated
for their scenery, were destined, later on, to acquire additional interest
from the sojourn thereat of a personage of no mean rank--the future father
of our august Sovereign.

Facing the roaring cataract of Montmorenci stands the "Mansion House,"
built by Sir Frederic Haldimand, C.B., [213] when Governor of the
Province--here Sir Frederic entertained, in 1782, the Baronness Redesdale,
the wife of the Brunswick General, who had come over with Burgoyne to
fight the continentals in 1775,--a plain-looking lodge, still existing, to
which, some years back, wings have been added, making it considerably
larger. This was the favourite summer abode of an English Prince. His
Royal Highness Edward Augustus, Colonel of the Royal Fusileers,
subsequently Field Marshal the Duke of Kent, "had landed here," says the
_Quebec Gazette_ of the 18th August, 1791, from H. M. ships _Ulysses_ and
_Resistance_, [214] in seven weeks from Gibraltar, with the 7th or Royal
Regiment of Fusileers." The Prince had evidently a strong fancy for
country life, as may be inferred by the fact that, during his prolonged
stay in Halifax, as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, he owned also, seven
miles out of the city, a similar rustic lodge, of which Haliburton has
given a charming description. 'Twas on the 11th of August the youthful
colonel, with his fine regiment, landed in the Lower Town; on the 12th was
held in his honour, at the Château St. Louis, a levée, whereat attended
the authorities, civil, military and clerical, together with the gentry.
In the afternoon "the ladies were presented to the Prince in the Château."
Who, then, attended this levée? Did he dance? If so, who were his
partners? No register of names; no list of Edward's partners, such as we
have of the Prince of Wales. [215] No _Court Journal_! Merely an entry of
the names of the signers of the address in the _Quebec Gazette_ of the
18th August, 1791. Can we not, then, re-people the little world of Quebec
of 1791?--bring back some of the principal actors of those stormy
political, but frolicsome times? Let us walk in with the "nobility and
gentry," and make our best bow to the scion of royalty. There, in fall
uniform, you will recognize His Excellency Lord Dorchester, the Governor-
General, one of our most popular administrators; next to him, that tall,
athletic military man, is the Deputy Governor-General, Sir Alured Clark.
He looks eager to grasp the reins of office from his superior, who will
set sail for _home_ in a few days. See how thoughtful the Deputy Governor
appears; in order to stand higher with his royal English master he
chuckles before-hand over the policy which gives to many old French
territorial divisions, right English names--Durham, Suffolk, Prince
Edward, York, Granville, Buckinghamshire, Herefordshire, Kent. The western
section of Canada will rejoice in the new names of Hesse, Luneberg,
Nassau, Mecklenburg. That Deputy Governor will yet live to win a _baton_
[216] of Field Marshal under a Hanoverian sovereign. He is now in close
conversation with Chief Justice William Smith, senior. Round there are a
bevy of Judges, Legislative Councillors, Members of Parliament, all done
up to kill, _à l'ancienne mode_, by Monsigneur Jean Laforme, [217] court
hair-dresser, with powdered periwigs, ruffles and formidable pigtails.
Here is Judge Mabane, Secretary Pownall, Honorable Messrs. Finlay, [218]
Dunn, Harrison, Holland, Collins, Caldwell, Fraser, Lymburner; Messrs.
Lester, Young, Smith junior. Mingled with them you also recognize the
bearers of old historic names--Messrs. de Longueuil, Baby, de Bonne,
Duchesnay, Dunière, Guéroult, de Lotbinière, Roc de St. Ours, Dambourgès,
de Rocheblave, de Rouville, de Boucherville, Le Compte, Dupré, Bellestre,
Taschereau, de Tonnancour, Panet, de Salaberry, and a host of others. Were
these gentlemen all present? Probably not, they were likely to be. Dear
reader, you want to know also what royal Edward did--said--was thought of
--amongst the Belgravians of old Stadacona, during the three summers he
spent in Quebec.

  "How he looked when he danced, when he sat at his ease,
  When his Highness had sneezed, or was going to sneeze."

Bear in mind then, that we have to deal with a dashing Colonel of
Fusileers--age twenty-five--status, a prince of the blood; add that he was
ardent, generous, impulsive, gallant; a tall, athletic fellow; in fact,
one of George III.'s big, burly boys--dignified in manner--a bit of a
statesman; witness his happy and successful speech [219] at the hustings
of the Charlesbourg election, and the biting rebuke it contained in
anticipation--for Sir Edmund Head's unlucky post-prandial joke about the
_superior_ race. Would you prefer to know him after he had left our
shores and become Field Marshal the Duke of Kent? Take up his biography by
the Rev. Erskine Neale, and read therein that royal Edward was a truthful,
Christian gentleman--a chivalrous soldier, though a stern disciplinarian--
an excellent husband--a persecuted and injured brother--a neglected son--
the munificent patron of literary, educational and charitable
institutions--a patriotic Prince--in short, a model of a man and a paragon
of every virtue. But was he all that? we hear you say. No doubt of it.
Have you not a clergyman's word for it--his biographer's? The Rev. Erskine
Neale will tell you what His Royal Highness did at Kensington Palace, or
Castlebar Hill. Such his task; ours, merely to show you the gallant young
colonel, emerging bright and early from his Montmorenci Lodge, thundering
with his spirited pair of Norman horses over the Beauport and Canardière
road; one day, "sitting down to whist and partridges for supper," at the
hospitable board of a fine old scholar and gentleman, M. de Salaberry,
then M.P.P. for the county of Quebec, the father of the hero of
Châteauguay, and who resided near the Beauport church. The old de
Salaberry mansion has since been united by purchase to Savnoc, Col. B. C.
A. Gugy's estate. Another day you may see him dash past Belmont or Holland
House or Powell Place, occasionally dropping in with the _bonhommie_
of a good, kind Prince, as he was--especially when the ladies were young
and pretty. You surely did not expect to find an anchorite in a slashing
Colonel of Fusileers--in perfect health, age, twenty-five. Not a grain of
asceticism ever entered, you know, in the composition of "Farmer George's"
big sons; York and Clarence, they were no saints; neither were they
suspected of asceticism; not they, they knew better. And should royal
Edward, within your sight, ever kiss his hand to any fair daughter of Eve,
inside or outside of the city, do not, my Christian friend, upturn to
heaven the whites of your eyes in pious horror; princes are men, nay, they
require at times to be more than men to escape the snares, smiles,
seductions, which beset them at every step in this wicked, wicked, world.
How was Montmorenci Lodge furnished? Is it true that the Prince's
remittances, from Carlton House never exceeded £5,000 per annum during his
stay here?--Had he really as many bells to summon his attendants in his
Beauport Lodge as his Halifax residence contained--as he had at Kensington
or Castlebar Hill? Is it a fact that he was such a punctual and early
riser, that to ensure punctuality on this point, on of his servants was
commanded to sleep during the day in order to be sure to be awake at day-
break to ring the bell?--Did he really threaten to court-martial the 7th
Fusileers, majors, captains, subs and privates, who might refuse to sport
their pig-tails in the streets of Quebec, as well as at Gibraltar?

Really, dear reader, your inquisitiveness has got beyond all bounds; and
were Prince Edward to revisit those shores, we venture to say, that you
would in a frenzy of curiosity or loyalty even do what was charged by De
Cordova, when Edward's grandson, Albert of Wales, visited, in 1860, Canada
and the American Union:--

  "They have stolen his gloves and purloined his cravat—
  Even scraped a souvenir from the nap of his hat."

Be thankful if we satisfy even one or two of your queries. He had indeed
to live here on the niggardly allowance of £5,000 per annum. The story
[220] about censuring an officer for cutting off his pig-tail refers not
to his stay in Canada, but to another period of his life. He lived rather
retired; a select few only were admitted to his intimacy; his habits were
here, as elsewhere, regular; his punctuality, proverbial; his stay amongst
us, marked by several acts of kindness, of which we find traces in the
addresses presented on several occasions, thanking him for his own
personal exertions and the assistance rendered by his gallant men at
several fires which had occurred. [221] He left behind some warm admirers,
with whom he corresponded regularly. We have now before us a package of
his letters dated "Kensington Palace." Here is one out of twenty; but no,
the records of private friendship must remain inviolate.

The main portion of the "Mansion House," at Montmorenci, is just as he
left it. The room in which he used to write is yet shown; a table and
chair--part of his furniture--are to this day religiously preserved. The
lodge is now the residence of the heirs of the late G. B Hall, Esquire,
the proprietors of the extensive saw mills at the foot of the falls.


    _THE DUKE OF KENT, THE QUEEN'S FATHER, AT QUEBEC, 1791-4._

    Of the numerous sons of King George III., none, perhaps, were born
    with more generous impulses, none certainly more manly--none more true
    in their attachments, and still none more maligned neglected--traduced
    than he, who, as a jolly Colonel of Fusileers spent some pleasant
    years of his life at Quebec from 1791 to '94, Edward Augustus, father
    of our virtuous and beloved Sovereign.

    We wish to be understood at the outset. It is not our intention here
    to write a panegyric on a royal Duke; like his brothers, York and
    Clarence--the pleasure-loving, he, too, had his foibles; he was not an
    anchorite by any means. His stern, Spartan idea of discipline may have
    been overstretched, and blind adherence to routine in his daily habits
    may have justly invited the lash of ridicule. What is pretended here,
    and that, without fear of contradiction, is that his faults, which
    were those of a man, were loudly proclaimed, while his spirit of
    justice, of benevolence and generosity was unknown, unrecognized,
    except by a few. No stronger record can be opposed to the traducers of
    the memory of Edward, Duke of Kent, than his voluminous correspondence
    with Col. DeSalaberry and brothers, from 1791 to 1815--recently,
    through the kindness of the DeSalaberry family, laid before the public
    by the late Dr. W. J. Anderson, of Quebec.

    The Duke had not been lucky in the way of biographers. The Rev.
    Erskine Neale, who wrote his life, is less a biographer than a
    panegyrist, and his book, if, instead of much fulsome praise, it
    contained a fuller account--especially of the early career of his
    hero--of the Duke's sayings and doings in Gibraltar, Quebec and
    Halifax, it would certainly prove more valuable, much more complete.

    Singularly enough, Neale, disposes in about three lines, of the years
    the Duke spent in Quebec, though, as proved by his correspondence,
    those years were anything but barren. Quebec, we contend, as exhibited
    in the Duke's letters, ever retained a green spot in his souvenirs, in
    after life.

    The Old Château balls, the Kent House in St. Lewis street, had for him
    their joyful sunshine, when, as a stalwart, dashing Colonel of
    Fusileers, aged 25, he had his _entrées_ in the fashionable drawing-
    rooms of 1791-4 Holland House, Powell Place (Spencer Wood, as it is
    now called), old Hale's receptions, Lymburner's soirees in his old
    mansion on Sault au Matelot street, then the fashionable quarter for
    wealthy merchants. The Duke's cottage _orné_ at the Montmorenci Falls
    had also its joyous memories, but these were possibly too tender to be
    expatiated on in detail.

    The Prince, it appears, was also present on an occasion of no ordinary
    moment to the colony that is when the King, his father, "granted a
    Lower Chamber to the two provinces in 1791."

    The only original source now available for inditing that portion of
    the Duke's life spent in Quebec, is Neilson's old _Quebec Gazette_,
    supplemented with divers old traditions, not always reliable.

    Dr. Anderson's compilation will certainly go far to dispel the
    atmosphere of misrepresentation floating around the character of
    Prince Edward, as he was familiarly styled when here during the past
    century. The character of the most humble individual, when casually
    mentioned in history, ought to be free from misrepresentation. Why
    this rule should not apply to the manly soldier who, in the streets of
    old Quebec in 1791, headed his gallant men wherever a riot, a fire, or
    a public calamity required their presence, is difficult to understand.
    No man was more popular in the city from the services he rendered when
    called on. One class, however, found in him an unrelenting
    disciplinarian--the refractory soldier attempting mutiny or desertion
    from the corps.

    We are invited to these reflections from the fact that new light is
    now promised to us on this traduced commander, in the shape of what
    will no doubt be an attractive biography of Duke Edward from the pen
    of a London _littérateur_ of note, whose name we are not justified in
    giving at present. The following extract from a London letter,
    received this last mail by a gentleman of this city, who has succeeded
    in gathering together valuable materials for Canadian history, will
    prove what we now assert. It is addressed to Mr. LeMoine, late
    President of the Literary and Historical Society, whose sketch of the
    Prince's career in 1791, as contained in the _Maple Leaves_ for 1865,
    seems to have obtained the full approbation of the distinguished
    _littérateur_ now engaged in writing the life of the Duke:

    "SOUTH KENSINGTON, London, May 30, 1874.

    DEAR SIR,--If my note on Miss Nevill's incident [222] clears up any
    point hitherto obscure of Canadian life, use it by all means for your
    Canadian sketches. During my searches consequent to elucidate the
    Duke's sojourn in Canada, many curious stories came under my eye,
    which have never, as I am aware, been yet published in Canadian
    histories, when the Prince was stationed at Quebec. The London pens
    were m the habit of publishing from time to time incidents of
    considerable interest bearing on forgotten periods of the early
    British Constitutional History of Canada--parliamentary. My intention
    is to note them in the life of H.R.H., as he was present when the
    King granted a lower Chamber to the two provinces in 1791. From this
    circumstance he based his firm adherence to a constitutional
    Government as the safest mode to ensure freedom to all parties
    interested therein. My work on the Duke of Kent would have been
    published ere this, but I am awaiting the correspondence promised me
    by Lord B---- addressed to Lord L----, and that also to Sir H----
    Douglas, formerly Lieutenant-Governor of ----. Your suggestion will
    not be lost sight of. _Maple Leaves_ have been fully culled for
    information concerning the Prince. Holland Farm and the Duke at
    Montmorenci give a correct picture of life in Quebec in 1791--
    information unknown to Rev. Mr. Neale in 1850.

    If not too much trouble, could you let me know whether these works, of
    which I enclose a list, mention the Duke in Canada, for the British
    Museum does not possess these publications, which obliges me to seek
    information from such a person as yourself, who is versed in Canadian
    affairs. I am anxious to give a correct account of the Duke in Canada.
    This period of his life has escaped all the biographers of the Prince,
    Philippart and Neale, &c. If I should meet any striking incident
    relative to Canadian affairs, I shall forward it to your address."--
    _From Quebec Morning Chronicle_.


_L'ASYLE CHAMPÊTRE._

Founded by Joseph Francois Perrault, the pioneer of lay education in the
Province of Quebec.

"In these days of ambitious, showy villas and grand mansions, whose lofty
and imposing proportions, elaborate architectural ornaments, conspicuous
verandahs and prominent sites are all designed, not only to gratify the
taste and pride of their owners, but to impress with wonder and admiration
the ordinary observer, it may be interesting to give a description of Mr.
Perrault's residence, a fair specimen of a comfortable and well ordered
dwelling of the olden time. My object, in describing it, is to convey to
the present generation some idea of the taste and domestic architecture of
our ancestors, especially to those who, in culture and social influence,
might truly be regarded as representative men. For a similar purpose, I
have thought of presenting such social pictures of the good old times, of
his habits and practices, as marked his connection with his relatives and
neighbors, and in this way an instructive lesson may be learned.

Mr. Perrault's abode was a building of one storey, with attics in front
and two in rear, in the style of the eighteenth century, on the north side
of the St. Louis Road, on the spot known to historians as les buttes à
nepveu, to-day, as Perrault's Hill, upon which the residence of Mr. Henry
Dinning now stands. As all students are aware, this is classic ground;
here was fought the main struggles of the battles of the Plains of Abraham
and of St. Foy; Murray's troops having entrenched themselves here on the
eve of the engagement with de Levis. A stone wall with an elegant railing
divided the property from the main road, near which was a graceful little
nestled summer house, overgrown with creepers and vines; through an avenue
with flowery borders, between lines of lofty vases, filled with blooming
plants, the visitor reached the house, which occupied the centre of a
garden of four acres. Above the door, at the summit of a flight of steps,
was inscribed in gilt letters, _Asyle Champêtre_. It was a double
house with a conservatory at each end, the first erected in Canada, filled
with exotic and native plants, at some distance on either side were
miniature Norman turrets. Mr. Perrault had selected this favourable site
for his residence, carefully noting all its advantages. The rays of the
rising sun flashed through the front windows, cheering him in his morning
labours, while as the day wore on, a flood of mellow light suffused the
western portion of his chamber. From such vantage ground, Mr. Perrault, of
an evening, could observe the movements of the heavenly bodies, the
position of the planets and the various phenomena of the firmament; the
study of which had great attractions for him, and created in his mind a
gratitude to the great architect for all His vast works and beneficent
care. On entering the visitor found himself in the reception room, of
about twenty-four feet square, with a large bay window towards the north,
and used as a drawing room and study. In whatever direction one looked,
the view was attractive; to the south, the commanding heights of Point
Levi, with the chasm between, where rolled by the great St. Lawrence; to
the east, the picturesque island of Orleans, dividing the river into two
channels, and the imposing old Citadel, or martial crown of the city on
Cape Diamond; to the north, the meandering river in the beautiful valley
of St. Charles, the heights of Charlesbourg and Lorette, the shore of
Beauport, the faint trace of the _embouchure_ of the Montmorenci, and
the grand Laurentian mountain range in the distance; and to the west, the
battle fields of 1759 and 60, memorable for their heroic deeds and
momentous results--views most charming, exquisite and impressive.

The front grounds were utilized as a model garden and orchard, in which
every improvement in horticulture had been adopted and were laid out in
plots and gravelled walks. In rear of the house was a miniature pond,
enlivened by waterfowl and turtles, and whose banks were adorned with
water plants and ferns, and receding thence were plateaux, covered with
flowers of every description.

In addition to the picturesque appearance and commanding position of Mr.
Perrault's house, the internal arrangements of the apartments deserve
notice, particularly as in them often met the leading men of Quebec, where
they discussed the fluctuations of the public mind, benevolent enterprises
and matters of general interest. The parlor in the _Asyle Champêtre_
was well known to the élite and leaders of society of that day; elegantly,
but not luxuriously, furnished; the carpet was made of flax, sown and
grown on the grounds adjoining his schools, and woven by the pupils; the
walls were hung with valuable paintings and ornamented by objects of
_virtû_ artistically arranged. From the centre descended a lustre of
six candles; at the rear angles were large circular mirrors, one concave
and the other convex, with lights on each side, reflecting every object in
movement in the apartment. Two bronze statues, or candelabra, with lights,
guarded either side of the hall door, in keeping with the surroundings;
the hangings and furniture were in the style of Louis XIV., in which the
colours harmoniously blended. On the left hand of this apartment was Mr.
Perrault's library, in which was a choice collection of Greek, Latin,
English, French and Spanish works, on philosophy, history and _les
belles lettres_. No one had a higher respect for the classics than he;
the odes of Horace, the poems of Virgil and the orations of Cicero were as
familiar to him as the best sermons of Bossuet or the tragedies of Racine.
On the right was another room, with a piano and organ, to which the family
devoted much attention, and lovers of music were certain of hearing there
excellent performances and well-cultivated voices.

Those who bad the privilege of enjoying his hospitality on ordinary
occasions, could never forget the hearty welcome of their whole-souled
entertainer; and on two particular days, the first of January and the
_fête de St. Joseph_, his patron saint, they had still better reason
for its remembrance. These social gatherings were for months looked
forward to as the events of the season, and for many a day subsequently
they recalled most agreeable recollections. As was then the custom, the
guests arrived early in the afternoon and took their departure at the
unfashionable hour of nine, and in the interval engaged themselves in
dancing, in games, in listening to brilliant executions on different
musical instruments and the rich melody of well-trained voices, in ballad
and song, clever repartees and intellectual conversation, while the supper
table, laden with all the delicacies procurable, was a continual feast
from the opening to the close of the entertainment. The guests were
escorted down the avenue by their host and his family, and as he bade them
good night, the shouts and merry laughter of the younger ones rang
joyfully in the night air, startling the passers by with their frolicsome
happiness.

Mr. Perrault's table had a wide reputation, and although he never issued
general invitations, it was rarely without two, or more, guests, for those
who happened to be at the _Asyle_ at meal time were cordially invited
to join in the family repast. From taste and habit, his board ever
presented a tempting display; but, as regards himself, he was most
abstemious, partaking sparingly and of but few dishes, while to his guests
his hospitality was unbounded.  His old cook sometimes found her task
hard, or pretended to; and on one occasion, returning from confession, she
remarked that she had said to M. le Curé, when he counselled patience and
submission, "_je voudrais bien vous y voir_," (I would like to see you in
my place). Even in those days cooks were testy, for, when Mr. Perrault
found fault with her, she would answer as impertinently as one could in
these days: "_voulez-vous que je vous dise la vérité?  Vous commencez à
être dégoûté de ma cuisine_," (Do you want me to tell you the truth? You
are getting tired of my cooking). To the tried and impatient, the above
incidents will cause them to ask themselves if there be any truth in the
old saying: "God sent us food and the devil sent us cooks."

A custom illustrative of the habits of that period, was the visit of
relations on New Year's morning. Old and young presented themselves at
five o'clock and repaired in a file to Mr. Perrault's bedroom to receive
his blessing. He afterwards rose, dressed and made all happy by giving
them suitable presents and paying graceful compliments. Later in the day
was witnessed a still more interesting scene, when his pupils, of both
sexes, and doubtless to their fullest number, arrived at his hospitable
mansion to offer him their grateful acknowledgements of his kindness. A
table, close by where he sat, in a large arm chair, was covered with piles
of "horns of plenty," filled with sweetmeats, and to each he presented
one, with a small piece of silver; and these children, who needed more
substantial gifts, had but to make their wants known and they were rarely
refused.

On that day he also made calls immediately after Grand Mass, in the
extremity of his politeness carrying his hat under his arm, regardless of
the weather, with the _queue_ of his wig blown to and fro by the
wind. His arrival, as a matter of coarse, caused a social stir, often
recalled with pleasure by many afterwards.


    _MARCHMONT._

      "Oh! give me a home on that bold classic height,
      Where in sweet contemplation in age's dark night,
      I may tread o'er the plain where as histories tell
      Britain's stout-hearted Wolfe in his victory fell."

    Adjoining the expanse of table land, now known as the Plains of
    Abraham, and divided from it to the east by a high fence, lies with a
    southern exposure a level and well-cultivated farm--Marchmont--
    tastefully laid out some sixty summers ago by Sir John Harvey, next
    occupied for several years by Sir Thomas Noel Hill, subsequently owned
    by Hon. John Stewart, and for more than twenty years the residence of
    John Gilmour, Esquire, of the well-known Glasgow house of Pollock,
    Gilmour & Co. [223] To the west, Marchmont farm is bounded by
    Wolfesfield; to the south by the river heights, having a valuable
    timber cove (Wolfe's cove) attached to it. The dwelling, a cheerful
    and sunny residence, decks a sloping lawn, not far from the high bank,
    embedded as it were in a clump of fir, ash, maple and pine trees,
    which conceal it from St. Lewis road, and afford, on the opposite
    side, a variety of charming glimpses of our noble estuary, the main
    artery of western commerce. A spacious and richly-stocked conservatory
    opens on the drawing-room to the west of the house. The embellishment
    was erected by the late John Gilmour, who also added a vinery.

    In the summer months, visitors travelling past Marchmont cannot fail
    to notice the magnificent hawthorn hedge, interspersed here and there
    with young maple, which encloses it on the St. Lewis road.

    Marchmont, even shorn of its historical memories, would much interest
    an observer who had an eye to agricultural pursuits carried to a high
    state of perfection. The outlines and arrangements for raising cattle,
    poultry, &c., are on a truly comprehensive scale.

    Connected with Marchmont, there are incidents of the past, which will
    ever impress it on the mind of the visitor. A century back, over this
    same locality, the tide of battle surged for several hours when
    Wolfe's army had ascended the cliff. No later than 1860, the crumbling
    bones of fallen warriors were discovered whilst laying the foundation
    of the flag-staff to the east of the house. They were buried again
    carefully under the same flagstaff--erected to salute the Prince of
    Wales when passing Marchmont. Let us hear one of the actors on that
    eventful September morning of 1759--Capt. John King:--

    "Before day break," says he, "this morning we made a descent upon the
    north shore, about half a mile to the eastward of Sillery; and the
    light troops were fortunately, by the rapidity of the current, carried
    lower down, between us and Cape Diamond. We had in this detachment
    thirty flat-bottomed boats, containing about 1600 men. This was a
    great surprise on the enemy, who, from the natural strength of the
    place, did not suspect, and consequently were not prepared against, so
    bold an attempt. The chain of sentries which they had posted along the
    summit of the heights, galled us a little and picked off several men
    (in the boat where I was one man was killed; one seaman, with four
    soldiers, were slightly, and two mortally wounded, and some officers),
    before our light infantry got up to dislodge them. This grand
    enterprise was conducted and executed with great good order and
    discretion; as fast as we landed the boats were put off for
    reinforcements, and the troops formed with much regularity; the
    General, with Brigadiers Monckton and Murray, were ashore with the
    first division. We lost no time, but clambered up one of the steepest
    precipices that can be conceived, being almost a perpendicular and of
    an incredible length; as soon as we gained the summit all was quiet,
    and not a shot was heard, owing to the excellent conduct of the
    infantry under Colonel Howe. It was by this time clear day-light. Here
    we formed again, the river and the south country in our rear, our
    right extending to the town, our left to Sillery, and halted a few
    moments. The general then detached the light troops to our left to
    rout the enemy from their battery, and to disable their guns, except
    they should be rendered serviceable to the party who were to remain
    there; and this service was soon performed. We then faced to the right
    and marched towards the town by files, till we came to the Plains of
    Abraham, an even piece of ground which Wolfe had made choice of, while
    we stood forming upon the hill. Weather showery; about six o'clock the
    enemy first made their appearance upon the heights, between us and the
    town; whereupon we halted and wheeled to the right, forming the line
    of battle."

    For some time past Marchmont has been occupied by Col. Ferdinand
    Turnbull, of the Q. O. Canadian Hussars.

        _ANECDOTE OF WOLFE'S ARMY._

        "After the conquest of Quebec, the troops had to make shift for
        quarters wherever they could find a habitable place; I myself made
        choice of a small house in the lane leading to the Esplanade,
        where Ginger the Gardner now lives (1828), and which had belonged
        to Paquet the schoolmaster--although it was scarcely habitable
        from the number of our shells that had fallen through it. However,
        as I had a small party of the company, I continued to get a number
        of little jobs done towards making it passably comfortable for the
        men, and for my own part I got Hector Munro, who was a joiner by
        trade, to knock up a kind of "cabinet" (as the Canadians called
        it) in one corner of the house for myself. We had a stove, but our
        Highlanders, who know no better, would not suffer the door to be
        closed, as they thought if they could not naturally _see_ the
        fire, it was impossible that they could _feel_ it. In this
        way they passed the whole of the winter; three or four would sit
        close up to the door of the stove, and when these were a little
        warmed, three or four others would relieve them, and so on. Some
        days they were almost frozen to death, or suffocated by the smoke,
        and to mend the matter they had nothing better than green wood!

        I contrived somehow or other to procure six blankets, so that
        notwithstanding that I was almost frozen during the day, being the
        whole winter out on duty, superintending the party of our
        Highlanders, making fascines in the woods, still I passed the
        nights pretty comfortably. 'Twas funny enough to see, every
        morning, the whole surface of the blankets covered with ice, from
        the heat of my breath and body. We wore our kilts the whole of
        this time, but there was no accident, as we were sheltered by the
        woods. I bought myself a pair of leather breeches, but I could not
        walk in them, so I laid them aside.

        When the spring came round, the French again made their appearance
        on high ground between the town and Abraham's Plains, and General
        Murray must needs march us out to fight them. At this time
        scarcely a man in the garrison but was afflicted with colds or
        coughs. The day fixed on orders was the 28th April, 1760, at seven
        in the morning, and cold and raw enough it was! Before the sortie
        I took a biscuit and, spread a bit of butter over it, and I set
        about 'cranching' it, and said to Hector Munro, for whom I had a
        great attachment: "You had better do as I am doing, for you cannot
        know when you may be able to get your next meal." Hector answered,
        "I will not touch anything; I have already taken my last meal, for
        something tells me that I shall never require another meal in this
        world." "Hout! man," said I, "you are talking nonsense; take a
        biscuit, I tell you." But no, Hector would have none! Well, the
        hour came for parading, and we were soon afterwards marched out of
        the garrison. It was my lot to act as covering sergeant to
        Lieutenant Fraser of our Grenadiers, who had already been wounded
        at the affair of the Falls, through the belly and out at his back,
        without his scarcely having felt it. (This Lieutenant Fraser was
        nephew to my friend Captain Baillie, who was the first man killed
        at the landing at Louisbourg, and who, had he lived, would have
        been the means of securing to me my commission, as had been the
        understanding between him and Colonel Fraser, when I volunteered
        in Scotland for service in America). Early in the action with the
        French, Lieut. Fraser received a shot in the temple, which felled
        him to the very spot on which he then stood, and as not an inch of
        ground was to be lost, I had to move up into line, which I could
        not have done without my resting one foot upon his body! The
        affair went altogether against us, and we had to retreat back into
        the town. When I got back to my quarters, I there found poor
        Hector Munro, who not being able to walk, had been carried in,
        owning to a wound he had received in the lower part of the belly,
        through which his bowels were coming out! He had his senses about
        him, and reminded me of our conversation just before the battle.
        He was taken to the Hôtel Dieu, where he died the next morning, in
        great agony. When I first saw the French soldiers I thought them a
        dirty, ragged set--their clothing was originally white. Many of
        them, particularly in the 'Regiment de la Reine,' had a bit of
        blue ribbon to the buttonhole of their coat, with a little white
        shell fixed to it, which they called 'Papa,' and this, it seems,
        was a mark of honour for having distinguished themselves on some
        former occasion. I, at first, mistook them for Freemasons! After
        the battle of the Plains of Abraham, on the 13th September, fifty-
        nine, when a great many of the French lay killed and wounded on
        the field (we killed seventy-two officers alone) it was horrid to
        see the effect of blood and dust on their white coats! They lay
        there as thick as a flock of sheep, and just as they had fallen,
        for the main body had been completely routed off the ground, and
        had not an opportunity of carrying away their dead and wounded
        men. I recollect to have lost a regimental coat by their means.
        There was no place about the town to put the wounded in, and they
        had to be carried down the bank to Wolfe's cove, and from thence
        put into boats and taken across to the lower ferry-place at Point
        Levis, for the purpose of their being placed under the care of our
        surgeons at the church (St Joseph's), which was converted into a
        temporary hospital. Our men had nothing better to carry them on
        than a handbarrow with canvass laid across it. By this means it
        required two of our men to carry one of them to the top of the
        hill at Point Levis.

        The business going on very slowly, I at last got out of patience
        looking at them, so I set to work and took up a wounded man to my
        own share, and did not let him down at the top of the hill but
        landed him safe at the temporary hospital. By the time that we had
        done with them I was fatigued enough, and 'afaith, I spoiled my
        red coat into the bargain!

        The poor fellows would cry out lustily when they were in an uneasy
        position, but we could not understand a word of what they said.
        One of them had one of his cheeks lying flat down upon his
        shoulder, which he got by attempting to run away, though he had a
        Highlander at his heels. When the French gave themselves up
        quietly they had no harm done them, but faith! if they tried to
        outrun a Heelandman they stood but a bad chance, for whash went
        the broadsword!"--(_Related in August, 1828, as stated in the
        Diary of Volunteer Sergt. Jas. Thompson._)


_WOLFESFIELD_

    "The hill they climb'd, and halted at its top, of more than mortal
    size."

    "The horror of the night, the precipice scaled by Wolfe the empire he
    with a handful of men added to England, and the glorious catastrophe
    of contentedly terminating life where his fame began... Ancient story
    may be ransacked, and ostentatious philosophy thrown into the account,
    before an episode can be found to rank with Wolfe's."--(_William
    Pitt._)

The successful landing at this spot of the English forces, who, in 1759,
invaded Quebec, no less than its scenery, lends to Wolfesfield peculiar
interest. Major, afterwards General, John Hale, later on conspicuous for
gallantry during the long and trying siege of Quebec, in 1775-6, was one
of the first men who, in 1759, put his foot on the heights in front of the
locality where now stands the dwelling, having climbed up the hill by the
_ruisseau St. Denis_, heading the flank Company of the Lascelles or
47th Regiment. General Wolfe made the main body of the army march up,
Indian file, by a pathway which then existed where the high road is at
present. At the head of this path may yet be seen the remains of the
French entrenchments, occupied on that day by a militia guard of 100 men,
chiefly Lorette militiamen, a portion of whom had that very night obtained
leave to go and work on their farms, [224.] who fired at Major Hale's
party, and then, says an old manuscript, thinking they had to deal with
the whole English army, they surrendered, with their officer, Capt. De
Vergor, who, being wounded, could not escape, and exclaimed, "Sauvez
vous." This was shortly after midnight, and Wolfe, notwithstanding the
grievous indisposition he was then labouring under, organized a plan to
get up supplies and ammunition from the _bateaux_, this he had
accomplished by four in the morning, when he drew up his men on Marchmont
field. The sailors of the _bateaux_ were the men employed in carrying
up the provisions and ammunition. Wolfe had grog served out to them as
they reached, tired and panting, the top of the hill with their loads,
using to each kind and encouraging words. The crowning success which
followed is lengthily described elsewhere. The first house built at
Wolfesfield was by Captain Kenelm Chandler, [225] David Munro, Esquire,
was the next proprietor. The occupant for forty years was an old and
respected Quebec merchant, well known as the "King of the Saguenay," on
account of the extensive mills he owned in that region--William Price,
Esq., the respected father of a patriarchal family of sons and daughters.
Mr. Price added much to the beauty of the place, which enjoys a most
picturesque river view. In front of the dwelling there is a fine lawn,
shaded by some old thorn and oak trees, with comfortable rustic seats
close by the ravine St. Denis. This ravine is a favourite locality for
botanizing excursionists. Wolfesfield, without being as extensive as some
of the surrounding estates, is one of the most charming rural homes Quebec
can boast of.

As these pages are going through the press, we clip from a Quebec journal
the following tribute to the worth of our late excellent neighbour, Wm.
Price, Esq., a son of the Laird of Wolfesfield:


    _MONUMENT TO THE LATE WILLIAM PRICE, ESQ._

    "A large and costly monument in granite is now in course of erection
    at Chicoutimi to the memory of the late Wm. Price. The people of
    Chicoutimi are erecting the monument as a token of their respect and
    admiration for the memory of their late representative in the
    Legislative Assembly of Quebec. The column will be fifty feet in
    height, and will, it is expected, be completed by the month of
    September next. Being placed upon an elevated site, it will be visible
    for many miles up and down the Saguenay river."


    _THE CAPTURE OF QUEBEC._

    The following dramatic account of the capture of Quebec is taken from
    the fifth volume of Mr. Carlyle's _Biography of Frederick the Great_:

    "Above Quebec, night of September 12-13th, in profound silence, on the
    stream of the St. Lawrence, far away, a notable adventure is going on.
    Wolfe, from two points well above Quebec ('as a last shift, we will
    try that way'), with about five thousand men, is silently descending
    in rafts, with purpose to climb the heights somewhere on this side of
    the city, and be in upon it, if Fate will. An enterprise of almost
    sublime nature; very great, if it can succeed. The cliffs all beset to
    his left hand; Montcalm, in person, guarding Quebec with his main
    strength.

    Wolfe silently descends; mind made up; thoughts hushed quiet into one
    great thought; in the ripple of the perpetual waters, under the grim
    cliffs and the eternal stars. Conversing, with his people, he was
    heard to recite some passages of Gray's _Elegy_, lately come out
    to those parts; of which, says an ear-witness, he expressed his
    admiration in an enthusiastic degree: 'Ah, these are tones of the
    Eternal Melodies, are not they? A man might thank heaven had he such a
    gift; almost as we might for succeeding here, gentlemen!'

    Next morning (Thursday, 13th September, 1759), Wolfe, with his 5.000,
    is found to have scrambled up some woody neck in the height, which was
    not quite precipitous; has trailed one cannon with him, the seamen
    busy bringing up another; and by ten of the clock, stands ranked (just
    somewhat in the Frederick way, though on a small scale); ready at all
    points for Montcalm, but refusing to be over-ready. Montcalm on first
    hearing of him, had made haste: _Oui, je les vois où ils ne doivent
    pas être; je vais les écraser_ (to smash them)!" said he, by way of
    keeping his people in heart. And he marches up beautifully skilful,
    neglecting none of his advantages. His numerous Canadian
    sharpshooters, preliminary Indians in the bushes, with a provoking
    fire. 'Steady!' orders Wolfe; 'from you, not one shot till they are
    within thirty yards!' And Montcalm, volleying and advancing, can get
    no response, more than from Druidic stones; till at thirty yards, the
    stones become vocal--and continued so at a dreadful rate; and in a
    space of seventeen minutes, have blown Montcalm's regulars, and their
    second in command, and their third into ruin and destruction. In about
    seven minutes more the army was done 'English falling on with bayonet,
    Highlanders with claymore'; fierce pursuit, rout total--and Quebec and
    Canada as good as finished. The thing is yet well known to every
    Englishman; and how Wolfe himself died in it, his beautiful death."


_ELM GROVE._

Elm Grove, until recently owned, though not inhabited, by the Marquise de
Bassano, will be familiar to many, from having been the residence during
the summer of 1878, of His Holiness the Pope's Apostolic Ablegate--Bishop
Conroy.

This eminent prelate, prematurely struck down by death at Newfoundland, in
the midst of his mission of peace and good will to all men spent many
busy, let us hope pleasant, hours in this cool retreat.

The plantation of elms from which this seat takes its name, together with
other trees, conceals the dwelling so entirely from the road, that unless
by entering the grounds no idea can be formed of their beauty and extent;
amidst the group of trees there is one of lordly dimensions, in the centre
of the garden. The new dwelling at Elm Grove is a stately, substantial
structure; its internal arrangement and heating apparatus, indicate
comfort and that _bien-être_ for which Quebec homes are proverbial. A
winding, well-wooded approach leads up to the house from the porter's
lodge and main road. From the upper windows an extensive view of
Charlesbourg, Lorette, Beauport, Point Levi and surrounding parishes may
be obtained.

Elm Grove, owned for many years by John Saxton Campbell, Esq., was
purchased in 1856 by J. K. Boswell, Esq., who resided there for nearly
twenty years. John Burstall, Esquire, late of Kirk Ella, has within a few
months acquired it from Madame la Marquise de Bassano, and it bids fair
ere long to take its place among the first and best kept country seats in
the environs of the city.


_THORNHILL._

  ".....let us pierce into the midnight depth
  Of yonder grove, of wildest, largest growth,
  That, forming high in air a woodland quire,
  Nods o'er the mount beneath"

There is a peculiar feature noticeable about Quebec country seats which
speaks volumes for their attractiveness as healthy and pleasant retreats;
not only have they been at all times sought after by wealthy and permanent
residents, Canadian born, but also by men of European birth, holding for
the time being the highest position in the country, both under the French
and under the English monarchs. Thus the celebrated Intendant Talon was
the first owner of Belmont; Intendant Bigot had his luxurious château at
Charlesbourg; Attorney General Ruette D'Auteuil used, near two centuries
back, to spend his summer months at Sillery, where, later on, Bishop
Dosquet, a French ecclesiastic, had his pretty villa at Samos (Woodfield).
Vaudreuil was also a Canadian land-owner. Later on Governor Murray
purchased extensively on the St. Foy road, amongst others, Belmont and the
"Sans Bruit" farm, Governor Haldimand must have his lodge at Montmorenci
Falls, subsequently occupied by the father of our august Queen; Hector
Theophilus Cramahé (afterwards Lieut.-Governor), in 1762, had his estate--
some 500 acres of cornfield and meadows--at Cap Rouge, now Meadowbank,
owned by Lt.-Col. Chs. Andrew Shears. The Prime Minister of Canada, in
1854, and a late Governor of British Guiana, Sir Francis Hincks, following
in the footsteps of Sir Dominick Daly, must needs locate himself on the
St. Lewis road, and in order to be close to his chief, the late Earl of
Elgin, then residing at Spencer Wood, the Premier selected and purchased
Thornhill, across the road, one of the most picturesque country seats in
the neighbourhood. You barely, as you pass, catch a glimpse of its
outlines as it rests under tall, cone-like firs on the summit of a
hillock, to which access is had through a handsomely laid out circuitous
approach between two hills. An extensive fruit and vegetable garden lies
to the east of the house; a hawthorn hedge dotted here and there with some
graceful young maple and birch trees, fringes the roadside; a thorn
shrubbery of luxuriant growth encircles the plantation of evergreens along
the side of the mound which slopes down to the road, furnishing a splendid
croquet lawn. One of the chief beauties of the landscape is the occasional
glimpses of the Grande Allée and Spencer Wood, obtained from the house.
The dwelling was erected many years ago by Alexander Simpson, Esq., then
Manager of the Bank of Montreal, at Quebec. Forming a portion of it to the
west, and looking towards Charlesbourg, there is a snug English-looking
little nest, "Woodside," with the prettiest of thorn and willow hedges.
Thornhill has exchanged hands, and been for many years the seat of
Archibald Campbell, Esq., P.S.C., at Quebec.


_SPENCER WOOD._

On the South side of the St. Louis road, past Wolfe and Montcalm's famed
battle-field, two miles from the city walls, lies, embowered in verdure,
the most picturesque domain of Sillery--one might say of Canada--Spencer
Wood. [226]

This Celebrated Vice-Regal Lodge was (1780-96) known as Powell Place, when
owned by General Henry Watson Powell. It took its name of Spencer Wood
from the Right Honorable Spencer Perceval, [227] the illustrious relative
of the Hon. Henry Michael Perceval, whose family possessed it from 1815 to
1833, when it was sold to the late Henry Atkinson, Esquire, an eminent and
wealthy Quebec merchant. Hon. Mr. Perceval, member of the Executive and
Legislative Council, had been H. M.'s Collector of Customs at Quebec for
many years, and until his death which took place at sea, 12th October,
1829. The Percevals lived for many years in affluence in this sylvan
retreat. Of their elegant receptions Quebecers still cherish pleasant
reminiscences. Like several villas of England and France, Spencer Wood had
its periods of splendor alternated by days of loneliness and neglect,
short though they were. Spencer Wood, until 1849, comprised the adjoining
property of Spencer Grange. Mr. Atkinson that year sold the largest half
of his country seat--Spencer Wood--to the Government, as a gubernatorial
residence for the hospitable and genial Earl of Elgin, reserving the
smaller half (now owned by the writer), on which he built conservatories,
vineries, a pinery, orchid house, &c., far more extensive than those of
Spencer Wood proper. Though the place was renowned for its magnificence
and princely hospitality in the days of Lord Elgin, there are amongst the
living plenty to testify to the fact that the lawns, walks, gardens, and
conservatories were never kept up with the same intelligent taste and
lavish expenditure as they were during the sixteen years (1833-1849) when
this country seat owned for its master Mr. Atkinson.


    _THE LATE HONORABLE MRS. M. H. PERCEVAL. FORMERLY OF SPENCER WOOD,
    QUEBEC._

    Through the kindness of Mrs. Peter Sheppard, of Quebec, we are enabled
    to furnish some further particulars touching the estimable and
    accomplished lady who, during the protracted sojourn of her family at
    Spencer Wood, seems to have won the hearts of all those admitted to
    her charmed circle some fifty years ago. Mrs. Sheppard [228] not only
    renders to the worth of her lamented friend a merited tribute, she
    also furnishes a curious page of Quebec history, Quebec festivities in
    the olden times, which may interest our readers. "The Honorable
    Michael H. Perceval was closely connected with the Earl of Egmont's
    family, who were Percevals. The "Spencer" was borrowed from the Earl's
    eldest son "Spencer;" the name was given to their beautiful domain
    purchased from old LeHoullier about 1815, as well as to their eldest
    son, Col. (now Major General) Spencer Perceval, who was here in
    garrison in 1840, in the Coldstream Guards, as well as his uncle, Col.
    Perceval, also serving in the Guards. When a girl in my teens, many
    happy days did I spend in the Perceval family, who were as
    passionately fond of music, as I then was. They had "at homes" every
    Monday, one week for dancing, the next for music, (the latter I never
    missed attending, to play on the harp,) they had also grand dinners
    _de cérémonie_. Amongst the _habitués_ I can yet recall some names;
    Hon. Mathew Bell and lady; (Mrs. B. was a Miss McKenzie, of Three
    Rivers,) Miss Bell (Mrs. Walker,) Sir John Pownal, the Montizamberts,
    Judge Kerr and Misses Kerr, Miss Uniacke, the Duchesnays, the
    Vanfelsons, De Gaspés, Babys and others. (I may be wrong in quoting
    some names after half a century.)

    Mr. Perceval, was a member of the Legislative Council, as well as
    Collector of Customs, an imperial appointment which yielded him £8000
    in fees per annum. English and French society were equally welcome
    under his hospitable roof. His beautiful and accomplished wife, was
    the eldest daughter of Sir Charles Flower, Lord Mayor of London, in
    1809--had filled the position of Lady Mayoress, when 18 years of age,
    her father being a widower; she brought her husband £40,000 and
    subsequently inherited £100,000. She was eminently fitted to grace
    Spencer Wood--her beauty, her refined and cordial manners made her
    receptions eminently attractive. Her education was perfect, she was
    mistress of four languages, English, French, Italian and Latin, which
    studies she took great trouble in keeping up and which she herself
    taught to her children, ten in number, besides teaching them the
    piano, the harp and drawing. Instead of fancy work the young ladies
    were taught to repair their clothes and do plain sewing; this did not
    prevent them from making most brilliant matches. The family left
    Spencer Wood in 1828, to spend a year in Italy, at Florence, intending
    to return, but the Hon. M. H. Perceval, died at sea on the 12th Oct.,
    1829, and the family never returned.

    The daughters married as follows: the eldest, Eliza, was wedded to Sir
    George Denys, Bart.; the second, Caroline, to Col. Alexander Houstoun,
    of Clerkington; the third, Isabella, to a wealthy French nobleman,
    Baron de Veauce; the fourth, Mary Jane, to Sir James Matheson, Bart.;
    the fifth died at the age of 18. The eldest son [229] "Spencer" is a
    General officer. There were several other sons; George Ramsay, who
    entered the army, Michael Henry and Col. Charles Perceval.

    I can recall the time also when Lady Dalhousie and Mrs. Sheppard, of
    Woodfield, would come to Spencer Wood, in their botanizing excursions.
    Spencer Wood, later on, was also a favorite resort of Lady Aylmer, in
    1832, whilst at an earlier period, the Duke of Richmond's family, in
    1818, used to come and ramble about the grounds, lunching there with
    all the junior folks.

    This charming and beloved lady, my old friend, Ann Perceval, died at
    Lewes Castle, Stornaway. Scotland, the seat of her son in law, Sir
    James Matheson, on the 23rd Nov., 1876, most deservedly regretted, at
    the very advanced age of eighty-seven years."--24 January, 1877.

Spencer Wood garden is described in London's _Encyclopedia of Gardening_,
page 341, and also in the _Gardener's Magazine_ for 1837, at page 467. Its
ornate style of culture, which made it a show-place for all strangers
visiting Quebec, was mainly due to the scientific and tasty arrangements
of an eminent landscape gardener, M. P. Lowe, [230] now in charge of the
Cataraqui conservatories.

Well can we recall the time when this lordly demesne extended from
Wolfefield, adjoining Marchmont, to the meandering Belle-Borne brook,
which glides past the porter's lodge at Woodfield, due west, the historic
stream _Ruisseau Saint Denis_, up which clambered the British hero,
Wolfe, to conquer or die, intersecting it at Thornhill. It was then a
splendid old seat of more than one hundred acres, a fit residence for the
proudest nobleman England might send us as Viceroy--enclosed east and west
between two streamlets, hidden from the highway by a dense growth of oak,
maple, dark pines and firs--the forest primeval--letting in here and there
the light of heaven on its labyrinthine avenues; a most striking
landscape, blending the sombre verdure of its hoary trees with the soft
tints of its velvety sloping lawn, fit for a ducal palace. An elfish plot
of a flower garden, alas! how much dwarfed, then stood in rear of the
dwelling to the north, it once enjoyed the privilege of attracting many
eyes. It had also an extensive and well-kept fruit and vegetable garden,
enlivened with flower beds, the centre of which was adorned with the
loveliest possible circular fount in white marble, supplied with the
crystal element from the Belle-Borne rill by a hidden aqueduct;
conservatories, graperies, peach and forcing houses, pavilions
picturesquely hung over the yawning precipice on two headlands, one
looking towards Sillery, the other towards the Island of Orleans, the
scene of many a cosy tea-party; bowers, rustic chairs _perdues_ among
the groves, a superb bowling green and archery grounds. The mansion itself
contained an exquisite collection of paintings from old masters, a well-
selected library of rare and standard works, illuminated Roman missals,
rich portfolios with curious etchings, marble busts, quaint statuettes,
medals and medallions, _objets de vertu_ purchased by the millionaire
proprietor during a four years' residence in Italy, France and Germany.
Such we remember Spencer Wood in its palmiest days, when it was the ornate
home of a man of taste, the late Henry Atkinson, Esquire, the President of
the Horticultural Society of Quebec.

May I be pardoned, for lingering lovingly on this old spot, recalling
"childhood scenes" of one dear to me and mine!

The following, written by a valued old friend of Mr. Atkinson, is dated
Brighton, England:

    On a sketch of Spencer Wood sent to the writer (Miss A.), with her
    album, Oct. 18, 1848.

    Dear Spencer Wood! What a group of pleasing remembrances are clustered
    around me as I gaze upon this visible image and type of thee. Thy
    classic lawn, with its antiquated oaks and solemn pines; thy wood-
    crowned cliffs and promontories, with the sparkling sunlight reflected
    on a thousand sheaves from the broad surface of Jacques Cartier's
    river, hundreds of feet below. And then the quiet repose of thy ample
    mansion, with its stores of art and models of taste within and
    without; thy forest shades, thy gardens, thy flowers and thy fruit.
    But most of all, thy gay and happy inmates, their glad and joyous
    hearts beating with generous emotions, and their countenances
    brightened with the welcome smile. Ah! how I seem to hear, as in time
    past I have heard, their lively prattle, or their merry laugh echoing
    across the lawn, or through the flower garden, or along the winding
    paths down the steep slope to the pavilion.

    And can it be that I shall never again realize these happy scenes! I
    would fain hope otherwise; but life is a changeful drama, and time
    fleeting; this world is _not_ our home.

    Adieu, then, dear friends. May God's blessing ever rest upon you; and
    should it be His providence that we meet not again here, may we all so
    use His dealings with us in this disciplinary state that we may be
    sure to meet.

      Brighton, Dec. 20th. In memory of some pleasant moments.

      E. E. DOUGLASS.

In the beginning of the century Spencer Wood, as previously stated, was
known as Powell Place. His Excellency Sir James Henry Craig spent there
the summers of 1808-9-10. Even the healthy air of Powell Place failed to
cure him of gout and dropsy. A curious letter from Sir James to his
secretary and _chargé d'affaires_ in London, H. W. Ryland, Esquire, dated
"Powell Place, 6th August, 1810," has been, among others, preserved by the
historian Robert Christie. It alludes in rather unparliamentary language
to the _coup d'état_ which had on the 19th March, 1810, consigned to a
Quebec dungeon three of the most prominent members of the Legislature,
Messrs. Bédard, Taschereau and Blanchet, together with Mr. Lefrançois, the
printer of the _Canadien_ newspaper, for certain comments in that journal
on Sir James' colonial policy. Sir James had spent the greatest part of
his life in the army, actively battling against France; a Frenchman for
him was a traditional enemy. This unfortunate idea seems more than once to
have inspired his colonial policy with regard to the descendants of
Frenchmen whom he ruled.

Born at Gibraltar, of Scotch parents, James Henry Craig entered the
English service in 1763 at the age of 15, and on many occasions
distinguished himself by his courage. During the war of the American
revolution he served in Canada, and was present at the unfortunate affair
of Saratoga.


    _SIR JAMES CRAIG TO MR. RYLAND._

    QUEBEC, Powell Place, 6th August, 1810.

    My Dear Ryland,--Till I took my pen in my hand I thought I had a great
    deal to say to you, and now I am mostly at a loss for a subject. * * *
    We have remained very quiet; whatever is going on is silently. I have
    no reason to think, however, that any change has taken place in the
    public mind; _that_ I believe remains in the same state. Bishop
    Plessis, on the return from his tour, acknowledged to me that he had
    reason to think that some of his _curés_ had not behaved quite as
    they ought to have done; he is now finishing the remainder of his
    visitations.

    Blanchette and Taschereau are both released on account of ill-health;
    the former is gone to Kamouraska to bathe, the latter was only let out
    a few days ago. He sent to the Chief Justice (Sewell) to ask if he
    would allow him to call on him, who answered, by all means. The Chief
    Justice is convinced he is perfectly converted. He assured him that he
    felt it to be his duty to take any public occasion, by any act
    whatever that he could point out, to show his contrition and the sense
    he entertained of his former conduct.

    He told the Chief Justice in conversation that Blanchette came and
    consulted him on the subject of publishing the paper, "Prenez vous par
    le bout du nez," and that having agreed that it would be very improper
    that it should appear, they went to Bédard, between whom and
    Blanchette there were very high words on the occasion. I know not what
    Panet is about, I have never heard one word of or about him. In short,
    I really have nothing to tell you, nor do I imagine that I shall have,
    till I hear from you. You may suppose how anxious I shall be till that
    takes place. We have fixed the time for about the 10th September; till
    then I shall not come to any final resolution with respect to the
    bringing the three delinquents to trial or not. I am, however,
    inclined to avoid it, so is the B----; the C. J. is rather, I think,
    inclined to the other side, though aware of the inconvenience that may
    arise from it. Blanchette and Taschereau have both, in the most
    unequivocal terms, acknowledged the criminality of their conduct, and
    it will be hinted that if Bédard will do the same it may be all that
    will be required of them; at present his language is that he has done
    nothing wrong, and that he does not care how long he is kept in
    prison.

    We have begun upon the road to the townships (the Craig Road, through
    the Eastern Townships) * * * We shall get money enough, especially as
    we hope to finish it at a third of what it would have cost if we would
    have employed the country people. (It was made by soldiers.)

    The scoundrels of the Lower Town have begun their clamour already, and
    I should scarcely be surprised if the House should ask, when they
    meet, by what authority I have cut a road without their permission.
    The road begins at St. Giles and will end at the township of Shipton.

      Yours most faithfully,

      (Signed,) J. H. CRAIG.

      (History of Canada, Christie, vol. VI., p. 128.)

Very different, and we hope more correct, views are now promulgated on
colonial matters from Powell Place.

If Sir James, wincing under bodily pain, could write angry letters, there
were occasions on which the "rank and fashion" of the city received from
him the sweetest epistles imaginable. The 10th of August of each year (his
birthday, perhaps) as he informs us in another letter, was sacred to
rustic enjoyment, conviviality and the exchange of usual courtesies, which
none knew better how to dispense than the sturdy old soldier.

The English traveller, John Lambert, thus notices it in his interesting
narrative in 1808:--"Sir James Craig resided in summer at a country house
about four or five miles from Quebec, and went to town every morning to
transact business. This residence is called Powell Place, and is
delightfully situated in a neat plantation on the border of the bank which
overlooks the St. Lawrence, not far from the spot where General Wolfe
landed and ascended to the heights of Abraham. Sir James gave a splendid
breakfast _al fresco_ at this place in 1809 to all the principal
inhabitants of Quebec, and the following day he allowed his servants and
their acquaintances to partake of a similar entertainment at his
expense."--(Lambert's Travels, 1808, p. 310.)

Spencer Wood has ever been a favourite resort for our Governors--Sir James
Craig--Lord Elgin--Sir Edmund Walker Head--Lord Monk--Lord Lisgar, and
Lord Dufferin on his arrival in 1872, none prized it so highly, none
rendered it more attractive than the Earl of Elgin. Of his _fêtes
champêtres_, _recherchés_ dinners, _château_ balls, a pleasant remembrance
still lingers in the memory of many Quebecers and others. Several
circumstances added to the charms and comfort of Spencer Wood in his day.
On one side of St. Louis Road stood the gubernatorial residence, on the
opposite side at Thornhill, dwelt the Prime Minister, Sir Francis Hincks.
Over the vice-regal "walnuts and wine," how many knotty state questions
have been discussed, how many despatches settled, how many political
points adjusted in the stormy days which saw the abolition of the
Seignioral Tenure and Clergy Reserves. At one of his brilliant
postprandial speeches,--Lord Elgin was much happier at this style of
oratory than his successor, Sir Edmund Head,--the noble Earl is reported
to have said, alluding to Spencer Wood, "Not only would I spend here the
rest of my life, but after my death, I should like my bones to rest in
this beautiful spot;" and still China and India had other scenes, other
triumphs, and his Sovereign, other rewards for the successful statesman.

Sir Edmund Head's sojourn at Spencer Wood was marked by a grievous family
bereavement; his only son, a promising youth of nineteen summers, was, in
1858, accidentally drowned in the St. Maurice, at Three Rivers, while
bathing. This domestic affliction threw a pall over the remainder of the
existence of His Excellency, already darkened by bodily disease. Seclusion
and quiet were desirable to him.

A small private gate still exists at Spencer Grange, which at the request
of the sorrowful father was opened through the adjoining property with the
permission of the proprietor. Each week His Excellency, with his amiable
lady, stealing a few moments from the burthen of affairs of State, would
thus walk through unobserved to drop a silent tear on the green grave at
Mount Hermon, in which were entombed all the hopes of a noble house. On
the 12th March, 1860, on a wintry evening, whilst the castle was a blaze
of light and powdered footmen hurried through its sounding corridors, to
relieve of their fur coats and mufflers His Excellency's guests asked at a
state dinner that night--Sir John A. Macdonald, Sir Geo. E. Cartier, Mr.
Pennefather and others--the alarm of fire was sounded, and in a couple of
hours, of the magnificent pile a few charred ruins only remained. There
was no State dinner that night.

One of the last acts of the Ministry in retiring in 1861, was the signing
of the contract to rebuild Spencer Wood. The appropriation was a very
niggardly one, in view of the size of the structure required as a vice-
regal residence. All meretricious ornaments in the design were of course
left out. A square building, two hundred feet by fifty, was erected with
the main entrance, in rear, on the site of the former lovely flower
garden. The location of the entrance and consequent sacrifice of the
flower garden for a court, left the river front of the dwelling for the
private use of the inmates of the _Château_ by excluding the public.
Lord Monk, the new Governor-General, took possession of the new mansion
and had a plantation of fir and other trees added to conceal the east end
from public gaze. Many happy days were spent at Spencer Wood by His
Lordship and family, whose private secretary, Denis Godley, Esq., occupied
the picturesque cottage "Bagatelle," facing the Holland Road, on the
Spencer Grange property. If illustrious names on the Spencer Wood
Visitor's Register could enhance the interest the place may possess,
foremost, one might point to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, visiting in 1860
the site probably more than once surveyed and admired, in 1791-4, by his
grand-father, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, in his drives round Quebec,
with the fascinating Baroness de St. Laurent. Conspicuous among all those
familiar with the portals of Spencer Wood, may be mentioned other Royal
Princes--the Duke of Edinburgh and Prince Arthur, Princess Louise, Prince
Leopold; with Dukes and Earls--the Duke of Newcastle, Manchester,
Buckingham, Argyll, Athol. Sutherland, Prince Napoleon, Generals Grant,
Sherman, &c.

Since Confederation, Spencer Wood has been successively tenanted by Sir.
N. F. Belleau, Lieutenant-Governor Caron, Lieutenant-Governor Letellier de
St. Just, and Lieutenant-Governor Robitaille, the present occupant of the
seat.

To the late Lieut.-Governor Letellier is due the initiation of the
_soirées littéraires_, which united under his hospitable roof the literary
talent of the Ancient Capital, and his successor, Lieut.-Governor
Robitaille, not only followed this enlightened course, but also added
_soirées musicales_ and _artistiques_.

Spencer Wood was not included in the schedule and division of property
handed over by the Dominion Government to the Province of Quebec--it was,
however, about that time presented as a gift to our province, solely as a
gubernatorial residence--as such to be held, and consequently cannot be
sold by the Government of the Province of Quebec.

    HENRY WATSON POWELL was commissioned a Lieutenant in the 46th Foot,
    March 10th, 1753. He was promoted to a captaincy in the 2nd Battalion
    of the 11th Foot, September 2nd, 1756, but upon that battalion's being
    detached from the 11th and renumbered in 1758, his regimental number
    became the 64th. He served in the expedition against the French West
    India Islands in 1759, and went with his regiment to America in 1768.
    June 2nd, 1770, he became Major of the 38th Foot, and July 23rd, 1771,
    Lieutenant-Colonel of the 53rd Foot, which was then stationed at
    Minorca. He accompanied his corps to Canada in the spring of 1776, and
    on June 10th of that year, a few days after his arrival, Sir Guy
    Carleton appointed him a Brigadier General and assigned him to the 2nd
    Brigade, which consisted of the 34th, 53rd and 20th Regiments. When
    Gen. Gordon's brigade was broken up on the death of that officer,
    August 1st, 1776, the 62nd was added to Powell's brigade, and in
    November of that year, upon General Nesbit's death, Gen. Powell was
    transferred to the command of the 1st Brigade, consisting of the 9th,
    47th, 31st and 21st Regiments, save that the 53rd was substituted for
    the 21st. Gen. Powell served under Gen. Carleton in 1776, and the next
    year accompanied Burgoyne. In organizing the troops for Burgoyne's
    expedition in 1777, Gen. Powell was assigned to the 2nd Brigade,
    consisting of the 20th, 21st and 62nd Regiments.  The 62nd was left at
    Ticonderoga, however with Prince Frederick's (German) Regiment and a
    portion of Captain Borthwick's company of the Royal Artillery July 5th
    when the Americans evacuated that fort, and August 10th Gen. Powell
    was sent back to assume command of that post, his regiment, the 53rd,
    being also ordered to relieve the 62nd. Though he successfully
    repelled the American Col. Brown's attack on Ticonderoga and for four
    days maintained a gallant defence, the enemy retreating September
    22nd, yet inasmuch as a considerable part of four companies of the
    53rd were surprised in the old French lines and at the outposts by the
    American advance, and a number of American Prisoners were recaptured,
    the affair was not one of unmixed satisfaction to either side.

    When the toils of adversity began to tighten round Burgoyne in October
    Gen. Powell was sorely puzzled as to his duty for though he was out of
    Sir Guy Carleton's military jurisdiction yet that officer was
    accessible while Burgoyne, his own proper commander was not. The
    following letter, there fore, written by Sir Guy to Gen. Powell, after
    Burgoyne's surrender, though in ignorance of that event, throws some
    light upon the awkwardness of Powell's situation. The letter reads as
    follows:--

    QUEBEC, the 20th October, 1777.

    SIR,--I have this moment received your letter of the 19th instant,
    wherein you demand orders from me for your guidance in your present
    emergency. It is impossible that I should give orders to you, not
    alone because the post you are in has been taken out of my command,
    but the distance is too great for my being able to judge of the
    situation of Gen Burgoyne or of the exigencies of the place you are at
    which must depend upon the other, as if you were subject to my
    commands ignorant as I am of the strength or weakness of your post, I
    should under all the other circumstances think it best for His
    Majesty's service to suffer you to act by your own judgment, so you
    will there fore easily see the greater necessity there is as matters
    are for my leaving you to pursue such steps, as shall be suggested to
    you by your own prudence and reason. I can only recommend to you not
    to balance between two opposite measures, whereby you may be disabled
    from following the one or the other with advantage but that either you
    prepare, with vigour to put to place in such a situation as to be able
    to make the longest and most resolute defence or that you prepare in
    time to abandon it with all the stores while your retreat may be
    certain. Your own sense will tell you that this latter would be a most
    pernicious measure if there be still hopes of General Burgoyne coming
    to your post.

    I am, sir, &c.

    Though Sir Guy did not feel at liberty to issue orders to Gen. Powell
    yet he immediately despatched Gen. Maclean with the 31st regiment, the
    Royal Highland Emigrants and a detachment of artillery with four guns
    to take post and entrench at Chimney Point, near Crown Point, in order
    to keep up communication with Ticonderoga. Two or three weeks later
    Gen. Powell abandoned Ticonderoga and withdrew to Canada. After a
    short tarry at St. John's he was posted at Montreal, where he
    commanded during the winter of 1777-8. Then he was stationed at St
    John's and in the autumn of 1780, after Lieut.-Colonel Bolton's
    unfortunate loss on Lake Ontario, we find him in command of the upper
    posts with his headquarters at Niagara. By Gen. Haldimand's order of
    October 21st, 1782, Brig.-Gen. Maclean was assigned to the command of
    the upper posts, and Gen. Powell was appointed commandant of Quebec.
    How long he remained at Quebec has not been ascertained, but in 1780
    he bought a fine estate on the St. Lewis Road, about two and a half
    miles from Quebec to which he gave the name of Powell Place and which
    he did not dispose of until 1796, when he sold it to Francis
    Lehoullier. This place was subsequently known as Spencer Wood, but it
    has since been divided, the larger portion being still known as
    Spencer Wood, and serving as the residence of the Lieutenant-Governor,
    while the smaller portion consisting of about forty acres and known as
    Spencer Grange, belongs to and is the property of J. M. LeMoine,
    President of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec.

    Gen. Powell became a Colonel in the army February 19th, 1779; a Major
    General, November 20th, 1782; Colonel of the 69th Foot, April 16th,
    1792; Colonel of the 15th Foot, June 20th, 1794 (not April 20th, as
    printed in Burgoyne's Orderly Book); A Lieutenant-General, May 3rd,
    1796, and a General, January 1st, 1801. He died at an advanced age at
    Lyme, England, July 14th, 1814.

    Army Lists--Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 84, p. 190; Burgoyne's Orderly
    Book, p. 10; Hadden's Journal; Haldimand Papers; LeMoine's Maple
    Leaves, 3rd series; J. M. LeMoine's Title Deeds." (_From Gen. Horatio
    Rogers' Notes on HADDEN'S JOURNAL of Burgoyne's Campaign_, 1776.)


    _A FÊTE CHAMPÊTRE AT POWELL PLACE._

    (From the French of P. A. DeGaspé.)

    "At half-past eight A.M., on a bright August morning (I say a bright
    one, for such had lighted up this welcome _fête champêtre_ during
    three consecutive years), the _élite_ of the Quebec _beau monde_ left
    the city to attend Sir James Craig's kind invitation. Once opposite
    Powell Place (now Spencer Wood) the guests left their vehicles on the
    main road, and plunged into a dense forest, following a serpentine
    avenue which led to a delightful cottage in full view of the majestic
    St. Lawrence; the river here appears to flow past amidst luxuriant
    green bowers which line its banks. Small tables for four, for six, for
    eight guests are laid out facing the cottage, on a platform of planed
    deals--this will shortly serve as a dancing floor _al fresco_; as the
    guests successively arrive, they form in parties to partake of a
    _déjeuner en famille_. I say _en famille_, for an _aide-de-camp_ and a
    few waiters excepted, no one interferes with the small groups clubbed
    together to enjoy their early repast, of which cold meat, radishes,
    bread, tea and coffee form the staples. Those whose appetites are
    appeased make room for new comers, and amuse themselves strolling
    under the shade of trees. At ten the cloth is removed; the company are
    all on the _qui vive_. The cottage, like the enchanted castle in the
    Opera of Zemira and Azor, only awaits the magic touch of a fairy; a
    few minutes elapse, and the chief entrance is thrown open; Little King
    Craig followed by a brilliant staff, enters. Simultaneously an
    invisible orchestra, located high amidst the dense foliage of large
    trees, strikes up "God Save the King." All stand uncovered, in solemn
    silence, in token of respect to the national anthem of Great Britain.

    "The magnates press forward to pay their respects to His Excellency
    Those who do not intend to "trip the light fantastic toe" take seats
    on the platform where his Excellency sits in state; an A.D.C. calls
    out, _gentlemen, take your partners_, and the dance begins.

    "Close on sixty winters have run by since that day, when I,
    indefatigable dancer, figured in a country dance of thirty couples. My
    footsteps, which now seem to me like lead, scarcely then left a trace
    behind them. All the young hearts who enlivened this gay meeting of
    other days are mouldering in their tombs, even _she_, the most
    beautiful of them all, _la belle des belles_--she, the partner of
    my joys and of my sorrows--she who on that day accepted in the
    circling dance, for the first time, this hand, which two years after
    was to lead her to the hymeneal altar--yes, even she has been swept
    away by the tide of death. [231]  May not I also say, with Ossian,
    'Why art thou sad, son of Fingal! Why grows the cloud of thy soul! the
    sons of future years shall pass away, another race shall arise! The
    people are like the waves of the ocean, like the leaves of woody
    Morven--they pass away in the rustling blast, and other leaves lift
    their green heads on high.'

    "After all, why, indeed, yield up my soul in sadness? The children of
    the coming generation will pass rapidly, and a new one will take its
    place! Men are like the surges of the ocean, they resemble the leaves
    which hang over the groves of my manor, autumnal storms cause them to
    fall, but new and equally green ones each spring replace the fallen
    ones. Why should I sorrow? Eighty-six children, grand-children, and
    great-grand-children, will mourn the fell of the old oak when the
    breach of the Almighty shall smite it. Should I have the good fortune
    to find mercy before the Sovereign Judge: should it be vouchsafed to
    me to meet again the angel of virtue who cheered the few happy days I
    passed in this vale of sorrow, we will both pray together for the
    numerous progeny we left behind us. But let us revert to the merry
    meeting previously alluded to. It is half-past two in the afternoon,
    we are gaily going through the figures of a country-dance, 'Speed the
    plough' perhaps, when the music stops short, everyone is taken aback,
    and wonders at the cause of interruption. The arrival of two prelates,
    Bishop Plessis and Bishop Mountain, gave us the solution of the
    enigma; an aide-de-camp had motioned to the bandmaster to stop on
    noticing the entrance of the two high dignitaries of the respective
    churches. The dance was interrupted whilst they were there, and was
    resumed on their departure. Sir James had introduced this point of
    etiquette from the respect he entertained for their persons.

    "At three the loud sound of a hunters horn is heard in the distance;
    all follow His Excellency in a path cut through the then virgin forest
    of Powell Place. Some of the guests from the length of the walk, began
    to think that Sir James had intended those who had not danced to take
    a "constitutional" before dinner, when, on rounding an angle a huge
    table, canopied with green boughs, groaning under the weight of
    dishes, struck on their view--a grateful oasis in the desert. Monsieur
    Petit, the _chef de cuisine_, had surpassed himself, like Vatel,
    I imagine he would have committed suicide had he failed to achieve the
    triumph by which he intended to elicit our praise. Nothing could
    exceed in magnificence, in sumptuousness this repast--such was the
    opinion not only of Canadians, for whom such displays were new, but
    also of the European guests, though there was a slight drawback to the
    perfect enjoyment of the dishes--_the materials which composed them
    we could not recognize_, so great was the artistic skill, so
    wonderful the manipulations of Monsieur Petit, the French cook.

    "The Bishops left about half an hour after dinner, when dancing was
    resumed with an increasing ardor, but the cruel mammas were getting
    concerned respecting certain sentimental walks which the daughters
    were enjoying after sunset. They ordered them home, if not with their
    menacing attitude with which the goddess Calypso is said to have
    spoken to her nymphs, at least with frowns; so said the gay young
    _cavaliers_. By nine o'clock, all had re-entered Quebec."


_SPENCER GRANGE._

  "Retirement, rural quiet, friendship, books"--_Thomson_

When Spencer Wood became the gubernatorial residence, its owner (the late
Hy. Atkinson) reserved the smaller half, Spencer Grange, some forty acres,
divided off by a high brick wall and fence, and terminating to the east in
a river frontage of one acre. A small latticed bower facing the St.
Lawrence overhangs the cliff, close to where the Belle Borne rill--nearly
dry during the summer months--rushes down the bank to Spencer Cove, in
spring and autumn,--a ribbon of fleecy whiteness. To the south, it is
bounded by Woodfield, and reaches to the north at a point opposite the
road called Stuart's road which intersects Holland farm, leading from the
St. Lewis to the Ste. Foye highway. The English landscape style was
adopted in the laying out of the flower garden and grounds; some majestic
old trees were left here and there through the lawns; three clumps of
maple and red oak in the centre of the meadows to the west of the house
grouped for effect; fences, carefully hidden away in the surrounding
copses; hedges, buildings, walks and trees brought in here and there to
harmonize with the eye and furnish on a few acres a perfect epitome of a
woodland scene. The whole place is girt round by a zone of tall pine,
beech, maple and red oaks, whose deep green foliage, when lit up by the
rays of the setting or rising sun, assume tints of most dazzling
brightness,--emerald wreaths dipped into molten gold-overhanging under a
leafy arcade, a rustic walk, which zigzags round the property, following
to the southwest the many windings of the Belle Borne streamlet. This
sylvan region most congenial to the tastes of a naturalist, echoes in
spring and summer with the ever-varying and wild minstrelsy of the robin,
the veery, the songsparrow, the red-start, the hermit-thrush, the red-eyed
flycatcher and other feathered choristers, while the golden-winged
woodpecker or rain fowl, heralds at dawn the coming rain of the morrow,
and some crows, rendered saucy by protection, strut through the sprouting
corn, in their sable cassocks, like worldly clergymen computing their
tythes. On the aforesaid walk, once trodden over by the prince of American
naturalists, the great Audubon, whilst on a visit to Mr. Atkinson at
Spencer Wood, was conferred the name of _Audubon Avenue_, by his Sillery
disciple, the author of the _Birds of Canada. The grand river views of
Spencer Wood, are replaced by a woodland scenery, sure to please the eye
of any man of cultivated taste, accustomed to the park-like appearance of
the south of England. In front of the mansion, close to the lawn, stands
the noblest elm tree of Sillery (_Ulmus Americanus_), leafy to its very
roots. Here, amidst literature and flowers, after leaving Spencer Wood,
lived for several years Henry Atkinson, a name in those regions once
synonymous with ornamental gardens and flowers. Graperies, conservatories,
an orchid house soon sprung up under his hand at this spot, larger than
Spencer Wood had ever boasted of in its palmiest days, since 1860, it is
the seat of J. M. LeMoine.

    The advent in Quebec of the great Audubon is heralded thus in the
    Quebec _Gazette_ of the 23rd September, 1842:--

    "To the Editor of the Quebec _Gazette_"

    SIR,--It does not appear to be known to the Quebec public that one of
    the most distinguished men of the present age is now on a visit to our
    city--John James Audubon, the author of the magnificent work entitled
    'Ornithological Biography; or an Account of the Habits of the Birds of
    America, etc.' I understand that Mr. Audubon devoted nearly fifty
    years of his life to this interesting subject, and has placed before
    the world, at a cost of £27,000 sterling, the whole family of the
    feathered tribe, giving to each its natural size, and coloured to the
    very life. Mr. Audubon has brought one copy [232] of his work with
    him, let as hope it may be secured by our citizens. It is his first
    visit to Quebec, the splendid scenery of which has induced him to
    prolong his stay a few days. His present portfolio contains several
    beautiful specimens of the quadrupeds of America, now in course of
    publication by him as a companion to the above splendid work, which
    only requires to be seen to ensure him a numerous list of subscribers
    in this neighborhood.

    "In order to afford Mr. Audubon every facility in the pursuit of his
    arduous and interesting undertaking, the President of the United
    States and the Commander-in-Chief, General Winfield Scott, have
    furnished him the necessary documents to ensure him a cordial
    reception throughout the Union.

    "Mr. Audubon thus speaks of his meeting on the coast of Labrador, a
    British officer well known to us all in Quebec--"But few days had
    elapsed, when one morning we saw a vessel making towards our
    anchorage, with the gallant flag of England waving in the breeze and
    as she was moored within a cable's length of the _Ripley_, I soon
    paid my respects to her commander, Captain Bayfield, of the Royal
    Navy. The politeness of British naval officers is proverbial, and from
    the truly frank and cordial reception of this gentleman and his brave
    companions in arms, I felt more than ever assured of the truth of this
    opinion. On the _Gulnare_ there was an amiable and talented surgeon,
    who was a proficient in botany. We afterwards met the vessel in
    several other harbors.'

    "The name of John James Audubon, we should hope, is quote sufficient
    to ensure him a cordial welcome throughout the British dominions in
    America, and we sincerely hope that his visit to Quebec may hereafter
    be a source of pleasing remembrance to him.

      "H.

      "Quebec, Sept. 23, 1842."


    (_From the Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal._)

    MY VISIT TO SPENCER GRANGE, QUEBEC, IN 1856, THE COUNTRY SEAT OF J. M.
    LEMOINE.

    BY BENJAMIN SULTE, THE HISTORIAN OF "THREE RIVERS."

    [Translated from the French.]

    One of the greatest attractions for me, says Mr. Sulte, in visiting
    Spencer Grange, was its museum of Canadian birds, comprising two-
    thirds of the Feathered tribe of the Dominion, with a fair sprinkling
    of foreign specimens in the skin, and a collection of birds' eggs. Our
    friend, long known among Canadian naturalists for his persevering
    efforts during twenty years to popularize [233] the beautiful and
    instructive study of ornithology, had evidently met with more than one
    ally--in fact, many sympathizers. I am inclined to think--in his
    special branch of natural history., Each class of birds, in this
    apartment, has its corner; judging by the label, its "habitation,", as
    well as name.

    The thrushes and flycatchers of Canada, from their exquisite bright
    tints or delicate arrow-shaped markings, are particularly conspicuous.

    The cinnamon-backed cuckoo must be a graceful minstrel in our green
    hedges in July, though I am ashamed to admit I never was lucky enough
    to meet him. The oriole, blue jay, officer-bird, summer red-bird,
    indigo-bird and golden-winged woodpecker form a group of striking
    beauty; a most excellent idea, I would say, to thus place in
    juxtaposition the most gorgeously habited of our feathered choristers
    for the sake of contrasts.

    A succession of drawers contain the nests and eggs, scientifically
    labelled, of many Canadian species, and of some of the most melodious
    songsters of France and England; pre-eminent stands the Italian,
    French and Devonshire nightingale and its eggs. Our time was much too
    limited to allow us to treasure up all the anecdotes and theories
    anent birds, their mysterious spring and autumn migrations, their
    lively memory of places, so agreeably dealt out to us. We cannot,
    however, entirely omit noticing some curious objects we saw--the tiny
    nest of a West Indian humming bird male out of a piece of sponge, and
    he _cubiculum_ of a redheaded woodpecker, with its eggs still in
    it, scooped out of the decayed heart of a silver birch tree, with the
    bird's head still peering from the orifice in the bark. Here, as well
    as in the library, the presentations were numerous: Col. Rhodes was
    represented by a glossy Saguenay raven. I listened, expecting each
    moment to hear it, like Poe's nocturnal visitor, "ghostly, grim and
    ancient," croak out "nevermore!"

    The late Hon. Adam Fergusson Blair, once a familiar of Spencer Grange,
    was remembered by some fine Scotch grouse, ptarmigan and a pair of
    capercailzie, in splendid feather, brought from Scotland. A good
    specimen of the silvery gull, shot at Niagara Falls, was a gift from
    John William McCallum, Esq., now of Melbourne, E.T.--an early friend
    of our friend, whilst a very rare foreign bird (a Florida or glossy
    ibis), shot at Grondines, had been contributed by Paul J. Charlton,
    Esq., a Quebec sportsman. What had brought it so far from home?

    At the bead of the grave, omniscient owls, like the foreman of a grand
    jury, stood a majestic "grand duc," the largest owl of the Pyrénées,
    resembling much our Virginian species,--a donation from a French
    _savant_, Le Frère Ogérien. The owls have ever been to me a deep
    subject of study, their defiant aspect, thoughtful countenances, in
    which lurks a _soupçon_ of rapacity, remind me of a mayor and
    town council bent on imposing new taxes without raising too much of a
    row.

    A gaudy and sleek bird of Paradise had been donated by Miss Caron, of
    the adjoining _château_. There was also a newly-patented bird-
    trap, sent by a New York firm, in the days of Boss Tweed, Conolly,
    Field and other birds of prey I noticed boxes for sparrows to build
    in, designed by Col W Rhodes. On the floor lay a curious sample of an
    Old World man-trap, not sent from New York, but direct from England, a
    terror to poachers and apple stealers, French swords and venomous
    looking bayonets, of very ancient design, a rusty, long Indian musket
    barrel together with _tibiae_ and _tarsi_, labelled 1759-60, presents
    from H. J. Chouinard, Esq., the owner in 1865 of the site of the
    battlefield at St. Foye, where stands _Le Monument des Braves_. A
    bristling-fretful porcupine, a ferocious-looking lynx, and several
    well-mounted specimens of game had been donated by McPherson Le Moyne,
    Esq., the President of the "Montreal Fish and Game Protection Club,"
    also several other contributions from the same.

    Who had sent the colossal St. Bernard dog, like another Maida,
    talking over the lawn, we had not an opportunity of asking. We patted
    him, all trembling.

    The flower garden is laid out in the modern landscape style. Fences
    carefully concealed, a deep fringe of hard wood trees on one side, a
    trim lilac hedge on the other, and a plantation of shrubs, roan,
    barbary, sumac, lilac and young maple. On the side west of the house
    was observable, next to a rustic seat, in the fork of a white birch,
    an archaeological monument made with the key-stone of Prescott and
    Palace Gates when removed by order of the City Corporation, [234] it
    stands about ten feet in height.

    From this spot, spanned by a little rustic bridge, a walk meanders
    round the property to the west, canopied by a grove of silver birch,
    oak, beach, pine and maple. Along the serpentine brook, Belle-Borne,
    now so diminutive, and which, according to the historian Ferland, two
    centuries ago turned the wheel of a mill below, is visible a dam,
    creating a small pond in May, June and July, a favorite bathing place,
    we are told, for the thrushes, robins and other songsters of the
    adjoining groves. This tiny runlet is fringed with several varieties
    of ferns, dog-tooth violets and other algae--(_From L'Opinion
    Publique._)


_SPENCER OR BAGATELLE COTTAGE._

  "We have many little Edens
    Scattered up and down our dales;
  We've a hundred pretty hamlets,
    Nestling in our fruitful vales,
  Here the sunlight loves to linger,
    And the summer winds to blow,
  Here the rosy spring in April,
    Leapeth laughing from the snow."

On the western corner of the Spencer Grange property, and dependant to it,
can be seen from the road, _Bagatelle_--a long, straggling, picturesque
cottage, in the Italian style, with trees, rustic seats, walks and a
miniature flower-garden round it; a small prospect pavillion opens on the
St. Lewis road, furnishing a pretty view of the blue range of mountains to
the north; in summer it peeps from under clusters of the green or purple
leaves of some luxuriant _Virginian_ creepers--our American ivy--which
climb round it. _Bagatelle was generally occupied by an _attaché_ of
Spencer Wood, in the days of the Earl of Elgin and Sir Edmund W. Head.

Bagatelle is a quiet little nest, where our Canadian Laureate, Fréchette,
might be tempted to pen an invitation to his brother bard of the city,
LeMay, somewhat in the manner of the soft warbler of Albion towards his
friend the Revd. P. D. Maurice:

  "Where, far from smoke or noise of town,
    I watch the twilight falling brown
  All round a careless ordered garden,
    Close to the ridge of a noble down.

  You'll have no scandal while you dine,
    But honest talk and wholesome wine,
  And only hear the magpie gossip
    Garrulous under a roof of pine.

  For groves of pine on either hand,
    To break the blast of winter, stand;
  And further on the hoary channel
    Tumbles a breaker on chalk and sand."

The poet has sometimes received as well as sent out poetical invitations.
Here is one from Water Savage Landor.

  "I entreat you, Alfred Tennyson,
  Come and share my haunch of venison,
  I have, too, a bin of claret,
  Good, but better when you share it.
  Though 'tis only a small bin
  There's a stock of it within,
  And, as sure as I'm a rhymer,
  Half a butt of Rudesheimer,
  Come, among the sons of men is none
  Welcomer than Tennyson?"


_THE WOODFIELD OF THE PAST._

  "Deambulatio per loca amoena."--_Frascatorius_

"Unquestionably the most ornate and richly laid-out estate around Quebec
is Woodfield, formerly the elegant mansion of the Honorable Wm. Sheppard,
afterwards of Fairymead, Drummondville. For many years past it has become
the permanent residence of the Gibb family. The horticultural department
and conservatory are under the immediate charge of Andrew Torrance, Esq.,
Mrs. Gibb's brother. His taste is too well known to require any praise,
and truly may it be said that the lovers of sweet flowers, trim hedges,
and fairy scenery, can easily beguile several hours together in exploring
the broad acres of Woodfield, equal in extent to Spencer Wood itself. In
the year 1646, the company of New France, under M. de Montmagny, conceded
this land, a lot of ground, with a frontage of three _arpents_, to
Jean Bouvart dit Lafortune. Jean Beauvart resold in 1649 to Barthélémy
Gaudin, in 1702 this land was possessed by Guillaume Pagé dit Garey. In
1724, Nicholas de la Nouiller purchased it and sold it in 1731 to
Monseigneur Dosquet, Bishop of Samos. In 1762, the seminary, then
proprietor of these grounds, conceded to Thomas Ainsley, the portion on
which stood the house, built by Bishop Dosquet. Judge Mabane acquired it
in 1769, he died in 1792, when his sister Miss. Isabella Mabane purchased
it in 1794 and held it until 1805, when the Honorable Matthew Bell
purchased it.

Let us hear on this subject one who knows how to describe and embellish a
country seat.--

"In the early part of the last century," says the Honorable Wm. Sheppard,
"this estate was in the possession of Monseigneur Dosquet, [235] titular
Bishop of Samos _in partibus infidelum_, and he gave it that name
after his Episcopal title. He built a substantial stone residence near the
brow of the hill, overlooking the St. Lawrence--a one story house--with a
high peaked roof, long and narrow, after the mode of building in those
days, something in the style of the manor house at Beauport. The name of
Samos is now superseded by that of Woodfield, yet it is still in use as
applied to the high road passing on its western side, commencing at the
termination of the road leading from Quebec in that direction, called the
Grand Allée, where it forks into the Samos road and the Chemin Gomin at
Spencer Wood. It is not known how long Bishop Dosquet occupied his estate.

"Soon after the cession of Canada to the British Crown, this property
passed into the hands of Judge Mabane, [236] by purchase, from the
reverend proprietors of the seigniory. Mr. Mabane changed the name to
Woodfield, and made extensive alterations to the house, adding to it a
second story, giving it by other additions a more imposing appearance from
the river, and adding two pavillion wings, connected with the house by
corridors. In 1775-6 it was converted into an hospital for American
soldiers.

"About the year 1807, the late Honorable Matthew Bell purchased Woodfield
from Miss Mabane, the Judge's sister. Mr. Bell occupied the house as a
summer dwelling only, and it is not known that he improved the estate to
any extent, unless it were the garden, which he enlarged and stocked with
choice fruit trees. Previous to the purchase of Mr. Bell, Woodfield was
occupied as a dwelling during several years (1795-1802) by Bishop
Mountain, the first Protestant Bishop of Quebec. During his occupation he
removed a bridge which spanned Bell Borne Brook, with the intention of
cutting off communication with Powell Place (Spencer Wood), the
neighboring estate, for reasons which it is not now necessary to enter
into. The bridge was subsequently restored, by the sons of Sir R. S.
Milnes, Governor General, and was known by the name of Pont Bonvoisin.

"In 1816 Woodfield passed into the possession of Mr. William Sheppard, by
purchase, from Mr. Bell. Mr. Sheppard improved the house and grounds
greatly, erecting vineries and a large conservatory, changing the front of
the house so as to look upon a rising lawn of good extent, interspersed
with venerable oaks and pine, giving the whole a striking and pleasing
aspect. The alteration in the house gave it a very picturesque appearance,
as viewed from the foot of the old avenue, backed by sombre pines Mr.
Sheppard added to the estate about sixty acres of land on its southern
side, it being now bounded by the road leading to St. Michael's Cove.
During the alterations made in the house, a leaden foundation plate was
discovered, stating that the house was built in 1732, by Bishop Dosquet.
This plate was deposited for safe keeping in the Museum of the Literary
and Historical Society, where (if still extant) it may be consulted.

"In December 1842, the house was unfortunately destroyed by fire, and with
it a valuable library of some three thousand volumes, many of them costly
illustrated works on Natural History and other sciences. Shortly
afterwards a new house was built on a more desirable and commanding site,
in the midst of splendid old oaks and pines, looking down upon an
extensive lawn, with the St Lawrence in the middle distance, the view
terminated by the South Shore, studded with cheerful-looking cottages. To
suit the new site Mr. Sheppard laid out a new approach, placing the
entrance somewhat nearer Quebec, than the old avenue, following the
roundings of Belle Borne Brook, and leaving it with a striking sweep,
among groups of trees, to the house. This approach is one of the greatest
attractions of the place. He also built a large conservatory in connection
with the house.

"Woodfield changed hands in 1847, having been purchased by Thos. Gibb,
Esq., who exchanged it with his brother, Jas. Gibb, Esq., a wealthy
merchant of Quebec, president of the Quebec Bank, who added much to the
beauty of the estate. [237] Woodfield, with the improvements and
embellishments made by the preceding proprietor is one of the most
imposing and showy places in Canada, well worthy the encomiums passed upon
it by J. Jay Smith, Esq., of Philadelphia, editor of the
_Horticulturist_, who, with a party of friends, visited it in 1857.
He says, in that work, 'James Gibb, Esq., at Woodfield, possesses one of
the most charming places on the American continent.  Thoroughly English in
its appurtenances, and leaving out its views of the St. Lawrence, its
lawns, trees, and superb garden are together, a model of what may be
accomplished. The whole scene was enchanting. The traveller felt as if he
was transported to the best parts of England, our whole party uniting in
an exclamation of pleasure and gratification. Here is everything in the
way of well-kept lawns, graperies and greenhouses, outhouses for every
possible contingency of weather, gardens, redolent of the finest flowers,
in which bulbs of the best lilies make a conspicuous figure, and every
species of fruit that can be grown. The traveller who does not see
Woodfield hah not seen Canada in its best trim.'

"The remains of one redoubt [238] are visible near Belle Borne Brook, just
above Pont Bonvoisin, or Bridge of Friendship, no doubt intended to guard
the approach to Quebec by the footpath from Pointe à Puiseaux. Another
large one was on the west side of Samos road, nearly opposite the entrance
gate of the new approach to Woodfield, it commanded the Samos road.

"Woodfield once could boast of a well-stocked aviary. The garden, of large
extent, has always been celebrated for its fruit and flowers, for the
taste in which it was laid out, and for the beautiful prospect obtained
from it of the Citadel of Quebec, of the intervening portion of the St.
Lawrence, with the numerous shipping in the harbour busily engaged in
taking in their return cargoes of the staple article of exportation."

Since this sketch was published in the _Maple Leaves_ for 1865, death
has borne heavily on the estimable Gibb family we then knew at Woodfield;
and in 1879, Mr. John Lawson Gibb sold the old homestead as a site for an
ornate rural cemetery.

    "WOODFIELD CONSERVATORY--On 10th Feby, 1869 we availed ourselves of
    the opportunity afforded to the public of visiting this celebrated
    conservatory, and feasting our eyes on the immense mass of floral
    treasures which it contains. Flora's rarest gifts from every quarter
    of the globe are here in full bloom. The Indian Azaleas are
    magnificent beyond description--the one near the entrance called
    'Criterion" is exquisitely beautiful, Roi Leopold, purpurea and alba
    are also very handsome. The Dielytra, or Bleeding Heart, is chaste and
    beautiful the Joy plant (Chorozema) from the Swan River, struck us as
    particularly interesting, the colours of the flower are so
    harmoniously blended, the Golden-leaved Geranium (Cloth of Gold)--well
    worthy the name, with intense scarlet flowers, is very pretty Numerous
    Camelias of every shade and colour, these we think may well be called
    the Queen of winter flowers rivalling in beauty the famous "rose." The
    Cinerarias and Cape cowslips are very fine, and so are the Acacias
    Many beautiful and interesting Ferns, the most remarkable being the
    elks-horn, walking fern, hearts-tongue, maiden-hair and silver-
    braken."--_Morning Chronicle._


_SOUS LES BOIS._

This country seat, two miles from the city limits, stands in view of
Pointe à Puiseaux, at Sillery, exactly fronting the mouth of the Etchemin
River Imagine a roomy, substantial, one story cottage equally well
protected in winter against the piercing north, east and west winds,
surrounded by large oaks and pines to temper the rays of an August sun,
and through whose foliage the cool river breeze murmurs in the vernal
season, wafting pleasure and health to the inmates Add one of those
unrivalled river landscapes, peculiar to Sillery, well cultivated fruit
gardens, pastures, meadows, and lawns intersected by a long curving
avenue, fringed with single trees at times, at others tastefully concealed
in a clump of evergreens, and leading to the house by a circuitous
approach, which hides the mansion until you are a few feet of it Place in
it a toiling professional man, eager, after a dusty summer day's work in
St Peter street, to breathe the coolness and fragrance of his rustic
homestead, and enjoy the presence of his household gods, again, add to it
the conviction in his heart that country life has increased the span of
his existence by twenty years, and you have a faint idea of one of our
many Canadian homes, of _Sous les Bois_ the former residence of Errol
Boyd Lindsay, Esq., one of the few remaining Quebecers who can recall the
festivities of Powell Place, when Sir James Craig flourished there in
1809.

In 1870, _Sous les Bois_ was disposed of for educational purposes. The
flourishing Jésus Marie Academy, with its shiny dome and lofty walls,
looms out in the very centre of the demesne The Lindsay manor, at present,
is the hospitable lodge of the devoted and talented almoner of the
Convent, Rev. Abbé Octave Audette.


 _SILLERY HOUSE._

This handsome dwelling, is situated at the foot of the Cape, close to the
Jesuits' old house, on a line with the river: it stands in the centre of
an extensive garden, with here and there some large forest trees
interspersed.

The residence was built a few years back by the late John Sharples,
Esquire, of the firm of Sharples & Co., whose vast timber coves are in
view from Sillery house.


 ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH, SILLERY

  "A rural chapel neatly dress'd,
  In covert like a little nest;
  And thither young and old repair
  This Sabbath day, for praise and prayer."
              --_The White Doe of Rylstone_.

St. Michael's Church was built by some spirited parishioners, in front of
Mount Hermon Cemetery; a not inappropriate monument on their part to the
memory of the ancient and worthy patron of the parish. St. Michael's
Church was weekly honoured by the attendance of the Sovereign's
representative and _suite_ when inhabiting Spencer Wood; and on fine
summer days by the rank and fashion of the neighbouring metropolis. It is
a handsome cut-stone church, in the Gothic style. The incumbent for many
years has been the Rev. Anthony A. Von Iffland.

    This neat Gothic structure was erected in 1854, at a cost of $12,400,
    the proceeds of the munificent donations of several members of its
    congregation and others. The ground on which it stands was presented,
    as a gift, by Mrs. Jas. Morrin. Several handsome stained-glass
    windows, representing scriptural scenes, have been recently added. We
    read, amongst others, the following names on the list of subscribers
    to the foundation of the chapel, parsonage and school-house:--

    Sir Edmund Head       Lord Monck             The Lord Bishop Mountain
    Colonel Rhodes        Henry Lemesurier       Denis Godley
    Ed. Burstall          Charles E. Levey       Jos. B. Forsyth
    Captain Retallack     Captain Pemberton      Colonel Boomer
    J. Walker             E. Jackson             F. H. Andrews
    Miss Mountain         D. D. Young            C. N. Montizambert
    Miss Cochran          Rev. A. Mountain       Mrs. Carroll
    F. Burroughs          W. F. Wood             Robert Hamilton
    Wm. Petry             Honorable W. Walker    Mrs. J. Gibb
    W. Price              Michael Stevenson      Major H. W. Campbell
    T. K. Ramsay          Mrs. Helmuth           Okill Stuart
    Lieut.-Colonel Mountain                      John Jordan
    Miss Guerout          Hon. Henry Black       G. B. Symes & Co.
    J. F. Taylor          Mrs. Montizambert      C. Coker
    G. Alford             Mrs. Forsyth           H. S. Scott.
    N. H. Bowen           G. Hall                Mrs. G. R. Mountain
    Charles Hamilton      J. K. Boswell          James Gibb
    Rich Tremain          T. G. Penny            J. H. Oakes
    Miss Taylor           W. Drum                Mrs. Woodbury
    Dr. Boswell           W. Herring             Miss George
    Charles Wilson        John Giles             Charles O'Neill
    Preston Copeman       Thomas Nelson          Society for the Promotion
    Thomas Beckett        Barthy W. Goff           of Christian Knowledge

    Through the aid and efforts of the late Charles E. Levey, Esq., of
    Cataracoui, a handsome organ was subscribed for in England, and now
    graces St. Michael's Chapel.


MOUNT HERMON

  A SPOT DEAR TO QUEBECERS

  Oh, Hermon! oft I wander o'er,
  Thy silent records of the past,
  In fancy, when the storm and roar
  Of icy winter holds thee fast,
  But, when the gentle spring-time tells
  'Tis time to rove amid the flow'rs,
  I love to walk amid thy dells,
  And dream once more of happy hours.

  All seems a dream! thy lovely slopes,
  O'ershadowed with primeval trees,
  Are rich with many blighted hopes,
  And ceaseless tears, _He_ only sees
  What broken hearts, and scatter'd homes,
  And grief of mourners ne'er since met,
  One pictures by these solemn tombs,
  This scene of parting and regret!

  Bless'd spot! though long, long years ago
  That loving one was buried here,
  My soul still ever seeks to know
  When once again we shall be near!
  A day ne'er pass'd in foreign climes,
  At home, or on the restless sea,
  But I have sought thee many times,
  Oh, Hermon! ever dear to me.
                             S. B. F.

In this neighbourhood is situated Mount Hermon Cemetery. It is about three
miles from Quebec, on the south side of the St. Lewis road, and slopes
irregularly, but beautifully, down the cliff which overhangs the St.
Lawrence. It is thirty two acres in extent, and the grounds were
tastefully laid out by the late Major Douglas, U. S. Engineers, whose
taste and skill had been previously shown in the design of Greenwood
Cemetery, near New York. A carriage drive, upwards of two miles in extent,
affords access to all parts of the grounds, and has been so arranged as to
afford the most perfect view of the scenery. The visitor, after driving
over the smooth lawn-like open surface, finds himself suddenly transferred
by a turn of the road into a dark avenue of stately forest trees, from
which he emerges to see the broad St. Lawrence almost beneath him, with
the city of Quebec and the beautiful slopes of Point Levi in the distance.

Many beautiful monuments now adorn the grounds, some of which are from
Montreal and some from Scotland; but the great majority are the
productions of Mr. Felix Morgan, of Quebec, and do credit to his taste and
skill. Many of them are beautiful and costly structures of Italian marble.
The Aberdeen and Peterhead granite is much used at present for monuments
to the departed.

A neat gothic lodge at the entrance of the grounds contains the office and
residence of the superintendent. In the former, a complete plan of the
grounds is kept, every separate grave being marked upon it with its
appropriate number, so that at any future time, on consulting it, the
exact spot of interment can be ascertained, and the Register which is also
kept, affords information respecting the places of birth, age, and date of
death.

There are few sites round Quebec more attractive to visit, especially
during the month of September, than the last abode of the departed,
crowning the green banks of the St. Lawrence at Sillery--the Cemetery of
Mount Hermon. Apart from possessing some of the most picturesque scenery
in America, this spot borrows from the glories of autumn tints of a fairy
brightness. In providing for the repose of the dead, the citizens of all
denominations seemed to have vied to surpass one another. Scarcely had the
skilful designer, Major Douglas, U.S.E., completed the laying out of the
Mount Hermon grounds, when a strong desire was manifested in all quarters
to do away with _intra mural_ burials. In a very short time, the
Roman Catholics had selected as a cemetery the lovely old seat of the late
Mr. Justice P. Panet, on the banks of the St. Charles, whilst a few years
later the shady groves of Belmont, on the Ste. Foye road, were required
for a similar object. The ornamentation of a _necropolis_ must naturally
be a work of time, trees do not spring up in one summer, nor do lawns
clothe themselves with a soft, green velvety surface in one season, and if
the flowers in Mount Hermon are so beautiful and so well attended to, the
secret in a measure possibly rests with the landscape gardener located at
the entrance, and who professes to furnish flowers for the adornment of
cemetery lots, and to plant and keep them fresh during the summer. The St.
Charles, St. Patrick and Belmont Cemeteries, which do not enjoy in the
same measure these facilities, cannot be expected to possess all the
rustic adornments of their elder brother. One may safely predict that ere
many summers go by, our public cemeteries, by their natural beauty, are
likely to attract crowds of strangers, as Greenwood and Mount Auburn do in
the States. Chaste monumental marbles, on which can be detected the chisel
of English, Scotch and Canadian artists, are at present noticeable all
over the grounds, tastefully laid out and smiling _parterres_ of annuals
and perennials throw a grateful fragrance over the tomb where sleeps
mayhap a beloved parent, a kind sister, an affectionate brother, a true
friend, a faithful lover. How forcibly all this was brought to our minds
recently on strolling through the shady walks of Mount Hermon. Under the
umbrageous trees, perfumed by roses and lilies, tombs, [239] silent,
innumerable tombs on all sides, on marble, the names of friends, kindred,
acquaintances, solemn stillness all round us, at our feet the placid
course of our majestic flood. There were indeed many friends round us,
though invisible, nay, on counting over the slumberers, we found we had
more, though not dearer friends, in this abode of peace than within the
walls of yonder city. Overpowered by mournful, though soothing thoughts,
we walked along pondering over those truthful reflections of Washington
Irving:--

    "There is a voice from the tomb sweeter than song, there is a
    recollection of the dead to which we turn ever from the charms of the
    living Oh, the grave! the grave! It buries every error, covers every
    defect, extinguishes every resentment. From its peaceful bosom spring
    none but fond regrets and tender recollections. * * * The grave of
    those we loved--what a place for meditation. There it is that we call
    up in long review the whole history of virtue and gentleness, and the
    thousand endearments lavished upon us almost unheeded in the daily
    intercourse of intimacy; there it is that we dwell upon the
    tenderness, the solemn, awful tenderness of the parting scene; the bed
    of death with all its stifled grief; its noiseless attendants; its
    mute, watchful assiduities; the last testimonies of expiring love; the
    feeble, faltering, thrilling (oh, how thrilling!) pressure of the
    hand; the last fond look of the glazing eye, turning upon us from the
    threshold of existence; the faint, faltering accents struggling in
    death to give once more assurance of affection! aye, go to the grave
    of buried love and meditate! There settle the account with thy
    conscience for every past benefit unrequited, every past endearment
    unregarded of that being who can never, never, never return to be
    soothed by thy contrition. If thou art a child and hast ever added a
    sorrow to the soul, or a furrow to the silvered brow of an
    affectionate parent; if thou art a husband and hast ever caused the
    fond bosom that ventured its whole happiness in thy arms to doubt one
    moment of thy kindness or thy truth; if thou art a friend and hast
    ever wronged in thought, word or deed the spirit that generously
    confided in thee; if thou art a lover and hast ever given one
    unmerited pang to that true heart that now lies cold and still beneath
    thy feet, then be sure that every unkind look, every ungracious word,
    every ungentle action will come thronging back upon thy memory and
    knocking dolefully at thy soul....

    Then weave that chaplet of flowers and strew the beauties of nature
    about the grave; console thy broken spirit if thou canst with these
    tender, though futile, tributes of regret; but take warning over the
    dead, and be more faithful and affectionate in the discharge of thy
    duties to the living." Reader, allow not pensive September to close in
    without visiting Mount Hermon, linger under its silent shades, go
    partake of the joy of grief, and meditate at the grave of a buried
    love.

    "MONUMENT TO LIEUT. BAINES, R.A.--Few of our readers but recollect and
    cherish the name of Lieut. Baines, who unfortunately lost his life
    while gallantly endeavoring to arrest the progress of the
    conflagration which destroyed the greater portion of St. Roch's
    suburbs in October, 1866. His gallant devotion to duty, and his zeal
    in one of the most praiseworthy and charitable objects that ever
    engaged the attention of man, has caused his memory to be cherished
    with love and respect by every one of our citizens. Last year the
    ladies of the General Hospital sent a tribute of their gratitude to
    his widowed mother in England, worked by their own hands. Now the
    citizens of Quebec have completed their share of the grateful task. We
    had the mournful pleasure yesterday of viewing one of the most chaste
    and graceful monuments that adorn Mount Hermon Cemetery, erected by
    public subscription, and placed over the grave of one whose memory is
    so dearly cherished by all. The monument is of the Egyptian style of
    architecture, an obelisk 18 feet in height, with a base of 4 feet 10
    inches, designed and modelled by our talented fellow-citizen, Mr. F.
    Morgan, sculptor, St. John street, so many of whose classic memorials
    of the dead grace Mount Hermon. It is cut from a solid block of
    imported sandstone, and in chasteness of design or execution is not
    excelled on this continent. It bears the following inscription:--

                   Erected by the citizens of Quebec
                       To preserve the memory
                and to record their gratitude for the
                        gallant services of
                     Lieut. Henry Edmund Baines,
                           Royal Artillery,
               whose death was occasioned by his noble
                   efforts to arrest the progress
                      of the calamitous fire
                   which, on the 14th Oct., 1866
               destroyed a large portion of the city.
             Born at Shrewsbury, England, April 4, 1840
                    Died at Quebec Oct. 27, 1866

    Surmounting the epitaph is the coat of arms of the Royal Artillery,
    chiselled out of the solid block by the hands of a finished artist,
    with the motto of the regiment in a scroll underneath--"_Quo fas et
    gloria ducunt_' The erection of this, monument to the memory of the
    brave but unfortunate young officer is a noble tribute of gratitude on
    the part of our citizens, and in entrusting its execution to our
    talented fellow-townsman, Mr. Morgan, the committee has shown a wise,
    discretion that makes the completion of their task one upon which they
    may heartily congratulate themselves.


A VOICE FROM MOUNT HERMON

  DEDICATED TO MRS. BAINES, BY MRS. A. CAMPBELL

  My dust lies sleeping here,
                       Mother dear!
  In this, far off distant land,
  Away from your little band,
  And the touch of loving hand,
  Your boy lies sleeping here,
                       Mother dear!

  The Ocean rolls between
                       Mother dear!
  You and your own boy's grave,
  And the distant rush of waves
  On the pebbly shore to lave,
  Is the requiem sung between,
                       Mother dear!

  Mine is a sweet green spot.
                       Mother dear!
  And the song of the bird
  Is ever heard
  In the trees that gird
  Us, in this quiet spot
                       Mother dear!

  And echo answers here
                       Mother dear!
  The tinkle of chapel bell,
  And the murmur of its knell
  And the mourners "_It is well_,'
             Echo answers here,
                       Mother dear!

  To picture my last home,
                       Mother dear!
  I am laid me down to rest,
  Where "Our Father" saw 'twas best,
  In this quiet little nest,
  For my last home,
                       Mother dear!

  And my spirit is with Him,
                       Mother dear!
  In the precious home above,
  Where all is light and love,
  There rests your own dear dove,
               Now with Him,
                       Mother dear!

  Through Jesus' blood I'm here,
                       Mother dear!
  In this happy, heavenly land,
  One of a glorious band,
  Touched by His healing hand,
  Through Jesus I am here,
                      Mother dear!

  So dry that bitter tear,
                       Mother dear!
  'Twill not be very long
  Ere with Jesus you'll sing the song,
  Sung by those who to Him belong,
  And wipe that bitter tear--
                       Mother dear!


BARDFIELD

THE LATE BISHOP MOUNTAIN'S COUNTRY SEAT.

    "Far from me and my friends be that frigid philosophy, which can make
    us pass unmoved over any scenes which have been consecrated by virtue,
    by valour, or by wisdom."--JOHNSON.

Pleasant the memories of our rustic homes! 'Tis pleasant, after December's
murky nights, or January and February's inexorable chills, to go and bask
on the sunny banks of our great river, under the shade of trees, in the
balmy spring, and amidst the gifts of a bountiful nature, to inhale
fragrance and health and joy. Pleasant, also, to wander during September
in our solemn woods, "with footsteps inaudible on the soft yellow floor,
composed of the autumnal sheddings of countless years." Yes, soothing to
us are these memories of home--of home amusements, home pleasures, and
even of home sorrows. Sweeter still, even though tinged with melancholy,
the remembrance of the departed friends,--those guardian spirits we once
saw moving in some of our Canadian homes in the legitimate pride of
hospitality--surrounded by young and loving hearts--enshrined in the
respect of their fellow men.

Oft has it been our privilege at that festive season of our year, when a
hallowed custom brings Canada's sons and daughters together with words of
greeting and good-fellowship, to wend our way to Bardfield, high on the
breezy hills of Sillery, and exchange a cordial welcome with the venerable
man who had dwelt in our midst for many long years. Seldom has it been our
lot to approach one who, as a scholar, a gentleman, a prelate, or what is
more than all those titles put together, a truly good man, impressed
himself more agreeably on our mind.

Another revolution of the circling year and the good pastor, the courteous
gentleman, the learned divine, our literary [240] friend and neighbour,
the master of Bardfield, had been snatched from among us and from an
admiring public.  Where is the Quebecer who has not noticed the neat
cottage on the north of the St. Lewis road, where lived and died the Lord
Bishop Mountain? As you pass, you see as formerly its lovely river view,
gravelled walks, curving avenue, and turfy lawns, luxuriant hedges
designed by a hand now cold in death. Bardfield continues to be occupied
by Miss Mountain and other members of the late Bishop's family. A school
house, in the rural Gothic style, quite an ornament to Sillery, has been
erected by His Lordship's family, as a memorial of the sojourn at this
spot of this true friend of suffering humanity and patron of education.

Bardfield, founded about forty years ago by an eminent merchant of Quebec,
Peter Burnet, Esquire, was recently purchased by Albert Furness, Esquire
and by him leased to Charles Earnest Levey, Esquire, until Kirke Ella, the
property of Mr. Levy, is rebuilt.


    THE FAMILY OF MOUNTAIN

    The family of Mountain, which is a very old Norman family, and
    therefore of French extraction, originally wrote their name "de
    Montaigne," from the name of their estates at Périgord, near Bordeaux,
    and as stated in the life of one of its members, the well-known
    Michael Seigneur de Montaigne, the essayist and philosopher, "This
    race was noble, but noble without any great lustre till his time,
    which fortune showed him signal favours, and, together with honorary
    and titular distinctions, procured for him the collar of the Order of
    St. Michael, which at that time was the utmost mark of honour of the
    French _noblesse_, and very rare. He was twice elected mayor of
    Bordeaux, his father, a man of great honour and equity, having
    formerly also had the same dignity."

    Michael left only a daughter--Leonor or Leonora, who by marrying a
    distant cousin of the same name, preserved the estates in the family,
    as they had been for more than a century before they were inherited by
    her father. These remained in possession of the senior branch until
    the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, when, having espoused the
    Protestant cause, they were forced to sacrifice them and quit the
    country in 1685, with what ready money they could hastily get
    together. With this they purchased an estate in Norwich, England; from
    which in after generations several of the family went out to Canada,
    and among them the late Bishop of Quebec.

    To him, likewise I have heard attributed the irreverent piece of wit
    alluded to by the _Witness_; but with equal injustice, as his son, the
    late Bishop of Quebec assured me. [241]

    It is one of those sayings evidently made up for people whose names or
    position suit for hanging them on.

    George Mountain, D.D., Archbishop of York, was a contemporary of
    Michael de Montaigne, and a scion of the same family, though through a
    younger branch, which appears to have crossed over from France about
    the time of the massacre of St. Bartholomew in the reign of Queen
    Elizabeth, and for the same reason that the elder branch did
    afterwards, namely, because of their religious tenets.

    It is not by any means improbable that by this separation from the
    rest of his family, who were still adherents of the Roman Catholic
    faith, and the consequent abandonment of worldly prospects for the
    sake of religious principles, the Archbishop's progenitors may have
    been reduced in circumstances, but only comparatively with what he had
    lost before, for history shows that the Archbishop himself was, born
    at Callwood Castle, educated at Queen's College, Cambridge, chosen a
    Fellow in 1591, and Junior Proctor of that University in 1600, Dean of
    Westminster in 1610, Bishop of Lincoln in 1617, Bishop of London in
    1621, Bishop of Durham in 1627, and Archbishop of York in 1628.

      JACOB J. C. MOUNTAIN,

      Formerly of Coteau de Lac, Canada, now Vicar of Bulford, England.
      BULFORD VICARAGE, Amesbury, Salisbury, May 30, 1877.


BENMORE.

We like to portray to ourselves our energetic neighbour of Benmore House,
such as we can recall him in his palmy, sporting days of 1865; we shall
quote from the _Maple Leaves_ of that year:

"It will not be one of the least glories of 'Our Parish,' even when the
Province will have expanded into an empire, with Sillery as the seat of
Vice Royalty, to be able to boast of possessing the Canadian, the adopted
home of a British officer of wealth and intelligence, known to the
sporting world as the Great Northern Hunter. Who had not heard of the
_battues_ of Col. Rhodes on the snow-clad peaks of Cap Tourment, on
the Western Prairies, and all along the Laurentian chain of mountains? One
man alone through the boundless territory extending from Quebec to the
North Pole, can dispute the belt with the Sillery Nimrod, but then, a
mighty hunter is he; by name in the St. Joachim settlement, Olivier
Cauchon, to Canadian sportsmen known as _Le Roi des Bois_. It is said, but
we cannot vouch for the fact--that Cauchon, in order to acquire the scent,
swiftness and sagacity of the cariboo, has lived on cariboo milk, with an
infusion of moss and bark, ever since his babyhood, but that this very
winter (1865) he killed, with slugs, four cariboo at one shot, we can
vouch for.

A few weeks since, a _habitant_ with a loaded sleigh passed our gate;
on the top of his load was visible a noble pair of antlers. "Qui a tué--
ces cariboo?" we asked. Honest John Baptiste replied, "Le Colonel Rhodes,
Monsieur." Then followed a second--then a third. Same question asked, to
which for reply--"Le Colonel Rhodes, Monsieur." Then another sleigh load
of cariboo, in all twelve Cariboo, two sleighs of hare, grouse and
ptarmigan, then a man carrying a dead _carcajou_, then in the distance,
the soldier-like phiz of the Nimrod himself, nimbly following on foot the
cavalcade. This was too much, we stopped and threatened the Colonel to
apply to Parliament for an Act to protect the game of Canada against his
unerring rifle. Were we not fully aware of the gratifying fact, that,
under recent legislative enactment, the fish and game of Canada have much
increased, we might be inclined to fancy that the Colonel will never rest
until he has bagged the last moose, the last cariboo in the country.

Benmore nestles cosily in a pine grove on the banks of the great river,
the type of an English Country gentleman's homestead. In front of the
house, a spacious piazza, from which you can watch the river craft; in the
vast surrounding meadows, a goodly array of fat Durhams and Ayrshires, in
the farm-yard, short-legged Berkshires squeaking merrily in the distance,
rosy-cheeked English boys romping on the lawn, surrounded by pointers and
setters: such, the grateful sights which, greeted our eyes one lovely June
morning round Benmore House, the residence of the President of the Quebec
Game Club, and late member of Parliament for Megantic." (Written in 1865.)


IMPORTATION OF BIRDS.

Sixteen years have elapsed since these lines were penned, and the Colonel
has devoted much time, spent a large amount of capital on his vegetable
farm and his green houses. Agriculturalists and naturalists will know him
as the introducer of the English sparrow and the Messina quail.

    _THE SPARROW AND QUAIL._

    Information for Mr. Lemoine on the importation of the European house
    sparrow and on that of the migratory quail. In consequence of great
    complaints all over the United States of the ravages of insects and
    particularly of caterpillars, amongst street and park trees and their
    visible destruction, it was generally recommended to girdle the trees
    with tin troughs containing oil or some liquid, also to pick the
    insects off the infected trees. This course had been followed to a
    very considerable extent, when it struck me the importation of the
    common house sparrow would meet the difficulty. In 1854 I imported
    sparrows. I turned loose six birds at Portland, Maine, and brought
    about as many more to Quebec.

    On turning the birds loose at Portland, I wrote a letter to the
    _Portland Advertiser_, recommending the English sparrow as an
    insect destroyer, especially in the early spring months when the
    native birds are away on their migrations. This idea of picking off
    insects with birds commended itself to the municipal authorities of
    Boston and other large cities, who made large importations of
    sparrows, with the result of saving their ornamental trees from
    destruction.

    The first colony of sparrows failed at Quebec. I therefore made two
    more importations, succeeding at last by wintering over thirteen birds
    --This occurred about ten years ago, there are now house sparrows all
    over Canada, our French Canadians say "_C'est un oiseau qui suit la
    Religion_" frequenting churches, convents and sacred places, and it
    is considered a privilege to have so good a bird about the house. The
    sparrow lives readily in Canada, as it feeds on the droppings of the
    horse and takes shelter down the chimneys or under the roofs of the
    houses. The enemies of the sparrow are very numerous, notably the
    great Northern Shrike, the owls, hawks and in summer the swifts and
    swallows. I have seen the English sparrow from New York to St.
    Francisco, and from the Saguenay to Florida. In some places the bird
    is used as an article of food, and there is no doubt this will be the
    case generally; it will also become an object of sport for young
    shooters and trappers in America, the same as it has always been in
    Europe.

    THE QUAIL.

    I imported this bird in 1880, turning loose over 100 birds between
    Quebec and the river Saguenay, I cannot say what has been the result;
    the French population have taken much interest in this importation,
    because they understand it is a bird well known in France as La
    Caille, and I have no doubt it will become quite numerous in our
    French settlements wherever it is established.

    Large numbers of migratory quail have been imported for the State of
    Maine, 2,500 birds were turned loose in 1880, in all about 10,000
    quails have been imported for the United States and Canada during the
    last few years, and as no importations are being made this year we
    shall see what the migratory instinct does for the North in the spring
    of the year?

    It is very certain the migratory quail leave for parts unknown at an
    early period in the autumn, but where they go to and whether they
    return to the north has not been established; whilst they are with us,
    they are very friendly, frequently mixing with the chickens in the
    back yards. It is not improbable the feeling which gives hospitality
    to the house sparrow will extend itself to the Farmer's Quail, and
    that the latter bird may receive the same treatment from the settler
    as he gives to ordinary domestic fowl, such as Pigeons, Guinea fowl,
    and so on.--_W. Rhodes_.

    BENMORE, 4th February, 1881.

    N.B.--The house sparrow has indeed multiplied amazingly and though an
    emigrant and not "un enfant du sol" has found a hearty welcome. 'Tis
    said that he scares away our singing birds, if he should thus
    interfere with the freedom of action of the _natives_, he will get the
    cold shoulder, even though he should be an _emigrant_.

    The sparrow though a long suffering bird is neither meek nor
    uncomplaining. A "limb of the law" is, we are told, responsible for
    the following:

      _A HUMBLE APPEAL._

     (_To the Editor of the Morning Chronicle_.)

      DEAR SIR,--Oft, doubtless, passing through the Ring,
      Me you have seen in autumn, summer, spring--
      Picking, with gleesome chirp, and nimble feet,
      My scanty living from the public street;
      Or else devouring in those golden hours,
      Insects from cabbages and other flowers:--
      Ah me! those happy days!--but they are past,
      And winter with his harsh and biting blast
      Remind me and my fellow-sparrows bold
      Of coming snow-storms, ice and sleet and cold;
      Reminds us, too, of those far-off abodes,
      Whence we were rudely reft by Col. R----s,
      On his acclimatizing purpose bent,
      And moved by scientific sentiment,
      My heart is anxious, Sir, from what I know
      Of last years sufferings from cold and snow,
      Another winter's hardships, will, I fear,
      Cause us poor colonists to disappear.
      What shall we do, Dear Sir?--how shall we live,
      Unless our charitable townsmen give
      Us aid in food and shelter, otherwise
      Each of us young and old, and male and female, dies!
      Could we not make our _friend_ our _Garnishee_,
      And seize his chattels by a _tiers saisi_?
      (I tell him, Sir, that living mid the frosts
      Is harder far than paying _lawyers' costs_)
      Or do you think, (I write in great anxiety,)
      We have a claim on the St. George Society?
      We are compatriots--an exiled band,
      From the fair pickings of our native land,
      Cast on this frigid shore by savage Fate,
      With mouths to fill, and bills to liquidate.
      Dear Sir, I leave our case now with you, pray
      To make it public do not long delay,
      But give it, (I don't mean to be ironical,)
      A prominent position in the CHRONICLE.
      My wife and children cry to me for corn
      With feeble earnestness and chirp forlorn,
      My eye is dim, my heart within me pines,
      My claws so numb I scarce can scratch two lines,
      My head--no more will I your feelings harrow,
      But sign me,
              Truly yours,
                         Till death,
      All Souls' Day.                   COCKSPARROW.


_CLAREMONT._

THE SEAT OF THOMAS BECKETT, ESQUIRE.

  "A house amid the quiet country's shades,
  With length'ning vistas, ever sunny glades,
  Beauty and fragrance clustering o'er the wall.
  A porch inviting, and an ample hall."

Claremont was founded by Lieut.-Governor R. E. Caron, and was his family
mansion--ever since he left Spencer Grange which he had temporally
leased,--until he was named Lt.-Governor of the Province of Quebec. We
find in it, combined the taste and comfort which presides in Canadian
homes; and in the fortunes of its founder, an illustration of the fact,
that under the sway of Britain, the road to the highest honours has ever
been open to colonists, irrespective of creed or nationality.

Claremont stands about one acre from the main road, three miles from
Quebec, a handsome, comfortable and substantial villa. The umbrageous
grove of trees which encloses it from view, is a plantation laid down by
the late occupant about twenty-five years ago; its growth has been truly
wonderful. The view from the veranda and rear of the house is magnificent
in the extreme. To the west of the dwelling, environed in forest trees
well protected against our northern "blizzards," lies the fruit, flower
and vegetable garden, laid out originally by Madame Caron; watered by an
unfailing spring, its dark rich soil produces most luxuriant vegetables,
and Mr. Beckett's phlox, lilies, pansies, roses, generally stand well
represented on the prize list of the Quebec Horticultural Society, of
which Mr. Beckett is a most active member.

Claremont [242] is indicated by one of the most reliable of our
historians, the Abbé Ferland, as the spot where one of the first Sillery
missionaries, Frère Liégeois met with his end at the hands of some hostile
Indians. This occurred in the spring of 1655. The missionary at the time
was helping the colonists to build a small redoubt to protect their maize
and wheat fields from the inroads of their enemies. On viewing, at
Sillery, in 1881, Claremont the luxurious country seat of a successful
merchant, memory reverts to the same locality two centuries back, when
every tree of the locality might have concealed a ferocious _Iroquois_
bent on his errand of death.

From the cupola of Claremont, a wondrous vista is revealed. The eye gazing
northward, rests on the nodding pinnacles of the spruce, hemlock and
surrounding pine. Towards the south-east and west you have before you
nearly every object calculated to add effect to the landscape. Far below
at your feet, rushes on the mighty St. Lawrence, with its fleet of
merchantmen and rafts of timber; the church of St. Romuald, half way up
the hill; facing you, the Etchemin stream, its mills, its piers, crowded
with deals; to the west, the roaring Chaudière, "La Rivière Bruyante" of
early times, in the remote distance, on a bright morning, are also plainly
visible, the hills of the White Mountains of Maine.


_THE WILD FLOWERS OF SILLERY._

  "Everywhere about us are they glowing,
    Some like stars, to tell us spring is born;
  Others, their blue eyes, with tears o'erflowing,
    Stand like Ruth amid the golden corn."

Are you an admirer of nature, and sweet flowers? Would you, most worthy
friend, like to see some of the bright gems which spring, whilst dallying
over the sequestered, airy heights and swampy marshes of our woods drops
along our path? Follow, then, sketch book and pencil in hand, the fairy
footsteps of one of the most amiable women which old England ever sent to
our climes, accompany the Countess of Dalhousie on a botanizing tour
through Sillery woods; you have her note book, if not herself, to go by.
For May, see what an ample store of bright flowers scattered around you;
fear not to lose yourself in thickets and underbrush; far from the beaten
track a noble lady has ransacked the environs over and over again,
sometimes alone, sometimes with an equally enthusiastic and intelligent
friend, who hailed from Woodfield; [243] sweet flowers and beautiful ferns
attract other noble ladies to this day in that wood. Are you anxious to
possess the first-born of spring? Whilst virgin snow still whitens the
fields, send a young friend to pluck for you, from the willow, its golden
catkins:--

      "The first gilt thing
  Decked with the earliest pearls of spring."

The Gomin Wood will, with the dawn of May, afford you materials for a
wreath, rich in perfume and wild in beauty. The quantity of wild flowers,
to be found in the environs of Quebec has called forth the following
remarks from one of Flora's most fervid votaries, a gentleman well known
in this locality:--"A stranger," says he, "landing in this country, is
much surprised to find the flowers which he has carefully cultivated in
his garden at home, growing wild at his feet. Such as dog-tooth violets,
trilliums and columbines. I was much excited when I discovered them for
the first time; the _trillium_, for which I had paid three shillings
and six-pence when in England, positively growing wild. I could scarcely
believe that I had a right to gather them; having paid so much for one, I
felt that it was property, valuable property running wild, and no one
caring to gather it. No one? Yes! some did, for _we_ carried all that
we could find, and if the reader will stroll along the hedges on St. Lewis
road he will find them in abundance: dark purple flowers, growing on a
stalk naked to near the summit, where there is a whorl of three leaves,
its sepals are three, petals three, stamens twice three, and its stigmas
three, hence its name of _trillium_. We have a few of the white varieties.
After the purple _trillium_ has done flowering, we have the painted
trillium of the woods; the _trillium grandiflorum_ is abundant at Grosse
Isle. The dog-tooth violet early arrested my attention; the spotted leaves
and the bright yellow flowers, fully recurved in the bright sunshine,
contrasted beautifully with the fresh green grass on the banks on which
they are usually found, the bulbs are deep-seated, and the plant will at
once, from the general appearance of the flower, be recognized as
belonging to the lily family.

"The marsh marigolds, with the bright yellow buttercup-looking flowers,
are now in full luxuriance of bloom in wet places near running water; they
may not be esteemed beautiful by all, and yet all God's works, and all his
flowers, are good and beautiful. Let any one see them as I have seen them,
a large flowerbed of an acre and more, one mass of the brightest yellow, a
crystal stream meandering through their midst, the beautiful Falls of
Montmorenci across the river rolling their deep strains of Nature's music,
the rising tide of the St. Lawrence beating with refreshing waves at their
feet, and a cloudless azure sky over head, from which the rosy tints of
early morn had hardly disappeared, and if his soul be not ready to
overflow with gratitude to the Supreme Being who has made everything so
beautiful and good, I do not know what to think of him. I would not be
such a man, 'I'd rather be a dog and bay the moon.'"

The whole Gomin bog is studded with Smilacina _Bifolia_, sometimes
erroneously called _the white lily of the valley_, also the Smilacina
_Trifolia_, the _Dentaria_, the _Streptopus roseus_ or twisted stem, a
rose-colored flower, bearing red berries in the fall. There are also in
this wood, _trillium_, the May flower, _Hepatica_, and _Symplocarpus_,
thickets crowned with _Rhodoras_ in full bloom--a bush a few feet high
with superb rose-colored flowers--the general appearance of a cluster of
bushes is most magnificent. In the same locality, further in the swamp,
may be found the _Kalmia angustifolia_ bearing very pretty compact rose-
colored flowers like small cups divided into five lobes, also the
beautiful Ladies' Slipper Orchis (_Cypripedum humile_) in thousands on the
borders of the swamp,--such is Sillery wood in May. The crowded flora of
June is the very carnival of nature, in our climes. "Our Parish" is no
exception. The Ladies' Slippers, _Kalmia Smilacina_, etc., may still
be gathered in the greatest abundance throughout most of this month. Here
is also the bunch of Pigeon berry, in full bloom, the Brooklime Spedwell,
the Blue-eyed-grass, the herb Bennet, the Labrador Tea, the _Oxalis
Stricta_ and _Oxalis acetosella_, one with yellow, the other with
white and purple flowers: the first grows in ploughed fields, the second
in the woods. "Our sensitive plant; they shut up their leaves and go to
sleep at night, and on the approach of rain. These plants are used in
Europe to give an acid flavor to soup." Here also flourishes the Linnea
Borealis, roseate bells, hanging like twins from one stalk, downy and
aromatic all round. In the middle of June, the Ragwort, a composite flower
with yellow heads, and about one-half to two feet high, abounds in wet
places by the side of running streams. Also, the Anemone, so famous in
English song, principally represented by the Anemone Pennsylvanica,
growing on wet banks, bearing large white flowers; add the Corydalis,
_Smilacina racemosa_ resembling Solomon's Seal. Here we light on a lovely
Tulip bed; no--'tis that strangely beautiful flower, the pitcher plant
(_Saracenia Purpurea_). Next we hit on a flower not to be forgotten, the
_Myosotis palustris_ or Forget-me-not. Cast a glance as you hurry onwards
on the _Oenothera pumila_, a kind of evening primrose, on the false
Hellebore--the one-sided Pyrola, the Bladder Campion--_silene inflata_,
the sweet-scented yellow Mellilot, the white Yarran, the Prunella with
blue labrate flowers the Yellow Rattle, so called from the rattling of the
seeds. The perforated St. John's Wort is now coming into flower
everywhere, and will continue until late in August; it is an upright
plant, from one to two feet high, with clusters of yellow flowers. The
Germans have a custom for maidens to gather this herb on the eve of St.
John, and from its withering or retaining its freshness to draw an augury
of death or marriage in the coming year. This is well told in the
following lines:--

  "The young maid stole through the cottage door,
  And blushed as she sought the plant of power;
  Then silver glow-worm, O lend me thy light,
  I must gather the mystic St. John's Wort to-night,
  The wonderful herb whose leaf must decide
  If the coming year shall make me a bride.
      And the glow-worm came
      With its silvery flame,
      And sparkled and shone
      Through the night of St. John;
  While it shone on the plant as it bloomed in its pride,
  And soon has the young maid her love-knot tied.
      With noiseless tread
      To her chamber she sped,
  Where the spectral moon her white beams shed.

  "Bloom here, bloom here, thou plant of power,
  To deck the young bride in her bridal hour;
  But it dropped its head, the plant of power,
  And died the mute death of the voiceless flower
  And a withered wreath on the ground it lay,
  And when a year had passed away,
  All pale on her bier the young maid lay;
      And the glow-worm came,
      With its silvery flame,
      And sparkled and shone
      Through the night of St. John;
  And they closed the cold grave o'er the maid's cold clay,
  On the day that was meant for her bridal day."

Let us see what flowers sultry July has in store for us in her bountiful
cornucopia. "In July," says a fervent lover of nature, "bogs and swamps
are glorious indeed," so look out for Calopogons, Pogonias, rose-colored
and white and purple-fringed Orchises, Ferns, some thirty varieties, of
exquisite texture,

  "In the cool and quiet nooks,
    By the side of running brooks;
  In the forest's green retreat,
    With the branches overhead,
  Nestling at the old trees' feet,
    Choose we there our mossy bed.

  On tall cliffs that won the breeze,
    Where no human footstep presses,
  And no eye our beauty sees,
    There we wave our maiden tresses,"

the Willow-herb, the true Partridge-berry, the Chimaphila, Yellow Lily,
Mullein, Ghost Flower, Indian Pipe, Lysimacha Stricta, Wild Chamomile.
August will bring forth a variety of other plants, amongst others the
Spirantes, or Ladies' Tresses, a very sweet-scented Orchis, with white
flowers placed as a spiral round the flower stalk, the purple Eupatorium,
the Snake's head, and crowds of most beautiful wild flowers, too numerous
to be named here. [244] (From _Maple Leaves_, 1865).


_BEAUVOIR._

    "The merchant has his snug retreat in the vicinity of the metropolis,
    where he often displays as much pride and zeal in the cultivation of
    his flower garden, and the maturing of his fruits, as he does in the
    conduct of his business, and the success of a commercial enterprise."
    --_Rural Life in England--Washington Irving_.

Situated on the left bank of the River St. Lawrence, about four miles from
the city, on the Sillery heights, and overlooking the river. The site was
selected about half a century back by the late Hon. A. N. Cochrane, who
acquired the property in September, 1830, and after holding it for
nineteen years sold it to the Hon. John Stewart, who built the residence,
which was occupied for a number of years by the late Henry LeMesurier,
Esq., and was finally destroyed by fire in 1866. It was subsequently
rebuilt, and afterwards purchased by the present occupant R. R. Dobell,
Esq., who has since added considerably to the building and extended the
property by the addition of about twelve acres purchased from the Graddon
estate, and about the same quantity purchased from Mr. McHugh, the whole
now comprising about thirty-five acres. The grounds are beautifully wooded
and descend by a series of natural terraces to the river, on the banks of
which are the extensive timber coves and wharves known as Sillery Cove,
with the workmen's cottages, offices, &c., fringing the side. There is
also telegraphic communication between this cove and the city. Here too is
the site of the ancient church of the Récollet Fathers, within the
precincts of which lie buried the remains of Rev. Ed. Massé, one of the
earliest missionaries sent from France to Canada by the Jesuits, the
expense of the mission was chiefly borne by the Chevalier Brulart de
Sillery. Here also is the old MANSION HOUSE, and a little higher up the
cliff is the ancient burial ground of the Huron Indians, where the remains
of many of this tribe can still be found. The property is bounded on the
west by the historical stream of St. Michaels brook, so often mentioned in
the narratives of the siege of Quebec in 1759. This stream used to be well
stocked with trout, and promises to regain its former character in this
respect, as the present proprietor intends to re-stock it.

Mr. Dobell has collected here some very fine specimens of Canadian Game,
which the art of the taxidermist has rendered very life-like. His oil
paintings are deserving of notice and attracted attention at a recent
exhibition of art, &c., at the Morrin College, they appear in the printed
catalogue as follows:--

  A Scene in Wales, (Morning).............. by Marcham.
  A Scene in Wales, (Evening)..............    "
  Reading the Bible, ......................    "
  Our Saviour,--an old painting on copper..
  Dead Canary,.............................    S. M. Martin.
  Fox and Ducks,...........................    "
  Prairie Hen,.............................    "
  View of Quebec,..........................    Creswell.
  Egyptian Interior,.......................    Kornan.
  Dead Game,...............................    "
  Two Oil Paintings,....................... after Guido Reni.
  Girl and Birdcage,--a Dutch painting.....
  Prisoners,............................... by Jacobi.
  Flower Piece,............................    Victor
  Pandora and Casket,--old painting........

The chief charm of Beauvoir is in its beautiful level lawn and deep
overhanging woods, recalling vividly to mind the many beautiful homes of
merry England. Mr. Dobell the proprietor is largely engaged in mercantile
operations, and for many years past has carried on the most extensive
business in the lumber trade.

In 1865 we alluded as follows to this bright Canadian Home, which the
shadow of death was soon to darken:

"Crowning a sloping lawn, intersected by a small stream, and facing the
Etchemin Mills, you notice on the south side of the St. Lewis road, next
to Clermont, a neat dwelling hid amongst huge pines and other forest
trees; that is one of our oldest English country seats. Family memories of
three generations consecrate the spot. Would you like a glimpse of
domestic life as enjoyed at Sillery? then follow that bevy of noisy, rosy-
cheeked boys in Lennoxville caps, with gun and rod in hand, hurrying down
those steep, narrow steps leading from the bank to the Cove below. How
they scamper along, eager to walk the deck of that trim little craft, the
_Falcon_, anchored in the stream, and sitting like a bird on the bosom of
the famed river. Wait a minute and you will see the mainsail flutter in
the breeze. Now our rollicking young friends have marched past ruins of
"chapel, convent, hospital," &c., on the beach; you surely did not expect
them to look glum and melancholy. Of course they knew all about "Monsieur
Puiseaux," "le Chevalier de Sillery," "the house where dwelt Emily
Montague"; but do not, if you have any respect for that thrice happy age,
the halcyon days of jackets and frills, befog their brains with the musty
records of departed years. Let the lads enjoy their summer vacation,
radiant, happy, heedless of the future. Alas! it may yet overtake them
soon enough! What care could contract their brow? Have they not fed for
the day their rabbits, their pigeons, their guinea-pigs? Is not that
faithful Newfoundland dog "Boatswain," who saved from drowning one of
their school-mates, is he not as usual their companion on ship-board or
ashore? There, now, they drop down the stream for a long day's cruise
round the Island of Orleans. Next week, peradventure, you may hear of the
_Falcon_ and its jolly crew having sailed for Portneuf, Murray Bay, the
Saguenay or Bersimis, to throw a cast for salmon, sea-trout or mackerel,
in some sequestered pool or sheltered bay.

  "There we'll drop our lines, and gather
  Old Ocean's treasures in."

Are they not glorious, handsome, manly fellows, our Sillery boys? No
wonder we are all proud of them, of the twins as much as the rest, and
more so perhaps. "Our Parish" you must know, is renowned for the
proportion in which it contributes to the census: twins--a common
occurrence; occasionally, triplets.

Such we knew this Canadian home in the days of the late Henry Lemesurier.


_MONTAGUE COTTAGE._

  "I knew by the smoke which so gracefully curled,
  Above the green wood that a cottage was near."
                       --_Moore's Woodpecker._

Facing Sillery hill, on the north side of "Sans Bruit," formerly the
estate of Lieut.-Col. the Hon. Henry Caldwell, Mr. Alfred P. Wheeler,
[245] the Tide Surveyor of H. M. Customs, Quebec, built in 1880, a
comfortable and pleasing little cottage. He has called it Montague Cottage
[246] in memory of Wolfe's brave assistant Quarter Master General Col.
Caldwell, of Sans Bruit, the Col. Rivers of "The Novel and the preferred
suitor of Emily Montague who addressed her romantic 'Sillery letters to
Col. Rivers from a house not far from the Hill of Sillery.

It is stated in all the old Quebec Guide Books that the house in which the
'divine Emily then dwelt stood on the foot of Sillery Hill, close to Mrs.
Graddon's property at Kilmarnock, her friend Bella Fermor probably lived
near her. Vol. I of the Work, page 61, states; "I am at present at an
extremely pretty farm on the banks of the River St. Lawrence, the house
stands as the foot of a steep mountain covered with a variety of trees
forming a verdant sloping wall, which rises in a kind of regular
confusion, shade above shade a woody theatre, and has in front this noble
river, on which ships continually passing present to the delighted eye the
most charming picture imaginable. I never saw a place so formed to inspire
that pleasing lassitude, that divine inclination to saunter, which may not
improperly be called the luxurious indolence of the country. I intend to
build a temple here to the charming goddess of laziness. A gentleman is
coming down the winding path on the side of the hill, whom by his air I
take to be your brother. Adieu. I must receive him, my father is in
Quebec. Yours,

ARABELLA FERMOR.


    _THE HISTORY OF EMILY MONTAGUE._

    On the 22nd March 1769, a novelist of some standing Mrs. Frances
    Brooks an officer's lady, [247] author of _Lady Julia Mandeville_
    published in London a work in four volumes, which she dedicated to His
    Excellency the Governor of Canada, Guy Carleton afterwards Lord
    Dorchester, under the title of the _History of Emily Montague_ being a
    series of letters addressed from Sillery by Emily Montague the heroine
    of the tale, to her lively and witty friend Bella Fermor--to some
    military admirers in Quebec, Montreal, and New York--to some British
    noblemen, friends of her father.

    This novel, whether it was through the writer's _entourage_ in
    the world or her _entrée_ to fashionable circles, or whether on
    account of its own intrinsic literary worth, had an immense success in
    its day. The racy description it contains of Canadian scenery, and
    colonial life, mixed with the fashionable gossip of our Belgravians of
    1766, seven years after the conquest, caused several English families
    to emigrate to Canada. Some settled in the neighborhood of Quebec, at
    Sillery, it is said. Whether they found all things _couleur-de-
    rose_, as the clever Mrs. Brooke had described them,--whether they
    enjoyed as much Arcadian bliss as the Letters of _Emily Montague_
    had promised--it would be very ungallant for us to gainsay, seeing
    that Mrs. Brooke is not present to vindicate herself. As to the
    literary merit of the novel, this much we will venture to assert, that
    setting aside the charm of association, we doubt that _Emily
    Montague_ if republished at present, would make the fortune of her
    publisher. Novel writing, like other things, has considerably changed
    since 1766, and however much the florid Richardson style may have
    pleased the great grandfathers of the present generation, it would
    scarcely chime in with the taste of readers in our sensational times.
    In Mrs. Brooke's day Quebecers appear to have amused themselves pretty
    much as they do now, a century later. In the summer, riding, driving
    boating, pic-nics at Lake St. Charles, the Falls of Montmorenci, &c.
    In winter tandems, sleigh drives, toboganing at the ice cone, tomycod
    fishing on the St. Charles, Château balls; the formation of a
    _pont_ or ice-bridge and its breaking up in the spring--two events of
    paramount importance. The military, later on, the promoters of
    conviviality, sport and social amusements; in return obtaining the
    _entrée_ to the houses of the chief citizens; toying with every
    English rosebud or Gallic-lily, which might strew their path in spite
    of paternal and maternal admonitions from the other side of the
    Atlantic; occasionally leading to the hymeneal altar a Canadian bride,
    and next introducing her to their horror-stricken London relatives,
    astounded to find out that our Canadian belles, were neither the
    colour of copper, nor of ebony; in education and accomplishments,
    their equals--sometimes their superiors when class is compared to
    class. Would you like a few extracts from this curious old Sillery
    novel? Bella Fermor, one of Emily Montague's familiars, and a most
    ingrained _coquette_, thus writes from Sillery in favour of a
    military protégé on the 16th September, 1766, to the "divine" Emily,
    who had just been packed oft to Montreal to recover from a love fit.
    "Sir George is handsome as an Adonis ... you allow him to be of an
    amiable character; he is rich, young, well-born, and he loves you..."

    All in vain thus to plead Sir. George's cause, a dashing Col. Rivers
    (meant, we were told, by the Hon. W. Sheppard, to personify Col. Henry
    Caldwell, of Belmont) had won the heart of Emily, who preferred true
    love to a coronet. Let us treasure up a few more sentences fallen from
    Emily's light-hearted confidante. A postscript to a letter runs thus--
    "Adieu, Emily, I am going to ramble in the woods and pick berries with
    a little smiling civil captain [we can just fancy we see some of our
    fair acquaintances' mouths water at such a prospect], who is enamoured
    of me. A pretty rural amusement for lovers." Decidedly; all this in
    the romantic woodlands of Sillery, a sad place it must be confessed,
    when even boarding school misses, were they to ramble thus, could
    scarcely escape contracting the _scarlet_ fever. Here goes another
    extract:--

    (BELLA FERMOR TO MISS RIVERS. LONDON)

    "Sillery, Sept. 20th, (1766)--10 o'clock.

    "Ah! we are vastly to be pitied; no beaux at all at the general's,
    only about six to one; a pretty proportion, and what I hope always to
    see. We--the ladies I mean--drink chocolate with the general to-
    morrow, and he gives us a ball on Thursday; you would not know Quebec
    again. Nothing but smiling faces now: all gay as never was--the
    sweetest country in the world. Never expect to see me in England
    again; one is really somebody here. I have been asked to dance by only
    twenty-seven. ..."

    Ah! who would not forgive the frolicsome Bella all her flirtations?
    But before we dismiss this pleasant record of other days, yet another
    extract, and we have done.

    (BELLA FERMOR TO LUCY RIVERS)

    "Sillery--Eight in the evening.

    "Absolutely, Lucy, I will marry a savage and turn squaw (a pretty soft
    name for an Indian Princess!) Never was anything so delightful as
    their lives. They talk of French husbands, but commend me to an Indian
    one, who lets his wife ramble five hundred miles without asking where
    she is going.

    "I was sitting after dinner, with a book, in a thicket of hawthorn
    near the beach, when a loud laugh called my attention to the river,
    when I saw a canoe of savages making to the shore. There were six
    women and two or three children, without one man amongst them. They
    landed and tied the canoe to the root of a tree, and finding out the
    most agreeable shady spot amongst the bushes with which the beach was
    covered, (which happened to be very near me) made a fire, on which
    they laid some fish to broil, and fetching water from the river, sat
    down on the grass to their frugal repast. I stole softly to the house,
    and ordering a servant to bring some wine and cold provisions,
    returned to my squaws. I asked them in French if they were of Lorette,
    they shook their heads--I repeated the question in English, when the
    eldest of the women told me they were not, that their country was on
    the borders of New England, that their husbands being on a hunting
    party in the woods, curiosity and the desire to see their brethren,
    the English, who had conquered Quebec, had brought them up the great
    river, down which they should return as soon as they had seen
    Montreal. She courteously asked me to sit down and eat with them,
    which I complied with and produced my part of the feast. We soon
    became good company, and brightened the chain of friendship with two
    bottles of wine, which put them in such spirits that they danced,
    sung, shook me by the hand, and grew so fond of me that I began to be
    afraid I should not easily get rid of them.

    "Adieu! my father is just come in and has brought some company with
    him from Quebec to supper.

    "Yours ever,

    "A. FERMOR."


KIRK ELLA

"This villa, erected in 1850 on the north side of the St. Lewis road,
facing Cataracoui, affords a striking exemplification of how soon taste
and capital can transform a wilderness into a habitation combining every
appliance of modern refinement and rustic adornment. It covers about
eighty-two acres, two thirds of which are green meadows, wheat fields,
&c., the remainder, plantations, gardens and lawn. The cottage itself is a
plain, unpretending structure, made more roomy by the recent addition of a
dining room, &c., in rear. On emerging from the leafy avenue, the visitor
notices two _parterres_ of wild flowers--kalmias, trilliums, etc.,--
transplanted from the neighboring wood, with the rank, moist soil of the
Gomin marsh to derive nourishment from, they appear to thrive. In rear of
these _parterres_ a granite rockery, festooned with ferns, wild
violets, &c., raises its green gritty, rugged outline. This pretty
European embellishment we would much like to see more generally introduced
in our Canadian landscape; it is strikingly picturesque. The next object
which catches the eye is the conservatory in which are displayed the most
extensive collection of exotics in Sillery. In the centre of some fifty
large camellia shrubs there is a magnificent specimen of the fimbriata
variety--white leaves with a fringed border; it stands twelve feet high
with corresponding breadth. When it is loaded with blossoms in the winter
the spectacle is exquisitely beautiful. In the rear of the conservatory
are a vinery, a peach and apricot house; like the conservatory, all span-
roofed and divided off in several compartments, heated by steam-pipes and
furnaces, with stop-cocks to retard or accelerate vegetation at will. On
the 31st May, when we visited the establishment, we found the black
Hamburg grapes the size of cherries; the peaches and apricots
correspondingly advanced; the cherries under glass quite over. One of the
latest improvements is a second flower garden to the west of the house, in
the English landscape style. In rear of this garden to the north, there
existed formerly a cedar swamp, which deep subsoil draining with tiles has
converted into a grass meadow of great beauty; a belt of pine, spruce,
tamarack, and some deciduous trees, thinned towards the south-west, let in
a glimpse of the St. Lawrence and the high-wooded Point Levi shores,
shutting out the view of the St. Lewis road, and completely overshadowing
the porter's lodge; out-houses, stables, root-house, paddocks and barns
are all on a correspondingly extensive scale. We have here another
instance of the love of country life which our successful Canadian
merchant likes to indulge in; and we can fancy, judging from our own case,
with what zest Mr. Burstall the portly laird of Kirk Ella, after a
toilsome day in his St. Peter street counting-house, hurried home to revel
in the rustic beauty which surrounds his dwelling." Such was Kirk Ella in
1865.

Mr. Burstall having withdrawn from business, removed to England and died
there a few years back. Kirk Ella has now become the property of Charles
Ernest Levey, Esq., only son of the late Charles E. Levey, Esq., formerly
of Cataracoui. The dwelling having been destroyed by fire in 1879, the new
owner decided on erecting a handsome roomy mansion on the same site. The
visitor at Kirk Ella, after paying his devoirs to the youthful Chatelain
and Chatelaine, can admire at leisure Mr. Levey's numerous and expensive
stud: "Lollypop", "Bismark," "Joker," "Jovial," "Tichborne," "Burgundy,"
"Catch-him-alivo," a crowd of fleet steeds, racing and trotting stock,
surrounded by a yelping and frisky pack of "Peppers," "Mustards,"
"Carlos," "Guys," "Josephines," "Fidlers;" Mastiffs, French Poodles, Fox
Terriers, Bulldogs,--Kirk Ella is a perfect Elysium for that faithful
though noisy friend of man, the dog.


_CATARACOUI._

The conflagration of Spencer Wood, on the 12th March, 1860, made it
incumbent on the Provincial Government to provide for His Excellency Sir
Edmund Head a suitable residence. After examining several places,
Cataracoui, the residence of Henry Burstall, Esquire, opposite to Kirk
Ella was selected, and additions made, and still greater decorations and
improvements ordered when it became known that the First Gentleman in
England, our Sovereign's eldest son, was soon to pay a flying visit to Her
Majesty's Canadian lieges. Cataracoui can boast of having harbored two
princes of the blood royal, the prince of Wales, and his brother Alfred; a
circumstance which no doubt much enhanced its prestige in the eyes of its
owner. It was laid out about 1836 by Jas. B. Forsyth, Esq., the first
proprietor, and reflects credit on his taste.

This seat, without possessing the extensive grounds, vast river frontage,
and long shady walks of Spencer Wood, or Woodfield, is an eminently
picturesque residence. A new grapery with a lean-to roof, about ninety
feet in length, has just been completed: the choicest [248] varieties of
the grape vine are here cultivated. Several tasty additions have, also,
recently been made to the conservatory, under the superintendence of a
Scotch landscape gardener, Mr. P. Lowe, formerly in charge of the Spencer
Wood conservatories, &c. We had the pleasure on one occasion to view, on a
piercing winter day, from the drawing room of Cataracoui, through the
glass door which opens on the conservatory, the rare collections of
exotics it contains,--a perfect grove of verdure and blossoms,--the whole
lit up by the mellow light of the setting sun, whose rays scintillated in
every fantastic form amongst this gorgeous tropical vegetation, whilst the
snow-wreathed evergreens, surrounding the conservatory waved their palms
to the orb of day in our clear, bracing Canadian atmosphere--summer and
winter combined in one landscape; the tropics and their luxuriant
magnolias, divided by an inch of glass from the realms of old king frost
and his hardy familiars, the pine and the maple. Charming was the
contrast, furnishing a fresh proof of the comfort and luxury with which
the European merchant, once settled in Canada, surrounds his home. What,
indeed, can be more gratifying, during the arctic, though healthy,
temperature of our winter, than to step from a cosy drawing-room, with its
cheerful grate-fire, into a green, floral bower, and inhale the aroma of
the orange and the rose, whilst the eye is charmed by the blossoming
camellia of virgin whiteness; the wisteria, spirea, azalea, rhododendron,
and odorous daphne, all blending their perfume or exquisite tints.
Cataracoui has been recently decorated, we may say, with regal
magnificence, and Sillery is justly proud of this fairy abode, for years
the country seat of the late Charles B. Levey, Esq., and still occupied by
Mrs. Levey and family.


_ROSEWOOD._

  "Along their blushing borders, bright with dew,
  And in yon mingled wilderness of flowers,
  Fair-handed Spring unbosoms every grace;
  Throws out the snow-drop and the crocus first;
  The daisy, primrose, violet darkly blue,
  And polyanthus of unnumber'd dyes;
  The yellow wall-flower, stain'd with iron-brown;
  And lavish stock that scents the garden round;
  From the soft wing of vernal breezes shed,
  Anemones; auriculas, enrich'd
  With shining meal o'er all their velvet leaves;
  And full ranunculas, of glowing red.
  Then comes the tulip race, where beauty plays
  Her idle freaks; from family diffus'd
  To family, as flies the father dust,
  The varied colors run; and while they break
  On the charm'd eye th' exulting florist marks,
  With sweet pride, the wonders of his hand.
  No gradual bloom is wanting; from the bud,
  First-born of spring, to summer's musky tribes
  Nor hyacinths, of purest virgin white,
  Low bent, and blushing inward; nor jonquils
  Of potent fragrance; nor narcissus fair,
  As o'er the fabled fountain hanging still;
  Nor broad carnations, nor gay spotted pink;
  Nor, shower'd from every bush, the damask rose."

A tiny and unostentatious cottage buried among the trees. All around it,
first, flowers; secondly, flowers; thirdly, flowers. The garden, a network
of walks, and spruce hedges of rare beauty; occasionally you stumble
unexpectedly on a rustic bower, tenanted by an Apollo or Greek slave in
marble, or else you find yourself on turning an angle on the shady bank of
a sequestered pond, in which lively trout disport themselves as merrily as
those goldfish you just noticed in the aquarium in the hall hung round
with Krieghoff's exquisite "Canadian scenery." You can also, as you pass
along, catch the loud notes issuing from the house aviary and blending
with the soft, wild melody of the wood warblers and robin; but the
prominent feature of the place are flowers, sweet flowers, to charm the
eye and perfume the air. Do not wonder at that; this was the summer abode
of a gentleman whose name usually stood high on the Montreal and Quebec
exhibition prize list, and who was as successful in his commercial
ventures as he had been in the culture of carnations, zenias, gladiolus,
roses and dahlias. We remember seeing six hundred dahlias in bloom at
Rosewood at the same time, the _coup d'oeil_ and contrasts between
the varieties were striking in the extreme.

This rustic cottage was the summer residence of the late Jas. Gibb, Esq.,
of the old firm of Lane, Gibb & Co., a name remembered with gratitude, in
several educational and charitable institutions of Quebec for the
munificent bequests of its owner.


 _RAVENSWOOD._

  Near some fair town I'd have a private seat,
  Built uniform, nor little, nor too great;
  Better if on a rising ground it stood,--
  On this side fields, on that a neighboring wood;
  A little garden, grateful to the eye,
  Where a cool rivulet runs murmuring by."

In the year 1848, Mr. Samuel Wright, of Quebec, purchased from John
Porter, Esq., that upper portion of Meadowbank (the old estate of
Lieutenant Governor Cramahé in 1762), which lies to the north of the Cap
Rouge or St. Lewis road, and built a dwelling thereon. In 1846 Mr.
Wright's property was put in the market, and Ravenswood acquired by the
present owner, William Herring, Esq., of the late firm of Charles E. Levey
& Co. No sylvan spot could have been procured, had all the woods around
Quebec been ransacked, of wilder beauty. In the centre, a pretty cottage;
to the east, trees; to the west, trees; to the north and south, trees--
stately trees all around you. Within a few rods from the hall door a
limpid little brook oozes from under an old plantation, and forms, under a
thorn tree of extraordinary size and most fantastically shaped limbs, a
reservoir of clear water, round which, from a rustic seat, you notice
speckled trout roaming fearlessly. Here was, for a man familiar with the
park-like scenery of England, a store of materials to work into shape.
That dense forest must be thinned; that indispensable adjunct of every
Sillery home a velvety lawn, must be had; a peep through the trees, on the
surrounding country, obtained; the stream dammed up so as to produce a
sheet of water, on which a birch canoe will be launched; more air let in
round the house; more of the forest cut away; and some fine beech, birch,
maple, and pine trees grouped. The lawn would look better with a graceful
and leafy elm in the centre, and a few smaller ones added to the
perspective. By dint of care, elms of a goodly size were removed from the
mountain brow. The efforts of the proprietor to plant large trees at
Ravenswood have been eminently successful, and ought to stimulate others
to add such valuable, such permanent elements of beauty, to their country
seats. One plantation, by its luxuriance, pleased us more than any other,
that which shades both sides of the avenue. Few of our places can boast of
possessing a more beautifully-wooded and gracefully-curved approach to the
house than Ravenswood. You see nothing of the dwelling until you emerge
from this neat plantation of evergreens. We once viewed it under its most
fascinating aspect; 'tis pretty in the bright, effulgent radiance of day,
but when the queen of night sends forth her soft rays, and allows them to
slumber silently on the rustling boughs of the green pines and firs, with
the dark, gravelled avenue, visible here and there at every curve, no
sounds heard except the distant murmur of the _Chaudière_ river, the
effect is striking.


    _THE WOODS OF SILLERY._

      I know each lane, and every valley green,
        Dingle, or bushy dell, of this wild wood;
      And every bosky bourn from side to side,
        My daily walks and ancient neighborhood.
                     --Comus, _Shakespeare_.

    "You, doubtless, imagine you have now seen Sillery under every aspect;
    there never was a greater mistake, dear reader. Have you ever viewed
    its woods in all their autumnal glory, when September arrays them in
    tints of unsurpassed loveliness? We hear you say, no. Let us then, our
    pensive philosopher, our romantic blushing rose bud of sweet sixteen,
    our _blasé_-traveller, let us have a canter over Cap Rouge road
    out by St. Louis gate, and returning by the St. Foy road, nine miles
    and more, let us select a quiet afternoon, not far distant from the
    Indian summer, when

       The gentle wind a sweet and passionate wooer,
      Kisses the blushing leaf, and stirs up life
      Within the solemn woods of ash, deep crimsoned,
      And Silver beech, and maple yellow-leaved,"

    and then you can tell us whether the glowing description below is
    overdrawn:

    "There is something indescribably beautiful in the appearance of
    Canadian woods at this season of the year, especially when the light
    of the rising or setting sun falls upon them. Almost every imaginable
    shade of green, brown, red and yellow, may be found in the foliage of
    our forest trees, shrubs, and creeping vines, as the autumn advances
    and it may truly be said that every backwood's home in Canada is
    surrounded by more gorgeous colourings and richer beauties than the
    finest mansions of the nobility of England.

    "Have our readers ever remarked the peculiarly beautiful appearance of
    the pines at this season of the year? When other trees manifest
    symptoms of withering, they appear to put forth a richer and fresher
    foliage. The interior of the tree, when shaded from the sun, is a deep
    invisible-green, approaching to black, whilst the outer boughs,
    basking in the sunlight, show the richest dark-green that can be
    imagined. A few pine and spruce trees scattered among the more
    brightly-colored oaks, maple, elms and beeches, which are the chief
    denizens of our forests, give the whole an exceedingly rich
    appearance. Among the latter, every here and there, strange sports of
    nature attract attention. A tree that is still green will have a
    single branch, covered with red and orange leaves, like a gigantic
    bouquet of flowers. Another will have one side of a rich maroon,
    whilst the other side remains green. A third will present a flounce or
    ruffle of bright buff, or orange leaves round the middle, whilst the
    branches above and below continue green. Then again some trees which
    have turned to a rich brown, will be seen intertwined and festooned by
    the wild vine or red root, still beautifully green; or a tree that is
    still green will he mantled over by the Canadian ivy, whose leaves
    have turned to a deep reddish-brown. In fact, every hue that painters
    love, or almost could imagine, is found standing out boldly or hid
    away in some recess, in one part or another of a forest scene at this
    season, and all so delicately mingled and blended that human art must
    despair of making even a tolerable imitation. And these are beauties
    which not even the sun can portray; the photographer's art has not yet
    enabled him to seize and fix them on the mirror which he holds up to
    nature. He can give the limbs and outward flourishes, but not the soul
    of such a scene. His representation bears the same relation to the
    reality that a beautiful corpse does to the flashing eye and glowing
    cheek of living beauty."--(From "_Maple Leaves_," 1865.)


_LONGWOOD._

  THE COUNTRY SEAT OF THE HON. WM. SMITH
  (1760-1847.)

  Here there was laughing of old, there was weeping,
    Haply of lovers none ever will know,
  Whose eyes went seaward a hundred sleeping
                             Years ago.

  The ghost of a garden fronts the sea,
    A girdle of brushwood and thorn encloses
  The -- square slope of the blossomless bed
    Where the weeds that grew green from the graves of its roses
                             Now lie dead.

  The fields fall southward, abrupt and broken,
    To the low last edge of the long lone land,
  If a step should sound or a word be spoken
    Would a ghost not rise at the strange guest's hand?
                        SWINBURNE'S _Forsaken Garden_.

On a grey, cheerless May afternoon, I visited what I might call the ruins
of this once bright abode--Longwood--at Cap Rouge. Here the eccentric,
influential and scholarly historian of Canada and statesman, the Honorable
William Smith, spent the evening of his long and busy life. Whence the
name Longwood? Did the Hon. William bestow on his rustic home the name of
the residence where sojourned his illustrious contemporary--his admired
hero, Napoleon I. (born like himself in 1769), to commemorate his own
release from the cares of State? Was Cap Rouge and its quiet and sylvan
bowers to him a haven of rest like St. Helena might have been to the
_Petit Caporal_?

The locality, at present, can only attract from its woodland views. The
house, of one story, is about eighty feet in length by forty in breadth,
of wood, with an oval window over the entrance to light up that portion of
the large attic. Its roomy lower apartments and attics must have fitted it
admirably for a summer retreat. It is painted a dull yellow; the blinds
may have been once green. When I saw it, I found it as bleak, as forlorn,
as the snows and storms of many winters can well make a tenantless
dwelling.

Outside, the "ghost of a garden" had stared at me, and when the key turned
and grated in the rusty old lock of this dreary tenement, with its
disjointed floors, disintegrated foundations, darkened apartments with
shutters all closed, I almost thought I might encounter within the ghost
of the departed historian;

  All within is dark as night:
    In the windows is no light;
  And no murmur at the door,
    So frequent on its hinge before,

still the time had been when the voice of revelry, the patter of light
feet, the meeting of many friends, had awakened gladsome echoes in these
now silent halls of Longwood. Traditions told of noted dinner parties, of
festive evenings, when Quebec could boast of a well appointed garrison,
and stately frigates crowded its port.

How many balls at the Barons' Club? how many annual dinners of the
Veterans of 1775, at Menut's? how many _levees_ at the old Château,
had the Laird not attended from the first, the historical levee of Dec. 6,
1786, "where the Governor-General, Lord Dorchester, monopolised the
kissing," so graphically depicted by William's dignified papa, [249] the
Chief Justice, down to the jocund _fêtes champêtres_ of Sir James Craig at
Powell Place immortalized by old Mr. DeGaspé--to the gay _soirees_ of the
Duke of Richmond--the literary _reunions_ of the scholarly Earl of
Dalhousie--the routs and lawn parties at Spencer Wood.

The Honorable William Smith, a son of the learned chief Justice of New
York in 1780--of all Canada in 1785, was indeed a prominent figure in
Quebec circles for more than half a century; his high, confidential and
official duties, his eminent position as member of the Executive Council,
to which his powerful protector Earl Bathurst had named him in 1814--his
refined and literary tastes, his tireless researches in Canadian annals,
at a time when the founts of our history as yet unrevealed by the art of
the printer, lay dormant under heaps of decaying--though priceless--M.SS.
in the damp vaults of the old Parliament Buildings; these and several
other circumstances surround the memory, haunts and times of the Laird of
Longwood with peculiar significance.

But for the Honorable William one bleak autumn came, when the trees he had
planted ceased to lend him their welcome shade--the roses he had reared,
to send perfume to his tottering frame--the garden he had so exquisitely
planned, to gladden his aged eyes. He then bid adieu forever to the
cherished old spot and retired to his town house, now the residence of
Hon. Chas. Alleyn, Sheriff of Quebec, [250] where those he loved received
his last farewell on the 7th December, 1847, bequeathing Longwood to his
son Charles Webber Smith, who lived some years there as a bachelor, then
decked out his rustic home for an English bride and retired to England
where he died in 1879. Desolation and silence has reigned in the halls of
Longwood for many a long day, and in the not inappropriate words of
Swinburne,

  Not a flower to be prest of the foot that falls not.
    As the heart of a dead man the seed plots are dry;
  From the thickets of thorns whence the nightingale calls not,
    Could she call, there were never a rose to reply.

Chief Justice Smith [251] concerning house-keeping, house-furnishing
château ceremonies, etc, at Quebec in 1786, wrote thus in a letter to his
wife:

    QUEBEC, 10th Dec., 1786.

    _Mrs. Janet Smith, New York._

    My dear Janet,

    "Not a line from you yet! so that our approach to within 600 miles is
    less favourable to me hitherto, than when the ocean divided us by
    three thousand. It is the more vexatious, as we are daily visited by
    your Eastern neighbors, who, caring nothing for you, know nothing of
    you, and cannot tell me whether McJoen's or the Sopy Packet is
    arrived. If the latter is not over, there will be cause for ill boding
    respecting Mr. Lanaudière, who, I imagine, left the channel with the
    wind that brought us out.

    If the packet is on the way for Falmouth, get my letters into it for
    Mr. Raphbrigh, it contains a bill for £300 sterling to enable him to
    pay for what you order. You have no time to spare. A January mail
    often meets with easterly winds off the English coast, that blows for
    months, and we shall be mortified if you arrive before the necessary
    supplies, which, to be in time, must come in the ships that leave
    England in March or on the beginning of April.

    I have found no house yet to my fancy. None large enough to be hired.
    We shall want a drawing-room, a dining or eating-room, my library, our
    bedroom, one for the girls, another for Hale and William, and another
    for your house-keeper and hair-dresser. Moore and another man servant
    will occupy the eight. And I doubt if there is such a house to be
    hired in Quebec. To say nothing of quarters for the lower servants
    who, I think must be negroes from New York as cheapest and least
    likely to find difficulties. My Thomas's wages are 24 guineas and with
    your three from England will put us to £100 sterling per annum.

    If you bring blacks from New York with you, let them be such as you
    can depend upon. Our table will always want four attendants of decent
    appearance. The hurry of the public arrangements prevents me from
    writing, as I intended, to my friends on the other side of the water,
    nor even to Janet _upon the great wish of my heart_, tell her so,
    but she will know what can be done in time, for she cannot leave
    England till April or May, at any time before August to be here in
    good season. I have written to Vermont upon the subject of Moore Town
    and hear nothing to displease me, as yet, if no mischief has been done
    to our interests in that country, there will be peace, I believe; but
    of this more when I have their Governor's answer to my letters. They
    already ask favours and must first do justice.

    Our winter is commenced and yet I was never less sensible of the
    frost. The stoves of Canada, in the passages, temper the air through
    all the house. I sit ordinarly by a common hearth which gives me the
    thermometer at 71 or 72, nearly summer heat. The close cariole and fur
    cap and cloak is a luxury only used on journeys. The cariole alone
    suffices in town. The Rout of last Thursday demonstrates this: 50
    ladies in bright head dresses and not a lappet or frill discomposed.
    All English in the manner, except the ceremony of kissing which my
    Lord D. (Dorchester) engrossed all to himself. His aide-de-camp handed
    them through a room where he and I were posted to receive them. They
    had given two cheek kisses and were led away to the back rooms of the
    château, to which we repaired when the rush was over. The gentlemen
    came in at another door. Tea, cards, etc., that till 10 o'clock and
    the ceremony ended. I stole away at 9 and left your son to attend the
    beauty of the evening, a Mrs. Williams, wife to a major Williams and a
    daughter to Sir John Gibbons of Windford, a lady of genteel manners as
    well as birth. He did not find his lodging till near midnight. We had
    a dance that day at the Lt. Governor's. You must know General Hope. He
    was often at General Robertson's under the name of Col. Harry Hope,
    nephew to Lord Hopetown in Scotland, to Lord Darlington (by his
    mother's second marriage) in England. His table is in very genteel
    fashion. It reminds me that Mrs. Mallet must not forget all those
    little ornaments of plate, glass, etc., that belong to a dining-room.
    No water plates, the rooms don't require them, the plates being
    sufficiently heated by the stoves. But water dishes are necessary for
    soup and fish _fricassees_ all in the shape of the proper dishes
    for such articles. Don't forget, among others, the silver gravy cups
    with double cavities, the larger for hot water. They are small hand
    ones, not unlike a tea pot. Mrs. Mallet will find these at all the
    great shops and particularly at Jones, in Cockspur street, near
    Charing Cross, where I bought my Mary's watch chain. William that
    understands Latin and French letters better than his native tongue,
    importunes my ordering a set of classical books, which he is welcome
    to, if you can purchase at N. Y. a small bill for about £15 sterling
    and enclose it in my letter to Mr. Ryland. If that is inconvenient to
    you stop my letter, and I will find other means to gratify his
    inclination. There is a very good library [252] here, and many private
    ones at my friends. How wretched your general affairs? if our Yankey
    informers speak the truth, multitudes are disposed to turn their heads
    from that draught, which I thought they would not long relish. Lord D.
    with the generosity and charity he always indulged, bids them welcome,
    disposed as he says to favour even the independant Whigs of America,
    above any other nation under heaven, for tho' no longer brethren, they
    are at least our cousins, branches from the same stock.

    I have infinite consolation, in having dissuaded the parties from the
    steps, that led to all the calamities they have felt and still dread
    and more cheerfully will grasp at the means to lessen these
    afflictions, as the surest path to the greatest glory. I am solicited
    from Cambridge for a gift for pious uses, and find that you have been
    applied to, and probably will again. My promise shall most certainly
    be fulfilled. It was to give a lot for a church. But as I told them it
    was to be a gift to _Christianity_ and not to Sectarianism.
    Religion and party are two different things. Tell them so that my gift
    will be to all Protestants, that is to say to the majority of the town
    being protestants, be the denomination what it may, and that I may not
    be imposed upon, I shall put my seal to no deed, before they bring me
    Dr. Rodger's certificate upon the subject. My best respects to him
    with compliments to Mrs. T., Mr. Ainslie, Mr. and Mrs. Foxcraft and
    all your friends.

    The snapping of my wood fires makes me think of yours. Don't forget
    them yourself. _Your three hundred acres of shingles_, chills the
    blood in my veins.... Adieu. The broad hand of Heaven protect you!

    I am, my dearest,

      Most faithfully yours,

      W. S.


_MEADOWBANK._

"THE COUNTRY SEAT OF LIEUT.-COL. ANDREW CHARLES STUART.

  Happy, is he who in a country life
    Shuns more perplexing toil and jarring strife,
  Who lives upon the natal soil he loves
    And sits beneath his old ancestral groves."
                       --_Downing_.

Facing Ravenswood, on the road to Cape Rouge, on the breezy banks of the
noble river, there lies a magnificent expanse of verdure, with here and
there a luxuriant copse of evergreens and sugar maple. It crowns a
graceful slope of undulating meadows and cornfields. The dwelling, a
plain, straggling white cottage, lies _perdu_ among the green firs
and solemn pines. Over the verdant groves, glimpses of the white cottages
of Levi and New Liverpool occasionally catch the eye. This rustic
landscape, pleasant at all times, becomes strikingly picturesque, at the
"fall of the leaf"--when the rainbow-tinted foliage is, lit up by a
mellow, autumnal sun. Under this favored aspect it was our happiness to
view it in September, 1880.

  "Bright yellow, red and orange
    The leaves came down in hosts;
  The trees are Indian princes—
    But soon they'll turn to ghosts."

In 1762, this broad, wild domain was owned by Lt.-Gov. Hector Theophilus
Cramahé of Quebec, and according to an entry in the Diary of Judge Henry,
he apparently was still the proprietor in 1775, at the time of the
blockade of Quebec. In 1785, the land passed by purchase to one of
Fraser's Highlanders, Capt. Cameron. It was from 1841 to 1875, the
cherished abode of a cultured English gentleman, the late John Porter, the
able secretary and treasurer of the Quebec Turnpike Trust. It did one good
to see the courteous old bachelor, cosily seated in his ample, well
selected library, surrounded by a few congenial friends, the toils of the
day over--the dust of St. Peter Street shaken off. Mr. Porter was a fair
type of the well-informed English country gentleman, well read in Debrett,
with a pedigree reaching as far back as William the Norman. At his demise,
he bequeathed this splendid farm to the son of a valued old friend. Andrew
Chs. Stuart, Esq., of the law firm of Ross, Stuart & Stuart, Quebec, now
Lt.-Col. Andrew Charles Stuart, of the 8th Batt. "Royal Rifles," Quebec.

Col. Stuart, the possessor of ample means, having a taste for agricultural
pursuits, has lately become an active member of the Quebec Turf Club, as
well as a successful breeder of prize cattle. His stud is renowned all
over Canada. Col. Stuart lately took up his residence at Meadowbank, since
which time a transformation seems to have come over the land; sprightly
parterres of flowers, dainty pavilions, trim hedges, rustic seats, hanging
baskets of ferns, are conspicuous, where formerly hay alone flourished. A
neighboring rill has been skilfully enlisted to do duty, dammed up,
bridged over, gently coaxed to meander, whimple and bubble, like
Tennyson's brook, here and there rippling over and rushing into cool trout
ponds, under the shade of moss and trees, until it leaps down to the St.
Lawrence.

A small race-course has been laid out, south of the house, in a declivity
towards the St. Lawrence to exercise the thoroughbreds and keep healthy
the pet charger for parade days, as well as ladies' palfreys, which are
not forgotten at Meadowbank.

In an enclosure protected by stone pillars and chains, under the shade of
a handsome tree, may be read on a board, the following name, recently
inscribed,

                               "ASTREA"

This marks the spot where a favourite saddle-horse, who died prematurely,
now rests. All now wanting to perfect this scene of rustic beauty is a
cottage _orné_ or a _Chalet Suisse_.


    A RAID ON MEADOWBANK IN 1775, AND HOW KING GEORGE'S FRIENDS, THE
    "QUEBEC TORIES" WERE THEN PLUNDERED.

    The following extract from Judge Henry's Diary seems to refer to the
    country seat, now known as Meadowbank:

    Arnold's little army had retreated to Pointe aux Trembles on the 15th
    Nov. On the 2nd December, 1775, they retraced their steps to Quebec
    and in the evening arrived at St. Foy. On the 12th of December, Henry
    [253] says "The officers and men still wore nothing else than the
    remains of the summer clothing, which being on their back, had escaped
    destruction in the disaster of the wilderness." At this time the snow
    lay three feet deep over the whole country. One fine morning a fellow
    addressed Simpson who was the only officer in quarters and said "that
    about two miles up the St. Lawrence lay a country seat of Governor
    Cromie's (Cramahé?) stocked with many things they wanted and he would
    be our guide. Carioles were immediately procured. The house, a neat
    box, was romantically situated on the steep bank of the river, not
    very distant from a chapel. [254] Though in the midst of winter the
    spot displayed the elegant taste and abundant wealth of the owner. The
    house was closed; knocking, the hall door was opened to us by an
    Irishwoman who, of the fair sex, was the largest and most brawny that
    ever came under my notice. She was the stewardess of the house. Our
    questions were answered with an apparent affability and frankness. She
    introduced us into the kitchen, a large apartment, well filled with
    these articles which good livers think necessary to the happy
    enjoyment of life. Here we observed five or six Canadian servants
    huddled into a corner of the kitchen trembling with fear. Our prying
    eyes soon discovered a trap door leading into the cellar. The men
    entered it; firken after firken of butter,--lard, tallow, beef, pork,
    fish and salt, all became a prey. While the men were rummaging below
    the lieutenant descended to cause more despatch. My duty was to remain
    at the end of the trap door with my back to the wall, and rifle cocked
    as a sentry, keeping a strict eye on the servants. My good Irishwoman
    frequently beckoned to me to descend; her drift was to catch us all in
    the trap. Luckily she was comprehended. The cellar and kitchen being
    thoroughly gutted, and the spoil borne to the carriages, the party
    dispersed into the other apartments. Here was elegancy. The walls and
    partitions were beautifully papered, and decorated with large
    engravings, maps, &c., and of the most celebrated artists. A noble
    view of the City of Philadelphia upon a large scale taken from the
    neighborhood of Cooper's Ferry drew my attention and raised some
    compunctive ideas; but war and the sciences always stand at arms
    length in the contests of mankind. The latter must succumb in the
    tumult. Our attention was much more attracted by the costly feather
    beds, counterpanes, and charming rose blankets, which the house
    afforded. Of these there was a good store and we left not a jot behind
    us. The nooks and crevices in the carioles were filled with smaller
    articles; several dozen of admirably finished case knives and forks;
    even a set of dessert knives obtained the notice of our cupidity.
    Articles of a lesser moment nor a thousandth part so useful, did not
    escape the all-grasping hands of the soldiery. In a back apartment
    there stood a mahogany couch or settee in a highly finished style. The
    woodwork of the couch was raised on all sides by cushioning, and
    costly covered by a rich figured silk. This to us was lumber, besides
    our carioles were full. However, we grabbed the mattrass and pallets
    all equally elegant as the couch. Having, as we thought, divested his
    Excellency of all the articles of prime necessity, we departed,
    ostensibly and even audibly accompanied by the pious blessings of the
    stewardess for our moderation. No doubt she had her mental
    reservations; on such business as this we regarded neither. Near the
    chapel we met a party of Morgan's men coming to do that which we had
    already done. The officer appeared chagrined when he saw the extent of
    our plunder. He went on, and finally ransacked the house, and yet a
    little more the stables. The joy of our men, among whom the plunder
    was distributed in nearly equal portions was extravagant. Now an
    operation of the human mind, which often takes place in society, and
    is every day discernable by persons of observation, became clearly
    obvious. Let a man once with impunity desert the strict rule of rules,
    all subsequent aggression is not only increased in atrocity, but is
    done without a qualm of conscience. Though our company was composed
    principally of freeholders, or the sons of such, bred at home under
    the strictures of religion and morality, yet when the reins of decorum
    were loosed and the honorable feeling weakened, it became impossible
    to administer restraint. The person of a Tory or his property became
    fair game, and this at the denunciation of some base domestic villain.

    On the morning following December 13, the same audacious scoundrel
    again returned, and another marauding expedition started under his
    guidance to a farm "said to belong to Gov. Cromie (Cramahé?) or some
    other inhabitant of Quebec. It was further than the former scene." The
    farm-house, though low, being but one story, was capacious and
    tolerably neat. The barn built of logs, with a thrashing floor in the
    centre, was from 70 to 80 feet in length. The tenant, his wife and
    children shuddered upon our approach. Assurances that they should be
    unharmed relieved their fears. The tenant pointed out to us the horned
    cattle, pigs and poultry of his landlord. These were shot down without
    mercy or drove before us to our quarters. Thus we obtained a tolerable
    load for our caravan, which consisted of five or six carioles. "With
    this disreputable exploit marauding ceased. A returning sense of
    decency and order emanating from ourselves produced a sense of
    contrition. It is a solemn truth that we plundered none but those who
    were notoriously Tories and then within the walls of Quebec."


_THE HIGHLANDS._

The range of heights extends from Spencer Wood, west, to the black bridge
over the stream at Kilmarnock, gradually recedes from the road, leaving at
its foot a spacious area interspersed with green pastures, lawns, ploughed
fields and plantations. On the most elevated plateau of this range stands
"The Highlands," a large substantial fire-brick dwelling, with an ample
verandah, erected a few years back by Michael Stevenson, Esquire,
merchant, of Quebec. The site is recommended by a fine view of the river
St. Lawrence, an airy and healthy position, and the luxuriant foliage of
the spruce, pine and maple in the background. The internal arrangements of
the dwelling, whether regard be had to ventilation in summer or heating in
winter, are on the most modern and improved plan. "The Highlands" lie
above St. Michael's Cove teeming with historical recollections, a little
to the west thereof, in front of St. Lewis road of historic renown, over
which pranced, in 1663, the Marquis of Tracy's gaudy equipage and splendid
body-guard wearing, as history tells, the uniform of the _Gardes de la
Reine_. In Sept., 1759, [255] the Rochbeaucourt Cavalry, with their
"blue uniforms and neat light horses of different colours," scoured the
heights in all directions, watching the motions of the English fleet,
which may be seen in the plate of the siege operations, lying at anchor at
Sillery, ready, the huge black leviathans, to hurl destruction on the
devoted city. In 1838, we remember well noticing Lord Durham's showy
equipage with outriders, thundering daily over this same road: the Earl
being a particular admirer of the Cap Rouge scenery. This seat has passed
over, by purchase, to Chas. Temple, Esq., son of our late respected
fellow-townsman, Major Temple, who for a series of years served in that
15th regiment, to whose prowess the Plains of Abraham bore witness during
the war of the conquest. "The Highlands" are now occupied by J. W.
Stockwell, Esquire.


    _WINTER FOX HUNTING IN CANADA._

    From time immemorial, Merry England has been renowned for her field
    sports; prominent amongst which may be reckoned her exciting pastime
    of Fox-hunting, the pride, the glory, _par excellence_ of the
    roystering English squire. Many may not be aware that we also, in our
    far-off Canada, have a method of Fox-hunting peculiarly our own--in
    harmony with the nature of the country--adapted to the rigors of our
    arctic winter season--the successful prosecution of which calls forth
    more endurance, a keener sight, a more thorough knowledge of the
    habits of the animal, a deeper self-control and greater sagacity, than
    does the English sport; for, as the proverb truly says, "_Pour
    attraper la bête, faut être plus fin qu'elle._" [256]

    A short sketch [257] of a Canadian Fox-hunt may not, therefore, prove
    uninteresting. At the outset, let the reader bear in mind that Sir
    Reynard _Canadensis_ is rather a rakish, dissipated gentleman,
    constantly turning night into day, in the habit of perambulating
    through the forests, the fields, and homesteads, at most improper
    hours, to ascertain whether, perchance, some old dame Partlett, some
    hoary gobbler, some thoughtless mother-goose, allured to wander over
    the farm-yard by the jocund rays of a returning March sun, may not
    have been outside of the barn, when the negligent stable-boy closed up
    for the night; or else, whether some gay Lothario of a hare in yonder
    thicket may not, by the silent and discreet rays of the moon, be
    whispering some soft nonsense in the willing ear of some guileless
    doe, escaped from a parent's vigilant eye. For on such has the
    midnight marauder set his heart: after such does noiselessly prowl,
    favoured by darkness--the dissipated rascal--_querens quem devoret_--
    determined to make up, on the morrow, by a long meridian _siesta_ on
    the highest pinacle of a snow-drift, for the loss of his night's-rest.
    Should fortune refuse the sly prowler the coveted hen, turkey, goose,
    or hare, warmly clad in his fur coat and leggings, with tail
    horizontal, he sallies forth over the snow-wreathed fields, on the
    skirts of woods, in search of ground mice, his ordinary provender.
    But, you will say, how can he discover them under the snow? By that
    wonderful instinct with which nature has endowed the brute creation to
    provide for their sustenance, each according to its nature, to its
    wants. By his marvellously acute ear, the fox detects the ground mouse
    under the snow, though he should utter a noise scarcely audible to a
    human ear. Mr. Fox sets instantly to work, digs down the earth, and in
    a trice gobbles up _mus_, his wife, and young family. Should nothing
    occur to disturb his arrangements, he devotes each day in winter, from
    ten or half-past ten in the forenoon, to repose; selecting the
    loftiest snow-bank he can find, or else a large rock, or perchance any
    other eminence from which--

      "Monarch of all _he surveys_"--

    he can command a good view of the neighborhod, and readily scent
    approaching danger. Nor does he drop off immediately in a sound sleep,
    like a turtle-fed alderman; but rather, like a suspicious, blood-
    thirsty land pirate, as he is, he first snatches hastily "forty
    winks," then starts up nervously, for several times, scanning all
    around with his cruel, cunning eye--snuffing the air. Should he be
    satisfied that no cause of alarm exists, he scrapes himself a bed, if
    in the snow and, warmly wrapped in his soft fur cloak, he coils
    himself up, cat-fashion, in the sun, with his brushy tail brought over
    his head, but careful to keep his nose to the direction from which the
    wind blows, so as to catch the first notice of and scent the lurking
    enemy. On a stormy, blustery day, the fox will, however, usually seek
    the shelter of some bushes or trees, and on such occasion is usually
    found under the _lee_ of some little wooded point, where, steeped
    in sweetest sleep, he can at leisure dream of clucking hens, fat
    turkeys, and tender leverets--sheltered from the storm, and still
    having an uninterrupted view before him. The hunter, when bent on a
    fox hunt, is careful to wear garments whose colour blends with the
    prevailing hue of frosted nature: a white cotton _capot_, and
    _capuchon_ to match, is slipped over his great coat; pants also
    white--everything to harmonize with the snow; a pair of snow-shoes and
    a short gun complete his equipment. Once arrived at the post where he
    expects to meet reynard, he looks carefully about for signs of tracks,
    and having discovered fresh ones, he follows them, keeping a very
    sharp look-out. Should he perceive a fox, and that animal be not
    asleep, it is then that he has need of all his wits and of all the
    knowledge of the animal's habits he may possess. As previously stated,
    the fox depends principally on his scent, to discover danger; but his
    eye is also good, and to succeed in approaching within gun shot of him
    in the open country, the gunner must watch every motion most
    carefully, moving only when the animal's gaze is averted, and stopping
    instantly the moment he looks towards him, no matter what position the
    sportman's may be at that time. No matter how uncomfortable he may
    feel; move he dare not, foot nor limb; the eye of the fox is on him,
    and the least movement would betray him and alarm his watchful quarry.
    It will be easily conceived that to succesfully carry out this
    programme, it requires nerves of steel and a patience _à toute
    épreuve_. It has been the good luck of one of our friends once to
    approach thus a fox, within twenty feet, without his detecting him;
    needless to say, it was done moving against the wind. Some few hunters
    can so exactly imitate the cry of the ground mouse, as to bring the
    fox to them, especially if he is very hungry; but it is not always
    that this plan succeeds. The animal's ear is keen; the slightest
    defect in the imitation betrays the trap, and away canters alarmed
    reynard at railroad speed. Some sportsmen prefer to watch the fox, and
    wait until he falls asleep which they know he will surely do, if not
    disturbed, and then they can approach him easily enough against the
    wind. It is not unusual for them to get within fifteen feet of the
    animal, before the noise of their footsteps causes him to wake.--As
    may readily be supposed in such cases, his awakening and death are
    generally simultaneous.

    It is a fact worthy of note, that the fox, if undisturbed, will every
    day return to the same place to sleep, and about the same hour. These
    animals are not as abundant as they were a few years back.

    The extent of country travelled by a fox by moonlight, each night, is
    very great. Not many years ago, a Quebec hunter [258] who is in the
    habit of enjoying his daily walk at peep of day, informed the writer
    that on many occasions he has seen the sly wanderer, on being
    disturbed from the neighborhood of the tanneries in St. Vallier
    street, hieing away at a gallop towards the Lorette and Charlesbourg
    mountains, a distance of nine miles each way.


_CAPE ROUGE COTTAGE._

With its rear facing St. Augustin parish, eight miles from the city a
commodious dwelling graces the summit of the lofty cape or promontory,
which terminates westward the elevated _plateau_, on the eastern extremity
of which, Champlain, in 1608, raised the lily-spangled banner of the
Bourbons. Unquestionably the environs of Quebec are rich in scenery,
revelling one half of the year in rural loveliness, the other half
enjoying that solid comfort, which successful enterprise, taste and free
institutions communicate to whatever they touch; but no where, not even at
Spencer Wood, or Woodfield, has nature lavished such beautiful landscapes,
such enchanting views. Three centuries ago, Europeans had pitched here
their tents, until the return of spring, attracted by the charms of the
spot; three hundred years after that, a man of taste--to whom we may now
without fear, give his due, as he is where neither praise nor censure can
be suspected,--an English merchant had selected this site for its rare
attractiveness; here he resided for many summers. In 1833 he removed to
Spencer Wood. We allude to the late Henry Atkinson, who was succeeded at
the Cap Rouge Cottage by William Atkinson, Esq., merchant of London,
England. Mr. William Atkinson lived in affluence and happiness at Cap
Rouge, several years. There are yet at Quebec those who remember the kind-
heartedness and hospitality of this English gentleman of the old school.

Geo. Usborne, Esq., was the next occupant of the cottage. The estate
consisted formerly of close on one hundred acres of land, extending north
across the king's highway, with a river frontage of about twenty acres,
the lot on the south side of the road is laid out, one half in a park, the
remainder in two or three fruit and flower gardens, divided by brick walls
to trail vines and ripen fruit. It lies quite sheltered with a southerly
exposure, bounded by the lofty, perpendicular river banks; the base, some
two hundred feet below, skirted by a narrow road, washed by the waves of
the St. Lawrence. A magnificent avenue extends along the high bank under
ancient, ever-verdant pines, whose far outspreading branches, under the
influence of winds, sigh a plaintive but soothing music, blending their
soft rustle to the roar of the Etchemin or the Chaudière rivers before
easterly gales; how well Pickering has it:--

  "The overshadowing pines alone, through which I roam,
    Their verdure keep, although it darker looks;
  And hark! as it comes sighing through the grove,
    The exhausted gale, a spirit there awakes
  That wild and melancholy music makes."

From the house verandah, the eye plunges westward down the high cape,
following the capricious windings of the Cap Rouge stream far to the
north, or else scans the green uplands of St. Augustin, its white cottages
rising in soft undulations as far as the sight can reach. Over the extreme
point of the southwestern cape hangs a fairy pavilion, like an eagle's
eyrie amongst alpine crags, just a degree more secure than that pensile
old fir tree which you notice at your feet stretching over the chasm;
beneath you the majestic flood, Canada's pride, with a hundred merchantmen
sleeping on its placid waters, and the orb of day dancing blithely over
every ripple. Oh! for a few hours to roam with those we love under these
old pines, to listen to the voices of other years, and cull a fragrant
wreath of those wild flowers which everywhere strew our path.

Is there not enough of nature's charm around this sunny, truly Canadian
home? And how much of the precious metal would many an English duke give
to possess, in his own famed isle, a site of such exquisite beauty? We
confess, we denizens of Quebec, we do feel proud of our Quebec scenery;
not that on comparison we think the less of other localities, but that on
looking round we get to think more of our own.

Cap Rouge, from it having been the location of Europeans, early in the
sixteenth century, must claim the attention of every man of cultivated
mind who takes a pleasure in scrutinizing the past, and in tracing the
advent on our shores of the various races of European descent, now
identified with this land of the West, yearning for the bright destinies
the future has in store.

At the foot of the Cape, on which the Cape Rouge Cottage now stands,
Jacques Cartier and Roberval wintered, the first in 1541-2; the second in
1543-4. Recent discoveries have merely added to the interest which these
historical incidents awaken. The new _Historical Picture of Quebec_,
published in 1834, thus alludes to these circumstances:--

"We now come to another highly interesting portion of local history. It
has been stated that the old historians were apparently ignorant of this
last voyage of Cartier. Some place the establishment of the fort at Cape
Breton, and confound his proceedings with those of Roberval. The exact
spot where Cartier passed his second winter in Canada is not mentioned in
any publication that we have seen. The following is the description given
of the station in Hakluyt: 'After which things the said captain went, with
two of his boats, up the river, beyond Canada'--the promontory of Quebec
is meant--'and the port of St. Croix, to view a haven and a small river
which is about four leagues higher, which he found better and more
commodious to ride in, and lay his ships, than the former. * * * The said
river is small, not passing fifty paces broad, and ships drawing three
fathoms water may enter in at full sea; and at low water there is nothing
but a channel of a foot deep or thereabouts. * * * The mouth of the river
is towards the south, and it windeth northward like a snake; and at the
mouth of it, towards the east, there is a high and steep cliff, where we
made a way in manner of a pair of stairs, and aloft we made a fort to keep
the nether fort and the ships, and all things that might pass as well by
the great as by the small river." Who that reads the above accurate
description will doubt that the mouth of the little river Cap Rouge was
the station chosen by Jacques Cartier for his second wintering place in
Canada? The original description of the grounds and scenery on both sides
of the river Cap Rouge is equally faithful with that which we have
extracted above. The precise spot on which the upper fort of Jacques
Cartier was built, afterwards enlarged by Roberval, has been fixed by an
ingenious gentleman of Quebec, at the top of Cap Rouge height, a short
distance from the handsome villa and establishment of H. Atkinson (now of
James Bowen) There is, at the distance of about an acre to the north of
Mr. Atkinson's house, a hillock of artificial construction, upon which are
trees indicating great antiquity, and as it does not appear that any
fortifications were erected on this spot, either in the war of 1759, or
during the attack of Quebec by the Americans in 1775, it is extremely
probable that here are to be found the interesting site and remains of the
ancient fort in question.

"On his return to the fort of Charlesbourg Royal, the suspicions of
Cartier as to the unfriendly disposition of the Indians were confirmed. He
was informed that the natives now kept aloof from the fort, and had ceased
to bring them fish and provisions as before. He also learned from some of
the men who had been at Stadacona, that an unusual number of Indians had
assembled there--and associating, as he always seems to have done, the
idea of danger with any concourse of the natives, he resolved to take all
necessary precautions, causing everything in the fortress to be set in
order.

"At this crisis, to the regret of all who feel an interest in the local
history of the time the relation of Cartier's third voyage abruptly breaks
off. Of the proceedings during the winter which he spent at Cap Rouge,
nothing is known. It is probable that it passed over without any collision
with the natives, although the position of the French, from their
numerical weakness, must have been attended with great anxiety.

"It has been seen that Roberval, notwithstanding his lofty titles, and
really enterprising character, did not fulfil his engagement to follow
Cartier with supplies sufficient for the settlement of a colony, until the
year following. By that time the Lieutenant General had furnished three
large vessels chiefly at the King's cost, having on board two hundred
persons, several gentlemen of quality, and settlers, both men and women.
He sailed from La Rochelle on the 16th of April, 1542, under the direction
of an experienced pilot, by name John Alphonse, of Xaintonge. The
prevalence of westerly winds prevented their reaching Newfoundland until
7th June. On the 8th they entered the road of St. John, where they found
seventeen vessels engaged in the fisheries. During his stay in this road,
he was surprised and disappointed by the appearance of Jacques Cartier, on
his return from Canada, whither he had been sent the year before with five
ships. Cartier had passed the winter in the fortress described above, and
gave as a reason for the abandonment of the settlement, 'that he could not
with his small company withstand the savages which went about daily to
annoy him.' He continued, nevertheless, to speak of the country as very
rich and fruitful. Cartier is said, in the relation, of Roberval's voyage
in Hakluyt, to have produced some gold ore found in the country, which on
being tried in a furnace, proved to be good. He had with him also some
_diamonds_, the natural production of the promontory of Quebec, from
which the Cape derived its name. The Lieutenant General having brought so
strong a reinforcement of men and necessaries for the settlement, was
extremely urgent with Cartier to go back again to Cap Rouge, but without
success. It is most probable that the French, who had recently passed a
winter of hardship in Canada, would not permit their Captain to attach
himself to the fortunes and particular views of Roberval. Perhaps, the
fond regret of home prevailed over the love of adventure, and like men who
conceived that they had performed their part of the contract into which
they had entered, they were not disposed to encounter new hardships under
a new leader. In order, therefore, to prevent any open disagreement,
Cartier weighed anchor in the course of the night without taking leave of
Roberval, and made all sail for France. It is impossible not to regret
this somewhat inglorious termination of a distinguished career. Had he
returned to his fort, with the additional strength of Roberval, guided by
his own skill and experience, it is most probable that the colony would
have been destined to a permanent existence. Cartier undertook no other
voyage to Canada; but he afterwards completed a sea chart, drawn by his
own hand, which was extant in the possession of one of his nephews,
Jacques Noël, of St. Malo, in 1587, who seems to have taken great interest
in the further development of the vast country discovered by his deceased
uncle. Two letters of his have been preserved, relating to the maps and
writings of Cartier: the first written in 1587, and the others a year or
two latter, in which he mentions that his two sons, Michael and John Noël,
were then in Canada, and that he was in expectation of their return.
Cartier himself died soon after his return to France, having sacrificed
his fortune in the case of discovery. As an indemnification for the losses
their uncle had sustained, this Jacques Noel and another nephew, De la
Launay Chaton, received in 1588, an exclusive privilege to trade to Canada
during, twelve years, but this was revoked four months after it was
granted.

"Roberval, notwithstanding his mortification at the loss of Cartier's
experience and aid in his undertaking, determined to proceed, and sailing
from Newfoundland, about the end of June, 1543, he arrived at Cap Rouge,
'four leagues westward of the Isle of Orleans,' towards the end of July.
Here the French immediately fortified themselves, 'in a place fit to
command the main river, and of strong situation against all manner of
enemies.' The position was, no doubt, that chosen by Jacques Cartier the
year previous. The following is the description given in Hakluyt of the
buildings erected by Roberval: 'The said General on his first arrival
built a fair fort, near and somewhat westward above Canada, which is very
beautiful to behold, and of great force, situated upon a high mountain,
wherein there were two courts of buildings, a great tower, and another of
forty or fifty feet long, wherein there were divers chambers, a hall, a
kitchen, cellars high and low, and near unto it were an oven and mills,
and a stove to warm men in, and a well before the house. And the building
was situated upon the great River of Canada called _France-Prime_ by
Monsieur Roberval. There was also at the foot of the mountain another
lodging, where at the first all our victuals, and whatsoever was brought
with us, were sent to be kept, and near unto that tower there is another
small river. In these two places above and beneath, all the meaner sort
was lodged.' This fort was called _France-Roy_, but of these extensive
buildings, erected most probably in a hasty and inartificial manner, no
traces now remain, unless we consider as such the mound above mentioned,
near the residence of Mr. Atkinson, at Cap Rouge.

"On the 14th September, Roberval sent back to France two of his vessels,
with two gentlemen, bearers of letters to the King; who had instructions
to return the following year with supplies for the settlement. The natives
do not appear, by the relation given, to have evinced any hostility to the
new settlers. Unfortunately, the scurvy again made its appearance among
the French and carried off no less than sixty during the winter. The
morality of this little colony was not very rigid--perhaps they were
pressed by hunger, and induced to plunder from each other--at all events
the severity of the Viceroy towards his handful of subjects appears not to
have been restricted to the male sex. The method adopted by the Governor
to secure a quiet life will raise a smile; 'Monsieur Roberval used very
good justice, and punished every man according to his offence. One whose
name was Michael Gaillon, was hanged for his theft. John of Nantes was
laid in irons, and kept prisoner for his offence; and others also were put
in irons, and divers whipped, as well men as women, by which means they
lived quiet.'

"We have no record extant of the other proceedings of Roberval during the
winter of 1543. The ice broke up in the month of April; and on the 5th
June, the Lieutenant General departed from the winter quarters on an
exploring expedition to the Province of Saguenay, as Cartier had done on a
former occasion. Thirty persons were left behind in the fort under the
command of an officer, with instructions to return to France, if he had
not returned by the 1st of July. There are no particulars of this
expedition, on which, however, Roberval employed a considerable time. For
we find that on the 14th June, four of the gentlemen belonging to the
expedition returned to the fort, having left Roberval on the way to
Saguenay; and on the 19th, some others came back, bringing with them some
six score weight of Indian corn; and directions for the rest to wait for
the return of the Viceroy, until the 22nd July. An incident happened in
this expedition, which seems to have escaped the notice of the author of
the treaties on the _canon de bronze_ (Amable Barthelot), which we
have noticed in a former chapter. It certainly gives an authentic account
of a ship wreck having been suffered in the St. Lawrence, to which,
perhaps, the finding of the cannon, and the tradition about Jacques
Cartier, may with some possibility be referred. The following is the
extract in question: 'Eight men and one bark drowned and lost, among whom
were Monsieur de Noire Fontaine, and one named La Vasseur of Constance.'
The error as to the name might easily arise, Jacques Cartier having been
there so short a time before, and his celebrity in the country being so
much greater than that of Roberval, or of any of his companions."

Cap Rouge Cottage is now owned by James Bowen, Esq.


_BEAUSÉJOUR._

  Flooded in sunny silence sleep the kine,
    In languid murmurs brooklets float and flow,
  The quaint farm-gables in rich light shine
  And round them jasmined honeysuckles twine,
    And close beside them sun-flowers burn and blow.

About one mile beyond the St. Foye Church, there is a fertile farm of one,
hundred acres, lying chiefly on the north side of the road. The dwelling,
a roomy, one story cottage, stands about two acres from the highway, from
which a copse of trees interrupts the view.

There are at present in this spot, several embellishments--such as trout
ponds--which bid fair to render it worthy of the notice of men of taste.
It was merely necessary to assist nature in order to obtain here most
gratifying results. Between the road fence and the dwelling, a small brook
has worn its bed, at the bottom of a deep ravine, sweeping past the house
lawn westward, and then changing its course to due north-west the boundary
in that direction between that and the adjoining property. The banks of
the ravine are enclosed in a belt of every imaginable forest shrub,--wild
cherry, mountain ash, raspberry, blueberry, interspersed here and there
with superb specimens of oak, spruce, fir and pine. A second avenue has
been laid out amongst the trees between the road fence and the brook, to
connect with the lawn at the west of the house, by a neat little bridge,
resting on two square piers about twenty-five feet high: on either side of
the bridge a solid dam being constructed of the boulders and stones
removed from the lower portion of the property, intended to form two trout
ponds of a couple of acres in length each, a passage in the dam is left
for the water-fall, which is in full view of the bridge. On the edge of
the bank, overhanging the ravine, nature seems to have pointed out the
spot for a pavilion, from which the disciples of Isaac Walton can throw a
cast below. The green fringe of the mountain shrubs in bud, blossom or
fruit, encircling the farm, materially enhances the beauty of this sylvan
landscape,--the eye resting with particular pleasure on the vast expanse
of meadow of vivid green, clothed in most luxuriant grass, some 10,000
bundles of hay for the mower, in due time. About two acres from the house,
to the west, is placed a rustic seat, under two weather-beaten, though
still verdant oaks, which stretch their boughs across the river: closer
again to the cottage, the eye meets two pavilions. The new avenue, rustic
bridges, ponds and pavilions, are due to the good taste of the present
owner, Louis Bilodeau, Esq. This rural home was for several years occupied
in summer by Stephen Sewell, Esq., and does not belie its name--
Beauséjour.


_BELMONT._

    Owners--Intendant Talon, 1670; General James Murray, 1765; Sir John
    Caldwell, 1810; J. W. Dunscomb. Esquire, 1854-81.

That genial old joker, Sir Jonas Barrington, in his _Sketches_, has
invested the Irish homes and Irish gentry with features certainly very
original--at times so singular as to be difficult of acceptance. True, he
lived in an age and amongst a people proverbial for generous hospitality,
for conviviality carried to its extreme limit. Gargantuan banquets he
describes, pending which the bowls of punch and claret imbibed appear to
us something fabulous. Irish squires, roystering Irish barristers,
toddling home in pairs after having stowed away under their belts as many
as twelve bottles of claret a piece, during a prolonged sitting, _i.e._,
from 6 P.M. to 6 A.M. Such intrepid diners-out were known as "Twelve
bottle men;" and verily, if the old Judge is to be credited, they might
have been advantageously pitted even against such a Homeric guzzler as
history depicts Aurora Konigsmark's sturdy son, Maréchal de Saxe, who, in
his youth, 'tis said, tossed off, at one draught and without experiencing
any ill-effects, one whole gallon of wine.

The first time our eye scanned the silent and deserted banquetting halls
of Belmont, with their lofty ceilings, and recalling the traditional
accounts of the hospitable gentlemen, whose joviality had once lit up the
scene, visions of social Ireland of Barrington's day floated uppermost in
our mind. We could fancy we saw the gay roysterers of times by-gone--first
a fête champêtre of lively French officers from Quebec, making merry over
their Bordeaux or Burgundy, and celebrating the news of their recent
victories at Fontenoy, [259] Lauffeld or Carillon, to the jocund sound of
_Vive la France! Vive le Maréchal de Saxe! à la Claire Fontaine_, &c
then Governor Murray, surrounded by his veterans, Guy Carleton, Col.
Caldwell, Majors Hale, Holland, and some of the new subjects, such as the
brave Chs. De Lanaudière, [260] complimenting one another all around over
the feats of the respective armies at the two memorable battles of the
Plains, and all joining loyally in repeating the favorite toast in Wolfe's
fleet, _British colours on every French fort, port and garrison in
America_! Later on, at the beginning of the present century, a gathering
of those Canadian Barons, so graphically delineated by John Lambert in his
_Travels in Canada_, in 1808--one week surrounding the festive board of
this jolly Receiver General of Canada at Belmont, the next at
Charlesbourg, making the romantic echoes of the Hermitage ring again with
old English cheers and loyal toasts to "George the King," or else
installing a "Baron" at the Union Hotel, Place d'Armes,--possibly in
the very Council-room in which the State secrets of Canada were in 1865
daily canvassed--and flinging down to the landlord as Lambert says, "250
guineas for the entertainement." Where are now the choice spirits of that
comparatively modern day, the rank and fashion who used to go and sip
claret or eat ice-cream with Sir James Craig, at Powell Place? Where gone
the Mures, Paynters, Munros, Matthew Bells, de Lanaudières, Lymburners,
Smiths, Finlays, Caldwells, Percevals, Jonathan Sewells? Alas! like the
glories of Belmont, departed, or living in the realms of memory only!

This estate, which, until lately, consisted of four hundred and fifty
acres, extending from the line of the Grande Allée down to the Bijou wood,
was _conceded_ in 1649 by the Jesuit Fathers to M. Godfroy. It passed
over, in 1670, to the celebrated Intendant Talon, by deed of sale executed
on the 28th of September, 1670, before Romain Becquet, Notaire Royal.
Messire Jean Talon is described in that instrument as "Conseiller du roi
en ses conseils d'état et premier Intendant de justice, police et finance
de la Nouvelle France, Isle de Terreneuve, Acadie et pays de l'Amérique
Septentrionale." Shortly after the conquest it was occupied by Chief
Justice Wm. Gregory. In 1765 it was sold for £500 by David Alves of
Montreal, to General James Murray, who, after the first battle of the
Plains, had remained Governor of Quebec, whilst his immediate superior,
Brigadier Geo. Townshend, had hurried to England to cull the laurels of
victory. In 1775, we find that one of the first operations of the American
General Montgomery was to take possession of "General Murray's house, on
the St. Foy road." General Murray also, probably, then owned the property
subsequently known as Holland's farm, where Montgomery had his
headquarters. All through our history the incidents, actors and results of
battles are tolerably well indicated, but the domestic history of
individuals and exact descriptions of localities are scarcely ever
furnished, so that the reader will not be surprised should several
_lacunae_ occur in the description of Belmont, one of the most interesting
Canadian country seats in the neighbourhood of Quebec. The history of
Holland House might also, of itself, furnish quite a small epic; and,
doubtless, from the exalted social position of many of the past owners of
Belmont, its old walls, could they obtain utterance, might reveal
interesting incidents of our past history, which will otherwise ever be
buried in oblivion.

In the memory of Quebecers, Belmont must always remain more particularly
connected with the name of the Caldwells, three generations of whom
occupied its spacious halls. The founder of this old family, who played a
conspicuous part in Canadian politics for half a century, was the Hon.
Col. Henry Caldwell, for many years Receiver General of the Province, by
royal appointment, and member of the Legislative Council. He came first to
Canada in 1759, says Knox, [261] as Assistant Quartermaster General to
Wolfe, under whom he served. When appointed Receiver General, the salary
attached to that high office [262] was £400 per annum, with the
understanding that he might _account_ at his convenience, he never
accounted at all, probably as it was anything but _convenient_ to do
so, having followed the traditional policy of high officials under French
rule, and speculated largely in milk, &c. The fault was more the
consequences of the system than that of the individual, and had his
ventures turned out well, no doubt the high-minded Colonel and Receiver
General would have made matters right before dying. In 1801 Col. Caldwell
was returned member for Dorchester, where he owned the rich Seigniory of
Lauzon, and most extensive mill at the Etchemin river, the same
subsequently owned by J. Thomson, Esq., and now by Hy. Atkinson, Esq. The
colonel was re-elected by the same constituency in 1805, and again in
1809, lived in splendor at Belmont, as a polished gentleman of that age
knew how to live, and died there in 1810. Belmont is situated on the St.
Foye road, on its north side, at the end of a long avenue of trees,
distant three miles from Quebec. The original mansion, which was burnt
down in 1798, was rebuilt by the Colonel in 1800 on plans furnished by an
Engineer Officer of the name of Brabazon. It stood in the garden between
the present house and main or St. Foye road. The cellar forms the spacious
root house, at present in the garden. Col Caldwell's exquisite
entertainments soon drew around his table some of the best men of Quebec,
of the time, such as the gallant Gen. Brock, John Colt man, William
Coltman, the Hales, Foy, Haldimand, Dr. Beeby of Powell Place, J. Lester,
John Blackwood. In 1810 Mr. John Caldwell, son of the Colonel, accepted
the succession with its liabilities, not then known. He however made the
Lauzon manor his residence in summer, and was also appointed Receiver
General. In 1817 Belmont was sold to the Hon. J. Irvine, M.P.P., the
grandfather of the present member for Megantic, Hon. George J. Irvine.
Hon. Mr. Irvine resided there until 1833. The beautiful row of trees which
line the house avenue and other embellishments, are due to his good taste.
In 1838 the property reverted to the late Sir Henry Caldwell, the son of
Sir John Caldwell, who in 1827, had inherited the title by the death of an
Irish relative, Sir James Caldwell, the third Baronet (who was made a
Count of Milan by the Empress Maria Theresa, descended by his mothers'
side from the 20th Lord Kerry). John Caldwell of Lauzon, having become Sir
John Caldwell, _menait un grain train_, as the old peasants of Etchemin
repeat to this day. His house, stud and amusements were those of a baron
of old, and of a hospitable Irish gentleman, spreading money and progress
over the length and breadth of the land. At his death, which happened at
Boston in 1842, the insignificant Etchemin settlement, through his
efforts, had materially increased in wealth, size and population. There
was, however, at his demise, an _error_ in his Government balance sheet of
£100,000 on the wrong side!

Belmont lines the St. Foye heights, in a most picturesque situation. The
view from the east and north-western windows is magnificently grand;
probably one might count more than a dozen church spires glittering in the
distance--peeping out of every happy village which dots the base of the
blue mountains to the north. In 1854 this fine property was purchased by
J. W. Dunscomb, Esq., Collector of Customs, Quebec, who resided there
several years, and sold the garden for a cemetery to the Roman Catholic
Church authorities of Quebec, reserving 400 acres for himself. The old
house, within a few years, was purchased by Mr. Wakeham, the late manager
of the Beauport Asylum. His successful treatment of diseases of the mind
induced him to open, at this healthy and secluded spot, under the name of
the "Belmont Retreat," a private _Maison de Santé_, where, wealthy
patients are treated with that delicate care which they could not expect
in a crowded asylum. The same success has attended Mr. Wakeham's
enterprise at Belmont which crowned it at Beauport.


    _AN IRISH EDUCATION IN THE OLDEN TIMES._

    Among the old stories handed down in Canadian homes

      "In the long nights of winter,
      When the cold north winds blow,"

    of the merry gatherings and copious feasts of other days, one is told
    of a memorable entertainment at Belmont, given a crowd of friends.

    Some assert it was the Belmont anniversary dinner of the battle of
    Waterloo and bring in of course Blucher, Hougomont! Belle-Alliance and
    what not. It is, however, more generally believed among the aged,
    judging from the copious libations and kindly toasts drank, that it
    partook of a more intimate character and was merely a _fête de
    famille_, to commemorate the safe return of sir John Caldwell's
    only son from Ireland, where he had just completed his collegiate
    course at Dublin, be that as it may, it unquestionably was meant to
    solemnise an important family or national event.

    As was wont, in those hospitable times, the "landlord's flowing bowl,"
    alas! had been emptied too often. Some of the "Barons of the round
    table" were in fact preparing for a timely retreat, before the city
    gates should be closed, [263] the genial host soon put a stop to such
    a treasonable practice, exclaiming that the sentry would let them pass
    at any hour, so they need only follow the Commandant, their fellow
    guest, who of course had the countersign, closing his well timed
    remarks, by raising his voice and proclaiming in an authoritative tone
    "no heel taps here," the stately banquet hall re-echoed with cheers "a
    bumper, a bumper," resounded on all sides, "to the future Sir Harry,
    who has just completed his Irish education." The future Sir Harry was
    soon on his legs, and in a voice mellow with old port, youth and fun,
    responded "Friends, fellow countrymen, brothers, (this last expression
    was challenged as he was an only son) I am indeed proud of my Dublin
    education, we have something, however better before us than a
    disquisition on the excellence of the various systems of continental
    courses, to be brief, I now challenge any here present to meet me on
    the classics, astronomy, the cubic root or glass to glass, you have
    your choice." "Glass to glass," they one and all replied. Toasts,
    songs, healths of every member of the Royal family, were gone through
    with amazing zest as time advanced towards the small hours of the
    morning, the guests, one by one disappeared from the banqueting room,
    some, alas! under the mahogany, more with the genial commander of the
    garrison, whilst the stalwart Irish student, still undaunted and
    meeting the foe, glass to glass--a veritable giant, fresher as he went
    on.

    Old Sir John, a well seasoned diner-out, at last found himself
    solitary at his end of the table, whilst his son adorned the other end
    defiantly.

    Looking round in dismay and fearing, if he continued the healths, to
    be unequal to cope with such an intrepid Dublin student, he the last
    gave up, flinging himself majestically back in his chair, exclaiming
    "D----n your Irish education!"


_HOLLAND FARM._

This estate, which formerly comprised two hundred acres of ground,
extending from the brow of the St. Foye heights to St Michael's Chapel on
the Samoa or St. Lewis road, possesses considerable interest for the
student of Canadian history, both under French and English rule. The
original dwelling, a long high-peaked French structure, stood on an
eminence closer to the St. Foye road than does the present house. It was
built about the year 1740, by a rich Lower Town merchant, Monsieur Jean
Taché [264] who resided there after his marriage in 1742 with Mademoiselle
Marie Anne Jolliet de Mingan, grand-daughter to the celebrated discoverer
of the Mississippi, Louis Jolliet. Monsieur Jean Taché was also _Syndic
des Marchands_, member of the Supreme Council of Quebec, and ancestor
to Sir. E. P. Taché. He at one time owned several vessels, but his
floating wealth having, during the war of the conquest, become the prize
of English cruisers, the St. Peter street Nabob of 1740, as it has since
happened to some of his successors in that _romantic_ neighbourhood,
--lost his money. Loss of fortune did not, however, imply loss of honour,
as old memoirs of that day describe him, "Homme intègre et d'esprit." He
had been selected, in the last year of French rule, to go and lay at the
foot of the French Throne the grievances of the Canadians. About this
time, the St. Foye road was becoming a fashionable resort, _Hawkin's
Picture of Quebec_ calls it "The favorite drive of the Canadian Belle
before the conquest." This is an interesting period in colonial life, but
imperfectly known,--nor will a passage from Jeffery, an old and valued
English writer, illustrative of men, manners and amusements in the Colony,
when it passed over to the English monarch, be out of place:--

"The number of inhabitants being considerably increased, they pass their
time very agreeably. The Governor General, with his household; several of
the _noblesse_ of exceeding good families; the officers of the army,
who in France are all gentlemen; the Intendant, with a Supreme Council,
and the inferior magistrates; the Commissary of the Marine; the Grand
Provost; the Grand Hunter; the Grand Master of the Woods and Forests, who
has the most extensive jurisdiction in the world; rich merchants, or such
as live as if they were so; the bishops and a numerous Seminary; two
colleges of Récollets, as many of Jesuits; with three Nunneries; amongst
all those yon are at no loss to find agreeable company and the most
entertaining conversation. Add to this the diversions of the place, such
as the assemblies at the Lady Governess's and Lady Intendant's; parties at
cards, or of pleasure, such as in the winter on the ice, in sledges, or in
skating; and in the summer in chaises or canoes; also hunting, which it is
impossible not to be fond of in a country abounding with plenty of game of
all kinds.

"It is remarked of the Canadians that their conversation is enlivened by
an air of freedom which is natural and peculiar to them, and that they
speak the French in the greatest purity and without the least false
accent. There are few rich people in that Colony, though they all live
well, are extremely generous and hospitable, keep very good tables, and
love to dress very finely.... The Canadians have carried the love of arms,
and glory, so natural to their mother country, along with them.... War is
not only welcome to them but coveted with extreme ardor." [265]

During the fall of 1775, the old mansion sheltered Brigadier Richard
Montgomery, [266] the leader of the American forlorn hope, who fell on the
31st December of that year, at Près-de-Ville, Champlain street, fighting
against those same British whom it had previously been his pride to lead
to victory. About the year 1780, we find this residence tenanted by a
worthy British officer, who had been a great favourite with the hero of
the Plains of Abraham. Major Samuel Holland had fought bravely that day
under General Wolfe, and stood, it is said, after the battle, close by the
expiring warrior. His dwelling took the name of Holland House: he added to
it, a cupola, which served in lieu of a _prospect tower_, wherefrom
could be had a most extensive view of the surrounding country. [267] The
important appointment of Surveyor General of the Province, which was
bestowed on Major Holland, together with his social qualities, abilities
and education, soon gathered round him the _élite_ of the English
Society in Quebec at that time. Amongst the distinguished guests who
frequented Holland House in 1791, we find Edward, afterwards Duke of Kent.
The numerous letters still extant addressed by His Royal Highness from
Kensington Palace, as late as 1814, to the many warm friends he had left
on the banks of the St. Lawrence, contain pleasant reminiscences of his
sojourn amongst his royal father's Canadian lieges. Amongst other
frequenters of Holland House, may also be noted a handsome stranger, who
after attending--the gayest of the gay--the Quebec Château balls,
Regimental mess dinners, Barons' Club, tandem drives, as the male friend
of one of the young Hollands was, to the amazement of all, convicted at a
mess dinner of being a lady [268] in disguise. A _fracas_ of course
ensued. The lady-like guest soon vamosed to England, where _he_ became the
lawful spouse of the Hon. Mr. C----, the brother to Lord F----d. One
remnant of the Hollands long endured; the old fir tree on that portion of
the property purchased by James Creighton, farmer. Holland tree was still
sacred to the memory of the five slumberers, who have reposed for more
than a century beneath its hoary branches. Nor has the recollection of the
"fatal duel" faded away. Holland farm, for many years, belonged to Mr.
Wilson of the Customs Department, Quebec, in 1843 it passed by purchase to
Judge George Okill Stuart, of Québec; Mr. Stuart improved the place,
removed the old house and built a handsome new one on a rising ground in
rear, which he occupied for several summers. It again became renowned for
gaiety and festivity when subsequently owned by Robert Cassels, Esquire,
for many years Manager of the Bank of British North America at Quebec.
Genl. Danl. Lysons had leased it in 1862, for his residence, when the
unexpected vote of the House of Assembly on the Militia Bill broke through
his arrangements. Holland House is still the property of Mr. Cassels.


    _THE HOLLAND TREE._

    (BY THE AUTHOR OF "MAPLE LEAVES")

      "Woodman spare that tree."

    It has often been noticed that one of the chief glories of Quebec
    consisted in being surrounded on all sides by smiling country seats,
    which in the summer season, as it were, encircle the brow of the old
    city like a chaplet of flowers; those who, on a sunny June morning,
    have wandered through the shady groves of Spencer Wood, Woodfield,
    Marchmont, Benmore, Kilmarnock, Kirk Ella, Hamwood, Beauvoir,
    Clermont, and fifty other old places, rendered vocal by the voices of
    birds, and with the sparkling waters of the great river or the winding
    St. Charles at their feet, are not likely to gainsay this statement.

    Amongst these beautiful rural retreats few are better known than
    Holland Farm, in 1780 the family mansion of Surveyor-General Holland,
    one of Wolfe's favourite engineer officers. During the fall of 1775 it
    had been the headquarters of Brig. General Montgomery, who chose it as
    his residence during the siege of Quebec, whilst his colleague, Col.
    Benedict Arnold, was stationed with his New Englanders at the house
    southeast of Scott's Bridge, on the Little River road, for many years
    the homestead of Mr. Langlois. This fine property, running back as far
    as Mount Hermon Cemetery, and extending from the St. Louis or Grand
    Allée road, opposite Spencer Wood, down to the St. Foye road, which it
    crosses, is bounded to the north by the _cime du cap_, or St. Foye
    heights. For those who may be curious to know its original extent to
    an eighth of an inch, I shall quote from Major Holland's title-deed,
    wherein it is stated to comprise "in superficies, French measure, two
    hundred and six arpents, one perch, seven feet eight inches, and _four
    eighths of an inch_," from which description one would infer the Major
    had surveyed his domain with great minuteness, or that he must have
    been rather a stickler for territorial rights. What would his shades
    now think could they be made cognizant of the fact that that very
    château garden, [269] which he possessed and bequeathed to his sons in
    the year 1800, which had been taken possession of for military
    purposes by the Imperial authorities, is held by them to this day?
    Major Samuel Holland had distinguished himself as an officer under
    General Wolfe, on the Plains of Abraham, lived at Holland House [270]
    many years, as was customary in those days, in affluence, and at last
    paid the common debt to nature. He had been employed in Prince Edward
    Island and Western Canada on public surveys.

    The Major, after having provided for his wife, Mary Josette Rolet,
    bequeathed his property to Frederick Braham, John Frederick,
    Charlotte, Susan and George Holland, [271] his children. In 1817,
    Frederick Braham Holland, who at that time was an ordnance storekeeper
    at Prince Edward Island, sold his share of the farm to the late
    William Wilson, of the Customs. Ten years later, John Frederick and
    Charlotte Holland also disposed of their interest in this land to Mr.
    Wilson, who subsequently, having acquired the rights of another heir,
    viz., in 1835, remained proprietor of Holland Farm until 1843, when
    the property by purchase passed over to Judge Geo. Okill Stuart, of
    this city. Mr. Stuart built on it a handsome mansion now known as
    Holland House, which he subsequently sold to Rob. Cassells, Esq., of
    Quebec, late manager of the Bank of British North America.

    Holland Farm has been gradually dismembered: Coulonge Cottage, at the
    outlet of the Gomin Road, [272] is built on Holland farm. A successful
    gold digger by the name of Sinjohn purchased in the year 1862 a large
    tract of the farm fronting the St. Louis road with Thornhill as its
    north eastern and Mr. Stuart's new road as its south-western boundary.
    His cottage is shaded by the Thornhill Grove, with a garden and lawn
    and adjoins a level pasturage entirely denuded of shrubs and forest
    trees. [273] To a person looking from the main gate, at Spencer Wood
    in the direction of the south gable of Holland House, exactly in a
    straight line, no object intervenes except a fir tree which detaches
    itself on the horizon, conspicuous from afar over the plantation which
    fronts the St. Foye road. That tree is the Holland Tree. Well! what
    about the Holland Tree? What! you a Quebecer and not to know about the
    Holland Tree? the duel and the slumberers who have reposed for so many
    years under its shade!

    Oh! but suppose I am not a Quebecer. Tell me about the Holland Tree.
    Well, walk down from the St. Louis road along Mr. Stuart's new road
    and we shall see first how the rest of the 'slumberers' has been
    respected. Hear the words which filial affection dictated to Frederick
    Braham, John Frederick and Charlotte Holland, when on the 14th July
    1827, they executed a deed [274] in favor of Wm. Wilson conveying
    their interest in their father's estate.

    "Provided always and these presents as well as the foregoing deed of
    sale and conveyance are so made and executed by the said Robert
    Holland acting as aforesaid (as attorney of the heirs Holland) upon
    and subject to the _express_ charge and _condition_ that is to say,
    that the said William Wilson his heirs and assigns shall forever hold
    sacred and inviolable the small circular space of ground on the said
    tract or piece of land and premises enclosed with a stone wall and
    wherein the remains of the late Samuel Holland, Esquire, father of the
    said vendors and of his son the late Samuel Holland jr., Esq., are
    interred, and shall and will allow tree ingress and egress at all
    times to the relatives and friends of the family of the said Samuel
    Holland for the purpose of viewing the state and condition of the said
    space of ground and making or causing to be made such repairs to the
    wall enclosing the same or otherwise providing for the protection of
    the said remains as they shall see fit."

    Not many years back the 'small circular space' which Mr. Wilson bound
    himself to hold sacred and inviolable and which contained two neat
    marble slabs with the names of Messrs. Holland, senior and junior, and
    other members of the family engraved on them, was inclosed within a
    substantial stone wall to which access was had through an iron gate,
    the walls were covered with inscriptions and with the initials of
    those who had visited a spot to which the fatal issue of a deadly
    encounter lent all the interest of a romance. Nothing now is visible
    except the foundation, which is still distinct: the monument stones
    have disappeared, the wall has been razed to the ground, some modern
    Vandal or a descendant of the Ostrogoths [275] (for amongst all
    civilized nations, the repose of the dead is sacred) has laid violent
    hands on them! When Mr. Wilson sold Holland farm in 1843 he made no
    stipulation about the graves of the Hollands, he took no care that
    what he had agreed to hold inviolable should continue to be so held.

    The tragical occurrence connected with the Holland Tree is much out of
    the ordinary run of events, it seems very like the plot of a sensation
    novel--a dark tale redolent with love, jealousy and revenge. Two men
    stood, some sixty years ago, in mortal combat, not under the Holland
    Tree, as it has generally been believed but near Windmill Point, Point
    St Charles, at Montreal, one of them Ensign Samuel Holland, of the
    60th Regiment, the other was Capt Shoedde. The encounter, it was
    expected would be a deadly one in those duelling days blood alone
    could wipe out an insult. Old Major Holland, on bidding adieu to his
    son is reported to have said, "Samuel, my boy, here are weapons which
    my loved friend General Wolfe, presented me on the day of his death.
    Use them, to keep the old family name without stain." Of this
    memorable affair W. H. Henderson, Esq., of Hemison, has kindly
    furnished me with the following details.

    'The duel originated from some, it was considered, unjustifiable
    suspicions on the part of Capt. Shoedde of his (Holland's) intimacy
    with Mrs. Shoedde so palpably unfounded that young Holland applied to
    his father as to whether in honour he was bound to take notice of the
    matter. The Major replied by forwarding by post his pistols. Ensign
    Holland was mortally wounded at the first shot, but in his agony rose
    on his knees and levelled his pistol, aiming for Capt. Shoedde's
    heart, who received the ball in his arm laid over his breast.'

    Mr. Holland was conveyed to the Merchants Coffee House, in the small
    lane, near the river side, called Capital street, where he expired in
    great pain. The battalion in which this gentleman served was at that
    time, commanded by Major Patrick Murray, a relative of the British
    General of Quebec fame, with whom I became very intimate in the years
    1808 and 1809. Major Murray's account of the duel agreed with the
    general report prevalent in 1799 in Montreal. Murray thought that the
    challenge had been given by young Holland and not by Shoedde. Murray
    subsequently married sold his commission, and purchased the seignory
    of Argenteuil. At that time Sir George Prevost was also a Major In the
    60th Regiment of 1790, whilst Murray's commission dated of 1784. Sir
    George gave Murray in 1812 a colonel's commission in the militia, who
    raised the corps of lawyers in Montreal known, as styled by the
    humorous old man, "as The Devil s Own."


    _A SCANDAL OF THE LAST CENTURY._

    One of the young Hollands had also been a party to a _scandalum
    magnum_, which created much gossip amongst our grandfathers, about
    the time H.R.H the Duke of Kent was at Quebec.

    At a regimental mess dinner a handsome young fellow, having, in these
    days of hard swearing and hard drinking, exceeded in wine, was
    convicted of being a lady in disguise, attending as the guest of young
    Holland, and whose sex was unknown to young Holland.

    This lady, whom all Quebec knew as Mr. Nesbitt, turned out to be a
    Miss Neville, left for England, and was eventually married to Sir J.
    C---, brother of Lord F----, a British nobleman.

    One of the Nestors of the present generation, Col. J. Sewell, has
    related to me the circumstances as he heard them in his youth from the
    lips of a man of veracity and honour--Hon. W. Smith, son of Chief
    Justice Smith.

    Here are his own words:--"Hon. Mr. Smith told me that Mr. Nesbitt,
    _alias_ Miss Neville, was dining at a mess dinner of the 24th
    Grenadiers at the Jesuits' Barracks, upper Town market place--Having
    sacrificed too freely to the rosy god, an officer of the 24th, Mr.
    Broadstreet, I think, helped him to the balcony ... when having to
    lean on his supporter, Mr. Broadstreet became confident Nesbitt was a
    girl in disguise. Nesbitt drove out after dinner to Holland House and
    Broadstreet told the joke all round. Nesbitt hearing of it, sent him,
    next day, a challenge for originating such a report.

    Mr. Broadstreet, not knowing how to act, applied to one of his
    superior officers--Capt. Doyle (subsequently Genl. Doyle, who married
    at Quebec, a Miss Smith), for advice, saying: "How can I fight a
    girl?" to which Capt. Doyle rejoined, "I will act as your second. If
    Nesbitt is a girl, you shall not fight him, and I engage to prove this
    fact." He then drove out to Holland House, and found the gay Lothario
    Nesbitt flirting with the young ladies. He observed him attentively,
    and having tried an experiment, calculated to throw light on the
    mysterious foreigner, he went to complain direct to the Governor and
    Commander in Chief; Lord Dorchester, who, on hearing the perplexity
    caused by Mr. Nesbitt, sent for Dr. Longmore, the military physician,
    and ordered him to investigate of what sex Nesbitt might be.

    Mr. Nesbitt stormed--refused to submit--vowed he would go direct to
    England and make a formal complaint of the indignity with which he was
    threatened.

    Hon. Jonathan Sewell,--later on Chief Justice, by persuasion,
    succeeded in pouring oil on the troubled waters. Nesbitt confessed,
    and Quebec was minus of a very handsome but beardless youngster, and
    the English Court journals soon made mention of a fashionable marriage
    in high life.


_HAMWOOD._

  How sweet it is, when mother Fancy rocks
  The wayward brain, to saunter through a wood
  An old place, full of many a lovely brood,
  Tall trees, green arbours, and ground-flowers in flocks
  And wild rose tiptoe upon hawthorn stocks,
                           --_Wordsworth_.

How many vicissitudes in the destinies of places, men, families, nations!
See yonder mansion, its verdant leaves, with the leafy honours of nascent
spring encircling it like a garland, exhaling the aroma of countless buds
and blossoms, embellished by conservatory, grapery, avenues of fruit and
floral trees. Does not every object bespeak comfort, rural felicity,
commercial success!

When you enter that snug billiard-room, luxuriously fitted up with fire
place, ottomans, &c., or when, on a balmy summer evening, you are seated
on the ample verandah, next to the kind host, do you not my legal friend,
feel inclined to repeat to yourself "Commerce, commerce is the turnpike to
health, to affluence, the path to consideration." But was the scene always
so smiling, and redolent of rustic enjoyment.

If so, what means yon stately column, [276] surmounted by its fat,
helmetted Bellona, mysteriously looking round as if pregnant with a mighty
unfathomable future. Ask history? Open Capt. Knox's _Journal of the
Siege of Quebec_, and read therein how, in front of that very spot
where you now stand, along that identical road, over which you emerged
from the city, war once threw her sorrows, ask this brave British officer
to retrace one of those winter scenes he witnessed here more than one
hundred years ago: the howling blast of the north sighing through the few
remaining gnarled pines and oaks spared by Albion's warriors; add to it
tired teams of English troops, laboriously drawing, yoked eight by eight,
long sledges of firewood for Murray's depressed, harassed garrison, and
you have something like John Knox's _tableau_ of St. Foye Road on the
7th December, 1759.--

"Our garrison, now undergo incredible fatigue, not only within but also
without the walls, being obliged to load and sleigh home firewood from the
forest of St. Foy, which is near four miles distant, and through snow of a
surpassing depth, eight men are allowed to each sleigh, who are yoked to
it in couples by a set of regular harness, besides one man who guides it
behind with a long stout pole, to keep it clear of ruts and other
obstructions. We are told that M. de Lévis is making great preparations
for the long-meditated assault on this place (Quebec) with which we are
menaced. Christmas is said to be the time fixed for this enterprise, and
_Monsieur_ says, 'if he succeed he shall be promoted to be _Maréchal de
France_, and if he fail, Canada will be lost, for he will give it up.'"
[277]

Do not, dear reader, however fear for the old rock, it is tolerably secure
so long as Fraser's Highlanders and British Grenadiers garrison it.

We have here endeavored to contrast the smiling present with the dreary
past; peace, progress, wealth, as we find it to-day in this important
appendage of the British Crown, ready to expand into an empire, with the
dismal appearance of things when it was scantily settled, and in those
dark days when war stalked through our land. Hamwood takes its name from
that of the paternal estate of the Hamiltons, county of Meath, Ireland,
and without pretending to architectural excellence, it is one of the
loveliest spots on the St. Foye road. It belongs to Robert Hamilton, Esq.,
a leading merchant of Quebec.


_BIJOU._

  And I have heard the whispers of the trees,
    And the low laughter of the wandering wind,
  Mixed with the hum of golden-belted bees,
    And far away, dim echoes, undefined,--
  That yet had power to thrill my listening ear,
    Like footsteps of the spring that is so near.
                      --(_Wood Voices_, KATE S. McL.)

Shall we confess that we ever had a fancy for historical contrasts? It is
our weakness, perhaps our besetting sin; and when, on a balmy June day, at
the hour when the king of day it sipping the dew-drops from the flowers,
we ride past this unadorned but charming little Canadian home, next to
Westfield, on the St. Foye heights, as it were sunning itself amidst
emerald fields, fanned by the breath of the fragrant morn, enlivened by
the gambols of merry childhood; memory, in spite of us, brings back the
ghastly sights, the sickening Indian horrors, witnessed here on the 28th
April, 1760. There can be no doubt on this point; the mute, but eloquent
witnesses of the past are dug up every day: shot, shell, bullets, old
bayonets, decayed military buttons, all in the greatest profusion.

"The savages," says Garneau, "who were nearly all in the woods behind
during the fight, spread over the battle-field when the French were
pursuing the enemy, and killed many of the wounded British, whose scalps
were afterwards found upon neighboring bushes. As soon as De Lévis was
apprised of the massacre, he took vigorous measures for putting a stop to
it. Within a comparatively narrow space nearly 2,500 men had been struck
by bullets. The patches of snow and icy puddles on the ground were so
reddened with the blood shed, that the frozen ground refused to absorb,
and the wounded survivors of the battle were immersed in pools of gore and
filth, ankle deep."

Such _was_ the deadly strife in April, 1760, on the identical spot on
which, reader, you and we now stand on the St. Foye heights. Such is
_now_ the smiling aspect of things as you see them at Bijou, which
crowns the heights over the great Bijou marsh, etc., the dwelling of
Andrew Thomson, Esq., (now President of the Union Bank of Quebec.) Some
natural springs in the flower garden, in rear of the dwelling, and slopes
of the ground, when turned to advantage, in the way of terraces and
fountains, bid fair to enhance materially the beauty of this rustic spot.


    _ANECDOTE OF WOLFE'S ARMY (1760).--QUEBEC._

    By a volunteer (J. T.).

    "At the Battle of the Plains of Abraham we had but one Piper, and
    because he was not provided with Arms and the usual other means of
    defence, like the rest of the men, he was made to keep aloof for
    safety:--When our line advanced to the charge, General Townshend
    observing that the Piper was missing, and knowing well the value of
    one on such occasions, he sent in all directions for him, and he was
    heard to say aloud. "Where's the Highland Piper?" and "Five pounds for
    a Piper;" but devil a bit did the Piper come forward the sooner.
    However, the charge, by good chance, was pretty well effected without
    him, as all those that escaped could testify. For this business the
    Piper was disgraced by the whole of the Regiment, and the men would
    not speak to him, neither would they suffer his rations to be drawn
    with theirs, but had them serv'd out by the Commissary separately, and
    he was obliged to shift for himself as well as he could.

    The next spring, in the month of April, when the Garrison of Quebec
    was so madly march'd out, to meet the French, who had come down again
    to attack us, and while we were on the retreat back to the Town, the
    Highlanders, who were a raw undisciplin'd set, were got into great
    disorder, and had become more like a mob than regular soldiers. On the
    way I fell in with a captain Moses Hazen, [278] a Jew, who commanded a
    company of Rangers, and who was so badly wounded, that his servant,
    who had to carry him away, was obliged to rest him on the grounds at
    every twenty or thirty yards, owing to the great pain he endured. This
    intrepid fellow, observing that there was a solid column of the French
    coming on over that high ground where Commissary General Craigie [279]
    built his house, and headed by an Officer who was at some distance in
    advance of the column, he ask'd his servant if his fuzee was stil
    loaded? (The servant opened the pan, and found it is still prim'd).
    "Do you see," says Captain Hazen, "that fellow there, waving his sword
    to encourage those other fellows to come forward?"--Yes, says the
    servant, I do Sir;--Then, says the Captain again, "just place your
    back against mine for one moment, 'till I see if I can bring him
    down." He accordingly stretch'd himself on the ground, and, resting
    the muzzle of his fuzee on his toes, he let drive at the French
    Officer. I was standing close behind him, and I thought it perfect
    madness to attempt it. However, away went the charge after him, and
    faith down he was in an instant. Both the Captain and myself were
    watching for some minutes, under an idea that altho' he _had_ laid
    down, he might perhaps take it into his head to get up again. But no.
    And the moment that he fell, the whole column that he was leading on,
    turn'd about and decamp'd off leaving him to follow as well as he
    might! I could'nt help telling the Captain that he had made a capital
    shot, and I related to him the affair of the foolish fellow of our
    grenadiers who shot the savage at the landing at Louisbourg, altho'
    the distance was great, and the rolling of the boat so much against
    his taking a steady aim. "Oh! yes, says Captain Hazen, you know that a
    _chance shot_ will kill the Devil himself."

    But, to return to the Highlanders: so soon as the Piper had discovered
    that his men had scatter'd and were in disorder, he as soon
    recollected the disgrace that still hung upon him, and he likely
    bethought to give them a blast of his Pipes. By the Lord Harry! this
    had the effect of stopping them short, and they allow'd themselves to
    be formed into a sort of order. For this opportune blast of his
    chanters, the Piper gain'd back the forgiveness of the Regiment, and
    was allow'd to take his meals with his old messmates, as if nothing-
    at-all had happened.

    On the 6th May, 1760, which was after we had been driven back to the
    town by the French, and while they yet lay in their trenches across
    that high ground where the martello tower now stands, there came a
    ship of war in sight, and she was for some considerable time tacking
    across and across between Pointe Lévis and the opposing shore. We were
    at a loss to know the meaning of all this, when the commanding Officer
    of Artillery bethought himself to go and acquaint General Murray (who
    had taken up his Quarters in Saint Louis Street, now (1828) the
    Officer's Barracks) of the circumstance: He found the General in a
    meditative mood, sitting before the fire in the chimney place. On the
    Officer acquainting him that there was a ship of war in sight, the
    General was quite electrified! He instantly got up, and, in the
    greatest fury, order'd the Officer to have the colours immediately
    hoisted on the citadel! Away he went, but dev'l a bit could the
    halliards be made to go free until at last, a sailor was got hold of,
    who soon scrambl'd up the flagstaff, and, put all to rights in a
    jiffy.

    All this time the ship of war did not show her own colours, not
    knowing whether the town was in the hands of the French or the
    English, but as soon as she perceived our flag, she hoisted English
    colours, and shaped her course towards the town, and was soon safe at
    anchor opposite to the King's Wharf. Our men had been all the winter
    in bad spirits from coughs and colds, and, their having been obliged
    to retreat from the French, did'nt help much to mend the matter.
    However, when they heard that an English man-o-war was come, it was
    astonishing how soon they became stout-hearted; faith, they were like
    lions, and just as bold! The man-o-war prov'd to be the "Lowestoffe,"
    which had been detached from the main fleet below, with orders to make
    the best of time through the ice, and take up the earliest
    intelligence of the approach of the fleet. Her sides were very much
    torn by the floating ice. Our having hoisted colours for the first
    time since the conquest, and a ship of war having made her appearance,
    led the French to imagine that there was something strange going on.
    Indeed they expected a fleet as well as ourselves, and this arrival
    brought them out of their trenches, as thick as midges; they appeared
    to us like so many pigeons upon a roost! whilst they were gaping at us
    in such an exposed position, they received a salute from the whole
    line of our guns, extending from Cape Diamond down to the Barrack
    Bastion, and yet they went off almost like a single volley. It was
    fearful enough to see how they tumbled down in their intrenchments,
    like so many sacks of wool! Their seeing soldiers passing ashore from
    our frigate, they thought that we were about to receive powerful
    reinforcements, and they scamper'd away, their killed and wounded men
    along with them. Our men soon were allow'd to go out, and they regaled
    themselves upon the soup and pork which the French had left cooking on
    the fires. That single discharge disabled so many of our guns, that we
    had to get others then in the lower town, and our men were so weak
    that they could not drag them up, but which was at last done with the
    help of the sailors just arrived in the Fleet.

    In about three days after the arrival of the "Lowestoffe" the
    remainder of the Fleet came up to Quebec, and finding that the French
    had some ships lying above Wolfe's Cove, they went up to look after
    them. As soon as the French had seen them coming on, they slipp'd
    their cables, and endeavor'd to get out of the way with the help of
    the flood-tide, but the Commodore's ship got upon a ledge of rocks,
    and stuck fast, and the crew took to the boats, and got ashore,
    leaving the ship to take care of itself. There was found, on board of
    this ship, one Mons. Cugnet and an Englishman call'd Davis, both of
    whom had their hands tied behind their back, and a rope about their
    neck, and they were inform'd that they both were to be hang'd at the
    yard-arm so soon as the ship's company had finish'd their breakfast!

    Monsieur Cugnet was the person who, at the Island of Orleans, gave
    General Wolfe the information where would be the best place to get up
    the bank above the Town, and Davis, who had been taken prisoner by the
    French, some years before, had given some other kind of information,
    and they both were to be punish'd as spies. However, they not only got
    off with their lives, but were afterwards, well rewarded by our
    Government. The former was appointed French-Translator to the
    Government Offices, and something more, which enabled him to live
    respectably; and Davis, who had been a grenadier-soldier, got a
    pension of twenty five pounds a year: they both lived a long time in
    the enjoyment of it."


_MORTON LODGE._

The extensive green pastures which General James Murray owned, in 1768, on
the St. Foy road, under the name of _Sans bruit_, [280] form at present
several minor estates. One of the handsomest residences of this well
wooded region was Morton Lodge, on the south side of the highway, and
bounded by the Belvidère road,--about thirty-two acres in extent. It was
honored with this name by one of its former owners, the builder of the
lodge, some sixty years ago--the late James Black, Esquire. Morton Lodge
is built in the cottage style, with a suite of roomy apartments forming a
spacious wing in rear; the lawns in front of the house, with a grove of
trees, add much to its beauty; a handsome conservatory to the east opens
on the drawing room; it is located in the centre of a flower garden. The
additional attraction of this residence, when owned by the late David
Douglas Young was an extensive collection of paintings, purchased at
various times by the owner both in Canada and in Europe: the French,
Flemish and Italian schools were well represented, as well as Kreighoff's
winter scenery in Canada.

Morton Lodge, for many years was the residence of David Douglass Young,
Esquire, once President of the Quebec Bank, and formerly a partner of the
late George B. Symes, Esquire. Mr. Young claimed, on the maternal side, as
ancestor, Donald Fraser, one of Fraser's (78th) Highlanders, a regiment
which distinguished itself at the taking of Quebec, whilst fighting under
Wolfe, on these same grounds.

Forming a portion of this estate, to the west, may be noticed a cosy
little nest, _Bruce's Cottage_, as it was formerly called--now
Bannockburn--surrounded on all sides by trees, lawns and flowers.


_WESTFIELD._

    "What, sir, said I," cut down Goldsmith's hawthorn bush, that supplies
    so beautiful an image in the DESERTED VILLAGE! 'Ma foy,' exclaimed the
    bishop (of Ardagh,) 'is that the hawthorn bush? then ever let it be
    saved from the edge of the axe, and evil to him that would cut from it
    a branch."--_Howitt's Homes and Haunts of British Poets_.

At Mount Pleasant, about one mile from St. John's Gate, a number of
agreeable suburban residences have sprung up, as if by enchantment, within
a few years. This locality, from the splendid view it affords of the
valley of St. Charles, the basin of the St. Lawrence and surrounding
country, has ever been appreciated. The most noticeable residence is a
commodious cut-stone structure, inside of the toll, erected there a few
years back by the late G. H. Simard, Esq., member for Quebec, and later,
purchased by the late Fred. Vannovous, Esq., Barrister. Its mate in size
and appearance a few acres to the west, on the St. Foye road, is owned by
the Hon. Eugene Chinic, Senator. In the vicinity, under the veil of a
dense grove of trees, your eyes gather as you drive past, the outlines of
a massive, roomy homestead, on the north side of the heights, on a site
which falls off considerably; groups of birch, maple, and some mountain
ash and chesnut trees, flourish in the garden which surrounds the house;
in rear, flower beds slope down in an enclosure, whose surface is
ornamented with two tiny reservoirs of crystal water, which gushes from
some perennial stream, susceptible of great embellishment at little cost,
by adding _Jets d'eau_. The declivities in rear seem as if intended
by nature to be laid out into lovely terraces, with flowers or verdure to
fringe their summits.

In the eastern section of the domain stands,

  "The hawthorne bush, with seats beneath the shade,
  For talking age and whispering lovers made."

Whether it blossoms on Christmas Day, like the legendary White Thorn of
Glastonbury, "which sprang from Joseph of Arimathea's dry staff, stuck by
him in the ground when he rested there" deponent sayeth not. This majestic
and venerable tree, branching out like a diminutive cedar of Lebanon, is
indeed the pride of Westfield. It is evidently of very great age, though
each summer as green, as fruitful as ever; the oldest inhabitant cannot
recall when it was smaller. If trees could reveal what has passed under
their boughs, would not the veteran hawthorn tell of wounded men resting
beneath it; of the strange garb and cries of combatants, English, French,
Celts, Canadians and Indians, on that luckless 28th April, 1760, when
Murray's soldiers, were retreating in hot haste from St. Foye and placing
the city walls between them and Levi's victorious legions; of shot, shell
and bullets, [281.] whistling through its hoary branches, on that
memorable 13th of September, 1759, when the _Sauvages d'Ecosse_, with
their reeking claymores, were slashing at, and pursuing the French, flying
from the battle field, over the St. Foye heights, to the French Camp on
the north bank of the St. Charles, in a line with the Marine Hospital.
Various indeed for as are the attractions of stately trees; we can
understand why this one is the pride of Westfield. To us, an old denizen
of the country, a stately tree has ever been a companionable; in fact, a
reverential object. In our eyes 'tis not only rich in its own native
beauty; it may perchance also borrow interest from associations and become
a part of our home--of ourselves: it may have overshadowed the rustic
seat, where, in our infant years, one dear to us and now departed, read
the Sunday hymn or taught us with a mother's sanctifying love to become a
good citizen, in every respect worthy of our sire. Perchance it may have
been planted on the day of our birth; it may also commemorate the natal
hour of our first-born, and may it not like ourselves, in our early days,
have required the fostering care of a guardian spirit,--the dews from
heaven to refresh it and encourage its growth. Yes, like the proprietor of
Westfield, we dearly love the old trees of our home.

We were invited to ascend to the loftiest point of this dwelling, and
contemplate from the platform on the roof the majestic spectacle at our
feet. Far below us waved the nodding pinnacles of countless forest trees;
beyond and around us, the site of the old battle-fields of 1759 and 1760,
to the east, the white expanse of the St. Lawrence sleeping between the
Beauport, Orleans and Point Levi shores; to the northwest, the snake-like
course of the St. Charles, stealing through fertile meadows, copses of
evergreens--until, by a supreme effort, it veers round the compass at the
Marine Hospital; there, at sunset, it appears as if gamboling in the light
of the departing luminary, whose rays anon linger in fitful glances on the
spires of Lorette, Charlesbourg and St. Sauveur, until they fade away, far
away in the cerulean distance, over the sublime crags of
_Tsononthouan_,

                     --"of these our hills
  the last that parleys with the setting sun."

or else gild in amber tints, the wooded slopes of the lofty ridges to the
west.

Westfield, forms part of a larger expanse of land, formerly known as the
"Upper Bijou," crowning the heights, overhanging the valley of the St.
Charles, where existed the "Lower Bijou," marshy and green meadows, once
sacred to snipe, and on which the populous suburb St. Sauveur has recently
sprung up. It was granted in free and common soccage, to the late Charles
Grey Stewart, Esq., in 18--; he resided there many years.

In 1870, this lovely old homestead, became the property of the Hon. David
Alex. Ross, Barrister, M.P.P. for the county of Quebec, its present
occupant. Several embellishments have been added to it by this gentleman
and his lady; at present, the views, groves, parterres of Westfield during
the summer months are more attractive than ever.


_COUCY-LE-CASTEL._

  "Sol Canadien, terre chérie
  Par des braves tu fus peuplé,
  Ils cherchaient, loin de leur patrie,
    Une terre de liberté,
  Qu'elles sont belles, nos campagnes,
  Au Canada qu'on vit content!

About the year 1830 that portion of the environs of Quebec watered by the
River St. Charles, in the vicinity of Scott's bridge, had especially
attracted the attention of several of our leading citizens as pleasant and
healthy abodes for their families. Two well known gentlemen in particular,
the bearers of old and respected names, the late Honorable Mr. Justice
Philippe Panet, and his brother the Honorable Louis Panet, "Senator
selected two adjoining lots covering close on eighty acres, on the banks
of the St. Charles, the Cahire-Coubat of ancient days. The main road to
the east intervenes between the Hon. Judge Panet's seat and the mossy old
dwelling in which Col. Arnold had his head-quarters during the winter of
1775-76, now the residence of the Langlois family. Judge Panet built there
an elegant villa on an Italian design, brought home after returning from
the sunny clime of Naples, the rooms are lofty and all are oval. Several
hundred sombre old pines surround the house on all sides.

The neighboring villa, to the west, was planted by the Honorable Louis
Panet, about 1830; also the grounds tastefully laid out in meadows,
plantations and gardens, symmetrically divided off by neat spruce, thorn,
and snowball hedges, which improve very much their aspect. One fir hedge,
in particular, is of uncommon beauty. To the west an ancient pine, a
veritable monarch of the forest, rears his hoary trunk, and amidst most
luxuriant foliage looks down proudly on the young plantation beneath him,
lending his hospitable shades to a semi-circular rustic seat--a grateful
retreat during the heat of a summer's day. Next to this old tree runs a
small rill, once dammed up for a fish-pond, but a colony of muskrats
having "unduly elected domicile thereat," the finny denizens disappeared
as if by magic; and next, the voracious _rodents_ made so many raids
into the vegetable garden that the legal gentleman, who was lord of the
manor, served on them _a notice to quit_, by removing the dam. The
ejected amphibii crossed the river in a body and "elected domicile" in the
roots of an elm tree at Poplar Grove, opposite and in full view of the
castle, probably by way of a threat. On the high river banks is a twelve-
pounder used formerly to crown a miniature fort erected over there. We
remember on certain occasions hearing at a distance its loud _boom_.
Coucy-le-Castel is surrounded on two sides by a spacious piazza, and
stands on an elevated position close to the river bank. From the drawing-
room windows is visible the even course of the fairy Cahire-Coubat,
hurrying past in dark eddies, under the pendulous foliage of some graceful
elms which overhang the bank at Poplar Grove, the mansion of the late L.
T. McPherson, Esq. Now and again from the small fort, amidst the murmur of
rapids not far distant, you may catch the shrill note of the king-fisher
in his hasty flight over the limpid stream, or see a lively trout leap in
yonder deep pool; or else, in the midsummer vacation, see a birch canoe
lazily floating down from _la mer Pacifique_, impelled by the arm of
a pensive law student, dreaming perchance of Pothier or Blackstone,--
perchance of his lady love, whilst paddling to the air:--

  "Il y a longtemps que je t'aime
  Jamais je ne t'oublierai."

The neighborhood of running water; the warbling of the birds; the distant
lowing of kine in the green meadows; the variety and beauty of the
landscape, especially when the descending orb of day gilds the dark woods
to the west, furnish a strikingly rural spectacle at Coucy-le-Castel, thus
named from a French estate in Picardy, owned by the Badelarts, ancestors,
on the maternal side, of the Panets.

In 1861 Coucy-le-Castel was purchased by Judge Jean Thomas Taschereau, of
Quebec, under whose care it is acquiring each year new charms. A
plantation of deciduous trees and evergreens has taken the place of the
row of poplars which formerly lined the avenue. The Judge's _Château_
stands conspicuous amongst the pretty but less extensive surrounding
country seats, such as the old mansion of Fred. Andrews, Esq., Q. C., the
neat cottage of Fred. W. Andrews, Esq., Barrister, festooned with wild
vines.


_RINGFIELD._

    FRANCISCUS PRIMUS, DEI GRATIA, FRANCORUM REX REGNAT.
    Inscription on cross erected 3d May, 1536, by Jacques Cartier.

We will be pardoned for devoting a larger space than for other country
seats, in describing Ringfield, on account of the important events of
which it was the theatre.

Close to the Dorchester Bridge to the west, on the Charlesbourg road,
there was once an extensive estate known as Smithville--five or six
hundred acres of table land owned by the late Charles Smith, Esq., who for
many years resided in the substantial large stone dwelling subsequently
occupied by A. Laurie, Esq., at present by Owen Murphy, Esq., opposite the
Marine Hospital. Some hundred acres, comprising the land on the west of
the _ruisseau_ Lairet, known as _Ferme des Anges_, [282] were detached
from it and now form Ringfield, whose handsome villa is scarcely visible
from the Charlesbourg road in summer on account of the plantation of
evergreens and other forest trees which, with white-thorn hedge, line
its semicircular avenue on both sides. One might be inclined to regret
that this plantation has grown up so luxuriantly, as it interferes with
the striking view to be had here of the Island of Orleans, St. Lawrence,
and surrounding parishes. Before the trees assume their vernal honours
there can be counted, irrespective of the city spires, no less than
thirteen steeples of churches in so many parishes. Ringfield takes its
name from its circular meadow (Montcalm's hornwork). In rear it is bounded
to the west by the little stream called Lairet, with the _ruisseau_ St.
Michel in view; to the south, its natural boundary is the meandering
Cahire-Coubat. [283]

Ringfield has even more to recommend it than the rural beauty common to
the majority of our country seats; here were enacted scenes calculated to
awaken the deepest interest in every student of Canadian history. On the
banks of the River St. Charles, 1535-36, during his second voyage of
discovery, Jacques Cartier, the intrepid navigator of St. Malo, more than
three centuries back, it is now generally supposed, wintered. We have
Champlain's [284] authority for this historical fact, though, Charlevoix
erroneously asserts that the great discoverer wintered on the banks of the
River Jacques Cartier, twenty-seven miles higher up than Quebec. A careful
examination of _Lescarbot's Journal of Cartier's Second Voyage_, and
the investigations of subsequent historians leave little room to doubt
Champlain's statement. [285] Jacques Cartier in his journal, written in
the quaint old style of that day, furnishes us curious descriptions of the
locality where he wintered, and of the adjoining Indian town,
_Stadaconé_, the residence of the Chief Donacona. The Abbé Ferland
and other contemporary writers have assigned as the probable site of
Stadacona that part of Quebec which is now covered by a portion of the
suburbs of St. John, and by that part of St. Roch looking towards the St.
Charles. How graphically Jacques Cartier writes of that portion of the
River St. Lawrence opposite the Lower Town, less than a mile in width,
"deep and swift running," and also of the "goodly, fair and delectable bay
or creek convenient and fit to harbour ships," the St. Charles (St. Croix
or Holy Cross) river! and again of the spot wherein, he says, "we stayed
from the 15th of September, 1535, to the 6th May, 1536, and there our
ships remained dry." Cartier mentions the area of ground adjoining to
where he wintered "as goodly a plot of ground as possible may be seen,
and, wherewithal, very fruitful, full of goodly trees even as in France,
such as oak, elm, ash, walnut trees, white-thorns and vines that bring
forth fruit as big as any damsons, and many other sort of trees; tall hemp
as any in France, without any seed or any man's work or labor at all."
There are yet some noble specimens of elm, the survivors of a thick clump,
that once stood on the edge of the hornwork. The precise spot in the St.
Charles where Cartier moored his vessels and where his people built the
fort [286] in which they wintered may have been, for aught that could be
advanced to the contrary, where the French government in 1759 built the
hornwork or earth redoubt, so plainly visible to this day, near the Lairet
stream. It may also have been at the mouth of the St. Michel stream which
here empties itself into the St. Charles, on the Jesuits' farm. The
hornwork or circular meadow, as the peasantry call it, is in a line with
the General Hospital, Mount Pleasant, St. Bridget's Asylum and the
corporation lots recently acquired by the Quebec Seminary for a botanical
garden and seminary, adjoining Abraham's Plains. Jacques Cartier's fort,
we know to a certainty, must have been on the north bank of the river,
[287] from the fact that the natives coming from Stadacona to visit their
French guests had to cross the river, and did so frequently. It does seem
strange that Champlain does not appear to have known the exact locality
where, seventy years previously, Stadacona had stood; the cause may lie in
the exterminating wars carried on between the several savage tribes,
leaving, occasionally, no vestige of once powerful nations and villages.
Have we not seen in our day a once warlike and princely race--the Hurons--
dwindle down, through successive decay, to what _now_ remains of them?

A drawing exists, copied from an engraving executed at Paris, the subject
of which, furnished by G. B. Faribault, Esquire, retraced the departure of
the St. Malo mariner for France on the 6th of May, 1536. To the right may
be seen, Jacques Cartier's fort, [288] built with stockades, mounted with
artillery, and subsequently made stronger still, we are told, with ditches
and solid timber, with drawbridge, and fifty men to watch night and day.

Next comes the _Grande Hermine_, his largest vessel, of about one
hundred and twenty tons, in which Donacona, the interpreter, and two other
Indians of note, treacherously seized, are to be conveyed to France, to be
presented to the French monarch, Francis I. Close by, the reader will
observe _l'Emerillon_, of about forty tons in size, the third of his
ships; and higher up, the hull of a stranded and dismantled vessel, the
_Petite Hermine_, of about sixty tons, intended to represent the one
whose timbers were dug up at the mouth of the St. Michel in 1843, and
created such excitement amongst the antiquaries of that day. On the
opposite side of the river, at Hare Point, the reader will notice on the
plate, a cross, intended to represent the one erected by Cartier's party
on the 3rd May, 1536, in honour of the festival of the Holy Cross; at the
foot a number of Indians and some French in the old costume of the time of
Francis I. So much for Jacques Cartier and his winter quarters, in 1535-
36.

Two hundred and twenty-three years after this date we find this locality
again the arena of memorable events. In the disorderly retreat of the
French army on the 13th of September, 1759, from the heights of Abraham,
the panic-stricken squadrons came pouring down Côte d'Abraham and Côte à
Cotton, hotly pursued by the Highlanders and the 58th Regiment, hurrying
towards the bridge of boats and following the shores of the River St.
Charles until the fire of the hulks anchored in the river stopped the
pursuit. On the north side of the bridge of boats was a _tête de
pont_, redoubt or hornwork, a strong work of pentagonal shape, well
portrayed in Tiffeny's plan of the Siege Operations before Quebec. This
hornwork was-partly wood, defended by palisades, and towards Beauport, an
earthwork--covering about twelve acres, the remains (the round or ring
field), standing more than fifteen feet above the ground, may be seen to
this day surrounded by a ditch, three thousand [289] men at least must
have been required to construct, in a few weeks, this extensive
entrenchment. In the centre stood a house, visible on a plan of Mr.
Parke's, in which, about noon on that memorable day, a pretty lively
debate was taking place. Vaudreuil and some of the French officers were at
that moment and in this spot debating the surrender of the whole colony.
Let us hear an eye-witness, Chevalier Johnstone, General de Lévis' aide-
de-camp, one of the Scotchmen fighting in Canada for the French king,
against some of his own countrymen under Wolfe, after the disaster of
Culloden. It was our good fortune to publish the recently-discovered
journal of this Scotch officer for the first time in 1864. Chevalier
Johnstone's description will strike every one from its singular
accuracy:--

    "The French army in flight, scattered and entirely dispersed, rushed
    towards the town. Few of them entered Quebec; they went down the
    heights of Abraham opposite the Intendant's Palace (past St. John's
    gate) directing their course to the hornwork, and following the
    borders of the River St. Charles. Seeing the impossibility of rallying
    our troops I determined myself to go down the hill at the windmill
    near the bake house [290] and from thence across over the meadows to
    the hornwork resolved not to approach Quebec from my apprehension of
    being shut up there with a part of our army which might have been the
    case if the victors had drawn all the advantage they could have reaped
    from our defeat. It is true the death of the General-in-chief--an
    event which never fails to create the greatest disorder and confusion
    in an army--may plead as an excuse for the English neglecting so easy
    an operation as to take all our army prisoners.

    The hornwork had the River St. Charles before it about seventy paces
    broad which served it better than an artificial ditch; its front
    facing the river and the heights was composed of strong thick and high
    palisades planted perpendicularly with gunholes pierced for several
    pieces of large cannon in it, the river is deep and only fordable at
    low water at a musket shot before the fort: this made it more
    difficult to be forced on that side than on its other side of
    earthworks facing Beauport which had a more formidable appearance and
    the hornwork certainly on that side was not in the least danger of
    being taken by the English by an assault from the other side of the
    river. On the appearance of the English troops on the plain of the
    lake house Montguet and La Motte, two old captains in the Regiment of
    Béarn, cried out with vehemence to M. de Vaudreuil, that the hornwork
    would be taken in an instant, by an assault sword in hand, that we
    would all be cut to pieces without quarter and nothing else would save
    us but an immediate and general capitulation of Canada giving it up to
    the English.

    Montreul told them that a fortification such as the hornwork was not
    to be taken so easily. In short there arose a general cry in the
    hornwork to cut the bridge of boats. [291] It is worth of remark that
    not a fourth part of our army had yet arrived at it and the remainder
    by cutting the bridge would have been left on the other side of the
    river as victims to the victors. The regiment Royal Roussillon was at
    that moment at the distance of a musket shot from the hornwork
    approaching to pass the bridge. As I had already been in such
    adventures, I did not lose my presence of mind, and having still a
    shadow remaining of that regard which the army accorded me on account
    of the esteem and confidence which M. de Lévis and M. de Montcalm had
    always shewn me publicly, I called to M. Hugon, who commanded, for a
    pass in the hornwork and begged of him to accompany me to the bridge.
    We ran there and without asking who had given the order to cut it, we
    chased away the soldiers with their uplifted axes ready to execute
    that extravagant and wicked operation.

    "M. Vaudreuil was closeted in a house in the inside of the hornwork
    with the Intendant and some other persons. I suspected they were busy
    drafting the articles for a general capitulation and I entered the
    house, where I had only time to see the Intendant with a pen in his
    hand writing on a sheet of paper, when M. Vaudreuil told me I had no
    business there. Having answered him that what he said was true, I
    retired immediately, in wrath to see them intent on giving up so
    scandalously a dependancy for the preservation of which so much blood
    and treasure had been expended. On leaving the house, I met M.
    Dalquier, an old, brave, downright honest man, commander of the
    regiment of Béarn, with the true character of a good officer--the
    marks of Mars all over his body. I told him it was being debated
    within the house to give up Canada to the English by a capitulation,
    and I hurried him in, to stand up for the King's cause, and advocate
    the welfare of his country. I then quitted the hornwork to join
    Poulanes at the Ravine [292] of Beauport, but having met him about
    three or four hundred paces from the hornwork, on his way to it, I
    told him what was being discussed there. He answered me, that sooner
    than consent to a capitulation, he would shed the last drop of his
    blood. He told me to look on his table and house as my own, advised me
    to go there directly to repose myself, and clapping spurs to his
    horse, he flew like lightning to the hornwork."

Want of space precludes us from adding more from this very interesting
journal of the Chevalier Johnstone, replete with curious particulars of
the disorderly retreat of the French regiments from their Beauport camp,
after dark, on that eventful 13th September, how they assembled first at
the hornwork, and then filed off by detachments on the Charlesbourg road,
then to Ancient Lorette, until they arrived, worn out and disheartened
without commanders, at day break at Cap Rouge.

On viewing the memorable scenes witnessed at Ringfield,--the spot where
the French discoverer wintered in 1535-36, and also the locality, where it
was decided to surrender the colony to England in 1759--are we not
justified in considering it as both the _cradle_ and the _tomb_ of French
Dominion in the new world?

Ringfield has, for many years, been the family mansion of George Holmes
Parke, Esquire.


CASTOR VILLE

  "In woods or glens I love to roam,
* * * *
Or by the woodland pool to rest."

In the deepest recesses of the Lorette woods, amongst the most