By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Chinese Classics — Prolegomena
Author: James Legge, - To be updated
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Chinese Classics — Prolegomena" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

assistance from David Steelman, Taiwan.

A note from the digitizer

This is a text file that can be read on any computer with any
Chinese-capable word processor or text editor. If you have the Big
5 character set for Chinese installed, choosing that set from your
font menu will display the Chinese characters properly. Even if
Chinese is not installed on your computer, the English will be
displayed properly, even though the Chinese will appear as
garbage characters.

This digitized version preserves the original page breaks. The
text of each page is followed by its footnotes. Note reference
numbers in the text are enclosed in square brackets. In this text
version, all diacriticals have been omitted.

In a few places I have substituted the character forms available
in the Big 5 character set for rare or (what are now considered)
nonstandard forms used by Legge. Characters not included in the
Big 5 character set in any form are described by their constituent

This file contains only the Prolegomena; the other parts of
Legge's work are in separate files.


with a translation, critical and exegetical
notes, prolegomena, and copious indexes


James Legge






	1. The Books now recognised as of highest authority in China
are comprehended under the denominations of 'The five Ching [1]'
and 'The four Shu [2].'  The term Ching is of textile origin, and
signifies the warp threads of a web, and their adjustment. An
easy application of it is to denote what is regular and insures
regularity. As used with reference to books, it indicates their
authority on the subjects of which they treat. 'The five Ching' are
the five canonical Works, containing the truth upon the highest
subjects from the sages of China, and which should be received as
law by all generations. The term Shu simply means Writings or
Books, = the Pencil Speaking; it may be used of a single character,
or of books containing thousands of characters.
	2. 'The five Ching' are: the Yi [3], or, as it has been styled,
'The Book of Changes;' the Shu [4], or 'The Book of History;' the
Shih [5], or 'The Book of Poetry;' the Li Chi [6], or 'Record of Rites;'
and the Ch'un Ch'iu [7], or 'Spring and Autumn,' a chronicle of
events, extending from 722 to 481 B.C. The authorship, or
compilation rather, of all these Works is loosely attributed to
Confucius. But much of the Li Chi is from later hands. Of the Yi,
the Shu, and the Shih, it is only in the first that we find additions
attributed to the philosopher himself, in the shape of appendixes.
The Ch'un Ch'iu is the only one of the five Ching which can, with
an approximation to correctness, be described as of his own

1 ¤­¸g.
2 ¥|®Ñ.
3 ©ö¸g.
4 ®Ñ¸g.
5 ¸Ö¸g.
6 夡O.
7 ¬K¬î.

	'The Four Books' is an abbreviation for 'The Books of the
Four Philosophers [1].' The first is the Lun Yu [2], or 'Digested
Conversations,' being occupied chiefly with the sayings of
Confucius. He is the philosopher to whom it belongs. It appears in
this Work under the title of 'Confucian Analects.' The second is
the Ta Hsio [3], or 'Great Learning,' now commonly attributed to
Tsang Shan [4], a disciple of the sage.  He is he philosopher of it.
The third is the Chung Yung [5], or 'Doctrine of the Mean,' as the
name has often been translated, though it would be better to
render it, as in the present edition, by 'The State of Equilibrium
and Harmony.' Its composition is ascribed to K'ung Chi [6], the
grandson of Confucius. He is the philosopher of it.  The fourth
contains the works of Mencius.
	3. This arrangement of the Classical Books, which is
commonly supposed to have originated with the scholars of the
Sung dynasty, is defective. The Great Learning and the Doctrine of
the Mean are both found in the Record of Rites, being the thirty-
ninth and twenty-eighth Books respectively of that compilation,
according to the best arrangement of it.
	4. The oldest enumerations of the Classical Books specify
only the five Ching. The Yo Chi, or 'Record of Music [7],' the
remains of which now form one of the Books in the Li Chi, was
sometimes added to those, making with them the six Ching. A
division was also made into nine Ching, consisting of the Yi, the
Shih, the Shu, the Chau Li [8], or 'Ritual of Chau,' the I Li [9], or
certain 'Ceremonial Usages,' the Li Chi, and the annotated editions
of the Ch'un Ch'iu [10], by Tso Ch'iu-ming [11], Kung-yang Kao [12],
and Ku-liang Ch'ih [13]. In the famous compilation of the Classical
Books, undertaken by order of T'ai-tsung, the second emperor of
the T'ang dynasty (A.D. 627-649), and which appeared in the reign
of his successor, there are thirteen Ching, viz. the Yi, the Shih,
the Shu, the three editions of the Ch'un Ch'iu, the Li Chi, the Chau
Li, the I Li, the Confucian Analects, the R Ya [14], a sort of
ancient dictionary, the Hsiao Ching [15], or 'Classic of Filial
Piety,' and the works of Mencius.
	5. A distinction, however, was made among the Works thus

1 ¥|¤l¤§®Ñ.
2 ½×»y.
3 ¤j¾Ç.
4 ´¿°Ñ.
5 ¤¤±e.
6 ¤Õ¥ù.
7 ¼Ö°O.
8 ©P§.
9 »ö§.
10 ¬K¬î¤T¶Ç
11 ¥ª¥C©ú.
12 ¤½¦Ï°ª.
13 ½\±ç¨ª.
14 º¸¶®.
15 §µ¸g.

comprehended under the same common name; and Mencius, the Lun
Yu, the Ta Hsio, the Chung Yung, and the Hsiao Ching were spoken
of as the Hsiao Ching, or 'Smaller Classics.' It thus appears,
contrary to the ordinary opinion on the subject, that the Ta Hsio
and Chung Yung had been published as separate treatises before
the Sung dynasty, and that Four Books, as distinguished from the
greater Ching, had also previously found a place in the literature
of China [1].


	1. This subject will be discussed in connexion with each
separate Work, and it is only designed here to exhibit generally
the evidence on which the Chinese Classics claim to be received
as genuine productions of the time to which they are referred.
	2. In the memoirs of the Former Han dynasty (B.C. 202-A.D.
24), we have one chapter which we may call the History of
Literature [2]. It commences thus: 'After the death of Confucius
[3], there was an end of his exquisite words; and when his seventy
disciples had passed away, violence began to be done to their
meaning. It came about that there were five different editions of
the Ch'un Ch'iu, four of the Shih, and several of the Yi. Amid the
disorder and collisions of the warring States (B.C. 481-220),
truth and falsehood were still more in a state of warfare, and a
sad confusion marked the words of the various scholars. Then
came the calamity inflicted under the Ch'in dynasty (B.C. 220-
205), when the literary monuments were destroyed by fire, in
order to keep the people in ignorance. But, by and by, there arose
the Han dynasty, which set itself to remedy the evil wrought by
the Ch'in. Great efforts were made to collect slips and tablets [4],
and the way was thrown wide open for the bringing in of Books. In
the time of the emperor Hsiao-wu [5] (B.C. 140-85), portions of
Books being wanting and tablets lost, so that ceremonies and
music were

1 For the statements in the two last paragraphs, see ¦èªe¦X¶°, ¤j¾Ç
ÃÒ¤å, ¨÷¤@.
2 «eº~®Ñ, ¥»§Ó, ²Ä¤Q¨÷, ÃÀ¤å§Ó.
3 ¥ò¥§.
4 ½gÄy, slips and tablets of bamboo, which supplied in those days
the place of paper.
5 ¥@¬É§µªZ¬Ó«Ò.

suffering great damage, he was moved to sorrow and said, "I am
very sad for this." He therefore formed the plan of Repositories,
in which the Books might be stored, and appointed officers to
transcribe Books on an extensive scale, embracing the works of
the various scholars, that they might all be placed in the
Repositories. The emperor Ch'ang (B.C. 32-5), finding that a
portion of the Books still continued dispersed or missing,
commissioned Ch'an Nang, the Superintendent of Guests [2], to
search for undiscovered Books throughout the empire, and by
special edict ordered the chief of the Banqueting House, Liu
Hsiang [3], to examine the Classical Works, along with the
commentaries on them, the writings of the scholars, and all
poetical productions; the Master-controller of Infantry, Zan
Hwang [4], to examine the Books on the art of war; the Grand
Historiographer, Yin Hsien [5], to examine the Books treating of
the art of numbers (i.e. divination); and the imperial Physician, Li
Chu-kwo [6], to examine the Books on medicine. Whenever any
book was done with, Hsiang forthwith arranged it, indexed it, and
made a digest of it, which was presented to the emperor. While
this work was in progress, Hsiang died, and the emperor Ai (B.C.
6-A.D. 1) appointed his son, Hsin [7], a Master of the imperial
carriages, to complete his father's work. On this, Hsin collected
all the Books, and presented a report of them, under seven
	The first of these divisions seems to have been a general
catalogue [8] containing perhaps only the titles of the works
included in the other six. The second embraced the Classical
Works [9]. From the abstract of it, which is preserved in the
chapter referred to, we find that there were 294 collections of
the Yi-ching from thirteen different individuals or editors [10];
412 collections of the Shu-ching, from nine different individuals;
416 volumes of the Shih-ching, from six different individuals
[11]; of the Books of Rites, 555 collec-

1 §µ¦¨¬Ó«Ò.
2 ¿ÖªÌ³¯¹A.
3 ¥ú¸S¤j¤Ò¼B¦V.
4 ¨B§L®Õ¼¢¥ô§».
5 ¤Ó¥v¥O¤¨«w.
6 ¨ÍÂå§õ®Û°ê.
7 ¨Í¤¤©^¨®³£¼¢Ýõ.
8 ¿è²¤.
9 ¤»ÃÀ²¤.
10 ¤Z©ö, ¤Q¤T®a, ¤G¦Ê¤E¤Q¥|½g. How much of the whole work was
contained in each ½g, it is impossible to determine. P. Regis says:
'Pien, quemadmodum Gallice dicimus "des pieces d'eloquence, de
11 ¸Ö, ¤»®a, ¥|¦Ê¤@¤Q¤»¨÷. The collections of the Shih-ching are
mentioned under the name of chuan, 'sections,' 'portions.' Had p'ien
been used, it might have been understood of individual odes. This
change of terms shows that by p'ien in the other summaries, we
are not to understand single blocks or chapters.

tions, from thirteen different individuals; of the Books on Music,
165 collections, from six different editors; 948 collections of
History, under the heading of the Ch'un Ch'iu, from twenty-three
different individuals; 229 collections of the Lun Yu, including the
Analects and kindred fragments, from twelve different
individuals; of the Hsiao-ching, embracing also the R Ya, and some
other portions of the ancient literature, 59 collections, from
eleven different individuals; and finally of the lesser Learning,
being works on the form of the characters, 45 collections, from
eleven different individuals. The works of Mencius were included
in the second division [1], among the writings of what were
deemed orthodox scholars [2], of which there were 836
collections, from fifty-three different individuals.
	3. The above important document is sufficient to show how
the emperors of the Han dynasty, as soon as they had made good
their possession of the empire, turned their attention to recover
the ancient literature of the nation, the Classical Books engaging
their first care, and how earnestly and effectively the scholars of
the time responded to the wishes of their rulers. In addition to
the facts specified in the preface to it, I may relate that the
ordinance of the Ch'in dynasty against possessing the Classical
Books (with the exception, as it will appear in its proper place, of
the Yi-ching) was repealed by the second sovereign of the Han, the
emperor Hsiao Hui [3], in the fourth year of his reign, B.C. 191, and
that a large portion of the Shu-ching was recovered in the time of
the third emperor, B.C. 179-157, while in the year B.C. 136 a
special Board was constituted, consisting of literati, who were
put in charge of the five Ching [4].
	4. The collections reported on by Liu Hsin suffered damage
in the troubles which began A.D. 8, and continued till the rise of
the second or eastern Han dynasty in the year 25. The founder of
it (A.D. 25-57) zealously promoted the undertaking of his
predecessors, and additional repositories were required for the
Books which were collected. His successors, the emperors Hsiao-
ming [5] (58-75), Hsiao-chang [6] (76-88), and Hsiao-hwo [7] (89-
105), took a part themselves in the studies and discussions of the
literary tribunal, and

1 ½Ñ¤l²¤.
2 ¾§®aªÌ¬y.
3 §µ´f¬Ó«Ò.
4 ªZ«Ò«Ø¤¸¤­¦~, ªì¸m¤­¸g³Õ¤h.
5 Åã©v§µ©ú¬Ó«Ò.
6 µÂ©v§µ³¹¬Ó«Ò.
7 §µ©M¬Ó«Ò.

the emperor Hsiao-ling [1], between the years 172-178, had the
text of the five Ching, as it had been fixed, cut in slabs of stone,
and set up in the capital outside the gate of the Grand College.
Some old accounts say that the characters were in three different
forms, but they were only in one form; -- see the 287th book of
Chu I-tsun's great Work.
	5. Since the Han, the successive dynasties have considered
the literary monuments of the country to be an object of their
special care. Many of them have issued editions of the Classics,
embodying the commentaries of preceding generations. No dynasty
has distinguished itself more in this line than the present
Manchau possessors of the empire. In fine, the evidence is
complete that the Classical Books of China have come down from
at least a century before our Christian era, substantially the
same as we have them at present.
	6. But it still remains to inquire in what condition we may
suppose the Books were, when the scholars of the Han dynasty
commenced their labors upon them. They acknowledge that the
tablets -- we cannot here speak of manuscripts -- were
mutilated and in disorder. Was the injury which they had received
of such an extent that all the care and study put forth on the
small remains would be of little use? This question can be
answered satisfactorily, only by an examination of the evidence
which is adduced for the text of each particular Classic; but it
can be made apparent that there is nothing, in the nature of the
case, to interfere with our believing that the materials were
sufficient to enable the scholars to execute the work intrusted to
	7 The burning of the ancient Books by order of the founder
of the Ch'in dynasty is always referred to as the greatest
disaster which they sustained, and with this is coupled the
slaughter of many of the Literati by the same monarch.
	The account which we have of these transactions in the
Historical Records is the following [2]:
	'In his 34th year [the 34th year, that is, after he had
ascended the throne of Ch'in. It was only the 9th year after he had
been acknowledged Sovereign of the empire, coinciding with B.C.
213], the emperor, returning from a visit to the south, which had

1 §µÆF¬Ó«Ò.
2 I have thought it well to endeavour to translate the whole of
the passages. Father de Mailla merely constructs from them a
narrative of his own; see L'Histoire Generale de La China, tome ii.
pp. 399-402. The ³qŲºô¥Ø avoids the difficulties of the original by
giving an abridgment of it.

as far as Yueh, gave a feast in his palace at Hsien-yang, when the
Great Scholars, amounting to seventy men, appeared and wished
him a long life [1]. One of the principal ministers, Chau Ch'ing-
ch'an [2], came forward and said, "Formerly, the State of Ch'in
was only 1000 li in extent, but Your Majesty, by your spirit-like
efficacy and intelligent wisdom, has tranquillized and settled the
whole empire, and driven away all barbarous tribes, so that,
wherever the sun and moon shine, all rulers appear before you as
guests acknowledging subjection. You have formed the states of
the various princes into provinces and districts, where the people
enjoy a happy tranquillity, suffering no more from the calamities
of war and contention. This condition of things will be
transmitted for 10,000 generations. From the highest antiquity
there has been no one in awful virtue like Your Majesty."
	'The emperor was pleased with this flattery, when Shun-yu
Yueh [3], one of the Great Scholars, a native of Ch'i, advanced and
said, "The sovereigns of Yin and Chau, for more than a thousand
years, invested their sons and younger brothers, and meritorious
ministers, with domains and rule, and could thus depend upon
them for support and aid;-- that I have heard. But now Your
Majesty is in possession of all within the seas, and your sons and
younger brothers are nothing but private individuals. The issue
will be that some one will arise to play the part of T'ien Ch'ang
[4], or of the six nobles of Tsin. Without the support of your own
family, where will you find the aid which you may require? That a
state of things not modelled from the lessons of antiquity can
long continue;-- that is what I have not heard. Ch'ing is now
showing himself to be a flatterer, who increases the errors of
Your Majesty, and not a loyal minister."
	'The emperor requested the opinions of others on this
representation, and the premier, Li Sze [5], said, "The five
emperors were not one the double of the other, nor did the three
dynasties accept one another's ways. Each had a peculiar system
of government, not for the sake of the contrariety, but as being
required by the changed times. Now, Your Majesty has laid the
foundations of

1 ³Õ¤h¤C¤Q¤H«e¬°¹Ø. The ³Õ¤h were not only 'great scholars,' but had
an official rank. There was what we may call a college of them,
consisting of seventy members.
2 ¹²®g, ©P«C¦Ú.
3 ²E¤_¶V.
4 ¥Ð±`. -- ±` should probably be «í, as it is given in the T'ung
Chien. See Analects XIV. xxii. T'ien Hang was the same as Ch'an
Ch'ang of that chapter.
5 ¥à¬Û§õ´µ

imperial sway, so that it will last for 10,000 generations. This is
indeed beyond what a stupid scholar can understand. And,
moreover, Yueh only talks of things belonging to the Three
Dynasties, which are not fit to be models to you. At other times,
when the princes were all striving together, they endeavoured to
gather the wandering scholars about them; but now, the empire is
in a stable condition, and laws and ordinances issue from one
supreme authority. Let those of the people who abide in their
homes give their strength to the toils of husbandry, while those
who become scholars should study the various laws and
prohibitions. Instead of doing this, however, the scholars do not
learn what belongs to the present day, but study antiquity. They
go on to condemn the present time, leading the masses of the
people astray, and to disorder.
	'"At the risk of my life, I, the prime minister, say: Formerly,
when the nation was disunited and disturbed, there was no one
who could give unity to it. The princes therefore stood up
together; constant references were made to antiquity to the
injury of the present state; baseless statements were dressed up
to confound what was real, and men made a boast of their own
peculiar learning to condemn what their rulers appointed. And
now, when Your Majesty has consolidated the empire, and,
distinguishing black from white, has constituted it a stable unity,
they still honour their peculiar learning, and combine together;
they teach men what is contrary to your laws. When they hear
that an ordinance has been issued, every one sets to discussing it
with his learning. In the court, they are dissatisfied in heart; out
of it, they keep talking in the streets. While they make a pretense
of vaunting their Master, they consider it fine to have
extraordinary views of their own. And so they lead on the people
to be guilty of murmuring and evil speaking. If these things are
not prohibited, Your Majesty's authority will decline, and parties
will be formed. The best way is to prohibit them, I pray that all
the Records in charge of the Historiographers be burned,
excepting those of Ch'in; that, with the exception of those
officers belonging to the Board of Great Scholars, all throughout
the empire who presume to keep copies of the Shih-ching, or of
the Shu-ching, or of the books of the Hundred Schools, be required
to go with them to the officers in charge of the several districts,
and burn them [1]; that all who may dare to speak

1 ±x¸Ú¦u±LÂø¿N¤§.

together about the Shih and the Shu be put to death, and their
bodies exposed in the market-place; that those who make mention
of the past, so as to blame the present, be put to death along with
their relatives; that officers who shall know of the violation of
those rules and not inform against the offenders, be held equally
guilty with them; and that whoever shall not have burned their
Books within thirty days after the issuing of the ordinance, be
branded and sent to labor on the wall for four years.  The only
Books which should be spared are those on medicine, divination,
and husbandry. Whoever wants to learn the laws may go to the
magistrates and learn of them."
	'The imperial decision was -- "Approved."'
	The destruction of the scholars is related more briefly. In
the year after the burning of the Books, the resentment of the
emperor was excited by the remarks and the flight of two
scholars who had been favourites with him, and he determined to
institute a strict inquiry about all of their class in Hsien-yang, to
find out whether they had been making ominous speeches about
him, and disturbing the minds of the people. The investigation
was committed to the Censors [1], and it being discovered that
upwards of 460 scholars had violated the prohibitions, they were
all buried alive in pits [2], for a warning to the empire, while
degradation and banishment were employed more strictly than
before against all who fell under suspicion. The emperor's eldest
son, Fu-su, remonstrated with him, saying that such measures
against those who repeated the words of Confucius and sought to
imitate him, would alienate all the people from their infant
dynasty, but his interference offended him father so much that he
was sent off from court, to be with the general who was
superintending the building of the great wall.
	8. No attempts have been made by Chinese critics and
historians to discredit the record of these events, though some
have questioned the extent of the injury inflicted by them on the
monuments of their ancient literature [3]. It is important to
observe that the edict against the Books did not extend to the Yi-
ching, which was

1 ±s¥v±x®×°Ý½Ñ¥Í, ½Ñ¥Í¶Ç¬Û§i¤Þ.
2 ¦Û°£¥Ç¸TªÌ, ¥|¦Ê¤»¾l¤H, ¬Ò¨Â¤§«w¶§. The meaning of this passage as
a whole is sufficiently plain, but I am unable to make out the
force of the phrase ¦Û°£.
3 See the remarks of Chamg Chia-tsi (§¨»Ú¾G¤ó), of the Sung
dynasty, on the subject, in the ¤åÄm³q¦Ò, Bk. clxxiv. p. 5.

exempted as being a work on divination, nor did it extend to the
other classics which were in charge of the Board of Great
Scholars. There ought to have been no difficulty in finding copies
when the Han dynasty superseded that of the Ch'in, and probably
there would have been none but for the sack of the capital in B.C.
206 by Hsiang Yu, the formidable opponent of the founder of the
House of Han. Then, we are told, the fires blazed for three months
among the palaces and public buildings, and must have proved as
destructive to the copies of the Great Scholars as the edict of the
tyrant had been to the copies among the people.
	It is to be noted also that the life of Shih Hwang Ti lasted
only three years after the promulgation of his edict. He died in
B.C. 210, and the reign of his second son who succeeded him
lasted only other three years. A brief period of disorder and
struggling for the supreme authority between different chiefs
ensured; but the reign of the founder of the Han dynasty dates
from B.C. 202. Thus, eleven years were all which intervened
between the order for the burning of the Books and rise of that
family, which signaled itself by the care which it bestowed for
their recovery; and from the edict of the tyrant of Ch'in against
private individuals having copies in their keeping, to its express
abrogation by the emperor Hsiao Hui, there were only twenty-two
years. We may believe, indeed, that vigorous efforts to carry the
edict into effect would not be continued longer than the life of
its author,-- that is, not for more than about three years. The
calamity inflicted upon the ancient Books of China by the House of
Ch'in could not have approached to anything like a complete
destruction of them. There would be no occasion for the scholars
of the Han dynasty, in regard to the bulk of their ancient
literature, to undertake more than the work of recension and
	9. The idea of forgery by them on a large scale is out of the
question. The catalogues of Liang Hsin enumerated more than
13,000 volumes of a larger or smaller size, the productions of
nearly 600 different writers, and arranged in thirty-eight
subdivisions of subjects [1]. In the third catalogue, the first
subdivision contained the orthodox writers [2], to the number of
fifty-three, with 836 Works or portions of their Works. Between
Mencius and

1 ¤Z®Ñ¤»²¤, ¤T¤Q¤KºØ, ¤­¦Ê¤E¤Q¤»®a, ¸U¤T¤d¤G¦Ê¤»¤E¨÷.
2 ¾§®aªÌ¬y.

K'ung Chi, the grandson of Confucius, eight different authors have
place. The second subdivision contained the Works of the Taoist
school [1], amounting to 993 collections, from thirty-seven
different authors. The sixth subdivision contained the Mohist
writers [2], to the number of six, with their productions in 86
collections. I specify these two subdivisions, because they
embrace the Works of schools or sects antagonistic to that of
Confucius, and some of them still hold a place in Chinese
literature, and contain many references to the five Classics, and
to Confucius and his disciples.
	10. The inquiry pursued in the above paragraphs conducts us
to the conclusion that the materials from which the classics, as
they have come down to us, were compiled and edited in the two
centuries preceding our Christian era, were genuine remains,
going back to a still more remote period. The injury which they
sustained from the dynasty of Ch'in was, I believe, the same in
character as that to which they were exposed during all the time
of 'the Warring States.' It may have been more intense in degree,
but the constant warfare which prevailed for some centuries
among the different states which composed the kingdom was
eminently unfavourable to the cultivation of literature. Mencius
tells us how the princes had made away with many of the records
of antiquity, from which their own usurpations and innovations
might have been condemned [3]. Still the times were not
unfruitful, either in scholars or statesmen, to whom the ways and
monuments of antiquity were dear, and the space from the rise of
the Ch'in dynasty to the death of Confucius was not very great. It
only amounted to 258 years. Between these two periods Mencius
stands as a connecting link. Born probably in the year B.C. 371, he
reached, by the intervention of Kung Chi, back to the sage himself,
and as his death happened B.C. 288, we are brought down to within
nearly half a century of the Ch'in dynasty. From all these
considerations we may proceed with confidence to consider each
separate Work, believing that we have in these Classics and Books
what the great sage of China and his disciples gave to their
country more than 2000 years ago.

1 ¹D®aªÌ¬y.
2 ¾¥®aªÌ¬y.
3 See Mencius, V. Pt. II. ii. 2.



	1. When the work of collecting and editing the remains of
the Classical Books was undertaken by the scholars of Han, there
appeared two different copies of the Analects, one from Lu, the
native State of Confucius, and the other from Ch'i, the State
adjoining. Between these there were considerable differences.
The former consisted of twenty Books or Chapters, the same as
those into which the Classic is now divided. The latter contained
two Books in addition, and in the twenty Books, which they had in
common, the chapters and sentences were somewhat more
numerous than in the Lu exemplar.
	2. The names of several individuals are given, who devoted
themselves to the study of those two copies of the Classic.
Among the patrons of the Lu copy are mentioned the names of
Hsia-hau Shang, grand-tutor of the heir-apparent, who died at the
age of 90, and in the reign of the emperor Hsuan (B.C. 73-49) [1];
Hsiao Wang-chih [2], a general-officer, who died in the reign of
the emperor Yuan (B.C. 48-33); Wei Hsien, who was a premier of
the empire from B.C. 70-66; and his son Hsuan-ch'ang [3]. As
patrons of the Ch'i copy, we have Wang Ch'ing, who was a censor
in the year B.C. 99 [4]; Yung Shang [5]; and Wang Chi [6], a
statesman who died in the beginning of the reign of the emperor
	3. But a third copy of the Analects was discovered about B.C.
150. One of the sons of the emperor Ching was appointed king of
Lu [7] in the year B.C. 154, and some time after, wishing to
enlarge his palace, he proceeded to pull down the house of the
K'ung family, known as that where Confucius himself had lived.

1 ¤Ó¤l¤j¶Ç®L«J³Ó.
2 «e±N­x, ¿½±æ¤§.
3 ¥à¬Û, ­³½å, ¤Î¤l, ¥È¦¨.
4 ¤ý­ë.
5 ±e¥Í.
6 ¤¤±L¤ý¦N.
7 ¾|¤ý¦@ (or ®¥).

While doing so, there were found in the wall copies of the Shu-
ching, the Ch'un Ch'iu, the Hsiao-ching, and the Lun Yu or Analects,
which had been deposited there, when the edict for the burning of
the Books was issued. There were all written, however, in the
most ancient form of the Chinese character [1], which had fallen
into disuse, and the king returned them to the K'ung family, the
head of which, K'ung An-kwo [2], gave himself to the study of
them, and finally, in obedience to an imperial order, published a
Work called "The Lun Yu, with Explanations of the Characters, and
Exhibition of the Meaning [3].'
	4. The recovery of this copy will be seen to be a most
important circumstance in the history f the text of the Analects.
It is referred to by Chinese writers, as 'The old Lun Yu.' In the
historical narrative which we have of the affair, a circumstance
is added which may appear to some minds to throw suspicion on
the whole account. The king was finally arrested, we are told, in
his purpose to destroy the house, by hearing the sounds of bells,
musical stones, lutes, and citherns, as he was ascending the
steps that led to the ancestral hall or temple. This incident was
contrived, we may suppose, by the K'ung family, to preserve the
house, or it may have been devised by the historian to glorify the
sage, but we may not, on account of it, discredit the finding of
the ancient copies of the Books. We have K'ung An-kwo's own
account of their being committed to him, and of the ways which
he took to decipher them. The work upon the Analects, mentioned
above, has not indeed come down to us, but his labors on the Shu-
ching still remain.
	5. It has been already stated, that the Lun Yu of Ch'i
contained two Books more than that of Lu. In this respect, the old
Lun Yu agreed with the Lu exemplar. Those two books were
wanting in it as well. The last book of the Lu Lun was divided in
it, however, into two, the chapter beginning, 'Yao said,' forming a
whole Book by itself, and the remaining two chapters formed
another Book beginning 'Tsze-chang.' With this trifling difference,
the old and the Lu copies appear to have agreed together.
	6 Chang Yu, prince of An-ch'ang [4], who died B.C. 4, after

1 ¬ì¤æ¤å¤l, -- lit. 'tadpole  characters.' They were, it is said, the
original forms devised by Ts'ang-chieh, with large heads and fine
tails, like the creature from which they were named. See the
notes to the preface to the Shu-ching in 'The Thirteen Classics.'
2 ¤Õ¦w°ê.
3 ½×»y°V¸Ñ. See the preface to the Lun Yu in 'The Thirteen Ching.' It
has been my principal authority in this section.
4 ¦w©÷«J, ±i¬ê.

sustained several of the highest offices of the empire, instituted
a comparison between the exemplars of Lu and Ch'i, with a view
to determine the true text. The result of his labors appeared in
twenty-one Books, which are mentioned in Liu Hsin's catalogue.
They were known as the Lun of prince Chang [1], and commanded
general approbation. To Chang Yu is commonly ascribed the
ejecting from the Classic the two additional books which the Ch'i
exemplar contained, but Ma Twan-lin prefers to rest that
circumstance on the authority of the old Lun, which we have seen
was without them [2]. If we had the two Books, we might find
sufficient reason from their contents to discredit them. That may
have been sufficient for Chang Yu to condemn them as he did, but
we can hardly supposed that he did not have before him the old
Lun, which had come to light about a century before he published
his work.
	7. In the course of the second century, a new edition of the
Analects, with a commentary, was published by one of the
greatest scholars which China has ever produced, Chang Hsuan,
known also as Chang K'ang-ch'ang [3]. He died in the reign of the
emperor Hsien (A.D. 190-220) [4] at the age of 74, and the amount
of his labors on the ancient classical literature is almost
incredible. While he adopted the Lu Lun as the received text of his
time, he compared it minutely with those of Ch'i and the old
exemplar. In the last section f this chapter will be found a list of
the readings in his commentary different from those which are
now acknowledged in deference to the authority of Chu Hsi, of the
Sung dynasty. They are not many, and their importance is but
	8. On the whole, the above statements will satisfy the
reader of the care with which the text of the Lun Yu was fixed
during the dynasty of Han.


	1. At the commencement of the notes upon the first Book,
under the heading, 'The Title of the Work,' I have given the
received account of its authorship, which precedes the catalogue

1 ±i«J½×.
2 ¤åÄm³q¦Ò, Bk. clxxxiv. p. 3.
3 ¾G¥È, ¦r±d¦¨.
4 §µÄm¬Ó«Ò.

of Liu Hsin. According to that, the Analects were compiled by the
disciples if Confucius coming together after his death, and
digesting the memorials of his discourses and conversations
which they had severally preserved. But this cannot be true. We
may believe, indeed, that many of the disciples put on record
conversations which they had had with their master, and notes
about his manners and incidents of his life, and that these have
been incorporated with the Work which we have, but that Work
must have taken its present form at a period somewhat later.
	In Book VIII, chapters iii iv, we have some notices of the
last days of Tsang Shan, and are told that he was visited on his
death-bed by the officer Mang Ching. Now Ching was the
posthumous title of Chung-sun Chieh [1], and we find him alive (Li
Chi, II. Pt. ii. 2) after the death of duke Tao of Lu [2], which took
place B.C. 431, about fifty years after the death of Confucius.
	Again, Book XIX is all occupied with the sayings of the
disciples. Confucius personally does not appear in it. Parts of it,
as chapters iii, xii, and xviii, carry us down to a time when the
disciples had schools and followers of their own, and were
accustomed to sustain their teachings by referring to the lessons
which they had learned from the sage.
	Thirdly, there is the second chapter of Book XI, the second
paragraph of which is evidently a note by the compilers of the
Work, enumerating ten of the principal disciples, and classifying
them according to their distinguishing characteristics. We can
hardly suppose it to have been written while any of the ten were
alive. But there is among them the name of Tsze-hsia, who lived
to the age of about a hundred. We find him, B.C. 407, three-
quarters of a century after the death of Confucius, at the court of
Wei, to the prince of which he is reported to have presented some
of the Classical Books [3].
	2. We cannot therefore accept the above account of the
origin of the Analects,-- that they were compiled by the disciples
of Confucius. Much more likely is the view that we owe the work
to their disciples. In the note on I. ii. I, a peculiarity is pointed
out in the use of the surnames of Yew Zo and Tsang Shan, which

1 See Chu Hsi's commentary, in loc. -- ©s·q¤l, ¾|¤j¤Ò, ¥ò®]¤ó, ¦W±¶.
2 ±¥¤½.
3 ®ÊÃQ´µ¨ü¸g©ó¤R¤l®L; see the Ød¥N²Î¬öªí, Bk. i. p. 77.

has made some Chinese critics attribute the compilation to their
followers. But this conclusion does not stand investigation.
Others have assigned different portions to different schools.
Thus, Book V is given to the disciples of Tsze-kung; Book XI, to
those of Min Tsze-ch'ien; Book XIV, to Yuan Hsien; and Book XVI
has been supposed to be interpolated from the Analects of Ch'i.
Even if we were to acquiesce in these decisions, we should have
accounted only for a small part of the Work. It is best to rest in
the general conclusion, that it was compiled by the disciples of
the disciples of the sage, making free use of the written
memorials concerning him which they had received, and the oral
statements which they had heard, from their several masters.
And we shall not be far wrong, if we determine its date as about
the end of the fourth, or the beginning of the fifth century before
	3. In the critical work on the Four Books, called 'Record of
Remarks in the village of Yung [1],' it is observed, 'The Analects,
in my opinion, were made by the disciples, just like a record of
remarks. There they were recorded, and afterwards came a first-
rate hand, who gave them the beautiful literary finish which we
now witness, so that there is not a character which does not have
its own indispensable place [2].' We have seen that the first of
these statements contains only a small amount of truth with
regard to the materials of the Analects, nor can we receive the
second. If one hand or one mind had digested the materials
provided by many, the arrangement and the style of the work
would have been different. We should not have had the same
remark appearing in several Books, with little variation, and
sometimes with none at all. Nor can we account on this
supposition for such fragments as the last chapters of the ninth,
tenth, and sixteenth Books, and many others. No definite plan has
been kept in view throughout. A degree of unity appears to belong
to some books more than others, and in general to the first ten
more than to those which follow, but there is no progress of
thought or illustration of subject from Book to Book. And even in
those where the chapters have

1 º_§ø»y¿ý,-- º_§ø, 'the village of Yung,' is, I conceive, the writer's
nom de plume.
2 ½×»y·Q¬Oªù§Ì¤l, ¦p»y¿ý¤@¯ë, °O¦b¨º¸Ì, «á¨Ó¦³¤@°ª¤â, Á妨¤å²z³o¼Ë¤Ö, ¤U

a common subject, they are thrown together at random more than
on any plan.
	4. We cannot tell when the Work was first called the Lun Yu
[1]. The evidence in the preceding section is sufficient to prove
that when the Han scholars were engaged in collecting the ancient
Books, it came before them, not in broken tablets, but complete,
and arranged in Books or Sections, as we now have it. The Old
copy was found deposited in the wall of the house which
Confucius had occupied, and must have been placed there not later
than B.C. 211, distant from the date which I have assigned to the
compilation, not much more than a century and a half. That copy,
written in the most ancient characters, was, possibly, the
autograph of the compilers.
	We have the Writings, or portions of the Writings, of
several authors of the third and fourth centuries before Christ. Of
these, in addition to 'The Great Learning,' 'The Doctrine of the
Mean,' and 'The Works of Mencius,' I have looked over the Works of
Hsun Ch'ing [2] of the orthodox school, of the philosophers Chwang
and Lieh of the Taoist school [3], and of the heresiarch Mo [4].
	In the Great Learning, Commentary, chapter iv, we have the
words of Ana. XII. xiii. In the Doctrine of the Mean, ch. iii, we have
Ana. VI. xxvii; and in ch. xxviii. 5, we have substantially Ana. III.
ix. In Mencius, II. Pt. I. ii. 19, we have Ana. VII. xxxiii, and in vii. 2,
Ana. IV. i; in III. Pt. I. iv. 11, Ana. VIII. xviii, xix; in IV. Pt. I. xiv. 1,
Ana. XI. xvi. 2; in V. Pt. II. vii. 9, Ana. X. xiii. 4; and in VII. Pt. II.
xxxvii. 1, 2, 8, Ana. V. xxi, XIII. xxi, and XVII. xiii. These
quotations, however, are introduced by 'The Master said,' or
'Confucius said,' no mention being made of any book called 'The
Lun Yu,' or Analects. In the Great Learning, Commentary, x. 15, we
have the words of Ana. IV. iii, and in

1 In the continuation of the 'General Examination of Records and
Scholars (Äò¤åÄm³q¦Ò),' Bk. cxcviii. p. 17, it is said, indeed, on the
authority of Wang Ch'ung (¤ý¥R), a scholar of our first century,
that when the Work came out of the wall it was named a Chwan or
Record (¶Ç), and that it was when K'ung An-kwo instructed a
native of Tsin, named Fu-ch'ing, in it, that it first got the name of
Lun Yu:-- ªZ«Ò±o½×»y¤_¤Õ¾À¤¤, ¬Ò¦W¤ê¶Ç, ¤Õ¦w°ê¥H¥j½×±Ð®Ê¤H§ß­ë, ©l¤ê½×
»y. If it were so, it is strange the circumstance is not mentioned
in Ho Yen's preface.
2 ¯û­ë.
3 ²ø¤l, ¦C¤l.
4 ¾¥¤l.

Mencius, III. Pt. II. vii. 3, those of Ana. XVII. i, but without any
notice of quotation.
	In the writings of Hsun Ch'ing, Book I. page 2, we find
something like the words of Ana. XV. xxx; and on p. 6, part of XIV.
xxv. But in these instances there is no mark of quotation.
	In the writings of Chwang, I have noted only one passage
where the words of the Analects are reproduced. Ana. XVIII. v is
found, but with large additions, and no reference of quotation, in
his treatise on 'Man in the World, associated with other Men [1].'
In all those Works, as well as in those of Lieh and Mo, the
references to Confucius and his disciples, and to many
circumstances of his life, are numerous [2]. The quotations of
sayings of his not found in the Analects are likewise many,
especially in the Doctrine of the Mean, in Mencius, and in the
Works of Chwang. Those in the latter are mostly burlesques, but
those by the orthodox writers have more or less of classical
authority. Some of them may be found in the Chia Yu [3], or
'Narratives of the School,' and in parts of the Li Chi, while others
are only known to us by their occurrence in these Writings.
Altogether, they do not supply the evidence, for which I am in
quest, of the existence of the Analects as a distinct Work,
bearing the name of the Lun Yu, prior to the Ch'in dynasty. They
leave the presumption, however, in favour of those conclusions,
which arises from the facts stated in the first section,
undisturbed. They confirm it rather. They show that there was
abundance of materials at hand to the scholars of Han, to compile
a much larger Work with the same title, if they had felt it their
duty to do the business of compilation, and not that of editing.


	1. It would be a vast and unprofitable labor to attempt to
give a list of the Commentaries which have been published on this
Work. My object is merely to point out how zealously the business
of interpretation was undertaken, as soon as the text had been

1 ¤H¶¡¥@.
2 In Mo's chapter against the Literati, he mentions some of the
characteristics of Confucius in the very words of the Tenth Book
of the Analects.
3 ®a»y.

recovered by the scholars of the Han dynasty, and with what
industry it has been persevered in down to the present time.
	2. Mention has been made, in Section I. 6, of the Lun of
prince Chang, published in the half century before our era. Pao
Hsien [1], a distinguished scholar and officer, f the reign of
Kwang-wu [2], the first emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty, A.D.
25-57, and another scholar of the surname Chau [3], less known
but of the same time, published Works, containing arrangements
of this in chapters and sentences, with explanatory notes. The
critical work of K'ung An-kwo on the old Lun Yu has been referred
to. That was lost in consequence of suspicions under which An-
kwo fell towards the close of the reign of the emperor Wu, but in
the time of the emperor Shun, A.D. 126-144, another scholar, Ma
Yung [4], undertook the exposition of the characters in the old Lun,
giving at the same time his views of the general meaning. The
labors of Chang Hsuan in the second century have been mentioned.
Not long after his death, there ensued a period of anarchy, when
the empire was divided into three governments, well known from
the celebrated historical romance, called 'The Three Kingdoms.'
The strongest of them, the House of Wei, patronized literature,
and three of its high officers and scholars, Ch'an Ch'un, Wang Su,
and Chau Shang-lieh [5], in the first half, and probably the second
quarter, of the third century, all gave to the world their notes on
the Analects.
	Very shortly after, five of the great ministers of the
Government of Wei, Sun Yung, Chang Ch'ung, Tsao Hsi, Hsun K'ai,
and Ho Yen [6], united in the production of one great Work,
entitled, 'A Collection of Explanations of the Lun Yu [7].' It
embodied the labors of all the writers which have been
mentioned, and, having been frequently reprinted by succeeding
dynasties, it still remains. The preface of the five compilers, in
the form of a memorial to the emperor, so called, of the House of
Wei, is published with it, and has been of much assistance to me
in writing these sections. Ho

1 ¥]«w.
2 ¥úªZ.
3 ©P¤ó.
4 ¦Ü¶¶«Ò®É, «n°p¤Ó¦u, °¨¿Ä, ¥ç¬°¤§°V»¡.
5 ¥q¹A, ³¯¸s; ¤Ó±`, ¤ýµÂ; ³Õ¤h, ©P¥Í¦C.
6 ¥ú¸S¤j¤Ò, Ãö¤º«J, ®]°o; ¥ú¸S¤j¤Ò, ¾G¨R; ´²ÃM±`¨Í, ¤¤»â­x, ¦w¶m«F«J, ±ä
¿ª; ¨Í¤¤, ¯ûóª; ©|®Ñ, ¾t°¨³£±L, Ãö¤º«J, ¦ó®Ë.
7 ½×»y¶°¸Ñ. I possess a copy of this work, printed about the middle
of our fourteenth century.

Yen was the leader among them, and the work is commonly quoted
as if it were the production of him alone.
	3. From Ho Yen downwards, there has hardly been a dynasty
which has not contributed its laborers to the illustration of the
Analects. In the Liang, which occupied the throne a good part of
the sixth century, there appeared the 'Comments of Hwang K'an
[1],' who to the seven authorities cited by Ho Yen added other
thirteen, being scholars who had deserved well of the Classic
during the intermediate time. Passing over other dynasties, we
come to the Sung, A.D. 960-1279. An edition of the Classics was
published by imperial authority, about the beginning of the
eleventh century, with the title of 'The Correct Meaning.' The
principal scholar engaged in the undertaking was Hsing P'ing [2].
The portion of it on the Analects [3] is commonly reprinted in 'The
Thirteen Classics,' after Ho Yen's explanations. But the names of
the Sung dynasty are all thrown into the shade by that of Chu Hsi,
than whom China has not produced a greater scholar. He composed,
or his disciples complied, in the twelfth century, three Works on
the Analects:-- the first called 'Collected Meanings [4];' the
second, 'Collected Comments [5];' and the third, 'Queries [6].'
Nothing could exceed the grace and clearness of his style, and the
influence which he has exerted on the literature of China has been
almost despotic.
	The scholars of the present dynasty, however, seem inclined
to question the correctness of his views and interpretations of
the Classics, and the chief place among them is due to Mao Ch'i-
ling [7], known by the local name of Hsi-ho [8]. His writings, under
the name of 'The Collected Works of Hsi-ho [9],' have been
published in eighty volumes, containing between three and four
hundred books or sections. He has nine treatises on the Four
Books, or parts of them, and deserves to take rank with Chang
Hsuan and Chu Hsi at the head of Chinese scholars, though he is a
vehement opponent of the latter. Most of his writings are to be
found also in the great Work called 'A Collection of Works on the
Classics, under the Imperial dynasty of Ch'ing [10],' which
contains 1400 sections, and is a noble contribution by the
scholars of the present dynasty to the illustration of its ancient

1 ¬Ó¨Ô½×»y½­.
2 ¨·Îô.
3 ½×»y¥¿¸q.
4 ½×»y¶°¸q.
5 ½×»y¶°µù.
6 ½×»y©Î°Ý.
7 ¤ò©_ÄÖ.
8 ¦èªe.
9 ¦èªe¥þ¶°.
10 ¬Ó²M¸g¸Ñ.


	In 'The Collection of Supplementary Observations on the
Four Books [1],' the second chapter contains a general view of
commentaries on the Analects, and from it I extract the following
list of various readings of the text found in the comments of
Chang Hsuan, and referred to in the first section of this chapter.

Book II. i, «ý for ¦@; viii, èÅ for õW; xix, ±¹ for ¿ù; xxiii. 1, ¤Q¥@¥iª¾,
without ¤], for ¤Q¥@¥iª¾¤]. Book III. vii, in the clause ¥²¤]®g¥G, he
makes a full stop at ¤]; xxi. 1, ¥D for ªÀ. Book IV. x, ¼Ä for ¾A, and ¼}
for ²ö. Book V. xxi, he puts a full stop at ¤l. Book VI. vii, he has not
the characters «h§^. Book VII. iv, ®Ë for ¿P; xxxiv, ¤l¯e simply, for
¤l¯e¯f. Book IX. ix, ¥¯ for °Ã. Book XI. xxv. 7, ¹¶ for ¼¶, and õX for Âk.
Book XIII. iii. 3, ¤_©¹ for ¨±; xviii. 1, ¤} for °`. Book XIV. xxxi, Á½ for
¤è; xxxiv. 1, ¦ó¬OÑáÑáªÌ»P for ¦ó¬°¬OÑáÑáªÌ»P. Book XV. i. a, ã^ for ³.
Book XVI. i. 13, «Ê for ¨¹. Book XVII. i, õX for Âk; xxiv. 2, µ± for éu.
Book XVIII. iv, õX for Âk; viii. 1, ¨Ü for ¦¶.

	These various readings are exceedingly few, and in
themselves insignificant. The student who wishes to pursue this
subject at length, is provided with the means in the Work of Ti
Chiao-shau [2], expressly devoted to it. It forms sections 449-
473 of the Works of the Classics, mentioned at the close of the
preceding section. A still more comprehensive work of the same
kind is, 'The Examination of the Text of the Classics and of
Commentaries on them,' published under the superintendence of
Yuan Yuan, forming chapters 818 to 1054 of the same Collection.
Chapters 1016 to 1030 are occupied with the Lun yu; see the
reference to Yuan Yuan farther on, on p. 132.

1 ¥|®Ñ©Ý¾l»¡. Published in 1798. The author was a Tsao Yin-ku --
2 »C±Ð±Â, ¥|®Ñ¦Ò²§.



	1. It has already been mentioned that 'The Great Learning'
frms one of the Books of the Li Chi, or 'Record of Rites,' the
formation of the text of which will be treated of in its proper
place. I will only say here, that the Records of Rites had suffered
much more, after the death of Confucius, than the other ancient
Classics which were supposed to have been collected and digested
by him. They were in a more dilapidated condition at the time of
the revivial of the ancient literature under the Han dynasty, and
were then published in three collections, only one of which -- the
Record of Rites -- retains its place among the five Ching.
	The Record of Rites consists, according to the ordinary
arrangement, of forty-nine Chapters or Books. Liu Hsiang (see ch.
I. sect. II. 2) took the lead in its formation, and was followed by
the two famous scholars, Tai Teh [1], and his relative, Tai Shang
[2]. The first of these reduced upwards of 200 chapters, collected
by Hsiang, to eighty-nine, and Shang reduced these again to forty-
six. The three other Books were added in the second century of our
era, the Great Learning being one of them, by Ma Yung, mentioned
in the last chapter, section III.2.  Since his time, the Work has not
received any further additions.
	2. In his note appended to what he calls the chapter of
'Classical Text,' Chu Hsi says that the tablets of the 'old copies'
of the rest of the Great Learning were considerably out of order.
By those old copies, he intends the Work of Chang Hsuan, who
published his commentary on the Classic, soon after it was
completed by the additions of Ma Yung; and t is possible that the
tablets were in confusion, and had not been arranged with
sufficient care; but such a thing does not appear to have been
suspected until the

1 À¹¼w
2 À¹¸t Shang was a second cousin of Teh.

twelfth century, nor can any evidence from ancient monuments be
adduced in its support.
	I have related how the ancient Classics were cut on slabs of
stone by imperial order, A.D. 175, the text being that which the
various literati had determined, and which had been adopted by
Chang Hsuan. The same work was performed about seventy years
later, under the so-called dynasty of Wei, between the years 240
and 248, and the two sets of slabs were set up together. The only
difference between them was, that whereas the Classics had been
cut in the first instance only in one form, the characters in the
slabs of Wei were in three different forms. Amd the changes of
dynasties, the slabs both of Han and Wei had perished, or nearly
so, before the rise of the T'ang dynasty, A.D. 624; but under one of
its emperors, in the year 836, a copy of the Classics was again
cut on stone, though only in one form of the character. These
slabs we can trace down through the Sung dynasty, when they
were known as the tablets of Shen [1]. They were in exact
conformity with the text of the Classics adopted by Chang Hsuan
in his commentaries; and they exist at the present day at the city
of Hsi-an, Shen-hsi, still called by the same name.
	The Sung dynasty did not accomplish a similar work itself,
nor did either of the two which followed it think it necessary to
engrave in stone in this way the ancient Classics. About the
middle of the sixteenth century, however, the literary world in
China was startled by a reprt that the slabs of Wei which
contained the Great Learning had been discovered. But this was
nothing more than the result f an impudent attempt at an
imposition, for which it is difficult to a foreigner to assign any
adequate cause. The treatise, as printed from these slabs, has
some trifling additions, and many alterations in the order of the
text, but differing from the arrangements proposed by Chu Hsi,
and by other scholars. There seems to be now no difference of
opinion among Chinese critics that the whole affair was a
forgery. The text of the Great Learning, as it appears in the
Record of Rites with the commentary of Chang Hsuan, and was
thrice engraved on stone, in three different dynasties, is, no
doubt, that which was edited in the Han dynasty by Ma Yung.
	3. I have said, that it is possible that the tablets containing

1 ÔE¸O.

text were not arranged with sufficient care by him; and indeed,
any one who studies the treatise attentively, will probably come
to the conclusion that the part of it forming the first six
chapters of commentary in the present Work is but a fragment. It
would not be a difficult task to propose an arrangement of the
text different from any which I have yet seen; but such an
undertaking would not be interesting out of China. My object here
is simply to mention the Chinese scholars wh have rendered
themselves famous or notorious in their own country by what
they hav done in this way. The first was Ch'ang Hao, a native of
Lo-yang in Ho-nan Province, in the eleventh century [1]. His
designation of Po-shun, but since his death he has been known
chiefly by the style of Ming-tao [2], which we may render the
Wise-in-doctrine. The eulogies heaped on him by Chu Hsi and
others are extravagant, and he is placed immediately after
Mencious in the list of great scholars. Doubtless he was a man of
vast literary acquirements. The greatest change which he
introduced into the Great Learning, was to read sin [3] for ch'in
[4], at the commencement, making the second object proposed in
the treatise to be the renovation of the people, instead of loving
them. This alteration and his various transpositions of the text
are found in Mao Hsi-ho's treatise on 'The Attested Text of the
Great Learning [5].'
	Hardly less illustrious than Ch'ang Hao was his younger
brother Ch'ang I, known by the style of Chang-shu [6], and since
his death by that of I-chwan [7]. He followed Hao in the adoption
of the reading 'to renovate,' instead of 'to love.' But he transposed
the text differently, more akin to the arrangement afterwards
made by Chu Hsi, suggesting also that there were some
superfluous sentences in the old text which might conveniently be
erased. The Work, as proposed to be read by him, will be found in
the volume of Mao just referred to.
	We come to the name of Chu Hsi who entered into the labors
of the brothers Ch'ang, the young of whom he styles his Master, in
his introductory note to the Great Learning. His arrangement of
the text is that now current in all the editions of the Four Books,
and it had nearly displaced the ancient text

1 µ{¤lÅV¡M¦r§B²E¡Mªe«n¡M¬¥¶§¤H.
2 ©ú¹D.
3 ·s.
4 ¿Ë.
5 ¤j¾ÇÃÒ.
6 µ{¤lÀ[¡M¦r¥¿¨û¡M©ú¹D¤§§Ì.
7 ¥ì¤t.

altogether. The sanction of Imperial approval was given to it
during the Yuan and Ming dynasties. In the editions of the Five
Ching published by them, only the names of the Doctrine of the
Mean and the Great Learning were preserved. No text of these
Books was given, and Hsi-ho tells us that in the reign of Chia-
ching [1], the most flourishing period of the Ming dynasty (A.D.
1522-1566), when Wang Wan-ch'ang [2] published a copy of the
Great Learning, taken from the T'ang edition of the Thirteen
Ching, all the officers and scholars looked at one another in
astonishment, and were inclined to supposed that the Work was a
forgery. Besides adopting the reading of sin for ch'in from the
Ch'ang, and modifying their arrangements of the text, Chu Hsi
made other innovations. He first divided the whole into one
chapter of Classical text, which he assigned to Confucius, and
then chapters of Commentary, which he assigned to the disciple
Tsang. Previous to him, the whole had been published, indeed,
without any specification of chapters and paragraphs. He
undertook, moreover, to supply one whole chapter, which he
supposed, after his master Ch'ang, to be missing.
	Since the time of Chu Hsi, many scholars have exercised
their wit on the Great Learning.  The work of Mao Hsi-ho contains
four arrangements of the text, proposed respectively by the
scholars Wang Lu-chai [3], Chi P'ang-shan [4], Kao Ching-yi [5],
and Ko Ch'i-chan [6]. The curious student may examine them here.
	Under the present dynasty, the tendency has been to
depreciate the labors of Chu Hsi. The integrity of the text of
Chang Hsuan is zealously maintained, and the simpler method of
interpretation employed by him is advocated in preference to the
more refined and ingenious schemes of the Sung scholars.  I have
referred several times in the notes to a Work published a few
years ago, under the title of 'The Old Text of the sacred Ching,
with Commentary and Discussions, by Lo Chung-fan of Nan-hai
[7].' I knew the man many years ago. He was a fine scholar, and had
taken the second degree, or that of Chu-zan. He applied to me in
1843 for Christian baptism, and, offended by my hesitancy, went
and enrolled himself among the disciples of another missionary.
He soon, however,

1 ¹Å¹t.
2 ¤ý¤å¦¨.
3 ¤ý¾|»ô.
4 §õ´^¤s.
5 °ª´º¶h.
6 ¸¯Éפ
7 ¸t¸g¥j¥»,«n®üù¥òÿµù¿ë.

withdrew into seclusion, and spent the last years of his life in
literary studies. His family have published the Work on the Great
Learning, and one or two others. He most vehemently impugns
nearly every judgment of Chu Hsi; but in his own exhibitions of
the meaning he blends many ideas of the Supreme Being and of the
condition of human nature, which he had learned from the
Christian Scriptures.


	1. The authorship of the Great Learning is a very doubtful
point, and one on which it does not appear possible to come to a
decided conclusion. Chu Hsi, as I have stated in the last section,
determined that so much of it was Ching, or Classic, being the
very words of Confucius, and that all the rest was Chwan, or
Commentary, being the views of Tsang Shan upon the sage's
words, recorded by his disciples. Thus, he does not expressly
attribute the composition of the Treatise to Tsang, as he is
generally supposed to do. What he says, however, as it is
destitute of external support, is contrary also to the internal
evidence. The fourth chapter of commentary commences with 'The
Master said.' Surely, if there were anything more, directly from
Confucius, there would be an intimation of it in the same way. Or,
if we may allow that short sayings of Confucius might be
interwoven with the Work, as in the fifteenth paragraph of the
tenth chapter, without referring them expressly to him, it is too
much to ask us to receive the long chapter at the beginning as
being from him. With regard to the Work having come from the
disciples of Tsang Shan, recording their master's views, the
paragraph in chapter sixth, commencing with 'The disciple Tsang
said,' seems to be conclusive against such an hypothesis. So much
we may be sure is Tsang's, and no more. Both of Chu Hsi's
judgments must be set aside. We cannot admit either the
distinction of the contents into Classical text and Commentary,
or that the Work was the production of Tsang's disciples.
	2. Who then was the author? An ancient tradition attributes
it to K'ung Chi, the grandson of Confucius. In a notice published, at
the time of their preparation, about the stone slabs of Wei, the

following statement by Chia K'wei, a noted scholar of the first
century, is found:-- 'When K'ung Chi was living, and in straits, in
Sung, being afraid lest the lessons of the former sages should
become obscure, and the principles of the ancient sovereigns and
kings fall to the ground, he therefore made the Great Learning as
the warp of them, and the Doctrine of the Mean as the woof [1].'
This would seem, therefore, to have been the opinion of that early
time, and I may say the only difficulty in admitting it is that no
mention is made of it by Chang Hsuan. There certainly is that
agreement between the two treatises, which makes their common
authorship not at all unlikely.
	3. Though we cannot positively assign the authorship of the
Great Learning, there can be no hesitation in receiving it as a
genuine monument of the Confucian school. There are not many
words in it from the sage himself, but it is a faithful reflection
of his teachings, written by some of his followers, not far
removed from him by lapse of time. It must synchronize pretty
nearly with the Analects, and may be safely referred to the fifth
century before our era.


	1. The worth of the Great Learning has been celebrated in
most extravagant terms by Chinese writers, and there have been
foreigners who have not yielded to them in their estimation of it.
Pauthier, in the 'Argument Philosphique,' prefixed to his
translation of the Work, says:-- 'It is evident that the aim of the
Chinese philosopher is to exhibit the duties of political
government as those of the perfecting of self, and of the practice
of virtue by all men. He felt that he had a higher mission than that
with which the greater part of ancient and modern philosophers
have contented themselves; and his immense love for the
happiness of humanity, which dominated over all his other
sentiments, has made of his

1 ­ð¤ó¯³²¨¦³¤ê,¸·ªQ®Õ¨è¥Û¸g¤_ÃQªí,¤Þº~¸ë¶f¤§¨¥,¤ê,¤Õ¥ù½a©~¤_§º,Äߥý¸t
¤§¾Ç¤£©ú,¦Ó«Ò¤ý¤§¹D¼Y,¬G§@¤j¾Ç¥H¸g¤§,¤¤±e¥H½n¤§; see the ¤j¾ÇÃÒ¤å,¤@,
p. 5.

philosophy a system of social perfectionating, which, we venture
to say, has never been equalled.'
	Very different is the judgment passed upon the treatise by a
writer in the Chinese Repository: 'The Ta Hsio is a short politico-
moral discourse. Ta Hsio, or "Superior Learning," is at the same
time both the name and the subject of the discourse; it is the
summum bonum of the Chinese. In opening this Book, compiled by
a disciple of Confucius, and containing his doctrines, we might
expect to find a work like Cicero's De Officiis; but we find a very
different production, consisting of a few commonplace rules for
the maintenance of a good government [1].'
	My readers will perhaps think, after reading the present
section, that the truth lies between these two representations.
	2. I believe that the Book should be styled T'ai Hsio [2], and
not Ta Hsio, and that it was so named as setting forth the higher
and more extensive principles of moral science, which come into
use and manifestation in the conduct of government. When Chu Shi
endeavours to make the title mean -- 'The principles of Learning,
which were taught in the higher schools of antiquity,' and tells us
how at the age of fifteen, all the sons of the sovereign, with the
legitimate sons of the nobles, and high officers, down to the more
promising scions of the common people, all entered these
seminaries, and were taught the difficult lessons here inculcated,
we pity the ancient youth of China. Such 'strong meat' is not
adapted for the nourishment of youthful minds. But the evidence
adduced for the existence of such educational institutions in
ancient times is unsatisfactory, and from the older interpretation
of the title we advance more easily to contemplate the object and
method of the Work.
	3. The object is stated definitely enough in the opening
paragraph: 'What the Great Learning teaches, is -- to illustrate
illustrious virtue; to love the people; and to rest in the highest
excellence.' The political aim of the writer is here at once
evident. He has before him on one side, the people, the masses of
the empire, and over against them are those whose work and duty,
delegated by Heaven, is to govern them, culminating, as a class, in
'the son of Heaven [3],' 'the One man [4],' the sovereign. From the
fourth and

1 Chinese Repository, vol. iii. p. 98
2 ¤Ó¾Ç, not ¤j¾Ç. See the note on the title of the Work below.
3 ¤Ñ¤l, Cl. (classical) Text, par. 6, 2.
4 ¤@¤H, Comm. ix. 3.

fifth paragraphs, we see that if the lessons of the treatise be
learned and carried into practice, the result will be that
'illustrious virtue will be illustrated throughout the nation,'
which will be brought, through all its length and breadth, to a
condition of happy tranquillity. This object is certainly both
grand and good; annd if a reasonable and likely method to secure
it were proposed in the Work, language would hardly supply terms
adequate to express its value.
	4. But the above account of the object of the Great Learning
leads us to the conclusion that the student of it should be a
sovereign.  What interest can an ordinary man have in it? It is
high up in the clouds, far beyond his reach. This is a serious
objection to it, and quite unfits it for a place in schools, such as
Chu Hsi contends it once had. Intelligent Chinese, whose minds
were somewhat quickened by Christianity, have spoken to me of
this defect, and complained of the difficulty they felt in making
the book a practical directory for their conduct. 'It is so vague
and vast,' was the observation of one man. The writer, however,
has made some provision for the general application of his
instructions. He tells us that, from the sovereign down to the
mass of the people, all must consider the cultivation of the
person to be the root, that is, the first thing to be attended to [1].
_as in his method, moreover, he reaches from the cultivation of
the person to the tranquillization of the kingdom, through the
intermediate steps of the regulation of the family, and the
government of the State [2], there is room for setting forth
principles that parents and rulers generally may find adapted for
their guidance.
	5. The method which is laid down for the attainment of the
great object proposed, consists of seven steps:-- the
investigation of things; the completion of knowledge; the
sincerity of the thoughts; the rectifying of the heart; the
cultivation of the person; the regulation of the family; and the
government of the state. These form the steps of a climax, the
end of which is the kingdom tranquillized. Pauthier calls the
paragraphs where they occur instances of the sorites, or abridged
syllogism. But they elong to rhetoric, and not to logic.
	6. In offering some observations on these steps, and the
writer's treatment of them, it will be well to separate them into
those preceding the cultivation of the person, and those following
it; and to

1  Cl. Text, par. 6.
2  Cl. Text, pars. 4. 5.

deal with the latter first. -- Let us suppose that the cultivation
of the person is fully attained, every discordant mental element
having been subdued and removed. It is assumed that the
regulation of the family will necessarily flow from this. Two
short paragraphs are all that are given to the illustration of the
point, and they are vague generalities on the subject of men's
being led astray by their feelings and affections.
	The family being regulated, there will result from it the
government of the State. First, the virtues taught in the family
have their correspondencies in the wider sphere. Filial piety will
appear as loyalty. Fraternal submission will be seen in respect
and obedience to elders and superiors. Kindness is capable of
universal application. Second, 'From the loving example of one
family, a whole State becomes loving, and from its courtesies the
whole State become courteous [1].' Seven paragraphs suffice to
illustrate these statements, and short as they are, the writer
goes back to the topic of self-cultivation, returning from the
family to the individual.
	The State being governed, the whole empire will become
peaceful and happy. There is even less of connexion, however, in
the treatment of this theme, between the premiss and the
conclusion, than in the two previous chapters. Nothing is said
about the relation between the whole kingdom, and its component
States, or any one of them. It is said at once, 'What is meant by
"The making the whole kingdom peaceful and happy depends on the
government of the State," is this:-- When the sovereign behaves
to his aged, as the aged should be behaved to, the people become
filial; when the sovereign behaves to his elders, as elders should
be behaved to, the people learn brotherly submission; when the
sovereign treats compassionately the young and helpless, the
people do the same [2].' This is nothing but a repetition of the
preceding chapter, instead of that chapter's being made a step
from which to go on to the splendid consummation of the good
government of the whole kingdom.
	The words which I have quoted are followed by a very
striking enunciation of the golden rule in its negative form, and
under the name of the measuring square, and all the lessons of the
chapter are connected more or less closely with that. The
application of this principle by a ruler, whose heart is in the first
place in loving sympathy with the people, will guide him in all the
exactions which

1  See Comm. ix. 3.
2  See Comm. x. 1.

he lays upon them, and in his selection of ministers, in such a
way that he will secure the affections of his subjects, and his
throne will be established, for 'by gaining the people, the kingdom
is gained, and, by losing the people, the kingdom is lost [1].' There
are in this part of the treatise many valuable sentiments, and
counsels for all in authority over others. The objection to it is,
that, as the last step of the climax, it does not rise upon all the
others with the accumulated force of their conclusions, but
introduces us to new principles of action, and a new line of
argument. Cut off the commencement of the first paragraph which
connects it with the preceding chapters, and it would form a brief
but admirable treatise by itself on the art of government.
	This brief review of the writer's treatment of the
concluding steps of his method will satisfy the reader that the
execution is not equal to the design; and, moreover, underneath all
the reasoning, and more especially apparent in the eighth and
ninth chapters of commentary (according to the ordinary
arrangement of the work), there lies the assumption that example
is all but omnipotent. We find this principle pervading all the
Confucian philosophy. And doubtless it is a truth, most important
in education and government, that the influence of example is
very great. I believe, and will insist upon it hereafter in these
prolegomena, that we have come to overlook this element in our
conduct of administration. It will be well if the study of the
Chinese Classics should call attention to it. Yet in them the
subject is pushed to an extreme, and represented in an
extravagant manner. Proceeding from the view of human nature
that it is entirely good, and led astray only by influences from
without, the sage of China and his followers attribute to personal
example and to instruction a power which we do not find that
they actually possess.
	7. The steps which precede the cultivation of the person are
more briefly dealt with than those which we have just
considered. 'The cultivation of the person results from the
rectifying of the heart or mind [2].' True, but in the Great Learning
very inadequately set forth.
	'The rectifying of the mind is realized when the thoughts
are made sincere [3].' And the thoughts are sincere, when no self-
deception is allowed, and we move without effort to what is right
and wrong, 'as we love what is beautiful, and as we dislike a bad

1  Comm. x. 5.
2  Comm. vii. 1.
3  Comm. Ch. vi.

smell [1].' How are we to attain this state? Here the Chinese
moralist fails us. According to Chu Hsi's arrangement of the
Treatise, there is only one sentence from which we can frame a
reply to the above question. 'Therefore,' it is said, 'the superior
man must be watchful over himself when he is alone [2].'
Following. Chu's sixth chapter of commentary, and forming, we
may say, part of it, we have in the old arrangement of the Great
Learning all the passages which he has distributed so as to form
the previous five chapters. But even from the examination of
them, we do not obtain the information which we desire on this
momentous inquiry.
	8. Indeed, the more I study the Work, the more satisfied I
become, that from the conclusion of what is now called the
chapter of classical text to the sixth chapter of commentary, we
have only a few fragments, which it is of no use trying to
arrange, so as fairly to exhibit the plan of the author. According
to his method, the chapter on the connexion between making the
thoughts sincere and so rectifying the mental nature, should be
preceded by one on the completion of knowledge as the means of
making the thoughts sincere, and that again by one on the
completion of knowledge by the investigation of things, or
whatever else the phrase ko wu may mean. I am less concerned
for the loss and injury which this part of the Work has suffered,
because the subject of the connexion between intelligence and
virtue is very fully exhibited in the Doctrine of the Mean, and will
come under our notice in the review of that Treatise. The manner
in which Chu Hsi has endeavoured to supply the blank about the
perfecting of knowledge by the investigation of things is too
extravagant. 'The Learning for Adults,' he says, 'at the outset of
its lessons, instructs the learner, in regard to all things in the
world, to proceed from what knowledge he has of their principles,
and pursue his investigation of them, till he reaches the extreme
point. After exerting himself for a long time, he will suddenly
find himself possessed of a wide and far-reaching penetration.
Then, the qualities of all things, whether external or internal, the
subtle or the coarse, will be apprehended, and the mind, in its
entire substance and its relations to things, will be perfectly
intelligent. This is called the investigation of things. This is
called the perfection of knowledge [3].' And knowledge must be
thus perfected before we can achieve the sincerity of our
thoughts, and the rectifying of our hearts!

1 Comm. vi. 1.
2 Comm. vi. 2.
3 Suppl. to Comm. Ch. v.

Verily this would be learning not for adults only, but even
Methuselahs would not be able to compass it. Yet for centuries
this has been accepted as the orthodox exposition of the Classic.
Lo Chung-fan does not express himself too strongly when he says
that such language is altogether incoherent. The author would
only be 'imposing on himself and others.'
	9. The orthodox doctrine of China concerning the connexion
between intelligence and virtue is most seriously erroneous, but I
will not lay to the charge of the author of the Great Learning the
wild representations of the commentator of our twelfth century,
nor need I make here any remarks on what the doctrine really is.
After the exhibition which I have given, my readers will probably
conclude that the Work before us is far from developing, as
Pauthier asserts, 'a system of social perfectionating which has
never been equalled.'
	10. The Treatise has undoubtedly great merits, but they are
not to be sought in the severity of its logical processes, or the
large-minded prosecution of any course of thought. We shall find
them in the announcement of certain seminal principles, which, if
recognised in government and the regulation of conduct, would
conduce greatly to the happiness and virtue of mankind. I will
conclude these observations by specifying four such principles.
	First. The writer conceives nobly of the object of
government, that it is to make its subjects happy and good. This
may not be a sufficient account of that object, but it is much to
have it so clearly laid down to 'all kings and governors,' that they
are to love the people, ruling not for their own gratification but
for the good of those over whom they are exalted by Heaven. Very
important also is the statement that rulers have no divine right
but what springs from the discharge of their duty. 'The decree
does not always rest on them. Goodness obtains it, and the want
of goodness loses it [1].'
	Second. The insisting on personal excellence in all who have
authority in the family, the state, and the kingdom, is a great
moral and social principle. The influence of such personal
excellence may be overstated, but by the requirement of its
cultivation the writer deserved well of his country.
	Third. Still more important than the requirement of such
excellence, is the principle that it must be rooted in the state of

1 Comm. x. 11.

the heart, and be the natural outgrowth of internal sincerity. 'As a
man thinketh in his heart, so is he.' This is the teaching alike of
Solomon and the author of the Great Learning.
	Fourth. I mention last the striking exhibition which we have
of the golden rule, though only in its negative form:-- 'What a man
dislikes in his superiors, let him not display in the treatment of
his inferiors; what he dislikes in inferiors, let him not display in
his service of his superiors; what he dislikes in those who are
before him, let him not therewith precede those who are behind
him; what he dislikes in those who are behind him, let him not
therewith follow those who are before him; what he dislikes to
receive on the right, let him not bestow on the left; what he
dislikes to receive on the left, let him not bestow on the right.
This is what is called the principle with which, as with a
measuring square, to regulate one's conduct [1].' The Work which
contains those principles cannot be thought meanly of. They are
'commonplace,' as the writer in the Chinese Repository calls
them, but they are at the same time eternal verities.

l Comm. x. a.




	1. The Doctrine of the Mean was one of the treatises which
came to light in connexion with the labors of Liu Hsiang, and its
place as the thirty-first Book in the Li Chi was finally
determined by Ma Yung and Chang Hsuan. In the translation of the
Li Chi in 'The Sacred Books of the East' it is the twenty-eighth
	2. But while it was thus made to form a part of the great
collection of Treatises on Ceremonies, it maintained a separate
footing of its own. In Liu Hsin's Catalogue of the Classical Works,
we find 'Two p'ien of Observations on the Chung Yung [l].' In the
Records of the dynasty of Sui (A.D. 589-618), in the chapter on
the History of Literature [2], there are mentioned three Works on
the Chung Yung;-- the first called 'The Record of the Chung Yung,'
in two chuan, attributed to Tai Yung, a scholar who flourished
about the middle of the fifth century; the second, 'A Paraphrase
and Commentary on the Chung Yung,' attributed to the emperor Wu
(A.D. 502-549) of the Liang dynasty, in one chuan ; and the third,
'A Private Record, Determining the Meaning of the Chung Yung,' in
five chuan, the author, or supposed author, of which is not
mentioned [3].
	It thus appears, that the Chung Yung had been published and
commented on separately, long before the time of the Sung
dynasty. The scholars of that, however, devoted special attention
to it, the way being led by the famous Chau Lien-ch'i [4]. He was
followed by the two brothers Ch'ang, but neither of them
published upon it. At last came Chu Hsi, who produced his Work

1 ¤¤±e»¡¤G½g.
2 ¶¦®Ñ,¨÷¤T¤Q¤G,§Ó²Ä¤G¤Q¤C,¸gÄy,¤@, p. 12.
3 §°O¤¤±e±M,¤G¨÷,§º´²ÃM±`¨ÍÀ¹ñª¼¶;¤¤±eÁ¿²¨,¤@¨÷,±çªZ«Ò¼¶;¨p°O¨î¦®¤¤±e;
4 ©P¾ü·Ë.

'The Chung Yung, in Chapters and Sentences [1],' which was made
the text book of the Classic at the literary examinations, by the
fourth emperor of the Yuan dynasty (A.D. 1312-1320), and from
that time the name merely of the Treatise was retained in
editions of the Li Chi. Neither text nor ancient commentary was
	Under the present dynasty it is not so. In the superb edition
of 'The Three Li Ching,' edited by numerous committees of
scholars towards the middle of the Ch'ien-lung reign, the Chung
Yung is published in two parts, the ancient commentaries from
'The Thirteen Ching' being given side by side with those of Chu



	1. The composition of the Chung Yung is attributed to K'ung
Chi, the grandson of Confucius [2]. Chinese inquirers and critics
are agreed on this point, and apparently on sufficient grounds.
There is indeed no internal evidence in the Work to lead us to such
a conclusion. Among the many quotations of Confucius's words and
references to him, we might have expected to find some
indication that the sage was the grandfather of the author, but
nothing of the kind is given. The external evidence, however, or
that from the testimony of authorities, is very strong. In Sze-ma
Ch'ien's Historical Records, published about B.C. 100, it is
expressly said that 'Tsze-sze made the Chung Yung.' And we have a
still stronger proof, a century earlier, from Tsze-sze's own
descendant, K'ung Fu, whose words are, 'Tsze-sze compiled the
Chung Yung in forty-nine p'ien [3].' We may, therefore, accept the
received account without hesitation.
	2. As Chi, spoken of chiefly by his designation of Tsze-sze,
thus occupies a distinguished place in the classical literature of
China, it

1 ¤¤±e³¹¥y.
2 ¤l«ä§@¤¤±e; see the ¥v°O,¥|¤Q¤C,¤Õ¤l¥@®a.
3 This K'ung Fu (¤Õì{) was that descendant of Confucius, who hid
several books in the wall of his house, on the issuing of the
imperial edict for their burning. He was a writer himself, and his
Works are referred to under the title of ¤ÕÂO¤l. I have not seen
them, but the statement given above is found in the ¥|®Ñ©Ý¾l»¡;--
art. ¤¤±e. -- ¤ÕÂO¤l¤ª,¤l«ä¼¶¤¤±e¤§®Ñ,¥|¤Q¤E½g.

may not be out of place to bring together here a few notices of
him gathered from reliable sources.
	He was the son of Li, whose death took place B.C. 483, four
years before that of the sage, his father. I have not found it
recorded in what year he was born. Sze-ma Ch'ien says he died at
the age of 62. But this is evidently wrong, for we learn from
Mencius that he was high in favour with the duke Mu of Lu [1],
whose accession to that principality dates in B.C. 409, seventy
years after the death of Confucius. In the 'Plates and Notices of
the Worthies, sacrificed to in the Sage's Temples [2],' it is
supposed that the sixty-two in the Historical Records should be
eighty-two [3]. It is maintained by others that Tsze-sze's life
was protracted beyond 100 years [4]. This variety of opinions
simply shows that the point cannot be positively determined. To
me it seems that the conjecture in the Sacrificial Canon must be
pretty near the truth [5].
	During the years of his boyhood, then, Tsze-sze must have
been with his grandfather, and received his instructions. It is
related, that one day, when he was alone with the sage, and heard
him sighing, he went up to him, and, bowing twice, inquired the
reason of his grief. 'Is it,' said he, 'because you think that your
descendants, through not cultivating themselves, will be
unworthy of you? Or is it that, in your admiration of the ways of
Yao and Shun, you are vexed that you fall short of them?' 'Child,'
replied Confucius, 'how is it that you know my thoughts?' 'I have
often,' said Tsze-sze, 'heard from you the lesson, that when the
father has gathered and prepared the firewood, if the son cannot
carry the bundle, he is to be pronounced degenerate and unworthy.
The remark comes frequently into my thoughts, and fills me with
great apprehensions.' The sage was delighted. He

1. ¾|¿p(or Á[)¤½.
2. ¸t¼qªÁ¨å¹Ï¦Ò.
3. ©Î¥H¤»¤Q¤G¦ü¤K¤Q¤G¤§»~. Eighty-two and sixty-two may more
easily be confounded, as written in Chinese, than with the Roman
4 See the ¥|®Ñ¶°ÃÒ, on the preface to the Chung Yung, -- ¦~¦Ê¾l·³¨ò.
5 Li himself was born in Confucius's twenty-first year, and if
Tsze-sze had been born in Li's twenty-first year, he must have
been 103 at the time of duke Mu's accession. But the tradition is,
that Tsze-sze was a pupil of Tsang Shan who was born B.C. 504.
We must place his birth therefore considerably later, and suppose
him to have been quite young when his father died. I was talking
once about the question with a Chinese friend, who observed:-- 'Li
was fifty when he died, and his wife married again into a family
of Wei. We can hardly think, therefore, that she was anything like
that age. Li could not have married so soon as his father did.
Perhaps he was about forty when Chi was born.'

smiled and said, 'Now, indeed, shall I be without anxiety! My
undertakings will not come to naught. They will be carried on and
flourish [1].' After the death of Confucius, Chi became a pupil, it
is said, of the philosopher Tsang. But he received his instructions
with discrimination, and in one instance which is recorded in the
Li Chi, the pupil suddenly took the place of the master. We there
read: 'Tsang said to Tsze-sze, "Chi, when I was engaged in
mourning for my parents, neither congee nor water entered my
mouth for seven days." Tsze-sze answered, "In ordering their
rules of propriety, it was the design of the ancient kings that
those who would go beyond them should stoop and keep by them,
and that those who could hardly reach them should stand on tiptoe
to do so. Thus it is that the superior man, in mourning for his
parents, when he has been three days without water or congee,
takes a staff to enable himself to rise [2]."'
	While he thus condemned the severe discipline of Tsang,
Tsze-sze appears, in various incidents which are related of him,
to have been himself more than sufficiently ascetic. As he was
living in great poverty, a friend supplied him with grain, which he
readily received. Another friend was emboldened by this to send
him a bottle of spirits, but he declined to receive it.' You receive
your corn from other people,' urged the donor, 'and why should you
decline my gift, which is of less value? You can assign no ground
in reason for it, and if you wish to show your independence, you
should do so completely.' 'I am so poor,' was the reply, 'as to be in
want, and being afraid lest I should die and the sacrifices not be
offered to my ancestors, I accept the grain as an alms. But the
spirits and the dried flesh which you offer to me are the
appliances of a feast. For a poor man to be feasting is certainly
unreasonable. This is the ground of my refusing your gift. I have
no thought of asserting my independence [3].'
	To the same effect is the account of Tsze-sze, which we
have from Liu Hsiang. That scholar relates:-- 'When Chi was living
in Wei, he wore a tattered coat, without any lining, and in thirty
days had only nine meals. T'ien Tsze-fang having heard of his

1 See the ¥|®Ñ¶°ÃÒ, in the place just quoted from. For the incident
we are indebted to K'ung Fu; see note 3, p. 36.
2 Li Chi, II. Sect. I. ii. 7.
3 See the ¥|®Ñ¶°ÃÒ, as above.

distress, sent a messenger to him with a coat of fox-fur, and
being afraid that he might not receive it, he added the message,--
"When I borrow from a man, I forget it; when I give a thing, I part
with it freely as if I threw it away." Tsze-sze declined the gift
thus offered, and when Tsze-fang said, "I have, and you have not;
why will you not take it?" he replied, "You give away as rashly as
if you were casting your things into a ditch. Poor as I am, I cannot
think of my body as a ditch, and do not presume to accept your
gift [1]." 'Tsze-sze's mother married again, after Li's death, into a
family of Wei. But this circumstance, which is not at all
creditable in Chinese estimation, did not alienate his affections
from her. He was in Lu when he heard of her death, and proceeded
to weep in the temple of his family. A disciple came to him and
said, 'Your mother married again into the family of the Shu, and do
you weep for her in the temple of the K'ung?' 'I am wrong,' said
Tsze-sze, 'I am wrong;' and with these words he went to weep
elsewhere [2].
	In his own married relation he does not seem to have been
happy, and for some cause, which has not been transmitted to us,
he divorced his wife, following in this, it has been wrongly said,
the example of Confucius. On her death, her son, Tsze-shang [3],
did not undertake any mourning for her. Tsze-sze's disciples were
surprised and questioned him. 'Did your predecessor, a superior
man,' they asked, 'mourn for his mother who had been divorced?'
'Yes,' was the reply. 'Then why do you not cause Pai [4] to mourn
for his mother?' Tsze-sze answered, 'My progenitor, a superior
man, failed in nothing to pursue the proper path. His observances
increased or decreased as the case required. But I cannot attain to
this. While she was my wife, she was Pai's mother; when she
ceased to be my wife, she ceased to be Pai's mother.' The custom
of the K'ung family not to mourn for a mother who had been
divorced, took its rise from Tsze-sze [5].
	These few notices of K'ung Chi in his more private relations
bring him before us as a man of strong feeling and strong will,
independent, and with a tendency to asceticism in his habits.

1 See the ¥|®Ñ¶°ÃÒ, as above.
2 See the Li Chi, II. Sect. II. iii. 15. ±f¤ó¤§¥À¦º must be understood
as I have done above, and not with Chang Hsuan, -- 'Your mother
was born a Miss Shu.'
3 ¤l¤W -- this was the designation of Tsze-sze's son.
4 ¥Õ,-- this was Tsze-shang's name.
5 See the Li Chi, II. Sect. I. i. 4.

As a public character, we find him at the ducal courts of Wei,
Sung; Lu, and Pi, and at each of them held in high esteem by the
rulers. To Wei he was carried probably by the fact of his mother
having married into that State. We are told that the prince of Wei
received him with great distinction and lodged him honourably. On
one occasion he said to him, 'An officer of the State of Lu, you
have not despised this small and narrow Wei, but have bent your
steps hither to comfort and preserve it; vouchsafe to confer your
benefits upon me.' Tsze-sze replied. 'If I should wish to requite
your princely favour with money and silks, your treasuries are
already full of them, and I am poor. If I should wish to requite it
with good words, I am afraid that what I should say would not
suit your ideas, so that I should speak in vain and not be listened
to. The only way in which I can requite it, is by recommending to
your notice men of worth.' The duke said. 'Men of worth are
exactly what I desire.' 'Nay,' said Chi. 'you are not able to
appreciate them.' 'Nevertheless,' was the reply, 'I should like to
hear whom you consider deserving that name.' Tsze-sze replied,
'Do you wish to select your officers for the name they may have
or for their reality?' 'For their reality, certainly,' said the duke.
His guest then said, 'In the eastern borders of your State, there is
one Li Yin, who is a man of real worth.' 'What were his
grandfather and father?' asked the duke. 'They were husbandmen,'
was the reply, on which the duke broke into a loud laugh, saying, '
I do not like husbandry. The son of a husbandman cannot be fit for
me to employ. I do not put into office all the cadets of those
families even in which office is hereditary.' Tsze-sze observed, 'I
mention Li Yin because of his abilities; what has the fact of his
forefathers being husbandmen to do with the case? And moreover,
the duke of Chau was a great sage, and K'ang-shu was a great
worthy. Yet if you examine their beginnings, you will find that
from the business of husbandry they came forth to found their
States. I did certainly have my doubts that in the selection of
your officers you did not have regard to their real character and
capacity.' With this the conversation ended. The duke was silent
	Tsze-sze was naturally led to Sung, as the K'ung family
originally sprang from that principality. One account, quoted in

1 See the ¤ó©mÃÐ,¨÷¤@¦Ê¤G,¤Õ¤ó,¤Õ¥ù.

Four Books, Text and Commentary, with Proofs and Illustrations
[1],' says that he went thither in his sixteenth year, and having
foiled an officer of the State, named Yo So, in a conversation on
the Shu Ching, his opponent was so irritated at the disgrace put
on him by a youth, that he listened to the advice of evil
counsellors, and made an attack on him to put him to death. The
duke of Sung, hearing the tumult, hurried to the rescue, and when
Chi found himself in safety, he said, 'When king Wan was
imprisoned in Yu-li, he made the Yi of Chau. My grandfather made
the Ch'un Ch'iu after he had been in danger in Ch'an and Ts'ai. Shall
I not make something when rescued from such a risk in Sung?'
Upon this he made the Chung Yung in forty-nine p'ien.
	According to this account, the Chung Yung was the work of
Tsze-sze's early manhood, and the tradition has obtained a
wonderful prevalence. The notice in 'The Sacrificial Canon' says,
on the contrary, that it was the work of his old age, when he had
finally settled in Lu, which is much more likely [2].
	Of Tsze-sze in Pi, which could hardly be said to be out of
Lu, we have only one short notice,-- in Mencius, V. Pt. II. iii. 3,
where the duke Hui of Pi is introduced as saying, 'I treat Tsze-sze
as my master.'
	We have fuller accounts of him in Lu, where he spent all the
latter years of his life, instructing his disciples to the number of
several hundred [3], and held in great reverence by the duke Mu.
The duke indeed wanted to raise him to the highest office, but he
declined this, and would only occupy the position of a 'guide,
philosopher, and friend.' Of the attention which he demanded,
however, instances will he found in Mencius, II. Pt. II. xi. 3; V. Pt.
II. vi. 4, and vii. 4. In his intercourse with the duke he spoke the
truth to him fearlessly. In the 'Cyclopaedia of Surnames [4],' I find
the following conversations, but I cannot tell from what source
they are extracted into that Work.-- 'One day, the duke said to
Tsze-sze, "The officer Hsien told me that you do good without

1 This is the Work so often referred to as the ¥|®Ñ¶°ÃÒ, the full
title being ¥|®Ñ¸gµù¶°ÃÒ. The passage here translated from it will
be found in the place several times referred to in this section.
2 The author of the ¥|®Ñ©Ý¾l»¡ adopts the view that the Work was
composed in Sung. Some have advocated this from ch. xxviii. 5,
compared with Ana. III. ix, 'it being proper,' they say, 'that Tsze-
sze, writing in Sung, should not depreciate it as Confucius had
done out of it!'
3 See in the 'Sacrificial Canon,' on Tsze-sze.
4 This is the Work referred to in note 1, p. 40.

wishing for any praise from men;-- is it so?" Tsze-sze replied,
"No, that is not my feeling. When I cultivate what is good, I wish
men to know it, for when they know it and praise me, I feel
encouraged to be more zealous in the cultivation. This is what I
desire, and am not able to obtain. If I cultivate what is good, and
men do not know it, it is likely that in their ignorance they will
speak evil of me. So by my good-doing I only come to be evil
spoken of. This is what I do not desire, but am not able to avoid.
In the case of a man, who gets up at cock-crowing to practise
what is good and continues sedulous in the endeavour till
midnight, and says at the same time that he does not wish men to
know it, lest they should praise him, I must say of such a man,
that, if he be not deceitful, he is stupid."'
	Another day, the duke asked Tsze-sze, saying, 'Can my state
be made to flourish?' 'It may,' was the reply. 'And how?' Tsze-sze
said, 'O prince, if you and your ministers will only strive to
realize the government of the duke of Chau and of Po-ch'in;
practising their transforming principles, sending forth wide the
favours of your ducal house, and not letting advantages flow in
private channels; if you will thus conciliate the affections of the
people, and at the same time cultivate friendly relations with
neighboring states, your state will soon begin to flourish.'
	On one occasion, the duke asked whether it had been the
custom of old for ministers to go into mourning for a prince
whose service and state they had left. Tsze-sze replied to him,
'Of old, princes advanced their ministers to office according to
propriety, and dismissed them in the same way, and hence there
was that rule. But now-a-days, princes bring their ministers
forward as if they were going to take them on their knees, and
send them away as if they would cast them into an abyss. If they
do not treat them as their greatest enemies, it is well.-- How can
you expect the ancient practice to be observed in such
circumstances [1]?'
	These instances may suffice to illustrate the character of
Tsze-sze, as it was displayed in his intercourse with the princes
of his time. We see the same independence which he affected in
private life, and a dignity not unbecoming the grandson of
Confucius. But we miss the reach of thought and capacity for
administration which belonged to the Sage. It is with him, how-

1 This conversation is given in the Li Chi, II. Sect. II. Pt. ii, 1.

ever, as a thinker and writer that we have to do, and his rank in
that capacity will appear from the examination of the Chung Yung
in the section iv below. His place in the temples of the Sage has
been that of one of his four assessors, since the year 1267. He
ranks with Yen Hui, Tsang Shan, and Mencius, and bears the title
of 'The Philosopher Tsze-sze, Transmitter of the Sage [1].'



	In the testimony of K'ung Fu, which has been adduced to
prove the authorship of the Chung Yung, it is said that the Work
consisted originally of forty-nine p'ien. From this statement it is
argued by some, that the arrangement of it in thirty-three
chapters, which originated with Chu Hsi, is wrong [2]; but this
does not affect the question of integrity, and the character p'ien
is so vague and indefinite, that we cannot affirm that K'ung Fu
meant to tell us by it that Tsze-sze himself divided his Treatise
into so many paragraphs or chapters.

	It is on the entry in Liu Hsin's Catalogue, quoted section i,--
'Two p'ien of Observations on the Chung Yung,' that the integrity
of the present Work is called in question. Yen Sze-ku, of the Tang
dynasty, has a note on that entry to the effect:-- 'There is now
the Chung Yung in the Li Chi in one p'ien. But that is not the
original Treatise here mentioned, but only a branch from it [3]'
Wang Wei, a writer of the Ming dynasty, says:-- 'Anciently, the
Chung Yung consisted of two p'ien, as appears from the History of
Literature of the Han dynasty, but in the Li Chi we have only one
p'ien, which Chu Hsi, when he made his "Chapters and Sentences,"
divided into thirty-three chapters. The old Work in two p'ien is
not to be met with now [4].'
	These views are based on a misinterpretation of the entry
in the

1 ­z¸t¤l«ä¤l.
2 See the ¥|®Ñ©Ý¾l»¡, art. ¤¤±e.
3 ÃC®v¥j¤ê,¤µÂ§°O¦³¤¤±e¤@½g,«³«D¥»Â§¸g,»\¦¹¤§¬y.
4 ¤ý¤ó½n¤ê,¤¤±e¥j¦³¤G½g,¨£º~ÃÀ¤å§Ó,¦Ó¦b§°O¤¤ªÌ,¤@½g¦Ó¤w,¦¶¤l¬°³¹¥y,¦]

Catalogue. It does not speak of two p'ien of the Chung Yung, but of
two p'ien of Observations thereon. The Great Learning carries on
its front the evidence of being incomplete, but the student will
not easily believe that the Doctrine of the Mean is so. I see no
reason for calling its integrity in question, and no necessity
therefore to recur to the ingenious device employed in the edition
of the five ching published by the imperial authority of K'ang Hsi,
to get over the difficulty which Wang Wei supposes. It there
appears in two p'ien, of which we have the following account
from the author of 'Supplemental Remarks upon the Four Books:'--
'The proper course now is to consider the first twenty chapters in
Chu Hsi's arrangement as making up the first p'ien, and the
remaining thirteen as forming the second. In this way we retain
the old form of the Treatise, and do not come into collision with
the views of Chu. For this suggestion we are indebted to Lu Wang-
chai' (an author of the Sung dynasty ) [1].



	1. The Doctrine of the Mean is a work not easy to
understand. 'It first,' says the philosopher Chang, 'speaks of one
principle; it next spreads this out and embraces all things;
finally, it returns and gathers them up under the one principle.
Unroll it and it fills the universe; roll it up, and it retires and
lies hid in secrecy [2].' There is this advantage, however, to the
student of it, that more than most other Chinese Treatises it has
a beginning, a middle, and an end. The first chapter stands to all
that follows in the character of a text, containing several
propositions of which we have the expansion or development. If
that development were satisfactory, we should be able to bring
our own minds en rapport with that of the author. Unfortunately it
is not so. As a writer he belongs to the intuitional school more
than to the logical. This is well put in the 'Continuation of the
General Examination of Literary Monuments and Learned Men,'--
'The philosopher Tsang reached his conclusions by following in
the train of things, watch-

1 See the ¥|®Ñ©Ý¾l»¡, art. ¤¤±e.
2 See the Introductory note of Chu Hsi.

ing and examining; whereas Tsze-sze proceeds directly and
reaches to Heavenly virtue. His was a mysterious power of
discernment, approaching to that of Yen Hui [1].' We must take the
Book and the author, however, as we have them, and get to their
meaning, if we can, by assiduous examination and reflection.
	2. 'Man has received his nature from Heaven. Conduct in
accordance with that nature constitutes what is right and true,--
is a pursuing of the proper Path. The cultivation or regulation of
that path is what is called Instruction.' It is with these axioms
that the Treatise commences, and from such an introduction we
might expect that the writer would go on to unfold the various
principles of duty, derived from an analysis of man's moral
	Confining himself, however, to the second axiom, he
proceeds to say that 'the path may not for an instant be left, and
that the superior man is cautious and careful in reference to what
he does not see, and fearful and apprehensive in reference to what
he does not hear. There is nothing more visible than what is
secret, and nothing more manifest than what is minute, and
therefore the superior man is watchful over his aloneness.' This
is not all very plain. Comparing it with the sixth chapter of
Commentary in the Great Learning, it seems to inculcate what is
there called 'making the thoughts sincere.' The passage contains
an admonition about equivalent to that of Solomon,-- 'Keep thy
heart with all diligence, for out of it are the issues of life.'
	The next paragraph seems to speak of the nature and the
path under other names. 'While there are no movements of
pleasure, anger, sorrow, or joy, we have what may be called the
state of equilibrium. When those feelings have been moved, and
they all act in the due degree, we have what may be called the
state of harmony. This equilibrium is the great root of the world,
and this harmony is its universal path.' What is here called 'the
state of equilibrium,' is the same as the nature given by Heaven,
considered absolutely in itself, without deflection or inclination.
This nature acted on from without, and responding with the
various emotions, so as always 'to hit [2]' the mark with entire

1 See the Äò¤åÄm³q¦Ò, Bk. cxcix, art. ¤l«ä,--´¿¤l±o¤§¤_ÀH¨Æ¬Ù¹î,¦Ó¤l«ä
2 ¤¤¸`.

correctness, produces the state of harmony, and such harmonious
response is the path along which all human activities should
	Finally. 'Let the states of equilibrium and harmony exist in
perfection, and a happy order will prevail throughout heaven and
earth, and all things will be nourished and flourish.' Here we pass
into the sphere of mystery and mysticism. The language,
according to Chu Hsi, 'describes the meritorious achievements and
transforming influence of sage and spiritual men in their highest
extent.' From the path of duty, where we tread on solid ground,
the writer suddenly raises us aloft on wings of air, and will carry
us we know not where, and to we know not what.
	3. The paragraphs thus presented, and which constitute Chu
Hsi's first chapter, contain the sum of the whole Work. This is
acknowledged by all;-- by the critics who disown Chu Hsi's
interpretations of it, as freely as by him [1]. Revolving them in
my own mind often and long, I collect from them the following as
the ideas of the author:-- Firstly, Man has received from Heaven a
moral nature by which he is constituted a law to himself;
secondly, Over this nature man requires to exercise a jealous
watchfulness; and thirdly, As he possesses it, absolutely and
relatively, in perfection, or attains to such possession of it, he
becomes invested with the highest dignity and power, and may
say to himself-- 'I am a god; yea, I sit in the seat of God.' I will
not say here that there is impiety in the last of these ideas; but
do we not have in them the same combination which we found in
the Great Learning,-- a combination of the ordinary and the
extraordinary, the plain and the vague, which is very perplexing to
the mind, and renders the Book unfit for the purposes of mental
and moral discipline?
	And here I may inquire whether we do right in calling the
Treatise by any of the names which foreigners have hitherto used
for it? In the note on the title, I have entered a little into this
question. The Work is not at all what a reader must expect to find
in what he supposes to be a treatise on 'The Golden Medium,' 'The
Invariable Mean,' or 'The Doctrine of the Mean.' Those

l Compare Chu Hsi's language in his concluding note to the first
chapter:-- ·¨¤ó©Ò¿×¤@½g¤§Â§­n, and Mao Hsi-ho's, in his ¤¤±e»¡, ¨÷¤@,
p. 11:-- ¦¹¤¤±e¤@®Ñ¤§»â­n¤].

names are descriptive only of a portion of it. Where the phrase
Chung Yung occurs in the quotations from Confucius, in nearly
every chapter from the second to the eleventh, we do well to
translate it by 'the course of the Mean,' or some similar terms;
but the conception of it in Tsze-sze's mind was of a different
kind, as the preceding analysis of the first chapter sufficiently
shows [1].
	4. I may return to this point of the proper title for the Work
again, but in the meantime we must proceed with the analysis of
it.-- The ten chapters from the second to the eleventh constitute
the second part, and in them Tsze-sze quotes the words of
Confucius, 'for the purpose,' according to Chu Hsi, 'of illustrating
the meaning of the first chapter.' Yet, as I have just intimated,
they do not to my mind do this. Confucius bewails the rarity of
the practice of the Mean, and graphically sets forth the difficulty
of it. 'The empire, with its component States and families, may be
ruled; dignities and emoluments may be declined; naked weapons
may be trampled under foot; but the course of the Mean can not be
attained to [2].' 'The knowing go beyond it, and the stupid do not
come up to it [3].' Yet some have attained to it. Shun did so,
humble and ever learning from people far inferior to himself [4];
and Yen Hui did so, holding fast whatever good he got hold of, and
never letting it go [5]. Tsze-lu thought the Mean could be taken by
storm, but Confucius taught him better [6]. And in fine, it is only
the sage who can fully exemplify the Mean [7].
	All these citations do not throw any light on the ideas
presented in the first chapter. On the contrary, they interrupt the
train of thought. Instead of showing us how virtue, or the path of
duty is in accordance with our Heaven-given nature, they lead us
to think of it as a mean between two extremes. Each extreme may
be a violation of the law of our nature, but that is not made to
appear. Confucius's sayings would be in place in illustrating the
doctrine of the Peripatetics, 'which placed all virtue in a medium
between opposite vices [8].' Here in the Chung Yung of Tsze-sze I
have always felt them to be out of place.
	5. In the twelfth chapter Tsze-sze speaks again himself,
and we seem at once to know the voice. He begins by saying that
'the way of the superior man reaches far and wide, and yet is

1 In the version in 'The Sacred Books of the East,' I call the
Treatise 'The State of Equilibrium and Harmony.'
2 Ch. ix.
3 Ch. iv.
4 Ch. vi.
5 Ch. viii.
6 Ch. x.
7 Ch. xi.
8 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Preliminary Dissertations, p. 318,
eighth edition.

secret,' by which he means to tell us that the path of duty is to be
pursued everywhere and at all times, while yet the secret spring
and rule of it is near at hand, in the Heaven-conferred nature, the
individual consciousness, with which no stranger can
intermeddle. Chu Hsi, as will be seen in the notes, gives a
different interpretation of the utterance. But the view which I
have adopted is maintained convincingly by Mao Hsi-ho in the
second part of his 'Observations on the Chung Yung.' With this
chapter commences the third part of the Work, which embraces
also the eight chapters which follow. 'It is designed,' says Chu
Hsi, 'to illustrate what is said in the first chapter that "the path
may not be left."' But more than that one sentence finds its
illustration here. Tsze-sze had reference in it also to what he had
said-- 'The superior man does not wait till he sees things to be
cautious, nor till he hears things to be apprehensive. There is
nothing more visible than what is secret, and nothing more
manifest than what is minute. Therefore, the superior man is
watchful over himself when he is alone.' It is in this portion of
the Chung Yung that we find a good deal of moral instruction
which is really valuable. Most of it consists of sayings of
Confucius, but the sentiments of Tsze-sze himself in his own
language are interspersed with them. The sage of China has no
higher utterances than those which are given in the thirteenth
chapter.-- 'The path is not far from man. When men try to pursue a
course which is far from the common indications of
consciousness, this course cannot be considered the path. In the
Book of Poetry it is said--

"In hewing an axe-handle, in hewing an axe-handle,
The pattern is not far off."

We grasp one axe-handle to hew the other, and yet if we look
askance from the one to the other, we may consider them as
apart. Therefore, the superior man governs men according to their
nature, with what is proper to them; and as soon as they change
what is wrong, he stops. When one cultivates to the utmost the
moral principles of his nature, and exercises them on the
principle of reciprocity, he is not far from the path. What you do
not like when done to yourself, do not do to others.'
	'In the way of the superior man there are four things, to
none of which have I as yet attained.-- To serve my father as I
would require my son to serve me: to this I have not attained; to

my elder brother as I would require my younger brother to serve
me: to this I have not attained; to serve my ruler as I would
require my minister to serve me: to this I have not attained; to
set the example in behaving to a friend as I would require him to
behave to me: to this I have not attained. Earnest in practising the
ordinary virtues, and careful in speaking about them; if in his
practice he has anything defective, the superior man dares not but
exert himself; and if in his words he has any excess, he dares not
allow himself such license. Thus his words have respect to his
actions, and his actions have respect to his words;-- is it not
just an entire sincerity which marks the superior man?'
	We have here the golden rule in its negative form expressly
propounded:-- 'What you do not like when done to yourself, do not
do to others.' But in the paragraph which follows we have the rule
virtually in its positive form. Confucius recognises the duty of
taking the initiative,-- of behaving himself to others in the first
instance as he would that they should behave to him. There is a
certain narrowness, indeed, in that the sphere of its operations
seems to be confined to the relations of society, which are
spoken of more at large in the twentieth chapter, but let us not
grudge the tribute of our warm approbation to the sentiments.
	This chapter is followed by two from Tsze-sze, to the
effect that the superior man does what is proper in every change
of his situation, always finding his rule in himself; and that in
his practice there is an orderly advance from step to step,-- from
what is near to what is remote. Then follow five chapters from
Confucius:-- the first, on the operation and influence of spiritual
beings, to show 'the manifestness of what is minute, and the
irrepressibleness of sincerity;' the second, on the filial piety of
Shun, and how it was rewarded by Heaven with the throne, with
enduring fame, and with long life; the third and fourth, on the
kings Wan and Wu, and the duke of Chau, celebrating them for
their filial piety and other associate virtues; and the fifth, on the
subject of government. These chapters are interesting enough in
themselves, but when I go back from them, and examine whether I
have from them any better understanding of the paragraphs in the
first chapter which they are said to illustrate, I do not find that I
have. Three of them, the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth,
would be more in place in the Classic of Filial Piety than here in
the Chung Yung. The meaning of the

sixteenth is shadowy and undefined. After all the study which I
have directed to it, there are some points in reference to which I
have still doubts and difficulties.
	The twentieth chapter, which concludes the third portion of
the Work, contains a full exposition of Confucius's views on
government, though professedly descriptive only of that of the
kings Wan and Wu. Along with lessons proper for a ruler there are
many also of universal application, but the mingling of them
perplexes the mind. It tells us of 'the five duties of universal
application,'-- those between sovereign and minister, husband and
wife, father and son, elder and younger brother, and friends; of
'the three virtues by which those duties are carried into effect,'
namely, knowledge, benevolence, and energy; and of 'the one thing,
by which those virtues are practised,' which is singleness or
sincerity [1]. It sets forth in detail the 'nine standard rules for
the administration of government,' which are 'the cultivation by
the ruler of his own character; the honouring men of virtue and
talents; affection to his relatives; respect towards the great
ministers; kind and considerate treatment of the whole body of
officers; cherishing the mass of the people as children;
encouraging all classes of artisans; indulgent treatment of men
from a distance; and the kindly cherishing of the princes of the
States [2].' There are these and other equally interesting topics in
this chapter; but, as they are in the Work, they distract the mind,
instead of making the author's great object more clear to it, and I
will not say more upon them here.
	6. Doubtless it was the mention of 'singleness,' or
'sincerity,' in the twentieth chapter, which made Tsze-sze
introduce it into this Treatise, for from those terms he is able to
go on to develop what he intended in saying that 'if the states of
Equilibrium and Harmony exist in perfection, a happy order will
prevail throughout heaven and earth, and all things will be
nourished and flourish.' It is here, that now we are astonished at
the audacity of the writer's assertions, and now lost in vain
endeavours to ascertain his meaning. I have quoted the words of
Confucius that it is 'singleness' by which the three virtues of
knowledge, benevolence, and energy are able to carry into
practice the duties of universal obligation. He says also that it is
this same 'singleness' by which 'the nine standard rules of
government' can be effectively carried out [3]. This 'singleness' is
merely a name for 'the states of Equilibrium

1 Par. 8.
2 Par. 12.
3 Par. 15.

and Harmony existing in perfection.' It denotes a character
absolutely and relatively good, wanting nothing in itself, and
correct in all its outgoings. 'Sincerity' is another term for the
same thing, and in speaking about it, Confucius makes a
distinction between sincerity absolute and sincerity acquired.
The former is born with some, and practised by them without any
effort; the latter is attained by study, and practised by strong
endeavour [1]. The former is 'the way of Heaven;' the latter is 'the
way of men [2].' 'He who possesses sincerity,'-- absolutely, that
is,-- 'is he who without effort hits what is right, and apprehends
without the exercise of thought; he is the sage who naturally and
easily embodies the right way. He who attains to sincerity, is he
who chooses what is good and firmly holds it fast. And to this
attainment there are requisite the extensive study of what is
good, accurate inquiry about it, careful reflection on it, the clear
discrimination of it, and the earnest practice of it [3].' In these
passages Confucius unhesitatingly enunciates his belief that
there are some men who are absolutely perfect, who come into
the world as we might conceive the first man was, when he was
created by God 'in His own image,' full of knowledge and
righteousness, and who grow up as we know that Christ did,
'increasing in wisdom and in stature.' He disclaimed being
considered to be such an one himself [4], but the sages of China
were such. And moreover, others who are not so naturally may
make themselves to become so. Some will have to put forth more
effort and to contend with greater struggles, but the end will be
the possession of the knowledge and the achievement of the
	I need not say that these sentiments are contrary to the
views of human nature which are presented in the Bible. The
testimony of Revelation is that 'there is not a just man upon
earth that doeth good and sinneth not.' 'If we say that we have no
sin,' and in writing this term, I am thinking here not of sin
against God, but, if we can conceive of it apart from that, of
failures in regard to what ought to be in our regulation of
ourselves, and in our behavior to others;-- 'if we say that we have
no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.' This
language is appropriate in the lips of the learned as well as in
those of the ignorant, to the highest sage as to the lowest child
of the soil. Neither the scriptures of God nor the experience of
man know of individuals

1 Par. 9.
2 Par. 18.
3 Pars. 18, 19.
4 Ana. VII. xix.

absolutely perfect. The other sentiment that men can make
themselves perfect is equally wide of the truth. Intelligence and
goodness by no means stand to each other in the relation of cause
and effect. The sayings of Ovid, 'Video meliora proboque,
deteriora sequor,' 'Nitimur in velitum semper. cupimusque negata,'
are a more correct expression of the facts of human
consciousness and conduct than the high-flown praises of
	7. But Tsze-sze adopts the dicta of his grandfather without
questioning them, and gives them forth in his own style at the
commencement of the fourth part of his Treatise. 'When we have
intelligence resulting from sincerity, this condition is to be
ascribed to nature; when we have sincerity resulting from
intelligence, this condition is to be ascribed to instruction. But
given the sincerity, and there shall be the intelligence; given the
intelligence, and there shall be the sincerity [1].'
	Tsze-sze does more than adopt the dicta of Confucius. He
applies them in a way which the Sage never did, and which he
would probably have shrunk from doing. The sincere, or perfect
man of Confucius, is he who satisfies completely all the
requirements of duty in the various relations of society, and in
the exercise of government; but the sincere man of Tsze-sze is a
potency in the universe. 'Able to give its full development to his
own nature, he can do the same to the nature of other men. Able to
give its full development to the nature of other men, he can give
their full development to the natures of animals and things. Able
to give their full development to the natures of creatures and
things, he can assist the transforming and nourishing powers of
Heaven and Earth. Able to assist the transforming and nourishing
powers of Heaven and Earth, he may with Heaven and Earth form a
ternion [2].' Such are the results of sincerity natural. The case
below this -- of sincerity acquired, is as follows,-- 'The
individual cultivates its shoots. From these he can attain to the
possession of sincerity. This sincerity becomes apparent. From
being apparent, it becomes manifest. From being manifest, it
becomes brilliant. Brilliant, it affects others. Affecting others,
they are changed by it. Changed by it, they are transformed. It is
only he who is possessed of the most complete sincerity that can
exist under heaven, who can transform [3].' It may safely be
affirmed, that when he thus expressed himself, Tsze-sze
understood neither what he said nor

1 Ch. xxi.
2 Ch. xxii.
3 Ch. xxiii.

whereof he affirmed. Mao Hsi-ho and some other modern writers
explain away many of his predicates of sincerity, so that in their
hands they become nothing but extravagant hyperboles, but the
author himself would, I believe, have protested against such a
mode of dealing with his words. True, his structures are castles
in the air, but he had no idea himself that they were so.
	In the twenty-fourth chapter there is a ridiculous descent
from the sublimity of the two preceding. We are told that the
possessor of entire sincerity is like a spirit and can foreknow,
but the foreknowledge is only a judging by the milfoil and
tortoise and other auguries! But the author recovers himself, and
resumes his theme about sincerity as conducting to self-
completion and the completion of other men and things,
describing it also as possessing all the qualities which can be
predicated of Heaven and Earth. Gradually the subject is made to
converge to the person of Confucius, who is the ideal of the sage,
as the sage is the ideal of humanity at large. An old account of
the object of Tsze-sze in the Chung Yung is that he wrote it to
celebrate the virtue of his grandfather [1]. He certainly contrives
to do this in the course of it. The thirtieth, thirty-first, and
thirty-second chapters contain his eulogium, and never has any
other mortal been exalted in such terms. 'He may be compared to
heaven and earth in their supporting and containing, their over-
shadowing and curtaining all things; he may be compared to the
four seasons in their alternating progress, and to the sun and
moon in their successive shining.' 'Quick in apprehension, clear in
discernment, of far-reaching intelligence, and all-embracing
knowledge, he was fitted to exercise rule; magnanimous,
generous, benign, and mild, he was fitted to exercise forbearance;
impulsive, energetic, strong, and enduring, he was fitted to
maintain a firm hold; self-adjusted, grave, never swerving from
the Mean, and correct, he was fitted to command reverence;
accomplished, distinctive, concentrative, and searching, he was
fitted to exercise discrimination.' 'All-embracing and vast, he
was like heaven; deep and active as a fountain, he was like the
abyss.' 'Therefore his fame overspreads the Middle Kingdom, and
extends to all barbarous tribes. Wherever ships and carriages
reach; wherever the strength of man penetrates; wherever the
heavens overshadow

1 ­ð³°¼w©úÄÀ¤å¿×¤Õ¤l¤§®],¤l«ä,§@¦¹¥H¬L©ú¯ª¼w; see the ¤¤±e­ð»¡¤@, p. 1.

and the earth sustains; wherever the sun and moon shine;
wherever frosts and dews fall;-- all who have blood and breath
unfeignedly honour and love him. Hence it is said,-- He is the
equal of Heaven!' 'Who can know him but he who is indeed quick in
apprehension, clear in discernment, of far-reaching intelligence,
and all-embracing knowledge, possessing all heavenly virtue?'
	8. We have arrived at the concluding chapter of the Work, in
which the author, according to Chu Hsi, 'having carried his
descriptions to the highest point in the preceding chapters, turns
back and examines the source of his subject; and then again from
the work of the learner, free from all selfishness and watchful
over himself when he is alone, he carries out his description, till
by easy steps he brings it to the consummation of the whole
world tranquillized by simple and sincere reverentialness. He
moreover eulogizes its mysteriousness, till he speaks of it at
last as without sound or smell [1].' Between the first and last
chapters there is a correspondency, and each of them may be
considered as a summary of the whole treatise. The difference
between them is, that in the first a commencement is made with
the mention of Heaven as the conferrer of man's nature, while in
this the progress of man in virtue is traced, step by step, till at
last it is equal to that of High Heaven.
	9. I have thus in the preceding paragraphs given a general
and somewhat copious review of this Work. My object has been to
seize, if I could, the train of thought and to hold it up to the
reader. Minor objections to it, arising from the confused use of
terms and singular applications of passages from the older
Classics, are noticed in the notes subjoined to the translation. I
wished here that its scope should be seen, and the means be
afforded of judging how far it is worthy of the high character
attributed to it. 'The relish of it,' says the younger Ch'ang, 'is
inexhaustible. The whole of it is solid learning. When the skilful
reader has explored it with delight till he has apprehended it, he
may carry it into practice all his life, and will find that it cannot
be exhausted [2].'
	My own opinion of it is less favourable. The names by which
it has been called in translations of it have led to misconceptions
of its character. Were it styled 'The states of Equilibrium and
Harmony,' we should be prepared to expect something strange and
probably extravagant. Assuredly we should expect nothing more

1 See the concluding note by Chu Hsi.
2 See the Introductory note below.

strange or extravagant than what we have. It begins sufficiently
well, but the author has hardly enunciated his preliminary
apophthegms, when he conducts into an obscurity where we can
hardly grope our way, and when we emerge from that, it is to be
bewildered by his gorgeous but unsubstantial pictures of sagely
perfection. He has eminently contributed to nourish the pride of
his countrymen. He has exalted their sages above all that is called
God or is worshipped, and taught the masses of the people that
with them they have need of nothing from without. In the
meantime it is antagonistic to Christianity. By-and-by, when
Christianity has prevailed in China, men will refer to it as a
striking proof how their fathers by their wisdom knew neither
God nor themselves.



	1. 'And have you foreigners surnames as well?' This
question has often been put to me by Chinese. It marks the
ignorance which belongs to the people of all that is external to

[Sidebar] His ancestry.

themselves, and the pride of antiquity which enters largely as an
element into their character. If such a pride could in any case be
justified, we might allow it to the family of the K'ung, the
descendants of Confucius. In the reign of K'ang-hsi, twenty-one
centuries and a half after the death of the sage, they amounted to
eleven thousand males. But their ancestry is carried back through
a period of equal extent, and genealogical tables are common, in
which the descent of Confucius is traced down from Hwang-ti, in
whose reign the cycle was invented, B.C. 2637 [1].
	The more moderate writers, however, content themselves
with exhibiting his ancestry back to the commencement of the
Chau dynasty, B.C. 1121. Among the relatives of the tyrant Chau,
the last emperor of the Yin dynasty, was an elder brother, by a
concubine, named Ch'i [2], who is celebrated by Confucius, Ana.
XVIII. i, under the title of the viscount of Wei. Foreseeing the
impending ruin of their family, Ch'i withdrew from the court; and
subsequently he was invested by the emperor Ch'ang, the second
of the house of Chau, with the principality of Sung, which
embraced the eastern portion of the present province of Ho-nan,
that he might there continue the sacrifices to the sovereigns of
Yin. Ch'i was followed as duke of Sung by a younger brother, in
whose line the succession continued. His great-grandson, the duke
Min [3], was

l See Memoires concernant les Chinois, Tome XII, p. 447 et seq.
Father Amiot states, p. 501, that he had seen the representative
of the family, who succeeded to the dignity of ­l¸t¤½ in the ninth
year of Ch'ien-lung, A.D. 1744. The last duke, not the present, was
visited in our own time by the late Dr. Williamson and Mr. Consul
Markham. It is hardly necessary that I should say here, that the
name Confucius is merely the Chinese characters ¤Õ¤Ò¤l (K'ung Fu-
tsze, 'The master K'ung') Latinized.
2 ±Ò.
3 ·]¤½.

followed, B.C. 908, by a younger brother, leaving, however, two
sons, Fu-fu Ho [1] and Fang-sze [2]. Fu Ho [3] resigned his right to
the dukedom in favour of Fang-sze, who put his uncle to death in
B.C. 893, and became master of the State. He is known as the duke
Li [4], and to his elder brother belongs the honour of having the
sage among his descendants.
	Three descents from Fu Ho, we find Chang K'ao-fu [5], who
was a distinguished officer under the dukes Tai, Wu, and Hsuan [6]
(B.C. 799-728). He is still celebrated for his humility, and for his
literary tastes. We have accounts of him as being in
communication with the Grand-historiographer of the kingdom,
and engaged in researches about its ancient poetry, thus setting
an example of one of the works to which Confucius gave himself
[7]. K'ao gave birth to K'ung-fu Chia [8], from whom the surname of
K'ung took its rise. Five generations had now elapsed since the
dukedom was held in the direct line of his ancestry, and it was
according to the rule in such cases that the branch should cease
its connexion with the ducal stem, and merge among the people
under a new surname. K'ung Chia was Master of the Horse in Sung,
and an officer of well-known loyalty and probity. Unfortunately
for himself, he had a wife of surpassing beauty, of whom the
chief minister of the State, by name Hwa Tu [9], happened on one
occasion to get a glimpse. Determined to possess her, he
commenced a series of intrigues, which ended, B.C. 710, in the
murder of Chia and of the ruling duke Shang [10]. At the same
time, Tu secured the person of the lady, and hastened to his
palace with the prize, but on the way she had strangled herself
with her girdle.
	An enmity was thus commenced between the two families
of K'ung and Hwa which the lapse of time did not obliterate, and
the latter being the more powerful of the two, Chia's great-
grandson withdrew into the State of Lu to avoid their persecution.
There he was appointed commandant of the city of Fang [11], and
is known

1 ¦ò¤÷¦ó.
2 èÛ(al. ¤è) ªÁ.
3 I drop here the ¤÷ (second tone), which seems to have been used
in those times in a manner equivalent to our Mr.
4 ¼F¤½.
5 ¥¿¦Ò¨j; ¨j is used in the same way as ¤÷; see note 3.
6 À¹, ªZ, «Å, ¤T¤½.
7 See the ¾|»y, and °Ó¹|¸Ö§Ç; quoted in Chiang Yung's (¤u¥Ã) Life of
Confucius, which forms a part of the ¶mÄҹϦÒ.
8 ¤Õ¤÷¹Å.
9 µØ·þ.
10 ¼Ü¤½.
11 ¨¾.

in history by the name of Fang-shu [1]. Fang-shu gave birth to Po-
hsia [2], and from him came Shu-liang Heh [3], the father of
Confucius. Heh appears in the history of the times as a soldier of
great prowess and daring bravery. In the year B.C. 562, when
serving at the siege of a place called Peh-yang [4], a party of the
assailants made their way in at a gate which had purposely been
left open, and no sooner were they inside than the portcullis was
dropped. Heh was just entering; and catching the massive
structure with both his hands, he gradually by dint of main
strength raised it and held it up, till his friends had made their
	Thus much on the ancestry of the sage. Doubtless he could
trace his descent in the way which has been indicated up to the
imperial house of Yin, nor was there one among his ancestors
during the rule of Chau to whom he could not refer with
satisfaction. They had been ministers and soldiers of Sung and Lu,
all men of worth, and in Chang K'ao, both for his humility and
literary researches, Confucius might have special complacency.
	2. Confucius was the child of Shu-liang Heh's old age. The
soldier had married in early life, but his wife brought him only

[Sidebar] From his birth to his first public employments. B.C. 551-

daughters,-- to the number of nine, and no son. By a concubine he
had a son, named Mang-p'i, and also Po-ni [5], who proved a
cripple, so that, when he was over seventy years, Heh sought a
second wife in the Yen family [6], from which came subsequently
Yen Hui, the favourite disciple of his son. There were three
daughters in the family, the youngest being named Chang-tsai [7].
Their father said to them, 'Here is the commandant of Tsau. His
father and grandfather were only scholars, but his ancestors
before them were descendants of the sage sovereigns. He is a man
ten feet high [8], and of extraordinary prowess, and I am very
desirous of his alliance. Though he is old and austere, you need
have no misgivings about him. Which of you three will be his
wife? 'The two elder daughters were silent, but Chang-tsai said,
'Why do you ask us, father? It is for you to determine.' 'Very well,'
said her father in reply, 'you will do.' Chang-tsai, accordingly,
became Heh's wife, and in due time gave

1 ¨¾¨û.
2 §B®L.
3 ¨û±ç¬ø.
4 ÔM¶§.
5 ©s¥Ö, ¤@¦r§B¥§.
6 ÃC¤ó.
7 ¼x¦b.
8 ¨ä¤H, ¨­ªø¤Q¤Ø. See, on the length of the ancient foot, Ana. VIII.
vi, but the point needs a more sifting investigation than it has yet

birth to Confucius, who received the name of Ch'iu, and was
subsequently styled Chung-ni [1]. The event happened on the
twenty-first day of the tenth month of the twenty-first year of
the duke Hsiang, of Lu, being the twentieth year of the emperor
Ling, B.C. 552 [2]. The birth-place was in the district of Tsau [3],
of which Heh was the governor. It was somewhere within the
limits of the present department of Yen-chau in Shan-tung, but
the honour of being the exact spot is claimed for two places in
two different districts of the department.
	The notices which we have of Confucius's early years are
very scanty. When he was in his third year his father died. It is
related of him, that as a boy he used to play at the arrangement of

1 ¦Wªô, ¦r¥ò¥§. The legends say that Chang-tsai fearing lest she
should not have a son, in consequence of her husband's age,
privately ascended the Ni-ch'iu hill to pray for the boon, and that
when she had obtained it, she commemorated the fact in the
names -- Ch'iu and Chung-ni. But the cripple, Mang-p'i, had
previous been styled Po-ni. There was some reason, previous to
Confucius's birth, for using the term ni in the family. As might be
expected, the birth of the sage is surrounded with many
prodigious occurrences. One account is, that the husband and wife
prayed together for a son in a dell of mount Ni. As Chang-tsai
went up the hill, the leaves of the trees and plants all erected
themselves, and bent downwards on her return. That night she
dreamt the black Ti appeared, and said to her, 'You shall have a
son, a sage, and you must bring him forth in a hollow mulberry
tree.' One day during her pregnancy, she fell into a dreamy state,
and saw five old men in the hall, who called themselves the
essences of the five planets, and led an animal which looked like
a small cow with one horn, and was covered with scales like a
dragon. This creature knelt before Chang-tsai, and cast forth from
its mouth a slip of jade, on which was the inscription,-- 'The son
of the essence of water shall succeed to the decaying Chau, and
be a throneless king.' Chang-tsai tied a piece of embroidered
ribbon about its horn, and the vision disappeared. When Heh was
told of it, he said, 'The creature must be the Ch'i-lin.' As her time
drew near, Chang-tsai asked her husband if there was any place in
the neighborhood called 'the hollow mulberry tree.' He told her
there was a dry cave in the south hill, which went by that name.
Then she said, 'I will go and be confined there.' Her husband was
surprised, but when made acquainted with her former dream, he
made the necessary arrangements. On the night when the child
was born, two dragons came and kept watch on the left and right
of the hill, and two spirit-ladies appeared in the air, pouring out
fragrant odors, as if to bathe Chang-tsai; and as soon as the birth
took place, a spring of clear warm water bubbled up from the
floor of the cave, which dried up again when the child had been
washed in it. The child was of an extraordinary appearance; with
a mouth like the sea, ox lips, a dragon's back, &c. &c. On the top of
his head was a remarkable formation, in consequence of which he
was named Ch'iu, &c. See the ¦C°ê§Ó, Bk. lxxviii.--Sze-ma Ch'ien
seems to make Confucius to have been illegitimate, saying that
Heh and Miss Yen cohabited in the wilderness (³¥¦X). Chiang Yung
says that the phrase has reference simply to the disparity of
their ages.
2 Sze-ma Ch'ien says that Confucius was born in the twenty-
second year of duke Hsiang, B.C. 550. He is followed by Chu Hsi in
the short sketch of Confucius's life prefixed to the Lun Yu, and by
'The Annals of the Empire' (¾ú¥N²Î¬öªí), published with imperial
sanction in the reign of Chia-ch'ing. (To this latter work I have
generally referred for my dates.) The year assigned in the text
above rests on the authority of Ku-liang and Kung-yang, the two
commentators on the Ch'un-Ch'iu. With regard to the month,
however, the tenth is that assigned by Ku-liang, while Kung-yang
names the eleventh.
3 Tsau is written ×ê, ÁÝ, ³µ, and ¹Q.

sacrificial vessels, and at postures of ceremony. Of his schooling
we have no reliable account. There is a legend, indeed, that at
seven he went to school to Yen P'ing-chung [1], but it must be
rejected as P'ing-chung belonged to the State of Ch'i. He tells us
himself that at fifteen he bent his mind to learning [2]; but the
condition of the family was one of poverty. At a subsequent
period, when people were astonished at the variety of his
knowledge, he explained it by saying, 'When I was young, my
condition was low, and therefore I acquired my ability in many
things; but they were mean matters [3].'
	When he was nineteen, he married a lady from the State of
Sung, of the Chien-kwan family [4], and in the following year his
son Li was born. On the occasion of this event, the duke Chao sent
him a present of a couple of carp. It was to signify his sense of
his prince's favour, that he called his son Li (The Carp), and
afterwards gave him the designation of Po-yu [5] (Fish Primus).
No mention is made of the birth of any other children, though we
know, from Ana. V. i, that he had at least one daughter. We know
also, from an inscription on her grave, that he had one other
daughter, who died when she was quite young. The fact of the duke
of Lu's sending him a gift on the occasion of Li's birth, shows that
he was not unknown, but was already commanding public
attention and the respect of the great.
	It was about this time, probably in the year after his
marriage, that Confucius took his first public employment, as
keeper of the stores of grain [6], and in the following year he was
put in charge of the public fields and lands [7]. Mencius adduces
these employments in illustration of his doctrine that the
superior man may at times take office on account of his poverty,
but must confine himself in such a case to places of small
emolument, and aim at nothing but the discharge of their humble
duties. According to him. Confucius, as keeper of stores, said, 'My
calculations must all be right:-- that is all I have to care about;'
and when in charge of the public fields, he said, 'The oxen and
sheep must be fat and strong and

1 ®Ë¥­¥ò.
2 Ana. II. iv.
3 Ana. IX. vi.
4 °ù§º¤§ÉÛ©x¤ó.
5 ¦W¤êÃU, ¦Ó¦r§B³½.
6 ¬°©e¦O. This is Mencius's account. Sze-ma Ch'ien says ¹Á¬°©u¤ó¦O,
but his subsequent words ®Æ¶q¥­ show that the office was the
7 Mencius calls this office ­¼¥Ð, while Sze-ma Ch'ien says ¬°¥q¾

superior:-- that is all I have to care about [1].' It does not appear
whether these offices were held by Confucius in the direct
employment of the State, or as a dependent of the Chi family in
whose jurisdiction he lived. The present of the carp from the duke
may incline us to suppose the former.
	3. In his twenty-second year, Confucius commenced his
labors as a public teacher, and his house became a resort for
young and inquiring spirits, who wished to learn the doctrines of

[Sidebar] Commencement of his labors as a teacher. The death of
his mother. B.C. 531-527.

However small the fee his pupils were able to afford, he never
refused his instructions [2]. All that he required, was an ardent
desire for improvement, and some degree of capacity. 'I do not
open up the truth,' he said, 'to one who is not eager to get
knowledge, nor help out any one who is not anxious to explain
himself. When I have presented one corner of a subject to any one,
and he cannot from it learn the other three, I do not repeat my
lesson [3].'
	His mother died in the year B.C. 527, and he resolved that
her body should lie in the same grave with that of his father, and
that their common resting-place should be in Fang, the first home
of the K'ung in Lu. But here a difficulty presented itself. His
father's coffin had been for twenty years where it had first been
deposited, off the road of The Five Fathers, in the vicinity of
Tsau:-- would it be right in him to move it? He was relieved from
this perplexity by an old woman of the neighborhood, who told him
that the coffin had only just been put into the ground, as a
temporary arrangement, and not regularly buried. On learning this,
he carried his purpose into execution. Both coffins were conveyed
to Fang, and put in the ground together, with no intervening space
between them, as was the custom in some States. And now came a
new perplexity. He said to himself, 'In old times, they had graves,
but raised no tumulus over them. But I am a man, who belongs
equally to the north and the south, the east and the west. I must
have something by which I can remember the place.' Accordingly
he raised a mound, four feet high, over the grave, and returned
home, leaving a party of his disciples to see everything properly
completed. In the meantime there came on a heavy storm of rain,
and it was a considerable time before the disciples joined him.
'What makes you so late?' he asked. 'The grave in Fang fell down,'
they said. He made no reply, and they repeated their

1 Mencius, V. Pt. II. v. 4.
2 Ana. VII. vii.
3 Ana. VII. viii.

answer three times, when he burst into tears, and said, 'Ah! they
did not make their graves so in antiquity [1].' 'Confucius mourned
for his mother the regular period of three years,-- three years
nominally, but in fact only twenty-seven months. Five days after
the mourning was expired, he played on his lute, but could not
sing. It required other five days before he could accompany an
instrument with his voice [2].
	Some writers have represented Confucius as teaching his
disciples important lessons from the manner in which he buried
his mother, and having a design to correct irregularities in the
ordinary funeral ceremonies of the time. These things are
altogether 'without book.' We simply have a dutiful son paying the
last tribute of affection to a good parent. In one point he departs
from the ancient practice, raising a mound over the grave, and
when the fresh earth gives way from a sudden rain, he is moved to
tears, and seems to regret his innovation. This sets Confucius
vividly before us,-- a man of the past as much as of the present,
whose own natural feelings were liable to be hampered in their
development by the traditions of antiquity which he considered
sacred. It is important, however, to observe the reason which he
gave for rearing the mound. He had in it a presentiment of much of
his future course. He was 'a man of the north, the south, the east,
and the west.' He might not confine himself to any one State. He
would travel, and his way might be directed to some 'wise ruler,'
whom his counsels would conduct to a benevolent sway that
would break forth on every side till it transformed the empire.
	4. When the mourning for his mother was over, Confucius
remained in Lu, but in what special capacity we do not know.
Probably he continued to encourage the resort of

[Sidebar] He learns music; visits the court of Chau; and returns to
B.C. 527-517.

inquirers to whom he communicated instruction, and pursued his
own researches into the history, literature, and institutions of
the empire. In the year B.C. 525, the chief of the small State of
T'an [3], made his appearance at the court of Lu, and discoursed in
a wonderful manner, at a feast given to him by the duke, about the
names which the most ancient sovereigns, from Hwang-ti
downwards, gave to their

1 Li Chi, II. Sect I. i. 10; Sect. II. iii. 30; Pt. I. i. 6. See also the
discussion of those passages in Chiang Yung's 'Life of Confucius.'
2 Li Chi, II. Sect. I. i. 23.
3 See the Ch'un Ch'iu, under the seventh year of duke Chao,-- ¬î, ×è

ministers. The sacrifices to the emperor Shao-hao, the next in
descent from Hwang-ti, were maintained in T'an, so that the chief
fancied that he knew all about the abstruse subject on which he
discoursed. Confucius, hearing about the matter, waited on the
visitor, and learned from him all that he had to communicate [1].
	To the year B.C. 525, when Confucius was twenty-nine years
old, is referred his studying music under a famous master of the
name of Hsiang [2]. He was approaching his thirtieth year when, as
he tells us, 'he stood [3]' firm, that is, in his convictions on the
subjects of learning to which he had bent his mind fifteen years
before. Five years more, however, were still to pass by, before
the anticipation mentioned in the conclusion of the last paragraph
began to receive its fulfillment [4], though we may conclude from
the way in which it was brought about that he was growing all
the time in the estimation of the thinking minds in his native
	In the twenty-fourth year of duke Chao, B.C. 518, one of the
principal ministers of Lu, known by the name of Mang Hsi, died.
Seventeen years before, he had painfully felt his ignorance of
ceremonial observances, and had made it his subsequent business
to make himself acquainted with them. On his deathbed, he
addressed his chief officer, saying, 'A knowledge of propriety is
the stem of a man. Without it he has no means of standing firm. I
have heard that there is one K'ung Ch'iu, who is thoroughly versed
in it. He is a descendant of sages, and though the line of his
family was extinguished in Sung, among his ancestors there were
Fu-fu Ho, who resigned the State to his brother, and Chang K'ao-
fu, who was distinguished for his humility. Tsang Heh has
observed that if sage men of intelligent virtue do not attain to
eminence, distinguished men are sure to appear among their
posterity. His words are now to be verified, I think, in K'ung Ch'iu.
After my death, you must

1 This rests on the respectable authority of Tso Ch'iu-ming's
annotations on the Ch'un Ch'iu, but I must consider it apocryphal.
The legend-writers have fashioned a journey to T'an. The
slightest historical intimation becomes a text with them, on
which they enlarge to the glory of the sage. Amiot has reproduced
and expanded their romancings, and others, such as Pauthier
(Chine, pp. 121-183) and Thornton (History of China, vol. i. pp.
151-215), have followed in his wake.
2 ®vÁ¸. See the 'Narratives of the School,' ¨÷¤T, art ÅG¼Ö¸Ñ; but the
account there given is not more credible than the chief of T'an's
3 Ana. II. iv.
4 The journey to Chau is placed by Sze-ma Ch'ien before
Confucius's holding of his first official employments, and Chu Hsi
and most other writers follow him. It is a great error, and arisen
from a misunderstanding of the passage from the ¥ª¤ó¶Ç upon the

tell Ho-chi to go and study proprieties under him [1].' In
consequence of this charge, Ho-chi [2], Mang Hsi's son, who
appears in the Analects under the name of Mang I [3], and a
brother, or perhaps on]y a near relative, named Nan-kung Chang-
shu [4], became disciples of Confucius. Their wealth and standing
in the State gave him a position which he had not had before, and
he told Chang-shu of a wish which he had to visit the court of
Chau, and especially to confer on the subject of ceremonies and
music with Lao Tan. Chang-shu represented the matter to the duke
Ch'ao, who put a carriage and a pair of horses at Confucius's
disposal for the expedition [5].
	At this time the court of Chau was in the city of Lo [6]. in
the present department of Ho-nan of the province of the same
name. The reigning sovereign is known by the title of Chang [7],
but the sovereignty was little more than nominal. The state of
China was then analogous to that of one of the European kingdoms
during the prevalence of the feudal system. At the commencement
of the dynasty, the various states of the kingdom had been
assigned to the relatives and adherents of the reigning family.
There were thirteen principalities of greater note, and a large
number of smaller dependencies. During the vigorous youth of the
dynasty, the sovereign or lord paramount exercised an effective
control over the various chiefs, but with the lapse of time there
came weakness and decay. The chiefs --corresponding somewhat
to the European dukes, earls, marquises, barons, &c. -- quarrelled
and warred among themselves, and the stronger among them
barely acknowledged their subjection to the sovereign. A similar
condition of things prevailed in each particular State. There there
[sic] were hereditary ministerial families, who were continually
encroaching on the authority of their rulers, and the heads of
those families again were frequently hard pressed by their
inferior officers. Such was the state of China in Confucius's time.
The reader must have it clearly before him, if he would
understand the position of the sage, and the reforms which, we
shall find, it was subsequently his object to introduce.
	Arrived at Chau, he had no intercourse with the court or any

1 See ¥ª¤ó¶Ç, ¬L¤½¤C¦~.
2 ¦ó§Ò.
3 ©sÅt¤l.
4 «n®c·q¨û.
5 The ®a»y makes Chang-shu accompany Confucius to Chau. It is
difficult to understand this, if Chang-shu were really a son of
Mang Hsi who had died that year.
6 ´.
7 ·q¤ý (B.C. 519-475)

the principal ministers. He was there not as a politician, but as
an inquirer about the ceremonies and maxims of the founders of
the existing dynasty. Lao Tan [1], whom he had wished to see,
generally acknowledged as the founder of the Taoists, or
Rationalistic sect (so called), which has maintained its ground in
opposition to the followers of Confucius, was then a curator of
the royal library. They met and freely interchanged their views,
but no reliable account of their conversations has been preserved.
In the fifth Book of the Li Chi, which is headed 'The philosopher
Tsang asked,' Confucius refers four times to the views of Lao-
tsze on certain points of funeral ceremonies, and in the
'Narratives of the School,' Book XXIV, he tells Chi K'ang what he
had heard from him about 'The Five Tis,' but we may hope their
conversation turned also on more important subjects. Sze-ma
Ch'ien, favourable to Lao-tsze, makes him lecture his visitor in
the following style:-- 'Those whom you talk about are dead, and
their bones are moldered to dust; only their words remain. When
the superior man gets his time, he mounts aloft; but when the
time is against him, he moves as if his feet were entangled. I
have heard that a good merchant, though he has rich treasures
deeply stored, appears as if he were poor, and that the superior
man whose virtue is complete, is yet to outward seeming stupid.
Put away your proud air and many desires, your insinuating habit
and wild will [2]. These are of no advantage to you. This is all
which I have to tell you.' On the other hand, Confucius is made to
say to his disciples, 'I know how birds can fly, how fishes can
swim, and how animals can run. But the runner may be snared, the
swimmer may be hooked, and the flyer may be shot by the arrow.
But there is the dragon. I cannot tell how he mounts on the wind
through the clouds, and rises to heaven. Today I have seen Lao-
tsze, and can only compare him to the dragon [3].'
	While at Lo, Confucius walked over the grounds set apart for
the great sacrifices to Heaven and Earth; inspected the pattern of
the Hall of Light, built to give audience in to the princes of the
kingdom; and examined all the arrangements of the ancestral
temple and the court. From the whole he received a profound

1 According to Sze-ma Ch'ien, Tan was the posthumous epithet of
this individual, whose surname was Li (§õ), name R (¦Õ), and
designation Po-yang (§B¶§).
2 ¶hºA»P²]§Ó.
3 See the ¥v°O, ¦C¶Ç²Ä¤T, and compare the remarks attributed to
Lao-tsze in the account of the K'ung family near the beginning.

impression. 'Now,' said he with a sigh, 'I know the sage wisdom of
the duke of Chau, and how the House of Chau attained to the royal
sway [1].' On the walls of the Hall of Light were paintings of the
ancient sovereigns from Yao and Shun downwards, their
characters appearing in the representations of them, and words of
praise or warning being appended. There was also a picture of the
duke of Chau sitting with his infant nephew, the king Ch'ang, upon
his knees, to give audience to all the princes. Confucius surveyed
the scene with silent delight, and then said to his followers,
'Here you see how Chau became so great. As we use a glass to
examine the forms of things, so must we study antiquity in order
to understand the present time [2].' In the hall of the ancestral
temple, there was a metal statue of a man with three clasps upon
his mouth, and his back covered over with an enjoyable homily on
the duty of keeping a watch upon the lips. Confucius turned to his
disciples and said, 'Observe it, my children. These words are true,
and commend themselves to our feelings [3].'
	About music he made inquiries at Ch'ang Hung, to whom the
following remarks are attributed:-- 'I have observed about Chung-
ni many marks of a sage. He has river eyes and a dragon forehead,-
- the very characteristics of Hwang-ti. His arms are long, his
back is like a tortoise, and he is nine feet six inches in height,--
the very semblance of T'ang the Completer. When he speaks, he
praises the ancient kings. He moves along the path of humility and
courtesy. He has heard of every subject, and retains with a strong
memory. His knowledge of things seems inexhaustible.-- Have we
not in him the rising of a sage [4]?'
	I have given these notices of Confucius at the court of Chau,
more as being the only ones I could find, than because I put much
faith in them. He did not remain there long, but returned the same
year to Lu, and continued his work of teaching. His fame was
greatly increased; disciples came to him from different parts,
till their number amounted to three thousand. Several of those
who have come down to us as the most distinguished among his
followers, however, were yet unborn, and the statement just
given may be considered as an exaggeration. We are not to
conceive of the disciples as forming a community, and living
together. Parties

1 2 3 See the ®a»y, ¨÷¤G, art. Æ[©P.
4 Quoted by Chiang Yung from the 'Narratives of the School.'

of them may have done so. We shall find Confucius hereafter
always moving amid a company of admiring pupils; but the greater
number must have had their proper avocations and ways of living,
and would only resort to the Master, when they wished specially
to ask his counsel or to learn of him.
	5. In the year succeeding the return to Lu, that State fell
into great confusion. There were three Families in it, all
connected irregularly with the ducal House, which had long kept
the rulers in a condition of dependency. They appear frequently in
the Analects as the Chi clan, the Shu, and the Mang; and while
Confucius freely spoke of their

[Sidebar] He withdraws to Chi and returns to Lu the following
year. B.C. 515, 516.

usurpations [1], he was a sort of dependent of the Chi family, and
appears in frequent communication with members of all the three.
In the year B.C. 517, the duke Chao came to open hostilities with
them, and being worsted, fled into Ch'i, the State adjoining Lu on
the north. Thither Confucius also repaired, that he might avoid the
prevailing disorder of his native State. Ch'i was then under the
government of a ruler (in rank a marquis, but historically called
duke) , afterwards styled Ching [2], who 'had a thousand teams,
each of four horses, but on the day of his death the people did not
praise him for a single virtue [3].' His chief minister, however,
was Yen Ying [4], a man of considerable ability and worth. At his
court the music of the ancient sage-emperor, Shun, originally
brought to Ch'i from the State of Ch'an [5], was still preserved.
	According to the 'Narratives of the School,' an incident
occurred on the way to Ch'i, which I may transfer to these pages
as a good specimen of the way in which Confucius turned
occurring matters to account, in his intercourse with his
disciples. As he was passing by the side of the Tai mountain,
there was a woman weeping and wailing by a grave. Confucius
bent forward in his carriage, and after listening to her for some
time, sent Tsze-lu to ask the cause of her grief. 'You weep, as if
you had experienced sorrow upon sorrow,' said Tsze-lu. The
woman replied, 'It is so. My husband's father was killed here by a
tiger, and my husband also; and now my son has met the same
fate.' Confucius asked her why she did not remove from the place,
and on her answering,' There is here no oppressive government,' he
turned to his disciples, and said, 'My

1 See Analects, III. i. ii, et al.
2 ´º¤½.
3 Ana. XVI. xii.
4 ®ËÀ¦. This is the same who was afterwards styled ®Ë¥­¥ò.
5 ³¯.

children, remember this. Oppressive government is fiercer than a
tiger [1].'
	As soon as he crossed the border from Lu, we are told he
discovered from the gait and manners of a boy, whom he saw
carrying a pitcher, the influence of the sages' music, and told the
driver of his carriage to hurry on to the capital [2]. Arrived there,
he heard the strain, and was so ravished with it, that for three
months he did not know the taste of flesh. 'I did not think,' he
said, 'that music could have been made so excellent as this [3].'
The duke Ching was pleased with the conferences which he had
with him [4], and proposed to assign to him the town of Lin-ch'iu,
from the revenues of which he might derive a sufficient support;
but Confucius refused the gift, and said to his disciples, 'A
superior man will only receive reward for services which he has
done. I have given advice to the duke Ching, but he has not yet
obeyed it, and now he would endow me with this place! Very far is
he from understanding me [5]!'
	On one occasion the duke asked about government, and
received the characteristic reply, 'There is government when the
ruler is ruler, and the minister is minister; when the father is
father, and the son is son [6].' I say that the reply is
characteristic. Once, when Tsze-lu asked him what he would
consider the first thing to be done if entrusted with the
government of a State, Confucius answered, 'What is necessary is
to rectify names [7].' The disciple thought the reply wide of the
mark, but it was substantially the same with what he said to the
marquis Ching. There is a sufficient foundation in nature for
government in the several relations of society, and if those be
maintained and developed according to their relative significancy,
it is sure to obtain. This was a first principle in the political
ethics of Confucius.
	Another day the duke got to a similar inquiry the reply that
the art of government lay in an economical use of the revenues;
and being pleased, he resumed his purpose of retaining the
philosopher in his State, and proposed to assign to him the fields
of Ni-ch'i. His

1 See the ®a»y, ¨÷¥|, art. ¥¿½×¸Ñ. I have translated, however, from
the Li Chi, II. Sect. II. iii. 10, where the same incident is given,
with some variations, and without saying when or where it
2 See the »¡­b, ¨÷¤Q¤E, p. 13.
3 Ana. VII. xiii.
4 Some of these are related in the 'Narratives of the School;'--
about the burning of the ancestral shrine of the sovereign Âç, and
a one-footed bird which appeared hopping and flapping its wings
in Ch'i. They are plainly fabulous, though quoted in proof of
Confucius's sage wisdom. This reference to them is more than
5 ®a»y, ¨÷¤G, ¤»¥».
6 Ana. XII. xi.
7 Ana. XIII. iii.

chief minister Yen Ying dissuaded him from the purpose, saying,
'Those scholars are impracticable, and cannot be imitated. They
are haughty and conceited of their own views, so that they will
not be content in inferior positions. They set a high value on all
funeral ceremonies, give way to their grief, and will waste their
property on great burials, so that they would only be injurious to
the common manners. This Mr. K'ung has a thousand peculiarities.
It would take generations to exhaust all that he knows about the
ceremonies of going up and going down. This is not the time to
examine into his rules of propriety. If you, prince, wish to employ
him to change the customs of Ch'i, you will not be making the
people your primary consideration [1].'
	I had rather believe that these were not the words of Yen
Ying, but they must represent pretty correctly the sentiments of
many of the statesmen of the time about Confucius. The duke of
Ch'i got tired ere long of having such a monitor about him, and
observed. 'I cannot treat him as I would the chief of the Chi
family. I will treat him in a way between that accorded to the
chief of the Chi, and that given to the chief of the Mang family.'
Finally he said, 'I am old; I cannot use his doctrines [2].' These
observations were made directly to Confucius, or came to his
hearing [3]. It was not consistent with his self-respect to remain
longer in Ch'i, and he returned to Lu [4].
	6. Returned to Lu, he remained for the long period of about
fifteen years without being engaged in any official employment.

[Sidebar] He remains without office in Lu, B.C. 516-501.

was a time indeed of great disorder. The duke Chao continued a
refugee in Ch'i, the government being in the hands of the great
Families, up to his death in B.C. 510, on which event the rightful
heir was set aside, and another member of the ducal House, known
to us by the title of Ting [5], substituted in his place. The ruling
authority of the principality became thus still more enfeebled
than it had been before, and, on the other hand, the chiefs of the
Chi, the Shu, and the Mang, could hardly keep their ground against
their own officers. Of those latter, the two most conspicuous
were Yang Hu [6], called also Yang Ho [7], and

1 See the ¥v°O, ¤Õ¤l¥@®a, p. 2.
2 Ana. XVIII. iii
3  Sze-ma Ch'ien makes the first observation to have been
addressed directly to Confucius.
4 According to the above account Confucius was only once, and for
a portion of two years, in Ch'i. For the refutation of contrary
accounts, see Chiang Yung's Life of the Sage.
5 ©w¤½.
6 ¶§ªê.
7 ¶§³f.

Kung-shan Fu-zao [1]. At one time Chi Hwan, the most powerful of
the chiefs, was kept a prisoner by Yang Hu, and was obliged to
make terms with him in order to obtain his liberation. Confucius
would give his countenance to none, as he disapproved of all, and
he studiously kept aloof from them. Of how he comported himself
among them we have a specimen in the incident related in the
Analects, XVII. i.-- 'Yang Ho wished to see Confucius, but
Confucius would not go to see him. On this, he sent a present of a
pig to Confucius, who, having chosen a time when Ho was not at
home, went to pay his respects for the gift. He met him, however,
on the way. "Come, let me speak with you," said the officer. "Can
he be called benevolent, who keeps his jewel in his bosom, and
leaves his country to confusion?" Confucius replied, "No." "Can he
be called wise, who is anxious to be engaged in public
employment, and yet is constantly losing the opportunity of being
so?" Confucius again said, "No." The other added, "The days and
months are passing away; the years do not wait for us." Confucius
said, "Right; I will go into office."' Chinese writers are eloquent
in their praises of the sage for the combination of propriety,
complaisance and firmness, which they see in his behavior in this
matter. To myself there seems nothing remarkable in it but a
somewhat questionable dexterity. But it was well for the fame of
Confucius that his time was not occupied during those years with
official services. He turned them to better account, prosecuting
his researches into the poetry, history, ceremonies, and music of
the nation. Many disciples continued to resort to him, and the
legendary writers tell us how he employed their services in
digesting the results of his studies. I must repeat, however, that
several of them, whose names are most famous, such as Tsang
Shan, were as yet children, and Min Sun [2] was not born till B.C.
	To this period we must refer the almost single instance
which we have of the manner of Confucius's intercourse with his
son Li. 'Have you heard any lessons from your father different
from what we have all heard?' asked one of the disciples once of
Li. 'No,' said Li. 'He was standing alone once, when I was passing
through the court below with hasty steps, and said to me, "Have
you learned the Odes?" On my replying, "Not yet," he added, "If you
do not learn the Odes, you will not be fit to converse with."
Another day,

1 ¤½¤s¦òÂZ(¥v°O, Ëc).
2 ¶{·l.

in the same place and the same way, he said to me, "Have you read
the rules of Propriety?" On my replying, "Not yet," he added, "If
you do not learn the rules of Propriety, your character cannot be
established." I have heard only these two things from him.' The
disciple was delighted and observed, 'I asked one thing, and I have
got three things. I have heard about the Odes. I have heard about
the rules of Propriety. I have also heard that the superior man
maintains a distant reserve towards his son [1].'
	I can easily believe that this distant reserve was the rule
which Confucius followed generally in his treatment of his son. A
stern dignity is the quality which a father has to maintain upon
his system. It is not to be without the element of kindness, but
that must never go beyond the line of propriety. There is too little
room left for the play and development of natural affection.
	The divorce of his wife must also have taken place during
these years, if it ever took place at all, which is a disputed point.
The curious reader will find the question discussed in the notes
on the second Book of the Li Chi. The evidence inclines, I think,
against the supposition that Confucius did put his wife away.
When she died, at a period subsequent to the present, Li kept on
weeping aloud for her after the period for such a demonstration
of grief had expired, when Confucius sent a message to him that
his sorrow must be subdued, and the obedient son dried his tears
[2]. We are glad to know that on one occasion the death of his
favourite disciple, Yen Hui -- the tears of Confucius himself
would flow over and above the measure of propriety [3].
	7. We come to the short period of Confucius's official life.
In the

[Sidebar] He holds office. B.C. 500-496.

year B.C. 501, things had come to a head between the chiefs of the
three Families and their ministers, and had resulted in the defeat
of the latter. In that year the resources of Yang Hu were
exhausted, and he fled into Ch'i, so that the State was delivered
from its greatest troubler, and the way was made more clear for
Confucius to go into office, should an opportunity occur. It soon
presented itself. Towards the end of that year he was made chief
magistrate of the town of Chung-tu [4].

1 Ana. XVI. xiii.
2 See the Li Chi, II. Pt. I. i. 27.
3 Ana. XI. ix.
4 ¤¤³£®_. Amiot says this was 'la ville meme ou le Souverain
tenoit sa Cour' (Vie de Confucius, p. 147). He is followed of course
by Thornton and Pauthier. My reading has not shown me that such
was the case. In the notes to K'ang-hsi's edition of the 'Five
Ching,' Li Chi, II Sect. I. iii. 4, it is simply said-- 'Chung-tu,-- the
name of a town of Lu. It afterwards belonged to Ch'i when it was
called Ping-lu (¥­³°).'

	Just before he received this appointment, a circumstance
occurred of which we do not well know what to make. When Yang-
hu fled into Ch'i, Kung-shan Fu-zao, who had been confederate
with him, continued to maintain an attitude of rebellion, and held
the city of Pi against the Chi family. Thence he sent a message to
Confucius inviting him to join him, and the Sage seemed so
inclined to go that his disciple Tsze-lu remonstrated with him,
saying, 'Indeed you cannot go! why must you think of going to see
Kung-shan?' Confucius replied, 'Can it be without some reason
that he has invited me? If any one employ me, may I not make an
eastern Chau [1]?'
	The upshot, however, was that he did not go, and I cannot
suppose that he had ever any serious intention of doing so. Amid
the general gravity of his intercourse with his followers, there
gleam out a few instances of quiet pleasantry, when he amused
himself by playing with their notions about him. This was
probably one of them.
	As magistrate of Chung-tu he produced a marvellous
reformation of the manners of the people in a short time.
According to the 'Narratives of the School,' he enacted rules for
the nourishing of the living and all observances to the dead.
Different food was assigned to the old and the young, and
different burdens to the strong and the weak. Males and females
kept apart from each other in the streets. A thing dropped on the
road was not picked up. There was no fraudulent carving of
vessels. Inner coffins were made four inches thick, and the outer
ones five. Graves were made on the high grounds, no mounds being
raised over them, and no trees planted about them. Within twelve
months, the princes of the other States all wished to imitate his
style of administration [2].
	The duke Ting, surprised at what he saw, asked whether his
rules could be employed to govern a whole State, and Confucius
told him that they might be applied to the whole kingdom. On this
the duke appointed him assistant-superintendent of Works [3], in
which capacity he surveyed the lands of the State, and made many
improvements in agriculture. From this he was quickly made
minister of Crime [4], and the appointment was enough to put an
end to crime. There was no necessity to put the penal laws in
execution. No offenders showed themselves [5].

1 Ana. XVII. v.
2 ®a»y, Bk. I.
3 ¥qªÅ. This office, however, was held by the chief of the Mang
Family. We must understand that Confucius was only an assistant
to him, or perhaps acted for him.
4 ¤j¥q±F.
5 ®a»y, Bk. I.

	These indiscriminating eulogies are of little value. One
incident, related in the annotations of Tso-shih on the Ch'un-Ch'iu
[1], commends itself at once to our belief, as in harmony with
Confucius's character. The chief of the Chi, pursuing with his
enmity the duke Chao, even after his death, had placed his grave
apart from the graves of his predecessors; and Confucius
surrounded the ducal cemetery with a ditch so as to include the
solitary resting-place, boldly telling the chief that he did it to
hide his disloyalty [2]. But he signalized himself most of all in
B.C. 500, by his behavior at an interview between the dukes of Lu
and Ch'i, at a place called Shih-ch'i [3], and Chia-ku [4], in the
present district of Lai-wu, in the department of T'ai-an [5].
Confucius was present as master of ceremonies on the part of Lu,
and the meeting was professedly pacific. The two princes were to
form a covenant of alliance. The principal officer on the part of
Ch'i, however, despising Confucius as 'a man of ceremonies,
without courage,' had advised his sovereign to make the duke of
Lu a prisoner, and for this purpose a band of the half-savage
original inhabitants of the place advanced with weapons to the
stage where the two dukes were met. Confucius understood the
scheme, and said to the opposite party, 'Our two princes are met
for a pacific object. For you to bring a band of savage vassals to
disturb the meeting with their weapons, is not the way in which
Ch'i can expect to give law to the princes of the kingdom. These
barbarians have nothing to do with our Great Flowery land. Such
vassals may not interfere with our covenant. Weapons are out of
place at such a meeting. As before the spirits, such conduct is
unpropitious. In point of virtue, it is contrary to right. As
between man and man, it is not polite.' The duke of Ch'i ordered
the disturbers off, but Confucius withdrew, carrying the duke of
Lu with him. The business proceeded, notwithstanding, and when
the words of the alliance were being read on the part of Ch'i,-- '
So be it to Lu, if it contribute not 300 chariots of war to the help
of Ch'i, when its army goes across its borders,' a messenger from
Confucius added, 'And so be it to us, if we obey your orders,
unless you return to us the fields on the south of the Wan.' At the
conclusion of the ceremonies, the prince of Ch'i wanted to give a
grand entertainment, but Confucius demonstrated that such a
thing would be

1 ¥ª¶Ç, ©w¤½¤¸¦~.
2 ®a»y, Bk. I.
3 ¹ê¨ä.
4 §¨¨¦.
5 ®õ¦w©², µÜ¿¾¿¤.

contrary to the established rules of propriety, his real object
being to keep his sovereign out of danger. In this way the two
parties separated, they of Ch'i filled with shame at being foiled
and disgraced by 'the man of ceremonies;' and the result was that
the lands of Lu which had been appropriated by Ch'i were restored
	For two years more Confucius held the office of minister of
Crime. Some have supposed that he was further raised to the
dignity of chief minister of the State [2], but that was not the
case. One instance of the manner in which he executed his
functions is worth recording. When any matter came before him,
he took the opinion of different individuals upon it, and in giving
judgment would say, 'I decide according to the view of so and so.'
There was an approach to our jury system in the plan, Confucius's
object being to enlist general sympathy, and carry the public
judgment with him in his administration of justice. A father
having brought some charge against his son, Confucius kept them
both in prison for three months, without making any difference in
favour of the father, and then wished to dismiss them both. The
head of the Chi was dissatisfied, and said, 'You are playing with
me, Sir minister of Crime. Formerly you told me that in a State or
a family filial duty was the first thing to be insisted on. What
hinders you now from putting to death this unfilial son as an
example to all the people?' Confucius with a sigh replied, 'When
superiors fail in their duty, and yet go to put their inferiors to
death, it is not right. This father has not taught his son to be
filial; to listen to his charge would be to slay the guiltless. The
manners of the age have been long in a sad condition; we cannot
expect the people not to be transgressing the laws [3].'
	At this time two of his disciples, Tsze-lu and Tsze-yu,
entered the employment of the Chi family, and lent their
influence, the former especially, to forward the plans of their
master. One great cause of disorder in the State was the fortified
cities held by the three chiefs, in which they could defy the
supreme authority, and were in turn defied themselves by their
officers. Those cities were like the castles of the barons of
England in the time of the Norman

1 This meeting at Chia-ku is related in Sze-ma Ch'ien, the
'Narratives of the school,' and Ku-liang, with many exaggerations.
I have followed ¥ª¤ó¶Ç, ©w¤½¤Q¦~.
2 The ®a»y says Bk. II, ¤Õ¤l¬°¾|¥q±F, Äá¬Û¨Æ. But he was a ¬Û only in
the sense of an assistant of ceremonies, as at the meeting in
Chia-ku, described above.
3 See the ®a»y, Bk. II.

kings. Confucius had their destruction very much at heart, and
partly by the influence of persuasion, and partly by the assisting
counsels of Tsze-lu, he accomplished his object in regard to Pi
[1], the chief city of the Chi, and Hau [2], the chief city of the Shu.
	It does not appear that he succeeded in the same way in
dismantling Ch'ang [3], the chief city of the Mang [4]; but his
authority in the State greatly increased. 'He strengthened the
ducal House and weakened the private Families. He exalted the
sovereign, and depressed the ministers. A transforming
government went abroad. Dishonesty and dissoluteness were
ashamed and hid their heads. Loyalty and good faith became the
characteristics of the men, and chastity and docility those of the
women. Strangers came in crowds from other States [5].'
Confucius became the idol of the people, and flew in songs
through their mouths [6].
	But this sky of bright promise was soon overcast. As the
fame of the reformations in Lu went abroad, the neighboring
princes began to be afraid. The duke of Ch'i said, 'With Confucius
at the head of its government, Lu will become supreme among the
States, and Ch'i which is nearest to it will be the first swallowed
up. Let us propitiate it by a surrender of territory.' One of his
ministers proposed that they should first try to separate between
the sage and his sovereign, and to effect this, they hit upon the
following scheme. Eighty beautiful girls, with musical and
dancing accomplishments, and a hundred and twenty of the finest
horses that could be found, were selected, and sent as a present
to duke Ting. They were put up at first outside the city, and Chi
Hwan having gone in disguise to see them, forgot the lessons of
Confucius, and took the duke to look at the bait. They were both
captivated. The women were received, and the sage was
neglected. For three days the duke gave no audience to his
ministers. 'Master,' said Tsze-lu to Confucius, 'it is time for you
to be going.' But Confucius was very unwilling to leave. The spring
was coming on, when the sacrifice to Heaven would be offered,
and he determined to wait and see whether the

1 ¶O.
2 п.
3 ¦¨.
4 In connexion with these events, the 'Narratives of the School'
and Sze-ma Ch'ien mention the summary punishment inflicted by
Confucius on an able but unscrupulous and insidious officer the
Shaou chang, Maou (¤Ö¥¿¥f). His judgment and death occupy a
conspicuous place in the legendary accounts. But the Analects,
Tsze-sze, Mencius, and Tso Ch'iu-ming are all silent about it, and
Chiang Yung rightly rejects it as one of the many narratives
invented to exalt the sage.
5 See the ®a»y, Bk. II.
6 See ¤ÕÂO¤l, quoted by Chiang Yung.

solemnization of that would bring the duke back to his right mind.
No such result followed. The ceremony was hurried through, and
portions of the offerings were not sent round to the various
ministers, according to the established custom. Confucius
regretfully took his departure, going away slowly and by easy
stages [1]. He would have welcomed a message of recall. But the
duke continued in his abandonment, and the sage went forth to
thirteen weary years of homeless wandering.
	8. On leaving Lu, Confucius first bent his steps westward to
the State of Wei, situate about where the present provinces of
Chih-li and Ho-nan adjoin.

[Sidebar] He wanders from State to State. B.C. 497-484.

He was now in his fifty-sixth year, and felt depressed and
melancholy. As he went along, he gave expression to his feelings
in verse:--

'Fain would I still look towards Lu,
But this Kwei hill cuts off my view.
With an axe, I'd hew the thickets through:--
Vain thought! 'gainst the hill I nought can do;'

and again,--

'Through the valley howls the blast,
Drizzling rain falls thick and fast.
Homeward goes the youthful bride,
O'er the wild, crowds by her side.
How is it, O azure Heaven,
From my home I thus am driven,
Through the land my way to trace,
With no certain dwelling-place?
Dark, dark; the minds of men!
Worth in vain comes to their ken.
Hastens on my term of years;
Old age, desolate, appears [2],'

	A number of his disciples accompanied him, and his sadness
infected them. When they arrived at the borders of Wei at a place
called I, the warden sought an interview, and on coming out from
the sage, he tried to comfort the disciples, saying, 'My friends,
why are you distressed at your master's loss of office? The world
has been long without the principles of truth and right; Heaven is
going to use your master as a bell with its wooden tongue [3].'
Such was the thought of this friendly stranger. The bell did indeed
sound, but few had ears to hear.

1 ¥v°O, ¤Õ¤l¥@®a, p. 5. See also Mencius, V. Pt. II. i. 4.; et al.
2 See Chiang Yung's Life of Confucius, ¥h¾|©P¹C¦Ò.
3 Ana. III. xxiv.

	Confucius's fame, however, had gone before him, and he was
in little danger of having to suffer from want. On arriving at the
capital of Wei, he lodged at first with a worthy officer, named
Yen Ch'au-yu [1]. The reigning duke, known to us by the epithet of
Ling [2], was a worthless, dissipated man, but he could not
neglect a visitor of such eminence, and soon assigned to
Confucius a revenue of 60,000 measures of grain [3]. Here he
remained for ten months, and then for some reason left it to go to
Ch'an [4]. On the way he had to pass by K'wang [5], a place probably
in the present department of K'ai-fung in Ho-nan, which had
formerly suffered from Yang-hu. It so happened that Confucius
resembled Hu, and the attention of the people being called to him
by the movements of his carriage-driver, they thought it was
their old enemy, and made an attack upon him. His followers were
alarmed, but he was calm, and tried to assure them by declaring
his belief that he had a divine mission. He said to them, 'After the
death of king Wan, was not the cause of truth lodged here in me?
If Heaven had wished to let this cause of truth perish, then I, a
future mortal, should not have got such a relation to that cause.
While Heaven does not let the cause of truth perish, what can the
people of K'wang do to me [6]?' Having escaped from the hands of
his assailants, he does not seem to have carried out his purpose
of going to Ch'an, but returned to Wei.
	On the way, he passed a house where he had formerly lodged,
and finding that the master was dead, and the funeral ceremonies
going on, he went in to condole and weep. When he came out, he
told Tsze-kung to take the outside horses from his carriage, and
give them as a contribution to the expenses of the occasion. 'You
never did such a thing,' Tsze-kung remonstrated, 'at the funeral of
any of your disciples; is it not too great a gift on this occasion of
the death of an old host?' 'When I went in,' replied Confucius, 'my
presence brought a burst of grief from the chief mourner, and I
joined him with my tears. I dislike the thought of my tears not
being followed by anything. Do it, my child [7].' On reaching Wei,
he lodged with Chu Po-yu, an officer of whom

1 ÃCøA¥Ñ. See Mencius, V. Pt. I. viii. 2.
2. ÆF¤½.
3 see the ¥v°O, ¤Õ¤l¥@®a, p. 5.
4 ³¯°ê.
5. ¦J.
6 Ana. IX. v. In Ana. XI. xxii, there is another reference to this
time, in which Yen Hui is made to appear.
7 See the Li Chi, II. Sect. I. ii. 16.

honourable mention is made in the Analects [1]. But this time he
did not remain long in the State. The duke was

[Sidebar] B.C. 495.

married to a lady of the house of Sung, known by the name of Nan-
tsze, notorious for her intrigues and wickedness. She sought an
interview with the sage, which he was obliged unwillingly to
accord [2]. No doubt he was innocent of thought or act of evil, but
it gave great dissatisfaction to Tsze-lu that his master should
have been in company with such a woman, and Confucius, to
assure him, swore an oath, saying, 'Wherein I have done
improperly, may Heaven reject me! May Heaven reject me [3]!' He
could not well abide, however, about such a court. One day the
duke rode out through the streets of his capital in the same
carriage with Nan-tsze, and made Confucius follow them in
another. Perhaps he intended to honour the philosopher, but the
people saw the incongruity, and cried out, 'Lust in the front;
virtue behind!' Confucius was ashamed, and made the observation,
'I have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves beauty [4].' Wei
was no place for him. He left it, and took his way towards Ch'an.
	Ch'an, which formed part of the present province of Ho-nan,
lay south from Wei. After passing the small State of Ts'ao [5], he
approached the borders of Sung, occupying the present prefecture
of Kwei-teh, and had some intentions of entering it, when an
incident occurred, which it is not easy to understand from the
meagre style in which it is related, but which gave occasion to a
remarkable saying. Confucius was practising ceremonies with his
disciples, we are told, under the shade of a large tree. Hwan T'ui,
an ill-minded officer of Sung, heard of it, and sent a band of men
to pull down the tree, and kill the philosopher, if they could get
hold of him. The disciples were much alarmed, but Confucius
observed, 'Heaven has produced the virtue that is in me; what can
Hwan T'ui do to me [6]?' They all made their escape, but seem to
have been driven westwards to the State of Chang [7], on arriving
at the gate conducting into which from the east, Confucius found
himself separated from his followers. Tsze-kung had arrived
before him, and was told by a native of Chang that there was a
man standing by the east gate, with a forehead like Yao, a neck
like Kao-yao, his shoulders on a level with those of Tsze-ch'an,
but wanting, below the waist, three

1 Ana. XIV. xxvi; XV. vi.
2 See the account in the ¥v°O, ¤Õ¤l¥@®a, p. 6.
3 Ana. VI. xxvi.
4 Ana. IX. xvii.
5 ±ä.
6 ana. IX. xxii.
7 ¾G.

inches of the height of Yu, and altogether having the disconsolate
appearance of a stray dog.' Tsze-kung knew it was the master,
hastened to him, and repeated to his great amusement the
description which the man had given. 'The bodily appearance,' said
Confucius, 'is but a small matter, but to say I was like a stray
dog,-- capital! capital!' The stay they made at Chang was short,
and by the end of B.C. 495, Confucius was in Ch'an.
	All the next year he remained there, lodging with the
warder of the city wall, an officer of worth, of the name of Chang
[2], and we have no accounts of him which deserve to be related
here [3].
	In B.C. 494, Ch'an was much disturbed by attacks from Wu
[4], a large State, the capital of which was in the present
department of Su-chau, and Confucius determined to retrace his
steps to Wei. On the way he was laid hold of at a place called P'u
[5], which was held by a rebellious officer against Wei, and before
he could get away, he was obliged to engage that he would not
proceed thither. Thither, notwithstanding, he continued his route,
and when Tsze-kung asked him whether it was right to violate the
oath he had taken, he replied, 'It was a forced oath. The spirits do
not hear such [6].' 'The duke Ling received him with distinction,
but paid no more attention to his lessons than before, and
Confucius is said then to have uttered his complaint, 'If there
were any of the princes who would employ me, in the course of
twelve months I should have done something considerable. In
three years the government would be perfected [7].'
	A circumstance occurred to direct his attention to the State
of Tsin [8], which occupied the southern part of the present Shan-
hsi, and extended over the Yellow river into Ho-nan. An invitation
came to Confucius, like that which he had formerly received from
Kung-shan Fu-zao. Pi Hsi, an officer of Tsin, who was holding the
town of Chung-mau against his chief, invited him to visit him,
and Confucius was inclined to go. Tsze-lu was always the mentor
on such occasions. He said to him, 'Master, I have heard you say,

1 See the ¥v°O, ¤Õ¤l¥@®a, p. 6.
2 ¥q«°­s¤l. See Mencius, V. Pt. I. viii. 3.
3 Chiang Yung digests in this place two foolish stories,-- about a
large bone found in the State of Yueh, and a bird which appeared in
Ch'ia and died, shot through with a remarkable arrow. Confucius
knew all about them.
4 §d.
5 »Z.
6 This ia related by Sze-ma ch'ien ¤Õ¤l¥@®a, p. 7, and also in the
'Narratives of the School.' I would fain believe it is not true. The
wonder is, that no Chinese critic should have set about disproving
7 Ana. XII. x.
8 ®Ê.

that when a man in his own person is guilty of doing evil, a
superior man will not associate with him. Pi Hsi is in rebellion; if
you go to him, what shall be said?' Confucius replied, 'Yes, I did
use those words. But is it not said that if a thing be really hard,
it may be ground without being made thin; and if it be really
white, it may be steeped in a dark fluid without being made
black? Am I a bitter gourd? Am I to be hung up out of the way of
being eaten [1]?'
	These sentiments sound strangely from his lips. After all,
he did not go to Pi Hsi; and having travelled as far as the Yellow
river that he might see one of the principal ministers of Tsin, he
heard of the violent death of two men of worth, and returned to
Wei, lamenting the fate which prevented him from crossing the
stream, and trying to solace himself with poetry as he had done
on leaving Lu. Again did he communicate with the duke, but as
ineffectually, and disgusted at being questioned by him about
military tactics, he left and went back to Ch'an.
	He resided in Ch'an all the next year, B.C. 491, without
anything occurring there which is worthy of note [2]. Events had
transpired in Lu, however, which were to issue in his return to
his native State. The duke Ting had deceased B.C. 494, and Chi
Hwan, the chief of the Chi family, died in this year. On his death-
bed, he felt remorse for his conduct to Confucius, and charged his
successor, known to us in the Analects as Chi K'ang, to recall the
sage; but the charge was not immediately fulfilled. Chi K'ang, by
the advice of one of his officers, sent to Ch'an for the disciple
Yen Ch'iu instead. Confucius willingly sent him off, and would
gladly have accompanied him. 'Let me return!' he said, 'Let me
return [3]!' But that was not to be for several years yet.
	In B.C. 490, accompanied, as usual, by several of his
disciples, he went from Ch'an to Ts'ai, a small dependency of the
great fief of Ch'u, which occupied a large part of the present
provinces of Hu-nan and Hu-pei. On the way, between Ch'an and
Ts'ai, their provisions became exhausted, and they were cut off
somehow from obtaining a fresh supply. The disciples were quite
overcome with want, and Tsze-lu said to the master, 'Has the
superior man indeed to endure in this way?' Confucius answered
him, 'The superior man may indeed have to endure want; but the
mean man

l Ana. XVII. vii.
2 Tso Ch'iu-ming, indeed, relates a story of Confucius, on the
report of a fire in Lu, telling whose ancestral temple had been
destroyed by it.
3 Ana. V. xxi.

when he is in want, gives way to unbridled license [1].' According
to the 'Narratives of the School,' the distress continued seven
days, during which time Confucius retained his equanimity, and
was even cheerful, playing on his lute and singing [2]. He retained,
however, a strong impression of the perils of the season, and we
find him afterwards recurring to it, and lamenting that of the
friends that were with him in Ch'an and Ts'ai, there were none
remaining to enter his door [3].
	Escaped from this strait, he remained in Ts'ai over B.C. 489,
and in the following year we find him in Sheh, another district of
Ch'u, the chief of which had taken the title of duke, according to
the usurping policy of that State. Puzzled about his visitor, he
asked Tsze-lu what he should think of him, but the disciple did
not venture a reply. When Confucius heard of it, he said to Tsze-
lu. 'Why did you not say to him:-- He is simply a man who in his
eager pursuit of knowledge forgets his food, who in the joy of its
attainment forgets his sorrows, and who does not perceive that
old age is coming on [4]?' Subsequently, the duke, in conversation
with Confucius, asked him about government, and got the reply,
dictated by some circumstances of which we are ignorant, 'Good
government obtains, when those who are near are made happy, and
those who are far off are attracted [5]'
	After a short stay in Sheh, according to Sze-ma Ch'ien, he
returned to Ts'ai, and having to dross a river, he sent Tsze-lu to
inquire for the ford of two men who were at work in a neighboring
field. They were recluses, men who had withdrawn from public
life in disgust at the waywardness of the times. One of them was
called Ch'ang-tsu, and instead of giving Tsze-lu the information
he wanted, he asked him, 'Who is it that holds the reins in the
carriage there?' 'It is K'ung Ch'iu.' 'K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?' 'Yes,' was
the reply, and then the man rejoined, 'He knows the ford.'
	Tsze-lu applied to the other, who was called Chieh-ni, but
got for answer the question, 'Who are you, Sir?' He replied, 'I am
Chung Yu.' 'Chung Yu, who is the disciple of K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?'
'Yes,' again replied Tsze-lu, and Chieh-ni said to him, 'Disorder,
like a swelling flood, spreads over the whole kingdom,

1 Ana. XV. i. 2, 3.
2 ®a»y, ¨÷¤G, ¦b¦M, ¤G¤Q½g.
3 Ana. XI. ii.
4 Ana. VII. xviii.
5 Ana. XIII. xvi.

and who is he that will change it for you? Than follow one who
merely withdraws from this one and that one, had you not better
follow those who withdraw from the world altogether?' With this
he fell to covering up the seed, and gave no more heed to the
stranger. Tsze-lu went back and reported what they had said,
when Confucius vindicated his own course, saying. 'It is
impossible to associate with birds and beasts as if they were the
same with us. If I associate not with these people,-- with
mankind,-- with whom shall I associate? If right principles
prevailed through the kingdom, there would be no need for me to
change its state [1].'
	About the same time he had an encounter with another
recluse, who was known as 'The madman of Ch'u.' He passed by the
carriage of Confucius, singing out, 'O phoenix, O phoenix, how is
your virtue degenerated! As to the past, reproof is useless, but
the future may be provided against. Give up, give up your vain
pursuit.' Confucius alighted and wished to enter into conversation
with him, but the man hastened away [2].
	But now the attention of the ruler of Ch'u -- king, as he
styled himself -- was directed to the illustrious stranger who
was in his dominions, and he met Confucius and conducted him to
his capital, which was in the present district of I-ch'ang, in the
department of Hsiang-yang [3], in Hu-pei. After a time, he
proposed endowing the philosopher with a considerable territory,
but was dissuaded by his prime minister, who said to him, 'Has
your majesty any officer who could discharge the duties of an
ambassador like Tsze-kung? or any one so qualified for a premier
as Yen Hui? or any one to compare as a general with Tsze-lu? The
kings Wan and Wu, from their hereditary dominions of a hundred
li, rose to the sovereignty of the kingdom. If K'ung Ch'iu, with
such disciples to be his ministers, get the possession of any
territory, it will not be to the prosperity of Ch'u [4]? On this
remonstrance the king gave up his purpose; and, when he died in
the same year, Confucius left the State, and went back again to
	The duke Ling had died four years before, soon after

[Sidebar] B.C. 489.

had last parted from him, and the reigning duke, known to us by
the title of Ch'u [5], was his grandson, and was holding the
principality against his own father. The relations

1 Ana. XVIII. vi.
2 Ana XVII. v.
3 Á¸¶§©²©y«°¿¤.
4 See the ¥v°O, ¤Õ¤l¥@®a, p. 10.
5 ¥X¤½.

between them were rather complicated. The father had been
driven out in consequence of an attempt which he had instigated
on the life of his step-mother, the notorious Nan-tsze, and the
succession was given to his son. Subsequently, the father wanted
to reclaim what he deemed his right, and an unseemly struggle
ensued. The duke Ch'u was conscious how much his cause would be
strengthened by the support of Confucius, and hence when he got
to Wei, Tsze-lu could say to him, 'The prince of Wei has been
waiting for you, in order with you to administer the government;-
- what will you consider the first thing to be done [1]?' The
opinion of the philosopher, however, was against the propriety of
the duke's course [2], and he declined taking office with him,
though he remained in Wei for between five and six years. During
all that time there is a blank in his history. In the very year of his
return, according to the 'Annals of the Empire,' his most beloved
disciple, Yen Hui, died, on which occasion he exclaimed, 'Alas!
Heaven is destroying me! Heaven is destroying me [3]!' The death
of his wife is assigned to B.C. 484, but nothing else is related
which we can connect with this long period.
	9. His return to Lu was brought about by the disciple Yen Yu,
who, we have seen, went into the service of Chi K'ang, in B.C. 491.

[Sidebar] From his return to Lu to his death. B.C. 484-478.

In the year B.C. 483, Yu had the conduct of some military
operations against Ch'i, and being successful, Chi K'ang asked him
how he had obtained his military skill;-- was it from nature, or
by learning? He replied that he had learned it from Confucius, and
entered into a glowing eulogy of the philosopher. The chief
declared that he would bring Confucius home again to Lu. 'If you
do so,' said the disciple, 'see that you do not let mean men come
between you and him.' On this K'ang sent three officers with
appropriate presents to Wei, to invite the wanderer home, and he
returned with them accordingly [4].
	This event took place in the eleventh year of the duke Ai [5],
who succeeded to Ting, and according to K'ung Fu, Confucius's
descendant, the invitation proceeded from him [6]. We may
suppose that

1 Ana. XIII. iii. In the notes on this passage, I have given Chu Hsi's
opinion as to the time when Tsze-lu made this remark. It seems
more correct, however, to refer it to Confucius's return to Wei
from Ch'u, as is done by Chiang Yung.
2 Ana. VII. xiv.
3 Ana. XI. viii. In the notes on Ana. XI. vii, I have adverted to the
chronological difficulty connected with the dates assigned
respectively to the deaths of Yen Hui and Confucius's own son, Li.
Chiang Yung assigns Hui's death to B.C. 481.
4 See the ¥v°O, ¤Õ¤l¥@®a.
5 «s¤½.
6 See Chiang Yung's memoir, in loc.

while Chi K'ang was the mover and director of the proceeding, it
was with the authority and approval of the duke. It is represented
in the chronicle of Tso Ch'iu-ming as having occurred at a very
opportune time. The philosopher had been consulted a little before
by K'ung Wan [1], an officer of Wei, about how he should conduct a
feud with another officer, and disgusted at being referred to on
such a subject, had ordered his carriage and prepared to leave the
State, exclaiming, 'The bird chooses its tree. The tree does not
choose the bird.' K'ung Wan endeavoured to excuse himself, and to
prevail on Confucius to remain in Wei, and just at this juncture
the messengers from Lu arrived [2].
	Confucius was now in his sixty-ninth year. The world had
not dealt kindly with him. In every State which he had visited he
had met with disappointment and sorrow. Only five more years
remained to him, nor were they of a brighter character than the
past. He had, indeed, attained to that state, he tells us, in which
'he could follow what his heart desired without transgressing
what was right [3],' but other people were not more inclined than
they had been to abide by his counsels. The duke Ai and Chi K'ang
often conversed with him, but he no longer had weight in the
guidance of state affairs, and wisely addressed himself to the
completion of his literary labors. He wrote a preface, according
to Sze-ma Ch'ien, to the Shu-ching; carefully digested the rites
and ceremonies determined by the wisdom of the more ancient
sages and kings; collected and arranged the ancient poetry; and
undertook the reform of music [4]. He has told us himself. 'I
returned from Wei to Lu, and then the music was reformed, and
the pieces in the Songs of the Kingdom and Praise Songs found all
their proper place [5].' To the Yi-ching he devoted much study, and
Sze-ma Ch'ien says that the leather thongs by which the tablets
of his copy were bound together were thrice worn out. 'If some
years were added to my life,' he said, 'I would give fifty to the
study of the Yi, and then I might come to be without great faults
[6].' During this time also, we may suppose that he supplied Tsang
Shan with the materials of the classic of Filial Piety. The same
year that he returned, Chi Kang sent Yen Yu to ask his opinion
about an

1 ¤Õ¤å¤l, the same who is mentioned in the Analects, V. xiv.
2 See the ¥ª¶Ç, «s¤½¤Q¤@¦~.
3 Ana. II. iv. 6.
4 See the ¥v°O, ¤Õ¤l¥@®a, p. 12.
5 Ana. IX. xiv.
6 Ana. VII. xvi.

additional impost which he wished to lay upon the people, but
Confucius refused to give any reply, telling the disciple privately
his disapproval of the proposed measure. It was carried out,
however, in the following year, by the agency of Yen, on which
occasion, I suppose, it was that Confucius said to the other
disciples, 'He is no disciple of mine; my little children, beat the
drum and assail him [1].' The year B.C. 483 was marked by the
death of his son Li, which he seems to have borne with more
equanimity than he did that of his disciple Yen Hui, which some
writers assign to the following year, though I have already
mentioned it under the year B.C. 489.
	In the spring of B.C. 481, a servant of Chi K'ang caught a
Ch'i-lin on a hunting excursion of the duke in the present district
of Chia-hsiang [2]. No person could tell what strange animal it
was, and Confucius was called to look at it. He at once knew it to
be a lin, and the legend-writers say that it bore on one of its
horns the piece of ribbon, which his mother had attached to the
one that appeared to her before his birth. According to the
chronicle of Kung-yang, he was profoundly affected. He cried out,
'For whom have you come? For whom have you come?' His tears
flowed freely, and he added, 'The course of my doctrines is run
	Notwithstanding the appearance of the lin, the life of
Confucius was still protracted for two years longer, though he
took occasion to terminate with that event his history of the
Ch'un Ch'iu. This Work, according to Sze-ma Ch'ien, was altogether
the production of this year, but we heed not suppose that it was
so. In it, from the standpoint of Lu, he briefly indicates the
principal events occurring throughout the country, every term
being expressive, it is said, of the true character of the actors
and events described. Confucius said himself, 'It is the Spring and
Autumn which will make men know me, and it is the Spring and
Autumn which will make men condemn me [4].' Mencius makes the
composition of it to have been an achievement as great as Yu's
regulation of the waters of the deluge:-- 'Confucius completed
the Spring and Autumn, and rebellious ministers and villainous
sons were struck with terror [5].'
	Towards the end of this year, word came to Lu that the duke

1 Ana. XI. xvi.
2 «^¦{©²¹Å²»¿¤.
3 ¤½¦Ï¶Ç, «s¤½¤Q¥|¦~. According to Kung-yang, however, the lin was
found by some wood-gatherers.
4 Mencius III. Pt. II. ix. 8.
5 Mencius III. Pt. II. ix. 11.

of Ch'i had been murdered by one of his officers. Confucius was
moved with indignation. Such an outrage he felt, called for his
solemn interference. He bathed, went to court, and represented
the matter to the duke, saying, 'Ch'an Hang has slain his
sovereign, I beg that you will undertake to punish him.' The duke
pleaded his incapacity, urging that Lu was weak compared with
Ch'i, but Confucius replied, 'One half the people of Ch'i are not
consenting to the deed. If you add to the people of Lu one half the
people of Ch'i, you are sure to overcome.' But he could not infuse
his spirit into the duke, who told him to go and lay the matter
before the chiefs of the three Families. Sorely against his sense
of propriety, he did so, but they would not act, and he withdrew
with the remark, 'Following in the rear of the great officers, I did
not dare not to represent such a matter [1].'
	In the year B.C. 479, Confucius had to mourn the death of
another of his disciples, one of those who had been longest with
him, the well-known Tsze-lu. He stands out a sort of Peter in the
Confucian school, a man of impulse, prompt to speak and prompt
to act. He gets many a check from the master, but there is
evidently a strong sympathy between them. Tsze-lu uses a
freedom with him on which none of the other disciples dares to
venture, and there is not one among them all, for whom, if I may
speak from my own feeling, the foreign student comes to form
such a liking. A pleasant picture is presented to us in one passage
of the Analects. It is said, 'The disciple Min was standing by his
side, looking bland and precise; Tsze-lu (named Yu), looking bold
and soldierly; Yen Yu and Tsze-kung, with a free and
straightforward manner. The master was pleased, but he
observed, "Yu there!-- he will not die a natural death [2]."'
	This prediction was verified. When Confucius returned to Lu
from Wei, he left Tsze-lu and Tsze-kao [3] engaged there in
official service. Troubles arose. News came to Lu, B.C. 479, that a
revolution was in progress in Wei, and when Confucius heard it,
he said, 'Ch'ai will come here, but Yu will die [4].' So it turned out.
When Tsze-kao saw that matters were desperate he made his
escape, but Tsze-lu would not forsake the chief who had treated

1 See the ¥ª¶Ç, «s¤½¤Q¥|¦~ and Analects XIV. xxii.
2 Ana. XI. xii.
3 ¤l¯Ì, by surname Kao (°ª), and name Ch'ai (®ã).
4 See the ¥ª¶Ç, «s¤½¤Q¤­¦~.

him well. He threw himself into the melee, and was slain.
Confucius wept sore for him, but his own death was not far off. It
took place on the eleventh day of the fourth month in the same
year, B.C. 479 [1]. Early one morning, we are told, he got up, and
with his hands behind his back, dragging his staff, he moved about
by his door, crooning over,--

'The great mountain must crumble;
The strong beam must break;
And the wise man wither away like a plant.'

	After a little, he entered the house and sat down opposite
the door. Tsze-kung had heard his words, and said to himself, 'If
the great mountain crumble, to what shall I look up? If the strong
beam break, and the wise man wither away, on whom shall I lean?
The master, I fear, is going to be ill.' With this he hastened into
the house. Confucius said to him, 'Ts'ze, what makes you so late?
According to the statutes of Hsia, the corpse was dressed and
coffined at the top of the eastern steps, treating the dead as if he
were still the host. Under the Yin, the ceremony was performed
between the two pillars, as if the dead were both host and guest.
The rule of Chau is to perform it at the top of the western steps,
treating the dead as if he were a guest. I am a man of Yin, and last
night I dreamt that I was sitting with offerings before me
between the two pillars. No intelligent monarch arises; there is
not one in the kingdom that will make me his master. My time has
come to die.' So it was. He went to his couch, and after seven days
expired [2].
	Such is the account which we have of the last hours of the
great philosopher of China. His end was not unimpressive, but it
was melancholy. He sank behind a cloud. Disappointed hopes made
his soul bitter. The great ones of the kingdom had not received his
teachings. No wife nor child was by to do the kindly offices of
affection for him. Nor were the expectations of another life
present with him as he passed through the dark valley. He uttered
no prayer, and he betrayed no apprehensions. Deep-treasured in
his own heart may have been the thought that he had endeavoured
to serve his generation by the will of God, but he gave no sign.
'The mountain falling came to nought, and the rock was removed

1 See the ¥ª¶Ç, «s¤½¤Q¤»¦~, and Chiang Yung's Life of Confucius, in
2 See the Li Chi, II, Sect. I. ii. 20.

out of his place. So death prevailed against him and he passed; his
countenance was changed, and he was sent away.'
	10. I flatter myself that the preceding paragraphs contain a
more correct narrative of the principal incidents in the life of
Confucius than has yet been given in any European language. They
might easily have been expanded into a volume, but I did not wish
to exhaust the subject, but only to furnish a sketch, which, while
it might satisfy the general reader, would be of special
assistance to the careful student of the classical Books. I had
taken many notes of the manifest errors in regard to chronology
and other matters in the 'Narratives of the School,' and the
chapter of Sze-ma Ch'ien on the K'ung family, when the digest of
Chiang Yung, to which I have made frequent reference, attracted
my attention. Conclusions to which I had come were confirmed,
and a clue was furnished to difficulties which I was seeking to
disentangle. I take the opportunity to acknowledge here my
obligations to it. With a few notices of Confucius's habits and
manners, I shall conclude this section.
	Very little can be gathered from reliable sources on the
personal appearance of the sage. The height of his father is
stated, as I have noted, to have been ten feet, and though
Confucius came short of this by four inches, he was often called
'the tall man.' It is allowed that the ancient foot or cubit was
shorter than the modem, but it must be reduced more than any
scholar I have consulted has yet done, to bring this statement
within the range of credibility. The legends assign to his figure
'nine-and-forty remarkable peculiarities [1],' a tenth part of
which would have made him more a monster than a man. Dr.
Morrison says that the images of him which he had seen in the
northern parts of China, represent him as of a dark, swarthy
colour [2]. It is not so with those common in the south. He was, no
doubt, in size and complexion much the same as many of his
descendants in the present day. Dr. Edkins and myself enjoyed the
services of two of those descendants, who acted as 'wheelers' in
the wheelbarrows which conveyed us from Ch'u-fau to a town on
the Grand Canal more than 250 miles off. They were strong,
capable men, both physically and mentally superior to their

1 ¥|¤Q¤Eªí.
2 Chinese and English Dictionary, char. ¤Õ. Sir John Davis also
mentions seeing a figure of Confucius, in a temple near the Po-
yang lake, of which the complexion was 'quite black' (The Chinese,
vol. ii. p. 66).

	But if his disciples had nothing to chronicle of his personal
appearance, they have gone very minutely into an account of many
of his habits. The tenth Book of the Analects is all occupied with
his deportment, his eating, and his dress. In public, whether in the
village, the temple, or the court, he was the man of rule and
ceremony, but 'at home he was not formal.' Yet if not formal, he
was particular. In bed even he did not forget himself;-- 'he did not
lie like a corpse,' and 'he did not speak.' 'He required his sleeping
dress to be half as long again as his body.' 'If he happened to be
sick, and the prince came to visit him, he had his face set to the
east, made his court robes be put over him, and drew his girdle
across them.'
	He was nice in his diet,-- 'not disliking to have his rice
dressed fine, nor to have his minced meat cut small.' 'Anything at
all gone he would not touch.' 'He must have his meat cut properly,
and to every kind its proper sauce; but he was not a great eater.'
'It was only in drink that he laid down no limit to himself, but he
did not allow himself to be confused by it.' 'When the villagers
were drinking together, on those who carried staffs going out, he
went out immediately after.' There must always be ginger at the
table, and 'when eating, he did not converse.' 'Although his food
might be coarse rice and poor soup, he would offer a little of it in
sacrifice, with a grave, respectful air.'
	'On occasion of a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind,
he would change countenance. He would do the same, and rise up
moreover, when he found himself a guest at a loaded board.' 'At
the sight of a person in mourning, he would also change
countenance, and if he happened to be in his carriage, he would
bend forward with a respectful salutation.' 'His general way in his
carriage was not to turn his head round, nor talk hastily, nor point
with his hands.' He was charitable. 'When any of his friends died,
if there were no relations who could be depended on for the
necessary offices, he would say, "I will bury him."
	'The disciples were so careful to record these and other
characteristics of their master, it is said, because every act, of
movement or of rest, was closely associated with the great
principles which it was his object to inculcate. The detail of so
many small matters, however, hardly impresses a foreigner so
favourably. There rather seems to be a want of freedom about the


	1. Confucius died, we have seen, complaining that of all the
princes of the kingdom there was not one who would adopt his

[Sidebar] Homage rendered to Confucius by the sovereigns of

principles and obey his lessons. He had hardly passed from the
stage of life, when his merit began to be acknowledged. When the
duke Ai heard of his death, he pronounced his eulogy in the words,
'Heaven has not left to me the aged man. There is none now to
assist me on the throne. Woe is me! Alas! O venerable Ni [1]!' Tsze-
kung complained of the inconsistency of this lamentation from
one who could not use the master when he was alive, but the
prince was probably sincere in his grief. He caused a temple to be
erected, and ordered that sacrifice should be offered to the sage,
at the four seasons of the year [2].
	The sovereigns of the tottering dynasty of Chau had not the
intelligence, nor were they in a position, to do honour to the
departed philosopher, but the facts detailed in the first chapter
of these prolegomena, in connexion with the attempt of the
founder of the Ch'in dynasty to destroy the literary monuments of
antiquity, show how the authority of Confucius had come by that
time to prevail through the nation. The founder of the Han
dynasty, in passing through Lu, B.C. 195, visited his tomb and
offered the three victims in sacrifice to him. Other sovereigns
since then have often made pilgrimages to the spot. The most
famous temple in the empire now rises near the place of the
grave. The second and greatest of the rulers of the present
dynasty, in the twenty-third year of his reign, the K'ang-hsi
period, there set the example of kneeling thrice, and each time
laying his forehead thrice in the dust, before the image of the
	In the year of our Lord 1, began the practice of conferring
honourary designations on Confucius by imperial authority. The
emperor Ping [3] then styled him-- 'The duke Ni, all-complete and

l Li Chi, II. Sect. I. iii. 43. This eulogy is found at greater length in
the ¥ª¶Ç, immediately after the notice of the sage's death.
2 See the ¸t¼qªÁ¨å¹Ï¦Ò, ¨÷¤@, art. on Confucius. I am indebted to
this for most of the notices in this paragraph.
3 ¥­«Ò.

illustrious [1].' This was changed, in A.D. 492, to-- 'The venerable
Ni, the accomplished Sage [2].' Other titles have supplanted this.
Shun-chih [3], the first of the Man-chau dynasty, adopted, in his
second year, A.D. 1645, the style, 'K'ung, the ancient Teacher,
accomplished and illustrious, all-complete, the perfect Sage [4];'
but twelve years later, a shorter title was introduced,-- 'K'ung,
the ancient Teacher, the perfect Sage [5].' Since that year no
further alteration has been made.
	At first, the worship of Confucius was confined to the
country of Lu, but in A.D. 57 it was enacted that sacrifices should
be offered to him in the imperial college, and in all the colleges
of the principal territorial divisions throughout the empire. In
those sacrifices he was for some centuries associated with the
duke of Chau, the legislator to whom Confucius made frequent
reference, but in A.D. 609 separate temples were assigned to
them, and in 628 our sage displaced the older worthy altogether.
About the same time began the custom, which continues to the
present day, of erecting temples to him,-- separate structures, in
connexion with all the colleges, or examination-halls, of the
	The sage is not alone in those temples. In a hall behind the
principal one occupied by himself are the tablets -- in some
cases, the images -- of several of his ancestors, and other
worthies; while associated with himself are his principal
disciples, and many who in subsequent times have signalized
themselves as expounders and exemplifiers of his doctrines. On
the first day of every month, offerings of fruits and vegetables
are set forth, and on the fifteenth there is a solemn burning of
incense. But twice a year, in the middle months of spring and
autumn, when the first ting day [6] of the month comes round, the
worship of Confucius is performed with peculiar solemnity. At
the imperial college the emperor himself is required to attend in
state, and is in fact the principal performer. After all the
preliminary arrangements have been made, and the emperor has
twice knelt and six times bowed his head to the earth, the
presence of Confucius's spirit is invoked in the words, 'Great art
thou, O perfect sage! Thy virtue is full; thy doctrine is complete.
Among mortal men there has not been thine equal. All kings
honour thee. Thy statutes and laws have come gloriously

1 ¦¨«Å¥§¤½.
2 ¤å¸t¥§¤÷.
3 ¶¶ªv.
4 ¤j¦¨¦Ü¸t, ¤å«Å¥§®v, ¤Õ¤l
5 ¦Ü¸t¥ý®v¤Õ¤l
6 ¤W¤B¤é

down. Thou art the pattern in this imperial school. Reverently
have the sacrificial vessels been set out. Full of awe, we sound
our drums and bells [1].'
	The spirit is supposed now to be present, and the service
proceeds through various offerings, when the first of which has
been set forth, an officer reads the following [2], which is the
prayer on the occasion:-- 'On this ... month of this ... year, I, A.B.,
the emperor, offer a sacrifice to the philosopher K'ung, the
ancient Teacher, the perfect Sage, and say,-- O Teacher, in virtue
equal to Heaven and Earth, whose doctrines embrace the past time
and the present, thou didst digest and transmit the six classics,
and didst hand down lessons for all generations! Now in this
second month of spring (or autumn), in reverent observance of the
old statutes, with victims, silks, spirits, and fruits, I carefully
offer sacrifice to thee. With thee are associated the philosopher
Yen, Continuator of thee; the philosopher Tsang, Exhibiter of thy
fundamental principles; the philosopher Tsze-sze, Transmitter of
thee; and the philosopher Mang, Second to thee. May'st thou enjoy
the offerings!'
	I need not go on to enlarge on the homage which the
emperors of China render to Confucius. It could not be more
complete. He was unreasonably neglected when alive. He is now
unreasonably venerated when dead.
	2. The rulers of China are not singular in this matter, but in
entire sympathy with the mass of their people. It is the

[Sidebar] General appreciation of Confucius.

of this empire that education has been highly prized in it from the
earliest times. It was so before the era of Confucius, and we may
be sure that the system met with his approbation. One of his
remarkable sayings was,-- 'To lead an uninstructed people to war
is to throw them away [3].' When he pronounced this judgment, he
was not thinking of military training, but of education in the
duties of life and citizenship. A people so taught, he thought,
would be morally fitted to fight for their government. Mencius,
when lecturing to the ruler of T'ang on the proper way of
governing a kingdom, told him that he must provide the means of
education for all, the poor as well as the rich. 'Establish,' said he,
'hsiang, hsu, hsio, and hsiao,-- all those educational
institutions,-- for the instruction of the people [4].'

1 2 See the ¤j²M³q§¨÷¤Q¤G.
3 Ana. XIII. xxx.
4 Mencius III. Pt. I. iii. 10.

	At the present day, education is widely diffused throughout
China. In few other countries is the schoolmaster more abroad,
and in all schools it is Confucius who is taught. The plan of
competitive examinations, and the selection for civil offices only
from those who have been successful candidates,-- good so far as
the competition is concerned, but injurious from the restricted
range of subjects with which an acquaintance is required,-- have
obtained for more than twelve centuries. The classical works are
the text books. It is from them almost exclusively that the
themes proposed to determine the knowledge and ability of the
students are chosen. The whole of the magistracy of China is thus
versed in all that is recorded of the sage, and in the ancient
literature which he preserved. His thoughts are familiar to every
man in authority, and his character is more or less reproduced in
	The official civilians of China, numerous as they are, are
but a fraction of its students, and the students, or those who
make literature a profession, are again but a fraction of those
who attend school for a shorter or longer period. Yet so far as the
studies have gone, they have been occupied with the Confucian
writings. In the schoolrooms there is a tablet or inscription on
the wall, sacred to the sage, and every pupil is required, on
coming to school on the morning of the first and fifteenth of
every month, to bow before it, the first thing, as an act of
reverence [1]. Thus all in China who receive the slightest tincture
of learning do so at the fountain of Confucius. They learn of him
and do homage to him at once. I have repeatedly quoted the
statement that during his life-time he had three thousand
disciples. Hundreds of millions are his disciples now. It is hardly
necessary to make any allowance in this statement for the
followers of Taoism and Buddhism, for, as Sir John Davis has
observed, 'whatever the other opinions or faith of a Chinese may
be, he takes good care to treat Confucius with respect [2].' For
two thousand years he has reigned supreme, the undisputed
teacher of this most populous land.
	3. This position and influence of Confucius are to be
ascribed, I conceive, chiefly to two causes:-- his being the
preserver, namely of

l During the present dynasty, the tablet of ¤å©÷«Ò§g, the god of
literature, has to a considerable extent displaced that of
Confucius in schools. Yet the worship of him does not clash with
that of the other. He is 'the father' of composition only.
2 The Chinese, vol. ii. p. 45.

the monuments of antiquity, and the exemplifier and expounder of

[Sidebar] The causes of his influence.

the maxims of the golden age of China; and the devotion to him of
his immediate disciples and their early followers. The national
and the personal are thus blended in him, each in its highest
degree of excellence. He was a Chinese of the Chinese; he is also
represented as, and all now believe him to have been, the beau
ideal of humanity in its best and noblest estate.
	4. It may be well to bring forward here Confucius's own
estimate of himself and of his doctrines. It will serve to
illustrate the

[Sidebar] His own estimate of himself and of his doctrines.

statements just made. The following are some of his sayings:--
'The sage and the man of perfect virtue;-- how dare I rank myself
with them? It may simply be said of me, that I strive to become
such without satiety, and teach others without weariness.' 'In
letters I am perhaps equal to other men; but the character of the
superior man, carrying out in his conduct what he professes, is
what I have not yet attained to.' 'The leaving virtue without
proper cultivation; the not thoroughly discussing what is learned;
not being able to move towards righteousness of which a
knowledge is gained; and not being able to change what is not
good;-- these are the things which occasion me solicitude.' 'I am
not one who was born in the possession of knowledge; I am one
who is fond of antiquity and earnest in seeking it there.' 'A
transmitter and not a maker, believing in and loving the ancients,
I venture to compare myself with our old P'ang [1].'
	Confucius cannot be thought to speak of himself in these
declarations more highly than he ought to do. Rather we may
recognise in them the expressions of a genuine humility. He was
conscious that personally he came short in many things, but he
toiled after the character, which he saw, or fancied that he saw,
in the ancient sages whom he acknowledged; and the lessons of
government and morals which he labored to diffuse were those
which had already been inculcated and exhibited by them.
Emphatically he was 'a transmitter and not a maker.' It is not to
be understood that he was not fully satisfied of the truth of the
principles which he had learned. He held them with the full
approval and consent of his own understanding. He believed that if
they were acted on, they would remedy the evils of his time.

1 All these passages are taken from the seventh Book of the
Analects. See chapters xxxiii, xxxii, iii, xix, and i.

There was nothing to prevent rulers like Yao and Shun and the
great Yu from again arising, and a condition of happy tranquillity
being realized throughout the kingdom under their sway.
	If in anything he thought himself 'superior and alone,' having
attributes which others could not claim, it was in his possessing
a divine commission as the conservator of ancient truth and rules.
He does not speak very definitely on this point. It is noted that
'the appointments of Heaven was one of the subjects on which he
rarely touched [1].' His most remarkable utterance was that which
I have already given in the sketch of his Life:-- 'When he was put
in fear in K'wang, he said, "After the death of king Wan, was not
the cause of truth lodged here in me? If Heaven had wished to let
this cause of truth perish, then I, a future mortal, should not have
got such a relation to that cause. While Heaven does not let the
cause of truth perish, what can the people of K'wang do to me
[2]?"' Confucius, then, did feel that he was in the world for a
special purpose. But it was not to announce any new truths, or to
initiate any new economy. It was to prevent what had previously
been known from being lost. He followed in the wake of Yao and
Shun, of T'ang, and king Wan. Distant from the last by a long
interval of time, he would have said that he was distant from him
also by a great inferiority of character, but still he had learned
the principles on which they all happily governed the country, and
in their name he would lift up a standard against the prevailing
lawlessness of his age.
	5. The language employed with reference to Confucius by his
disciples and their early followers presents a striking contrast
with his own.

[Sidebar] Estimate of him by his disciples and their early

I have already, in writing of the scope and value of 'The Doctrine
of the Mean,' called attention to the extravagant eulogies of his
grandson Tsze-sze. He only followed the example which had been
set by those among whom the philosopher went in and out. We
have the language of Yen Yuan, his favourite, which is
comparatively moderate, and simply expresses the genuine
admiration of a devoted pupil [3]. Tsze-kung on several occasions
spoke in a different style. Having heard that one of the chiefs of
Lu had said that he himself -- Tsze-kung -- was superior to
Confucius, he observed, 'Let me use the comparison of a house and
its encompassing wall. My wall

1 Ana. IX. i.
2 Ana. IX. iii.
3 Ana. IX. x.

only reaches to the shoulders. One may peep over it, and see
whatever is valuable in the apartments. The wall of my master is
several fathoms high. If one do not find the door and enter by it,
he cannot see the rich ancestral temple with its beauties, nor all
the officers in their rich array. But I may assume that they are
few who find the door. The remark of the chief was only what
might have been expected [1]'
	Another time, the same individual having spoken revilingly
of Confucius, Tsze-kung said, 'It is of no use doing so. Chung-ni
cannot be reviled. The talents and virtue of other men are hillocks
and mounds which may be stepped over. Chung-ni is the sun or
moon, which it is not possible to step over. Although a man may
wish to cut himself off from the sage, what harm can he do to the
sun and moon? He only shows that he does not know his own
capacity [2].'
	In conversation with a fellow-disciple, Tsze-kung took a
still higher flight. Being charged by Tsze-ch'in with being too
modest, for that Confucius was not really superior to him, he
replied, 'For one word a man is often deemed to be wise, and for
one word he is often deemed to be foolish. We ought to be careful
indeed in what we say. Our master cannot be attained to, just in
the same way as the heavens cannot be gone up to by the steps of
a stair. Were our master in the position of the prince of a State,
or the chief of a Family, we should find verified the description
which has been given of a sage's rule:-- He would plant the
people, and forthwith they would be established; he would lead
them on, and forthwith they would follow him; he would make
them happy, and forthwith multitudes would resort to his
dominions; he would stimulate them, and forthwith they would be
harmonious. While he lived, he would be glorious. When he died, he
would be bitterly lamented. How is it possible for him to be
attained to [3]?'
	From these representations of Tsze-kung, it was not a
difficult step for Tsze-sze to take in exalting Confucius not only
to the level of the ancient sages, but as 'the equal of Heaven.' And
Mencius took up the theme. Being questioned by Kung-sun Ch'au,
one of his disciples, about two acknowledged sages, Po-i and I
Yin, whether they were to be placed in the same rank with
Confucius, he replied, 'No. Since there were living men until now,
there never was another Confucius;' and then he proceeded to
fortify his

1 Ana. XIX. xxiii.
2 Ana. XIX. xxiv.
3 Ana. XIX. xxv.

opinion by the concurring testimony of Tsai Wo, Tsze-kung, and Yu
Zo, who all had wisdom, he thought, sufficient to know their
master. Tsai Wo's opinion was, 'According to my view of our
master, he is far superior to Yao and Shun.' Tsze-kung said, 'By
viewing the ceremonial ordinances of a prince, we know the
character of his government. By hearing his music, we know the
character of his virtue. From the distance of a hundred ages after,
I can arrange, according to their merits, the kings of those
hundred ages;-- not one of them can escape me. From the birth of
mankind till now, there has never been another like our master.'
Yu Zo said, 'Is it only among men that it is so? There is the ch'i-
lin among quadrupeds; the fung-hwang among birds; the T'ai
mountain among mounds and ant-hills; and rivers and seas among
rainpools. Though different in degree, they are the same in kind.
So the sages among mankind are also the same in kind. But they
stand out from their fellows, and rise above the level; and from
the birth of mankind till now, there never has been one so
complete as Confucius [1].' I will not indulge in farther
illustration. The judgment of the sage's disciples, of Tsze-sze,
and of Mencius, has been unchallenged by the mass of the scholars
of China. Doubtless it pleases them to bow down at the shrine of
the Sage, for their profession of literature is thereby glorified. A
reflection of the honour done to him falls upon themselves. And
the powers that be, and the multitudes of the people, fall in with
the judgment. Confucius is thus, in the empire of China, the one
man by whom all possible personal excellence was exemplified,
and by whom all possible lessons of social virtue and political
wisdom are taught.
	6. The reader will be prepared by the preceding account not
to expect to find any light thrown by Confucius on the great
problems of the human condition and destiny. He did not speculate
on the creation of things or the end of them. He was not troubled
to account for the origin of man, nor did he seek to know about his
hereafter. He meddled neither with physics nor metaphysics [2].

[Sidebar] Subjects on which Confucius did not treat.-- That he
was unreligious, unspiritual, and open to the charge of

The testimony of the Analects about the subjects of his teaching
is the following:-- 'His frequent themes of discourse were the

1 Mencius, II. Pt. I. ii. 23-28.
2 'The contents of the Yi-ching, and Confucius's labors upon it,
may be objected in opposition to this statement, and I must be
understood to make it with come reservation. Six years ago, I
spent all my leisure time for twelve months in the study of that
Work, and wrote out a translation of it, but at the close I was
only groping my way in darkness to lay hold of [footnote continued
next page].

of Poetry, the Book of History, and the maintenance of the rules
of Propriety.' 'He taught letters, ethics, devotion of soul, and
truthfulness.' 'Extraordinary things; feats of strength; states of
disorder; and spiritual beings, he did not like to talk about [1].'
	Confucius is not to be blamed for his silence on the
subjects here indicated. His ignorance of them was to a great
extent his misfortune. He had not learned them. No report of them
had come to him by the ear; no vision of them by the eye. And to
his practical mind the toiling of thought amid uncertainties
seemed worse than useless.
	The question has, indeed, been raised, whether he did not
make changes in the ancient creed of China [2], but I cannot
believe that he did so consciously and designedly. Had his
idiosyncrasy been different, we might have had expositions of the
ancient views on some points, the effect of which would have
been more beneficial than the indefiniteness in which they are
now left, and it may be doubted so far, whether Confucius was not
unfaithful to his guides. But that he suppressed or added, in order
to bring in articles of belief originating with himself, is a thing
not to be charged against him.
	I will mention two important subjects in regard to which
there is a conviction in my mind that he came short of the faith
of the older sages. The first is the doctrine of God. This name is
common in the Shih-ching and Shu-ching. Ti or Shang-Ti appears
there as a personal being, ruling in heaven and on earth, the
author of man's moral nature, the governor among the nations, by
whom kings reign and princes decree justice, the rewarder of the
good, and the punisher of the bad. Confucius preferred to speak of
Heaven. Instances have already been given of this. Two others may
be cited:-- 'He who offends against Heaven has none to whom he
can pray [3]?' 'Alas! ' said he, 'there is no one that knows me.'
Tsze-kung said, 'What do you mean by thus saying that no one
knows you?' He replied, 'I do not murmur against Heaven. I do

[footnote continued from previous page] its scope and meaning,
and up to this time I have not been able to master it so as to
speak positively about it. It will come in due time, in its place, in
the present Publication, and I do not think that what I here say of
Confucius will require much, if any, modification.' So I wrote in
1861; and I at last accomplished a translation of the Yi, which
was published in 1882, as the sixteenth volume of 'The Sacred
Books of 'the East.' I should like to bring out a revision of that
version, with the Chinese text, so as to make it uniform with the
volumes of the Classics previously published. But as Yang Ho said
to Confucius, 'The years do not wait for us.'
1 Ana. VII. xvii; xxiv; xx.
2 See Hardwick's 'Christ and other Masters,' Part iii, pp. 18, 19,
with his reference in a note to a passage from Meadows's 'The
Chinese and their Rebellions.'
3 Ana. III. xiii.

not grumble against men. My studies lie low, and my penetration
rises high. But there is Heaven;-- THAT knows me [1]!' Not once
throughout the Analects does he use the personal name. I would
say that he was unreligious rather than irreligious; yet by the
coldness of his temperament and intellect in this matter, his
influence is unfavourable to the development of ardent religious
feeling among the Chinese people generally; and he prepared the
way for the speculations of the literati of medieval and modern
times, which have exposed them to the charge of atheism.
	Secondly, Along with the worship of God there existed in
China, from the earliest historical times, the worship of other
spiritual beings,-- especially, and to every individual, the
worship of departed ancestors. Confucius recognised this as an
institution to be devoutly observed. 'He sacrificed to the dead as
if they were present; he sacrificed to the spirits as if the spirits
were present. He said. "I consider my not being present at the
sacrifice as if I did not sacrifice [2]."' The custom must have
originated from a belief in the continued existence of the dead.
We cannot suppose that they who instituted it thought that with
the cessation of this life on earth there was a cessation also of
all conscious being. But Confucius never spoke explicitly on this
subject. He tried to evade it. 'Chi Lu asked about serving the
spirits of the dead, and the master said, "While you are not able
to serve men, how can you serve their spirits?" The disciple
added, "I venture to ask about death," and he was answered, "While
you do not know life, how can you know about death [3]."' Still
more striking is a conversation with another disciple, recorded in
the 'Narratives of the School.' Tsze-kung asked him, saying, 'Do
the dead have knowledge (of our services, that is), or are they
without knowledge?' The master replied, 'If I were to say that the
dead have such knowledge, I am afraid that filial sons and dutiful
grandsons would injure their substance in paying the last offices
to the departed; and if I were to say that the dead have not such
knowledge, I am afraid lest unfilial sons should leave their
parents unburied. You need not wish, Tsze, to know whether the
dead have knowledge or not. There is no present urgency about the
point. Hereafter you will know it for yourself [4].' Surely this was
not the teaching proper to a sage.

1 Ana. XIV. xxxvii.
2 Ana. III. xii.
3 Ana. XI. xi.
4 ®a»y, ¨÷¤G, art. ­P«ä, towards the end.

He said on one occasion that he had no concealments from his
disciples [1]. Why did he not candidly tell his real thoughts on so
interesting a subject? I incline to think that he doubted more
than he believed. If the case were not so, it would be difficult to
account for the answer which he returned to a question as to
what constituted wisdom:-- 'To give one's self earnestly,' said
he, 'to the duties due to men, and, while respecting spiritual
beings, to keep aloof from them, may be called wisdom [2].' At any
rate, as by his frequent references to Heaven, instead of
following the phraseology of the older sages, he gave occasion to
many of his professed followers to identify God with a principle
of reason and the course of nature; so, in the point now in hand, he
has led them to deny, like the Sadducees of old, the existence of
any spirit at all, and to tell us that their sacrifices to the dead
are but an outward form, the mode of expression which the
principle of filial piety requires them to adopt when its objects
have departed this life.
	It will not be supposed that I wish to advocate or to defend
the practice of sacrificing to the dead. My object has been to
point out how Confucius recognised it, without acknowledging the
faith from which it must have originated, and how he enforced it
as a matter of form or ceremony. It thus connects itself with the
most serious charge that can be brought against him,-- the charge
of insincerity. Among the four things which it is said he taught,
'truthfulness' is specified [3], and many sayings might be quoted
from him, in which 'sincerity' is celebrated as highly and
demanded as stringently as ever it has been by any Christian
moralist; yet he was not altogether the truthful and true man to
whom we accord our highest approbation. There was the case of
Mang Chih-fan, who boldly brought up the rear of the defeated
troops of Lu, and attributed his occupying the place of honour to
the backwardness of his horse. The action was gallant, but the
apology for it was weak and unnecessary. And yet Confucius saw
nothing in the whole but matter for praise [4]. He could excuse
himself from seeing an unwelcome visitor on the ground that he
was sick, when there was nothing the matter with him [5]. These
were small matters, but what shall we say to the incident which
I have given in the sketch of his Life, p. 79,-- his deliberately
breaking the oath which he had sworn, simply on the ground that
it had been forced from him?

1 Ana. VII. xxiii.
2 Ana. VI. xx.
3 See above, near the beginning of this paragraph.
4 Ana. VI. xiii.
5 Am. XVII. xx.

I should be glad if I could find evidence on which to deny the truth
of that occurrence. But it rests on the same authority as most
other statements about him, and it is accepted as a fact by the
people and scholars of China. It must have had, and it must still
have, a very injurious influence upon them. Foreigners charge a
habit of deceitfulness upon the nation and its government;-- on
the justice or injustice of this charge I say nothing. For every
word of falsehood and every act of insincerity, the guilty party
must bear his own burden, but we cannot but regret the example
of Confucius in this particular. It is with the Chinese and their
sage, as it was with the Jews of old and their teachers. He that
leads them has caused them to err, and destroyed the way of their
paths [1].
	But was not insincerity a natural result of the un-religion
of Confucius? There are certain virtues which demand a true
piety in order to their flourishing in the heart of man. Natural
affection, the feeling of loyalty, and enlightened policy, may do
much to build up and preserve a family and a state, but it requires
more to maintain the love of truth, and make a lie, spoken or
acted, to be shrunk from with shame. It requires in fact the living
recognition of a God of truth, and all the sanctions of revealed
religion. Unfortunately the Chinese have not had these, and the
example of him to whom they bow down as the best and wisest of
men, does not set them against dissimulation.
	7. I go on to a brief discussion of Confucius's views on
government, or what we may call his principles of political
science. It

[sidebar] His views on government.

could not be in his long intercourse with his disciples but that he
should enunciate many maxims bearing on character and morals
generally, but he never rested in the improvement of the
individual. 'The kingdom, the world, brought to a state of happy
tranquillity [2],' was the grand object which he delighted to think
of; that it might be brought about as easily as 'one can look upon
the palm of his hand,' was the dream which it pleased him to
indulge [3]. He held that there was in men an adaptation and
readiness to be governed, which only needed to be taken advantage
of in the proper way. There must be the right administrators, but
given those, and 'the growth of government would be rapid, just
as vegetation is rapid in the earth; yea, their

1 Isaiah iii. 12.
2 ¤Ñ¤U¥­. See the ¤j¾Ç, ¸g, pars. 4, 5; &c.
3 Ana. III. xi; et al.

government would display itself like an easily-growing rush [1].'
The same sentiment was common from the lips of Mencius.
Enforcing it one day, when conversing with one of the petty rulers
of his time, he said in his peculiar style, 'Does your Majesty
understand the way of the growing grain? During the seventh and
eighth months, when drought prevails, the plants become dry.
Then the clouds collect densely in the heavens; they send down
torrents of rain, and the grain erects itself as if by a shoot. When
it does so, who can keep it back [2]?' Such, he contended, would be
the response of the mass of the people to any true 'shepherd of
men.' It may be deemed unnecessary that I should specify this
point, for it is a truth applicable to the people of all nations.
Speaking generally, government is by no device or cunning
craftiness; human nature demands it. But in no other family of
mankind is the characteristic so largely developed as in the
Chinese. The love of order and quiet, and a willingness to submit
to 'the powers that be,' eminently distinguish them. Foreign
writers have often taken notice of this, and have attributed it to
the influence of Confucius's doctrines as inculcating
subordination; but it existed previous to his time. The character
of the people molded his system, more than it was molded by it.
	This readiness to be governed arose, according to Confucius,
from 'the duties of universal obligation, or those between
sovereign and minister, between father and son, between husband
and wife, between elder brother and younger, and those belonging
to the intercourse of friends [3].' Men as they are born into the
world, and grow up in it, find themselves existing in those
relations. They are the appointment of Heaven. And each relation
has its reciprocal obligations, the recognition of which is proper
to the Heaven-conferred nature. It only needs that the sacredness
of the relations be maintained, and the duties belonging to them
faithfully discharged, and the 'happy tranquillity' will prevail all
under heaven. As to the institutions of government, the laws and
arrangements by which, as through a thousand channels, it should
go forth to carry plenty and prosperity through the length and
breadth of the country, it did not belong to Confucius, 'the
throneless king,' to set them forth minutely. And indeed they were
existing in the records of 'the ancient sovereigns.' Nothing new
was needed. It was only

1 ¤¤±e, xx. 3.
2 Mencius, I. Pt. I. vi. 6.
3 ¤¤±e, xx. 8.

requisite to pursue the old paths, and raise up the old standards.
'The government of Wan and Wu,' he said, 'is displayed in the
records,-- the tablets of wood and bamboo. Let there be the men,
and the government will flourish; but without the men, the
government decays and ceases [1].' To the same effect was the
reply which he gave to Yen Hui when asked by him how the
government of a State should be administered. It seems very wide
of the mark, until we read it in the light of the sage's veneration
for ancient ordinances, and his opinion of their sufficiency.
'Follow,' he said, 'the seasons of Hsia. Ride in the state carriages
of Yin. Wear the ceremonial cap of Chau. Let the music be the Shao
with its pantomimes. Banish the songs of Chang, and keep far
from specious talkers [2].'
	Confucius's idea then of a happy, well-governed State did
not go beyond the flourishing of the five relations of society
which have been mentioned; and we have not any condensed
exhibition from him of their nature, or of the duties belonging to
the several parties in them. Of the two first he spoke frequently,
but all that he has said on the others would go into small
compass. Mencius has said that 'between father and son there
should be affection; between sovereign and minister
righteousness; between husband and wife attention to their
separate functions; between old and young, a proper order; and
between friends, fidelity [3].' Confucius, I apprehend, would
hardly have accepted this account. It does not bring out
sufficiently the authority which he claimed for the father and the
sovereign, and the obedience which he exacted from the child and
the minister. With regard to the relation of husband and wife, he
was in no respect superior to the preceding sages who had
enunciated their views of 'propriety' on the subject. We have a
somewhat detailed exposition of his opinions in the 'Narratives of
the School.'-- 'Man,' said he, 'is the representative of Heaven, and
is supreme over all things. Woman yields obedience to the
instructions of man, and helps to carry out his principles [4]. On
this account she can determine nothing of herself, and is subject
to the rule of the three obediences. When young, she must obey her
father and elder brother; when married, she must obey her

1 ¤¤±e, xx. 2.
2 Ana. XV. x.
3 Mencius, III. Pt. I. iv. 8.
4 ¨k¤lªÌ, ¥ô¤Ñ¹D¦Óªø¸Uª«ªÌ¤]; ¤k¤lªÌ, ¶¶¨k¤l¤§¹D, ¦Óªø¨ä²zªÌ¤].

when her husband is dead, she must obey her son. She may not
think of marrying a second time. No instructions or orders must
issue from the harem. Woman's business is simply the preparation
and supplying of drink and food. Beyond the threshold of her
apartments she should not be known for evil or for good. She may
not cross the boundaries of the State to attend a funeral. She may
take no step on her own motion, and may come to no conclusion on
her own deliberation. There are five women who are not to be
taken in marriage:-- the daughter of a rebellious house; the
daughter of a disorderly house; the daughter of a house which has
produced criminals for more than one generation; the daughter of
a leprous house; and the daughter who has lost her father and
elder brother. A wife may be divorced for seven reasons, which,
however, may be overruled by three considerations. The grounds
for divorce are disobedience to her husband's parents; not giving
birth to a son; dissolute conduct; jealousy-- (of her husband's
attentions, that is, to the other inmates of his harem);
talkativeness; and thieving. The three considerations which may
overrule these grounds are-- first, if, while she was taken from a
home, she has now no home to return to; second, if she have
passed with her husband through the three years' mourning for his
parents; third, if the husband have become rich from being poor.
All these regulations were adopted by the sages in harmony with
the natures of man and woman, and to give importance to the
ordinance of marriage [1].'
	With these ideas of the relations of society, Confucius
dwelt much on the necessity of personal correctness of character
on the part of those in authority, in order to secure the right
fulfillment of the duties implied in them. This is one grand
peculiarity of his teaching. I have adverted to it in the review of
'The Great Learning,' but it deserves some further exhibition, and
there are three conversations with the chief Chi K'ang in which it
is very expressly set forth. 'Chi K'ang asked about government,
and Confucius replied, "To govern means to rectify. If you lead on
the people with correctness, who will dare not to be correct?"'
'Chi K'ang, distressed about the number of thieves in the State,
inquired of Confucius about how to do away with them. Confucius
said, "If you, sir, were not covetous, though you should reward
them to do it, they would not steal."' 'Chi K'ang asked about

1 ®a»y¨÷¤T, ¥»©R¸Ñ

saying, "What do you say to killing the unprincipled for the good
of the principled?" Confucius replied, "Sir, in carrying on your
government, why should you use killing at all? Let your evinced
desires be for what is good, and the people will be good. The
relation between superiors and inferiors is like that between the
wind and the grass. The grass must bend, when the wind blows
across it [1]."'
	Example is not so powerful as Confucius in these and many
other passages represented it, but its influence is very great. Its
virtue is recognised in the family, and it is demanded in the
church of Christ. 'A bishop'-- and I quote the term with the simple
meaning of overseer-- 'must be blameless.' It seems to me,
however, that in the progress of society in the West we have
come to think less of the power of example in many departments
of state than we ought to do. It is thought of too little in the
army and the navy. We laugh at the 'self-denying ordinance,' and
the 'new model' of 1644, but there lay beneath them the principle
which Confucius so broadly propounded,-- the importance of
personal virtue in all who are in authority. Now that Great Britain
is the governing power over the masses of India and that we are
coming more and more into contact with tens of thousands of the
Chinese, this maxim of our sage is deserving of serious
consideration from all who bear rule, and especially from those
on whom devolves the conduct of affairs. His words on the
susceptibility of the people to be acted on by those above them
ought not to prove as water spilt on the ground.
	But to return to Confucius.-- As he thus lays it down that
the mainspring of the well-being of society is the personal
character of the ruler, we look anxiously for what directions he
has given for the cultivation of that. But here he is very
defective. 'Self-adjustment and purification,' he said, 'with
careful regulation of his dress, and the not making a movement
contrary to the rules of propriety;-- this is the way for the ruler
to cultivate his person [2].' This is laying too much stress on what
is external; but even to attain to this is beyond unassisted human
strength. Confucius, however, never recognised a disturbance of
the moral elements in the constitution of man. The people would
move, according to him, to the virtue of their ruler as the grass
bends to the wind, and that virtue

1 Ana. XII. xvii; xviii; xix.
2 ¤¤±e, xx. 14.

would come to the ruler at his call. Many were the lamentations
which he uttered over the degeneracy of his times; frequent were
the confessions which he made of his own shortcomings. It seems
strange that it never came distinctly before him, that there is a
power of evil in the prince and the peasant, which no efforts of
their own and no instructions of sages are effectual to subdue.
	The government which Confucius taught was a despotism,
but of a modified character. He allowed no 'jus divinum,'
independent of personal virtue and a benevolent rule. He has not
explicitly stated, indeed, wherein lies the ground of the great
relation of the governor and the governed, but his views on the
subject were, we may assume, in accordance with the language of
the Shu-ching:-- 'Heaven and Earth are the parents of all things,
and of all things men are the most intelligent. The man among
them most distinguished for intelligence becomes chief ruler, and
ought to prove himself the parent of the people [1].' And again,
'Heaven, protecting the inferior people, has constituted for them
rulers and teachers, who should be able to be assisting to God,
extending favour and producing tranquillity throughout all parts
of the kingdom [2].' The moment the ruler ceases to be a minister
of God for good, and does not administer a government that is
beneficial to the people, he forfeits the title by which he holds
the throne, and perseverance in oppression will surely lead to his
overthrow. Mencius inculcated this principle with a frequency and
boldness which are remarkable. It was one of the things about
which Confucius did not like to talk. Still he held it. It is
conspicuous in the last chapter of 'The Great Learning.' Its
tendency has been to check the violence of oppression, and
maintain the self-respect of the people, all along the course of
Chinese history.
	I must bring these observations on Confucius's views of
government to a close, and I do so with two remarks. First, they
are adapted to a primitive, unsophisticated state of society. He is
a good counsellor for the father of a family, the chief of a clan,
and even the head of a small principality. But his views want the
comprehension which would make them of much service in a great
dominion. Within three centuries after his death,the government
of China passed into a new phase. The founder of the Ch'in dynasty
conceived the grand idea of abolishing all its feudal kingdoms,
and centralizing their administration in himself. He effected the

l 2 See the Shu-ching, V. i. Sect. I. 2, 7.

lution, and succeeding dynasties adopted his system, and
gradually molded it into the forms and proportions which are now
existing. There has been a tendency to advance, and Confucius has
all along been trying to carry the nation back. Principles have
been needed, and not 'proprieties.' The consequence is that China
has increased beyond its ancient dimensions, while there has been
no corresponding development of thought. Its body politic has the
size of a giant, while it still retains the mind of a child. Its hoary
age is in danger of becoming but senility.
	Second, Confucius makes no provision for the intercourse of
his country with other and independent nations. He knew indeed of
none such. China was to him 'The Middle Kingdom [1],' 'The
multitude of Great States [2],' 'All under heaven [3].' Beyond it
were only rude and barbarous tribes. He does not speak of them
bitterly, as many Chinese have done since his time. In one place
he contrasts their condition favourably with the prevailing
anarchy of the kingdom, saying 'The rude tribes of the east and
north have their princes, and are not like the States of our great
land which are without them [4].' Another time, disgusted with
the want of appreciation which he experienced, he was expressing
his intention to go and live among the nine wild tribes of the east.
Some one said, 'They are rude. How can you do such a thing?' His
reply was, 'If a superior man dwelt among them, what rudeness
would there be [5]?' But had he been a ruler-sage, he would not
only have influenced them by his instructions, but brought them
to acknowledge and submit to his sway, as the great Yu did [6].
The only passage of Confucius's teachings from which any rule
can be gathered for dealing with foreigners is that in the
'Doctrine of the Mean,' where 'indulgent treatment of men from a
distance' is laid down as one of the nine standard rules for the
government of the country [7]. But 'the men from a distance' are
understood to be pin and lu [8] simply,-- 'guests,' that is, or
officers of one State seeking employment in another, or at the
royal court; and 'visitors,' or travelling merchants. Of independent
nations the ancient classics have not any knowledge, nor has
Confucius. So long as merchants from Europe and other parts of
the world could have been content to appear in China as
suppliants, seeking the privilege of trade, so

1 ¤¤°ê.
2 ½Ñ®L; Ana. III. v.
3 ¤Ñ¤U; passim.
4 Ana. III. v.
5 Ana. IX. xiii.
6 ®Ñ¸g, III. ii. 10; et al.
7 ¬X»·¤H.
8 »«®È.

long the government would have ranked them with the barbarous
hordes of antiquity, and given them the benefit of the maxim
about 'indulgent treatment,' according to its own understanding of
it. But when their governments interfered, and claimed to treat
with that of China on terms of equality, and that their subjects
should be spoken to and of as being of the same clay with the
Chinese themselves, an outrage was committed on tradition and
prejudice, which it was necessary to resent with vehemence.
	I do not charge the contemptuous arrogance of the Chinese
government and people upon Confucius; what I deplore, is that he
left no principles on record to check the development of such a
spirit. His simple views of society and government were in a
measure sufficient for the people while they dwelt apart from
the rest of mankind. His practical lessons were better than if
they had been left, which but for him they probably would have
been, to fall a prey to the influences of Taoism and Buddhism, but
they could only subsist while they were left alone. Of the earth
earthy, China was sure to go to pieces when it came into collision
with a Christianly-civilized power. Its sage had left it no
preservative or restorative elements against such a case.
	It is a rude awakening from its complacency of centuries
which China has now received. Its ancient landmarks are swept
away. Opinions will differ as to the justice or injustice of the
grounds on which it has been assailed, and I do not feel called to
judge or to pronounce here concerning them. In the progress of
events, it could hardly be but that the collision should come; and
when it did come it could not be but that China should be broken
and scattered. Disorganization will go on to destroy it more and
more, and yet there is hope for the people, with their veneration
for the relations of society, with their devotion to learning, and
with their habits of industry and sobriety; there is hope for them,
if they will look away from all their ancient sages, and turn to
Him, who sends them, along with the dissolution of their ancient
state, the knowledge of Himself, the only living and true God, and
of Jesus Christ whom He hath sent.
	8. I have little more to add on the opinions of Confucius.
Many of his sayings are pithy, and display much knowledge of
character; but as they are contained in the body of the Work, I
will not occupy the space here with a selection of those which
have struck myself as most worthy of notice. The fourth Book of
the Analects,

which is on the subject of zan, or perfect virtue, has several
utterances which are remarkable.
	Thornton observes:-- 'It may excite surprise, and probably
incredulity, to state that the golden rule of our Saviour, 'Do unto
others as you would that they should do unto you,' which Mr. Locke
designates as 'the most unshaken rule of morality, and foundation
of all social virtue,' had been inculcated by Confucius, almost in
the same words, four centuries before [1].' I have taken notice of
this fact in reviewing both 'The Great Learning' and 'The Doctrine
of the Mean.' I would be far from grudging a tribute of admiration
to Confucius for it. The maxim occurs also twice in the Analects.
In Book XV. xxiii, Tsze-kung asks if there be one word which may
serve as a rule of practice for all one's life, and is answered, 'Is
not reciprocity such a word? What you do not want done to
yourself do not do to others.' The same disciple appears in Book V.
xi, telling Confucius that he was practising the lesson. He says,
'What I do not wish men to do to me, I also wish not to do to men;'
but the master tells him, 'Tsze, you have not attained to that.' It
would appear from this reply, that he was aware of the difficulty
of obeying the precept ; and it is not found, in its condensed
expression at least, in the older classics. The merit of it is
Confucius's own.
	When a comparison, however, is drawn between it and the
rule laid down by Christ, it is proper to call attention to the
positive form of the latter, 'All things whatsoever ye would that
men should do unto you, do ye even so to them.' The lesson of the
gospel commands men to do what they feel to be right and good. It
requires them to commence a course of such conduct, without
regard to the conduct of others to themselves. The lesson of
Confucius only forbids men to do what they feel to be wrong and
hurtful. So far as the point of priority is concerned, moreover,
Christ adds, 'This is the law and the prophets.' The maxim was to
be found substantially in the earlier revelations of God. Still it
must be allowed that Confucius was well aware of the
importance of taking the initiative in discharging all the
relations of society. See his words as quoted from 'The Doctrine
of the Mean' on pages 48, 49 above. But the worth of the two
maxims depends on the intention of the enunciators in regard to
their application. Confucius, it seems to me, did not think of the
reciprocity coming into action beyond the circle of his five
relations of society. Possibly, he might have

1 History of China, vol. i. p. 209.

required its observance in dealings even with the rude tribes,
which were the only specimens of mankind besides his own
countrymen of which he knew anything, for on one occasion, when
asked about perfect virtue, he replied, 'It is, in retirement, to be
sedately grave; in the management of business, to be reverently
attentive; in intercourse with others, to be strictly sincere.
Though a man go among the rude uncultivated tribes, these
qualities may not be neglected [1].' Still Confucius delivered his
rule to his countrymen only, and only for their guidance in their
relations of which I have had so much occasion to speak. The rule
of Christ is for man as man, having to do with other men, all with
himself on the same platform, as the children and subjects of the
one God and Father in heaven.
	How far short Confucius came of the standard of Christian
benevolence, may be seen from his remarks when asked what was
to be thought of the principle that injury should be recompensed
with kindness. He replied, 'With what then will you recompense
kindness? Recompense injury with justice, and recompense
kindness with kindness [2].' The same deliverance is given in one
of the Books of the Li Chi, where he adds that 'he who
recompenses injury with kindness is a man who is careful of his
person [3].' Chang Hsuan, the commentator of the second century,
says that such a course would be 'incorrect in point of propriety
[4].' This 'propriety' was a great stumbling-block in the way of
Confucius. His morality was the result of the balancings of his
intellect, fettered by the decisions of men of old, and not the
gushings of a loving heart, responsive to the promptings of
Heaven, and in sympathy with erring and feeble humanity.
	This subject leads me on to the last of the opinions of
Confucius which I shall make the subject of remark in this place.
A commentator observes, with reference to the inquiry about
recompensing injury with kindness, that the questioner was
asking only about trivial matters, which might be dealt with in
the way he mentioned, while great offences, such as those
against a sovereign or a father, could not be dealt with by such an
inversion of the principles of justice [5]. In the second Book of
the Li Chi there is the following passage:-- 'With the slayer of
his father, a man may not live under the same heaven; against the
slayer of his brother, a man must never have to go home to fetch a
weapon; with the slayer of

1 Ana. XIII. xix.
2 Ana. XIV. xxxvi.
3 §°O, ªí°O, par. 12.
4 «D§¤§¥¿.
5 See notes in loc., p. 288.

his friend, a man may not live in the same State [1].' The lex
talionis is here laid down in its fullest extent. The Chau Li tells
us of a provision made against the evil consequences of the
principle, by the appointment of a minister called 'The Reconciler
[2].' The provision is very inferior to the cities of refuge which
were set apart by Moses for the manslayer to flee to from the
fury of the avenger. Such as it was, however, it existed, and it is
remarkable that Confucius, when consulted on the subject, took
no notice of it, but affirmed the duty of blood-revenge in the
strongest and most unrestricted terms. His disciple Tsze-hsia
asked him, 'What course is to be pursued in the case of the murder
of a father or mother?' He replied, 'The son must sleep upon a
matting of grass, with his shield for his pillow; he must decline
to take office; he must not live under the same heaven with the
slayer. When he meets him in the marketplace or the court, he
must have his weapon ready to strike him.' 'And what is the
course on the murder of a brother?' 'The surviving brother must
not take office in the same State with the slayer; yet if he go on
his prince's service to the State where the slayer is, though he
meet him, he must not fight with him.' 'And what is the course on
the murder of an uncle or a cousin?' 'In this case the nephew or
cousin is not the principal. If the principal on whom the revenge
devolves can take it, he has only to stand behind with his weapon
in his hand, and support him [3].'
	Sir John Davis has rightly called attention to this as one of
the objectionable principles of Confucius [4]. The bad effects of it
are evident even in the present day. Revenge is sweet to the
Chinese. I have spoken of their readiness to submit to
government, and wish to live in peace, yet they do not like to
resign even to government the 'inquisition for blood.' Where the
ruling authority is feeble, as it is at present, individuals and
clans take the law into their own hands, and whole districts are
kept in a state of constant feud and warfare.
	But I must now leave the sage. I hope I have not done him
injustice; the more I have studied his character and opinions, the
more highly have I come to regard him. He was a very great man,
and his influence has been on the whole a great benefit to the
Chinese, while his teachings suggest important lessons to
ourselves who profess to belong to the school of Christ.

1 夡O, I. Sect. I. Pt. v. 10.
2 ©P§, ¨÷¤§¤Q¥|, pp. 14-18.
3  §°O, II. Sect. I. Pt. ii. 24. See also the ®a»y, ¨÷¥|, ¤l°^°Ý.
4 The Chinese, vol. ii. p. 41.



	Sze-ma Ch'ien makes Confucius say: 'The disciples who
received my instructions, and could themselves comprehend them,
were seventy-seven individuals. They were all scholars of
extraordinary ability [1].' The common saying is, that the
disciples of the sage were three thousand, while among them
there were seventy-two worthies. I propose to give here a list of
all those whose names have come down to us, as being his
followers. Of the greater number it will be seen that we know
nothing more than their names and surnames. My principal
authorities will be the 'Historical Records,' the 'Narratives of the
School,' 'The Sacrificial Canon for the Sage's Temple, with
Plates,' and the chapter on 'The Disciples of Confucius' prefixed to
the 'Four Books, Text and Commentary, with Proofs and
Illustrations.' In giving a few notices of the better-known
individuals, I will endeavour to avoid what may be gathered from
the Analects.
	1. Yen Hui, by designation Tsze-yuan (ÃC¦^, ¦r¤l²W). He was a
native of Lu, the favourite of his master, whose junior he was by
thirty years, and whose disciple he became when he was quite a
youth. 'After I got Hui,' Confucius remarked, 'the disciples came
closer to me.' We are told that once, when he found himself on the
Nang hill with Hui, Tsze-lu, and Tsze-kung, Confucius asked them
to tell him their different aims, and he would choose between
them. Tsze-lu began, and when he had done, the master said, 'It
marks your bravery.' Tsze-kung followed, on whose words the
judgment was, 'They show your discriminating eloquence.' At last
came Yen Yuan, who said, 'I should like to find an intelligent king
and sage ruler whom I might assist. I would diffuse among the
people instructions on the five great points, and lead them on by
the rules of propriety and music, so that they should not care to
fortify their cities by walls and moats, but would fuse their
swords and spears into implements of agriculture. They should
send forth their flocks without fear into the plains and forests.
There should be no sunderings of families, no widows or
widowers. For a thousand

1 ¤Õ¤l¤ê¡A¨ü·~¨­³qªÌ¡A¤C¤Q¦³¤C¤H¡A¬Ò²§¯à¤§¤h¤].

years there would be no calamity of war. Yu would have no
opportunity to display his bravery, or Ts'ze to display his oratory.'
The master pronounced, 'How admirable is this virtue!'
	When Hui was twenty-nine, his hair was all white, and in
three years more he died. He was sacrificed to, along with
Confucius, by the first emperor of the Han dynasty. The title
which he now has in the sacrificial Canon,-- 'Continuator of the
Sage,' was conferred in the ninth year of the emperor, or, to speak
more correctly, of the period, Chia-ching, A. D. 1530. Almost all
the present sacrificial titles of the worthies in the temple were
fixed at that time. Hui's place is the first of the four Assessors,
on the east of the sage [1].
	2. Min Sun, styled Tsze-ch'ien (¶{·l¡A¦r¤lÄÊ). He was a native
of Lu, fifteen years younger than Confucius, according to Sze-ma
Ch'ien, but fifty years younger, according to the 'Narratives of the
School,' which latter authority is followed in 'The Annals of the
Empire.' When he first came to Confucius, we are told, he had a
starved look [2], which was by-and-by exchanged for one of
fulness and satisfaction [3]. Tsze-kung asked him how the change
had come about. He replied, 'I came from the midst of my reeds
and sedges into the school of the master. He trained my mind to
filial piety, and set before me the examples of the ancient kings. I
felt a pleasure in his instructions; but when I went abroad, and
saw the people in authority, with their umbrellas and banners,
and all the pomp and circumstance of their trains, I also felt
pleasure in that show. These two things assaulted each other in

1 I have referred briefly, at p. 91, to the temples of Confucius.
The principal hall, called ¤j¦¨·µ, or 'Hall of the Great and
Complete One,' is that in which is his own statue or the tablet of
his spirit, having on each side of it, within a screen, the statues,
or tablets, of his 'four Assessors.' On the east and west, along the
walls of the same apartment, are the two §Ç, the places of the ¤Q
¤G­õ, or 'twelve Wise Ones,' those of his disciples, who, next to
the 'Assessors,' are counted worthy of honour. Outside this
apartment, and running in a line with the two §Ç, but along the
external wall of the sacred inclosure, are the two åu, or side-
galleries, which I have sometimes called the ranges of the outer
court. In each there are sixty-four tablets of the disciples and
other worthies, having the same title as the Wise Ones, that of ¥ý
½å, or 'Ancient Worthy,' or the inferior title of ¥ý¾§, 'Ancient
Scholar.' Behind the principal hall is the ±R¸t¯¨·µ, sacred to
Confucius's ancestors, whose tablets are in the centre, fronting
the south, like that of Confucius. On each side are likewise the
tablets of certain 'ancient Worthies,' and 'ancient Scholars.'
2 µæ¦â.
3 ¯ì¸æ¤§¦â.

my breast. I could not determine which to prefer, and so I wore
that look of distress. But now the lessons of our master have
penetrated deeply into my mind. My progress also has been helped
by the example of you my fellow-disciples. I now know what I
should follow and what I should avoid, and all the pomp of power
is no more to me than the dust of the ground. It is on this account
that I have that look of fulness and satisfaction.' Tsze-ch'ien was
high in Confucius's esteem. He was distinguished for his purity
and filial affection. His place in the temple is the first, east,
among 'The Wise Ones,' immediately after the four assessors. He
was first sacrificed to along with Confucius, as is to be
understood of the other 'Wise Ones,' excepting in the case of Yu
Zo, in the eighth year of the style K'ai-yuan of the sixth emperor
of the T'ang dynasty, A.D. 720. His title, the same as that of all
but the Assessors, is-- 'The ancient Worthy, the philosopher Min.'
	3 . Zan Kang, styled Po-niu (¥T¯Ñ, ¦r¥Õ [al. ¦Ê] ¤û). He was a
native of Lu, and Confucius's junior only by seven years. When
Confucius became minister of Crime, he appointed Po-niu to the
office, which he had himself formerly held, of commandant of
Chung-tu. His tablet is now fourth among 'The Wise Ones,' on the
	4. Zan Yung, styled Chung-kung (¥T¹l, ¦r¥ò¤}). He was of the
same clan as Zan Kang, and twenty-nine years younger than
Confucius. He had a bad father, but the master declared that was
not to be counted to him, to detract from his admitted excellence.
His place is among 'The Wise Ones,' the second, east.
	5. Zan Ch'iu, styled Tsze-yu (¥T¨D, ¦r¤l¦³). He was related to
the two former, and of the same age as Chung-kung. He was noted
among the disciples for his versatile ability and many
acquirements. Tsze-kung said of him, 'Respectful to the old, and
kind to the young; attentive to guests and visitors; fond of
learning and skilled in many arts; diligent in his examination of
things:-- these are what belong to Zan Ch'iu." It has been noted in
the life of Confucius that it was by the influence of Tsze-yu that
he was finally restored to Lu. He occupies the third place, west,
among 'The Wise Ones.'
	6. Chung Yu, styled Tsze-lu and Chi-lu (¥ò¥Ñ, ¦r¤l¸ô, ¤S¦r©u¸ô).
He was a native of P'ien (¤Ë) in Lu and only

nine years younger than Confucius. At their first interview, the
master asked him what he was fond of, and he replied, 'My long
sword.' Confucius said, 'If to your present ability there were
added the results of learning, you would be a very superior man.'
'Of what advantage would learning be to me?' asked Tsze-lu.
'There is a bamboo on the southern hill, which is straight itself
without being bent. If you cut it down and use it, you can send it
through a rhinoceros's hide;-- what is the use of learning?' 'Yes,'
said the master; 'but if you feather it and point it with steel, will
it not penetrate more deeply?' Tsze-lu bowed ' twice, and said, 'I
will reverently receive your instructions.' Confucius was wont to
say, 'From the time that I got Yu, bad words no more came to my
ears.' For some time Tsze-lu was chief magistrate of the district
of P'u (»Z), where his administration commanded the warm
commendations of the master. He died finally in Wei, as has been
related above, pp. 86, 87. His tablet is now the fourth, east, from
those of the Assessors.
	7. Tsai Yu styled Tsze-wo (®_¤©, ¦r¤l§Ú). He was a native of
Lu, but nothing is mentioned of his age. He had 'a sharp mouth,'
according to Sze-ma Ch'ien. Once, when he was at the court of
Ch'u on some commission, the king Chao offered him an easy
carriage adorned with ivory for his master. Yu replied, 'My master
is a man who would rejoice in a government where right
principles were carried out, and can find his joy in himself when
that is not the case. Now right principles and virtue are as it
were in a state of slumber. His wish is to rouse and put them in
motion. Could he find a prince really anxious to rule according to
them, he would walk on foot to his court and be glad to do so. Why
need he receive such a valuable gift, as this from so great a
distance?' Confucius commended this reply; but where he is
mentioned in the Analects, Tsze-wo does not appear to great
advantage. He took service in the State of Ch'i, and was chief
magistrate of Lin-tsze, where he joined with T'ien Ch'ang in some
disorderly movement [1], which led to the destruction of his
kindred, and made Confucius ashamed of him. His tablet is now
the second, west, among 'The Wise Ones.'
	8. Twan-mu Ts'ze, styled Tsze-kung (ºÝ¤ì½ç, ¦r¤l°^ [al. ¤lÆB]),
whose place is now third, east, from the Assessors. He

1 »P¥Ð±`§@¶Ã. See Sze-ma Ch'ien's Biographies, chap. 7, though
come have doubted the genuineness of this part of the notice of

was a native of Wei (½Ã), and thirty-one years younger than
Confucius. He had great quickness of natural ability, and appears
in the Analects as one of the most forward talkers among the
disciples. Confucius used to say, 'From the time that I got Ts'ze,
scholars from a distance came daily resorting to me.' Several
instances of the language which he used to express his admiration
of the master have been given in the last section. Here is
another:-- The duke Ching of Ch'i asked Tsze-kung how Chung-ni
was to be ranked as a sage. 'I do not know,' was the reply. 'I have
all my life had the heaven over my head, but I do not know its
height, and the earth under my feet, but I do not know its
thickness. In my serving of Confucius, I am like a thirsty man who
goes with his pitcher to the river, and there he drinks his fill,
without knowing the river's depth.' He took leave of Confucius to
become commandant of Hsin-yang («H¶§®_), when the master said
to him, 'In dealing with your subordinates, there is nothing like
impartiality; and when wealth comes in your way, there is
nothing like moderation. Hold fast these two things, and do not
swerve from them. To conceal men's excellence is to obscure the
worthy; and to proclaim people's wickedness is the part of a mean
man. To speak evil of those whom you have not sought the
opportunity to instruct is not the way of friendship and harmony.'
Subsequently Tsze-kung was high in office both in Lu and Wei, and
finally died in Ch'i. We saw how he was in attendance on
Confucius at the time of the sage's death. Many of the disciples
built huts near the master's grave, and mourned for him three
years, but Tsze-kung remained sorrowing alone for three years
	9. Yen Yen, styled Tsze-yu (¨¥°³, ¦r¤l´å), now the fourth in
the western range of 'The Wise Ones.' He was a native of Wu (§d),
forty-five years younger than Confucius, and distinguished for his
literary acquirements. Being made commandant of Wu-ch'ang, he
transformed the character of the people by 'proprieties' and
music, and was praised by the master. After the death of
Confucius, Chi K'ang asked Yen how that event had made no
sensation like that which was made by the death of Tsze-ch'an,
when the men laid aside their bowstring rings and girdle
ornaments, and the women laid aside their pearls and ear-rings,
and the voice of weeping was heard in the lanes for three months.
Yen replied, 'The influences of Tsze-ch'an and my master might be

to those of overflowing water and the fattening rain. Wherever
the water in its overflow reaches, men take knowledge of it,
while the fattening rain falls unobserved.'
	10. Pu Shang, styled Tsze-hsia (¤R°Ó, ¦r¤l®L). It is not
certain to what State he belonged, his birth being assigned to Wei
(½Ã), to Wei (ÃQ), and to Wan (·Å). He was forty-five years younger
than Confucius, and lived to a great age, for we find him, B.C. 406,
at the court of the prince Wan of Wei (ÃQ), to whom he gave copies
of some of the classical Books. He is represented as a scholar
extensively read and exact, but without great comprehension of
mind. What is called Mao's Shih-ching (¤ò¸Ö) is said to contain the
views of Tsze-hsia. Kung-yang Kao and Ku-liang Ch'ih are also
said to have studied the Ch'un Ch'iu with him. On the occasion of
the death of his son he wept himself blind. His place is the fifth,
east, among 'The Wise Ones.'
	11. Chwan-sun Shih, styled Tsze-chang (ÃF®]®v, ¦r¤l±i), has
his tablet, corresponding to that of the preceding, on the west. He
was a native of Ch'an (³¯), and forty-eight years younger than
Confucius. Tsze-kung said, 'Not to boast of his admirable merit;
not to signify joy on account of noble station; neither insolent nor
indolent; showing no pride to the dependent:-- these are the
characteristics of Chwan-sun Shih.' When he was sick, he called
(his son) Shan-hsiang to him, and said, 'We speak of his end in the
case of a superior man, and of his death in the case of a mean
man. May I think that it is going to be the former with me to-
	12. Tsang Shan [or Ts'an] styled Tsze-yu (´¿°Ñ, ¦r¤lÁÖ [al. ¤l
»P]). He was a native of south Wu-ch'ang, and forty-six years
younger than Confucius. In his sixteenth year he was sent by his
father into Ch'u, where Confucius then was, to learn under the
sage. Excepting perhaps Yen Hui, there is not a name of greater
note in the Confucian school. Tsze-kung said of him, 'There is no
subject which he has not studied. His appearance is respectful.
His virtue is solid. His words command credence. Before great
men he draws himself up in the pride of self-respect. His
eyebrows are those of longevity.' He was noted for his filial
piety, and after the death of his parents, he could not read the
rites of mourning without being led to think of them, and moved
to tears. He was a voluminous writer. Ten Books of his
composition are said to be contained in the 'Rites of the elder Tai'

(¤jÀ¹Â§). The Classic of Filial Piety he is said to have made under
the eye of Confucius. On his connexion with 'The Great Learning,'
see above, Ch. III. Sect. II. He was first associated with the
sacrifices to Confucius in A.D. 668, but in 1267 he was advanced
to be one of the sage's four Assessors. His title-- 'Exhibitor of
the Fundamental Principles of the Sage,' dates from the period of
Chia-ching, as mentioned in speaking of Yen Hui.
	13. Tan-t'ai Mieh-ming, styled Tsze-yu (¿F»O·À©ú, ¦r¤l¦Ð). He
was a native of Wu-ch'ang, thirty-nine years younger than
Confucius, according to the 'Historical Records,' but forty-nine,
according to the 'Narratives of the School.' He was excessively
ugly, and Confucius thought meanly of his talents in consequence,
on his first application to him. After completing his studies, he
travelled to the south as far as the Yang-tsze. Traces of his
presence in that part of the country are still pointed out in the
department of Su-chau. He was followed by about three hundred
disciples, to whom he laid down rules for their guidance in their
intercourse with the princes. When Confucius heard of his
success, he confessed how he had been led by his bad looks to
misjudge him. He, with nearly all the disciples whose names
follow, first had a place assigned to him in the sacrifices to
Confucius in A.D. 739. The place of his tablet is the second, east,
in the outer court, beyond that of the 'Assessors' and 'Wise Ones.'
	14. Corresponding to the preceding, on the west, is the
tablet of Fu Pu-ch'i styled Tsze-tsien (ÌW [al. ±K and ×{, all = ¥ñ] ¤£
»ô, ¦r¤l½â). He was a native of Lu, and, according to different
accounts, thirty, forty, and forty-nine years younger than
Confucius. He was commandant of Tan-fu (³æ¤÷®_), and hardly
needed to put forth any personal effort. Wu-ma Ch'i had been in
the same office, and had succeeded by dint of the greatest
industry and toil. He asked Pu-ch'i how he managed so easily for
himself, and was answered, 'I employ men; you employ men's
strength.' People pronounced Fu to be a superior man. He was also
a writer, and his works are mentioned in Liu Hsin's Catalogue.
	15. Next to that of Mieh-ming is the tablet of Yuan Hsien,
styled Tsze-sze (­ì¾Ë, ¦r¤l«ä) a native of Sung or according to
Chang Hsuan, of Lu, and younger than Confucius by thirty-six
years. He was noted for his purity and modesty, and for his

happiness in the principles of the master amid deep poverty.
After the death of Confucius, he lived in obscurity in Wei. In the
notes to Ana. VI. iii, I have referred to an interview which he had
with Tsze-kung.
	16. Kung-ye Ch'ang [al. Chih], styled Tsze-ch'ang [al. Tsze-
chih], (¤½§Mªø [al. ªÛ], ¦r¤lªø [al. ¤lªÛ]), has his tablet next to that
of Pu-ch'i. He was son-in-law to Confucius. His nativity is
assigned both to Lu and to Ch'i.
	17. Nan-kung Kwo, styled Tsze-yung («n®c¬A [al. Óì and, in the
'Narratives of the School,' êÖ (T'ao)], ¦r¤l®e), has the place at the
east next to Yuan Hsien. It is a question much debated whether he
was the same with Nan-kung Chang-shu, who accompanied
Confucius to the court of Chau, or not. On occasion of a fire
breaking out in the palace of duke Ai, while others were intent on
securing the contents of the Treasury, Nan-kung directed his
efforts to save the Library, and to him was owing the
preservation of the copy of the Chau Li which was in Lu, and other
ancient monuments.
	18. Kung-hsi Ai, styled Chi-ts'ze [al. Chi-ch'an] (¤½ÞÕ«s, ¦r©u
¦¸ [al. ©u¨I]). His tablet follows that of Kung-ye. He was a native
of Lu, or of Ch'i. Confucius commended him for refusing to take
office with any of the Families which were encroaching on the
authority of the princes of the States, and for choosing to endure
the severest poverty rather than sacrifice a tittle of his
	19. Tsang Tien, styled Hsi (´¿ã¿[al. ÂI], ¦rÞÕ). .He was the
father of Tsang Shan. His place in the temples is the hall to
Confucius's ancestors, where his tablet is the first, west.
	20. Yen Wu-yao, styled Lu (ÃCµLíÙ, ¦r¸ô). He was the father of
Yen Hui, younger than Confucius by six years. His sacrificial place
is the first, east, in the same hall as the last.
	21. Following the tablet of Nan-kung Kwo is that of Shang
Chu, styled Tsze-mu (°Ó£, ¦r¤l¤ì). To him, it is said, we are
indebted for the preservation of the Yi-ching, which he received
from Confucius. Its transmission step by step, from Chu down to
the Han dynasty, is minutely set forth.
	22. Next to Kung-hsi Ai is the place of Kao Ch'ai, styled
Tsze-kao and Chi-kao (°ª®ã, ¦r¤l¯Ì [al. ©u¯Ì; for ¯Ì moreover, we
find ¯o, and âé]), a native of Ch'i, according to the 'Narratives

of the School,' but of Wei, according to Sze-ma Ch'ien and Chang
Hsuan. He was thirty (some say forty) years younger than
Confucius, dwarfish and ugly, but of great worth and ability. At
one time he was criminal judge of Wei, and in the execution of his
office condemned a prisoner to lose his feet. Afterwards that
same man saved his life, when he was flying from the State.
Confucius praised Ch'ai for being able to administer stern justice
with such a spirit of benevolence as to disarm resentment.
	23. Shang Chu is followed by Ch'i-tiao K'ai [prop. Ch'i],
styled Tsze-k'ai, Tsze-zo, and Tsze-hsiu (º£ÀJ¶} [pr. ±Ò], ¦r¤l¶}, ¤l
­Y, and ¤l­×²ç), a native of Ts'ai (½²), or according to Chang Hsuan,
of Lu. We only know him as a reader of the Shu-ching, and refusing
to go into office.
	24. Kung-po Liao, styled Tsze-chau (¤½§B¹±, ¦r¤l©P). He
appears in the Analects, XIV. xxxiii, slandering Tsze-lu. It is
doubtful whether he should have a place among the disciples.
	25. Sze-ma Kang, styled Tsze-niu (¥q°¨¯Ñ, ¦r¤l¤û), follows
Ch'i-tiao K'ai; also styled ¶Á¯Ñ. He was a great talker, a native of
Sung, and a brother of Hwan T'ui, to escape from whom seems to
have been the labour of his life.
	26. The place next Kao Ch'ai is occupied by Fan Hsu, styled
Tsze-ch'ih (¼Ô¶·, ¦r¤l¿ð), a native of Ch'i, or, according to others,
of Lu, and whose age is given as thirty-six and forty-six years
younger than Confucius. When young, he distinguished himself in a
military command under the Chi family.
	27. Yu Zo, styled Tsze-zo (¦³­Y, ¦r¤l­Y). He was a native of
Lu, and his age is stated very variously. He was noted among the
disciples for his great memory and fondness for antiquity. After
the death of Confucius, the rest of the disciples, because of some
likeness in Zo's speech to the Master, wished to render the same
observances to him which they had done to Confucius, but on
Tsang Shan's demurring to the thing, they abandoned the purpose.
The tablet of Tsze-zo is now the sixth, east among 'The Wise
Ones,' to which place it was promoted in the third year of Ch'ien-
lung of the present dynasty. This was done in compliance with a
memorial from the president of one of the Boards, who said he
was moved by a dream to make the request. We may suppose that
his real motives were a wish to do Justice to the merits of Tsze-
zo, and to restore the symmetry of the tablets in the 'Hall of the

Great and Complete One,' which had been disturbed by the
introduction of the tablet of Chu Hsi in the preceding reign.
	28. Kung-hsi Ch'ih, styled Tsze-hwa (¤½¦è¨ª, ¦r¤lµØ), a native
of Lu, younger than Confucius by forty-two years, whose place is
the fourth, west, in the outer court. He was noted for his
knowledge of ceremonies, and the other disciples devolved on him
all the arrangements about the funeral of the Master.
	29. Wu-ma Shih [or Ch'i], styled Tsze-Ch'i (§Å°¨¬I [al. ´Á], ¦r
¤l´Á [al. ¤lºX]), a native of Ch'an, or, according to Chang Hsuan, of
Lu, thirty years younger than Confucius. His tablet is on the east,
next to that of Sze-ma Kang. It is related that on one occasion,
when Confucius was about to set out with a company of the
disciples on a walk or journey, he told them to take umbrellas.
They met with a heavy shower, and Wu-ma asked him, saying,
'There were no clouds in the morning; but after the sun had risen,
you told us to take umbrellas. How did you know that it would
rain?' Confucius said, 'The moon last evening was in the
constellation Pi, and is it not said in the Shih-ching, "When the
moon is in Pi, there will be heavy rain?" It was thus I knew it.'
	30. Liang Chan [al. Li], styled Shu-yu (±çøÖ [al. ÃU] ¦r¨û³½),
occupies the eighth place, west, among the tablets of the outer
court. He was a man of Ch'i, and his age is stated as twenty-nine
and thirty-nine years younger than Confucius. The following story
is told in connexion with him.-- When he was thirty, being
disappointed that he had no son, he was minded to put away his
wife. 'Do not do so,' said Shang Chu to him. 'I was thirty-eight
before I had a son, and my mother was then about to take another
wife for me, when the Master proposed sending me to Ch'i. My
mother was unwilling that I should go, but Confucius said, 'Don't
be anxious. Chu will have five sons after he is forty.' It has turned
out so, and I apprehend it is your fault, and not your wife's, that
you have no son yet.' Chan took this advice, and in the second year
after, he had a son.
	31. Yen Hsing [al. Hsin, Liu, and Wei], styled Tsze-liu (ÃC©¯
[al. ¨¯, ¬h, and ­³], ¦r¤l¬h), occupies the place, east, after Wu-ma
Shih. He was a native of Lu, and forty-six years younger than
	32. Liang Chan is followed on the west by Zan Zu, styled
Tsze-lu [al. Tsze-tsang and Tsze-yu] (¥TÀ© [al. ¾§] ¦r*¤l¾| [al. ¤l´¿

* Digitizer's note: This is ¦t in the source text; I have corrected
what is an obvious misprint.

and ¤l³½]), a native of Lu, and fifty years younger than Confucius.
	33. Yen Hsing is followed on the east by Ts'ao Hsu, styled
Tsze-hsun (±ä¨ù, ¦r¤l´`), a native of Ts'ai, fifty years younger than
	34. Next on the west is Po Ch'ien, styled Tsze-hsi, or, in the
current copies of the 'Narratives of the School,' Tsze-ch'iai (§B°@,
¦r¤lÞÕ [al. ¤lªR] or ¤l·¢), a native of Lu, fifty years younger than
	35. Following Tsze-hsun is Kung-sun Lung [al. Ch'ung] styled
Tsze-shih (¤½®]Às [al. Ãd], ¦r¤l¥Û), whose birth is assigned by
different writers to Wei, Ch'u, and Chao (»¯). He was fifty-three
years younger than Confucius. We have the following account:--
'Tsze-kung asked Tsze-shih, saying, "Have you not learned the
Book of' Poetry?" Tsze-shih replied, "What leisure have I to do
so? My parents require me to be filial; my brothers require me to
be submissive; and my friends require me to be sincere. What
leisure have I for anything else?" "Come to my Master," said Tsze-
kung, "and learn of him."'
	Sze-ma Ch'ien here observes: 'Of the thirty-five disciples
which precede, we have some details. Their age and other
particulars are found in the Books and Records. It is not so,
however, in regard to the fifty-two which follow.'
	36. Zan Chi, styled Tsze-ch'an [al. Chi-ch'an and Tsze-ta] (¥T
©u, ¦r¤l²£ [al. ©u²£ and ¤l¹F), a native of Lu, whose place is the
11th, west, next to Po Ch'ien.
	37. Kung-tsu Kau-tsze or simply Tsze, styled Tsze-chih (¤½
¯ª¤Ä¯÷ [or simply ¯÷], ¦r¤l¤§), a native of Lu. His tablet is the 23rd,
east, in the outer court.
	38. Ch'in Tsu, styled Tsze-nan (¯³¯ª, ¦r¤l«n), a native of
Ch'in. His tablet precedes that of the last, two places.
	39. Ch'i-tiao Ch'ih, styled Tsze-lien (º£ÀJÎG [al. ¨×], ¦r¤lÀÄ), a
native of Lu. His tablet is the 13th, west.
	40. Yen Kao, styled Tsze-chiao (ÃC°ª¦r¤lź). According to the
'Narratives of the School,' he was the same as Yen K'o (¨è, or «g),
who drove the carriage when Confucius rode in Wei after the duke
and Nan-tsze. But this seems doubtful. Other

authorities make his name Ch'an (²£), and style him Tsze-tsing (¤l
ºë). His tablet is the 13th, east.
	41. Ch'i-tiao Tu-fu [al. . Ts'ung], styled Tsze-yu, Tsze-ch'i,
and Tsze-wan (º£ÀJ®{¤÷ [al. ±q], ¦r¤l¦³ or ¤l¤Í [al. ¤l´Á and ¤l¤å]), a
native of Lu, whose tablet precedes that of Ch'i-tiao Ch'ih.
	42. Zang Sze-ch'ih, styled Tsze-t'u, or Tsze-ts'ung (Ä[ [al. öø]
¾o¨ª, ¦r¤l®{ [al. ¤l±q]), a native of Ch'in. Some consider Zang-sze
(Ä[¾o) to be a double surname. His tablet comes after that of No.
	43. Shang Chai, styled Tsze-Ch'i and Tsze-hsiu (°Ó¿A, ¦r¤l©u
[al. ¤l¨q]), a native of Lu. His tablet is immediately after that of
Fan Hsu, No. 26.
	44. Shih Tso [al. Chih and Tsze]-shu, styled Tsze-ming (¥Û§@
[al. ¤§ and ¤l], ¸¾, ¦r¤l©ú). Some take Shih-tso (¥Û§@) as a double
surname. His tablet follows that of No. 42.
	45. Zan Pu-ch'i, styled Hsuan (¥ô¤£»ô, ¦r¿ï), a native of Ch'u,
whose tablet is next to that of No. 28.
	46. Kung-liang Zu, styled Tsze-chang (¤½¨}À© [al. ¾§], ¦r¤l¥¿),
a native of Ch'in, follows the preceding in the temples. The
'Sacrificial Canon' says:-- 'Tsze-chang was a man of worth and
bravery. When Confucius was surrounded and stopped in P'u, Tsze-
chang fought so desperately, that the people of P'u were afraid,
and let the Master go, on his swearing that he would not proceed
to Wei.'
	47. Hau [al. Shih] Ch'u [al. Ch'ien], styled Tsze-li [al. Li-ch'ih]
(¦Z [al. ¥Û] ³B [al. °@], ¦r¤l¨½ [al. ¨½¤§]), a native of Ch'i, having his
tablet the 17th, east.
	48. Ch'in Zan, styled K'ai (¯³¥T, ¦r¶}), a native of Ts'ai. He is
not given in the list of the 'Narratives of the School,' and on this
account his tablet was put out of the temples in the ninth year of
Chia-tsing. It was restored, however, in the second year of Yung-
chang, A.D. 1724, and is the 33rd, east, in the outer court.
	49. Kung-hsia Shau, styled Shang [and Tsze-shang] (¤½®L­º
[al. ¦u], ¦r­¼ [and ¤l­¼]), a native of Lu, whose tablet is next to that
of No. 44.
	50. Hsi Yung-tien [or simply Tien], styled Tsze-hsi [al. Tsze-

chieh and Tsze-ch'ieh] (¨t®eã¿ [or ÂI], ¦r¤lÞÕ [al. ¤l°º and ¤l·¢]), a
native of Wei, having his tablet the 18th, east.
	51. Kung Chien-ting [al. Kung Yu], styled Tsze-chung (¤½ªÓ [al.
°í] ©w [al. ¤½¦³], ¦r¤l¥ò [al. ¤¤ and ©¾]). His nativity is assigned to Lu,
to Wei, and to Tsin (®Ê). He follows No. 46.
	52. Yen Tsu [al. Hsiang], styled Hsiang and Tsze-hsiang (ÃC¯ª
[al. ¬Û], ¦rÁ¸, and ¤lÁ¸), a native of Lu, with his tablet following
that of No. 50.
	53. Chiao Tan [al. Wu], styled Tsze-kea (äp³æ [al. à©¡¯], ¦r¤l
®a), a native of Lu. His place is next to that of No. 51.
	54. Chu [al. Kau] Tsing-ch'iang [and simply Tsing], styled
Tsze-ch'iang [al. Tsze-chieh and Tsze-mang] (¥y [al. ¤Ä and ¹_] ¤«Ã¦
[and simply ¤«], ¦r¤læ [al. ¤l¬É and ¤l©s]), a native of Wei,
following No. 52.
	55. Han [al. Tsai]-fu Hei, styled Tsze-hei [al. Tsze-so and
Tsze-su] (¨u [al. ®_] ¤÷¶Â, ¦r¤l¶Â [al. ¤l¯Á and ¤l¯À]), a native of Lu,
whose tablet is next to that of No. 53.
	56. Ch'in Shang, styled Tsze-p'ei [al. P'ei-tsze and Pu-tsze]
(¯³°Ó, ¦r¤l¥A [al. ¥A¯÷ and ¤£¯÷]), a native of Lu, or, according to
Chang Hsuan, of Ch'u. He was forty years younger than Confucius.
One authority, however, says he was only four years younger, and
that his father and Confucius's father were both celebrated for
their strength. His tablet is the 12th, east.
	57. Shin Tang, styled Chau (¥ÓÄÒ¦r©P). In the 'Narratives of
the School' there is a Shin Chi, styled Tsze-chau (¥ÓÄò, ¦r¤l©P). The
name is given by others as T'ang (°ó and Ål) and Tsu (Äò), with the
designation Tsze-tsu (¤lÄò). These are probably the same person
mentioned in the Analects as Shin Ch'ang (¥ÓÙ³). Prior to the Ming
dynasty they were sacrificed to as two, but in A.D. 1530, the
name Tang was expunged from the sacrificial list, and only that
of Ch'ang left. His tablet is the 31st, east.
	58. Yen Chih-p'o, styled Tsze-shu [or simply Shu] (ÃC¤§¹², ¦r
¤l¨û [or simply ¨û]), a native of Lu, who occupies the 29th place,
	59. Yung Ch'i, styled Tsze-ch'i [al. Tsze-yen] (ºaÑÒ [or ¬è], ¦r
¤lºX or ¤l¸R [al. ¤lÃC]), a native of Lu, whose tablet is the 20th,

*Digitizer's note: The actual variant used by Legge is (à©¥ª§Y¥k).

	60. Hsien Ch'ang, styled Tsze-ch'i [al. Tsze-hung] (¿¤¦¨, ¦r¤l
´Ñ [al. ¤l¾î]), a native of Lu. His place is the 22nd, east.
	61. Tso Zan-ying [or simply Ying], styled Hsing and Tsze-
hsing (¥ª¤H°r [or simply °r], ¦r¦æ and ¤l¦æ), a native of Lu. His
tablet follows that of No. 59.
	62. Yen Chi, styled An [al. Tsze-sze] (¿P¥ù [or ¯Å], ¦r®¦ [al. ¤l
«ä) a native of Ch'in. His tablet is the 24th east.
	63: Chang Kwo, styled Tsze-t'u (¾G°ê, ¦r¤l®{), a native of Lu.
This is understood to be the same with the Hsieh Pang, styled
Tsze-ts'ung (Á§¨¹, ¦r¤l±q), of the 'Narratives of the School.' His
tablet follows No. 61.
	64. Ch'in Fei, styled Tsze-chih (¯³«D, ¦r¤l¤§), a native of Lu,
having his tablet the 31st, west.
	65. Shih Chih-ch'ang, styled Tsze-hang [al. ch'ang] (¬I¤§±`, ¦r
¤l«í [al. ±`]), a native of Lu. His tablet is the 30th, east.
	66. Yen K'wai, styled Tsze-shang (ÃCéD, ¦r¤lÁn), a native of
Lu. His tablet is the next to that of No. 64.
	67. Pu Shu-shang, styled Tsze-ch'e (¨B¨û­¼ [in the
'Narratives of the School' we have an old form of ­¼], ¦r¤l¨®), a
native of Ch'i. Sometimes for Pu (¨B) we find Shao (¤Ö). His tablet
is the 30th, west.
	68. Yuan K'ang, styled Tsze-chi (­ì¤®, ¦r¤lÄy), a native of Lu.
Sze-ma Ch'ien calls him Yuan K'ang-chi, not mentioning any
designation. The 'Narratives of the School' makes him Yuan K'ang
(§Ü), styled Chi. His tablet is the 23rd, west.
	69. Yo K'o [al. Hsin], styled Tsze-shang (¼ÖÑõ, [al. ªY], ¦r¤lÁn),
a native of Lu. His tablet is the 25th, east.
	70. Lien Chieh, styled Yung and Tsze-yung [al. Tsze-ts'ao] (·G
¼ä, ¦r±e and ¤l±e [al. ¤l±ä), a native of Wei, or of Ch'i. His tablet is
next to that of No. 68.
	71. Shu-chung Hui [al. K'wai], styled Tsze-ch'i (¨û¥ò·| [al. éD],
¦r¤l´Á), a native of Lu, or, according to Chang Hsuan, of Tsin. He
was younger than Confucius by fifty-four years. It is said that he
and another youth, called K'ung Hsuan (¤ÕÖo), attended by turns
with their pencils, and acted as amanuenses to the sage, and when
Mang Wu-po expressed a doubt of their competency, Confucius
declared his satisfaction with them. He follows Lien Chieh in the

	72. Yen Ho, styled Zan (ÃC¦ó, ¦r¥T), a native of Lu. The present
copies of the 'Narratives of the School' do not contain his name,
and in A.D. 1588 Zan was displaced from his place in the temples.
His tablet, however, has been restored during the present dynasty.
It is the 33rd, west.
	73. Ti Hei, styled Che [al. Tsze-che and Che-chih] (¨f¶Â, ¦rÕ®
[al. ¤lÕ® and Õ®¤§]), a native of Wei, or of Lu. His tablet is the 26th,
	74. Kwei [al. Pang] Sun, styled Tsze-lien [al. Tsze-yin] (¡¼
(kui1 ËÑ¥ª¨¹¥k) [al. ¨¹] ´S, ¦r¤líK [al. ¤l¶¼]), a native of Lu. His tablet
is the 27th, west.
	75. K'ung Chung, styled Tsze-mieh (¤Õ©¾, ¦r¤l½°). This was
the son, it is said, of Confucius's elder brother, the cripple Mang-
p'i. His tablet is next to that of No. 73. His sacrificial title is 'The
ancient Worthy, the philosopher Mieh.'
	76. Kung-hsi Yu-zu [al. Yu], styled Tsze-shang (¤½¦èÁÖ¦p [al.
ÁÖ], ¦r¤l¤W), a native of Lu. His place is the 26th, west.
	77. Kung-hsi Tien, styled Tsze-shang (¤½¦èã¿ [or ÂI], ¦r¤l¤W
[al. ¤l©|]), a native of Lu. His tablet is the 28th, east.
	78. Ch'in Chang [al. Lao], styled Tsze-k'ai (µ^±i [al. ¨c], ¦r¤l
¶}), a native of Wei. His tablet is the 29th, west.
	79. Ch'an K'ang, styled Tsze-k'ang [al. Tsze-ch'in] (³¯¤®, ¦r¤l
¤® [al. ¤l¸V]), a native of Ch'an. See notes on Ana. I. x.
	80. Hsien Tan [al. Tan-fu and Fang], styled Tsze-hsiang (¿¤Ü³
[al. ܳ¤÷ and Â×], ¦r¤l¶H), a native of Lu. Some suppose that this is
the same as No. 53. The advisers of the present dynasty in such
matters, however, have considered them to be different, and in
1724, a tablet was assigned to Hsien Tan, the 34th, west.
	The three preceding names are given in the 'Narratives of
the School.'
	The research of scholars has added about twenty others.
	81. Lin Fang, styled Tsze-ch'iu (ªL©ñ, ¦r¤lªô), a native of Lu.
The only thing known of him is from the Ana. III. iv. His tablet
was displaced under the Ming, but has been restored by the
present dynasty. It is the first, west.
	82. Chu Yuan, styled Po-yu (õøÞ¶, ¦r§B¥É), an officer of Wei,
and, as appears from the Analects and Mencius, an intimate

friend of Confucius. Still his tablet has shared the same changes
as that of Lin Fang. It is now the first, east.
	83 and 84. Shan Ch'ang (¥ÓÙ³) and Shan T'ang (¥Ó°ó). See No.
	85. Mu P'i (ªª¥Ö), mentioned by Mencius, VII. Pt. II. xxxvii. 4.
His entrance into the temple has been under the present dynasty.
His tablet is the 34th, east.
	86. Tso Ch'iu-ming or Tso-ch'iu Ming (¥ª¥C©ú) has the 32nd
place, east. His title was fixed in A.D. 1530 to be 'The Ancient
Scholar,' but in 1642 it was raised to that of 'Ancient Worthy.' To
him we owe the most distinguished of the annotated editions of
the Ch'un Ch'iu. But whether he really was a disciple of Confucius,
and in personal communication with him, is much debated.
	The above are the only names and surnames of those of the
disciples who now share in the sacrifices to the sage. Those who
wish to exhaust the subject, mention in addition, on the authority
of Tso Ch'iu-ming, Chung-sun Ho-chi (¥ò®]¦ó§Ò), a son of Mang Hsi
(see p. 63), and Chung-sun Shwo (¥ò®]»¡), also a son of Mang Hsi,
supposed by many to be the same with No. 17; Zu Pei, (À©´d),
mentioned in the Analects, XVII. xx, and in the Li Chi, XVIII. Sect.
II. ii. 22; Kung-wang Chih-ch'iu (¤½ªÉ¤§¸Ê) and Hsu Tien (§ÇÂI),
mentioned in the Li Chi, XLIII. 7; Pin-mau Chia (»«¦È¸ë), mentioned
in the Li Chi, XVII. iii. 16; K'ung Hsuan (¤ÕÖo) and Hai Shu-lan (´f¨û
Äõ), on the authority of the 'Narratives of the School;' Ch'ang Chi
(±`©u), mentioned by Chwang-tsze; Chu Yu (ñ|»y), mentioned by
Yen-tsze (®Ë¤l); Lien Yu (·GÞ·) and Lu Chun (¾|®m), on the authority
of ¤å¯Î¥Û«Ç; and finally Tsze-fu Ho (¤lªA¦ó), the Tsze-fu Ching-po
(¤lªA´º§B) of the Analects, XIV. xxxviii.





	¤Q¤T¸gµù²¨, 'The Thirteen Ching, with Commentary and
Explanations.' This is the great repertory of ancient lore upon the
Classics. On the Analects, it contains the 'Collection of
Explanations of the Lun Yu,' by Ho Yen and others (see p. 19), and
'The Correct Meaning,' or Paraphrase of Hsing Ping (see p. 20). On
the Great Learning and the Doctrine of the Mean, it contains the
comments and glosses of Chang Hsuan, and of K'ung Ying-ta (¤Õ¿o
¹F) of the T'ang dynasty.
	·s¨è§åÂI¥|®ÑŪ¥», 'A new edition of the Four Books,
Punctuated and Annotated, for Reading.' This work was published
in the seventh year of Tao-kwang (1827) by a Kao Lin (°ªµY). It is
the finest edition of the Four Books which I have seen, in point of
typographical execution. It is indeed a volume for reading. It
contains the ordinary 'Collected Comments' of Chu Hsi on the
Analects, and his 'Chapters and Sentences' of the Great Learning
and Doctrine of the Mean. The editor's own notes are at the top
and bottom of the page, in rubric.
	¥|®Ñ¦¶¤l¥»¸q¶×°Ñ, 'The Proper Meaning of the Four Books as
determined by Chu Hsi, Compared with, and Illustrated from,
other Commentators.' This is a most voluminous work, published
in the tenth year of Ch'ien-lung, A.D. 1745, by Wang Pu-ch'ing (¤ý
¨B«C), a member of the Han-lin College. On the Great Learning and
the Doctrine of the Mean, the 'Queries' (©Î°Ý) addressed to Chu Hsi
and his replies are given in the same text as the standard
	¥|®Ñ¸gµù¶°ÃÒ, 'The Four Books, Text and Commentary, with
Proofs and Illustrations.' The copy of this Work which I have was
edited by a Wang T'ing-chi (¨L§Ê¾÷), in the third

year of Chia-ch'ing, A.D. 1798. It may be called a commentary on
the commentary. The research in all matters of Geography,
History, Biography, Natural History, &c., is immense.
	¥|®Ñ½Ñ¾§¿è­n, 'A Collection of the most important Comments
of Scholars on the Four Books.' By Li P'ei-lin (§õ¨KÀM); published in
the fifty-seventh K'ang-hsi year, A.D. 1718. This Work is about as
voluminous as the ¶×°Ñ, but on a different plan. Every chapter is
preceded by a critical discussion of its general meaning, and the
logical connexion of its several paragraphs. This is followed by
the text, and Chu Hsi's standard commentary. We have then a
paraphrase, full and generally perspicuous. Next, there is a
selection of approved comments, from a great variety of authors;
and finally, the reader finds a number of critical remarks and
ingenious views, differing often from the common interpretation,
which are submitted for his examination.
	¥|®ÑÁlµù½×¤å, 'A Supplemental Commentary, and Literary
Discussions, on the Four Books.' By Chang Chan-t'ao [al. T'i-an] (±i
ºÂ³³ [al. ±§µÚ]), a member of the Han-lin college, in the early part,
apparently, of the reign of Ch'ien-lung. The work is on a peculiar
plan. The reader is supposed to be acquainted with Chu Hsi's
commentary, which is not given; but the author generally supports
his views, and defends them against the criticisms of some of the
early scholars of this dynasty. His own exercitations are of the
nature of essays more than of commentary. It is a book for the
student who is somewhat advanced, rather than for the learner. I
have often perused it with interest and advantage.
	¥|®Ñ¿íµù¦XÁ¿, 'The Four Books, according to the Commentary,
with Paraphrase.' Published in the eighth year of Yung Chang, A.D.
1730, by Wang Fu [al. K'eh-fu] (¯Î´_ [al. §J¤Ò]). Every page is
divided into two parts. Below, we have the text and Chu Hsi's
commentary. Above, we have an analysis of every chapter,
followed by a paraphrase of the several paragraphs. To the
paraphrase of each paragraph are subjoined critical notes,
digested from a great variety of scholars, but without the
mention of their names. A list of 116 is given who are thus laid
under contribution. In addition, there are maps and illustrative
figures at the commencement; and to each Book there are prefixed
biographical notices, explanations of peculiar allusions, &c.
	·s¼W¥|®Ñ¸Éµùªþ¦Ò³Æ¦®, 'The Four Books, with a

Complete Digest of Supplements to the Commentary, and
additional Suggestions. A new edition, with Additions.' By Tu
Ting-chi (§ù©w°ò). Published A.D. 1779. The original of this Work
was by Tang Lin (¾HªL), a scholar of the Ming dynasty. It is perhaps
the best of all editions of the Four Books for a learner. Each page
is divided into three parts. Below, is the text divided into
sentences and members of sentences, which are followed by short
glosses. The text is followed by the usual commentary, and that
by a paraphrase, to which are subjoined the Supplements and
Suggestions. The middle division contains a critical analysis of
the chapters and paragraphs; and above, there are the necessary
biographical and other notes.
	¥|®Ñ¨ý®Ú¿ý, 'The Four Books, with the Relish of the Radical
Meaning.' This is a new Work, published in 1852. It is the
production of Chin Ch'ang, styled Chi'u-t'an (ª÷æJ, ¦r¬î¼æ), an
officer and scholar, who, returning, apparently to Canton
province, from the North in 1836, occupied his retirement with
reviewing his literary studies of former years, and employed his
sons to transcribe his notes. The writer is fully up in all the
commentaries on the Classics, and pays particular attention to
the labours of the scholars of the present dynasty. To the
Analects, for instance, there is prefixed Chiang Yung's History of
Confucius, with criticisms on it by the author himself. Each
chapter is preceded by a critical analysis. Then follows the text
with the standard commentary, carefully divided into sentences,
often with glosses, original and selected, between them. To the
commentary there succeeds a paraphrase, which is not copied by
the author from those of his predecessors. After the paraphrase
we have Explanations (¸Ñ). The book is beautifully printed, and in
small type, so that it is really a multum in parvo, with
considerable freshness.
	¤éÁ¿¥|®Ñ¸q¸Ñ, 'A Paraphrase for Daily Lessons, Explaining the
Meaning of the Four Books.' This work was produced in 1677, by a
department of the members of the Han-lin college, in obedience to
an imperial rescript. The paraphrase is full, perspicuous, and
	±s»s©P©ö§é¤¤; ®Ñ¸g¶Ç»¡·JÄ¡; ¸Ö¸g¶Ç»¡·JÄ¡; §°O¸q²¨; ¬K¬î¶Ç»¡·JÄ¡.
These works form together a superb edition of the Five Ching,
published by imperial authority

in the K'ang-hsi and Yung-chang reigns. They contain the standard
views (¶Ç); various opinions (»¡); critical decisions of the editors
(®Ë) ; prolegomena; plates or cuts; and other apparatus for the
	¤ò¦èªe¥ý¥Í¥þ¶°, 'The Collected Writings of Mao Hsi-ho.' See
prolegomena, p. 20. The voluminousness of his Writings is
understated there. Of ¸g¶°, or Writings on the Classics, there are
236 sections, while his ¤å¶°, or other literary compositions,
amount to 257 sections. His treatises on the Great Learning and
the Doctrine of the Mean have been especially helpful to me. He is
a great opponent of Chu Hsi, and would be a much more effective
one, if he possessed the same graces of style as that 'prince of
	¥|®Ñ©Ý¾l»¡, 'A Collection of Supplemental Observations on
the Four Books.' The preface of the author, Ts'ao Chih-shang (±ä¤§
¤É), is dated in 1795, the last year of the reign of Ch'ien-lung. The
work contains what we may call prolegomena on each of the Four
Books, and then excursus on the most difficult and disputed
passages. The tone is moderate, and the learning displayed
extensive and solid. The views of Chu Hsi are frequently well
defended from the assaults of Mao Hsi-ho. I have found the Work
very instructive.
	¶mÄҹϦÒ, 'On the Tenth Book of the Analects, with Plates.'
This Work was published by the author, Chiang Yung (¦¿¥Ã), in the
twenty-first Ch'ien-lung year, A.D. 1761, when he was seventy-
six years old. It is devoted to the illustration of the above portion
of the Analects, and is divided into ten sections, the first of
which consists of woodcuts and tables. The second contains the
Life of Confucius, of which I have largely availed myself in the
preceding chapter. The whole is a remarkable specimen of the
minute care with which Chinese scholars have illustrated the
Classical Books
	¥|®ÑÄÀ¦a; ¥|®ÑÄÀ¦aÄò; ¥|®ÑÄÀ¦a¤SÄò; ¥|®ÑÄÀ¦a¤TÄò. We may call
these volumes-- 'The Topography of the Four Books; with three
Supplements.' The Author's name is Yen Zo-ch'u (ÀF­YÀó). The first
volume was published in 1698, and the second in 1700. I have not
been able to find the dates of publication of the other two, in
which there is more biographical and general matter than
topographical. The author apologizes for the inappropriateness of
their titles by saying that he could not

help calling them Supplements to the Topography, which was his
'first love.'
	¬Ó²M¸g¸Ñ, 'Explanations of the Classics, under the Imperial
Ts'ing Dynasty.' See above, p. 20. The Work, however, was not
published, as I have there supposed, by imperial authority, but
under the superintendence, and at the expense (aided by other
officers), of Yuan Yuan (¨¿¤¸), Governor-general of Kwang-tung
and Kwang-hsi, in the ninth year of the last reign, 1829. The
publication of so extensive a Work shows a public spirit and zeal
for literature among the high officers of China, which should keep
foreigners from thinking meanly of them.
	¤Õ¤l®a»y, 'Sayings of the Confucian Family.' Family is to be
taken in the sense of Sect or School. In Liu Hsin's Catalogue, in
the subdivision devoted to the Lun Yu, we find the entry:--
'Sayings of the Confucian Family, twenty-seven Books,' with a
note by Yen Sze-ku of the T'ang dynasty,-- 'Not the existing Work
called the Family Sayings.' The original Work was among the
treasures found in the wall of Confucius's old house, and was
deciphered and edited by K'ung An-kwo. The present Work is by
Wang Su of the Wei (ÃQ) dynasty, grounded professedly on the
older one, the blocks of which had suffered great dilapidation
during the intervening centuries. It is allowed also, that, since
Su's time, the Work has suffered more than any of the
acknowledged Classics. Yet it is a very valuable fragment of
antiquity, and it would be worth while to incorporate it with the
Analects. My copy is the edition of Li Yung (§õ®e), published in
1780. I have generally called the Work 'Narratives of the School.'
	¸t¼qªÁ¨å¹Ï¦Ò, 'Sacrificial Canon of the Sage's Temples, with
Plates.' This Work, published in 1826, by Ku Yuan, styled Hsiang-
chau (ÅU¨J, ¦r´ð¦à), is a very painstaking account of all the Names
sacrificed to in the temples of Confucius, the dates of their
attaining to that honour, &c. There are appended to it Memoirs of
Confucius and Mencius, which are not of so much value.
	¤Q¤l¥þ®Ñ, 'The Complete Works of the Ten Tsze.' See
Morrison's Dictionary, under the character ¤l. I have only had
occasion, in connexion with this Work, to refer to the writings of
Chwang-tsze (²ø¤l) and Lieh-tsze (¦C¤l). My copy is an edition of

	¾ú¥N¦W½å¦C¤k¤ó©mÃÐ, 'A Cyclopaeia of Surnames, or
Biographical Dictionary, of the Famous Men and Virtuous Women
of the Successive Dynasties.' This is a very notable work of its
class; published in 1793, by ¿½´¼º~, and extending through 157
chapters or Books.
	¤åÄm³q¦Ò, 'General Examination of Records and Scholars.' This
astonishing Work, which cost its author, Ma Twan-lin (°¨ºÝÁ{),
twenty years' labour, was first published in 1321. Remusat says,-
- 'This excellent Work is a library in itself, and if Chinese
literature possessed no other, the language would be worth
learning for the sake of reading this alone.' It does indeed display
all but incredible research into every subject connected with the
Government, History, Literature, Religion, &c., of the empire of
China. The author's researches are digested in 348 Books. I have
had occasion to consult principally those on the Literary
Monuments, embraced in seventy-six Books, from the 174th to the
	¦¶ÂU´L¸g¸q¦Ò, 'An Examination of the Commentaries on the
Classics,' by Chu I-tsun. The author was a member of the Han-lin
college, and the work was first published with an imperial
preface by the Ch'ien-lung emperor. It is an exhaustive work on
the literature of the Classics, in 300 chapters or Books.'
	Äò¤åÄm³q¦Ò, 'A Continuation of the General Examination of
Records and Scholars.' This Work, which is in 254 Books, and
nearly as extensive as the former, was the production of Wang
Ch'i (¤ý§¦), who dates his preface in 1586, the fourteenth year of
Wan-li, the style of the reign of the fourteenth emperor of the
Ming dynasty. Wang Ch'i brings down the Work of his predecessor
to his own times. He also frequently goes over the same ground,
and puts things in a clearer light. I have found this to be the case
in the chapters on the classical and other Books.
	¤G¤Q¥|¥v, 'The Twenty-four Histories.' These are the
imperially-authorized records of the empire, commencing with
the 'Historical Records,' the work of Sze-ma Ch'ien, and ending
with the History of the Ming dynasty, which appeared in 1742, the
result of the joint labours of 145 officers and scholars of the
present dynasty. The extent of the collection may be understood
from this, that my copy, bound in English fashion, makes sixty-
three volumes, each one larger than this. No nation has a history
so thoroughly digested; and on the whole it is trustworthy. In pre-

paring this volume, my necessities have been confined mostly to
the Works of Sze-ma Ch'ien, and his successor, Pan Ku (¯Z©T), the
Historian of the first Han dynasty.
	¾ú¥N²Î°Oªí, 'The Annals of the Nation.' Published by imperial
authority in 1803, the eighth year of Ch'ia-ch'ing. This Work is
invaluable to a student, being, indeed, a collection of
chronological tables, where every year, from the rise of the Chau
dynasty, B.C. 1121, has a distinct column to itself, in which, in
different compartments, the most important events are noted.
Beyond that date, it ascends to nearly the commencement of the
cycles in the sixty-first year of Hwang-ti, giving -- not every
year, but the years of which anything has been mentioned in
history. From Hwang-ti also, it ascends through the dateless ages
up to P'an-ku, the first of mortal sovereigns.
	¾ú¥Næ°ìªí, 'The Boundaries of the Nation in the successive
Dynasties.' This Work by the same author, and published in 1817,
does for the boundaries of the empire the same service which the
preceding renders to its chronology.
	¾ú¥Nªu­²ªí, 'The Topography of the Nation in the successive
Dynasties.' Another Work by the same author, and of the same date
as the preceding.


	The Dictionaries chiefly consulted have been:--
	The well-known Shwo Wan (»¡¤å¸Ñ¦r), by Hsu Shan, styled
Shu-chung (³\·V, ¦r¨û­«), published in A.D. 100; with the
supplement (ô¶Ç) by Hsu Ch'ieh (®}îÒ), of the southern Tang
dynasty. The characters are arranged in the Shwo Wan under 540
keys or radicals, as they are unfortunately termed.
	The Liu Shu Ku (¤»®Ñ¬G), by Tai T'ung, styled Chung-ta (À¹Ë¾,
¦r¥ò¹F), of our thirteenth century. The characters are arranged in
it, somewhat after the fashion of the R Ya (p. 2), under six general
divisions, which again are subdivided, according to the affinity of
subjects, into various categories.
	The Tsze Hui (¦r·J), which appeared in the Wan-li (¸U¾ú)
reign of the Ming dynasty (1573-1619). The 540 radicals of the
Shwo Wan were reduced in this to 214, at which number they have
since continued.
	The K'ang-hsi Tsze Tien (±dº³¦r¨å), or Kang-hsi Dictionary,
prepared by order of the great K'ang-hsi emperor in 1716. This

is the most common and complete of all Chinese dictionaries for
common use.
	The I Wan Pi Lan (çZ¤å³ÆÄý), 'A Complete Exhibition of all the
Authorized Characters,' published in 1787; 'furnishing,' says Dr.
Williams, 'good definitions of all the common characters, whose
ancient forms are explained.'
	The Pei Wan Yun Fu (¨Ø¤åÃý©²), generally known among
foreigners as 'The Kang-hsi Thesaurus.' It was undertaken by an
imperial order, and published in 1711, being probably, as Wylie
says, 'the most extensive work of a lexicographical character
ever produced.' It does for the phraseology of Chinese literature
all, and more than all, that the Kang-hsi dictionary does for the
individual characters. The arrangement of the characters is
according to their tones and final sounds. My copy of it, with a
supplement published about ten years later, is in forty-five large
volumes, with much more letter-press in it than the edition of
the Dynastic Histories mentioned on p. 133.
	The Ching Tsi Tswan Ku, ping Pu Wei (¸gÄy¡¼(Ä¡¤WÅW¤U)µþ¦}¸É
¿ò), 'A Digest of the Meanings in the Classical and other Books,
with Supplement,' by, or rather under the superintendence of, Yuan
Yuan (p. 132). This has often been found useful. It is arranged
according to the tones and rhymes like the characters in the



Latine Exposita. Studio et opera Prosperi Intorcetta, Christiani
Herdritch, Francisci Rougemont, Philippi Couplet, Patrum
Societatis JESU. Jussu Ludovici Magni. Parisiis, 1837.
	THE WORKS OF CONFUCIUS; containing the Original Text,
with a Translation. Vol. 1. By J. Marshman. Serampore, 1809. This
is only a fragment of 'The Works of Confucius.'
	THE FOUR BOOKS; Translated into English, by Rev. David
Collie, of the London Missionary Society. Malacca, 1828.
	L'INVARIABLE MILIEU; Ouvrage Moral de Tseu-sse, en Chinois
et en Mandchou, avec une Version litterale Latine, une Traduction
Francoise, &c. &c. Par M. Abel-Remusat. A Paris, 1817.
	LE TA HIO, OU LA GRANDE ETUDE; Traduit en Francoise, avec
une Version Latine, &c. Par G. Pauthier. Paris, 1837.

	Y-KING; Antiquissimus Sinarum Liber, quem ex Latina
Interpretatione P. Regis, aliorumque ex Soc. JESU PP. edidit Julius
Mohl. Stuttgartiae et Tubingae, 1839.
	MEMOIRES concernant L'Histoire, Les Sciences, Les Arts, Les
Moers, Les Usages, &c., des Chinois. Par les Missionaires de Pekin.
A Paris, 1776-1814.
	HISTOIRE GENERALE DE LA CHINE; ou Annales de cet Empire.
Traduites du Tong-Kien-Kang-Mou. Par le feu Pere Joseph-Annie-
Marie de Moyriac de Mailla, Jesuite Francoise, Missionaire a Pekin.
A Paris, 1776-1785.
	NOTITIA LINGUAE SINICAE. Auctore P. Premare. Malaccae,
cura Academiae Anglo-Sinensis, 1831.
	THE CHINESE REPOSITORY. Canton, China, 20 vols., 1832-
	DICTIONNAIRE DES NOMS, Anciens et Modernes, des Villes et
Arrondissements de Premier, Deuxieme, et Troisieme ordre,
compris dans L'Empire Chinois, &c. Par Edouard Biot, Membre du
Conseil de la Societe Asiatique. Paris, 1842.
	THE CHINESE. By John Francis Davis, Esq., F.R.S., &c. In two
volumes. London, 1836.
	CHINA: its State and Prospects. By W. H. Medhurst, D. D., of
the London Missionary Society. London, 1838.
	L'UNIVERS: Histoire et Description des tous les Peuples.
Chine. Par M. G. Pauthier. Paris, 1838.
	HISTORY OF CHINA, from the earliest Records to the Treaty
with Great Britain in 1842. By Thomas Thornton, Esq., Member of
the Royal Asiatic Society. In two volumes. London, 1844.
	THE MIDDLE KINGDOM: A Survey of the Geography,
Government, Education, Social Life, Arts, Religion, &c., of the
Chinese Empire. By S. Wells Williams, LL.D. In two volumes. New
York and London, 1848. The Second Edition, Revised, 1883.
Edkins, B. A., of the London Missionary Society. London, 1859.
	CHRIST AND OTHER MASTERS. By Charles Hardwood, M. A.,
Christian Advocate in the University of Cambridge. Part III.
Religions of China, America, and Oceanica. Cambridge, 1858.
Edkins, D.D. London, 1876.
Primary Forms. By John Chalmers, M.A., LL.D. Aberdeen, 1882.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Chinese Classics — Prolegomena" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.