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Title: The Story of My Life — Volume 04
Author: Ebers, Georg
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Volume 4.



I was well acquainted with the three founders of our institute--Fredrich
Froebel, Middendorf, and Langethal--and the two latter were my teachers.
Froebel was decidedly "the master who planned it."

When we came to Keilhau he was already sixty-six years old, a man of
lofty stature, with a face which seemed to be carved with a dull knife
out of brown wood.

His long nose, strong chin, and large ears, behind which the long locks,
parted in the middle, were smoothly brushed, would have rendered him
positively ugly, had not his "Come, let us live for our children," beamed
so invitingly in his clear eyes.  People did not think whether he was
handsome or not; his features bore the impress of his intellectual power
so distinctly that the first glance revealed the presence of a remarkable

Yet I must confess--and his portrait agrees with my memory--that his face
by no means suggested the idealist and man of feeling; it seemed rather
expressive of shrewdness, and to have been lined and worn by severe
conflicts concerning the most diverse interests.  But his voice and his
glance were unusually winning, and his power over the heart of the child
was limitless.  A few words were sufficient to win completely the shyest
boy whom he desired to attract; and thus it happened that, even when he
had been with us only a few weeks, he was never seen crossing the court-
yard without a group of the younger pupils hanging to his coattails and
clasping his hands and arms.

Usually they were persuading him to tell stories, and when he
condescended to do so, older ones flocked around him too, and they were
never disappointed.  What fire, what animation the old man had retained!
We never called him anything but "Oheim."  The  word "Onkel" he detested
as foreign, because  it  was derived from "avunculus" and "oncle."  With
the high  appreciation he had of "Tante"--whom he termed, next to the
mother, the most important factor of education in the family--our "Oheim"
was probably specially agreeable to him.

He was thoroughly a self-made man.  The son of a pastor in Oberweissbach,
in Thuringia, he had had a dreary childhood; for his mother died young,
and he soon had a step-mother, who treated him with the utmost tenderness
until her own children were born.  Then an indescribably sad time began
for the neglected boy, whose dreamy temperament vexed even his own
father.  Yet in this solitude his love for Nature awoke.  He studied
plants, animals, minerals; and while his young heart vainly longed for
love, he would have gladly displayed affection himself, if his timidity
would have permitted him to do so.  His family, seeing him prefer to
dissect the bones of some animal rather than to talk with his parents,
probably considered him a very unlovable child when they sent him, in his
tenth year, to school in the city of Ilm.

He was received into the home of the pastor, his uncle Hoffman, whose
mother-in-law, who kept the house, treated him in the most cordial
manner, and helped him to conquer the diffidence acquired during the
solitude of the first years of his childhood.  This excellent woman
first made him familiar with the maternal feminine solicitude, closer
observation of which afterwards led him, as well as Pestalozzi, to a
reform of the system of educating youth.

In his sixteenth year he went to a forester for instruction, but did not
remain long.  Meantime he had gained some mathematical knowledge, and
devoted himself to surveying.  By this and similar work he earned a
living, until, at the end of seven years, he went to Frankfort-on-the-
Main to learn the rudiments of building.  There Fate brought him into
contact with the pedagogue Gruner, a follower of Pestalozzi's method,
and this experienced man, after their first conversation, exclaimed:
"You must become a schoolmaster!"

I have often noticed in life that a word at the right time and place has
sufficed to give the destiny of a human being a different turn, and the
remark of the Frankfort educator fell into Froebel's soul like a spark.
He now saw his real profession clearly and distinctly before him.

The restless years of wandering, during which, unloved and scarcely
heeded, he had been thrust from one place to another, had awakened in his
warm heart a longing to keep others from the same fate.  He, who had been
guided by no kind hand and felt miserable and at variance with himself,
had long been ceaselessly troubled by the problem of how the young human
plant could be trained to harmony with itself and to sturdy industry.
Gruner showed him that others were already devoting their best powers to
solve it, and offered him an opportunity to try his ability in his model

Froebel joyfully accepted this offer, cast aside every other thought,
and, with the enthusiasm peculiar to him, threw himself into the new
calling in a manner which led Gruner to praise the "fire and life" he
understood how to awaken in his pupils.  He also left it to Froebel to
arrange the plan of instruction which the Frankfort Senate wanted for the
"model school," and succeeded in keeping him two years in his

When a certain Frau von Holzhausen was looking for a man who would have
the ability to lead her spoiled sons into the right path, and Froebel had
been recommended, he separated from Gruner and performed his task with
rare fidelity and a skill bordering upon genius.  The children, who were
physically puny, recovered under his care, and the grateful mother made
him their private tutor from 1807 till 1810.  He chose Verdun, where
Pestalozzi was then living, as his place of residence, and made himself
thoroughly familiar with his method of education.  As a whole, he could
agree with him; but, as has already been mentioned, in some respects he
went further than the Swiss reformer.  He himself called these years his
"university course as a pedagogue," but they also furnished him with the
means to continue the studies in natural history which he had commenced
in Jena.  He had laid aside for this purpose part of his salary as tutor,
and was permitted, from 1810 to 1812, to complete in Gottingen his
astronomical and mineralogical studies.  Yet the wish to try his powers
as a pedagogue never deserted him; and when, in 1812, the position of
teacher in the Plamann Institute in Berlin was offered him, he accepted
it.  During his leisure hours he devoted himself to gymnastic exercises,
and even late in life his eyes sparkled when he spoke of his friend, old
Jahn, and the political elevation of Prussia.

When the summons "To my People" called the German youth to war, Froebel
had already entered his thirty-first year, but this did not prevent his
resigning his office and being one of the first to take up arms.  He went
to the field with the Lutzow Jagers, and soon after made the acquaintance
among his comrades of the theological students Langethal and Middendorf.
When, after the Peace of Paris, the young friends parted, they vowed
eternal fidelity, and each solemnly promised to obey the other's summons,
should it ever come.  As soon as Froebel took off the dark uniform of the
black Jagers he received a position as curator of the museum of
mineralogy in the Berlin University, which he filled so admirably that
the position of Professor of Mineralogy was offered to him from Sweden.
But he declined, for another vocation summoned him which duty and
inclination forbade him to refuse.

His brother, a pastor in the Thuringian village of Griesheim on the Ilm,
died, leaving three sons who needed an instructor.  The widow wished her
brother-in-law Friedrich to fill this office, and another brother, a
farmer in Osterode, wanted his two boys to join the trio.  When Froebel,
in the spring of 1817, resigned his position, his friend Langethal begged
him to take his brother Eduard as another pupil, and thus Pestalozzi's
enthusiastic disciple and comrade found his dearest wish fulfilled.  He
was now the head of his own school for boys, and these first six pupils--
as he hoped with the confidence in the star of success peculiar to so
many men of genius--must soon increase to twenty.  Some of these boys
were specially gifted: one became the scholar and politician Julius
Froebel, who belonged to the Frankfort Parliament of 1848, and another
the Jena Professor of Botany, Eduard Langethal.

The new principal of the school could not teach alone, but he only needed
to remind his old army comrade, Middendorf, of his promise, to induce him
to interrupt his studies in Berlin, which were nearly completed, and join
him.  He also had his eye on Langethal, if his hope should be fulfilled.
He knew what a treasure he would possess for his object in this rare man.

There was great joy in the little Griesheim circle, and the Thuringian
(Froebel) did not regret for a moment that he had resigned his secure
position; but the Westphalian (Middendorf) saw here the realization of
the ideal which Froebel's kindling words had impressed upon his soul
beside many a watch-fire.

The character of the two men is admirably described in the following
passage from a letter of "the oldest pupil":

"Both had seen much of the serious side of life, and returned from the
war with the higher inspiration which is hallowed by deep religious
feeling.  The idea of devoting their powers with self-denial and
sacrifice to the service of their native land had become a fixed
resolution; the devious paths which so many men entered were far from
their thoughts.  The youth, the young generation of their native land,
were alone worthy of their efforts.  They meant to train them to a
harmonious development of mind and body; and upon these young people
their pure spirit of patriotism exerted a vast influence.  When we recall
the mighty power which Froebel could exercise at pleasure over his
fellowmen, and especially over children, we shall deem it natural that a
child suddenly transported into this circle could forget its past."

When I entered it, though at that time it was much modified and
established on firm foundations, I met with a similar experience.  It was
not only the open air, the forest, the life in Nature which so captivated
new arrivals at Keilhau, but the moral earnestness and the ideal
aspiration which consecrated and ennobled life.  Then, too, there was
that "nerve-strengthening" patriotism which pervaded everything, filling
the place of the superficial philanthropy of the Basedow system of

But Froebel's influence was soon to draw, as if by magnetic power, the
man who had formed an alliance with him amid blood and steel, and who was
destined to lend the right solidity to the newly erected structure of the
institute--I mean Heinrich Langethal, the most beloved and influential of
my teachers, who stood beside Froebel's inspiring genius and Middendorf's
lovable warmth of feeling as the character, and at the same time the
fully developed and trained intellect, whose guidance was so necessary to
the institute.

The life of this rare teacher can be followed step by step from the first
years of his childhood in his autobiography and many other documents, but
I can only attempt here to sketch in broad outlines the character of the
man whose influence upon my whole inner life has been, up to the present
hour, a decisive one.

The recollection of him makes me inclined to agree with the opinion to
which a noble lady sought to convert me--namely, that our lives are far
more frequently directed into a certain channel by the influence of an
unusual personality than by events, experiences, or individual

Langethal was my teacher for several years.  When I knew him he was
totally blind, and his eyes, which are said to have flashed so brightly
and boldly on the foe in war, and gazed so winningly into the faces of
friends in time of peace, had lost their lustre.  But his noble features
seemed transfigured by the cheerful earnestness which is peculiar to the
old man, who, even though only with the eye of the mind, looks back upon
a well-spent, worthy life, and who does not fear death, because he knows
that God who leads all to the goal allotted by Nature destined him also
for no other.  His tall figure could vie with Barop's, and his musical
voice was unusually deep.  It possessed a resistless power when, excited
himself, he desired to fill our young souls with his own enthusiasm.  The
blind old man, who had nothing more to command and direct, moved through
our merry, noisy life like a silent admonition to good and noble things.
Outside of the lessons he never raised his voice for orders or censure,
yet we obediently followed his signs.  To be allowed to lead him was an
honor and pleasure.  He made us acquainted with Homer, and taught us
ancient and modern history.  To this day I rejoice that not one of us
ever thought of using 'pons asinorum,' or copied passage, though he was
perfectly sightless, and we were obliged to translate to him and learn by
heart whole sections of the Iliad.  To have done so would have seemed as
shameful as the pillage of an unguarded sanctuary or the abuse of a
wounded hero.

And he certainly was one!

We knew this from his comrades in the war and his stories of 1813, which
were at once so vivid and so modest.

When he explained Homer or taught ancient history a special fervor
animated him; for he was one of the chosen few whose eyes were opened by
destiny to the full beauty and sublimity of ancient Greece.

I have listened at the university to many a famous interpreter of the
Hellenic and Roman poets, and many a great historian, but not one of them
ever gave me so distinct an impression of living with the ancients as
Heinrich Langethal.  There was something akin to them in his pure, lofty
soul, ever thirsting for truth and beauty, and, besides, he had graduated
from the school of a most renowned teacher.

The outward aspect of the tall old man was eminently aristocratic, yet
his birthplace was the house of a plain though prosperous mechanic.  He
was born at Erfurt, in 1792.  When very young his father, a man unusually
sensible and well-informed for his station in life, entrusted him with
the education of a younger brother, the one who, as I have mentioned,
afterwards became a professor at Jena, and the boy's progress was so
rapid that other parents had requested to have their sons share the hours
of instruction.

After completing his studies at the grammar-school he wanted to go to
Berlin, for, though the once famous university still existed in Erfurt,
it had greatly deteriorated.  His description of it is half lamentable,
half amusing, for at that time it was attended by thirty students, for
whom seventy professors were employed.  Nevertheless, there were many
obstacles to be surmounted ere he could obtain permission to attend the
Berlin University; for the law required every native of Erfurt, who
intended afterwards to aspire to any office, to study at least two years
in his native city--at that time French.  But, in defiance of all
hindrances, he found his way to Berlin, and in 1811 was entered in the
university just established there as the first student from Erfurt.  He
wished to devote himself to theology, and Neander, De Wette, Marheineke,
Schleiermacher, etc., must have exerted a great power of attraction over
a young man who desired to pursue that study.

At the latter's lectures he became acquainted with Middendorf.  At first
he obtained little from either.  Schleiermacher seemed to him too
temporizing and obscure.  "He makes veils."  He thought the young
Westphalian, at their first meeting, merely "a nice fellow."  But in time
he learned to understand the great theologian, and the "favourite
teacher" noticed him and took him into his house.

But first Fichte, and then Friedrich August Wolf, attracted him far more
powerfully than Schleiermacher.  Whenever he spoke of Wolf his calm
features glowed and his blind eyes seemed to sparkle.  He owed all that
was best in him to the great investigator, who sharpened his pupil's
appreciation of the exhaustless store of lofty ideas and the magic of
beauty contained in classic antiquity, and had he been allowed to follow
his own inclination, he would have turned his back on theology, to devote
all his energies to the pursuit of philology and archaeology.

The Homeric question which Wolf had propounded in connection with Goethe,
and which at that time stirred the whole learned world, had also moved
Langethal so deeply that, even when an old man, he enjoyed nothing more
than to speak of it to us and make us familiar with the pros and cons
which rendered him an upholder of his revered teacher.  He had been
allowed to attend the lectures on the first four books of the Iliad, and
--I have living witnesses of the fact--he knew them all verse by verse,
and corrected us when we read or recited them as if he had the copy in
his hand.

True, he refreshed his naturally excellent memory by having them all read
aloud.  I shall never forget his joyous mirth as he listened to my
delivery of Wolf's translation of Aristophanes's Acharnians; but I was
pleased that he selected me to supply the dear blind eyes.  Whenever he
called me for this purpose he already had the book in the side pocket of
his long coat, and when, beckoning significantly, he cried, "Come, Bear,"
I knew what was before me, and would have gladly resigned the most
enjoyable game, though he sometimes had books read which were by no means
easy for me to understand.  I was then fourteen or fifteen years old.

Need I say that it was my intercourse with this man which implanted in my
heart the love of ancient days that has accompanied me throughout my

The elevation of the Prussian nation led Langethal also from the
university to the war.  Rumor first brought to Berlin the tidings of the
destruction of the great army on the icy plains of Russia; then its
remnants, starving, worn, ragged, appeared in the capital; and the
street-boys, who not long before had been forced by the French soldiers
to clean their boots, now with little generosity--they were only "street-
boys"--shouted sneeringly, "Say, mounseer, want your boots blacked?"

Then came the news of the convention of York, and at last the irresolute
king put an end to the doubts and delays which probably stirred the blood
of every one who is familiar with Droysen's classic "Life of Field-
Marshal York."  From Breslau came the summons "To my People," which, like
a warm spring wind, melted the ice and woke in the hearts of the German
youth a matchless budding and blossoming.

The snow-drops which bloomed during those March days of 1813 ushered in
the long-desired day of freedom, and the call "To arms!" found the
loudest echo in the hearts of the students.  It stirred the young, yet
even in those days circumspect Langethal, too, and showed him his duty
But difficulties confronted him; for Pastor Ritschel, a native of Erfurt,
to whom he confided his intention, warned him not to write to his father.
Erfurt, his own birthplace, was still under French rule, and were he to
communicate his plan in writing and the letter should be opened in the
"black room," with other suspicious mail matter, it might cost the life
of the man whose son was preparing to commit high-treason by fighting
against the ruler of his country--Napoleon, the Emperor of France.

"Where will you get the uniform, if your father won't help you, and you
want to join the black Jagers?" asked the pastor, and received the answer:

"The cape of my cloak will supply the trousers.  I can have a red collar
put on my cloak, my coat can be dyed black and turned into a uniform, and
I have a hanger."

"That's right!" cried the worthy minister, and gave his young friend ten

Middendorf, too, reported to the Lutzow Jagers at once, and so did the
son of Professor Bellermann, and their mutual friend Bauer, spite of his
delicate health which seemed to unfit him for any exertion.

They set off on the 11th of April, and while the spring was budding alike
in the outside world and in young breasts, a new flower of friendship
expanded in the hearts of these three champions of the same sacred cause;
for Langethal and Middendorf found their Froebel.  This was in Dresden,
and the league formed there was never to be dissolved.  They kept their
eyes fixed steadfastly on the ideals of youth, until in old age the sight
of all three failed.  Part of the blessings which were promised to the
nation when they set forth to battle they were permitted to see seven
lustra later, in 1848, but they did not live to experience the
realization of their fairest youthful dream, the union of Germany.

I must deny myself the pleasure of describing the battles and the marches
of the Lutzow corps, which extended to Aachen and Oudenarde; but will
mention here that Langethal rose to the rank of sergeant, and had to
perform the duties of a first lieutenant; and that, towards the end of
the campaign, Middendorf was sent with Lieutenant Reil to induce Blucher
to receive the corps in his vanguard.  The old commander gratified their
wish; they had proved their fitness for the post when they won the
victory at the Gohrde, where two thousand Frenchmen were killed and as
many more taken prisoners.  The sight of the battlefield had seemed
unendurable to the gentle nature of Middendorf he had formed a poetical
idea of the campaign as an expedition against the hereditary foe.  Now
that he had confronted the bloodstained face of war with all its horrors,
he fell into a state of melancholy from which he could scarcely rouse

After this battle the three friends were quartered in Castle Gohrde, and
there enjoyed a delightful season of rest after months of severe
hardships.  Their corps had been used as the extreme vanguard against
Davoust's force, which was thrice their superior in numbers, and in
consequence they were subjected to great fatigues.  They had almost
forgotten how it seemed to sleep in a bed and eat at a table.  One night
march had followed another.  They had often seized their food from the
kettles and eaten it at the next stopping-place, but all was cheerfully
done; the light-heartedness of youth did not vanish from their
enthusiastic hearts.  There was even no lack of intellectual aliment,
for a little field-library had been established by the exchange of books.
Langethal told us of his night's rest in a ditch, which was to entail
disastrous consequences.  Utterly exhausted, sleep overpowered him in the
midst of a pouring rain, and when he awoke he discovered that he was up
to his neck in water.  His damp bed--the ditch--had gradually filled, but
the sleep was so profound that even the rising moisture had not roused
him.  The very next morning he was attacked with a disease of the eyes,
to which he attributed his subsequent blindness.

On the 26th of August there was a prospect of improvement in the
condition of the corps.  Davoust had sent forty wagons of provisions to
Hamburg, and the men were ordered to capture them.  The attack was
successful, but at what a price!  Theodor Korner, the noble young poet
whose songs will commemorate the deeds of the Lutzow corps so long as
German men and boys sing his "Thou Sword at my Side," or raise their
voices in the refrain of the Lutzow Jagers' song:

"Do you ask the name of yon reckless band?
'Tis Lutzow's black troopers dashing swift through the land!"

Langethal first saw the body of the author of "Lyre and Sword" and
"Zriny" under an oak at Wobbelin; but he was to see it once more under
quite different circumstances.  He has mentioned it in his autobiography,
and I have heard him describe several times his visit to the corpse of
Theodor Korner.

He had been quartered in Wobbelin, and shared his room with an Oberjager
von Behrenhorst, son of the postmaster-general in Dessau, who had taken
part in the battle of Jena as a young lieutenant and returned home with a
darkened spirit.

At the summons "To my People," he had enlisted at once as a private
soldier in the Lutzow corps, where he rose rapidly to the rank of
Oberjager.  During the war he had often met Langethal and Middendorf;
but the quiet, reserved man, prematurely grave for his years, attached
himself so closely to Korner that he needed no other friend.

After the death of the poet on the 26th of August, 1813, he moved
silently about as though completely crushed.  On the night which followed
the 27th he invited his room-mate Langethal to go with him to the body of
his friend.  Both went first to the village church, where the dead Jagers
lay in two long black rows.  A solemn stillness pervaded the little house
of God, which had become during this night the abode of death, and the
nocturnal visitors gazed silently at the pallid, rigid features of one
lifeless young form after another, but without finding him whom they

During this mute review of corpses it seemed to Langethal as if Death
were singing a deep, heartrending choral, and he longed to pray for these
young, crushed human blossoms; but his companion led the way into the
guard's little room.  There lay the poet, "the radiance of an angel on
his face," though his body bore many traces of the fury of the battle.
Deeply moved, Langethal stood gazing down upon the form of the man who
had died for his native land, while Behrenhorst knelt on the floor beside
him, silently giving himself up to the anguish of his soul.  He remained
in this attitude a long time, then suddenly started up, threw his arms
upward, and exclaimed, "Korner, I'll follow you!"

With these words Behrenhorst darted out of the little room into the
darkness; and a few weeks after he, too, had fallen for the sacred cause
of his native land.

They had seen another beloved comrade perish in the battle of Gohrde, a
handsome young man of delicate figure and an unusually reserved manner.

Middendorf, with whom he--his name was Prohaska--had been on more
intimate terms than the others, once asked him, when he timidly avoided
the girls and women who cast kindly glances at him, if his heart never
beat faster, and received the answer, "I have but one love to give, and
that belongs to our native land."

While the battle was raging, Middendorf was fighting close beside his
comrade.  When the enemy fired a volley the others stooped, but Prohaska
stood erect, exclaiming, when he was warned, "No bowing!  I'll make no
obeisance to the French!"

A few minutes after, the brave soldier, stricken by a bullet, fell on the
greensward.  His friends bore him off the field, and Prohaska--Eleonore
Prohaska--proved to be a girl!

While in Castle Gohrde, Froebel talked with his friends about his
favourite plan, which he had already had a view in Gottingen, of
establishing a school for boys, and while developing his educational
ideal to them and at the same time mentioning that he had passed his
thirtieth birthday, and alluding to the postponement of his plan by the
war, he exclaimed, to explain why he had taken up arms:

"How can I train boys whose devotion I claim, unless I have proved by my
own deeds how a man should show devotion to the general welfare?"

These words made a deep impression upon the two friends, and increased
Middendorf's enthusiastic reverence for the older comrade, whose
experiences and ideas had opened a new world to him.

The Peace of Paris, and the enrolment of the Lutzow corps in the line,
brought the trio back to Berlin to civil life.

There also each frequently sought the others, until, in the spring of
1817, Froebel resigned the permanent position in the Bureau of Mineralogy
in order to establish his institute.

Middendorf had been bribed by the saying of his admired friend that he
"had found the unity of life."  It gave the young philosopher food for
thought, and, because he felt that he had vainly sought this unity and
was dissatisfied, he hoped to secure it through the society of the man
who had become everything to him His wish was fulfilled, for as an
educator he grew as it were into his own motto, "Lucid, genuine, and true
to life."

Middendorf gave up little when he followed Froebel.

The case was different with Langethal.  He had entered as a tutor the
Bendemann household at Charlottenburg, where he found a second home.  He
taught with brilliant success children richly gifted in mind and heart,
whose love he won.  It was "a glorious family" which permitted him to
share its rich social life, and in whose highly gifted circle he could be
sure of finding warm sympathy in his intellectual interests.  Protected
from all external anxieties, he had under their roof ample leisure for
industrious labour and also for intercourse with his own friends.

In July, 1817, he passed the last examination with the greatest
distinction, receiving the "very good," rarely bestowed; and a brilliant
career lay before him.

Directly after this success three pulpits were offered to him, but he
accepted neither, because he longed for rest and quiet occupation.

The summons from Froebel to devote himself to his infant institute, where
Langethal had placed his younger brother, also reached him.  The little
school moved on St. John's Day, 1817, from Griesheim to Keilhau, where
the widow of Pastor Froebel had been offered a larger farm.  The place
which she and her children's teacher found was wonderfully adapted to
Froebel's purpose, and seemed to promise great advantages both to the
pupils and to the institute.  There was much building and arranging to be
accomplished, but means to do so were obtained, and the first pupil
described very amusingly the entrance into the new home, the furnishing,
the discovery of all the beauties and advantages which we found as an old
possession in Keilhau, and the endeavour, so characteristic of
Middendorf, to adapt even the less attractive points to his own poetic

Only the hours of instruction fared badly, and Froebel felt that he
needed a man of fully developed strength in order to give the proper
foundation to the instruction of the boys who were entrusted to his care.
He knew a man of this stamp in the student F. A. Wolfs, whose talent for
teaching had been admirably proved in the Bendemann family.

"Langethal," as the first pupil describes him, was at that time a very
handsome man of five-and-twenty years.  His brow was grave, but his
features expressed kindness of heart, gentleness, and benevolence.  The
dignity of his whole bearing was enhanced by the sonorous tones of his
voice--he retained them until old age--and his whole manner revealed
manly firmness.  Middendorf was more pleasing to women, Langethal to men.
Middendorf attracted those who saw, Langethal those who heard him, and
the confidence he inspired was even more lasting than that aroused by

What marvel that Froebel made every effort to win this rare power for the
young institute?  But Langethal declined, to the great vexation of
Middendorf.  Diesterweg  called  the  latter "a St. John," but our dear,
blind teacher added, "And Froebel was his Christus."

The enthusiastic young Westphalian, who had once believed he saw in this
man every masculine virtue, and whose life appeared emblematical,
patiently accepted everything, and considered every one a "renegade" who
had ever followed Froebel and did not bow implicitly to his will.  So he
was angered by Langethal's refusal.  The latter had been offered, with
brilliant prospects for the present and still fairer ones for the future,
a position as a tutor in Silesia, a place which secured him the rest he
desired, combined with occupation suited to his tastes.  He was to share
the labour of teaching with another instructor, who was to take charge of
the exact sciences, with which he was less familiar, and he was also
permitted to teach his brother with the young Counts Stolberg.

He accepted, but before going to Silesia he wished to visit his Keilhau
friends and take his brother away with him.  He did so, and the
"diplomacy" with which Froebel succeeded in changing the decision of the
resolute young man and gaining him over to his own interests, is really
remarkable.  It won for the infant institute in the person of Langethal--
if the expression is allowable--the backbone.

Froebel had sent Middendorf to meet his friend, and the latter, on the
way, told him of the happiness which he had found in his new home and
occupation.  Then they entered Keilhau, and the splendid landscape which
surrounds it needs no praise.

Froebel received his former comrade with the utmost cordiality, and the
sight of the robust, healthy, merry boys who were lying on the floor that
evening, building forts and castles with the wooden blocks which Froebel
had had made for them according to his own plan, excited the keenest
interest.  He had come to take his brother away; but when he saw him,
among other happy companions of his own age, complete the finest
structure of all--a Gothic cathedral--it seemed almost wrong to tear the
child from this circle.

He gazed sadly at his brother when he came to bid him "good-night," and
then remained alone with Froebel.  The latter was less talkative than
usual, waiting for his friend to tell him of the future which awaited him
in Silesia.  When he heard that a second tutor was to relieve Langethal
of half his work, he exclaimed, with the greatest anxiety:

"You do not know him, and yet intend to finish a work of education with
him?  What great chances you are hazarding!"

The next morning Froebel asked his friend what goal in life he had set
before him, and Langethal replied:

"Like the apostle, I would fain proclaim the gospel to all men according
to the best of my powers, in order to bring them into close communion
with the Redeemer."

Froebel answered, thoughtfully:

"If you desire that, you must, like the apostles, know men.  You must be
able to enter into the life of every one--here a peasant, there a
mechanic.  If you can not, do not hope for success; your influence will
not extend far."

How wise and convincing the words sounded!  And Froebel touched the
sensitive spot in the young minister, who was thoroughly imbued with the
sacred beauty of his life-task, yet certainly knew the Gospels, his
classic authors, and apostolic fathers much better than he did the world.

He thoughtfully followed Froebel, who, with Middendorf and the boys, led
him up the Steiger, the mountain whose summit afforded the magnificent
view I have described.  It was the hour when the setting sun pours its
most exquisite light over the mountains and valleys.  The heart of the
young clergyman, tortured by anxious doubts, swelled at the sight of this
magnificence, and Froebel, seeing what was passing in his mind,

"Come, comrade, let us have one of our old war-songs."

The musical "black Jager" of yore willingly assented; and how clearly and
enthusiastically the chorus of boyish voices chimed in!

When it died away, the older man passed his arm around his friend's
shoulders, and, pointing to the beautiful region lying before them in the
sunset glow, exclaimed:

"Why seek so far away what is close at hand?  A work is established here
which must be built by the hand of God!  Implicit devotion and self-
sacrifice are needed."

While speaking, he gazed steadfastly into his friend's tearful eyes, as
if he had found his true object in life, and when he held out his hand
Langethal clasped it--he could not help it.

That very day a letter to the Counts Stolberg informed them that they
must seek another tutor for their sons, and Froebel and Keilhau could
congratulate themselves on having gained their Langethal.

The management of the school was henceforward in the hands of a man of
character, while the extensive knowledge and the excellent method of a
well-trained scholar had been obtained for the educational department.
The new institute now prospered rapidly.  The renown of the fresh,
healthful life and the able tuition of the pupils spread far beyond the
limits of Thuringia.  The material difficulties with which the head-
master had had to struggle after the erection of the large new buildings
were also removed when Froebel's prosperous brother in Osterode decided
to take part in the work and move to Keilhau.  He understood farming,
and, by purchasing more land and woodlands, transformed the peasant
holding into a considerable estate.

When Froebel's restless spirit drew him to Switzerland to undertake new
educational enterprises, and some one was needed who could direct the
business management, Barop, the steadfast man of whom I have already
spoken, was secured.  Deeply esteemed and sincerely beloved, he managed
the institute during the time that we three brothers were pupils there.
He had found many things within to arrange on a more practical
foundation, many without to correct: for the long locks of most of the
pupils; the circumstance that three Lutzen Jagers, one of whom had
delivered the oration at a students' political meeting, had established
the school; that Barop had been persecuted as a demagogue on account of
his connection with a students' political society; and, finally,
Froebel's relations with Switzerland and the liberal educational methods
of the school, had roused the suspicions of the Berlin demagogue-hunters,
and therefore demagogic tendencies, from which in reality it had always
held aloof, were attributed to the institute.

Yes, we were free, in so far that everything which could restrict or
retard our physical and mental development was kept away from us, and our
teachers might call themselves so because, with virile energy, they had
understood how to protect the institute from every injurious and
narrowing outside influence.  The smallest and the largest pupil was
free, for he was permitted to be wholly and entirely his natural self,
so long as he kept within the limits imposed by the existing laws.  But
license was nowhere more sternly prohibited than at Keilhau; and the deep
religious feeling of its head-masters--Barop, Langethal, and Middendorf--
ought to have taught the suspicious spies in Berlin that the command,
"Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's," would never be
violated here.

The time I spent in Keilhau was during the period of the worst reaction,
and I now know that our teachers would have sat on the Left in the
Prussian Landtag; yet we never heard a disrespectful word spoken of
Frederick William IV, and we were instructed to show the utmost respect
to the prince of the little country of Rudolstadt to which Keilhau
belonged.  Barop, spite of his liberal tendencies, was highly esteemed by
this petty sovereign, decorated with an order, and raised to the rank of
Councillor of Education.  From a hundred isolated recollections and words
which have lingered in my memory I have gathered that our teachers were
liberals in a very moderate way, yet they were certainly guilty of
"demagogic aspirations" in so far as that they desired for their native
land only what we, thank Heaven, now possess its unity, and a popular
representation, by a free election of all its states, in a German
Parliament.  What enthusiasm for the Emperor William, Bismarck, and Von
Moltke, Langethal, Middendorf, and Barop would have inspired in our
hearts had they been permitted to witness the great events of 1870 and

Besides, politics were kept from us, and this had become known in wider
circles when we entered the institute, for most of the pupils belonged to
loyal families.  Many were sons of the higher officials, officers, and
landed proprietors; and as long locks had long since become the
exception, and the Keilhau pupils were as well mannered as possible, many
noblemen, among them chamberlains and other court officials, decided to
send their boys to the institute.

The great manufacturers and merchants who placed their sons in the
institute were also not men favourable to revolution, and many of our
comrades became officers in the German army.  Others are able scholars,
clergymen, and members of Parliament; others again government officials,
who fill high positions; and others still are at the head of large
industrial or mercantile enterprises.  I have not heard of a single
individual who has gone to ruin, and of very many who have accomplished
things really worthy of note.  But wherever I have met an old pupil of
Keilhau, I have found in him the same love for the institute, have seen
his eyes sparkle more brightly when we talked of Langethal, Middendorf,
and Barop.  Not one has turned out a sneak or a hypocrite.

The present institution is said to be an admirable one; but the
"Realschule" of Keilhau, which has been forced to abandon its former
humanistic foundation, can scarcely train to so great a variety of
callings the boys now entrusted to its care.


The little country of Rudolstadt in which Keilhau lies had had its
revolution, though it was but a small and bloodless one.  True, the
insurrection had nothing to do with human beings, but involved the
destruction of living creatures.  Greater liberty in hunting was

This might seem a trivial matter, yet it was of the utmost importance to
both disputants.  The wide forests of the country had hitherto been the
hunting-grounds of the prince, and not a gun could be fired there without
his permission.  To give up these "happy hunting-grounds" was a severe
demand upon the eager sportsman who occupied the Rudolstadt throne, and
the rustic population would gladly have spared him had it been possible.

But the game in Rudolstadt had become a veritable torment, which
destroyed the husbandmen's hopes of harvests.  The peasant, to save his
fields from the stags and does which broke into them in herds at sunset,
tried to keep them out by means of clappers and bad odours.  I have seen
and smelled the so-called "Frenchman's oil" with which the posts were
smeared, that its really diabolical odour--I don't know from what horrors
it was compounded--might preserve the crops.  The ornament of the forests
had become the object of the keenest hate, and as soon as--shortly before
we entered Keilhau--hunting was freely permitted, the peasants gave full
vent to their rage, set off for the woods with the old muskets they had
kept hidden in the garrets, or other still more primitive weapons, and
shot or struck down all the game they encountered.  Roast venison was
cheap for weeks on Rudolstadt tables, and the pupils had many an
unexpected pleasure.

The hunting exploits of the older scholars were only learned by us
younger ones as secrets, and did not reach the teachers' ears until long

But the woods furnished other pleasures besides those enjoyed by the
sportsman.  Every ramble through the forest enriched our knowledge of
plants and animals, and I soon knew the different varieties of stones
also; yet we did not suspect that this knowledge was imparted according
to a certain system.  We were taught as it were by stealth, and how many
pleasant, delicious things attracted us to the class-rooms on the wooded

Vegetation was very abundant in the richly watered mountain valley.  Our
favourite spring was the Schaalbach at the foot of the Steiger,--[We
pupils bought it of the peasant who owned it and gave it to Barop.]--
because there was a fowling-floor connected with it, where I spent many a
pleasant evening.  It could be used only after breeding-time, and
consisted of a hut built of boughs where the birdcatcher lodged.  Flowing
water rippled over the little wooden rods on which the feathered denizens
of the woods alighted to quench their thirst before going to sleep.  When
some of them--frequently six at a time--had settled on the perches in the
trough, it was drawn into the but by a rope, a net was spread over the
water and there was nothing more to do except take the captives out.

The name of the director of this amusement was Merbod.  He could imitate
the voices of all the birds, and was a merry, versatile fellow, who knew
how to do a thousand things, and of whom we boys were very fond.

The peasant Bredernitz often took us to his crow-hut, which was a hole in
the ground covered with boughs and pieces of turf, where the hunters lay
concealed.  The owl, which lured the crows and other birds of prey, was
fastened on a perch, and when they flew up, often in large flocks, to
tease the old cross-patch which sat blinking angrily, they were shot down
from loop-holes which had been left in the hut.  The hawks which prey
upon doves and hares, the crows and magpies, can thus easily be

We had learned to use our guns in the playground.  The utmost caution was
enforced, and although, as I have already remarked, we handled our own
guns when we were only lads of twelve years old, I can not recall a
single accident which occurred.

Once, during the summer, there was a Schutzenfest, in which a large
wooden eagle was shot from the pole.  Whoever brought down the last
splinter became king.  This honour once fell to my share, and I was
permitted to choose a queen.  I crowned Marie Breimann, a pretty, slender
young girl from Brunswick, whose Greek profile and thick silken hair had
captivated my fancy.  She and Adelheid Barop, the head-master's daughter,
were taught in our classes, but Marie attracted me more strongly than the
diligent Keilhau lassies with their beautiful black eyes and the other
two blooming and graceful Westphalian girls who were also schoolmates.
But the girls occupied a very small place in our lives.  They could
neither wrestle, shoot, nor climb, so we gave them little thought, and
anything like actual flirtation was unknown--we had so many better things
in our heads.  Wrestling and other sports threw everything else into the
shade.  Pretty Marie, however, probably suspected which of my school-
mates I liked best, and up to the time of my leaving the institute I
allowed no other goddess to rival her.  But there were plenty of
amusements at Keilhau besides bird-shooting.

I will mention the principal ones which came during the year, for to
describe them in regular order would be impossible.

Of the longer walks which we took in the spring and summer the most
beautiful was the one leading through Blankenburg to the entrance of the
Schwarzathal, and thence through the lofty, majestically formed group of
cliffs at whose foot the clear, swift Schwarza flows, dashing and
foaming, to Schwarzburg.

How clearly our songs echoed from the granite walls of the river valley,
and how lively it always was at "The Stag," whose landlord possessed a
certain power of attraction to us boys in his own person; for, as the
stoutest man in Thuringia, he was a feast for the eyes!  His jollity
equalled his corpulence, and how merrily he used to jest with us lads!

Of the shorter expeditions I will mention only the two we took most
frequently, which led us in less than an hour to Blankenburg or
Greifenstein, a large ruin, many parts of which were in tolerable
preservation.  It had been the home of Count Gunther von Schwarzburg, who
paid with his life for the honour of wearing the German imperial crown a
few short months.

We also enjoyed being sent to the little town of Blankenburg on errands,
for it was the home of our drawing-master, the artist Unger, one of those
original characters whom we rarely meet now.  When we knew him, the
handsome, broad-shouldered man, with his thick red beard, looked as one
might imagine Odin.  Summer and winter his dress was a grey woollen
jacket, into which a short pipe was thrust, and around his hips a broad
leather belt, from which hung a bag containing his drawing materials.  He
cared nothing for public opinion, and, as an independent bachelor,
desired nothing except "to be let alone," for he professed the utmost
contempt for the corrupt brood yclept "mankind."  He never came to our
entertainments, probably because he would be obliged to wear something in
place of his woollen jacket, and because he avoided women, whom he called
"the roots of all evil."  I still remember how once, after emptying the
vials of his wrath upon mankind, he said, in reply to the question
whether he included Barop among the iniquitous brood, "Why, of course
not; he doesn't belong to it!"

There was no lack of opportunity to visit him, for a great many persons
employed to work for the school lived in Blankenburg, and we were known
to be carefully watched there.

I remember two memorable expeditions to the little town.  Once my brother
burned his arm terribly during a puppet-show by the explosion of some
powder provided for the toy cannon.

The poor fellow suffered so severely that I could not restrain my tears,
and though it was dark, and snow lay on the mountains, off I went to
Blankenburg to get the old surgeon, calling to some of my school-mates at
the door to tell them of my destination.  It was no easy matter to wade
through the snow; but, fortunately, the stars gave me sufficient light to
keep in the right path as I dashed down the mountain to Blankenburg.  How
often I plunged into ditches filled with snow and slid down short
descents I don't know; but as I write these lines I can vividly remember
the relief with which I at last trod the pavement of the little town.
Old Wetzel was at home, and a carriage soon conveyed us over the only
road to the institute.  I was not punished.  Barop only laid his hand on
my head, and said, "I am glad you are back again, Bear."

Another trip to Blankenburg entailed results far more serious--nay,
almost cost me my life.

I was then fifteen, and one Sunday afternoon I went with Barop's
permission to visit the Hamburgers, but on condition that I should return
by nine o'clock at latest.

Time, however, slipped by in pleasant conversation until a later hour,
and as thunder-clouds were rising my host tried to keep me overnight.
But I thought this would not be allowable, and, armed with an umbrella,
I set off along the road, with which I was perfectly familiar.

But the storm soon burst, and it grew so dark that, except when the
lightning flashed, I could not see my hand before my face.  Yet on I
went, though wondering that the path along which I groped my way led
upward, until the lightning showed me that, by mistake, I had taken the
road to Greifenstein.  I turned back, and while feeling my way through
the gloom the earth seemed to vanish under my feet, and I plunged
headlong into a viewless gulf--not through empty space, however, but a
wet, tangled mass which beat against my face, until at last there was a
jerk which shook me from head to foot.

I no longer fell, but I heard above me the sound of something tearing,
and the thought darted through my mind that I was hanging by my trousers.
Groping around, I found vine-leaves, branches, and lattice-work, to which
I clung, and tearing away with my foot the cloth which had caught on the
end of a lath, I again brought my head where it should be, and discovered
that I was hanging on a vine-clad wall.  A flash of lightning showed me
the ground not very far below and, by the help of the espalier and the
vines I at last stood in a garden.

Almost by a miracle I escaped with a few scratches; but when I afterwards
went to look at the scene of this disaster cold chills ran down my back,
for half the distance whence I plunged into the garden would have been
enough to break my neck.

Our games were similar to those which lads of the same age play now, but
there were some additional ones that could only take place in a wooded
mountain valley like Keilhau; such, for instance, were our Indian games,
which engrossed us at the time when we were pleased with Cooper's
"Leather-Stocking," but I need not describe them.

When I was one of the older pupils a party of us surprised some "Panzen"
--as we called the younger ones--one hot afternoon engaged in a very
singular game of their own invention.  They had undressed to the skin in
the midst of the thickest woods and were performing Paradise and the Fall
of Man, as they had probably just been taught in their religious lesson.
For the expulsion of Adam and our universal mother Eve, the angel--in
this case there were two of them--used, instead of the flaming sword,
stout hazel rods, with which they performed their part of warders so
overzealously that a quarrel followed, which we older ones stopped.

Thus many bands of pupils invented games of their own, but, thank Heaven,
rarely devised such absurdities.  Our later Homeric battles any teacher
would have witnessed with pleasure.  Froebel would have greeted them as
signs of creative imagination and "individual life" in the boys.



Wholly unlike these, genuinely and solely a product of Keilhau, was the
great battle-game which we called Bergwacht, one of my brightest memories
of those years.

Long preparations were needed, and these, too, were delightful.

On the wooded plain at the summit of the Kolm, a mountain which belonged
mainly to the institute, war was waged during the summer every Saturday
evening until far into the night, whenever the weather was fine, which
does not happen too often in Thuringia.

The whole body of pupils was divided into three, afterwards into four
sections, each of which had its own citadel.  After two had declared war
against two others, the battle raged until one party captured the
strongholds of the other.  This was done as soon as a combatant had set
foot on the hearth of a hostile fortress.

The battle itself was fought with stakes blunted at the tops.  Every one
touched by the weapon of an enemy must declare himself a prisoner.  To
admit this, whenever it happened, was a point of honour.

In order to keep all the combatants in action, a fourth division was
added soon after our arrival, and of course it was necessary to build a
strong hold like the others.  This consisted of a hut with a stone roof,
in which fifteen or twenty boys could easily find room and rest, a strong
wall which protected us up to our foreheads, and surrounded the front of
the citadel in a semicircle, as well as a large altar-like hearth which
rose in the midst of the semicircular space surrounded by the wall.

We built this fortress ourselves, except that our teacher of handicrafts,
the sapper Sabum, sometimes gave us a hint.  The first thing was to mark
out the plan, then with the aid of levers pry the rocks out of the
fields, and by means of a two-wheeled cart convey them to the site
chosen, fit them neatly together, stuff the interstices with moss, and
finally put on a roof made of pine logs which we felled ourselves, earth,
moss, and branches.

How quickly we learned to use the plummet, take levels, hew the stone,
wield the axes!  And what a delight it was when the work was finished and
we saw our own building!  Perhaps we might not have accomplished it
without the sapper, but every boy believed that if he were cast, like
Robinson Crusoe, on a desert island, he could build a hut of his own.

As soon as this citadel was completed, preparations for the impending
battle were made.  The walls and encircling walls of all were prepared,
and we were drilled in the use of the poles.  This, too, afforded us the
utmost pleasure.  Touching the head of an enemy was strictly prohibited;
yet many a slight wound was given while fighting in the gloom of the

Each of the four Bergwachts had its leader.  The captain of the first was
director of the whole game, and instead of a lance wore a rapier.  I
considered it a great honour when this dignity was conferred on me.  One
of its consequences was that my portrait was sketched by "Old Unger" in
the so-called "Bergwacht Book," which contained the likenesses of all my

During the summer months all eyes, even as early as Thursday, were
watching the weather.  When Saturday evening proved pleasant and Barop
had given his consent, there was great rejoicing in the institute, and
the morning hours must have yielded the teachers little satisfaction.

Directly after dinner everybody seized his pole and the other "Bergwacht"
equipments.  The alliances were formed under the captain's guidance.  We
will say that the contest was to begin with the first and third Bergwacht
pitted against the second and fourth, and be followed by another, with
the first and second against the third and fourth.

We assembled in the court-yard just before sunset.  Barop made a little
speech, exhorting us to fight steadily, and especially to observe all the
rules and yield ourselves captives as soon as an enemy's pole touched us.
He never neglected on these occasions to admonish us that, should our
native land ever need the armed aid of her sons, we should march to
battle as joyously as we now did to the Bergwacht, which was to train us
to skill in her defence.

Then the procession set off in good order, four or six pupils harnessing
themselves voluntarily to the cart in which the kegs of beer were dragged
up the Kolm.  Off we went, singing merrily, and at the top the women were
waiting for us with a lunch.  Then the warriors scattered, the fire was
lighted on every hearth, the plan of battle was discussed, some were sent
out to reconnoitre, others kept to defend the citadel.

At last the conflict began.  Could I ever forget the scenes in the
forest!  No Indian tribe on the war-path ever strained every sense more
keenly to watch, surround, and surprise the foe.  And the hand-to-hand
fray!  What delight it was to burst from the shelter of the thicket and
touch with our poles two, three, or four of the surprised enemies ere
they thought of defence!  And what self-denial it required when--spite of
the most skilful parry--we felt the touch of the pole, to confess it, and
be led off as a prisoner!

Voices and shouts echoed through the woods, and the glare of five fires
pierced the darkness--five--for flames were also blazing where the women
were cooking the supper.  But the light was brightest, the shouts of the
combatants were loudest, in the vicinity of the forts.  The effort of the
besiegers was to spy out unguarded places, and occupy the attention of
the garrison so that a comrade might leap over the wall and set his foot
on the hearth.  The object of the garrison was to prevent this.

What was that?  An exulting cry rang through the night air.  A warrior
had succeeded in penetrating the hostile citadel untouched and setting
his foot on the hearth!

Two or three times we enjoyed the delight of battle; and when towards
midnight it closed, we threw ourselves-glowing from the strife and
blackened by the smoke of the hearth-fires-down on the greensward around
the women's fire, where boiled eggs and other good things were served,
and meanwhile the mugs of foaming beer were passed around the circle.
One patriotic song after another was sung, and at last each Bergwacht
withdrew to its citadel and lay down on the moss to sleep under the
sheltering roof.  Two sentinels marched up and down, relieved every half
hour until the early dawn of the summer Sunday brightened the eastern

Then "Huup!"--the Keilhau shout which summoned us back to the institute-
rang out, and a hymn, the march back, a bath in the pond, and finally the
most delicious rest, if good luck permitted, on the heaps of hay which
had not been gathered in.  On the Sunday following the Bergwacht we were
not required to attend church, where we should merely have gone to sleep.
Barop, though usually very strict in the observance of religious duties,
never demanded anything for the sake of mere appearances.

And the bed of my own planning!  It consisted of wood and stones, and was
covered with a thick layer of moss, raised at the head in a slanting
direction.  It looked like other beds, but the place where it stood
requires some description, for it was a Keilhau specialty, a favour
bestowed by our teachers on the pupils.

Midway up the slope of the Kolm where our citadels stood, on the side
facing the institute, each boy had a piece of ground where he might
build, dig, or plant, as he chose.  They descended from one to another:
Ludo's and mine had come down from Martin and another pupil who left the
school at the same time.  But I was not satisfied with what my
predecessors had created.  I spared the beautiful vine which twined
around a fir-tree, but in the place of a flower-bed and a bench which I
found there Ludo and I built a hearth, and for myself the bed already
mentioned, which my brother of course was permitted to occupy with me.

How many hours I have spent on its soft cushions, reading or dreaming or
imagining things!  If I could only remember them as they hovered before
me, what epics and tales I could write!

No doubt we ought to be grateful to God for this as well as for so many
other blessings; but why are we permitted to be young only once in our
lives, only once to be borne aloft on the wings of a tireless power of
imagination, so easily satisfied with ourselves, so full of love, faith,
and hope, so open to every joy and so blind to every care and doubt, and
everything which threatens to cloud and extinguish the sunlight in the

Dear bed in my plot of ground at Keilhau, you ought, in accordance with a
remark of Barop, to cause me serious self-examination, for he said,
probably with no thought of my mossy couch, "From the way in which the
pupils use their plots of ground and the things they place in them, I can
form a very correct opinion of their dispositions and tastes."  But you,
beloved couch, should have the best place in my garden if you could
restore me but for one half hour the dreams which visited me on your
grey-green pillows, when I was a lad of fourteen or fifteen.

I have passed over the Rudolstadt Schutzenfest, its music, its merry-go-
round, and the capital sausages cooked in the open air, and have
intentionally omitted many other delightful things.  I cannot help
wondering now where we found time for all these summer pleasures.

True, with the exception of a few days at Whitsuntide, we had no vacation
from Easter until the first of September.  But even in August one
thought, one joyous anticipation, filled every heart.  The annual autumn
excursion was coming!

After we were divided into travelling parties and had ascertained which
teacher was to accompany us--a matter that seemed very important--we
diligently practised the most beautiful songs; and on many an evening
Barop or Middendorf told us of the places through which we were to pass,
their history, and the legends which were associated with them.  They
were aided in this by one of the sub-teachers, Bagge, a poetically gifted
young clergyman, who possessed great personal beauty and a heart capable
of entering into the intellectual life of the boys who were entrusted to
his care.

He instructed us in the German language and literature.  Possibly because
he thought that he discovered in me a talent for poetic expression, he
showed me unusual favor, even read his own verses aloud to me, and set me
special tasks in verse-writing, which he criticised with me when I had
finished.  The first long poem I wrote of my own impulse was a
description of the wonderful forms assumed by the stalactite formations
in the Sophie Cave in Switzerland, which we had visited.  Unfortunately,
the book containing it is lost, but I remember the following lines,
referring to the industrious sprites which I imagined as the sculptors of
the wondrous shapes:

    "Priestly robes and a high altar the sprites created here,
     And in the rock-hewn cauldron poured the holy water clear,
     Within whose depths reflected, by the torches' flickering rays,
     Beneath the surface glimmering my own face met my gaze;
     And when I thus beheld it, so small it seemed to me,
     That yonder stone-carved giant looked on with mocking glee.
     Ay, laugh, if that's your pleasure, Goliath huge and old,
     I soon shall fare forth singing, you still your place must hold."

Another sub-teacher was also a favourite travelling-companion.  His name
was Schaffner, and he, too, with his thick, black beard, was a handsome
man.  To those pupils who, like my brother Ludo, were pursuing the study
of the sciences, he, the mathematician of the institute, must have been
an unusually clear and competent teacher.  I was under his charge only a
short time, and his branch of knowledge was unfortunately my weak point.
Shortly before my departure he married a younger sister of Barop's wife,
and established an educational institution very similar to Keilhau at
Gumperda, at Schwarza in Thuringia.

Herr Vodoz, our French teacher, a cheery, vigorous Swiss, with a perfect
forest of curls on his head, was also one of the most popular guides; and
so was Dr. Budstedt, who gave instruction in the classics.  He was not a
handsome man, but he deserved the name of "anima candida."  He used to
storm at the slightest occasion, but he was quickly appeased again.  As a
teacher I think he did his full duty, but I no longer remember anything
about his methods.

The travelling party which Barop accompanied were very proud of the
honour.  Middendorf's age permitted him to go only with the youngest
pupils, who made the shortest trips.

These excursions led the little boys into the Thuringian Forest, the
Hartz Mountains, Saxony and Bohemia, Nuremberg and Wurzburg, and the
older ones by way of Baireuth and Regensburg to Ulm.  The large boys in
the first travelling party, which was usually headed by Barop himself,
extended their journey as far as Switzerland.

I visited in after-years nearly all the places to which we went at that
time, and some, with which important events in my life were associated,
I shall mention later.  It would not be easy to reproduce from memory the
first impressions received without mingling with them more recent ones.

Thus, I well remember how Nuremberg affected me and how much it pleased
me.  I express this in my description of the journey; but in the author
of Gred, who often sought this delightful city, and made himself familiar
with life there in the days of its mediaval prosperity, these childish
impressions became something wholly new.  And yet they are inseparable
from the conception and contents of the Nuremberg novel.

My mother kept the old books containing the accounts of these excursions,
which occupied from two to three weeks, and they possessed a certain
interest for me, principally because they proved how skilfully our
teachers understood how to carry out Froebel's principles on these
occasions.  Our records of travel also explain in detail what this
educator meant by the words "unity with life"; for our attention was
directed not only to beautiful views or magnificent works of art and
architecture, but to noteworthy public institutions or great
manufactories.  Our teachers took the utmost care that we should
understand what we saw.

The cultivation of the fields, the building of the peasants' huts, the
national costumes, were all brought under our notice, thus making us
familiar with life outside of the school, and opening our eyes to things
concerning which the pupil of an ordinary model grammar-school rarely
inquires, yet which are of great importance to the world to which we

Our material life was sensibly arranged.  During the rest at noon a cold
lunch was served, and an abundant hot meal was not enjoyed until evening.

In the large cities we dined at good hotels at the table d'hote, and--as
in Dresden, Prague, and Coburg--were taken to the theatre.

But we often spent the night in the villages, and then chairs were turned
upside down, loose straw was spread on the backs and over the floor, and,
wrapped in the shawl which almost every boy carried buckled to his
knapsack, we slept, only half undressed, as comfortably as in the softest

While walking we usually sung songs, among them very nonsensical ones,
if only we could keep step well to their time.  Often one of the teachers
told us a story.  Schaffner and Bagge could do this best, but we often
met other pedestrians with whom we entered into conversation.  How
delightful is the memory of these tramps!  Progress on foot is slow, but
not only do we see ten times better than from a carriage or the window of
a car, but we hear and learn something while talking with the mechanics,
citizens, and peasants who are going the same way, or the landlords,
bar-maids, and table companions we meet in the taverns, whose guests live
according to the custom of the country instead of the international
pattern of our great hotels.

As a young married man, I always anticipated as the greatest future
happiness taking pedestrian tours with my sons like the Keilhau ones;
but Fate ordained otherwise.

On our return to the institute we were received with great rejoicing;
and how much the different parties, now united, had to tell one another!

Study recommenced on the first of October, and during the leisure days
before that time the village church festival was celebrated under the
village linden, with plenty of cakes, and a dance of the peasants, in
which we older ones took part.  But we were obliged to devote several
hours of every day to describing our journey for our relatives at home.
Each one filled a large book, which was to be neatly written.  The
exercise afforded better practice in describing personal experiences than
a dozen essays which had been previously read with the teacher.



Autumn had come, and this season of the year, which afterwards was to be
the most fraught with suffering, at that time seemed perhaps the
pleasantest; for none afforded a better opportunity for wrestling and
playing.  It brought delicious fruit, and never was the fire lighted more
frequently on the hearth in the plots of ground assigned to the pupils--
baking and boiling were pleasant during the cool afternoons.

No month seemed to us so cheery as October.  During its course the apples
and pears were gathered, and an old privilege allowed the pupils "to
glean"--that is, to claim the fruit left on the trees.  This tested the
keenness of our young eyes, but it sometimes happened that we confounded
trees still untouched with those which had been harvested.  "Nitimur in
vetitum semper cupimusque negata,"--[The forbidden charms, and the
unexpected lures us.]--is an excellent saying of Ovid, whose truth, when
he tested it in person, was the cause of his exile.  It sometimes brought
us into conflict with the owners of the trees, and it was only natural
that "Froebel's youngsters" often excited the peasants' ire.

Gellert, it is true, has sung:

                   "Enjoy what the Lord has granted,
                    Grieve not for aught withheld."

but the popular saying is, "Forbidden fruit tastes sweetest," and the
proverb was right in regard to us Keilhau boys.

Whatever fruit is meant in the story related in Genesis of the fall of
man, none could make it clearer to German children than the apple.  The
Keilhau ones were kept in a cellar, and through the opening we thrust a
pole to which the blade of a rapier was fastened.  This sometimes brought
us up four or five apples at once, which hung on the blade like the flock
of ducks that Baron Munchausen's musket pierced with the ramrod.

We were all honest boys, yet not one, not even the sons of the heads of
the institute, ever thought of blaming or checking the zest for this
appropriation of other people's property.

The apple and morality must stand in a very peculiar relation to each

Scarcely was the last fruit gathered, when other pleasures greeted us.

The 18th of October, the anniversary of the battle of Leipsic, was
celebrated in Thuringia by kindling bonfires on the highest mountains,
but ours was always the largest and brightest far and wide.  While the
flames soared heavenward, we enthusiastically sang patriotic songs.  The
old Lutzow Jagers, who had fought for the freedom of Germany, led the
chorus and gazed with tearful eyes at the boys whom they were rearing for
the future supporters and champions of their native land.

Then winter came.

Snow and ice usually appeared in our mountain valley in the latter half
of November.  We welcomed them, for winter brought coasting parties down
the mountains, skating, snow-balling, the clumsy snow-man, and that most
active of mortals, the dancing-master, who not only instructed us in the
art of Terpsichore, but also gave us rules of decorum which were an
abomination to Uncle Froebel.

An opportunity to put them into practice was close at hand, for the 29th
of November was Barop's birthday, which was celebrated by a little dance
after the play.

Those who took part in the performance were excused from study for
several days before, for with the sapper's help we built the stage, and
even painted the scenes.  The piece was rehearsed till it was absolutely

I took an active part in all these matters during my entire residence at
the institute, and we three Ebers brothers had the reputation of being
among the best actors, though Martin far surpassed us.  We had invented
another variety of theatrical performances which we often enjoyed on
winter evenings after supper, unless one of the teachers read aloud to
us, or we boys performed the classic dramas.  While I was one of the
younger pupils, we used the large and complete puppet-show which belonged
to the institute; but afterwards we preferred to act ourselves, and
arranged the performance according to a plan of our own.

One of us who had seen a play during the vacation at home told the others
the plot.  The whole was divided into scenes, and each character was
assigned to some representative who was left to personate it according to
his own conception, choosing the words and gestures which he deemed most

I enjoyed nothing more than these performances; and my mother, who
witnessed several of them during one of her visits, afterwards said that
it was surprising how well we had managed the affair and acted our parts.

For a long time I was the moving spirit in this play, and we had no lack
of talented mimes, personators of sentimental heroes, and droll
comedians.  The women's parts, of course, were also taken by boys.  Ludo
made a wonderfully pretty girl.  I was sometimes one thing, sometimes
another, but almost always stage manager.

These merry improvisations were certainly well fitted to strengthen the
creative power and activity of our intellects.  There was no lack of
admirable stage properties, for the large wardrobe of the institute was
at our disposal whenever we wanted to act, which was at least once a week
during the whole winter, except in the Advent season, when everything was
obliged to yield to the demand of the approaching Christmas festival.
Then we were all busy in making presents for our relatives.  The younger
ones manufactured various cardboard trifles; the older pupils, as embryo
cabinet-makers, all sorts of pretty and useful things, especially boxes.

Unluckily, I did not excel as a cabinet-maker, though I managed to finish
tolerable boxes; but my mother had two made by the more skilful hands of
Ludo, which were provided with locks and hinges, so neatly finished,
veneered, and polished that many a trained cabinet-maker's apprentice
could have done no better.  It was one of Froebel's principles--as I have
already mentioned--to follow the "German taste for manual labor," and
have us work with spades and pickaxes (in our plots of ground), and with
squares, chisels, and saws (in the pasteboard and carving lessons).

A clever elderly man, the sapper, or Sabuim, already mentioned--I think
I never heard his real name--instructed us in the trades of the book
binder and cabinet-maker.  He was said to have served under Napoleon as a
sapper, and afterwards settled in our neighbourhood, and found occupation
in Keilhau.  He was skilful in all kinds of manual labour, and an
excellent teacher.  The nearer Christmas came the busier were the
workshops; and while usually there was no noise, they now resounded
with Christmas songs, among which:

         "Up, up, my lads!  why do ye sleep so long?
          The night has passed, and day begins to dawn";

or our Berlin one:

         "Something will happen to-morrow, my children,"

were most frequently heard.

Christmas thoughts filled our hearts and minds.  Christmas at home had
been so delightful that the first year I felt troubled by the idea that
the festival must be celebrated away from my mother and without her.  But
after we had shared the Keilhau holiday, and what preceded and followed
it, we could not decide which was the most enjoyable.

Once our mother was present, though the cause of her coming was not
exactly a joyous one.  About a week before the Christmas of my third year
at Keilhau I went to the hayloft at dusk, and while scuffling with a
companion the hay slipped with us and we both fell to the barn-floor.
My school-mate sustained an internal injury, while I escaped with the
fracture of two bones, fortunately only of the left arm.  The severe
suffering which has darkened so large a portion of my life has been
attributed to this fracture, but the idea is probably incorrect;
otherwise the consequences would have appeared earlier.

At first the arm was very painful; yet the thought of having lost the
Christmas pleasures was almost worse.  But the experience that the days
from which we expect least often afford us most happiness was again
verified.  Barop had thought it his duty to inform my mother of this
serious accident, and two or three days later she arrived.  Though I
could not play out of doors with the others, there was enough to enjoy
in the house with her and some of my comrades.

Every incident of that Christmas has remained in my memory, and, though
Fate should grant me many more years of life, I would never forget them.
First came the suspense and excitement when the wagon from Rudolstadt
filled with boxes drove into the court-yard, and then the watching for
those which might be meant for us.

On Christmas eve, when at home the bell summoned us to the Christmas-tree
the delight of anticipation reached its climax, and expressed itself in
song, in gayer talk, and now and then some harmless scuffle.

Then we went to bed, with the firm resolve of waking early; but the sleep
of youth is sounder than any resolution, and suddenly unwonted sounds
roused us, perhaps from the dreams of the manger at Bethlehem and the
radiant Christmas-tree.

Was it the voice of the angels which appeared to the shepherds?  The
melody was a Christmas choral played by the Rudolstadt band, which had
been summoned to waken us thus pleasantly.

Never did we leave our beds more quickly than in the darkness of that
early morning, illuminated as usual only by a tallow dip.  Rarely was the
process of washing more speedily accomplished--in winter we were often
obliged to break a crust of ice which had formed over the water; but this
time haste was useless, for no one was admitted into the great hall
before the signal was given.  At last it sounded, and when we had pressed
through the wide-open doors, what splendours greeted our enraptured eyes
and ears!

The whole room was most elaborately decorated with garlands of pine.
Wherever the light entered the windows we saw transparencies representing
biblical Christmas scenes.  Christmas-trees--splendid firs of stately
height and size, which two days before were the ornaments of the forest-
glittered in the light of the candles, which was reflected from the ruddy
cheeks of the apples and the gilded and silvered nuts.  Meanwhile the
air, "O night so calm, so holy!" floated from the instruments of the

Scarcely had we taken our places when a chorus of many voices singing the
angel's greeting, "Glory to God in the highest, peace on earth," recalled
to our happy hearts the sacredness of the morning.  Violins and horns
blended with the voices; then, before even the most excited could feel
the least emotion of impatience, the music ceased.  Barop stepped
forward, and in the deep, earnest tones peculiar to him exclaimed,
"Now see what pleasures the love of your friends has prepared for you!"

The devout, ennobling feelings which had inspired every heart were
scattered to the four winds; we dispersed like a flock of doves
threatened by a hawk, and the search for the places marked by a label

One had already seen his name; a near-sighted fellow went searching from
table to table; and here and there one boy called to another to point out
what his sharp eyes had detected.  On every table stood a Stolle, the
Saxon Christmas bread called in Keilhau Schuttchen, and a large plate of
nuts and cakes, the gift of the institute.  Beside these, either on the
tables or the floor, were the boxes from home.  They were already opened,
but the unpacking was left to us--a wise thing; for what pleasure it
afforded us to take out the various gifts, unwrap them, admire, examine,
and show them to others!

Those were happy days, for we saw only joyous faces, and our own hearts
had room for no other feelings than the heaven-born sisters Love, Joy,
and Gratitude.

We entered with fresh zeal upon the season of work which followed.  It
was the hardest of the twelve months, for it carried us to Easter, the
close of the school year, and was interrupted only by the carnival with
its merry masquerade.

All sorts of examinations closed the term of instruction.  On Palm Sunday
the confirmation services took place, which were attended by the parents
of many of the pupils, and in which the whole institute shared.

Then came the vacation.  It lasted three weeks, and was the only time we
were allowed to return home.  And what varied pleasures awaited us there!
Martha, whom we left a young lady of seventeen, remained unaltered in her
charming, gentle grace, but Paula changed every year.  One Easter we
found the plump school-girl transformed into a slender young lady.  The
next vacation she had been confirmed, wore long dresses, had lost every
trace of boyishness, even rarely showed any touch of her former drollery.

She did not care to go to the theatre, of which Martha was very fond,
unless serious dramas were performed.  We, on the contrary, liked farces.
I still remember a political quip which was frequently repeated at the
Konigstadt Theatre, and whose point was a jeer at the aspirations of the
revolution: "Property is theft, or a Dream of a Red Republican."

We were in the midst of the reaction and those who had fought at the
barricades on the 18th of March applauded when the couplet was sung, of
which I remember these lines:

                   "Ah! what bliss is the aspiration
                    To dangle from a lamp-post
                    As a martyr for the nation!"

During these vacations politics was naturally a matter of utter
indifference to us, and toward their close we usually paid a visit to my
grandmother and aunt in Dresden.

So the years passed till Easter (1852) came, and with it our confirmation
and my separation from Ludo, who was to follow a different career.  We
had double instruction in confirmation, first with the village boys from
the pastor of Eichfeld, and afterwards from Middendorf at the institute.

Unfortunately, I have entirely forgotten what the Eichfeld clergyman
taught us, but Middendorf's lessons made all the deeper impression.

He led us through life to God and the Saviour, and thence back again to

How often, after one of these lessons, silence reigned, and teachers and
pupils rose from their seats with tearful eyes!

Afterwards I learned from a book which had been kept that what he gave us
had been drawn chiefly from the rich experiences of his own life and the
Gospels, supplemented by the writings of his favourite teacher,
Schleiermacher.  By contemplation, the consideration of the universe with
the soul rather than with the mind, we should enter into close relations
with God and become conscious of our dependence upon him, and this
consciousness Middendorf with his teacher Schleiermacher called

But the old Lutzow Jager, who in the year 1813 had taken up arms at the
Berlin University, had also sat at the feet of Fichte, and therefore
crowned his system by declaring, like the latter, that religion was not
feeling but perception.  Whoever attained this, arrived at a clear
understanding of his own ego (Middendorf's mental understanding of life),
perfect harmony with himself and the true sanctification of his soul.
This man who, according to our Middendorf, is the really religious human
being, will be in harmony with God and Nature, and find an answer to the
highest of all questions.

Froebel's declaration that he had found "the unity of life," which had
brought Middendorf to Keilhau, probably referred to Fichte.  The phrase
had doubtless frequently been used by them in conversations about this
philosopher, and neither needed an explanation, since Fichte's opinions
were familiar to both.

We candidates for confirmation at that time knew the Berlin philosopher
only by name, and sentences like "unity with one's self," "to grasp and
fulfil," "inward purity of life," etc., which every one who was taught by
Middendorf must remember, at first seemed perplexing; but our teacher,
who considered it of the utmost importance to be understood, and whose
purpose was not to give us mere words, but to enrich our souls with
possessions that would last all our lives, did not cease his explanations
until even the least gifted understood their real meaning.

This natural, childlike old man never lectured; he was only a pedagogue
in the sense of the ancients--that is, a guide of boys.  Though precepts
tinctured by philosophy mingled with his teachings, they only served as
points of departure for statements which came to him from the soul and
found their way to it.

He possessed a comprehensive knowledge of the religions of all nations,
and described each with equal love and an endeavour to show us all their
merits.  I remember how warmly he praised Confucius's command not to love
our fellow-men but to respect them, and how sensible and beautiful it
seemed to me, too, in those days.  He lingered longest on Buddhism; and
it surprises me now to discover how well, with the aids then at his
command, he understood the touching charity of Buddha and the deep
wisdom and grandeur of his doctrine.

But he showed us the other religions mainly to place Christianity and
its renewing and redeeming power in a brighter light.  The former served,
as it were, for a foil to the picture of our Saviour's religion and
character, which he desired to imprint upon the soul.  Whether he
succeeded in bringing us into complete "unity" with the personality of
Christ, to which he stood in such close relations, is doubtful, but he
certainly taught us to understand and love him; and this love, though I
have also listened to the views of those who attribute the creation and
life of the world to mechanical causes, and believe the Deity to be a
product of the human intellect, has never grown cold up to the present

The code of ethics which Middendorf taught was very simple.  His motto,
as I have said, was, "True, pure, and upright in life."  He might have
added, "and with a heart full of love"; for this was what distinguished
him from so many, what made him a Christian in the most beautiful sense
of the word, and he neglected nothing to render our young hearts an
abiding-place for this love.

Of course, our mother came to attend our confirmation, which first took
place with the peasant boys--who all wore sprigs of lavender in their
button-holes--in the village church at Eichfeld, and then, with
Middendorf officiating, in the hall of the institute at Keilhau.

Few boys ever approached the communion-table for the first time in a more
devout mood, or with hearts more open to all good things, than did we two
brothers that day on our mother's right and left hand.

No matter how much I may have erred, Middendorf's teachings and counsels
have not been wholly lost in any stage of my career.

After the confirmation I went away with my mother and Ludo for the
vacation, and three weeks later I returned to the institute without my

I missed him everywhere.  His greater discretion had kept me from many
a folly, and my need of loving some one found satisfaction in him.
Besides, his mere presence was a perpetual reminder of my mother.

Keilhau was no longer what it had been.  New scenes always seem desirable
to young people, and for the first time I longed to go away, though I
knew nothing of my destination except that it would be a gymnasium.

Yet I loved the institute and its teachers, though I did not realize
until later how great was my debt of gratitude.  Here, and by them, the
foundation of my whole future life was laid, and if I sometimes felt it
reel under my feet, the Froebel method was not in fault.

The institute could not dismiss us as finished men; the desired "unity
with life" can be attained only upon its stage--the world--in the motley
throng of fellow-men, but minds and bodies were carefully trained
according to their individual peculiarities, and I might consider myself
capable of receiving higher lessons.  True, my character was not yet
steeled sufficiently to resist every temptation, but I no longer need
fear the danger of crossing the barrier which Froebel set for men
"worthy" in his sense.

My acquirements were deficient in many respects what the French term
"justesse d'esprit" had to a certain degree become mine, as in the case
of every Keilhau boy, through our system of education.

Though I could not boast of "being one with Nature," we had formed a
friendly alliance, and I learned by my own experience the truth of
Goethe's words, that it was the only book which offers valuable contents
on every page.

I was not yet familiar with life, but I had learned to look about with
open eyes.

I had not become a master in any handicraft, but I had learned with
paste-pot and knife, saw, plane, and chisel--nay, even axe and handspike-
-what manual labour meant and how to use my hands.

I had by no means attained to union with God, but I had acquired the
ability and desire to recognize his government in Nature as well as in
life; for Middendorf had understood how to lead us into a genuine filial
relation with him and awaken in our young hearts love for him who kindles
in the hearts of men the pure flame of love for their neighbours.

The Greek words which Langethal wrote in my album, and which mean "Be
truthful in love," were beginning to be as natural to me as abhorrence of
cowardice and falsehood had long been.

Love for our native land was imprinted indelibly on my soul, and lives
there joyously, ready to sacrifice for the freedom and greatness of
Germany even what I hold dearest.


A word at the right time and place
Confucius's command not to love our fellow-men but to respect

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