Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Elson Readers, Book 5
Author: Keck, Christine M., Elson, William H. (William Harris)
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Elson Readers, Book 5" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



THE ELSON READERS

BOOK FIVE

WILLIAM H. ELSON AND CHRISTINE M. KECK



PREFACE


This book is based on the belief that an efficient reader for the
fifth grade must score high when tested on five fundamental features:
quality of literature; variety of literature; organization of
literature; quantity of literature; and definite helps sufficient to
make the text a genuine tool for classroom use.

Quality Literature:

First among these features is the essential that the foundation of the
book must be the acknowledged masterpieces of American and British
authors. American boys and girls may be depended upon to read current
magazines and newspapers, but if they are ever to have their taste and
judgment of literary values enriched by familiarity with the classics
of our literature, the schools must provide the opportunity. This
ideal does not mean the exclusion of well established present-day
writers, but it does mean that the core of the school reader should be
the rich literary heritage that has won recognition for its enduring
value. Moreover, these masterpieces must come to the pupil in complete
units, not in mere excerpts or garbled "cross-sections"; for the pupil
in his school life should gain some real literary possessions.

A study of the contents of The Elson Readers, Book Five, will show how
consistently its authors have based the book on this sound test of
quality. The works of the acknowledged "makers" of our literature have
been abundantly drawn upon to furnish a foundation of great stories
and poems, gripping in interest and well within the powers of
child-appreciation in this grade.

Variety of Literature:

Variety is fundamental to a well-rounded course of reading. If the
school reader is to provide for all the purposes that a collection
of literature for this grade should serve, it must contain material
covering at least the following types: (1) literature representing
both British and American authors; (2) some of the best modern poetry
and prose as well as the literature of the past; (3) important race
stories--great epics--and world-stories of adventure; (4) patriotic
literature, rich in ideals of home and country, loyalty and service,
thrift, cooperation, and citizenship--ideals of which American
children gained, during the World War, a new conception that the
school reader should perpetuate; (5) literature suited to festival
occasions, particularly those celebrated in the schools: Armistice
Day, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas, Arbor Day and Bird Day,
anniversaries of the birthdays of Lincoln and Washington, as well as
of Longfellow and other great American authors; (6) literature of the
seasons, Nature, and out-of-door life; (7) literature of humor that
will enliven the reading and cultivate the power to discriminate
between wholesome humor--an essential part of life--and crude humor,
so prevalent in the pupil's outside reading; (8) adventure stories
both imaginative and real; (9) literature suited to dramatization,
providing real project material.

This book offers a well-rounded course of reading covering all the
types mentioned above. Especially by means of groups of stories and
poems that portray love of home and its festivals, love of our free
country and its flag, and unselfish service to others, this book makes
a stirring appeal to good citizenship. Moreover, it will be noted that
wholesome ethical ideals pervade the literature throughout.

Organization of Literature:

The literature of a school reader, if it is to do effective work, must
be purposefully organized. Sound organization groups into related
units the various selections that center about a common theme. This
arrangement enables the pupil to see the larger dominant ideas of the
book as a whole, instead of looking upon it as a confused scrapbook
of miscellaneous selections. Such arrangement also fosters literary
comparison by bringing together selections having a common theme or
authorship.

This book has been so organized as to fulfill these purposes. There
are three main Parts, each distinguished by unity of theme or
authorship. Part I, leading from a wholesome appreciation of Nature,
particularly in its American setting, centers mainly about the
important themes of patriotism, service, and good citizenship; Part II
introduces some of the great tales that typify our love of stirring
deeds; Part III presents some of our greatest American authors at
sufficient length to make them stand out to the pupil. Through these
grouped selections, together with the accompanying biographies, pupils
may come to be familiar with and love some of the great company of
writers that have made the name of America known in the world of
literature.

Attention is called to three special features that keep the dominant
theme of each Part clearly in the foreground: (1) "A Forward Look" and
"A Backward Look" for each main division and important subdivisions
emphasize the larger theme, and show how each selection contributes to
the group-idea (see pages 19, 56, etc.); (2) the Notes and Questions
frequently call the pupil's attention to the relation the selection
bears to the main thought (see pages 39, 75, etc.); (3) the three main
divisions, and the subordinate groups within each main unit, are made
to stand out clearly by illustrations that typify the theme (see
pages 18, 21, etc.) and by topical headings that enable the pupil to
visualize the group-units. By these three means the organization of
the book is emphasized, and fundamental ideals are kept dominant.


Quality of Literature:

Obviously, a book that is to supply the pupil with a year's course in
literature must be a generous volume. Variety is impossible without
quantity, especially where literary wholes rather than mere
fragmentary excerpts are offered. Particularly is this true when
complete units are included not only for intensive study, but also for
extensive reading--longer units, of the so-called "paper classics"
type, to be read mainly for the story-element. In bulk such units
should be as large as the pupil can control readily in rapid silent
reading, a kind of reading that increases the power to enjoy with
intelligence a magazine or a book.

The Elson Readers, Book Five, is a generous volume in provision for
these needs. Its inclusiveness makes possible a proper balance between
prose and poetry, between long and short selections, and between
material for intensive and extensive reading.


Definite Helps:

If the pupil is to gain the full benefit from his reading, certain
definite helps must be provided. An efficient reader must score a high
test not only on the fundamentals of quality, variety, organization
and quantity of literature, but also on its fitness as a tool for
classroom use. The effectiveness of this Reader as such a tool may be
indicated by the following distinguishing features:

(1) A distinctive introduction, "The Crystal Glass" (see page 13),
gives the pupil an illuminating interpretation of the organization and
literary content of the volume.

(2) Definite suggestions for developing speed and concentration in
silent reading. (See pages 21, 30, 34, 163, etc.)

(3) A comprehensive Glossary (pages 399-418) contains the words
and phrases that offer valuable vocabulary training, either of
pronunciation or meaning. The teacher is free to use the Glossary
according to the needs of her particular class, but suggestive type
words and phrases are listed under Notes and Questions.

(4) A complete program of study, "How to Gain the Full Benefit from
Your Reading" (pages 28, 29), gives a concise explanation of the
various helps found in the book.

(5) The helps to study are more than mere notes; they aid in making
significant the larger purposes of the literature. These "Notes and
Questions" include:

  (a) Biographies of the authors, that supply data for interpreting the
  stories and poems; particularly helpful are those of Part III;

  (b) Historical settings, wherever they are necessary to the
  intelligent understanding of the selection (see pages 94, 105, etc.);

  (c) Questions and suggestions that present clearly the main idea,
  stimulate original discussion and comparison, and bring out modern
  parallels to the situations found in the selections;

  (d) Words of everyday use frequently mispronounced, listed, for study
  under "Discussion" (see page 29, etc.);

  (e) Phrases that offer idiomatic difficulty; for convenience in
  locating these phrases the page and line numbers are indicated;

  (f) Projects, individual and social.


CONTENTS

PREFACE
SUGGESTIONS FOR AN ORDER OF READING
THE CRYSTAL GLASS

PART I

NATURE--HUMOR--HOME AND COUNTRY

THE WORLD OF NATURE

A Forward Look

ANIMALS

Turk, The Faithful Dog          Samuel White Baker
Our Uninvited Guest             Ernest Harold Baynes
Hunting The American Buffalo    Theodore Roosevelt


BIRDS AND THEIR SONGS

The Birds And I         Liberty H. Bailey
The Brown Thrush        Lucy Larcom
Sing On, Blithe Bird    William Motherwell


FLOWERS

The Violet And The Bee    John B. Tabb
Four-Leaf Clovers         Ella Higginson
Jack In The Pulpit        Clara Smith


TIMES AND SEASONS

September                         Helen Hunt Jackson
October's Bright Blue Weather     Helen Hunt Jackson
November                          Alice Cary
Today                             Thomas Carlyle
The Night Has A Thousand Eyes     Francis Bourdillon

A Backward Look


STORIES IN LIGHTER VEIN

A Forward Look

Adventures of Munchausen           R. E. Raspe
The Blind Men and the Elephant     John G. Saxe
Darius Green                       John T. Trowbridge
Birthday Greetings                 Lewis Carroll
The Wind and The Moon              George Macdonald

A Backward Look


HOME AND COUNTRY

A Forward Look

HOME AND ITS FESTIVALS

Home, Sweet Home               John Howard Payne
The Grapevine Swing            Samuel Minturn Peck
Lullaby of an Infant Chief     Sir Walter Scott
The First Thanksgiving Day     Margaret Junkin Preston
A Visit from St. Nicholas      Clement C. Moore


OUR COUNTRY AND ITS FLAG

The Land of Liberty        (Author Unknown)
The Flag of Our Country     Charles Sumner
The Name of Old Glory       James Whitcomb Riley
The Star-Spangled Banner    Francis Scott Key
The Boyhood of Lincoln      Elbridge S. Brooks
Washington with Braddock    Elbridge S. Brooks


SERVICE

Somebody's Mother            (Author Unknown)
The Leak in the Dike          Phoebe Cary
Casablanca                    Felicia Hemans
Tubal Cain                    Charles Mackay
The Inchcape Rock             Robert Southey
My Boyhood on the Prairie     Hamlin Garland
Woodman, Spare That Tree      George P. Morris
The American Boy              Theodore Roosevelt

A Backward Look



PART II

STORIES OF ADVENTURE

A Forward Look

STORIES FROM THE ARABIAN NIGHTS

Aladdin, or The Wonderful Lamp
Ali Baba and the Open Sesame
Sindbad The Sailor

Robin Hood             Joseph Walker McSpadden
Gulliver's Travels     Jonathan Swift
Robinson Crusoe        Daniel Defoe

A Backward Look



PART III

GREAT AMERICAN AUTHORS

A Forward Look

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN

Biography
The Whistle
An Ax to Grind

WILLIAM GULLEN BRYANT

Biography
The Yellow Violet
The Gladness of Nature

JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER

Biography
The Huskers
The Corn-Song

WASHINGTON IRVING

Biography
Capturing the Wild Horse
The Adventure of the Mason

HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW

Biography
The Arrow and the Song
The Children's Hour
The Song of Hiawatha

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE

Biography
The Paradise of Children
The Golden Touch

A Backward Look



SUGGESTIONS FOR AN ORDER OF READING


In The Elson Readers selections are grouped according to theme or
authorship. Such an arrangement enables the pupil to see the dominant
ideas of the book as a whole. This purpose is further aided by A
Forward Look, or introduction, and A Backward Look, or review, for
each main group. The book, therefore, emphasizes certain fundamental
ideals, making them stand out clearly in the mind of the pupil. This
result can best be accomplished by reading all the selections of a
group in the order given, before taking up those of a different
group. The order of the groups, however, may be varied to suit school
conditions or preferences.

It goes without saying that selections particularly suited to the
celebration of special days will be read in connection with such
festival occasions. For example, "The First Thanksgiving Day," page
92, will be read immediately before the Thanksgiving holiday, even if
the class at that particular time is in the midst of some other
main part of the Reader. Before assigning a selection out of order,
however, the teacher should scrutinize the notes and questions, to
make certain that no references are made within these notes to a
discussion in A Forward Look or to other selections in the group
that pupils have not yet read. In case such references are found
the teacher may well conduct a brief class discussion to make these
questions significant to the pupils.

It is the belief of the authors that the longer selections, such as
those found in Part II, should be read silently and reported on in
class. In this way the monotony incident to the reading of such
selections aloud in class will be avoided. However, the class will
wish to read aloud certain passages from these longer units because of
their beauty, their dramatic quality, or the forceful way in which
the author has expressed his thoughts. Class readings are frequently
suggested for this purpose. In this way reading aloud is given
purposefulness.



THE CRYSTAL GLASS


Once upon a time, as the fairy tale has it, there was a mighty
magician named Merlin. He was the teacher of the young Prince Arthur,
who was one day to become the British King. Merlin was old and
wise, and he had the power of prophecy. One of his most wonderful
possessions was a magic glass, a globe of crystal, into which one
might gaze and see distant places as if they were near at hand, and
see the events of past and future as if they were happening right
before his eyes.

No one knows now the whereabouts of this wonder-working crystal, or
what was its appearance. Very likely it seemed ordinary enough, though
a glass of curious shape. Only those who knew how to use it could
learn its secrets; for all others it had no power. But the magic that
once lay in it has been given to certain books, which, like Merlin's
globe, are filled with mysterious power. Such a book you now hold in
your hands. If you do not understand how to use it, it will tell you
nothing. But if you have this understanding, you have only to look
within these pages, and past and present and future will be unfolded
to your gaze.

Here is what you will find if you use this book as a Merlin's glass
wherein to see the wonders which lie concealed within it.

First of all, you will see the world of animals and birds and flowers
and times and seasons--the world of Nature. There is a story about a
little girl who wanted to see the King to ask of him a favor. But no
one could see him unless he was accompanied by some friends, for the
King would not trust anyone unless he had proved himself friendly so
that people loved to be with him. Now this little girl was very poor,
and she had no friends. She wandered alone in the forest, and cried
because she had no friends. Just at this time she came into the
knowledge of a wonderful secret by which she could understand the
language of the birds and of all the shy animals of the forest, and as
soon as she could understand them and talk with them, they loved
her, and the forest was no longer a lonely place but was filled with
friends. Some of these friends went with her to the King's palace, and
she now had no difficulty. She knew the language of those who lived in
the forest, and she was no longer poor and lonely. So in the pages
of this book you will learn of the lives of faithful dogs and huge
buffaloes, and the brown thrush will sing for you a song full of
meaning. The modest violet, the jack-in-the-pulpit, even the four-leaf
clovers will tell you stories about the forest and the field, so that
wherever you walk you will be surrounded by your friends. The magic
glass of Merlin will unseal for you this world of Nature.

Merlin's globe also enables you to look into the past and live in
it as if it were the present. You will take part in the first
Thanksgiving Day. You will learn why the flag of our country is called
Old Glory. You will look in upon the boy Lincoln, tired after his
hard day's work on the farm, reading by the open fire in his father's
cabin. You will see the young Washington bravely helping General
Braddock to save his soldiers. So the magic glass of reading will make
the early history of our country real to you, and the past will no
longer be the past but a part of your present life.

If you wish to live for a time in the fairy realm, where there are
buried treasure chests or magic lamps and rings, or if you would like
to make a journey to far-off lands where are many wonders, you have
only to look in this magic glass, and in a twinkling you are whisked
away. You find yourself in a strange country where men and women wear
curious, flowing garments of many colors, where trees and animals are
unfamiliar, and where queer buildings with many towers attract your
delighted eyes. The narrow streets are filled with strange life. You
see a boy with eyes that seem to be looking on strange things. He is
talking with an evil-looking man who bends over him, pointing down the
street and out into the open country at the other end of the town. And
presently the boy goes with the stranger, and you follow, for it is
Aladdin and the magician, and you wish to know the adventure that is
to come.

After this, Ali Baba and the cave of buried treasure and the forty
thieves and Morgiana, the shrewd slave-girl, and the jars of oil
will all appear in the magic glass, and another series of marvelous
adventures will be disclosed to you. And then again, you come to a
rich man's home, and before it, gazing enviously at it, is a poor
tramp. Go up the steps with him and look upon the feast within the
house. There is a queer table filled with food of strange form. And
there is the rich man, Sindbad the Sailor, and you may listen if you
will to his stories of travel to marvelous lands. Thus you travel
to the mysterious East, without effort. You take part in wonderful
adventures, without danger. Your magic glass is the window through
which a world of fairy magic gleams vividly.

At another time you look, and the glass shows an English scene. It is
the greenwood, somewhat out from London. Never were trees so green, or
flowers so fresh and gay, or birds so filled with joy. You listen, and
a gay fellow sings,

    "Under the greenwood tree
    Who loves to lie with me,
    And tune his merry note
    Unto the sweet bird's throat,

    "Come hither! come hither! come hither!
    Here shall he see
    No enemy
    But winter and rough weather."

Presently you hear the sound of a horn deep in the forest, to be
followed soon by the coming of a merry crowd. Here is the prince
of outlaws, clad in Lincoln green and followed by a score of lusty
fellows, and at once there are songs, wrestling matches, and merry
jests, till your heart is filled with joy. Little John, and the
Sheriff of Nottingham, and Friar Tuck, and Robin Hood, and last of
all, the King himself--these are the actors in the play that you see
through your magic glass. And so it goes through all these stories of
adventure--they become a part of your experience, and you live more
lives than one. Last of all, your magic glass, which is this book, and
which is always ready to do you service when you call upon it, will
introduce you to a group of great Americans who long ago learned these
secrets and wrote down what they themselves had seen. A patriot who
helped to make our America will tell you several stories of his
childhood. A Nature-loving poet will tell you about flowers and birds.
Another poet will furnish stories about merry times on the farm. A
third will tell you legends of the Indians. Once more the world of
Nature, the world of adventure, and the world of history and legend
will open before you, but this time you will learn something also of
the men who have lived in our America and have written about it in
such way as to show us that, after all, we need no marvelous Eastern
country or desert islands--there is adventure enough and to spare all
about us, if we have eyes to see.

And here is the greatest charm of all. It is good to know about this
magic glass of reading, so that we shall never want for the joy it
can bring. But while we use it, we shall find our sight made pure and
strong, so that when we no longer have the crystal globe, we can walk
in field and wood, and along our streets, and see, wondering, the
beauty of the world in which we live.



PART I

NATURE--HUMOR--HOME AND COUNTRY

Better--a thousand times better--than all the material wealth the
world can give is the love for the best books.



THE WORLD OF NATURE

A FORWARD LOOK


If we have eyes to see, the world of Nature is a fairyland. Further
on in this book you will read how Aladdin--a boy who was led by a
magician to a cave in which were all kinds of wonderful objects--came
upon a garden underground wherein grew trees filled with extraordinary
fruit. "Each tree bore fruit of a different color," we are told: "The
white were pearls; the sparkling were diamonds; the deep red were
rubies; the green, emeralds; the blue, turquoises."

Now with this compare a story about a great American author, Ralph
Waldo Emerson. Emerson loved all the forms of Nature. He wrote of
the bee, of the wild flowers, of the storm, of the snowbird, and of
running waters. And in talking of the magic of a river he reminds us
of Aladdin's fairy fruits:

    "I see thy brimming, eddying stream
    And thy enchantment,
    For thou changest every rock in thy bed
    Into a gem.
    All is opal and agate,
    And at will thou pavest with diamonds."

Now we may suppose that Aladdin often waded through the brook and
noticed the shining pebbles and heard the tinkling music of the water
as it rippled over stones in the stream. He noticed the pebbles, but
did not look at them. He heard the murmur of the waters, but he did
not listen. But when the magician uttered his magic words, and the
earth opened, and Aladdin saw a little ladder leading down into a deep
cave, and in that cave found curious trees bearing curious fruits, he
was so surprised that he looked more closely, and all that he saw was
full of wonder. Now the poet is like the magician. His words open the
door of enchantment for us if we care to enter.

For the poets have been lovers of Nature, and they help us to see
the beauty that lies about us. One of them calls the stars "the
forget-me-nots of the angels." Another writes of the song of the brook
as it goes dancing and singing down into the river, until we hear the
music of the waters in the melody of the poet's verse. Through such
stories and poems of animals and birds and flowers and of the seasons
of the year as you will find in the following pages, your magic glass
of reading will open up the fairyland of Nature.

For magic wonders are not limited to the fairylands that we read about
in the Arabian Nights or in the tales of Cinderella or of the Sleeping
Beauty. There is the enchantment which put the princess and all her
household to sleep for a hundred years until the prince came to
release them. There is also the enchantment of the frost, that stills
all the life of brook and lake and river, and holds the outdoor world
in deep sleep until the breath of spring comes and releases the
prisoners. There is the enchantment which Aladdin controlled by his
lamp and his ring, so that at his bidding giant figures appeared to do
his will; there is also the enchantment of the snow, of the fire,
of the lightning, of the storm; or there is the equally marvelous
enchantment by which the rose unfolds from the bud, the apple grows
from the blossom, and the robin from the tiny blue egg. Only we must
see and listen when the magicians lead us to the fairy world of
Nature. Aladdin had passed the entrance to the magic cave a hundred
times and had seen nothing. So men pass the fields and see nothing but
the corn and the wheat and the cotton, and in the autumn they see the
harvesters gathering the crops of the fields. But the poet looks on
these same fields and gathers another crop from them, and this he puts
into a song, and this song opens for us the world of Nature.



ANIMALS


TURK, THE FAITHFUL

Samuel White Baker


TURK'S FAILURE

When I was a boy, my grandfather frequently told a story concerning a
dog which he knew, as an example of true fidelity. This animal was
a mastiff that belonged to a friend, Mr. Prideaux, to whom it was a
constant companion. Whenever Mr. Prideaux went out for a walk, Turk
was sure to be near his heels. Street dogs would bark and snarl at the
giant as his massive form attracted their attention, but Turk seldom
noticed them. At night he slept outside his master's door, and no
sentry could be more alert upon his watch than the faithful dog.

One day Mr. Prideaux had a dinner party. The dog Turk was present, and
stretched his huge form upon the hearthrug. It was a cold night in
winter, and Mr. Prideaux's friends after dinner began to discuss the
subject of dogs. Almost every person had an anecdote to relate, and
my own grandfather, being present, had no doubt added his mite to the
collection, when Turk suddenly awoke from a sound sleep, and having
stretched himself, walked up to his master's side and rested his large
head upon the table. "Ha, ha, Turk!" exclaimed Mr. Prideaux, "you
must have heard our arguments about the dogs, so you have put in an
appearance."

"And a magnificent animal he is!" remarked my grandfather; "but
although a mastiff is the largest of dogs, I do not think it is as
sensible as many others."

"As a rule you are right," replied his master, "because they are
generally chained up as watch-dogs, and have not the intimate
association with human beings which is so great an advantage to
house-dogs; but Turk has been my constant companion from the first
month of his life, and his intelligence is very remarkable. He
understands most things that I say, if they are connected with
himself; he will often lie upon the rug with his large eyes fixed upon
me, and he will frequently become aware that I wish to go out; at such
times he will fetch my hat, cane, or gloves, whichever may be at hand,
and wait for me at the front door. He will take a letter to several
houses of my acquaintance, and wait for a reply; and he can perform a
variety of actions that would imply a share of reason seldom possessed
by other dogs."

A smile upon several faces was at once noticed by Mr. Prideaux, who
immediately took a guinea from his pocket, and said to his dog, "Here,
Turk! They won't believe in you! Take this guinea to No.--Street, to
Mr.--, and bring me a receipt."

The dog wagged his huge tail with pleasure, and the guinea having been
placed in his mouth, he hastened toward the door; this being opened,
he was admitted through the front entrance to the street. It was a
miserable night.

The wind was blowing the sleet and rain against the windows, and the
gutters were running with muddy water; nevertheless, Turk had started
upon his mission in the howling gale, while the front door was once
more closed against the blast.

The party were comfortably seated around the fire, much interested in
the success or failure of the dog's adventure.

"How long will it be before we may expect Turk's return?" inquired a
guest.

"The house to which I have sent him is about a mile and a half
distant; therefore, if there is no delay when he barks for admission
at the door, and my friend is not absent from home, he should return
in about three-quarters of an hour with a receipt. If, on the other
hand, he cannot gain admission, he may wait for any length of time,"
replied his master.

Some among the company supported the dog's chances of success, while
others were against him. The evening wore away; the allotted time
was exceeded, and a whole hour had passed, but no dog had returned.
Nevertheless, his master was still hopeful.

"I must tell you," said Mr. Prideaux, "that Turk frequently carries
notes for me, and as he knows the house well, he certainly will not
make a mistake; perhaps my friend may be dining out, in which case,
Turk will probably wait for a longer time."

Two hours passed; the storm was raging. Mr. Prideaux himself went to
the front door, which flew open before a fierce gust the instant
that the lock was turned. The gutters were clogged with masses of
half-melted snow. "Poor Turk!" muttered his master, "this is indeed
a wretched night for you. Perhaps they have kept you in the warm
kitchen, and will not allow you to return in such fearful weather."

When Mr. Prideaux returned to his guests, he could not conceal his
disappointment. "Ha!" exclaimed one, "with a guinea in his mouth, he
has probably gone into some house of entertainment where dogs are
supplied with dinner and a warm bed, instead of shivering in a
winter's gale!" Jokes were made at the absent dog's expense, but his
master was anxious and annoyed. Poor Turk's reputation had suffered
severely.

It was long past midnight; the guests had departed, the storm was
raging, and violent gusts occasionally shook the house. Mr. Prideaux
was alone in his study, and he poked the fire until it blazed and
roared up the chimney. "What can have become of that dog?" exclaimed
his master to himself, now really anxious; "I hope they kept him; most
likely they would not send him back upon such a dreadful night."

Mr. Prideaux's study was close to the front door, and his attention
was suddenly directed to a violent shaking and scratching. In an
instant he ran into the hall and unlocked the entrance door. A mass of
filth and mud entered. This was Turk!

The dog was shivering with wet and cold. His usually clean coat was
thick with mire, as though he had been dragged through deep mud.
He wagged his tail when he heard his master's voice, but appeared
dejected and ill. The dog was taken downstairs, and immediately placed
in a large tub of hot water, in which he was accustomed to be bathed.
It was now discovered that in addition to mud and dirt, which almost
concealed his coat, he was besmeared with blood! Mr. Prideaux sponged
his favorite with warm water, and, to his surprise, he saw wounds of a
serious nature; the dog's throat was badly torn, his back and breast
were deeply bitten, and there could be no doubt that he had been
worried by a pack of dogs.

He was now washed clean, and was being rubbed dry with a thick towel
while he stood upon a blanket before the fire. "Why, Turk, old boy,
what has been the matter? Tell us all about it, poor old man!"
exclaimed his master.

The dog was now thoroughly warmed and he panted with the heat of
the kitchen fire; he opened his mouth, and the guinea which he had
received in trust dropped on the kitchen floor!

"There is some mystery in this," said Mr. Prideaux, "which I will try
to discover tomorrow. He has been set upon by strange dogs, and rather
than lose the guinea, he has allowed himself to be half killed without
once opening his mouth in self-defense! Poor Turk!" continued his
master, "you must have lost your way old man, in the darkness and
storm; most likely confused after the unequal fight. What an example
you have given us in being faithful to a trust!"

Turk was wonderfully better after his warm bath. He lapped up a large
bowl of good thick soup mixed with bread, and in half an hour was
comfortably asleep upon his thick rug by his master's bedroom door.


THE MYSTERY EXPLAINED

Upon the following morning the storm had cleared away, and a bright
sky had succeeded to the gloom of the preceding night. Immediately
after breakfast Mr. Prideaux, accompanied by his dog (which was,
although rather stiff, not much the worse for the rough treatment he
had received), started for a walk toward the house to which he had
directed Turk upon the previous evening. He was anxious to discover
whether his friend had been absent, as he believed that the dog might
have been waiting for admittance, and had been perhaps attacked by
some dogs in the neighborhood.

The master and Turk had walked for nearly a mile, and had just turned
the corner of a street, when, as they passed a butcher's shop, a large
brindled mastiff rushed from the shop-door and flew at Turk.

"Call your dog off!" shouted Mr. Prideaux to the butcher, who watched
the attack with impudent satisfaction. "Call him off, or my dog will
kill him!" continued Mr. Prideaux.

The usually docile Turk had rushed to meet his assailant with a fury
that was extraordinary. With a growl like that of a lion he quickly
seized his foe by the throat, and in a fierce struggle of only a few
seconds he threw the brindled dog upon his back. It was in vain that
Mr. Prideaux tried to call him off; he never for an instant relaxed
his hold, but with the strength of a wild beast of prey Turk shook the
head of the butcher's dog to the right and left. The butcher attempted
to interfere and lashed him with a huge whip. "Stand clear! fair play!
Don't you strike my dog!" shouted Mr. Prideaux. "Your dog was the
first to attack!" Mr. Prideaux seized Turk by his collar, while the
butcher was endeavoring to release his dog from the deadly grip. At
length Mr. Prideaux's voice and action appeared for a moment to create
a calm, and he held back his dog. Turk's flanks were heaving with
the intense exertion and excitement of the fight, and he strained
to escape from his master's hold to attack once more his enemy. At
length, by kind words and the caress of the well-known hand, his fury
was calmed down.

"Well, that's the most curious adventure I've ever had with a dog!"
exclaimed the butcher who was now completely crestfallen. "Why, that's
the very dog! That's the very dog that came by my shop late last night
in the howling storm, and my dog Tiger went at him and tousled him
up completely. I never saw such a cowardly cur; he wouldn't show any
fight, although he was pretty near as big as a donkey; and there my
dog Tiger nearly ate half of him, and dragged the other half about
the gutter, till he looked more like an old door-mat than dog; and I
thought he must have killed him; and here he comes out as fresh as
paint today."

"What do you say?" asked Mr. Prideaux. "Was it your dog that worried
my poor dog last night when he was upon a message of trust? My friend,
let me inform you of the fact that my dog had a guinea in his mouth to
carry to my friend, and rather than drop it, he allowed himself to be
half killed by your savage Tiger. Today he has proved his courage,
and your dog has discovered his mistake. This is the guinea that he
dropped from his mouth when he returned to me after midnight, beaten
and distressed!" said Mr. Prideaux, much excited. "Here, Turk, old
boy, take the guinea again, and come along with me! You have had your
revenge, and have given us all a lesson." His master gave him the
guinea in his mouth, and they continued their walk.

It appeared, upon Mr. Prideaux's arrival at his friend's house, that
Turk had never been there; probably after his defeat he had become so
confused that he lost his way in the heavy storm, and had at length
regained the road home some time after midnight, in the condition
already described.



How to Gain the Full Benefit from Your Reading

The reading of this story, besides giving you pleasure, has no doubt
given you a new idea of the faithfulness often shown by dogs. But if
you are to get the full benefit from any story or poem in this Reader,
you will need to pause long enough to notice certain things that will
give you a better understanding of it.



The Crystal Glass, A Forward Look, and A Backward Look.

First, you should read and discuss in class "The Crystal Glass" and
study the Table of Contents, to gain a general idea of the book as a
whole. Next, you should notice that each story and poem is a part of
some special group that treats of some one big idea--such as Nature,
Home and Country, etc. Each selection will have a fuller meaning for
you if you understand how it helps to bring out the big idea of this
group. Before reading the stories in any group you should read and
discuss in class the "Forward Look" (see page 19) that precedes them.
And after you have read all the selections in a group, you will enjoy
a pleasant class period discussing the "Backward Look"--taking stock,
as it were, of the joy and benefit gained from your reading.

In addition, each selection is followed by Notes and Questions that
contain some or all of the following features: Biography. First, it is
always desirable to learn something about the author. When you read,
for example, that Samuel White Baker gave the best years of his
life to a study of animals, you feel that his story of the dog's
faithfulness is well worth reading. Discussion. Next, if you will read
the story so carefully that you can answer the questions given under
the topic Discussion, you will probably find it easier to understand
certain incidents. For example, you hear much about the word "service"
in the different wars in which American soldiers have served their
country so nobly. But perhaps when you think of the answer to the
third question you will see more clearly than before that "service"
and "faithfulness" are qualities that are shown not only on the
battlefield but in humble walks of life--sometimes even by animals.
Glossary. One of the benefits that should result from reading is the
learning of new words. At the end of the Discussion you will find
a list of words, the meaning of which you are to look up in the
Glossary, and a second list that you should find out how to pronounce.
Many of these words you may feel certain you know how to pronounce
correctly. But perhaps you have been mispronouncing some of them. Look
up in the glossary the words listed under question 9, and you may find
that you have been mispronouncing calm, hearth, or extraordinary. When
you are looking up words in the pronunciation lists, be sure that you
understand the meaning, also. Besides the individual words that you do
not understand, you will sometimes read a phrase, or group of words,
used in some special sense. The most striking are listed under the
topic Phrases for Study. Look them up in the Glossary, for you will
often find the hardest passage of the reading lesson made easy by the
explanation of a single phrase.



NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Samuel White Baker (1821-1893) was an English engineer and
author. At the age of twenty-four he went to Ceylon, where he soon
became known as an explorer and hunter of big game. With his wife he
later explored the region of the Nile River. He is the author of True
Tales for My Grandsons, from which "Turk, the Faithful Dog" is taken.

Discussion. 1. How does this story prove the intelligence of Turk? 2.
How does it prove his fidelity? 3. Here are two qualities that every
man should desire to possess; do you think many men, set upon by
robbers, would act as bravely and as faithfully as Turk? Give reasons
for your answer. 4. What do you know of the author? 5. Class readings:
The conversation between Mr. Prideaux and the butcher, (2 pupils). 6.
Outline for testing silent reading. Tell the story in your own words,
using these topics: (a) Turk's adventure; (b) how the mystery was
explained. 7. You will enjoy reading "Cap, the Red Cross Dog" (in
Stories for Children, Faulkner). 8. Find in the Glossary the meaning
of: alert; mission; dejected; besmeared; brindled; docile; relaxed;
crestfallen. 9. Pronounce: hearthrug; anecdote; guinea; toward;
extraordinary; calm.

Phrases for Study:

intimate association, of a serious nature, imply a share of reason,
received in trust, supported the dog's chances, succeeded to the
gloom.



OUR UNINVITED GUEST

Ernest Harold Baynes


"Jimmy," our young black bear, was known to every child in the
neighborhood. If a children's vote had been taken for the most popular
animal in the county, I believe that Jimmy would have been unanimously
elected. If the grown people had held the election, however, it
is certain that there would have been some votes against him. For
example, when Mr. W--, one of our neighbors, came home very late one
night, got into bed in the dark, and unwittingly kicked a bear cub
that had climbed in at a window earlier in the evening, of course he
had his toes nipped. That man would never have voted for Jimmy.

Neither would the farmer's wife he met one evening coming from the
barn with a pail of new milk. The weather was warm, Jimmy was thirsty,
and he was particularly fond of new milk. So he stood on his hind
legs, threw his arms around the pail, and sucked up half the contents
before the good woman had recovered from her astonishment. But with
the children he was a great favorite. He was one of them, and they
understood him. Like them he was full of fun and mischief, and he
would play as long as anyone cared to play with him.

One Christmas we gave a children's party, and perhaps a score of girls
and boys came to spend the evening. As it was not possible to make
Jimmy understand about the party, he went to bed early, as usual, and
was asleep in his own den under the porch long before the first guests
arrived. He was not forgotten by his little friends, however, and
"Where's Jimmy?" was the first question asked by almost every child as
he came in. But there was so much to chatter about, and there were so
many games to play, that absent comrades--even Jimmy--were soon out
of mind.

At last supper was ready, and all the children trooped into the
dining-room and took their places at the long table.

For a little while everyone was so busy that there was little to be
heard except the clatter of forks and spoons and plates. I stood at
the end of the room, enjoying the fun. For the moment, my eyes were on
a small boy who seemed to be enjoying himself even more than the
rest. He was making more noise than anyone else, and at the same time
performing remarkable sleight-of-mouth tricks with a large piece of
cake and a plate of ice cream. Suddenly, I saw his face change. His
laugh was cut in two, his smile faded, the remains of the cake fell to
his plate, and a spoonful of ice cream, on its way to his open mouth,
remained suspended in the air. He was facing a window, and as I
followed his gaze, I saw a hairy black face, with a tawny muzzle and
a pair of small shining black eyes, looking eagerly into the room. It
was the bear cub, whose slumbers had been disturbed by the noise, and
who had come to see what it was all about.

In an instant the room was in an uproar. All the children left the
table at once, and crowded around the window yelling--"Jimmy!" "It's
Jimmy!" "Let him in!" "Don't you do it!" "Keep him out!" "Open the
window!" "Give him some cake!" One little boy, with a piece of cake in
his hand, raised the window just a little. That was enough for Jimmy;
he thrust his strong muzzle under the sash, raised it with one jerk of
his head, and came tumbling into the room. How those children yelled
and scattered! While they all thought it good fun to have the cub
at the party, none of them knew just what he would do, and some;
especially among the younger ones, were decidedly nervous. A small
girl hid behind the window curtains, two little boys scurried upstairs
and peeped through the banisters, and another, by means of a chair,
scrambled to the top of a sideboard. But Jimmy had his own ideas about
a party. His first interest was in the supper table. Standing up on
his hind legs, he placed his forepaws on the cloth. Just in front of
him was a plate with some apple jelly on it. One sweep of his long
tongue and the plate was almost as clean as if it had been washed.
A dish of blancmange was the next to be gobbled up, and then a boy
rather bolder than the rest made an attempt to save the cake. He
seized the intruder by the skin of his neck, but except for a loud,
grumbling protest, the bear paid no attention to him. He walked right
along, pulling the boy with him, and one slice of cake after another
disappeared down the black throat. The little girl behind the
curtains, seeing that Jimmy did not intend to hurt anyone, came from
her hiding place to try to help the boy who was holding him. Now
this little girl had been eating strawberry jam, and as little girls
sometimes do, had left some of it on her lips. The moment she touched
him, Jimmy turned, and seeing and smelling the jam, he caught the
child in his short forearms, and in spite of her screams, licked her
face all over before letting her go. Then he reached for the sugar
basin, lifted it from the table with his paws, and sat down on his
haunches to devour the contents.

By this time the children who had been nervous were quite at their
ease again, and gathered round to see him eat the sugar. In a few
moments he had satisfied his hunger, and was ready to play. First of
all he acted as if he had lost his wits; or as if he wanted to "show
off," which is about the same thing. He rolled over on his back,
turned somersaults, and batted the chairs and the table legs with
his paws. The children got down on the floor to romp with him, and
together they had a merry time.

When they were all upon their feet again, Jimmy arose and stood
perfectly straight on his hind legs. Then he picked out a girl about
his own height and took a step toward her, raising his paws as though
inviting her to a boxing match. The girl accepted the challenge, and
as she was strong, she held her own very well for a time. But as Jimmy
warmed up to his work, he became very rough and swung his heavy paws
as hard as he could. At last he gave his playmate a stinging slap on
the side of her face, and she decided not to play any more. And as I
thought that Jimmy had had about enough fun for one evening, I opened
the door, and he galloped off to his den under the porch.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Ernest Harold Baynes (1868-1925), the naturalist-author,
lived in Meriden, New Hampshire. He was the author of the interesting
book Wild Bird Guests, and of "Our Animal Allies" (in Harper's
Magazine, January, 1921). During the World War I Mr. Baynes was in
France, studying the part that birds and animals played in helping to
win the war. Wherever he went he organized bird clubs, in order to
protect our wild birds.

Discussion. 1. Why was Jimmy not popular with the farmer's wife? 2.
Why do you think the children liked the bear? 3. Do you think they
would have enjoyed the party more, or less, if there had been no
"uninvited guest"? 4. Class readings: The description of the supper,
page 31, line 7, to page 32, line 26. 5. Outline for testing silent
reading. Tell the story of the "uninvited guest," using these topics:
(a) the bear and how he was liked; (b) the bear's actions at the
children's party; (c) the boxing match. 6. You will find interesting
stories in Bear Stories Retold from St. Nicholas, Carter, and in The
Biography of a Grizzly, Seton. 7. Find in the Glossary the meaning of:
unanimously; unwittingly; sleight-of-mouth; tawny; muzzle; intruder.
Pronounce: blancmange; haunches.



HUNTING THE AMERICAN BUFFALO

THEODORE ROOSEVELT


In the fall of 1889 I heard that a very few bison were still left
around the head of Wisdom River. Thither I went and hunted faithfully;
there was plenty of game of other kinds, but of bison not a trace did
we see. Nevertheless, a few days later that same year I came across
these great wild cattle at a time when I had no idea of seeing them.

It was, as nearly as we could tell, in Idaho, just south of the
Montana boundary line, and some twenty-five miles west of the line of
Wyoming. We were camped high among the mountains, with a small pack
train. On the day in question we had gone out to find moose, but had
seen no sign of them, and had then begun to climb over the higher
peaks with an idea of getting sheep. The old hunter who was with me
was, very fortunately, suffering from rheumatism, and he therefore
carried a long staff instead of his rifle; I say fortunately, for if
he had carried his rifle, it would have been impossible to stop his
firing at such game as bison, nor would he have spared the cows and
calves.

About the middle of the afternoon we crossed a low, rocky ridge, and
saw at our feet a basin, or round valley, of singular beauty. Its
walls were formed by steep mountains. At its upper end lay a small
lake, bordered on one side by a meadow of emerald green. The lake's
other side marked the edge of the frowning pine forest which filled
the rest of the valley. Beyond the lake the ground rose in a pass much
frequented by game in bygone days, their trails lying along it in
thick zigzags, each gradually fading out after a few hundred yards,
and then starting again in a little different place, as game trails so
often seem to do.

We bent our steps toward these trails, and no sooner had we reached
the first than the old hunter bent over it with a sharp exclamation of
wonder. There in the dust, apparently but a few hours old, were the
hoof-marks of a small band of bison. They were headed toward the lake.
There had been half a dozen animals in the party; one a big bull, and
two calves.

We immediately turned and followed the trail. It led down to the
little lake, where the beasts had spread and grazed on the tender,
green blades, and had drunk their fill. The footprints then came
together again, showing where the animals had gathered and walked off
in single file to the forest. Evidently they had come to the pool in
the early morning, and after drinking and feeding had moved into the
forest to find some spot for their noontide rest.

It was a very still day, and there were nearly three hours of daylight
left. Without a word my silent companion, who had been scanning the
whole country with hawk-eyed eagerness, took the trail, motioning
me to follow. In a moment we entered the woods, breathing a sigh of
relief as we did so; for while in the meadow we could never tell that
the buffalo might not see us, if they happened to be lying in some
place with a commanding lookout.

It was not very long before we struck the day-beds, which were made
on a knoll, where the forest was open, and where there was much down
timber. After leaving the day-beds the animals had at first fed
separately around the grassy base and sides of the knoll, and had then
made off in their usual single file, going straight to a small pool in
the forest. After drinking they had left this pool and traveled down
toward the mouth of the basin, the trail leading along the sides of
the steep hill, which were dotted by open glades. Here we moved with
caution, for the sign had grown very fresh, and the animals had once
more scattered and begun feeding. When the trail led across the
glades, we usually skirted them so as to keep in the timber.

At last, on nearing the edge of one of these glades, we saw a movement
among the young trees on the other side, not fifty yards away. Peering
through some thick evergreen bushes, we speedily made out three bison,
a cow, a calf, and a yearling, grazing greedily on the other side of
the glade. Soon another cow and calf stepped out after them. I did not
wish to shoot, waiting for the appearance of the big bull which I knew
was accompanying them.

So for several minutes I watched the great, clumsy, shaggy beasts, as
they grazed in the open glade. Mixed with the eager excitement of
the hunter was a certain half-melancholy feeling as I gazed on these
bison, themselves part of the last remnant of a nearly vanished race.
Few, indeed, are the men who now have, or evermore shall have, the
chance of seeing the mightiest of American beasts in all his wild
vigor.

At last, when I had begun to grow very anxious lest the others should
take alarm, the bull likewise appeared on the edge of the glade, and
stood with outstretched head, scratching his throat against a young
tree, which shook violently. I aimed low, behind his shoulder, and
pulled the trigger. At the crack of the rifle all the bison turned
and raced off at headlong speed. The fringe of young pines beyond and
below the glade cracked and swayed as if a whirlwind were passing,
and in another moment the bison reached the top of a steep incline,
thickly strewn with boulders and dead reckless speed; the timber. Down
this they plunged with surefootedness was a marvel. A column of dust
obscured their passage, and under its cover they disappeared in the
forest; but the trail of the bull was marked by splashes of frothy
blood, and we followed it at a trot. Fifty yards beyond the border
of the forest we found the black body stretched motionless. He was a
splendid old bull, still in his full vigor, with large, sharp horns,
and heavy mane and glossy coat; and I felt the most exulting pride as
I handled and examined him; for I had procured a trophy such as can
fall henceforth to few hunters indeed.



NOTES AND QUESTIONS


Biography. Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), twenty-sixth President of
the United States, was born in New York City. As a boy he was frail of
body, but overcame this handicap by regular exercise and outdoor life.
He was always interested in animals and birds and particularly in
hunting game in the western plains and mountains. In 1884 Roosevelt
bought two cattle ranches in North Dakota, where for two years he
lived and entered actively into western life and spirit. Two of the
books in which he has recorded his western experience: The Deer Family
and The Wilderness Hunter, from the latter of which "Hunting the
American Buffalo" is taken.

Discussion. 1. What makes this story "exciting," or "thrilling"?
2. How does the writer let you know his feelings? 3. What proof of
Roosevelt's good sportsmanship is found in the second paragraph on
page 34? 4. Class reading: From page 35, line 3, to page 36, line 13.
5. Outline for testing silent reading. Tell the story briefly, using
these topics: (a) the discovery; (b) the pursuit; (c) the first view;
(d) the end of the story. 6. Find in the Glossary the meaning of:
day-beds; glade; skirted; yearling; trophy. 7. Pronounce: bison;
boundary; frequented; knoll; melancholy; remnant; incline; strewn.


Phrases for Study pack train, hawk-eyed eagerness, frowning pine
forest, commanding lookout, much frequented, down timber, thick
zigzags, obscured their passage.



BIRDS AND THEIR SONGS



THE BIRDS AND I

Liberty H. Bailey


The springtime belongs to the birds and me. We own it. We know when
the mayflowers and the buttercups bloom. We know when the first frogs
peep. We watch the awakening of the woods. We are wet by the warm
April showers. We go where we will, and we are companions. Every tree
and brook and blade of grass is ours; and our hearts are full of song.

There are boys who kill the birds, and girls who want to catch them
and put them into cages, and there are others who steal their eggs.
The birds are not partners with them; they are only servants. Birds,
like people, sing for their friends, not for their masters. I am sure
that one cannot think much of the springtime and the flowers if his
heart is always set upon killing or catching something. We are happy
when we are free, and so are the birds.

The birds and I get acquainted all over again every spring. They have
seen strange lands in the winter, and all the brooks and woods have
been covered with snow. So we run and romp together, and find all the
nooks and crannies which we had half-forgotten since October. The
birds remember the old places. The wrens pull the sticks from the old
hollow rail and seem to be wild with joy to see the place again. They
must be the same wrens that were here last year, for strangers could
not make so much fuss over an old rail. The bluebirds and wrens look
into every crack and corner for a place in which to build, and the
robins and chirping-sparrows explore every tree in the old orchard.

If the birds want to live with us, we should encourage them. The first
thing to do is to leave them alone. Let them be as free from danger
and fear as you and I. Take the hammer off the old gun, give pussy so
much to eat that she will not care to hunt for birds, and keep away
the boys who steal eggs and who carry sling-shots and throw stones.
Plant trees and bushes about the borders of the place, and let some of
them, at least, grow into tangles; then, even in the back yard, the
wary catbird may make its home.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Liberty Hyde Bailey (1858-1954) has written many books on
Nature and outdoor life. He was chairman of the Commission on Country
Life, appointed by Roosevelt.

Discussion. 1. Why does the author say that the springtime belongs to
"the birds and me"? 2. When may we say the birds are our partners and
when our servants? 3. What different ways of dealing with birds are
spoken of? Which way does the writer prefer? 4. How may you encourage
the birds to live near you? 5. What do you gain if you persuade them
to do this? Find an answer to this question in the poems that follow.
6. What birds come to trees near your home? 7. How are birds helpful
to men? 8. You will find interesting stories and pictures of birds in
The Burgess Bird Book for Children, Burgess. 9. Find in the Glossary
the meaning of: acquainted; explore; wary. 10. Pronounce: partners;
again.



THE BROWN THRUSH

Lucy LARCOM

    There's a merry brown thrush sitting up in a tree--
    He's singing to me! he's singing to me!
    And what does he say, little girl, little boy?
    "Oh, the world's running over with joy!
    Don't you hear?  Don't you see?
    Hush!  Look!  In my tree
    I'm as happy as happy can be!"

    And the brown thrush keeps singing--"A nest do you see,
    And five eggs, hid by me in the juniper-tree?
    Don't meddle! don't touch! little girl, little boy,
    Or the world will lose some of its joy.
    Now I'm glad!  Now I'm free!
    And I always shall be,
    If you never bring sorrow to me."

    So the merry brown thrush sings away in the tree,
    To you and to me, to you and to me;
    And he sings all the day, little girl, little boy--
    "Oh, the world's running over with joy;
    But long it won't be,
    Don't you know, don't you see,
    Unless we're as good as can be?"



NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Lucy Larcom (1826-1893) was the daughter of a sea captain.
During twenty years of teaching school, she wrote many charming poems
for children.

Discussion. 1. Who is supposed to be speaking in the first two lines?
2. Who asks the question in the third line? 3. Who answers the
question? 4. Find the answer to the question in the first stanza. 5.
Why is the little bird so happy? 6. What will make him unhappy? 7. How
can you help to make the world "run over with joy"? 8. You will enjoy
hearing "Songs of Our Native Birds" and "How Birds Sing", Victor
records by Kellogg.



SING ON, BLITHE BIRD

WILLIAM MOTHERWELL


I've plucked the berry from the bush, the brown nut from the tree, But
heart of happy little bird ne'er broken was by me. I saw them in their
curious nests, close couching, slyly peer With their wild eyes, like
glittering beads, to note if harm were near; I passed them by, and
blessed them all; I felt that it was good To leave unmoved the
creatures small whose home was in the wood.

And here, even now, above my head, a lusty rogue doth sing; He pecks
his swelling breast and neck, and trims his little wing. He will not
fly; he knows full well, while chirping on that spray, I would not
harm him for a world, or interrupt his lay. Sing on, sing on, blithe
bird! and fill my heart with summer gladness; It has been aching many
a day with measures full of sadness!


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. William Motherwell (1797-1835), a Scotch poet and
journalist, was born in Glasgow, where he lived and died. In 1830
he became editor of the Glasgow Courier. He wrote a volume of local
ballads, and many of his poems were published in the magazines and
newspapers.

Discussion. 1. To what does the poet compare the eyes of birds? 2.
Find the lines that tell why the bird is not afraid of the poet. 3.
How do you think the birds know their friends? 4. What happiness does
the poet get because of his kindness to the birds? 5. Read the lines
that another poet who loved birds has written about his love for them:

    "He prayeth well who loveth well
    Both man and bird and beast.

    "He prayeth best who loveth best
    All things both great and small;
    For the dear God who loveth us,
    He made and loveth all."

6. You will find helpful suggestions in the illustrated Farmers'
Bulletins, Bird Houses and How to Build Them, and How to Attract
Birds, sent free by the Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. 7.
In the Forward Look, on pages 19 and 20, you were told that the poets
and wise story writers of Nature help us to see the beauty that lies
in the great outdoor world. Mention instances of help that you have
received from the stories and poems you have read in this group. 8.
Find in the Glossary the meaning of: glittering; trims; spray; blithe;
measures.

Phrases for Study: close couching, lusty rogue, note if harm were
near, knows full well, leave unmoved, interrupt his lay.



THE VIOLET AND THE BEE

John Bannister Tabb

    "And pray, who are you?"
    Said the Violet blue
    To the Bee, with surprise,
    At his wonderful size,
    In her eyeglass of dew.
    "I, madam," quoth he,
    "Am a publican Bee,
    Collecting the tax
    Of honey and wax.
    Have you nothing for me?"


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Reverend John B. Tabb (1845-1909), a Southern poet, was
born near Richmond, Virginia. All his life he was interested in birds,
flowers, and outdoor life. When the Civil War began, he joined the
Southern army, although he was a mere lad of sixteen. After the war he
became a clergyman and a teacher.

Discussion. 1. What did the Violet ask the Bee? 2. What surprised the
Violet? 3. What is the Violet's "eyeglass of dew"? 4. Find in the
Glossary the meaning of: quoth; publican; tax.



FOUR-LEAF CLOVERS

Ella Higginson

    I know a place where the sun is like gold,
    And the cherry blooms burst with snow;
    And down underneath is the loveliest nook,
    Where the four-leaf clovers grow.

    One leaf is for hope, and one is for faith,
    And one is for love, you know;
    But God put another in for luck--
    If you search, you will find where they grow.

    But you must have hope, and you must have faith;
    You must love and be strong; and so,
    If you work, if you wait, you will find the place
    Where the four-leaf clovers grow.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Ella Higginson (1862-1940), an American writer, lived
in Bellingham, on Puget Sound, Washington. She won a prize of five
hundred dollars, offered by a magazine for the best short story.

Discussion. 1. To whom is the four-leaf clover supposed to bring good
luck? 2. Which do you think will give greater happiness, to learn
something by hard work or to gain it by chance? Why do you think so?
3. What does the poem say we must have? 4. What does the poem say we
must do? 5. If we have all these things and do all these things, shall
we need to hunt for the four-leaf clover to bring us good fortune?
Why? 6. Commit the poem to memory.



JACK IN THE PULPIT

Clara Smith

    Jack in the pulpit
    Preaches today,
    Under the green trees
    Just over the way.
    Squirrel and song-sparrow,
    High on their perch,
    Hear the sweet lily-bells
    Ringing to church.
    Come hear what his reverence
    Rises to say
    In his low, painted pulpit
    This calm Sabbath day.

    Meek-faced anemones,
    Drooping and sad;
    Great yellow violets,
    Smiling out glad;
    Buttercups' faces,
    Beaming and bright;
    Clovers with bonnets,
    Some red and some white;
    Daisies, their white fingers
    Half-clasped in prayer;
    Dandelions, proud of
    The gold of their hair;
    Innocents, children
    Guileless and frail,

    Meek little faces
    Upturned and pale;
    Wildwood geraniums,
    All in their best,
    Languidly leaning,
    In purple gauze dressed--
    All are assembled
    This sweet Sabbath day
    To hear what the priest
    In his pulpit will say.

    So much for the preacher;
    The sermon comes next--
    Shall we tell how he preached it
    And where was his text?
    Alas! like too many
    Grown-up folks who play
    At worship in churches
    Man-builded today,
    We heard not the preacher
    Expound or discuss;
    But we looked at the people
    And they looked at us.
    We saw all their dresses--
    Their colors and shapes,
    The trim of their bonnets;
    The cut of their capes;
    We heard the wind-organ,
    The bee, and the bird,
    But of Jack in the pulpit
    We heard not a word!


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Clara Smith is not a well-known writer, but her poem, "Jack
in the Pulpit," is full of beauty. The rhythm is as pleasing as the
picture is charming.

Discussion. 1. What time of year is described in this poem? 2. Who
make up the congregation when Jack in the pulpit preaches? 3. How does
the poet make the flowers seem like people? 4. How many of the flowers
described in this poem are familiar to you? 5. Which flower is most
beautifully described? Find the lines that give the description. 6.
Why are we not told about the sermon? 7. What was the congregation
doing during the sermon? 8. What did they see? What did they hear?
9. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: drooping; beaming; gauze;
assembled; text; worship; expound. 10. Pronounce: anemones; guileless;
languidly.

Phrases for Study: his reverence, all in their best, painted pulpit,
man-builded today.



SEPTEMBER

Helen Hunt Jackson

    The goldenrod is yellow;
    The corn is turning brown;
    The trees in apple orchards
    With fruit are bending down.

    The gentian's bluest fringes
    Are curling in the sun;
    In dusky pods the milkweed
    Its hidden silk has spun.

    The sedges flaunt their harvest
    In every meadow-nook;
    And asters by the brookside
    Make asters in the brook.

    From dewy lanes at morning
    The grapes' sweet odors rise;
    At noon the roads all flutter
    With yellow butterflies.

    By all these lovely tokens
    September days are here,
    With summer's best of weather,
    And autumn's best of cheer.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Helen Hunt Jackson (1831-1885) was an American poet and
novelist. She was born in Amherst, Massachusetts, where her father
was a professor in Amherst College, but she spent much of her life in
California. She married a banker in Colorado Springs, Colorado,
where she lived for a few years. Her poems are very beautiful, and
"September" and "October's Bright Blue Weather" are especially good
pictures of these autumn months. Every child should know these poems
by heart.

Discussion. 1. What is meant by the harvest of the sedges? 2. How are
the "asters in the brook" made? 3. Which lines in the last stanza tell
us what September brings? 4. What things mentioned in this poem have
you seen? 5. Read again what is said on pages 19 and 20 about the poet
as a magician; what beauty of Nature does the poet show you in the
following lines?

    "And asters by the brookside
    Make asters in the brook."

6. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: sedges; flaunt; flutter. 7.
Pronounce: gentian; dusky.

Phrases for Study: dusky pods, lovely tokens, hidden silk has spun,
best of cheer.



OCTOBER'S BRIGHT BLUE WEATHER

Helen Hunt Jackson

    O sun and skies and clouds of June
    And flowers of June together,
    Ye cannot rival for one hour
    October's bright blue weather;

    When loud the bumblebee makes haste,
    Belated, thriftless vagrant,
    And goldenrod is dying fast,
    And lanes with grapes are fragrant;

    When gentians roll their fringes tight,
    To save them for the morning,
    And chestnuts fall from satin burs
    Without a sound of warning;

    When on the ground red apples lie
    In piles like jewels shining,
    And redder still on old stone walls
    Are leaves of woodbine twining;

    When all the lovely wayside things
    Their white-winged seeds are sowing,
    And in the fields, still green and fair,
    Late aftermaths are growing;

    When springs run low, and on the brooks
    In idle, golden freighting,
    Bright leaves sink noiseless in the hush
    Of woods, for winter waiting;

    When comrades seek sweet country haunt
    By twos and twos together,
    And count like misers hour by hour
    October's bright blue weather.

    O sun and skies and flowers of June,
    Count all your boasts together,
    Love loveth best of all the year
    October's bright blue weather.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

For Biography see above.

Discussion. 1. What comparison is made in the first stanza between
June and October? 2. Why is the bumblebee described as "loud"? 3.
Compare the description of the goldenrod in this poem with the
description of the goldenrod in "September." 4. Compare the
description of the apples in this poem with the description of the
apples in "September." 5. Find the line that tells why the "gentians
roll their fringes tight." 6. What is the color of the woodbine
leaves? 7. What are the "wayside things" usually called? 8. What do
good comrades like to do in October? 9. Why are we sorry to have
October go? 10. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: fragrant;
twining; aftermath; haunts. 11. Pronounce: rival; vagrant; freighting.

Phrases for Study: rival for one hour, hush of woods, belated,
thriftless vagrant, count like misers, satin burs, count all your
boasts, idle, golden freighting.



NOVEMBER

Alice Cary

    The leaves are fading and falling;
    The winds are rough and wild;
    The birds have ceased their calling--
    But let me tell you, my child,

    Though day by day, as it closes,
    Doth darker and colder grow,
    The roots of the bright red roses
    Will keep alive in the snow.

    And when the winter is over,
    The boughs will get new leaves,
    The quail come back to the clover,
    And the swallow back to the eaves.

    The robin will wear on his bosom
    A vest that is bright and new,
    And the loveliest wayside blossom
    Will shine with the sun and dew.

    The leaves today are whirling;
    The brooks are all dry and dumb--
    But let me tell you, my darling,
    The spring will be sure to come.

    There must be rough, cold weather,
    And winds and rains so wild;
    Not all good things together
    Come to us here, my child.

    So, when some dear joy loses
    Its beauteous summer glow,
    Think how the roots of the roses
    Are kept alive in the snow.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Alice Cary (1820-1871), an American poet, was born in
Cincinnati. She and her sister, Phoebe, wrote many beautiful poems
and sketches. They removed to New York City and lived together there.
"November" is one of Alice Cary's most widely known poems.

Discussion. 1. What signs of autumn are mentioned in the first stanza?
2. What signs of the coming winter are mentioned in the second stanza?
3. Where have the birds gone? 4. What is meant by the word "here" in
line 4, above? 5. Why are the brooks "dry and dumb" in November? 6. Is
this true in all parts of the country? 7. What are we told about the
spring in "October's Bright Blue Weather"? 8. What will happen when
the winter is over? 9. Where does the swallow build his nest? 10. What
wonder of Nature, about which you read in A Forward Look, above, does
the second stanza tell you? 11. How can the snow help keep the roots
alive? 12. In what stanza is this thought repeated? 13. Find in the
Glossary the meaning of: fading; quail; eaves.

Phrases for Study: ceased their calling, wayside blossom, vest that is
bright, beauteous summer glow.



TODAY

Thomas Carlyle

    Lo, here hath been dawning
    Another blue day;
    Think, wilt thou let it
    Slip useless away?

    Out of Eternity
    This new day is born;
    Into Eternity,
    At night, will return.

    Behold it aforetime
    No eye ever did;
    So soon it forever
    From all eyes is hid.

    Here hath been dawning
    Another blue day;
    Think, wilt thou let it
    Slip useless away?


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881) was a great Scotch writer of
essays and history. He lived in Edinburgh, and later in London.

Discussion. 1. Find the lines that explain why the day is called a
"new day." 2. Find the lines which remind us that the day will pass
quickly. 3. The poet tells us in the first stanza to "think"; what
does he want us to think about? 4. Find the same lines in another
stanza. Why did the poet repeat these words? 5. Read the short story
that follows, and tell whether Titus and the poet have the same, idea
of a "useless" day.

The Roman Emperor, Titus, won the love of all his people by his
kindness and generosity to those who were in trouble. One night
at supper, remembering that he had not helped anyone that day, he
exclaimed, "My friends, I have lost a day!"

Phrases for Study: behold it aforetime blue day.



THE NIGHT HAS A THOUSAND EYES

Francis Bourdillon

    The night has a thousand eyes,
    And the day but one;
    Yet the light of the bright world dies
    With the dying sun.

    The mind has a thousand eyes,
    And the heart but one;
    Yet the light of a whole life dies
    When love is done.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Francis William Bourdillon (1852-1921) an English poet,
lived at Buddington, England. He attended college at Oxford. Few poets
have written more beautiful lines than his "The Night Has a Thousand
Eyes."

Discussion. 1. What are the eyes of the night? 2. What is the eye of
the day? 3. How many eyes does the poet say the mind has? 4. How many
eyes does he say the heart has? 5. In which line are we told what the
eye of the heart is? 6. In A Forward Look, above, you read that the
poet is a magician whose words open for us the fairyland of Nature;
what have the words of this poet done for you? 7. Memorize the poem.



A BACKWARD LOOK


As you look backward over the animal stories you have read in this
group, which did you enjoy most? Which story would be the most
interesting to tell to a younger brother or sister? Which do you like
better, stories in which animals are the actors, or stories about the
hunting of animals?

Which one of the poems about birds has lines in it that sound like
the bird's song? Which author makes you feel most keenly his love
for birds? Which one tells you of pleasures that birds enjoy? Make a
program for Arbor and Bird Day from selections found or suggested in
this group.

In the "Notes and Questions" you have found a number of suggestions
for outside reading. Did you find in the school library or public
library any of the books that are mentioned in the different
biographies? In your class, who has read Baker's True Tales for
My Grandsons, or other selections mentioned in the biographies or
elsewhere? What progress have you made in silent reading?

If you were making a blackboard calendar for each of the
months--September, October, and November--what stanzas in each of
the three poems on these months would give you ideas for decoration?
Select a stanza from these poems as a motto for each of your
calendars. November teaches Alice Caw a truth which she passes on to
us; what is this truth?

On pages 19 and 20 you read that the world of Nature is a fairyland,
and that the poets help us to see the beauty that lies about us.
Perhaps now when you look up into a starry sky you say to yourself
almost without thinking, "The night has a thousand eyes--" What other
poems have revealed beauties of Nature to you?


A FORWARD LOOK


Here is matter for your entertainment. Several interesting persons
will appear and will show you that a small part of the joy of reading
consists in the merry tales that you may find in books. One of the
English poets somewhere calls upon the spirits of fun and joy, a
cheerful nymph and her companions, to drive dull care away. This poet,
John Milton by name, wrote many poems and prose works on very serious
matters. He lived in a serious time, the time when many Englishmen
were leaving their native country and emigrating to America in order
that they might find a freedom that was denied to them at home.

But even under these circumstances, sympathizing with those who went
into exile for freedom, and studying night and day how he could
himself advance the cause of liberty, John Milton was too great a man
to believe that life is altogether serious and earnest. Humor and
jesting and wholesome fun have a part in every life; they are no more
to be neglected than the spices in a Thanksgiving pie. So the poet
called upon the cheerful nymph and her attendants to help him see the
brighter side of life; the fun that there is in foolishness, and the
health that comes with a hearty laugh. Here is what he wrote:

    "Haste thee, Nymph, and bring with thee
    Jest and youthful Jollity,

    Come, and trip it, as you go,
    On the light, fantastic toe."

Now let us imagine that we, also, are inviting these kindly spirits of
Mirth. Our lives are serious, too. We have arithmetic to learn, or
we have a composition to write. People expect us to do all sorts of
things that take our time, and of course we want to do these things.
But here comes Laughter holding both his sides, a fat old gentleman
who makes you feel merry the moment you set eyes on him. And Father
Laughter first introduces the Baron Munchausen, who will tell some
of his marvelous experiences. We are not compelled to believe all of
them. Perhaps Father Laughter wanted to take a sly dig or two at the
yarns some travelers tell when they get home. By this means the story
illustrates one of the great sources of humor--monstrous exaggeration.
It also shows what a foolish thing it is to be a boaster. Most people,
at one time or another, are tempted to brag about their deeds, their
possessions, or their smartness. If they would only think of Baron
Munchausen, they would flee from this temptation.

After this comes a story about the blind men and the elephant. Here
Father Laughter gets his way with you by making you see how absurd
were the guesses about the elephant made by men who knew only the
animal's trunk, or his tusks, or his tail. And here, too, after you
have laughed heartily at the foolish fellows who were so positive that
they knew everything when they knew nothing, you begin to see the
danger in what are called "snap judgments." "Look at these ridiculous
fellows," says Father Laughter, "and consider how silly it is to jump
to a conclusion unless you have all the facts."

You will agree that Father Laughter's next performer, Darius Green, is
especially interesting in these days when men fly across the Atlantic
or from New York to San Francisco. Darius seems to have been the first
"bird-man," and though he was absurd enough, he reminds one of the
fact that many useful inventions that now add to our comfort were
prepared for by men who seemed to their friends and acquaintances
crazy enough.

But this is introduction a-plenty; there's really no need to keep you
any longer from getting acquainted with Father Laughter and the antics
he likes to play.



ADVENTURES OF BARON MUNCHAUSEN

R. E. Raspe


The Savage Boar

Baron Munchausen had feasted his friends right well, and after supper
he leaned back in his chair and said, "So you want me to tell you of
my adventures in the past." His guests eagerly urged him on, and he
began his story.

Once, when I was returning from a hunt, with an empty gun (having used
all my ammunition), a raging wild boar rushed at me. Well, you know
how unpleasant such an encounter may be, so I am sure none of you will
think me a coward for hastily climbing the nearest tree; it was a
young birch which could hardly bear my weight. The boar made a dash
for the tree, but was a moment too late, for I had just drawn my legs
out of his reach. But so violent was his rush that his tusks went
through the trunk of the tree and projected an inch through the other
side. I slid down the tree, picked up a stone the size of my fist, and
riveted down the projecting points of the tusks. You can imagine what
a narrow escape I had when I tell you that the beast weighed five
tons--a good deal for a wild boar."


A Narrow Escape

"At another time, when I was hunting in Ceylon, I was terrified to see
a gigantic lion approaching, with the evident intention of devouring
me. My gun was only loaded with bird-shot, and I had no other about
me. The savage animal shook his head several times, uttered a loud
roar, and prepared to spring. I turned to flee, and--my flesh creeps
even now at the recollection of it--there, on the bank of a river that
lay behind me, was a huge crocodile with his terrible jaws open ready
to swallow me!

"Imagine, gentlemen, the horror of my situation--before me the lion,
behind me the crocodile, on my left a rushing torrent, and on the
right an abyss full of poisonous snakes! I gave myself up for lost,
and fell to the ground in an almost fainting condition, expecting
nothing better than to meet with a horrible death from one or the
other of these terrible animals.

"After waiting a few seconds I heard a violent noise, different from
any that had fallen on my ears before. I ventured to raise my head,
and what do you think had happened?

"The lion had, in his eagerness, jumped clean over me into the
crocodile's jaws; the head of the one stuck in the throat of the
other, and they were struggling to free themselves. I quickly sprang
to my feet, drew out my hunting-knife, and with one blow severed the
lion's head. Then, with the butt-end of my gun, I rammed the head
farther into the throat of the crocodile, and destroyed him by
suffocation. The hide of the crocodile, which was exactly forty
feet in length, I had stuffed, and it now forms one of the chief
attractions in the museum at Amsterdam, where the superintendent
relates the story to all spectators, with harrowing additions.

"One of these is that the lion jumped right through the crocodile,
but as soon as the head appeared, Monsieur the Famous Baron (as he is
pleased to call me) cut it off, and three feet of the crocodile's tail
as well, whereupon the crocodile turned round, snatched the knife out
of my hand, and swallowed it so greedily that it pierced his heart and
killed him!

"I need not tell you how annoyed I was by these exaggerations. In
this age of doubt people who do not know me might possibly be led to
disbelieve the real facts when they are mixed up with such absurd
inventions.


HOW THE BARON SAVED GIBRALTAR


"Some years later I made a voyage to Gibraltar to visit my old friend,
General Elliott. He received me with joy and took me for a stroll
along the ramparts to examine the operations of the enemy. I had
brought with me an excellent telescope, which I had purchased in Rome.
Looking through it, I saw that the enemy were about to discharge a
thirty-six pound cannon at the very spot where we were standing. I
rushed toward our nearest cannon, a forty-eight pounder, and placed it
exactly facing that of the enemy. I watched carefully till I saw the
Spanish gunner apply a match to the touchhole, and then I, too, gave
the word 'Fire.'

"Both reports rang out at the same instant, and the two cannon balls
met halfway with amazing force. Ours, being the heavier, caused the
enemy's ball to recoil with such violence as to kill the man who had
discharged it; it then passed through the masts of three ships which
lay in a line behind each other, and flew across the Straits of
Gibraltar some miles into Africa. Our own ball, after repelling the
other, proceeded on its way, dismounted the very cannon which had just
been used against us, and forced it into the hold of the ship, where
it fell with so much force as to break its way through the bottom.
The ship immediately filled and sank, with about a thousand Spanish
sailors and a large number of soldiers on board, who were all drowned.

"You can see for yourselves that this strange tale must be true,
however improbable it sounds, or else how could it possibly have
happened?"


NOTES AND QUESTIONS


A long time ago a book called The Travels of Baron Munchausen was
written by Rudolph Erich Raspe. The tales told in this book were so
extravagant that the name Munchausen is often applied to boasters. The
author pretends that the stories are all strictly true.

Discussion. 1. What extravagant statements do you find in the story
"The Savage Boar"? In "A Narrow Escape"? In "How the Baron Saved
Gibraltar"? 2. Which of the incidents mentioned do you think is the
most ridiculous? 3. What do you think of the proof given by the author
to prove the truthfulness of the last story? 4. Which of the sources
of humor mentioned on page 58 does this story illustrate? 5. Find
in the Glossary the meaning of: boar; encounter; tusks; riveted;
gigantic; abyss; severed; whereupon; exaggerations; ramparts;
touchhole; recoil; repelling; dismounted; hold. 6. Pronounce:
Munchausen; projected; harrowing; Monsieur.


Phrases for Study

evident intention, age of doubt, horror of my situation, absurd
inventions, gave myself up for lost, operations of the enemy,
harrowing additions, Straits of Gibraltar.



THE BLIND MEN AND THE ELEPHANT

John G. Saxe

    It was six men of Indostan,
    To learning much inclined
    Who went to see the elephant
    (Though all of them were blind),
    That each by observation
    Might satisfy his mind.

    The first approached the elephant,
    And happening to fall
    Against his broad and sturdy side,
    At once began to bawl:
    "God bless me! but the elephant
    Is very like a wall!"

    The second, feeling of the tusk,
    Cried, "Ho! what have we here
    So very round and smooth and sharp?
    To me 'tis mighty clear
    This wonder of an elephant
    Is very like a spear!"

    The third approached the animal,
    And happening to take
    The squirming trunk within his hands
    Thus boldly up and spake:
    "I see," quoth he, "the elephant
    Is very like a snake!"

    The fourth reached out his eager hand,
    And felt about the knee.
    "What most this wondrous beast is like
    Is mighty plain," quoth he;
    "'Tis clear enough the elephant
    Is very like a tree!"

    The fifth, who chanced to touch the ear,
    Said: "E'en the blindest man
    Can tell what this resembles most;
    Deny the fact who can,
    This marvel of an elephant
    Is very like a fan!"

    The sixth no sooner had begun
    About the beast to grope,
    Than, seizing on the swinging tail,
    That fell within his scope,
    "I see," quoth he, "the elephant
    Is very like a rope!"

    And so these men of Indostan
    Disputed loud and long,
    Each in his own opinion
    Exceeding stiff and strong,
    Though each was partly in the right,
    And all were in the wrong!


NOTES AND QUESTIONS


Biography. John Godfrey Saxe (1816-1887), an American poet, was born
in Vermont. He is best known by his humorous poems, of which "The
Blind Men and the Elephant" is most widely read.


Discussion. 1. How could blind men "see" the elephant? 2. To what did
each compare the elephant? 3. Explain the comparison each made. 4.
Why is comparison a common way of describing objects? 5. Point out
instances of its use by other authors in this book. 6. Why were these
blind men all "in the wrong"? 7. How far was each "in the right"? 8.
What makes this poem humorous? 9. What may we learn from this story?
10. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: learning; observation;
approached; bawl; wonder; resembles; marvel; grope; disputed; stiff.
11. Pronounce: sturdy; wondrous; scope.


Phrases for Study

much inclined, eager hand, satisfy his mind, within his scope.



DARIUS GREEN AND HIS FLYING-MACHINE

JOHN TOWNSEND TROWBRIDGE

    If ever there lived a Yankee lad,
    Wise or otherwise, good or bad,
    Who, seeing the birds fly, didn't jump
    With flapping arms from stake or stump,
    Or, spreading the tail
    Of his coat for a sail,
    Take a soaring leap from post or rail,
    And wonder why
    He couldn't fly,
    And flap and flutter and wish and try--
    If ever you knew a country dunce
    Who didn't try that as often as once,
    All I can say is, that's a sign
    He never would do for a hero of mine.

    An aspiring genius was D. Green;
    The son of a farmer--age fourteen.
    His body was long and lank and lean--
    Just right for flying, as will be seen;
    He had two eyes, each bright as a bean,
    And a freckled nose that grew between,
    A little awry--for I must mention
    That he had riveted his attention
    Upon his wonderful invention,
    Twisting his tongue as he twisted the strings,
    Working his face as he worked the wings,
    Arid with every turn of gimlet and screw
    Turning and screwing his mouth round, too,
    Till his nose seemed bent
    To catch the scent,
    Around some corner, of new-baked pies,
    And his wrinkled cheeks and his squinting eyes
    Grew puckered into a queer grimace,
    That made him look very droll in the face,
    And also very wise.

    And wise he must have been, to do more
    Than ever a genius did before,
    Excepting Daedalus of yore
    And his son Icarus, who wore
    Upon their backs
    Those wings of wax
    He had read of in the old almanacs.
    Darius was clearly of the opinion
    That the air is also man's dominion,
    And that, with paddle or fin or pinion,
    We soon or late
    Shall navigate
    The azure as now we sail the sea.
    The thing looks simple enough to me;
    And if you doubt it,
    Hear how Darius reasoned about it.

    "Birds can fly,
    An' why can't I?
    Must we give in,"
    Says he with a grin,
    "'T the bluebird an' phoebe
    Are smarter'n we be?
    Jest fold our hands an' see the swaller
    An' blackbird an' catbird beat us holler?
    Does the leetle, chatterin', sassy wren,
    No bigger'n my thumb, know more than men
    Jest show me that!
    Er prove't the bat
    Has got more brains than's in my hat,
    An' I'll back down, an' not till then!"

    He argued further: "Ner I can't see
    What's th' use o' wings to a bumblebee,
    Fer to git a livin' with, more'n to me;
    Ain't my business
    Importanter'n his'n is?
    That Icarus
    Was a silly cuss--
    Him an' his daddy, Daedalus.
    They might 'a' knowed wings made o' wax
    Wouldn't stan' sun-heat an' hard whacks;
    I'll make mine o' luther,
    Er suthin' er other."

    And he said to himself, as he tinkered and planned:
    "But I ain't goin' to show my hand
    To mummies that never can understand
    The fust idee that's big an' grand.
    They'd 'a' laft an' made fun
    O' Creation itself afore 'twas done!"
    So he kept his secret from all the rest,
    Safely buttoned within his vest;
    And in the loft above the shed
    Himself he locks, With thimble and thread
    And wax and hammer and buckles and screws,
    And all such things as geniuses use;
    Two bats for patterns, curious fellows!
    A charcoal-pot and a pair of bellows;
    An old hoop-skirt or two, as Well as
    Some wire and several old umbrellas;
    A carriage-cover, for tail and wings;
    A piece of harness; and straps and strings;
    And a big strong box,
    In which he locks
    These and a hundred other things.

    His grinning brothers, Reuben and Burke
    And Nathan and Jotham and Solomon, lurk
    Around the corner to see him work--
    Sitting cross-legged, like a Turk,
    Drawing the waxed end through with a jerk,
    And boring the holes with a comical quirk
    Of his wise old head, and a knowing smirk.
    But vainly they mounted each other's backs,
    And poked through knot-holes and pried through cracks;
    With wood from the pile and straw from the stacks
    He plugged the knot-holes and calked the cracks;
    And a bucket of water, which one would think;
    He had brought up into the loft to drink
    When he chanced to be dry,
    Stood always nigh,
    For Darius was sly!
    And whenever at work he happened to spy
    At chink or crevice a blinking eye,
    He let a dipper of water fly.
    "Take that! an' ef ever ye get a peep,
    Guess ye'll ketch a weasel asleep!"
    And he sings as he locks
    His big strong box:
    "The weasel's head is small an' trim,
    An' he is leetle an' long an' slim,
    An' quick of motion an' nimble of limb,
    An' ef yeou'll be
    Advised by me,
    Keep wide awake when ye're ketchin' him!"

    So day after day
    He stitched and tinkered and hammered
    Till at last 'twas done--
    The greatest invention under the sun!
    "An' now," says Darius, "hooray fer some fun!"

    'Twas the Fourth of July,
    And the weather was dry,
    And not a cloud was on all the sky
    Save a few light fleeces, which here and there.
    Half mist, half air,
    Like foam on the ocean went floating by;
    Just as lovely a morning as ever was seen
    For a nice little trip in a flying-machine.

    Thought cunning Darius: "Now I shan't go
    Along 'ith the fellers to see the show.
    I'll say I've got sich a terrible cough!
    An' then, when the folks 'ave all gone off,
    I'll hev full swing
    For to try the thing,
    An' practyse a leetle on the wing."

    "Ain't goin' to see the celebration?"
    Says Brother Nate.  "No; botheration!
    I've got sich a cold--a toothache--I--
    My gracious!--feel's though I should fly!"

    Said Jotham, "Sho!
    Guess ye better go."
    But Darius said, "No!
    Shouldn't wonder 'f yeou might see me, though,
    'Long 'bout noon, ef I git red
    O' this jumpin', thumpin' pain 'n my head."

    For all the while to himself he said:
    "I'll tell ye what!
    I'll fly a few times around the lot,
    To see how 't seems; then soon's I've got
    The hang o' the thing, ez likely's not,
    I'll astonish the nation,
    And all creation,
    By flyin' over the celebration!
    Over their heads I'll sail like an eagle;
    I'll balance myself on my wings like a sea-gull;
    I'll dance on the chimbleys; I'll stan' on the steeple;
    I'll flop up to winders an' scare the people!

    I'll light on the libbe'ty-pole, an' crow;
    An' I'll say to the gawpin' fools below,
    'What world's this 'ere
    That I've come near?'
    Fer I'll make 'em believe I'm a chap f'm the moon!
    An' I'll try a race 'ith their ol' bulloon."
    He crept from his bed;
    And, seeing the others were gone, he said,
    "I'm a gittin' over the cold 'n my head."
    And away he sped
    To open the wonderful box in the shed.

    His brothers had walked but a little way
    When Jotham to Nathan chanced to say,
    "What on airth is he up to, hey?"
    "Don'o'--the' 's suthin' er other to pay,
    Er he wouldn't 'a' stayed to hum today."
    Says Burke, "His toothache's all 'n his eye!
    He never'd miss a Fo'th-o'-July
    Ef he hedn't got some machine to try.
    Le's hurry back an' hide in the barn,
    An' pay him fer tellin' us that yarn!"
    "Agreed!"  Through the orchard they creep back,
    Along by the fences, behind the stack,
    And one by one, through a hole in the wall,
    In under the dusty barn they crawl,
    Dressed in their Sunday garments all;
    And a very astonishing sight was that,
    When each in his cobwebbed coat and hat
    Came up through the floor like an ancient rat
    And there they hid;
    And Reuben slid
    The fastenings back, and the door undid.
    "Keep dark!" said he,
    "While I squint an' see what the' is to see."

    As knights of old put on their mail--
    From head to foot
    An iron suit,
    Iron jacket and iron boot,
    Iron breeches, and on the head
    No hat, but an iron pot instead,
    And under the chin the bail
    (I believe they called the thing a helm);
    And the lid they carried they called a shield;
    And, thus accoutered, they took the field,
    Sallying forth to overwhelm
    The dragons and pagans that plagued the realm--
    So this modern knight
    Prepared for flight,
    Put on his wings and strapped them tight;
    Jointed and jaunty, strong and light;
    Buckled them fast to shoulder and hip--
    Ten feet they measured from tip to tip!
    And a helm had he, but that he wore,
    Not on his head like those of yore,
    But more like the helm of a ship.

    "Hush!"  Reuben said,
    "He's up in the shed!
    He's opened the winder--I see his head!
    He stretches it out,
    An' pokes it about,
    Lookin' to see 'f the coast is clear,
    An' nobody near;
    Guess he don'o' who's hid in here!
    He's riggin' a spring-board over the sill!
    Stop laffin', Solomon!  Burke, keep still!
    He's a climbin' out now--of all the things!
    What's he got on?  I van, it's wings!
    An' that 'tother thing?  I yum, it's a tail!
    An' there he sets like a hawk on a rail!
    Steppin' careful, he travels the length
    Of his spring-board, and teeters to try its strength.
    Now he stretches his wings, like a monstrous bat;
    Peeks over his shoulder, this way an' that,
    Fer to see 'f the' 's anyone passin' by;
    But the' 's on'y a ca'f an' a goslin' nigh.
    They turn up at him a wonderin' eye,
    To see--the dragon! he's goin' to fly!
    Away he goes!  Jimminy! what a jump!
    Flop--flop--an' plump
    To the ground with a thump!
    Flutt'rin' an' flound'rin', all in a lump!"

    As a demon is hurled by an angel's spear,
    Heels over head, to his proper sphere--
    Heels over head, and head over heels,
    Dizzily down the abyss he wheels--
    So fell Darius.  Upon his crown,
    In the midst of the barnyard, he came down,
    In a wonderful whirl of tangled strings,
    Broken braces and broken springs,
    Broken tail and broken wings,
    Shooting-stars, and various things!
    Away with a bellow fled the calf,
    And what was that?  Did the gosling laugh?
    'Tis a merry roar
    From the old barn-door,
    And he hears the voice of Jotham crying,
    "Say, D'rius! how de yeou like flyin'?"
    Slowly, ruefully, where he lay,
    Darius just turned and looked that way,
    As he stanched his sorrowful nose with his cuff.
    "Wal, I like flyin' well enough,"
    He said; "but the' ain't sich a thunderin' sight
    O' fun in 't when ye come to light."


    MORAL

    I just have room for the moral here,
    And this is the moral: Stick to your sphere.
    Or if you insist, as you have the right,
    On spreading your wings for a loftier flight,
    The moral is: Take care how you light.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. John Townsend Trowbridge (1827-1916), an American writer,
lived in Cambridge. He and Lucy Larcom were for a time editors of Our
Young Folks' Magazine. Trowbridge first saw a flying-machine sixty
years after he wrote "Darius Green and His Flying-Machine." He was
then eighty-three years old.

Discussion. 1. What did Darius Green believe that men would soon be
able to do? 2. What did Darius determine to use as material for his
machine? 3. Why did he not tell his brothers what he was trying to do?
4. When did he plan to try his machine? 5. Find the lines that tell
what he imagined he would do. 6. Find the lines that tell what he
really did. 7. What did he say was the unpleasant part of flying? 8.
Mention some inventions that people once thought were as impossible as
the boys thought this flying-machine was. 9. Mention some inventors at
whom people once laughed but who are now honored. 10. In what way does
the author make his story humorous? 11. Notice Darius's language on
pages 67 and 68. The writer shows by such words that Darius was not a
well-educated boy; are persons often judged by the way they talk? 12.
In Wildman's Famous Leaders of Industry, you will find interesting
facts about Orville and Wilbur Wright..You will enjoy reading The
Boys' Airplane Book, Collins. 13, Report any current news on airplane
development, airplane mail routes, etc., that you can find. 14. Find
in the Glossary the meaning of: soaring; lank; gimlet; yore; pinion;
tinkered; mummies; quirk; smirk; crevice; weasel; cunning; ancient;
helm; ruefully. 15. Pronounce: Darius; aspiring; genius; awry;
grimace; droll; Daedalus; Icarus; almanacs; phoebe; calked; breeches;
accoutered; pagans; jaunty; stanched.


Phrases for Study

aspiring genius, like a Turk, riveted his attention, knights of old,
Daedalus of yore, thus accoutered, man's dominion, plagued the realm,
navigate the azure, his proper sphere, beat us holler, stick to your
sphere.



BIRTHDAY GREETINGS C. L. DODGSON ("Lewis Carroll") Christ Church,
Oxford October 13, 1875

My Dear Gertrude:

I never give birthday presents, but you see I do sometimes write a
birthday letter; so, as I've just arrived here, I am writing this to
wish you many and many a happy return of your birthday tomorrow. I
will drink your health, if only I can remember, and if you don't
mind--but perhaps you object? You see, if I were to sit by you at
breakfast, and to drink your tea, you wouldn't like that, would you?
You would say "Boo! hoo! Here's Mr. Dodgson's drunk all my tea, and I
haven't any left!" So I am very much afraid, next time Sybil looks for
you, she'll find you sitting by the sad sea-wave, and crying "Boo!
hoo! Here's Mr. Dodgson has drunk my health, and I haven't got any
left!" And how it will puzzle Dr. Maund, when he is sent for to see
you! "My dear Madam, I'm very sorry to say your little girl has got no
health at all! I never saw such a thing in my life!" "Oh, I can easily
explain it!" your mother will say. "You see she would go and make
friends with a strange gentleman, and yesterday he drank her health!"
"Well, Mrs. Chataway," he will say, "the only way to cure her is to
wait till his next birthday, and then for her to drink his health."

And then we shall have changed healths. I wonder how you'll like mine!
Oh, Gertrude, I wish you wouldn't talk such nonsense!

Your loving friend,

LEWIS CARROLL

NOTES AND QUESTIONS


Biography. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (1832-1898), better known by his
pen name, "Lewis Carroll," was an English author. He was the son of
a clergyman. For four years he attended the famous school at Rugby,
after which he entered college at Oxford. He became an excellent
scholar and mathematician and was appointed a lecturer on mathematics
at Oxford University, a position that he held for many years. His keen
sympathy with the imagination of children and their sense of fun led
him to tell of the adventures of Alice, in a book called Alice's
Adventures in Wonderland. This book made Lewis Carroll's name famous.
His delightful humor is well illustrated in his letter of "Birthday
Greetings" to Gertrude Chataway.

Discussion. 1. What is usually meant by "drink your health"? 2. What
play on the meaning of these words gives a humorous turn to them? 3.
What remedy does the author suggest the doctor will prescribe for
Gertrude? 4. What does the author call this humor? 5. The author was
a serious man, yet he believed in the value of wholesome fun; of what
great poet did you read, on page 57, who also believed in the value of
a hearty laugh?

Phrases for Study

many a happy return, sad sea-wave.



THE WIND AND THE MOON

GEORGE MACDONALD

    Said the Wind to the Moon, "I will blow you out.
    You stare in the air
    Like a ghost in a chair,
    Always looking what I am about.
    I hate to be watched; I will blow you out."

    The Wind blew hard, and out went the Moon.
    So, deep on a heap
    Of clouds, to sleep
    Down lay the Wind, and slumbered soon--
    Muttering low.  "I've done for that Moon."

    He turned in his bed; she was there again.
    On high in the sky,
    With her one ghost eye,
    The Moon shone white and alive and plain.
    Said the Wind, "I will blow you out again."

    The Wind blew hard, and the Moon grew dim.
    "With my sledge and my wedge
    I have knocked off her edge.
    If only I blow right fierce and grim,
    The creature will soon be dimmer than dim."

    He blew and he blew, and she thinned to a thread.
    "One puff more's enough
    To blow her to snuff!
    One good puff more where the last was bred,
    And glimmer, glimmer glum will go the thread."

    He blew a great blast, and the thread was gone;
    In the air nowhere
    Was a moonbeam bare;
    Far off and harmless the shy stars shone;
    Sure and certain the Moon was gone!

    The Wind he took to his revels once more:
    On down, in town,
    Like a merry-mad clown,
    He leaped and hallooed with whistle and roar--
    "What's that?"  The glimmering thread once more.

    He flew in a rage--he danced and blew;
    But in vain was the pain
    Of his bursting brain;
    For still the broader the moon-scrap grew,
    The broader he swelled his big cheeks and blew.

    Slowly she grew--till she filled the night,
    And shone on her throne
    In the sky alone,
    A matchless, wonderful, silvery light,
    Radiant and lovely, the queen of the night.

    Said the Wind: "What a marvel of power am I
    With my breath, good faith,
    I blew her to death--
    First blew her away right out of the sky--
    Then blew her in; what a strength am I!"

    But the Moon she knew nothing about the affair,
    For, high in the sky,
    With her one white eye,
    Motionless, miles above the air,
    She had never heard the great Wind blare.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. George Macdonald (1824-1905), a Scotch poet, wrote many
entertaining poems and stories for children. "The Wind and the Moon"
is a good illustration of the fact that he knew how to interest boys
and girls.

Discussion. 1. Why did the wind want to blow out the moon? 2. What
natural changes in the shape of the moon take place each month? 3.
What really caused it to disappear? 4. What did the wind do when he
thought he had succeeded? 5. Find the lines that tell how the wind
felt when he saw the moon grow broader and bigger. 6. Find the lines
which tell that the moon did not know that the wind was blowing. 7.
What qualities does this story give to the wind? 8. Do you know any
person who has these qualities? 9. The poet aims in this poem to
amuse us; by what means does he do this? 10. Find in the Glossary the
meaning of: muttering; sledge; wedge; grim; matchless; blare. 11.
Pronounce: revels; hallooed; radiant.

Phrases for Study

thinned to a thread, took to his revels, where the last was bred,
filled the night.



STORIES IN LIGHTER VEIN

A BACKWARD LOOK

Why is it good for us, even in the midst of serious work, to read
humorous stories from time to time? An interesting anecdote is told of
Abraham Lincoln that shows how he would have answered this question.
One day when the Civil War was at its height, President Lincoln opened
his cabinet meeting by saying, "Gentlemen, I am going to read you
something that will make you laugh." He then read a chapter from a
humorous book, laughing heartily as he read. When he saw that none
of the members of his cabinet joined in the laughter, he said with a
sigh, "Gentlemen, why don't you laugh? With the fearful strain that is
put on me day and night, if I did not laugh once in a while I should
die; and you need this medicine as much as I do," What did you read
in the Forward Look on page 57 about another serious-minded man who
believed that wholesome humor is a "medicine"?

Which selection in this group gave you the heartiest laugh? Often
some sensible truth is taught through a little nonsense; of which
selections is this particularly true? It is interesting to stop for a
moment and think just why certain stories make us laugh. One story is
humorous because of its wild exaggeration; another because it makes us
see how ridiculous it is to be a boaster or to be conceited or to jump
at conclusions; and still another because it has an interesting little
play upon words. What is the source of humor in "The Savage Boar"; "A
Narrow Escape"; "How the Baron Saved Gibraltar"; "The Blind Men and
the Elephant"; "Birthday Greetings"; "The Wind and the Moon"?

How does the present-day newspaper furnish fun for its readers? Which
newspaper cartoons do you look at regularly, and which are your
favorites? Bring to class examples of cartoons, and then divide the
collection into three groups--those that you think drive home a truth;
those that you think are funny and clever; and those that you think
are merely silly. Prepare an exhibit for "Cartoon Day" in your school,
selecting the material from these examples. Clip and bring to class
newspaper jokes that you and your family particularly enjoyed.
Recommend to your classmates humorous stories that you have read in
The Junior Red Cross News, Life, St. Nicholas, The Youth's Companion,
or in some other magazine.

In previous pages you have found occasional suggestions for problems
similar to those of the preceding paragraph. Like suggestions will
be found later in the book. The working out of these problems and
reporting on them in class will add greatly to the value and pleasure
of your reading.

Some of these suggested problems are: (a) Silent Reading--Making a
report showing comparisons month by month of individual and class
progress in silent reading; (b) Books I Have Read--Reviewing a
favorite book, giving title, author, time and scene of story,
principal characters, and a brief outline of the story, with readings
of the selected passages that will give your classmates most pleasure;
(c) Magazine Reading--Reporting monthly on current numbers of
magazines, telling your classmates what you have found that is
interesting; in this way you will help each other to become acquainted
with a number of magazines; (d) Newspaper Reading--Reporting current
events, and showing in the newspapers that you read the place of
general news, of editorials, society news, sports, the joke column,
cartoons, advertisements, etc.; (e) Dramatizing--Planning and
presenting before your class some selection or some incident from
a selection that you think will make an interesting play; (f) Good
Citizenship--Making a list of the suggestions you find in this Reader
that help you to be a useful home-member and a good citizen, and
preparing a program from selections in this book for "Citizenship Day"
in your school.

Which of the problems that you have worked out did you find most
interesting?



HOME AND COUNTRY

A Forward Look


One of the most famous stories in American literature tells about a
man who spoke of his country with sneers and insults and acted in such
a way that he was forbidden ever to set foot on American soil again.
So he became a wanderer. He saw how men from other countries looked
upon their homelands with pride and affection, and how his countrymen
loved America better even than their lives. He came to be known as
"the man without a country," and he lived a wretched and lonely life.
At last he came to the hour of death, and he wrote these words for all
Americans to think about if the temptation should ever come to speak
scornfully of their country:

"If you are ever tempted to say a word or to do a thing that shall put
a bar between you and your country, pray God in his mercy to take you
that instant home to his own heaven. Stick by your family, boy; forget
you have a self, while you do everything for them. Think of your home,
boy; write and send, and talk about it. Let it be nearer and nearer to
your thoughts, the farther you have to travel from it; and rush back
to it when you are free. And for your country, boy"--and the words
rattled in his throat--"and for that flag"--and he pointed to the
ship--"never dream a dream but of serving her as she bids you, though
the service carry you through a thousand hells. No matter what happens
to you, no matter who flatters you or who abuses you, never look to
another flag, never let a night pass but you pray God to bless that
flag. Remember, boy, that behind all these men you have to do with,
behind officers, and government, and people even, there is the Country
Herself, your Country, and that you belong to Her as you belong to
your mother. Stand by Her, boy, as you would stand by your mother."

Such was the dying message of "the man without a country" to the
Americans of his time; such is his message to us. When we were at
war, it was to be expected that all men would answer the call of
patriotism. But now that peace has come, it is not so easy to forget
self in a loyalty to our country and its flag. It is easy to be on
guard when we know that an armed enemy is close by; it is not easy
when the enemy is hidden, and the guns are silent. These hidden
enemies of our country do not fight in armies; they are the bad
citizens who are scattered about; often you do not realize who they
are.

Generally these bad citizens, who are enemies of our country, possess
one or all of the following characteristics:

In the first place, they have no love for home and its festivals. Now,
our nation is a collection of homes. The government was formed to
protect these homes. The good citizen is a lover of his native soil,
a lover of his home, a lover of Thanksgiving and Independence Day and
Christmas. These festivals bind men more closely together, make them
one, join them to their native land. But there are many bad citizens,
enemies of America, who seek to destroy these influences that lead
men to work together to make the community a better place in which to
live.

Second, the history of the United States, the stories of the founding
of our nation, the stories about our flag and its defenders, have no
interest for these bad citizens. You remember how mother used to tell
you stories about when she was a little girl, and how these stories
made you love her the more. It is the same with the stories about
the days when our country was young: how the young George Washington
showed the kind of man he was, or how the young Abraham Lincoln
struggled to fit himself to become a leader of men. Through these
stories we learn what the flag really means and what it has cost, and
we love our country as we love our mother. But the enemy, the bad
citizen, laughs at these things. He just thinks of himself. He thinks
he has a right to do as he likes because this is, he says, "a free
country." He doesn't think that he owes anything to Washington and
Jefferson and Lincoln, or to those who kept the flag at the masthead
when it was in peril.

And the third test of a man's loyalty to our country is met only if
he has the true feeling of democracy in his heart. This feeling of
democracy means service, willingness to help others. The man or woman
who thinks only of his own good time or his own fortune is a bad
citizen.

You see, it is this way. In olden times men had no part in the
government unless they were born into a high place in society. The
ordinary man did as he was told, went to the wars at the king's
pleasure, and paid taxes that often took all he could save. He had
little opportunity to make money or collect property. If he did, very
probably the king would hear of it and would take away from him all
that he had saved. But America was founded with a different idea of
these matters. Here men got together and set up the kind of government
they wished. They taxed themselves in order to support this
government. They worked together to drive away hostile Indians, to
kill wild beasts, to conquer the forests, to plant their crops, to
make their lives safe and happy. In this cooperation, or working
together, in government and in all the ways of living we find the
spirit of democracy.

This spirit has made America what it is today. It has opened up farms,
built railways and ships and great industries, built also mighty
cities, and made laws for the protection of property and life. All
this men have done through the cooperation that means democracy.

If any man thinks that this freedom gives him the right to trample on
others, he is no better than one of the wicked kings of former times.
If he thinks that under this freedom he may devote himself wholly to
the selfish gain of wealth without giving a share of his money, his
time, and his skill to making his community a better place to live
in and his nation stronger and more secure, he cheats his fellows,
because he takes, without making any return, the blessings that the
founders and defenders of the Republic established with their lives.

In the old stories the youth who was ready to be made a knight had to
do certain things. He had to take the vow of knighthood, that he would
lead a pure and blameless life. He had to render a service to someone
in distress. And he had to watch, his arms beside him, through a
night.

You boys and girls, lovers of America, her defenders if need be, her
guardians in the years to come, must also watch by your arms. These
arms are not guns and bayonets; they belong to your heart and mind.
They are three in number: the love of home, the inheritance of
freedom, and the will to work with others. The first is a foundation
to make strong your heart; the second is a bulwark to make safe your
life; the third is a sword wherewith to slay the enemies of the
Republic.

This foundation in the love of home, this bulwark of our inheritance
of freedom, and this sword of unselfish service are subjects often
dealt with by great writers. In the pages that follow you will find
pieces selected in order to bring out these ideas. You should read
each of these selections not only for itself but also as a member of
the group to which it belongs; and you should try to get the central
idea that unites all the pieces that make up the group. Thus, little
by little, you will come to see how your joy in Thanksgiving, the
thrill that Old Glory can give you, and the service that you can
render to someone else, are all related to each other. To defend home
and country by being a good citizen is to be your mission in life. It
is more important than a successful career, or than great personal
happiness. For both your career and your happiness will depend upon
the way in which you, and the other boys and girls of America,
thousands upon thousands, keep watch by these arms, keep faith with
home and country.



HOME AND ITS FESTIVALS


HOME, SWEET HOME

John Howard Payne

    'Mid pleasures and palaces though we may roam
    Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home!
    A charm from the sky seems to hallow us there,
    Which, seek through the world, is ne'er met with elsewhere.
    Home, Home, sweet, sweet Home!
    There's no place like Home! there's no place like Home!

    An exile from home, splendor dazzles in vain;
    Oh! give me my lonely thatched cottage again!
    The birds, singing gayly, that came at my call--
    Give me them--and the peace of mind dearer than all!
    Home, Home, sweet, sweet Home!
    There's no place like Home! there's no place like Home!

    How sweet 'tis to sit 'neath a fond father's smile,
    And the cares of a mother to soothe and beguile!
    Let others delight mid new pleasures to roam,
    But give me, oh, give me, the pleasures of home!
    Home, Home, sweet, sweet Home!
    There's no place like Home! there's no place like Home!

    To thee I'll return, overburdened with care;
    The heart's dearest solace will smile on me there;
    No more from that cottage again will I roam;
    Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home.
    Home, Home, sweet, sweet Home!
    There's no place like Home! there's no place like Home!


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. John Howard Payne (1792-1852) was born in New York City.
He became an actor and also a writer of plays and operas. He died
at Tunis, Africa, to which place he had been sent as United States
consul. When Jenny Lind, the celebrated Swedish singer, visited the
United States in 1850, she sang in Washington before a large audience.
John Howard Payne sat in one of the boxes, and at the close of her
wonderful concert the singer turned toward the box in which the poet
sat, and sang "Home, Sweet Home" with so much sweetness and power that
many of the audience cried like children.

Discussion. 1. What words in the first stanza are repeated in the
refrain, or chorus? 2. What is it that the poet says "hallows," or
blesses, us when we are in our homes? 3. With what word in the second
stanza is "cottage" contrasted? 4. What does the second stanza tell us
that the poet had at home and missed afterwards? 5. What is it that
really makes home beautiful? 6. What great service do our mothers
perform? 7. What does page 84 tell you of the value the love of home
is to a nation? 8. Explain the expression "splendor dazzles in vain".
9. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: humble; hallow; charm; fond;
soothe; beguile; roam. 10. Pronounce: exile; solace.



THE GRAPEVINE SWING

SAMUEL MINTURN PECK

    When I was a boy on the old plantation,
    Down by the deep bayou--
    The fairest spot of all creation
    Under the arching blue--
    When the wind came over the cotton and corn,
    To the long, slim loop I'd spring
    With brown feet bare, and a hat-brim torn,
    And swing in the grapevine swing.

    Swinging in the grapevine swing,
    Laughing where the wild birds sing,
    I dream and sigh
    For the days gone by,
    Swinging in the grapevine swing.

    Out--o'er the water lilies bonny and bright
    Back--to the moss-green trees;
    I shouted and laughed with a heart as light
    As a wild rose tossed by the breeze.
    The mocking bird joined in my reckless glee;
    I longed for no angel's wing;
    I was just as near heaven as I wanted to be
    Swinging in the grapevine swing.

    Swinging in the grapevine swing,
    Laughing where the wild birds sing--
    Oh, to be a boy
    With a heart full of joy,
    Swinging in the grapevine swing!

    I'm weary at noon, I'm weary at night,
    I'm fretted and sore of heart,
    And care is sowing my locks with white
    As I wend through the fevered mart.
    I'm tired of the world with its pride and pomp,
    And fame seems a worthless thing.
    I'd barter it all for one day's romp,
    And a swing in the grapevine swing.

    Swinging in the grapevine swing,
    Laughing where the wild birds sing--
    I would I were away
    From the world today,
    Swinging in the grapevine swing.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Samuel Minturn Peck (1854-1886) is a native of the South.
He was born in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and spent most of his early years
in that city. He was gifted in music and became an excellent amateur
pianist. His published works include Cap and Bells, Rhymes and Roses,
and Rings and Love-Knots, from which "The Grapevine Swing," one of his
most musical poems, is taken.

Discussion. 1. Why does the poet call the old plantation "The fairest
spot of all creation"? 2. What does he mean by "the long, slim loop"?
3. For what "days gone by" does the poet sigh? 4. What picture do
lines 6, 7, and 8, page 89, give you? 5. What tells you that the swing
was near the bayou? 6. What is compared to the wild rose? 7. Why do
you think the poet would "barter it all for one day's romp"? 8. Find
in the Glossary the meaning of: creation; bonny; reckless; fretted;
wend; pomp; fame. 9. Pronounce: bayou; arching; laughing.


Phrases for Study

arching blue, care is sowing, moss-green trees, fevered mart, sore of
heart, barter it all.



LULLABY OF AN INFANT CHIEF

SIR WALTER SCOTT

    O hush thee, my babie! thy sire was a knight,
    Thy mother a lady, both lovely and bright;
    The woods and the glens, from the towers which we see,
    They are all belonging, dear babie, to thee.

    O fear not the bugle, though loudly it blows;
    It calls but the warders that guard thy repose;
    Their bows would be bended, their blades would be red,
    Ere the step of a foeman draws near to thy bed.

    O hush thee, my babie! the time soon will come
    When thy sleep shall be broken by trumpet and drum;
    Then hush thee, my darling, take rest while you may,
    For strife comes with manhood, and waking with day.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) was born in Scotland. He was
a famous novelist and poet. When a child, he learned the Scottish
legends and ballads, and later he wove them into his writings.
Discussion. 1. What things mentioned in the first stanza show that the
baby has great possessions? 2. How would the warders protect the baby?
3. What word could be used instead of "blades"? 4. What will this baby
have to do when he becomes a man? 5. What will the trumpet and drum
mean to him then? 6. How could you tell that this baby lived a long
time ago? 7. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: sire; knight; lady;
glens; towers.


Phrases for Study

calls but the warders, sleep shall be broken, guard thy repose, strife
comes with manhood.



THE FIRST THANKSGIVING DAY

MARGARET JUNKIN PRESTON

"And now," said the Governor, gazing abroad on the piled-up store Of
the sheaves that dotted the clearings and covered the meadows o'er,
"'Tis meet that we render praises because of this yield of grain; 'Tis
meet that the Lord of the harvest be thanked for his sun and rain.

"And, therefore, I, William Bradford (by the grace of God today, And
the franchise of this good people), Governor of Plymouth, say, Through
virtue of vested power--ye shall gather with one accord, And hold, in
the month of November, thanksgiving unto the Lord.

"He hath granted us peace and plenty, and the quiet we've sought so
long; He hath thwarted the wily savage, and kept him from wrack and
wrong; And unto our feast the Sachem shall be bidden, that he may know
We worship his own Great Spirit, who maketh the harvests grow.

"So shoulder your matchlocks, masters--there is hunting of all
degrees; And, fishermen, take your tackle, and scour for spoils the
seas; And, maidens and dames of Plymouth, your delicate crafts employ
To honor our First Thanksgiving, and make it a feast of joy!

"We fail of the fruits and dainties--we fail of the old home cheer;
Ah, these are the lightest losses, mayhap, that befall us here; But
see, in our open clearings, how golden the melons lie; Enrich them
with sweets and spices, and give us the pumpkin-pie!"

So, bravely the preparations went on for the autumn feast; The deer
and the bear were slaughtered; wild game from the greatest to least
Was heaped in the colony cabins; brown home-brew served for wine, And
the plum and the grape of the forest, for orange and peach and pine.

At length came the day appointed; the snow had begun to fall, But
the clang from the meeting-house belfry rang merrily over all, And
summoned the folk Of Plymouth, who hastened with glad accord To listen
to Elder Brewster as he fervently thanked the Lord.

In his seat sate Governor Bradford; men, matrons, and maidens fair,
Miles Standish and all his soldiers, with corselet and sword, were
there; And sobbing and tears and gladness had each in its turn
the sway, For the grave of the sweet Rose Standish o'ershadowed
Thanksgiving Day.

And when Massasoit, the Sachem, sate down with his hundred braves, And
ate of the varied riches of gardens and woods and waves, And looked on
the granaried harvest--with a blow on his brawny chest, He muttered,
"The good Great Spirit loves his white children best!"


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biographical and Historical Note. Margaret J. Preston (1820-1897)
was one of the leading poets of the South. She wrote many poems and
sketches. "The First Thanksgiving Day" gives a good picture of the
life in the old Pilgrim days.

The Pilgrims landed at Plymouth December 21, 1620. During the long,
hard winter fifty-one of the one hundred Pilgrims died, among them
being Rose Standish, wife of Captain Miles Standish. As soon as spring
came, the colonists planted their fields, and by the end of summer a
plentiful harvest was gathered in. When provisions and fuel had
been laid in for the winter, Governor Bradford appointed a day of
thanksgiving. Venison, wild fowl, and fish were easy to obtain. We
are told, "there was great store of wild turkeys, of which they took
many." For three days a great feast was spread, and Massasoit, the
Indian Sachem, or chief, and many of his people enjoyed it with the
colonists.

Discussion. 1. When did the events related in this story take place?
2. Who was the governor of Plymouth at this time? 3. What proclamation
did he make? 4. What did the governor say that God had done for the
colony? 5. Who did he say should be invited to the feast? 6. What meat
did the Pilgrims have at their first Thanksgiving dinner? 7. What
fruits did they have for the feast? 8. What fruit is meant by "pine"
in line 12, page 93? 9. What did the colonists do "with glad accord"
before they sat down to their feast? 10. Find the lines that tell what
Massasoit said when he ate of the feast. 11. Why is it a good thing
for America to have a day set apart each year for us to give thanks
for our blessings? 12. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: store;
sheaves; clearings; wrack; dames; mayhap; befall; slaughtered;
appointed; summoned; fervently; sate; braves; brawny. 13. Pronounce:
therefore; franchise; wily; Sachem, pumpkin; matrons; corselet;
Massasoit; granaried.


Phrases for Study

'tis meet, scour for spoils, franchise of this good people, delicate
crafts employ, virtue of vested power, fail of the fruits, with one
accord, home-brew served for wine, thwarted the wily savage, each
in its turn the sway, Great Spirit, o'ershadowed Thanksgiving Day,
shoulder your matchlocks, of all degrees, varied riches.



A VISIT FROM ST. NICHOLAS

CLEMENT C. MOORE

    'Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the house
    Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse.
    The stockings were hung by the chimney with care,
    In hopes that St. Nicholas soon would be there
    The children were nestled all snug in their beds,
    While visions of sugarplums danced through their heads;
    And mamma in her kerchief, and I in my cap,
    Had just settled our brains for a long winter's nap--

    When out on the lawn there arose such a clatter,
    I sprang from my bed to see what was the matter.
    Away to the window I flew like a flash,
    Tore open the shutters, and threw up the sash;
    The moon on the breast of the new-fallen snow
    Gave a luster of midday to objects below;
    When what to my wondering eyes should appear
    But a miniature sleigh and eight tiny reindeer,
    With a little old driver, so lively and quick,
    I knew in a moment it must be St. Nick.
    More rapid than eagles his coursers they came,
    And he whistled, and shouted, and called them by name:
    "Now, Dasher! now, Dancer! now, Prancer and Vixen!
    On, Comet! on, Cupid! on, Donder and Blitzen!--
    To the top of the porch, to the top of the wall,
    Now, dash away, dash away, dash away, all!"
    As dry leaves that before the wild hurricane fly,
    When they meet with an obstacle, mount to the sky,
    So, up to the housetop the coursers they flew,
    With a sleigh full of toys--and St. Nicholas, too.
    And then, in a twinkling, I heard on the roof
    The prancing and pawing of each little hoof.
    As I drew in my head, and was turning around,
    Down the chimney St. Nicholas came with a bound;
    He was dressed all in fur from his head to his foot,
    And his clothes were all tarnished with ashes and soot.
    A bundle of toys he had flung on his back,
    And he looked like a peddler just opening his pack.
    His eyes, how they twinkled! his dimples, how merry!
    His cheeks were like roses, his nose like a cherry;
    His droll little mouth was drawn up like a bow,
    And the beard on his chin was as white as the snow.
    The stump of a pipe he held tight in his teeth,
    And the smoke, it encircled his head like a wreath.
    He had a broad face, and a little round belly
    That shook when he laughed, like a bowl full of jelly.
    He was chubby and plump--a right jolly old elf;
    And I laughed when I saw him, in spite of myself.
    A wink of his eye and a twist of his head
    Soon gave me to know I had nothing to dread.
    He spoke not a word, but went straight to his work,
    And filled all the stockings; then turned with a jerk,
    And laying his finger aside of his nose,
    And giving a nod, up the chimney he rose.
    He sprang to his sleigh, to his team gave a whistle,
    And away they all flew like the down of a thistle.
    But I heard him exclaim, ere they drove out of sight,
    "Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good night."


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Clement C. Moore (1779-1863) was am American poet and
author. He lived in New York City, where for many years he was engaged
in educational work.

Discussion. 1. What picture do the first eight lines of this poem
give you? 2. Does this picture seem real to you? 3. Of what were the
children dreaming? 4. What word do you use instead of sugarplums? 5.
What picture do you find in lines 7-10, page 96? 6 What is the next
picture? Find the lines that make it. 7. To what is the swiftness of
the reindeer compared? 8. What words show how lightly the reindeer
flew through the air? 9. Find the lines that picture St. Nicholas
after he came down the chimney. 10. Which of all the pictures in the
entire poem can you see most distinctly? 11. Which do you like best?
12. What did you read in "A Forward Look," pages 83-86, about the
value of the home festivals? What does a love of these festivals do
for us? What should we lose if we did not celebrate them? 13. Find in
the Glossary the meaning of: clatter; coursers; hurricane; obstacle;
twinkling; tarnished; encircled; elf. 14. Pronounce: miniature; tiny;
chimney; droll.



OUR COUNTRY AND ITS FLAG


THE LAND OF LIBERTY

(AUTHOR UNKNOWN)

    I love my country's pine-clad hills,
    Her thousand bright and gushing rills,
    Her sunshine and her storms;
    Her rough and rugged rocks, that rear
    Their hoary heads high in the air
    In wild, fantastic forms.

    I love her rivers, deep and wide,
    Those mighty streams that seaward glide
    To seek the ocean's breast;
    Her smiling fields, her pleasant vales,
    Her shady dells, her flow'ry dales,
    The haunts of peaceful rest.

    I love her forests, dark and lone,
    For there the wild bird's merry tone
    I hear from morn till night;
    And there are lovelier flowers, I ween,
    Than e'er in Eastern lands were seen,
    In varied colors bright.

    Her forests and her valleys fair,
    Her flowers that scent the morning air--
    All have their charms for me;
    But more I love my country's name,
    Those words that echo deathless fame,
    "The Land of Liberty."


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. What parts of our country are noted for pine forests?
2. What things about America call forth the love of the poet? 3. Does
he have all parts of America in mind, or some part that he knows well?
4. What name does he give America? Why does this "echo deathless
fame"? 5. Name one of the "mighty streams that seaward glide." 6. What
does the poet say makes the forests beautiful? 7. This poem is similar
in many ways to the national hymn, "America." Compare it with the
words of the hymn in as many ways as you can. 8. Commit to memory the
last three lines of the poem. 9. Why is our country called "The Land
of Liberty"? 10. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: gushing;
rills; rugged; rear; vales; dells; lone; ween. 11. Pronounce: hoary;
fantastic; haunts; echo.

Phrases for Study

pine-clad hills, smiling fields, fantastic forms, flow'ry dales,
seaward glide, Eastern lands, ocean's breast, deathless fame.



THE FLAG OF OUR COUNTRY

Charles Sumner


There is the national flag. He must be cold indeed who can look upon
its folds, rippling in the breeze, without pride of country. If he be
in a foreign land, the flag is companionship and country itself, with
all its endearments. Its highest beauty is in what it symbolizes. It
is because it represents all, that all gaze at it with delight and
reverence.

It is a piece of bunting lifted in the air; but it speaks sublimely,
and every part has a voice. Its stripes of alternate red and white
proclaim the original union of thirteen states to maintain the
Declaration of Independence. Its stars of white on a field of blue
proclaim that union of states constituting our national constellation,
which receives a new star with every new state. The two together
signify union past and present.

The very colors have a language which was officially recognized by our
fathers. White is for purity, red for valor, blue for justice; and all
together, bunting, stripes, stars, and colors, blazing in the sky,
make the flag of our country to be cherished by all our hearts, to be
upheld by all our hands.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Charles Sumner (1811-1874), an American statesman and
orator, was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He became United States
senator in 1851. "The Flag of Our Country" is taken from an address
delivered in 1867 at Cooper Institute in New York.

Discussion. 1. Each paragraph in this selection has a separate
message. Does the first paragraph fit America only, or could an
Englishman say the same thing about his national flag, and a Frenchman
of his? What then is the thing that any flag represents to the citizen
of the country to which he belongs? 2. What facts peculiar to America
does the second paragraph give you? 3. How many stripes has the flag?
4. How many stars were in the first American flag? How many are there
now? 5. What is meant by "union past and present"? 6. "White is for
purity"--in what way does this express the ideals of the founders of
our country? 7. Do you know the rules for the raising and lowering of
the flag? 8. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: rippling; reverence;
bunting; proclaim; original; maintain; constituting; valor; cherished.
9. Pronounce: symbolizes; sublimely; alternate; constellation.


Phrases for Study

he must be cold, national constellation, all its endearments, signify
union, speaks sublimely, officially recognized, every part has a
voice, blazing in the sky.



THE NAME OF OLD GLORY

1898

James Whitcomb Riley

    I

    Old Glory! say, who,
    By the ships and the crew,
    And the long, blended ranks of the gray and the blue,--
    Who gave you, Old Glory, the name that you bear
    With such pride everywhere
    As you cast yourself free to the rapturous air
    And leap out full-length, as we're wanting you to?--
    Who gave you that name, with the ring of the same,
    And the honor and fame so becoming to you?--
    Your stripes stroked in ripples of white and of red,
    With your stars at their glittering best overhead--
    By day or by night
    Their delightfulest light
    Laughing down from their little square heaven of blue!--
    Who gave you the name of Old Glory?--say, who--
    Who gave you the name of Old Glory?
    The old banner lifted, and altering then
    In vague lisps and whispers fell silent again.

    II

    Old Glory,--speak out!--we are asking about
    How you happened to "favor" a name, so to say,
    That sounds so familiar and careless and gay
    As we cheer it and shout in our wild breezy way--
    We--the crowd, every man of us, calling you that--
    We--Tom, Dick, and Harry--each swinging his hat
    And hurrahing "Old Glory!" like you were our kin,
    When--Lord!--we all know we're as common as sin!
    And yet it just seems like you humor us all
    And waft us your thanks, as we hail you and fall
    Into line, with you over us, waving us on
    Where our glorified, sanctified betters have gone,--
    And this is the reason we're wanting to know--
    (And we're wanting it so!--
    Where our own fathers went we are willing to go.)--
    Who gave you the name of Old Glory--O-ho!--
    Who gave you the name of Old Glory?
    The old flag unfurled with a billowy thrill
    For an instant, then wistfully sighed and was still.

    III

    Old Glory: the story we're wanting to hear
    Is what the plain facts of your christening were,--
    For your name--just to hear it.
    Repeat it, and cheer it, 's a tang to the spirit
    As salty as a tear;--
    And seeing you fly, and the boys marching by,
    There's a shout in the throat and a blur in the eye
    And an aching to live for you always--or die,
    If, dying, we still keep you waving on high.
    And so, by our love
    For you, floating above,
    And the sears of all wars and the sorrows thereof,
    Who gave you the name of Old Glory, and why
    Are we thrilled at the name of Old Glory?
    Then the old banner leaped, like a sail in the blast,
    And fluttered an audible answer at last.--

    IV

    And it spake, with a shake of the voice, and it said:--
    By the driven snow-white and the living blood-red
    Of my bars, and their heaven of stars overhead--
    By the symbol conjoined of them all, skyward cast,
    As I float from the steeple, or flap at the mast,
    Or droop o'er the sod where the long grasses nod,--
    My name is as old as the glory of God.
    ...So I came by the name of Old Glory.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. James Whitcomb Riley (1852-1916) was a native of Indiana.
Most of his life was spent in Indianapolis, where he lived on the
quiet Lockerbie Street which he celebrated in one of his poems. He
is called "The Hoosier Poet." He wrote several volumes of poems, the
first being The Old Swimmin' Hole and 'Leven More Poems. The school
children of Indiana celebrated Riley's birthday on October 7, 1911,
and have each year since made this a festival day.

Discussion. Because of the many figurative expressions used in this
selection it should be read and studied in class.



THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER

FRANCIS SCOTT KEY

    O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,
    What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming?
    Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,
    O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming;
    And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
    Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
    O say, does that Star-Spangled Banner yet wave
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
    On that shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
    Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
    What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
    As it fitfully blows, now conceals, now discloses?
    Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam--
    In full glory reflected now shines in the stream;
    'Tis the Star-Spangled Banner; O long may it wave
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

    And where are the foes who so vauntingly swore
    That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion
    A home and a country should leave us no more?
    Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
    No refuge could save the hireling and slave
    From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave;
    And the Star-Spangled Banner in triumph doth wave
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

    O thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
    Between their loved homes and the war desolation;
    Blest with victory and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land
    Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation!
    Then conquer we must, for our cause it is just,
    And this be our motto, "In God is our trust";
    And the Star-Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biographical and Historical Note. Francis Scott Key (1780-1843), a
native of Maryland, was a lawyer and poet. His patriotic poem, "The
Star-Spangled Banner," which has become a national song, made him
famous.

The incidents referred to in this poem occurred during the War of
1812. In August, 1814, a strong force of British entered Washington
and burned the Capitol, the White House, and many other public
buildings. On September 13, the British admiral moved his fleet into
position to attack Fort McHenry, near Baltimore. The bombardment of
the fort lasted all night, but the fort was so bravely defended that
the flag was still floating over it when morning came.

Just before the bombardment began, Francis Scott Key was sent to the
admiral's frigate to arrange for an exchange of prisoners, and was
told to wait until the bombardment was over. All night he watched
the fort, and by the first rays of morning light he saw he Stars
and Stripes still waving. Then, in his joy and pride, he wrote the
stirring words of the song which is now known and loved by all
Americans--"The Star-Spangled Banner."

Discussion. 1. What lines in the poem are explained by the historical
note above? 2. The poem expresses the love and reverence felt by
patriots when the flag is endangered by the attacks of armed men in
war. What is said on page 84 about the danger to our country in a
time of peace? From what people? Can you do anything to prevent this
danger? 3. Where was the reflection of the flag seen? 4. What is
the meaning of "thus" in line 1, page 105? 5. What land is the
"heav'n-rescued land"? 6. What does the poet mean when he speaks of
the "Power that hath made and preserved us a nation," line 4, page
105? 7. Find the words that must be our country's motto. 8. Do you
think this national song cheered the American soldiers in the recent
World War? 9. Explain why you think the picture on page 98 aptly
illustrates "Our Country and Its Flag." 10. Find in the Glossary
the meaning of: dawn; gleaming; host; discloses; beam; triumph. 11.
Pronounce: haughty; vauntingly; pollution; hireling; desolation.


Phrases for Study

proudly we hailed, fitfully blows, gallantly streaming, catches the
gleam, Star-Spangled, full glory reflected, mists of the deep, havoc
of war, dread silence reposes, foul footsteps' pollution.



THE BOYHOOD OF LINCOLN

ELBRIDGE S. BROOKS

The future president of the United States was eight years old when
he spent the winter with his father, mother, and sister in the
"half-faced camp" on Little Pigeon Creek. It was indeed rough living
in the Lincoln home on Little Pigeon Creek. When he was "good and
ready," the father, Thomas Lincoln, set about building a better
shelter for his family than the forlorn "half-faced camp." The new
building was not such a great improvement, but it was more like a
house. It was a rough cabin of logs, without door, window, or floor.
But it seemed so much better than the shanty in which they had been
living that Abraham felt quite princely.

His life was lonely enough in that wilderness; but, before many
months, he had company. His Uncle and Aunt Sparrow and his boy
cousin, Dennis Hanks came from Kentucky to try their luck in Indiana.
Abraham's father gave them the old "half-faced camp" as a home, and so
the Lincolns had near neighbors.

But before the winter set in, there came sad days to both houses. A
terrible sickness--what we call an epidemic--visited that section of
Indiana. Many people died from it, and among these were first, Uncle
and Aunt Sparrow, and then Mrs. Lincoln, the mother of Abraham.

It was a poor kind of housekeeping they had in that shiftless home on
Little Pigeon Creek after the mother of the home had been taken away.
Sarah, the eldest child, was only twelve; Abraham was but ten, and
little Dennis Hanks was eight. Sarah tried to keep house; and her
father, in his careless way, tried to help her. But about all they
could do was to keep from going hungry. Deer-meat broiled on the coals
of the wood-fire, ash-cakes made of cornmeal, with now and then a slab
of pork, was their only bill of fare. About all the pleasure Abraham
found when he was not trying to keep from being cold and hungry, was
in his books.

How many do you think he had? Just three: the Bible, Aesop's Fables,
and The Pilgrim's Progress. Think of that, you boys and girls who have
more books than you can read, and for whom the printing presses are
always hard at work. The boy knew these three books almost by heart.
He could repeat whole chapters of the Bible, many parts of The
Pilgrim's Progress, and every one of Aesop's Fables; and he never
forgot them.

Thomas Lincoln knew that the uncomfortable state of affairs in his log
cabin could not long continue, or his home, such as it was, would go
to ruin. So one day he bade the children good-by and told them he was
going back to Kentucky on a visit. He was away for three weeks; but
when he returned from his Kentucky visit in December, 1819, he
brought back a new wife to look after his home and be a mother to his
motherless children.

Mrs. Lincoln seemed to take an especial liking to the little
ten-year-old Abraham. She saw something in the boy that made her feel
sure that a little guidance would do wonders for him. Having first
made him clean and comfortable, she next made him intelligent, bright,
and good. She managed to send him to school for a few months. The
little log schoolhouse, close to the meeting-house, to which the
traveling schoolmaster would come to give four weeks' schooling, was
scarcely high enough for a man to stand straight in; it had holes for
windows and greased paper to take the place of glass. But in such a
place Abraham Lincoln "got his schooling" for a few weeks only in
"reading, writing, and ciphering"; here he was again and again head of
his class; and here he "spelled down" all the big boys and girls in
the exciting contests called "spelling matches."

He became a great reader. He read every book and newspaper he could
get hold of, and if he came across anything in his reading that he
wished to remember, he would copy it on a shingle, because writing
paper was scarce, and either learn it by heart or hide the shingle
away until he could get some paper to copy it on.

Lamps and candles were almost unknown in his home, and Abraham, flat
on his stomach, would often do his reading, writing, and ciphering in
the firelight, as it flashed and flickered on the big hearth of his
log-cabin home.

One day Abraham found that a man for whom he sometimes worked owned a
copy of Weems's Life of Washington. This was a famous book in its day.
Abraham borrowed it at once. When he was not reading it, he put it
away on a shelf--a clapboard resting on wooden pins. There was a big
crack between the log behind the shelf, and one rainy day the Life of
Washington fell into the crack and was soaked almost into pulp. Young
Abraham went at once to the owner of the book and, after telling him
of the accident promised to "work the book out."

The old farmer kept him so strictly to his promise that he made him
"pull fodder" for the cattle three days as payment for the book. And
that is the way that Abraham Lincoln bought his first book. For he
dried the Life of Washington and put it in his "library." What boy or
girl of today would like to buy books at such a price?


NOTES AND QUESTIONS


Biography. Elbridge S. Brooks (1846-1902) was a native of
Massachusetts. He was always interested in stories of history, for his
mother descended from the Monroes, who fought bravely at Lexington. He
was for a time one of the editors of St. Nicholas.

Discussion. 1. What were the hardships suffered by the young Lincoln
in the Indiana wilderness? 2. What do you learn about Lincoln's
reading? About his school life? 3. What was the first book Lincoln
owned, and how did he get it? 4. What do you suppose Lincoln learned
from the life of Washington? 5. How did Lincoln fix in his memory
things that he wished to remember? 6. What characteristics of the boy
help to explain why he afterwards became such a great man? 7. You will
enjoy reading The True Story of Lincoln, from which this selection
is taken. 8. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: forlorn; shanty;
princely; wilderness; epidemic; shiftless; ash-cakes; slab; guidance;
ciphering; clapboard; pulp. 9. Pronounce: Aesop; bade.

Phrases for Study

half-faced camp, spelled down, uncomfortable state, work the book out,
traveling schoolmaster, pull fodder.



WASHINGTON WITH GENERAL BRADDOCK

ELBRIDGE S. BROOKS

The King of England and his advisers determined to make a stand in
America against the French. So they sent over two regiments of British
troops under command of a brave soldier whose name was Braddock, and
told him to get what help he could in Virginia and drive out the
French.

General Braddock came to Virginia with his splendid-looking fighting
men. When he had studied the situation there, one of the first things
he did was to ask Colonel George Washington of Mount Vernon to come
with him as one of his chief assistants. Washington at once accepted.
He saw that now the King of England "meant business," and that if
General Braddock were as wise as he was brave, the trouble in the Ohio
country might be speedily ended and the French driven out.

But when he had joined General Braddock, he discovered that that brave
but obstinate leader thought that battles were to be fought in America
just the same as in Europe, and that soldiers could be marched against
such forest-fighters as the French and Indians as if they were going
on a parade. Washington did all he could to advise caution. It was of
no use, however. General Braddock said that he was a soldier and knew
how to fight, and that he did not wish for any advice from these
Americans who had never seen a real battle.

At last everything was ready, and in July, 1755, the army, led by
General Braddock, marched off to attack Fort Duquesne, which the
French had built at Pittsburgh.

Washington had worked so hard to get things ready that he was sick in
bed with fever when the soldiers started; but, without waiting to get
well, he hurried after them and caught up with them on the ninth of
July, at a ford on the Monongahela, fifteen miles from Fort Duquesne.

The British troops, in full uniform, and in regular order as if they
were to drill before the King, marched straight on in splendid array.
Washington thought it the most beautiful show he had ever seen; but
he said to the general: "Do not let the soldiers march into the woods
like that. The Frenchmen and the Indians may even now be hiding behind
the trees ready to shoot us down. Let me send some men ahead to
see where they are, and let some of our Virginians who are used to
fighting in the forest go before to clear them away." But General
Braddock told him to mind his own business, and marched on as
gallantly as ever.

Suddenly, just as they reached a narrow part of the road, where the
woods were all about them, the Frenchmen and Indians who were waiting
for them behind the great trees and underbrush opened fire upon the
British troops, and there came just such a dreadful time as Washington
had feared. But even now Braddock would not give in. His soldiers
must fight as they had been drilled to fight in Europe; and when
the Virginians who were with him tried to fight as they had been
accustomed to, he called them cowards and ordered them to form in
line.

It was all over very soon. The British soldiers, fired upon from
all sides and scarcely able to see where their enemies were, became
frightened, huddled together, and made all the better marks for the
bullets of the French and Indians hiding among the trees and bushes.
Then General Braddock fell from his horse, mortally wounded; his
splendidly-drilled redcoats broke into panic, turned, and ran away;
and only the coolness of Washington and the Virginia forest-fighters
who were with him saved the entire army from being cut to pieces.

Washington fought like a hero. Two horses that he rode were killed
while he kept in the saddle; his coat was shot through and through,
and it seemed as if he would be killed any moment. But he kept on
fighting, caring nothing for danger. He tried to turn back the fleeing
British troops; he tried to bring back the cannon, and, when the
gunners ran away, he leaped from his horse and aimed and fired the
cannon himself. Then with his Virginians, that Braddock had so
despised as soldiers, he protected the rear of the retreating army,
carried off the dying general and, cool and collected in the midst of
all the terrible things that were happening, saved the British army
from slaughter, buried poor General Braddock in the Virginia woods,
and finally brought back to the settlements what was left of that
splendid army of the King. He was the only man in all that time of
disaster who came out of the fight with glory and renown.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. Tell what you can of the contest for territory in
America between the French and the English. 2. Who was General
Braddock and for what was he sent to America? 3. Compare Washington
and General Braddock in as many ways as you can. 4. Why did Washington
do all he could to help General Braddock in spite of the fact that he
knew Braddock was not acting wisely? 5. How did Washington gain glory
from the engagement? 6. What are you told on page 84 about the value
to us of studying the lives of great Americans? What do you owe to
Washington and Lincoln? 7. Find in the Glossary the meaning of:
advisers; situation; caution; ford; array; gallantly; huddled;
collected; disaster; renown. 8. Pronounce: Duquesne; Monongahela;
mortally; wounded.



SERVICE


SOMEBODY'S MOTHER

(AUTHOR UNKNOWN)

    The woman was old and ragged and gray
    And bent with the chill of the winter's day.
    The street was wet with the recent snow,
    And the woman's feet were aged and slow.

    She stood at the crossing and waited long
    Alone, uncared for, amid the throng
    Of human beings who passed her by,
    Nor heeded the glance of her anxious eye.

    Down the street with laughter and shout.
    Glad in the freedom of "school let out,"
    Came the boys like a flock of sheep,
    Hailing the snow piled white and deep.

    Past the woman so old and gray
    Hastened the children on their way,
    Nor offered a helping hand to her,
    So meek, so timid, afraid to stir,
    Lest the carriage wheels or the horses' feet
    Should crowd her down in the slippery street.

    At last came one of the merry troop,
    The gayest laddie of all the group;
    He paused beside her and whispered low,
    "I'll help you across if you wish to go."

    Her aged hand on his strong young arm
    She placed, and so, without hurt or harm,
    He guided her trembling feet along,
    Proud that his own were firm and strong.

    Then back again to his friends he went,
    His young heart happy and well content.
    "She's somebody's mother, boys, you know,
    For all she's aged and poor and slow;

    "And I hope some fellow will lend a hand
    To help my mother, you understand,
    If ever she's poor and old and gray,
    When her own dear boy is far away."

    And "somebody's mother" bowed low her head
    In her home that night, and the prayer she said
    Was, "God be kind to the noble boy
    Who is somebody's son and pride and joy."


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. Here is a story about a boy who saw a chance to do a
service and did it; how was he different from his companions? 2. What
were they interested in? 3. Wasn't he also eager to do what they did?
4. Why did he stop and help the old woman? 5. How did the woman feel
toward the boy? 6. How do you think his own mother would have felt
if she had seen him? 7. Why is this incident a splendid example of
service? How was this boy doing his part as a good citizen?



THE LEAK IN THE DIKE

PHOEBE CARY

    The good dame looked from her cottage
    At the close of the pleasant day,
    And cheerily called to her little son
    Outside the door at play:
    "Come, Peter, come!  I want you to go,
    While there is light to see,
    To the hut of the blind old man who lives
    Across the dike, for me;
    And take these cakes I made for him--
    They are hot and smoking yet;
    You have time enough to go and come
    Before the sun is set."

    And Peter left the brother
    With whom all day he had played,
    And the sister who had watched their sports
    In the willow's tender shade;
    And told them they'd see him back before
    They saw a star in sight,
    Though he wouldn't be afraid to go
    In the very darkest night!
    For he was a brave, bright fellow
    With eye and conscience clear;
    He could do whatever a boy might do,
    And he had not learned to fear.

    And now with his face all glowing
    And eyes as bright as the day
    With the thoughts of his pleasant errand,
    He trudged along the way;
    And soon his joyous prattle
    Made glad a lonesome place--
    Alas! if only the blind old man
    Could have seen that happy face!
    Yet he somehow caught the brightness
    Which his voice and presence lent;
    And he felt the sunshine come and go
    As Peter came and went.

    And now as the day was sinking,
    And the winds began to rise,
    The mother looked from her door again,
    Shading her anxious eyes,
    And saw the shadows deepen
    And birds to their homes come back,
    But never a sign of Peter
    Along the level track.
    But she said: "He will come at morning,
    So I need not fret or grieve--
    Though it isn't like my boy at all
    To stay without my leave."

    But where was the child delaying?
    On the homeward way was he;
    And across the dike while the sun was up
    An hour above the sea;
    He was stopping now to gather flowers,
    Now listening to the sound,
    As the angry waters dashed themselves
    Against their narrow bound.
    "Ah! well for us," said Peter,
    "That the gates are good and strong,
    And my father tends them carefully,
    Or they would not hold you long!
    You're a wicked sea," said Peter;
    "I know why you fret and chafe;
    You would like to spoil our land and homes;
    But our sluices keep you safe."

    But hark! through the noise of waters
    Comes a low, clear, trickling sound;
    And the child's face pales with terror,
    And his blossoms drop to the ground.
    He is up the bank in a moment
    And, stealing through the sand
    He sees a stream not yet so large
    As his slender childish hand.
    'Tis a leak in the dike!  He is but a boy,
    Unused to fearful scenes;
    But, young as he is, he has learned to know
    The dreadful thing that means.

    A leak in the dike!  The stoutest heart
    Grows faint that cry to hear.
    And the bravest man in all the land
    Turns white with mortal fear,
    For he knows the smallest leak may grow
    To a flood in a single night;
    And he knows the strength of the cruel sea
    When loosed in its angry might.

    And the boy! he has seen the danger
    And, shouting a wild alarm,
    He forces back the weight of the sea
    With the strength of his single arm!
    He listens for the joyful sound
    Of a footstep passing nigh;
    And lays his ear to the ground, to catch
    The answer to his cry.
    And he hears the rough winds blowing,
    And the waters rise and fall,
    But never an answer comes to him
    Save the echo of his call.

    So, faintly calling and crying
    Till the sun is under the sea,
    Crying and moaning till the stars
    Come out for company,
    He thinks of his brother and sister,
    Asleep in their safe warm bed;
    He thinks of his father and mother,
    Of himself as dying--and dead;
    And of how, when the night is over,
    They must come and find him at last;
    But he never thinks he can leave the place
    Where duty holds him fast.

    The good dame in the cottage
    Is up and astir with the light,
    For the thought of her little Peter
    Has been with her all the night.
    And now she watches the pathway,
    As yester eve she had done;
    But what does she see so strange and black
    Against the rising sun?
    Her neighbors are bearing between them
    Something straight to her door;
    Her child is coming home, but not
    As he ever came before!

    "He is dead!" she cries; "thy darling!"
    And the startled father hears,
    And comes and looks the way she looks,
    And fears the thing she fears;
    Till a glad shout from the bearers
    Thrills the stricken man and wife--
    "Give thanks, for your son has saved our land,
    And God has saved his life!"
    So, there in the morning sunshine
    They knelt about the boy;
    And every head was bared and bent
    In tearful, reverent joy.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Phoebe Cary (1824-1871) was an American poet. She was born
in Cincinnati and lived with her sister, Alice, in New York City. She
wrote many poems of beauty and charm, but none is more widely read
than "The Leak in the Dike." Note. A large part of Holland consists of
meadow-land so low and flat that the sea would overflow it during high
tide if it were not protected, partly by natural sand hills but more
by a wonderful system of diking. The dikes are long mounds, or thick
walls, of earth and stone, broad at the base and gradual in slope.

Discussion. 1. What purpose do the dikes of Holland serve? 2. There
were no Boy Scouts in those days, but here is a story of a boy who
would have been a good member of the Scouts. Why? 3. What service did
Peter's mother call him to render? 4. Had he done such things before?
5. How did the blind man think of Peter? 6. How did Peter find the
danger? 7. What would many boys have done? 8. How did he stop the leak
in the dike? 9. What would have happened if he had grown afraid, or
tired? 10. Peter saw a duty to be performed and was brave enough to
do it, though it was not easy, and might have cost him his life. What
were the results of his quick wit and courage? 11. How was Peter doing
his part as a good citizen? 12. Find in the Glossary the meaning of:
prattle; presence; anxious; trickling; stoutest; save; astir; yester;
stricken. 13. Pronounce: chafe; sluices; loosed.

Phrases for Study

narrow bound, sun is under the sea, mortal fear, duty holds him fast.



CASABLANCA

FELICIA DOROTHEA HEMANS

    The boy stood on the burning deck
    Whence all but him had fled;
    The flame that lit the battle's wreck
    Shone round him o'er the dead.

    Yet, beautiful and bright he stood,
    As born to rule the storm--
    A creature of heroic blood,
    A proud, though childlike, form.

    The flames rolled on--he would not go
    Without his father's word;
    That father, faint in death below,
    His voice no longer heard.

    He called aloud: "Say, father, say
    If yet my task is done!"
    He knew not that the chieftain lay
    Unconscious of his son.

    "Speak, father!" once again he cried,
    "If I may yet be gone!"
    And but the booming shots replied,
    And fast the flames rolled on.

    Upon his brow he felt their breath,
    And in his waving hair,
    And looked from that lone post of death
    In still, yet brave, despair;

    And shouted but once more aloud,
    "My father! must I stay?"
    While o'er him fast, through sail and shroud,
    The wreathing fires made way.

    They wrapped the ship in splendor wild,
    They caught the flag on high,
    And streamed above the gallant child
    Like banners in the sky.

    There came a burst of thunder sound--
    The boy--oh! where was he?
    Ask of the winds that far around
    With fragments strewed the sea--
    With mast, and helm, and pennon fair.
    That well had borne their part;
    But the noblest thing which perished there
    Was that young, faithful heart!


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biographical and Historical Note. Felicia Hemans, (1793-1835), an
English poet, was born in Liverpool, but spent much of her life in
North Wales. "Casabianca" and "The Landing of the Pilgrims" are
her best known poems. The hero of this poem was the son of Louis
Casabianca, the captain of L'Orient, the flagship of the fleet that
carried Napoleon Bonaparte and his army to Egypt. The incident
narrated in this poem occurred during the Battle of the Nile. The
powder magazine exploded, the ship was burned, and the captain, and
his son perished. Discussion. 1. How did it happen that the boy was
alone on the "burning deck"? 2. Find two lines in the third stanza
that tell how the boy showed his faithfulness and his "heroic blood."
3. Why is his father called the "chieftain"? 4. What did the boy ask
his father? 5. Why did he remain in such great danger when he might
have saved himself? 6. What was it that "wrapped the ship in splendor
wild"? 7. What made the "burst of thunder sound"? 8. What things are
mentioned as fragments which "strewed the sea"? 9. Why is it good for
us to read such a poem as this? 10. What service did Casabianca do
for all of us? 11. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: chieftain;
unconscious; booming; despair; fragments; pennon. 12. Pronounce:
heroic; shroud; helm.

Phrases for Study

born to rule the storm, wreathing fires, heroic blood, splendor wild,
lone post of death, borne their part.


TUBAL CAIN

Charles MacKay

    Old Tubal Cain was a man of might
    In the days when the earth was young;
    By the fierce red light of his furnace bright
    The strokes of his hammer rung;
    And he lifted high his brawny hand
    On the iron glowing clear.
    Till the sparks rushed out in scarlet showers,
    As he fashioned the sword and spear.
    And he sang, "Hurrah for my handiwork!
    Hurrah for the spear and sword!
    Hurrah for the hand that shall wield them well!
    For he shall be king and lord."

    To Tubal Cain came many a one.
    As he wrought by his roaring fire.
    And each one prayed for a strong steel blade,
    As the crown of his desire;
    And he made them weapons, sharp and strong,
    Till they shouted loud in glee.
    And gave him gifts of pearls and gold,
    And spoils of forest free.
    And they sang, "Hurrah for Tubal Cain,
    Who hath given us strength anew!
    Hurrah for the smith! hurrah for the fire!
    And hurrah for the metal true!"

    But a sudden change came o'er his heart
    Ere the setting of the sun,
    And Tubal Cain was filled with pain
    For the evil he had done.
    He saw that men, with rage and hate,
    Made war upon their kind;
    That the land was red with the blood they shed
    In their lust for carnage, blind.
    And he said, "Alas, that ever I made,
    Or that skill of mine should plan,
    The spear and the sword for men whose joy
    Is to slay their fellow-man!"

    And for many a day old Tubal Cain
    Sat brooding o'er his woe;
    And his hand forbore to smite the ore,
    And his furnace smoldered low;
    But he rose at last with a cheerful face
    And a bright, courageous eye,
    And bared his strong right arm for work,
    While the quick flames mounted high;
    And he sang, "Hurrah for my handiwork!"
    And the red sparks lit the air--
    "Not alone for the blade was the bright steel made"--
    And he fashioned the first plowshare.

    And men, taught wisdom from the past,
    In friendship joined their hands,
    Hung the sword in the hall, the spear on the wall,
    And plowed the willing lands;
    And sang, "Hurrah for Tubal Cain!
    Our stanch good friend is he.

    And, for the plowshare and the plow,
    To him our praise shall be.
    But, while oppression lifts its head,
    Or a tyrant would be lord,
    Though we may thank him for the plow,
    We'll not forget the sword."


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Charles Mackay (1814-1889) was a Scotch poet. For some
years he was editor of the Glasgow Argus, and afterwards he became
editor of the Illustrated London News. During the Civil War he was the
special correspondent of the London Times at New York. He wrote many
poems of interest to young people. Historical Note. Tubal Cain was one
of the sons of Lamech, a descendant of Cain. He was an "instructor of
every artificer in brass and iron," that is, he was the first smith.
All that we really know of his history is given in the fourth chapter
of Genesis. Discussion. 1. What did Tubal Cain first make on his
forge? 2. Why did he think that his work was good? 3. What did men say
about him? 4. How did Tubal Cain feel when he saw what men were doing
with the products of his forge? 5. What did he do then? 6. What made
his face "cheerful" at last? 7. Is it better to make instruments of
war or tools for industry? 8. Why was Tubal Cain happy when he made
plows? 9. Was he working for money, or for service? 10. Explain the
last four lines. 11. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: fashioned;
handiwork; wrought; anew; lust; brooding; forbore; plowshare. 12.
Pronounce: hurrah; wield; carnage; smoldered; stanch.

Phrases for Study

man of might, smite the ore, earth was young, taught wisdom from the
past, crown of his desire, spoils of forest free, willing lands, metal
true, oppression lifts its head, upon their kind, tyrant would be
lord, whose joy is to slay.



THE INCHCAPE ROCK

ROBERT SOUTHEY

    No stir in the air, no stir in the sea;
    The ship was still as she could be;
    Her sails from Heaven received no motion;
    Her keel was steady in the ocean.

    Without either sign or sound of their shock,
    The waves flowed over the Inchcape Rock;
    So little they rose, so little they fell,
    They did not move the Inchcape Bell.

    The holy Abbot of Aberbrothok
    Had placed that bell on the Inchcape Rock;
    On a buoy in the storm it floated and swung,
    And over the waves its warning rung.

    When the rock was hid by the surge's swell,
    The mariners heard the warning bell;
    And then they knew the perilous rock
    And blessed the Abbot of Aberbrothok.

    The sun in heaven was shining gay;
    All things were joyful on that day;
    The sea-birds screamed as they wheeled around,
    And there was joyance in their sound.

    The buoy of the Inchcape Bell was seen,
    A darker speck on the ocean green;
    Sir Ralph the Rover walked his deck,
    And he fixed his eye on the darker speck.

    He felt the cheering power of spring;
    It made him whistle, it made him sing;
    His heart was mirthful to excess,
    But the Rover's mirth was wickedness.

    His eye was on the Inchcape float;
    Quoth he, "My men, put out the boat
    And row me to the Inchcape Rock,
    And I'll plague the Abbot of Aberbrothok."

    The boat is lowered, the boatmen row,
    And to the Inchcape Rock they go;
    Sir Ralph bent over from the boat,
    And he cut the bell from the Inchcape float.

    Down sank the bell, with a gurgling sound;
    The bubbles rose and burst around;
    Quoth Sir Ralph, "The next who comes to the Rock
    Won't bless the Abbot of Aberbrothok!"

    Sir Ralph the Rover sailed away;
    He scoured the seas for many a day;
    And now grown rich with plundered store,
    He steers his course for Scotland's shore.

    So thick a haze o'erspreads the sky
    They cannot see the sun on high;
    The wind hath blown a gale all day;
    At evening it hath died away.

    On the deck the Rover takes his stand;
    So dark it is they see no land.
    Quoth Sir Ralph, "It will be lighter soon,
    For there is dawn of the rising moon."

    "Canst hear," said one, "the breakers roar?
    For methinks we should be near the shore."
    "Now where we are I cannot tell,
    But I wish I could hear the Inchcape Bell."

    They hear no sound; the swell is strong;
    Though the wind hath fallen, they drift along
    Till the vessel strikes with a shivering shock--
    "O Christ! it is the Inchcape Rock!"


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biographical and Historical Note. Robert Southey (1774-1843) was
an English poet. From 1813 until his death he was Poet Laureate of
England. Bell Rock, or Inchcape, is a reef of red sandstone near the
Firth of Tay, on the east coast of Scotland. At the time of the spring
tides part of the reef is uncovered to the height of four feet.
Because so many vessels were wrecked upon these rocks the Abbot of
Aberbrothok is said to have placed a bell there, "fixed upon a tree or
timber, which rang continually, being moved by the sea."

Discussion. 1. What picture do you see when you read the first stanza?
The second stanza? 2. This story tells about a man who failed. You
have read about Peter's heroism and the lives he saved, about the
service a schoolboy rendered to a poor old woman, about a blacksmith
who joyously made the tools by which men raised fruit and grain for
food, and about a boy who was faithful to orders, even though it cost
his life. Here you see how men sometimes try to make of no effect all
the good deeds that others perform. 3. The Abbot of Aberbrothok was a
man who lived up to the ideal of service; how did he do this, and why
did men bless him? 4. Ralph the Rover was a pirate; why did he destroy
the bell? 5. All the others in the stories you have read, boys and
men, thought less of themselves than of others; of what did Ralph
think? 6. Is a merchant who raises the price of food as high as he
can, who makes huge profits while others suffer or starve, any better
than Ralph the Rover? 7. What test of loyalty to our country, would
prove such a man to be a "bad citizen"? 8. Ralph was a free man--what
did "liberty" mean to him? 9. What happened to Ralph the Rover? 10.
Find in the Glossary the meaning of: keel; abbot; perilous; joyance;
breakers; methinks. 11. Pronounce: buoy; mariners; excess; scoured.

Phrases for Study

sound of their shock, mirthful to excess, surge's swell, plague the
Abbot, cheering power of spring, plundered store.



MY BOYHOOD ON THE PRAIRIE

HAMLIN GARLAND

The cabin faced a level plain with no tree in sight. A mile away to
the west stood a low stone house, and immediately in front of us
opened a half-section of unfenced sod. To the north, as far as I could
see, the land billowed like a russet ocean, with scarcely a roof to
fleck its lonely spread. I cannot say that I liked or disliked it. I
merely marveled at it; and while I wandered about the yard, the hired
man scorched some cornmeal mush in a skillet, and this, with some
butter and gingerbread, made up my first breakfast in Mitchell County.

For a few days my brother and I had little to do other than to
keep the cattle from straying, and we used our leisure in becoming
acquainted with the region round about.

To the south the sections were nearly all settled upon, for in that
direction lay the county town; but to the north and on into Minnesota
rolled the unplowed sod, the feeding ground of the cattle, the home of
foxes and wolves, and to the west, just beyond the highest ridges, we
loved to think the bison might still be seen.

The cabin on this rented farm was a mere shanty, a shell of pine
boards, which needed reinforcing to make it habitable, and one day my
father said, "Well, Hamlin, I guess you'll have to run the plow-team
this fall. I must help neighbor Button reinforce the house, and I
can't afford to hire another man."

This seemed a fine commission for a lad of ten, and I drove my horses
into the field that first morning with a manly pride which added
an inch to my stature. I took my initial "round" at a "land" which
stretched from one side of the quarter section to the other, in
confident mood. I was grown up!

But alas! My sense of elation did not last long. To guide a team for
a few minutes as an experiment was one thing--to plow all day like a
hired hand was another. It was not a chore; it was a job. It meant
moving to and fro hour after hour, day after day, with no one to
talk to but the horses. It meant trudging eight or nine miles in the
forenoon and as many more in the afternoon, with less than an hour off
at noon. It meant dragging the heavy implement around the corners, and
it meant also many shipwrecks; for the thick, wet stubble often threw
the share completely out of the ground, making it necessary for me to
halt the team and jerk the heavy plow backward for a new start.

Although strong and active, I was rather short, even for a
ten-year-old, and to reach the plow handles I was obliged to lift my
hands above my shoulders; and so with the guiding lines crossed over
my back and my worn straw hat bobbing just above the cross-brace I
must have made a comical figure. At any rate nothing like it had been
seen in the neighborhood; and the people on the road to town, looking
across the field, laughed and called to me, and neighbor Button said
to my father in my hearing, "That chap's too young to run a plow," a
judgment which pleased and flattered me greatly.

Harriet cheered me by running out occasionally to meet me as I turned
the nearest corner, and sometimes Frank consented to go all the way
around, chatting breathlessly as he trotted along behind. At other
times he brought me a cookie and a glass of milk, a deed which helped
to shorten the forenoon. And yet plowing became tedious.

The flies were savage, especially in the middle of the day, and the
horses, tortured by their lances, drove badly, twisting and turning in
their rage. Their tails were continually getting over the lines,
and in stopping to kick their tormentors they often got astride the
traces, and in other ways made trouble for me. Only in the early
morning or when the sun sank low at night were they able to move
quietly along their way.

The soil was the kind my father had been seeking, a smooth, dark,
sandy loam, which made it possible for a lad to do the work of a man.
Often the share would go the entire "round" without striking a root or
a pebble as big as a walnut, the steel running steadily with a crisp,
crunching, ripping sound which I rather liked to hear. In truth, the
work would have been quite tolerable had it not been so long drawn
out. Ten hours of it, even on a fine day, made about twice too many
for a boy.

Meanwhile I cheered myself in every imaginable way. I whistled. I
sang. I studied the clouds. I gnawed the beautiful red skin from the
seed vessels which hung upon the wild rose bushes, and I counted the
prairie chickens as they began to come together in winter flocks,
running through the stubble in search of food. I stopped now and again
to examine the lizards unhoused by the share, and I measured the
little granaries of wheat which the mice and gophers had deposited
deep under the ground, storehouses which the plow had violated. My
eyes dwelt enviously upon the sailing hawk and on the passing of
ducks. The occasional shadowy figure of a prairie wolf made me wish
for Uncle David and his rifle.

On certain days nothing could cheer me. When the bitter wind blew from
the north, and the sky was filled with wild geese racing southward
with swiftly-hurrying clouds, winter seemed about to spring upon me.
The horses' tails streamed in the wind. Flurries of snow covered me
with clinging flakes, and the mud "gummed" my boots and trouser
legs, clogging my steps. At such times I suffered from cold and
loneliness--all sense of being a man evaporated. I was just a little
boy, longing for the leisure of boyhood.

Day after day, through the month of October and deep into November,
I followed that team, turning over two acres of stubble each day. I
would not believe this without proof, but it is true! At last it grew
so cold that in the early morning everything was white with frost,
and I was obliged to put one hand in my pocket to keep it warm, while
holding the plow with the other; but I didn't mind this so much, for
it hinted at the close of autumn. I've no doubt facing the wind in
this way was excellent discipline, but I didn't think it necessary
then, and my heart was sometimes bitter and rebellious.

My father did not intend to be severe. As he had always been an
early riser and a busy toiler, it seemed perfectly natural and good
discipline that his sons should also plow and husk corn at ten years
of age. He often told of beginning life as a "bound boy" at nine, and
these stories helped me to perform my own tasks without whining.

At last there came a morning when by striking my heel upon the ground
I convinced my boss that the soil was frozen. "All right," he said;
"you may lay off this forenoon."


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Hamlin Garland (1860-1940) was born in Wisconsin. His
father was a farmer-pioneer, who was always eager to be on the border
line of the farming country; consequently, he moved from Wisconsin to
Minnesota, from Minnesota to Iowa, and from Iowa to Dakota. The hope
of cheaper land, better soil, and bigger crops led him on. When Hamlin
Garland turned his attention to literature, he decided to write
truthfully of the western farmer's life and its great hardships in
pioneer days, as well as its hopes and joys. In A Son of the Middle
Border, an autobiography, from which "My Boyhood on the Prairie" is
taken, he has given a most interesting record of experiences in the
development of the Middle West. Mitchell County, where this scene is
laid, is in Iowa.

Discussion. 1. Describe the boy's new home. 2. What work did the boy
have to do? 3. In what spirit did he start the plowing? 4. Why did his
"sense of elation" soon disappear? 5. Was his task harder than that of
Peter or of the boy who helped "Somebody's Mother"? 6. Must a boy do
some marvelous thing to be a hero? 7. How did the boy try to keep
himself in good cheer? 8. In The World of Nature, A Forward Look you
are told that if you have eyes to see, "the world of Nature is a
fairyland." Why do you think this boy had "eyes to see"? Find your
answer by reading the last two lines on page 131 and the first ten
lines on page 132. 9. What made him wish for freedom? 10. Class
reading: Page 131, line 8, to the end of the story. 11. Outline for
testing silent reading. Tell the story briefly, using these topics:
(a) the region and the cabin; (b) what plowing meant to a boy; (c)
how the boy was cheered. 12. Find in the Glossary the meaning
of: marveled; scorched; skillet; ridges; reinforcing; habitable;
commission; stature; implement; stubble; share; cross-brace; judgment;
tormentors; tolerable; unhoused; deposited; clog ging; evaporated. 13.
Pronounce: chore; tedious; loam; imaginable; gopher; leisure.

Phrases for Study

billowed like a russet ocean, guiding lines, fleck its lonely spread,
tortured by their lances, county town, astride the traces, initial
round, go the entire round, confident mood, plow had violated, sense
of elation, bound boy.



WOODMAN, SPARE THAT TREE

GEORGE P. MORRIS

    Woodman, spare that tree!
    Touch not a single bough;
    In youth it sheltered me,
    And I'll protect it now.
    'Twas my forefather's hand
    That placed it near his cot;
    There, woodman, let it stand;
    Thy ax shall harm it not;

    That old familiar tree,
    Whose glory and renown
    Are spread o'er land and sea--
    And wouldst thou hack it down?
    Woodman, forbear thy stroke!
    Cut not its earth-bound ties;
    Oh, spare that aged oak
    Now towering to the skies.

    When but an idle boy,
    I sought its grateful shade;
    In all their gushing joy,
    Here, too, my sisters played.
    My mother kissed me here;
    My father pressed my hand--
    Forgive this foolish tear,
    But let that old oak stand!

    My heart-strings round thee cling,
    Close as thy bark, old friend!
    Here shall the wild-bird sing,
    And still thy branches bend.
    Old tree!  the storm still brave!
    And, woodman, leave the spot;
    While I've a hand to save,
    Thy ax shall harm it not.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. George P. Morris (1802-1864) was born in Philadelphia. He
was an editor and a poet and was connected with a number of newspapers
in New York City.

Discussion. 1. To whom is the poet speaking in these verses? 2. What
does he wish to prevent? 3. Why is the tree dear to him? 4. Whom does
he remember seeing under the tree? 5. What did they do there? 6. How
will the poet protect the tree? 7. How does the American Forestry
Association protect trees? 8. Why should trees be cared for and
protected? 9. Why do we celebrate Arbor Day? 10. Find in the Glossary
the meaning of: forefather; renown; towering; heart-strings.

Phrases for Study

near his cot, earth-bound ties, forbear thy stroke, storm still brave.



THE AMERICAN BOY

THEODORE ROOSEVELT

What we have a right to expect of the American boy is that he shall
turn out to be a good American man. Now the chances are strong that he
won't be much of a man unless he is a good deal of a boy. He must not
be a coward or a weakling, a bully, a shirk, or a prig. He must work
hard and play hard. He must be clean-minded and clean lived, and able
to hold his own against all comers. It is only on these conditions
that he will grow into the kind of American man of whom America can be
really proud.

No boy can afford to neglect his work, and, with a boy, work as a
rule means study. A boy should work, and should work hard, at his
lessons--in the first place, for the sake of what he will learn, and
in the next place, for the sake of the effect upon his own character
of resolutely settling down to learn it. Shiftlessness, slackness,
indifference in studying are almost certain to mean inability to get
on in other walks of life. I do not believe in mischief-doing in
school hours, or in the kind of animal spirits that results in making
bad scholars; and I believe that those boys who take part in rough,
hard play outside of school will not find any need for horseplay in
school. While they study they should study just as hard as they play
football. It is wise to obey the homely old adage, "Work while you
work; play while you play."

A boy needs both physical and moral courage. Neither can take the
place of the other. A coward who will take a blow without returning
it is a contemptible creature; but, after all, he is hardly as
contemptible as the boy who dares not stand up for what he deems right
against the sneers of his companions who are themselves wrong. There
is no need to be a prig. There is no need for a boy to preach
about his own conduct and virtue. If he does, he will make himself
ridiculous. But there is need that he should practice decency; that he
should be clean and straight, honest and truthful, gentle and tender,
as well as brave.

The boy can best become a good man by being a good boy--not a
goody-goody boy, but just a plain good boy. "Good," in the largest
sense, should include whatever is fine, straightforward, clean, brave,
and manly. The best boys I know--the best men I know--are good at
their studies or their business, fearless and stalwart, hated and
feared by all that is wicked, incapable of submitting to wrong-doing,
and equally incapable of being aught but tender to the weak and
helpless. A healthy-minded boy should feel hearty contempt for the
coward, and even more hearty indignation for the boy who bullies girls
or small boys, or tortures animals.

Of course the effect that a thoroughly manly, thoroughly straight and
upright boy can have upon the companions of his own age, and upon
those who are younger, is incalculable. He cannot do good work if he
is not strong and does not try with his whole heart and soul to count
in any contest; and his strength will be a curse to himself and to
everyone else if he does not have thorough command over himself and
over his own evil passions, and if he does not use his strength on the
side of decency, justice, and fair dealing.

In short, in life, as in a football game, the principle to follow is:
Hit the line hard; don't foul and don't shirk, but hit the line hard!
--Abridged.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

For Biography, see page 37. Discussion. 1. This selection sums up all
the stories of service that you have been reading. You will get most
out of it if you will think back over these stories and use them as
illustrations of what Mr. Roosevelt tells you is his ideal of the
American boy. What examples, in these stories, can you find to
illustrate the sentence, "He must not be a coward or a weakling....
He must work hard and play hard"? 2. Illustrate, from the story of
Lincoln, what Mr. Roosevelt says about study. What was Lincoln's
attitude toward study? What is yours? Did Lincoln's studies have the
effect on his character that Mr. Roosevelt speaks about? 3. What story
illustrates the sentence, "There is need that he should practice
decency; that he should be clean and straight, honest and truthful,
gentle and tender, as well as brave"? 4. How does the story about life
on the prairie illustrate the paragraph that begins, "The boy can best
become a good man by being a good boy"? What is the difference between
being "a good boy" and "a goodygoody boy"? 5. Was Ralph the Rover a
brave man or a coward? 6. Apply the principle stated by Mr. Roosevelt
at the end of the selection to the story about Washington and
Braddock. To the story about the boy on the prairie. 7. Can you relate
an instance in which a manly boy had a good influence upon another boy
or Upon his companions? 8. Do you think the football slogan given in
the last sentence on page 137 is a good principle of life? Memorize
the slogan. 9. This selection is taken from The Strenuous Life; it
first appeared in St. Nicholas, May, 1900. 10. Find in the Glossary
the meaning of: shirk; prig; resolutely; indifference; inability;
horseplay; deems; indignation; bullies. 11. Pronounce: adage; neither;
contemptible; ridiculous; stalwart; incapable; aught; incalculable.

Phrases for Study

against all comers, physical and moral courage, walks of life,
practice decency, animal spirits, in the largest sense, homely old
adage, aught but tender.


HOME AND COUNTRY


A BACKWARD LOOK

As you gazed through your Crystal Glass of Reading at the selections
in Part I, you saw reflected now pictures of home and now again a
picture of that early Thanksgiving Day when Pilgrim and Indian sat
down together to the "varied riches of gardens and woods and waves."
When you heard Massasoit say at the feast, "The Good Spirit loves His
white children best," you wondered about the truth of his statement
and, as you thought about it, perhaps Abraham Lincoln came to mind;
what do you think Lincoln, if he had been alive at that time, might
have answered the Indian chief? The poems about home might be called
memory-pictures of home; why do you think older people remember with
so much fondness their childhood homes? Imagine yourself telling
your grandchildren about the home of your youth and about your home
pleasures; what things would you mention? Why is it a good thing for a
nation to have its people love their homes and the festival days like
Christmas and Thanksgiving?

And now a turn of the Crystal Glass reveals a glorious flag, floating
protectingly over us. How you love to look upon its starry folds; when
statesmen and poets tell you of the meaning of Old Glory you realize
that there is good reason for your pride and your love. What did
Charles Sumner tell you about the meaning of the stars and the stripes
and the colors of the Flag? What did James Whitcomb Riley tell you
about how Old Glow got its name? What were the circumstances under
which Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner"? What are
some of the things you can do to show your respect for the Flag? What
are some of the things you remember about Lincoln's boyhood? How
does his method of memorizing com-pare with yours? The young George
Washington showed remarkable bravery as Braddock's chief assistant;
what other fine quality did he show? How may these stories about
Washington and Lincoln help you to be a worthy citizen of the country
they helped to found and preserve?

We admire all people who are helpful to others, but when in giving
service, some forget about themselves and even sacrifice themselves
for others, we regard these as heroes. Peter, in "The Leak in the
Dike," and the boy in "Somebody's Mother" forgot about themselves in
their service to others; one disregarded danger to himself, and
the other the possible jeers of his playmates; do you know of any
instances of service in your school? It is fine to serve obediently
under the command of superiors as did the young Casabianca, but it is
even finer to think quickly in an emergency and to do what should be
done when there is no one at hand to give orders. Who gave Peter his
orders? Tubal Cain belongs to a group of men who have served their
fellow men by useful inventions; mention some other inventors and tell
how they have helped mankind. Hamlin Garland gave you a glimpse of
the pioneer's service to our country; what names of pioneers in your
locality are honored for their service in the early days? What ideas
of being useful home-members did you get from Hamlin Garland and
Theodore Roosevelt? How does the habit of being useful in the home
fit one for being a good citizen? American boys and girls have many
opportunities for service in the home, in the school, and in their
other relations; have you done any piece of service, in an organized
way, in your school? Does your school belong to the Junior Red Cross,
and does it try' to follow the motto, "Go forth to serve"?

When you look back upon all that you have read of home and country,
you no doubt come to the conclusion that "the man without a country"
summed it all up when he said, "Stick to your family... Think of your
home... And for your country and for your Flag, never dream but of
serving her."

From selections found in this book prepare a program for Washington's
birthday.



PART II


STORIES OF ADVENTURE


Hush! Again a forest and somebody up in a tree--not Robin Hood...
but an Eastern King with a glittering scimitar and turban. It is the
setting-in of the bright Arabian Nights.

Oh, now ail common things become uncommon and enchanted to me. All
lamps are wonderful; all rings are talismans... Trees are for Ali Baba
to hide in; beefsteaks are to throw down into the Valley of Diamonds
that the precious stones may stick to them and be carried by the
eagles to their nests, whence the traders, with loud cries, will scare
them.

CHARLES DICKENS.


STORIES OF ADVENTURE

A FORWARD LOOK


When something out of the ordinary happens to you, you call it an
adventure. Perhaps you came very near getting drowned in the swimming
pool, or you found a purse with some money and some queer treasures in
it, or you met a very curious old man, or you caught a rabbit after an
exciting chase, or you went on a long journey and saw many wonderful
things. If you have had such an experience, you like to tell about it
to your friends, and if you have not, you like to hear the stories
told by people who have had some thrilling adventure of their own.

From the earliest times to the present the man who has had some
unusual experience to tell about has been a favorite. We are eager to
hear such stories; they make life seem more interesting and varied.
Nowadays we read such stories in books and magazines; we are not
dependent upon hearing them from the lips of those who have lived
lives of adventure. But centuries ago, before there were books and
newspapers, when any journey away from home, even for a few miles, was
filled with peril, the traveler who could tell of marvelous things, or
the weaver of tales who had a vivid imagination so that he could tell
about things that seemed really true, found eager hearers. Among the
French, stories about Roland, the wonderful knight who fought in the
wars of the Emperor Charlemagne, were known by every boy and girl. The
English had King Arthur, and Saint George, and Robin Hood.

Besides these legends about a national hero, there are many
collections of stories that have grown up among the common people.
One of the oldest of these collections of tales is that known as the
Arabian Nights. For hundreds of years these stories were told in the
tents of the desert or in the gay bazaars of the cities of the East.
About the time of the discovery of America they were written down and
became known as the Arabian Nights Entertainment, or the tales of a
thousand and one nights. We are told that there was once a cruel King
who planned to slay all the women in his kingdom. His wife determined
to tell him such wonderful stories that he would give up his cruel
purpose. So she told him of enchanted gardens, of caves filled with
treasure, of palaces built in a night, and of many other things. He
was so eager to hear these stories that a thousand and one nights
passed before he could escape from the spell that she laid upon him.
By this time he was so much in love with her that he withdrew his
wicked order. You may see how marvelous were these tales by reading
the stories of Aladdin, of Ali Baba, and of Sindbad the Sailor.
Perhaps when you have finished them you will not wonder that the King
found the thousand and one nights so happy that he lost his desire to
carry out his cruel purpose.

Next, you are introduced to one of the most popular of English heroes,
Robin Hood. Many old ballads and tales, older than the first American
colony, have come down to us with these stories of the famous outlaw.
The stories are very different from those of the Arabian Nights. They
have no treasure caves or magic lamps or voyages to strange countries
in them. They tell of contests in archery, for which the English were
famous; of wrestling and swimming matches; of outlaws and dwellers in
the greenwood. Because he was their champion against unjust taxation
and oppressive laws, Robin Hood was the idol of the common people.
They made up games about him, in which old and young took part.
Wandering minstrels sang about him. "Lincoln green," the color of the
clothing worn by Robin and his followers, was a favorite with all
foresters. Why Robin was so loved you may determine for yourselves by
reading the stories of Robin Hood given in the pages that follow.

In Gulliver's Travels we pass from stories like the Arabian Nights
and "Robin Hood," which grew up among the common people, to a story
composed by a single author who wrote out his material and then had it
printed in order that all might enjoy it. We do not know who wrote the
story of Ali Baba or the adventures of Robin Hood, but we know all
about Jonathan Swift, the great English writer who tells us the story
of Gulliver's adventures among the little people, or Lilliputians.
Gulliver also had wonderful experiences among a race of giants, and in
a land where the citizens were horses that were more intelligent than
men.

Somewhat different from all the other tales in this part of our book
is the story of Robinson Crusoe, written by Daniel Defoe about two
hundred years ago and here condensed for your enjoyment. There was, in
Defoe's time, a sailor, Alexander Selkirk by name, who was left by his
shipmates on an island and who lived by himself for four years before
he attracted the attention of a passing ship. This suggested the idea
of Robinson Crusoe to Defoe, but he has greatly expanded the story.
Crusoe lived on his lonely island for twenty-seven years. During this
time he learned how to make tools, to build his house, to cultivate
his farm, to prepare to defend himself against an enemy's attack, and
to civilize barbarous people.

In its original form each of the stories in this group makes a
good-sized book. While some incidents and many details have been
omitted here in order to shorten and simplify the stories, the main
plot and all the most interesting incidents are given.

The world is full of stories of adventure; these are only samples of
the joyful experiences that you may have through your power to read.
And you boys and girls are more fortunate than those who lived in the
time of Aladdin, or even those who lived in the time of Robin Hood or
Robinson Crusoe, for they had no books at all, or only a few, and
if they had any, these books were poorly printed, with very ugly
illustrations, not at all like the wonderful books that you may have
at will.

But of all the stories that might have been selected, the ones placed
before you have been chosen for two reasons. First of all, they are
interesting, and are to be read for pure enjoyment. And next, these
stories leave with you certain ideas that are well worth while.
Aladdin and Ali Baba, the heroes of the Arabian Nights stories, who
became rich through their strange adventures, helped their neighbors
with their wealth. Robin Hood, too, helped the poor oppressed people
of his time, though he did many things that would be wrong today.
Robinson Crusoe's lonely life on a desert island shows us how much we
depend upon the work of those about us. And Captain Gulliver, in the
midst of his wonderful adventures, always kept in mind the ideas of
justice and honor.

So in all these stories there is a sense of justice and
responsibility. Nowadays--at least in America--men are free. Buried
treasure is as hard to find as ever, but it can be found. The man who
works hard, who seizes opportunities, who builds up a business or runs
a farm, can find his treasure. The government will protect him; we
no longer need to use the methods of Robin Hood to get justice. The
important question is whether the Ali Babas and Aladdins of our day
will feel just such responsibility to others as you find recorded in
these stories, and whether the desire to help the unfortunate is as
strong in our free America as it was in the heart of Robin Hood.


STORIES FROM THE ARABIAN NIGHTS

ALADDIN, OR THE WONDERFUL LAMP

(Ed.--This story, in it's original, uncondensed version, in addition
searching in the index for the title Arabian Nights.)

Aladdin was the son of Mustapha, a poor tailor in one of the rich
provinces of China. When the boy was old enough to learn a trade, his
father took him into his own workshop. But Aladdin, being but an idle
fellow, loved play more than work, and spent his days playing in the
public streets with other boys as idle as himself.

His father died while he was yet very young; but Aladdin still
continued his foolish ways, and his mother was forced to spin cotton
night and day in order to keep herself and her boy.

When Aladdin was about fifteen years old, he was one day playing in
the streets with some of his companions. A stranger who was going
by stopped and looked at him. This stranger was a famous African
magician, who, having need of the help of some ignorant person, no
sooner beheld Aladdin than he knew by his whole manner and appearance
that he was a person of small prudence and very fit to be made a tool
of. The magician inquired of some persons standing near, the name and
character of Aladdin, and the answers proved to him that he had judged
rightly of the boy. The stranger, pressing in among the crowd of lads,
clapped his hand on Aladdin's shoulder, and said, "My good lad, are
you not the son of Mustapha, the tailor?" "Yes, sir," said Aladdin;
"but my father has been dead this long time."

"Alas!" cried he, "what unhappy news! I am your father's brother,
child. I have been many years abroad; and now that I have come home
in the hope of seeing him, you tell me he is dead!" And all the while
tears ran down the stranger's cheeks, and his bosom heaved with sighs.
Then, pulling out a purse, he gave Aladdin two pieces of gold, saying,
"Take this, my boy, to your mother. Tell her that I will come and see
her tonight, and sup with her." Pleased with the money, Aladdin ran
home to his mother. "Mother," said he, "have I an uncle?" His mother
told him he had not, whereupon Aladdin pulled out his gold and told
her that a man who said he was his father's brother was coming to sup
with her that very evening. Full of bewilderment, the good woman
set out for the market, where she bought provisions, and was busy
preparing the supper when the magician knocked at the door. He
entered, followed by a porter who brought all kinds of delicious
fruits and sweetmeats for their dessert.

As soon as they sat down to supper, he gave Aladdin's mother an
account of his travels, saying that for forty years he had been away
from home, in order to see the wonders of distant countries. Then,
turning toward Aladdin, he asked his name. "I am called Aladdin," said
he. "Well, Aladdin," said the magician, "what business do you follow?"

At this question Aladdin hung down his head, and was not a little
abashed when his mother made answer: "Aladdin is an idle fellow; his
father strove all he could to teach him his trade, but could not
succeed; and since his death, in spite of all I can say to him, he
does nothing but idle away his time in the streets, so that I despair
of his ever coming to any good." With these words the poor woman burst
into tears, and the magician, turning to Aladdin, said: "This is not
well, nephew; you must think of helping yourself and getting your
livelihood. I will help you as far as I may. What think you--shall
I take a shop and furnish it for you?" Aladdin was overjoyed at the
idea, for he thought there was very little labor in keeping a shop,
and he told his uncle this would suit him better than anything else.

"I will take you with me tomorrow," said the magician, "clothe you as
handsomely as the best merchants in the city, and then we will open a
shop."

Aladdin's mother thanked him very heartily and begged Aladdin to
behave so as to prove himself worthy of the good fortune promised by
his kind uncle.

Next day the stranger called for Aladdin as he had promised, and led
him to a merchant's, where clothes for all sorts of people were sold.
Then he caused Aladdin to try on the handsomest suits, and choosing
the one Aladdin preferred he paid the merchant for it at once. The
pretended uncle then took Aladdin to visit the bazaars, the khans
where the foreign merchants were, and the most splendid mosques, and
gave him a merry feast in the evening.

The next morning Aladdin got up and dressed himself very early, so
impatient was he to see his uncle. Presently he saw him coming, and
ran to meet him. The magician greeted him very kindly. "Come, my good
boy," he said with a smile; "I will today show you some very fine
things."

He then led him through some beautiful gardens with great houses
standing in the midst of them. Aladdin did nothing but exclaim at
their beauty, and so his uncle by degrees led him on farther and
farther into the country. "We shall now," said he to Aladdin, "go no
farther, for I shall here show you some extraordinary wonders that no
one besides yourself will ever have seen. I am now going to strike a
light, and do you, in the meantime, collect all the dry sticks and
leaves that you can find, in order to make a fire."

There were so many pieces of dry sticks scattered about this place
that Aladdin collected more than enough by the time his uncle had
struck a light. The magician then set them on fire, and as soon as
they were in a blaze he threw a certain perfume, that he had ready in
his hand, upon them. A dense smoke arose, while the magician spoke
some mysterious words. At the same instant the ground shook slightly,
and, opening in the spot where they stood, showed a square stone about
a foot and a half across, with a brass ring in the center.

Aladdin was frightened out of his wits, and was about to run away,
when the magician suddenly gave him a box on the ear so violent as to
beat him down and very nearly to knock some of his teeth out. Poor
Aladdin, with tears in his eyes and trembling in every limb, got up.
"My dear uncle," he cried, "what have I done to deserve so severe a
blow?" "I have good reasons for it," replied the magician. "Do you but
obey me, and you will not repent of it. Underneath that stone is a
great hidden treasure, which will make you richer than many kings if
you will be attentive to what I shall say to you."

Aladdin had now got the better of his fright. "Well," said he, "what
must I do? Tell me; I am ready to obey you in everything!" "Well
said!" replied the magician; "come to me, then; take hold of this
ring, and lift up the stone."

To Aladdin's surprise the stone was raised without any trouble, and
then he could see a small opening three or four feet deep, at the
bottom of which was a little door, with steps to go down still lower.
"You must now," said the magician, "go down into this cavern, and when
you have come to the bottom of the steps, you will see an open door
which leads into three great halls. In each of these you will see, on
both sides of you, four bronze vases as large as tubs, full of gold
and silver, but you must not touch any of it.

"When you get to the first hall, bind your robe around you. Then go
to the second without stopping, and thence in the same manner to the
third. Above all, be very particular not to go near the walls or even
to touch them with your robe; for if any part of your dress should
chance to touch them, your instant death will be the consequence. At
the far end of the third hall there is a door which leads to a garden
planted with beautiful trees, all of which are full of fruit. Go
straight forward, and follow a path which you will see. This will
bring you to the bottom of a flight of fifty steps, at the top of
which there is a terrace.

"There you will see a niche and in it a lighted lamp. Take the lamp
and extinguish it. Then throw out the wick and the liquid that is
within, and put the lamp in your bosom. If you should wish very much
to gather any of the fruit in the garden, you may do so; and there is
nothing to prevent your taking as much as you please."

When the magician had given these directions to Aladdin, he took off
a ring which he had on one of his fingers and put it on his pretended
nephew, telling him at the same time that it was to secure him against
every evil that might otherwise happen to him. "Go, my child," he
said; "descend boldly; we shall now both of us become immensely rich
for the rest of our lives."



ALADDIN FINDS THE WONDERFUL LAMP

Aladdin jumped willingly into the opening and went down to the bottom
of the steps. He found the three halls exactly as the magician had
said. These he passed through with the greatest care, keeping in mind
his uncle's warning. He went on to the garden, and mounted to the
terrace without stopping. There in a niche was the lamp, which he
seized, and after he had thrown out the oil which it contained, he put
it in his bosom.

This done, he returned to the garden. The trees here were all full of
the most extraordinary fruit. Never before had he seen fruits of
so many different colors. The white were pearls; the sparkling and
transparent Were diamonds; the deep red were rubies; the paler, a
particular sort of ruby called balas; the green, emeralds; the
blue, turquoises; the violet, amethysts; those tinged with yellow,
sapphires. All were of the largest size, and finer than were ever seen
before in the whole world. Aladdin was not yet of an age to know their
value, and thought they were all only pieces of colored glass.

However, the variety, brilliancy, and extraordinary size of each sort
tempted him to gather some of each; and he took so many of every color
that he filled both his pockets, as well as the two new purses the
magician had bought for him at the time he made him a present of his
new suit. Since his pockets were already full, he fastened the two
purses on each side of his girdle, and also wrapped some of the gems
in its folds, as it was of silk and made very full. In this manner
he carried his treasures so that they could not fall out. He did not
forget to fill even his bosom quite full, between his robe and his
shirt.

Laden in this manner with the most immense treasure, though ignorant
of its value, Aladdin made haste through the three halls, in order
that he might not make his uncle wait too long. Having passed through
them with the same caution as before, he began to ascend the steps
he had come down, and reached the entrance of the cave, where the
magician was impatiently waiting.

When Aladdin saw his uncle, he called to him, "Help me up!" "My dear
boy," replied the magician, "you had better first give me the lamp,
as that will only hinder you." "It is not at all in my way," said
Aladdin, "and I will give it to you when I am out." The magician still
persevered in wishing to get the lamp before he helped Aladdin out of
the cave; but the boy had so covered it with the fruit of the trees
that he absolutely refused to give it. The wicked magician was in the
greatest despair at the obstinate resistance the boy made, and fell
into the most violent rage. He then threw some perfume on the fire,
and had hardly spoken two magic words, before the stone, which served
to shut up the entrance to the cavern, returned of its own accord to
the place, with all the earth over it, exactly in the same state as it
was when the magician and Aladdin first arrived there.

When Aladdin found himself buried alive, he called aloud a thousand
times to his uncle, telling him he was ready to give him the lamp.
But all his cries were useless, and, having no other means of making
himself heard, he remained in perfect darkness.

Finally he went down to the bottom of the stairs, intending to go
toward the light in the garden, where he had been before. But the
wails, which had been opened by enchantment, were now shut by the same
means. The poor boy felt all around him several times, but could not
discover the least opening. He then redoubled his cries and tears, and
sat down upon the step of his dungeon, without the least hope of ever
seeing the light of day again.

For two days Aladdin remained in this state, without either eating
or drinking. On the third day, feeling that his death was near, he
clasped his hands in prayer and said in a loud tone of voice, "There
is no strength or power but in the great and high Heavens." In this
act of joining his hands he happened, without thinking of it, to rub
the ring which the magician had put upon his finger.

Instantly a Genius of enormous figure and horrid countenance rose out
of the earth. This Genius, who was so extremely tall that his head
touched the roof, addressed these words to Aladdin: "What do you wish?
I am ready to obey you as your slave, both I and the other slaves of
the ring." Weak and terrified, and scarcely daring to hope, Aladdin
cried, "Whoever you are, take me, if you are able, out of this place!"
No sooner had his lips formed the words than he found himself on the
outside of the cave, at the very spot where the magician had left him.
Almost unable to believe his good fortune, he arose trembling, and
seeing the city in the distance, made his way back by the same road
over which he had come. Such a long weary road he found it to his
mother's door that when he reached it he was fainting from hunger and
fatigue:

His mother, whose heart had been almost broken by his long absence,
received him joyfully and refreshed him with food. When he had
regained his strength, he told her all, and showed her the lamp and
the colored fruits and the wonderful ring on his finger. His mother
thought little of the jewels, as she was quite ignorant of their
value; so Aladdin put them all behind one of the cushions of the sofa
on which they were sitting.

Next morning when Aladdin awoke, his first thought was that he was
very hungry and would like some breakfast. "Alas, my child," said his
mother, "I have not a morsel of bread to give you. Last night you ate
all the food in the house. However, I have a little cotton of my own
spinning. I will go and sell it, and buy something for our dinner."
"Keep your cotton, mother, for another time," said Aladdin, "and give
me the lamp which I brought with me yesterday. I will go and sell
that, and the money will serve us for breakfast and dinner too;
perhaps also for supper."

Aladdin's mother took the lamp from the place where she had put it.
"Here it is," she said to her son; "but it is very dirty; if I were to
clean it a little, perhaps it might sell for something more." She then
took some water and a little fine sand with which to clean it. But she
had scarcely begun to rub the lamp, when a hideous and gigantic Genius
rose out of the ground before her, and cried with a voice as loud as
thunder, "What do you wish? I am ready to obey you as your slave, both
I and the other slaves of the lamp."

Aladdin's mother was much terrified; but Aladdin, who had seen the
Genius in the cavern, did not lose his presence of mind. Seizing the
lamp, he answered in a firm voice, "I am hungry; bring me something to
eat." The Genius disappeared, and returned a moment later with a large
silver basin, which he carried on his head. In it were twelve covered
dishes of the same material, filled with the most delicious meats, and
six loaves as white as snow upon as many plates, and in his hand he
carried two silver cups. All these the Genius placed upon the table,
and instantly vanished. When Aladdin's mother had recovered from her
fright, they both sat down to their meal, in the greatest delight
imaginable, for never before had they eaten such delicate meats or
seen such splendid dishes.

The remains of this feast provided them with food for some days, and
when it was all gone, Aladdin sold the silver dishes one by one for
their support. In this way they lived happily for several years, for
Aladdin had been sobered by his adventure, and now behaved with the
greatest wisdom and prudence. He took care to visit the principal
shops and public places, speaking only with wise and prudent persons;
and in this way he gathered much wisdom, and grew to be a courteous
and handsome youth.



ALADDIN WEDS THE PRINCESS

One day Aladdin told his mother that he intended to ask the Sultan to
give him his daughter in marriage. "Truly, my son," said his mother,
"you seem to have forgotten that your father was but a poor tailor;
and indeed I do not know who will dare to go and speak to the Sultan
about it." "You yourself must," said he, decidedly. "I!" cried his
mother, in the greatest surprise; "I go to the Sultan! Not I, indeed;
I will take care that I am not joined to such folly. You know very
well that no one can make any demand of the Sultan without bringing a
rich present, and where shall such poor folk as we find one?"

Thereupon Aladdin told his mother that while talking with the
merchants in the bazaar he had learned to know the value of their
gems, and for a long time he had known that nothing which the
merchants had in their shops was half so fine as those jewels he had
brought home from the enchanted cave. So his mother took them from
the drawer where they had been hidden and put them in a dish of fine
porcelain.

Aladdin's mother, now sure that such a gift was one that could not
fail to please the Sultan, at last agreed to do everything her son
wished. She took the porcelain dish with its precious contents and
folded it up in a very fine linen cloth. She then took another, less
fine, and tied the four corners of it together, that she might carry
it without trouble. This done, she took the road toward the palace of
the Sultan.

Trembling, she told the Sultan of her son's boldness, and begged his
mercy for Aladdin and for herself. The Sultan heard her kindly; then
before giving any answer to her request, he asked her what she had
with her so carefully tied up in a linen cloth. Aladdin's mother
unfolded the cloths and humbly laid the jewels before him.

It is impossible to express the surprise which this monarch felt when
he saw before him such a quantity of the most precious, perfect, and
brilliant jewels, the size of which was greater than any he had ever
seen before. For some moments he gazed at them, speechless. Then he
took the present from the hand of Aladdin's mother, and exclaimed, in
a transport of joy. "Ah! how very beautiful, how very wonderful they
are!"

Then turning to his grand vizier, he showed him the gems and talked
privately to him for some minutes. At last he said to Aladdin's
mother: "My good woman, I will indeed make your son happy by marrying
him to the Princess, my daughter, as soon as he shall send me forty
large basins of massive gold, quite full of the same varieties of
precious stones which you have already presented me with, brought by
an equal number of black slaves, each of whom shall be led by a white
slave, young, well-made, handsome, and richly-dressed. These are
the conditions upon which I am ready to give him the Princess, my
daughter. Go, my good woman, and I will wait till you bring me his
answer."

Full of disappointment, Aladdin's mother made her way home, and told
her son the Sultan's strange wish. But Aladdin only smiled, and when
his mother had gone out, he took the lamp and rubbed it. Instantly the
Genius appeared, and Aladdin commanded him to lose no time in bringing
the present which the Sultan had wished for. The Genius only said that
his commands should be at once obeyed, and then disappeared.

In a very short time the Genius returned with forty black slaves, each
carrying upon his head a large golden basin of great weight, full of
pearls, diamonds, rubies, and emeralds, quite as fine as the jewels
that Aladdin's mother had given the Sultan. Each basin was covered
with a cloth of silver, embroidered with flowers of gold. There were
also forty white slaves, as Aladdin had commanded. All these slaves
with their golden basins entirely filled the house, which was but
small, as well as the court in front and the garden behind it.

Aladdin's mother now came back and almost fainted when she saw this
great crowd and all its magnificence. Aladdin desired her at once to
follow the procession of slaves to the palace, and present to the
Sultan the dowry of the Princess.

The astonishment of the Sultan at the sight of all these riches is
hardly to be imagined. After gazing upon the slaves with their shining
heaps of jewels, he said to Aladdin's mother, "Go, my good woman, and
tell your son that I am waiting with open arms to embrace him!"

Aladdin was so delighted with this news that he could hardly answer
his mother, and, hastening to his chamber, he shut the door. Once more
he summoned the Genius, who brought to him garments that shone like
the sun. The Genius also brought him a splendid charger and twenty
slaves to march on either side of him on the way to the Sultan's
palace, all holding purses of gold to scatter among the people.

If there had been a crowd before, there was ten times as great a one
now to watch Aladdin as he rode to the Sultan's palace, and to pick
up the gold pieces which were showered by his slaves as he went. The
Sultan came down from his throne to greet him, and all was feasting
and joy in the palace.

After the feast the judge drew up a contract of marriage between
Aladdin and the beautiful Princess. As soon as this was done, the
Sultan asked Aladdin if he wished to remain in the palace and complete
all the ceremonies that day. "Sire," he replied, "however impatient I
may be to have entire possession of all your majesty's bounties, I beg
you to permit me to wait until I shall have built a palace to receive
the Princess in, that shall be worthy of her; and for this purpose I
request that you will have the goodness to point out a suitable place
for it near your own, that I may always be ready to pay my court to
your majesty. I will then neglect nothing to get it finished with all
possible diligence."

"My son," answered the Sultan, "take the open space before my palace;
but remember that, to have my happiness complete, I cannot see you
united too soon to my daughter." Having said this, he again embraced
Aladdin, who now took leave of the Sultan as if he had been brought up
and had spent all his life at court.

As soon as Aladdin reached home, he again summoned the Genius and
commanded him to build instantly the most gorgeous palace ever seen,
on the spot of ground given by the Sultan. Early the next morning the
Genius appeared. "Sir," said he, "your palace is finished; see if it
is as you wish."

Words cannot paint the astonishment of the Sultan and all his
household at seeing this gorgeous palace shining in the place which
only the day before had been empty and bare. The Princess, too,
rejoiced much at the sight. Her marriage with Aladdin was held the
same day, and their happiness was the greatest that heart could wish.



ALADDIN LOSES AND REGAINS THE LAMP

For some months they lived thus, Aladdin showing great kindness to
the poor, and pleasing all by his generosity. About this time his old
enemy, the African magician, found out by some of his magic arts that
Aladdin was alive and enormously rich, instead of being, as he had
supposed, dead in the enchanted cave. He was filled with rage, and,
vowing to destroy Aladdin, he immediately set out for China. There he
learned that Aladdin had gone hunting, and was not expected home for
three or four days.

The magician bought a dozen shining new lamps, put them in a basket,
and set out for Aladdin's palace. As he came near it he cried, "Who
will change old lamps for new?"

When he came under the Princess's windows, one of her slaves said,
"Come, let us see if the old fool means what he says; there is an ugly
old lamp lying on the cornice of the hall of four-and-twenty windows;
we will put a new one in its place, if the old fellow is really in
earnest." The Princess having given permission, one of the slaves took
the lamp to the magician, who willingly gave her the best he had among
his new ones.

As soon as night arrived, the magician summoned the Genius of the lamp
and commanded him to transport him, the palace, and the Princess to
the remotest corner of Africa.

The confusion and grief of the Sultan were terrible when he found the
palace vanished and his daughter lost. The people ran in fear through
the streets, and the soldiers were sent in search of Aladdin, who had
not yet returned.

Aladdin was soon found and dragged before the Sultan like a criminal.
He would have been beheaded had not the Sultan been afraid to enrage
the people. "Go, wretch!" cried the Sultan; "I grant thee thy life;
but if ever thou appearest before me again, death shall overtake thee,
unless in forty days thou bringest me tidings of my daughter."

Aladdin, wretched and downfallen, left the palace, not knowing whither
to turn his steps. At length he stopped at a brook to bathe his eyes,
which smarted with the tears he had shed. As he stooped, his foot
slipped, and, catching hold of a piece of rock to save himself from
falling, he pressed the magician's ring, which he still wore on his
finger, and the Genius of the ring appeared before him, saying "What
would you have?" "Oh; Genius," cried Aladdin, "bring my palace back
without delay."

"What you command," replied the Genius, "is not in my power; you must
call the Genius of the lamp."

"Then I command you," said Aladdin, "to transport me to the place
where now it stands." Instantly Aladdin found himself beside his own
palace, which stood in a meadow not far from a strange city; and the
Princess was then walking in her own chamber, weeping for her loss.
Happening to come near to the window, she saw Aladdin under it. And
making a sign to him to keep silence, she sent a slave to bring him
in. The Princess and her husband having kissed each other and shed
many tears, Aladdin said, "Tell me, my Princess, what has become of an
old lamp which I left on the cornice of the hall of four-and-twenty
windows?"

The Princess then told how her slave had exchanged it for a new one,
and said that the tyrant in whose power she was, always carried that
very lamp in his bosom. Aladdin was then sure that this person was no
other than his old enemy, the African magician.

After talking a long while, they hit upon a plan for getting back
the lamp. Aladdin went into the city in the disguise of a slave, and
bought a powder. Then the Princess invited the magician to sup with
her. As she had never before shown him the least kindness, he was
delighted and came. While they were at table, she ordered a slave to
bring two cups of wine, one of which she had prepared by mixing in the
powder. After pretending to taste the one she held in her hand, she
asked the magician to change cups, as was the custom in China. He
joyfully seized the goblet, and drinking it all at a draft, fell
senseless on the floor.

Aladdin was at hand to snatch the lamp from his bosom. Hastily rubbing
it, he summoned the Genius, who instantly transported the palace and
all it contained back to the place whence they had come.

Some hours after, the Sultan, who had risen at break of day to mourn
for his daughter, went to the window to look at the spot which he
expected to see empty and vacant, and there to his unspeakable joy he
saw Aladdin's palace shining in its place. He summoned his guards and
hastened to embrace his daughter; and during a whole week nothing was
heard but the sound of drums, trumpets, and cymbals, and there were
all kinds of music and feasting, in honor of Aladdin's return with the
Princess.

Some time after this, the Sultan died, and Aladdin and the Princess
ascended the throne. They reigned together many years and left many
noble sons and daughters at their death.



Suggestions for Silent Reading

Some stories and poems must be read thoughtfully in order to gain the
author's full meaning; such reading cannot be done rapidly. In other
selections, the meaning can be grasped easily, and the reading can be
rapid; in such cases we read mainly for the story, holding in mind the
various incidents as the plot unfolds. Throughout this book certain
stories, particularly those of Part II, may well be read silently and
reported on in class: The following suggestions will help you to gain
power in silent reading:

(a) Time yourself by the clock as you read each story suggested for
silent reading; what was your reading speed per page? (b) Test your
ability to get the thought quickly from the printed page (1) by noting
how many of the questions that develop the main thoughts, under
Discussion, you can answer after one reading, and (2) by telling the
substance of the story from an outline. Sometimes this guiding outline
is prepared for you, as in question 19, below; sometimes you are asked
to prepare it. This outline may also be used at the close of the
lesson as a guide in retelling the story. You may have to read parts
of the story again to be able to answer all these questions and to
give the substance of the story fully. Notice that the rapid silent
readers in your class generally gain and retain more facts than
the slow readers do. Try steadily to increase your speed in silent
reading.

To supplement and give balance to the lessons in silent reading,
certain passages notable for their beauty, their force, or their
dramatic quality, are listed, under Class readings, to be read aloud.



NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. What kind of boy was Aladdin? What caused the magician
to notice him? 3. What did the magician do to make Aladdin and his
mother like him? 4. How did he force Aladdin to obey him? 5. What
did Aladdin see when he raised the stone? 6. What directions did the
magician give Aladdin before he descended the steps? 7. Explain the
magician's anxiety to get the lamp before he helped Aladdin up from
the cavern. 8. How was Aladdin rescued from the cavern? 9. How did he
discover the power of his lamp? 10. What effect did his good fortune
have upon him? 11. What use did Aladdin make of the fruit he had
gathered? 12. How did Aladdin persuade his mother to see the Sultan?
13. Why did the Sultan permit Aladdin to marry his daughter? 14. How
and where was Aladdin's palace built? 15. Where had Aladdin left the
lamp when he went on his hunting trip? 16. How did the magician gain
possession of it? 17. How did Aladdin regain the lamp? 18. Class
readings: Page 156, line 9, to page 160, line 4 (5 pupils). 19.
Outline for testing silent reading. Tell in your own words the story
of Aladdin, using the following topics: (a) the boyhood of Aladdin;
(b) Aladdin's pretended uncle; (c) the visit to the cave; (d)
Aladdin's return to his mother; (e) Aladdin and the Princess. 20. Find
in the Glossary the meaning of: province; prudence; bewilderment;
abashed; extinguish; transparent; enchantment; dungeon; Genius;
Sultan; magnificence; bounties; cornice; transport. 21. Pronounce:
dessert; nephew; niche; fatigue; hideous; imaginable; porcelain;
vizier; gorgeous.


ALI BABA AND THE OPEN SESAME

(Ed.--This story, in it's original, uncondensed version, in addition
searching in the index for the title Arabian Nights.)

In an old town of Persia there lived two brothers, Cassim and Ali
Baba.

Cassim married a wife who owned a fine shop, a warehouse, and some
land; he thus found himself quite at his ease, and soon became one of
the richest men in the town. Ali Baba, on the other hand, had a
wife no better off than himself, and lived in a very poor house. He
supported his family by cutting wood in the forest, and carrying it on
his asses to sell about the town.

One day Ali Baba went to the forest, and had very nearly finished
cutting as much wood as his asses could carry, when he saw high in the
air a thick cloud of dust, which seemed to be coming toward him.
He gazed at it for a long time, until he saw a company of men on
horseback, riding so fast that they were almost hidden by the dust.

Although that part of the country was not often troubled by robbers,
Ali Baba thought that these horsemen looked like evil men. Therefore,
without thinking at all what might become of his asses, his first and
only care was to save himself. So he climbed up quickly into a large
tree, the branches of which spread out so close and thick that from
the midst of them he could see everything that passed, without being
seen.

The robbers rode swiftly up to this very tree, and there alighted. Ali
Baba counted forty of them, and saw that each horseman took the bridle
off his horse and hung over its head a bag filled with barley. Then
they took their traveling bags, which were so heavy that Ali Baba
thought they must be filled with gold and silver.

With his bag on his shoulder, the Captain of the thieves came close to
the rock, at the very spot where the tree grew in which Ali Baba had
hidden himself. After the rascal had made his way through the shrubs
that grew there, he cried out, "Open Sesame!" so that Ali Baba
distinctly heard the words. No sooner were they spoken than a door
opened in the rock. The Captain and all his men passed quickly in, and
the door closed again.

There they stayed for a long time. Ali Baba was compelled to wait in
the tree with patience, as he was afraid some of them might come out
if he left his hiding-place. At length the door opened, and the forty
thieves came out. After he had seen all the troop pass out before him,
the Captain exclaimed, "Shut Sesame!" Each man then bridled his horse,
and mounted. When the Captain saw that all were ready, he put himself
at their head, and they rode off as they had come.

Ali Baba did not come down from the tree at once, because he thought
they might have forgotten something, and be obliged to come back, and
that he should thus be caught. He watched them as long as he could;
nor did he leave the tree for a long time after he had lost sight of
them. Then, recalling the words the Captain had used to open and shut
the door, he made his way through the bushes to it, and called out,
"Open Sesame!" Instantly the door flew wide open!

Ali Baba expected to find only a dark cave, and was very much
astonished at seeing a fine large chamber, dug out of the rock, and
higher than a man could reach. It received its light from a hole in
the top of the rock. In it were piled all sorts of rare fruits, bales
of rich merchandise, silk stuffs and brocades, and great heaps of
money, both silver and gold, some loose, some in large leather bags.
The sight of alt these things almost took Ali Baba's breath away.

But he did not hesitate long as to what he should do. He went boldly
into the cave, and as soon as he was there, the door shut; but since
he knew the secret by which to open it, this gave him no fear. Leaving
the silver, he turned to the gold which was in the bags, and when he
had gathered enough for loading his three asses, he brought them to
the rock, loaded them, and so covered the sacks of gold over with wood
that no one could suspect anything. This done, he went to the door,
and had no sooner said the words, "Shut Sesame," than it closed.

And now Ali Baba took the road to the town; and when he got home, he
drove his asses into the yard and shut the gate with great care. He
threw off the wood that hid the gold and carried the bags into the
house, where he laid them down in a row before his wife, who was
sitting upon a couch.

When he had told the whole story of the cave and the forty thieves, he
emptied the sacks, making one great heap of gold that quite dazzled
his wife's eyes. His wife began to rejoice in this good fortune, and
was going to count over the money that lay before her, piece by piece.

"What are you going to do?" said he. "Why, you would never finish
counting them. I will dig a pit to bury it in; we have no time to
lose."

"It is right, though," replied the wife, "that we should know about
how much there may be. I will go and borrow a small grain-measure, and
while you are digging the pit, I will find how much there is."

So the wife of Ali Baba set off and went to her brother-in-law,
Cassim, who lived a short way from her house. Cassim was away from
home, so she begged his wife to lend her a measure for a few minutes.
"That I will with pleasure," said Cassim's wife. She went to seek a
measure, but knowing how poor Ali Baba was, she was curious to know
what sort of grain his wife wanted to measure; so she put some tallow
on the bottom of the measure in such a way that no one would notice
it.

The wife of Ali Baba returned home, and placing the measure on the
heap of gold, filled it over and over again, till she had measured the
whole. Ali Baba by this time had dug the pit for it, and while he
was burying the gold, his wife went back with the measure to her
sister-in-law, but without noticing that a piece of gold had stuck to
the bottom of it.

The wife of Ali Baba had scarcely turned her back, when Cassim's wife
looked at the bottom of the measure, and was astonished to see a piece
of gold sticking to it. "What!" said she, "Ali Baba measures his gold!
Where can the wretch have got it?" When her husband Cassim came home,
she said to him, "Cassim, you think you are rich, but Ali Baba must
have far more wealth than you; he does not count his gold as you do;
he measures it." Then she showed him the piece of money she had found
sticking to the bottom of the measure--a coin so ancient that the name
of the prince engraved on it was unknown to her.

Far from feeling glad at the good fortune which his brother had met
with, Cassim grew so jealous of Ali Baba that he passed almost the
whole night without closing his eyes. The next morning before sunrise
he went to him. "Ali Baba," said he, harshly, "you pretend to be poor
and miserable and a beggar, and yet you measure your money"--here
Cassim showed him the piece Of gold his wife had given him. "How many
pieces," added he, "have you like this, that my wife found sticking to
the bottom of the measure yesterday?"



CASSIM VISITS THE CAVE

From this speech Ali Baba knew that Cassim, and his wife also, must
suspect what had happened. So, without showing the least sign of
surprise, he told Cassim by what chance he had found the retreat'
of the thieves, and where it was; and offered, if he would keep the
secret, to share the treasure with him.

"This I certainly expect," replied Cassim in a haughty tone;
"otherwise I will inform the police of it." Ali Baba, led rather by
his good nature than by fear, told him all, even to the words he must
pronounce, both on entering the cave and on quitting it. Cassim made
no further inquiries of Ali Baba; he left him, determined to seize the
whole treasure, and set off the next morning before break of day with
ten mules laden with large hampers which he proposed to fill. He took
the road which Ali Baba had pointed out, and arrived at the rock and
the tree; on looking for the door, he soon discovered it. When he
cried, "Open Sesame!" the door obeyed; he entered, and it closed
again.

Greedy as Cassim was, he could have passed the whole day in feasting
his eyes with the sight of so much gold; but he remembered that he had
come to take away as much as he could; he therefore filled his sacks,
and coming to the door, he found that he had forgotten the secret
words, and instead of saying, "Open Sesame" he said, "Open Barley." So
the door, instead of flying open, remained closed. He named various
other kinds of grain; all but the right one were called upon, and
still the door did not move.

The thieves returned to their cave toward noon; and when they were
within a short distance of it, and saw the mules belonging to Cassim
laden with hampers, standing about the rock, they were a good deal
surprised. They drove away the ten mules, which took to flight in
the forest. Then the Captain and his men, with their sabers in their
hands, went toward the door and said, "Open Sesame!" At once it flew
open.

Cassim, who from the inside of the cave heard the horses trampling
on the ground, did not doubt that the thieves had come, and that his
death was near. Resolved, however, on one effort to escape and reach
some place of safety, he placed himself near the door ready to run out
as soon as it should open. The word "Sesame" was scarcely pronounced
when it opened, and he rushed out with such violence that he threw
the Captain to the ground. He could not, however, escape the other
thieves, who slew him on the spot.

On entering the cave the thieves found, near the door, the sacks which
Cassim had filled, but they could not imagine how he had been able to
get in.

The wife of Cassim, in the meantime, was in the greatest uneasiness
when night came and her husband did not return. After waiting as long
as she could, she went in the utmost alarm to Ali Baba, and said to
him, "Brother, I believe you know that Cassim has gone to the forest;
he has not yet come back, although it is almost morning. I fear some
accident may have befallen him."

Ali Baba did not wait for entreaties to go and seek for Cassim. He
immediately set off with his three asses, and went to the forest. As
he drew near the rock, he was astonished to see that blood had been
shed near the cave. When he reached the door, he said, "Open Sesame!"
and it opened.

He was shocked to see his brother's body in the cave. He decided to
carry it home, and placed it on one of his asses, covering it with
sticks to conceal it. The other two asses he quickly loaded with sacks
of gold, putting wood over them as before. Then, commanding the door
to close, he took the road to the city, waiting in the forest till
nightfall, that he might return without being observed. When he got
home, he left the two asses that were laden with gold for his wife to
unload; and having told her what had happened, he led the other ass to
his sister-in-law's. Ali Baba knocked at the door, which was opened
to him by Morgiana, who was a female slave, clever, and full of
invention. "Morgiana," said he, "the first thing I have to ask you is
to keep a deep secret! This packet contains the body of your master,
and we must bury him as if he had died a natural death. Let me speak
to your mistress, and hearken what I say to her."

Morgiana went to call her mistress, and Ali Baba then told her
all that had happened before his arrival with the body of Cassim.
"Sister," added he, "here is a sad affliction for you, but we must
contrive to bury my brother as if he had died a natural death; and
then we shall be glad to offer you a shelter under our own roof."

The widow of Cassim reflected that she could not do better than
consent. She therefore wiped away her tears, and suppressed her
mournful cries, and thereby showed Ali Baba that she accepted his
offer.

Ali Baba left her in this frame of mind, and Morgiana went out with
him to an apothecary's there. She knocked at the shop door, and when
it was opened, asked for a particular kind of lozenge of great effect
in dangerous illness. The apothecary gave her the lozenge, asking who
was ill in her master's family. "Ah!" exclaimed she with a deep sigh,
"it is my worthy master, Cassim himself. He can neither speak nor
eat!"

Meanwhile, as Ali Baba and his wife were seen going backwards and
forwards to the house of Cassim, in the course of the day, no one was
surprised on hearing in the evening the piercing cries of his widow
and Morgiana, which announced his death.

And so the body of Cassim was prepared for its burial, which took
place the next day, attended by Ali Baba and Morgiana.

As for his widow, she remained at home to lament and weep with her
neighbors, who, according to the usual custom, repaired to her house
during the ceremony of the burial, and joining their cries to hers,
filled the air with sounds of woe. Thus the manner of Cassim's death
was so well hidden that no one in the city knew anything about it.



THE ROBBERS SEEK REVENGE ON ALI BABA

But let us now leave Ali Baba and Morgiana, and return to the forty
thieves. When they came back to their cave, they found the body of
Cassim gone, and with it much of their treasure. "We are discovered,"
said the Captain, "and we shall be lost if we are not very careful.
All that we can at present tell is that the man whom we killed in the
Cave knew the secret of opening the door. But he was not the only one;
another must have found it out too. Having slain one, we must not let
the other escape. Well, the first thing to be done is that one of you
should go to the city in the dress of a traveler, and try to learn who
the man we killed was."

The thief who agreed to carry out this plan, having disguised himself
so that no one could have told who he was, set off at night, and
entered the city just at dawn. By asking questions in the town he
discovered that a body had been prepared for burial at a certain
house. Having found the house, the thief marked the door with chalk
and returned to the forest.

Very soon after this, Morgiana had occasion to go out, and saw the
mark which the thief had made on the door of Ali Baba's house. "What
can this mark mean?" thought she; "has anyone a spite against my
master, or has it been done only for fun? In any ease, it will be well
to guard against the worst that may happen." She therefore took some
chalk, and as several of the doors, both above and below her master's,
were alike, she marked them in the same manner, and then went in
without saying anything of what she had done either to her master or
mistress.

The thief in the meantime arrived at the forest, and related the
success of his journey. They all listened to him with great delight,
and the Captain, after praising him, said, "Comrades, we have no time
to lose; let us arm ourselves and depart, and when we have entered the
city, which we had best do separately, let us all meet in the great
square, and I will go and find out the house with the chalk mark."
Thus the thieves 'went in small parties of two or three to the city
without causing any suspicion. The thief who had been there in the
morning then led the Captain to the street in which he had marked the
house of Ali Baba.

When they reached the first house that had been marked by Morgiana, he
pointed it out, saying that was the one. But as they continued walking
on, the Captain saw that the next door was marked in the same manner.
At this the thief was quite confused, and knew not what to say; for
they found four or five doors more with the same mark.

The Captain, who was in great anger, returned to the square, and told
the first of his men whom he met to tell the rest that they had lost
their labor, and that nothing remained but to return to the forest.

When they had reached the forest, the Captain declared the mistaken
thief deserving of death, and he was at once killed by his companions.

Next day another thief, in spite of this, determined to succeed where
the other had failed. He went to the city, found the house, and marked
the door of it with red. But, a short time after. Morgiana; vent out
and saw the red mark and did not fail to make a similar red mark on
the neighboring doors.

The thief when he returned to the forest boasted of his success, and
the Captain and the rest repaired to the city with as much care as
before, and the Captain and his guide went immediately to the street
where Ali Baba resided; but the same thing occurred as before.

Thus they were obliged to return again to the forest disappointed. The
second thief was put to death as a punishment for deceiving them.

Next time the Captain himself went to the city, and found the house of
Ali Baba. But not choosing to amuse himself by making marks on it, he
examined it so well, not only by looking at it. But by passing before
it several times, that at last he was certain he could not mistake it.

Thereupon he returned to the forest, and told the thieves he had
made sure of the house, and had made a plan such that at last he was
certain he could not mistake it. And first he ordered them to divide
into small parties, and go into the neighboring towns and villages and
buy nineteen mules and thirty-eight large leather jars to carry oil,
one of which must be full, and all the others empty.

In the course of two or three days the thieves returned, and the
Captain made one of his men enter each jar, armed as he thought
necessary. Then he closed the jars as if each were full of oil,
leaving, however, a small slit open to admit air.

Things being thus disposed, the mules were laden with the thirty-seven
thieves, each concealed in a jar, and the jar that was filled with
oil; whereupon the Captain took the road to the city at the hour that
had been agreed, and arrived about an hour after sunset. He went
straight to the house of Ali Baba, where he found Ali Baba at the
door, enjoying the fresh air after supper. "Sir," said he, "I have
brought oil from a great distance to sell tomorrow at the market, and
I do not know where to go to pass the night; if it would not occasion
you much trouble, do me the favor to take me in."

Although Ali Baba had seen, in the forest, the man who now spoke to
him and had even heard his voice, yet he had no idea that this was the
Captain of the forty robbers, disguised as an oil merchant. "You are
welcome," said he, and took him into the house, and his mules into the
stable.



THE OIL MERCHANT IN THE HOME OF ALI BABA

Ali Baba, having told Morgiana to see that his guest wanted nothing,
added, "Tomorrow before daybreak I shall go to the bath. Make me some
good broth to take when I return." After giving these orders, he went
to bed. In the meantime the Captain of the thieves, on leaving the
stable, went to give his people orders what to do. Beginning with the
first jar, and going through the whole number, he said to each, "When
I shall throw some pebbles from my chamber, do not fail to rip open
the jar from top to bottom with the knife you have, and to come out; I
shall be with you soon after." The knives he spoke of were sharpened
for the purpose. This done, he returned, and Morgiana took a light,
and led him to his chamber. Not to cause any suspicion, he put out the
light and lay down in his clothes, to be ready to rise as soon as he
had taken his first sleep.

Morgiana did not forget Ali Baba's orders; she prepared his linen for
the bath and gave it to Abdalla, Ali Baba's slave, who had not yet
gone to bed. Then she put the pot on the fire to make the broth, but
while she was skimming it. The lamp went out. There was no more oil
in the house, and she had no candle. She did not know what to do. She
wanted a light to see to skim the pot, and mentioned it to Abdalla.
"Take some oil," said he, "out of one of the jars in the court."

Morgiana accordingly took the oil-can and went into the court. As she
drew near the first jar, the thief who was concealed within said in a
low voice, "Is it time?"

Any other slave except Morgiana, in the first moment of surprise at
finding a man in the jar instead of some oil, would have made a great
uproar. But Morgiana collected her thoughts, and without showing any
emotion assumed the voice of the Captain, and answered, "Not yet,
but presently." She approached the next jar, and the others in turn,
making the same answer to the same question, till she came to the
last, which was full of oil.

Morgiana by this means discovered that her master, who supposed he was
giving a night's lodging to an oil merchant only, had afforded shelter
to thirty-eight robbers, including the pretended merchant, their
Captain. She quickly filled her oil-can from the last jar, and
returned to the kitchen; and after having put some oil in her lamp and
lighted it, she took a large kettle, and went again into the court to
fill it with oil from the jar. This done, she brought it back again,
put it over the tire, and made a great blaze under it with a quantity
of wood; for the sooner the oil boiled, the sooner her plan would be
carried out. At length the oil boiled. She then took the kettle and
poured into each jar, from the first to the last, enough boiling oil
to kill the robbers.

This being done without any noise, she returned to the kitchen with
the empty kettle, and shut the door. She put out the large fire she
had made up for this purpose, and left only enough to finish boiling
the broth for Ali Baba. She then blew out the lamp and remained
perfectly silent, determined not to go to bed until she had watched
what would happen, from a window which overlooked the court.

Morgiana had waited scarcely a quarter of an hour, when the Captain of
the robbers awoke. He got up, and opening the window, looked out. All
was dark and silent; he gave the signal by throwing the pebbles, many
of which fell on the jars, as the sound plainly proved. He listened,
but heard nothing that could lead him to suppose his men obeyed the
summons. He became uneasy at this delay, and threw some pebbles down a
second time, and even a third. They all struck the jars, yet nothing
moved, and he became frightened.

He went down into the court in the utmost alarm; and going up to the
first jar, he was going to ask if the robber contained in it was
asleep. As soon as he drew near, he smelled a strong scent of hot and
burning oil coming out of the jar. From this he feared that his wicked
plan had failed. He went to the next jar, and to each in turn, and
discovered that all his men were dead. Terrified at this, he jumped
over the garden-gate, and going from one garden to another by getting
over the walls, he made his escape. Before daybreak Ali Baba, followed
by his slave, went out and repaired to the bath, totally ignorant of
the surprising events that had taken place in his house during his
sleep. Morgiana had not thought it necessary to wake him, particularly
as she had no time to lose, while she was engaged in her perilous
enterprise, and it was useless to disturb him after she had averted
the danger.

When he returned from the bath, the sun being risen, Ali Baba was
surprised to see the jars of oil still in their places; he inquired
the reason of Morgiana, who let him in, and who had left everything as
it was, in order to show it to him.

"My good master," said Morgiana to Ali Baba's question, "may God
preserve you and all your family. You will soon know the reason,
if you will take the trouble to come with me." Ali Baba followed
Morgiana, and when she had shut the door, she took him to the first
jar and bade him look in and see if it contained oil. He did as she
desired; and seeing a man in the jar, he hastily drew back and uttered
a cry of surprise. "Do not be afraid," said she; "the man you see
there will not do you any harm; he will never hurt either you or
anyone else again, for he is now a corpse."

"Morgiana!" exclaimed Ali Baba, "what does all this mean? You explain
this mystery." "I will explain it," replied Morgiana, "but pray be
cautious, and do not awaken the curiosity of your neighbors to learn
what it is of the utmost importance that you should keep secret and
concealed. Look first at all the other jars."

Ali Baba examined all the rest of the jars, one after the other, from
the first till he came to the last, which contained the oil, and
he noticed that its oil was nearly all gone. This done, he stood,
sometimes casting his eyes on Morgiana, then looking at the jars, yet
without speaking a word, so great was his surprise. At length he said,
"And what has become of the merchant?"

"The merchant," replied Morgiana, "is just as much a merchant as I am.
I can tell you who he is."

She then described the marks made upon the door, and the way in which
she had copied them, adding: "You see this is a plot contrived by
the thieves of the forest, whose troop, I know not how, seems to be
diminished by two. But be that as it may, it is now reduced to three
at most. This proves that they are determined on your death, and you
will do right to be on your guard against them, so long as you are
certain that even one of the robbers remains."

Ali Baba, full of gratitude for all he owed her, replied, "I will
reward you as you deserve, before I die. I owe my life to you, and
from this moment I give you your liberty, and wilt soon do still more
for you."



MORGIANA'S GREAT COURAGE AND REWARD

Meanwhile the Captain of the forty thieves had returned to the forest
full of rage, and determined to revenge himself on Ali Baba.

Next morning he awoke at an early hour, put on a merchant's dress,
and returned to the city, where he took a lodging in a khan. Then he
bought a horse, which he made use of to convey to his lodging several
kinds of rich stuffs and fine linens, bringing them from the forest at
various times. In order to dispose of these wares, he took a shop,
and established himself in it. This shop was exactly opposite to that
which had been Cassim's, and was now occupied by the son of Ali Baba.

The Captain of the thieves, who had taken the name of Cogia Houssam,
soon succeeded in making friends with the son of Ali Baba, who was
young and good-natured. He often invited the youth to sup with him,
and made him rich gifts.

When Ali Baba heard of it, he resolved to make a return for this
kindness, to Cogia Houssam, little thinking that the pretended
merchant was really the Captain of the thieves. So one day he asked
Cogia Houssam to do him the honor of supping and spending the evening
at his house. "Sir," replied Cogia, "I am grateful for your kindness,
but I must beg you to excuse me, and for a reason which I am sure you
will think sufficient. It is this: I never eat of any dish that has
salt in it; judge, then, of the figure I should make at your table."
"If this be your only reason," replied Ali Baba, "it need not prevent
your coming to supper with me. The bread which is eaten in my house
does not contain any salt; and as for the meat and other dishes, I
promise you there shall be none in those which are served before you."

So Ali Baba went into the kitchen, and desired Morgiana not to put
any salt in the meat she was going to serve for supper, and also to
prepare two or three dishes of those that he had ordered, without any
salt. Morgiana obeyed, though much against her will; and she felt some
curiosity to see this man who did not eat salt. When she had finished,
and Abdalla had prepared the table, she helped him in carrying the
dishes. On looking at Cogia Houssam, she instantly recognized the
Captain of the robbers, in spite of his disguise; and looking at him
more closely, she saw that he had a dagger hidden under his dress. "I
am no longer surprised," said she to herself, "that this villain will
not eat salt with my master; he is his enemy, and means to murder him!
But I wilt prevent the villain!"

When the supper was ended, the Captain of the thieves thought that the
time for revenging himself on Ali Baba had come. "I will make them
both drink much wine," thought he, "and then the son, against whom I
bear no malice, will not prevent my plunging my dagger into the heart
of his father, and I shall escape by way of the garden, as I did
before, while the cook and the slave are at their supper in the
kitchen."

Instead, however, of going to supper, Morgiana did not allow him time
to carry out his wicked plans. She dressed herself as a dancer, put
on a headdress suitable to that character, and wore round her waist a
fancy girdle of gilt, to which she fastened a dagger, made of the same
metal. Her face was hidden by a very handsome mask. When she had so
disguised herself, she said to Abdalla, "Take your tabor, and let us
go and entertain our master's guest, who is the friend of his son, as
we do sometimes by our performances."

Abdalla took his tabor and began to play, as he walked before
Morgiana, and entered the room. Morgiana followed him, making a low
curtsy, and performed several dances, with equal grace and agility. At
length she drew out the dagger, and dancing with it in her hand, she
surpassed all she had yet done, by her light movements and high leaps;
sometimes presenting the dagger as if to strike, and at others holding
it to her own bosom, as if to stab herself. At length, as if out
of breath, she took the tabor from Abdalla with her left hand, and
holding the dagger in her right, she held out the tabor to Ali Baba,
who threw a piece of gold into it. Morgiana then held the tabor out to
his son, who did the same. Cogia Houssam, who saw that she was coming
to him next, had already taken his purse from his bosom, and was
putting his hand in it, when Morgiana, with great courage, suddenly
plunged the dagger into his heart.

Ali Baba and his son, terrified at this action, uttered a loud cry:
"Wretch!" exclaimed Ali Baba, "what hast thou done? Thou hast ruined
me and my family forever."

"What I have done," replied Morgiana, "is not for your ruin, but for
your safety." Then opening Cogia Houssam's robe to show Ali Baba the
poniard which was concealed under it, "See," continued she, "the cruel
enemy you had to deal with; examine him, and you will recognize the
pretended oil-merchant and the Captain of the forty thieves! Do
you now see why he refused to eat salt with you? Can you require a
stronger proof of his treachery?"

Ali Baba, who now saw all that he owed to Morgiana for having thus
saved his life a second time, cried, "Morgiana, I gave you your
liberty, and at the same time promised to do more for you at some
future time. This time has come, and I present you to my son as his
wife." A few days after, Ali Baba had the marriage of his son and
Morgiana celebrated with great feasting.

After the marriage, Ali Baba decided to visit again the cave of the
forty thieves. On reaching it he repeated the word, "Open Sesame." At
once the door opened, and he entered the cave, and found that no one
had been in it from the time that Cogia Houssam had opened his shop
in the city. He therefore knew that the whole troop of thieves was
killed, and that he was the only person in the world who knew the
secret of the cave.

From that time Ali Baba and his son, whom he took to the cave and
taught the secret of how to enter it, enjoyed its riches with
moderation and lived in great happiness and comfort to the end of
their long lives.



NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. How did Ali Baba make his living? 2. When did he
first see the robber band? 3. What words did the Captain say to gain
entrance to the cave? 4. Why did Ali Baba wish to see the cave? 5. How
did he plan to hide his gold after he returned home? 6. What aroused
the suspicions of his brother? 7. How did Cassim feel toward Ali Baba
when he heard the story? 8. What did Cassim plan to do? 9. Why could
not Cassim open the door after it closed upon him? 10. Why did Ali
Baba wish to conceal the fact that Cassim was killed by the robbers?
11. Why could not the robbers find Ali Baba's house after it had
been marked with chalk? 12. What plan did the Captain of the robbers
determine upon in order to have revenge upon Ali Baba? 13. How did
Morgiana discover the plot and prevent it from being carried out? 14.
How did Ali Baba reward her? 15. How did the Captain manage to win the
friendship of Ali Baba? 16. What was his object in doing this? 17. The
Captain would not eat salt in Ali Baba's house because, according
to an old Eastern custom, the use of salt at a meal was a sign of
friendship and loyalty. How did Morgiana save Ali Baba's life? 18. Who
is the cleverest person in the story? 19. Did Ali Baba have a right
to take the treasure from the robbers and keep it? Why? 20. Class
readings: Select passages to be read aloud in class. 21. Outline for
testing silent reading. Tell in your own words the story of Ali Baba,
using the following topics: (a.) the adventure in the forest; (b) Ali
Baba's return; (c) the fate of Cassim; (d) Morgiana's plans; (e) how
the thieves were caught; (f) how Ali Baba used his good fortune. 22.
Find in the Glossary the meaning of: bridled; recalling; astonished;
merchandise; retreat; hampers; resolved; uneasiness; utmost;
invention; packet; reflected; suppressed; ceremony; related; confused;
presently; enterprise; contrived; diminished; prevent; gilt;
surpassed; moderation. 23. Pronounce: Ali Baba; sesame; brocades;
inquiries; hearken; affliction; apothecary; lozenge; burial; comrades;
averted; corpse; Cogia Houssam; villain; curtsy; agility; poniard.

Phrases for Study

feasting his eyes, full of invention, natural death, repaired to her
house, had occasion to go out, lost their labor, thus disposed, wanted
nothing, collected her thoughts, rich stuffs, bear no malice, suitable
to that character.


SINDBAD THE SAILOR

(Ed.--This story, in it's original, uncondensed version, in addition
searching in the index for the title Arabian Nights.)

In the reign of the Caliph Harun-al-Rashid there lived in Baghdad a
poor porter called Hindbad. One day he was carrying a heavy burden
from one end of the town to the other; being weary, he took off his
load and sat upon it, near a large mansion.

He knew not who owned the mansion; but he went to the servants and
asked the name of the master. "How," replied one of them, "do you live
in Baghdad, and know not that this is the house of Sindbad the sailor,
that famous voyager, who has sailed round the world?"

The porter said, loud enough to be heard, "Almighty Creator of all
things, consider the difference between Sindbad and me! I work
faithfully every day and suffer hardships, and can scarcely get barley
bread for myself and family, while happy Sindbad spends riches and
leads a life of continual pleasure. What has he done to obtain a lot
so agreeable? And what have I done to deserve one so wretched?"

While the porter was thus complaining, a servant came out of the house
and said to him, "Sindbad, my master, wishes to speak to you. Come
in."

The servants took him into a great hall, where a number of people sat
around a table covered with all sorts of savory dishes. At the upper
end was a tall, grave gentleman, with a long white beard, and behind
him stood a number of officers and servants, all ready to attend his
pleasure. This person was Sindbad. Hindbad, whose fear was increased
at the sight of so many people and of so great a feast, saluted the
company tremblingly. Sindbad bade him draw near, and seating him at
his right hand, served him himself.

Now, Sindbad had heard the porter complain, and this it was that led
him to have the man brought in. When the repast was over, Sindbad
spoke to Hindbad, asked his name and business, and said: "I wish to
hear from your own mouth what it was you said in the street."

Hindbad replied, "My lord, I confess that my weariness put me out
of humor, and made me utter some foolish words, which I beg you to
pardon." "Do not think I am so unjust," resumed Sindbad, "as to blame
you. But you are mistaken about me, and I wish to set you right. You
think that I have gained without labor and trouble the ease and plenty
which I now enjoy. But make no mistake; I did not reach this happy
condition without suffering for several years more trouble of body and
mind than can well be imagined. Yes, gentlemen," he added, speaking
to the whole company, "I assure you that my sufferings have been so
extraordinary that they would make the greatest miser lose his love
of riches; and I will, with your leave, tell of the dangers I have
overcome, which I think will not be uninteresting to you."



THE FIRST VOYAGE OF SINDBAD THE SAILOR

He then told the following story:

My father was a wealthy merchant, much respected by everyone. He left
me a large fortune, which I wasted in wild living. I then remembered
Solomon's saying, "A good name is better than precious ointment," and
resolved to walk in my father's ways. I therefore made arrangements to
go on a voyage with some merchants.

After touching at many places where we sold or exchanged goods, we
were becalmed near a small island which looked like a green meadow.
The captain permitted some of us to land, but while we were eating and
drinking, the island began to shake, and he called to us to return to
the ship. What we thought was an island was really the back of a sea
monster. I had just time to catch hold of a piece of wood, when the
island disappeared into the sea.

The captain, thinking I was drowned, resolved to make use of a
favorable gale, which had just risen, to continue his voyage. I was
tossed by the waves all that day and night, but the next day I was
thrown upon an island. I was very feeble, but I crept along and found
a spring of water, which did much to restore my strength.

After this I went farther into the island and saw a man watching some
horses that were feeding near by. He was much surprised to see me and
took me to a cave where there were several other men. They told me
they were grooms of the Maharaja, ruler of the island, and that every
year they brought his horses to this uninhabited place for pasturage.

Next morning they returned to the capital of the island, taking me
with them. They presented me to the Maharaja, who ordered his people
to care for me. The capital has a fine harbor, where ships arrive
daily from all parts of the world, and I hoped soon to have a chance
to return to Baghdad.

One day the ship arrived in which I had sailed from home. I went to
the captain and asked for my goods. "I am Sindbad," I said, "and those
bales marked with his name are mine." At first the captain did not
know me, but after looking at me closely, he cried, "Heaven be praised
for your happy escape. These are your goods; take them and do what you
please with them."

I made a present of my choicest goods to the Maharaja, who asked me
how I came by such rarities. When I told him, he was much pleased and
gave me many valuable things in return. After exchanging my goods for
aloes, sandalwood, camphor, nutmegs, cloves, pepper, and ginger, I
sailed for home and at last reached Baghdad with goods worth one
hundred thousand sequins.

Sindbad stopped here and ordered the musicians to proceed with their
concert. When it was evening, Sindbad gave the porter a purse of one
hundred sequins and told him to come back the next day to hear more of
his adventures.

Hindbad put on his best robe the next day and returned to the
bountiful traveler, who welcomed him heartily. When all the guests
had arrived, dinner was served and continued a long time. When it was
ended, Sindbad said, "Gentlemen, hear now the adventures of my second
voyage. They deserve your attention even more than those of the
first."



THE SECOND VOYAGE OF SINDBAD THE SAILOR

I planned, after my first voyage, to spend the rest of my days at
Baghdad, but I grew weary of an idle life, and put to sea a second
time, with merchants I knew to be honorable. We embarked on board a
good ship and set sail. We traded from island to island, and exchanged
goods with great profit.

One day we landed on an island covered with fruit-trees, but we could
see neither man nor animal. We walked in the meadows and along the
streams that watered them. While some gathered flowers and others
fruits, I took my wine and provisions and sat down near a stream
between two high trees, which formed a thick shade. I made a good
meal, and afterwards fell asleep. I cannot tell how long I slept, but
when I awoke, the ship was gone.

In this sad condition, I was ready to die with grief. I was sorry that
I had not been satisfied with the profits of my first voyage, that
might have been enough for me all my life. But my repentance came too
late. At last I took courage and, not knowing what to do, climbed to
the top of a lofty tree and looked about on all sides to see if I
could discover anything that could give me hope. Toward the sea I
could see nothing but sky and water; but looking over the land, I
beheld something white, and, coming down, I took what provisions I had
left and went toward it, the distance being so great that I could not
tell what it was.

As I came nearer, I thought it was a white dome, of great height and
size; and when I came up to it, I touched it and found it to be very
smooth. I went around to see if it was open on any side, but saw it
was not, and that there was no climbing up to the top, as it was so
smooth. It was at least fifty paces around.

By this time the sun was about to set, and all of a sudden the sky
became as dark as if it had been covered with a thick cloud. I was
much astonished at this sudden darkness, but much more when I found it
was caused by a bird of monstrous size, that came flying toward me. I
remembered that I had often heard sailors speak of a wonderful bird
called the roc, and saw that the great dome which I so much admired
must be its egg. The bird alighted, and sat over the egg.

As I saw it coming, I crept close to the egg, so that I had before me
one of the legs of the bird, which was as big as the trunk of a tree.
I tied myself strongly to it with my turban, hoping that the roc next
morning would carry me out of this desert island.

After passing the night in this condition, the bird flew away as soon
as it was daylight, and carried me so high that I could not see the
earth; it afterwards descended so swiftly that I lost my senses. But
when I found myself on the ground, I speedily untied the knot, and had
scarcely done so when the roc, having taken up a serpent in its bill,
flew away.

The spot where it left me was surrounded by mountains that seemed
to reach above the clouds, and so steep that there was no chance of
getting out of the valley. When I compared this place with the desert
island from which the roc had brought me, I found that I had gained
nothing by the change.

As I walked through this valley, I saw it was strewn with diamonds,
some of which were of a surprising size. I had never believed what I
had heard sailors tell of the valley of diamonds, and of the tricks
used by merchants to obtain jewels from that place; but now I found
that they had stated nothing but the truth. For the fact is that the
merchants come to this valley when the eagles have young ones, and
throw great joints of meat into the valley; the diamonds, upon whose
points they fall, stick to them; the eagles pounce upon those pieces
of meat and carry them to their nests on the rocks to feed their
young; the merchants at this time run to the nests, drive off the
eagles, and take away the diamonds that stick to the meat.

I had thought the valley must surely be my grave, but now I took
courage and began to plan a way to escape. Collecting the largest
diamonds and putting them into the leather bag in which I used to
carry my provisions, I took the largest of the pieces of meat, tied it
close around me, and then lay down upon the ground, face downwards,
the bag of diamonds being made fast to my girdle. I had scarcely
placed myself in this position when one of the eagles, having taken me
up with the piece of meat to which I was fastened, carried me to his
nest on the top of the mountain. The merchants frightened the eagles,
and when they had forced them to quit their prey, one of them came
to the nest where I was. He was much alarmed when he saw me; but,
recovering himself, instead of asking how I came thither, began to
quarrel with me, and asked why I stole his goods.

"You will treat me," replied I, "with more politeness when you know me
better. Do not be uneasy; I have diamonds enough for you and myself,
more than all the other merchants together. Whatever they have they
owe to chance, but I selected for myself in the bottom of the valley
those which you see in this bag."

I had scarcely done speaking when the other merchants came crowding
about us, much astonished to see me, but more surprised when I told
them my story.

They took me to their camp, and there, when I opened my bag, they were
surprised at the beauty of my diamonds, and confessed that they had
never seen any of such size and perfection.

I prayed the merchant who owned the nest to which I had been carried,
for every merchant had his own nest, to take as many for his share as
he pleased. He, however, took only one, and that, too, the least of
them; and when I pressed him to take more, he said, "No, I am very
well satisfied with this gem, which is valuable enough to save me the
trouble of making any more voyages, and will bring as great a fortune
as I desire."

The merchants had thrown their pieces of meat into the valley for
several days; and each of them being satisfied with the diamonds
that had fallen to his lot, we left the place and traveled near high
mountains, where there were serpents of great length, which we had the
fortune to escape.

We took shipping at the first port we reached, and touched at the isle
of Roha, where the trees grow that yield camphor.

I pass over many other things peculiar to this island, lest I should
weary you. Here I exchanged some of my diamonds for merchandise. From
here we went to other islands, and at last, having touched at several
trading towns of the continent, we landed at Bussorah, and from there
I proceeded to Baghdad. There I gave presents to the poor, and lived
honorably upon the vast riches I had gained with so many terrible
hardships and so many great perils. Thus Sindbad ended the story of
the second voyage, gave Hindbad another hundred sequins, and invited
him to come the next day to hear more of his adventures.



THE THIRD VOYAGE OF SINDBAD THE SAILOR

On the third day the porter again repaired to the house in which he
had heard such wonderful tales. After the dinner was finished, the
host began once more to tell of his travels.

I soon grew weary of a life of idleness and embarked with some
merchants on another long voyage. One day we were overtaken by a
storm, which drove us out of our course, and we were obliged to cast
anchor near an island. As soon as we landed, we were surrounded by
savage dwarfs, who took possession of our ship and sailed away. Left
without means of escape from the island, we determined to explore it,
in hope of finding food and shelter.

We had not advanced far, however, when we discovered that this island
was inhabited by giants, more savage than the dwarfs who had first
attacked us. We knew that we could not remain on the island, and so we
went back to the shore and planned how we might escape.

When night came, we made rafts, each large enough to carry three men,
and as soon as it was light we put to sea with all the speed we could.
The giants saw us as we pushed out and, rushing down to the water's
edge, threw great stones, which sank all the rafts except the one upon
which I was.

All that day and night we were tossed by the waves, but the next
morning we were thrown upon an island, where we found delicious fruit
which satisfied our hunger. Beautiful as this island was, we found
ourselves in danger as great as any we had escaped. My two companions
were killed by serpents, and I was almost in despair, when I saw a
ship in the distance. By shouting and waving my turban I attracted the
attention of the crew, and a boat was sent for me.

As soon as I saw the captain, I knew him to be the man who, in my
second voyage, had left me on the island. "Captain," said I, "I am
Sindbad, whom you left on the island."

"Heaven be praised," said the captain; "I am glad that my careless act
did not cause your death. These are your goods, which I always took
care to preserve."

We continued at sea for some time and touched at many islands, where I
traded for cloves, cinnamon, and other spices. At last I returned to
Baghdad with so much wealth that I knew not its value. I gave a great
deal to the poor and bought another estate.

Thus Sindbad finished the story of his third voyage. He gave another
hundred sequins to Hindbad and invited him to dinner the next day.



THE FOURTH VOYAGE OF SINDBAD THE SAILOR

After dinner on the fourth day the merchant once more began to tell of
his adventures.

After I had rested from the dangers of my third voyage, my love for
trade and adventure again took hold of me. I provided a stock of goods
and started on another voyage. We had sailed a great way, when we were
overtaken by a storm, and the ship was wrecked. I clung to a plank and
was carried by the current to an island; here I found fruit and spring
water, which saved my life. The next day I started to explore the
island and, seeing some huts, I went toward them. The people who lived
in these huts were savages, and they took me prisoner. I was in such
fear of them that I could not eat, and at last I became sick.

After that they did not watch me so closely, and I found a chance to
escape. I traveled seven days, living upon coconuts, which served me
for food and drink. On the eighth day I met some people gathering
pepper, and I told them my story. They treated me with great kindness
and took me with them when they sailed home.

On arriving in their own country they presented me to their King, who
commanded his people to take care of me, and soon I was looked upon
as a native rather than a stranger. I was not, however, satisfied
to remain away from my own home and planned to escape and return to
Baghdad.

One day I saw a ship approaching the place where I was. I called
to the crew, and they quickly sent a boat and took me on board. We
stopped at several islands and collected great stores of costly goods.
After we had finished our traffic, we put to sea again and at last
arrived at Baghdad. I gave large sums to the poor and enjoyed myself
with my friends in feasts and amusements.

Here Sindbad made a present of one hundred sequins to Hindbad, whom he
requested to return the next day to dine with him and hear the story
of his fifth voyage.



THE FIFTH VOYAGE OF SINDBAD THE SAILOR

The story of the fifth day was as follows:

All the misfortunes I had undergone could not cure me of my desire to
make new voyages. I therefore had a ship built and, taking with me
several merchants, I started on my fifth voyage.

We touched at a desert island, where we found a roc's egg. We could
see that the young bird had begun to break the shell with his beak.
The merchants who were with me broke the shell with hatchets and
killed the young roc. Scarcely had they done this when the parent
birds flew down with a frightful noise. We hurried to the ship and set
sail as speedily as possible. But the great birds followed us, each
carrying a rock between its claws. When they came directly over our
ship, they let the rocks fall, and the ship was crushed and most of
the passengers killed. I caught hold of a piece of the wreck and swam
to an island. Here I found fruit and streams of fresh, pure water.
After resting and eating some of the fruit, I determined to find out
who lived upon the island.

I had not walked far, when I saw an old man sitting on the bank of a
stream. He made signs to me to carry him over the brook, and as he
seemed very weak, I took him upon my back and carried him across. When
we reached the other side, the old man threw his legs around my neck
and squeezed my throat until I fainted. But he kept his seat and
kicked me to make me stand up. He made me carry him all that day, and
at night lay down with me, still holding fast to my neck.

This continued for some time, and I grew weaker every day. One day,
feeling sure that I could not escape, he began to laugh and sing and
move around on my back. This was my opportunity, and, using all my
strength, I threw him to the ground, where he lay motionless.

Feeling very thankful at my escape, I went down to the beach and saw a
ship at anchor there. The crew were very much surprised when I told my
adventure. "You are the first," they said, "who ever escaped from the
old man of the sea after falling into his power."

We soon put out to sea and after a few days arrived at a great city.
One of the merchants invited me to go with him and others to gather
coconuts. The trunks of the coconut trees were lofty and very smooth,
and I saw many apes among the branches. It was not possible to climb
the trees, but the merchants, by throwing stones, provoked the apes
to throw the coconuts at us, and by this trick we collected enough
coconuts to load our ship.

We then set sail and touched at other islands, where I exchanged
my coconuts for pepper and wood of aloes. I also hired divers, who
brought me up pearls that were very large and perfect. When I returned
to Baghdad, I made vast sums from my pepper, precious woods, and
pearls. I gave the tenth of my gains to charity, as I had done on my
return from other voyages.

Sindbad here ordered one hundred sequins to be given to Hindbad and
requested him to dine with him the next day to hear the account of his
next voyage.



THE SIXTH VOYAGE OF SINDBAD THE SAILOR

When dinner was finished on the sixth day, Sindbad spoke as follows:

After a year's rest I prepared for a sixth voyage, notwithstanding the
entreaties of my friends, who did all in their power to keep me at
home. I traveled through several provinces of Persia and the Indies,
and then embarked on a long voyage, in the course of which the ship
was carried by a rapid current to the foot of a high mountain, where
she struck and went to pieces.

We managed to save most of our provisions and our goods, but it was
impossible to climb the mountain or to escape by the sea. We were
obliged to remain upon the strip of shore between the mountain and the
sea. At last our provisions were exhausted, and my companions died,
one after the other. Then I determined to try once more to find a way
of escape.

A river ran from the sea into a dark cavern under an archway of rock.
I said to myself, "If I make a raft and float with the current, it
will doubtless carry me to some inhabited country." I made a very
solid raft and loaded it with bales of rich goods from the wreck,
and rubies, emeralds, and other precious stones which covered the
mountain.

As soon as I entered the cavern, I found myself in darkness and I
floated on, I knew not where. I must have fallen asleep, for when I
opened my eyes I was on the bank of a river, and a great many people
were around me. They spoke to me, but I did not understand their
language. I was so full of joy at my escape from death that I said
aloud in Arabic, "Close thine eyes, and while thou art asleep, Heaven
will change thy evil fortune into good fortune."

One of the men, who understood Arabic, said, "Brother, we are
inhabitants of this country and water our fields from this river. We
saw your raft, and one of us swam out and brought it here. Pray tell
us your history." After they had given me food, I told them my story,
and then they took me to their King. I told the King my adventures;
and when my raft was brought in, I showed him my rich goods and
precious stones. I saw that my jewels pleased him, and I said, "Sire,
I am at your Majesty's service, and all that I have is yours." He
answered, with a smile, "Sindbad, I will take nothing from you; far
from lessening your wealth, I mean to increase it."

I prayed the King to allow me to return to my own country, and he
granted me permission in the most honorable manner. He gave me a rich
present and a letter for the Commander of the Faithful, our sovereign,
saying to me, "I pray you, give this present and this letter to the
Caliph Harun-al-Rashid."

The letter was written on the skin of a certain animal of great value,
very scarce, and of a yellowish color. The characters of this letter
were of azure, and the contents as follows:

"The King of the Indies, before whom march one hundred elephants, who
lives in a palace that shines with one hundred thousand rubies, and
who has in his treasury twenty thousand crowns enriched with diamonds,
to Caliph Harun-al-Rashid "Though the present we send you be small,
receive it, however, as a brother and a friend, in consideration of
the hearty friendship which we bear for you, and of which we are
willing to give you proof. We send you this letter as from one brother
to another. Farewell."

The present consisted of one single ruby made into a cup, about half
a foot high and an inch thick, filled with round pearls large and
beautiful; the skin of a serpent, whose scales were as bright as an
ordinary piece of gold, and had the power to preserve from sickness
those who lay upon it; quantities of the best wood of aloes and
camphor; and, lastly, a wonderful robe covered with jewels of great
beauty.

The ship set sail, and after a successful voyage we landed at
Bussorah, and from there I went to the city of Baghdad, where the
first thing I did was to go to the palace of the Caliph.

Taking the King's letter, I presented myself at the gate of the
Commander of the Faithful and was conducted to the throne of the
Caliph. I presented the letter and gift. When he had finished reading,
he asked me if that ruler were really as rich as he represented
himself in his letter.

I said, "Commander of the Faithful, I can assure your Majesty he does
not stretch the truth. I bear him witness. Nothing is more worthy of
admiration than the splendor of his palace. When the King appears in
public, he has a throne fixed on the back of an elephant, and rides
betwixt two ranks of his ministers and favorites, and other people of
his court. Before him, upon the same elephant, an officer carries a
golden lance in his hand, and behind him there is another who strands
with a rod of gold, on the top of which is an emerald half a foot long
and an inch thick. "He is attended by one thousand men, clad in cloth
of gold, and mounted on elephants richly decked. The officer who is
before him cries from time to time, in a loud voice, 'Behold the great
monarch, the powerful Sultan of the Indies, the monarch greater than
Solomon and the powerful Maharaja. After he has pronounced these
words, the officer behind the throne cries in his turn, 'This monarch,
so great and so powerful, must die, must die, must die.' And the
officer before replies, 'Praise be to Him alone who liveth forever and
ever.'"

The Caliph was much pleased with my account, and sent me home with a
rich present.

Here Sindbad commanded another hundred sequins to be paid to Hindbad,
and begged his return on the morrow to hear of his last voyage.



THE LAST VOYAGE OF SINDBAD THE SAILOR

On the seventh day, after dinner, Sindbad told the story of his last
voyage:

On my return home from my sixth voyage, I had entirely given up all
thoughts of again going to sea; for, not only did my age now
require rest, but I was resolved to run no more such risks as I had
encountered, so that I thought of nothing but to pass the rest of my
days in peace.

One day, however, an officer of the Caliph inquired for me. "The
Caliph," said he, "has sent me to tell you that he must speak with
you." I followed the officer to the palace, where, being presented to
the Caliph, I saluted him, throwing myself at his feet.

"Sindbad," said he to me, "I stand in need of your service; you must
carry my answer and present to the King of the Indies."

This command of the Caliph was to me like a clap of thunder.
"Commander of the Faithful," I replied, "I am ready to do whatever
your Majesty shall think fit to command; but I beg you most humbly to
consider what I have undergone. I have also made a vow never to leave
Baghdad."

The Caliph insisted, and I finally told him that I was willing to
obey. He was pleased, and gave me one thousand sequins for the
expenses of my journey.

I prepared for my departure in a few days. As soon as the Caliph's
letter and present were delivered to me, I went to Bussorah, where I
embarked, and had a safe voyage. Having arrived at the capital of the
Indies, I was shown to the palace with much pomp, when I prostrated
myself on the ground before the King.

"Sindbad," said the King, "you are welcome; I have many times thought
of you; I bless the day on which I see you once more." I thanked him
for his kindness, and delivered the gifts from my master.

The Caliph's present was a complete suit of cloth of gold, fifty robes
of rich stuff, a hundred of white cloth, the finest of Cairo, Suez,
and Alexandria; a vessel of agate, more broad than deep, an inch
thick, and half a foot long, the bottom of which was carved to
represent a man with one knee on the ground, who held a bow and arrow,
ready to discharge at a lion. He sent him also a rich tablet, which,
according to tradition, had belonged to the great Solomon.

The King of the Indies was highly gratified at the Caliph's mark of
friendship. A little time after this I asked leave to depart, and with
much difficulty obtained it. The King, when he dismissed me, made me
a very splendid present. I embarked for Baghdad, but had not the good
fortune to arrive there so speedily as I had hoped. Three or four days
after my departure we were attacked by pirates, who seized upon our
ship, because it was not a vessel of war. Some of the crew fought
back, which cost them their lives. But myself and the rest, who were
not so rash, the pirates saved, and carried into a distant island,
where they sold us.

I fell into the hands of a rich merchant, who, as soon as he bought
me, took me to his house, treated me well, and clad me handsomely as
a slave. Some days after, he asked me if I understood any trade. I
answered that I was no mechanic, but a merchant, and that the pirates
who sold me had robbed me of all I had.

"Tell me," he said, "can you shoot with a bow?" I answered that the
bow was one of my exercises in my youth.

Then my master told me to climb into a tree and shoot at the elephants
as they passed and let him know as soon as I killed one, in order that
he might get the tusks. I hid as he told me, and as I was successful
the first day, he sent me day after day, for two months.

One morning the elephants surrounded my tree, and the largest pulled
up the tree with his trunk and threw it on the ground. Then, picking
me up, he laid me on his back and carried me to a hill almost covered
with the bones and tusks of elephants. I knew that this must be the
burial place of the elephants and they had brought me here to show me
that I could get vast quantities of ivory without killing any more
elephants.

I went back to the city and told my master all that had happened.
He was overjoyed at my escape from death and the riches which I had
obtained for him. As a reward for my services he set me free and
promised to send me home as soon as the trade winds brought the ships
for ivory.

A ship arrived at last, and my master loaded one half of it with ivory
for me. When we reached a port on the mainland, I landed my ivory and
set out for home with a caravan of merchants. I was a long time on the
journey, but was happy in thinking that I had nothing to fear from
the sea or from pirates. At last I arrived at Baghdad, and the Caliph
loaded me with honors and rich presents.

Sindbad here finished the story of his seventh and last voyage. Then
addressing himself to Hindbad, he said, "Well, friend, did you ever
hear of any person who had suffered as much as I have?"

Hindbad kissed Sindbad's hand and said, "Sir, my afflictions are not
to be compared with yours. You not only deserve a quiet life, but are
worthy of all the riches you possess. May you live happily for a long
time."

Sindbad ordered him to be paid another hundred sequins and told him to
give up carrying burdens and to eat henceforth at his table, for he
wished him to remember that he would always have a friend in Sindbad
the Sailor.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. Why did Sindbad tell the story of his voyages? 2.
What was the effect of these stories upon Hindbad? 3. If Hindbad had
desired to become as rich as Sindbad, what should he have done, and
what price would he have paid? 4. Why did Sindbad give money to his
guest at the end of each story? 5. Did he do other good deeds with his
money? 6. In each of these three long stories, of Aladdin, Ali Baba,
and Sindbad the Sailor, what do you learn about the duty of men who
have by chance or by their own hard work succeeded in acquiring
riches? 7. How many voyages did Sindbad make to satisfy his love of
adventure? 8. Which voyage was undertaken to please someone else? 9.
Mention some things that Sindbad sold at great profit. 10. Where are
these articles most used or valued? 11. Why was it so difficult to
travel by water at the time Sindbad lived? 12. What do we learn about
Sindbad's character from the story of his voyages? 13. What do we
learn about Sindbad's character from his treatment of Hindbad? 14.
What parts of the story show that people in Sindbad's time knew very
little about geography? 15. Which of Sindbad's seven voyages is the
most interesting to you? 16. What have you learned of Eastern customs
from this story? 17. Earlier you were told why we read adventure
stories of this kind; show why you think the Arabian Nights stories
have the two values mentioned. 18. Class readings: Select passages to
be read aloud. 19. Outline for testing silent reading. Tell in your
own words the story of each of the voyages of Sindbad, using the topic
headings given in the book. If possible, try to tell these stories to
some child who cannot read them. 20. The Arabian Nights by Wiggin and
Smith was illustrated by the famous American artist, Maxfield Parrish;
you will enjoy looking at these pictures. 21. Find in the Glossary the
meaning of: mansion; grave; humor; ointment; sandalwood; repentance;
turban; shipping; traffic; azure. 22. Pronounce: Caliph;
Harun-al-Rashid; savory; repast; becalmed; Maharaja; rarities; aloes;
sequin; roc; desert; Arabic; sovereign; tradition.

Phrases for Study

attend his pleasure, Commander of the Faithful, bountiful traveler,
trade winds.



THE STORY OF ROBIN HOOD

(Ed.--This story, in it's original, uncondensed version, in addition
searching in the index for the title Robin Hood.)


THE HOME OF ROBIN IN SHERWOOD FOREST

Many hundreds of years ago, when the Plantagenets were kings, England
was so covered with woods that a squirrel was said to be able to hop
from tree to tree from the Severn to the Humber.

It must have been very different-looking from the country we travel
through now; but still there were roads that ran from north to south
and from east to west, for the use of those who wished to leave their
homes, and at certain times of the year these roads were thronged with
people. Pilgrims going to some holy shrine passed along, merchants
taking their wares to Court, Abbots and Bishops ambling by on palfreys
to bear their part in the King's Council, and, more frequently still,
a solitary Knight, seeking adventures.

Besides the broad roads there were small tracks and little green
paths, and these led to clumps of low huts, where dwelt the peasants,
charcoal-burners, and plowmen, while here and there some larger
clearing than usual told that the house of a yeoman was near.

Now and then as you passed through the forest you might ride by a
splendid abbey, and catch a glimpse of monks in long black or white
gowns, fishing in the streams and rivers that abound in this part of
England, or casting nets in the fish ponds which were in the midst
of the abbey gardens. Or you might chance to see a castle with round
turrets and high battlements, circled by strong walls, and protected
by a moat full of water.

This was the sort of England into which the famous Robin Hood was
born. We know very little about him, who he was, or where he lived,
except that for some reason he had offended the King, who had declared
him an outlaw, so that any man might kill him and never pay a penalty
for it.

But, outlaw or not, the poor people loved him and looked on him as
their friend, and many a stout fellow came to join him, and led a
merry life in the greenwood, with moss and fern for bed, and for meat
the King's deer, which it was death to slay.

Peasants of all sorts, tillers of the land, yeomen, and, as some say,
Knights, went on their ways freely, for of them Robin took no toll;
but rich men with moneybags well filled trembled as they drew near to
Sherwood Forest--who was to know whether behind every tree there did
not lurk Robin Hood or some of his men?


THE COMING OF LITTLE JOHN

One day Robin was walking alone in the wood, and reached a river which
was spanned by a very narrow bridge, over which one man only could
pass. In the middle stood a stranger, and Robin bade him go back and
let him go over. "I am no man of yours," was all the answer Robin got,
and in anger he drew his bow and fitted an arrow to it.

"Would you shoot a man who has no arms but a staff?" asked the
stranger in scorn; and with shame Robin laid down his bow, and
unbuckled an oaken stick at his side. "We will fight till one of us
falls into the water," he said; and fight they did, till the stranger
planted a blow so well that Robin rolled over into the river.

"You are a brave soul," said he, when he had waded to land; and he
blew a blast with his horn which brought fifty good fellows, clad in
green, to the little bridge. "Have you fallen into the river, that
your clothes are wet?" asked one; and Robin made answer, "No, but this
stranger, fighting on the bridge, got the better of me and tumbled me
into the stream."

At this the foresters seized the stranger and would have ducked him,
had not their leader bade them stop and begged the stranger to stay
with them and make one of themselves. "Here is my hand," replied the
stranger, "and my heart with it. My name, if you would know it, is
John Little."

"That must be altered," cried Will Scarlett; "we will call a feast,
and henceforth, because he is full seven feet tall and round the waist
at least an ell, he shall be called Little John."

And thus it was done; but at the feast Little John, who always liked
to know exactly what work he had to do, put some questions to Robin
Hood. "Before I join hands with you, tell me first what sort of life
this is you lead. How am I to know whose goods I shall take, and
whose I shall leave? Whom shall I beat, and whom shall I refrain from
beating?"

And Robin answered: "Look that you harm not any tiller of the ground,
nor any yeoman of the greenwood--no, nor any knight or squire, unless
you have heard him ill spoken of. But if rich men with moneybags come
your way, see that you spoil THEM, and mark that you always hold in
your mind the High Sheriff of Nottingham."

This being settled, Robin Hood declared Little John to be second in
command to himself among the brotherhood of the forest, and the
new outlaw never forgot to hold in his mind the High Sheriff of
Nottingham, who was the bitterest enemy the foresters had.

Robin Hood, however, had no liking for a company of idle men about
him, so he at once sent off Little John and Will Scarlett to the great
road known as Wafting Street with orders to hide among the trees and
wait till some adventure might come to them. If they took captive Earl
or Baron, Abbot or Knight, he was to be brought unharmed back to Robin
Hood.

But all along Wafting Street the road was bare; white and hard it lay
in the sun, without the tiniest cloud of dust to show that a rich
company might be coming; east and west the land lay still.


LITTLE JOHN'S FIRST ADVENTURE

At length, just where a side path turned into the broad highway, there
rode a Knight, and a sorrier man than he never sat a horse on a summer
day. One foot only was in the stirrup; the other hung carelessly by
his side. His head was bowed, the reins dropped loose, and his horse
went on as he would. At so sad a sight the hearts of the outlaws were
filled with pity, and Little John fell on his knees and bade the
Knight welcome in the name of his master. "Who is your master?" asked
the Knight.

"Robin Hood," answered Little John.

"I have heard much good of him," replied the Knight, "and will go with
you gladly."

Then they all set off together, tears running down the Knight's cheeks
as he rode. But he said nothing; neither was anything said to him. And
in this wise they came to Robin Hood.

"Welcome, Sir Knight," cried he, "and thrice welcome, for I waited to
break my fast till you or some other had come to me." "God save you,
good Robin," answered the Knight; and after they had washed themselves
in the stream, they sat down to dine off bread and wine, with flesh of
the King's deer, and swans and pheasants. "Such a dinner have I not
had for three weeks and more," said the Knight.

"And if I ever come again this way, good Robin, I will give you as
fine a dinner as you have given me."

"I thank you," replied Robin; "my dinner is always welcome; still, I
am none so greedy but I can wait for it. But before you go, pay me, I
pray you, for the food which you have had. It was never the custom for
a yeoman to pay for a Knight."

"My bag is empty," said the Knight, "save for ten shillings only."

"Go, Little John, and look in his wallet," said Robin, "and, Sir
Knight, if in truth you have no more, not one penny will I take; nay,
I will give you all that you shall need."

So Little John spread out the Knight's mantle, and opened the bag, and
therein lay ten shillings and naught besides.

"What tidings, Little John?" cried his master.

"Sir, the Knight speaks truly," said Little John.

"Then fill a cup of the best wine and tell me Sir Knight, whether it
is your own ill doings which have brought you to this sorry pass."

"For a hundred years my fathers have dwelt in the forest," answered
the Knight, "and four hundred pounds might they spend yearly. But
within two years misfortune has befallen me, and my wife and children
also."

"How did this evil come to pass?" asked Robin.

"Through my own folly," answered the Knight, "and because of the great
love I bore my son, who would never be guided of my counsel, and slew,
ere he was twenty years old, a Knight of Lancaster and his squire. For
their deaths I had to pay a large sum, which I could not raise without
giving my lands in pledge to a rich man at York. If I cannot give him
the money by a certain day, they will be lost to me forever."

"What is the sum?" asked Robin. "Tell me truly."

"It is four hundred pounds," said the Knight.

"And what will you do if you lose your lands?" asked Robin again.

"Hie myself over the sea," said the Knight, "and bid farewell to my
friends and country. There is no better way open to me."

As he spoke, tears fell from his eyes, and he turned to depart.

"Good day, my friend," he said to Robin; "I cannot pay you what I
should--" But Robin held him fast. "Where are your friends?" asked he.

"Sir, they have all forsaken me, since I became poor, and they turn
away their heads if we meet upon the road, though when I was rich they
were ever in my castle."

When Little John and Will Scarlett and the rest heard this, they wept
for very shame and fury, and Robin bade them fill a cup of the best
wine and give it to the Knight.

"Have you no one who would stay surety for you?" said he.

"None," answered the Knight; "there is no one who will stay surety for
me."

"You speak well," said Robin, "and you, Little John, go to my treasure
chest, and bring me thence four hundred pounds. And be sure you count
it truly."

So Little John went, and Will Scarlett, and they brought back the
money.

"Sir," said Little John, when Robin had counted it and found it no
more and no less, "look at his clothes, how thin they are! You have
stores of garments, green and scarlet, in your coffers--no merchant in
England can boast the like. I will measure some out with my bow." And
thus he did.

"Master," spoke Little John again, "there is still something else. You
must give him a horse, that he may go as beseems his quality to York."

"Take the gray horse," said Robin, "and put a new saddle on it, and
take likewise a good palfrey and a pair of boots, with gilt Spurs on
them. And as it would be a shame for a Knight to ride by himself on
this errand, I will lend you Little John as squire--perchance he may
stand you in yeoman's stead."

"When shall we meet again?" asked the Knight.

"This day twelve months," said Robin, "under the greenwood tree."


THE KNIGHT WINS BACK HIS LANDS

Then the Knight rode on his way, with Little John behind him, and as
he went he thought of Robin Hood and his men, and blessed them for the
goodness they had shown toward him.

"Tomorrow," he said to Little John, "I must be in the city of York,
for if I am so much as a day late, my lands are lost forever; and
though I were to bring the money, I should not be allowed to redeem
them."

Now the man who had lent the money, as well as the Knight, had been
counting the days, and the next day he said to his friends, "This
day year there came a Knight and borrowed of me four hundred pounds,
giving his lands as surety. If he come not to pay his debt before
midnight, they will be mine forever."

"It is full early yet," said one; "he may still be coming."

"He is far beyond the sea and suffers from hunger and cold," said the
rich man. "How is he to get here?"

"It were a shame," said another, "for you to take his lands. And you
do him much wrong if you drive such a hard bargain."

"He is dead or hanged," said a third, "and you will have his lands."

So they went to the High Justiciar, whose duty it would be to declare
the Knight's lands forfeited if he did not pay the money.

"If he come not this day," cried the rich man, rubbing his hands, "the
lands will be mine."

"He will not come," said the Justiciar, but he knew not that the
Knight was already at the outer gate, and Little John with him.

"Welcome, Sir Knight," said the porter. "The horse that you ride is
the noblest that ever I saw. Let me lead it and the steed of your
companion to the stable, that they may have food and rest."

"They shall not pass these gates," answered the Knight sternly, and he
entered the hall alone.

"I have come back, my lord," he said, kneeling down before the rich
man, who had just returned from court. "Have you brought my money?"

"I have come to pray you to give me more time," said the Knight.

"The day was fixed and cannot be gainsaid," answered the Justiciar,
who was sitting at meat with others in the hall.

The Knight begged the Justiciar to be his friend and help him, but he
refused.

"Give me one more chance to get the money and free my lands," prayed
the Knight. "I will serve you day and night till I have four hundred
pounds to redeem them." But the rich man only vowed that the money
must be paid that day or the lands be forfeited.

Then the Knight stood up straight and tall.

"You are not courteous," he said, "to make a Knight kneel so long. But
it is well to prove one's friends against the hour of need."

Then he looked the rich man full in the face, and the man felt uneasy
and hated the Knight more than ever. "Out of my hall, false Knight,"
he cried, pretending to a courage he did not feel.

But the Knight answered him, "Never was I false, and that I have shown
in jousts and in tourneys."

"Give him two hundred pounds more," said the Justiciar to the rich
man, "and keep the lands yourself."

"No," cried the Knight, "not if you offered me a thousand pounds would
I do it. No one here shall be heir of mine." Then he strode up to a
table and emptied out four hundred pounds. "Take your gold which you
lent to me a year agone," he said. "Had you but received me civilly, I
would have paid you something more."

Then he passed out of the hall singing merrily and rode back to his
house, where his wife met him at the gate.

He went forth full merrily singing, As men have told in tale; His lady
met him at the gate, At home in Wierysdale.

"Welcome, my lord," said his lady; "Sir, lost is all your good." "Be
merry, dame," said the Knight, "And pray for Robin Hood."

Then he told how Robin Hood had befriended him, and how he had
redeemed his lands, and finished his tale by praising the outlaw. "But
for his kindness," he said, "we had been beggars."

After this the Knight dwelt at home, looking after his lands and
saving his money carefully, till the four hundred pounds lay ready for
Robin Hood. Then he bought a hundred bows and a hundred arrows, and
every arrow was an ell long, and had a head of silver and peacock's
feathers. And clothing himself in white and red, and with a hundred
men in his train, he set off to Sherwood Forest.

On the way he passed an open space near a bridge where there was a
wrestling, and the Knight stopped and looked, for he himself had taken
many a prize in that sport. Here the prizes were such as to fill any
man with envy: a fine horse, saddled and bridled, a great white bull,
a pair of gloves, and a ring of bright, red gold.

There was not a yeoman present who did not hope to win one of them.
But when the wrestling was over, the yeoman who had beaten them all
was a man who kept apart from his fellows and was said to think much
of himself.

Therefore the men grudged him his skill, and set upon him with blows,
and would have killed him had not the Knight, for love of Robin Hood,
taken pity on him, while his followers fought with the crowd, and
would not suffer them to touch the prizes a better man had won.

When the wrestling was finished, the Knight rode on, and there under
the greenwood tree, in the place appointed, he found Robin and his
merry men waiting for him, according to the tryst that they had fixed
last year.

    "God save thee, Robin Hood,
    And all this company."
    "Welcome be thou, gentle Knight,
    And right welcome to me.

    "Hast thou thy land again?" said Robin;
    "Truth then tell thou me."
    "Yea, 'fore God," said the Knight,
    "And for it thank I God and thee.

    "Have here four hundred pounds,
    The which you lent to me;
    And here are also twenty marks
    For your courtesie."

But Robin would not take the money. A miracle had happened, he said,
and it had been paid to him, and shame would it be for him to take it
twice over.

Then he noticed for the first time the bows and arrows which the
Knight had brought, and asked what they were. "A poor present to you,"
answered the Knight; and Robin, who would not be outdone, sent Little
John once more to his treasury, and bade him bring forth four hundred
pounds, which were given to the Knight.

After that they parted, in much love; and Robin prayed the Knight if
he were in any strait to let him know at the greenwood tree, and while
there was any gold there he should have it.


HOW LITTLE JOHN BECAME THE SHERIFF'S SERVANT

Meanwhile the High Sheriff of Nottingham proclaimed a great
shooting-match in a broad open space, and Little John was minded to
try his skill with the rest. He rode through the forest, whistling
gaily to himself, for well he knew that not one of Robin Hood's men
could send an arrow as straight as he, and he felt little fear of
anyone else.

When he reached the trysting place, he found a large company
assembled, the Sheriff with them, and the rules of the match were read
out: where they were to stand, how far the mark was to be, and that
three tries should be given to every man.

Some of the shooters shot near the mark; some of them even touched it;
but none but Little John split the slender wand of willow with every
arrow that flew from his bow.

At this sight the Sheriff of Nottingham swore that Little John was the
best archer that ever he had seen, and asked him who he was and where
he was born, and vowed that if he would enter his service he would
give twenty marks a year to so good a bowman.

Little John, who did not wish to confess that he was one of Robin
Hood's men and an outlaw, said his name was Reynold Greenleaf, and
that he was in the service of a Knight, whose leave he must get before
he became the servant of any man.

This was given heartily by the Knight whose lands had been saved by
the kindness of Robin Hood, and Little John bound himself to the
Sheriff for the space of twelve months, and was given a good white
horse to ride on whenever he went abroad. But for all that, he did not
like his bargain, and made up his mind to do the Sheriff, who was
hated of the outlaws, all the mischief he could.

His chance came on a Wednesday, when the Sheriff always went hunting,
and Little John lay in bed till noon, or till he grew hungry. Then he
got up and told the steward that he wanted some dinner. The steward
answered that he should have nothing till the Sheriff came home; so
Little John grumbled and left him, and sought out the butler.

Here he was no more successful than before; the butler just went to
the buttery door and locked it, and told Little John that he would
have to make himself happy till his lord returned.

Rude words mattered nothing to Little John, who was not, accustomed to
be balked by trifles; so he gave a mighty kick, which burst open the
door, and then ate and drank as much as he would, and when he had
finished all there was in the buttery, he went down into the kitchen.

Now the Sheriff's cook was a strong man and a bold one, and had no
mind to let another man play the king in his kitchen; so he gave
Little John three smart blows, which were returned heartily. "Thou art
a brave man and hardy," said Little John, "and a good fighter withal.
I have a sword; take you another, and let us see which is the better
man of us twain."

The cook did as he was bid, and for two hours they fought, neither of
them harming the other. "Fellow," said Little John at last, "you are
one of the best swordsmen that I ever saw--and if you could shoot as
well with the bow, I would take you back to the merry greenwood, and
Robin Hood would give you twenty marks a year and two changes of
clothing."

"Put up your sword," said the cook, "and I will go with you. But first
we will have some food in my kitchen, and carry off a little of the
gold and silver that is in the Sheriff's treasure house."

They ate and drank till they wanted no more, and they broke the locks
of the treasure house, and took of the silver as much as they could
carry, and of the gold, three hundred pounds and more, and departed
unseen by anyone to Robin in the forest.

"Welcome! welcome!" cried Robin, when he saw them; "a welcome, too,
to the fair yeoman you bring with you. What tidings from Nottingham,
Little John?"

"The proud Sheriff greets you, and sends you by my hand his cook and
his silver vessels, and three hundred pounds and three also."

Robin shook his head, for he knew better than to believe Little John's
tale. "It was never by his good will that you brought such treasure to
me," he answered; and Little John, fearing that he might be ordered to
take it back again, slipped away into the forest to carry out a plan
that had just come into his head.

He ran straight on for five miles, till he came up with the Sheriff,
who was still hunting, and flung himself on his knees before him.

"Reynold Greenleaf," cried the Sheriff, "what are you doing here, and
where have you been?"

"I have been in the forest, where I saw a fair hart of a green color,
and seven score deer feeding hard by."

"That sight would I see too," said the Sheriff.

"Then follow me," answered Little John, and he ran back the way he
came, the Sheriff following on horseback, till they turned a corner of
the forest, and found themselves in Robin Hood's presence. "Sir, here
is the master hart," said Little John.

Still stood the proud Sheriff; A sorry man was he. "Woe be to you,
Reynold Greenleaf; Thou hast betrayed me!"

"It was not my fault," answered Little John, "but the fault of your
servants, master; for they would not give me my dinner." So he went
away to see to the supper.

It was spread under the greenwood tree, and they sat down to it,
hungry men all. But when the Sheriff saw himself served from his own
dishes, his appetite went from him.

"Take heart, man," said Robin Hood, "and think not we will poison you.
For charity's sake, and for the love of Little John, your life shall
be granted you. Only for twelve months you shall dwell with me, and
learn what it is to be an outlaw."

To the Sheriff this punishment was worse to bear than the loss of
gold, or silver dishes, and earnestly he begged Robin Hood to set him
free, vowing he would prove himself the best friend that ever the
foresters had.

Neither Robin nor any of his men believed him; but he swore that he
would never seek to do them harm, and that if he found any of them in
evil plight he would deliver them out of it. With that Robin let him
go.


HOW ROBIN MET FRIAR TUCK

In many ways life in the forest was dull in the winter, and often the
days passed slowly; but in summer, when the leaves were green, and
flowers and ferns covered all the woodland, Robin Hood and his men
would come out of their warm resting places, like the rabbits and the
squirrels, and would play, too. Races they ran to stretch their legs,
or leaping matches were arranged, or they would shoot at a mark.
Anything was pleasant when the grass was soft once more under their
feet.

"Who of you can kill a hart five hundred paces off?" So said Robin to
his men one bright May morning; and they went into the wood and tried
their skill, and in the end it was Little John who brought down the
hart, to the great joy of Robin Hood.

"I would ride my horse a hundred miles to find one who could match
with thee," he said to Little John; and Will Scarlett, who was perhaps
rather jealous of this mighty deed, answered, with a laugh, "There
lives a friar in Fountains Abbey who would beat both him and you."

Now Robin Hood did not like to be told that any man could shoot better
than himself or his foresters; so he swore lustily that he would
neither eat nor drink till he had seen that friar. Leaving his men
where they were, he put on a coat of mail and a steel cap, took his
shield and sword, slung his bow over his shoulder, and filled his
quiver with arrows. Thus armed, he set forth to Fountains Dale.

By the side of the river a friar was walking, armed like Robin, but
without a bow. At this sight Robin jumped from his horse, which he
tied to a thorn, and called to the friar to carry him over the water,
or it would cost him his life.

The friar said nothing, but hoisted Robin on his broad back and
marched into the river. Not a word was spoken till they reached the
other side, when Robin leaped, lightly down, and was going on his way.
Then the friar stopped him. "Not so fast, my fine fellow," said he.
"It is my turn now, and you shall take me across the river, or woe
will betide you."

So Robin carried him, and when they had reached the side from which
they had started, he set down the friar and jumped for the second
time on his back, and bade him take him whence he had come. The friar
strode into the stream with his burden, but as soon as they got to the
middle he bent his head, and Robin fell into the water. "Now you can
sink or swim, as you like," said the friar, as he stood and laughed.

Robin Hood swam to a bush of golden broom, and pulled himself out of
the water; and while the friar was scrambling out, Robin fitted an
arrow to his bow and let fly at him. But the friar quickly held up his
shield, and the arrow fell harmless.

"Shoot on, my fine fellow; shoot on all day if you like," shouted the
friar; and Robin shot till his arrows were gone, but always missed his
mark. Then they took their swords, and at four of the afternoon they
were still fighting.

By this time Robin's strength was wearing, and he felt he could not
fight much more. "A boon, a boon!" cried he. "Let me but blow three
blasts on my horn, and I will thank you on my bended knees for it."

The friar told him to blow as many blasts as he liked, and in an
instant the forest echoed with his horn; it was but a few minutes
before half a hundred yeomen were racing over the lea. The friar
stared when he saw them; then, turning to Robin, he begged of him a
boon also; and leave being granted, he gave three whistles, which were
followed by the noise of a great crashing through the trees, as fifty
great dogs bounded toward him.

"Here's a dog for each of your men," said the friar, "and I myself for
you"; but the dogs did not listen to his words, for two of them rushed
at Robin and tore his mantle of Lincoln green from off his back. His
men were kept busy defending themselves, for every arrow shot at a dog
was caught and held in the creature's mouth.

Robin's men were not used to fight with dogs, and felt they were
getting beaten. At last Little John bade the friar call off his dogs,
and as he did not do so, he let fly some arrows, which this time left
half a dozen dead on the ground.

"Hold, hold, my good fellow," said the friar, "till your master and I
can come to a bargain"; and when the bargain was made, this was how
it ran: that the friar was to forswear Fountains Abbey and join
Robin Hood, and that he should be paid a golden noble every Sunday
throughout the year, besides a change of clothes on each holy day.

This Friar had kept Fountains Dale Seven long years or more; There was
neither Knight, nor Lord, nor Earl Could make him yield before.

But now he became one of the most famous members of Robin Hood's men
under the name of Friar Tuck.


HOW ROBIN HOOD AND LITTLE JOHN FELL OUT

One Whitsunday morning, when the sun was shining and the birds
singing, Robin Hood called to Little John to come with him into
Nottingham to church. As was their custom, they took their bows, and
on the way Little John proposed that they should shoot a match, with a
penny for a wager.

Robin, who held that he shot better than any Other man living, laughed
in scorn, and told Little John that he should have three tries to his
master's one, which John without more ado accepted.

But Robin soon repented both of his offer and his scorn, for Little
John speedily won five shillings, whereat Robin became angry and smote
Little John with his hand. Little John was not the man to bear being
treated so, and he told Robin roundly that he would never more own him
for master, and straightway turned back into the wood.

At this, Robin was ashamed of what he had done, but his pride would
not suffer him to say so; and he continued his way to Nottingham, and
entered the Church of St. Mary, not without secret fears, for the
Sheriff of the town was ever his enemy. However, there he was, and
there he meant to stay.

He knelt down in the sight of all the people; but none knew him save
one man only, and he stole out of church and ran to the Sheriff and
bade him come quickly and take his foe.

The Sheriff was not slow to do what he was bidden, and, calling his
men to follow him, he marched to the church. The noise they made in
entering caused Robin to look round. "Alas, alas," he said to himself,
"now miss I Little John."

But he drew his two-handed sword and laid about him in such wise that
twelve of the Sheriff's men lay dead before him. Then Robin found
himself face to face with the Sheriff, and gave him a fierce blow; but
his sword broke on the Sheriff's head, and he had shot away all his
arrows. So the men closed round him and bound his arms.

Ill news travels fast, and not many hours had passed before the
foresters heard that their master was in prison. They wept and moaned
and wrung their hands, and seemed to have gone suddenly mad, till
Little John bade them pluck up their hearts and help him deal with the
Sheriff.

The next morning Little John hid himself and waited with a comrade
till he saw a messenger riding along the road, carrying letters from
the Sheriff to the King, telling him of the capture of Robin Hood.

"Whence come you?" asked Little John, going up to the messenger, "and
can you give us tidings of an outlaw named Robin Hood, who was taken
prisoner yesterday?"

"You may thank me that he is taken," said the rider, "for I laid hands
on him."

"I thank you so much that I and my friend will bear you company," said
Little John, "for in this forest are many wild men who own Robin Hood
for leader, and you ride along this road at the peril of your life."

They went on together, talking the while, when suddenly Little John
seized the horse by the head and pulled down the rider.

"He was my master," said Little John, "That you have brought to bale;
Never shall you come at the King For to tell him that tale."

Then taking the letters, Little John carried them to the King.

When they arrived at the palace in the presence of the King, Little
John and his companion fell on their knees and held out the letters.
"God save you, my liege lord," they said, and the King unfolded the
letters and read them.

Then he handed his own seal to Little John and ordered him to bear it
to the Sheriff and bid him without delay bring Robin Hood unhurt into
his presence. "There never was yeoman in Merry England that I longed
so sore to see," he said.

The King also ordered his treasurer to give the messengers twenty
pounds each, and made them yeomen of the crown.

Little John took the King's seal to the Sheriff, who made him and his
companion welcome because they came from the King. He set a feast for
them, and after he had eaten he fell asleep. Then the two outlaws
stole softly to the prison. They overpowered the guard and, taking the
keys, hunted through the cells until they found Robin Hood. Little
John whispered to his master to follow him, and they crept along till
they reached the lowest part of the city wall, from which they jumped
and were safe and free.

"Now, farewell," said Little John; "I have done you a good turn for an
ill." "Not so," answered Robin Hood; "I make you master of my men and
me." But Little John would hear nothing of it. "I only wish to be your
comrade, and thus it shall be," he replied.

"Little John has beguiled us both," said the King, when he heard of
the adventure.


HOW THE KING VISITED ROBIN HOOD

Now the King had no mind that Robin Hood should do as he willed, and
called his Knights to follow him to Nottingham, where they would lay
plans how best to take captive the outlaw. Here they heard sad tales
of Robin's misdoings, and how of the many herds of wild deer that had
roamed the forest, in some places scarce one deer remained. This was
the work of Robin Hood and his merry men, on whom the King swore
vengeance with a great oath.

"I would I had this Robin Hood in my hands," cried he, "and an end
should soon be put to his doings." So spake the King; but an old
Knight, full of days and wisdom, answered him and warned him that the
task of taking Robin Hood would be a sore one, and best let alone. The
King, who had seen the vanity of his hot words the moment that he had
uttered them, listened to the old man and resolved to bide his time
until perchance some day Robin should fall into his power.

All this time, and for six weeks later that he dwelt in Nottingham,
the King could hear nothing of Robin, who seemed to have vanished
into the earth with his merry men, though one by one the deer were
vanishing, too. At last one day a forester came to the King and told
him that if he would see Robin he must come with him and take five of
his best Knights. The King eagerly sprang up to do his bidding, and
the six men, clad in monks' clothes, mounted their palfreys and rode
merrily along, the King wearing an Abbot's broad hat over his crown,
and singing as he passed through the greenwood. Suddenly at the turn
of a path Robin and his archers appeared before them.

"By your leave, Sir Abbot," said Robin, seizing the King's bridle,
"you will stay a while with us. Know that we are yeomen, who live upon
the King's deer, and other food have we none. Now you have abbeys and
churches, and gold in plenty; therefore give us some of it, in the
name of holy charity."

"I have no more than forty pounds with me," answered the King, "but
sorry I am it is not a hundred, for you should have it all."

So Robin took the forty pounds, and gave half to his men, and then
told the King he might go on his way. "I thank you," said the King,
"but I would have you know that our liege lord has bid me bear you his
seal and pray you to come to Nottingham."

At this message Robin bent his knee.

    "I love no man in all the world
    So well as I do my King,"

he cried, "and Sir Abbot, for thy tidings, which fill my heart with
joy, today thou shalt dine with me, for love of my King."

Then he led the King into an open place, and Robin took a horn and
blew it loud, and at its blast seven score of young men came speedily
to do his will.

"They are quicker to do his bidding than my men are to do mine," said
the King to himself.

Speedily the foresters set out the dinner, roasts of venison and
loaves of white bread, and Robin and Little John served the King.
"Make good cheer," said Robin, "Abbot, for charity, and then you shall
see what sort of life we lead, so that you may tell our King."

When he had finished eating, the archers took their bows and hung
rose-garlands up with a string, and every man was to shoot through the
garland. If he failed, he should have a buffet on the head from Robin.

Good bowmen as they were, few managed to stand the test. Little John
and Will Scarlett and Much all shot wide of the mark, and at length no
one was left in but Robin himself and Gilbert of the Wide Hand. Then
Robin fired his last bolt, and it fell three fingers from the garland.
"Master," said Gilbert, "you have lost; stand forth and take your
punishment, as was agreed."

"I will take it," answered Robin, "but, Sir Abbot, I pray you that I
may suffer it at your hands."

The King hesitated. "It does not become me," he said, "to smite such
a stout yeoman"; but Robin bade him smite on and spare him not; so he
turned up his sleeve, and gave Robin such a lusty buffet on the head
that he lost his feet and rolled upon the ground.

"There is pith in your arm," said Robin. "Come, shoot a main with me."
And the King took up a bow, and in so doing his hat fell back, and
Robin saw his face.

"My lord the King of England, now I know you well," cried he; and he
fell on his knees, and all the outlaws with him. "Mercy I ask, my lord
the King, for all my brave foresters and me."

"Mercy I grant," then said the King; "and therefore I came hither, to
bid you and your men leave the greenwood and dwell in my Court with
me."

"So shall it be," answered Robin; "I and my men will come to your
Court, and see how your service liketh us."


ROBIN AT COURT

"Have you any green cloth," asked the King, "that you could sell to
me?" and Robin brought out thirty yards and more, and clad the King
and his men in coats of Lincoln green. "Now we will all ride to
Nottingham," said he, and they went merrily, shooting by the way.

The people of Nottingham saw them coming and trembled as they watched
the dark mass of Lincoln green drawing near over the fields. "I fear
lest our King be slain," whispered one to another; "and if Robin Hood
gets into the town, there is not one of us whose life is safe"; and
every man, woman, and child made ready to flee.

The King laughed out when he saw their fright, and called them back.
Right glad were they to hear his voice, and they feasted and made
merry. A few days later the King returned to London, and Robin dwelt
in his Court for twelve months. By that time he had spent a hundred
pounds, for he gave largely to the Knights and squires he met, and
great renown he had for his open-handedness. But his men, who had been
born under the shadow of the forest, could not live amid streets and
houses. One by one they slipped away, till only Little John and Will
Scarlett were left. Then Robin himself grew homesick, and at the
sight of some young men shooting he thought upon the time when he was
accounted the best archer in all England, and went straightway to the
King and begged for leave to go on a pilgrimage.

"I may not say you nay," answered the King; "seven nights you may be
gone and no more." And Robin thanked him, and that evening set out for
the greenwood. It was early morning when he reached it at last, and
listened thirstily to the notes of singing birds, great and small.

"It seems long since I was here," he said to himself; "it would give
me great joy if I could bring down a deer once more"; and he shot a
great hart, and blew his horn, and all the outlaws of the forest came
flocking round him. "Welcome," they said, "our dear master, back to
the greenwood tree"; and they threw off their caps and fell on their
knees before him in delight at his return.

Naught that the King could say would tempt Robin Hood back again, and
he dwelt in the greenwood for two and twenty years after he had run
away from Court. And he was ever a faithful friend, kind to the poor,
and gentle to all women.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Historical Note. When William the Conqueror became King of England he
destroyed many villages and towns to make royal forests in which he
might enjoy his favorite sport of hunting. The most famous of the
hunting grounds was in Hampshire and was called the New Forest.
Hundreds of poor people were driven from their homes and left
shelterless that this hunting park might be made. In order to keep up
these hunting grounds, William and the Kings who followed him made
very severe laws for the protection of the deer. The temptation to
shoot these deer must have been very strong, especially to men living
near the forest, for the English at that time excelled all other
nations in the use of the long bow. In consequence of this, many men
killed the King's deer, and fled to the woods to escape punishment.
There they formed into bands and, knowing the forests so well, were
safe from the King's officers. Among these outlaws were many brave and
skillful archers, but none was ever more famous than the hero of this
story, Robin Hood.

Discussion. 1. Why was Robin Hood obliged to live in the forest? 2.
How did he win the friendship of Little John? 3. What did Robin Hood
tell him about the Sheriff of Nottingham? 4. Describe the appearance
of the Knight whom Little John met in the forest. 5. What foods were
prepared for the dinner which Robin Hood invited the Knight? 6. How
had these provisions been obtained? 7. What story did the Knight tell
to Robin Hood? 8. How did Robin Hood help him? 9. Where do you think
the treasure chest was kept? 10. From whom had this treasure been
taken? 11. How did the Knight show his gratitude after he regained his
lands? 12. Why did the Sheriff of Nottingham want Little John in his
service? 13. What thought was constantly in Little John's mind? 14.
How did he accomplish his purpose? 15. What explanation did he give to
Robin Hood for what he brought from the Sheriff's house? 16. How did
he induce the Sheriff to follow him to the place where Robin Hood was?
17. What punishment did Robin Hood decide upon for the Sheriff? Why
did he not carry it out? 18. How was Robin Hood captured by the
Sheriff? 19. What reason do you think the King had for wanting to see
Robin Hood? 20. What did he determine to do after Robin Hood's escape?
21. Find words in which Robin Hood expressed his love for his King.
22. What offer did the King make to Robin Hood and his men? Why did
the King make them such an offer? 23. Why did Robin dislike living at
Court? 24. How long did Robin Hood live in the greenwood after he left
the Court? 25. Under what conditions do you think life in the forest
would be pleasant? 26. What were these men obliged to give up when
they went into the forest to live? 27. What did they gain by living in
the forest? 28. When did Robin Hood show himself generous? 29. When
did Robin show himself merciful? 30. What do you think of Little
John's treatment of the Sheriff of Nottingham after he had lived in
his house? 31. When did Little John show himself a loyal friend? 32.
When did he show himself hard and cruel? 33. What things mentioned in
this story show that the manners and life of the people in England at
this time were rough? 34. What qualities were most admired in men at
the time of Robin Hood? 35. What was the reason for this? 36. Make a
list showing the good qualities of Robin Hood, such as his courtesy,
his justice, his sense of fair play. Mention the incidents that
illustrate each characteristic. 37. Show that this story has the two
values mentioned in the last paragraph of page 146. 38. Why did Robin
dislike the Sheriff? 39. Find, from the story, ways in which poor or
unfortunate men were oppressed by the laws in those days. 40. Did the
laws seem made to give equal justice to all, or unfair advantages to
the rich and powerful? 41. How do you think Robin felt about these
matters? 42. How did he try to take the side of the poor men who were
thus unfairly dealt with by the government? 43. Tell the story of
Friar Tuck. 44. Why did the King take such an interest in Robin? Do
you think the King was glad to get away from the Court? Why? 45. What
did he say about the way in which Robin was obeyed by his followers?
46. What does the Forward Look tell you about the source of this
story? 47. Class readings: Little John's first adventure, omitting all
but the dialogue, (3 pupils); Robin and his archers with the King;
Robin at the King's Court. 48. Outline for testing silent reading.
Tell the story of Robin Hood, using these topics: (a) the home of
Robin in Sherwood Forest; (b) the coming of Little John; (c) Little
John's first adventure, (d) the Knight's recovery of his lands; (e)
Little John as the Sheriff's servant; (f) Robin's meeting with Friar
Tuck; (g) the disagreement between Robin and Little John; (h) the
King's visit to Robin Hood; (i) Robin at Court. 49. You will enjoy
seeing the pictures in the edition of Robin Hood illustrated by N. C.
Wyeth. 50. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: abbey; battlements
ell; coffers; tourneys; hart; broom; boon; noble. 51. Pronounce:
Plantagenets; palfreys; peasants; yeoman; toll; pheasants; naught;
hie; surety; Justiciar; gainsaid; jousts; heir; tryst; steward;
balked; lea; ado; liege; beguiled; buffet.


Phrases for Study

King's Council, stout fellow, took no toll, break my fast, sorry pass,
guided of my counsel, stay surety, beseems his quality, stand you in
yeoman's stead, redeem them, was minded to try, without more ado, in
such wise, brought to bale, shoot a main, service liketh us.



GULLIVER'S TRAVELS

JONATHAN SWIFT


(Ed.--This story, in it's original, uncondensed version, in addition
searching in the index for the title Gulliver's Travels.)


GULLIVER SAILS FOR THE SOUTH SEA AND IS SHIPWRECKED

My name is Lemuel Gulliver, and my home is in Nottinghamshire. I went
to college at Cambridge, where I studied hard, for I knew my father
was not rich enough to keep me when I should become a man, and that I
must be able to earn my own living.

I decided to be a doctor, but as I had always longed to travel, I
learned to be a good sailor as well. When I had succeeded in becoming
both doctor and sailor, I married, and with my wife's consent I became
surgeon upon a ship and made many voyages. One of these voyages was
with Captain Prichard, master of a vessel called the Antelope, bound
for the South Sea. We set sail from Bristol and started upon our
journey very fairly, until there came a violent storm that drove our
ship near an island called Van Diemen's Land. The Antelope was driven
against a rock, which wrecked and split the vessel in half.

Six of the sailors and myself let down one of the small boats, and,
getting into it, rowed away from the ruined vessel and the dangerous
rock. We rowed until we were so tired we could no longer hold the
oars; then we were obliged to allow our boat to go as the waves
carried it.

Suddenly there came another violent gust of wind from the north, and
our small boat was at once overturned. I do not know what became of my
unfortunate companions, but I fear all must have been drowned. I was
a good swimmer, and I swam for my life. I went the best way I could,
pushed forward by wind and tide. Sometimes I let my legs drop to see
if my feet touched the bottom, and when I was almost overcome and
fainting, I found to my great joy that I was out of the deep water and
able to walk.

By this time the storm was over. I walked about a mile, until I
reached the shore, and when I stood upon land I could not see a sign
of any houses or people. I felt very weak and tired; so I lay down
upon the grass, which was very short and soft; and soon fell into a
sound sleep.

I must have slept all that night, for when I awoke, it was bright
daylight. I tried to rise, but found I was not able even to move.
I had been lying upon my back, and I found my arms and legs were
strongly fastened on each side to the ground; and that my hair, which
was long and thick, was also tied to the ground. I felt several
slender threads over my body. Fastened in this way, I could only look
upwards, and, as the sun came out and shone in my eyes, this was very
uncomfortable. I heard a queer noise about me, but could see nothing
except the sky.

In a little while I felt something alive moving on my left leg; this
thing came gently forward over my breast and almost up to my chin.
Bending my eyes downward as much as I could, I saw a tiny human
creature, not more than six inches high, with a tiny bow and arrow in
his hands. While I gazed in astonishment, forty more of the same kind
followed the first. I called out so loud in my amazement that they all
ran back in a fright, and I felt them leaping from my sides to the
ground. However, they soon returned, and one of them came up so far
as to get a full sight of my face. As he looked at me, he held up his
hands and cried out in a shrill but distinct voice, "Hekinah degul!"
Of course I did not understand what this meant, but from the tone in
which it was said I thought it must express admiration for me.

All this time I lay in great uneasiness. At length I struggled to get
loose, and managed to break the strings and pull up the pegs that
fastened my left arm to the ground. Then with a violent tug that
caused me much pain I broke the strings that tied down my hair on the
left side, and was then able to turn my head a trifle.

The little people all ran off before I could seize them, and there
was a great deal of shouting in very shrill voices. Then in about an
instant I felt quite a hundred arrows shot on my left hand, which
pricked me like so many needles. Besides this, another hundred were
shot into the air and fell all over my body, and some upon my face.

When this shower of arrows was over, I lay groaning with the pain and
covering my face with my free hand. I had only just done so in time,
for immediately another and larger shower fell upon me, and some of
the little people tried to stick their spears into my sides; but
luckily I had a leather waistcoat on, which the tiny spears could not
pierce.

After this, I thought I had better lie still and remain very quiet
till night came. Then I hoped this odd army would leave me and I
should be able to set myself free. I was not at all afraid of any
number of such small people, once I had the use of my limbs.


GULLIVER IS VISITED BY THE EMPEROR

When they saw I was quiet, they stopped shooting arrows; and, as I
was almost starving, I tried to show them I wanted food by putting my
finger to my mouth, and looking beseechingly at them, praying them to
give me something to eat.

Soon several ladders were put against my sides. Upon these about a
hundred of the people mounted and walked toward my mouth, carrying
baskets full of meat. This meat was in the same shape as shoulders,
legs, and loins of mutton, but smaller than the wings of a lark. It
was all well dressed and cooked, and I ate two or three joints at a
mouthful and took three loaves at a time, which were no bigger than
bullets. The little people gave the food to me as fast as they could,
and showed much wonder at the greatness of my appetite.

I must confess I was tempted to pick up those who were running over
my body and throw them to the ground. But remembering the shower of
arrows and the food they had given me, I felt I was bound in honor not
to do them harm. I could not help thinking these tiny creatures were
plucky and brave, that they should dare to walk over such a giant as
I must seem to them, although one of my hands was free to seize upon
them.

After a time there came before me no less a personage than his
Imperial Majesty, the Emperor of these odd little people. His Majesty
mounted my right leg and advanced forward to my face, followed by a
dozen of his courtiers.

As he stood looking at my face, he spoke for about ten minutes without
any sign of anger, but very gravely and sternly, and often pointing in
front of him, toward, as I afterwards found, the capital city.

To this city the people agreed I was to be carried, and it lay about
half a mile off. I made signs to the Emperor that I wanted to be freed
from the cords that bound me to the earth, and allowed to rise. But
although he understood me well enough, his Majesty shook his head and
showed me I must be carried as a prisoner. However, he made other
signs that told me I should have meat and drink, and was not to be
ill-treated. After this the Emperor and his train got off my body and
went away.

Soon after, I felt a great number of people at my left side; and they
loosened the cords that held me, and so let me turn a little upon my
right and get more ease in my uncomfortable position.

Then they put some sweet-smelling ointment upon my face and hands,
which soon removed the smart of the arrows. Being thus refreshed, I
again fell into a deep sleep, which lasted some hours.

These little people were very clever at making all kinds of machines
and engines for carrying heavy weights. They built their ships and
men-of-war, which were about the length of a large dining-table, in
the woods where the timber grew, and then carried them to the sea upon
the machines they made.

They now set to work to prepare the greatest engine they had, which
was a frame of wood, raised three inches from the ground, and about as
long as one of our bedsteads and nearly as wide across. Five hundred
carpenters and engineers got this machine into readiness to carry me
to the city. There was loud shouting, as it was brought up to my side;
and then came the chief difficulty, which was how to lift me on to it.

Eighty poles were driven into the ground, each pole about as tall as
an ordinary ruler. Then the workmen bound my neck, hands, body, and
legs in bandages, and to these bandages they fixed hooks with the
strongest cords fastened to them. Nine hundred of the strongest men
then drew up these cords by pulleys attached to the poles, and thus in
about three hours I was raised and slung upon the machine, and there
tied fast. Fifteen hundred of the Emperor's largest horses, each about
four inches and a half high, were used to draw me on the machine, to
the city.

When at last we arrived at the city gates, the Emperor and all his
court came out to meet us. At the place where we stopped there stood
a very old temple, which was the largest in the whole kingdom. The
people no longer used it to worship in, and it had been emptied of
all its furniture and ornaments. It was in this building the Emperor
decided I should live. The great gate was about four feet high and two
feet wide, and I could easily creep through it. Upon each side of the
gate was a small window, just six inches from the ground. To one of
these windows the Emperor's smith fixed ninety-one chains, like those
we use as watch chains in England, and these chains were locked to my
left leg by thirty-six padlocks. Just in front of the temple there was
a turret five feet high, and the Emperor and his principal nobles got
upon the top of this turret to be able to look at me as I lay.

So many people crowded from the city to see me, and all mounted upon
my body by the help of ladders, that at last the Emperor gave an order
that no one else must do so, on penalty of death. For this I was very
glad, as I was becoming quite worn out.

When the workmen found it was impossible for me to break my chains
and get free, they cut all the strings that bound me, and I rose up
feeling very strange and sad.

The astonishment of the people at seeing me rise was truly great. The
chains that held my left leg were two yards long, and that allowed me
to walk backwards and forwards, and also to creep into the temple and
lie down.


GULLIVER IS KEPT A PRISONER AT THE CAPITAL

When I found myself on my feet, I looked about at the surrounding
country. It seemed like one big garden, and the fields, which were
about the size of an ordinary room, appeared like so many beds of
flowers. Then there were the little patches of trees, which made the
woods of this tiny country, and the tallest tree among them was not
much higher than an Englishman. The little city itself looked like the
painted scene in a theater.

As I was extremely tired, I did not stay long to look, but crept into
my house and shut the door after me. When I had rested, I came out
again and stepped backward and forward as far as my chains allowed.
Then the Emperor began to ride up to me; but upon seeing me, the horse
took fright and nearly threw its rider, which was no wonder, as the
poor animal must have thought I was a moving mountain. The prince was
an excellent horseman and kept his seat well, while his attendants ran
to assist him. Then his Majesty got off his horse and walked up to me
and seemed to look at me with great admiration, but did not come near
enough for me to touch him. He ordered his cooks to bring me more
food and drink, and they brought me the food put into carriages upon
wheels, which they pushed forward until I could reach them. I very
soon emptied the carriages.

The Empress and the young princes, with many other nobles and ladies,
all came and gathered round the Emperor and watched me while I ate.
His Majesty was taller than any of the others; that is to say, he
stood about the breadth of my nail above the heads of his people. He
was handsome and well made and had an air of great dignity. I heard
that he had reigned seven years, and had been victorious, and that he
was much respected.

His dress was very plain, except that he had on his head a light
helmet made of gold and adorned with jewels and with a plume upon it.
He now held his drawn sword in his hand, to defend himself if I should
happen to break loose. This sword was about three inches long, and the
hilt and case of it were gold, enriched with diamonds.

After about two hours the court went away, and I was left with a guard
of soldiers to keep the people from crowding round me. This guard was
necessary, for one of the men had the impudence to shoot an arrow
at me as I sat upon the ground, and it nearly hit my eye. Then the
soldiers ordered the man to be seized and bound and given into my
hands to punish. I took him up and made a face as if I were going
to eat him. The poor little fellow screamed terribly, and even the
soldiers looked very much alarmed when I took out my penknife.

However, I soon put an end to their fears, for I cut the strings that
bound my captive and set him gently upon the ground and let him run
away. I saw that all the soldiers and people were delighted at this
mark of my mercy and gentleness; and I afterwards heard they told the
Emperor about it, and he was very pleased with me.

When night came, I crept into my shelter again and lay upon the ground
to sleep. The next day the Emperor gave orders for a bed to be made
for me. The workmen brought six hundred beds to my house in carriages,
and sewed them all together to make one large enough for me to lie
upon. They did the same with sheets and blankets, and at the end of
two weeks' labor my bed was ready for me.

As the news of my arrival spread over the kingdom, it brought numbers
of people to see me. The villages were almost emptied, and those men
and women who should have been at work came to the city to gaze at me.
At last the Emperor gave orders that all who had seen me once were to
go to their homes immediately, and not come near me again without his
Majesty's permission.

The Emperor and his court met together to talk over what could be done
with me, which seemed a very difficult question. They were afraid I
might break my chains and do them harm; then they were afraid that I
would eat so much that it would cause a famine in the land and there
would be no food left for them. Luckily for me, his Majesty remembered
the kind way I had treated the man who shot the arrow at me, and
because of my good behavior he allowed me to live. Orders were given
for each of the villages round the city to send in every morning six
cows and forty sheep for my meals, and also bread and wine, for all of
which the Emperor paid.

I was also given six hundred little men as my servants, and these
built their tents upon each side of my door. Then three hundred
tailors set to work to make me a suit of clothes like those worn in
that country, and six of the most learned men taught me to speak the
language. Lastly, the Emperor's horses and those of the nobles and
soldiers were ridden and exercised before me, until they became quite
used to seeing me and would trot quietly past.


GULLIVER IS GIVEN HIS LIBERTY

My quiet and good behavior so pleased the Emperor and his court that I
began to hope he would soon give me my liberty. I did all I could to
make the people like me and lose their fear of me. I would lie down
and let five or six of them dance upon my hand, and at last the boys
and girls even dared to come and play at hide-and-seek in my hair.

There was one general, named Skyresh, who was my enemy. I had not
given him any cause to dislike me, but he did, and it was he who tried
to persuade the Emperor not to give me my liberty. However, I implored
his Majesty so often to set me free that at last he promised to do so,
but he first made me swear to certain conditions which were to be read
to me. These conditions were as follows:

"His Majesty, the mighty Emperor of Lilliput, proposes to the
Man-Mountain the following articles, which he must swear to perform:

"First. The Man-Mountain shall not depart from our country without our
permission.

"Second. He shall not enter our chief city without our express
consent.

"Third. He shall walk only along the principal roads, and not over our
meadows and fields of corn.

"Fourth. As he walks he must take the greatest care not to trample
upon any of our subjects, or their horses and carriages, and he must
not take any into his hands without their consent.

"Fifth. If we desire to send a message anywhere, very quickly, the
Man-Mountain shall be obliged to carry the messenger and his horse in
his pocket and return with them safe to our court.

"Sixth. He must promise not to join the army of our enemies in the
island of Blefuscu, and he must do his utmost to destroy their fleet
of ships, which is now preparing to attack us.

"Seventh. The Man-Mountain shall always be ready to help our workmen
in lifting heavy weights.

"Eighth. He must walk all round our island and then tell us how many
steps round it measures.

"Lastly. The Man-Mountain shall have a daily allowance of food
sufficient for 1724 of our subjects.

"All of these conditions he must take a solemn oath to keep. Then he
shall be allowed his liberty."

I swore to keep these promises, and my chains were at once unlocked
and I was at full liberty. I expressed my gratitude by casting myself
at the Emperor's feet, but he graciously commanded me to rise, telling
me he hoped I would prove a useful servant and deserve all the favors
he had conferred upon me.

One morning, about a fortnight after I had obtained my liberty, the
principal noble who managed the Emperor's private affairs, and whose
name was Reldresal, came to my house, attended by only one servant.
He asked to speak to me privately, and I readily consented, as he had
always shown me much kindness. I offered to lie down so that he could
speak into my ear, but he chose to let me hold him in my hand during
our conversation.

He told me that the island of Lilliput was threatened with invasion by
an army from the island of Blefuscu, which was the next island, and
one almost as large and powerful as Lilliput itself. These two islands
and their Emperors had for some time been engaged in a most obstinate
war.

Reldresal told me that his Majesty had just heard that the
Blefuscudians had got together a large fleet of warships and were
preparing to invade Lilliput. His Majesty said he placed great trust
in my power to help them in this trouble, and had commanded his
officer to lay the case before me.

I told Reldresal to present my humble duty to the Emperor and tell him
I thought it would hardly be fair for me, as I was a foreigner, to
interfere between the two islands. But I said I was quite ready, even
at the risk of my life, to defend his Majesty's state and person
against all invaders.

The island of Blefuscu was separated from Lilliput by a channel eight
hundred yards wide. I had not yet seen it, but after hearing that the
Emperor of Blefuscu had a fleet of ships upon the water, I kept from
going near the coast, as I did not want to be noticed by the enemy.
The Blefuscudians did not know of my presence in Lilliput. I told his
Majesty, the Emperor of Lilliput, that I had a plan by which I could
seize all the enemy's ships.


GULLIVER CAPTURES THE BLEFUSCUDIAN FLEET

I had asked the most clever seamen upon the island how deep the
channel was, and they told me that in the middle it was about six feet
deep, and at the sides it was only four feet. I then walked toward the
coast and lay down behind a hillock; here I took out my telescope and
looked at the enemy's fleet. It consisted of fifty men-of-war and a
great number of smaller vessels. I hurried back to my house and gave
orders for a quantity of the strongest rope and bars of iron. The
Emperor said all my orders were to be carried out. The rope that was
brought me was only as thick as our packing thread, and the iron bars
were the length and size of a knitting-needle. I twisted three lengths
of the rope together to make it stronger, and three of the iron bars
in the same way. I turned up the ends of the bars to form a hook. I
fixed fifty hooks to as many pieces of rope, and then I took them all
down to the coast.

Here I took off my shoes and stockings and coat, and walked into the
sea. I waded until I came to the middle of the channel, and, the water
being deep there, I was obliged to swim about thirty yards. After this
I waded again, and in less than half an hour I arrived at the fleet of
the enemy. The Blefuscudians were so frightened when they saw me that
they leaped out of their ships and swam to shore.

I then took my hooks and ropes and fastened a hook to the end of each
vessel. Then I tied all the ropes together. While I was doing this,
the enemy discharged several thousand arrows at me from the shore, and
many of the arrows stuck in my face and hands. This hurt me very much,
and prevented my working quickly. My worst fear was for my eyes, which
would certainly have been put out by arrows had I not thought of my
spectacles. These I fastened as strongly as I could upon my nose, and,
thus protected, I went boldly on, while the arrows struck my glasses
without even cracking them.

When I had fastened all my hooks, I took the knot of ropes in my hands
and began to pull. But I could not move a single ship, for they were
all held fast by their anchors. Therefore I let go the cord, and,
taking my knife from my pocket, I cut the cables that held the
anchors, at the same time receiving about two hundred arrows from
the enemy, in my face and hands. After this, I once more grasped the
ropes, and, with the greatest ease, I pulled fifty of their largest
vessels after me. The Blefuscudians were confounded with astonishment.
They had seen me cut the cables, but thought I only meant to let the
ships run adrift; but when they saw me walking off with almost all of
the fleet, they set up a tremendous scream of grief and despair.

When I had got out of danger, I stopped to pick out the arrows that
were stuck in my hands and face, and I rubbed on some of the ointment
the Lilliputians had given me. Then I took off my spectacles and waded
on with my cargo. As the tide was then fallen, I did not need to swim
through the middle, but was able to walk right into the royal port of
Lilliput.

The Emperor and all his court stood upon the shore, watching for my
return. They saw the ships coming over the water, in the form of a
great half-moon, and soon I was able to make the Emperor hear my
voice. Holding up my rope, I cried aloud, "Long live the most glorious
Emperor of Lilliput!"

His Majesty received me with great joy and honor, and made me a lord
of the island upon the spot.

The Emperor then wished me to try to bring all the rest of the enemy's
ships to Lilliput. And he talked of taking the whole island of
Blefuscu, and reigning over it himself. I did not think this at all
fair, but very selfish and greedy of his Majesty. I tried to tell him
so as politely as I could, and said I could not help to bring a free
and brave people into slavery. My bold speech made the Emperor very
angry indeed, and he never forgave me. But most of his best nobles
thought the same as I did, although they dared not say so openly.

From this time his Majesty and some of his court began to bear me
ill-will, which nearly ended in my death. I considered this very mean
of the Emperor, after my helping him as I did; but like many other
people, he became ungrateful when he found he could not get all he
wanted. About three weeks after this the Emperor of Blefuscu sent
messengers with humble offers to make peace; to this the Lilliputians
agreed, upon certain terms.

The messengers consisted of six nobles with a train of five hundred
men. They were all very grandly and magnificently dressed. After they
had spoken to our Emperor, they expressed a wish to come to visit me.
It seems they were told I had been their friend when the Emperor asked
me to help him take Blefuscu, and they came to thank me for my justice
and generosity. They invited me to visit their island, where I should
receive every kindness and hospitality. I thanked their lordships very
much, and said I should be pleased to come and pay my respects to the
Emperor of Blefuscu before I returned to my own country.

So the next time I saw our Emperor I begged his permission to go to
Blefuscu, which he was gracious enough to grant me, although in a very
cold manner. I afterwards heard that my request displeased him, and he
did not like my making friends of the Blefuscudians.


THE INHABITANTS OF LILLIPUT--THEIR LAWS AND CUSTOMS

I am now going to say a few words about the Lilliputians and their
laws and customs.

These little people are generally about six inches high, their horses
and oxen between four and five inches, their sheep an inch and a half,
and their geese about the size of a sparrow. One day I watched a cook
pulling the feathers off a lark, which was no bigger than a fly.

Some of their laws are very unlike our English ones, but they are very
just all the same. If a man accuses another of any crime, and it
is proved that he has told a lie and the man is innocent, then the
accuser is severely punished, and the innocent man is rewarded for all
the injustice and pain he has suffered. This keeps people from being
so ready to tell tales about others.

Then deceit and cunning are considered greater crimes than stealing in
Lilliput, for the people say that a man can take means to protect his
goods and money, but he cannot prevent another man's deceiving him.
And so, if any man makes a promise of importance to another and
then breaks it, he is severely punished. Also, if he has any money
belonging to another and has promised to take care of it, and then
loses it through carelessness or spends any upon himself, he is
guilty of a crime. Another law is that not only the guilty should be
punished, but that the innocent shall be rewarded. So that whoever
shall behave himself well and keep the laws of his country for a whole
year, shall receive a sum of money and a favor from the Emperor.

When the Emperor has some special favor to confer, or position to
offer, he does not choose the most clever or learned man to give it
to, but picks out the one who has been the best behaved and who is the
bravest and truest among his subjects.

Ingratitude among the Lilliputians is considered a capital crime, and
anyone who returns evil for good is judged not fit to live.

I am sorry to say that the Emperor and his people did not keep these
good laws as they should have done, for if they had, his Majesty would
never have treated me so badly after I had done my best to help him.

In Lilliput there are large public schools to which parents are bound
to send their children. Here they are educated and fitted for some
position in life, for no one is allowed to be idle.

All the children are brought up very well indeed, and taught to be
honorable, courageous, and truthful men and women.

The nurses are forbidden to tell the children foolish or frightening
stories, and if they are found to do so, they are soundly whipped and
sent to a most lonely part of the country.

And now I will give a further account of my own way of living among
these strange little people.

I had made myself a table and chair, as large as I could get out of
the biggest tree in the royal park. Two hundred sewing women were
employed to make my shirts and the linen for my bed and table. They
got the strongest and coarsest linen the island could produce, and
even then they were obliged to sew several folds together to make it
strong enough for my use. The sewing women took my measure as I lay
upon the ground, one standing at my neck and another at my leg, with a
strong cord that each held, one at one end and one at the other.

One clever woman fitted me for a shirt by simply taking the width of
my right thumb, for she said that twice round the thumb is once round
the wrist, and twice round the wrist is once round the neck, and twice
round the neck is once round the waist. By this means she was able to
fit me exactly.

The three hundred tailors who were employed to make my clothes had
another way of measuring me. I knelt down, and they raised a ladder
from the ground to my neck; upon this ladder one man mounted, and let
fall a cord from my collar to the floor, which was the length for my
coat. My waist and arms I measured myself. As the largest piece of
cloth made in the island was only about the size of a yard of wide
ribbon, my clothes looked like a patchwork quilt; only, the cloth was
all of the same color.

I had three hundred cooks to prepare my food, and each one cooked me
two dishes. When I was ready for my meal, I took up twenty waiters in
my hand and placed them upon the table; a hundred more attended on the
ground, carrying the dishes. The waiters upon the table drew these
things up by cords, as we might draw a bucket from a well.

One joint of meat generally made a mouthful for me, but once I
actually had a sirloin of beef so large that I was forced to make
three bites of it. I never had another as big. The geese and turkeys
also only made a mouthful, and of the small fowl I could take up
twenty at a time on my fork.


GULLIVER ESCAPES TO BLEFUSCU

I must now tell my reader of a great plot that had been formed against
me in the island of Lilliput.

I was preparing to pay my promised visit to the Emperor of Blefuscu,
when one day a Lilliputian noble called at my house privately, and at
night; and without sending in his name, he asked me to allow him to
come in and speak to me.

I went out and picked up his lordship and brought him on to my table.
Then I fastened the door of my house and sat down in front of the
noble. As I saw he looked very anxious and troubled, I asked him if
anything was the matter. At that he begged me to listen to him with
patience, as he had much to tell me that concerned my life and honor.
I replied that I was all eagerness to hear him, and this is what he
told me:

"You must know," said he, "that his Majesty has lately had many
private meetings with his nobles about yourself. And two days ago he
formed a plan that will do you great injury. You know that Skyresh has
always been your mortal enemy; and his hatred grew even more when
you so successfully won the ships of the Blefuscudians. He was very
jealous, and considered you had taken away some of the glory that
ought to have been his, as an admiral of his Majesty. This lord, with
some others who dislike you, has prepared a charge against you of
treason and other crimes. Now, because I consider this to be unjust
treatment, and because you have always shown me kindness and courtesy,
I have risked my life to come here tonight to warn you.

"Skyresh and the other nobles insisted that you should be put to
death, and that in the most cruel way: either by setting fire to your
house while you slept, or by having you shot with poisoned arrows by
twenty thousand men. But his Majesty could not be persuaded to do
this cruelty, and decided to spare your life. Then Reldresal, who has
always been your true friend, was asked by the Emperor to give his
opinion, which he accordingly did.

"He allowed your crimes to be very great, but said that he considered
mercy ought to be shown you in return for the services you had
rendered the Empire. He advised his Majesty to spare your life, but
have both your eyes put out. By this means justice would be satisfied,
and the loss of your eyes would not take from your bodily strength, so
that you could still be useful to us. This proposal of Reldresal was
not at all approved by the other lords. Skyresh flew into a great
passion, and said he wondered Reldresal could dare to wish to save
the life of a traitor. He again accused you of being a traitor, and
insisted that you should be put to death.

"Still his Majesty refused to consent to your death, but said that,
as the court did not consider putting out your eyes was sufficient
punishment for your crimes, some other must be thought of.

"Then Reldresal again spoke, saying that, as it cost so much to feed
you, another way of punishing you would be to give you less and less
to eat, until you were gradually starved to death.

"This proposal was agreed upon, but it was decided to keep the plan of
starving you a great secret. In three days from now Reldresal will be
sent here to read these accusations I have now told to you, and to
tell you that his Majesty condemns you to the loss of your eyes.
Twenty of his Majesty's surgeons will attend in order to perform the
operation, which will be done by shooting very sharp pointed arrows
into the balls of your eyes as you lie upon the ground.

"I have now told you all that will happen to you, and must leave you
to act as you think best. As no one must know I have been here with
you now, I must hasten back to the court as secretly as I can."

This his lordship immediately did, leaving me in much doubt and
trouble. Knowing the good and just laws of the island of Lilliput,
I was much shocked and astonished to find the Emperor could so far
forget them as to condemn an innocent man to so brutal a punishment. I
tried to think what I had better do to save myself. My first idea was
to wait quietly and go through with my trial. Then I could plead my
innocence and try to obtain mercy. But, upon second thoughts, I saw
that this was a dangerous, almost a hopeless, plan, as my enemies at
court were so bitter against me.

Then I almost made up my mind to use my own strength, for while I had
liberty I knew that I could easily overcome all the Lilliputians and
knock the city to pieces with stones. But I put the idea away as
unfair and dishonorable, because I had given my oath not to harm the
island and its inhabitants. And even though the Emperor was so unjust
and cruel to me, I did not consider that his conduct freed me from the
promise I had made.

At last I formed a plan by which I hoped to save my eyesight and my
liberty, and, as things proved, it was a very fortunate plan for me.
As I had obtained the Emperor's permission to visit the island of
Blefuscu, I at once made preparations to go there. I sent a letter to
Reldresal telling him I intended to visit Blefuscu, according to the
permission I had obtained from his Majesty, and that I was starts g
that morning. By wading and swimming I crossed the channel and reached
the port of Blefuscu.

I found the people there had long expected me, and they appeared very
pleased to see me. They lent me two guides to show me the way to the
capital city. These men I held in my hands, while they directed me
which way to take. Having arrived at the city gate, I put them down
and desired them to tell his Majesty, the Emperor of Blefuscu, that I
was awaiting his commands.

I had an answer in about an hour, which was that his Majesty and the
royal family were coming out to receive me.

The Emperor and his train then rode out of the palace, and the Empress
and her ladies also drove up in coaches. They did not seem at all
frightened at seeing me. I lay upon the ground to kiss his Majesty's
and the Empress's hands. I told his Majesty I had come according to my
promise and with the consent of the Emperor of Lilliput, and that
I considered it a great honor to receive the welcome I did. I also
begged to offer his Majesty any service I could render him.

I was treated with much kindness and generosity while at Blefuscu; but
as there was no place large enough for me to get into, I had to be
without house and bed. So I was forced to sleep upon the ground,
wrapped in my cloak.


GULLIVER RETURNS TO ENGLAND

Three days after my arrival at Blefuscu I was walking along the coast,
when I suddenly caught sight of some object in the sea that looked
like a boat overturned. I pulled off my shoes and stockings, and waded
out into the water. As I drew near the object, I could plainly see
that it was a big boat, which, I suppose, must have been driven there
by some tempest. Having made this discovery, I hastened back to shore
and went to the city to beg his Majesty to lend me twenty of his
tallest ships, and three thousand sailors, under the command of an
admiral.

The Emperor gave his consent, and the fleet of ships sailed to the
place where I had discovered the boat. I again waded into the water,
and found that the tide had driven the boat still nearer the shore.
The sailors in the ships were all provided with cord, which I had
twisted together and made strong. I walked as near the boat as I
could, then swam up to it. The sailors threw me the end of the
cord, which I fastened to part of the boat and the other end to a
man-of-war. Then, getting behind the boat, I swam and pushed it as
best I could with one hand until I had got it out of the deep water.
Being then able to walk, I rested a few minutes, and then, taking
some other ropes, I fastened all of them to the boat and they to
the vessels the Emperor had lent me. Then the sailors pulled, and I
shoved, and, the wind being favorable, we arrived at the shore of
Blefuscu, dragging the boat with us. With the help of two thousand
men, with ropes and engines, I was able to turn the boat upon the
right side, and found it was in quite good condition.

After this I worked hard for many days making paddles for my boat,
and getting it ready to go to sea in. The people of Blefuscu came and
gazed in wonder and astonishment at so immense a vessel. I told the
Emperor that my good fortune had thrown this boat in my way to carry
me to some place from which I might be able to return to my native
land. And I begged his Majesty to allow me to have materials with
which to fit it up, and also to give me his gracious permission to
depart when it was ready. This his Majesty most kindly granted me.

Five hundred workmen were employed to make two sails for my boat,
under my directions. This had to be done by sewing together thirteen'
folds of their strongest linen. Then I made rope by twisting together
twenty or thirty lengths of the stoutest cord upon the island. After a
long search by the seashore I discovered a large stone, which had
to serve me for an anchor. I used the fat of three hundred cows for
greasing my boat. Then I set to work and cut down some of the largest
trees to make into oars and masts. His Majesty's carpenters helped me
greatly in smoothing them after I had cut them into shape.

In about a month all was ready, and I sent to tell his Majesty I was
going to take my leave.

The Emperor and royal family came out of the palace and allowed me
to kiss their hands. His Majesty presented me with fifty purses
containing two hundred pieces of gold hands. I told his Majesty I had
come according to my promise and with the consent of the Emperor
of Lilliput, and that I considered it a great honor to receive the
welcome I did. I also begged to offer his Majesty any service I could
render him.

I was treated with much kindness and generosity while at Blefuscu; but
as there was no place large enough for me to get into, I had to be
without house and bed. So I was forced to sleep upon the ground,
wrapped in my cloak.


GULLIVER RETURNS TO ENGLAND

Three days after my arrival at Blefuscu I was walking along the coast,
when I suddenly caught sight of some object in the sea that looked
like a boat overturned. I pulled off my shoes and stockings, and waded
out into the water. As I drew near the object, I could plainly see
that it was a big boat, which, I suppose, must have been driven there
by some tempest. Having made this discovery, I hastened back to shore
and went to the city to beg his Majesty to lend me twenty of his
tallest ships, and three thousand sailors, under the command of an
admiral.

The Emperor gave his consent, and the fleet of ships sailed to the
place where I had discovered the boat. I again waded into the water,
and found that the tide had driven the boat still nearer the shore.
The sailors in the ships were all provided with cord, which I had
twisted together and made strong. I walked as near the boat as I
could, then swam up to it. The sailors threw me the end of the
cord, which I fastened to part of the boat and the other end to a
man-of-war. Then, getting behind the boat, I swam and pushed it as
best I could with one hand until I had got it out of the deep water.
Being then able to walk, I rested a few minutes, and then, taking
some other ropes, I fastened all of them to the boat and they to
the vessels the Emperor had lent me. Then the sailors pulled, and I
shoved, and, the wind being favorable, we arrived at the shore of
Blefuscu, dragging the boat with us. With the help of two thousand
men, with ropes and engines, I was able to turn the boat upon the
right side, and found it was in quite good condition.

After this I worked hard for many days making paddles for my boat,
and getting it ready to go to sea in. The people of Blefuscu came and
gazed in wonder and astonishment at so immense a vessel. I told the
Emperor that my good fortune had thrown this boat in my way to carry
me to some place from which I might be able to return to my native
land. And I begged his Majesty to allow me to have materials with
which to fit it up, and also to give me his gracious permission to
depart when it was ready. This his Majesty most kindly granted me.

Five hundred workmen were employed to make two sails for my boat,
under my directions. This had to be done by sewing together thirteen'
folds of their strongest linen. Then I made rope by twisting together
twenty or thirty lengths of the stoutest cord upon the island. After a
long search by the seashore I discovered a large stone, which had
to serve me for an anchor. I used the fat of three hundred cows for
greasing my boat. Then I set to work and cut down some of the largest
trees to make into oars and masts. His Majesty's carpenters helped me
greatly in smoothing them after I had cut them into shape.

In about a month all was ready, and I sent to tell his Majesty I was
going to take my leave.

The Emperor and royal family came out of the palace and allowed me
to kiss their hands. His Majesty presented me with fifty purses
containing two hundred pieces of gold did Gulliver capture the fleet
from Blefuscu? 7. What did the Emperor of Lilliput wish to do when
Gulliver had won the victory? 8. What evil thing about war does this
incident show? 9. Can a nation fight a great war without desire to
add to its territory? Was this true of the United States in the war
recently fought?' 10. What was Gulliver's feeling about the proposal
of the Emperor? Was he right? 11. How did the Emperor feel toward him
after his refusal? 12. How did Gulliver learn of the plot against him?
13. Why did he not use his strength against his enemies? 14. What did
he decide to do? 15. What fortunate discovery did Gulliver make at
Blefuscu? 16. How did Gulliver get back to England? 17. Name two or
three things that you think he learned on his travels. 18. What are
we told about the education of children in Lilliput? 19. Why did the
people consider deceit worse than stealing? 20. What did they think of
a person who returns evil for good? 21. Name some of the laws of the
Lilliputians. Which of these laws do you like, and why? 22. Why were
not all the people of Lilliput good when they had such good laws? 23.
Compare Gulliver's adventures with those of Baron Munchausen. 24. How
does this story differ as to its source from the Arabian Nights tales?
25. Show that it has the two values mentioned on page 146. 26. Class
readings: Select passages to be read aloud in class. 27. Outline for
testing silent reading. Tell the story briefly in your own words,
following the topic headings given in the book. 28. Find in the
Glossary the meaning of: keep; human; engines; bandages; turret;
carriages; merchantman. 29. Pronounce: ruined; drowned; waistcoat;
Imperial; courtiers; theater; reigned; learned; Lilliput; graciously;
fortnight; Lilliputians.

Phrases for Study

express consent, capital crime, state and person, mortal enemy,
confounded with astonishment, gave me a good character, fair voyage.



ROBINSON CRUSOE

DANIEL DEFOE

(Ed.--This story, in it's original, uncondensed version, in addition
searching in the index for the title Robinson Crusoe.)


HOW I WENT TO SEA AND WAS SHIPWRECKED

I was born at York, in England, on the first of March, 1632. From the
time that I was quite a young child I had felt a great wish to spend
my life at sea, and as I grew, so did this taste grow more and more
strong; till at last on September first, 1651, I ran away from my
school and home, and found my way on foot to Hull, where I soon got a
place on board a ship.

Never did any young adventurer's misfortunes begin sooner or continue
longer than mine, for when we were far out at sea, some Turks in a
small ship came on our track in full chase. After a long pursuit our
vessel was captured, and all on board were taken as slaves.

The chief of the Turks took me as his prize to a port which was held
by the Moors. There I remained in slavery for several years, and
bitterly did I repent my rash act in leaving my good parents in
England.

At length I found an opportunity to escape to a vessel that was
passing by, and was kindly received by the captain, who proved to be
an English sailor bound on a voyage of trade.

I had not been aboard more than twelve days when a high wind took us
off, we knew not where. All at once there was a cry of "Land!" and the
ship struck on a bank of sand, in which she sank so deep that we could
not get her off. At last we found that we must make up our minds to
leave her and get to shore as well as we could. There had been a boat
at her stern, but we found it had been torn off by the force of the
waves. One small boat was still left on the ship's side, so we got
into it.

There we were, all of us, on the wild sea. The heart of s each now
grew faint, our cheeks were pale, and our eyes were dim, for there was
but one hope, and that was to find some bay, and so get in the lee of
the land.

The sea grew more and more rough, and its white foam would curl and
boil till at last the waves in their wild sport burst on the boat's
side, and we were all thrown out.

I could swim well, but the force of the waves made me lose my breath
too much to do so. At length one large wave took me to the shore and
left me high and dry, though half dead with fear. I got on my feet and
made the best of my way for the land; but just then the curve of a
huge wave rose up as high as a hill, and this I had no strength to
keep from, so it took me back to the sea. I did my best to float on
the top, and held my breath to do so. The next wave was quite as high,
and shut me up in its bulk. I held my hands down tight to my sides,
and then my head shot out at the top of the waves. This gave me
breath, and soon my feet felt the ground.

I stood quite still for a short time, to let the sea run back from me,
and then I set off with all my might to the shore, but yet the waves
caught me, and twice more did they take me back, and twice more land
me on the shore. I thought the last wave would have been the death
of me, for it drove me on a piece of rock, and with such force as to
leave me in a kind of swoon. I soon regained my senses and got up to
the cliffs close to the shore, where I found some grass out of the
reach of the sea. There I sat down, safe on land at last.

I felt so wrapped in joy that all I could do was to walk up and down
the coast, now lift up my hands, now fold them on my breast and thank
God for all that he had done for me, when the rest of the men were
lost. I now cast my eyes round me, to find out what kind of place it
was that I had been thus thrown in, like a bird in a storm. Then all
the glee I felt at first left me; for I was wet and cold, and had no
dry clothes to put on, no food to eat, and not a friend to help me.

I feared that there might be wild beasts here, and I had no gun to
shoot them with, or to keep me from their jaws. I had but a knife and
a pipe.

It now grew dark; and where was I to go for the night? I thought the
top of some high tree would be a good place to keep me out of harm's
way; and that there I might sit and think of death, for, as yet, I had
no hope of life.

Well, I went to my tree and made a kind of nest to sleep in. Then I
cut a stick to keep off beasts of prey, in case any should come, and
-fell asleep just as if the branch I lay on had been a bed of down.

When I woke up, it was broad day; the sky too was clear and the sea
calm. But I saw from the top of the tree that in the night the ship
had left the bank of sand, and lay but a mile from me. I soon threw
off my clothes, took to the sea, and swam up to the wreck. But how was
I to get on deck? I had gone twice around the ship, when a piece of
rope caught my eye, which hung down from her side so low that at first
the waves hid it. By the help of this rope I got on board.


HOW I MADE AND USED A RAFT

I found that there was a bulge in the ship, and that she had sprung
a leak. You may be sure that my first thought was to look around for
some food, and I soon made my way to the bin where the bread was kept,
and ate some of it as I went to and fro, for there was no time to
lose. What I stood most in need of was a boat to take the goods to
shore. But it was vain to wish for that which could not be had; and as
there were some spare yards in the ship, two or three large planks,
and a mast or two; I fell to work with these to make a raft.

I put four spars side by side, and laid short bits of plank on them,
crossways, to make my raft strong. Though these planks would bear my
own weight, they were too slight to bear much of my freight. So I took
a saw, which was on board, and cut a mast in three lengths, and these
gave great strength to the raft. I found some bread and rice, a Dutch
cheese, and some dry goat's flesh.

My next task was to screen my goods from the spray of the sea; and
this did not take long, for there were three large chests on board
which held all, and these I put on the raft.

"See, here is a prize!" said I, out loud (though there was none to
hear me); "now I shall not starve." For I found four large guns. But
how was my raft to be got to land? I had no sail, no oars; and a gust
of wind would make all my store slide off. Yet there were three things
which I was glad of a calm sea, a tide which set in to the shore, and
a slight breeze to blow me there.

I had the good luck to find some oars in a part of the ship in which I
had made no search till now. With these I put to sea, and for half a
mile my raft went well; but soon I found it driven to one side. At
length I saw a creek, up which, with some toil, I took my raft.

I saw that there were birds on the isle, and I shot one of them. Mine
must have been the first gun that had been heard there since the world
was made; for, at the sound of it, whole flocks of birds flew up, with
loud cries, from all parts of the wood. The shape of the beak of the
one I shot was like that of a hawk, but the claws were not so large.

I now went back to my raft to land my stores, and this took up the
rest of the day: What to do at night I knew not, nor where to find a
safe place to land my stores on. I did not like to lie down on the
ground, for fear of beasts of prey, as well as snakes; but there was
no cause for these fears, as I have since found. I put the chests and
boards round me as well as I could, and made a kind of hut for the
night.

As there was still a great store of things left in the ship which
would be of use to me, I thought that I ought to bring them to land at
once; for I knew that the first storm would break up the ship. So I
went on board, and took good care this time not to load my raft too
much.

The first thing sought for was the tool chest; and in it were some
bags of nails, spikes, saws, knives, and such things; but best of all,
I found a stone to grind my tools on. There were two or three flasks,
some large bags of shot, and a roll of lead; but this last I had not
the strength to hoist up to the ship's side, so as to get it on my
raft. There were some spare sails too, which I brought to shore.

Now that I had two freights of goods on hand, I made a tent with the
ship's sails, to stow them in, and cut the poles for it from the wood.
I now took all the things out of the casks and chests and put the
casks in piles round the tent to give it strength; and when this was
done, I shut up the door with the boards, spread on the ground one of
the beds which I had brought from the ship, laid two guns close to my
head and went to bed for the first time. I slept all night, for I was
much in need of rest.

The next day I was sad and sick at heart, for I felt how dull it was
to be thus cut off from all the rest of the world! I had no great wish
for work; but there was too much to be done for me to dwell long on my
sad lot. Each day, as it came, I went off to the wreck to fetch more
things; and I brought back as much as the raft would hold.

The last time I went to the wreck the wind blew so hard that I made
up my mind to go on board next time at low tide. I found some tea and
some gold coin; but as to the gold, it made me laugh to look at it.
"O drug!" said I, "thou art of no use to me! I care not to save thee.
Stay where thou art till the ship goes down; then go thou with it!"
Still, I thought I might just as well take it; so I put it in a piece
of the sail and threw it on deck, that I might place it on the raft.
By-and-by the wind blew from the shore, so I had to hurry back with
all speed; for I knew that at the turn of the tide I should find it
hard work to get to land at all. But in spite of the high wind I came
to my home all safe. At dawn I put my head out and cast my eyes on the
sea, when lo! no ship was there!. This great change in the face of
things, and the loss of such a friend, quite struck me down. Yet I was
glad to think that I had brought to shore all that could be of use to
me. I had now to look out for some spot where I could make my home.
Halfway up the hill there was a small plain, four or five score feet
long and twice as broad; and as it had a full view of the sea, I
thought that it would be a good place for my house.


HOW I MADE MYSELF A HOME ON THE ISLAND

I first dug a trench round a space which took in twelve yards; and in
this I drove two rows of stakes, till they stood firm like piles, five
and a half feet from the ground. I made the stakes close and tight
with bits of rope and put small sticks on the top of them in the shape
of spikes. This made so strong a fence that no man or beast could get
in. The door of my house was on top, and I had to climb up to it by
steps, which I took in with me, so that no one else might come up by
the same way. Close to the back of the house stood a sand rock, in
which I made a cave, and laid all the earth that I had dug out of it
round my house, to the height of a foot and a half. I had to go out
once a day in search of food. The first time, I saw some, goats, but
they were too shy to let me get near them. At first I thought that for
the lack of pen and ink I should lose all note of time; so I made a
large post, in the shape of a cross, on which I cut these words: "I
came on shore here on the thirtieth of September, 1659." On the side
of this post I made a notch each day, and this I kept up till the
last. I have not yet said a word of my four pets, which were two cats,
a dog, and a parrot. You may guess how fond I was of them, for they
were all the friends left to me. I brought the dog and two cats from
the ship. The dog would fetch things for me at all times, and by his
bark, his whine, his growl, and his tricks, he would all but talk to
me; yet he could not give me thought for thought. If I could but have
had someone near me to find fault with, or to find fault with me, what
a treat it would have been!

I was a long way out of the course of ships; and oh! how dull it was
to be cast on this lone spot with no one to love, no one to make me
laugh, no one to make me weep, no one to make me think.. It was dull
to roam day by day from the wood to the shore, and from the shore back
to the wood, and feed on my own thoughts all the while.

So much for the sad view of my case; but like most things, it had a
bright side as well as a dark one. For here was I safe on land, while
all the rest of the ship's crew were lost. True, I was cast on a rough
and rude part of the globe, but there were no beasts of prey on it to
kill or hurt me. God had sent the ship so near to me that I had got
from it all things to meet my wants for the rest of my days. Let life
be what it might, there was surely much to thank God for. And I soon
gave up all dull thoughts, and did not so much as look out for a sail.

My goods from the wreck remained in the cave for more than ten months;
I decided then that it was time to put them right, as they took up all
the space and left me no room to turn in; so I made my small cave a
large one, and dug it out a long way back in the sand rock.

Then I brought the mouth of the cave up to my fence, and so made a
back way to my house. This done, I put shelves on each side to hold my
goods, which made the cave look like a shop full of stores. To make
these shelves was a very difficult task and took a long time; for to
make a board I was forced to cut down a whole tree, chop away with my
ax till one side was flat, and then cut at the other side till the
board was thin enough, when I smoothed it with my adz. But, in this
way, out of each tree I would get only one plank. I made for myself
also a table and a chair, and finally got my castle, as I called it,
in good order.

I usually rose early and worked till noon, when I ate my meal; then I
went out with my gun, after which I worked once more till the sun had
set; and then to bed. It took me more than a week to change the shape
and size of my cave. Unfortunately, I made it far too large, for,
later on, the earth fell in from the roof; and had I been in it when
this took place, I should have lost my life. I had now to set up posts
in my cave, with planks on the top of them, so as to make a roof of
wood.



HOW I SUPPLIED MY NEEDS


I had to go to bed at dusk, till I made a lamp of goat's fat, which I
put in a clay dish; and this, with a piece of hemp for a wick, made
a good light. As I had found a, use for the bag which had held the
fowls' food on board ship, I shook out from it the husks of grain.
This was just at the time when the great rains fell, and in the course
of a month, blades of rice and barley sprang up. As time went by, and
the grain was ripe, I kept it, and took care to sow it each year; but
I could not boast of a crop of grain for three years.

I knew that tools would be my first want and that I should have to
grind mine on the stone, as they were blunt and worn with use. But as
it took both hands to hold the tool, I could not turn the stone; so I
made a wheel by which I could move it with my foot. This was no small
task, but I took great pains with it, and at length it was done.

I had now been in the isle twelve months, and I thought it was time to
go all round it in search of its woods, springs, and creeks. So I set
off, and brought back with me limes and grapes in their prime, large
and ripe. I had hung the grapes in the sun to dry, and in a few days'
time went to fetch them, that I might lay up a store. The vale on the
banks of which they grew was fresh and green, and a clear, bright
stream ran through it, which gave so great a charm to the spot as to
make me wish to live there.

But there was no view of the sea from this vale, while from my house
no ships could come on my side of the isle and not be seen by me; yet
the cool, soft banks were so sweet and new to me that much of my time
was spent there.

In the first of the three years in which I had grown barley, I had
sown it too late; in the next it was spoiled by the drought; but the
third year's crop had sprung up well.

Few of us think of the cost at which a loaf of bread is made. Of
course, there was no plow here to turn up the earth, and no spade to
dig it with, so I made one with wood; but this was soon worn out, and
for want of a rake I made use of the bough of a tree. When I had got
the grain home, I had to thresh it, part the grain from the chaff, and
store it up. Then came the want of sieves to clean it, of a mill to
grind it, and of yeast to make bread of it.

If I could have found a large stone, slightly hollow on top, I might,
by pounding the grain on it with another round stone, have made very
good meal. But all the stones I could find were too soft; and in the
end I had to make a sort of mill of hard wood, in which I burned a
hollow place, and in that pounded the grain into' meal with a heavy
stick.

Baking I did by building a big fire, raking away the ashes, and
putting the dough on the hot place, covered with a kind of basin made
of clay, over which 'I had heaped the red ashes.

Thus my bread was made, though I had no tools; and no one could say
that I did not earn it by the sweat of my brow. When the rain kept me
indoors, it was good fun to teach my pet bird Poll to talk; but so
mute were all things round me that the sound of my own voice made me
start.

My chief wants now were jars, pots, cups, and plates, but I knew not
how I could make them. At last I went in search of clay, and found a
bank of it a mile from my house; but it was quite a joke to see the
queer shapes and forms that I made out of it. For some of my pots and
jars were too weak to bear their own weight; and they would fall out
here, and in there, in all sorts of ways; while some, when they were
put in the sun to bake, would crack with the heat of its rays. You may
guess what my joy was when at last a pot was made which would stand
the fire, so that I could boil the meat for broth!

The next thing to turn my thoughts to was the ship's boat, which lay
on the high ridge of sand, where it had been thrust by the storm which
had cast me on these shores. But it lay with the keel to the sky, so
I had to dig the sand from it and turn it up with the help of a pole.
When I had done this, I found it was all in vain, for I had not the
strength to launch it. So all I could do now was to make a boat of
less size out of a tree; and I found one that was just fit for it,
which grew not far from the shore, but I could no more stir this than
I could the ship's boat.

"Well," thought I, "I must give up the boat, and with it all my hopes
of leaving the isle. But I have this to think of: I am lord of the
whole isle; in fact, a king. I have wood with which I might build a
fleet, and grapes, if not grain, to freight it with, though all my
wealth is but a few gold coins." For these I had no sort of use, and
could have found it in my heart to give them all for a peck of peas
and some ink, which last I stood much in need of. But it was best to
dwell more on what I had than on what I had not.

I now must needs try once more to build a boat, but this time it was
to have a mast, for which the ship's sails would be of great use. I
made a deck at each end to keep out the spray of the sea, a bin for my
food, and a rest for my gun, with a flap to screen it from the wet.
More than all, the boat was one of such a size that I could launch it.

My first cruise was up and down the creek, but soon I got bold, and
made the whole round of my isle. I took with me bread, cakes, a pot of
rice, half a goat, and two greatcoats, one of which was to lie on, and
one to put on at night. I set sail in the sixth year of my reign. On
the east side of the isle there was a large ridge of rocks which lay
two miles from the shore, and a shoal of sand lay for half a mile from
the rocks to the beach. To get round this point I had to sail a great
way out to sea; and here I all but lost my life.

But I got back to my home at last. On my way there, quite worn out
with the toils of the boat, I lay down in the shade to rest my limbs,
and slept. But judge, if you can what a start I gave when a voice woke
me out of my sleep, and spoke my name three times! A voice in this
wild place!, To call me by name, too! Then the voice said, "Robin!
Robin Crusoe! Where are you? Where have you been? How came you here?"
But now I saw it all; for at the top of the hedge sat Poll, who did
but say the words she had been taught by me.

I now went in search of some goats, and laid snares for them, with
rice for a bait. I had set the traps in the night, and found they had
stood, though the bait was all gone. So I thought of a new way to take
them, which was to make a pit and lay sticks and grass on it so as to
hide it; and in this way I caught an old goat and some kids. But the
old goat was much too fierce for me, soy I let him go.

I brought all the young ones home, and let them fast a long time, till
at last they fed from my hand and were quite tame. I kept them in a
kind of park, in which there were trees to screen them from the sun.
At first my park was half a mile round; but it struck me that, in so
great a space, the kids would soon get as wild as if they had the
range of the whole vale, and that it would be as well to give them
less room; so I had to make a hedge, which took me three months to
plant. My park held a flock of twelve goats, and in two years time
there were more than two score.

My dog sat at meals with me, and one cat on each side of me, on
stools, and we had Poll to talk to us. Now for a word or two as to the
dress in which I made a tour round the isle. I could but think how
droll it would look in the streets of the town in which I was born.

I usually wore a high cap of goatskin, with a long flap that hung down
to keep the sun and rain from my neck, a coat made from the skin of a
goat, too, the skirts of which came down to my hips, and the same on
my legs, with no shoes, but flaps of the fur round my shins. I had a
broad belt of the same around my waist, which drew on with two thongs;
and from it, on my right side; hung a saw and an ax; and on my left
side a pouch for the shot. My beard had not been cut since I came
here. But no more need be said of my looks, for there were few to see
me.


HOW I DISCOVERED A FOOTPRINT AND SAVED FRIDAY

A strange sight was now in store for me, which was to change the whole
course of my life in the isle.

One day at noon, while on a stroll down to a part of the shore that
was new to me, what should I see on the sand but the print of a man's
foot! I felt as if I were bound by a spell, and could not stir from
the spot.

By-and-by I stole a look around me, but no one was in sight. What
could this mean? I went three or four times to look at it. There it
was-the print of a man's foot: toes, heel, and all the parts of a
foot. How could it have come there?

My head swam with fear; and as I left the spot, I made two or three
steps, and then took a look around me; then two steps more, and did
the same thing. I took fright at the stump of an old tree, and ran to
my house, as if for my life. How could aught in the shape of a man
come to that shore, and I not know it? Where was the ship that brought
him? Then a vague dread took hold of my mind, that some man, or set of
men, had found me out; and it might be that they meant to kill me, or
rob me of all I had.

Fear kept me indoors for three days, till the want of food drove me
out. At last I was so bold as to go down to the coast to look once
more at the print of the foot, to see if it was the same shape as my
own. I found it was not so large by a great deal; so it was clear that
it was not one of my own footprints and that there were men in the
isle.

One day as I went from the hill to the coast, a scene lay in front of
me which made me sick at heart. The spot was spread with the bones of
men. There was a round place dug in the earth, where a fire had been
made, and here some men had come to feast. Now that I had seen this
sight, I knew not how to act; I kept close to my home, and would
scarce stir from it save to milk my flock of goats.

A few days later I was struck by the sight of some smoke, which came
from a fire no more than two miles off. From this time I lost all my
peace of mind. Day and night a dread would haunt me that the men who
had made this fire would find me out. I went home and drew up my
steps, but first I made all things round me look wild and rude. To
load my gun was the next thing to do; and I thought it would be best
to stay at home and hide.

But this was not to be borne long. I had no spy to send out, and all I
could do was to get to the top of the hill and keep a good lookout.
At last, through my glass, I could see a group of wild men join in a
dance round their fire. As soon as they stopped, I took two guns and
slung a sword on my side; then with all speed I set off to the top of
the hill, once more to have a good view.

This time I made up my mind to go up to the men, but not with a view
to kill them, for I felt that it would be wrong to do so. With a heavy
load of arms it took me two hours to reach the spot where the fire
was; and by the time I got there the men had all gone; but I saw them
in four boats out at sea.

Down on the shore there was a proof of what the work of these men had
been. The signs of their feast made me sick at heart, and I shut my
eyes. I durst not fire my gun when I went out for food on that side of
the isle, lest there should be some of the men left, who might hear
it, and so find me out.

From this time all went well with me for two years; but it was not to
last. One day, as I stood on the hill, I saw six boats on the shore.
What could this mean? Where were the men who had brought them? And
what had they come for? I saw through my glass that there were a score
and a half at least on the east side of the isle. They had meat on the
fire, round which I could see them dance. They then took a man from
one of the boats, who was bound hand and foot; but when they loosed
his bonds, he set off as fast as his feet would take him, and in a
straight line to my house.

To tell the truth, when I saw all the rest of the men run to catch
him, my hair stood on end with fright. In the creek he swam like a
fish, and the plunge which he took brought him through it in a few
strokes. All the men now gave up the chase but two, and they swam
through the creek, but by no means so fast as the slave had done.

Now, I thought, was the time to help the poor man, and my heart told
me it would be right to do so. I ran down my steps with my two guns,
and went with all speed up the hill, and then down by a short cut to
meet them.

I gave a sign to the poor slave to come to me, and at the same time
went up to meet the two men who were in chase of him. I made a rush at
the first of these, to knock him down with the stock of my gun, and he
fell. I saw the one who was left aim at me with his bow; so, to save
my life, I aimed carefully and shot him dead.

The smoke and noise from my gun gave the poor slave who had been bound
such a shock that he stood still on the spot, as if he had been in a
trance. I gave a loud shout for him to come to me, and I took care to
show him that I was a friend, and made all the signs I could think
of to coax him up to me. At length he came, knelt down to kiss the
ground, and then took hold of my foot and set it on his head. All this
meant that he was my slave; and I bade him rise and made much of him.

I did not like to take my slave to my house, or to my cave; so I threw
down some straw from the rice plant for him to sleep on, and gave him
some bread and a bunch of dry grapes to eat. He was a fine man, with
straight, strong limbs, tall and young. His hair was thick, like wool,
and black. His head was large and high, and he had bright black eyes.
He was of a dark-brown hue; his face was round and his nose small, but
not flat; he had a good mouth with thin lips, with which he could give
a soft smile; and his teeth were as white as snow.

Toward evening I had been out to milk my goats, and when he saw me, he
ran to me and lay down-on the ground to show me his thanks. He then
put his head on the ground and set my foot on his head, as he had done
at first. He took all the means he could think of to let me know
that he would serve me all his life; and I gave a sign to make him
understand that I thought well of him.

The next thing was to think of some name to call him by. I chose that
of the sixth day of the week, Friday, as he came to me on that day. I
took care not to lose sight of him all that night. When the sun rose,
we event up to the top of the hill to look out for the men; but as we
could not see them or their boats, it was clear that they had left the
isle.

I now set to work to make my man a cap of hare's skin, and gave him a
goat's skin to wear round his waist. It was a great source of pride to
him to find that his clothes were as good as my own.

At night I kept my guns, swords, and bow close to my side; but there
was no need for this, as my slave was, in sooth, most true to me. He
did all that he was set to do, with his whole heart in the work; and I
knew that he would lay down his life to save mine. What could a man do
more than that? And oh, the joy to have him here to cheer me in this
lone isle!



HOW FRIDAY LEARNED MY WAYS


I did my best to teach him, so like a child he was, to do and feel all
that was right. I found him apt and full of fun; and he took great
pains to understand and learn all that I could tell him.

One day I sent him to beat out and sift some grain. I let him see me
make the bread, and he soon did all the work. I felt quite a love for
his true, warm heart, and he soon learned to talk to me. One day I
said, "Do the men of your tribe win in fight?" He told me, with a
smile, that they did. "Well, then," said I, "how came they to let
their foes take you?"

"They run one, two, three, and make go in the boat that time."

"Well, and what do the men do with those they take?"

"Eat them all up."

This was not good news for me, but I went on, and said, "Where do they
take them?"

"Go to next place where they think."

"Do they come here?"

"Yes, yes, they come here, come else place, too."

"Have you been here with them twice?"

"Yes, come there."

He meant the northwest side of the isle, so to this spot I took him
the next day. He knew the place, and told me he was there once, and
with him twelve men. To let me know this, he placed twelve stones all
in a row, and made me count them.

"Are not the boats lost on your shore now and then?"

He said that there was no fear, and that no boats were lost. He told
me that up a great way by the moon--that is, where the moon then came
up--there dwelt a tribe of white men like me, with beards. I felt sure
that they must have come from Spain, to work the gold mines. I put
this to him: "Could I go from this isle and join those men?"

"Yes, yes, you may go in two boats."

It was hard to see how one man could go in two boats, but what he
meant was a boat twice as large as my own.

To please my poor slave, I gave him a sketch of my whole life; I told
him where I was born and where I spent my days when a child. He was
glad to hear tales of the land of my birth, and of the trade which we
kept up, in ships, with all parts of the known world. I gave him a
knife and a belt, which made him dance with joy.

One day as we stood on the top of the hill at the east side of the
isle, I saw him fix his eyes on the mainland, and stand for a long
time gazing at it; then jump and sing, and call out to me.

"What do you see?" said I.

"O joy!" said he, with a fierce glee in his eyes, "O glad! There see
my land!"

Why did he strain his eyes to stare at this land as if he had a wish
to be there? It put fears in my mind which made me feel far less at my
ease with him. Thought I, if he should go back to his home, he will
think no more of what I have taught him and done for him. He will be
sure to tell the rest of his tribe all my ways, and come back with, it
may be, scores of them, and kill me, and then dance round me, as they
did round the men, the last time they came on my isle.

But these were all false fears, though they found a place in my mind
for a long while; and I was not so kind to him now as I had been. From
this time I made it a rule, day by day, to find out if there were
grounds for my fears or not. I said, "Do you wish to be once more in
your own land?"

"Yes! I be much O glad to be at my own land."

"What would you do there? Would you turn wild, and be as you were?"

"No, no, I would tell them to be good, tell them eat bread, grain,
milk, no eat man more!"

"Why, they would kill you!"

"No, no, they no kill; they love learn."

He then told me that some white men who had come on their shores in a
boat had taught them a great deal.

"Then will you go back to your land with me?"

He said he could not swim so far, so I told him he should help me to
build a boat to go in. Then he said, "If you go, I go."

"I go? Why, they would eat me!"

"No, me make them much love you."

Then he told me, as well as he could, how kind they had been to some
white men. I brought out the large boat to hear what he thought of it,
but he said it was too small. We then went to look at the old ship's
boat, which, as it had been in the sun for years, was not at all in a
sound state. The poor man made sure that it would do. But how were we
to know this? I told him we should build a boat as large as that, and
that he should go home in it. He spoke not a word, but was grave and
sad.

"What ails you?" said I.

"Why you grieve mad with your man?"

"What do you mean? I am not cross with you."

"No cross? No cross with me? Why send your man home to his own land,
then?"

"Did you not tell me you would like to go back?"

"Yes, yes, we both there; no wish self there, if you not there!"

"And what should I do there?"

"You do great deal much good! You teach wild men be good men."

We soon set to work to make a boat that would take us both. The first
thing was to look out for some large tree that grew near the shore, so
that we could launch our boat when it was made. My slave's plan was to
burn the wood to make it the right shape; but as mine was to hew it, I
set him to work with my tools, and in two months' time we had made a
good, strong boat; but it took a long while to get her down to the
shore and float her.

Friday had the whole charge of her; and, large as she was, he made her
move with ease, and said, "Me think she go there well, though great
blow wind!" He did not know that I meant to make a mast and sail. I
cut down a young fir tree for the mast, and then I set to work at the
sail. It made me laugh to see my man stand and stare, when he came to
watch me sail the boat. But he soon gave a jump, a laugh, and a clap
of the hands when for the first time he saw the sail jib and fall, now
on this side, now on that.

The next thing to do was to stow our boat up in the creek, where we
dug a small dock; and when the tide was low, we made a dam to keep out
the sea. The time of year had now come for us to set sail, so we got
out all our stores to put them into the boat.


THE ENGLISH SHIP AND HOW I SAILED FOR HOME

I was fast asleep in my hutch one morning, when my man Friday came
running in to me and called aloud, "Master, master, they are come,
they are come!" I jumped up and went out, as soon as I could get my
clothes on, through my little grove, which, by the way, was by this
time grown to be a very thick wood. I went without my arms, which was
not my custom; but I was surprised when, turning my eyes to the sea, I
saw a boat at about a league and a half distance, standing in for the
shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they call it, and the wind
blowing pretty fair to bring them in; also I saw that they did not
come from that side which the shore lay on, but from the south end of
the island.

Upon this I hastily called Friday in, and bade him lie close, for we
did not know yet whether they were friends or enemies. In the next
place, I went in to fetch my glass, to see what I could make of them;
and, having climbed up to the top of the hill, I saw a ship lying at
anchor, at about two leagues from me, but not above a league and a
half from the shore. It seemed to be an English ship, and the boat
looked like an English longboat.

They ran their boat on shore upon the beach, at about half a mile from
me; which was very happy for me, else they would have landed just at
my door, as I may say, and would soon have beaten me out of my caste,
and perhaps have plundered me of all I had. When they were on shore,
I saw they were Englishmen; there were, in all, eleven men, whereof
three of them I found were unarmed, and, as I thought, bound; and when
the first four or five of them had jumped on shore, they took those
three out of the boat as prisoners; one of the three I could see using
the gestures of entreaty and despair; the other two, I could see,
lifted up their hands and appeared concerned, but not to such a degree
as the first.

I was shocked and terrified at the sight of all this and knew not what
the meaning of it could be. Friday called out to me in English, as
well as he could, "O master! you see English mans eat prisoner as well
as savage mans." "Why, Friday," said I, "do you think they are going
to eat them, then?" "Yes," said Friday, "they will eat them." "No,
no," said I, "Friday, I am afraid they will murder them indeed; but
you may be sure they will not eat them."

I expected every minute to see the three prisoners killed, so I fitted
myself up for a battle, though with much caution, knowing that I had
to do with another kind of enemy than if I were fighting savages.
I ordered Friday also to load himself with arms. I took myself two
fowling pieces, and I gave him two muskets. My figure was very fierce;
I had my goatskin coat on, with the great cap, a naked sword, two
pistols in my belt, and a gun upon each shoulder.

It was my design not to make any attempt till it was dark; but about
two o'clock, being the heat of the day, I found, in short, they had
all gone straggling into the woods, and, as I thought, had all lain
down to sleep. The three poor, distressed men, too anxious for their
condition to get any sleep, had, however, sat down under the shelter
of a great tree.

I resolved to discover myself to them, and learn something of their
condition; immediately I marched toward them, my man Friday at a good
distance behind me, as formidable for his arms as I, but not making
quite so staring a specter-like figure as I did. I came as near them
undiscovered as I could, and then, before any of them saw me, I called
aloud to them in Spanish, "Who are ye, sirs?"

They gave a start at my voice and at my strange dress, and made a move
as if they would flee from me. I said, ``Do not fear me, for it may be
that you have a friend at hand, though you do not think it." "He must
be sent from the sky, then," said one of them with a grave look; and
he took off his hat to me at the same time. "All help is from thence,
sir," I said. "But what can I do to aid you? You look as if you had
some load of grief on your breast. A moment ago I saw one of the men
lift his sword as if to kill you."

The tears ran down the poor man's face as he said, "Is this a god, or
is it but a man?" "Have no doubt on that score, sir," said I, "for a
god would not have come with a dress like this. No, do not fear-nor
raise your hopes too high; for you see but a man, yet one who will do
all he can to help you. Your speech shows me that you come from the
same land as I do. I will do all I can to serve you. Tell me your
case."

"Our case, sir, is too long to tell you while they who would kill us
are so near. My name is Paul. To be short, sir, my crew have thrust me
out of my ship, which you see out there, and have left me here to die.
It was as much as I could do to make them sheathe their swords, which
you saw were drawn to slay me. They have set me down in this isle with
these two men, my friend here, and the ship's mate."

"Where have they gone?" said I.

"There, in the wood close by. I fear they may have seen and heard us.
If they have, they will be sure to kill us all."

"Have they firearms?"

"They have four guns, one of which is in the boat."

"Well, then, leave all to me!"

"There are two of the men," said he, "who are worse than the rest. All
but these I feel sure would go back to work the ship."

I thought it was best to speak out to Paul at once, and

I said, "Now if I save your life, there are two things which you must
do."

But he read my thoughts, and said, "If you save my life, you shall do
as you like with me and my ship, and take her where you please."

I saw that the two men, in whose charge the boat had been left, had
come on shore; so the first thing I did was to send Friday to fetch
from it the oars, the sail, and the gun. And now the ship might be
said to be in our hands. When the time came for the men to go back to
the ship, they were in a great rage; for, as the boat had now no sail
or oars, they knew not how to get out to their ship.

We heard them say that it was a strange sort of isle, for sprites had
come to the boat, to take off the sails and oars. W e could see them
run to and fro, with great rage; then go and sit in the boat to rest,
and then come on shore once more. When they drew near to us, Paul and
Friday would fain have had me fall on them at once. But my wish was to
spare them, and kill as few as possible. I told two of my men to creep
on their hands and knees close to the ground so that they might not be
seen, and when they got 'up to the men, not to fire till I gave the
word.

They had not stood thus long when three of the crew came up to us.
Till now we had but heard their voices, but when they came so near as
to be seen, Paul and Friday shot at them. Two of the men fell dead,
and they were the worst of the crew, and the third ran off. At the
sound of the guns I came up, but it was so dark that the men could not
tell if there were three of us or three score.

It fell out just as I wished, for I heard the men ask: "To whom must
we yield, and where are they?" Friday told them that Paul was there
with the king of the isle, who had brought with him a crowd of men!
At this, one of the crew said: "If Paul will spare our lives, we will
yield." "Then," said Friday, "you shall know the king's will." Then
Paul said to them: "You know my voice; if you lay down your arms, the
king will spare your lives."

They fell on their knees to beg the same of me. I took good care that
they did not see me, but I gave them my word that they should all
live, that I should take four of them to work the ship, and that the
rest would be bound hand and foot for the good faith of the four. This
was to show them what a stern king I was.

Of course I soon set them free, and I put them in a way to take my
place on the isle. I told them of all my ways, taught them how to mind
the goats, how to work the farm, and how to make the bread. I gave
them a house to live in, firearms, tools and my two tame cats-in fact,
all that I owned but Poll and my gold.

As I sat on the top of the hill, Paul came up to me. He held out his
hand to point to the ship, and with much warmth took me to his arms
and said: "My dear friend, there is your ship! For this vessel is all
yours, and all that is in her, and so are all of us."

I made ready to go on board the ship, but told the captain I would
stay that night to get my things in shape, and asked him to go on
board in the meantime and keep things right on the ship.

I cast my eyes to the ship, which rode half a mile off the shore, at
the mouth of the creek, and near the place where I had brought my raft
to the land. Yes, there she stood, the ship that was to set me free
and to take hie where I might choose to go. She set her sails to the
wind, and her flags threw out their gay stripes in the breeze. Such a
sight was too much for me, and I fell down faint with joy.

Friday and Paul then went on board the ship, and Paul took charge of
her once more. We did not start that night, but at noon the next day I
left the isle-that lone isle, where I had spent so great a part of my
life.

When I took leave of this island, I carried on board a great goatskin
cap I had made, and my parrot; also the money which had lain by me so
long useless that it was grown rusty or tarnished, and could hardly
pass for gold till it had been a little rubbed and handled. And thus I
left the island, the nineteenth of December, as I found by the ship's
account, in the year 1686, after I had been upon it seven-and-twenty
years, two months, and nineteen days. In this vessel, after a long
voyage, I arrived in England the eleventh of June, in the year 1687.



NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. Daniel Defoe (1659-1731), an English author, was born in
London. He was well educated and devoted himself chiefly to writing.
He was active in political life, and many of his early pamphlets were
attacks upon the government. Robinson Crusoe, his greatest story, is
a world classic. It is founded mainly on the adventures of Alexander
Selkirk, who told Defoe about his own experiences as a castaway on
an island. Defoe tells his story in simple, direct language, with
frequent use of details and illustrations.

Discussion. 1. Why was an ocean voyage so difficult and dangerous at
the time when Robinson Crusoe was written? 2. Find the lines that
describe what you think was the most difficult work undertaken by
Robinson Crusoe. 3. What under king required the most perseverance?
Find lines that show this. 4. At what time did Crusoe show the
greatest courage? Find lines that seem to yore to prove your answer is
correct. 5. What was the greatest disappointment that he had to bear
while on the island? 6. What do you think was the greatest happiness
he had? 7. Find lines that tell how Robinson Crusoe studied to make
something which was very necessary to him. 8. Mention something he
made that you have tried to make. 9. How did your result compare with
his? What reason can you give for this? 10. This story shows how
dependent we are upon the tools, the inventions, and the means of
protection that men have devised for making life happy. Crusoe had to
make for himself under great difficulties things that we think nothing
of. Show from the story how dependent we are upon the cooperation and
assistance of others. Imagine the cooperation that has been necessary
to give you milk, oranges or bananas, sugar for your dessert, meat for
your dinner. What has been done to give you the stove on which your
dinner is cooked, the fuel that it burns, the light that you use at
night, the telephone that you use? Crusoe had to get along without
such assistance. Do you owe anything, any return service, for what
you receive and use? If Crusoe's hut had taken fire, what would have
happened? What would happen if your home should catch fire? Who would
pay for the help given you? If Crusoe had been attacked by robbers,
what would have happened? What keeps you safe at night? If Crusoe had
wished to go on a long journey, what would have been necessary? Who
would help you if you had to take such a journey? 12. Tell a story
about your debt to someone for an invention or discovery that makes
your life pleasanter or safer. Tell a story about your debt for the
sugar you use for your desert. Tell a story to illustrate what the
government does for you. 13. Class readings: Select passages to be
read aloud in class. 14. Outline for testing silent reading. Tell the
story briefly in your own words, using the topic headings given in
the book. 15. You will enjoy seeing the pictures in the edition of
Robinson Crusoe that is illustrated by N. C. Wyeth. 16. Find in the
Glossary the meaning of: stern; bulge; spikes; adz; limes; mute;
league; thong; fowling; piece. 17. Pronounce: pursuit; swoon;
spars; drought;; sieve; launch; cruise; shoal; tour; jib; gesture;
formidable; sheathe; sprites.

Phrases for Study lee of the land, in sooth, spare yards, I found him
apt, O drug, standing in for the shore, give me thought for thought,
appeared concerned, whole round of my isle, discover myself to them,
bound by a spell, specter-like figure.



STORIES OF ADVENTURE

A BACKWARD LOOK

Now that you have read all of these tales of adventure, perhaps some
evening you will curl up in that big chair in a cozy place and will
close your eyes and dream a dream. And in that dream you will see-who
knows? Ali Baba and Aladdin in their queer dress, and Sindbad, the
rich old sailor, and Captain Lemuel Gulliver, and Robin Hood in his
Lincoln green, and Robinson Crusoe with his man Friday. All of them
will sit down near you, between you and the fire perhaps, and they
will talk to each other about the meaning of all the perils and
successes that life brought them. And you will doubtless get the
idea from them all that every man, rich or poor, ought to feel some
responsibility to others. Ali Baba and Aladdin and Sindbad will tell
the company, there in the firelight before your very eyes, how they
felt that they owed something to' others because of the wealth they
had, gained. Aladdin became a serious and public-spirited man, though
as a boy he had been of little worth. Ali Baba and Sindbad helped
others and did many good deeds.

Then Robin Hood will join in the conversation. He lived in a time, as
you can see from his story, when the poor not only had no chance but
were oppressed. Robin tried to do away with some of this injustice.
He was an outlaw; he did many things that it would not be right to
do today; but he did these things in order to help people who were
wretched and who had no chance.

And next, Robinson Crusoe has a word to say. His experience, he tells
us, showed him how much we depend on each other. If a man is suddenly
cut off from his fellows, has to get his own food or starve, build his
own house with his own rude tools or freeze, he finds out how much he
owes to the cooperation of thousands of other people.

And finally, Captain Gulliver, who has been listening quietly for a
long time, knocks the ashes from his pipe as he gets up to go, and
says: "You know, it all comes down to this: can a man or a nation
stand being rich and strong? You know those Lilliputians, when they
conquered the people of Blefuscu, wanted right away to annex the lands
of their enemies. They had no right to the lands; they had enough of
their own; if I had let them do what they planned, they would have
made many people very miserable, But the moment they saw a chance to
grab something, they wanted to go right after it.. And it makes me
wonder about this America that is so much discussed just now. In my
day we scarcely knew there was such a country, but you know how strong
and prosperous the Americans are, and what a war they can fight, and
how many rich men they have. They seem to me to have found that lamp
and ring that friend Aladdin once had; everything they touch seems to
turn to gold, and they can build a city over night. I just wonder what
they will do with all this power?"

And they all shake their heads, as if to say that they wonder, too.
And the fire has grown lower and lower, so that you can hardly see the
strange forms.--And then father calls to you to wake up and get your
lesson or go to bed, and they all vanish at the sound of that voice.

How would you answer Captain Gulliver's question about America? What
did America do with its power in the World War? What good American
citizens that you know of have used their wealth to found libraries,
hospitals, parks, and other public benefits? Show that boys and girls
join together in teamwork for the good of all by organizing clubs,
Boy Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, Junior Red Cross, etc. Mention kinds of
service these organizations give for the good of all. Show that each
of the six stories in Part II has the two values mentioned in the
first paragraph on page 146. Which story did you enjoy most? Which
gave you the most worth-while ideas? What gains have you made in your
ability to read silently with speed and understanding?



PART III


GREAT AMERICAN AUTHORS

A man lives in the last half of life on the memory of things read in
the first half of life.

SAMUEL JOHNSON.



GREAT AMERICAN AUTHORS

A FORWARD LOOK

When Mother used to tell you a story about when she was a little girl,
you were interested only in the story and in the pictures her words
called up in your mind. Suppose some older person had been listening
while she told one of these tales, and had been interested not alone
in the adventure that she was telling about, as you were, but in the
way in which she told it. This person, your uncle, let's say, would
notice how Mother planned her story so as to keep the very most
exciting thing to the last, and how you grew more and more excited
about it, and how your eyes shone, and her eyes too, and how without
knowing it she was letting him see what kind of people they were
in her story, and what kind of little girl she was-very brave,
you know-and when at the end you drew a long breath and had that
delightful little thrill that you always have at the end of a
perfectly wonderful story-after all this, suppose your uncle should
look at Mother in a funny kind of way and should say, "Bless me, Sis,
I had no idea you were an author."

What would you say? Mother an author? Why, an author is a person who
writes big books in words that no one can understand, but Mother,
she-why, she is Mother!

Yet your uncle is right. Mother is an author when she thinks back over
her life and picks out something that is interesting, and then tells
it in her very most interesting way to please you. If she would only
write out that story, and a printer would print it in a book, and in
the front of the book you should read "When I Was a Little Girl." By
Mother"-that would be a Book, and Mother would be a real author.

Now long, long ago, there weren't any books. When Mother told you a
story, if you had lived then, you would remember it and would tell
it to other people, and after you grew up you would tell it to your
children, and when they had grown up, they would tell it to your
grandchildren, and so on and on. Who wrote Cinderella, or Sleeping
Beauty, or the Three Bears? You don't know. Nobody knows. They just
happened. They were told by mothers to their children and so on and
so on, and after centuries, perhaps, when printing had been invented,
some printer man thought, like your uncle, that here was a story that
ought to be printed and so he made a book of it. But he didn't claim
to be the author of it, for he was not.

So, some of the stories you have read in this book do not have any
author's name attached to them. And even if they did, you were not
thinking, while you were reading, about the man who wrote them. You
just thought of the story and whether you liked it or not. Yet no
small part of the advantage that you enjoy because you live now,
instead of in the days when there were no books, lies in the fact that
you can become acquainted with the men and women who have written the
stories and poems that you read.

Let's put it this way. In those old days that we have been speaking
about, you would have had to depend upon your Mother, or some other
mother, or some village weaver of tales, for your stories. But they
were busy, and you couldn't get enough stories to satisfy your
appetite. Then one-time, let's say, a strange, wandering fellow came
to your village. And he had yards and yards of the most wonderful
stories to tell. And he went home with you, let's say, and stayed
there, and did nothing but tell you stories whenever you wanted them,
first thing in the morning, and after school, and bedtime, and all.
And he was never too busy. And you learned to know him, what an
interesting man he was, and what fine eyes he had, and what a smile
that made you smile back before he said a word, and how he loved Truth
and hated lies, and loved Honor and hated shameful things. He was your
author, your book, your book of books. And he was as dear to you, in
himself, as his stories were.

Now you can have just such a friend, no, you can have a whole company
of just such friends, for yourself. How? In books, of course. Only
they won't be merely books; they will be friends. Washington Irving,
teller of wonderful stories, and Robert Louis Stevenson are there,
in those books, and you can learn them as well as their stories. And
Henry W. Longfellow, writer of stories in verse; and John G. Whittier,
writer of poems about barefoot boys and corn huskings; and Benjamin
Franklin, a kindly philosopher-there, that word is too hard for you,
but it just slipped out, and so you will have to be told that a
philosopher is a person who thinks about life and its meaning.

That's what all authors are, in a way. That's what makes them authors.
They don't just eat and sleep and do their work, whatever it is-they
think about life. And what they see and think they set down for you.
To know them is to know delightful friends who will tell you what
everything means and will answer all your questions.

There they are, on your bookshelf. They won't speak to you unless you
speak first. If you want to do something else and don't wish to be
bothered, they won't bother you. But when you want to talk with them,
they are ready. Call upon them often, and you will learn one of the
blessedest things about life, the companionship of boobs.

Some of them, men of our own America, are to be introduced to you in
the following pages. From now on you are to do three things. First,
you are to listen and enjoy when they tell you what they have to say.
Next, you are to begin to do just what your uncle was doing when he
listened to Mother telling you that story-you are to see that there is
a way to tell something that is good, and that if one has learned this
way, like Mother, he is an author. And last, you are to find that
these authors are real persons whom you can learn to know. Then you
will love them, just as you love Mother, not alone for what they say,
but for what they are.



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was born in Boston in the early colonial
days. While still a boy, he learned the printer's trade, but,
having difficulty with his brother, for whom he worked, he went
to Philadelphia,-where later he became owner and editor of the
Philadelphia Gazette, the city's leading newspaper. Later he
established another periodical, called Poor Richard's Almanac.

Franklin was greatly interested in the study of science. He "snatched
lightning from the skies" by the use of a key and a kite with a silk
string. This experiment led to his invention of the lightning rod,
which was soon placed on public and private buildings not only in
America but also in England and France. He invented the "Franklin
Stove," which is still in use in some places. This is an open stove
made in such a way as to economize heat and save fuel. Franklin
invented a street lamp which was used for lighting the streets of
Philadelphia.

Franklin was big-hearted and wished to be of real service to his
fellow-citizens. He organized a debating club, a night watch, a
volunteer fire company, a street-cleaning department, and a public
library-the first of its kind in America.

His-services to the new government that the Americans were just
setting up were equally noteworthy. He went to England to represent
the colonies and did all that he could to patch up the quarrel between
the colonies and the mother country. When all these attempts failed,
he gave himself heart and soul to the business of making a new
government. He was one of the signers of the Declaration of
Independence. Later, as a special minister to France he delighted
Frenchmen by his humor and his common sense, and he even succeeded
in securing the promise of the French government to acknowledge the
independence of the colonies and to send ships and men to their
assistance.

In a letter to a friend in 1779, Franklin tells the story, "The
Whistle." "An Ax to Grind" is from his autobiography.



THE WHISTLE

When I was a child seven years old, my friends on a holiday filled my
pocket with coppers. I went directly to a shop where they sold toys
for children, and, being charmed with the sound of a whistle that I
met by the way in the hands of another boy, I voluntarily offered and
gave all my money for one. I then ran home and went whistling all
over the house, much pleased with my whistle, but disturbing all the
family.

My brothers and sisters and cousins, understanding the bargain I had
made, told me I had given four times as much for it as it was worth;
put me in mind what good things I might have bought with the rest of
the money; and laughed at me so much for my folly that I cried with
vexation; and the reflection gave me more chagrin than the whistle
gave me pleasure.

This, however, was afterwards of use to me, the impression continuing
on my mind; so that often when I was tempted to buy some unnecessary
thing, I said to myself, "Don't give too much for the whistle";' and I
saved my money.

As I grew up, came into the world, and observed the actions of men, I
thought I met with many, very many, who gave too much for the whistle.

When I saw one too ambitious of court favor, sacrificing his time in
attendance on levees-his repose, his liberty, his virtue, and perhaps
his friends, to attain it-I have said to myself, "This man gives too
much for his whistle."

When I saw another fond of popularity, constantly employing himself
in political bustles, neglecting his own affairs, and ruining them by
that neglect, "He pays indeed," said I, "too much for his whistle."

If I knew a miser who gave up every kind of comfortable living, all
the pleasure of doing good to others, all the esteem of his fellow
citizens, and the joys of benevolent friendship, for the sake of
accumulating wealth, "Poor man," said I, "you pay too much for your
whistle."

When I met with a man of pleasure, sacrificing every laudable
improvement of the mind or of his fortune to mere corporeal
sensations, and ruining his health in their pursuit, "Mistaken man,"
said I, "you are providing pain for yourself instead of pleasure; you
give too much for your whistle."

If I see one fond of appearance, or fine clothes, fine houses, fine
furniture, fine equipages, all above his fortune, for which he
contracts debts and ends his career in a prison, "Alas!" say I, "he
has paid dear, very dear, for his whistle."

In short, I conceive that a great part of the miseries of mankind are
brought upon them by the false estimates they have made of the value
of things, and by their giving too much for their whistles.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. Why did Franklin say that lie paid too much for his
whistle' 2. How was this incident of use to him afterwards? 3. How
does it apply to a man too fond of popularity? To the miser? To the
man of pleasure? To the one who cares too much for appearance? 4. Can
you think of other incidents that illustrate what Franklin had in
mind? 5. Extravagance has been called the great fault of Americans.
During the World war what efforts were made by our people to. Correct
this fault? Why were the efforts successful? 6. Why is it necessary
to continue these efforts now? If all Americans would practice what
Franklin advises, what would be the effect on the cost of living, and
why? 7. In what ways can you save some of the pennies you might spend
foolishly? S. What do you know about Postal Savings deposits? 9. Write
a letter to your teacher, proposing that the children in your class
save as many pennies as possible for savings accounts, pointing out
some ways in which children may save their pennies; bring in a part of
Franklin's story in the most interesting way that you can. 10. Tell
what you can about the author. 11. Find in the Glossary the meaning
of: coppers; voluntarily; vexation; ambitious; esteem; contracts.
12. Pronounce: directly: chagrin; sacrificing; levee; accumulating;
laudable; equipage.

Phrases for Study

impression continuing, corporeal sensations, political bustles, above
his fortune.



AN AX TO GRIND

When I was a little boy, I remember, one cold winter morning, I was
accosted by a smiling man with an ax on his shoulder. "My pretty boy,"
said he, "has your father a grindstone?"

"Yes, sir," said I.

"You are a fine little fellow!" said he. "Will you, let me grind my ax
on it?"

Pleased with the compliment of "fine little fellow," "Oh, yes, sir," I
answered. "It is down in the shop."

"And will you, my man," said he, patting me on the head, "get me a
little hot water?"

How could I refuse? I ran, and soon brought a kettleful.

"How old are you-and what's your name?" continued he, without waiting
for a reply. "I'm sure you are one of the finest lads that I have ever
seen. Will you just turn a few minutes for me?"

Tickled with the flattery, like a little fool, I went to work, and
bitterly did I rue the day. It was a new ax, and I toiled and tugged
till I was almost tired to death. The school bell rang, and I could
not get away. My hands were blistered, and the ax was not half ground.

At length, however, it was sharpened, and the man turned to me with,
"Now, you little rascal, you've played truant! Scud to school, or
you'll rue it!"

"Alas!" thought I, "it was hard enough to turn a grindstone this cold
day, but now to be called a little rascal is too much." It sank deep
into my mind, and often have I thought of it since.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. In this story Franklin advises you to be on your guard
against flatterers who wish to make use of you in order to gain their
o"-n ends. What made Franklin do as the man wanted him to? What do you
think of the man? 2. How would you have sought the boy's help? 3. In
what way was this incident of use to Franklin afterwards? 4. What is
meant when we say of a person that he has "an ax to grind"? 5. How do
you think Franklin valued sincerity? 6. How do you value it? 7. Tell
the story as the man would have told it to a friend. 8. Pronounce:
accosted.



WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT

William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878) was born in the rugged hill country
of western Massachusetts. From infancy he showed remarkable powers of
mind. He could read by the time he was two years old, wrote verses
at nine, and when scarcely eighteen wrote his most noted poem,
"Thanatopsis," now one of the world's classics. He had a wonderful
memory, and it is said he could repeat "by heart" every poem he had
written.

Bryant removed to New York, where in 1825 he became editor of the
Evening Post. Through the remainder of--his long life he devoted his
energy and great gifts to building up one of the most forceful of
American newspapers, but he found time also to study Nature and to
write so many poems that we now think of him as a poet, not as an
editor. He was also a student, and we are indebted to him for some
excellent translations from old authors. And, finally, he was a
public-spirited American, interested in all matters that have to do
with the honor of our country. Imagine yourself in New York City
during the latter part of the last century. If you were walking up
Broadway almost any morning, your attention would be attracted to a
venerable looking man, with heavy, flowing, snow-white hair and beard,
whom you would be quite likely to meet swinging along at a vigorous
pace. You would not need to be told that this man is our first
American poet, with whose verses you are already familiar; and you
would probably know, too, that he is also the editor of the Evening
Post and that, although now past eighty, he is on his way to his
office, walking from his home some two miles away, as he has done,
rain or shine, for over half a century.

This great man was not too busy with affairs, or too learned, to look
for the joy that comes from companionship with Nature. Like Irving he
chose American subjects taken from his own surroundings: the scenes
of his boyhood, the flowers, birds, and hills of his old New England
home. He found pleasure in the simplest things, and he wrote about
this pleasure in the simplest way. In this simplicity and the variety
of his interests his wealth consisted; a treasure that made rich not
only the poet who possessed it but all Americans, to whom he left his
life and works for an inheritance.



THE YELLOW VIOLET

    When beechen buds begin to swell,
    And woods the bluebird's warble know,
    The yellow violet's modest bell
    Peeps from the last year's leaves below.

    Ere russet fields their green resume,
    Sweet flower, I love, in forest bare,
    To meet thee, when thy faint perfume;
    Alone is in the virgin air.

    Of all her train, the hands of Spring
    First plant thee in the watery mold;
    And I have seen thee blossoming
    Beside the snow-bank's edges cold.

    Thy parent sun, who bade thee view
    dale-skies, and chilling moisture sip,
    Has bathed thee in his own bright hue,
    And streaked with jet thy glowing lip.

    Yet slight thy form, and low thy seat,
    And earthward bent thy gentle eye,
    Unapt the passing view to meet,
    When loftier flowers are flaunting nigh.

    Oft, in the sunless April day,
    Thy early smile has stayed my walk,
    But 'midst the gorgeous blooms of May
    I passed thee on thy humble stalk.

So they who climb to wealth forget The friends in darker fortunes
tried. I copied them--but I regret That I should ape the ways of
pride.

And when again the genial hour Awakes the painted tribes of light,
I'll not o'erlook the modest flower That made the weds of April
bright.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. When does the poet say the violet makes its appearance?
2. Why is the violet called a "modest" flower? 3. Why does the violet
make glad the heart of the poet? When the woods and fields are full of
flowers, does he notice the violet? 4. What does "alone" add to the
meaning of line 8, page 298? 5. What is meant by "her train," line 9,
page 298? 6. What are "the hands of Spring"? 7. In what sense is the
sun the "parent" of the violet? 8. Why does Bryant say the violet's
seat is low? 9. What does the poet say the violet's "early smile" has
often done for him? 10. Point out the stanzas in which the poet tells
you where he finds the violet; the stanzas in which he tells you about
the appearance and character of the flower; the stanzas in which he
rebukes himself for passing it by, and makes a promise. 11. Why does
Bryant stop to view the violet in April and pass it by in May? 12.
With what does the poet compare this treatment of the violet? 13. What
does the poet say he regrets? 14. What other flowers come very early
in the spring? How do you feel when you see them? 15. Which stanza of
the poem do you like best? 16. What other poem on the violet have you
read? 17. Tell what you can about the author. 18. Find in the Glossary
the meaning of: beechen; russet; train; jet; unapt. 19. Pronounce:
ere; parent; gorgeous; humble; genial.

Phrases for Study

modest bell, stayed my walk, their green resume, in darker fortunes
tried, virgin air, ape the ways of pride, pale skies, genial hour,
flaunting nigh, painted tribes of light.



THE GLADNESS OF NATURE

    Is this a time to be cloudy and sad,
    When our Mother Nature laughs around,
    When even the deep blue heavens look glad,
    And gladness breathes from the blossoming ground?

    There are notes of joy from the hangbird and wren,
    And the gossip of swallows through all the sky;
    The ground squirrel gayly chirps by his den,
    And the wilding bee hums merrily by.

    The clouds are at play in the azure space,
    And their shadows at play on the bright green vale,
    And here they stretch to the frolic chase,
    And there they roll on the easy gale.

    There's a dance of leaves in that aspen bower;
    There's a titter of winds in that beechen tree;
    There's a smile on the fruit, and a smile on the flower,
    And a laugh from the brook that runs to the sea.

    And look at the broad-faced sun, how he smiles
    On the dewy earth that smiles in his ray,
    On the leaping waters and gay young isles,
    Ay, look, and he'll smile thy gloom away.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. What season is described here? 2. What are the signs
that Nature is glad? How do all these things affect the poet? How do
you sometimes feel on a cold, rainy day? 3. What signs of gladness are
mentioned in the first two stanzas? 4. Which of these have you seen
in springtime? 5. Have you ever seen clouds that seemed to chase one
another? 6. What is meant by "a laugh from the brook"? 7. What does
the poet say the sun will do for us? 8. Do you think spring is "a time
to be cloudy and sad"? Why? 9. Why do city boys and girls like to
visit the country? 10. Read again "A Forward Look," pages 19-20, and
then point out fancies that Bryant uses in this poem to help us see
the beauty and wonder of Nature. 11. Commit to memory the stanza that
you like best. 12. Pronounce: wilding; azure; isles; ay.


Phrases for Study

gladness breathes, frolic chase, blossoming ground, aspen bower,
gossip of swallows, titter of winds, azure space, broad-faced sun.


JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER

John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-1892) was born near the town of
Haverhill, Massachusetts, not far from Hawthorne's birthplace. He had
very little opportunity for education beyond what the district school
afforded, for his parents were too poor to send him away to school.
His two years' attendance at Haverhill Academy was paid for by his own
work at making ladies' slippers for twenty-five cents a pair. He began
writing verses almost as soon as he learned to write at all, but his
father discouraged this ambition as frivolous, saying it would never
give him bread. His family were Quakers, sturdy of stature as of
character. He is called "The Quaker Poet."

Whittier led the life of a New England farm boy, used to hard work
and few pleasures. His library consisted of practically one book, the
family Bible. Later, a copy of Burns's poems was loaned to him by
the district schoolmaster. Like Burns he had great sympathy with the
humble and the poor. In his poems. Whittier described the scenes and
told the legends of his own locality. Home Ballads and Songs of Labor,
in which "The Huskers" and "The Corn-Song" appear, are among his most
widely read books. They picture country life and the scenes of the
simple occupations common in his part of the country. Whittier was
intensely patriotic and religious by nature. His happiness lay in his
association with his friends, with children, animals, and the outdoor
world.

In these respects he was like Bryant, a man who found pleasure in
simple things. Like Bryant, also, he was interested in public affairs.
Any injustice to the poor he opposed passionately. He wrote many poems
in protest against slavery. He wrote, also, ballads of early New
England history, and some of our most beautiful religious poetry comes
from his pen. His life was less filled with business cares than that
of Bryant, but it was equally full of interests that made him happy
and source of help and joy to others.



THE HUSKERS

It was late in mild October, and the long autumnal rain Had left the
summer harvest-fields all green with grass again; The first sharp
frosts had fallen, leaving all the woodlands gay With the hues of
summer's rainbow or the meadow flowers of May.

Through a thin, dry mist, that morning, the sun rose broad and red; At
first a rayless disk of fire, he brightened as he sped; Yet even his
noontide glory fell chastened and subdued On the cornfields and the
orchards and softly pictured wood.

And all that quiet afternoon, slow sloping to the night, He wove with
golden shuttle the haze with yellow light; Slanting through the tented
beeches, he glorified the hill; And, beneath it, pond and meadow lay
brighter, greener still.

And shouting boys in woodland haunts caught glimpses of that sky,
Flecked by the many-tinted leaves, and laughed, they knew not why; And
schoolgirls, gay with aster-flowers, beside the meadow brooks, Mingled
the glow of autumn with the sunshine of sweet looks.

From spire and barn looked westerly the patient weathercocks; But even
the birches on the hill stood motionless as rocks. No sound was in the
woodlands save the squirrel's dropping shell, And the yellow leaves
among the boughs, low rustling as they fell.

The summer grains were harvested; the stubble-fields lay dry, Where
June winds rolled, in light and shade, the pale green waves of rye;
But still, on gentle hill-slopes, in valleys fringed with wood,
ungathered, bleaching in the sun, the heavy corn crop stood.

Bent low by autumn's wind and rain, through husks that, dry and sear,
Unfolded from their ripened charge, shone out the yellow ear; Beneath,
the turnip lay concealed in many a verdant fold, And glistened in the
slanting light the pumpkin's sphere of gold.

There wrought the busy harvester, and many a creaking wain Bore slowly
to the long barn-floor its load of husk and grain; Till broad and red,
as when he rose, the sun sank down at last, And like a merry guest's
farewell the day in brightness passed.

And lo! as through the western pines, on meadow, stream, and pond,
Flamed the red radiance of a sky set all afire beyond, Slowly o'er
the eastern sea-bluffs a milder glory shone, And the sunset and the
moonrise were mingled into one!

As thus into the quiet night the twilight lapsed away, And deeper in
the brightening moon the tranquil shadows lay, From many a brown old
farmhouse and hamlet without name, Their milking and their home-tasks
done, the merry huskers came.

Swung o'er the heaped-up harvest, from pitchforks in the mow, Shone
dimly down the lanterns on the pleasant scene below, The glowing pile
of husks behind, the golden ears before, And laughing eyes and busy
hands and brown cheeks glimmering o'er.

Half hidden in a quiet nook, serene of look and heart, Talking their
old times over, the old men sat apart; While up and down the unhusked
pile, or nestling in its shade, At hide-and-seek, with laugh and
shout, the happy children played.

Urged by the good host's daughter, a maiden young and fair, Lifting to
light her sweet blue eyes and pride of soft brown hair, The master of
the village school, sleek of hair and smooth of tongue, To the quaint
tune of some old psalm, a husking-ballad sung.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. What is the difference between the sunshine of October
and that of May? 2. Why does it seem to the poet as if the sun wove
with golden shuttle the yellow haze? 3. What had the frost done that
made the woodlands gay? 4. What words in the second stanza make you
feel that the wood was some distance away? 5. To whom does "he" in the
third stanza refer? 6. What words in the second stanza explain
the word "haze" in the third stanza? 7. What gave the beeches the
appearance of being painted? 8. What are the colors of the woods
and sky in this poem? What colors are they in the poem "The Yellow
Violet"? Find the words and phrases that tell you. How many times, in
this poem, does the poet use the words golden and yellow, or speak of
things that suggest these colors? 9. What do you think was the reason
the boys laughed when they looked up to the sky? 10. What "summer
grain" is mentioned in line 11, page 304? 11. What crop was still
ungathered? 12. Where were the harvesters at work? 13. What was it
that set the sky "all afire beyond"? 14. Where did the husking take
place? What tells you this? 15.. How did the old men spend the
evening? 16. What things that we eat depend on the work of the
huskers? 17. Tell what you can about the author. 18. Find in the
Glossary the meaning of: shuttle; spire; sear; verdant; wain; lapsed.
19. Pronounce: autumnal; chastened; beneath; sphere; wrought;
radiance; tranquil; mow; serene; psalm.

Phrases for Study

hues of summer's rainbow, patient weathercocks, rayless disk of fire,
ripened charge, brightened as he sped; sphere of gold, glory fell
chastened, milder glory shone, softly pictured wood, mingled into one,
slow sloping to the night, hamlet without name, glorified the hill,
golden ears before, sunshine of sweet looks, glimmering o'er, looked
westerly, serene of look and heart.



THE CORN-SONG

    Heap high the farmer's wintry hoard!
    Heap high the golden corn!
    No richer gift has Autumn poured
    From out her lavish horn!

    Let other lands, exulting, glean
    The apple from the pine,
    The orange from its glossy green,
    The cluster from the vine;

    We better love the hardy gift
    Our rugged vales bestow,
    To cheer us when the storm shall drift
    Our harvest-fields with snow.

    Through vales of grass and meads of flowers
    Our plows their furrows made,
    While on the hills the sun and showers
    Of changeful April played.

    We dropped the seed o'er hill and plain,
    Beneath the sun of May,
    And frightened from our sprouting grain
    The robber crows away.

    All through the long, bright days of June
    Its leaves grew green and
    fair, And waved in hot midsummer's noon
    Its soft and yellow hair.

    And now, with Autumn's moonlit eves,
    Its harvest-time has come; We
    pluck away the frosted leaves,
    And bear the treasure home.

    Then shame on all the proud and vain
    Whose folly laughs to scorn
    The blessing of our hardy grain,
    Our wealth of golden corn!

    Let earth withhold her goodly root,
    Let mildew blight the rye,
    Give to the worm the orchard's fruit,
    The wheat-field to the fly;

    But let the good old crop adorn
    The hills our fathers trod;
    Still let us, for his golden corn,
    Send up our thanks to God!


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. In "A Forward Look," you read that poets help you to
see beauty in things that might otherwise seem common. The yellow
violet is less showy than the chrysanthemum, but the poet writes
of the violet. The pineapple, the orange, the grape, seem more
interesting than the yellow corn of the fields, but here is a poem
about one of the commonest of farm crops. To whom is the poet speaking
in the first two stanzas? Point out some of the poet's fancies in this
poem. 2. Is all corn "golden"? What other kinds have you seen? 3. Name
other gifts autumn brings us. 4. Why is the corn a "hardy gift"? What
other words or phrases in the poem suggest the same idea? 5. What do
we call the "apple from the pine"? 6. What clusters are picked from
vines? 7. In what "other lands" do these fruits grow? 8. Where was
Whittier's home? 9. What do you know of the soil and climate of New
England? 10. Find the line that tells when we plant the corn. 11. Find
the lines that tell when we harvest the corn. 12. What is the "yellow
hair" the corn waves in summer? 13. What does the poet mean by
"frosted leaves"? 14. What does he think of those who scorn the
blessing of the corn? 15. What wish does the poet express in the last
stanza? 16. What service did our farmers and boys and girls on the
farms perform during the World War? 17. On page 291 you were asked to
notice the way in which these American authors have expressed their
thoughts; does Whittier's use of rime add to the beauty of his "song"
about corn? Point out some of the lines that rime. 18. Find in the
Glossary the meaning of: glean; hardy; meads; furrows; frosted;
mildew; adorn.

Pronounce: hoard; lavish; glossy; root.

Phrases for Study

wintry hoard, rugged vales bestow, lavish horn, changeful April,
exulting, glean, folly laughs to scorn, hardy gift, goodly root.



WASHINGTON IRVING


Washington Irving (1783-1859) was a native of New York. He led a happy
life, rambling in his boyhood about every nook and corner of the city
and the adjacent woods, which at that time were not very far to seek.
New York, called New Amsterdam in early colonial times, was then the
capital of the country, and here the boy grew up happy, seeing many
sides of American life, both in the city and country.

Manhattan Island and the region about it, with its commanding position
at the entrance to a great inland waterway, was from the first a
prize for which the nations from across the sea had contended. Such
a mingling of different people must give rise to interesting
experiences, and when someone appears who can put the story of those
events into a pleasing sketch, then we begin to have real literature:
Irving had not only the experience and observation, but the ability
'to express what he had seen and felt. Therefore, when he grew to
manhood and gave his sketches of this region to the world, we had our
first real American literature.

Irving is best known as a humorist and a charming storyteller, but he
has also written serious and tender works. His life of Washington is a
tribute of loving reverence to the great American for whom he was named.
As a boy, Irving was of a rather mischievous turn, a trait which perhaps
helped to make him the "first American humorist." Indeed, it has been
said that "before Irving there was no laughter in the land." He is called
the "Father of American Literature," and also the "gentle humorist."
"Capturing the Wild Horse" is taken from A Tour of the Prairies, and
"The Adventure of the Mason" from The Alhambra.


CAPTURING THE WILD HORSE

We left the buffalo camp about eight o'clock and had a toilsome march
of two hours over ridges of hills covered with a ragged forest of
scrub-oaks and broken by deep gullies. Among the oaks I observed many
of the most diminutive size, some not above a foot high, yet bearing
abundance of small acorns.

About ten o'clock in the morning we came to where this line of rugged
hills swept down into a valley, through which flowed the north fork of
the Red River. A beautiful meadow about half a mile wide, colored with
yellow autumnal flowers, stretched for two or three miles along the
foot of the hills, bordered on the opposite side by the river, whose
bank was fringed with cottonwood trees.

The meadow was finely diversified by groves and clumps of trees, so
happily arranged that they seemed as if set out by the hand of art. As
we cast our eyes over this fresh and delightful valley, we saw a troop
of wild horses quietly grazing on a green lawn about a mile distant
to our right, while to our left, at nearly the same distance, were
several buffaloes--some feeding, others reposing and ruminating among
the high, rich herbage under the shade of a clump of cottonwood trees.
The whole had the appearance of a broad, beautiful tract of pasture
land on the estate of some gentleman farmer, with his cattle grazing
about the lawns and meadows. A council of war was now held, and it was
determined to profit by the present favorable opportunity and try our
hand at the grand hunting-maneuver which is called "ringing the wild
horse." This requires a large party of horsemen, well mounted.

They extend themselves in each direction, singly, at certain
distances apart, and gradually form a ring of two or three miles in
circumference, so as to surround the game. This has to be done
with extreme care, for the wild horse is the most readily alarmed
inhabitant of the prairie, and can scent a hunter at a great distance,
if to windward.

The ring being formed, two or three ride toward the horses, which
start off in an opposite direction. Whenever they approach the bounds
of the ring, however, a huntsman presents himself and turns them from
their course. In this way they are checked and driven back at every
point, and kept galloping round and round this magic circle, until,
being completely tired down, it is easy for the hunters to ride up
beside them and throw the lariat over their heads. The prime horses of
most speed and courage, however, are apt to break through and escape,
so that in general it is the second-rate horses that are taken.

Preparations were now made for a hunt of this kind. The packhorses
were taken into the woods and firmly tied to trees, lest in a rush of
the wild horses they should break away with them. Twenty-five men were
then sent, under the command of a lieutenant, to steal along the edge
of the valley within the strip of wood that skirted the hills. They
were to station themselves about fifty yards apart, within the edge of
the woods, and not advance or show themselves until the horses dashed
in that direction.

Twenty-five men were sent across the valley to steal in like manner
along the river bank that bordered the opposite side, and to station
themselves among the trees. A third party of about the same number was
to form a line stretching across the lower part of the valley, so as
to connect the two wings. Beatte and our other half-breed; Antoine,
together with the ever-officious Tonish, were to make a circuit
through the woods, so as to get to the upper part of the valley in the
rear of the horses, and to drive them forward into the kind of sack
that we had formed, while the two wings should join behind them and
make a complete circle.

The flanking parties were quietly extending themselves, out of sight,
on each side of the valley, and the rest were stretching themselves
like the links of a chain across it, when the wild horses gave signs
that they scented an enemy--snuffing the air, snorting, and looking
about.

At length they pranced off slowly toward the river and disappeared
behind a green bank. Here, had the rules of the chase been observed,
they would have been quietly checked and turned back by the advance of
a hunter from among the trees; unluckily, however, we had our wildfire
Jack-o'-lantern little Frenchman to deal with.

Instead of keeping quietly up the right side of the valley to get
above the horses, the moment he saw them move toward the river he
broke out of the thicket of woods and dashed furiously across the
plain in pursuit of them, being, mounted on one of the led horses
belonging to the Count. This put an end to all system. The half-breeds
and half a score of rangers joined in the chase.

Away they all went over the green bank; in a moment or two the wild
horses reappeared and came thundering down the valley, with Frenchman,
half-breeds, and rangers galloping and yelling like mad behind them.
It was in vain that the line drawn across the valley attempted to
check and turn back the fugitives. They were too hotly pressed by
their pursuers; in their panic they dashed through the line and
clattered down the plain.

The whole troop joined in the headlong chase-some of the rangers
without hats or caps, their hair flying about their ears; others with
handkerchiefs tied round their heads. The buffaloes, which had been
calmly ruminating among the herbage, heaved up their huge forms, gazed
for a moment with astonishment at the tempest that came scouring down
the meadow, then turned and took to heavy-rolling flight. They were
soon overtaken; the mixed throng were pressed together by the sides of
the valley, and away they went, pell-mell, hurry-scurry, wild buffalo,
wild horse, wild huntsman, with clang and clatter, and whoop and
halloo, that made the forests ring.

At length the buffaloes turned into a green brake on the river bank,
while the horses dashed up a narrow defile of the hills, with their
pursuers close at their heels. Beatte passed several of them, having
fixed his eye upon a fine Pawnee horse that had his ears slit, and
saddle marks upon his back. He pressed him gallantly, but lost him in
the woods.

Among the wild horses was a fine black mare. In scrambling up the
defile she tripped and fell. A young ranger sprang from his horse and
seized her by the mane and muzzle. Another ranger dismounted and came
to his assistance. The mare struggled fiercely, kicking and biting,
and striking with her forefeet; but a noose was slipped over her head,
and her struggles were in vain. It was some time, however, before she
gave over rearing and plunging, and lashing out with her feet on
every side. The two rangers then led her along the valley by two long
lariats, which enabled them to keep at a sufficient distance on each
side to be out of the reach of her hoofs; and whenever she struck out
in one direction, she was jerked in the other. In this way her spirit
was gradually subdued.

As to little Tonish, who had marred the whole scene by his rashness,
he had been more successful than he deserved, having managed to catch
a beautiful cream-colored colt about seven months old, which had not
strength to keep up with its companions. The little Frenchman was
beside himself with joy. It was amusing to see him with his prize. The
colt would rear and kick and struggle to get free, when Tonish would
take him about the neck, wrestle with him, jump on his back, and cut
as many antics as a monkey with a kitten.

Nothing surprised me more, however, than to see how soon these poor
animals, thus taken from the unbounded freedom of the prairie, yielded
to the control of man. In the course of two or three days the mare and
colt went with the led horses and became quite docile.



NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Historical Note. In 1832 Irving made "a tour of the prairies"--that
is, of what was then the Far West, beyond the Mississippi, where, he
says, "there is neither to be seen the log house of the white man, nor
the wigwam of the Indian." Discussion. 1. What picture do the first
three paragraphs give you? 2. Tell how "ringing the wild horse" is
accomplished. 3. What preparations did Irving's party make for the
hunt? 4. Who broke the rules of the chase? 5. What was the effect of
this? 6. Tell all you can learn about Tonish, the little Frenchman. 7.
What does Irving say about the ease with which the wild horses were
tamed? 8. List the words that give ideas of thrilling action in the
paragraph beginning, "The whole troop joined in the headlong chase."
What words tell the difference between the buffaloes and the horses
in flight? 9. Tell what you can about the author. 10. Class readings:
Select the passages you like best. 11. Outline for testing silent
reading. Tell the story in your own words, using the following
topics: (a) the scene of action; (b) the method of approach; (c) the
preparations; (d) the mistake of Tonish; (e) the excitement of the
chase; (f) the two captures. 12. Find in the Glossary the meaning
of: toilsome; gullies; diversified; circumference; prime; skirted;
fugitives; brake; defile. 13. Pronounce: diminutive; ruminating;
herbage; maneuver; kept; lariat; circuit; reappeared; rangers;
handkerchiefs; rearing; marred.

Phrases for Study

swept down into a valley, wildfire Jack-o'-lantern, fringed with
trees, thundering down the valley, happily arranged,

hand of art, hotly pressed, council of war, scouring down the meadow,
well mounted, heavy-rolling flight, if to windward, spirit was
gradually subdued, approach the bounds,

ever-officious Tonish, marred the whole scene, flanking parties,
beside himself with joy, extending themselves, unbounded freedom,



THE ADVENTURE OF THE MASON


There was once upon a time a poor mason, or bricklayer, in Granada,
who kept all the saints' days and holidays, and Saint Monday into the
bargain, and yet with all his devotion he grew poorer and poorer and
could scarcely earn bread for his numerous family. One night he was
roused from his first sleep by a knocking at his door. He opened it
and beheld before him a tall stranger.

"Hark ye, honest friend!" said the stranger; "I have observed that you
are a good Christian and one to be trusted. Will you undertake a job
this very night?"

"With all my heart, Senor, on condition that I am paid accordingly."

"That you shall be; but you must suffer yourself to be blindfolded."

To this the mason made no objection. So, being hoodwinked, he was led
by the stranger through various rough lanes and winding passages until
they stopped before the portal of a house. The stranger then applied a
key, turned a creaking lock, and opened what sounded like a ponderous
door. They entered; the door was closed and bolted, and the mason
was conducted through an echoing corridor and a spacious hall to an
interior part of the building. Here the bandage was removed from his
eyes, and he found himself in a court dimly lighted by a single lamp.
In the center was the dry basin of an old fountain, under which the
stranger requested him to form a small vault, bricks and mortar being
at hand for the purpose. He worked all night, but without finishing
the job. Just before daybreak the stranger put a piece of gold into
his hand, and having again blindfolded him, conducted him back to his
dwelling.

"Are you willing," said he, "to return and complete your work?"

"Gladly, Senor, provided I am so well paid."

"Well then, tomorrow at midnight I will call again."

He did so, and the vault was completed.

"Now," said the stranger, "you must help me to bring forth the bodies
that are to be buried in this vault."

The poor mason's hair rose on his head at these words; he followed the
stranger with trembling steps into a retired chamber of the mansion,
expecting to behold some ghastly spectacle of death, but was relieved
on seeing three or four jars standing in one corner. They were full of
money, and it was with great labor that he and the stranger carried
them forth and consigned them to their tomb.

The vault was then closed, the pavement replaced, and all traces of
the work were obliterated. The mason was again hoodwinked and led
forth by a route different from that by which he had come. After they
had wandered for a long time through a maze of lanes and alleys, they
halted.

The stranger then put two pieces of gold into his hand. "Wait here,"
said he, "until you hear the cathedral bell toll. If you uncover your
eyes before that time, evil will befall you." So saying, he departed.
The mason waited faithfully, amusing himself by weighing the gold
pieces in his hand and clinking them against each other. The moment
the cathedral bell rang its peals he uncovered his eyes and found
himself on the banks of the Xenil; whence he made the best of his way
home and reveled with his family for a whole fortnight on the profits
of his two nights' work; after which he was as poor as ever.

He continued to work a little and pray a good deal and keep saints'
days and holidays from year to year, while his family grew up gaunt
and ragged as a crew of gypsies. As he was seated one evening at the
door of his hovel, he was accosted by a rich old curmudgeon who was
noted for owning many houses and being a griping landlord. The man of
money eyed him for a moment from beneath a pair of anxious, shaggy
eyes.

"I am told, friend, that you are very poor."

"There is no denying the fact, Senor--it speaks for itself."

"I presume then that you will be glad of a job and will work cheap?"

"As cheap, my master, as any mason in Granada."

"That's what I want. I have an old house fallen into decay, which
costs me more money than it is worth to keep in repair, for nobody
will live in it. So I must patch it up and keep it together at as
small expense as possible."

The mason was accordingly conducted to a large deserted house that
seemed going to ruin. Passing through several empty halls and
chambers, he entered an inner court, where his eye was caught by an
old fountain. He paused for a moment, for a dreamy recollection of
the place came over him. "Pray," said he, "who occupied this house
formerly?"

"A pest upon him!" cried the landlord; "it was an old miserly fellow
who cared for nobody but himself. He was said to be immensely rich.
He died suddenly, and nothing could they find but a few ducats in a
leathern purse. The worst luck has fallen on me, for since his death
the old fellow continues to occupy my house without paying rent. The
people pretend to hear the clinking of gold all night in the chamber
where the old fellow slept, as if he were counting over his money,
and sometimes a groaning and moaning about the court. Whether true or
false, these stories have brought a bad name on my house, and not a
tenant will remain in it."

"Enough," said the mason sturdily; "let me live in your house
rent-free until some better tenant appears, and I will put it in
repair and quiet the troubled spirit that disturbs it. I am a good
Christian and a poor man and am not to be daunted by the Devil
himself, even though he should come in the shape of a big bag of
money!"

The offer of the mason was gladly accepted. He moved with his family
into the house, and fulfilled all of his engagements. By little and
little he restored it to its former state; the clinking of gold was no
more heard at night in the chamber of the defunct tenant, but began
to be heard by day in the pocket of the living mason. In a word, he
increased rapidly in wealth, to the admiration of all his neighbors,
and became one of the richest men in Granada. He gave large sums to
the Church--by way, no doubt, of satisfying his conscience--and never
revealed the secret of the vault until on his deathbed to his son and
heir.



NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. What condition led the mason to undertake the
stranger's task? 2. Why was the mason blindfolded? 3. How long did it
take him to complete the vault? 4. What was buried in it? 5. How did
the mason find his way home? 6. Was the mason's poverty relieved by
the pay he received from the stranger? 7. What work did the grasping
landlord propose to the mason? 8. What stories had brought a bad name
upon the landlord's house? 9. What was the "dreamy recollection"? 10.
How did the mason show his quick wit? 11. Why did he say that he was
not afraid of the Devil in the shape of a bag of money? 12. What
differences do you notice between this story of how the mason came
upon great wealth and the stories of Aladdin and Ali Baba? 13. Read
again pages 289-291 and tell what makes Irving a real author. Can you
tell why you enjoyed this story? 14. Class reading: The second part
of the story, page 318, line 20, to the end. 15. Outline for testing
silent reading. Tell the story in your own words, using the following
topics: (a) how the mason built the vault in the mysterious house;
(b) how he unexpectedly came into possession of this vault many years
later. 16. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: hoodwinked; vault;
maze; cathedral; pest; ducat. 17. Pronounce: Granada; Senor;
ponderous; ghastly; obliterated; route; gaunt; hovel; curmudgeon;
daunted.

Phrases for Study

retired chamber, troubled spirit, ghastly spectacle, former state,
crew of gypsies, defunct tenant, griping landlord, by way of
satisfying.



HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) was a native of Maine and
a graduate of Bowdoin College, in the same class with Nathaniel
Hawthorne. Longfellow came of early New England ancestry, his mother
being a daughter of General Wadsworth of the Revolutionary War.

After his graduation from college he spent several years abroad and
upon his return to America held professorships first in Bowdoin and
later in Harvard College. When he moved to Cambridge and began his
active work at Harvard, he took up his residence in the historic
Craigie House, overlooking the Charles River-a house in which
Washington had been quartered for some months when in 1775 he took
command of the Continental army.

Longfellow is the poet who has spoken most sincerely and
sympathetically to the hearts of the common people and to children.
His style is notable for its simplicity and grace. His Hiawatha is a
national poem that records the picturesque traditions of the American
Indian. Its charm and melody are the delight of all children, and
in years to come, when the race which it describes has utterly
disappeared, we shall value at even higher state; the clinking of gold
was no more heard at night in the chamber of the defunct tenant, but
began to be heard by day in the pocket of the living mason. In a
word, he increased rapidly in wealth, to the admiration of all his
neighbors, and became one of the richest men in Granada. He gave
large sums to the Church--by way, no doubt, of satisfying his
conscience--and never revealed the secret of the vault until on his
deathbed to his son and heir.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. What condition led the mason to undertake the
stranger's task? 2. Why was the mason blindfolded? 3. How long did it
take him to complete the vault? 4. What was buried in it? 5. How did
the mason find his way home? 6. Was the mason's poverty relieved by
the pay he received from the stranger? 7. What work did the grasping
landlord propose to the mason? 8. What stories had brought a bad name
upon the landlord's house? 9. What was the "dreamy recollection"? 10.
How did the mason show his quick wit? 11. Why did he say that he was
not afraid of the Devil in the shape of a bag of money? 12. What
differences do you notice between this story of how the mason came
upon great wealth and the stories of Aladdin and Ali Baba? 13. Read
again pages 289-291 and tell what makes Irving a real author. Can you
tell why you enjoyed this story? 14. Class reading: The second part
of the story, page 318, line 20, to the end. 15. Outline for testing
silent reading. Tell the story in your own words, using the following
topics: (a) how the mason built the vault in the mysterious house;
(b) how he unexpectedly came into possession of this vault many years
later. 16. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: hoodwinked; vault;
maze; cathedral; pest; ducat. 17. Pronounce: Granada; Senor;
ponderous; ghastly; obliterated; route; gaunt; hovel; curmudgeon;
daunted.

Phrases for Study

retired chamber, troubled spirit, ghastly spectacle, former state,
crew of gypsies, defunct tenant, griping landlord, by way of
satisfying.



HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) was a native of Maine and
a graduate of Bowdoin College, in the same class with Nathaniel
Hawthorne. Longfellow came of early New England ancestry, his mother
being a daughter of General Wadsworth of the Revolutionary War.

After his graduation from college he spent several years abroad and
upon his return to America held professorships first in Bowdoin and
later in Harvard College. When he moved to Cambridge and began his
active work at Harvard, he took up his residence in the historic
Craigie House, overlooking the Charles River-a house in which
Washington had been quartered for some months when in 1775 he took
command of the Continental army.

Longfellow is the poet who has spoken most sincerely and
sympathetically to the hearts of the common people and to children.
His style is notable for its simplicity and grace. His Hiawatha is a
national poem that records the picturesque traditions of the American
Indian. Its charm and melody are the delight of all children, and
in years to come, when the race which it describes has utterly
disappeared, we shall value at even higher worth these stories of the
romantic past of America and of the brave people who inhabited these
mountains and plains before the white man came.

Besides Indian stories, Longfellow wrote many narratives in verse
dealing with old legends of America. "The Skeleton in Armor" is an
example of the legends about European explorers who came here before
the days of Columbus. Evangehne and The Courtship of Miles Standish
are longer poems which find their subjects in early colonial history.
He wrote also of legends of Europe, and was well acquainted with
stories and romances of older civilizations than ours. Equally
well-known poems, of a different type, are those in which household
joys and sorrows give the theme. Longfellow is the poet of the
home-life, of simple hopes, of true religious faith. His spirit was
the Spirit of a child, affectionate, loyal, eager for romance and
knightly adventure. He is the "Children's Poet," as the poem "The
Children's Hour" helps to show. There were sorrows as well as joys
in his life, and this is why we go to him in trouble and why so many
people know his poems by heart. Sorrow never took away his faith or
made him bitter. He is genial and kindly, the friend--of all Americans
everywhere.

THE ARROW AND THE SONG

    I shot an arrow into the air;
    It Fell to earth, I knew not where;
    For, so swiftly it flew, the sight
    Could not follow it in its flight.

    I breathed a Song into the air;
    It fell to earth, I knew not where;
    For who has sight so keen and strong
    That it can follow the flight of Song?

    Long, long afterwards, in an oak
    I found the arrow, still unbroke;
    And the song, from beginning to end,
    I found again in the heart of a friend.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion: 1. What became of the arrow? Of the song? 2. Where was the
arrow found? When? 3. Where was the Song found? 4. Point out lines
that rime. 5. What is Longfellow's purpose in this poem? 6. Why is the
poet's song compared to the flight of an arrow? 7. A poet once said,
"Let me make the Songs of a nation, and I care not who makes the
laws." What did he mean? 8. What was the Song doing "in the heart of a
friend"?

Phrases for Study

breathed a song, flight of Song.


THE CHILDREN'S HOUR

    Between the dark and the daylight,
    When the night is beginning to lower,
    Comes a pause in the day's occupations,
    That is known as the Children's Hour.

    I hear in the chamber above me
    The patter of little feet,
    The Sound of a door that is opened,
    And voices soft and sweet.

    From my study I See in the lamplight,
    Descending the broad hall stair,
    Grave Alice, and laughing Allegra.
    And Edith with golden hair.

    A whisper, and then a silence;
    Yet I know by their merry eyes
    They are plotting and planning together
    To take me by surprise.

    A sudden rush from the stairway,
    A sudden raid from the hall!
    By three doors left unguarded
    They enter my castle wall!

    They climb up into my turret
    O'er the arms and back of my chair;
    If I try to escape, they surround me;
    They seem to be everywhere.

    They almost devour me with kisses;
    Their arms about me entwine;
    Till I think of the Bishop of Bingen
    In his Mouse-Tower on the Rhine!

    Do you think, O blue-eyed banditti,
    Because you have scaled the wall,
    Such an old mustache as I am
    Is not a match for you all?

    I have you fast in my fortress,
    And will not let you depart,
    gut put you down into the dungeon
    in the round-tower of my heart.

    And there will I keep you forever,
    Yes, forever and a day,
    Till the walls shall crumble to ruin,
    And molder in dust away!


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. What is the time "Between the dark and the daylight"
usually called? 2. What do you suppose Longfellow had been doing in
his study before the children came down to him? 3. What reasons can
you give for the "pause in the day's occupations"? 4. Who were the
children whom the poet saw "Descending the broad hall stair" to enter
his "castle wall"? 5. What were these children whispering about? 6.
What does Longfellow mean by his "turret"? 7. To what does he compare
the rush made by the children? 8. What wall did they scale in order to
reach him? 9. Where does Longfellow say he will put the children now
that he has captured them? 10. Which stanza of this poem do you like
best? 11. Tell what you know about the life of Longfellow. 12. Find
in the Glossary the meaning of: raid; match. 13. Pronounce: lower;
banditti; dungeon.

Phrases for Study

Bishop of Bingen, round-tower of my heart, scaled the wall, forever
and a day, such an old mustache, molder in dust away, fast in my
fortress.


THE SONG OF HIAWATHA

INTRODUCTION

    Should you ask me, whence these stories,
    Whence these legends and traditions,
    With the odors of the forest,
    With the dew and damp of meadows,
    With the curling smoke of wigwams,
    With the rushing of great rivers,
    With their frequent repetitions,
    And their wild reverberations,
    As of thunder in the mountains.

    I should answer, I should tell you:
    "From the forests and the prairies,
    From the great lakes of the Northland,
    From the land of the Ojibways,
    From the land of the Dacotahs,
    From the mountains, moors, and fenlands,
    Where the heron, the Shuh-shuh-gah,
    Feeds among the reeds and rushes.
    I repeat them as I heard them
    From the lips Of Nawadaha
    The musician, the sweet singer."

    Should you ask where Nawadaha
    Found these songs, so wild and wayward,
    Found these legends and traditions,

    I should answer, I should tell you:
    "In the birds'-nests of the forests,
    In the lodges of the beaver,
    In the hoof-prints of the bison,
    In the aerie of the eagle!"
    If still further you should ask me,
    Saying, "Who was Nawadaha?
    Tell us of this Nawadaha,"
    I should answer your inquiries
    Straightway in such words as follow:

    "In the Vale of Tawasentha,
    In the green and silent valley,
    By the pleasant water-courses.
    Dwelt the singer Nawadaha.
    Round about the Indian village
    Spread the meadows and the cornfields,
    And beyond them stood the forest,
    Stood the groves of singing pine-trees,
    Green in summer, white in winter,
    Ever sighing, ever singing.

    "There he sang of Hiawatha,
    Sang the Song of Hiawatha,
    Sang his wondrous birth and being,
    How he prayed and how he fasted,
    How he lived, and toiled, and suffered,
    That the tribes of men might prosper,
    That he might advance his people!"

    Ye who love the haunts of Nature,
    Love the sunshine of the meadow,
    Love the shadow of the forest,
    Love the wind among the branches,
    And the rain-shower and the snowstorm,
    And the rushing of great rivers
    Through their palisades of pine-trees,
    And the thunder in the mountains,
    Listen to this Indian Legend,
    To this Song of Hiawatha!
    Ye whose hearts are fresh and simple,
    Who have faith in God and Nature,

    Listen to this simple story,
    To this Song of Hiawatha!


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

You have now begun to read parts of a long poem about Indian life and
tradition. The Indians, like all other races of men, have such songs.
Longfellow studied the Indian legends and put them into English verse
so that all of us may enjoy them. Such a poem, which is really a
collection of ballads or songs about heroes and about the beliefs and
superstitions of a race, is often called an epic. Notice that the poet
tells you that these stories in verse have the odors of the forest,
the curling smoke of wigwams; the rushing of great rivers, and the
roar of mountain thunder. This means that such stories are very
closely connected with the simple life of a simple people--there is
much of their thought about Nature, much of their love of the land
where they live. Next, notice that he got his knowledge of these songs
from a "sweet singer," a minstrel. All simple tribes have had such
singers, who went about from place to place telling in verse what
the people wanted to hear. There were no books, both boys and girls
learned their stories from older people, or from wandering singers.
Next, you observe that the theme of the stories is the life of
Hiawatha, their great hero. So the Greeks had stories about their hero
Ulysses, the early English about Beowulf and King Arthur, the French
about Roland. Every great race honors the memory of a hero who lived
when the race was young. Many stories cluster about the name of this
hero, and poets and minstrels love to sing, and the people to hear,
about these great characters. Finally, notice at the end of the
poet's Introduction, two things: First, Hiawatha lived and toiled and
suffered that the tribes might prosper, that he might advance his
people-thus an epic poem deals with the founding of a people or race.
Second, you notice that there is much about God and Nature in the
poem-the simple religious faith of the people. The hero, his deeds
that helped his people, the religion of the tribes-these are the
subjects. Find illustrations of these things as you read.

Discussion. 1. Where did these stories come from? Read lines which
tell. 2. Name the Great Lakes. 3. Who was Nawadaha? 4. What word tells
the sound of the pine-trees? 5. Read five lines that tell what the
singer sang of Hiawatha. 6. Find in the Glossary the meaning of:
reverberations. 7. Pronounce: legends; wigwams; aerie.

Phrases for Study

singing pine-trees, advance his people, wondrous birth and being,
haunts of Nature, tribes of men might prosper, palisades of
pine-trees.


HIAWATHA'S CHILDHOOD

    By the shores of Gitche Gumee,
    By the shining Big-Sea-Water,
    Stood the wigwam of Nokomis,
    Daughter of the Moon, Nokomis.
    Dark behind it rose the forest,
    Rose the black and gloomy pine-trees,
    Rose the firs with cones upon them;
    Bright before it beat the water,
    Beat the clear and sunny water,
    Beat the shining Big-Sea-Water.

    There the wrinkled, old Nokomis
    Nursed the little Hiawatha;
    Rocked him in his linden cradle,
    Bedded soft in moss and rushes,
    Safely bound with reindeer sinews;
    Stilled his fretful wail by saying,
    "Hush!  The Naked Bear will get thee!"
    Lulled him into slumber, singing,
    "Ewa-yea! my little owlet!
    Who is this that lights the wigwam,
    With his great eyes lights the wigwam?
    Ewa-yea! my little owlet!"

    Many things Nokomis taught him
    Of the stars that shine in heaven;
    Showed the broad, white road in heaven,
    Pathway of the ghosts, the shadows,
    Running straight across the heavens,
    Crowded with the ghosts, the shadows.

    At the door on summer evenings
    Sat the little Hiawatha;
    Heard the whispering of the pine-trees,
    Heard the lapping of the water,
    Sounds of music, words of wonder;
    "Minne-wawa!" said the pine-trees,
    "Mudway-aushka! said the water.

    Saw the firefly, Wah-wah-taysee,
    Flitting through the dusk of evening,
    With the twinkle of its candle
    Lighting up the brakes and bushes;
    And he sang the song of children,
    Sang the song Nokomis taught him:

    "Wah-wah-taysee, little firefly,
    Little, flitting, white-fire insect,
    Little, dancing, white-fire creature,
    Light me with your little candle,
    Ere upon my bed I lay me,
    Ere in sleep I close my eyelids!"

    Saw the moon rise from the water
    Rippling, rounding from the water;
    Saw the flecks and shadows on it;
    Whispered, "What is that, Nokomis?"
    And the good Nokomis answered
    "Once a warrior, very angry,
    Seized his grandmother, and threw her
    Up into the sky at midnight;
    Right against the moon he threw her;
    Tis her body that you see there."

    Saw the rainbow in the heaven,
    In the eastern sky, the rainbow;
    Whispered, "What is that, Nokomis?"
    And the good Nokomis answered:
    "'Tis the heaven of flowers you see there.
    All the wild-flowers of the forest,
    All the lilies of the prairie,
    When on earth they fade and perish,
    Blossom in that heaven above us."

    When he heard the owls at midnight,
    Hooting, laughing in the forest,
    "What is that?" he cried in terror;
    "What is that," he said, "Nokomis?"
    And the good Nokomis answered:
    "That is but the owl and owlet,
    Talking in their native language,
    Talking, scolding at each other."

    Then the little Hiawatha
    Learned of every bird its language,
    Learned their names and all their secrets--
    How they built their nests in summer,
    Where they hid themselves in winter--
    Talked with them whene'er he met them,
    Called them "Hiawatha's Chickens."

    Of all beasts he learned the language,
    Learned their names and all their secrets--
    How the beavers built their lodges,
    Where the squirrels hid their acorns,
    How the reindeer ran so swiftly,
    Why the rabbit was so timid;
    Talked with them whene'er he met then,
    Called them "Hiawatha's Brothers."

    Then Iagoo, the great boaster,
    He the marvelous story-teller,
    He the traveler and the talker,
    He the friend of old Nokomis,
    Made a bow for Hiawatha;
    From a branch of ash he made it,
    From an oak-bough made the arrows.
    Tipped with flint, and winged with feathers,
    And the cord he made of deerskin.

    Then he said to Hiawatha:
    "Go, my son, into the forest,
    Where the red deer herd together;
    Kill for us a famous roebuck,
    Kill for us a deer with antlers!"

    Forth into the forest straightway
    All alone walked Hiawatha
    Proudly, with his bow and arrows;
    And the birds sang round him, o'er him,
    "Do not shoot us, Hiawatha!",
    Sang the robin, the Opechee,
    Sang the bluebird, the Owaissa,
    "Do not shoot us, Hiawatha!"

    Up the oak-tree, close beside him,
    Sprang the squirrel, Adjidaumo,
    In and out among the branches,
    Coughed and chattered from the oak-tree,
    Laughed, and said between his laughing;
    "Do not shoot-me, Hiawatha!"

    And the rabbit from his pathway
    Leaped aside, and at a distance
    Sat erect upon his haunches,
    Half in fear and half in frolic,
    Saying to the little hunter,
    "Do not shoot me, Hiawatha!"

    But he heeded not, nor heard them,
    For his thoughts were with the red deer;
    On their tracks his eyes were fastened,
    Leading downward to the river,
    To the ford across the river;
    And as one in slumber walked he.

    Hidden in the alder-bushes,
    There he waited till the deer came,
    Till he saw two antlers lifted,
    Saw two eyes look from the thicket,
    Saw two nostrils point to windward,
    And a deer came down the pathway,
    Flecked with leafy light and shadow.
    His heart within him fluttered,
    Trembled like the leaves above him,
    Like the birch-leaf palpitated,
    As the deer came down the pathway.

    Then, upon one knee uprising,
    Hiawatha aimed an arrow;
    Scarce a twig moved with his motion,
    Scarce a leaf was stirred or rustled,
    But the wary roebuck started,
    Stamped with all his hoofs together,
    Listened with one foot uplifted,
    Leaped as if to meet the arrow,
    Ah! the singing, fatal arrow;
    Like a wasp it buzzed and stung him!

    Dead he lay there in the forest,
    By the ford across the river;
    Beat his timid heart no longer.
    But the heart of Hiawatha
    Throbbed and shouted and exulted,
    As he bore the red deer homeward;
    And WOO and Nokomis coming with applauses.

    From the red deer's hide Nokomis
    Made a cloak for Hiawatha;
    From the red deer's flesh Nokomis
    Made a banquet in his honor.
    All the village came and feasted;
    All the guests praised Hiawatha,
    Called him Strong-Heart, Soan-ge-taha!
    Called him Loon-Heart, Mahn-go-taysee!


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. What body of water is called Gitche Gumee? 2. Where did
the wigwam of Nokomis stand? 3. What is meant by the "beat" of the
water? 4. Why does Longfellow call the pine trees "black and gloomy"?
5. Who was Nokomis? 6. Why did she call Hiawatha "my little owlet"? 7.
What do we call the "broad, white road in heaven"? 8. What word tells
the so sound of the water? 9. Read lines that tell what Hiawatha
learned of the birds and the beasts. 10. Of what was Hiawatha's bow
made? His arrows? The cord? 11. Why was a tip of flint used on the
arrows? 12. What is meant by "the ford across the river"? 13. Read
lines which tell that Hiawatha was excited when hunting. 14. Find in
the Glossary the meaning of linden; frolic; postrils. 15. Pronounce:
moss; sinews; warrior; haunches; alder; palpitated; exulted.

Phrases for Study

twinkle of its candle, famous roebuck, native language, point to
windward, tipped with flint, flecked with leafy light, winged with
feathers, hailed his coming.


HIAWATHA'S FRIENDS

    Two good friends had Hiawatha,
    Singled out from all the others,
    Bound to him in closest union,
    And to whom he gave the right hand
    Of his heart, in joy and sorrow:
    Chibiabos, the musician,
    And the very strong man, Kwasind.

    Most beloved by Hiawatha
    Was the gentle Chibiabos,
    We the best of all musicians,
    He the sweetest of all singers.
    Beautiful and childlike was he,
    Brave as man is, soft as woman,
    Pliant as a wand of willow,
    Stately as a deer with antlers.

    When he sang, the village listened;
    All the warriors gathered round him,
    All the women came to hear him;
    Now he stirred their souls to passion,
    Now he melted them to pity.

    From the hollow reeds he fashioned
    Flutes so musical and mellow
    That the brook, the Sebowisha,
    Ceased to murmur in the woodland,
    That the wood-birds ceased from singing,
    And the squirrel, Adjidaumo,
    Ceased his chatter in the oak-tree,
    Ceased his chatter in the oak-tree,
    And the rabbit, the Wabasso,
    Sat upright to look and listen.

    Yes, the brook, the Sebowisha,
    Pausing, said, "O Chibiabos,
    Teach my waves to flow in music,
    Softly as your words in singing!"

    Yes, the bluebird, the Owaissa,
    Envious, said, "O Chibiabos,
    Teach me tones as wild and wayward,
    Teach me songs as full of frenzy!"

    Yes, the robin, the Opechee,
    Joyous, said, "O Chibiabos,
    Teach me tunes as sweet and tender,
    Teach me songs as full of gladness!"

    And the whippoorwill, Wawonaissa,
    Sobbing, said, "O Chibiabos,
    Teach me tones as melancholy,
    Teach me songs as full of sadness!"

    All the many sounds of nature
    Borrowed sweetness from his singing;
    All the hearts of men were softened
    By the pathos of his music;
    For he sang of peace and freedom,
    Sang of beauty, love, and longing;
    Sang of death, and life undying
    In the Islands of the Blessed,
    In the kingdom of Pond,
    In the land of the Hereafter.

    Very dear to Hiawatha
    Was the gentle Chibiabos.
    He the best of all musicians,
    He the sweetest of all singers;
    For his gentleness he loved him,
    And the magic of his singing.

    Dear, too, unto Hiawatha
    Was the very strong man, Kwasind,
    He the strongest of all mortals,
    He the mightiest among many;
    For his very strength he loved him,
    For his strength allied to goodness.

    Idle in his youth was Kwasind,
    Very listless, dull, and dreamy,
    Never played with other children,
    Never fished and never hunted;
    Not like other children was he.

    "Lazy Kwasind!" said his mother,
    "In my work you never help me!
    In the summer you are roaming
    Idly in the fields and forests;
    In the winter you are cowering
    O'er the firebrands in the wigwam!
    In the coldest days of winter
    I must break the ice for fishing;
    With my nets you never help me!
    At the door--my nets are hanging,
    Dripping, freezing with the water;
    Go and wring them, Yenadizze!
    Go and dry them in the sunshine!"

    Slowly, from the ashes, Kwasind
    Rose, but made no angry answer;
    From the lodge went forth in silence,
    Took the nets, that hung together,
    Dripping, freezing at the doorway;
    Like a wisp of straw he wrung them,
    Like a wisp of straw he broke them,
    Could not wring them without breaking,
    Such the strength was in his fingers.

    "Lazy Kwasind!" said his father,
    "In the hunt you never help me;
    Every bow you touch is broken,
    Snapped asunder every arrow;
    Yet come with me to the forest,
    You shall bring the hunting homeward."

    Down a narrow pass they wandered,
    Where a brooklet led them onward,
    Where the trail of deer and bison
    Marked the soft mud on the margin,
    Till they found all further passage
    Shut against them, barred securely
    By the trunks of trees uprooted,
    Lying lengthwise, lying crosswise,
    And forbidding further passage.

    "We must go back," said the old man;
    "O'er these logs we cannot clamber;
    Not a woodchuck could get through them,
    Not a squirrel clamber o'er them!"
    And straightway his pipe he lighted,
    And sat down to smoke and ponder.
    But before his pipe was finished,
    Lo! the path was cleared before him;
    All the trunks had Kwasind lifted;
    To the right hand, to the left hand,
    Shot the pine-trees swift as arrows;
    Hurled the cedars light as lances.

    "Lazy Kwasind!" said the young men,
    As they sported in the meadow;
    "Why stand idly looking at us,
    Leaning on the rock behind you?
    Come and wrestle with the others;
    Let us pitch the quoit together!"

    Lazy Kwasind made no answer,
    To their challenge made no answer,
    Only rose, and, slowly turning,
    Seized the huge rock in his fingers,
    Tore it from its deep foundation,
    Poised it in the air a moment,
    Pitched it sheer into the river,
    Sheer into the swift Pauwating,
    Where it still is seen in summer.

    Once as down that foaming river,
    Down the rapids of Pauwating,
    Kwasind sailed with his companions,
    In the stream he saw a beaver,
    Saw Ahmeek, the King of Beavers,
    Struggling with the rushing currents,
    Rising, sinking in the water.

    Without speaking, without pausing,
    Kwasind leaped into the river,
    Plunged beneath the bubbling surface,
    Through the whirlpools chased the beaver,
    Followed him among the islands,
    Stayed so long beneath the water
    That his terrified companions
    Cried, "Alas! good-by to Kwasind!
    We shall never more see Kwasind!"
    But he reappeared triumphant,
    And upon his shining shoulders
    Brought the beaver, dead and dripping,
    Brought the King of all the Beavers.

    And these two, as I have told you,
    Were the friends of Hiawatha,
    Chibiabos, the musician,
    And the very strong man, Kwasind;
    Long they lived in peace together,
    Spake with naked hearts together,
    Pondering much and much contriving
    How the tribes of men might prosper.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. What two friends had Hiawatha "Singled out from all the
others"? 2. What were they "contriving"? 3. Read lines that tell of
Chibiabos. 4. With what is he compared? Read lines that tell. 5. From
what did he make his flutes? 6. Read lines that tell how musical they
were. 7. What did the brook say to Chibiabos? The bluebird? The robin?
8. Of what did Chibiabos sing? 9. Why did Hiawatha love him more than
all others? 10. For what did Hiawatha love Kwasind? 11. What did
Kwasind's mother say to him? His father? 12. What is meant by the
line, "Every bow you touch is broken"? 13. Read lines that tell of
Kwasind and the beaver. 14. Which of Hiawatha's two friends do you
like the better? Why? 15. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: reeds;
frenzy; listless; cowering; clamber; ponder; sported. 16. Pronounce:
pliant; wand; pathos; allied; asunder; quoit; triumphant.

Phrases for Study

singled out, strength allied to goodness, bound to him, bring the
hunting homeward, pliant as a wand, stirred their souls to passion,
forbidding further passage, poised it in the air, melted them to pity,
sheer into the river, fashioned flutes, shining shoulders, flow in
music, spake with naked hearts, Islands of the Blessed, pondering
much, magic of his singing, much contriving.


HIAWATHA'S SAILING

    "Give me of your bark, O Birch-Tree!
    Of your yellow bark, O Birch Tree!
    Growing by the rushing river,
    Tall and stately in the valley!
    I a light canoe will build me,
    Build a swift Cheemaun for sailing,
    That shall float upon the river,
    Like a yellow leaf in autumn,
    Like a yellow water-lily!

    "Lay aside your cloak, O Birch-Tree!
    Lay aside your white-skin wrapper,
    For the summer-time is coming,
    And the sun is warm in heaven,
    And you need no white-skin wrapper!"
    Thus aloud cried Hiawatha.

    And the tree with all its branches
    Rustled in the breeze of morning,
    Saying, with a sigh of patience,
    "Take my cloak, O Hiawatha!"

    With his knife the tree he girdled,
    Just beneath its lowest branches;
    Just above the roots he cut it,
    Till the sap came oozing outward;
    Down the trunk, from top to bottom,
    Sheer he cleft the bark asunder;
    With a wooden wedge he raised it,
    Stripped it from the trunk unbroken.

    "Give me of your boughs, O Cedar!
    Of your strong and pliant branches,
    My canoe to make more steady,
    Make more strong and firm beneath me!"
    Through the summit of the Cedar
    Went a sound, a cry of horror,
    Went a murmur of resistance;
    But it whispered, bending downward,
    "Take my boughs, O Hiawatha!"

    Down he hewed the boughs of cedar,
    Shaped them straightway to a framework;
    Like two bows he formed and shaped them,
    Like two bended bows together.

    "Give me of your roots, O Tamarack!
    Of your fibrous roots, O Larch-Tree!
    My canoe to bind together,
    So to bind the ends together
    That the water may not enter,
    That the river may not wet me!"

    And the Larch, with all its fibers,
    Shivered in the air of morning,
    Touched his forehead with its tassels,
    Said, with one long sigh of sorrow,
    "Take them all, O Hiawatha!"

    From the earth he tore the fibers,
    Tore the tough roots of the Larch-Tree,
    Closely sewed the bark together,
    Bound it closely to the framework.

    "Give me of your balm, O Fir-Tree!
    Of your balsam and your resin,
    So to close the seams together
    That the water may not enter,
    That the river may not wet me!"

    And the Fir-Tree, tall and somber,
    Sobbed through all its robes of darkness,
    Rattled like a shore with pebbles,
    Answered wailing, answered weeping,
    "Take my balm, 0 Hiawatha!"

    And he took the tears of balsam,
    Took the resin of the Fir-Tree,
    Smeared therewith each seam and fissure,
    Made each crevice safe from water.

    "Give me of your quills, O Hedgehog!
    All your quills, O Kagh, the Hedgehog!
    I will make a necklace of them,
    Make a girdle for my beauty,
    And two stars to deck her bosom!"

    From a hollow tree the hedgehog,
    With his sleepy eyes looked at him,
    Shot his shining quills, like arrows
    Saying, with a drowsy murmur,
    Through the tangle of his whiskers,
    "Take my quills, O Hiawatha!"

    From the ground the quills he gathered,
    All the little shining arrows;
    Stained them red and blue and yellow,
    With the juice of roots and berries;
    Into his canoe he wrought them,
    Round its waist a shining girdle,
    Round its bows a gleaming necklace,
    On its breast two stars resplendent.

    Thus the Birch-Canoe was builded
    In the valley, by the river,
    In the bosom of the forest;
    And the forest's life was in it--
    All its mystery and its magic,
    All the lightness of the birch-tree,
    All the toughness of the cedar,
    All the larch's supple sinews;
    And it floated on the river
    Like a yellow leaf in autumn,
    Like a yellow water-lily.

    Paddles none had Hiawatha;
    Paddles none he had or needed,
    For his thoughts as paddles served him,
    And his wishes served to guide him;
    Swift or slow at will he glided,
    Veered to right or left at pleasure.

    Then he called aloud to Kwasind,
    To his friend, the strong man, Kwasind,
    Saying, "Help me clear this river
    Of its sunken logs and sandbars."

    Straight into the river Kwasind
    Plunged as if he were an otter,
    Dived as if he were a beaver,
    Stood up to his waist in water,
    To his armpits in the river,
    Swam and shouted in the river,
    Tugged at sunken logs and branches;
    With his hands he scooped the sandbars,
    With his feet the ooze and tangle.

    And thus sailed my Hiawatha
    Down the rushing Taquamenaw,
    Sailed through all its bends and windings,
    Sailed through all its deeps and shallows,
    While his friend, the strong man, Kwasind,
    Swam the deeps, the shallows waded.

    Up and down the river went they,
    In and out among its islands,
    Cleared its bed of root and sandbar,
    Dragged the dead trees from its channel,
    Made its passage safe and certain,
    Made a pathway for the people,
    From its springs among the mountains
    To the waters of Pauwating,
    To the bay of Taquamenaw.



NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. Of what did Hiawatha make his canoe? 2. Why does
Hiawatha call the bark of the birch-tree a cloak? 3. What other name
does he give the bark of the birch-tree? 4. What word tells the sound
made by the leaves of the birch-tree? 5. What word tells that Hiawatha
cut all around the birch-tree? 6. Why did Hiawatha ask the cedar tree
for its boughs? 7. Read lines that tell why he asked the larch-tree
for its roots. S. What other name does he give the larch tree? 9. Why
does Hiawatha call the drops of balsam "tears"? 10. Can the hedgehog
really shoot his quills "like arrows"? 11. What is meant by "my
beauty"? 12. Read lines that tell how Hiawatha decorated his canoe.
13. What did he use for paddles for the canoe? 14. What did Kwasind do
to aid the canoeing? 15. Why is the fir-tree spoken of as "somber"?
16. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: stately; larch; channel. 17.
Pronounce: horror; hewed; tamarack; fibrous; forehead; balm; balsam;
resin; fissure; crevice; bosom; resplendent; supple; veered; swam.

Phrases for Study

white-skin wrapper, robes of darkness, oozing outward, deck her bosom,
cleft the bark asunder, shot his shining quills, summit of the Cedar,
wrought them, shaped them to a framework, forest's life was in it,
ooze and tangle, close the seams together.


HIAWATHA'S WOOING

    "As unto the bow the cord is,
    So unto the man is woman
    Though she bends him, she obeys him,
    Though she draws him, yet she follows--
    Useless each without the other!"

    Thus the youthful Hiawatha
    Said within himself and pondered
    Much perplexed by various feelings--
    Listless, longing, hoping, fearing,
    Dreaming still of Minnehaha,
    Of the lovely Laughing Water,
    In the Land of the Dacotahs.

    "Wed a maiden of your people,"
    Warning said the old Nokomis;
    "Go not eastward, go not westward,
    For a stranger, whom we know not!
    Like a fire upon the hearthstone
    Is a neighbor's homely daughter;
    Like the starlight or the moonlight
    Is the handsomest of strangers!"

    Thus dissuading spake Nokomis,
    And my Hiawatha answered
    Only this: "Dear old Nokomis,
    Very pleasant is the firelight,
    But I like the starlight better,
    Better do I like the moonlight!"

    Gravely then said old Nokomis:
    "Bring not here an idle maiden,
    Bring not here a useless woman,
    Hands unskillful, feet unwilling;
    Bring a wife with nimble fingers,

    Heart and hand that move together,
    Feet that run on willing errands!"

    Smiling answered Hiawatha:
    "In the Land of the Dacotahs
    Lives the Arrow-maker's daughter,
    Minnehaha, Laughing Water,
    Handsomest of all the women.
    I will bring her to your wigwam;
    She shall run upon your errands,
    Be your starlight, moonlight, firelight,
    Be the sunlight of my people!"

    Still dissuading, said Nokomis:
    "Bring not to my lodge a stranger
    From the Land of the Dacotahs!
    Very fierce are the Dacotahs.
    Often is there war between us;
    There are feuds yet unforgotten,
    Wounds that ache and still may open!"

    Laughing answered Hiawatha:
    "For that reason, if no other,
    Would I wed the fair Dacotah,
    That our tribes might be united,
    That old feuds might be forgotten,
    And old wounds be healed forever!"

    Thus departed Hiawatha
    To the land of the Dacotahs,
    To the land of handsome women,
    Striding over moor and meadow,
    Through interminable forests,
    Through uninterrupted silence.

    With his moccasins of magic,
    At each stride a mile he measured;
    Yet the way seemed long before him,
    And his heart outran his footsteps;
    And he journeyed without resting,
    Till he heard the cataract's laughter,
    Heard the Falls of Minnehaha
    Calling to him through the silence.

    "Pleasant is the sound!" he murmured,
    "Pleasant is the voice that calls me!"
    On the outskirts of the forest,
    'Twixt the shadow and the sunshine,
    Herds of fallow deer were feeding,
    But they saw not Hiawatha;
    To his bow he whispered, "Fail not!"
    To his arrow whispered, "Swerve not!"
    Sent it singing on its errand,
    To the red heart of the roebuck;
    Threw the deer across his shoulder
    And sped forward without pausing.

    At the doorway of his wigwam
    Sat the ancient Arrow-maker,
    In the land of the Dacotahs,
    Making arrow-heads of jasper,
    Arrow-heads of chalcedony.
    At his side, in all her beauty,
    Sat the lovely Minnehaha,
    Sat his daughter, Laughing Water,
    Plaiting mats of flags and rushes;
    Of the past the old man's thoughts were,
    And the maiden's of the future.

    He was thinking, as he sat there,
    Of the days when with such arrows
    He had struck the deer and bison,
    On the Muskoday, the meadow;
    Shot the wild goose, flying southward,
    On the wing, the clamorous Wawa;
    Thinking of the great war-parties,
    How they came to buy his arrows,
    Could not fight without his arrows.

    She was thinking of a hunter,
    From another tribe and country,
    Young and tall and very handsome,
    Who one morning, in the springtime,
    Came to buy her father's arrows,
    Sat and rested in the wigwam,
    Lingered long about the doorway,
    Looking back as he departed.
    She had heard her father praise him,
    Praise his courage and his wisdom;
    Would he come again for arrows
    To the Falls of Minnehaha?
    On the mat her hands lay idle,
    And her eyes were very dreamy.

    Through their thoughts they heard a footstep,
    Heard a rustling in the branches,
    And with glowing cheek and forehead,
    With the deer upon his shoulders,
    Suddenly from out the woodlands
    Hiawatha stood before them.

    Straight the ancient Arrow-maker
    Looked up gravely from his labor,
    Laid aside the unfinished arrow,
    Bade him enter at the doorway,
    Saying, as he rose to meet him,
    "Hiawatha, you are welcome!"

    At the feet of Laughing Water
    Hiawatha laid his burden,
    Threw the red deer from his shoulders;
    And the maiden looked up at him,
    Looked up from her mat of rushes,
    Said with gentle look and accent,
    "You are welcome, Hiawatha!"
    Very spacious was the wigwam,
    Made of deerskin dressed and whitened,
    With the gods of the Dacotahs
    Drawn and painted on its curtains;
    And so tall the doorway, hardly
    Hiawatha stooped to enter,
    Hardly touched his eagle-feathers
    As he entered at the doorway.

    Then up rose the Laughing Water;
    From the ground fair Minnehaha
    Laid aside her mat unfinished,
    Brought forth food and set before them,
    Water brought them from the brooklet,
    Gave them food in earthen vessels,
    Gave them drink in bowls of basswood,
    Listened while the guest was speaking,
    Listened while her father answered.
    But not once her lips she opened,
    Not a single word she uttered.

    Yes, as in a dream she listened
    To the words of Hiawatha,
    As he talked of old Nokomis,
    Who had nursed him in his childhood,
    As he told of his companions, Chibiabos,
    the musician, And the very strong man,
    Kwasind, And of happiness and plenty In
    the land of the Ojibways,

    In the pleasant land and peaceful.
    "After many years of warfare,
    Many years of strife and bloodshed,
    There is peace between the Ojibways
    And the tribe of the Dacotahs."
    Thus continued Hiawatha,
    And then added, speaking slowly,
    "That this peace may last forever,
    And our hands be clasped more closely,
    And our hearts be more united,
    Give me as my wife this maiden,
    Minnehaha, Laughing Water,
    Loveliest of Dacotah women!"

    And the ancient Arrow-maker
    Paused a moment ere he answered,
    Smoked a little while in silence,
    Looked at Hiawatha proudly,
    Fondly looked at Laughing Water,
    And made answer very gravely:
    "Yes, if Minnehaha wishes;
    Let your heart speak, Minnehaha!"

    And the lovely Laughing Water
    Seemed more lovely, as she stood there,
    Neither willing nor reluctant,
    As she went to Hiawatha,
    Softly took the seat beside him,
    While she said, and blushed to say it,
    "I will follow you, my husband!"

    This was Hiawatha's wooing!
    Thus it was he won the daughter
    Of the ancient Arrow-maker,
    In the land of the Dacotahs!

    From the wigwam he departed,
    Leading with him Laughing Water;
    Hand in hand they went together,
    Through the woodland and the meadow,
    Left the old man standing lonely
    At the doorway of his wigwam,
    Heard the Falls of Minnehaha
    Calling to them from the distance,
    Crying to them from afar off,
    "Fare thee well, O Minnehaha!"
    And the ancient Arrow-maker
    Turned again unto his labor,
    Sat down by his sunny doorway,
    Murmuring to himself, and saying:
    "Thus it is our daughters leave us,
    Those we love, and those who love us!
    Just when they have learned to help us,
    When we are old and lean upon them,
    Comes a youth with flaunting feathers,
    With his flute of reeds, a stranger,
    Wanders piping through the village,
    Beckons to the fairest maiden,
    And she follows where he leads her,
    Leaving all things for the stranger!"

    Pleasant was the journey homeward,
    Through interminable forests,
    Over meadow, over mountain,
    Over river, hill, and hollow.
    Short it seemed to Hiawatha,
    Though they journeyed very slowly,
    Though his pace he checked and slackened
    To the steps of Laughing Water.
    Over wide and rushing rivers
    In his arms he bore the maiden;

    Light he thought her as a feather,
    As the plume upon his head-gear;
    Cleared the tangled pathway for her,
    Bent aside the swaying branches,
    Made at night a lodge of branches,
    And a bed with boughs of hemlock,
    And a fire before the doorway
    With the dry cones of the pine-tree.

    All the traveling winds went with them,
    O'er the meadow, through the forest;
    All the stars of night looked at them,
    Watched with sleepless eyes their slumber;
    From his ambush in the oak-tree
    Peeped the squirrel, Adjidaumo,
    Watched with eager eyes the lovers;
    And the rabbit, the Wabasso,
    Scampered from the path before them,
    Peering, peeping from his burrow,
    Sat erect upon his haunches,
    Watched with curious eyes the lovers.

    Pleasant was the journey homeward!
    All the birds sang loud and sweetly
    Songs of happiness and heart's-ease;
    Sang the bluebird, the Owaissa,
    "Happy are you, Hiawatha,
    Having such a wife to love you!"
    Sang the robin, the Opechee,
    "Happy are you; Laughing Water,
    Having such a noble husband!"

    From the sky the sun benignant
    Looked upon them through the branches,
    Saying to them, "O my children,
    Love is sunshine, hate is shadow;
    Life is checkered shade and sunshine;
    Rule by love, O Hiawatha!"
    From the sky the moon looked at them,
    Filled the lodge with mystic splendors,
    Whispered to them, "O my children,
    Day is restless, night is quiet,
    Man imperious, woman feeble;
    Half is mine, although I follow;
    Rule by patience, Laughing Water!"
    Thus it was they journeyed homeward;
    Thus it was that Hiawatha
    To the lodge of old Nokomis
    Brought the moonlight, starlight, firelight,
    Brought the sunshine of his people,
    Minnehaha, Laughing Water,
    Handsomest of all the women
    In the land of the Dacotahs,
    In the land of handsome women.


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. Why did Nokomis wish Hiawatha to wed a maiden of his
own people? 2. Whom did Hiawatha say he would wed? 3. Find the Falls
of Minnehaha on your map. 4. Read lines that tell of Hiawatha's
journey "To the land of the Dacotahs." 5. Of what was the Arrow-maker
thinking when Hiawatha appeared? 6. Read lines that tell of what the
maiden was thinking. 7. Read the words of Hiawatha when he asked the
father for his daughter. 8. In what words did the Arrow-maker give his
consent? 9. What was Minnehaha's answer? 10. Read lines that tell of
the journey homeward. 11. Why did Hiawatha "check" his pace on this
journey? 12. What greeting did the bluebird give them? 13. What was
the greeting of the robin? The sun? The moon? 14. Read the lines that
you like best. 15. Find in the Glossary the meaning of: cord; nimble;
moor; fallow; swerve; jasper; flags; rushes; basswood; flaunting. 16.
Pronounce: dissuading; feuds; wounds; chalcedony; plaiting; bade;
spacious; benignant; mystic; imperious.

Phrases for Study

feet unwilling, neither willing nor reluctant, yet unforgotten,
interminable forests, wanders piping through the village, moccasins of
magic, heart outran his footsteps, heart's-ease, cataract's laughter,
sun benignant, deerskin dressed and whitened, hate is shadow, mystic
splendors.



THE WHITE-MAN'S FOOT

    From his wanderings far to eastward,
    From the regions of the morning,
    From the shining land of Wabun,
    Homeward now returned Iagoo,
    The great traveler, the great boaster,
    Full of new and strange adventures,
    Marvels many and many wonders.

    And the people of the village
    Listened to him as he told them
    Of his marvelous adventures;
    Laughing answered him in this wise:
    "Ugh, it is indeed Iagoo!
    No one else beholds such wonders!"

    He had seen, he said, a water
    Bigger than the Big-Sea-Water,
    Broader than the Gitche Gumee,
    Bitter so that none could drink it!
    At each other looked the warriors,
    Looked the women at each other,
    Smiled, and said, "it cannot be so!
    Kaw!" they said, "it cannot be so!"
    O'er it, said he, o'er this water

    Came a great canoe with pinions,
    A canoe with wings came flying,
    Bigger than a grove of pine-trees,
    Taller than the tallest tree-tops!
    And the old men and the women
    Looked and tittered at each other;
    "Kaw!" they said, "we don't believe it!"

    From its mouth, he said, to greet him,
    Came Waywassimo, the lightning,
    Came the thunder, Annemeekee!
    And the warriors and the women
    Laughed aloud at poor Iagoo;
    "Kaw!" they said, "what tales you tell us!"

    In it, said he, came a people,
    In the great canoe with pinions
    Came, he said, a hundred warriors;
    Painted white were all their faces,
    And with hair their chins were covered!
    And the warriors and the women
    Laughed and shouted in derision,
    Like the ravens on the tree-tops,
    Like the crows upon the hemlocks.
    "Kaw!" they said, "what lies you tell us.
    Do not think that we believe them!"

    Only Hiawatha laughed not,
    But he gravely spake and answered
    To their jeering and their jesting:
    "True is all Iagoo tells us;
    I have seen it in a vision,

    Seen the great canoe with pinions,
    Seen the people with white faces,
    Seen the coming of this bearded
    People of the wooden vessel
    From the regions of the morning,
    From the shining land of Wabun.

    Gitche Manito, the Mighty,
    The Great  Spirit, the Creator,
    Sends them hither on his errand,
    Sends them to us with his message.
    Wheresoe'er they tread, beneath them
    Swarms the stinging fly, the Ahmo,
    Swarms the bee, the honey-maker;.
    Wheresoe'er they tread, beneath them
    Springs a flower unknown among us,
    Springs the White-man's foot in blossom.

    "Let us welcome, then, the strangers,
    Hail them as our friends and brothers,
    And the heart's right hand of friendship
    Give them when they come to see us.
    Gitche Manito, the Mighty,
    Said this to me in my vision.

    "I beheld, too, in that vision,
    All the secrets of the future,
    Of the distant days that shall be.
    I beheld the westward marches
    Of the unknown, crowded nations.
    All the land was full of people,
    Restless, struggling, toiling, striving,
    Speaking many tongues, yet feeling
    But one heart-beat in their bosoms.
    In the woodlands rang their axes,
    Smoked their towns in all the valleys,
    Over all the lakes and rivers
    Rushed their great canoes of thunder.

    "Then a darker, drearier vision
    Passed before me, vague and cloud-like.
    I beheld our nations scattered,
    All forgetful of my counsels,
    Weakened, warring with each other;
    Saw the remnants of our people
    Sweeping westward, wild and woeful,
    Like the cloud-rack of a tempest,
    Like the withered leaves of autumn!"


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. Read lines that tell Iagoo's story of adventures. 2.
Where do you think he had seen these things? 3. What was the "bitter"
water Iagoo told about? 4. What were the "lightning" and the "thunder"
that came from the "canoe with pinions"? 5. Why was his story laughed
at as false by the Indians? 6. How did Hiawatha know it was all true?
7. How did Hiawatha say they should receive the White Man when he
came? 8. What secrets came to Hiawatha in the vision? 9. What "darker
vision" did he see? 10. Has Hiawatha's vision come true? 11. What do
you think of Hiawatha's character? 12. Which of all the stories in
this poem do you like best? 13. Give the reason for your answer. 14.
You no doubt enjoyed reading this poem; can you tell why? 15. Read "A
Forward Look," and tell why you think Longfellow was a real author.
16. You will enjoy reading Eastman's Indian Legends Retold. 17. Find
in the Glossary the meaning of: tittered; hither; counsels. 18.
Pronounce: pinions; derision; vision; regions; vague; warring.

Phrases for Study

regions of the morning, distant days that shall be, shining land of
Wabun, unknown, crowded nations, canoe with pinions, feeling but one
heart-beat, painted white, sweeping westward, heart's right hand of
friendship, cloud-rack of a tempest.



NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE


Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864), a native of Salem, Massachusetts, had
the distinction of being born on the Fourth of July. He was graduated
from Bowdoin College in the class with Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.

When a mere boy, Nathaniel was crippled by an accident in playing
ball. This led him to a life of quiet and to the companionship of
books. His vivid imagination made him fond of inventing stories for
the entertainment of his friends. When he began to think of a career
it was quite natural that he should turn to literature, and that in
looking about him for material he should-choose his subjects-as Irving
did-from those stirring scenes of which he had an intimate, almost
personal, knowledge many of them of his native town, Salem.

Hawthorne pictured New England as Irving did New Amsterdam. He
popularized New England history in the form of stories for children,
one of which, Grandfather's Chair, contains "The Boston Tea Party." He
wrote a book, The House of the Seven Gables, about the house in which
he lived for many years. Soon after he wrote this tale, he wrote The
Wonder-Book, a volume of stories about Greek gods and heroes, from
which "The Paradise of Children" and "The Golden Touch" are taken.
Perhaps the best known of all Hawthorne's works is the volume called
Twice-Told Tales. In this book he collected a large number of legends
about colonial life in New England and retold them in such a way as to
give us one of the best pictures of early American life that we have.
Some of them deal with actual events; others are based on legendary
matter. But all of them do for early New England life what
Longfellow's Hiawatha does for the Indian legends: they preserve the
stories and also the spirit of early times. Like Longfellow, Hawthorne
was a lover of romance and of the early history of our country. He w
wrote in prose, not verse, but is prose is as careful and artistic as
Longfellow's verse.



THE PARADISE OF CHILDREN

PANDORA AND THE GREAT BOX


Long, long ago, when this old world was in its tender infancy, there
was a child named Epimetheus who never had either father or mother;
and that he might not be lonely, another child, fatherless and
motherless like himself, was sent from a far country to live with him
and be his playfellow and helpmate. Her name was Pandora.

The first thing that Pandora saw when she entered the cottage where
Epimetheus dwelt was a great box. And almost the first question which
she put to him, after crossing the threshold, was this:

"Epimetheus, what have you in that box?"

"My dear little Pandora," answered Epimetheus, "that is a secret, and
you must be kind enough not to ask any questions about it. The box
was left here to be kept safely, and I do not myself know what it
contains."

"But who gave it to you?" asked Pandora. "And where did it come from?"
"That is a secret, too," replied Epimetheus.

"How provoking!" exclaimed Pandora, pouting her lip. "I wish the great
ugly box were out of the way!"

"O come, don't think of it any more," cried Epimetheus. "Let us run
out of doors, and have some nice play with the other children."

It is thousands of years since Epimetheus and Pandora were alive; and
the world nowadays is a very different sort of thing from what it was
in their time. Then, everybody was a child. They needed no fathers and
mothers to take care of the children; because there was no danger or
trouble of any kind, and there were no clothes to be mended, and there
was always plenty to eat and drink.

Whenever a child wanted his dinner, he found it growing on a tree; and
if he looked at the tree in the morning, he could see the blossom
of that night's supper; or at eventide he saw the tender bud of
tomorrow's breakfast. It was a very pleasant life indeed. No labor to
be done, no tasks to s be studied; nothing but sports and dances and
sweet voices of children talking, or caroling like birds, or gushing
out in merry laughter, throughout the livelong day.

What was most wonderful of all, the children never quarreled among
themselves; neither had they any crying fits; nor since time first
began had a single one of these little mortals ever gone apart into
a corner and sulked. O what a good time was that to be alive in! The
truth is, those ugly little winged monsters called Troubles, which are
now almost as numerous as mosquitoes, had never yet been seen on the
earth. It is probable that the very greatest disquietude which a child
had ever felt was Pandora's vexation at not being able to discover the
secret of the mysterious box.

This was at first only the faint shadow of a Trouble; but every day
it grew more and-more real, until before a great while the cottage
of Epimetheus and Pandora was less sunshiny than those of the other
children.

"Whence can the box have come?" Pandora continually kept saying to
herself and to Epimetheus. "And can be inside of it?"

"Always talking about this box!" said Epimetheus at last; for he had
grown extremely tired of the subject. "I wish, dear Pandora, you would
try to talk of something else. Come, let us go and gather some ripe
figs, and eat them under the trees for our supper. And I know a vine
that has the sweetest and juiciest grapes you ever tasted." "Always
talking about grapes and figs!" cried Pandora, pettishly.

"Well, then," said Epimetheus, who was a very good-tempered child,
like many children in those days, "let us run out and have a merry
time with our playmates."

"I am tired of merry times, and don't care if I never have any more!"
answered our pettish little Pandora. "And, besides, I never do have
any. This ugly box! I am so taken up with thinking about it all the
time. I insist upon your telling me what is inside of it."

"As I have already said fifty times over, I do not know!" replied
Epimetheus, getting a little vexed. "How, then, can I tell you what is
inside?"

"You might open it," said Pandora, looking sideways at Epimetheus,
"and then we could see for ourselves!"

"Pandora, what are you thinking of?" exclaimed Epimetheus.

And his face expressed so much horror at the idea of looking into a
box which had been given to him on the condition of his never opening
it, that Pandora thought it best not to suggest it any more. Still,
however, she could not help thinking and talking about the box.

"At least," said she, "you can tell me how it came here."

"It was left at the door," replied Epimetheus, "just before you came,
by a person who looked very smiling and intelligent, and who could
hardly forbear laughing as he put it down. He was dressed in an odd
kind of cloak, and had on a cap that seemed to be made partly of
feathers, so that it looked almost as if it had wings."

"What sort of staff had he?" asked Pandora.

"Oh, the most curious staff you ever saw!" cried Epimetheus. "It was
like two serpents twisting around a stick, and was carved so naturally
that I at first thought the serpents were alive."

"I know him," said Pandora thoughtfully. "Nobody else has such a
staff. It was Quicksilver; and he brought me hither, as well as the
box. No doubt he intended it for me; and most probably it contains
pretty dresses for me to wear, or toys for you and me to play with, or
something very 5 nice for us both to eat!"

"Perhaps so," answered Epimetheus, turning away. "But, until
Quicksilver comes back and tells us so, we have neither of us any
right to lift the lid of the box."

"What a dull boy he is!" muttered Pandora, as Epimetheus left the
cottage. "I do wish he had a little more enterprise!"


THE KNOT OF GOLDEN CORD

For the first time since her arrival Epimetheus had gone out without
asking Pandora to accompany him. He went to gather figs and grapes for
himself, or to seek whatever amusement he could find in other society
than his little playfellow's. He was tired to death of hearing about
the box, and heartily wished that Quicksilver, or whatever was the
messenger's name, had left it at some other child's door where Pandora
would never have set eyes on it.

So perseveringly as she did babble about this one thing! The box, the
box, and nothing but the box! It seemed as if the box were bewitched,
and as if the cottage were not big enough to hold it without Pandora's
continually stumbling over it and making Epimetheus stumble over it
likewise, and bruising all four of their shins.

Well, it was really hard that poor Epimetheus should have a box in his
ears from morning till night; especially as the little people of the
earth were so unaccustomed to vexations in those happy days that they
knew not how to deal with them. Thus a small vexation made as much
disturbance then as a far bigger one would in our own times.

After Epimetheus was gone, Pandora stood gazing at the box. She had
called it ugly above a hundred times; but in spite of all that she
had said against it, it was positively a very handsome article of
furniture, and would have been quite an ornament to any room in which
it should be placed. It was made of a beautiful kind of wood with
dark and rich veins spreading over its surface, which was so highly
polished that little Pandora could see her face in it. As the child
had no other looking-glass, it is odd that she did not value the box
merely on this account.

The edges and corners of the box were carved with most wonderful
skill. Around the margin there were figures of graceful men and women,
and the prettiest children ever seen, reclining or sporting amid a
profusion of flowers and foliage; and these various objects were so
finely represented, and were wrought together in such harmony, that
flowers, foliage, and human beings seemed to combine into a wreath
of mingled beauty. But here and there, peeping forth from behind the
carved foliage, Pandora once or twice fancied she saw a face not so
lovely, or something or other that was disagreeable, and which stole
the beauty out of all, the rest. Nevertheless, on looking more closely
and touching the spot with her finger, she could discover nothing of
the kind. Some face that was really beautiful had been made to look
ugly by her catching a sideways glimpse at it.

The most beautiful face of all was done in what is called high relief,
in the center of the lid. There was nothing else save the dark, smooth
richness of the polished wood, and this one face in the center, with a
garland of flowers about its brow. Pandora had looked at this face a
great many times, and imagined that the mouth could smile if it liked,
or be grave when it chose, the same as any living mouth. The features,
indeed, all wore a very lively and rather mischievous expression,
which looked almost as if it needs must burst out of the carved lips
and utter itself in words.

Had the mouth spoken, it would probably have been something like this:

"Do not be afraid, Pandora! What harm can there be in opening the box?
Never mind that poor, simple Epimetheus! You are wiser than he, and
have ten times as much spirit. Open the box, and see if you do not
find something very pretty!" The box, I had almost forgotten to say,
was fastened, not by a lock or by any other such contrivance, but by a
very fine knot of gold cord. There appeared to be no end to this knot,
and no beginning. Never was a knot so cunningly twisted, nor with so
many ins and outs, which roguishly defied the skillfulest fingers to
disentangle them. And yet, by the very difficulty that there was in
it, Pandora was the more tempted to examine the knot, and just see how
it was made. Two or three times already she had stooped over the box,
and taken the knot between her thumb and forefinger, but without
positively trying to undo it.

"I really believe," said she to herself, that I begin to see how it
was done. Nay, perhaps I could tie it up again after undoing it. There
could be no harm in that, surely. Even Epimetheus would not blame me
for that. I need not open the box, and should not, of course, without
the foolish boy's consent, even if the knot were untied." It might
have been better for Pandora if she had had a little work to do,
or anything to employ her mind upon, so as not to be so constantly
thinking of this one subject. But children led so easy a life before
any Troubles came into the world that they find really a great deal
too much leisure. They could not be forever playing at hide-and-seek
among the flower-shrubs, or at blind-man's buff with garlands over
their eyes, or at whatever other games has been found out while Mother
Earth was in her babyhood.

When life is all sport, toil is the real play. There was absolutely
nothing to do. A little sweeping and dusting about the cottage, I
suppose, and the gathering of fresh flowers (which were only too
abundant everywhere), and arranging them in vases--and poor little
Pandora's day's work was over. And then, for the rest of the day,
there was the box!

After all, I am not quite sure that the box was not a blessing to her
in its way. It supplied her with so many ideas to think of, and to
talk about, whenever she had anybody to listen! When she was in good
humor, she could admire the bright polish of its sides and the rich
border of beautiful faces and foliage that ran all around it. Or, if
she chanced to be ill-tempered, she could give it a push, or kick it
with her naughty little foot. And many a kick did the box (but it was
a mischievous box, as we shall see, and deserved all it got) many a
kick did it receive. But certain it is, if it had not been for the
box, our active-minded little Pandora would not have known half so
well how to spend her time as she now did.

GUESSING WHAT WAS IN THE BOX

For it was really an endless employment to guess what was inside. What
could it be, indeed? Just imagine, my little hearers, how busy your
wits would be if there were a great box in the house, which, as you
might have reason to suppose, contained something new and pretty for
your Christmas or New Year's gifts. Do you think that you should be
less curious than Pandora? If you were left alone with the box, might
you not feel a little tempted to lift the lid? But you would not do
it. Oh, fie! No, no! Only, if you thought there were toys in it, it
would be so very hard to let slip an opportunity of taking just one
peep!

I know not whether Pandora expected any toys; for none had yet begun
to be made, probably, in those days, when the world itself was one
great plaything for the children that dwelt upon it. But Pandora was
convinced that there was something very beautiful and valuable in the
box; and therefore she felt just as anxious to take a peep as any of
these little girls here around me would have felt. And, possibly,
a little more so; but of that I am not quite so certain. On this
particular day, however, which we have so long been talking about, her
curiosity grew so much greater than it usually was that at last she
approached the box. She was more than half determined to open, it, if
she could. Ah, naughty Pandora! First, however, she tried to lift it.
It was heavy; much too heavy for the slender strength of a child like
Pandora. She raised one end of the box a few inches from the floor,
and let it fall again with a pretty loud thump. A moment afterwards
she almost fancied that she heard something stir inside the box. She
applied her ear as closely as possible and listened. Positively, there
did seem to be a kind of stifled murmur within. Or was it merely the
singing in Pandora's ear's. Or could it be the beating of her heart?
The child could not quite satisfy herself whether she had heard
anything or no. But, at all events, her curiosity was stronger than
ever, As she drew back her head, her eyes fell upon the knot of gold
cord.

"It must have been a very ingenious person who tied this knot," said
Pandora to herself. "But I think 1 could untie it, nevertheless. I am
resolved, at least, to find the two ends of the cord."

So she took the golden knot in her fingers and pried into it as
sharply as she could. Almost without intending it, or quite knowing
what she was about, she was soon busily engaged in attempting to undo
it. Meanwhile, the bright sunshine came through the open window; as
did likewise the merry voices of the children, playing at a distance,
and perhaps the voice of Epimetheus among them.

Pandora stopped to listen. What a beautiful day it was! Would it not
be wise if she were to let the trouble some knot alone and think no
more about the box, but run and join her little playfellows and be
happy?

All this time, however, her fingers were busy with the knot; and
happening to glance at the face on the lid of the enchanted box, she
seemed to see it slyly grinning at her.

"That face looks very mischievous," thought Pandora. "I wonder whether
it smiles because I am doing wrong! I have the greatest mind in the
world to run away!"

But just then, by the merest accident, she gave the knot a kind of
twist, which produced a wonderful result. The gold cord united itself,
as if by magic, arid left the box without a fastening.

"This is the strangest thing I ever knew!" said Pandora. "What will
Epimetheus say? And how can I possibly tie it up again?" She made one
or two attempts to restore the knot, but soon found it quite beyond
her skill. It had untied itself so suddenly that she could not in the
least remember how the strings had been doubled onto one another; and
when she tried to recollect the shape and appearance of the knot, it
seemed to have gone entirely out of her mind. Nothing was to be done
therefore, but to let the box remain as it was until Epimetheus should
come in.

"But," said Pandora, "when he finds the knot untied, he will know that
I have done it. How shall I make him believe that I have not looked
into the box?"

And then the thought came into her naughty little heart, that, since
she would be suspected of having looked into the box, she might just
as well do so at once. O very naughty and very foolish Pandora! You
should have thought only of doing what was right and of leaving undone
what was wrong, and not of what your playfellow Epimetheus would have
said or believed. And so perhaps she might if the enchanted face on
the lid of the box had not looked so bewitchingly persuasive at her,
and if she had not seemed to hear, more distinctly than before, the
murmur of small voices within. She could not tell whether it was fancy
or no; but there was quite a little tumult of whispers in her
ear--or else it was her curiosity that whispered: "Let us out, dear
Pandora--pray let us out! We will be such nice, pretty playfellows for
you! Only let us out!"

"What can it be?" thought Pandora, "Is there something alive in the
box? Well!--yes!--I am resolved to take just one peep! Only one peep;
and then lid shall be shut down as safely as ever. There cannot
possibly be any harm in just one little peep!"



HOW TROUBLES CAME INTO THE WORLD

But it is now time for us to see what Epimetheus was doing.

This was the first time since his little Playmate had come to dwell
with him that he had attempted to enjoy any pleasure in which she did
not partake. But nothing went right; nor was he nearly so happy as
on other days. He could not find a sweat grape or a ripe fig (if
Epimetheus had a fault, it was a little too much fondness for figs);
or, if ripe at all, they were overripe, and so sweet as to be
distasteful. There was no mirth in his heart, such as usually made
his voice gush out, of Its own accord, and swell the merriment of his
companions. In short, he grew so uneasy and discontented that other
children could not imagine what was the matter with Epimetheus.
Neither did he himself know what ailed him, any better then they did.

For you must recollect that, at the time we are speaking of, it was
everybody's nature and common habit to be happy. The world had not
yet learned to be otherwise. Not a single soul or body, since these
children were first sent to enjoy it themselves on the beautiful
earth, had ever been sick or out-of-sorts.

At length, discovering that, somehow or other, he put a stop to all
the play, Epimetheus judged it best to go back to Pandora, who was
in a humor better suited to his own. But, with a hope of giving her
pleasure, he gathered flowers and made them into a wreath, which he
meant to put upon her head. The flowers were very lovely--roses and
lilies and orange-blossoms, and a great many more, which left a trail
of fragrance behind, as Epimetheus carried them along, and wreath was
put together with as much skill as could be expected of a boy. The
fingers of little girls, it has always appeared to me, are the fittest
to twine flower-wreaths; but boys could de it in those days rather
better than they can now.

And here I must mention that a great black cloud had been gathering
in the sky for some time past, although it had not yet overspread the
sun. But, just as Epimetheus reached the cottage-door, this cloud
began to cut off the sunshine, and thus to make a sudden and sad
darkness.

He entered softly; for he meant, if possible, to steal behind Pandora
and fling a wreath of flowers over her head before she should be
aware of his approach. But, as it happened, there was no need of his
treading so very lightly. He might have trod as heavily as he pleased,
as heavily as a grown man--as heavily, I was going to say, as an
elephant--without much probability of Pandora's hearing his footsteps.
She was too intent upon her purpose. At the moment of this entering
the cottage the naughty box, I had almost forgotten to say, was
fastened, not by a lock or by any other such contrivance, but by a
very fine knot of gold cord. There appeared to be no end to this knot,
and no beginning. Never was a knot so cunningly twisted, nor with so
many ins and outs, which roguishly defied the skillfulest fingers to
disentangle them. And yet, by the very difficulty that there was in
it, Pandora was the more tempted to examine the knot, and just see how
it was made. Two or three times already she had stooped over the box,
and taken the knot between her thumb and forefinger, but without
positively trying to undo it.

"I really believe," said she to herself, that I begin to see how it
was done. Nay, perhaps I could tie it up again after undoing it. There
could be no harm in that, surely. Even Epimetheus would not blame me
for that. I need not open the box, and should not, of course, without
the foolish boy's consent, even if the knot were untied."

It might have been better for Pandora if she had had a little work to
do, or anything to employ her mind upon, so as not to be so constantly
thinking of this one subject. But children led so easy a life before
any Troubles came into the world that they find really a great deal
too much leisure. They could not be forever playing at hide-and-seek
among the flower-shrubs, or at blind-man's buff with garlands over
their eyes, or at whatever other games has been found out while Mother
Earth was in her babyhood.

When life is all sport, toil is the real play. There was absolutely
nothing to do. A little sweeping and dusting about the cottage, I
suppose, and the gathering of fresh flowers (which were only too
abundant everywhere), and arranging them in vases--and poor little
Pandora's day's work was over. And then, for the rest of the day,
there was the box!

After all. I am not quite sure that the box was not a blessing to her
in its way. It supplied her with so many ideas to think of, and to
talk about, whenever she had anybody to listen! When she was in good
humor, she could admire the bright polish of its sides and the rich
border of beautiful faces and foliage that ran all around it. Or, if
she chanced to be ill-tempered, she could give it a push, or kick it
with her naughty little foot. And many a kick did the box (but it was
a mischievous box, as we shall see, and deserved all it got) many a
kick did it receive. But certain it is, if it had not been for the
box, our active-minded little Pandora would not have known half so
well how to spend her time as she now did.


GUESSING WHAT WAS IN THE BOX

For it was really an endless employment to guess what was inside. What
could it be, indeed? Just imagine, my little hearers, how busy your
wits would be if there were a great box in the house, which, as you
might have reason to suppose, contained something new and pretty for
your Christmas or New Year's gifts. Do you think that you should be
less curious than Pandora? If you were left alone with the box, might
you not feel a little tempted to lift the lid? But you would not do
it. Oh, fie! No, no! Only, if you thought there were toys in it, it
would be so very hard to let slip an opportunity of taking just one
peep!

I know not whether Pandora expected any toys; for none had yet begun
to be made, probably, in those days, when the world itself was one
great plaything for the children that dwelt upon it. But Pandora was
convinced that there was something very beautiful and valuable in the
box; and therefore she felt just as anxious to take a peep as any
of these little girls here around me would have felt. For it was
impossible, as you will easily guess, that the two children should
keep the ugly swarm in their own little cottage. On the contrary, the
first thing that they did was to fling open the doors and windows in
hope of getting rid of them; and, sure enough, away flew the winged
Troubles all abroad, and so pestered and tormented the small people,
everywhere about, that none of them so much as smiled for many days
afterwards.

And, what was very singular, all the flowers and dewy blossoms on
earth, not one of which had hitherto faded, now began to droop and
shed their leaves, after a day or two. The children, moreover, who
before seemed immortal in their childhood, now grew older, day by day,
and came soon to be youths and maidens, and men and women by-and-by,
and aged people, before they dreamed of such a thing.


WHAT HOPE DOES FOR US

Meanwhile, the naughty Pandora and hardly less naughty Epimetheus
remained in their cottage. Both of them had been grievously stung,
and were in a good deal of pain, which, seemed the more adorable
intolerable to them, because it was the very first pain that had
ever been felt since the world began. Of course they were entirely
unaccustomed to it, and could have no idea what it meant. Besides all
this, they were in exceedingly bad humor, both with themselves and
with one another. In order to indulge it to the utmost, Epimetheus sat
down sullenly in a corner with his back toward Pandora; while Pandora
flung herself upon the floor and rested her head on the fatal box. She
was crying bitterly, and sobbing as if her heart would break.

Suddenly there was gentle little tap on the inside of the lid.

"What can that be?" cried Pandora, lifting her head.

But either Epimetheus had not heard the tap, or was too much out of
humor to notice it. At any rate, he made no answer.

"You are very unkind," said Pandora, sobbing anew, "not to speak to
me!"

Again the tap! It sounded like the tiny knuckles of a fairy's hand,
knocking lightly and playfully on the inside of the box.

"Who are you?" asked Pandora, with a little of her former curiosity.
"Who are you, inside of this naughty box?"

A sweet little voice spoke from within: "Only lift the lid, and you
shall see."

"No, no," answered Pandora, again beginning to sob, "I have had enough
of lifting the lid! You are inside of the box, naughty creature, and
there you shall stay! There are plenty of your ugly brothers and
sisters already flying about the world. You need never think that I
shall be so foolish as to let you out!"

She looked toward Epimetheus as she spoke, perhaps expecting that he
would commend her for her wisdom. But the sullen boy only muttered
that she was wise a little too late.

"Ah," said the sweet little voice again. "You had much better let me
out. I am not like those naughty creatures that have stings in their
tails. They are no brothers and sisters of mine, as you would see at
once, if you were only to get a glimpse of me. Come, come, my pretty
Pandora! I am sure you will let me out!"

And, indeed, there was a kind of cheerful witchery in the tone that
made it almost impossible to refuse anything which this little voice
asked. Pandora's heart had grown lighter at every word that came from
within the box. Epimetheus, too, though still in the corner, had
turned half round, and seemed to be in rather better spirits than
before.

"My dear Epimetheus," cried Pandora, "have you heard this little
voice?"

"Yes, to be sure I have," answered he, but in no very good humor as
yes. "And what of it?"

"Shall I lift the lid again?" asked Pandora.

"Just as you please," said Epimetheus. "You have done so much mischief
already that perhaps you may as well do a little more. One other
Trouble, in such a swarm as you have set adrift about the world, can
make no very great difference."

"You might speak a little more kindly!" murmured Pandora, wiping her
eyes.

"Ah, naughty boy!" cried the little voice within the box, in an arch
and laughing tone. "He knows he is longing to see me. Come, my dear
Pandora, lift up the lid. I am in a great hurry to comfort you. Only
let me have some fresh air, and you shall soon see that matters are
not quite so dismal as you think them!"

"Epimetheus," exclaimed Pandora, "come what may, I am resolved to open
the box!"

"And, as the lid seems very heavy," cried Epimetheus, running across
the room, "I will help you!"

So, with one consent, the children again lifted the lid. Out flew
a sunny and smiling little personage, and hovered about the room,
throwing a light wherever she went. Have you never made the sunshine
dance into dark corners by reflecting it from a bit of looking-glass?
Well, so looked the winged cheerfulness of this fairy-like stranger
amid the gloom of the cottage. She flew to Epimetheus and laid the
least touch of her finger on the inflamed spot where the Trouble had
stung him, and immediately the anguish of it was gone. Then she kissed
Pandora on the forehead, and her hurt was cured likewise.

After performing these good offices, the bright stranger fluttered
sportively over the children's heads, and looked so sweetly at them
that they both began to think it not so very much amiss to have opened
the box, since, otherwise, their cheery guest must have been kept a
prisoner among those naughty imps with stings in their tails.

"Pray, who are you, beautiful creature?" inquired Pandora.

"I am to be called Hope!" answered the sunshiny figure. "And because
I am such a cheery little body, I was packed into the box, to make
amends to the human race for that swarm of ugly Troubles, which was
destined to be let loose among them. Never fear! We shall do pretty
well in spite of them all."

"Your wings are colored like the rainbow!" exclaimed Pandora. "How
very beautiful!"

"Yes, they are like the rainbow," said Hope, "because, glad as my
nature is, I am partly made of tears as well as smiles."

"And will you stay with us," asked Epimetheus, "for ever and ever?"

"As long as you need me," said Hope, with her pleasant smile, "and
that will be as long as you live in the world. I promise never to
leave you. There may be times and seasons, now and then, when you will
think that I have utterly vanished. But again, and again, and again,
when perhaps you least dream of it, you shall see the glimmer of my
wings on the ceiling of your cottage. Yes, my dear children, and
I know something very good and beautiful that is to be Given you
hereafter!"

"Oh, tell us," they exclaimed; "tell us what it is!"

"Do not ask me," replied Hope, patting her finger on her rosy mouth.
"But do not despair, even if it should never happen while you live on
this earth. Trust in my promise, for it is true."

"We do trust you!" cried Epimetheus and Pandora, both in one breath.

And so they did; and not only they, but so has everybody trusted Hope,
that has since been alive. And, to tell You the truth, I cannot help
being glad (though to be sure It was an uncommonly naughty thing for
her to do) but I Cannot help being glad that our foolish Pandora
peeped into the box. No doubt--no doubt--the Troubles are still flying
about the world, and have increased in numbers, rather than lessened,
and are a very ugly set of imps, and carry most venomous stings in
their tails. I have felt them already, and expect to feel them more
as I grow older. But then that lovely and lightsome little figure of
Hope! What in the world could we do without her? Hope spiritualizes
the earth; Hope makes it always new; and, even in the earth’s best and
brightest aspect, Hope shows it to be only the shadow of an infinite
bliss hereafter!


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. How long ago did Pandora and Epimetheus live? 2. Find
the lines that tell how different the world was then from what it is
now. 3. Where did the box come from? 4. On what conditions was it
given to Epimetheus? 5. Find lines that describe the box. 6. Why was
Pandora interested in it? 7. In what way was it a blessing to Pandora?
8. What led her to open the box? 9. Do you thing Epimetheus was at
fault? Why? 10. What happened when Pandora raised the lid of the box?
11. How did this affect the Paradise of Children? The flowers? The
children? 12. What happened when Pandora opened the box a second time?
13. Why was Hope put into the box with the Troubles? 14. Why are the
wings of Hope like the rainbows? 15. What does Hope do for us? 16.
What qualities in Epimetheus do you like? 17. What did Hope mean by
saying she was partly made of tears? 18. How does Hope "spiritualize"
the earth, i.e., make it purer? 19. Tell what you can about the
author. 20. On page 291 you were asked to notice the way in which
these authors tell their stories; you have no doubt noticed that
Hawthorne uses humor and fancy to add interest. 21. Point out examples
of his humor. 22. What quaint fancy has he about the way food was
provided when the world was young? 23. By what fancy does he increase
our interest in the mystery of the box? 24. Class readings: Select
passages to be read aloud in class. 25. Outline for testing silent
reading. Tell the story briefly in your own words, using the topic
headings given in the story. 26. You will enjoy seeing the pictures in
the edition of The Wonder-Book that is illustrated by the well known
artist, Maxfield Parrish. 27. Find in the Glossary the meaning of:
caroling; mysterious; whence; pettishly; intelligent; babble; combine;
pried; restore; constant; intent; pestered; witchery; personage;
glimmer; lightsome. 28 Pronounce: Epimetheus; either; Pandora;
threshold; livelong; disquietude; merry; forbear; accompany;
perseveringly; vexations; profusion; mischievous; contrivance;
ingenious; merest; lamentable; gigantic; molested; calamity;
grievously; intolerable; hovered; destined; venomous; spiritualizes;
aspect; infinite.

Phrases for Study

greatest disquietude, afflicted the souls, faint shadow of a Trouble,
obtained a foothold, more enterprise, immortal in their childhood,
unaccustomed to vexations, wrought together in such harmony, indulge
in to the utmost, with one consent, high relief, performing these good
offices, utter itself in words, roguishly defied, much amiss, toil is
the real play, make amends, bewitchingly persuasive, brightest aspect,
humor better suited, shadow of an infinite bliss. THE GOLDEN TOUCH

KING MIDAS AND HIS LOVE FOR GOLD

Once upon a time there lived a very rich man, and a King besides,
whose name was Midas; and he had a little daughter, whom nobody but
myself ever heard of, and whose name I either never knew, or have
entirely forgotten. So, because I love odd name for little girls, I
choose to call her Marygold.

This King Midas was fonder of gold than of anything else in the world.
He valued his royal crown chiefly because it was composed of that
precious metal. If he loved anything better, or half so well, it
was the one little maiden who played so merrily around her father's
footstool. But the more Midas loved his daughter, the more did he
desire and seek for wealth. He thought, foolish man, that the best
thing he could possibly do for his dear child would be to give her the
immensest pile of yellow, glistening coin that had ever been heaped
together since the world was make. Thus, he gave all his thoughts and
all his time to this one Purpose. If ever he happened to gaze for an
instant at the gold-tinted clouds of sunset, he wished that they were
real gold and that they could be squeezed safely into his strong box.
When little Marygold ran to meet him, with a bunch of buttercups and
dandelions, he used to say, "Pooh, pooh, child! If these flowers were
a golden as they look, they would be worth the plucking!"

And yet, in his earlier days, before he was so entirely possessed of
this insane desire for riches, King Midas had shown a great taste
for flowers. He had planted a garden, in which grew the biggest and
beautifulest and sweetest roses that any mortal ever saw or smelled.
These roses were still growing in the garden, as large, as lovely, and
as fragrant as when Midas used to pass whole hours in gazing at the
and inhaling their perfume. But now, if he looked at them at all, it
was only to calculate how much the garden would be worth if each of
the many rose-petals were a thin plate of gold.

At length (as people always grow more and more foolish, unless they
take care to grow wiser and wiser) Midas had got to be so exceedingly
unreasonable that he could scarcely bear to see or touch any object
that was not gold. He made it his custom, therefore, to pass a large
portion of every day in a dark and dreary apartment, underground, at
the basement of the palace. It was here that he kept his wealth. To
this dismal hole "for it was little better than a dungeon" Midas betook
himself whenever he wanted to be particularly happy. Here, after
carefully locking the door, he would take a bag of gold coin, or
a gold cup as big as a washbowl, or a heavy golden bar, or a
peck-measure of gold-dust, and bring them from the obscure corners of
the room into the one bright and narrow sunbeam that fell from the
dungeon-like window. He valued the sunbeam for no other reason but
that his treasure would not shine without its help. And then would he
reckon over the coins in the bag; toss up the bar, and catch it as it
came down; sift the gold-dust through his fingers; look at the funny
image of his own face, as reflected in the polished surface of the
cup; and whisper to himself, "O Midas, rich King Midas, what a happy
man art thou!"

Midas was enjoying himself in his treasure-room one Day as usual, when
he saw a shadow fall over the heaps of Gold; and, looking suddenly up,
what should he behold but The figure of a strange, standing in the
bright and narrow Sunbeam! It was a young man with a cheerful and
ruddy face. Whether it was that the imagination of King Midas threw a
yellow tinge over everything, or whatever the cause might be, he could
not help fancying that the smile with which the stranger regarded him
had a kind of golden radiance in it.

As Midas knew that he had carefully turned the key in The lock, and
that no mortal strength could possibly break Into his treasure-room,
he of course concluded that his Visitor must be something more than
mortal. It is no matter about telling you who he was. In those days,
when the earth was comparatively a new affair, it was supposed to be
often the resort of beings who had extraordinary powers, and who used
to interest themselves in the joys and sorrows of men, women, and
children, half playfully and half seriously, Midas had met such
beings before now, and was not sorry to meet one of them again. The
stranger's manner, indeed, was so good-humored and kindly that it
would have been unreasonable to suspect him of intending any mischief.
It was far more probable that he came to do Midas a favor. And what
could that favor be, unless to multiply his heaps of treasure?

The stranger gazed about the room; and when his bright smile had
glistened upon all the golden objects that were there, he turned again
to Midas.

"You are a wealthy man, friend Midas!" he observed. "I doubt whether
any other four walls on earth contain so much gold as you have piled
up in this room."

"I have done pretty well pretty well," answered Midas, in a
discontented tone. "But, after all, it is but a trifle, when you
consider that it has taken me my whole life to get it together. If one
could live a thousand years, he might have time to grow rich!"

"What!" exclaimed the stranger. "Then you are not satisfied?" Midas
shook his head.

"And pray what would satisfy you?" asked the stranger. "Merely for the
curiosity of the thing I should be glad to know."

Midas paused and meditated. He had a feeling that his stranger, with
such a golden luster in his good-humored smile, had come hither with
both the power and the purpose of gratifying his utmost wishes. Now,
therefore, was the fortunate moment when he had but to speak and
obtain whatever possible, or seemingly impossible, thing it might
come into his head to ask. So he thought and thought and thought,
and heaped up one golden mountain upon another in this imagination,
without being able to imagine them big enough. At last, a bright idea
occurred to King Midas. It seemed really as bright as the glistening
metal which he loved so much.

Raising his head, he looked the lustrous stranger in the face.

"Well, Midas," observed his visitor. "I see that you have at length
hit upon something that will satisfy you. Tell me your wish."

"It is only this," Replied Midas. "I am weary of collecting my
treasures with so much trouble, and beholding the heap so small after
I have done my best. I wish everything that I touch to be changed to
gold!"

The stranger's smile grew so very broad that it seemed to fill the
room like an outburst of the sun gleaming into a shadowy dell where
the yellow autumnal leaves--for so looked the lumps and particles of
gold--lie strewn in the glow of light.

"The Golden Touch!" exclaimed he. "You certainly deserve credit,
friend Midas, for striking out so brilliant an idea. But are you quite
sure that this will satisfy you?"

"How could it fail?" said Midas.

"And will you never regret the possession of it?"

"What could induce me?" asked Midas. "I ask nothing else to render me
perfectly happy."

"Be it as you wish, then," replied the stranger, waving his hand in
token of farewell. "Tomorrow, at sunrise, you will find yourself
gifted with the Golden touch."

The figure of the stranger then became exceedingly bright, and Midas
was forced to close his eyes. On opening them again he beheld only one
yellow sunbeam in the room, and, all around him, the glistening of the
precious metal which he had spent his life in hoarding up.

Whether Midas slept as usual that night, the story does not say.
Asleep or awake, however, his mind was probably in the state of a
child's to whom a beautiful new plaything has been promised in the
morning. At any rate, day had hardly peeped over the hills when King
Midas was broad awake, and stretching his arms out of bed, began to
touch the objects that were within reach. He was anxious to prove
whether the Golden Touch had really come, according to the stranger's
promise. So he laid his finger on a chair by the bedside, and on
various other things, but was grievously disappointed to perceive that
they remained of exactly the same substance as before.


THE GIFT OF THE GOLDEN TOUCH

All this while, it was only the gray of the morning, with but a streak
of brightness along the edge of the sky, where Midas could not see it.
He lay in a very unhappy mood, regretting the downfall of his hopes,
and kept growing sadder and sadder, until the earliest sunbeam shone
through the window and gilded the ceiling over his head. It seemed
to Midas that this bright yellow sunbeam was reflected in rather a
singular way on the white covering of the bed. Looking more closely,
what was his astonishment and delight, when he found that this linen
fabric wad been changed to what seemed a woven texture of the purest
and brightest gold! The Golden Touch had come to him with the first
sunbeam!

Midas started up, in a kind of joyful frenzy, and ran about the room
grasping at everything that happened to be in his way. He seized one
of the bed-posts, and it became immediately a fluted golden pillar. He
pulled aside a window-curtain in order to admit a clear spectacle of
the wonders which he was performing; and the tassel grew heavy in his
hand--a mass of gold. He took up a book from the table. At this first
touch, it assumed the appearance of such a splendidly-bound and
gilt-edged volume as one often meets with nowadays; but, on running
his fingers through the leaves, behold! It was a bundle of thin golden
plates, in which all the wisdom of the book had grown in distinct.
He hurriedly put on his clothes, and was delighted to ace himself in
magnificent suit of gold cloth, which retained its flexibility and
softness, although it burdened him a little with its weight.

Wise King Midas was so excited by his good fortune that the palace
seemed not sufficiently spacious to contain him. He therefore went
downstairs and smiled on observing that the balustrade of the
staircase became a bar of burnished gold as his hand passed over it in
the descent. He lifted the door latch (it was brass only a moment ago,
but golden when his fingers quitted it) and went into the garden.
Here, as it happened, he found a great number of beautiful roses in
full bloom, and others in all the stages of lovely bud and blossom.
Very delicious was their fragrance in the morning breeze. Their
delicate blush was one of the fairest sights in the world--so gentle,
so modest, and so full of erect composure did these roses seem to be.

But Midas knew a way to make them far more precious, according to his
way of thinking, than roses had ever been before. So he took great
pains in going from bush to bush, and exercised his magic touch most
freely; until every individual flower and bud, and even the worms at
the heart of some of them, were changed to gold. By the time this good
work was completed, King Midas was called to breakfast; and, as the
morning air had given him an excellent appetite, he made haste back to
the palace.

What was usually a king's breakfast, in the days of Midas, I really do
not know, and cannot stop now to find out. To the best of my belief,
however, on this particular morning, the breakfast consisted of hot
cakes, some nice little brook-trout, roasted potatoes, fresh boiled
eggs, and coffee, for King Midas himself, and a bowl of bread and milk
for his daughter Marygold. At all events, this is a breakfast fit to
be set before a king; and, whether he had it or not, King Midas could
not have had a better.

Little Marygold had not yet made her appearance. Her father ordered
her to be called, and, seating himself at table, awaited the child's
coming, in order to begin his own breakfast. To do Midas justice, he
really loved his daughter, and loved her so much the more this morning
on account of the good fortune which had befallen him. It was not
a great while before he heard her coming along the passage crying
bitterly. This circumstance surprised him, because Marygold was one of
the cheerfulest little people whom you would see in a summer day, and
hardly shed a thimbleful of tears in a twelvemonth. When Midas heard
her sobs, he determined to put little Marygold into better spirits by
an agreeable surprise; so, leaning across the table, he touched his
daughter's bowl (which was a china one, with pretty figures all around
it) and turned it to gleaming gold.

Meanwhile, Marygold slowly and sadly opened the door, and showed
herself with her apron at her eyes, still sobbing as if her heart
would break.

"How now, my little lady!" cried Midas. "Pray what is the matter with
you this bright morning?"

Marygold, without taking the apron from her eyes, held out her hand,
in which was one of the roses which Midas had so recently changed.

"Beautiful!" exclaimed her father. "And what is there in this
magnificent golden rose to make you cry?"

"Ah, dear father!" answered the child, as well as her sobs would let
her, "it is not beautiful, but the ugliest flower that ever grew! As
soon as I was dressed, I ran into the garden to gather some roses
for you, because I know you like them, and like them the better when
gathered by your little daughter. But, O dear, dear me! What do you
think has happened? Such a misfortune! All the beautiful roses, that
smelled so sweet and had so many lovely blushes, are blighted and
spoiled! They are grown quite yellow, as you see this one, and have no
longer any fragrance! What can have been the matter?"

"Pooh, my dear little girl, pray don't cry about it!" said Midas, who
was ashamed to confess that he himself had wrought the change which so
greatly afflicted her. "Sit down and eat your bread and milk! You will
find it easy enough to exchange a golden rose like that (which will
last hundreds of years) for an ordinary one, which would wither in a
day."

"I don't care for such roses as this!" cried Marygold. "It has no
smell, and hard petals prick my nose!"


THE KING'S BREAKFAST OF GOLD

The child now sat down to table, but was so occupied with her grief
for the blighted roses that she did not even notice the wonderful
change of her china bowl. Perhaps this was all the better; for
Marygold was accustomed to take pleasure in looking at the queer
figures and strange trees and houses that were painted on the outside
of the bowl; and those ornaments were now entirely lost in the yellow
hue of the metal.

Midas, meanwhile, had poured out a cup of coffee; and, as a matter of
course, the coffee-pot, whatever metal it may have been when he took
it up, was gold when he set it down. He thought to himself that it
was rather an extravagant style of splendor, in a king of his simple
habits, to breakfast off a service of gold, and began to be puzzled
with the difficulty of keeping his treasures safe. The cupboard and
the kitchen would no longer be a safe place of deposit for articles so
valuable as golden bowls and coffee-pots.

Amid these thoughts, he lifted a spoonful of coffee to his lips, and
sipping it, was astonished to perceive that, the instant his lips
touched the liquid, it became molten gold, and, the next moment,
hardened into a lump!

"Ha!" exclaimed Midas, rather aghast.

"What is the matter, father?" asked little Marygold, gazing at him,
with tears still standing in her eyes.

"Nothing, child, nothing!" said Midas. "Eat your bread and milk before
it gets quite cold."

He took one of the nice little trout on his plate, and, by way of
experiment, touched its tail with his finger. To his horror, it was
immediately changed from an admirably-fried brook-trout into a gold
fish, though not one of those goldfish which people often keep in
glass globes, as ornaments for the parlor. No; but it was really a
metallic fish, and looked as if it had been very cunningly made by the
nicest goldsmith in the world. Its little bones were now golden wires;
its fins and tail were thin plates of gold; and there were the marks
of the fork in it, and all the delicate, frothy appearance of a nicely
fried fish, exactly imitated in metal. A very pretty piece of work, as
you may suppose; only King Midas just at the that moment would much
rather have had a real trout in his dish than his elaborate and
valuable imitation of one.

"I don't quite see," thought he to himself, "how I am to get any
breakfast!"

He took one of the smoking hot cakes, and had scarcely broken it,
when, to his cruel mortification, though a moment before it had been
of the whitest wheat, it assumed the yellow hue of Indian meal. To say
the truth, if it had really been a hot Indian cake, Midas would have
prized it a good deal more than he now did, when its solidity and
increased weight made him know too well that it was old. Almost
in despair, he helped himself to a boiled egg, which immediately
underwent a change similar to that of the trout and the cake. The egg,
indeed, might have been mistaken for one of those which the famous
goose, in the story-book, was in the habit of laying; but King Midas
was the only goose that had had anything to do with the matter.

"Well, this is a puzzle!" thought he, leaning back in his chair, and
looking quite enviously at little Marygold, who was now eating her
bread and milk with great satisfaction. "Such a costly breakfast, and
nothing that can be eaten!"

Hoping that, by dint of great quickness, he might avoid what he now
felt to be a considerable inconvenience, King Midas next snatched a
hot potato, and attempted to cram It into his mouth and swallow it in
hurry. But the Golden Touch was too nimble for him. He found his mouth
full, not of mealy potato, but of solid metal, which so burned his tongue
that he roared aloud, and, jumping up from the table, began to dance
and stamp about the room, both with pain and affright.

"Father, dear father!" cried little Marygold, who was a very
affectionate child, "pray, what is the matter? Have you burned your
mouth?"

"Ah, dear child," groaned Midas, dolefully, "I don't know what is to
become of your poor father!"

And, truly, my dear little folks, did you ever hear of such a pitiable
case in all your lives? Here was literally the richest breakfast that
could be set before a king, and its very richness made it absolutely
good for nothing. The poorest laborer, sitting down to his crust of
bread and cup of water, was far better off than King Midas, whose
delicate food was really worth its weight in gold. And what was to be
done? Already, at breakfast, Midas was very hungry. Would he be less
so by dinner-time? And how ravenous would be his appetite for supper,
which must undoubtedly consist of the same sort of indigestible dishes
as those now before him! How many days, think you, would he survive
the fate of this rich fare?

These thoughts so troubled wise King Midas that he began to doubt
whether, after all, riches are the one desirable thing in the world;
or even the most desirable. But this was only a passing thought. So
pleased was Midas with the glitter of the yellow metal that he
would still have refused to give up the Golden Touch for so small a
consideration as a breakfast. Just imagine what a price for one meal's
victuals! It would have been the same as paying millions and millions
of money (and as many millions more as would take forever to reckon
up) for some fried trout, an egg, a potato, a hot cake, and a cup of
coffee!

"It would be quite too dear," thought Midas.

Nevertheless, so great was his hunger and perplexity of this
situation, that he again groaned aloud, and very grievously too. Our
pretty Marygold could endure it no longer. She sat a moment gazing at
her father, and trying, with all the might of her little wits, to find
out what was the matter with him. Then, with a sweet and sorrowful
impulse to comfort him, she started from the chair, and running to
Midas, threw her arms affectionately about his knees. He bent down
and kissed her. He felt that his little daughter's love was worth a
thousand times more than he had gained by the Golden Touch.

"My precious, precious Marygold!" cried he.

But Marygold made no answer.

Alas, what had he done? How fatal was the gift which the stranger
gave! The moment the lips of Midas touched Marygold's forehead, a
change had taken place. Her sweet, rosy face, so full of affection as
it had been, assumed a glittering yellow color, with yellow tear-drops
hardening on her cheeks. Her beautiful brown ringlets took the same
tint. Her soft and tender little form grew hard and stiff within her
father's encircling arms. O terrible misfortune! The victim of his
great desire for wealth, little Marygold was human child no longer,
but a golden statue!

Yes, there she was, with the questioning look of love, grief, and
pity, hardened into her face. It was the prettiest and most woeful
sight that ever mortal saw. All the features and tokens of Marygold
were there; even the beloved little dimple remained in her golden
chin. But, the more perfect was the resemblance, the greater was the
father's agony at beholding this golden image, which was all that
was left him of a daughter. It had been a favorite phrase of Midas,
whenever he felt particularly fond of the child, to say that she was
worth her weight in gold. And how the phrase had become literally true.
And now, at last, when it was too late, he felt how infinitely a warm
and tender heart that loved him exceeded in value all the wealth that
could be piled up betwixt the earth and sky!

It would be too sad a story if I were to tell you how Midas, in the
fullness of all his gratified desires, began to Wring his hands and
bemoan himself; and how he could neither bear to look at Marygold, nor
yet to look away from her.


WHAT KING MIDAS LEARNED

While he was in this despair, he suddenly beheld a stranger, standing
near the door. Midas bent down his head, without speaking; for he
recognized the same figure which had appeared to him the day before in
the treasure-room, and had bestowed on him this unlucky power of the
Golden Touch. The stranger's countenance still wore a smile, which
Seemed to shed a yellow luster all about the room, and Gleamed on
little Marygold's image, and on the other Objects that had been
changed by the touch of Midas.

"Well, friend Midas," said the stranger, "pray how do you succeed with
the Golden Touch?"

Midas shook his head.

"I am very miserable," said he.

"Very miserable, indeed!" exclaimed the stranger. "And how happens
that? Have I not faithfully kept my promise with you? Have you not
everything that your heart desired?"

"Gold is not everything," answered Midas. "And I have lost all that my
heart really cared for."

"Ah! So you have made a discovery since yesterday?" observed the
stranger. "Let us see, then. Which of these two things do you think
is really worth the more--the gift of the Golden Touch, or one cup of
clear cold water?"

"O blessed water!" exclaimed Midas. "It will never moisten my parched
throat again!"

"The Golden Touch," continued the stranger, "or a crust of bread?"

"A piece of bread," answered Midas, "is worth all the gold on earth!"

"The Golden Touch," asked the stranger, "or your own little Marygold,
warm, soft, and loving, as she was an hour ago?"

"Oh, my child, my dear child, my dear child!" cried poor Midas,
wringing his hands. "I would not have given that one small dimple in
her chin for the power of changing his whole big earth into a solid
lump of gold!"

"You are wiser than you were, King Midas!" said the stranger, looking
seriously at him. "Your own heart, I perceive, has not been entirely
changed from flesh to gold. Were it so, your ease would indeed be
desperate. But you appear to be still capable of understanding that
the commonest things, such as lie within everybody's grasp, are more
valuable than the riches which so many mortals sigh and struggle
after. Tell me, now, do you sincerely desire to rid yourself of this
Golden Touch?"

"It is hateful to me!" replied Midas.

A fly settled on his nose, but immediately fell to the Floor; for it,
to had become gold. Midas shuddered.

"Go, then," said the stranger, "and plunge into the river that glides
past the bottom of the your garden. Take likewise a vase of the same
water, and sprinkle it over any object that you may desire to change
back again from gold into its former substance. If you do this in
earnestness and sincerity, it may possibly repair the mischief which
your avarice has occasioned."

King Midas bowed low; and when he lifted his head, The lustrous
stranger had vanished.

You will easily believe that Midas lost no time in snatching up a
great earthen pitcher (but, alas! It was no longer earthen after he
touched it) and hastening to the riverside. As he scampered along, and
forced his way through the shrubbery, it was positively marvelous to
see how the foliage turned yellow behind him, as if the autumn had
been there, and nowhere else. On reaching the river's brink, he
plunged headlong in, without waiting so much as to pull off his shoes.

"Poof! Poof! Poof!" snorted King Midas, as his head emerged out of the
water. "Well, this is really a refreshing bath, and I think it must
have quite washed away the Golden Touch. And now for filling my
pitcher!"

As he dipped the pitcher into the water, it gladdened his very heart
to see it change from gold into the same good, honest earthen vessel
which it had been before he touched it. He was conscious, also, of a
change within himself. A cold, hard, and heavy weight seemed to have
gone out of his bosom. No doubt his heart had been gradually losing
its human substance, and changing itself into dull metal, but had now
softened back again into flesh. Seeing a violet that grew on the bank
of the river, Midas touched it with his finger, and was overjoyed to
find that the delicate flower retained its purple hue, instead of
undergoing a yellow blight. The curse of the Golden Touch had,
therefore, really been removed from him.

King Midas hastened back to the palace; and, I suppose, the servants
knew not what to make of it when they saw their royal master so
carefully bringing home an earthen pitcher of water. But that water,
which was to undo all the mischief that his folly had wrought, was
more precious to Midas than an ocean of molten gold could have been.
The first thing he did, as you nee hardly be told, was to sprinkle it
by handfuls over the golden figure of little Marygold.

No sooner did it fall on her than you would have laughed to see how
the rosy color came back to the dear child's cheek!--and how she began
to sneeze and splutter!--and how astonished she was to find herself
dripping wet, and her father still throwing more water over her!

"Pray, do not, dear father!" cried she. "See how you have wet my nice
frock, which I put on only this morning!"

For Marygold did not know that she had been a little golden statue;
nor could she remember anything that had happened since the moment
when she ran, with outstretched arms, to comfort poor King Midas.

Her father did not think it necessary to tell his beloved child how
very foolish he had been, but contented himself with showing how much
wiser he had now grown. For this purpose he led little Marygold into
the garden, where he sprinkled all the remainder of the water over
the rosebushes recovered their beautiful bloom. There were two
circumstances, however, which, as long as he lived, used to put King
Midas in mind of the Golden Touch. One was that the sands of the river
sparkled like gold; the other that little Marygold's hair had now a
golden tinge, which he had never observed in it before she had been
changed by the effect of his kiss. This change of hue was really an
improvement, and made Marygold's hair richer than in her babyhood.

When King Midas had grown quite an old man, and used to trot
Marygold's children on his knee, he was fond of telling them this
marvelous story, pretty much as I have now told it to your. And then
would he stroke their glossy ringlets, and tell them that their hair,
likewise, had a rich shade of gold, which they had inherited from
their mother.

"And to tell you the truth, my precious little folks," quoth King
Midas, diligently trotting the children all the while, "ever since
that morning I have hated the very sight of all other gold save
this!"


NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Discussion. 1. How did Midas think he could best show his love for
this daughter? 2. What was his chief pleasure? 3. Describe the visitor
who appeared to Midas in his treasure-room. 4. What did the stranger
ask him? 5. Find the sentence that tells what Midas wished. 6. When
did he receive his new power? 7. What use did he make of it? 8. What
did Marygold think of the gold roses? 9. Why was not Midas's breakfast
a success? 10. When did Midas first doubt whether riches are the most
desirable thing in the world? 11. How did he drive this thought away?
12. What make him realize that his little daughter was dearer to him
than gold? 13. Find lines that tell what he realized when it was too
late. 14. What did the stranger ask when he came again? 15. What was
the discovery that Midas mad made since the stranger's first visit?
16. How was Midas cured of the Golden Touch? 17. What was he told to
do in order to restore Marygold to life? 18. What was the only gold
he cared about after he was saved from the Golden Touch? 19. Find
examples of human; of fanciful expressions, Such as "day had hardly
peeped over the hills," of descriptions that you like. 20. Close
readings: Select passages to be read aloud in class. 21. Outline for
testing silent reading. Tell the story briefly in your own words,
using the topic headings given in the story. 22. Find in the Glossary
the meaning of: purpose; mortal; inhaling; induce; flexibility;
balustrade; burnished; afflicted; affright; consideration; perplexity;
fatal; agony; infinitely; desperate; earthen; conscious; molten.
23. Pronounce: Midas; calculate; particularly; obscure; tinge;
extraordinary; mediate; composure; blighted; bath; cup; snarl; molten;
aghast; admirably; metallic; frothy; pitiable; ravenous; indigestible;
victuals; phrase; recognized; purebred; avarice.

Phrases for Study

comparatively a new affair, fairest goldsmith, woven texture, cruel
mortification, wisdom of the book, by dint of great quickness,
cunningly made, features and tokens.


GREAT AMERICAN AUTHORS

A Backward Look

A wonderful power lies in the Crystal Glass of Reading--the power to
increase your circle of friends and to know intimately people who have
lived in distant times and places. Through its power the great
heroes of all ages--Joseph, Beowulf, Sigurd, Robin Hood, and our own
Washington, Lincoln, and Roosevelt--become your companions.

Someone has said that the pen is mightier than the sword, which is
another way of saying that great books have had more to do in shaping
the lives and fortunes of men than bloody battles. The group of
authors whose stories and poems you have just been reading is a
company of friends whose thoughts about Nature, or about life and its
meaning, have been a power in making America what it is today.

Acquaintance with these friends has been made easy for you; you have
had placed before you their pictures and interesting facts about their
lives, and best of all, you have been able to hear them tell their own
thoughts. What authors are in this group? Which of them did you learn
to know in Book IV and which were new to you in this book? Close
your eyes and see whether your "inward eye" can picture the faces of
Franklin, Bryant, Whittier, Irving, Longfellow, Hawthorne. Make one
interesting statement concerning each author and his works. Quote
lines from poems by Bryant, Whittier, and Longfellow. Make from memory
a list of title of stories or poems you have read from each of these
six American authors.

Benjamin Franklin founded the first public library in America; the
picture on page 18 shows you what a library must have been like in
the old Greek days, and page 288 pictures a view of the Congressional
Library at Washington, the home of the complete works of all our
American authors. The building is considered one of the most beautiful
in the world; report to the class some interesting facts about this
library that you have learned from someone who has seen it.

In the last paragraph of the Forward Look, you are asked to notice the
way in which authors tell what they have to say. When Franklin was a
young boy he was not at all satisfied with his way of writing, so
he sat himself the task of noticing carefully how a certain English
writer, whom he admired very much, expressed himself, and tried to
pattern after him. Notice how Franklin made the story "An Ax to Grind"
seem very real by using direct quotations; where else has he used
direct quotations with the same result?

Notice the way Hawthorne added interest to his stories: (a) by touches
of fancy; (b) by delicate humor; (c) by apt descriptions. Point out
examples of each of these qualities in "The Paradise of Children."
Make a similar showing for "The Golden Touch." Compare the two stories
in regard to each of These qualities.

Turn to the pictures on pages 282, 297, 302, 321, and 309, and see
whether you are able to tell what selection each panel-picture
illustrates. You have read many stories in this book that show how
fine a thing it is to serve, and so it seems fitting to have on the
cover at your reader a picture of Hiawatha, who

"Lived and toiled, so I suffered, That the tribes of men might
prosper, That he might advance his people!"

Make a list of the stories you have read in this book that tell about
service. Read the lines in "The White-man's foot" that describe "the
great canoe with pinions," which you see in the picture on the outside
cover of this book. Since you began to use this book what progress
have you hade in gaining ability to read silently with speed and
understanding?



    *    *    *    *    *


GLOSSARY

abashed (a-bashed'), ashamed

abbey (ab'i), the home of monks

abbot (ab'ut), head of an abbey

above his fortune (for'toon), more than he can afford

absolutely (ab'so-loot-ly), positively

absurd inventions (ab-surd' in-ven'shuns), made-up stories not
believable

abyes (a-bis'), a space so deep as not to be easily measured

accompany (ac-com'pa-ny), go with

accosted (ac-cost'ed), spoken to

accoutered (ac-cout'ered), dressed

accumulating (ac-cu'mu-lat-ing), piling up

acquainted (ac-quaint'ed), friendly with each other

adage (ad'age), a saying

Adjidaumo (Ad-ji-dau'mo)

admirably (ad'mi-ra-bly), well

ado (a-do'), fuss

adorn (a-dorn'), decorate

advance (ad-vance') his people, help his tribe of Indians to be better

advisers (ad-viz'ers), men with whom he talked

adz (adz'), tool for trimming wood

aerie (i'ry), high nest

Aesop (Ae'sop), a Greek slave who wrote many little stories

afflicted (af-flict'ed), distressed

afflicted (af-flict'ed) the souls, made people do wrong

affliction (af-flic'shun), trouble

affright (af-fright'), alarm

aftermath (aft'er-math), second crop

against all comers, with anyone he meets

age of doubt, time when people are not ready to believe

aghast (a-ghast'), startled

agility (a-gil'i-ty), quickness

agony (ag'o-ny), grief

Ahmeek (Ah-meek')

Ahno (Ah'no)

Aladdin (A-lad'din)

alder (al'der), a kind of tree

alert (a-lert'), watchful

Ali Baba (A'li Bah'bah)

allied (al-lied'), joined

all in their best, dressed in their best clothes

all its endearments (en-dear'mentz), everything that makes it dear

allotted (al-lot'ted) time, time granted for doing anything

almanacs (al'ma-naks), small books containing a yearly calendar with
little stories

aloes (al'oes), a precious wood

alternate (al-ter'nate), first one, then the other

ambitious (am-bi'shus), eager for

ambush in the oak-tree, hiding-place in the oak

amethyst (am'e-thyst), a clear purple or bluish violet; a precious
stone

ancient, old; of old time

anecdote (an'ek-dote), a story

anemones (a-nim'o-nez), wild flowers of pale, dainty colors

anew (a-nu'), again

animal spirits, loud, rough play

Annemeekee (An-ne-mee'kee)

Antoine (An-twan')

anxious (ang'shus), troubled

ape the ways of pride, try to copy the

actions of proud people

apothecary (a-poth'uh-ca-ry), druggist

appeared concerned (ap-peared' con-surned'), seemed anxious

apple from the pine, pineapple

appointed (ap-point'ed), chosen beforehand for the feast

approached (ap-proacht'), went near to

approach (ap-proach') the bounds, come near the edge

Arabic (Ar'a-bik), language of Arabs

arch and laughing tone, merry, teasing voice

archery, shooting with bow and arrow

arching, curving

arching blue, sky

arch of the sunlit bow, curve of the rainbow

archway of rock, meeting place overhead of two rock walls

array (ar-ray',) order

artificar (ar-tif'i-sur), skilled worker

ash-cakes, unsweetened cakes baked on a hot shovel laid on the ashes

aspect, outlook; state

aspen (as'pen) bower, thicket of trees the leaves of which are easily
moved by the wind

aspiring (as-pir'ing) genius, clever person who is trying to rise

assembled (as-sem'bld), collected

assumed (as-soomd') the ap-pear'ance of, looked like

asters (as'ters) in the brook, reflection of the asters in the water

astir (a-stur'), moving around

astonished (as-ton'isht), surprised

astride (a-stride') the traces, having one leg over one of the straps
which fastened the plow to the horses

asunder (a-sun'der), apart

attendance (at-ten'dans) on levees (lev- ees'), going to receptions

attend his pleasure (plezh'ur), do his bidding

at their glittering (glit'ter-ing) best, shining as bright as possible

audible (au'di-b'l), that can be heard

aught but tender, any way except kind

autumnal (au-tum'nal), of autumn

avarice (av'a-ris), greed

averted (a-vurt'ed), turned aside

awakening (a-wak'n-ing) of the woods, the budding of the forest trees

awry (a-ri'), crooked

ay (I), yes

azure (azh'ur), sky-blue; the air

azure space, blue air above


babble (bab'bl), chatter

bade, told; told to

balas (bal'as), a kind of ruby

balked, (bal'kt) stopped

balm (balm), sticky dried juice

balsam (bal'sam), same as balm

balustrade (bal'us-trad'), railing

bandages (ban'daj-ez), strips of cloth

banditti (ban-dit'ti), robbers

barter (bar'ter) it all, trade all that I have gained

basswood (bas'wood), wood of the linden tree

battlements (bat'tl-ments), irregular top of the high walls of a castle

bayou (bi'oo), inlet

bazaars (ba-zars'), shops; marketplace

beam, ray of light

beaming, shining

bear me ill-will, dislike me

bear no malice (mal'is), have no ill-will

beast of prey, flesh-eating animal

Beatte (Be'ti)

beat us holler, do things we cannot do

beauteous (bu'te-us) summer glow, lovely

brightness of summer time becalmed (be-kalmd'), prevented from sailing
because of lack of wind

beechen (bech'en), of the beech tree

befall (be-fol'), happen to

beguile (be-gil'), charm

beguiled (be-gild'), tricked

beheld it aforetime (a-for'tim), see it before it arrived

belated (be-lat'ed) thriftless vagrant (va'grant), tardy, lazy wanderer

belfry (bel'fri), tower for a bell

bemoan (be-mon') himself, groan softly

beneath (be-neth') benevolent (be-nev'o-lent) friendship, kind and
generous acts of a friend

benignant (be-nig'nant), kindly

beseems (be-semz') his quality (kwol'i'ti), fits his rank

beside himself with joy, so happy he did not know what to do

besmeared (be-smerd'), covered

best of cheer, things that make one most happy

betrayed (be-trayd'; be_tra'ed), given me to my enemy by a trick

bewinderment (be-wil'der-ment), perplexity

bewitchingly persuasive (be-wich'ing-li per-swa'siv), charmingly
coaxing

Big-Sea-Water, Lake Superior

billowed like a russet ocean (bil'od; rus'et), reddish grass blew like
waves

Bishop of Bingen (bish'up; bing'en), Hatto, who starved the poor and
was shut up in a tower, where mice devoured him

bison (bi'sun), American buffalo

blanc-mange (bla-mänzh'), a dessert of starchy substances and milk

blare (blar), blow harshly

blest (blast), hard wind; loud, long sound

blazing in the sky, showing bright against the sky

Blefuscu (ble-fus'ku)

blended ranks (blend'ed), mixed lines

blighted (blit'ed), withered

blithe (blith), happy; joyous

blossoming ground, earth covered with flowers

blue day, day when the sky is clear

blur in the eye, tear

boar (bor), wild hog

bonny (bon'ì), gay

booming (boom'ing), hollow-sounding

boon (boon), favor

borne their part (born), done their share

born to rule the storm, naturally able to do anything

bosom (booz'um), front part

boundary (boun'da-ri), marking a division; separating

bound boy, boy hired out to work by the year for his board and a small
wage

bound by a spell, charmed so that I could not move

bound'less space, the endless extent of the regions of the air

bound to him, made them love him

bounties (boun'tiz), generous gifts

bountiful traveler (boun'ti-foõl trav'el-er) generous traveler

Bowdoin (bo'd'n)

bowers (bou'erz), lovely rooms

bowl'ders (bol'derz), large stones

brake (brayk), valley enclosed by hills

braves, Indian men ready to fight

brawny (bra'ni), strong

breakers (brayk'erz), big waves striking the shore

break my fast, eat my meal

breathed a song, sang a song softly

breeches (brich'ez), short trousers

bridled (bri'd'ld), put the headpiece on

brig (brig), sailing ship with two masts

brightened as he sped (brit'nd), grew brighter as he mounted up into
the sky

brightest aspect (as'pekt), look that is most attractive

brin'dled (brin'd'ld), having dark streaks or spots on a gray or
yellowish brown ground; streaked

bring the hunting homeward, carry home what I shoot

broadfaced sun, round, cheerful sun

brocades (bro-kadz'), heavy silk woven with a raised figure or flower

brooding (brood'ing), thinking sadly

broom, a shrub with yellow flowers

brought to bale (bal), made trouble for

buffet (buf'et), slap

bulge (bulj), place bent in

bullies (bool'iz), teases

bulwark (bool'wark), protection; defense

bunting (bun'ting), cloth for flags

buoy (boi) float

burial (ber'i-al), act of placing in a grave

burnished (bur'nisht), shining

Bussorah (bus'o-ra)

by dint of great quickness (dint), by acting very fast

by way of satisfying (sat'is-fi'ing), in order to quiet the prickings
of


calamity (ka-lam'i-ti), misfortune

calculate (kal'ku-lat), figure up

Caliph (ka'lif), an Eastern title

calked (kalkt), stopped up

calls but the warders (wor'derz), only calls the watchmen

calm (käm), a period of quiet

came into the knowledge of, was told

came into the world, took part in the business, political, social; etc.,
activities of the world

canoe with pinions (ka-noo'; pin'yunz), sailboat

capital crime (kap'i-tal), a sin so bad that it is punished by death

care is sowing, worry and work are making grow

carnage (kar'naj), killing

caroling (kar'ul-ing), singing

carriages (kar'ij-ez), carts

Casabianca (ka'za-byan'ka)

cast yourself free, unroll

cataract's laughter (kat'a-rakts laf'ter), laughing sound made by
water falling from a height

catches the gleam, reflects the light

cathedral (ka-the'dral), large church

caution (kau'shun); carefulness

ceased their calling (sest), stopped singing because they have migrated

ceremony (ser'e-mo-nì), formal act

chafe (chaf) rub, trying to get through

chagrin (sha-grin'), annoyance

chalcedony (ka1-sed'o-ni), a beautiful, very hard stone

changeful April (chanj'fool), April has sudden changes of weather

channel (chan'el), bed of the stream

charger (char'jer), fine horse

charm, something with magic power

chastened (chas'nd), with a softer light

Cheemaun (che-mon')

cheering power of spring, how spring makes one glad

cherished (cher'isht), lovingly cared for

cherished possessions (cher'isht po-zesh'unz), dearest things he had

Chibiabos (chib-i-a'bos)

chieftain (chef'tin), one, who gave orders

chimney (chim'ni)

chore (chor), light task

christening (kris'n-ing), naming

ciphering (si'fér-ing), working examples

curcuit (sur'kit), round-about trip

circumference (ser-kum'fer-ens), distance around the edge of a circle

clamber (klam'bér), climb

clapboard (klap'bord), narrow board

clatter, rattling noise

clearings, ground where the trees have been cut

cleft the bark asunder (a-sun'der), split the bark

clogging (klog'ing), hindering

close couching (kouch'ing), crouching so as to be hidden

close the seams together, make the cracks tight

cloud-rack of a tempest, flying, broken clouds after a storm

coffers (kof'ers), treasure chests

Cogia Houssam (ko'gya hoo'sam)

collected (ko-lekt'ed), thoughtful

collected her thoughts (ko-lekt'ed), thought quickly

combine (kom-bin'), form themselves

come what may, no matter what happens

Commander of the Faithful (ko-man'der; fath'foõl), leader of those
true to the Mohammedan religion.  The title is given to the Caliphs

commanding lookout (ko-mand'ing look'out'), place from which the
surrounding neighborhood can be seen

commission (ko-mish'un), thing to be done

comparatively a new affair (kom-par'a-tiv-li; a-far'), a world that
had been made only a short time

composure (kom-po'zhur), calmness

comrades (kom'radz), mates

concealed (kon-seld'), hidden

confident mood (kon'fi-dent mood), feeling sure I could do it

confounded with astonishment (kon-found'ed; as-ton'ish-ment), so
surprised that they could not think

confused (kon-fuzd'), bothered

conjoined of them all (kon-joind'), made of all together

connected with himself (ko-nekt'ed), have reference to him

conscious (kon'shus), aware

consequence (kon'se-kwens), result

consideration (kon-sid'er-a'shun), reason constant (kon'stant), regular

constellation (kon'ste-la'shun), a group of stars

constituting (kon'sti-tut'ing), making up

consul (kon'sul), one who lives in a foreign country to look after the
business interests of his own country there

contemptible (kon-temp'ti-b'1), mean

contracts (kon-trakts'), makes

contrivance (kon-triv'ans), device

contrived (kon-trivd'), made

contrive to bury (kon-triv'; ber'i), manage to bury

conveyed (kon-vad'), given over

coppers (kop'erz), pennies

cord, string of the bow

cornice (kor'nis), high molding around the walls

corporeal sensations (kor-po're-al sen-sa'shunz), coarse pleasures

corpse (korps), dead body

corselet (kors'1et), armor for the body

council of war (koun'sil), meeting to make plans

counsels (koun'selz), advice

count all your boasts, even though you present your many charms

count like misers (mi'zerz), count as lovingly as do misers their money

county town, town where the business of the county (holding court,
paying taxes, etc.), is carried on

coursers (kor'serz), swift horses; here reindeer

courteous (kur'te-us), polite

court favor (kort fa'ver), good will of the ruler or other high
personage

courtiers (kort'yerz), those in attendance at the court of a ruler

cover (kuv'er), underbrush large enough to hide behind

cowering (kou'er-ing), hovering

creation (kre-a'shun), the world

crestfallen (krest'fol'n), cast down

cresting the billows (krest'ing; bi1'oz), adorning the top of the waves

crevice (krev'is), crack

crew of gypsies, band of ragamuffins

cross-brace, the piece of wood between the plow handles

crown of his desire, thing he wanted most

cruel mortification (kroo'el mor'ti-fi-ka'shun), very great annoyance

cruise (krooz), trip in a boat

cunning (kun'ing), tricky

cunningly made, skillfully made

cupboard (kub'erd), a closet for dishes

curmudgeon (kur-muj'un), miser

curtsy (kurt'si), bow

cymbals (sim'balz), pair of brass half globes clashed together to
produce a ringing sound


Dacotahs (da-ko'taz), Sioux (Soo)

Daedalus of yore (ded'a-lus) Daedalus of olden time.  The story is
that he escaped from prison by flying with wings he had made

dames, married women

Darius (da-ri'us)

daunted (dant'ed), frightened

dawn, daybreak

daybeds, resting places in daytime

deathless fame (deth'les), lasting glory

deck her bosom (booz'um), trim the front of the canoe

deems (demz), thinks

deer-skin dressed and whitened, skins of deer, which had been cleaned,
smoothed, and bleached

defile (de-fi1'), narrow pass

defunct tenant (de-funkt' ten'ant), man who formerly lived there but
is dead

dejected (de-jekt'ed), downhearted

delicate crafts employ (del'i-kat), use your skill in cooking

dell, small valley

deposited (de-poz'it-ed), put away

derision (de-rizh'un), mockery

desert (dez'ert), uninhabited by man

design (de-zin'), plan

desolation (des'o-la'shun), ruin

despair (de-spair'), hopelessness

desperate (des'per-at), hopeless

dessert (de-zurt'), fruit, pastry, etc., served at the close of a meal

destined to be let loose (des'tind), fated to be free

diamond (di'a-mund), precious stone

diminished (di-min'isht); made less

diminutive (di-min'u-tiv), tiny

directly (di-rekt'li), at once

disaster (diz-as'ter), great trouble

discloses (dis-kloz'ez), lets be seen

discover (dis-kuv'er), find out

dismounted (dis-moun'ted), threw down off its mountings

disputed (dis-put'id), argued; talked each against the others

disquietude (dis-kwi'e-tud), uneasiness

dissuading (di-swad'ing), advising away from

distant days that shall be, time to come but still far-off

diversified (di-vur'si-fid), made to have a look of variety

docile (dos'il), gentle

down of a thistle (this'l), lightest thing you can think of

down timber (tim'ber), fallen trees

dowry (dou'ri), gift of a man to his bride

draft (draft), one drink

dread silence reposes (dred si'lens re-poz'ez), sleeps quietly, so we
fear it

dreamy recollection (rek'o'lek'shun), faint memory

drink your health, wish you good health when beginning to drink,
usually at a meal

driven (driv'en), blown before the wind

droll (drol), laughable

drooping (droop'ing), with hanging heads

droop o'er the sod, hang over a grave

drought (drout), lack of rain

drowned (dround)

dry and dumb (dum), dried up and still because there is no water to
ripple

ducat (duk'at), old gold coin ($2.28)

dungeon (dun'jun), underground prison

Duquesne (doo-kan')

dusk'y pods (dus'ki), dark-colored seed vessels

duty holds him fast (du'ti), he knows he ought to stay


each in its turn the sway, one after the other ruled

eager hand (e'ger), hand that could hardly wait

earth-bound ties, roots which hold it in the ground

ear'th'en (ur'th'n), earthenware

earth was young, world had not long existed

Eastern lands, Asia and Africa

eaves (evz), edges of the roof which overhang the walls slightly

echo (ßk'õ), say over again

echoing corridor (ek'o-ing kor'i-dor), long, empty hall in which they
could hear their own footsteps

ell (el), forty-five inches

enchantment (en-chant'ment), magic

en-circled (en-sur'kl'd), wound around

en-counter (en-koun'ter), meeting

engines (en'jinz), implements

enterprise (en'ter-priz), undertaking; willingness to try different
things

epidemic (ep'i-dem'ik), a disease which one person takes from another

Epimetheus (ep'i-me'thus)

equipage (ek'wi-paj), horses and carriage

ere (ar), before

esteem (Ls-tém'), good opinion

evaporated (e-vap'o-rat-ed), passed away from me

ever-officious Tonish (o-fish'us ton'ish), Tonish, who was always
doing too much

every part has a voice (ev'er-i), each stripe and star means something

evident intention (ev'i-dent in-ten'shun), plain purpose

Ewayea (e-wa-ya'), a lullaby

exaggerations (eg-zaj'er-a'shunz), overstatements

excess (ek-ses'), too much

exile (ek'sil), one away from home

explore (eks-plor'), examine thoroughly

expound (eks-pound'), explain

express consent (eks-pres' kon-sent'),

especial permission being given

extending themselves (eks-tend'ing), spreading out so as to be at a
distance from each other

extinguish (eks-ting'gwish), put out

extraordinary (eks-tror'di-na-ri), surprising; unusual

exulted (eg-zult'ed), was glad

exulting, glean (eg-zult'ing glen), rejoicing, harvest

eyeglass of dew (i'glas'; du), a dew-drop


fading, losing the original color

fail of the fruits, have not the fruits

faint shadow of a trouble, only a hint of unhappiness

fair voyage (voi'aj), trip without severe storms or accidents

fallow (fa1'o), pale yellow

Falls of Minnehaha (min'e-ha'ha), a waterfall near Minneapolis

false estimates (fols es'ti-mats), wrong judgment

faltering (fol'ter-ing), stopping

fame, being known everywhere

fame so becoming to you (be-kum'ing), glory that suits you so well

famous roebuck (ro'buk), fine, big deer

fantastic forms (fan-tas'tik), strange shapes

fashioned (fash'und), shaped; made

fashioned flutes (fash'und), made pipes from which he blew music

fast in my fortress (for'tres), held firmly by my love.

fatal (fa'tal), destructive

fatigue (fa-teg'), weariness

favorable gale (fa'ver-a-b'l gal), wind blowing in the direction he
wished to sail

feasting his eyes, enjoying looking at

features and tokens (fe'turz; to'k'nz), parts of the face, and
expression

feeling but one heart-beat, all having the same feelings and wishes

feet unwilling, moving slowly without interest

fenlands (fen'landz'), swamps

fervently (fur'vent-li), warmly

feuds (few-dz), quarrels

fevered mart (fev'erd mart), market place full of excitement

fib'rous (fi'brus), made of fibers; strong

filled the night, made it all light

fissure (fish'ur), narrow crack

fitfully blows (fit'fool-li), blows and then stops

fit to be made a tool of, suitable to be deceived by flattery to do
the work of others

flags, long, narrow leaves of a plant

flanking parties, riders who were going to stand at the sides

flaunt (flant), make a great showing of

flaunting (flant'ing), waving

flaunting nigh (falnt'ing al), making a great show near them

flecked with leafy light, spotted with sunlight shining through the
trees

fleck its lonely spread (flek), show as a dark spot against the great
stretch of grass

flesh creeps, shudder with horror

flexibility (flek'si-bil'i-ti), ability to be bent

flight of song, where a song goes

flitting (flit'ing), flying about

flow in music, glide along so as to make pleasant sounds

flow'ry dells, little valleys with flowers in them

flutter (flut'er), are in motion

foliage (fo'li-aj), leafy plants

folly laughs to scorn (fol'i lafs to skorn), one who is foolish makes
fun of

fond, loving

forbear (for-bear'), keep from

forbear thy stroke (for-bear'), do not chop it down

forbidding further passage (for-bid'ing fur'ther pas'aj), keeping them
from going on

forbore (for-bor'), held back

ford, a shallow place where the soldier could cross without a bridge

forefather (for'fath'er), ancestor

forehead (for'ed), upper part of the face

forest-fighters (for-est-fit'erz), men used to fighting among trees

forest's life was in it, it was made from the trees and seemed alive
like them

forever and a day, for all time

for-lore' (for-lorn'), poor and lonely

former state, condition it had been in

formidable (for'mi-da-b'l), dreadful

fortnight (fort'nit), two weeks

foul footsteps pollution (po-1u'shun), dishonor of the country, caused
by an enemy being in it

fowling piece, gun for shooting birds

fragments (frag'ments), scraps

fragrant (fra'grant), sweet-smelling frame of mind, feeling this way

franchise of this good people (fran'chiz), vote of the men of this
colony

freight'ing (fra'ting), burden

freight it with (frat), load the boat with

frenzy (fren'zi), joyous madness

frequented (fre-kwent'ed), visited

fretted, tired; teased

frigate (frig'at), light, sailing warship fringed with trees, with a
thin line of trees along it

frol'ic (frol'ik), play

frolic chase, game of running after each other

frosted (frost'ed), frostbitten, and, as a result, loosened

frothy (froth'i), having bubbles

frowning pine forest (froun'ing pin for'est), dark evergreen forest

fugitives (fu'ji-tivz), horses which were trying to escape

full glory reflected (re-flekt'ed), with all its colors showing

full of invention (in-ven'shun), good at thinking up plans

furrows (fur'oz), shallow trenches made by the plow

furze (furz), an evergreen shrub with yellow flowers


gainsaid (gan'sed'), changed

gallantly (gal'ant-li), bravely

gallantly streaming (gal'ant-li strem'ing), bravely flying

gaunt (glint), thin from, hunger

gauze (goz), thin, transparent stuff

gave me a good character (kar'ak- said I was a reliable man

gave myself up for lost, stopped having any hope of being saved

genial (je'ni-al), favorable to growth

genial hour (je'ni-al), pleasant spring time

genius (jen'yus), a person who can do more or better than ordinary
people

Genius (jen'yus), a powerful spirit

gentian (jen'shan), a beautiful flowering plant, usually blue

gesture (jes'tur), motion

ghastly spectacle (gast'li spec'ta- horrible sight

gigantic (ji-gan'tik), very large

gilt, gold-plated metal

gimlet (gim'let), tool which bores small holes as it is turned

Gitche Gum'ee (gi'che OW), Lake Superior

gitche Manito (gi'che man'i-to), Great Spirit

give back the cry, answer

give me thought for thought, tell me his ideas and listen to mine

glade (glad), an open, grassy space in a wood

gladness breathes, joy seems to come

gleaming (glem'ing), light

glean, gather

glens, little valleys

dimmer (glim'er), gleam

glimmering o'er (glim'er-ing), shining brightly over corn and people

glittering (glit'er-ing), shining

glorified the hill (glo'ri-fid), sent beautiful rays of light upon the
hill

glory fell chastened (chas'nd), his light at the height of its
brightness cast but a soft light

glossy (glos'i), shining

gold'en ears before (gol'd'n), yellow ears of corn taken from their
husks and piled in front of the huskers

goodly root (good'li root), the much prized potato

gophers (go'ferz), ground-squirrels

gorgeous (gor'jus), magnificent; beautiful

gossip of swallows, bird-notes that sound like chatter

go the entire round, make the furrow around the field

Governer (guv'er-ner), the chief man of the colony

gracious-ly (gra'shus-li), with kind courtesy

Granada (gra-na'da)

granaried harvest (gran'a-rid), grain and vegetables stored for the
winter

gratifying his utmost wishes (grat'i-fy-ing), giving him anything he
might wish for

grave (grav), serious-looking

gray of the morning, faint light before the sun is up

greatest disquietude (dis-kwe'e-tood), worst trouble

Great Spirit, God

grievously (grev'us-li), painfully

grim, stern; unyielding

grimace (gri-mas'), made-up face

griping landlord (grip'ing), stingy man who rents houses for high rent

grope (grop), feel without seeing

grow into tangles (tang'g'lz), grow wild as in the woods or fields

guard thy repose (gard; re-poz'), protect you while you sleep

guidance (gid'ans) showing him the right course to take

guided of my counsel (gid'ed; koun'-sul), take my advice

guiding lines (gid'ing), reins by which horses are driven

guileless (gil'les), pure in heart

guinea (gin'i), English coin ($5.11)

gullies (gul'iz), small valleys dug out by water

gushing (gush'ing), freely flowing


habitable (hab'it-a-b'l), fit to live in

had occasion to go out (o-ka'zhun), needed to go somewhere in the town

hailed his coming, called out gladly when they saw him

half-faced camp, shack with three walls and one open side

half-section of unfenced sod, 320 acres of unbroken ground with no
fence

hallooed (ha-lood'), shouted halloo

hallow us there (ha1'o), give us a feeling at home as of sacred things

hamlet without name (ham'let), few houses near together, but not
called a town

hampers (ham'perz), woven baskets

handiwork (han'di-wurk'), what I make

handkerchiefs (hang'ker-chifs)

hand of art, tasteful plan

happily arranged, growing in pretty clumps

hardy gift (har'di), fruit of the sturdy plant which is given by the
earth

harrowing additions (har'o-ing a-dish'unz), things added that are
painful to hear

hart (hart), male red deer Harunal-Rashid' (ha-roon'-ar-ra-shed'),
Caliph of Bagdad

harvest (har'vest), dry seeds

has an ax to grind, wants someone to do some hard work without pay

hate is shadow, feelings of dislike darken everything

haughty (ho'ti), proud

haunches (hanch'ez), hind legs

haunt (hint), come back again and again

haunts (hants), places where one loves to go often

haunts of Nature (na'tur), out-of-doors

havoc of war (hav'ok), ruin caused by fighting

hawk-eyed eagerness (hok-id e'ger-nes), watching impatiently and with
the sharpness of a hawk

hearken (har'ken), listen

hearthrug (harth'rug), rug in front of the fireplace

heart outran his footsteps, wanted to be there before he was

hearts-ease, comfort in trouble

hearts right hand of friendship, a greeting that shows we feel friendly

heartstrings, love

heath (heth), land covered with heather, which has a purple blossom

heav'n-rescued land (hev'n-res'kud), country saved by God

heavy-rolling flight, running with a rocking movement from side to side

heir (ar), one who takes the property of another after he is through
with it

helm (helm), helmet, a protection for the head; the machinery that
steers the ship

he must be cold, he lacks feeling

herb'age (ur'baj), grass and other plants eaten by grazing animals

here, on earth

heroic blood (he-ro'ik), descended from brave men

hewed (hud), chopped

Hiawatha (hi-a-wath'a)

hidden silk has spun (hid'n), threads of down in the pod that resemble
those which the silkworm spins

hideous (hid'e-us), horrible-looking

hie (hi), go; take

high relief (re-lef') carved so that the features stood up from the box

hireling (hir'ling), paid soldier

his proper sphere (prop'er sfer), his own place

his reverence (rev'er-ens), the minister

hither (hith'er), here

hoard (hord), supply of provisions

hoary (hor'i), old and gray

hold (hold), lower part of a ship, where cargo is stored

hollows that rustle between' (hol'oz; rus'l be-twen'), low, quiet
places between large, noisily-roiling waves

home-brew served for wine, home-made drinks were used instead of wine

homely old adage (hom'li; ad'aj), common saying

hoodwinked, blindfolded

horror (hor'er), great fear

horror of my situation (hor'er; sit'u-a'shun), great danger of the
place I was in

horseplay, rude play or jokes

host (host), great number

hotly pressed, closely followed

hovel (hov'r1), small, poor house

hovered (hub'erd), fluttered

huddled (hud'ld), crowded

hue (hu), color

hues of summer's rainbow (huz), colors in the rainbow in summer

human (hu'man), exactly like man

Humber (hum'ber), a river in northeastern England

humble (hum'b'l), lowly; not proud

humor (hu'mer), temper

humor better suited to his own (hu'-mer), more like his

hurrah (hoo-ra'), a word used as a shout of joy

hurricane (hur'i-kan), great storm

hush of woods, quiet of the forest


Iagoo (e-a'goo)

Icarus (ik'a-rus), the son of Daedalus--which *see*

ideas (i-de'az) thoughts

idle, golden freighting (fra'ting), burden of golden-colored autumn
leaves

if to windward, if the hunter is in the direction from which the wind
blows

imaginable (i-maj'i-na-b'l), I could think of; possible

immortal in their childhood (i-mor'-tal), so placed that they would
never grow any older

Imperial (im-pe'ri-al), royal

imperious (im-pe'ri-us), demanding much

implement (im'ple-ment), tool

imply a share of reason (im-pli'; re'-z'n), suggest some power to think

impression continuing (im-presh'-un kon-tin'u-ing), the effect
remaining

inability (in-a-bil'i-ti), that you cannot

incalculable (in-kal'ku-la-b'l), cannot be counted

incapable (in-ka'pa-b'l), not able

incline (in-klin'), slope

in darker fortunes tried (for'tunz), they had when they were poor

indifference (in-dif'er-ens), not caring

indigestible (in'di-jes'ti-b'l), impossible to digest

indignation (in'dig-na'shun), anger against what is wrong

induce (in-dus'), cause

indulge it to the utmost (in-dulj'; ut'most), be as cross as be could

infinite (in'fi-nit), everlasting

infinitely (in'fi-nit-li), much more

ingenious (in-jan'yús), clever

inhaling (in-hal'ing), smelling

inheritance (in-har'i-tans), a gift from our ancestors

initial mound (in-ish'al), first furrow around the field

inquíries (in-kwir'iz), questioning

in such wise, so fiercely

intelligent (in-tel'i-jent), clever

intent upon (in-tent'), interested in

interminable forests (in-tur'mi-na-b'l), woods that seemed endless

interrupt his lay (in'te-rupt'), stop his song

in the largest sense, in the broadest meaning

intimate association (in'ti-mat a-so'si-a'shun), close companionship

intolerable (in-tol'er-a-b'l), unbearable

intruder (in-troo'der), an uninvited guest

invention (in-ven'shun), schemes

Islands of the Blessed (i'landz; bles'-ed), in mythology, islands
where people lived happily, after death

isles (ilz), islands


jasper (jas'per), a dark, hard stone

jaunty (jan'ti), gay and easy

jet, black

jib (jib), swing around

joined to such folly (fol'i), a partner in such foolishness

joyance (joi'ans), happiness

judgment (juj'ment), idea; opinion

Justiciar (jus-tish'i-ar), chief judge

justs/jousts (justs), mock fights between knights on horseback


Kagh (kag), the hedgehog

keel (kel), bottom of a ship

keep, support

kept, made to go on

khan (kan), an unfurnished building for the use of traveling traders

King's Council (koun'sil), men who met with the King to advise him

kissed into green (kist), changed to green when touched by the sun's
rays

knight (nit), in Great Britain, a man with the title Sir

knights of old (nits), men of olden times who went about doing brave
deeds

knoll (nol), a little round hill

knows full well, knows very well

Kwansind (ksa'sind)


lady, the wife of a knight

lamentable (lam'ín-táa-b'l), distressed

lamentable tone, sad voice

languidly (lang'gwid-li), carelessly

lank (lank), thin

lapsed (lapst), slipped

larch (larch), tree which looks like an evergreen but sheds its needles

lariat (lar'i-at), long rope with running noose

laudable (lod'a-b'l), praiseworthy

laughing (laf'ing)

launch (lanch), get it afloat

lavish horn (lav'ish), overflowing horn; from the mythological story
of the horn that could become filled with whatever its possessor
desired

lea (le), ground covered with grass

league (lee-g), about three miles

learned (lur'ned), highly educated

learning (lurn'ing), knowledge

leave unmoved (un-moovd'), unharmed

lee of the land, shelter of the shore

legends (lef'endz), old stories only partly true

lei'sure (le'zhur), time to do what he wished

levee (lev-e'), reception given by a ruler or his representative

liege (lej), having the right to claim service

light and boon, bright and pleasant

lightsome (lit'sum), cheery

life a Turk, as people do in Turkey

Lilliput (lil'i-put)

Lilliputians (lil'i-pu'shanz)

limes (limz), fruit like lemons, but smaller and more sour

linden (lin'den), made from basswood

listless (list'les), caring about nothing

livelihood (liv'li-hood), living

livelong (liv'long'), whole

loam (lam), earth

lone (lon), lonely

lone post of death, place where he must die alone

looked westerly (wes'ter-li), turned toward the west, the direction in
which the wind was blowing before it stopped

loosed (loost), set free

lost their labor, got no good from the work they had done

lovely tokens (luv'li to'k'nz), beautiful signs

lower (lo-ur), darken

lowly thatched cottage, small one-story house with roof of straw

lozenge (loz'enj), a tablet of medicine

lust, strong wish

luster of midday (lus'ter; mid'da), light bright as at noon

lustrous (lus'trus), radiant

lusty rogue (lus'ti rog), lively little rascal


magic arts (maj'ik), power over spirits

magician (ma-jish'an), one who uses magic arts

magic his singing (maj'ik), charming way he sang

magnificence (mag'nif'i-sens), grandeur

Maharaja (ma-ha-ra'ja), title of the principal Hindu chief

Mahngotaysee (man-go'ta'se), brave

maintain (man-tan'), keep

make amends to the human race (a-mendz'), make up to people everywhere

make a stand, hold out against; fight

man-builded today, built by people now

maneuver (ma-noo'var), planned movement of a large number

man of might, strong, important man

man's dominion (do-min'yun), for the use of people

mansion (man'shun), large and handsome residence

many a happy return, many more

mariners (mar'i-nerz), sailors

marred (mard), spoiled

marred the whole scene (mard) spoiled the effect planned

marvel (mar'vel), wonderful thing

marveled (mar'veld), wondered

Massasoit (mas'a-soit') match, able to win against

matchless, having no equal

matrons (ma'trunz), married women

mayhap, maybe

maze (maz), confusing number of paths which cross

meads (medz), meadows

measures (mezh'urz), melodies

meditated (med'i-tat'ed), thought

meeting-house, church

melancholy (mel'an-kol-i), sad

melted them to pity, softened their feelings so they were filled with
gentle thoughts

merchandise (mur'chan-diz), goods

merchant-man (mur'chant-man), a trading vessel

merest (mer'est), simplest

merry (mer'i), joyous

metallic (me-tal'ik), of metal

metal true, really good iron

methinks (me-thinks'), it seems to me

Midas (mi'das)

milder glory shone (mil'der), a softer and paler glow cast its light

mildew (mil'du), mold; rust

mingled into one (ming'g'ld), so united that one could not be
distinguished from the other

miniature (min'i-a-tur), very small

Minnehaha (min'e-ha'ha)

Minnewawa (min'e-wa'wa)

mirthful to excess (murth'fool; ek-ses'), too gay

mischievious (mis'chi-vus), fun-loving

misdoings (mis-doo'ingz), wrong acts

mission (mish'un), errand

mists of the deep, fog over the water

moccasins of magic (mok'a-sinz), charmed shoes

moderation (mod'er-a'shun), fair way

modest bell, bell-shaped flower that hangs over

molder in dust away (mol'der), lose their form and become earth again

molested (mo-lest'ed), troubled

molten (mol't'n), melted

monarch (mon'ark), ruler

Monongahela (mo-non'ga-he'la), river in Pennsylvania

Monsieur (me-syur'), French for Mr.

moor sandy, wet ground

more enterprise (en'ter-priz), willingness to try to do things

Morgiana (mor'gi-a'na)

mortal (mor'tal), human

mortal enemy (mor'tal en'e-me), man who hates you so much he would
like to kill you

mortal fear, greatest fear

mortal-ly (mor'tal-i), so as to cause death

mosques (mosks), places of worship in Mohammedan countries

moss (mos), a tiny grasslike plant, very soft

moss-green trees, trees with trunks covered by green moss

mount to the sky, fly out of sight

mow (mo; here, mo for rime)

much amiss (a-mis'), very wrong

much contriving (con-triv'ing), making great plans

much frequented (fre-kwent'ed), often visited

much inclined (in-klind'), having a great liking for

Mudwayaushka (mud'way-oush'ka)

multiply his heaps, make his piles many times greater

mummies (mum'iz), dead bodies which have been preserved in a dried
state; here, persons whose minds are dry and not open to new ideas

Munchausen (mun-cho'zen), a teller of extravagant tales

Musketaquid (mus-ket'a-kwid)

Muskoday (musk'o-day)

mute (m-yut), voiceless; quiet

muttering, saying in a low tone

muzzle (muz'l), nose and,mouth

my design (de-zin'), my plan

mysterious (mis-te'ri-us), puzzling

mystic splendors (mis'tik splen'-derz), magic brightness


naked sword (nay'kd sord), sword without a sheath

narrow bound, thin wall keeping them out

national constellation (nash'un-al kon'ste-la'shun), group of stars
belonging to the nation

native language (na'tiv lang'gwaj), way that is natural to them

natural death (nat'u-ral), died without being killed

naught (not), nothing

navigate the azure (nav'i-gay-t; az'-ur), sail through the sky

Nawadaha (na'wa-da'ha)

near his cot, not far from his cottage

neither (ne'ther)

neither willing nor reluctant (ne'-ther re-luk'tant), not showing
whether she wanted to go or stay

nephew (nef'u), the son of a brother or sister

nicest goldsmith, most skillful worker in gold

niche (nich), small opening

nimble (nim'b'l), quick to do things

noble (no'b'l), coin worth about $1.60; man of high rank

Nokomis (no-ko'mis)

nostrils (nos'trilz), the openings in the nose for breathing

note if harm were near, to see if there were any danger round about


obliterated (ob-lit'er-at'ed), taken away

obscure (ob-skur'), dark

obscured their passage (ob-skurd'; pas'aj), hid their line of movement

observation (ob'zer-vay'shun), careful notice

obstacle (ob'sta-k'l), something in the way

obtained a foothold (ob-tand'), got a start

occupied with her grief (ok'u-pi-d), full of sorrow

o'cean's breast (o'shanz brest), calm surface of the sea

O drug, useless thing

o'er-shadowed Thanksgiving Day (or-shad'od), brought up sad thoughts
on the holiday

o'er the combers (or; kom'erz), over the long rolling waves

of all degrees, of all kinds, large and small

of a serious nature (se'ri-us na'tur), of a dangerous kind

officially recognized (o-fish'al-i rek'og-nizd), known and stated

ointment (oint'ment), precious salve

Ojibways (o-jib'waz), a tribe that lived just south of Lake Superior

ooze and tangle (ooz), mud and roots

oozing outward (ooz'ing), flowing from the tree

Opechee (o-pech'e)

open-handedness, generosity

operations of the enemy (op'er-shunz; en'e-mi), doings of those
fighting against us

oppression lifts its head (o-presh'-shun), people are treated unjustly

original (o-rij'i-nal), first

outlaw', one who breaks the laws and flees to escape punishment

overcame this handicap (han'di-kap), got over this disadvantage

Owaissa (o-was'a)


packet (pak'et), bundle

pack train, a number of animals carrying the supplies of the party

pagans (pa'ganz), not Christians

painted pulpit (pool'pit), green and purple over-arching leaf of the
jack-in-the-pulpit flower

painted tribes of light, gay, bright flowers of spring

painted white, white-skinned, like an Indian's face covered with paint

pale skies, gray skies of early spring

palfreys (pol'friz), saddle-horses

palisades pine-trees (pa1'i-say-dz'), tall pines, standing like a wall
on each bank

palpitated (pal'pi-tat'ed), shook

Pandora (pan-do'ra)

parched (parcht), dry

parent (par'ent), the giver of life

partake (par-tak') share

particularly (par-tik'u-lar'li), very

partners (part'nerz), companions

past will no longer be the past (past), things that happened long ago
will seem as real as though going on now

pathos (pa'thos), sad sweetness

patient weathercocks (pa' shent we'-ther-koks), patient, waiting for
the wind to blow

Pauwating (pa-wa'ting) St. Mary's river, joining Lakes Superior and
Huron

pay my court (kort), show my respect by visiting you

peace of mind, calm thoughts with nothing to disturb them

peasants (pez'ants), lowest class of people

peer (per) peep cautiously

pennon (pen'un), flag

performing these good offices (per-for'ing), doing these kind acts

perilous (per'i-lus), dangerous

periodical (pe'ri-od'i-kal), printed matter, in the form of a magazine,
published regularly (not daily)

perplexity (per-plek'si-ti), difficulty

persevered (pur'se-verd') persisted

perseveringly (pur'se-ver'ing-li), continually

personage (pur'sun-aj), creature

pest, disease which kills

pestered (pes'terd), annoyed

pettishly (pet'ish-li), crossly

pheasants (fez'antz), wild birds of delicious flavor

phoebe (fe'be), a kind of bird

phrase (fray-z), expression

physical and moral courage (fiz'i-kal; mor'al kur'aj), bravery of body
and mind

physique (íf-zék'), build and health

piece of cover (kuv'er), bit of underbrush large enough to hide behind

pierce like a shaft (pers; shaft), fly through like an arrow

pine-clad hills, hills covered with pine trees

pinion (pin'yun), wing

pitiable (pit'i-a-b'l), sad

place of deposit (de-poz'it), keeping place

plagued the realm (plagd; relm), made trouble in the country

plague the Abbot (plag), annoy the Abbot

plaiting (plat'ing), braiding

Plantagenets (plan-taj-e-nets), the English Kings from 1154 to 1485

plenty, enough of everything

pliant as a wand (pli'ant; wond), as easily moved as a willow twig is
bent

plow had violated (vi'o-lat-ed), had been turned up by the plow, and
thus spoiled for the small owners

plowshare' (plou'shar'), blade of the plow; part which turns up the
earth

plundered store (plun'derd), goods he had taken by force

Poet Laureate (lo're-at), poet chosen by the King to write on great
events of the nation

point to windward (wind'werd), turn in the direction from which the
wind came

poised it in the air (poizd), held it high

political bustles (po-lit'i-kal bus'-lz), activities of politics

pollution (po-lu'shun), soiling and making impure

pomp (pomp), show

ponder (pon'der), think

pondering much, thinking things over

ponderous (pon'der-us), heavy

Ponemah (po-ne'ma)

poniard (pon'yard), dagger

porcelain (por'se-lan), fine white ware

possessed authority (po-zest' o-thor'i-ti), knew how to control

power of prophecy (prof'e-si), ability to foretell events

practice decency (prak'tis de'sen-si), do the right thing every time

prattle (prat'l), child's talk

presence (prez'ens), being there

presently (prez'ent-li), soon

prevent (pre-vent'), keep from

Prideaux (pre-do')

pried into (prid), tried to pull apart

prig, one who thinks himself good

prime (pri-m), best

princely (prins'li), like a prince

proclaim (pro-klam'), show

profusion of flowers (pro-fu'zhun), great many flowers

projected (pro-jekt'ed), extended

proudly we hailed, looked at with pride and joy

province (prov'ins), one of the divisions of certain countries

prudence (proo'dens), wisdom; sense

psalm (salm), sacred song

publican (pub'li-kan), tax gatherer

pull fodder (fod'er), pull up cornstalks by the roots

pulp, wet mixture of which paper is made

pumpkin (pump'kin)

purpose (pur'pus), object; work

pursuit (pur-sut'), chase

put me in mind, suggested to me


quail (kway'-l), the bobwhite

quirk (kwurk), turn

quoit (kwoit), ring

quoth (kwoth), said


radiance (ra'di-ans), brilliance

radiant (ra'di-ant), beaming

raid (ray-d), attack made to get something

ramparts (ram'parts), protecting walls for defense

rangers (ran'jerz), men who live on the range or prairie

rapturous (rap'tur-us), very happy

rarities (rar'i-tiz), rare and precious things

ravenous (rav'n-us), very great

rayless disk of red, flat, burning circle, not seeming to throw off
any rays of light

reappeared (re'a-perd'), came in sight again

rear (rer), raise

rearing (rer'ing), standing on her hind legs

recalling (re-kol'ing), remembering

received in trust (re-sevd'), taken, to protect honorably

reckless (rek'les), careless

recognized (rek'og-nizd), saw

recoil (re-koil'), rebound

recovering himself (re-kuv'er-ing), coming back to his natural state
of mind

red-coats, British soldiers, so called because of their red uniforms

redeem them (re-dem'), buy them back

redoubled (re-dub'ld), repeated

reeds, large tall swamp grasses

reenforcing (re'en-fors'ing), covering again

reflected (re-flekt'ed), thought

regions of the morning (re'junz), place where the sun rises; the East

regular order (reg'-u-lar or'der), in straight lines, one behind the
other

related (re-lat'ed), told

relaxed (re-lakst'), loosened; let go

Reldresal (rel'dre-sal)

remnant (rem'nant), few that are left

remotest corner of Africa (re-mot'-est), part of Africa the farthest
away

render (ren'der), give back

renown (re-noun'), fame

repaired to her house (re-pard'), went to her house

repair the mischief (re-par'; mis'-chif), make up for the harm

repast (re-past'), feast

repelling (re-pel'ing), driving back

repentance (re-pen'tans), regret

resembles (re-zem'b'lz), is like

resin (rez'in), dried sap

resolutely (rez'o-lut-li), determinedly

resoled (re-zolvd'), with his mind firmly made up

resplendent (re-splend'ent), shining brightly

restore (re-stor'), put back

retired chamber (re-tird' cham'ber), room away from the main part of
the house

retreat (re-tret'), hiding place

revels (rev'els), wild enjoyment

reverberations (re-ver'ber-a'-shunz), echoes

reverence (rev'er-ens), great respect

richly decked (dekt), wearing beautiful and costly blankets and other
decorations

rich stuffs, costly cloth of different kinds

ridges, raised lines of ground

ridiculous (re-dik'u-lus), deserving to be laughed at

rills, little streams

ring of the same, sound of it

ripened charge (rip'end charj), precious object in its keeping, now
ready for husking

rippling (rip'ling), blowing in curves

rival for one hour (ri'val), equal at the time of greatest beauty

riveted (riv'et-ed), fastened by bending down the end

riveted his at-ten'tion (riv'et-ed; a-ten'shún), put all his thought

roam (rom), wander

robes of darkness, blue-black foliage clothing it

roc (rok), imaginary bird of great size

roguishly defied (ro'gish-li de-fid'), resisted in a joking way

Roha (ro'ha)

root (root), the potato

rosy morn (ro'zi morn), reddish tint of the sky at sunrise

round-tower of my heart, safest place for a prisoner

route (root), way

ruefully (roo'fool-i), sadly

rue the day (roo), regret what I had done that day

rugged (rug'ed), uneven

rugged vales be-stow' (rug'ed vay'lz be-sto'), rough valleys furnish

ruined (roo'ind), destroyed

ruminating (roo'mi-nat'ing), chewing their cuds

run over with joy, be wildly happy

rushes, coarse grasses

russet (rus'et), reddish brown or reddish gray


Sachem (sa'chem), Indian chief

sacrificing (sak'ri-fic'ing), giving up

sad sea wave, ocean seeming sad because you are sad

sage speeches (say'j), wise remarks

saluted the company (sa-lut'ed; kum'pa-ni), greeted those assembled

sandal-wood (san'dal-wood), a highly prized, fragrant Asiatic wood
from a tree of the same name

sank deep into my mind, made a lasting impression on me

sate (sat), old spelling of satin

satin burs (sat'in), prickly husks of chestnuts with their smooth,
soft lining

satisfy his mind (sat'is-fi), find out what he wanted to know

save, except

savory (sa'ver-i), pleasing to the smell

scaled the wall (skald), got over the wall, as soldiers climbed by
ladders over the walls of an old-time city

scars of all wars, marks left from injuries got in fighting

scope (skop), reach

scorched (skorcht), heated until burned

scoured the seas (skourd), hunted over the seas

scour for spoils (skour), hunt for dainty foods

scour'ing down the meadow (skour'ing; med'o), sweeping over the
grassland

sear (ser), withered

seaward glide (se'werd glid), flow toward the ocean

Sebowisha (seb'o-wish'a)

secure him against evil (se-kur'; a-genst' e'v'l), protect him from
harm

sedges (sej'ez), grasslike plants with tall heads of seeds

señor (se'nyor), Spanish for sir

sense of elation (e-la'shun), feeling of joy

sequin (se'kwin), a coin, no longer in use, worth about 82.25

serene of look and heart (se-ren'), with a calm face and mind

service liketh us, we like to serve

sesame (ses'a-me), a kind of grain grown in the East and used for food

severed (sev'erd), cut off

Severn (sev'ern), a river in southwestern England

shadow of an infinite bliss (in'fi-nit), hint of happiness that cannot
be measured

shanty, small, unfinished house

shaped them to a framework, bent and fastened them to form the
skeleton of the canoe

share, see plowshare

sheath (sheth), put into its case

sheaves (shevz), bundles of grain

sheer into the river, straight down into the water

shiftless (shift'les), poorly kept

shilling, coin worth $0.24

shining land of Wabun (wa'bun), bright light (Wabun is the East Wind)

shining shoulders, bare, wet shoulders glistening in the sun

shipping, passage on shipboard

shirk (shurk), one who tries to get out of work

shivering shock, force that breaks its timbers

shoal (shol), sandbar

shoot a main, have a match

shot his shining quills, cast off some of his smooth spines

shoulder your matchlocks, take your guns

shroud, rope of a ship

shuttle (shut'l), tool used in weaving

sieve (siv), a utensil for separating the coarse particles from the
fine

signify union (sig'ni-fi un'yun), mean joining

sincerity (sin-ser'ity), honesty

sinews (sin'uz), tough strips

singing pine trees, pines through which the wind blew with a pleasant
sound

singled out (sing'g'ld), chose

sire (sir), father

situation (sit'u-a'shun), state in which things were

skillet (skil'et), frying pan

skimming (skim'ing), flying so close as to brush the surface

skirted (skurt'ed), walked along the edge of; grew along the edge of

skyward cast (ski'werd), hung high

slab (slab), thick slice

slaughtered (slo'terd), killed for food

sledge (slej), a heavy hammer

sleep shall be broken, you will be awakened

sleight-of-mouth tricks (slit), mysterious disappearanoes

slow sloping to the night (slop'ing), sinking slowly in the West

sluices (sloos'ez), gates to hold back the water

smiling fields, patches of grain growing well

smirk (smurk), put-on smile

smite the ore (smit), hammer the iron into shape

smoldered (smol'derd), slowly burned

Soangetaha (son'ge-ta'ha)

soaring (sor'ing), floating in the air

sobered by his adventure (so'berd; ad-ven'tur), made wise by his
experience

softly pictured wood (soft'li pik'turd), beautifully colored foliage
showing up in soft tints

solace (soi'as), comfort

somber (som'ber), gloomy

soothe, comfort

sore of heart, weary and discouraged

sorry pass, sad state

sound of their shock, noise when they struck

sovereign (sov'er-in), ruler

spacious (spa'shus), large

spake with naked hearts, hid no secrets from each other

spare yards, extra poles used to support the sails

spars (sparz), masts

speaks sublimely (sub-lym'li), has a noble meaning

specter-like figure (spek'ter-lyk'), person looking like a ghost

spelled down, beat in spelling

sphere of gold (sfer), golden globe

spikes, large nails

spire, a slender rod, or tower, extend ins upward from the top of a
build ins; here, for the weathercock

spiritualizes (spir'it-u-al-iz-ez), purifies

spirit was gradually subdued (spir'it; grad'u-al-li sub-dud'), she was
tamed

splendor dazzles in vain (splen'der), bright show of glory does not
tempt

splendor wild (splen'der), light rising and falling

spoils of forest free, things that come from trees

sported, played

spray (spra), twig

sprites (sprits), fairies

square heaven of blue, blue part of the flag

stalwart (stol'wert), brave

stanch (stanch), faithful

stanched (stancht), checked the bleeding from

standing in for the shore, coming toward the land

stand you in yeoman's stead (yo' manz sted), be of help to you in your
adventures

star spangled, sprinkled with stars

state and person, country and the man himself

stately (stat'li), standing proudly

stature (stat'ur), height

stayed my walk, stopped me

stay surety (shoor'ti), be security

stern, the back part of a boat

steward (stu'erd), man in charge of the food

stick to your sphere (sfer), do the things you can do; don't try to do
those you can't

stiff, not to be bent or changed

stifled murmur (sti'f'ld mur'mur), a low sound not easily heard

stirred their souls to passion (pash'un), moved their deepest feelings

store, large amount

storm still brave, stand firm in a hard wind

stoutest, bravest

stout fellow, gay young man

Straits of Gibraltar (strats; ji-brol'tar), narrow waterway between
Spain and Africa

strength allied to goodness (a-lid'), bodily power added to virtues

strewn (stroon), covered

stricken (strik'en), frightened

strife comes with manhood, men have to fight

stroked in ripples (strokt; rip'lz), gently made into little folds

stubble (stub'l), short stalks left in the ground after grain has been
cut

studied the situation (stud'id; sit'u-a'shun), thought over the state
in which things were

sturdy (stur'di), strong; firm

sublimely (sub-lim'li), with great nobility and purity

succeeded to the gloom (suk-sed'ed; gloom), followed the cloudiness

such an old mustache (mus-tash'), so fierce a soldier

suitable to that character (sut'a-b'l; kar'ak-ter), such as dancers
wore

Sultan (sul'tan), title of the ruler in some Asiatic countries

summit of the Cedar (sum'it), top of the tree

summoned (sum'mund), called

sun benignant (be-nig'nant), kindly sun

sun is under the sea, sun has set

sunshine of sweet looks, brightness of expression

supple (sup'l), easily bent

supported the dog's chances (su-port'ed; chans'ez), said that the dog
would succeed

suppressed (su-prest'), kept down

surety (shoor'ti), security

surge's swell (surj'ez), waves of the rising sea

surpassed (sur-past'), did better than

swam (swim) sweeping westward, moving swiftly toward the west

sweetmeats, candied fruits

swell the merriment (mer'i-ment), make louder the sound of happy voices

swept down into a valley, sloped gradually to low land

swerve (swurv), go crooked

swoon (swoon), faint

symbol (sim'bol), sign

symbolizes (sim'bol-iz-ez), means


tamarack (tam'a-rak), tree that looks like an evergreen but sheds its
needles in winter

tang to the spirit (tang; spir'it), fancied taste

Taquamenaw (ta'kwa-me'no), river in Michigan

tarnished (tar'nisht), stained

taught wisdom from the past, having learned better things from what
had happened before

Tawasentha (ta'wa-sen'tha), name of a valley in New York

tawny (ta'ni), yellowish-brown

tax, a part of one's wealth given up by law to benefit the public

tedious (te'di-us), tiresome

terrace (ter'as), a raised level platform of earth

text, the subject of a talk

theater (the'a-ter), building in which plays are acted

their green resume (re-zum'), are again covered with grass

the night is behind us, night-time is almost here

therefore (thar'for), for that reason

thick zigzags (zig'zagz'), many paths running this way and that

thinned to a thread, grew so narrow she could barely be seen

thongs (thongz), narrow strips of leather

threshold (thresh'old), piece of timber under the door

thrilled (thrild), filled with joy

thunder halls (thun'der holz), far up, where the thunder dwells

thundering down the valley (thun'der-ing; val'i), running along level
ground with a noise like thunder

thus accoutered (a-koo'terd), dressed in this way

thus disposed (dis-pozd'), so arranged

thwarted the wily savage (thwort'ed; wi'li), fought against the tricks
of the Indians

tinge (tinj), color; tint

tinkered (tink'erd), worked without knowing just how

tiny (ti'ni), very small

tipped with flint, having points of flint, the hardest kind of stone

'tis meet, it is right

tittered (tit'erd), laughed mockingly

titter of winds, merry sound of the breeze

toil is the real play, work is more fun than playing

toil'some (toil'sum), hard

tolerable (tol'er-a-b'l), bearable

toll (tol), tax; money

took no toll (tol), did not rob them

took shipping, engaged passage on shipboard

took to his revels (rev'elz), went on with his wild play

tormentors (tor-men'toerz), flies which bit them

tortured by their lances (tor'turd), in great pain from the sharp bites

touchhole (tuch'hol'), the place where the powder was lighted

tour (toor), trip

tourneys (toor'niz), meetings where knights fought

toward (to'erd), in the direction of

towering steep (tou'er-ing), high slope

towers (tou'erz), high parts of the castle

tracker (trak'er), one who traces the path an animal has taken

trade winds, winds which always blow in the same direction

tradition (tra-dish'un), story handed down

traffic (traf'ik), business

train, those in a company

tranquil (tran'kwil), motionless because there was no wind

transparent (trans-par'ent), able to be seen through

transport (trans'port), great excitement

transport (trans-port'), to remove

traveling schoolmaster (trav'el-ing), teacher who went from one place
to another

treason (tre'z'n), attempt to injure the government

tribes of men might prosper, all nations might live in better ways

trickling (trik'ling), of water running in a small stream

trims, smooths neatly

triumph (tri'umf), victory

triumphant (tri-um'fant), glad of success

trophy (tro'fi), prize

troubled spirit (trub'ld spir'it), soul of the dead man which cannot
rest

tryst (tryst), meeting place

turban (tur'ban), headdress worn in Mohammedan countries, a cap with a
sash or scarf wound about it

turquoise (tur'koiz), a precious blue stone

turret (tur'et), a small tower

tusks (tusks), large, projecting teeth

twining (twyn'ing), creeping up and winding about

twinkle of its candle, little glow like that from a candle

twinkling, moment

tyrant would be lord (ti'rant), cruel master would rule everything


unaccustomed to vexations (un'a-kus'tumd; vek-sa'shunz), not used to
any sort of bothers

unanimously elected (u-nan'i-mus-li), given every vote

unapt (un-apt'), unlikely

unbounded freedom (un-bound'ed), state where they did as they liked

uncomfortable state of affairs (un-kom'fer-ta-b'l; a-farz'), hard way
of living

unconscious (un-kon'shus), feeling and knowing nothing

uneasiness (un-ez'i-nes), worry

unequal fight, ill-matched struggle

unfolded to your gaze, spread out before you

unhoused (un-houzd'), turned out of their homes

unknown, crowded nations, great masses of people of different races

unwittingly, by accident

upon their kind, against other men

useless (us'les), without having been made good use of

utmost (utmost), greatest

utter itself in words (ut'er), speak its meaning


vagrant (va'grant), idle wanderer

vague (vag), not clear

vague lisps (vag), talk that could not be understood

vales (valz), little valleys

valor (val'er), bravery

varied riches (va'rid), good foods of different kinds

vault (volt), walled-up space under- ground

vauntingly (vant'ing-li), boastingly

veered (verd), turned

venomous (ven'um-us), poisonous

verdant (vur'dant), green

vest that is bright, red breast

vexation (vek-sa'shun), anger

vexations (vek-sa'shunz), troubles

victuals (vit'lz), food

villain (vil'in), wicked man

virgin air (vur'jin), clear, fresh air of spring.

virtue of vested power (vur'tu), because of the office to which he had
been elected

vision (vizh'un), dream

visions of sugarplums (vizh'unz), dreams of candy

vizier (vi-zer'), a high state officer in Mohammedan countries

voluntarily (voi'un-ta-ri-li), willingly


Wabasso (wa-bas'o)

Wabun (wa'bun), East wind

Wahwahtaysee (wa'wa-ta'se)

wain (wan), wagon

waistcoat (wast'kot), vest

walks of life, things they try to do

wand (wand), slender stick

wanders piping through the village, walks around the town, playing
sweet music

wanted nothing, had everything he wanted

warring (wor'ing), fighting

warrior (wor'yer), fighting man

wary (wa'ri), easily frightened

was minded to try (min'ded), felt he would like to test

wastes (wasts), wide stretches of land unfit for cultivation

wayside blossom (wa'sid blos'um), flower growing by the roadside

wayside things (wa'sid'), flowers that grow along the roadside

Wawa (wa'wa)

Wawonaissa (wa'won-a'sa)

Waywassimo (wa-was'i-mo)

weasel (we'z'l), a small animal noted for its quickness

wedge (wej), a tool, thinner at one edge, used for splitting

ween, know

well mounted, riding on good horses

wend (wend), go

wheeling (hwel'ing), circling

whence, from where

where the last was bred, in the place in which the last sprang

whereupon (hwar'u-pon'), after which

wherever it listeth (hwar'ev'er; list'eth), wherever it wishes

white-skin wrapper, covering of white bark

Whitsunday (hwit's-n-day), the seventh Sunday after Easter

whole round of my isle, trip all the way around the island

whose joy is to slay, who like to kill

wield (weld), use

wigwams (wig'womz), huts of bark

wilderness (sil'der-nes), wild country

wildfire Jack-o'-lantern, gay little man dancing about

willing lands, ground ready for plowing

will not eat salt, in olden times eating salt with a man (that is,
being his guest) bound the guest to do his host no harm, then or
afterward

wily (wíi'i), tricky

winged (wing'ed), having wings

winged with feathers (wingd), having feathers at one end, to help them
fly

wintry hoard (win'tri hord), store of food for the winter

wisdom of the book, words which made up the sense

witchery (wich'er-i), fascination

within his scope (with-in'; skop), where he could reach it

with one accord (a-kord'), with the same idea

with one consent (kon-sent'), agreeing

without more ado (a-doo'), not making any objection

wonder (wun'der), surprising thing

wondrous (wun'drus), strange

wondrous birth and being (wun'drus; be'ing), story of the wonderful
way he came into the world and lived in it

words cannot paint, anything one might say could not describe

work the book out, do enough work to pay for the book

worship (wur'ship), devotion to God

wounded (woond'ed), hurt

wounds (woondz), old griefs

woven texture (wo'v-n; teks'tur), cloth

wrack (rak), ruin

wreath (reth), garland

wreathed (reth'ed), joyous

wreathing fires reth'ing), flames twisting around

wrought (rot), worked

wrought together in such harmony (rot; har'mo-ni), so combined in the
carving


Xenil (ze'nil)


yearling (yer'ling), an animal one year old

yellow hair, the silky threads growing out from the end of the corn ear

Yenadizze (yen'a-diz'e), an idler

yeoman (yo'man), free-born man

yester (yes'ter), of the day before

yet unforgotten, still remembered

yore (yor), olden time

young sun, early morning sun





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Elson Readers, Book 5" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home